Page semi-protected

COVID-19 pandemic in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

COVID-19 pandemic in the United States
COVID-19 pandemic in AlabamaCOVID-19 pandemic in AlaskaCOVID-19 pandemic in ArizonaCOVID-19 pandemic in ArkansasCOVID-19 pandemic in CaliforniaCOVID-19 pandemic in ColoradoCOVID-19 pandemic in ConnecticutCOVID-19 pandemic in Washington, D.C.COVID-19 pandemic in DelawareCOVID-19 pandemic in FloridaCOVID-19 pandemic in GeorgiaCOVID-19 pandemic in HawaiiCOVID-19 pandemic in IdahoCOVID-19 pandemic in IllinoisCOVID-19 pandemic in IndianaCOVID-19 pandemic in IowaCOVID-19 pandemic in KansasCOVID-19 pandemic in KentuckyCOVID-19 pandemic in LouisianaCOVID-19 pandemic in MaineCOVID-19 pandemic in MarylandCOVID-19 pandemic in MassachusettsCOVID-19 pandemic in MichiganCOVID-19 pandemic in MinnesotaCOVID-19 pandemic in MississippiCOVID-19 pandemic in MissouriCOVID-19 pandemic in MontanaCOVID-19 pandemic in NebraskaCOVID-19 pandemic in NevadaCOVID-19 pandemic in New HampshireCOVID-19 pandemic in New JerseyCOVID-19 pandemic in New MexicoCOVID-19 pandemic in New York (state)COVID-19 pandemic in North CarolinaCOVID-19 pandemic in North DakotaCOVID-19 pandemic in OhioCOVID-19 pandemic in OklahomaCOVID-19 pandemic in OregonCOVID-19 pandemic in PennsylvaniaCOVID-19 pandemic in Rhode IslandCOVID-19 pandemic in South CarolinaCOVID-19 pandemic in South DakotaCOVID-19 pandemic in TennesseeCOVID-19 pandemic in TexasCOVID-19 pandemic in UtahCOVID-19 pandemic in VermontCOVID-19 pandemic in VirginiaCOVID-19 pandemic in Washington (state)COVID-19 pandemic in West VirginiaCOVID-19 pandemic in WisconsinCOVID-19 pandemic in WyomingCOVID-19 pandemic in American SamoaCOVID-19 pandemic in GuamCOVID-19 pandemic in the Northern Mariana IslandsCOVID-19 pandemic in Puerto RicoCOVID-19 pandemic in the United States Virgin IslandsCOVID-19 outbreak USA per capita cases map.svg
About this image
COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people by state, as of February 27
COVID-19 rolling 14day Prevalence in the United States by county.svg
Map of the outbreak in the United States by confirmed new infections per 100,000 people (14 days preceding March 1)
  1,000+
  500–1,000
  200–500
  100–200
  50–100
  20–50
  10–20
  0–10
  No confirmed new cases or no/bad data
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationUnited States
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China[1]
Index caseChicago, Illinois (earliest known arrival)[2]
Everett, WA (first case report)[3]
Arrival dateJanuary 13, 2020[4]
(1 year, 1 month, 2 weeks and 3 days ago)
Confirmed cases
Recovered
Deaths
Fatality rate
Government website
coronavirus.gov

The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). More than 28,600,000 confirmed cases have been reported since January 2020, resulting in more than 514,000 deaths, the most of any country and the ninth-highest per capita.[6][9] The U.S. has nearly a quarter of the world's cases and a fifth of all deaths. More Americans have died from COVID-19 than during World War II.[10] COVID-19 became the third leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2020, behind heart disease and cancer.[11] U.S. life expectancy dropped from 78.8 years in 2019 to 77.8 years in the first half of 2020. [12]

On December 31, 2019, China announced the discovery of a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan. The first American case was reported on January 20, and then-President Donald Trump declared the U.S. outbreak a public health emergency on January 31. Restrictions were placed on flights arriving from China,[13][14] but the initial U.S. response to the pandemic was otherwise slow, in terms of preparing the healthcare system, stopping other travel, and testing.[15][16][17][a] Meanwhile, Trump remained optimistic on the future of the coronavirus in the United States.

The first known American deaths occurred in February.[19][b] On March 6, Trump signed the Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, which provided $8.3 billion in emergency funding for federal agencies to respond to the outbreak.[20] On March 13, President Trump declared a national emergency.[21] In mid-March, the Trump administration started to purchase large quantities of medical equipment,[22] and in late March, it invoked the Defense Production Act to direct industries to produce medical equipment.[23] By April 17, the federal government approved disaster declarations for all states and territories. By mid-April, cases had been confirmed in all fifty U.S. states, and by November in all inhabited U.S. territories. A second rise in infections began in June 2020, following relaxed restrictions in several states, leading to daily cases surpassing 60,000.[24] A third rise in infections began around mid-October, leading to daily cases reaching over 100,000 by the end of the month.[25][26]

State and local responses to the outbreak have included prohibitions and cancellation of large-scale gatherings (including festivals and sporting events), stay-at-home orders, and school closures.[27] Disproportionate numbers of cases have been observed among Black and Latino populations,[28][29][30] and there were reported incidents of xenophobia and racism against Asian Americans.[31] Clusters of infections and deaths have occurred in many areas.[c]

