Page semi-protected

George Floyd protests

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

George Floyd protests
Part of the Black Lives Matter movement and the 2020 United States racial unrest
Crowd of protesters with signs, including one reading "I Can't Breathe"
Clockwise from top:
Protesters in Minneapolis, Minnesota where George Floyd was killed and the unrest began, police and National Guard at a protest in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, demonstrators and firefighters on a torched street in Minneapolis, Minnesota, protest near the Justice Center in Portland, Oregon, police and National Guard in front of the White House in Washington, D.C., Minnesota State Patrol troopers in formation in front of a burning building in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the Minneapolis Police's 3rd Precinct set ablaze
DateMay 26, 2020 – November 1, 2020
(6 months and 1 week)
Location
Caused by
MethodsProtests, demonstrations, civil disobedience, civil resistance, online activism, strike action, riots
Concessions
given
Deaths, arrests and damages
Death(s)19+ (as of June 8, 2020)[a]
Arrested14,000+[3]
Property damage$500 million in Minneapolis–Saint Paul (mid June)[4]

The George Floyd protests were a series of police brutality protests that began in Minneapolis in the United States on May 26, 2020.[5] Civil unrest and protests began as part of the international responses to the death of George Floyd, a 46-year-old African-American man who was killed during an arrest after Derek Chauvin, a Minneapolis Police Department officer, knelt on Floyd's neck for nearly eight minutes as three other officers looked on and prevented passers-by from intervening.[6][7][8][9][10][11] Chauvin and the other three officers involved were later arrested.[12]

Local protests began in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area of Minnesota before quickly spreading nationwide and to over 2,000 cities and towns in over 60 countries in support of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement.[13][14][15] Polls in summer 2020 estimated that between 15 million and 26 million people had participated at some point in the demonstrations in the United States, making the protests the largest in U.S. history. Protests continued into October and November 2020.[16][17][18]

While the majority of protests have been peaceful,[19] demonstrations in some cities escalated into riots, looting,[20][21] and street skirmishes with police and counter-protesters. Some police responded to protests with instances of police violence, including against reporters.[22][23][24] At least 200 cities in the U.S. had imposed curfews by early June, while more than 30 states and Washington, D.C. activated over 62,000 National Guard personnel due to the mass unrest.[25][26][27] By the end of June, at least 14,000 people had been arrested.[3][28][29] It was later estimated that between May 26 and August 22, 93% of individual protests were "peaceful and nondestructive"[30] and The Washington Post estimated that by the end of June, 96.3% of 7,305 demonstrations involved no injuries and no property damage.[31] Nevertheless, by September 2020, arson, vandalism and looting between May 26 and June 8 were tabulated to have caused $1–2 billion in insured damages nationally—the highest recorded damage from civil disorder in U.S. history, "eclipsing the record set in Los Angeles in 1992 after the acquittal of the police officers who brutalized Rodney King."[32][33]

The protests precipitated a cultural reckoning on racial injustice in the United States and have led to numerous legislative proposals on federal, state and municipal levels intended to combat police misconduct, systemic racism, qualified immunity and police brutality in the United States,[34][35] while the Trump administration has drawn widespread criticism for what critics called its hardline rhetoric and aggressive, militarized response.[36] The protests led to a wave of monument removals and name changes throughout the world. The protests have been ongoing during the global COVID-19 pandemic.[37]

Background

Police brutality in the United States

Frequent cases of police misconduct and fatal use of force by law enforcement officers[38] in the U.S., particularly against African Americans, have long led the civil rights movement and other activists to protest against the lack of police accountability in incidents involving excessive force. Many protests during the civil rights movement were a response to police brutality, including the 1965 Watts riots which resulted in the deaths of 34 people, mostly African Americans.[39] The largest post-civil rights movement protest in the 20th Century was the 1992 Los Angeles riots, which were in response to the acquittal of police officers responsible for excessive force against Rodney King, an African American man.[40]

In 2014, the shooting of Michael Brown by police in Ferguson, Missouri resulted in local protests and unrest while the death of Eric Garner in New York City resulted in numerous national protests. After Eric Garner and George Floyd repeatedly said "I can't breathe" during their arrests, the phrase became a protest slogan against police brutality. In 2015 the death of Freddie Gray in Baltimore police custody resulted in riots in the city and nationwide protests as part of the Black Lives Matter movement.[41] Several nationally publicized incidents occurred in Minnesota, including the 2015 shooting of Jamar Clark in Minneapolis; the 2016 shooting of Philando Castile in Falcon Heights;[42] and the 2017 shooting of Justine Damond. In 2016, Tony Timpa was killed by Dallas police officers in the same way as George Floyd.[43] In March 2020, the fatal shooting of Breonna Taylor by police executing a search warrant at her Kentucky apartment was also widely publicized.[44]

COVID-19 pandemic

Measures taken against the COVID-19 pandemic, including closure of non-essential businesses[45] and implementation of stay-at-home orders,[46] had significant economic and social impact on many Americans as millions had lost their jobs and were made more economically vulnerable.[47]

Killing of George Floyd

Tribute items left at site of death forming a makeshift memorial
Memorial at the site of Floyd's death

According to a police statement, on May 25, 2020, at 8:08 p.m. CDT,[48] Minneapolis Police Department (MPD) officers responded to a 9-1-1 call regarding a "forgery in progress" on Chicago Avenue South in Powderhorn, Minneapolis. MPD Officers Thomas K. Lane and J. Alexander Kueng arrived with their body cameras turned on. A store employee told officers that the man was in a nearby car. Officers approached the car and ordered George Floyd, a 46-year-old African American man, who according to police "appeared to be under the influence", to exit the vehicle, at which point he "physically resisted". According to the MPD, officers "were able to get the suspect into handcuffs, and noted he appeared to be suffering medical distress. Officers called for an ambulance." Once Floyd was handcuffed, he and Officer Lane walked to the sidewalk. Floyd sat on the ground at Officer Lane's direction. In a short conversation, the officer asked Floyd for his name and identification, explaining that he was being arrested for passing counterfeit currency, and asked if he was "on anything". According to the report officers Kueng and Lane attempted to help Floyd to their squad car, but at 8:14 p.m., Floyd stiffened up and fell to the ground. Soon, MPD Officers Derek Chauvin and Tou Thao arrived in a separate squad car. The officers made several more failed attempts to get Floyd into the squad car.[49]

Floyd, who was still handcuffed, went to the ground face down. Officer Kueng held Floyd's back and Lane held his legs. Chauvin placed his left knee in the area of Floyd's head and neck. A Facebook Live livestream recorded by a bystander showed Officer Derek Chauvin kneeling on Floyd's neck.[50][51] Floyd repeatedly tells Chauvin "Please" and "I can't breathe", while a bystander is heard telling the police officer, "You got him down. Let him breathe."[52] After some time, a bystander points out that Floyd was bleeding from his nose while another bystander tells the police that Floyd is "not even resisting arrest right now", to which the police tell the bystanders that Floyd was "talking, he's fine". A bystander replies saying Floyd "ain't fine". A bystander then protests that the police were preventing Floyd from breathing, urging them to "get him off the ground ... You could have put him in the car by now. He's not resisting arrest or nothing."[51] Floyd then goes silent and motionless. Chauvin does not remove his knee until an ambulance arrives. Emergency medical services put Floyd on a stretcher. Not only had Chauvin knelt on Floyd's neck for about seven minutes (including four minutes after Floyd stopped moving) but another video showed an additional two officers had also knelt on Floyd while another officer watched.[53][54]

A George Floyd mural created by protesters in Portland, Oregon

Although the police report stated that medical services were requested prior to the time Floyd was placed in handcuffs,[55] according to the Minneapolis Star Tribune, Emergency Medical Services arrived at the scene six minutes after getting the call.[56] Medics were unable to detect a pulse, and Floyd was pronounced dead at the hospital.[57] An autopsy of Floyd was conducted on May 26, and the next day, the preliminary report by the Hennepin County Medical Examiner's Office was published, which found "no physical findings that support a diagnosis of traumatic asphyxia or strangulation". Floyd's underlying health conditions included coronary artery disease and hypertensive heart disease. The initial report said that "the combined effects of Mr. Floyd being restrained by the police, his underlying health conditions and any potential intoxicants in his system likely contributed to his death."[58] The medical examiner further said Floyd was "high on fentanyl and had recently used methamphetamine at the time of his death".[59]

On June 1, a private autopsy commissioned by the family of Floyd ruled the death a homicide and found that Floyd had died due to asphyxiation from sustained pressure, which conflicted with the original autopsy report done earlier that week.[60] Shortly after, the official post-mortem declared Floyd's death a homicide.[61] Video footage of Officer Derek Chauvin applying 8 minutes 15 seconds of sustained pressure to Floyd's neck generated global attention and raised questions about the use of force by law enforcement.[62]

On May 26, Chauvin and the other three officers were fired.[63] He was charged with third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter;[64] the former charge was later changed to second-degree murder.[65]

Protests

World map showing sites of protests
Map of protests around the world with over 100 participants. Minneapolis-St. Paul is marked in red. (click for a dynamic version of the map)

In Minneapolis–Saint Paul

Organized protests began in Minneapolis on May 26, the day after George Floyd's death and when a video of the incident had circulated widely in the media. By midday, people had gathered by the thousands at the location of Floyd's death and set up a makeshift memorial.[66][67] Organizers of the rally emphasized keeping the protest peaceful.[68] Protesters and Floyd's family demanded that all four officers at the scene of his arrest and death be charged with murder and that judicial consequences were swift.[69][70] That evening, the protest rally turned into a march to the Minneapolis Police Department's third precinct station where the officers were believed to work. After the main protest group disbanded, a small skirmish the night of May 26 resulted in minor property damage at the station and the police firing tear gas at demonstrators.[67][68][71][72]

Protests were held at several locations throughout the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area in subsequent days. The situation escalated the nights of May 27 to 29 where widespread arson, rioting, and looting took place, which were noted as a contrast to daytime protests that were characterized as mostly peaceful events.[72] Some initial acts of property destruction on May 27 by a 32-year-old man with ties to white supremacist organizations, who local police investigators said was deliberately inciting racial tension, led to a chain reaction of fires and looting.[73] The unrest, including people overtaking the Minneapolis third precinct police station and setting it on fire the night of May 28, garnered significant national and international media attention.[71][74] After state officials mobilized Minnesota National Guard troops in its largest deployment since World War II,[75][76] the violent unrest subsided and mostly peaceful protests resumed.[71] However, the violence had resulted in two deaths,[77][78] 617 arrests,[79][80] and upwards of $500 million in property damage to 1,500 locations, making it the second-most destructive period of local unrest in United States history, after the 1992 Los Angeles riots.[81][82][83][80]

Elsewhere in the United States

George Floyd protests arrests reported to the DOJ or FBI as of June 6, 2020

Protests outside the Minneapolis area were first reported on May 27 in Memphis and Los Angeles. It is unclear if demonstrators were reacting to the graphic video of Floyd's death or the culmination of a string of black American deaths, preceded by Ahmaud Arbery in Atlanta on February 23 and Breonna Taylor in Louisville on March 13. By May 28, protests had sprung up in several major U.S. cities with demonstrations increasing each day.[84][85][86] By June, protests had been held in all U.S. states. At least 200 cities had imposed curfews, and at least 27 states and Washington, D.C. activated over 62,000 National Guard personnel in response to the unrest.[87][27]

In Seattle, starting in early June, protesters occupied an area of several city blocks after the police vacated it, declaring it the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone, where according to protesters "the police are forbidden, food is free and documentaries are screened at night". On June 10, President Trump challenged mayor Jenny Durkan and governor Jay Inslee to "take back your city", and implying, according to Durkan, the possibility of a military response.[88][89]

On June 3, as U.S. protests gained momentum, Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey tweeted a recommendation for users to download end-to-end encryption (E2EE) messaging app Signal.[90] On June 6, an estimated half million people joined protests in 550 places in the United States.[17] By June 11, The New York Times reported that protest organizers relied on the E2EE app "to devise action plans and develop strategies for handling possible arrests for several years" and that downloads had "skyrocketed" with increased awareness of police monitoring leading protesters to use the app to communicate among themselves.[91] During the first week of June, the encrypted messaging app was downloaded over five times more than it had been during the week prior to the death of George Floyd. Citizen, a community safety app, also experienced a high spike in downloads.[91]

On June 8, 2020, the police-free Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone was established in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle.

