List of monarchs of Brazil

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Monarchy of Brazil
Imperial
Padrão imperial do império Brasil.gif
Pedro II of Brazil - Brady-Handy.jpg
Details
StyleHis/Her Most Faithful Majesty
His/Her Imperial Majesty
First monarchMaria I
(as queen)
Last monarchPedro II
(as emperor)
Formation16 December 1815
Abolition15 November 1889
Pretender(s)Disputed:
Prince Bertrand
(Vassouras Branch)
Pedro Carlos Orléans-Braganza
(Petrópolis Branch)

The monarchs of Brazil (Portuguese: monarcas do Brasil) were the imperial heads of state and hereditary rulers of Brazil from the House of Braganza that reigned from the creation of the Brazilian monarchy in 1815 as a constituent kingdom of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves until the republican coup d'état that overthrew the Empire of Brazil in 1889.[2]

The coast of the territory which would become known as Brazil was first explored by Portuguese navigators on 22 April 1500. This territory was subsequently colonized by the Portuguese crown. Since the transfer of the Portuguese court to Brazil in 1808, colonial rule had de facto ended. On 16 December 1815, Prince Regent John, the future king John VI, raised Brazil to the status of a kingdom, thus making his mother, Maria I, the reigning queen, the first monarch of Brazil. The next year, 20 March 1816, John succeeded his mother as king of the united Luso-Brazilian monarchy. Having proclaimed independence of the Kingdom of Brazil from Portugal in 1822, Pedro I, son of John VI, was acclaimed the first emperor of Brazil on 12 October 1822. He was later succeeded on 7 April 1831 by his son Pedro II, deposed along with the 74-years-old monarchy on 15 November 1889 in a bloodless and unpopular military coup d'état.

Title[edit]

From 16 December 1815 to 7 September 1822, while the Kingdom of Brazil was in union with the Kingdom of Portugal, the monarch's full title and styles were, according to tradition and the United Kingdom's 1822 Constitution: By the Grace of God, King/Queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc.[3]

From 12 October 1822 to 15 November 1889, as the independent Empire of Brazil, the country's monarch's full title were: By Grace of God and Unanimous Acclamation of the People, Constitutional Emperor/Empress and Perpetual Defender of Brazil.

It's worth noting that from a short period of time, between 15 November 1825 and 10 March 1826, according to the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, by which Portugal recognized Brazilian independence, it was granted to King John VI the courtesy title of Emperor of Brazil, while his son was the actual reigning emperor. From the treaty's date to his death John VI used the title: By the Grace of God, John VI, Emperor of Brazil, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc.[3]

House of Avis (1500–1581)[edit]

Brazil is discovered by Portuguese navigators on April 22, 1500, and becomes a Portuguese colony.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Manuel I
  • The Fortunate; The Grocer King/The Spices King (Le Roi-Épicier)
31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521 (aged 52)25 October 149513 December 1521Cousin of John II
Grandson of Edward I
Aviz
House of Aviz (transparent).png
John III
7 June 1502 – 11 June 1557 (aged 55)13 December 152111 June 1557Son of Manuel IAviz
House of Aviz (transparent).png
Sebastian I
  • The Desired; The Asleep; The Sleeper; The Sleeping Hero; The Sleeping King; The Virgin King; The Hidden; The Crusader
  • Portuguese: Sebastião I
20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578 (aged 24)11 June 15574 August 1578Grandson of John IIIAviz
House of Aviz (transparent).png
Henry I
  • The Chaste; The Cardinal; The Cardinal-King
  • Portuguese: Henrique I
31 January 1512 – 31 January 1580 (aged 68)4 August 157831 January 1580Son of Manuel I
Brother of John III
Great-uncle of Sebastian
Aviz
House of Aviz (transparent).png
Anthony I
1531 – 28 August 1595 (aged 64)(Disputed) 24 July 1580(Disputed) 1583Grandson of Manuel I
Nephew of Henry I
Aviz
House of Aviz (transparent).png

House of Habsburg (1581–1640)[edit]

The House of Habsburg, known as the Philippine Dynasty, is the house that ruled Portugal from 1581 to 1640. The dynasty began with the acclamation of Philip II of Spain as Philip I of Portugal in 1580, officially recognized in 1581 by the Portuguese Cortes of Tomar. Philip I swore to rule Portugal as a kingdom separate from his Spanish domains, under the personal union known as the Iberian Union.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Philip I
21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598 (aged 71)17 April 158113 September 1598Grandson of Manuel I
Nephew of Henry I
Habsburg
Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Spanish House of Austria (1580-1668).svg
King Philip I
Philip II
14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621 (aged 42)13 September 159831 March 1621Son of Philip IHabsburg
Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Spanish House of Austria (1580-1668).svg
King Philip II
Philip III
  • The Great; The Tyrant; The Oppressor
  • Portuguese: Filipe III
8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665 (aged 60)31 March 16211 December 1640Son of Philip IIHabsburg
Full Ornamented Coat of Arms of Spanish House of Austria (1580-1668).svg
King Philip II

House of Braganza (1640–1910)[edit]

