Modals or Defective verbs
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Modals or Defective verbs

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Modals or Defective verbs

  1. 1. Mary can speak Russian. May I go to the toilet, please? They won't come back again. You must pay for this at once! We might win the race You needn't study this. Could you please hang on?We should thank him for his help. Would you like some tea or coffee? Shall I open the door for you? She daren't phone again. We ought to be more careful.
  2. 2. IndeX 1. Characteristics 2. Rules of Use 3. Description
  3. 3. 1. CHARACTERISTicS ◘ Modals are also called "defectives" because they are "faulty": they lack a conjugation. What does this mean? a) They have only ONE form b) They have NO infinitive, gerund o participle c) They have NO future, perfect, continuous… I may, you may, he may… I can, you can, he can… I must, you must, he must… I will may I have mayed I am maying Infinitive: to may Gerund: maying Participle: mayed
  4. 4. 2. Rules of usE ◘ They cannot be used on their own; they must be followed by a "standard" verb • Mary can speak Italian. OK • John must. WRONG! • John must go to the doctor. OK • Kathy call should. WRONG! BUT: After a question, we can use a modal without a verb(1) . May I use your phone? Yes, you may. (1) This is because the verb is implicit, it is not necessary to repeat it.
  5. 5. 2. Rules of usE ◘ Modals are followed by plain infinitives or infinitives without 'to' They can run fast. Peter may win this competition. Your sister should come to the office.
  6. 6. 2. Rules of usE ◘ There can be only ONE modal in each sentence, and it must come FIRST. They can run fast. Peter may win this competition. Your sister should come to the office.
  7. 7. 2. Rules of usE ◘ Modals can be followed by the auxiliaries 'HAVE' and 'BE', but never 'DO'. Dad must have forgotten it's your birthday. You can't be working today, it's Sunday! She would have been sleeping if not for that horrible noise. Your sister must do(1) the cooking. (1) It is NOT the auxiliary 'DO'.
  8. 8. 2. Rules of usE ◘ Modals must form the Interrogative, Negative and Short Answers rather than Auxiliaries. Can you please open this door? You shouldn't speak so rudely to your parents. May I look? Yes, you may.
  9. 9. 2. Rules of usE: SUMMARY ◘ They cannot be used on their own; they must be followed by a "standard" verb. ◘ Modals are followed by plain infinitives or infinitives without 'to' ◘ There can be only ONE modal in each sentence, and it must come FIRST. ◘ Modals can be followed by the auxiliaries 'HAVE' and 'BE', but never 'DO'. ◘ Modals must form the Interrogative, Negative and Short Answers rather than Auxiliaries.
  10. 10. 3. DescripTiOn Affirmative / Interrogative Negative Contraction can cannot/can't  FORM
  11. 11. 3. DESCRIPTION Can we leave? I'm sorry but you can't eat here. We can stay out until late! Permission Possibility Hability Surprise Can this be true? I think we can win This restaurant can't be so expensive! Don't call! He can be sleeping! Can Nicole speak French? George can play the piano We can't move this heavy table You can't have bought this! (only can't have ) They can't have finished!
  12. 12. 3. DESCRIPTION FORM Alternative Affirmative / Interrogative Negative Contraction could could not/couldn't  be able to manage to
  13. 13. 3. DESCRIPTION Could you close the window? (= podría) Could you lend me £10? Ask for favours Hypothetical possibility (conditionals) Hability in the past Unfulfilled Possibility We could buy it if we had money (= podría) Don't make noise! The children could be sleeping George could play the piano when he was 9 years old Possibility in the past* Alternative It was dark but they could see her. When I opened the door, I could smell gas. *Only with the verbs see, hear, smell, taste, feel, remember, understand The police arrived, but the thief managed / was able to escape. The thief could escape (= podría) You could have visited the Louvre (pero no lo hizo) The boy could have hurt himself
  14. 14. 3. DESCRIPTION FORM Affirmative / Interrogative Negative Contraction may may not 
  15. 15. 3. DESCRIPTION May we leave? I'm sorry but you may not sit here. You may wait here if you like. Permission (FORM) Present or future possibility Past possibility He is fast, he may win. (futuro) Ben isn't here, he may be at home. (presente) It may not be true. "I can't find my keys." "You may have left them at home," "Peter's not here!" "He may have finished and left."
  16. 16. 3. DESCRIPTION FORM Affirmative / Interrogative Negative Contraction might might not / mightn't 
  17. 17. 3. DESCRIPTION Might…? (no se usa) "Where's Gloria?" "She hasn't come, she might be sick." You might study medicine and become a doctor. The children might be playing football. Posibilidad presente o futura Posibilidad pasada "Have you seen my phone?" "You might have left it at home." "Ann wasn't at the party." "She mightn't have known about it." La posibilidad de 'might' es menos "posible" que con 'may' If you ask Jack, he can lend you the money. If you ask Jack, he may lend you the money. If you ask Jack, he might lend you the money. can = puede prestarte may = quizá te lo preste might = podría prestártelo