On June 14, an estimated 15,000 people gathered outside the Brooklyn Museum at Grand Army Plaza for the Liberation March, a silent protest in response to police brutality and violence against black transgender women. Frustrated by the lack of media coverage over the deaths of Nina Pop, who was stabbed in Sikeston, Missouri on May 3 and Tony McDade, who was shot by police in Tallahassee, Florida on May 27, artist and drag performer West Dakota and her mentor, drag queen Merrie Cherry, decided to organize a silent rally inspired by the 1917 NAACP Silent Parade.[92][93] The march generated widespread media attention as one of the largest peaceful protests in modern New York City history.[94][95]

On June 19, Juneteenth, the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU) shut down ports on the West Coast in solidarity with protesters. An educator from the University of Washington said that the union has a history of protest and leftist politics since its founding: "[The ILWU] understood that division along the lines of race only benefited employers, because it weakened the efforts of workers to act together and to organize together.[96] The UAW also asked members to join the protests by standing down for 8 minutes and 46 seconds, the amount of time Chauvin was initially reported to have held his knee to Floyd's neck.[97][98]

On June 17, in response to the protests, three different police reform plans, plans from the Republicans, the Democrats, and the White House, were unveiled aiming to curb police brutality and the use of violence by law enforcement.[99] On June 25, NPR reported that the hopes for passage were doubtful because they were "short-circuited by a lack of bipartisan consensus on an ultimate plan [and] the issue is likely stalled, potentially until after the fall election".[100]

Protests continued over the weekend of June 19 in many cities, and observations of Juneteenth gained a new awareness.[15] Jon Batiste, bandleader for The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, took part in a Juneteenth day of protests, marches, rallies and vigils to "celebrate, show solidarity, and fight for equal rights and treatment of Black people" in Brooklyn. Batiste also appeared in concert with Matt Whitaker in a performance presented in partnership with Sing For Hope, performed on the steps of the Brooklyn Public Library.[101]

As of July 3, protests were ongoing.[17] Over the course of the demonstrations, protests have occurred in over 40% of the counties in the United States.[17] Polls suggesting between 15 million and 26 million people participated, which would make these demonstrations the largest in United States history.[17]

On July 20, the Strike for Black Lives, a mass walkout intended to raise awareness of systemic racism, featured thousands of workers across the United States walking off their jobs for approximately 8 minutes, in honor of Floyd.[102]

To mark what would have been Floyd's 47th birthday, groups across the US staged events[103] and celebrities paid tribute to him.[104]

Elsewhere in the world

Protest at Alexanderplatz in Berlin on June 6

Solidarity protests over Floyd's death quickly spread worldwide. Protests in Canada, Europe, Oceania, Asia, and Africa have rallied against what they perceived as racial discrimination and police brutality, with some protests aimed at United States embassies.[105]

Over the weekend of June 7 and 8, surfers around the world held a "Paddle Out", a Hawaiian mourning tradition, for George Floyd and all the lives lost to police violence. Thousands observed the tradition in Honolulu, Hawaii,[106] La Jolla, Hermosa Beach and Santa Monica, California, Galveston, Hackensack, New Jersey, Rockaway Beach, New York,[107] Biarritz, France, Senegal and Australia.[108][109]

End of the Protests

The series of protests individually over the George Floyd incident were said to be over on November 1, 2020. George Floyd however continues to be mentioned alongside other victims of racial abuse as part of the 2020 United States racial unrest.[110]

Activation of non-local forces

Map of US showing National Guard deployments at of June 16
States that activated the National Guard in response to the protests by June 16

State

By June 9, governors in more than 30 states and Washington, D.C. had deployed about 32,000 National Guard members.[25]

Federal

United States President Donald Trump controversially threatened to deploy the U.S. military in response to the unrest. On June 3 he said "If a city or state refuses to take the actions necessary to defend the life and property of their residents, then I will deploy the United States military and quickly solve the problem."[111] This would require invoking the Insurrection Act of 1807,[111] last used to quell the 1992 Los Angeles riots on May 1, 1992 by Executive Order 12804. Arkansas senator Tom Cotton also pushed for the U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division to be deployed to quell the unrest, calling protesters "Antifa terrorists".[112] Cotton tweeted "No quarter for insurrectionists, anarchists, rioters, and looters."[113] However, many legal experts said this would violate the Department of Defense Law of War Manual, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and Additional Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions.[113] Cotton later said he was using "no quarter" in a colloquial sense, but Mark Zaid and Tom Nichols responded that the legal definition of the term is a war crime.[113] Massachusetts Representative Seth Moulton said federal troops should "lay down [their] arms" if deployed in the United States.[114]

Minnesota National Guard in front of state capitol building in St. Paul on May 31
Police and protesters stand off in Seattle on May 30
Minnesota National Guard behind police at the Minnesota State Capitol building on May 31 (top); National Guard snipers atop the North Carolina State Capitol building on June 1 (bottom)

On June 4, federal agencies added about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) of fencing around the White House, Lafayette Square, and The Ellipse.[115] Protesters used the fencing to post signs and artwork expressing their views.[116] On June 11, the fencing was taken down, and some signs were collected by Smithsonian Museum curators from the National Museum of African American History and Culture.[117] U.S. Customs and Border Protection, authorized to provide aerial surveillance "to assist law enforcement and humanitarian relief efforts" when requested, provided drone imagery during the protests.[118][119]

Federal policing of protests

As of June 5, 2,950 federal law enforcement personnel from a dozen agencies, including the Secret Service, Capital Police, Park Police, Customs and Border Protection, FBI's Hostage Rescue Team, Bureau of Prisons' Special Operations Response Team, DEA's Special Response Team, ATF, and Marshals Service's Special Operations Group, have been dispatched to assist local authorities, with most of them being garrisoned in D.C.[120][121][122][123] The DEA's legal authority was specifically expanded by the Department of Justice beyond usual limits to include surveillance of protesters and the ability to arrest for non-drug related offenses.[124] In response, Representatives Jerry Nadler and Karen Bass of the House Judiciary Committee denounced the move and requested a formal briefing from DEA Acting Administrator Timothy Shea.[125]

On June 26, President Trump signed an executive order permitting federal agencies to provide personnel "to assist with the protection of Federal monuments, memorials, statues, or property".[126] Following the executive order, the Department of Homeland Security sent officers from Customs and Border Protection to Portland, Oregon, Seattle, and Washington, D.C. This was a departure from Homeland Security's normal role of protecting against threats from abroad.[127] Critics accused federal authorities of overstepping their jurisdiction and using excessive force against protesters.[127][128][129] Oregon governor Kate Brown called for federal agents to scale back their response and criticized Trump's actions: "President Trump deploying armed federal officers to Portland only serves to escalate tensions and, as we saw yesterday, will inevitably lead to unnecessary violence and confrontation."[129] Portland mayor Ted Wheeler demanded the agents be removed after citizens were detained far from the federal property agents were sent to protect.[130]

From at least July 14, unidentified federal officers wearing camouflage used unmarked vans to detain protesters in Portland, Oregon—sometimes without explaining the reason for their arrest.[131][132][133][134][135][136] The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) called these actions unconstitutional kidnappings.[137] In The Nation, Jeet Heer also called the actions unconstitutional and wrote that "The deployment of unidentified federal officers is particularly dangerous in... Portland and elsewhere in America, because it could easily lead to right-wing militias' impersonating legal authorities and kidnapping citizens."[136]

On July 20, the Chicago Tribune reported that the Department of Homeland Security was preparing to send 150 federal agents to Chicago.[138]

Violence and controversies

Burning buildings in Saint Paul, Minnesota on May 29
Police and protesters stand off in Seattle on May 30
DC Riots May 30
From top:
1. Burning buildings amid riots in Saint Paul, Minnesota on May 29
2. Police and protesters stand off in Seattle on May 30
3. Vehicles on fire during a riot in Washington, D.C. on May 30
4. Georgia National Guard and police clash with protesters in Atlanta in late May-early June
5. Protesters and counter-protesters faceoff in Columbus, Ohio on July 18

As of June 22, 2020, police have made 14,000 arrests in 49 cities since the protests began, with most arrests being locals charged with low-level offenses such as violating curfews or blocking roadways.[3] As of June 8, 2020, at least 19 people have died during the protests.[139] The Los Angeles Police Department announced that "homicides went up 250% and victims shot went up 56%" from May 31 to June 6.[140] Several protests over Floyd's death, including one in Chicago,[141] turned into riots.[142] On May 29, 2020, civil rights leader Andrew Young stated that riots, violence, and looting "hurt the cause instead of helping it".[143] George Floyd's family has denounced the violent protests.[144] A study conducted by the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project found that about 93% of 7,750 protests from May 26 through August 22 remained peaceful and nondestructive.[30]

There have been numerous reports and videos of aggressive police actions using physical force including "batons, tear gas, pepper spray and rubber bullets on protesters, bystanders and journalists, often without warning or seemingly unprovoked".[145] These incidents have provoked "growing concern that aggressive law enforcement tactics intended to impose order were instead inflaming tensions".[145] The police responded that such tactics are necessary to prevent vandalism and arson, and that police officers themselves have been assaulted with thrown rocks and water bottles.[145] Amnesty International issued a press release calling for the police to end excessive militarized responses to the protests.[146][147]

At least 66 incidents of vehicles driving into crowds of protesters were recorded from May 27 to July 6, with at least four ruled accidental and seven involving police officers. Since 2015, such actions have been encouraged against Black Lives Matter protests by "Run Them Over" and "All Lives Splatter" memes online, as well as items posted on Fox News and on social media by police officers.[148][149][150]

There have been allegations of foreign influence stoking the unrest online, with the role of outside powers being additive rather than decisive as of May 31.[151] Several analysts have said that there was a lack of evidence for foreign meddling – whether to spread disinformation or sow divisiveness – but suggest that the messaging and coverage from these countries has more to do with global politics.[152]

Police attacks on journalists

According to the U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, at least 100 journalists have been arrested while covering the protests, while 114 have been physically attacked by police officers.[153] Although some journalists have been attacked by protesters, over 80% of incidents involving violence against the news media were committed by law enforcement officers.[154] The Committee to Protect Journalists has accused police officers of intentionally targeting news crews in an attempt to intimidate them from covering the protests.[155] Some journalists covering the protests in Minneapolis had their tires slashed by Minnesota State Patrol troopers and Anoka County sheriff's deputies.[156]

Injuries caused by police projectiles

During the week of May 30, 12 people, including protesters, journalists and bystanders, were partially blinded after being struck with police projectiles.[157] By June 21, at least 20 people had suffered serious eye injuries.[158] The American Academy of Ophthalmology has called on police departments to stop using rubber bullets for crowd control, writing in a statement that "Americans have the right to speak and congregate publicly and should be able to exercise that right without the fear of blindness."[159]

Extremist participation

There have been accusations of various extremist groups using the cover of the protests to foment general unrest in the United States. CNN initially reported on May 31 that "although interference in this way may be happening, federal and local officials have yet to provide evidence to the public."[160]

A number of Trump administration officials and politicians such as New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio[161] and FBI Director Christopher A. Wray[162] have alleged that "anarchists" and "far-left extremist" groups, including "Antifa", were exploiting the situation or were responsible for violence. However, there is no evidence that antifa-aligned individuals played a role in instigating the protests or violence or that antifa played a significant role in the protests,[163][164][165] and the Trump administration has provided no evidence for its claims.[165] The vast majority of protests were peaceful; among the 14,000 arrests made, most were for minor offenses such as alleged curfew violations or blocking a roadway.[3] Persons involved in visible crimes such as arson or property damage were not ideologically organized, although some were motivated by anger towards police.[3] Episodes of looting were committed by "regular criminal groups" and street gangs[166][164] and was motivated by personal gain rather than ideology.[3] A large number of white nationalists did not appear in response to the protests, although "a handful of apparent lone actors" were arrested for attempting to harm protesters.[3] However, there was a scattered number of armed paramilitary-style militia movement groups and there were "several cases where members of these groups discharged firearms, causing chaos or injuring protesters".[3]

According to the Institute for Research and Education on Human Rights (IREHR), which mapped the appearance of various right-wing or far-right actors or extremist groups at rallies throughout the United States, there had been 136 confirmed cases of right-wing participation at the protests by June 19, with many more unconfirmed. Boogaloo, Three Percenters, Oath Keepers, Proud Boys, neo-Confederates, white nationalists, and an assortment of militias and vigilante groups reportedly had a presence at some protests, mostly in small towns and rural areas.[3][167] Boogaloo groups, who are generally pro-gun, anti-government, and far-right accelerationists, have reportedly been present at no less than 40 George Floyd protests, several reportedly linked with violence.[3] Their continued presence online has caused Facebook and TikTok to take action against their violent and anti-government posts.[168][169]

Use of social media

Protesters wearing COVID masks marching down a Baltimore street on May 30
A George Floyd protest in Baltimore on May 30

Many individuals and celebrities used social media to document the protests, spread information, promote donation sites, and post memorials to George Floyd. Following Floyd's death, a 15-year-old started a Change.org petition titled "Justice for George Floyd", demanding that all four police officers involved be charged.[170] The petition was both the largest and fastest-growing in the site's history,[170] reaching over 13 million signatures.[171] During this time, multiple videos of the protests, looting, and riots were shared by journalists and protesters with many videos going viral. One such video was of a destroyed and smoky Minneapolis Target store that the poster claimed was damaged during the protests.[172]

Facebook's decision not to remove or label President Trump's tweet of "When the looting starts, the shooting starts" prompted complaints from Facebook employees that political figures were getting a special exemption from the site's content policies. Actions included internal petition, questioning the CEO at an employee town hall, some resignations,[173] and an employee walkout.[174]

Documentation

A remix of Childish Gambino's song "This is America" and Post Malone's "Congratulations" was used heavily by protesters sharing footage of protests and police action on TikTok.[175] Others used personal Twitter pages to post video documentation of the protests to highlight police and protesters actions, as well as points of the protests they felt would not be reported.[176] One example was a viral photo that appears to show white women protesters standing with their arms locked between Louisville Metro Police Officers and protesters, with the caption describing the image and "This is love. This is what you do with your privilege."[177]

Viral images of officers "taking a knee" with protesters and engaging in joint displays against police brutality, highlighted by hashtags such as #WalkWithUs,[178] have circulated widely on social media.[179] These acts have been identified by some cultural critics as copaganda, or "feel-good images" to boost public relations.[180][181][182] Official social media accounts of police departments boosted positive images of collaboration.[181] In some cases, these displays of solidarity, such as police kneeling, have been recognized as occurring moments before police teargassed crowds or inflicted violence on them.[180][182] An article in The Fader characterized these acts as public relations tactics which were being undermined by police violence, "It feels like we go past the point of no return several times each day."[181]

Activism

Protesters in Miami on June 6
Protesters in Miami on June 6

American K-pop fan accounts hijacked right wing and pro-Trump hashtags on social media, flooding trending hashtags with images and videos of their favorite artists. Users attempting to look up the hashtags #WhiteLivesMatter, #WhiteoutWednesday and #BlueLivesMatter were met with messages and video clips of dancing idols.[183] After the Dallas Police Department asked Twitter users to submit videos of protesters' illegal activity to its iWatch Dallas app, submissions of K-pop videos led to the temporary removal of the app due to "technical difficulties".[184][185]

On May 28, hacktivist group Anonymous released a video to Facebook and the Minneapolis Police Department entitled "Anonymous Message To The Minneapolis Police Department", in which they state that they are going to seek revenge on the Minneapolis Police Department, and "expose their crimes to the world".[186][187] According to Bloomberg, the video was initially posted on an unconfirmed Anonymous Facebook page.[188]