Timeline

COVID-19 cases in the United States  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
2020202020212021
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMayJunJunJulJulAugAugSepSepOctOctNovNovDecDec
JanJanFebFebMarMar
Last 15 daysLast 15 days
Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-01-21 1(n.a.)
1(=)
2020-01-24 2(+100%)
2020-01-25 3(+50%)
2020-01-26 5(+67%)
5(=)
2020-01-30 6(+20%)
2020-01-31 7(+17%)
2020-02-01 8(+14%)
2020-02-02 11(+38%)
11(=)
2020-02-05 12(+9.1%)
12(=)
2020-02-17 12(=)
12(=)
2020-02-20 14(+17%)
14(=)
2020-02-26 15(+7.1%)
2020-02-27 15(=)
2020-02-28 19(+27%)
2020-02-29 24(+26%) 1(n.a.)
2020-03-01 42(+75%) 2(+100%)
2020-03-02 57(+36%) 6(+200%)
2020-03-03 85(+49%) 9(+50%)
2020-03-04 111(+31%) 11(+22%)
2020-03-05 175(+58%) 11(=)
2020-03-06 252(+44%) 14(+27%)
2020-03-07 353(+40%) 19(+36%)
2020-03-08 497(+41%) 21(+11%)
2020-03-09
645(+30%) 26(+24%)
2020-03-10
936(+45%) 31(+19%)
2020-03-11
1,205(+29%) 37(+19%)
2020-03-12
1,598(+33%) 41(+11%)
2020-03-13
2,163(+35%) 49(+20%)
2020-03-14
2,825(+31%) 56(+14%)
2020-03-15
3,501(+24%) 62(+11%)
2020-03-16
4,373(+25%) 76(+23%)
2020-03-17
5,664(+30%) 97(+28%)
2020-03-18
8,074(+43%) 123(+27%)
2020-03-19
12,022(+49%) 175(+42%)
2020-03-20
17,439(+45%) 230(+31%)
2020-03-21
23,710(+36%) 298(+30%)
2020-03-22
32,341(+36%) 408(+37%)
2020-03-23
42,751(+32%) 519(+27%)
2020-03-24
52,690(+23%) 681(+31%)
2020-03-25
64,916(+23%) 906(+33%)
2020-03-26
81,966(+26%) 1,159(+28%)
2020-03-27
101,012(+23%) 1,592(+37%)
2020-03-28
121,105(+20%) 2,039(+28%)
2020-03-29
140,223(+16%) 2,431(+19%)
2020-03-30
160,686(+15%) 2,985(+23%)
2020-03-31
185,991(+16%) 3,806(+28%)
2020-04-01
212,747(+14%) 4,746(+25%)
2020-04-02
241,626(+14%) 5,821(+23%)
2020-04-03
274,151(+13%) 7,006(+20%)
2020-04-04
307,876(+12%) 8,359(+19%)
2020-04-05
333,593(+8.4%) 9,534(+14%)
2020-04-06
362,952(+8.8%) 10,746(+13%)
2020-04-07
393,464(+8.4%) 12,674(+18%)
2020-04-08
425,746(+8.2%) 14,610(+15%)
2020-04-09
459,989(+8%) 16,466(+13%)
2020-04-10
493,567(+7.3%) 18,544(+13%)
2020-04-11
525,436(+6.5%) 20,443(+10%)
2020-04-12
553,493(+5.3%) 21,936(+7.3%)
2020-04-13
578,178(+4.5%) 23,398(+6.7%)
2020-04-14
604,165(+4.5%) 25,776(+10%)
2020-04-15
633,630(+4.9%) 28,214(+9.5%)
2020-04-16
665,706(+5.1%) 30,355(+7.6%)
2020-04-17
696,621(+4.6%) 32,435(+6.9%)
2020-04-18
724,705(+4%) 34,178(+5.4%)
2020-04-19
750,718(+3.6%) 35,812(+4.8%)
2020-04-20
775,850(+3.3%) 37,455(+4.6%)
2020-04-21
801,028(+3.2%) 40,079(+7%)
2020-04-22
830,274(+3.7%) 42,198(+5.3%)
2020-04-23
861,551(+3.8%) 44,038(+4.4%)
2020-04-24
897,481(+4.2%) 46,091(+4.7%)
2020-04-25
932,263(+3.9%) 47,916(+4%)
2020-04-26
959,121(+2.9%) 49,077(+2.4%)
2020-04-27
981,163(+2.3%) 50,314(+2.5%)
2020-04-28
1,005,522(+2.5%) 52,518(+4.4%)
2020-04-29
1,031,391(+2.6%) 55,054(+4.8%)
2020-04-30
1,061,028(+2.9%) 57,137(+3.8%)
2020-05-01
1,093,992(+3.1%) 58,931(+3.1%)
2020-05-02
1,124,523(+2.8%) 60,599(+2.8%)
2020-05-03
1,149,905(+2.3%) 61,716(+1.8%)
2020-05-04
1,171,183(+1.9%) 62,593(+1.4%)
2020-05-05
1,193,409(+1.9%) 65,028(+3.9%)
2020-05-06
1,218,214(+2.1%) 67,729(+4.2%)
2020-05-07
1,245,728(+2.3%) 69,700(+2.9%)
2020-05-08
1,272,823(+2.2%) 71,395(+2.4%)
2020-05-09
1,300,244(+2.2%) 72,950(+2.2%)
2020-05-10
1,320,941(+1.6%) 73,895(+1.3%)
2020-05-11
1,338,720(+1.3%) 74,735(+1.1%)
2020-05-12
1,360,206(+1.6%) 76,326(+2.1%)
2020-05-13
1,380,755(+1.5%) 78,041(+2.2%)
2020-05-14
1,407,517(+1.9%) 79,899(+2.4%)
2020-05-15
1,432,899(+1.8%) 81,423(+1.9%)
2020-05-16
1,457,426(+1.7%) 82,654(+1.5%)
2020-05-17
1,477,157(+1.4%) 83,439(+0.95%)
2020-05-18
1,498,266(+1.4%) 84,231(+0.95%)
2020-05-19
1,517,928(+1.3%) 85,656(+1.7%)
2020-05-20
1,540,296(+1.5%) 87,184(+1.8%)
2020-05-21
1,565,324(+1.6%) 88,470(+1.5%)
2020-05-22
1,587,530(+1.4%) 89,732(+1.4%)
2020-05-23
1,610,247(+1.4%) 90,821(+1.2%)
2020-05-24
1,630,500(+1.3%) 91,467(+0.71%)
2020-05-25
1,649,054(+1.1%) 91,971(+0.55%)
2020-05-26
1,665,736(+1%) 92,605(+0.69%)
2020-05-27
1,684,372(+1.1%) 93,984(+1.5%)
2020-05-28
1,707,388(+1.4%) 95,200(+1.3%)
2020-05-29
1,730,963(+1.4%) 96,375(+1.2%)
2020-05-30
1,752,348(+1.2%) 97,354(+1%)
2020-05-31
1,774,034(+1.2%) 97,959(+0.62%)
2020-06-01
1,790,074(+0.9%) 98,437(+0.49%)
2020-06-02
1,810,113(+1.1%) 99,476(+1.1%)
2020-06-03
1,832,275(+1.2%) 100,480(+1%)
2020-06-04
1,853,279(+1.1%) 101,389(+0.9%)
2020-06-05
1,876,571(+1.3%) 102,238(+0.84%)
2020-06-06
1,897,436(+1.1%) 102,963(+0.71%)
2020-06-07
1,915,971(+0.98%) 103,411(+0.44%)
2020-06-08
1,932,272(+0.85%) 103,902(+0.47%)
2020-06-09
1,949,452(+0.89%) 104,828(+0.89%)
2020-06-10
1,969,696(+1%) 105,675(+0.81%)
2020-06-11
1,987,545(+0.91%) 106,501(+0.78%)
2020-06-12
2,011,966(+1.2%) 107,259(+0.71%)
2020-06-13
2,037,857(+1.3%) 107,913(+0.61%)
2020-06-14
2,059,048(+1%) 108,258(+0.32%)
2020-06-15
2,077,355(+0.89%) 108,642(+0.35%)
2020-06-16
2,100,402(+1.1%) 109,381(+0.68%)
2020-06-17
2,124,026(+1.1%) 110,123(+0.68%)
2020-06-18
2,151,108(+1.3%) 110,817(+0.63%)
2020-06-19
2,182,035(+1.4%) 111,499(+0.62%)
2020-06-20
2,213,998(+1.5%) 112,049(+0.49%)
2020-06-21
2,242,093(+1.3%) 112,332(+0.25%)
2020-06-22
2,268,651(+1.2%) 112,624(+0.26%)
2020-06-23
2,301,966(+1.5%) 113,390(+0.68%)
2020-06-24
2,339,911(+1.6%) 114,078(+0.61%)
2020-06-25
2,378,764(+1.7%) 114,722(+0.56%)
2020-06-26
2,423,490(+1.9%) 115,321(+0.52%)
2020-06-27
2,467,071(+1.8%) 115,827(+0.44%)
2020-06-28
2,507,762(+1.6%) 116,077(+0.22%)
2020-06-29
2,544,152(+1.5%) 116,415(+0.29%)
2020-06-30
2,588,017(+1.7%) 117,028(+0.53%)
2020-07-01
2,640,626(+2%) 117,698(+0.57%)
2020-07-02
2,695,495(+2.1%) 118,369(+0.57%)
2020-07-03
2,752,704(+2.1%) 118,979(+0.52%)
2020-07-04
2,803,149(+1.8%) 119,252(+0.23%)
2020-07-05
2,846,152(+1.5%) 119,464(+0.18%)
2020-07-06
2,892,883(+1.6%) 119,708(+0.2%)
2020-07-07
2,943,823(+1.8%) 120,610(+0.75%)
2020-07-08
3,006,248(+2.1%) 121,420(+0.67%)
2020-07-09
3,063,685(+1.9%) 122,294(+0.72%)
2020-07-10
3,130,471(+2.2%) 123,133(+0.69%)
2020-07-11
3,193,124(+2%) 123,862(+0.59%)
2020-07-12
3,254,162(+1.9%) 124,344(+0.39%)
2020-07-13
3,312,422(+1.8%) 124,626(+0.23%)
2020-07-14
3,374,256(+1.9%) 125,413(+0.63%)
2020-07-15
3,439,626(+1.9%) 126,286(+0.7%)
2020-07-16
3,509,880(+2%) 127,210(+0.73%)
2020-07-17
3,585,701(+2.2%) 128,146(+0.74%)
2020-07-18
3,651,090(+1.8%) 129,025(+0.69%)
2020-07-19
3,714,681(+1.7%) 129,537(+0.4%)
2020-07-20
3,770,577(+1.5%) 129,927(+0.3%)
2020-07-21
3,834,073(+1.7%) 130,966(+0.8%)
2020-07-22
3,902,450(+1.8%) 132,069(+0.84%)
2020-07-23
3,973,169(+1.8%) 133,151(+0.82%)
2020-07-24
4,047,529(+1.9%) 134,301(+0.86%)
2020-07-25
4,113,473(+1.6%) 135,286(+0.73%)
2020-07-26
4,172,104(+1.4%) 135,838(+0.41%)
2020-07-27
4,226,910(+1.3%) 136,917(+0.79%)
2020-07-28
4,285,450(+1.4%) 138,061(+0.84%)
2020-07-29
4,348,705(+1.5%) 139,510(+1%)
2020-07-30
4,417,248(+1.6%) 140,741(+0.88%)
2020-07-31
4,483,612(+1.5%) 142,064(+0.94%)
2020-08-01
4,544,429(+1.4%) 143,271(+0.85%)
2020-08-02
4,597,990(+1.2%) 143,733(+0.32%)
2020-08-03
4,639,953(+0.91%) 144,238(+0.35%)
2020-08-04
4,691,138(+1.1%) 145,503(+0.88%)
2020-08-05
4,743,022(+1.1%) 146,831(+0.91%)
2020-08-06
4,796,327(+1.1%) 148,079(+0.85%)
2020-08-07
4,856,511(+1.3%) 149,366(+0.87%)
2020-08-08
4,912,203(+1.1%) 150,475(+0.74%)
2020-08-09
4,960,972(+0.99%) 151,029(+0.37%)
2020-08-10
5,001,143(+0.81%) 151,461(+0.29%)
2020-08-11
5,055,586(+1.1%) 152,795(+0.88%)
2020-08-12
5,110,756(+1.1%) 154,281(+0.97%)
2020-08-13
5,162,091(+1%) 155,430(+0.74%)
2020-08-14
5,217,148(+1.1%) 156,664(+0.79%)
2020-08-15
5,272,496(+1.1%) 157,854(+0.76%)
2020-08-16
5,314,677(+0.8%) 158,470(+0.39%)
2020-08-17
5,351,917(+0.7%) 158,870(+0.25%)
2020-08-18
5,391,711(+0.74%) 160,075(+0.76%)
2020-08-19
5,435,509(+0.81%) 161,444(+0.86%)
2020-08-20
5,478,536(+0.79%) 162,566(+0.69%)
2020-08-21
5,528,279(+0.91%) 163,679(+0.68%)
2020-08-22
5,574,462(+0.84%) 164,692(+0.62%)
2020-08-23
5,610,884(+0.65%) 165,246(+0.34%)
2020-08-24
5,644,502(+0.6%) 165,594(+0.21%)
2020-08-25
5,680,549(+0.64%) 166,730(+0.69%)
2020-08-26
5,722,904(+0.75%) 167,990(+0.76%)
2020-08-27
5,766,718(+0.77%) 169,108(+0.67%)
2020-08-28
5,812,165(+0.79%) 170,117(+0.6%)
2020-08-29
5,856,434(+0.76%) 171,124(+0.59%)
2020-08-30
5,893,373(+0.63%) 171,588(+0.27%)
2020-08-31
5,925,031(+0.54%) 171,957(+0.22%)
2020-09-01
5,966,566(+0.7%) 172,978(+0.59%)
2020-09-02
6,004,196(+0.63%) 173,994(+0.59%)
2020-09-03
6,047,169(+0.72%) 175,060(+0.61%)
2020-09-04
6,097,352(+0.83%) 176,039(+0.56%)
2020-09-05
6,141,077(+0.72%) 176,942(+0.51%)
2020-09-06
6,174,251(+0.54%) 177,384(+0.25%)
2020-09-07
6,201,101(+0.43%) 177,608(+0.13%)
2020-09-08
6,223,393(+0.36%) 177,962(+0.2%)
2020-09-09
6,253,404(+0.48%) 179,006(+0.59%)
2020-09-10
6,289,484(+0.58%) 180,140(+0.63%)
2020-09-11
6,333,295(+0.7%) 181,144(+0.56%)
2020-09-12
6,374,829(+0.66%) 181,952(+0.45%)
2020-09-13
6,408,335(+0.53%) 182,335(+0.21%)
2020-09-14
6,441,587(+0.52%) 182,732(+0.22%)
2020-09-15
6,475,951(+0.53%) 183,759(+0.56%)
2020-09-16
6,515,046(+0.6%) 184,766(+0.55%)
2020-09-17
6,557,638(+0.65%) 185,618(+0.46%)
2020-09-18
6,604,774(+0.72%) 186,520(+0.49%)
2020-09-19
6,648,402(+0.66%) 187,236(+0.38%)
2020-09-20
6,682,988(+0.52%) 187,547(+0.17%)
2020-09-21
6,722,115(+0.59%) 187,856(+0.16%)
2020-09-22
6,770,321(+0.72%) 188,682(+0.44%)
2020-09-23
6,807,987(+0.56%) 189,822(+0.6%)
2020-09-24
6,850,904(+0.63%) 190,731(+0.48%)
2020-09-25
6,899,471(+0.71%) 191,614(+0.46%)
2020-09-26
6,945,223(+0.66%) 192,460(+0.44%)
2020-09-27
6,980,115(+0.5%) 192,761(+0.16%)
2020-09-28
7,013,825(+0.48%) 193,018(+0.13%)
2020-09-29
7,050,672(+0.53%) 193,763(+0.39%)
2020-09-30
7,093,786(+0.61%) 194,780(+0.52%)
2020-10-01
7,137,767(+0.62%) 195,641(+0.44%)
2020-10-02
7,186,019(+0.68%) 196,461(+0.42%)
2020-10-03
7,234,219(+0.67%) 197,206(+0.38%)
2020-10-04
7,271,064(+0.51%) 197,569(+0.18%)
2020-10-05
7,308,801(+0.52%) 197,910(+0.17%)
2020-10-06
7,347,553(+0.53%) 198,536(+0.32%)
2020-10-07
7,394,030(+0.63%) 199,435(+0.45%)
2020-10-08
7,448,073(+0.73%) 200,385(+0.48%)
2020-10-09
7,503,830(+0.75%) 201,304(+0.46%)
2020-10-10
7,558,714(+0.73%) 201,947(+0.32%)
2020-10-11
7,604,207(+0.6%) 202,411(+0.23%)
2020-10-12
7,646,035(+0.55%) 202,694(+0.14%)
2020-10-13
7,692,885(+0.61%) 203,425(+0.36%)
2020-10-14
7,747,423(+0.71%) 204,273(+0.42%)
2020-10-15
7,808,448(+0.79%) 205,161(+0.43%)
2020-10-16
7,874,935(+0.85%) 206,025(+0.42%)
2020-10-17
7,931,791(+0.72%) 206,800(+0.38%)
2020-10-18
7,981,941(+0.63%) 207,204(+0.2%)
2020-10-19
8,036,253(+0.68%) 207,640(+0.21%)
2020-10-20
8,092,187(+0.7%) 208,467(+0.4%)
2020-10-21
8,152,149(+0.74%) 209,598(+0.54%)
2020-10-22
8,221,451(+0.85%) 210,564(+0.46%)
2020-10-23
8,298,508(+0.94%) 211,472(+0.43%)
2020-10-24
8,377,398(+0.95%) 212,337(+0.41%)
2020-10-25
8,439,683(+0.74%) 212,703(+0.17%)
2020-10-26
8,502,621(+0.75%) 213,138(+0.2%)
2020-10-27
8,572,273(+0.82%) 214,044(+0.43%)
2020-10-28
8,647,878(+0.88%) 215,052(+0.47%)
2020-10-29
8,734,776(+1%) 216,086(+0.48%)
2020-10-30
8,823,999(+1%) 217,000(+0.42%)
2020-10-31
8,914,806(+1%) 217,905(+0.42%)
2020-11-01
8,987,032(+0.81%) 218,319(+0.19%)
2020-11-02
9,068,682(+0.91%) 218,779(+0.21%)
2020-11-03
9,154,043(+0.94%) 219,869(+0.5%)
2020-11-04
9,254,499(+1.1%) 220,944(+0.49%)
2020-11-05
9,367,997(+1.2%) 222,076(+0.51%)
2020-11-06
9,499,081(+1.4%) 223,236(+0.52%)
2020-11-07
9,627,627(+1.4%) 224,281(+0.47%)
2020-11-08
9,730,071(+1.1%) 224,752(+0.21%)
2020-11-09
9,849,896(+1.2%) 225,352(+0.27%)
2020-11-10
9,978,668(+1.3%) 226,718(+0.61%)
2020-11-11
10,117,899(+1.4%) 228,180(+0.64%)
2020-11-12
10,267,371(+1.5%) 229,295(+0.49%)
2020-11-13
10,434,221(+1.6%) 230,522(+0.54%)
2020-11-14
10,593,946(+1.5%) 231,803(+0.56%)
2020-11-15
10,732,177(+1.3%) 232,464(+0.29%)
2020-11-16
10,881,124(+1.4%) 233,120(+0.28%)
2020-11-17
11,035,624(+1.4%) 234,630(+0.65%)
2020-11-18
11,192,629(+1.4%) 236,386(+0.75%)
2020-11-19
11,370,789(+1.6%) 238,342(+0.83%)
2020-11-20
11,558,389(+1.6%) 240,151(+0.76%)
2020-11-21
11,729,370(+1.5%) 241,557(+0.59%)
2020-11-22
11,873,233(+1.2%) 242,440(+0.37%)
2020-11-23
12,030,751(+1.3%) 243,355(+0.38%)
2020-11-24
12,189,073(+1.3%) 245,358(+0.82%)
2020-11-25
12,367,098(+1.5%) 247,539(+0.89%)
2020-11-26
12,485,385(+0.96%) 248,796(+0.51%)
2020-11-27
12,679,702(+1.6%) 250,112(+0.53%)
2020-11-28
12,827,533(+1.2%) 251,268(+0.46%)
2020-11-29
12,957,430(+1%) 252,085(+0.33%)
2020-11-30
13,105,870(+1.1%) 253,192(+0.44%)
2020-12-01
13,275,189(+1.3%) 255,580(+0.94%)
2020-12-02
13,465,599(+1.4%) 258,242(+1%)
2020-12-03
13,667,204(+1.5%) 260,889(+1%)
2020-12-04
13,883,161(+1.6%) 263,325(+0.93%)
2020-12-05
14,087,287(+1.5%) 265,600(+0.86%)
2020-12-06
14,258,133(+1.2%) 266,680(+0.41%)
2020-12-07
14,444,132(+1.3%) 268,011(+0.5%)
2020-12-08
14,637,073(+1.3%) 270,628(+0.98%)
2020-12-09
14,837,236(+1.4%) 273,671(+1.1%)
2020-12-10
15,044,041(+1.4%) 276,458(+1%)
2020-12-11
15,265,430(+1.5%) 279,264(+1%)
2020-12-12
15,475,909(+1.4%) 281,590(+0.83%)
2020-12-13
15,653,191(+1.1%) 283,000(+0.5%)
2020-12-14
15,843,983(+1.2%) 284,408(+0.5%)
2020-12-15
16,022,297(+1.1%) 287,232(+0.99%)
2020-12-16
16,239,318(+1.4%) 290,563(+1.2%)
2020-12-17
16,454,803(+1.3%) 293,867(+1.1%)
2020-12-18
16,681,000(+1.4%) 296,548(+0.91%)
2020-12-19
16,873,923(+1.2%) 299,192(+0.89%)
2020-12-20
17,053,640(+1.1%) 300,700(+0.5%)
2020-12-21
17,231,336(+1%) 302,186(+0.49%)
2020-12-22
17,405,556(+1%) 305,233(+1%)
2020-12-23
17,612,152(+1.2%) 308,474(+1.1%)
2020-12-24
17,803,137(+1.1%) 311,264(+0.9%)
2020-12-25
17,929,040(+0.71%) 312,656(+0.45%)
2020-12-26
18,105,229(+0.98%) 314,017(+0.44%)
2020-12-27
18,248,748(+0.79%) 315,347(+0.42%)
2020-12-28
18,409,996(+0.88%) 316,856(+0.48%)
2020-12-29
18,588,184(+0.97%) 320,124(+1%)
2020-12-30
18,794,360(+1.1%) 323,696(+1.1%)
2020-12-31
19,005,793(+1.1%) 326,867(+0.98%)
2021-01-01
19,179,864(+0.92%) 329,311(+0.75%)
2021-01-02
19,438,731(+1.3%) 331,563(+0.68%)
2021-01-03
19,646,037(+1.1%) 332,933(+0.41%)
2021-01-04
19,811,975(+0.84%) 334,540(+0.48%)
2021-01-05
20,014,163(+1%) 337,965(+1%)
2021-01-06
20,239,211(+1.1%) 341,635(+1.1%)
2021-01-07
20,489,605(+1.2%) 345,551(+1.1%)
2021-01-08
20,764,232(+1.3%) 349,106(+1%)
2021-01-09
21,011,772(+1.2%) 352,543(+0.98%)
2021-01-10
21,222,619(+1%) 354,491(+0.55%)
2021-01-11
21,417,051(+0.92%) 356,253(+0.5%)
2021-01-12
21,613,916(+0.92%) 360,266(+1.1%)
2021-01-13
21,817,763(+0.94%) 364,090(+1.1%)
2021-01-14
22,021,271(+0.93%) 367,780(+1%)
2021-01-15
22,247,192(+1%) 371,311(+0.96%)
2021-01-16
22,445,517(+0.89%) 374,825(+0.95%)
2021-01-17
22,624,579(+0.8%) 376,782(+0.52%)
2021-01-18
22,762,757(+0.61%) 378,127(+0.36%)
2021-01-19
22,901,822(+0.61%) 380,222(+0.55%)
2021-01-20
23,070,169(+0.74%) 384,359(+1.1%)
2021-01-21
23,238,647(+0.73%) 388,224(+1%)
2021-01-22
23,413,994(+0.75%) 392,011(+0.98%)
2021-01-23
23,573,722(+0.68%) 395,332(+0.85%)
2021-01-24
23,704,607(+0.56%) 397,242(+0.48%)
2021-01-25
23,834,749(+0.55%) 398,854(+0.41%)
2021-01-26
23,964,926(+0.55%) 402,390(+0.89%)
2021-01-27
24,099,073(+0.56%) 406,308(+0.97%)
2021-01-28
24,239,657(+0.58%) 410,067(+0.93%)
2021-01-29
24,384,737(+0.6%) 413,371(+0.81%)
2021-01-30
24,519,551(+0.55%) 416,194(+0.68%)
2021-01-31
24,627,047(+0.44%) 418,143(+0.47%)
2021-02-01
24,742,440(+0.47%) 419,692(+0.37%)
2021-02-02
24,844,728(+0.41%) 422,967(+0.78%)
2021-02-03
24,941,885(+0.39%) 426,444(+0.82%)
2021-02-04
25,049,259(+0.43%) 431,399(+1.2%)
2021-02-05
25,165,152(+0.46%) 434,798(+0.79%)
2021-02-06
25,265,367(+0.4%) 437,615(+0.65%)
2021-02-07
25,352,112(+0.34%) 439,011(+0.32%)
2021-02-08
25,429,724(+0.31%) 440,294(+0.29%)
2021-02-09
25,509,231(+0.31%) 443,060(+0.63%)
2021-02-10
25,592,250(+0.33%) 446,211(+0.71%)
2021-02-11
25,682,721(+0.35%) 449,947(+0.84%)
2021-02-12
25,771,621(+0.35%) 455,316(+1.2%)
2021-02-13
25,851,656(+0.31%) 458,612(+0.72%)
2021-02-14
25,915,947(+0.25%) 459,894(+0.28%)
2021-02-15
25,967,816(+0.2%) 460,967(+0.23%)
2021-02-16
26,020,161(+0.2%) 462,265(+0.28%)
2021-02-17
26,077,147(+0.22%) 464,521(+0.49%)
2021-02-18
26,135,054(+0.22%) 467,051(+0.54%)
2021-02-19
26,201,141(+0.25%) 469,384(+0.5%)
2021-02-20
26,263,753(+0.24%) 471,352(+0.42%)
2021-02-21
26,314,472(+0.19%) 472,592(+0.26%)
2021-02-22
26,364,915(+0.19%) 473,870(+0.27%)
2021-02-23
26,421,414(+0.21%) 475,035(+0.25%)
2021-02-24
26,484,395(+0.24%) 478,356(+0.7%)
2021-02-25
26,551,052(+0.25%) 481,383(+0.63%)
2021-02-26
26,616,435(+0.25%) 483,407(+0.42%)
2021-02-27
26,678,255(+0.23%) 485,151(+0.36%)
2021-02-28
26,726,671(+0.18%) 486,224(+0.22%)
2021-03-01
26,773,143(+0.17%) 487,432(+0.25%)
Cumulative totals reported to date,[d] excluding repatriated cases
Sources: Official reports from state health officials


