Overview Dengue (DENG-gey) fever is a mosquito-borne disease that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Mild dengue fever causes a high fever, rash, and muscle and joint pain. A severe form of dengue fever, also called dengue hemorrhagic fever, can cause severe bleeding, a sudden drop in blood pressure (shock) and death.
Millions of cases of
dengue infection occur worldwide each year. Dengue fever is most common in Southeast Asia and the western Pacific islands, but the disease has been increasing rapidly in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Researchers are working on
dengue fever vaccines. For now the best prevention is to reduce mosquito habitat in areas where dengue fever is common.
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Many people, especially children and teens, may experience no signs or symptoms during a mild case of
dengue fever. When symptoms do occur, they usually begin four to seven days after you are bitten by an infected mosquito.
Dengue fever causes a high fever — 104 F degrees — and at least two of the following symptoms:
Muscle, bone and joint pain
Pain behind the eyes
Most people recover within a week or so. In some cases, symptoms worsen and can become life-threatening. Blood vessels often become damaged and leaky. And the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your bloodstream drops. This can cause a severe form of
dengue fever, called dengue hemorrhagic fever, severe dengue or dengue shock syndrome.
Signs and symptoms of
dengue hemorrhagic fever or severe dengue — a life-threatening emergency — include:
Severe abdominal pain
Bleeding from your gums or nose
Blood in your urine, stools or vomit
Bleeding under the skin, which might look like bruising
Difficult or rapid breathing
Cold or clammy skin (shock)
Irritability or restlessness
When to see a doctor
Call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room if you've recently visited a region in which
dengue fever is known to occur and you develop emergency symptoms, such as severe abdominal pain, vomiting, difficulty breathing, or blood in your nose, gums, vomit or stools.
If you develop a fever and milder symptoms common to
dengue fever, call your doctor. Causes
Dengue fever is caused by any one of four types of dengue viruses spread by mosquitoes that thrive in and near human lodgings. When a mosquito bites a person infected with a dengue virus, the virus enters the mosquito. When the infected mosquito then bites another person, the virus enters that person's bloodstream.
After you've recovered from
dengue fever, you have immunity to the type of virus that infected you — but not to the other three dengue fever virus types. The risk of developing severe dengue fever, also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever, actually increases if you're infected a second, third or fourth time. Risk factors
Factors that put you at greater risk of developing
dengue fever or a more severe form of the disease include:
Living or traveling in tropical areas. Being in tropical and subtropical areas increases your risk of exposure to the virus that causes dengue fever. Especially high-risk areas are Southeast Asia, the western Pacific islands, Latin America and the Caribbean.
Prior infection with a Previous infection with a dengue fever virus. dengue fever virus increases your risk of having severe symptoms if you're infected again. Complications
dengue fever can damage the lungs, liver or heart. Blood pressure can drop to dangerous levels, causing shock and, in some cases, death. Prevention
dengue fever vaccine, Dengvaxia, is currently approved for use in those ages 9 to 45 who live in areas with a high incidence of dengue fever. The vaccine is given in three doses over the course of 12 months. Dengvaxia prevents dengue infections slightly more than half the time.
The vaccine is approved only for older children because younger vaccinated children appear to be at increased risk of severe
dengue fever and hospitalization two years after receiving the vaccine.
The World Health Organization stresses that the vaccine is not an effective tool, on its own, to reduce
dengue fever in areas where the illness is common. Controlling the mosquito population and human exposure is still the most critical part of prevention efforts.
So for now, if you're living or traveling in an area where
dengue fever is known to be, the best way to avoid dengue fever is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes that carry the disease.
If you are living or traveling in tropical areas where
dengue fever is common, these tips may help reduce your risk of mosquito bites:
Stay in air-conditioned or well-screened housing. The mosquitoes that carry the dengue viruses are most active from dawn to dusk, but they can also bite at night.
Wear protective clothing. When you go into mosquito-infested areas, wear a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, socks and shoes.
Use mosquito repellent. Permethrin can be applied to your clothing, shoes, camping gear and bed netting. You can also buy clothing made with permethrin already in it. For your skin, use a repellent containing at least a 10 percent concentration of DEET.
Reduce mosquito habitat. The mosquitoes that carry the dengue virus typically live in and around houses, breeding in standing water that can collect in such things as used automobile tires. You can help lower mosquito populations by eliminating habitats where they lay their eggs. At least once a week, empty and clean containers that hold standing water, such as planting containers, animal dishes and flower vases. Keep standing water containers covered between cleanings.
Feb. 16, 2018