Misinformation

Official statements

Minnesota Governor Tim Walz speculated that there was "an organized attempt to destabilize civil society", initially stating that as many as 80% of the individuals had possibly come from outside the state,[189] and the mayor of St. Paul, Melvin Carter, said everyone arrested in St. Paul on May 29 was from out of state.[190] However, jail records showed that the majority of those arrested were in-state.[191] At a press conference later the same day, Carter explained that he had "shared… arrest data received in [his] morning police briefing which [he] later learned to be inaccurate".[192]

Numerous eyewitness accounts and news reporters indicated that tear gas was used to disperse protesters in Lafayette Square.[193] Despite this evidence, U.S. Park Police officials said, "USPP officers and other assisting law enforcement partners did not use tear gas or OC Skat Shells to close the area at Lafayette Park",[194][195] adding that they only used "pepper balls" and "smoke canisters". Donald Trump's presidential campaign demanded news outlets retract reports of "tear gas" use.[196] President Trump called the reports "fake" and said "they didn't use tear gas."[197]

Press statements

Protesters in Eugene, Oregon on June 9

On June 6, the New York Post reported that a NYPD source said $2.4 million of Rolex watches had been looted during protests from a Soho Rolex store.[198] However, the store in question was actually a Watches of Switzerland outlet that denied anything was stolen.[198] Rolex confirmed that "no watches of any kind were stolen, as there weren't any on display in the store."[199]

On the night of May 31, exterior lights on the north side of the White House went dark as usual at 11pm,[200] while protesters were demonstrating outside.[201] The Guardian mistakenly reported that "in normal times, they are only ever turned off when a president dies."[202] A 2015 stock photograph of the White House, edited to show the lights turned off, was shared tens of thousands of times online,[203] including by Hillary Clinton.[204] While the photograph did not depict the building at the time of the protests, Deputy White House Press Secretary Hogan Gidley confirmed that the lights "go out at about 11 p.m. almost every night".[201]

A June 12 article by The Seattle Times found that Fox News published a photograph of the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone that had been digitally altered to include a man armed with an assault rifle.[205] The Fox News website also used a photograph of a burning scene from the Minnesota protests to illustrate their articles on Seattle's protests. Fox removed the images and issued an apology, stating the digitally altered image was a collage that "did not clearly delineate" splicing.[205]

Conspiracy theories

False stories about "Antifa buses" caused panic in rural counties throughout the country, despite there being no evidence that they exist. The Associated Press has cataloged at least five separate rural counties where locals have warned of imminent attacks, although none of the rumors have been substantiated.[206][207] As a result of the rumors, several people have been harassed,[206] including a multi-racial family in Forks, Washington.[208][206] Hundreds of members of armed self-proclaimed militias and far right groups gathered in Gettysburg National Military Park on Independence Day in response to a fake online claim that antifa protesters were planning on burning the U.S. flag.[209]

Some social media users spread images of damage from other protests or incidents, falsely attributing the damage to the George Floyd protests.[210] Some users claimed a man videoed breaking the windows of an AutoZone in Minneapolis on May 27 was an undercover Saint Paul Police officer; the Saint Paul Police Department denied these claims through a statement on Twitter.[211][212] Additionally, SPPD released a montage of surveillance videos in an effort to prove that the officer who was accused of smashing the windows was actually 9 mi (14 km) away when the incident occurred.[213] The man accused of smashing the windows of the AutoZone was later identified by authorities as a white supremacist agitator.[214][73]

Twitter suspended hundreds of accounts associated with spreading a false claim about a communications blackout during protests in Washington, D.C., or a claim that authorities had blocked protesters from communicating on their smartphones.[215] Also, some accounts shared a photo of a major fire burning near the Washington Monument, which was actually an image from a television show.[216][217]

Social effects

A week into the protests, The Washington Post stated that the current situation suggests that the status quo was undergoing a shock, with the article stating "the past days have suggested that something is changing. The protests reached into every corner of the United States and touched nearly every strand of society."[218] Joe Biden told Politico that he had experienced an awakening and thought other White Americans had as well, saying: "Ordinary folks who don't think of themselves as having a prejudiced bone in their body, don't think of themselves as racists, have kind of had the mask pulled off."[219] Large amounts of journalistic and academic sources have viewed the protests as forcing Americans to face racial inequality, police brutuality and other racial and economic issues. Many have stated that the current unrest is due to the current political and cultural system of overlooking, ignoring and oppression of Black Americans, calling it a racial reckoning. Politico said the killing of George Floyd, captured on video, had "prompted a reckoning with racism [...] for a wide swath of white America."[219] Deva Woodly, Associate Professor of Politics at The New School for Social Research, wrote: "We are living in a world-historical moment."[220] NPR said that "a change of attitude seems to have swept through the national culture like a sudden wind."[221] CNN's Brianna Keilar said that "[y]ou are watching America's reckoning" as she outlined the "profound change" the country had experienced, including that in mid-June 15 of the 20 bestselling books were about race.[222]

In late June, the The Christian Science Monitor's editorial board wrote: "It may still be too soon to say the U.S. has reached a true inflection point in its treatment of its citizens of African descent. But it has certainly reached a reflection point."[223] Reuters reported that Black candidates in June's primaries had benefited from "a national reckoning on racism."[224] By early July, The Washington Post was running a regularly updated section titled "America's Racial Reckoning: What you need to know."[225] On July 3, The Washington Post said that "the Black Lives Matter protests following the police killings of Breonna Taylor, George Floyd and Rayshard Brooks focused the world's attention on racial inequities, structural racism and implicit bias."[226]

Economic impact

Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell noted on June 10 "historically high unemployment" prevalent during the prelude of the protests.[227]

According to Fortune, the economic impact of the protests has exacerbated the 2020 coronavirus recession by sharply curtailing consumer confidence, straining local businesses, and overwhelming public infrastructure with large-scale property damage.[228] A number of small businesses, already suffering from the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, were harmed by vandalism, property destruction, and looting.[229][230] Curfews instated by local governments – in response to both the pandemic and protests – have also "restricted access to the downtown [areas]" to essential workers, lowering economic output.[228] President Donald Trump, after announcing a drop in overall unemployment from 14.7% to 13.3% on June 5, stated that strong economic growth was "the greatest thing [for race relations]" and "George Floyd would have been proud [of the unemployment rate]".[231] That same day reports from the Bureau of Labor Statistics estimated the unemployment rate among African Americans (covering the first two weeks of protests) was up 0.1%, rising to 16.8%.[232]

The U.S. stock market has remained unaffected or otherwise increased since the start of the protests on May 26.[233] The protest's first fortnight coincided with a 38% rise in the stock market.[234] A resurgence of coronavirus (facilitated by mass protests) could exacerbate the 2020 stock market crash according to economists at RBC.[235] The protests have disrupted national supply chains over uncertainty regarding public safety, a resurgence of COVID-19, and consumer confidence. Several Fortune 500 retail companies, with large distribution networks, have scaled back deliveries and shuttered stores in high-impact areas.[228] Mass demonstrations – of both peaceful and violent varieties – have been linked to diminished consumer confidence and demand stemming from the public health risks of group gatherings amid COVID-19.[228]

A looted Cub Foods supermarket in Minneapolis on May 28

Large-scale property damage stemming from the protests has led to increased insurance claims, bankruptcies, and curbed economic activity among small businesses and state governments. Insurance claims arising from property damage suffered in rioting is still being assessed, but is thought to be significant, perhaps record-breaking.[236] The City of Minneapolis' Community Planning & Economic Development Department gave an early estimate of at least 220 buildings damaged and $55 million in property damage in the city from fires and vandalism, centered on the Lake Street area; city and state officials have requested state and federal aid to rebuild and repair.[237][238] Later estimates projected damages to be upwards of $500 million.[4] Among the losses was Minnehaha Commons, an under-construction, $30 million redevelopment project for 189 units of affordable housing, which was destroyed by fire after being torched on May 27.[239][240] A community organization in Atlanta's Buckhead neighborhood said that between $10 million and $15 million in property damage (excluding losses from looting) was incurred over the weekend of May 29–31, mostly along storefronts along Peachtree Street and Phipps Plaza.[241] The damage to downtown Chicago's central business district (near the Magnificent Mile) was reported to have sustained "millions of dollars in damage" according to Fortune.[228]

Public financing and funding, particularly on the state level, has also been impacted by the protests. The coronavirus recession has eroded large parts of state budgets which have, subsequently, struggled to finance the police overtime pay, security costs, and infrastructure repairs related to the demonstrations.[228] State governments have, since June, announced budget cuts to police departments as well as increased funding to other public safety measures. Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti announced on June 5 he will seek up to $150 million in cuts to the Los Angeles Police Department budget.[242]

On May 31, Walmart temporarily closed several hundred of its stores as a precaution. Amazon announced it would redirect some delivery routes and scale back others as a result of the widespread unrest.[243]

Monuments and symbols

Vandalized monument of Confederate general Robert E. Lee in Richmond, Virginia, on July 1, 2020

A makeshift memorial emerged at the East 38th Street and Chicago Avenue intersection in Minneapolis where Floyd was killed. Minneapolis officials renamed a stretch two block stretch of Chicago Avenue as George Floyd Perry Jr Place and designated it as one of seven cultural districts in city.[244][245][246]

Scrutiny of, discussion of removal, and removal of civic symbols or names relating to the Confederate States of America (frequently associated with segregation and the Jim Crow era in the United States) has regained steam as protests have continued.[247] On June 4, 2020, Virginia governor Ralph Northam announced the Robert E. Lee Monument in Richmond would be removed.[248]

On June 5, making specific reference to events in Charlottesville in 2017, the United States Marine Corps banned the display of the Confederate Battle Flag at their installations.[249][250] The United States Navy followed suit on June 9 at the direction of Michael M. Gilday, the Chief of Naval Operations.[251]

Birmingham, Alabama Mayor Randall Woodfin ordered the removal of the Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument in Linn Park. The Alabama Attorney General has filed suit against the city of Birmingham for violating the Alabama Memorial Preservation Act.[252]

A statue of America's first president, George Washington, has been torn down and American flag was burned by rioters in Portland, Oregon.[253] Portland Public Schools was responding after protesters pulled down the Thomas Jefferson statue in front of Jefferson High School. Several protesters tore down the statue of the third President of the United States and wrote: “slave owner” and “George Floyd” in spray paint at its white marble base. PPS officials said they recognize that the act is part of a larger and very important national conversation.[254] The statues targeted included a bust of Ulysses S. Grant and statue of Theodore Roosevelt.[255][256] BLM activist Shaun King tweeted that statues, murals, and stained glass windows depicting a white Jesus should be removed.[257] Protesters defaced a statue of Philadelphia abolitionist Matthias Baldwin with the words "murderer" and "colonizer".[258] Protesters in San Francisco vandalized a statue of Miguel de Cervantes, a Spanish writer who spent five years as a slave in Algiers.[259]

Vandals defaced the statue of Winston Churchill in London's Parliament Square and Queen Victoria's statue in Leeds.[260][261] The Lincoln Memorial, the World War II Memorial and the statue of General Casimir Pulaski were vandalized during the George Floyd protests in Washington, D.C.[262] On June 7, the statue of Edward Colston was toppled and thrown into Bristol Harbour by demonstrators during the George Floyd protests in the United Kingdom.[263] BLM activists in London are calling for the removal of 60 statues of historical figures like Prime Ministers Charles Grey and William Gladstone, Horatio Nelson, Sir Francis Drake, King Charles II of England, Oliver Cromwell and Christopher Columbus.[264] Protesters in Belgium have vandalized statues of King Leopold II of Belgium.[265]

In Washington, D.C., a statue of Mahatma Gandhi in front of the Indian Embassy was vandalized on the intervening night of June 2 and 3. The incident prompted the embassy to register a complaint with law enforcement agencies. Taranjit Singh Sandhu, the Indian Ambassador to the United States, called the vandalism "a crime against humanity".[266][267][268] In London, another statue of Gandhi was vandalized by Black Lives Matter protesters along with the statue of Winston Churchill.[269]

On June 12, the city council in Hamilton, New Zealand removed the statue of Captain John Hamilton, a British officer who was killed during the New Zealand Wars in 1864.[270] A local Māori elder Taitimu Maipi, who had vandalized the statue in 2018, has also called for the city to be renamed Kirikiriroa.[271] New Zealand Deputy Prime Minister Winston Peters called the scrutiny of colonial-era memorials a "wave of idiocy".[272]

The pedestal of a Christopher Columbus statue that was thrown into the Baltimore inner harbor on July 4, 2020

On June 22, a crowd of rioters unsuccessfully attempted to topple Clark Mills' 1852 bronze equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson in Lafayette Square in President's Park, directly north of the White House in Washington, D.C.[273] Several days later, the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) charged four men with destruction of federal property for allegedly trying to bring down the statue. The Justice Department alleged that a video showed one of the men breaking off and destroying the wheels of the cannons located at the base of the statue as well as pulling on ropes when trying to bring down the statue.[274]

Soon afterwards, the DOJ announced the arrest and charging of a man who was not only allegedly seen on video climbing up onto the Jackson statue and affixing a rope that was then used to try to pull the statue down, but had on June 20 helped destroy Gaetano Trentanove's 1901 Albert Pike Memorial statue near Washington's Judiciary Square by pulling it from its base and setting it on fire. The DOJ's complaint alleged that the man had been captured on video dousing the federally-owned Pike statue with a flammable liquid, igniting it as it lay on the ground and using the fire to light a cigarette.[275]

On June 30, after the Mississippi Legislature obtained a two-thirds majority in both houses to suspend rules in order to pass a bill addressing the Confederate Battle Flag on the Mississippi state flag, Governor Tate Reeves signed a bill that relinquished the state flag, mandated its removal from public premises within 15 days, and established a commission to propose a new flag design that excluded the Confederate Battle Flag and included the motto "In God We Trust".[276][277][278][279] The flag contained the infamous Confederate symbol in the canton (upper left corner) of the flag, and was the last U.S. state flag to do so.[280][281][282]

