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Federal parliamentary republic

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A federal parliamentary republic refers to a federation of states with a republican form of government that is, more or less, dependent upon the confidence of parliaments at both the national and sub-national levels. It is a combination of the government republic and the parliamentary republic.

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Such republics usually possess a bicameral legislature at the federal level out of necessity, so as to allow for a set, often equal number of representatives of the sub-national entities to sit in the upper house; however, the government, headed by a head of government, will be depending upon the lower house of parliament for its stability or legitimacy.

List of federal parliamentary republics

FederationStyleFormerlyHead of state elected byHead of stateHead of governmentEstablishedHead of government elected by
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Republic of Austria One-party state
(as part of Nazi Germany)
States of Austria President of Austria Chancellor of Austria 1945 Direct, by second-round system
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia One-party state Regions of Ethiopia President of Ethiopia Prime Minister of Ethiopia 1991 Parliament, by two-thirds majority
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Federal Republic of Germany One-party state States of Germany President of Germany Chancellor of Germany 1949 Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority
Flag of India.svg  India Republic of India Constitutional monarchy
(as the Dominion of India)
States of India President of India Prime Minister of India 1950 Electoral College, parliament and state legislators, by single transferable vote
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Republic of Iraq One-party state Regions of Iraq President of Iraq Prime Minister 2005 Parliament, by two-thirds majority
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia.svg  Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia UN Trust Territory (part of
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Subdivisions of Micronesia 1986 Parliament, by majority
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Constitutional monarchy Subdivisions of Nepal President of Nepal Prime Minister of Nepal 2015 Parliament and state legislators
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan Islamic Republic of Pakistan Semi-presidential republic Subdivisions of Pakistan President of Pakistan Prime Minister of Pakistan 2010 Electoral College, by two-thirds majority
Flag of Somalia.svg  Somalia Federal Republic of Somalia One-party state Subdivisions of Somalia President of Somalia Prime Minister of Somalia 2012 Parliament
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Swiss Confederation Confederation Cantons of Switzerland 1848 Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majority

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