List of ambassadors of the United States to Spain
|Ambassador of the United States of America to Spain
Embajador de los Estados Unidos de America en España
Seal of the United States Department of State
|Nominator||The President of the United States|
with Senate advice and consent
|Inaugural holder||John Jay|
as Minister Plenipotentiary
|Formation||September 29, 1779|
|Website||U.S. Embassy - Madrid|
U.S. diplomatic terms
After 1915, The United States Department of State began classifying ambassadors as career Foreign Service Officers (FSOs) for those who have served in the Foreign Service for a specified amount of time.
A person who is not a career foreign service officer, but is appointed by the president (often as a reward to political friends).
The date that the ambassador took the oath of office; also known as “commissioning”. It follows confirmation of a presidential appointment by the Senate, or a Congressional recess appointment by the president. In the case of a recess appointment, the ambassador requires subsequent confirmation by the Senate to remain in office.
The date that the ambassador presented his letter of credence to the head of state or appropriate authority of the receiving nation. At this time the ambassador officially becomes the representative of his country. This would normally occur a short time after the ambassador’s arrival on station. The host nation may reject the ambassador by not receiving the ambassador’s letter, but this occurs only rarely.
Usually the date that the ambassador left the country. In some cases a letter of recall is presented, ending the ambassador’s commission, either as a means of diplomatic protest or because the diplomat is being reassigned elsewhere and replaced by another envoy.
The person in charge of the business of the embassy when there is no ambassador commissioned to the host country.
Latin phrase meaning "for the time being", "in the meantime".
|John Jay||September 29, 1779||Minister Plenipotentiary||N/A||~May 20, 1782|
|William Carmichael||N/A||Chargé d'Affaires||February 20, 1783||Presented recall September 5, 1794|
|William Short||May 28, 1794||Minister Resident||September 7, 1794||Left post November 1, 1795|
|David Humphreys||May 20, 1796||Minister Plenipotentiary||September 10, 1797||Probably presented recall soon after December 28, 1801|
|Charles Pinckney||June 6, 1801||Minister Plenipotentiary||January–March 1802||Presented recall October 25, 1804|
|James Bowdoin III||November 22, 1804|||||||
|George W. Erving||N/A||Chargé d'Affaires ad interim||October 1805||February 1810|
|George W. Erving||August 10, 1814||Minister Plenipotentiary||August 24, 1816||Left post May 15, 1819|
|John Forsyth||February 16, 1819||Minister Plenipotentiary||May 18, 1819||Had farewell audience on March 2, 1823|
|Hugh Nelson||January 15, 1823||Minister Plenipotentiary||December 4, 1823||Presented recall July 10, 1825|
Note: In 1825 the ministry was upgraded to Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
|Alexander Hill Everett||March 9, 1825||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||September 4, 1825||Left post August 1, 1829|
|Cornelius P. Van Ness||June 1, 1829||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||December 9, 1829||Presented recall December 21, 1836|
|William T. Barry||April 10, 1835||N/A||N/A; died en route to post.||N/A.|
|John H. Eaton||March 16, 1836||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||||Left post May 1, 1840|
|Aaron Vail||May 20, 1840||Chargé d'Affaires||November 5, 1840||Vail was superseded by Ambassador Irving, August 1, 1842.|
|Washington Irving||February 10, 1842||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||August 1, 1842||July 29, 1846|
|Romulus M. Saunders||February 25, 1846||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||July 31, 1846||Presented recall September 24, 1849|
|Daniel M. Barringer||June 18, 1849||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||October 24, 1849||Presented recall September 4, 1853|
|Pierre Soulé||April 7, 1853||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||October 24, 1853||Presented recall February 1, 1855|
|John C. Breckinridge||January 16, 1855||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Augustus C. Dodge||February 9, 1855||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||June 17, 1855||Presented recall March 12, 1859|
|William Preston||December 15, 1858||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||March 12, 1859||Presented recall May 24, 1861|
|Cassius M. Clay||April 14, 1861||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Carl Schurz||March 28, 1861||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||July 13, 1861||Left post December 18, 1861|
|Gustavus Koerner||June 14, 1862||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||November 4, 1862||Left post July 20, 1864|
|John P. Hale||March 10, 1865||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||September 30, 1865||Presented recall July 29, 1869|
|Note: President Johnson nominated the following two men for the post, but the Senate declined to consider the nominations, probably because of the president’s disputes with the Congress over other issues.|