During a speech on July 3 at Mount Rushmore, U.S. president Donald Trump denounced the monument removals as part of a "left wing cultural revolution" to "overthrow the American revolution".[283]

On July 13, the Washington Redskins announced that their name and logo would be retired upon completion of "a thorough review of the name" that was first announced on July 3.[284][285]

A week-long tour began July 28 in which a hologram of Floyd was projected on a monument to be removed, thereby "replacing" the monument with Floyd. Richmond, Virginia was the first stop.[286]

Impact on police activity

Police take a knee during protests in Philadelphia on June 2

According to Lt. Bob Kroll, the head of the Minneapolis police union, officers began retiring "en masse"[287] alongside morale being at an "all-time low".[287]

Around 170 Atlanta police officers walked off of the job in mid-June following unresolved grievances in Rayshard Brooks case.[288]

The New York City Police Department reported a 411% increase in police retirement application in the first week of July.[289] As a result, the Department has limited new retirement applications to 40 a day.[290][291]

Injuries

On July 11, at least 150 Minneapolis police officers reported nondescript injuries as well as symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, leading over half of them to leave their jobs with more likely to follow.[287] The Minneapolis police have denied there being any serious injuries inflicted on officers.[287]

Changes to police policies

In the wake of Floyd's killing, state and local governments evaluated their police department policies, and the response to protests, for themselves. For example, California Governor Gavin Newsom called for new police crowd control procedures for the state, and the banning of the police use of carotid chokeholds, which starve the brain of oxygen.[292] The Minneapolis police department banned police from using chokeholds;[293] Denver's police department also banned the use of chokeholds without exception, and also established new reporting requirements whenever a police officer holds a person at gunpoint.[294]

In June 2020, Democrats in Congress introduced the George Floyd Justice in Policing Act of 2020, a police reform and accountability bill that contains measures to combat police misconduct, excessive force, and racial bias in policing. The impetus for the bill were the killings of Floyd, Breonna Taylor, and other African Americans at the hands of police.[34][295][296] It passed the House of Representatives one month after Floyd's killing, 236 to 181, with support from Democrats and three Republicans.[297] A Republican reform bill was blocked in the U.S. Senate by all but two Democrats; neither party negotiated the contents of the bill with the other.[297] Speaker Nancy Pelosi summarized Democratic opposition to the Senate bill: "it's not a question that it didn't go far enough; it didn't go anywhere".[298]

"Defund the Police", a phrase popularized by BLM during the George Floyd protests

On June 16, President Trump signed an executive order on police reform that incentivized departments to recruit from communities they patrol, encourage more limited use of deadly force, and prioritize using social workers and mental health professionals for nonviolent calls.[299] The order also created a national database of police officers with a history of using excessive force.[300]

On September 10, Ted Wheeler, the mayor and police commissioner of Portland, Oregon, banned city police from using tear gas for riot control purposes, but reiterated that police would respond to violent protests forcefully. Portland has seen over a 100 consecutive days of protests since they began on May 28.[301]

Push to abolish police

Nine members of the Minneapolis City Council — a veto-proof majority — pledged on June 7 to dismantle the Minneapolis Police Department, despite opposition from Mayor Frey.[302][303] U.S. representative Ilhan Omar stated, "the Minneapolis Police Department has proven themselves beyond reform. It's time to disband them and reimagine public safety in Minneapolis."[304] Despite pledges by city council members to the end the Minneapolis Police Department, a proposed amendment to the Minneapolis city charter which was approved by the Minneapolis City Council on June 26 would only rename the police department and change its structure if approved by voters.[305]

Impact on entertainment

Television and films

In the media industry, the protests have spurred scrutiny for cop shows and led to the cancellation of popular television shows referred to by critics as copaganda.[306][307] With long-standing criticism that it presented an unbalanced view of law enforcement in favor of police, encouraged police to engage in more dramatic behavior for the camera, and degraded suspects who had not yet been convicted of any crime, the Paramount Network canceled the 33rd season of the TV show Cops and pulled it from broadcast.[308] The television network A&E canceled a similar show, Live PD, which was also found to have destroyed footage documenting the police killing of Javier Ambler in Austin, Texas, in 2019.[309] The streaming service HBO Max temporarily pulled the film Gone with the Wind until video that explains and condemns the film's racist depictions could be produced to accompany it.[310] In the United Kingdom, the BBC pulled the famed "The Germans" episode of Fawlty Towers from its UKTV streaming service, but later reinstated it after criticism from series star and co-writer John Cleese. He later criticized their use of the word "fury" to describe his comments.[311] This was later removed by the BBC.[312] The episode, which included racial slurs about the West Indies cricket team, now features a disclaimer at the beginning warning of "offensive content and language".[313][314][315] The BBC also removed the Little Britain series and its spinoff Come Fly with Me from the iPlayer and BritBox services as well as Netflix for its use of blackface.[316]

The week of June 24, 2020, several animated series that had black, mixed or non-white characters voiced by white actors, including Big Mouth, Central Park, Family Guy and The Simpsons, announced those characters would be recast with people of color.[317][318][319][320] That same week, episodes of 30 Rock, The Office, It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia,[citation needed] Community, The Golden Girls, and Peep Show that involved characters using blackface were either removed or edited from syndication and streaming services.[321][322][323][324]

In light of the protests, Brooklyn Nine-Nine co-star Terry Crews said that the first four episodes of the show's eighth season had to be rewritten.[325]

Theme parks

Popular Disney amusement ride Splash Mountain will be re-themed into a The Princess and the Frog-themed ride. Despite Disney stating the plan was on the works since 2019, fans believed the re-theming was responding to protests as the current attraction was based on the film Song of the South, a controversial film for its depiction of African-Americans.[326][327]

Impact on brand marketing

In reaction to the higher sensitivity by customers for racial issues, multiple companies decided to rebrand some products. Examples:

Firearms

The unrest was followed by an unprecedented number of firearms being transferred inside of the United States.[328]

Background checks for legally purchased firearms reached record highs in May [329] with year-on-year numbers up 80.2%.[330][331][332][333] In June 2020 the FBI reported running 3.9 million NICS checks for persons purchasing a firearm or firearms.[334] This represented the highest monthly number of firearms transfers since the FBI began keeping records in 1998.[335]

Firearms retailers surveyed by National Shooting Sports Foundation in May estimated that 40% of their sales came from first-time gun buyers, 40% of those first-time gun buyers were women, a relatively high rate for that demographic group. Though gun sales have been up across the country, a rise in first-time gun buyers in left-leaning states like California have helped fuel the national uptick in firearms and ammunition purchases.[336] June 2020 represented the largest month of firearms purchases in United States history, with Illinois purchasing more firearms than any other state.[337]

The last days of May and first week of June, there were more than 90 attempted or successful burglaries of gun stores, according to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. More than 1,000 guns were stolen in that window of time. On May 31 alone the BATF reported 29 separate burglaries targeting licensed firearm retailers.[338][339]

Impact on COVID-19 transmission

Concerns by officials

The mass protests occurred during the global COVID-19 pandemic and officials and experts warned they could facilitate an accelerated or rebounding spread of COVID-19.[340][341][342][343][344][345][346][347] A number of current and former public health officials expressed concerns that mass protests would lead to a spike in COVID-19 clusters, including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Robert R. Redfield,[348] U.S. Surgeon General Jerome Adams,[349] National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases director Dr. Anthony Fauci,[350] and former Trump administration FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb.[342] These concerns were echoed by a number of elected officials, including Minnesota Governor Tim Walz,[351] New York Governor Andrew Cuomo,[342][352] Maryland Governor Larry Hogan,[342] California Governor Gavin Newsom,[353] Atlanta Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms,[354] and Washington, D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser.[341] Abroad, Australia Health Minister Greg Hunt[355][356] and British Health Secretary Matt Hancock urged people to avoid mass gatherings.[357][358][359][360] Martin Seychell, a health official at the EU Commission, said that mass events could be a major route of transmission like for any infectious respiratory disease and that the likelihood and size of a second wave would depend on the effective maintaining of social distancing measures and other factors.[361][362] Keith Neal, emeritus professor of the epidemiology of infectious diseases at Nottingham University, England stated there is "clear evidence that banning mass gatherings was one of the most effective and important parts of the lockdowns across European countries".[358] While expressing disappointment at the flouting of social distancing rules, Police Minister Stuart Nash indicated that New Zealand Police were not seeking to prosecute protest organizers and participants.[363]

A number of officials, including Cuomo, Bottoms, and Minnesota health officials, recommended that anyone who attended a demonstration receive COVID-19 testing.[352][354][364][365]

Multiple governors attended street protests even though they appeared to violate their own orders to ensure social distancing.[366]

Factors

Masked protesters in Philadelphia on June 2

In June 2020 the CDC released the "Considerations for Events and Gatherings" which assesses large gatherings where it is difficult for people to stay at least six feet apart, and where attendees travel from outside the local area as "highest risk".[367]

Masks and distancing

Speaking about public health implications of demonstrations, Dr. Anthony Fauci said that "Masks can help, but it's masks plus physical separation".[368] Ashish Jha, Director of the Global Health Institute at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said, "The question is: how do we do protesting safely? I think masks are a critical part of it."[354] Theodore Long, a doctor affiliated with New York's contact tracing strategy, echoed Jha's point, and advocated "proper hand hygiene and to the extent possible, socially distance".[354] Many participants of the protests with potentially unclear current and prior-infection-status – including some police officers – did not wear a face mask at all times,[369] or adhere to other public safety guidelines.[346]

George Floyd's family encouraged those attending the official public memorial to wear masks and gloves,[370] as did multiple officials, including Philadelphia Mayor Jim Kenney who asked demonstrators to follow social distancing guidelines,[371] New York Governor Andrew Cuomo who asked protesters to wear masks,[342] and Minnesota's governor who warned that "too many" protesters were not applying physical person-to-person distances or wearing masks.[346]

Overcrowded jails

Hundreds of people arrested by police in New York City – including both peaceful demonstrators and persons accused of violence – were detained in overcrowded, sometimes unsanitary holding cells, sometimes without face masks, prompting concerns over jail-spread COVID-19 cases.[372] The Legal Aid Society sued the New York City Police Department, accusing it of detaining people for extended periods (up to three days) in violation of New York state law requiring that arrests receive arraignments within 24 hours. The department acknowledged that "it was common for up to two dozen people to be held for hours on buses before being taken to be booked" due to large backlogs and paperwork delays and that social distancing was impossible within jails, but a state trial court denied Legal Aid's request, given the "crisis within a crisis".[372]

Other factors

A protester in Vancouver, Canada, with "Please give me space. I am diabetic and more [susceptible] to COVID-19" written on their shirt

The use of tear gas may increase the spread of the virus due to coughing and lung damage.[373] Smoke and pepper spray may also increase its spread.[343] Shouting and speaking loudly, which are common to both violent and non-violent protests, may also cause infections at distances greater than 6 feet (1.8 m). Research has found that the share of infections due to a single infected person in a choir can be almost 90%,[369] and that just a few contagious people can infect hundreds of susceptible people around them.[374] Outdoor events may have a substantially lower risk of spreading the disease than indoor ones,[375][376] and the "transient" moments of people moving around may be less-hazardous than longer durations of proximity.[376]

Debate over weighing of risks

Over 1,200 medical staff signed a letter criticizing what they called "emerging narratives that seemed to malign demonstrations as risky for the public health because of Covid-19".[377] The letter writers wrote:

Staying at home, social distancing, and public masking are effective at minimizing the spread of COVID-19. To the extent possible, we support the application of these public health best practices during demonstrations that call attention to the pervasive lethal force of white supremacy. However, as public health advocates, we do not condemn these gatherings as risky for COVID-19 transmission. We support them as vital to the national public health and to the threatened health specifically of Black people in the United States. We can show that support by facilitating safest protesting practices without detracting from demonstrators' ability to gather and demand change. This should not be confused with a permissive stance on all gatherings, particularly protests against stay-home orders.[377]

Most protesters in Minneapolis interviewed by Wired magazine said they "participated with full knowledge of the health risks, and believe police brutality to be an even more urgent existential threat".[378] Dr. Tom Frieden, a former CDC director, said that if trust in government "is undermined by violent policing, or it's undermined by ham-handed public health actions that don't respect communities, that's going to have a negative impact on our ability to fight disease".[366] Frieden has faced considerable backlash for these remarks, most notably from Jonah Goldberg.[379]

Criticisms also arose of health officials and physicians potentially "politicizing science", as officials have given varying responses for different protests.[380] Thomas Chatterton Williams said "the public health narrative around coronavirus ... reversed itself overnight" in the wake of the protests.[381] Glenn Greenwald also criticized the response of public health officials and epidemiologists, asking, "How is it remotely within the scope of the expertise of epidemiologists to pick and choose which political protests should be permitted and/or encouraged and which ones banned and/or denounced?"[382]

Preliminary results

An Indiana National Guardsman from the 76th Infantry Brigade talks to a Washington, D.C. resident at the National Mall on June 6

Researchers reported that the protests did not appear to be driving an increase in coronavirus transmission.[383] A study issued in June 2020 by the National Bureau of Economic Research, a private non-profit organization, found "no evidence that urban protests reignited COVID-19 case growth during the more than three weeks following protest onset",[384] as well as "no evidence that net COVID-19 case growth differentially rose following the onset of Black Lives Matter protests, and even modest evidence of a small longer-run case growth decline".[384] Epidemiologists and other researchers suggested the protests had a relatively low impact on COVID-19 transmission because the protests took place outdoors where the virus is less likely to spread as compared to indoors;[383][385] because many protesters wore masks;[385] and because persons who demonstrated made up a small portion of the overall U.S. population (about 6% of adults).[386]

Authorities did not report increases in coronavirus cases as a result of the protests in New York City,[385] or in Minneapolis, Minnesota, Portland, Oregon, or Seattle, Washington.[383] Minnesota launched an effort to test people who demonstrated, and found that 1.5% tested positive.[383] Similarly in Massachusetts, fewer than 3% tested positive.[385] On June 17 and 18, Massachusetts administered free COVID-19 testing and reported that 2.5% tested positive, which was "reasonably consistent" with the general population testing positive at 1.9%.[387] In King County, Washington, less than 5% of 1,008 total positive cases were traced by health investigators to persons who attended a protest.[383] In contrast, the Director of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health asserted on June 22 that it was "highly likely" that a surge in cases is connected to the protests, as well as the lifting of the county stay-at-home order.[383][388]

Jeffrey Shaman of Columbia University found that, of three modeled scenarios with mask-wearing and open air suppressing transmission, "the most optimistic scenario turned out to be most accurate."[389] However, Shaman and other researchers and officials caution that protesters are disproportionately young, and less likely to become ill, and there is significant uncertainty about the effect of various factors.[389][385] While many states in the U.S. saw record highs of new cases, these upticks are thought to be attributed to reopenings of workplaces, bars, restaurants, and other businesses.[386]

In June, a large number of Houston Police Department officers tested positive for the virus or were quarantined after being exposed; police chief Art Acevedo said that none of the officers were seriously ill, and suggested that business reopenings in Texas were more likely the cause of the spread among officers than protest duty, saying "We opened up the state very quickly, especially bars and, you know, I can't control what people do off duty."[390] Members of the D.C. National Guard have also tested positive for COVID-19 after protests.[391]

Reactions

U.S. president Donald Trump walks to St. John's Church amid protests in Washington, D.C. on June 1, 2020

Many countries, companies, organizations, and celebrities worldwide sent messages of concern about the George Floyd killing and protests. Some television channels blacked out regular programming for 8 minutes and 46 seconds in solidarity with the protests while some celebrities and companies made donations to racial justice organizations. Some politicians also participated in the protests, while others called for protesters to refrain from violence.

