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Art Students League of New York

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The American Fine Arts Society Building at 215 West 57th Street

The Art Students League of New York is an art school in the American Fine Arts Society in Manhattan, New York City. The Arts Students League is known for its broad appeal to both amateurs and professional artists.

Although artists may study full-time, there have never been any degree programs or grades, and this informal attitude pervades the culture of the school. From the 19th century to the present, the League has counted among its attendees and instructors many historically important artists, and contributed to numerous influential schools and movements in the art world.

The League also maintains a significant permanent collection of student and faculty work, and publishes an online journal of writing on art-related topics, called LINEA. The journal's name refers to the school's motto Nulla Dies Sine Linea or "No Day Without a Line", traditionally attributed to the Greek painter Apelles by the historian Pliny the Elder, who recorded that Apelles would not let a day pass without at least drawing a line to practice his art.[1]


19th century[edit]

Founded in 1875, the League's creation came about in response to both an anticipated gap in the art instruction program of classes at New York's National Academy of Design for that year, and to longer-term desires for more variety and flexibility in education for artists than it was felt the Academy provided. The breakaway group of students included many women, and was originally housed in rented rooms at 16th Street and Fifth Avenue.[2][3]

When the Academy resumed a more typical but liberalized program in 1877, there was some feeling that the League had served its purpose, but its students voted to continue its program, and it was incorporated the following year. Influential board members from this formative period included painter Thomas Eakins and sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Membership continued to increase, forcing the League to relocate to increasingly larger spaces.

The League participated in the founding of the American Fine Arts Society (AFAS) in 1889, together with the Society of American Artists and the Architectural League, among others. The American Fine Arts Building at 215 West 57th Street, constructed as their joint headquarters, has continued to house the League since 1892.[4] Designed in the French Renaissance style by one of the founders of the AFAS, architect Henry Hardenbergh (in collaboration with W.C. Hunting & J.C. Jacobsen), the building is a designated New York City Landmark[5] and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

In the late 1890s and early 1900s an increasing number of women artists came to study and work at the League many of them taking on key roles. Among them were Wilhelmina Weber Furlong and her husband Thomas Furlong. The avant-garde couple served the league in executive and administrative roles and as student members throughout the American modernism movement.[6] Alice Van Vechten Brown, who would later develop some of the first art programs in American higher education, also studied with the league until prolonged family illness sent her home.[7]

The painter Edith Dimock, a student from 1895 to 1899, described her classes at the Art Students League:

In a room innocent of ventilation, the job was to draw Venus (just the head) and her colleagues. We were not allowed to hitch bodies to the heads——yet. The dead white plaster of Paris was a perfect inducer of eye-strain, and was called "The Antique". One was supposed to work from "The Antique" for two years. The advantage of "The Antique" was that all these gods and athletes were such excellent models: there never was the twitch of an iron-bound muscle. Venus never batted her hard-boiled egg eye, and the Discus-thrower never wearied. They were also cheap models and did not have to be paid union rates.[8]

In his official biography, My Adventures as an Illustrator, Norman Rockwell recounts his time studying at the school as a young man, providing insight into its operation in the early 1900s.

20th century[edit]

Advertisement in The International Studio (magazine) of 1914

The League's popularity persisted into the 1920s and 1930s under the hand of instructors like painter Thomas Hart Benton, who counted among his students there the young Jackson Pollock and other avant-garde artists who would rise to prominence in the 1940s. In 1925 to celebrate their golden jubilee (fifty years), the League organized an exhibition which included the work of members, students and instructors. Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney gave a reception at which Charles Dana Gibson was toast master.

Between 1942 and 1943, many of the League's students joined the armed forces to fight in World War II, and the League's enrollment decreased from 1,000 to 400, putting it in danger of closing in mid-1943.[9] In response, five hundred artists donated $15,000, just enough to keep the League from closing.[10] In the years after World War II, the G.I. Bill played an important role in the continuing history of the League by enabling returning veterans to attend classes.[11] The League continued to be a formative influence on innovative artists, being an early stop in the careers of Abstract expressionists, Pop Artists and scores of others including Lee Bontecou, Helen Frankenthaler, Al Held, Eva Hesse, Roy Lichtenstein, Donald Judd, Knox Martin, Robert Rauschenberg, James Rosenquist, Cy Twombly and many others vitally active in the art world.

In 1968, Lisa M. Specht was elected first female president of the League. The League's unique importance in the larger art world dwindled somewhat during the 1960s, partially because of higher academia's emergence as an important presence in contemporary art education, and partially due to a shift in the art world towards minimalism, photography, conceptual art, and a more impersonal and indirect approach to art making.