December 2019 to February 2020

In late November 2019, coronavirus infections had first broken out in Wuhan, China.[34][35] China publicly reported the cluster on December 31, 2019.[3] On January 6, U.S. Health and Human Services offered to send China a team of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) health experts to help contain the outbreak, but China ignored the offer,[36] which the CDC said contributed to the U.S. and other countries getting a late start in identifying the danger and taking early action.[37][38]

After China confirmed that the cluster of infections was caused by a novel infectious coronavirus[3] on January 7, the CDC issued an official health advisory the following day.[39] The World Health Organization (WHO) warned on January 10 about the strong possibility of human-to-human transmission and urged precautions.[40] On January 20, the WHO and China both confirmed that human-to-human transmission had indeed occurred.[41] The CDC immediately activated its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to respond to the outbreak in China.[42] Also, the first report of a COVID-19 case in the U.S. was reported.[3] After other cases were reported, on January 30, the WHO declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)—its highest level of alarm[43]—warning that "all countries should be prepared for containment."[44][45][e] The same day, the CDC confirmed the first person-to-person case in America.[47] The next day, the U.S. declared a public health emergency.[48] Although by that date there were only seven known cases in the U.S., the HHS and CDC reported that there was a likelihood of further cases appearing in the country.[48]

The Trump administration evacuated American nationals from Wuhan in late January; the evacuees were greeted by officials who did not wear protective gear because the Trump administration worried about "bad optics."[49] On February 2, the U.S. enacted travel restrictions to and from China.[14] On February 6, the earliest confirmed American death with COVID-19 (that of a 57-year-old woman) occurred in Santa Clara County, California. The CDC did not report its confirmation until April 21,[19] by which point nine other COVID-19 deaths had occurred in Santa Clara County.[50] The virus had been circulating undetected at least since early January and possibly as early as November.[51] On February 25, the CDC warned the American public for the first time to prepare for a local outbreak.[52] However, large gatherings that occurred before then accelerated transmission.[53]

In February, Vice President Mike Pence took over for Secretary Alex Azar as chair of the White House Coronavirus Task Force.[54]

March to April 2020

March 6: President Trump and Alex Azar at the signing of Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act into law

By March 11, the virus had spread to 110 countries, and the WHO officially declared a pandemic.[27] The CDC had already warned that large numbers of people needing hospital care could overload the healthcare system, which would lead to otherwise preventable deaths.[55][56] Dr. Anthony Fauci said the mortality from the coronavirus was 10 times higher than the common flu.[57]

By March 12, diagnosed cases of COVID-19 in the U.S. exceeded a thousand.[58] On March 16, the White House advised against any gatherings of more than ten people.[59] Since March 19, the State Department has advised U.S. citizens to avoid all international travel.[60]

By the middle of March, all fifty states were able to perform tests with a doctor's approval, either from the CDC or from commercial labs. However, the number of available test kits remained limited, which meant the true number of people infected had to be estimated.[61] As cases began spreading throughout the nation, federal and state agencies began taking urgent steps to prepare for a surge of hospital patients. Among the actions was establishing additional places for patients in case hospitals became overwhelmed.[62] Manpower from the military and volunteer armies were called up to help construct the emergency facilities.[63][64]

Throughout March and early April, several state, city, and county governments imposed "stay at home" quarantines on their populations to stem the spread of the virus.[65] By March 27, the country had reported over 100,000 cases.[66] On April 2, at President Trump's direction, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and CDC ordered additional preventive guidelines to the long-term care facility industry.[67] On April 11, the U.S. death toll became the highest in the world when the number of deaths reached 20,000, surpassing that of Italy.[68] On April 19, the CMS added new regulations requiring nursing homes to inform residents, their families and representatives, of COVID-19 cases in their facilities.[69] On April 28, the total number of confirmed cases across the country surpassed one million.[70]

May to August 2020

By May 27, less than four months after the pandemic reached the U.S., 100,000 Americans had died with COVID-19.[71] State economic reopenings and lack of widespread mask orders resulted in a sharp rise in cases across most of the continental U.S. outside of the Northeast.[72] A study conducted in May 2020 indicated that the true number of COVID-19 cases in the United States was much higher than the number of confirmed cases with some locations having 6 to 24 times higher infections.[73][74]

On July 6, the United States Department of State announced U.S. withdrawal from the World Health Organization effective July 6, 2021.[75] The U.S. passed five million COVID-19 cases by August 8.[76]

On July 10, the CDC adopted the Infection Fatality Ratio (IFR), "the number of individuals who die of the disease among all infected individuals (symptomatic and asymptomatic)," as a new metric for disease severity, replacing the Symptomatic Case Fatality Ratio and the Symptomatic Case Hospitalization Ratio. Per the CDC, the IFR "takes into account both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases, and may therefore be a more directly measurable parameter for disease severity for COVID-19."[77]

In July, U.S. PIRG and 150 health professionals sent a letter asking the federal government to "shut it down now, and start over".[78] In July and early August, requests multiplied, with a number of experts asking for lockdowns of "six to eight weeks"[79] that they believed would restore the country by October 1, in time to reopen schools and have an in-person election.[80]

In August, over 400,000 people attended the 80th Sturgis Motorcycle Rally in Sturgis, South Dakota, and from there, at least 300 people in more than 20 states were infected.[81] The CDC followed up with a report on the associated 51 confirmed primary event-associated cases, 21 secondary cases, and five tertiary cases in the neighboring state of Minnesota, where one attendee died of COVID-19.[82]

September to December 2020

On September 22, the U.S. passed 200,000 deaths, according to data from Johns Hopkins University.[83] In early October, an unprecedented series of high-profile U.S. political figures and staffers announced they had tested positive for COVID-19.[84][85] On October 2, Trump announced on Twitter that both he and the First Lady had tested positive for the coronavirus and would immediately quarantine.[86][85] Trump was given an experimental Regeneron product with two monoclonal antibodies[87][f] and taken to Walter Reed National Military Medical Center,[89] where he was given remdesivir and dexamethasone.[90]

USA Today studied the aftermath of presidential election campaigning, recognizing that causation was impossible to determine. Among their findings, cases increased 35% compared to 14% for the state after a Trump rally in Beltrami County, Minnesota. One case was traced to a Biden rally in Duluth.[91]

On November 9, President-elect Joe Biden's transition team announced his COVID-19 Advisory Board.[92] On the same day, the total number of cases had surpassed 10 million[93] while the total had risen by over 1 million cases in the ten days prior, averaging 102,300 new cases per day.[94] Pfizer also announced that its COVID-19 vaccine may be up to 90% effective.[95][96] In November, the Trump administration reached an agreement with a number of retail outlets, including pharmacies and supermarkets, to make the COVID-19 vaccine free once available.[97]

In spite of recommendations by the government not to travel, over two million people ended up flying on airlines during the Thanksgiving period.[98] On December 8, the U.S. passed 15 million cases, with about one out of every 22 Americans having tested positive since the pandemic began.[99] By December 12, TSA employees across U.S. airports had a 38% increase in COVID-19 infections.[100] On December 14, the U.S. passed 300,000 deaths, representing an average of more than 961 deaths per day since the first known death on February 6. More than 50,000 deaths were reported in the past month, with an average of 2,403 daily deaths occurring in the past week.[101]

On December 24, following concerns over a probably more easily transmissible new SARS-CoV-2 variant from the United Kingdom (B.1.1.7), the CDC announced testing requirements for American passengers traveling from the UK, to be administered within 72 hours, starting on December 28.[102][103] On December 29, the U.S. reported the first case of this variant in Colorado. The patient had no travel history, leading the CDC to state, "Given the small fraction of US infections that have been sequenced, the variant could already be in the United States without having been detected."[104]

January to February 2021

Vice President Kamala Harris receiving her second COVID-19 vaccination at the National Institutes of Health. She and other public officials have received the vaccine on camera in an effort to demonstrate its safety.[105][106][107]
President Joe Biden visits a COVID-19 vaccination site at Walter Reed Medical Center

On January 1, 2021, the U.S. passed 20 million cases, representing an increase of more than one million over the past week and 10 million in less than two months.[108][109] On January 6, the CDC announced that it had found at least 52 confirmed cases of the B.1.1.7 variant in California, Florida, Colorado, Georgia, and New York; and it also stressed that there could already be more cases in the country.[110] In the following days, more cases of the variant were reported in other states, leading former CDC director Tom Frieden to express his concerns that the U.S. will soon face "close to a worst-case scenario".[111] It was believed the B.1.1.7 variant was present in the U.S. since October.[112]

Also on January 6, supporters of President Trump stormed the United States Capitol building.[113] At least one activist participated in the riot despite a recent positive COVID-19 diagnosis,[114] and few members of the crowd wore face coverings, with many coming from out of town.[113] A group of maskless Republicans sheltering in place were recorded refusing masks offered by Representative Lisa Blunt Rochester (D–DE),[115] and as many as 200 congressional staffers reportedly sheltered in various rooms inside the Capitol, further increasing the risk of transmission.[113][116] Brian P. Monahan, the attending physician of Congress, later reported that members of Congress may have been exposed to others with COVID-19 while sheltering in place.[115][117] Four members of Congress have since tested positive due to the exposure.[118]

On January 19, the U.S. passed 400,000 deaths, just five weeks after the country passed 300,000 deaths.[119] On January 22, the U.S. passed 25 million cases, with one of every 13 Americans testing positive for COVID-19.[120] On January 25, the U.S. reported its first case of a new SARS-CoV-2 variant from Brazil (P.1) in Minnesota.[121] Three days later, on January 28, the country reported its first two cases of a new, possibly vaccine-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variant from South Africa (501.V2) in South Carolina.[122] On February 22, the U.S. passed 500,000 deaths, just five weeks after the country passed 400,000 deaths.[123] By February 23, more than 1,880 cases of the B.1.1.7 variant were reported in 45 states, leading to concerns of a new surge in cases in the spring.[124]

Responses

Medical response

Initial response outside the U.S.

On January 6, a week after the U.S. was informed about the outbreak in China, both the Health and Human Services department and the CDC offered to send a team of U.S. health experts to China.[36][125] According to CDC Director Robert R. Redfield, the Chinese government refused to let them in, which contributed to the U.S. getting a late start in identifying the danger of their outbreak and containing it before it reached other countries.[37] Secretary Alex Azar said China did notify the world much sooner than it had after their SARS outbreak in 2003, but it was unexplainably turning away CDC help for this new one.[126]

On January 28, the CDC updated its China travel recommendations to level 3, its highest alert.[36] Azar submitted names of U.S. experts to the WHO and said the U.S. would provide $105 million in funding, adding that he had requested another $136 million from Congress.[127][126] On February 8, the WHO's director-general announced that a team of international experts had been assembled to travel to China and he hoped officials from the CDC would also be part of that mission.[128][126] The WHO team consisted of thirteen international researchers, including two Americans, and toured five cities in China with twelve local scientists to study the epidemic from February 16–23.[129] The final report was released on February 28.[130]

In late January, Boeing announced a donation of 250,000 medical masks to help address China's supply shortages.[131] On February 7, The State Department said it had facilitated the transportation of nearly eighteen tons of medical supplies to China, including masks, gowns, gauze, respirators, and other vital materials.[132] On the same day, U.S. Secretary of State Pompeo announced a $100 million pledge to China and other countries to assist with their fights against the virus.,[133] however on March 21, China said it had not received epidemic funding from the U.S. and said so again on April 3.[citation needed]

On February 28, the State Department offered to help Iran fight its own outbreak, as Iran's cases and deaths were dramatically increasing.[134][135] Iran said, however, that U.S. sanctions were hampering its battle with the disease, which the U.S. denied, saying that Iran had mishandled the crisis.[136]

Testing

Testing for SARS-CoV-2 can allow healthcare workers to identify infected people. It is also an important component of tracking the pandemic. There are various types of tests currently on the market; some identify whether or not a patient is currently infected, while others give information about previous exposure to the virus.

A report published in January 2021 revealed that a Chinese firm, BGI Group was attempting to distribute its COVID-19 testing kits to at least 11 states in the US. The US intelligence and security officials raised warnings about the security risks involved in using these kits, as BGI was trying to use the patients' DNA, via the gene-sequencing machines that were being pitched to the US labs. However, federal agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as well as the United States Department of Health and Human Services were pushing the states to use the BGI testing kits, despite such warnings. Besides the 11 states, Nevada received the Chinese-made testing kits from Abu Dhabi's data and artificial intelligence firm, Group 42, in collaboration with BGI. Some of the testing supplies were used in Nevada, but states like Alabama, South Dakota, Ohio, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Arkansas, California, Indiana, Kansas, North Carolina and Pennsylvania didn't purchase the BGI kits.[137][138]

Contact tracing

Contact tracing is a tool to control transmission rates during the reopening process. Some states like Texas and Arizona opted to proceed with reopening without adequate contact tracing programs in place. Health experts have expressed concerns about training and hiring enough personnel to reduce transmission. Privacy concerns have prevented measures such as those imposed in South Korea where authorities used cellphone tracking and credit card details to locate and test thousands of nightclub patrons when new cases began emerging.[139] Funding for contact tracing is thought to be insufficient, and even better-funded states have faced challenges getting in touch with contacts. Congress has allocated $631 million for state and local health surveillance programs, but the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security estimates that $3.6 billion will be needed. The cost rises with the number of infections, and contact tracing is easier to implement when the infection count is lower. Health officials are also worried that low-income communities will fall further behind in contact tracing efforts which "may also be hobbled by long-standing distrust among minorities of public health officials".[140]

As of July 1, only four states are using contact tracing apps as part of their state-level strategies to control transmission. The apps document digital encounters between smartphones, so the users will automatically be notified if someone they had contact with has tested positive. Public health officials in California claim that most of the functionality could be duplicated by using text, chat, email and phone communications.[141]

Drug therapy development

March 3: President Trump and Anthony Fauci visit the Vaccine Research Center and the Viral Pathogenesis Laboratory at the National Institutes of Health.

In the United States, remdesivir is indicated for use in adults and adolescents (aged twelve years and older with body weight at least 40 kilograms (88 lb)) for the treatment of COVID‑19 requiring hospitalization.[142] In November 2020, the FDA issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for the combination of baricitinib with remdesivir, for the treatment of suspected or laboratory confirmed COVID-19 in hospitalized people two years of age or older requiring supplemental oxygen, invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).[143] As of August 2020, there were over 500 potential therapies for COVID‑19 disease in various stages of preclinical or clinical research.

Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine

In early March, President Trump directed the FDA to test certain medications to discover if they had the potential to treat COVID-19 patients.[144] Among those were chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, which have been successfully used to treat malaria for over fifty years. A small test in France by researcher Didier Raoult had given positive results, although the study was criticized for design flaws, small sample size, and the fact that it was published before peer review.[145] One of Didier's COVID-19 studies was later retracted by the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents.[146]

On March 28, the FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) which allowed certain hospitalized COVID-19 patients to be treated with hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine.[147][144][148][149] On June 15, the FDA revoked the EUA for hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine as potential treatments for COVID-19. The FDA said the available evidence showed "no benefit for decreasing the likelihood of death or speeding recovery". On July 1, the FDA published a review of safety issues associated with the drugs, including fatal cardiac arrhythmias among other side effects.[150]

In late July, President Trump continued to promote the use of hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19. This contrasted with the position of the NIH, which stated the drug was "very unlikely to be beneficial to hospitalized patients with COVID-19".[151]

Vaccine research and development

Total number of people receiving vaccinations in the United States as of March 1, 2021

  Unvaccinated population: ~281.6 million people (84.74%)
  Population who has received at least one dose of the vaccine: 25,266,592 people[152] (7.60%)
  Population who has received two doses of the vaccine: 25,466,405 people[152] (7.66%)
<div style="border:solid transparent;position:absolute;width:100px;line-height:0;

Vaccines administered per pharmaceutical company as of March 1, 2021

  Pfizer-BioNTech (39,262,524) (51.06%)
  Moderna (37,522,293) (48.79%)
  Not Identified (114,793) (0.15%)


From early 2020, over 70 companies worldwide (with five or six operating primarily in the U.S.) began vaccine research.[153][154] The global competition had national security implications for various countries.[155]

In preparation for large-scale production, Congress set aside more than $3.5 billion for this purpose as part of the CARES Act.[156][154] Among the labs working on a vaccine is the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, which has previously studied other infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, ebola, and MERS. By March 18, tests had begun with dozens of volunteers in Seattle, sponsored by the U.S. government, and similar safety trials were planned for other potential vaccines.[157] Bill Gates, whose foundation shifted its focus nearly entirely to the pandemic, anticipated in early 2020 that a vaccine could be ready by early 2021.[158]

On August 5, 2020, the United States agreed to pay Johnson and Johnson more than $1 billion to create 100 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine. The deal gave the U.S. an option to order an additional 200 million doses. The doses were supposed to be provided for free to Americans if they are used in a COVID-19 vaccination campaign.[159]

Senior citizens await COVID-19 vaccine at a Maryland pharmacy in January 2021.

BIO, a trade group including all makers of coronavirus vaccines except AstraZeneca, tried to persuade Secretary Azar to publish strict FDA guidelines that could help ensure the safety and public uptake of the vaccine. Politics impacted scientific practice, however, when chief of staff Mark Meadows blocked the FDA when it was realized that the timing of the provisions would make it impossible for a vaccine to be authorized before the November election.[160][161] Ultimately, the guidelines emerged[162] from the Office of Management and Budget and were published on the FDA website.[163]

As of October 2020, 44 were in clinical trials on humans, and 91 pre-clinical vaccines were being tested on animals.[164]

On November 20, 2020, the Pfizer-BioNTech partnership submitted a request for emergency use authorization to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA),[165][166] and the FDA announced that its Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) would review the request.[167][168] On December 11, the FDA granted emergency use authorization for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.[169][170] An initial shipment of 2.9 million doses were scheduled to be distributed rapidly, and Pfizer promised to continue supplying the rest of the 100 million doses through March 2021.[171][172] Pfizer had adequate stocks available and began this distribution on December 17, 2020, but the federal government reduced the amount that Pfizer was allowed to distribute.[173][174]

On December 18, 2020, the FDA granted the Moderna vaccine emergency use authorization,[175][176] which Moderna had requested on November 30, 2020.[177][178] The U.S. planned to rapidly distribute 5.9 million doses with more to come later.[179][180]

Vaccine deployment

The CDC and each state keep track of the number of vaccines administered.[181] On February 13, 2021, the CDC published data showing that 50.6 million doses had been administered to 37 million people, with the result that 13 million of those people were already fully vaccinated and the remainder were still waiting for their second dose.[182]

Medical supply shortages

The first known case of COVID-19 in the U.S. was confirmed by the CDC on January 21, 2020.[183] The next day, the owner of the medical supply company Prestige Ameritech wrote to HHS officials to say he could produce millions of N95 masks per month. In a follow-up letter on January 23, the business owner informed the government that "We are the last major domestic mask company," without success.[184]

On February 5, Trump administration officials declined an offer for congressional coronavirus funding. Senator Chris Murphy recalled that the officials, including Secretary Azar, "didn't need emergency funding, that they would be able to handle it within existing appropriations."[185] On February 7 Mike Pompeo announced the administration donated more than 35,000 pounds of "masks, gowns, gauze, respirators, and other vital materials" to China the same day the WHO warned about "the limited stock of PPE (personal protective equipment)".[183]

In February, the Department of Commerce published guidance advising U.S. firms on compliance with Beijing's fast-track process for the sale of "critical medical products", which required the masks shipped overseas meet U.S. regulatory standards.[186][187] According to Chinese customs disclosures, more than 600 tons of face masks were shipped to China in February.[188]

In early March, the country had about twelve million N95 masks and thirty million surgical masks in the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS), but the DHS estimated the stockpile had only 1.2% of the roughly 3.5 billion masks that would be needed if COVID-19 were to become a "full-blown" pandemic.[189] A previous 2015 CDC study found that seven billion N95 respirators might be necessary to handle a "severe respiratory outbreak".[190]

As of March, the SNS had more than 19,000 ventilators (16,660 immediately available and 2,425 in maintenance), all of which dated from previous administrations.[191] Vessel manifests maintained by U.S. Customs and Border Protection showed a steady flow of the medical equipment needed to treat the coronavirus being shipped abroad as recently as March 17. Meanwhile FEMA said the agency "has not actively encouraged or discouraged U.S. companies from exporting overseas" and asked USAID to send back its reserves of protective gear for use in the U.S.[192][193] President Trump evoked the Defense Production Act to prohibit some medical exports.[194] Some analysts warned that export restrictions could cause retaliation from countries that have medical supplies the United States needs to import.[195]

May 21: President Trump traveled to the Ford Rawsonville Components Plant in Ypsilanti, Michigan to tour the factory where ventilators were being produced.

By the end of March, states were in a bidding war against each other and the federal government for scarce medical supplies such as N95 masks, surgical masks, and ventilators.[196][197][22] Meanwhile, as states scrambled to purchase supplies at inflated prices from third party distributors (some of which later turned out to be defective), hundreds of tons of medical-grade face masks were shipped by air freight to foreign buyers in China and other countries.[188]

Medical organizations such as the American Medical Association and American Nurses Association implored Trump to obtain medical supplies, because they were "urgently needed".[198][199] That led President Trump to sign an order setting motion parts of the Defense Production Act, first used during the Korean War, to allow the federal government a wide range of powers, including telling industries on what to produce, allocating supplies, giving incentives to industries, and allowing companies to cooperate.[200][201] Trump then ordered auto manufacturer General Motors to make ventilators.[23]

During this period, hospitals in the U.S. and other countries were reporting shortages of test kits, test swabs, masks, gowns, and gloves (collectively referred to as PPE.)[202][203][204] The Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released a report regarding their March 23–27 survey of 323 hospitals. The hospitals reported "severe shortages of testing supplies", "frequently waiting 7 days or longer for test results", which extended the length of patient stays, and as a result, "strained bed availability, personal protective equipment (PPE) supplies, and staffing". The hospitals also reported, "widespread shortages of PPE" and "changing and sometimes inconsistent guidance from federal, state and local authorities".[205] At a press briefing following the release of the report President Trump called the report "wrong" and questioned the motives of the author. Later he called the report "another fake dossier".[206]

In early April, there was a widespread shortage of PPE, including masks, gloves, gowns, and sanitizing products.[207] The difficulties in acquiring PPE for local hospitals led to orders for gowns and other safety items being confiscated by FEMA and diverted to other locations, which meant that in some cases states had to compete for the same PPE.[208] The shortages led in one instance of a governor asking the New England Patriots of the NFL to use their private plane to fly approximately 1.2 million masks from China to Boston.[209] At that time, Veterans Affairs (VA) employees said nurses were having to use surgical masks and face shields instead of more protective N95 masks.[210] In May, Rick Bright, a federal immunologist and whistleblower, testified that the federal government had not taken proper action to acquire the needed supplies.[188]

An unexpectedly high percentage of COVID-19 patients in the ICU required dialysis as a result of kidney failure, about 20%.[211] In mid-April, employees at some hospitals in New York City reported not having enough dialysis machines, were running low on fluids to operate the machines, and reported a shortage of dialysis nurses as many were out sick with COVID-19 due to lack of sufficient PPE.[211][212][213]

On May 14, a Trump administration official told reporters "we do anticipate having 300 million" N95 masks by autumn; however, at the end of September, there were only 87.6 million N95 masks in the government stockpile.[214]

Supply problems persisted in August 2020, when a survey reported 42% of nurses were experiencing widespread or intermittent shortages of personal protective equipment, with 60% using single-use equipment for five or more days.[215] A September report by National Public Radio found some items were in short supply but others widely available, depending on the difficulty of manufacturing.[216] The DPA was effective in producing ventilators but less so in producing N95s. As of September, the DPA had stimulated N95 production mainly by existing major manufacturers and less so by smaller companies. Additionally, the DPA's provision that exempts manufacturers from antitrust laws had not yet been used to encourage collaboration in N95 production.[217]

In response to demand, a number of domestic businesses retooled and due to lack of federal coordination ended up producing a glut of hand sanitizer and face shields, some losing money due to the oversupply. The federal government used the Defense Production Act to get a small number of large manufacturers such as 3M and Honeywell to increase production of the more difficult to manufacture N95 masks, but supply was still falling hundreds of millions of units short of demand. NPR found the shortage could be resolved by providing government guarantees to small and medium-sized manufacturers so they could increase production of N95 masks without the risk of losing money or going out of business due to oversupply or drop in demand when the pandemic ends. Instead, President Trump has denied the PPE shortages exist, calling them "fake news" in April[218] and in September saying "we've opened up factories, we've had tremendous success with face masks and with shields".[216] Demand has also increased since the early weeks of the pandemic as various industries reopened, including medical and dental offices, construction, and trucking.[219] The 2020 California wildfires also increased demand for N95 masks for agricultural and other outdoor workers, due to state regulations requiring protection during poor air quality conditions.[220]

The San Diego-based hospital ship Mercy arrived in Los Angeles in late March to help treat non-coronavirus patients

Exceeded hospital capacity

Uncontrolled community spread led some medical facilities to refuse new patients or start transferring patients out. In March and April, this happened in the Detroit, Michigan area[221] and New York City area;[222] Yakima, Washington in June;[223] and in July it happened in Houston,[224] the Boise, Idaho area,[225] Lake Charles and Lafayette, Louisiana,[226] and at dozens of hospitals across Florida.[227] By August, some hospitals in Mississippi were transferring patients out of state.[228]

Arizona declared crisis standards of care in July 2020, allowing hospitals to legally provide treatment normally considered substandard to some patients in order to save others.[229]

In January 2021, Southern California hospitals began to be overwhelmed with patients. Officials in Los Angeles County, where some ambulances had to wait up to eight hours to discharge patients at emergency rooms, ordered EMTs not to bring a patient to the hospital if that patient had little chance of survival. They also directed crews to take measures to conserve medical oxygen.[230]

A testing team responds to a confirmed case in a nursing home in Charleston, West Virginia

Federal, state, and local governments

The federal government of the United States responded to the pandemic with various declarations of emergency, which resulted in travel and entry restrictions. They also imposed guidelines and recommendations regarding the closure of schools and public meeting places, lockdowns, and other restrictions intended to slow the progression of the virus, which state, territorial, tribal, and local governments have followed.

Effective July 15, 2020, the default data centralization point for COVID-19 data in the U.S. is switching from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to Department of Health and Human Services.[231][232][233] However, "hospitals may be relieved from reporting directly to the Federal Government if they receive a written release from the State stating the State will collect the data from the hospitals and take over Federal reporting."[231]

Military

On February 3, an unclassified Army briefing document on the coronavirus projected that in an unlikely "black swan" scenario, "between 80,000 and 150,000 could die." The theory correctly stated that asymptomatic people could "easily" transmit the virus, a belief that was presented as outside medical consensus at the time of the briefing. The briefing also stated that military forces could be tasked with providing logistics and medical support to civilians, including "provid[ing] PPE (N-95 Face Mask, Eye Protection, and Gloves) to evacuees, staff, and DoD personnel".[234][235]

USNS Comfort, docked in Manhattan
The members of the Florida National Guard support Feed Tampa Bay in their efforts to distribute food to the local community

In mid-March, the government began having the military add its health care capacity to impacted areas. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), under the authority of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), leased private buildings nationwide. They included hotels, college dormitories, and larger open buildings, which were converted into temporary hospitals. The Jacob K. Javits Convention Center in New York City was quickly transformed into a 2,000-bed care facility on March 23, 2020.[236] The Army also set up field hospitals in various affected cities.[237]

Some of these facilities had ICUs for COVID-19 patients, while others served non-coronavirus patients to allow established hospitals to concentrate on the pandemic.[238][237] At the height of this effort, U.S. Northern Command had deployed nine thousand military medical personnel.[237]

On March 18, in addition to the many popup hospitals nationwide, the Navy deployed two hospital ships, USNS Mercy and USNS Comfort, which were planned to accept non-coronavirus patients transferred from land-based hospitals, so those hospitals could concentrate on virus cases.[239] On March 29, citing reduction in on-shore medical capabilities and the closure of facilities at the Port of Miami to new patients, the U.S. Coast Guard required ships carrying more than fifty people to prepare to care for sick people on board.[240][241]

On April 6, the Army announced that basic training would be postponed for new recruits. Recruits already in training would continue what the Army is calling "social-distanced-enabled training".[242] However, the military, in general, remained ready for any contingency in a COVID-19 environment. By April 9, nearly 2,000 service members had confirmed cases of COVID-19.[243]

In April, the Army made plans to resume collective training.[244] Social distancing of soldiers is in place during training, assemblies,[245] and transport between locations.[246] Temperatures of the soldiers are taken at identified intervals, and measures are taken to immediately remediate affected soldiers.[247][248][249][250]

On June 26, 2020, the VA reported 20,509 cases of COVID-19 and 1,573 deaths among patients, plus more than two thousand cases and 38 deaths among its own employees.[251] As of July 2020, additional Reserve personnel are on 'prepare-to-deploy orders' to Texas and California.[237]

Private sector

Many janitors and other cleaners throughout the United States reported that they were not given adequate time, resources or training to clean and to disinfect institutions for COVID-19. One pilot reported that less than ten minutes was allotted to clean entire airplanes between arrival and departure, which did not allow cleaners to disinfect the tray tables and bathrooms, for which the practice was to wipe down only those that "[look] dirty." Cleaning cloths and wipes were reused, and disinfecting agents, such as bleach, were not provided. Employees also complained that they were not informed if coworkers tested positive for the virus. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the federal agency that regulates workplace safety and health, investigated a small fraction of these complaints. Mary Kay Henry, president of Service Employees International Union, which represents 375,000 American custodians, explained that "reopenings happened across the country without much thoughtfulness for cleaning standards." She urged better government standards and a certification system.[252]

Public response

Partisan divide

Polling showed a significant partisan divide regarding the outbreak.[253] In February, similar numbers of Democrats and Republicans believed COVID-19 was "a real threat": 70% and 72%, respectively. By mid-March, 76% of Democrats viewed COVID-19 as "a real threat", while only 40% of Republicans agreed.[254] In mid-March, various polls found Democrats were more likely than Republicans to believe "the worst was yet to come" (79% to 40%), to believe their lives would change in a major way due to the outbreak (56% to 26%),[255] and to take certain precautions against the virus (83% to 53%).[256] The CDC was the most trusted source of information about the outbreak (85%), followed by the WHO (77%), state and local government officials (70-71%), the news media (47%), and President Trump (46%).[256]

Political analysts anticipated that the pandemic would negatively affect Trump's chances of re-election.[257][258] In March 2020, when social distancing practices began, the governors of many states experienced sharp gains in approval ratings.[259] Trump's approval rating increased from 44% to 49% in Gallup polls,[260] but it fell to 43% by mid-April. At that time, Pew Research polls indicated that 65% of Americans felt Trump was too slow in taking major steps to respond to the pandemic.[261]

On April 16, Pew Research polls indicated that 32% of Americans worried state governments would take too long to re-allow public activities, while 66% feared the state restrictions would be lifted too quickly.[262] An April 21 poll found a 44% approval rate for the president's handling of the pandemic, compared to 72% approval for state governors.[263] A mid-April poll estimated that President Trump was a source of information on the pandemic for 28% of Americans, while state or local governments were a source for 50% of Americans. 60% of Americans felt Trump was not listening enough to health experts in dealing with the outbreak.[264][265]