U.S. president Donald Trump demanded that state governors "dominate" protesters and, on May 29, tweeted "when the looting starts, the shooting starts", which Twitter marked as "glorifying violence".[392][393] Trump later said he was not advocating violence, noting that the tweet could be read as either a threat or a statement of fact and that he intended for it to be read as "a combination of both".[394] Trump controversially deployed various federal law enforcement agencies, the District of Columbia National Guard, and the Arlington County Police Department to clear Lafayette Square and surrounding streets for a photo-op at St. John's Church.[395]

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^ See Violence and controversies section for more details and citations.

References

  1. ^ a b c Owermohle, Sarah (June 1, 2020). "Surgeon general: 'You understand the anger'". Politico. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Olson, Emily (June 27, 2020). "Antifa, Boogaloo boys, white nationalists: Which extremists showed up to the US Black Lives Matter protests?". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  4. ^ a b "For riot-damaged Twin Cities businesses, rebuilding begins with donations, pressure on government". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  5. ^ Taylor, Derrick Bryson (June 2, 2020). "George Floyd Protests: A Timeline". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  6. ^ "Prosecutors say officer had knee on George Floyd's neck for 7:46 rather than 8:46". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. June 18, 2020. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  7. ^ Cooper, Gael Fashingbauer. "Music industry players including Mick Jagger, Quincy Jones respond to George Floyd's death with Blackout Tuesday: 'This is what solidarity looks like'". CNET. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  8. ^ Hennessey, Kathleen; LeBlanc, Steve (June 4, 2020). "8:46: A number becomes a potent symbol of police brutality". AP News. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020. But the timestamps cited in the document's description of the incident, much of which is caught on video, indicate a different tally. Using those, Chauvin had his knee on Floyd for 7 minutes, 46 seconds, including 1 minute, 53 seconds after Floyd appeared to stop breathing.
  9. ^ Carrega, Christina; Lloyd, Whitney (June 3, 2020). "Charges against former Minneapolis police officers involved in George Floyd's death". ABC News. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  10. ^ Navarrette, Ruben Jr. "Haunting question after George Floyd killing: Should good cops have stopped a bad cop?". USA Today.
  11. ^ "플로이드 실제로 목 눌린 시간은 7분 46초". 서울신문 (in Korean). Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  12. ^ Condon, Bernard; Richmond, Todd; Sisak, Michael R. (June 3, 2020). "What to know about 4 officers charged in George Floyd's death". ABC7 Chicago. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  13. ^ Burch, Audra D. S.; Cai, Weiyi; Gianordoli, Gabriel; McCarthy, Morrigan; Patel, Jugal K. (June 13, 2020). "How Black Lives Matter Reached Every Corner of America". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  14. ^ Luscombe, Richard; Ho, Vivian (June 7, 2020). "George Floyd protests enter third week as push for change sweeps America". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  15. ^ a b "George Floyd Protests on Race and Policing: Juneteenth Celebrations Across U.S." Wall Street Journal. June 19, 2020.
  16. ^ Croft, Jay. "Some Americans mark Fourth of July with protests". CNN. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
  17. ^ a b c d e Buchanan, Larry; Bui, Quoctrung; Patel, Jugal K. (July 3, 2020). "Black Lives Matter May Be the Largest Movement in U.S. History". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
  18. ^ "Riot declared as Portland protests move to City Hall on 3-month anniversary of George Floyd's death". Oregon Live. August 25, 2020. Retrieved August 30, 2020.
  19. ^ Lovett, Ian (June 4, 2020). "1992 Los Angeles Riots: How the George Floyd Protests Are Different". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  20. ^ Betz, Bradford (May 31, 2020). "George Floyd unrest: Riots, fires, violence escalate in several major cities". Fox News. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  21. ^ "Widespread unrest as curfews defied across US". BBC News. May 31, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  22. ^ Baker, Mike; Dewan, Shaila (June 2, 2020). "Facing Protests Over Use of Force, Police Respond With More Force". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  23. ^ Kindy, Kimberly; Jacobs, Shayna; Farenthold, David (June 5, 2020). "In protests against police brutality, videos capture more alleged police brutality". Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  24. ^ Taylor, Derrick Bryson (June 8, 2020). "George Floyd Protests: A Timeline". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  25. ^ a b Norwood, Candice (June 9, 2020). "'Optics matter.' National Guard deployments amid unrest have a long and controversial history". PBS NewsHour.
  26. ^ Warren, Katy; Hadden, Joey (June 4, 2020). "How all 50 states are responding to the George Floyd protests, from imposing curfews to calling in the National Guard". Business Insider. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  27. ^ a b Sternlicht, Alexandra. "Over 4,400 Arrests, 62,000 National Guard Troops Deployed: George Floyd Protests By The Numbers". Forbes. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  28. ^ Pham, Scott (June 2, 2020). "Police Arrested More Than 11,000 People At Protests Across The US". BuzzFeed News.
  29. ^ "Associated Press tally shows at least 9,300 people arrested in protests since killing of George Floyd". Associated Press. June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  30. ^ a b Craig, Tim. "'The United States is in crisis': Report tracks thousands of summer protests, most nonviolent" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  31. ^ "This summer's Black Lives Matter protesters were overwhelmingly peaceful, our research finds". The Washington Post. 2020.
  32. ^ Kingson, Jennifer A. (September 16, 2020). "Exclusive: $1 billion-plus riot damage is most expensive in insurance history". Axios. Retrieved October 10, 2020.
  33. ^ "Vandalism, looting after Floyd's death sparks at least $1 billion in damages:report". The Hill. September 17, 2020. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  34. ^ a b Fandos, Nicholas (June 6, 2020). "Democrats to Propose Broad Bill to Target Police Misconduct and Racial Bias". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  35. ^ Hawkins, Derek (June 8, 2020). "9 Minneapolis City Council members announce plans to disband police department". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  36. ^ For criticism of the Trump administration's response, see:
  37. ^ Marie McCullough (June 27, 2020). "COVID-19 has not surged in cities with big protests, but it has in states that reopened early. Here are some possible reasons". Philadelphia Inquirer.
  38. ^ "The Counted: People killed by police in the US". The Guardian.
  39. ^ Hinton, Elizabeth (2016). From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime: The Making of Mass Incarceration in America. Harvard University Press. pp. 68–72. ISBN 9780674737235.
  40. ^ "Los Angeles riots: Remember the 63 people who died". April 26, 2012.
  41. ^ Luibrand, Shannon (August 7, 2015). "Black Lives Matter: How the events in Ferguson sparked a movement in America". CBS News. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
  42. ^ Ellis, Ralph; Kirkos, Bill (June 16, 2017). "Officer who shot Philando Castile found not guilty". CNN. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  43. ^ Miller, Trace (June 1, 2020). "'This Rage That You Hear Is Real': On the Ground at the Dallas Protests". D Magazine.
  44. ^ Haines, Errin (May 11, 2020). "Family seeks answers in fatal police shooting of Louisville woman in her apartment". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 24, 2020.
  45. ^ "Emergency Executive Order 20-04" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  46. ^ "Emergency Executive Order 20-20" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 20, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  47. ^ Richmond, Todd (May 28, 2020). "George Floyd had started a new life in Minnesota before he was killed by police". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  48. ^ Ries, Brian (June 2, 2020). "8 notable details in the criminal complaint against ex-Minneapolis Police Officer Derek Chauvin". cnn.com. Cable News Network. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  49. ^ Michelle M Frascone; Amy Sweasy (May 29, 2020). "State of Minnesota v. Derek Michael Chauvin" (PDF).
  50. ^ Hauser, Christine (May 26, 2020). "F.B.I. to Investigate Arrest of Black Man Who Died After Being Pinned by Officer". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  51. ^ a b Dakss, Brian (May 26, 2020). "Video shows Minneapolis cop with knee on neck of motionless, moaning man who later died". CBS News. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  52. ^ Nawaz, Amna (May 26, 2020). "What we know about George Floyd's death in Minneapolis police custody". PBS Newshour. Archived from the original on May 27, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  53. ^ Montgomery, Blake (May 27, 2020). "Black Lives Matter Protests Over George Floyd's Death Spread Across the Country". The Daily Beast. Retrieved May 28, 2020. Floyd, 46, died after a white Minneapolis police officer, Derek Chauvin, kneeled on his neck for at least seven minutes while handcuffing him.
  54. ^ Murphy, Paul P. (May 29, 2020). "New video appears to show three police officers kneeling on George Floyd". CNN. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  55. ^ "Investigative Update on Critical Incident". Minneapolis police. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  56. ^ Sawyer, Liz. "George Floyd showed no signs of life from time EMS arrived, fire department report says". Minneapolis Tribune. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  57. ^ Steinbuch, Yaron (May 28, 2020). "First responders tried to save George Floyd's life for almost an hour". New York Post. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  58. ^ Soellner, Mica (May 29, 2020). "Medical examiner concludes George Floyd didn't die of asphyxia". Washington Examiner. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  59. ^ Wilson, Jim (June 2, 2020). "Competing autopsies say Floyd's death was a homicide, but differ on causes". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020. The medical examiner also cited significant contributing conditions, saying that Mr. Floyd suffered from heart disease, and was high on fentanyl and had recently used methamphetamine at the time of his death.
  60. ^ Vera, Amir (June 1, 2020). "Independent autopsy finds George Floyd's death a homicide due to 'asphyxiation from sustained pressure'". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  61. ^ "Floyd death homicide, official post-mortem says". BBC News. June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  62. ^ Hill, Evan; Tiefenthäler, Ainara; Triebert, Christiaan; Jordan, Drew; Willis, Haley; Stein, Robin (May 31, 2020). "How George Floyd Was Killed in Police Custody". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  63. ^ Andrew, Scottie (June 1, 2020). "Derek Chauvin: What we know about the former officer charged in George Floyd's death". CNN.
  64. ^ "Fired Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin, who knelt on George Floyd's neck, arrested". Boston Globe. Associated Press. May 29, 2020. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  65. ^ Madani, Doha (June 3, 2020). "3 more Minneapolis officers charged in George Floyd death, Derek Chauvin charges elevated". NBC News. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  66. ^ "In pictures: Protesting the death of George Floyd". CNN. May 27, 2020. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  67. ^ a b "Demonstrators gather around Minneapolis to protest death of George Floyd". KSTP. May 26, 2020. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  68. ^ a b Wagner, Jeff (June 18, 2020). "'It's Real Ugly': Protesters Clash With Minneapolis Police After George Floyd's Death". WCCO.
  69. ^ "Family and Friends Mourn Minneapolis Police Killing Victim George Floyd". Time. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  70. ^ KTSP staff (May 27, 2020). "'This is the right call': Officers involved in fatal Minneapolis incident fired, mayor says". KTSP. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  71. ^ a b c Caputo, Angela, Craft, Will and Gilbert, Curtis (June 30, 30). "‘The precinct is on fire’: What happened at Minneapolis’ 3rd Precinct — and what it means". MPR News. Retrieved on July 1, 2020.
  72. ^ a b Stockman, Farah (July 4, 2020). "‘They have lost control’: How Minneapolis leaders failed to stop their city from burning" New York Times.
  73. ^ a b Jany, Libor (July 28, 2020). "Police: 'Umbrella Man' was a white supremacist trying to incite George Floyd rioting". Star Tribune. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  74. ^ Texas member of Boogaloo Bois charged with opening fire on Minneapolis police precinct during protests over George Floyd Star Tribune
  75. ^ Bakst, Brian (July 10, 2020). Guard mobilized quickly, adjusted on fly for Floyd unrest". MPR News. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
  76. ^ Doran, Kevin (June 11, 2020). "How the Minnesota National Guard connected with protesters during the George Floyd demonstrations". KSTP. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  77. ^ Mystery remains weeks after a pawnshop owner fatally shot a man during Minneapolis unrest Star Tribune.
  78. ^ Jany, Libor (July 20, 2020). "Authorities: Body found in wreckage of S. Minneapolis pawn shop burned during George Floyd unrest". Star Tribune. Retrieved on July 20, 2020.
  79. ^ Pham, Scott (June 2, 2020). "Police Arrested More Than 11,000 People At Protests Across The US". BuzzFeed News.
  80. ^ a b Lurie, Julia (July 15, 2020). "Weeks Later, 500 People Still Face Charges for Peacefully Protesting in Minneapolis". Mother Jones. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  81. ^ "For riot-damaged Twin Cities businesses, rebuilding begins with donations, pressure on government". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  82. ^ Penrod, Josh; Sinner, C.J.; Webster, MaryJo (June 19, 2020). "Buildings damaged in Minneapolis, St. Paul after riots". Star Tribune.
  83. ^ Braxton, Grey (June 16, 2020). "They documented the ’92 L.A. uprising. Here's how the George Floyd movement compares". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on July 6, 2020.
  84. ^ Sergent, Jim; Loehrke, Janet; Padilla, Ramon; Hertel, Nora (June 1, 2020). "George Floyd protests: How did we get here?". USA Today. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  85. ^ Ortiz, Fernie (June 10, 2020). "ICE now says detainees held hunger strike in honor of George Floyd". Border Report. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  86. ^ Frias, Lauren (May 29, 2020). "Watch inmates at a federal prison in downtown Chicago bang on walls and flash lights in solidarity with George Floyd protesters". Insider. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  87. ^ "George Floyd death: US protests timeline". BBC News. June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  88. ^ Elfrink, Tim; Iati, Marisa. "Seattle mayor blasts Trump's threat to 'take back' city after protesters set up 'autonomous zone'". Washington Post.