|William S. Rosecrans||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Henry S. Sanford||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Daniel E. Sickles||May 15, 1869||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||July 29, 1869||Transmitted recall by note January 31, 1874|
|Caleb Cushing||January 6, 1874||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||May 30, 1874||Left post April 9, 1877|
|James Russell Lowell||June 11, 1877||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||August 18, 1877||Presented recall March 2, 1880|
|Lucius Fairchild||January 26, 1880||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||March 31, 1880||Presented recall December 20, 1881|
|Hannibal Hamlin||June 30, 1881||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||December 20, 1881||Left post October 17, 1882|
|John W. Foster||February 27, 1883||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||June 16, 1883||Presented recall August 28, 1885|
|Jabez L.M. Curry||October 7, 1885||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||December 22, 1885||Left post July 5, 1888|
|Perry Belmont||November 17, 1888||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||February 13, 1889||Left post May 1, 1889|
|Thomas W. Palmer||March 12, 1889||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||June 17, 1889||Left post April 19, 1890|
|E. Burd Grubb||September 27, 1890||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||December 23, 1890||Left post May 26, 1892|
|A. Loudon Snowden||July 22, 1892||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||October 6, 1892||Presented recall June 3, 1893|
|Hannis Taylor||April 8, 1893||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||July 1, 1893||Presented recall September 13, 1897|
|Stewart L. Woodford||June 19, 1897||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||September 13, 1897||Left post April 21, 1898|
|Bellamy Storer||April 12, 1899||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||June 16, 1899||Presented recall December 10, 1902|
|Arthur S. Hardy||September 26, 1902||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||March 2, 1903||Presented recall May 1, 1905|
|William Miller Collier||March 8, 1905||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||May 15, 1905||Superseded by Ambassador Ide on June 9, 1909|
|Henry Clay Ide||April 1, 1909||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||June 9, 1909||Left post July 8, 1913|
|Joseph Edward Willard||July 28, 1913||Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary||N/A||N/A|
Note: In August 1913, the title of the office was changed to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. This required a new commission.
|Joseph Edward Willard||September 10, 1913||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||October 31, 1913||Left post July 7, 1921|
|Cyrus E. Woods||June 24, 1921||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||October 14, 1921||Left post April 18, 1923|
|Alexander P. Moore||March 3, 1923||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||May 16, 1923||Left post December 20, 1925|
|Ogden H. Hammond||December 21, 1925||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||March 26, 1926||Left post October 13, 1929|
|Irwin B. Laughlin||October 16, 1929||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||December 24, 1929||Left post April 12, 1933|
|Claude G. Bowers||April 6, 1933||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||June 1, 1933||Had final interview, February 2, 1939|
|H. Freeman Matthews||1939 (acting)|
|Alexander W. Weddell||May 3, 1939||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||June 15, 1939||Left post February 7, 1942|
|Carlton J. H. Hayes||May 2, 1942||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||June 9, 1942||Left Spain, January 18, 1945|
|Norman Armour||December 15, 1944||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||March 24, 1945||Left post December 1, 1945|
|Philip W. Bonsal||Chargé d'Affaires||March 1946||June 1947|
|Paul T. Culbertson||Chargé d'Affaires||June 1947||December 1950|
|Stanton Griffis||February 1, 1951||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||March 1, 1951||Relinquished charge January 28, 1952|
|Lincoln MacVeagh||February 21, 1952||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||March 27, 1952||Left post March 4, 1953|
|James Clement Dunn||February 27, 1953||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||April 9, 1953||Left post February 9, 1955|
|John Davis Lodge||January 22, 1955||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||March 24, 1955||Left post April 13, 1961|
|Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr.||March 29, 1961||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||May 25, 1961||Left Spain, October 12, 1961|
|Ellis O. Briggs||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Robert F. Woodward||April 7, 1962||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||May 10, 1962||Left post February 1, 1965|
|Angier Biddle Duke||March 11, 1965||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||April 1, 1965||Left post March 30, 1968|
|Frank E. McKinney||May 11, 1968||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||N/A||N/A|
|Robert F. Wagner, Jr.||June 24, 1968||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||July 4, 1968||Left post March 7, 1969|
|Robert C. Hill||May 1, 1969||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||June 12, 1969||Left post January 12, 1972|