A May 2020 poll concluded that 54% of people in the U.S. felt the federal government was doing a poor job in stopping the spread of COVID-19 in the country. 57% felt the federal government was not doing enough to address the limited availability of COVID-19 testing. 58% felt the federal government was not doing enough to prevent a second wave of COVID-19 cases later in 2020.[266] A poll conducted from May 20 and 21 found that 56% of the American public were "very" concerned about "false or misleading information being communicated about coronavirus", while 30% were "somewhat" concerned. 56% of Democrats said the top source of false or misleading information about the coronavirus was the Trump administration, while 54% of Republicans felt the media was the top source of false or misleading information. The same poll found that 44% of Republicans and 19% of Democrats believed a debunked conspiracy theory that Bill Gates was plotting to use a COVID-19 vaccine to inject microchips into the population.[267]

Studies using GPS location data and surveys found that Republicans engaged in less social distancing than Democrats during the pandemic.[268][269] Controlling for relevant factors, Republican governors were slower to implement social distance policies than Democratic governors.[270]

Protests

Beginning in mid-April 2020, there were protests in several U.S. states against government-imposed lockdowns in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.[271][272] The protests, mostly organized by conservative groups and individuals,[273][274] decried the economic and social impact of stay-at-home orders, business closures, and restricted personal movement and association, and demanded that their respective states be "re-opened" for normal business and personal activity.[275]

The protests made international news[276][277] and were widely condemned as unsafe and ill-advised.[278] They ranged in size from a few hundred people to a few thousand, and spread on social media with encouragement from U.S. President Donald Trump.[279]

By May 1, there had been demonstrations in more than half of the states; many governors began to take steps to lift the restrictions as daily new infections began decreasing due to social distancing measures.[280]
An anti-lockdown protester wearing a face mask at the Ohio Statehouse in April 2020[281]

Starting in late May, large-scale protests against police brutality in at least 200 U.S. cities in response to the killing of George Floyd raised concerns of a resurgence of the virus due to the close proximity of protesters.[282] Fauci said it could be a "perfect set-up for the spread of the virus",[283] and that "masks can help, but it's masks plus physical separation."[284] One study found an increase in cases,[285] while the Associated Press reported that there is little evidence for such an assertion.[286]

International views of the United States

In September 2020, Pew Research Center found that the global image of the United States had suffered in many foreign nations. In some nations, the United States' favorability rating had reached a record low since Pew began collecting this data nearly 20 years ago. Across 13 different nations, a median of 15% of respondents rated the U.S. response to the COVID-19 pandemic positively.[287]

Other

The outbreak prompted calls for the United States to adopt social policies common in other wealthy countries, including universal health care, universal child care, paid sick leave, and higher levels of funding for public health.[288][289][290]

Challenges

The American cultural values of individualism and skepticism of government have created difficulties in getting the population to abide by public health directives.[291] The prevalence of pandemic fatigue has resulted in further noncompliance.[292][293]

Conspiracy theories and misinformation reached millions of Americans through social media and television commentary.[294] As a result, many people believe falsehoods, for example, that wearing masks is dangerous, that a global syndicate planned the virus, or that COVID-19 is a hoax.[294][295] Facebook announced that it had labeled or deleted 179 million user posts containing COVID-19 misinformation during the first three quarters of 2020.[296] President Trump has repeatedly broadcast misinformation to downplay the threat of the virus and to deflect criticism of the administration's response.[297] Trump has asserted that he does this to "show calm", stating "I don't want to create a panic."[298]

Impacts

Economic

Sign reading "we'll get thru this"
Marquee at a closed music venue in Washington, D.C.

The pandemic, along with the resultant stock market crash and other impacts, led a recession in the United States following the economic cycle peak in February 2020.[299] The economy contracted 4.8 percent from January through March 2020,[300] and the unemployment rate rose to 14.7 percent in April.[301] The total healthcare costs of treating the epidemic could be anywhere from $34 billion to $251 billion according to analysis presented by The New York Times.[302] A study by economists Austan Goolsbee and Chad Syverson indicated that most economic impact due to consumer behavior changes was prior to mandated lockdowns.[303] During the second quarter of 2020, the U.S. economy suffered its largest drop on record, with GDP falling at an annualized rate of 32.9%. As of June 2020, the U.S. economy was over 10% smaller than it was in December 2019.[304]

President Trump and Airline CEOs discuss COVID-19's impact on the travel industry on March 4, 2020

In September, Bain & Company reported on the tumultuous changes in consumer behavior before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Potentially permanently, they found acceleration towards e-commerce, online primary healthcare, livestreamed gym workouts, and moviegoing via subscription television. Concurrent searches for both low-cost and premium products, and a shift to safety over sustainability, occurred alongside rescinded bans and taxes on single-use plastics, and losses of three to seven years of gains in out-of-home foodservice.[305] OpenTable estimated in May that 25% of American restaurants would close their doors permanently.[306]

The economic impact and mass unemployment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has raised fears of a mass eviction crisis,[307][308][309][310] with an analysis by the Aspen Institute indicating 30–40 million are at risk for eviction by the end of 2020.[311][312] According to a report by Yelp, about 60% of U.S. businesses that have closed since the start of the pandemic will stay shut permanently.[313]

Impact of the pandemic on various economic variables
Variable Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov
Jobs, level (000s)[314] 152,463 151,090 130,303 133,002 137,802 139,582 140,914 141,720 142,373 142,629
Jobs, monthly change (000s)[314] 251 −1,373 −20,787 2,699 4,800 1,780 1,371 661 653 256
Unemployment rate %[315] 3.5% 4.4% 14.7% 13.3% 11.1% 10.2% 8.4% 7.9% 6.9% 6.7%
Number unemployed (millions)[316] 5.8 7.1 23.1 21.0 17.8 16.3 13.6 12.6 11.1 10.7
Employment to population ratio %, age 25-54[317] 80.5% 79.6% 69.7% 71.4% 73.5% 73.8% 75.3% 75.0% 76.0% 76.0%
Inflation rate % (CPI-All)[318] 2.3% 1.5% 0.4% 0.2% 0.7% 1.0% TBD TBD TBD TBD
Stock market S&P 500 (avg. level)[319] 3,277 2,652 2,762 2,920 3,105 3,230 3,392 3,380 3,270 3,694
Debt held by public ($ trillion)[320] 17.4 17.7 19.1 19.9 20.5 20.6 20.8 21.0 21.2 21.3

Rural communities

In May, daily infection and death rates were still higher per capita in densely populated cities and suburbs, but were increasing faster in rural counties. Of the 25 counties with the highest per capita case rates in May, 20 had a meatpacking plant or prison where the virus was able to spread unchecked.[321] By July, rural communities with populations less than 50,000 had some of the highest rates of new daily cases per capita. Factors contributing to the spread of COVID-19 in these communities are high rates of obesity[322][dubious ], the relatively high numbers of elderly residents, immigrant laborers with shared living conditions and meat-processing plants.[323]

Social

The pandemic has had far-reaching consequences beyond the disease itself and efforts to contain it, including political, cultural, and social implications.

Disproportionate numbers of cases have been observed among Black and Latino populations,[28][29][30] and there were reported incidents of xenophobia and racism against Asian Americans.[31] Of four studies published in September 2020, three found clear disparities due to race and the fourth found slightly better survival rates for Hispanics and Blacks.[324] As of September 15, 2020, Blacks had COVID-19 mortality rates more than twice as high as the rate for Whites and Asians, who have the lowest rates.[325] CNN reported in May 2020 that the Navajo Nation had the highest rate of infection in the United States.[326] Additionally, a study published by the New England Journal of Medicine in July 2020 revealed that the effect of stress and weathering on minority groups decreases their stamina against COVID.[327]

From 2019 to the first half of 2020, in the United States, the life expectancy of a white person decreased 0.8 years; a Hispanic person, 1.9 years; and a Black person, 2.7 years.[12] The COVID Tracking Project[328] published data revealing that people of color were contracting and dying from COVID-19 at higher rates than Whites. An NPR analysis of April–September 2020 data from the COVID Tracking Project found that Black people's share of COVID-19 deaths across the United States was 1.5 times greater (and, in some states, 2.5 times greater) than their share of the U.S. population. Similarly, Hispanics and Latinos were disproportionately infected in 45 states and had a disproportionate share of the deaths in 19 states. Native American and Alaskan Native cases and deaths were disproportionally high in at least 21 states and, in some, as much as 5 times more than average. White non-Hispanics died at a lower rate than their share of the population in 36 states and D.C.[329]

By April 2020, closed schools affected more than 55 million students.[330]

Elections

The pandemic prompted calls from voting rights groups and some Democratic Party leaders to expand mail-in voting, while Republican leaders generally opposed the change. Some states were unable to agree on changes, resulting in lawsuits. Responding to Democratic proposals for nationwide mail-in voting as part of a coronavirus relief law, President Trump said, "you'd never have a Republican elected in this country again" despite evidence the change would not favor any particular group.[331] Trump called mail-in voting "corrupt" and said voters should be required to show up in person, even though, as reporters pointed out, he had himself voted by mail in the last Florida primary.[332] Though mail-in vote fraud is slightly higher than in-person voter fraud, both instances are rare, and mail-in voting can be made more secure by disallowing third parties to collect ballots and providing free drop-off locations or prepaid postage.[333]

High COVID-19 fatalities at the state and county level correlated with a drop in expressed support for the election of Republicans, including the reelection of President Trump, according to a study published in Science Advances that compared opinions in January–February 2020 with opinions in June 2020.[334]

Preparations made after previous outbreaks

The United States has been subjected to pandemics and epidemics throughout its history, including the 1918 Spanish flu, the 1957 Asian flu, and the 1968 Hong Kong flu pandemics.[335][336][337] In the most recent pandemic prior to COVID-19, the 2009 swine flu pandemic took the lives of more than 12,000 Americans and hospitalized another 270,000 over the course of approximately a year.[335]

According to the Global Health Security Index, an American-British assessment which ranks the health security capabilities in 195 countries, the U.S. in 2020 was the "most prepared" nation.[338][339]

Statistics

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A lack of mass testing obscured the extent of the outbreak.[18]
  2. ^ The earliest deaths were not known to be caused by COVID-19 until April.
  3. ^ Examples of areas in which clusters have occurred include urban areas, nursing homes, long-term care facilities, group homes for the intellectually disabled,[32] detention centers (including prisons), meatpacking plants, churches, and navy ships.[33]
  4. ^ This chart only includes lab-confirmed cases and deaths. Not all states report recoveries. Data for the current day may be incomplete.
  5. ^ The editorial board for The Wall Street Journal suggested the world may have been "better prepared" had the PHEIC been declared a week sooner, when the virus had spread to other countries.[46]
  6. ^ In a news release, Sean Conley, physician to President Trump, incorrectly identified Regeneron's monoclonal antibody product as polyclonal.[88]