  89. ^ Baker, Mike (June 11, 2020). "Free Food, Free Speech and Free of Police: Inside Seattle's 'Autonomous Zone'" – via NYTimes.com.
  90. ^ "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey says download Signal as US protests gain steam". indiatimes.com. The Economic Times. June 5, 2020. Retrieved November 3, 2020.
  91. ^ a b Nierenberg, Amelia (June 11, 2020). "Signal Downloads Are Way Up Since the Protests Began". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2020.
  92. ^ Patil, Anushka (June 15, 2020). "How a March for Black Trans Lives Became a Huge Event". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  93. ^ Patil, Anushka (June 15, 2020). "How a March for Black Trans Lives Became a Huge Event". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  94. ^ Wortham, Jenna (June 5, 2020). "A 'Glorious Poetic Rage'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  95. ^ Adams, M.; Johnson, Janetta. "We Must Do Better Fighting For Black Trans Lives". Essence. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  96. ^ "ILWU to Shut Down West Coast Ports on Juneteenth in Solidarity with George Floyd Protesters". KQED. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  97. ^ Wayland, Michael (June 17, 2020). "United Auto Workers organizing 'peaceful and orderly stand downs' on Juneteenth for George Floyd and racial protests". CNBC. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  98. ^ Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas (June 18, 2020). "8 Minutes, 46 Seconds Became a Symbol in George Floyd's Death. The Exact Time Is Less Clear". The New York Times. Retrieved June 23, 2020. The precise length of time that Mr. Floyd was pinned beneath the officer's knee, however, is no longer as exact.
  99. ^ "Which US police reform plan might become law?". June 17, 2020 – via www.bbc.com.
  100. ^ Grisales, Claudia. "House Approves Police Reform Bill, But Issue Stalled Amid Partisan Standoff". NPR. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  101. ^ "Juneteenth in Brooklyn". Bklyner. June 19, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  102. ^ Jacobson, Don (July 20, 2020). "National 'Strike for Black Lives' to fight racism, low wages". United Press International. News World Communications. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
  103. ^ https://katu.com/news/local/protesters-stage-sit-in-at-portlands-revolution-hall-to-mark-george-floyds-47th-birthday
  104. ^ https://people.com/crime/beyonce-kerry-washington-and-more-remember-george-floyd-on-what-wouldve-been-his-47th-birthday/
  105. ^ "Protests across the globe after George Floyd's death". cnn.com. CNN. June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  106. ^ "Thousands join paddle outs at Hawaii beaches to honor George Floyd". HawaiiNewsNow.com. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  107. ^ "NYPD Boats 'Monitor' A Paddle Out In Rockaway". Stab Magazine. July 6, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  108. ^ "Surfers 'paddle out,' circle up in memory of George Floyd". nz.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  109. ^ Press, Brian Melley, Associated (June 6, 2020). "Galveston surfers among those who honored George Floyd in 'paddle out' held around world". KPRC. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  110. ^ https://in.reuters.com/article/us-usa-election-houston/in-george-floyds-hometown-a-season-of-protest-ends-at-the-polls-idUSKBN27H1DK
  111. ^ a b Wilkie, Christina; Macias, Amanda (June 1, 2020). "Trump threatens to deploy military as George Floyd protests continue to shake the U.S." CNBC. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  112. ^ Relman, Eliza (June 1, 2020). "GOP Sen. Tom Cotton calls for the US Army's toughest soldiers to quell 'domestic terrorism' and suggests protesters should be shown no mercy". Business Insider. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  113. ^ a b c Kalmbacher, Colin (June 1, 2020). "Republican Senator Called for 'No Quarter' Military Response to 'Looters.' Lawyers Note That's a War Crime". Law & Crime.
  114. ^ "Mass. elected officials denounce Trump's threat to use military to quell protests – The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  115. ^ Hansen, Claire (June 5, 2020). "Tall Fencing Creates Large, Imposing Perimeter Around White House". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  116. ^ Proud, Kelsey; Strupp, Julie; Gathright, Jenny; Diller, Nathan (June 8, 2020). "The New White House Fence Is Getting Covered In Protest Art". NPR. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  117. ^ Jackson, David (June 11, 2020). "Anti-protester fencing around Lafayette Park near White House comes down". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  118. ^ Cox, Joseph (June 3, 2020). "The Government is Regularly Flying Predator Drones Over American Cities". Vice.
  119. ^ Sands, Geneva (May 29, 2020). "Customs and Border Protection Drone Flew over Minneapolis to Provide Live Video to Law Enforcement". CNN.
  120. ^ Balsamo, Michael (June 1, 2020). "Barr: Law enforcement must 'dominate' streets amid protests". WHIO-TV. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  121. ^ "Customs and Border Patrol officers deployed to help D.C. police amid unrest in city". WJLA-TV. June 1, 2020.
  122. ^ Rawnsley, Adam (June 3, 2020). "Mystery Officers Patrolling D.C. Streets Are From Federal Prisons". The Daily Beast.
  123. ^ Capaccio, Anthony (June 4, 2020). "Federal Plan to Control D.C. Protests Has 7,600 Personnel Tapped". Bloomberg News.
  124. ^ Leopold, Jason; Cormier, Anthony (June 2, 2020). "The DEA Has Just Been Authorized to Conduct Surveillance on Protesters". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  125. ^ Leopold, Jason; Cormier, Anthony (June 5, 2020). "Lawmakers Call For Halt To Covert Surveillance Of Protesters By DEA". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  126. ^ "Executive Order 13933 of June 26, 2020" (PDF). Federal Register. 85 (128): 1–4. July 2, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  127. ^ a b "Homeland Security Gets New Role Under Trump Monument Order". U.S. News and World Report. Associated Press. July 10, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  128. ^ Lowndes, Joe (July 12, 2020). "It wasn't just a threat: Trump uses Homeland Security to attack BLM protests". Joe Lowndes. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  129. ^ a b Levinson, Jonathan. "Federal Officers Shoot Portland Protester In Head With 'Less Lethal' Munitions". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  130. ^ "Portland mayor demands Trump remove federal agents from city". The Guardian. Associated Press. July 18, 2020. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  131. ^ Levinson, Jonathan; Wilson, Conrad. "Federal Law Enforcement Use Unmarked Vehicles To Grab Protesters Off Portland Streets". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  132. ^ Phillips, N'dea Yancey-Bragg and Kristine. "Federal officers are pulling Portland protesters into unmarked vehicles, reports say". USA TODAY. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  133. ^ Shepherd, Katie (July 17, 2020). "'It was like being preyed upon': Portland protesters say federal officers in unmarked vans are detaining them". The Washington Post.
  134. ^ Olmos, Sergio; Baker, Mike (July 17, 2020). "Feds Vowed to Quell Unrest in Portland. Local Leaders Are Telling Them to Leave". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  135. ^ Ross, Jamie (July 17, 2020). "Unidentified Federal Agents Are Driving Around Portland in Unmarked Minivans and Grabbing Protesters". The Daily Beast. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  136. ^ a b Heer, Jeet (July 17, 2020). "Trump Unleashes His Secret Police in Portland". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  137. ^ "ACLU tweet". Twitter. Retrieved July 17, 2020. Usually when we see people in unmarked cars forcibly grab someone off the street we call it kidnapping — what is happening now in Portland should concern everyone in the US
  138. ^ Pratt, Gregory; Gorner, Jeremy (July 20, 2020). "Trump expected to send new federal force to Chicago this week to battle violence, but plan's full scope is a question mark". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
  139. ^ Jemima McEvoy. "14 Days Of Protests, 19 Dead". Forbes. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
  140. ^ "Homicides in Los Angeles Increase 250 Percent from Previous Week". Yahoo News. June 10, 2020.
  141. ^ "More Than 100 Arrests, 13 Officers Hurt Amid Chicago Looting". VOA News. August 10, 2020.
  142. ^ "These are all the cities where protests and riots have erupted over George Floyd's death". New Jersey Local News. June 2, 2020.
  143. ^ "Ambassador Andrew Young says Atlanta protest 'disintegrated into foolishness'". 11Alive.com.
  144. ^ "George Floyd's children denounce violence following protests across the country". WGN-TV. June 1, 2020. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  145. ^ a b c Dewan, Shaila; Baker, Mike (June 1, 2020). "Facing Protests Over Use of Force, Police Respond With More Force". The New York Times. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  146. ^ "USA: police must end 'excessive' militarised response to George Floyd protests". Amnesty International. May 31, 2020.
  147. ^ Falconer, Rebecca (May 31, 2020). "Amnesty International: U.S. police must end militarized response to protests". Axios.
  148. ^ Allam, Hannah (June 21, 2020). "Vehicle Attacks Rise As Extremists Target Protesters". NPR.
  149. ^ Grabar, Henry (August 14, 2017). "Mowing Down Crowds of Protesters Was a Right-Wing Fantasy Long Before Charlottesville". Slate Magazine. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  150. ^ Hauck, Grace (July 9, 2020). "'I would be very careful in the middle of the street': Drivers have hit protesters 66 times since May 27". USA Today. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  151. ^ Jeremy Herb; Evan Perez; Donie O'Sullivan; Mark Morales (May 31, 2020). "What we know about the extremists taking part in riots across the US". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  152. ^ Seldin, Jeff (June 4, 2020). "US Accuses Foreign, Online Actors of Inflaming Tensions". Voice of America. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020.
  153. ^ Eric Neugeboren (August 21, 2020). "Police Response to Press at Black Lives Matter Protests Tests First Amendment". Voice of America.
  154. ^ Trevor Timm (June 4, 2020). "We Crunched the Numbers: Police — Not Protesters — Are Overwhelmingly Responsible for Attacking Journalists". The Intercept.
  155. ^ Lorenzo Reyes (May 31, 2020). "Journalists blinded, injured, arrested covering George Floyd protests nationwide". USA Today.
  156. ^ Paul Walsh (June 11, 2020). "Officers slashed tires on vehicles parked amid Minneapolis protests, unrest". StarTribune.
  157. ^ Meg Kelly, Joyce Sohyun Lee, Jon Swaine (July 14, 2020). "Partially blinded by police". Washington Post.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  158. ^ LARRY NEUMEISTER and TOM HAYS (June 21, 2020). "Injuries at George Floyd protests draw scrutiny to use of 'nonlethal' police weaponry". StarTribune.
  159. ^ Liz Sawyer and Libor Jany (July 2, 2020). "Complaints skyrocket over police response to George Floyd protests". StarTribune.
  160. ^ Jeremy Herb; Evan Perez; Donie O'Sullivan; Mark Morales (May 31, 2020). "What we do and don't know about the extremists taking part in riots across the US". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  161. ^ "Anarchists infiltrating George Floyd protests in NYC, officials say". WABC-TV. June 2, 2020.
  162. ^ "Wray claims FBI sees 'anarchists like Antifa' exploiting George Floyd protests". Yahoo News. June 4, 2020.
  163. ^ "As Trump Blames Antifa, Protest Records Show Scant Evidence". Associated Press. June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020 – via Voice of America. The Associated Press analyzed court records, employment histories, social media posts and other sources of information for 217 people arrested last weekend [...] only a handful appeared to have any affiliation with organized groups. [...] Social media posts indicate only a few of those arrested are left-leaning activists, including a self-described anarchist. But others had indications of being on the political right, including some Trump supporters.
  164. ^ a b Feuer, Alan; Goldman, Adam; MacFarquhar, Neil (June 11, 2020). "Federal Arrests Show No Sign That Antifa Plotted Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2020. Despite claims by President Trump and Attorney General William P. Barr, there is scant evidence that loosely organized anti-fascists are a significant player in protests. [...] A review of the arrests of dozens of people on federal charges reveals no known effort by antifa to perpetrate a coordinated campaign of violence. Some criminal complaints described vague, anti-government political leanings among suspects, but a majority of the violent acts that have taken place at protests have been attributed by federal prosecutors to individuals with no affiliation to any particular group. [...] Dermot F. Shea, the city's police commissioner, acknowledged that most of the hundreds of people arrested at the protests in New York were actually New Yorkers who took advantage of the chaos to commit crimes and were not motivated by political ideology. John Miller, the police official who had briefed reporters, told CNN that most looting in New York had been committed by "regular criminal groups."
  165. ^ a b Kelly, Meg; Samuels, Elyse (June 22, 2020). "Who caused the violence at protests? It wasn't antifa". The Washington Post.
  166. ^ "Police point finger at gangs and local groups for riot damages, contradicting Trump's claims". CNN. June 10, 2020.
  167. ^ Burghart, Devin (June 19, 2020). "Mapping Paramilitary and Far-Right Threats to Racial Justice". IREHR. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  168. ^ "Facebook bans 'violent' Boogaloo-linked network". BBC News. July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  169. ^ Clayton, James (July 3, 2020). "TikTok's Boogaloo extremism problem". BBC News. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  170. ^ a b Porterfield, Carlie. "'Justice For George Floyd' Petition Becomes Most Popular Ever In U.S. For Change.org". Forbes. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  171. ^ World, Republic. "'Justice for George Floyd' petition becomes most signed Change.org petition of all time". Republic World. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  172. ^ Flood, Brian (May 28, 2020). "George Floyd protests: Video footage goes viral on social media". Fox News. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  173. ^ Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Tiku, Nitasha (June 5, 2020). "Facebook employees said they were 'caught in an abusive relationship' with Trump as internal debates raged". The Washington Post.