  18. 18. 3. DESCRIPTION FORM Affirmative / Interrogative Negative Contraction shall shall not / shan't 'll
  19. 19. 3. DESCRIPTION Shall I open the door? (¿Quiere que yo…) Shall I wait until they finish? Ofrecer ayuda Sugerencias Determinación Shall we have lunch at Marina's? What shall we do? 'shall' sólo se usa con 'I' y 'we' I shan't stay here any longer. We shall finish this before midnight.
  20. 20. 3. DESCRIPTION FORM Affirmative / Interrogative Negative Contraction will will not / won't 'll
  21. 21. 3. DESCRIPTION Will you lend me £10? It's cold. Will you close the door? Pedir favores Decisión espontánea Predicción Condición real "What would you like to drink?" "I'll have wine." (suena el teléfono) "I'll answer it." NO uses 'will' con planes Do you think Kate will pass? Yes, she'll pass easily. I don't think Greg will come. We're late! They will have left when we get there. If you call Peter, he'll be very happy. If they touch that, they'll burn their fingers.
  22. 22. 3. DESCRIPTION FORM Affirmative / Interrogative Negative Contraction should should not / shouldn't 'd
  23. 23. 3. DESCRIPTION I think you should be more careful or you'll fall. These children should be wearing gloves. Consejo Señalar error o problema Predicción Queja Condición real The price says £12.50 but it should be £10.50 Where's Mary? She should be here! Kate has studied hard, so she should pass easily. You should find him immediately. I invited you, you should have come. Gloria shouldn't have opened the box; she'll be in trouble now. Should (= If) you need me, give me a call Should I see them, I'll say hello.
  24. 24. 3. DESCRIPTION FORM Affirmative / Interrogative Negative Contraction would would not / wouldn't 'd
  25. 25. 3. DESCRIPTION I would like to buy a new house, but they're too expensive, Sheila'd love to live by the sea. Deseo Condicional hipotética Condicional irreal Invitación Futuro en estilo indirecto We would move to London if we had a visa. I would be working if I weren't ill. He would have paid if he had had money. Lisa would have called if she hadn't forgotten. Would you like some tea or coffee? Where would you like to have lunch? They said they'd come. He promised he wouldn't be late.
  26. 26. 3. DESCRIPTION FORM Affirmative / Interrogative Negative Contraction must must not / mustn't 
  27. 27. 3. DESCRIPTION That driver must stop his car immediately. For your own safety, you must wear a helmet. Obligación Prohibición Certeza Children mustn't drink alcohol You mustn't open this door. It's dangerous. (Teléfono) That must be dad! (presente) It's 8 o'clock. They must have finished already (pasada) Lo contrario de "Must" no es "Mustn't" sino "don't/doesn't have to": I must wait here. You don't have to, if you don't like. You don't have to wear a uniform.
  28. 28. 3. DESCRIPTION FORM Affirmative / Interrogative Negative Contraction need need not / needn't  También existe un verbo 'to need', con su conjugación completa. El significado es idéntico.
  29. 29. 3. DESCRIPTION That driver need stop his car immediately. Your results are not good, you need study harder. Obligación Ausencia de obligación This is a normal school. You needn't wear a uniform (presente) The door is electric. You needn't have pushed it (pasado) Además de "don't/doesn't have to" puedes usar "needn't" : I must wait here. You needn't wait, if you don't like. This is free. You needn't pay.
  30. 30. 3. DESCRIPTION FORM Affirmative / Interrogative Negative Contraction dare dare not / daren't  También existe un verbo 'to dare', con su conjugación completa. El significado es idéntico.
  31. 31. 3. DESCRIPTION If you dare open the lion gate, I'll leave at once. He daren't walk outside in the dark. Atrevimiento Advertencia How dare you! (¿¡Cómo te atreves?!) Don't you dare! (¡Ni te atrevas!)
  32. 32. 3. DESCRIPTION FORM Affirmative / Interrogative Negative Contraction ought to ought not to / oughtn't  Es el único modal que va seguido de 'to'. Su uso es idéntico a 'should'
  33. 33. 3. DESCRIPTION I think you ought to be more careful or you'll fall. These children ought to be wearing gloves. Consejo Señalar error o problema Predicción Queja The price says £12.50 but it ought to be £10.50 Where's Mary? She ought to be here! Kate has studied hard, so she ought to pass easily. You ought to find him immediately. I invited you, you ought to have come. Gloria oughtn't to have opened the box; she'll be in trouble now.
  34. 34. Resumen advertencia dare habilidad can could asombro can't have invitación would atrevimiento dare obligación must need ausencia de obligación needn't ofrecer ayuda shall certeza must must have pedir favores could will condición real should will permiso can could may condicional hipotética would posibilidad can could may might condicional irreal would have predicción ought to should will consejo ought to should prohibición mustn't decicisón espontánea will queja ought to have should deseo would señalar error ought to should determinación shall sugerencias shall futuro en estilo indirecto would
  35. 35. The End

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