21st century[edit]

As of 2010, the League continues to attract a wide variety of young artists, and its focus on art made by hand, both figurative and abstract, remains strong. Its continued significance has largely been in the continuation of its original mission, which is to give access to art classes and studio access to all comers regardless of their means or technical background.[12][13]

Other facilities[edit]

From 1906 until 1922, and again after the end of World War II from 1947 until 1979, the League operated a summer school of painting at Woodstock, New York. In 1995, the League's facilities expanded to include the Vytlacil campus in Sparkill, New York, named after and based upon a gift of the property and studio of former instructor Vaclav Vytlacil.[14]

Notable instructors and lecturers[edit]

Since its inception, the Art Students League has employed notable professional artists as instructors and lecturers. Most engagements have been for a year or two, and some, like those of sculptor George Grey Barnard, were quite brief.

Others have taught for decades, notably: Frank DuMond and George Bridgman, who taught anatomy for artists and life drawing classes for some 45 years, reportedly to 70,000 students. Bridgman's successor was Robert Beverly Hale. Other longtime instructors included the painters Frank Mason (DuMond's successor, over 50 years), Kenneth Hayes Miller (40 years) from 1911 until 1951, sculptor Nathaniel Kaz (50 years), Peter Golfinopoulos (over 40 years), Knox Martin (over 45 years), Martha Bloom (30 years) and the sculptors William Zorach (30 years), and Jose De Creeft, Will Barnet (50 years) from the 1930s to the 1990s, and Bruce Dorfman, who is the longest continually-teaching instructor in the League's history (over 55 years).

Other well-known artists who have served as instructors include:

Notable alumni[edit]

The list of Art Students League of New York alumni includes:[21][19][20]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "LINEA". Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  2. ^ Cotter, Holland (September 9, 2005). "CRITIC'S NOTEBOOK - A School's Colorful Patina". The New York Times. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  3. ^ "Art Students League". The Art Story.
  4. ^ Christopher Gray (October 5, 2003). "Streetscapes/Art Students League at 215 West 57th Street; An 1892 Limestone-Fronted Building That Endures". The New York Times. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  5. ^ "The American Fine Arts Society" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. December 10, 1968. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
  6. ^ Clint Weber Sr. (July 19, 2012). The Treasured Collection of Golden Heart Farm: A Biography of Wilhelmina Weber Furlong. Weber Furlong Collection. In the foreword by Professor Emeritus James K. Kettlewell: Harvard, Skidmore College, Curator The Hyde Collection. ISBN 978-0-9851601-0-4. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  7. ^ Brent Wilson; Harlan Hoffa; Pennsylvania State University. School of Visual Arts; National Art Education Association (1987). The history of art education: proceedings from the Penn State Conference. National Art Education Association. ISBN 9780937652381.
  8. ^ Marian Wardle. American Women Modernists: The Legacy of Robert Henri, 1910-1945. Rutgers University Press; 2005. ISBN 978-0-8135-3684-2. p. 105.
  9. ^ "Art Students' League Lacks Funds, May End: Nation's Oldest Independent Art School Lost 600 Pupils to Armed Forces". New York Herald Tribune. February 9, 1942. p. 17. Retrieved December 1, 2020 – via ProQuest.
  10. ^ "Art Students League Saved by Contributions: Artists Donate 15,000 to Avert Closing in September". New York Herald Tribune. June 25, 1942. p. 17. Retrieved December 1, 2020 – via ProQuest.
  11. ^ "Staying Power". July 9, 2015.
  12. ^ Hoory, Leeron (July 4, 2016). "The Improbable History Of NYC's Revolutionary Art School, The Art Students League". Gothamist.
  13. ^ "History". The Art Students League. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  14. ^ "Residency". Archived from the original on September 13, 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  15. ^,_in_The_International_Studio,_1914_(page_8_crop).jpg. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ "Instructors- The Art Students League". Archived from the original on November 14, 2010.
  17. ^ "Dionisio Cimarelli".
  18. ^ "DOROTHY GAY JUERGENS". Larchmont Gazette. 2007. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
  19. ^ a b Prominent former members of the Art Students League, Art Students League website. Retrieved online, December 26, 2011
  20. ^ a b "Instructors and Lecturers - Past & Present". The Art Students League. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  21. ^ "Prominent Former Students of The Art Students League of New York".
  22. ^ Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Oral history interview with Harry N. Abrams, 1972 March 14. [transcript 13 pp.] [Accessed Sept. 30, 2020]
  23. ^ Thornley, Stew (2004). Six Feet Under: A Graveyard Guide to Minnesota. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-87351-514-5.
  24. ^ Glickman, Anne S. Joan Kahn; April 13, 1914–1994. Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  25. ^ "Charles Francis O'Connor, Artist, Husband of the Writer Ayn Rand". The New York Times (obituary). November 12, 1979. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 23, 2022.
  26. ^ Slade prints of the 1950s : Richard Hamilton, Stanley Jones and Bartolomeu dos Santos. London: University College London. 2005. p. 55. ISBN 1-904800-06-8.
  27. ^ Sisario, Ben (April 15, 2005). "Arts > Art & Design > Philip Pavia, 94, an Avant-Garde Sculptor, Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  28. ^ "The Guggenheim Museums and Foundation". The Guggenheim Museums and Foundation.
  29. ^ Montepagani, Julia (Winter 2011–2012). "Life After the League". Lines from the League. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]