References

  1. ^ Sheikh, Knvul; Rabin, Roni Caryn (March 10, 2020). "The Coronavirus: What Scientists Have Learned So Far". The New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
  2. ^ "Coronavirus: the first three months as it happened". Nature. April 22, 2020. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00154-w. PMID 32152592. S2CID 212652777.
  3. ^ a b c d Holshue, Michelle L.; DeBolt, Chas; Lindquist, Scott; Lofy, Kathy H.; Wiesman, John; Bruce, Hollianne; Spitters, Christopher; Ericson, Keith; Wilkerson, Sara; Tural, Ahmet; Diaz, George; Cohn, Amanda; Fox, LeAnne; Patel, Anita; Gerber, Susan I.; Kim, Lindsay; Tong, Suxiang; Lu, Xiaoyan; Lindstrom, Steve; Pallansch, Mark A.; Weldon, William C.; Biggs, Holly M.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Pillai, Satish K. (March 5, 2020). "First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States". New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (10): 929–936. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001191. PMC 7092802. PMID 32004427.
  4. ^ "Second Travel-related Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Detected in United States". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Second Travel-related Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Detected in United States: The patient returned to the U.S. from Wuhan on January 13, 2020
  5. ^ a b "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Cases in U.S." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated, one day after other sources.
  6. ^ a b c "Coronavirus COVID-19 (2019-nCoV)" (ArcGIS). Johns Hopkins CSSE. Frequently updated.
  7. ^ "Our Data". The COVID Tracking Project. Frequently updated.
  8. ^ "U.S. recovered COVID-19 cases". Worldometer. Frequently updated.
  9. ^ "Mortality Analyses". Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  10. ^ "The U.S. COVID-19 death toll now exceeds 406,000. That's more than the number of Americans who died in WWII". USA Today. January 19, 2021. Retrieved January 30, 2021.
  11. ^ Stobbe, Mike (December 21, 2020). "US deaths in 2020 top 3 million, by far most ever counted". Associated Press. Retrieved December 22, 2020.
  12. ^ a b Marchione, Marilynn (February 18, 2021). "U.S. Life Expectancy Drops A Year In Pandemic, Most Since WWII". HuffPost. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  13. ^ Aubrey, Allison (January 31, 2020). "Trump Declares Coronavirus A Public Health Emergency And Restricts Travel From China". NPR. Retrieved March 18, 2020. 'Foreign nationals other than immediate family of U.S. citizens and permanent residents who have traveled in China in the last 14 days will be denied entry into United States,' Azar said.
  14. ^ a b Robertson, Lori (April 15, 2020). "Trump's Snowballing China Travel Claim". FactCheck.org. Retrieved April 29, 2020. ... effective February 2.
  15. ^ Lemire, Jonathan; Miller, Zeke; Colvin, Jill; Alonso-Zaldivar, Ricardo (April 12, 2020). "Signs missed and steps slowed in Trump's pandemic response". Associated Press. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  16. ^ Pilkington, Ed; McCarthy, Tom (March 28, 2020). "The missing six weeks: how Trump failed the biggest test of his life". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
  17. ^ Ollstein, Alice Miranda (April 14, 2020). "Trump halts funding to World Health Organization". Politico. ISSN 2381-1595. Wikidata Q104180080. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  18. ^ Whoriskey, Peter; Satija, Neena (March 16, 2020). "How U.S. coronavirus testing stalled: Flawed tests, red tape and resistance to using the millions of tests produced by the WHO". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
  19. ^ a b Moon, Sarah (April 24, 2020). "A seemingly healthy woman's sudden death is now the first known US coronavirus-related fatality". CNN. Retrieved May 25, 2020.
  20. ^ "Trump signs emergency coronavirus package, injecting $8.3 billion into efforts to fight the outbreak". Business Insider. March 6, 2020.
  21. ^ Liptak, Kevin (March 13, 2020). "Trump declares national emergency—and denies responsibility for coronavirus testing failures". CNN. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  22. ^ a b Biesecker, Michael (April 7, 2020). "US 'wasted' months before preparing for coronavirus pandemic". Associated Press. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
  23. ^ a b Watson, Kathryn (March 27, 2020). "Trump invokes Defense Production Act to require GM to produce ventilators". CBS News. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
  24. ^ Paige Winfield Cunningham; Paulina Firozi. "The Health 202: The Trump administration is eyeing a new testing strategy for coronavirus, Anthony Fauci says". The Washington Post.
  25. ^ "COVID-19 Cases Are Skyrocketing, But Deaths Are Flat—So Far. These 5 Charts Explain Why". Time. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  26. ^ Maan, Anurag (October 31, 2020). "U.S. reports world record of more than 100,000 COVID-19 cases in single day". Reuters. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  27. ^ a b Deb, Sopan; Cacciola, Scott; Stein, Marc (March 11, 2020). "Sports Leagues Bar Fans and Cancel Games Amid Coronavirus Outbreak". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 12, 2020.
  28. ^ a b Godoy, Maria (May 30, 2020). "What Do Coronavirus Racial Disparities Look Like State By State?". NPR.
  29. ^ a b Karson, Kendall; Scanlan, Quinn (May 22, 2020). "Black Americans and Latinos nearly 3 times as likely to know someone who died of COVID-19: Poll". ABC News.
  30. ^ a b "States tracking COVID-19 race and ethnicity data". American Medical Association. July 28, 2020. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  31. ^ a b Tavernise, Sabrina; Oppel Jr, Richard A. (March 23, 2020). "Spit On, Yelled At, Attacked: Chinese-Americans Fear for Their Safety". The New York Times. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
  32. ^ "COVID-19 Infections And Deaths Are Higher Among Those With Intellectual Disabilities". NPR.org.
  33. ^ "U.S. Navy Policies Battling COVID-19 Rely Heavily On Isolation". NPR.org.
  34. ^ Margolin, Josh; Meek, James Gordon (April 8, 2020). "Intelligence report warned of coronavirus crisis as early as November: Sources". ABC News. Retrieved December 6, 2020.
  35. ^ Diaz, Jaclyn (December 1, 2020). "Coronavirus Was In U.S. Weeks Earlier Than Previously Known, Study Says". NPR.org. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
  36. ^ a b c Farber, Madeline (January 28, 2020). "China spurned CDC offer to send a team to help contain coronavirus: US Health Secretary". Fox News.
  37. ^ a b "The Trump administration was slow to recognize coronavirus threat from Europe, CDC director admits". CNN. July 28, 2020.
  38. ^ "Coronavirus in Context: CDC Director Discusses Next Steps in the War Against COVID". WebMD. August 12, 2020.
  39. ^ "Outbreak of Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology (PUE) in Wuhan, China". CDC.gov. January 8, 2020.
  40. ^ Beaumont, Peter; Borger, Julian (April 9, 2020). "WHO warned of transmission risk in January, despite Trump claims". The Guardian. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  41. ^ Kuo, Lily (January 21, 2020). "China confirms human-to-human transmission of coronavirus". The Guardian. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
  42. ^ "CDC Emergency Operations Center Activations". CDC. January 20, 2020.
  43. ^ "Timeline: WHO's COVID-19 response". World Health Organization. Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  44. ^ Boseley, Sarah (January 30, 2020). "WHO declares coronavirus a global health emergency". The Guardian. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  45. ^ Kennedy, Merrit (January 30, 2020). "WHO Declares Coronavirus Outbreak A Global Health Emergency". NPR. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
  46. ^ "World Health Coronavirus Disinformation". The Wall Street Journal. April 5, 2020. Archived from the original on April 9, 2020. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  47. ^ Wayland, Michael (January 30, 2020). "Trump says coronavirus outbreak is 'all under control' and a 'very small problem' in US". CNBC (NBCUniversal). Retrieved September 11, 2020.
  48. ^ a b "US declares public health emergency from coronavirus". The Boston Globe. February 1, 2020.
  49. ^ Diamond, Dan (January 28, 2021). "U.S. handling of American evacuees from Wuhan increased coronavirus risks, watchdog finds". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 7, 2021. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  50. ^ Debolt, David (April 25, 2020). "29 people had flu-like symptoms when they died in Santa Clara County. Nine tested positive for coronavirus". The Mercury News. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  51. ^ Melinek, Judy (May 1, 2020). "When Did COVID-19 Arrive and Could We Have Spotted It Earlier?". MedPage Today. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
  52. ^ Taylor, Marisa (March 23, 2020). "Exclusive: U.S. axed CDC expert job in China months before virus outbreak". Reuters. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
  53. ^ Anne Schuchat (May 1, 2020). "Public Health Response to the Initiation and Spread of Pandemic COVID-19 in the United States, February 24 – April 21, 2020". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 69 (18): 551–556. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6918e2. PMC 7737947. PMID 32379733.
  54. ^ Santucci J (February 27, 2020). "What we know about the White House coronavirus task force now that Mike Pence is in charge". USA Today (Gannett). Retrieved November 26, 2020.
  55. ^ "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Summary". CDC. March 7, 2020. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
  56. ^ "Coronavirus Has Become a Pandemic, W.H.O. Says". The New York Times. March 11, 2020.
  57. ^ "Dr. Anthony Fauci addresses COVID-19 mortality rate". C-SPAN.org. March 11, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  58. ^ Taylor, Adam; Armus, Teo (March 11, 2020). "Live updates: As U.S. coronavirus cases top 1,000, mixed signs of recovery in China, South Korea". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
  59. ^ Liptak, Kevin (March 16, 2020). "White House advises public to avoid groups of more than 10, asks people to stay away from bars and restaurants". CNN. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
  60. ^ "Global Level 4 Health Advisory—Do Not Travel". travel.state.gov.
  61. ^ "The 4 Key Reasons the U.S. Is So Behind on Coronavirus Testing". The Atlantic. March 15, 2020.
  62. ^ "They were supposed to build stages for Coachella. Now they're building coronavirus triage tents". Los Angeles Times. March 30, 2020.
  63. ^ "Field hospitals built around the globe as coronavirus pandemic spreads". ABC News. April 4, 2020.
  64. ^ "Connecticut National Guard Sets Up Temporary Hospitals Amid Coronavirus Pandemic". NBC. April 1, 2020.
  65. ^ Norwood, Candace (April 3, 2020). "Most states have issued stay-at-home orders, but enforcement varies widely". PBS. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
  66. ^ Chan, Christine; Shumaker, Lisa; Maler, Sandra (March 28, 2020). "Confirmed coronavirus cases in U.S. reach 100,000: Reuters tally". Reuters. Retrieved March 28, 2020.
  67. ^ "Trump wants masks on all nursing home workers, temperature checks for all, and separate COVID-19 units". McKnight's Long-term Care News. April 3, 2020.
  68. ^ "U.S. coronavirus deaths top 20,000, highest in world exceeding Italy: Reuters tally". Reuters. April 11, 2020. Retrieved May 1, 2020.
  69. ^ "Trump Administration Announces New Nursing Homes COVID-19 Transparency Effort". Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. April 19, 2020.
  70. ^ Steve Almasy; Christina Maxouris; Nicole Chavez. "US coronavirus cases surpass 1 million and the death toll is greater than US losses in Vietnam War". CNN. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  71. ^ Marc Fisher (May 27, 2020). "U.S. coronavirus death toll surpasses 100,000, exposing nation's vulnerabilities". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
  72. ^ Antonia Noori Farzan; et al. (June 11, 2020). "U.S. surpasses 2 million coronavirus cases". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
  73. ^ Andrew Joseph (July 21, 2020). "Actual Covid-19 case count could be 6 to 24 times higher than official estimates, CDC study shows". statnews. Stat. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  74. ^ Havers, Fiona P.; Reed, Carrie; Lim, Travis; Montgomery, Joel M.; et al. (December 1, 2020). "Seroprevalence of Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in 10 Sites in the United States, March 23-May 12, 2020". JAMA Internal Medicine. 180 (12): 1576. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4130. ISSN 2168-6106. PMID 32692365.
  75. ^ "Briefing on the U.S. Government's Next Steps With Regard to Withdrawal From the World Health Organization". US Department of State. September 2, 2020. Retrieved November 26, 2020.
  76. ^ Craft, Diane (August 8, 2020). "U.S. sets record as coronavirus cases top 5 million". Reuters. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  77. ^ "COVID-19 Pandemic Planning Scenarios" (PDF). CDC. July 10, 2020. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  78. ^ Durkee, Alison (July 24, 2020). "Medical Experts Tell Government: 'Shut It Down Now, And Start Over'". Forbes (Forbes Media). Retrieved July 25, 2020.
  79. ^ Editorial Board (August 8, 2020). "America Could Control the Pandemic by October. Let's Get to It". The New York Times. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
  80. ^ Rivers C, Martin E, Watson C, Schoch-Spana M, Cicero A, Inglesby T (2020). "Resetting Our Response: Changes Needed in the US Approach to COVID-19". Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. and Benito, Marcelino (July 23, 2020). "Back to normal by October? Dr. Hotez sends the White House a national, unified coronavirus plan". KHOU-TV. and Osterholm, Michael T.; Kashkari, Neel (August 7, 2020). "Here's How to Crush the Virus Until Vaccines Arrive". The New York Times. and Slavitt, Andy (August 4, 2020). "Joe Biden is the national reset we need on COVID-19, but he's more than 75,000 lives away". USA Today (Gannett). and Branswell, Helen (August 10, 2020). "Winter is coming: Why America's window of opportunity to beat back Covid-19 is closing". STAT. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
  81. ^ Walker, Mark; Healy, Jack (November 6, 2020). "A Motorcycle Rally in a Pandemic? 'We Kind of Knew What Was Going to Happen'". The New York Times. Retrieved November 7, 2020.
  82. ^ Firestone MJ, Wienkes H, Garfin J, et al. (November 20, 2020). "COVID-19 Outbreak Associated with a 10-Day Motorcycle Rally in a Neighboring State — Minnesota, August–September 2020". MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. CDC (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 69 (47): 1771–1776. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6947e1. PMID 33237891. S2CID 227176504.
  83. ^ Bill Chappell (September 22, 2020). "'Enormous And Tragic': U.S. Has Lost More Than 200,000 People To COVID-19". NPR. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
  84. ^ Haberman, Maggie; Shear, Michael D. (October 1, 2020). "Trump Says He'll Begin 'Quarantine Process' After Hope Hicks Tests Positive for Coronavirus". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  85. ^ a b Moreno, J. Edward (October 2, 2020). "White House wanted to keep Hope Hicks's positive COVID-19 test private: report". TheHill. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  86. ^ Dawsey, Josh; Itkowitz, Colby. "Trump says he and first lady have tested positive for coronavirus". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved October 2, 2020.
  87. ^ Manke, Kara (October 6, 2020). "Trump's COVID-19 treatments suggest severe illness, UC Berkeley expert says". UC Berkeley News. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  88. ^ "Memorandum From Trump's Doctor on COVID-19 Treatment". US News & World Report. Associated Press. October 2, 2020. Retrieved October 8, 2020. and Cohen, Jon (October 5, 2020). "Update: Here's what is known about Trump's COVID-19 treatment". Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science). Retrieved October 8, 2020.
  89. ^ Kevin Liptak. "Trump taken to Walter Reed medical center and will be hospitalized 'for the next few days'". CNN. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  90. ^ Eunjung Cha, Ariana and Amy Goldstein (October 5, 2020). "Prospect of Trump's early hospital discharge mystifies doctors". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  91. ^ Mansfield, Erin; Salman, Josh; Voyles Pulver, Dinah (October 22, 2020). "Trump's campaign made stops nationwide. Coronavirus cases surged in his wake in at least five places". USA Today (Gannett). Retrieved October 26, 2020.
  92. ^ Facher, Lev (November 9, 2020). "Biden transition team unveils members of Covid-19 task force". Stat. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  93. ^ Wang, Christine (November 9, 2020). "U.S. coronavirus cases cross 10 million as outbreaks spike across the nation". CNBC. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  94. ^ "10 Million People Have Tested Positive for Coronavirus in the United States". Time. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  95. ^ "Pfizer says COVID-19 vaccine is looking 90% effective". AP NEWS. November 9, 2020. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  96. ^ Thomas, Katie; Gelles, David; Zimmer, Carl (November 9, 2020). "Pfizer's Early Data Shows Vaccine Is More Than 90% Effective". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  97. ^ Alonso-Zalidivar, Ricardo (November 12, 2020). "Feds announce COVID-19 vaccine agreement with drug stores". Associated Press. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  98. ^ O'Brien, Matt (November 23, 2020). "Many Americans flying for Thanksgiving despite CDC pleas". masslive. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
  99. ^ Bacon, John; Aspegren, Elinor; Hauck, Grace (December 8, 2020). "Coronavirus updates: Joe Biden pledges to deliver 100M doses in 100 days; US reaches 15M infections; Ohio-State Michigan football game off". USA Today. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  100. ^ Kelleher, Suzanne Rowan. "TSA Is Seeing An Alarming Post-Thanksgiving Covid-19 Spike". Forbes. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  101. ^ Yan, Holly (December 14, 2020). "Covid-19 now kills more than 1 American every minute. And the rate keeps accelerating as the death toll tops 300,000". CNN. Retrieved December 14, 2020.
  102. ^ Murphy, Mike (December 24, 2020). "U.S. to require all air passengers arriving from U.K. to test negative for COVID-19". MarketWatch. Retrieved December 24, 2020.
  103. ^ Tufekci, Zeynep (December 31, 2020). "The Mutated Virus Is a Ticking Time Bomb". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
  104. ^ "US reports its first known case of new UK Covid variant". The Guardian. December 29, 2020. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  105. ^ The Straits Times staff (December 30, 2020). "Kamala Harris vaccinated on camera, urges public to trust process". The Straits Times. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
  106. ^ Bekiempis, Victoria (December 21, 2020). "'I'm ready': Joe Biden receives coronavirus vaccine live on TV". The Guardian. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
  107. ^ Aratani, Lauren (December 18, 2020). "Mike Pence receives Covid-19 vaccine on live TV: 'I didn't feel a thing'". The Guardian. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
  108. ^ Cohen, Li (January 1, 2021). "U.S. surpasses 20 million cases of coronavirus on first day of 2021". CBS News. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  109. ^ Lim, David (January 1, 2021). "U.S. coronavirus cases eclipse 20 million". Politico. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  110. ^ Nedelman, Michael (January 6, 2021). "CDC has found more than 50 US cases of coronavirus variant first identified in UK". CNN. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  111. ^ Reimann, Nicholas (January 8, 2021). "'Close To A Worst-Case Scenario'—Former CDC Director Issues 'Horrifying' Outlook For New Covid Strain". Forbes. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  112. ^ Geddes, Linda; Holpuch, Amanda (January 1, 2021). "New coronavirus variant may have been in US since October". The Guardian. Retrieved February 4, 2021.