|Horacio Rivero||September 11, 1972||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||October 11, 1972||Left post November 26, 1974|
|Peter M. Flanigan||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Wells Stabler||February 20, 1975||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||March 13, 1975||Left post May 4, 1978|
|Terence A. Todman||May 25, 1978||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||July 20, 1978||Left post August 8, 1983|
|Thomas Ostrom Enders||August 5, 1983||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||September 15, 1983||Left post July 6, 1986|
|Reginald Bartholomew||August 18, 1986||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||September 17, 1986||Left post March 12, 1989|
|Joseph Zappala||October 10, 1989||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||October 16, 1989||Left post June 4, 1992|
|Richard Goodwin Capen, Jr.||June 15, 1992||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||July 8, 1992||Left post February 17, 1993|
|Richard N. Gardner||September 16, 1993||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||November 4, 1993||Left post July 12, 1997|
|Note: Beginning in 1998, the ambassador to Spain was also accredited to Andorra.|
|Edward L. Romero||April 2, 1998||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||June 30, 1998||May 1, 2001|
|George L. Argyros, Sr.||November 21, 2001||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||December 13, 2001||Left post November 21, 2004|
|Eduardo Aguirre||June 21, 2005||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||June 29, 2005||January 20, 2009|
|Alan Solomont||December 24, 2009||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||January 9, 2010||August 1, 2013|
|James Costos||August 1, 2013||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||September 24, 2013||January 18, 2017|
|Duke Buchan||November 2, 2017||Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary||January 18, 2018||January 20, 2021|
- Jay proceeded to post but was not formally received at court.
- No report has been found concerning Carmichael’s presentation of credentials as Chargé d’Affaires en titre; he had already been received as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim, February 20, 1783.
- Pinckney was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 26, 1802.
- Bowdoin did not proceed to post.
- Erving was commissioned during a recess of the United States Senate and his nomination confirmed by the Senate, October 3, 1814. His commission following confirmation not on record.
- Van Ness was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on February 10, 1830.
- Barry took the oath of office, but died en route to post. He was commissioned during a recess of the Senate.
- No report has been found of Eaton’s presentation of credentials, which probably took place about February 1, 1837.
- Barringer was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on September 28, 1850.
- Breckenreidge declined the appointment.
- Clay declined the appointment.
- Sickles was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on March 16, 1870.
- Sickles presented new credentials on February 2, 1871, after change of government
- Cushing presented new credentials on March 10, 1875, after restoration of monarchy.
- Lowell was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on October 30, 1877.
- Hamlin was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on October 13, 1881.
- Curry was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on January 13, 1886.
- Belmont was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 13, 1888.
- Spain severed diplomatic relations with the U.S. on April 21, 1898. Woodford left post the same day. The United States declared war on Spain as of that date by Act of Congress approved April 25, 1898.
- Storer was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 14, 1899.
- Hardy was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on December 8, 1902.
- Willard took the oath of office, but did not proceed to post under this appointment.
- Bowers was resident during the last part of his ambassadorship at St. Jean de Luz in France. He left that post June 14, 1939, his appointment having terminated May 14, 1939. The embassy had meanwhile been re-established in Spain on April 13, 1939, when H. Freeman Matthews had been received at Burgos as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim.
- Briggs was not commissioned; his nomination withdrawn before the Senate acted upon it.
- McKinney took the oath of office, but did not proceed to post under this appointment.
- "Former U.S Government Ambassadors to Spain". Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- Flanigan was not commissioned; his nomination of September 17, 1974 was not acted upon by the Senate.
- Bernstein, Adam (19 November 2009). "Wells Stabler dies; ambassador to Spain in post-Franco era". Retrieved 21 February 2018.
- Spain – United States relations
- Foreign relations of Spain
- Ambassadors of the United States
- List of ambassadors of Spain to the United States
- United States Department of State: Background notes on Spain
- This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/countries-areas/. (U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets)