San Francisco Bay
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San Francisco Bay, large, nearly landlocked bay indenting western California, U.S. It is a drowned river valley paralleling the coastline and is connected with the Pacific Ocean by a strait called the Golden Gate, which is spanned by the Golden Gate Bridge. San Francisco Bay is 60 miles (97 km) long and 3 to 12 miles (5 to 19 km) wide and is one of the world’s finest natural harbours. Treasure, Yerba Buena, Angel, and Alcatraz islands lie in it, and several bridges connect its eastern and western shores. Around the bay are San Francisco, Oakland, and a band of contiguous metropolitan subcentres linked by the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART).
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San Francisco: City siteSan Francisco Bay is a drowned river valley, submerged during the melting of the last glacial ice sheet. Enthusiastic and profitable filling of the tidelands has reduced its area at mean high tide from about 700 square miles (1,800 square km) in 1880 to a…
San Francisco: Exploration and early settlement…of from the sea, for San Francisco Bay is one of the most splendid natural harbours of the world, yet great captains and explorers—Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (1542–43), Sir Francis Drake (1579), and Sebastián Vizcaíno (1602)—sailed unheeding past the entrance. In 1769 a scouting party from an expedition led by the…
Oakland…on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay opposite San Francisco. The city site is located on a flat coastal plain that rises toward hills to the east that parallel the shoreline. Oakland has a mild Mediterranean-type climate with warm sunny summers and cool winters with rainy spells. Like its…