  174. ^ Frenkel, Sheera; Isaac, Mike; Kang, Cecilia; Dance, Gabriel J. X. (June 1, 2020). "Facebook Employees Stage Virtual Walkout to Protest Trump Posts". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  175. ^ Haasch, Palmer (May 29, 2020). "People are posting Minneapolis protest footage to TikTok and 'This Is America' has become their anthem". Insider. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  176. ^ Adams, Heather (June 1, 2020). "Social media captures Boston peaceful protests that turned to riots sparked by George Floyd's death". masslive. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  177. ^ Eadens, Savannah (June 1, 2020). "Viral photo shows line of white people between police, black protesters at Thursday rally". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  178. ^ Flores, Jessica (May 31, 2020). "The birth of the #WalkWithUs movement: Local leaders join George Floyd protesters across US in a show of solidarity". USA Today. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  179. ^ Keating, Shannon (June 4, 2020). "Stop Sharing Viral Photos Of Cops Kneeling With Protesters". BuzzFeed News.
  180. ^ a b Tesfaye, Sophia (June 5, 2020). "Copaganda: Most major media is still much too eager to embrace police-friendly framing".
  181. ^ a b c Darville, Jordan (June 2, 2020). "How to help in the George Floyd protests and beyond". The Fader.
  182. ^ a b LeBlanc, Cameron (June 2, 2020). "Let's Talk About That 'Brooklyn Nine-Nine' Scene That's Going Around". Fatherly.
  183. ^ McCurry, Justin (June 5, 2020). "K-pop fans join forces to drown out opposition to #BlackLivesMatter". The Guardian. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  184. ^ Lee, Alicia (June 4, 2020). "K-pop fans are taking over 'White Lives Matter' and other anti-Black hashtags with memes and fancams of their favorite stars". CNN. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  185. ^ Hou, Kathleen (June 4, 2020). "K-Pop Stans Unite to Take Over WhiteLivesMatter Hashtag". The Cut. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  186. ^ "Anonymous Message To The Minneapolis Police Department" – via www.facebook.com.
  187. ^ Griffin, Andrew (June 1, 2020). "'Anonymous' is back and is supporting the Black Lives Matter protests". The Independent. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  188. ^ Kartikay Mehrotra and Jamie Tarabay (May 31, 2020). "Anonymous Vows to 'Expose' Minneapolis Police, Site Attacked»". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  189. ^ Condon, Patrick (May 30, 2020). "Gov. Walz to 'fully mobilize' the National Guard". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  190. ^ Axelrod, Tal (May 30, 2020). "St. Paul mayor says arrested protesters were from out of state". The Hill. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  191. ^ Cranley, Ellen; Mark, Michelle (May 30, 2020). "Minnesota lawmakers said violence during George Floyd protests was from 'outside' actors, but jail records show most arrests are in-state". Insider Inc. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  192. ^ McNamara, Audrey (May 30, 2020). "St. Paul mayor says earlier comments about arrested protesters being out of state were not correct". CBS News. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  193. ^ Gjelten, Tom (June 1, 2020). "Peaceful Protesters Tear-Gassed To Clear Way For Trump Church Photo-Op". NPR. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  194. ^ "Statement from U.S. Park Police acting Chief Gregory T. Monahan about the actions taken to protect life and property". U.S. Park Police. National Park Service. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  195. ^ Smith, Lilly (June 4, 2020). "It's terrible that we even have to explain what pepper balls are, but here we are". Fast Company. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  196. ^ "Trump campaign demands story retractions on tear gas use". Al Jazeera. June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  197. ^ Albeen, Eric (June 3, 2020). "President Trump on the Brian Kilmeade Show". Fox News Radio. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  198. ^ a b Wolf, Cam. "That Viral "$2.4 Million Rolex Looting" Story? It Never Happened". GQ. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  199. ^ Moore, Tina (June 1, 2020). "Conflicting reports of looting at Soho Rolex store". New York Post. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  200. ^ Fichera, Angelo (June 4, 2020). "Viral Posts Share Old, Edited White House Photo in Dark". FactCheck.org.
  201. ^ a b Da Silva, Chantal (June 1, 2020). "White House Says Lights Go Out Same Time 'Almost Every Night' After Facing Criticism for Going Dark Amid Protests". Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  202. ^ Borger, Julian (June 1, 2020). "Fires light up Washington DC on third night of George Floyd protests". The Guardian. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  203. ^ "Old image edited to show White House black out". Associated Press. June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  204. ^ "Democrats share altered 'lights out' photo of White House on social media". Washington Examiner. June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  205. ^ a b Brunner, Jim (June 12, 2020). "Fox News runs digitally altered images in coverage of Seattle's protests, Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone". The Seattle Times.
  206. ^ a b c "'Antifa bus' hoaxes are spreading panic through small-town America". The Verge. June 5, 2020.
  207. ^ "False claims of antifa protesters plague small U.S. cities". Detroit News. June 2, 2020.
  208. ^ "Family reportedly harassed in Forks after being accused of being members of Antifa". Peninsula Daily News. June 6, 2020.
  209. ^ Boburg, Shawn (July 4, 2020). "Militias flocked to Gettysburg to foil a supposed Antifa flag burning, an apparent hoax created on social media". Washington Post. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  210. ^ Seitz, Amanda (May 30, 2020). "Minneapolis protest misinformation stokes racial tensions". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  211. ^ "Did an undercover cop really vandalize a Minnesota AutoZone?". The Daily Dot. May 29, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  212. ^ "'Not Our Officer': St. Paul PD Says Social Media Post Claiming One Of Its Officers Incited Mpls. Riots Is False". May 28, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  213. ^ Saint Paul Police Department. "YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  214. ^ Weill, Kelly and Bredderman, William (July 28, 2020). "This Is the Alleged White Supremacist ‘Umbrella Man’ Police Suspect of Minneapolis Chaos". The Daily Beast. Retrieved on July 28, 2020.
  215. ^ Timberg, Craig; Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Nirappil, Fenit. "Twitter became a major vehicle for misinformation about unrest in D.C." Washington Post.
  216. ^ "'None Of This Is True': Protests Become Fertile Ground for Online Disinformation". NPR.org.
  217. ^ Sebenius, Alyza; Wagner, Kurt (June 2, 2020). "Twitter Suspends Hundreds Tweeting #dcblackout During Protests". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  218. ^ Balz, Dan; Miller, Greg (June 6, 2020). "America convulses amid a week of protests, but can it change?". Washington Post. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  219. ^ a b Thompson, Alex. "White America is reckoning with racism. It could reshape 2020". Politico. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  220. ^ Woodly, Deva. "An American Reckoning". Public Seminar. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  221. ^ Elving, Ron (June 13, 2020). "Will This Be The Moment Of Reckoning On Race That Lasts?". National Public Radio. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
  222. ^ Brianna Keilar: You are watching America's reckoning - CNN Video, retrieved July 2, 2020
  223. ^ "Seeds of honesty in a US reckoning on race". Christian Science Monitor. June 23, 2020. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  224. ^ "Amid U.S. reckoning on race, Black candidates harness voters' fervor for change". Reuters. June 25, 2020. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  225. ^ "Opinion | Lincoln's D.C. statue is having a cultural reckoning of its own". Washington Post. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
  226. ^ McIntyre, Dave (July 3, 2020). "The Court of Master Sommeliers has been called out for racism. Now, it is pledging change". Washington Post. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
  227. ^ "Powell Discusses Fed Policy and U.S. Unrest". The New York Times. Associated Press. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  228. ^ a b c d e f Alberight, Amanda (May 31, 2020). "George Floyd protests hammer cities as they reopen from coronavirus lockdowns". Fortune. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  229. ^ Leticia Miranda, First came a pandemic. Then, looting. Small businesses pick up the pieces as their debt mounts., NBC News (June 4, 2020).
  230. ^ Russell Lynch, US riots set to scar economy for years to come, The Telegraph (June 6, 2020).
  231. ^ Lahut, Jake. "Trump says the jobs report is 'the greatest thing' for race relations, and the economy is his plan to address systemic racism". Business Insider. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  232. ^ Reinicke, Joseph Zeballos-Roig, Carmen. "Chart shows that black Americans weren't part of the surprise May hiring bump that benefited white and Latino workers". Business Insider. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  233. ^ Meredith, Sam (June 2, 2020). "What history can tell us about how stock markets react to civil unrest". CNBC. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  234. ^ Rabouin, Dion. "Pandemic and protests can't stop the stock market". Axios. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
  235. ^ Marcilious, Siblie (June 1, 2020). "3 ways civil unrest following George Floyd nationwide protests hurts the stock market". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  236. ^ Jim Sams, Insured Losses from Riots Reach 'Catastrophe' Levels, May Rival Record, Claims Journal (June 2, 2020).
  237. ^ Jessie Van Berkel & Liz Navratil, Mayor Frey seeks federal, state aid for Minneapolis, with early estimate showing at least $55M in damage, Star Tribune (June 4, 2020).
  238. ^ Damage from fires, vandalism in Minneapolis at $55 million and counting, city says, Associated Press (June 4, 2020).
  239. ^ Burl Gilyard, Riots Destroy $30M Affordable Housing Project Archived June 6, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Twin Cities Business (May 28, 2020).
  240. ^ Jim Buchta, Minneapolis vandalism targets include 189-unit affordable housing development, Star Tribune (May 28, 2020).
  241. ^ Andy Peters, Buckhead protest damaged tabbed at $10 million to $15 million, Atlanta Journal-Constitution (June 1, 2020).
  242. ^ "LA Mayor Faces Backlash For Defunding Police With $150 Million Budget Cut". Newsweek. June 5, 2020.
  243. ^ Rachel Lerman; Todd C. Frankel (June 1, 2020). "Retailers and restaurants across the U.S. close their doors amid protests". Washington Post. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  244. ^ Staff (September 18, 2020). "Minneapolis City Council approves George Perry Floyd Jr. Place as commemorative name for portion of Chicago Avenue". KSTP. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
  245. ^ Sandberg, Diane; Edwards, Kiya (August 17, 2020). "Talks continue on reopening 38th and Chicago in Mpls". KARE 11. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
  246. ^ Staff (August 14, 2020). "Minneapolis City Council Approves 7 New Cultural Districts To Advance Equity, Fuel Economic Growth". WCCO. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
  247. ^ "Confederate Monuments Are Coming Down, Are Streets And Highways Next?". NPR. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  248. ^ Suderman, Alan; Rankin, Sarah. "Virginia governor to announce removal of Lee statue". Associated Press. Associated Press. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  249. ^ "Today the Marine Corps released guidance on the removal of public displays of the Confederate battle flag". Twitter: The official Twitter account of the United States Marine Corps. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  250. ^ "Removal Public Displays of the Confederate Battle Flag > United States Marine Corps Flagship > Messages Display". marines.mil. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  251. ^ Browne, Ryan (June 9, 2020). "US Navy joins Marines in moving to ban Confederate battle flag". CNN. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  252. ^ "Alabama attorney general sues Birmingham for removing Confederate monument". al.com. June 2, 2020.
  253. ^ "George Washington statue toppled, American flag burned by Portland protesters". The Hill. June 19, 2020.
  254. ^ FOX 12 Staff (June 15, 2020). "District ready to listen after protesters tear down Thomas Jefferson statue in front of Portland high school". kptv.com. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  255. ^ "Protesters tear down statues of Union general Ulysses S. Grant, national anthem lyricist Francis Scott Key". The Hill. June 20, 2020.
  256. ^ "Theodore Roosevelt statue to be removed by New York museum". BBC News. June 22, 2020.
  257. ^ "Activist Who Wants White Jesus Statues Torn Down Says Christian Whiteness Has Always Been Violent". Newsweek. June 24, 2020.
  258. ^ "Photos of defaced statue of Philly abolitionist Matthias Baldwin go viral". The Philadelphia Inquirer. June 12, 2020.
  259. ^ "SF Mayor, Residents Decry Vandalism of Golden Gate Park Statues". CBS News. June 20, 2020.
  260. ^ "Winston Churchill statue vandalised in London during Black Lives Matter protests". The Times of India. June 8, 2020.
  261. ^ "Statue of Queen Victoria defaced in Hyde Park, Leeds". BBC News. June 9, 2020.
  262. ^ "Iconic Washington, DC, monuments defaced in night of protests". The Hill. June 1, 2020.
  263. ^ Diver, Tony (June 7, 2020). "Statue of slave trader Edward Colston pulled down and thrown into harbour by Bristol protesters". The Telegraph. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  264. ^ "Anti-racism activists draw up 'hit list' of 60 statues they want toppled in London, England". National Post. June 9, 2020.
  265. ^ Teri Schultz (June 5, 2020). "Belgians Target Some Royal Monuments In Black Lives Matter Protest". NPR.
  266. ^ "Defacement of Mahatma Gandhi's statue a 'disgrace', says Trump". The Hindu. PTI. June 9, 2020. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  267. ^ Service, Tribune News. "A disgrace, says Trump on Gandhi statue desecration". Tribuneindia News Service. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  268. ^ "Gandhi statue vandalisation a crime against humanity: India's Envoy to US". Hindustan Times. June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  269. ^ "Gandhi statue defiled in London". telegraphindia.com. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  270. ^ "Controversial statue of Captain John Hamilton to be removed - Hamilton City Council". Radio New Zealand. June 12, 2020. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020.
  271. ^ Neilson, Michael (June 12, 2020). "George Floyd protests: Hamilton City Council remove controversial Captain statue". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020.
  272. ^ "Winston Peters unimpressed with outcry over colonial statues". Radio New Zealand. June 12, 2020.
