List of Germanic languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Germanic languages include some 58 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects that originated in Europe; this language family is part of the Indo-European language family. Each subfamily in this list contains subgroups and individual languages.

The standard division of Germanic is into three branches:

They all descend from Proto-Germanic, and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European.

South Germanic languages, an attempt to classify some of the West Germanic languages into a separate group, is rejected by the overwhelming majority of scholars.

denotes extinct languages.

West Germanic[edit]

North Germanic[edit]

Ancestral classification
Alternate classification of contemporary North Germanic languages based on mutual intelligibility

East Germanic[edit]

See: East Germanic languages#Classification

External links[edit]


  1. ^ From early Northern Middle English (Aitken, A. J. and McArthur, T. Eds. (1979) Languages of Scotland. Edinburgh,Chambers. p. 87). McClure (1991) gives Northumbrian Old English in The Cambridge History of the English Language Vol. 5. p. 23. In the Oxford Companion to the English Language (p. 894) the 'sources' of Scots are described as "the Old English of the Kingdom of Bernicia" and "the Scandinavian-influenced English of immigrants from Northern and Midland England in the 12-13c [...]." The historical stages 'Older—Middle—Modern Scots' are used, for example, in the "Concise Scots Dictionary" (Robinson M. (ed.) (1985) the "Concise Scots Dictionary, Chambers, Edinburgh. p. xiii) and "A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue" (Dareau M., Pike l. and Watson, H (eds) (2002) "A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue" Vol. XII, Oxford University Press. p. xxxiv Archived 2008-01-08 at the Wayback Machine).