The House of Braganza, also known as the Brigantine Dynasty, came to power in 1640, when John II, Duke of Braganza, claimed to be the rightful heir of the defunct House of Aviz, as he was the great great grandson of King Manuel I. John was proclaimed King John IV, and he deposed the House of Habsburg in the Portuguese Restoration War.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
John IV
  • The Restorer; The Fortunate; The Musician King
  • Portuguese: João IV
19 March 1604 – 6 November 1656 (aged 53)1 December 16406 November 1656Great-great-grandson of Manuel IBraganza
Brasao-Brigantina.png
Afonso VI
  • The Victorious
21 August 1643 – 12 September 1683 (aged 40)6 November 165612 September 1683Son of John IVBraganza
Brasao-Brigantina.png
Peter II
26 April 1648 – 9 December 1706 (aged 58)6 November 16839 December 1706Son of John IV
Brother of Afonso VI
Braganza
Brasao-Brigantina.png
John V
  • The Magnanimous; The Magnificent; The Generous; The Most Faithful King; The Nuns' Lover; The Portuguese Sun-King
  • Portuguese: João V
22 October 1689 – 31 July 1750 (aged 60)9 December 170631 July 1750Son of Peter IIBraganza
Brasao-Brigantina.png
Joseph I
6 June 1714 – 24 February 1777 (age 62)31 July 175024 February 1777Son of John VBraganza
Brasao-Brigantina.png
Mary I
(1734-12-17)17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816(1816-03-20) (aged 81)24 February 177720 March 1816Daughter of Joseph IBraganza
Brasao-Brigantina.png

Constitutional Regent of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves

Image Name Regency start Regency end
Regent during the incapacitation of Queen Maria I.
DomJoãoVI-pintordesconhecido.jpg John 16 December 1815 20 March 1816
Death of Queen Maria I.

Kingdom of Brazil (1815–1822)[edit]

The house of Braganza continued to rule over Brazil, and on 16 December 1815, the Prince Regent John, the future king John VI raised Brazil to the status of a kingdom, thus making his mother, Maria I, the reigning Queen, the first Monarch of Brazil. The next year, 20 March 1816, John succeeded his mother as King of the united Luso-Brazilian monarchy.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Maria I
  • The Pious; The Mad
17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816 (aged 81)16 December 181520 March 1816Daughter of Joseph I of PortugalBraganza
Brasao-Brigantina.png
John VI
13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826 (aged 58)20 March 18167 September 1822Son of Maria I of Portugal and BrazilBraganza
Brasao-Brigantina.png

Constitutional Regent of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves

Image Name Regency start Regency end
Regent after the King John VI left Brazil.
Pedro, Duke of Bragança - Google Cultural Institute.jpg Pedro 22 April 1821 12 October 1822
Accession as Emperor of Brazil.

Empire of Brazil (1822–1889)[edit]

The house of Braganza continued to rule over Brazil after Pedro I, son of John VI, was acclaimed the first Emperor of Brazil on 12 October 1822, having proclaimed the independence of the Kingdom of Brazil from Portugal. He was later succeeded on 7 April 1831 by his son Pedro II, the last monarch of Brazil. Pedro II of Brazil, who reigned 49 years in fact or 58 years if the regency period is considered.

Constitutional Monarchs of the Empire of Brazil

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Pedro I
  • The Liberator; The Soldier King
12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834 (aged 35)12 October 18227 April 1831Son of John VI of PortugalBraganza
Coat of Arms of Pedro I of Brazil (Order of the Golden Fleece Variant).svg
Pedro II
  • The Magnanimous
2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891 (aged 66)7 April 183115 November 1889Son of Pedro I of BrazilBraganza
Coat of Arms of Pedro II of Brazil (Order of the Golden Fleece Variant).svg

Regents during the minority of emperor Pedro II

The regencies took place from 1831 to 1840, between the abdication of Pedro I of Brazil until the majority of Pedro II legally declared by the Senate at the age of 14 on July 23, 1840.

Image Name Regency start Regency end
Provisional Triumviral Regency
Francisco de Lima e Silva - Litografia (cropped-2).jpg Nicolau Pereira de Campos Vergueiro - Litografia (cropped-2).jpg Marquês de Caravelas.png Francisco de Lima e Silva
Nicolau Vergueiro
José Carneiro de Campos
7 April 1831 18 June 1831
Permanent Triumviral Regency
Francisco de Lima e Silva - Litografia (cropped-2).jpg Marquez de Mont'Alegre - Litografia (cropped-2).jpg Marquês de Caravelas.png Francisco de Lima e Silva
José da Costa Carvalho
João Bráulio Muniz
18 June 1831 12 October 1835
Regency of Priest Feijó
Diogo Antonio Feijo (cropped-2).jpg Diogo Antônio Feijó 12 October 1835 18 September 1837
Regency of Araújo Lima
Pedro de Araujo Lima 1835.jpg Pedro de Araújo Lima 19 September 1837 23 July 1840

Women heads of state during the Empire

In addition to the regencies listed above, two other people held the Head of State of Brazil during the imperial period, Maria Leopoldina and Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil. D. Leopoldina who acted as regent in 1822 and had a great influence on Brazil's independence process, having been responsible for signing the decree that separated Brazil from Portugal.

D. Isabel, heir presumptive to the throne, who was Regent of Brazil in various periods (1870–1871, 1876–1877 and 1887–1888) while her father, Emperor Pedro II, performed foreign visits. During her last regency she sanctioned on 13 May 1888, the Golden Law (Imperial Law n.º 3.353) was the law that extinguished slavery in Brazil, considered a great milestone in the history of Brazil.

Women Regents Monarch
Maria Leopoldine of Austria Pedro I of Brazil
Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil Pedro II of Brazil

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ United States (1882). Flags of maritime nations, from the most authentic sources. Washington, D.C.
  2. ^ Bandeira, Moniz. Casa da Torre de Garcia d'Avila. Editora Record, 2000, pp. 423–425
  3. ^ a b Amaral, Manuel. "João VI". In: Portugal – Dicionário Histórico, Corográfico, Heráldico, Biográfico, Bibliográfico, Numismático e Artístico, Volume III, 2000–2010, pp. 1051–1055. In Portuguese.

External links[edit]