  113. ^ a b c Villegas, Paulina; Chason, Rachel; Knowles, Hannah (January 8, 2021). "Storming of Capitol was textbook potential coronavirus superspreader, experts say". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 8, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  114. ^ Bonfiglio, Nahila (January 6, 2021). "Baked Alaska attends far-right election protest despite recent COVID-19 diagnosis". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on January 9, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  115. ^ a b Paulina Firozi, Amy B Wang & Mike DeBonis (January 10, 2021). "Lawmakers may have been exposed to the coronavirus in Capitol lockdown, attending physician says". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  116. ^ Ray, Siladitya (January 7, 2021). "Kansas Rep. Jake LaTurner Tests Positive For Covid-19 Hours After House Vote". Forbes. Archived from the original on January 13, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  117. ^ Hillyard, Vaughn (January 10, 2021). "Capitol physician says members in lockdown may have been exposed to occupant with Covid". MSNBC.com. Archived from the original on January 10, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  118. ^ Diaz, Daniella (January 14, 2021). "Democratic Rep. Adriano Espaillat tests positive for Covid-19". CNN. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  119. ^ Stone, Will (January 19, 2021). "As Death Rate Accelerates, U.S. Records 400,000 Lives Lost To The Coronavirus". NPR. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  120. ^ Tompkins, Lucy (January 22, 2021). "U.S. coronavirus cases top 25 million". The New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  121. ^ Achenbach, Joel (January 25, 2021). "First U.S. case of highly transmissible Brazil coronavirus variant identified in Minnesota". The Washington Post. USA. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  122. ^ Chappell, Bill (January 28, 2021). "South Carolina Reports 1st Known U.S. Cases Of Variant From South Africa". NPR News. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  123. ^ Huang, Pien (February 22, 2021). "'A Loss To The Whole Society': U.S. COVID-19 Death Toll Reaches 500,000". NPR. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  124. ^ Maxouris, Christina; Yan, Holly; Vera, Amir (February 23, 2021). "Coronavirus variant will likely drive a new wave of transmission come spring, some experts say". CNN. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  125. ^ "Trump offers to send health experts to China to help with coronavirus outbreak". The Hill. January 28, 2020.
  126. ^ a b c "C.D.C. and W.H.O. Offers to Help China Have Been Ignored for Weeks". The New York Times. February 7, 2020.
  127. ^ "U.S. announces aid for China, other countries impacted by coronavirus". Reuters. February 7, 2020.
  128. ^ Bobby Allyn (February 8, 2020). "China's Coronavirus Death Toll Surpasses SARS Pandemic". NPR. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  129. ^ Cohen, Jon (March 6, 2020). "Quarantined at home now, U.S. scientist describes his visit to China's hot zone". Science. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  130. ^ Kupferschmidt, Kai; Cohen, Jon (March 2, 2020). "China's aggressive measures have slowed the coronavirus. They may not work in other countries". Science. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  131. ^ "Boeing donating 250,000 medical masks to battle coronavirus in China". KOMO-TV. January 29, 2020.
  132. ^ "The United States Announces Assistance To Combat the Novel Coronavirus". U.S. Dept. of State. February 7, 2020.
  133. ^ Guzman J (February 7, 2020). "US pledges $100 million to help fight coronavirus in China". TheHill. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
  134. ^ Hollie McKay (February 28, 2020). "Coronavirus in Iran prompts US to extend olive branch amid claim country's death toll far higher than reported". Fox News. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  135. ^ Robin Wright (February 28, 2020). "How Iran Became a New Epicenter of the Coronavirus Outbreak". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  136. ^ "Coronavirus: Iran and the US trade blame over sanctions". BBC News. April 17, 2020. Retrieved September 22, 2020.
  137. ^ "Chinese Covid-19 Tests Were Pushed by Federal Agencies Despite Security Warnings". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 13, 2021.
  138. ^ "US warned Nevada not to use Chinese COVID tests from UAE". Associated Press. Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  139. ^ "Contact tracing may help avoid another lockdown. Can it work in the U.S.?". May 29, 2020.
  140. ^ Cunningham, Paige Winfield (June 15, 2020). "Analysis | The Health 202: U.S. isn't ready for the contact tracing it needs to stem the coronavirus" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  141. ^ "New Contact Tracing Apps Need Access To Users' Private Data To Control Spread Of COVID-19". sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com. July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  142. ^ Commissioner, Office of the (October 22, 2020). "FDA Approves First Treatment for COVID-19". FDA. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
  143. ^ Commissioner, Office of the (November 23, 2020). "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Drug Combination for Treatment of COVID-19". FDA. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
  144. ^ a b "U.S. Moves to Expand Array of Drug Therapies Deployed Against Coronavirus". The Wall Street Journal. March 19, 2020.
  145. ^ Braun, Elisa (March 30, 2020). "In France, controversial doctor stirs coronavirus debate". Politico. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  146. ^ Villarreal, Daniel (April 10, 2020). "Hydroxychloroquine trial gets French president's attention as 460,000 sign petition supporting treatment". Newsweek. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  147. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: Daily Roundup March 30, 2020". FDA. March 30, 2020. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  148. ^ Koppock, Kristen (March 13, 2020). "FDA Announces Two Drugs Given 'Compassionate Use' Status in Treating COVID-19". Pharmacy Times. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  149. ^ Wise, Justin (March 30, 2020). "FDA issues emergency-use authorization for anti-malaria drugs amid coronavirus outbreak". The Hill. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  150. ^ Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and (June 26, 2020). "FDA cautions against use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for COVID-19 outside of the hospital setting or a clinical trial due to risk of heart rhythm problems". FDA – via www.fda.gov.
  151. ^ Ben Gittleson; Jordyn Phelps; Libby Cathey (July 28, 2020). "Trump doubles down on defense of hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19 despite efficacy concerns". ABC. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  152. ^ a b CDC (March 28, 2020). "COVID Data Tracker". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  153. ^ "COVID-19 (coronavirus) vaccine: Get the facts". Mayo Clinic. April 22, 2020.
  154. ^ a b Gottlieb, Scott (April 26, 2020). "America Needs to Win the Coronavirus Vaccine Race". The Wall Street Journal.
  155. ^ Sanger, David E.; Kirkpatrick, David D.; Wee, Sui-Lee; Bennhold, Katrin (March 19, 2020). "Search for Coronavirus Vaccine Becomes a Global Competition". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  156. ^ "Guide to the Cares Act". United States Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
  157. ^ Gutierrez, Gabe; Seidman, Joel (March 21, 2020). "Walter Reed researchers join global search for coronavirus vaccine". NBC News. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  158. ^ De Paoli, Lucca (April 26, 2020). "Bill Gates's Coronavirus Vaccine Could Be Ready in 12 Months". Bloomberg News. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  159. ^ "Johnson & Johnson reaches deal with U.S. for 100 million doses of coronavirus vaccine at more than $1 billion". CNBC. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
  160. ^ LaFraniere, Sharon; Weiland, Noah (October 5, 2020). "White House Blocks New Coronavirus Vaccine Guidelines". The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  161. ^ Armstrong, Drew; LaVito, Angelica (October 6, 2020). "FDA Sets Goals That May Put Vaccine Out of Reach Before Election". Bloomberg News.
  162. ^ Zimmer, Carl (October 6, 2020). "The F.D.A. has released stricter guidelines for vaccine developers after a holdup at White House". The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  163. ^ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug Administration: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (June 2020). "Development and Licensure of Vaccines to Prevent COVID-19 Guidance for Industry". FDA. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  164. ^ Corum, Jonathan; Wee, Sui-Lee; Zimmer, Carl (October 2020). "Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker". The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  165. ^ "Pfizer and BioNTech to Submit Emergency Use Authorization Request Today to the U.S. FDA for COVID-19 Vaccine". Pfizer (Press release). November 20, 2020. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
  166. ^ Park A (November 20, 2020). "Exclusive: Pfizer CEO Discusses Submitting the First COVID-19 Vaccine Clearance Request to the FDA". Time. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
  167. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Announces Advisory Committee Meeting to Discuss COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). Retrieved November 20, 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  168. ^ "Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee December 10, 2020 Meeting Announcement". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  169. ^ "FDA Takes Key Action in Fight Against COVID-19 By Issuing Emergency Use Authorization for First COVID-19 Vaccine" (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). December 11, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  170. ^ Oliver SE, Gargano JW, Marin M, Wallace M, Curran KG, Chamberland M, et al. (December 2020). "The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' Interim Recommendation for Use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine - United States, December 2020" (PDF). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 69 (50): 1922–24. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6950e2. PMC 7745957. PMID 33332292.
  171. ^ Thomas, Katie; LaFraniere, Sharon; Weiland, Noah; Goodnough, Abby; Haberman, Maggie (December 12, 2020). "F.D.A. Clears Pfizer Vaccine, and Millions of Doses Will Be Shipped Right Away". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 12, 2020.
  172. ^ Maxouris, Christina (December 12, 2020). "FDA's Covid-19 vaccine authorization is a 'monumental moment,' expert says. It came on the deadliest day of the pandemic". CNN. Retrieved December 12, 2020.
  173. ^ Stanley-Becker I, Abutaleb Y, Sun LH, Dawsey J (December 17, 2020). "States report confusion as government reduces vaccine shipments, while Pfizer says it has 'millions' of unclaimed doses". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  174. ^ ""We are not perfect": General apologizes for "miscommunication" over vaccine shipments". Axios. December 19, 2020. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  175. ^ "FDA Takes Additional Action in Fight Against COVID-19 By Issuing Emergency Use Authorization for Second COVID-19 Vaccine". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). Retrieved December 18, 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  176. ^ Oliver SE, Gargano JW, Marin M, Wallace M, Curran KG, Chamberland M, et al. (December 2020). "The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' Interim Recommendation for Use of Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine — United States, December 2020" (PDF). MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 69 (5152): 1653–1656. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm695152e1. PMID 33382675. S2CID 229945697.
  177. ^ "Moderna Applies for Emergency F.D.A. Approval for Its Coronavirus Vaccine". The New York Times. November 30, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  178. ^ "Moderna Announces Primary Efficacy Analysis in Phase 3 COVE Study for Its COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate and Filing Today with U.S. FDA for Emergency Use Authorization". Moderna, Inc. (Press release). November 30, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  179. ^ Lovelace Jr., Berkeley (December 19, 2020). "FDA approves second Covid vaccine for emergency use as it clears Moderna's for U.S. distribution". CNBC. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  180. ^ "Trump Administration purchases additional 100 million doses of COVID-19 investigational vaccine from Moderna". U.S. Health and Human Services (HHS). December 11, 2020. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  181. ^ Health (February 19, 2021). "At least 42.5 million people have received one or both doses of the vaccine in the U.S." The Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2021.
  182. ^ Marsh, Jenni; Jessie Yeung, Amy Woodyatt, Melissa Mahtani and Michael Hayes (February 14, 2021). "More than 50 million vaccine doses administered in the US, according to CDC". CNN. Retrieved February 14, 2021.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  183. ^ a b Obeidallah, Dean (March 30, 2020). "Trump administration sent protective medical gear to China while he minimized the virus threat to US". CNN.
  184. ^ Davis, Aaron C. (May 9, 2020). "In the early days of the pandemic, the U.S. government turned down an offer to manufacture millions of N95 masks in America". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
  185. ^ Smalley, Suzanne (March 27, 2020). "Senator says White House turned down emergency coronavirus funding in early February". news.yahoo.com.
  186. ^ "Commerce's COVID Service Flyer". The Washington Post.
  187. ^ "U.S. sent millions of face masks to China early this year, ignoring pandemic warning signs". The Washington Post. April 18, 2020.
  188. ^ a b c Fang, Lee (June 29, 2020). "The Airline Industry Blocked Disclosure of Trade Data, Helping Conceal the Airlift of N95 masks from the US to China". The Intercept.
  189. ^ Lovelace Jr., Berkeley (March 4, 2020). "HHS clarifies US has about 1% of face masks needed for 'full-blown' coronavirus pandemic". CNBC. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
  190. ^ Akpan, Nsikan (March 3, 2020). "U.S. has only a fraction of the medical supplies it needs to combat coronavirus". National Geographic. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
  191. ^ Gore, D'Angelo (June 22, 2020). "Trump Inherited More Ventilators Than Have Been Distributed". FactCheck.org. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  192. ^ "Pence taskforce freezes coronavirus aid amid backlash". Politico.
  193. ^ "Key Medical Supplies Exported From U.S. to Foreign Buyers". Theintercept.com. April 1, 2020. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
  194. ^ "3M Says White House's Request to Stop Exporting Masks Would Reduce U.S. Supplies". Time. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
  195. ^ "Borders Didn't Stop The Pandemic. But They Might Block The Trade Of Medical Goods". NPR.org.
  196. ^ Forgey, Quint; Choi, Matthew (March 27, 2020). "Trump downplays need for ventilators as New York begs to differ". Politico. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  197. ^ "The Ventilator Shortage That Wasn't". National Review. April 17, 2020. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
  198. ^ Naughton, Hailey; Naughton, Keith (March 22, 2020). "Trump Baffles Ford, GM Over Ventilators They're Willing to Make". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on March 23, 2020. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
  199. ^ O'Reilly, Kevin (March 31, 2020). "Why stronger federal leadership is needed to buy, distribute PPE". American Medical Association. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  200. ^ Vazquez, Maegan (March 18, 2020). "Trump invokes Defense Production Act to expand production of hospital masks and more". CNN. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
  201. ^ Rizzo, Salvador (March 25, 2020). "Is Trump using the Defense Production Act?". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
  202. ^ Diamond, Dan (March 21, 2020). "Short-term thinking plagues Trump's coronavirus response". Politico. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
  203. ^ Adamczyk, Ed (March 27, 2020). "U.S. mayors say they're running out of supplies to fight coronavirus". United Press International. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  204. ^ Mccammon, Sarah. "Hospitals Reject Trump's Claim They Are 'Really Thrilled' With Supplies". NPR. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
  205. ^ Grimm, Christi. "Hospital Experiences Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results of a National Pulse Survey March 23–27, 2020" (PDF). Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  206. ^ Robertson, Lori (April 7, 2020). "The HHS Inspector General Report". Factcheck.org. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  207. ^ Balmes, John R. (April 2, 2020). "Mask shortages are outrageous. The federal government needs to do better". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 4, 2020.
  208. ^ Levey, Noam (April 7, 2020). "Hospitals say feds are seizing masks and other coronavirus supplies without a word". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 12, 2020. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  209. ^ Asiamah, Nancy (April 3, 2020). "3 million masks ordered by Massachusetts were seized at Port of NY in March". WWLP 22 News. Boston, Massachusetts. Archived from the original on April 12, 2020. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  210. ^ Rein, Lisa (April 25, 2020). "VA health chief acknowledges a shortage of protective gear for its hospital workers". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 25, 2020. Retrieved April 27, 2020.
  211. ^ a b "U.S. races to stock up on dialysis supplies as kidney failure ravages virus patients". Politico.
  212. ^ Abelson, Reed; Fink, Sheri; Kulish, Nicholas; Thomas, Katie (April 18, 2020). "An Overlooked, Possibly Fatal Coronavirus Crisis: A Dire Need for Kidney Dialysis" – via NYTimes.com.
  213. ^ "Doctors at Hard-Hit Hospitals Say They're Facing Shortage Of Dialysis Equipment". NPR.org.
  214. ^ Nazaryan, Alexander (September 29, 2020). "Trump promised 300 million N95 masks by September. He isn't even close". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  215. ^ News, Bloomberg (September 1, 2020). "Nurses Say They're Short on Masks, Other Protection Supplies—BNN Bloomberg". BNN.
  216. ^ a b "NPR Probes Why Personal Protective Equipment Is Still In Short Supply". NPR.org.
  217. ^ Contrera, Jessica (September 21, 2020). "The N95 shortage America can't seem to fix". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
  218. ^ "Trump called PPE shortages 'fake news.' Health care workers say they're still a real problem". POLITICO.
  219. ^ Raymond, Adam K. (July 9, 2020). "Why Is There Still a PPE Shortage?". Intelligencer.
  220. ^ Doubek, James (September 14, 2020). "Wildfires Make Dangerous Air For Farmworkers: 'It's Like You Can't Breathe'". NPR.org.
  221. ^ "Henry Ford Health reaches capacity at 2 hospitals for COVID-19 patients". FOX 2 Detroit. March 25, 2020.
  222. ^ Rosenthal, Brian M. (July 21, 2020). "This Hospital Cost $52 Million. It Treated 79 Virus Patients" – via NYTimes.com.
  223. ^ "As Coronavirus Cases Surge, NPR Examines Hospital Capacity". NPR.org.
  224. ^ News, Charles Ornstein, ProPublica and Mike Hixenbaugh, NBC (July 10, 2020). "Houston hospitals are increasingly turning away new patients as coronavirus overwhelms emergency rooms". The Texas Tribune.
  225. ^ "In Idaho, One Of The Last States Hit By The Coronavirus, Cases Are Now Surging". NPR.org.
  226. ^ "Coronavirus Pushes Some Hospitals In Southern Louisiana To The Brink". NPR.org.
  227. ^ Gan, Nectar; Renton, Adam; Macaya, Melissa; Wagner, Meg; Hayes, Mike (July 29, 2020). "At least 54 hospitals have reached ICU capacity in Florida". CNN.
  228. ^ Shapiro, Ari; Pao, Maureen (August 3, 2020). "Mississippi On Track To Become No. 1 State For New Coronavirus Cases Per Capita". NPR.org. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  229. ^ Confair, Denelle (July 2, 2020). "Arizona under 'Crisis Standards of Care'; triage protocols in place". KVOA.com.
  230. ^ Chang, Ailsa (January 5, 2021). "'Things Are Worse Than People Think': LA County Official On New Directives For EMS". NPR.org. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
  231. ^ a b "HHS (March 2020) COVID-19 Guidance for Hospital Reporting and FAQs For Hospitals, Hospital Laboratory, and Acute Care Facility Data Reporting—Updated July 10, 2020" (PDF).
  232. ^ Feuer, Will (July 16, 2020). "Coronavirus data has already disappeared after Trump administration shifted control from CDC".
  233. ^ Whelan, Robbie (August 11, 2020). "Covid-19 Data Reporting System Gets Off to Rocky Start". They pulled it away from CDC because it was updated three times a week, and now they update it once a week. ... HHS's estimated patient impact and hospital-capacity statistics, for example, weren't updated between August 3 and August 10.
  234. ^ James LaPorta; Spencer Ackerman (April 3, 2020). "Army Warned in Early February That Coronavirus Could Kill 150,000 Americans". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 12, 2020.
  235. ^ "PHC-P EMBLs shift gears to fight COVID-19". www.army.mil. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  236. ^ "N.Y.'s Javits Center to Add 2,000 Beds to System Under Strain". Bloomberg L.P. March 23, 2020. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  237. ^ a b c d Brading, Thomas (July 16, 2020). "'Verge of collapsing': Soldiers describe the initial fight against COVID-19". Army News Service.
  238. ^ Srinivasan, Balaji S. (March 23, 2020). "Ok. It's just one clip. But it's by far the most intelligent thing I've heard any government official say in the last few months. Further increases likelihood the military will take over COVID-19 response in the near future". twitter.com/usarmy. Retrieved March 24, 2020.[non-primary source needed]
  239. ^ "Hospital Ships, Other DOD Assets Prepare for Coronavirus Response". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved March 19, 2020.
  240. ^ Chappell, Bill (April 1, 2020). "Coast Guard Tells Cruise Ships With COVID-19 Cases To Stay Away From U.S. Ports". NPR. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  241. ^ "Marine Safety Information Bulletin 01-20" (PDF). March 29, 2020.
  242. ^ "U.S. Army Delays New Recruits' Basic Training Due To Coronavirus". NPR. April 6, 2020.
  243. ^ "'Terrible, Tragic Mistake:' Top General Warns Enemies Not to Test US Military Readiness". Military.com. April 9, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  244. ^ Kimmons, Sean (April 30, 2020). "Army finalizing plan to resume collective training". Army News Service. Washington: United States Army. Archived from the original on June 26, 2020. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  245. ^ "Fort Report Soldiers PCS During COVID-19". U.S. Army Fort Huachuca. April 2020. Permanent Change of Station (PCS)
  246. ^ Williams, Thom (April 20, 2020). "Soldier graduates to their new duty stations". U.S. Army Intelligence Center of Excellence travel from Fort Huachuca, Arizona.
  247. ^ Harris, Audricia (April 26, 2020). "Statement from the Secretary of the Army on West Point graduation".
  248. ^ Schmitt, Eric; Karni, Annie (April 24, 2020). "Trump Speech to Bring 1,000 West Point Cadets Back to Campus". Archived from the original on April 24, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  249. ^ Baldor, Lolita C. (April 30, 2020). "Army defends decision to have West Point graduation". Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 3, 2020. 1000 First Classmen divided into five cohorts, and quarantine physically separated before the graduation
  250. ^ OConnor, Brandon (May 20, 2020). "Plans in place to safely welcome Class of 2020 back to West Point". Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  251. ^ Shane, Leo (June 26, 2020). "Grim COVID-19 milestones for Veterans Affairs: 20,000 cases, 1,500 deaths in the last 100 days". Militarytimes.com. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  252. ^ Kantor, Jodi (July 17, 2020). "No Bleach and Dirty Rags: How Some Janitors Are Asked to Keep You Virus Free". The New York Times.
  253. ^ Aleem, Zeeshan (March 15, 2020). "A new poll shows a startling partisan divide on the dangers of the coronavirus". Vox.
  254. ^ Allyn, Bobby; Sprunt, Barbara (March 17, 2020). "Poll: As Coronavirus Spreads, Fewer Americans See Pandemic As A Real Threat". NPR. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
  255. ^ Murray, Mark (March 15, 2020). "Sixty percent believe worst is yet to come for the U.S. in coronavirus pandemic; Public attitudes about the coronavirus response are split along partisan lines in a new NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll". NBC News.
  256. ^ a b Weissmann, Jordan (March 17, 2020). "Democrats Are Being Much, Much More Careful About the Coronavirus Than Republicans". Slate.
  257. ^ Haberman, Maggie; Martin, Jonathan (March 12, 2020). "Trump's Re-election Chances Suddenly Look Shakier". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
  258. ^ Lowrey, Annie (April 3, 2020). "The Economy Is Collapsing. So Are Trump's Reelection Chances". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  259. ^ Gabriel, Trip; Lerer, Lisa (March 31, 2020). "Who Are the Voters Behind Trump's Higher Approval Rating?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
  260. ^ Jones, Jeffrey M. (March 24, 2020). "President Trump's Job Approval Rating Up to 49%". Gallup. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
  261. ^ Rummler, Orion (April 17, 2020). "Gallup: Trump's approval rating takes its steepest drop". Axios. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
  262. ^ Coleman, Justine (April 16, 2020). "Two-thirds of Americans worry states will lift restrictions on public activity too quickly: poll". The Hill. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
  263. ^ "Most rate Trump's coronavirus response negatively and expect crowds will be unsafe until summer, Post-U. Md. poll finds". The Washington Post. April 21, 2020.
  264. ^ Pace, Julie; Fingerhut, Hannah (April 24, 2020). "AP-NORC poll: Few Americans trust Trump's info on pandemic". Associated Press. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  265. ^ "Assessing the President as an Information Source on the Coronavirus Outbreak". NORC at the University of Chicago. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  266. ^ Agiesta, Jennifer (May 12, 2020). "CNN Poll: Negative ratings for government handling of coronavirus persist". CNN. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  267. ^ Romano, Andrew (May 22, 2020). "New Yahoo News/YouGov poll shows coronavirus conspiracy theories spreading on the right may hamper vaccine efforts". Yahoo News. Retrieved May 25, 2020.
  268. ^ Allcott, Hunt; Boxell, Levi; Conway, Jacob; Gentzkow, Matthew; Thaler, Michael; Yang, David (August 6, 2020). "Polarization and Public Health: Partisan Differences in Social Distancing during the Coronavirus Pandemic". Journal of Public Economics. 191: 104254. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2020.104254. ISSN 0047-2727. PMC 7409721. PMID 32836504.
  269. ^ Grossman, Guy; Kim, Soojong; Rexer, Jonah M.; Thirumurthy, Harsha (September 29, 2020). "Political partisanship influences behavioral responses to governors' recommendations for COVID-19 prevention in the United States". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117 (39): 24144–24153. doi:10.1073/pnas.2007835117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7533884. PMID 32934147. S2CID 221747080.
  270. ^ Adolph, Christopher; Amano, Kenya; Bang-Jensen, Bree; Fullman, Nancy; Wilkerson, John (2020). "Pandemic Politics: Timing State-Level Social Distancing Responses to COVID-19". Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. doi:10.1215/03616878-8802162. PMID 32955556.
  271. ^ "Coronavirus: Anti-Lockdown Protests Grow Across US". BBC News. 17 April 2020. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  272. ^ Andone, Dakin (April 17, 2020). "Protests Are Popping Up Across the US over Stay-at-Home Restrictions". CNN. Archived from the original on May 2, 2020. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  273. ^ "How Trump allies have organized and promoted anti-lockdown protests". Reuters. April 22, 2020. Archived from the original on April 23, 2020. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
  274. ^ Wilson, Jason (April 17, 2020). "The rightwing groups behind wave of protests against Covid-19 restrictions". The Guardian. Archived from the original on April 18, 2020. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  275. ^ Siegler, Kirk (April 18, 2020). "Across America, Frustrated Protesters Rally To Reopen The Economy". NPR. Archived from the original on April 22, 2020. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
  276. ^ "Coronavirus: Anti-Lockdown Protests Grow Across US". US & Canada. BBC News. April 17, 2020. Archived from the original on April 17, 2020. Retrieved April 17, 2020.
  277. ^ Vogel, Kenneth P.; Rutenberg, Jim; Lerer, Lisa (April 21, 2020). "The Quiet Hand of Conservative Groups in the Anti-Lockdown Protests". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 22, 2020. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
  278. ^ "Michigan Militia Puts Armed Protest in the Spotlight". The New York Times. Associated Press. May 2, 2020. Archived from the original on May 5, 2020. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  279. ^ Gearan, Anne; Wagner, John (May 1, 2020). "Trump expresses support for angry anti-shutdown protesters as more states lift coronavirus lockdowns". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 2, 2020. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  280. ^ Budryk, Zack (May 3, 2020). "Governors, experts await results of reopening states as protests continue". The Hill. Archived from the original on May 10, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
  281. ^ Rouan, Rick (April 20, 2020). "Protesters at Statehouse demand state reopen as DeWine announces schools to remain closed". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  282. ^ "Protests could cause catastrophic setback for controlling coronavirus, experts say". NBC News. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  283. ^ Meek, Andy (June 7, 2020). "Dr. Fauci is worried that protestors may be spreading coronavirus". BGR.
  284. ^ "Fauci underscores concerns about protests spreading coronavirus". The Hill. June 10, 2020.
  285. ^ Valentine R, Valentine D, Valentine JL (August 5, 2020). "Relationship of George Floyd protests to increases in COVID-19 cases using event study methodology". Journal of Public Health, Fdaa127. 42 (4): 696–697. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdaa127. PMC 7454741. PMID 32756893.
  286. ^ Stobbe, Mike and Forester, Nicky (July 2, 2020). "Experts see little evidence that George Floyd protests spread coronavirus in U.S." San Jose Mercury News. Associated Press. Retrieved November 20, 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  287. ^ Wike, Richard; Fetterolf, Janell; Mordecai, Mara (September 15, 2020). "U.S. Image Plummets Internationally as Most Say Country Has Handled Coronavirus Badly". Pew Research Center. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  288. ^ Miller, Claire Cain (April 10, 2020). "Could the Pandemic Wind Up Fixing What's Broken About Work in America?". The New York Times. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  289. ^ Swanson, Ian (May 2, 2020). "Five ways the coronavirus could change American politics". TheHill. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  290. ^ "America's botched response to the coronavirus is a problem bigger than Donald Trump". The Boston Globe.
  291. ^ Fukuyama, Francis (July 5, 2020). "Transcripts: Fareed Zakaria GPS". CNN (Cable News Network: Warner Media). Retrieved November 28, 2020.
  292. ^ World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe (2020). "Pandemic fatigue: reinvigorating the public to prevent COVID-19: policy considerations for Member States in the WHO European Region". World Health Organization. hdl:10665/335820.
  293. ^ Meichtry, Stacy; Sugden, Joanna; Barnett, Andrew (October 26, 2020). "Pandemic Fatigue Is Real—And It's Spreading". The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones). Retrieved November 28, 2020.
  294. ^ a b Goodman, Jack and Carmichael, Flora (November 21, 2020). "The coronavirus pandemic 'great reset' theory and a false vaccine claim debunked". BBC. Retrieved November 21, 2020.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  295. ^ "Fact check: COVID-19 is not a hoax to eliminate Trump". Reuters. November 12, 2020. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
  296. ^ Wagner, Kurt (November 19, 2020). "Facebook Labeled 167 Million User Posts for Covid Misinformation". Bloomberg News. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
  297. ^ Paz, Christian (November 2, 2020). "All the President's Lies About the Coronavirus". The Atlantic. Retrieved November 22, 2020.
  298. ^ Wise, Alana (September 9, 2020). "Trump Admits Playing Down Coronavirus's Severity, According To New Woodward Book". NPR. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
  299. ^ "Determination of the February 2020 Peak in US Economic Activity". June 8, 2020 – via NBER.org.
  300. ^ Long, Heather (April 29, 2020). "U.S. economy shrank 4.8 percent in first quarter, the biggest decline since the Great Recession". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 29, 2020.
  301. ^ Long, Heather (May 8, 2020). "U.S. unemployment rate soars to 14.7 percent, the worst since the Depression era". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
  302. ^ Abelson, Reed (March 28, 2020). "Coronavirus May Add Billions to the Nation's Health Care Bill". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2020.
  303. ^ Goolsbee, Austan (June 18, 2020). "Fear, Lockdown, and Diversion: Comparing Drivers of Pandemic Economic Decline 2020". bfi.uchicago.edu. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  304. ^ Tapee, Annekan (July 31, 2020). "US economy posts its worst drop on record". cnn.com. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  305. ^ Faelli F, Rovit S, Apps C, Johns L (September 23, 2020). "Shaping the Consumer of the Future". Bain & Company. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  306. ^ Rummler, Orion (May 14, 2020). "OpenTable forecasts 25% of U.S. restaurants to shutter permanently". Axios Media. Retrieved October 4, 2020.
  307. ^ "43 million Americans at risk of eviction as relief programs and moratorium expire: "It's a nightmare"". CBS News. July 31, 2020.
  308. ^ "32% of Americans had outstanding housing payments at the beginning of August". CNBC. August 6, 2020.
  309. ^ "'A Homeless Pandemic' Looms As 30 Million Are At Risk Of Eviction". NPR. August 10, 2020.
  310. ^ Ivanova, Irina (November 27, 2020). "Nearly 19 million Americans could lose their homes when eviction limits expire Dec. 31". CBS News. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  311. ^ "As Stimulus Talks Stalemate, New Report Finds 40 Million Americans Could Be At Risk Of Eviction". Forbes. August 7, 2020.
  312. ^ "Millions of Americans at risk of eviction after moratorium expired". Fox News. August 12, 2020.
  313. ^ "Yelp data shows 60% of business closures due to the coronavirus pandemic are now permanent". CNBC. September 16, 2020.
  314. ^ a b U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (January 1, 1939). "All Employees: Total Nonfarm Payrolls". FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  315. ^ U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (January 1, 1948). "Civilian Unemployment Rate". FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  316. ^ U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (January 1, 1948). "Unemployment level". FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  317. ^ U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (January 1, 1948). "Employment-Population Ration 25-54 Yrs". FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  318. ^ U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (January 1, 1947). "Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers: All Items". FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  319. ^ "S&P 500". fred.stlouisfed.org. June 3, 2019. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  320. ^ "The Debt to the Penny and Who Holds It". treasurydirect.gov. June 20, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  321. ^ "A deadly 'checkerboard': Covid-19's new surge across rural America". The Washington Post. May 24, 2020. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  322. ^ "Obesity, Race/Ethnicity, and COVID-19 - Overweight & Obesity". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. October 28, 2020.
  323. ^ "Coronavirus Is Coming for Rural America". July 13, 2020 – via www.bloomberg.com.
  324. ^ Van Beusekom, Mary (September 25, 2020). "Studies spotlight COVID racial health disparities, similarities". CIDRAP - Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, University of Minnesota. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
  325. ^ "The color of coronavirus: COVID-19 deaths by race and ethnicity in the U.S." APM Research Lab: American Public Media. Retrieved September 28, 2020.
  326. ^ Hollie Silverman; Konstantin Toropin; Sara Sidner; Leslie Perrot. "Navajo Nation surpasses New York state for the highest Covid-19 infection rate in the US". CNN. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  327. ^ Chowkwanyun, Merlin; Reed, Adolph L. (July 16, 2020). "Racial Health Disparities and Covid-19 — Caution and Context". New England Journal of Medicine. 383 (3): 201–203. doi:10.1056/NEJMp2012910. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 32374952. S2CID 218534431.
  328. ^ "The COVID Racial Data Tracker". The COVID Tracking Project (The Atlantic Monthly Group). Retrieved September 28, 2020.
  329. ^ Wood, Daniel (September 23, 2020). "As Pandemic Deaths Add Up, Racial Disparities Persist — And In Some Cases Worsen". NPR. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
  330. ^ "Map: Coronavirus and School Closures". Education Week. Editorial Projects in Education. Retrieved April 23, 2020.
  331. ^ Panetta, Grace. "Trump baselessly claimed that expanding voting access would lead to a Republican never being elected in America again". Business Insider.
  332. ^ "Trump defends his mail-in ballot after calling vote-by-mail 'corrupt'". www.msn.com.
  333. ^ "Fact Check: Is Mail Ballot Fraud As Rampant As President Trump Says It Is?". NPR.org.
  334. ^ Warshaw, Christopher; Vavreck, Lynn; Baxter-King, Ryan (October 1, 2020). "Fatalities from COVID-19 are reducing Americans' support for Republicans at every level of federal office". Science Advances. 6 (44): eabd8564. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abd8564. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 7608793. PMID 33127688.
  335. ^ a b Miguel, Ken (February 28, 2020). "Here's a look at some of history's worst pandemics that have killed millions". ABC 7 News. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
  336. ^ Lileks, James (March 18, 2020). "How the news media played down the pandemics of yore, from Spanish flu to Swine flu". Star Tribune. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
  337. ^ Brown, Jeremy (March 3, 2020). "The Coronavirus Is No 1918 Pandemic". The Atlantic. Retrieved March 22, 2020.
  338. ^ "These are the countries best prepared for health emergencies". World Economic Forum. February 12, 2020.
  339. ^ Maizland, Lindsay; Nayeem, Thamine; Kumar, Anu (March 24, 2020). "What a Global Health Survey Found Months Before the Coronavirus Pandemic". Council on Foreign Relations.

External links