  273. ^ (1) Winsor, Morgan (June 23, 2020). "Protesters try to topple Andrew Jackson statue near White House". ABC News. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2020..
    (2) Kunkle, Fredrick; Svrluga, Susan; Jouvenal, Justin (June 23, 2020). "Police thwart attempt by protesters to topple statue of Andrew Jackson near White House". Local. The Washington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2020. Archived June 23, 2020, at the Wayback Machine.
  274. ^ (1) "Four Men Charged in Federal Court for Attempting to Tear Down Statue of Andrew Jackson in Lafayette Square Amid Protests". Press Release Number 20-073. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Justice: U.S. Attorney's Office: District of Columbia. June 27, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2020. Archived June 29, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
    (2) Weil, Martin (June 27, 2020). "4 charged in attempt to tear down Andrew Jackson statue in Lafayette Square". Public Safety. The Washington Post. Retrieved July 13, 2020. Archived June 29, 2020, at the Wayback Machine.
  275. ^ (1) "Man Charged in Federal Court for Attempting to Tear Down Statue of Andrew Jackson in Lafayette Square Amid Protests: Man also Charged with Destruction of Albert Pike Statue". Press Release Number 20-076. Washington, D.C: United States Department of Justice: U.S. Attorney's Office: District of Columbia. July 2, 2020. Archived from the original on July 15, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2020.
    (2) Gibson, Jake (July 2, 2020). "Feds arrest 'ringleader' in attack on Andrew Jackson statue by White House". Fox News. Archived from the original on July 2, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2020..
    (3) Weil, Martin (July 7, 2020). "D.C. man set Confederate statue on fire, prosectors allege". Public Safety. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 7, 2020. Retrieved July 20, 2020..
  276. ^ "HB1796 (As Sent to Governor) - 2020 Regular Session". billstatus.ls.state.ms.us.
  277. ^ "Mississippi Legislature 2020 Regular Session". House Bill 1796. billstatus.ls.state.ms.us.
  278. ^ Ramseth, Giacomo Bologna and Luke. "Changing the state flag: How Mississippi legislators made history in 4 hours on a rare Sunday session". The Clarion-Ledger.
  279. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcdc5tOZbc8
  280. ^ Betz, Bradford (June 30, 2020). "Mississippi governor signs bill retiring last state flag with Confederate battle emblem". Fox News.
  281. ^ "Mississippi governor signs bill to retire state's Confederate-themed flag". WDSU. June 30, 2020.
  282. ^ "With a pen stroke, Mississippi drops Confederate-themed flag". AP News. June 30, 2020.
  283. ^ "Trump blasts "left wing cultural revolution" at Mount Rushmore". Reuters. July 3, 2020.
  284. ^ "Washington Redskins to undergo thorough review of team's name". nfl.com.
  285. ^ "Statement From The Washington Football Team". washingtonfootball.com.
  286. ^ Burgess, Joel (July 29, 2020). "Asheville Confederate Vance Monument to be 'replaced' by George Floyd hologram; Task force appointed". Asheville Citizen-Times. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
  287. ^ a b c d Bailey, Holly (July 11, 2020). "Minneapolis police officers say they are suffering from PTSD after George Floyd protests". Washington Post. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
  288. ^ CNN, Hollie Silverman and Ray Sanchez. "About 170 Atlanta officers called out sick after cops were charged in Rayshard Brooks' death". CNN.
  289. ^ CNN, Brynn Gingras. "NYPD sees 'troubling' surge of retirement filings, official says". CNN.
  290. ^ McCarthy, Craig; Moore, Tina; Celona, Larry; Golding, Bruce (July 8, 2020). "NYPD limits retirement applications amid 400 percent surge this week".
  291. ^ "NYPD forced to impose limit on officers filing for retirement amid 400% surge of officers trying to quit". independent.co.uk.
  292. ^ Cahill, Nick; Iovino, Nicholas (June 5, 2020). "Newsom Tells California Police to Stop Using Carotid Chokehold". Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  293. ^ "Chief Struggles to Change Minneapolis Police Culture; Chokeholds Banned". NBC Los Angeles. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
  294. ^ "Denver fully bans chokeholds, requires report for aimed guns". Associated Press. June 8, 2020.
  295. ^ Claudia Grisales; Susan Davis; Kelsey Snell (June 8, 2020). "In Wake Of Protests, Democrats To Unveil Police Reform Legislation". NPR.
  296. ^ Leigh Ann Caldwell & Rebecca Shabad, Congressional Democrats unveil sweeping police reform bill that would ban chokeholds, no-knock warrants in drug cases, NBC News (June 8, 2020).
  297. ^ a b "House Approves Police Reform Bill, But Issue Stalled Amid Partisan Standoff". NPR.org. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  298. ^ "Nancy Pelosi Calls Trump 'Cowardly' For Not Wearing Mask, Supports Federal Mandate". NPR.org. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  299. ^ Jackson, David. "Donald Trump to sign order to encourage police to limit deadly force". USA Today.
  300. ^ Liptak, Kevin (June 16, 2020). "Trump offers full-throated defense of police in executive action signing". CNN.com. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  301. ^ "Portland mayor bans cops from using tear gas during protests". ABC News. September 10, 2020. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
  302. ^ Searcey, Dionne; Eligon, John (June 7, 2020). "Minneapolis Will Dismantle Its Police Force, Council Members Pledge". Retrieved June 8, 2020 – via NYTimes.com.
  303. ^ Desmond, Declan. "After being booed at protest, Frey says he's still against abolishing police". Bring Me The News. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  304. ^ Brufke, Juliegrace (June 5, 2020). "NRCC turns up heat on vulnerable Democrats over Omar's call to abolish police". The Hill.
  305. ^ Navratil, Liz (June 26, 2020). "Push to 'end' Minneapolis Police Department could keep officers". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
  306. ^ Wong, Jessica (June 12, 2020). "Protests against police brutality spur reflection on TV cop shows". CBC. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  307. ^ Hess, Amanda (June 10, 2020). "The Protests Come for 'Paw Patrol'". The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
  308. ^ "'Cops' Show Canceled Amid Worldwide Protests Against Police Violence". NPR.org.
  309. ^ "A&E's Popular Show 'Live PD' Is Canceled Amid Protests Over Police Brutality". NPR.org.
  310. ^ "HBO Max Shelves 'Gone With The Wind' Temporarily For 'Racial Prejudices'". NPR.org.
  311. ^ Cleese, John. "The BBC's website refers to my 'fury'". Twitter. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
  312. ^ Cleese, John. "Pleased to see that the BBC website has already removed the word 'fury'". Twitter. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
  313. ^ "Fawlty Towers: The Germans episode to be reinstated by UKTV". BBC News. June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  314. ^ "UKTV to reinstate Fawlty Towers episode The Germans". The Guardian. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
  315. ^ Griffiths, George. "Fawlty Towers episode The Germans to be reinstated on UKTV after removal for racial references". Metro. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
  316. ^ "Little Britain removed from BBC iPlayer, Netflix and BritBox due to use of blackface". The Guardian. June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  317. ^ Otterson, Joe. "Jenny Slate Exits 'Big Mouth': 'Black Characters Should Be Played by Black People'". Variety. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  318. ^ Thorne, Will (June 24, 2020). "Kristen Bell Will No Longer Voice Mixed-Race Character in Apple's 'Central Park'". Variety. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  319. ^ Haring, Bruce (June 26, 2020). "'Family Guy' Voice Actor Mike Henry Stepping Down From 'Cleveland Brown' Role".
  320. ^ Gelman, Vlada (June 26, 2020). "Simpsons Will 'No Longer' Have White Actors Play Non-White Characters". TVLine. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  321. ^ Andrew, Scottie (June 23, 2020). "Tina Fey asks platforms to pull several '30 Rock' episodes that showed characters in blackface". CNN. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  322. ^ Thorne, Will (June 26, 2020). "'The Office' Blackface Scene Edited Out, Netflix Pulls 'Community' Blackface Episode". Variety. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  323. ^ Shafer, Ellise (June 28, 2020). "'Golden Girls' Episode With Blackface Scene Removed From Hulu". Variety.
  324. ^ "Netflix removes Peep Show blackface scene". Evening Standard. June 29, 2020.
  325. ^ Nemetz, Dave (June 23, 2020). "Brooklyn Nine-Nine to Scrap All Episodes Written for Season 8, Terry Crews Says: 'We Have to Start Over'". TVLine. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
  326. ^ Ramirez, Michael (June 25, 2020). "New Adventures with Princess Tiana Coming to Disneyland Park and Magic Kingdom Park". Disney Parks Blog. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  327. ^ Hipes, Patrick (June 25, 2020). "Disneyland's Splash Mountain To Be Reimagined With 'Princess And The Frog' Theme". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
  328. ^ "Background checks, a metric for gun sales, hit all-time high". AP NEWS. July 1, 2020.
  329. ^ Brown, Dalvin. "Americans are loading up on guns and ammo in the wake of race protests". USA Today. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  330. ^ Pagones, Stephanie (June 4, 2020). "Over 2M new gun owners reported in first half of 2020". FOXBusiness. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  331. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "Gun sales surge 80% in May, says research firm". The Washington Times. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  332. ^ Rosenberg-Douglas, Katherine. "'Guns are flying off the shelf.' Permit applications up more than 500% amid coronavirus pandemic and George Floyd fallout". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  333. ^ Stein, Ethan. "Background checks for gun sales set record again in June". kcrg.com.
  334. ^ "Subscribe to read | Financial Times". ft.com.
  335. ^ "Gun Sales Spike, FBI Background Checks Set New Record". July 1, 2020.
  336. ^ Business, Chauncey Alcorn, CNN. "Gun and ammunition sales soar as defund-the-police movement grows". CNN. Retrieved June 30, 2020.; "Gun permits surged during coronavirus in liberal-leaning states: Report". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved June 30, 2020.; Pagones, Stephanie (June 18, 2020). "Gun permits surged during coronavirus in liberal-leaning states: Report". FOXBusiness. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  337. ^ "Amid Protests And Virus Fears, Firearm Background Checks Hit All-Time High". NPR.org.
  338. ^ Swan, Betsy Woodruff. "Gun store robberies alarm law enforcement officials". POLITICO. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  339. ^ McKay, Hollie (June 12, 2020). "Gun stores common target for looters, thieves who work amid protests". Fox News. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  340. ^ "Protests could trigger virus surge in Minnesota as deaths hit new high". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  341. ^ a b Luscombe, Richard (May 31, 2020). "Fears grow of US coronavirus surge from George Floyd protests". The Guardian. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  342. ^ a b c d e Silverman (June 1, 2020). "Health experts and state leaders fear coronavirus could spread rapidly during mass protests in US". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  343. ^ a b "Mass protests could lead to another wave of coronavirus infections". ABC News. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  344. ^ "Coronavirus has infected at least 450,000 health-care workers worldwide, report says". Washington Post. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  345. ^ Beer, Tommy. "Experts Fear Minneapolis Protests Will Trigger Spike In Coronavirus Cases". Forbes. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  346. ^ a b c "U.S. cities fear George Floyd protests may fuel new wave of coronavirus outbreaks". Los Angeles Times. May 30, 2020. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  347. ^ Meyer, Robinson (June 1, 2020). "The Protests Will Spread the Coronavirus". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  348. ^ Jr, Berkeley Lovelace (June 4, 2020). "CDC warns George Floyd protests may be 'seeding event' for more coronavirus outbreaks". CNBC. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  349. ^ "Surgeon general: 'Every reason to expect' coronavirus clusters after protests". The Hill. June 2, 2020.
  350. ^ Meek, Andy (June 7, 2020). "Dr. Fauci is worried that protesters may be spreading coronavirus". BGR. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  351. ^ Silverman, Hollie (May 30, 2020). "Minnesota governor says he expects to see a spike in Covid-19 cases following protests". CNN. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  352. ^ a b "Cuomo says George Floyd protesters should assume they've been exposed to coronavirus". CBS News. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  353. ^ Ting, Eric (June 9, 2020). "How long will it take to gauge the impact of George Floyd protests on coronavirus spread". SFGate. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  354. ^ a b c d luscombe, Richard (May 31, 2020). "Fears grow of US coronavirus surge from George Floyd protests". The Guardian. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  355. ^ "Citing COVID-19, Australia seeks to bar George Floyd protests". Reuters. June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  356. ^ Murphy, Katharine (June 7, 2020). "Linda Burney urges Mathias Cormann to 'listen' after he condemned Black Lives Matter protests". The Guardian. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  357. ^ "Coronavirus: Evening update". BBC News. June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  358. ^ a b McKie, Robin; Tapper, James; Savage, Michael (June 6, 2020). "Prime minister told to dump rhetoric and plan for new Covid wave". The Observer. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
  359. ^ Mason, Rowena (June 7, 2020). "Black Lives Matter protests risk spreading Covid-19, says Hancock". The Guardian. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  360. ^ "Anti-racism protests undoubtedly increase risk of coronavirus spread: UK health minister". Reuters. June 7, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  361. ^ "Earlier Coronavirus Second Wave Feared in Europe After Mass Protests". The New York Times. June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  362. ^ "Earlier Coronavirus Second Wave Feared in Europe After Mass Protests". Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  363. ^ Whyte, Anna (June 2, 2020). "Police Minister understands Black Lives Matter protestors will not be prosecuted". 1 News. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  364. ^ "MN health officials urge those protesting George Floyd's death to get tested for coronavirus. Here's how". Twin Cities. June 8, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  365. ^ "George Floyd protesters told to get tested as global cases top 6 million". NBC News. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  366. ^ a b Weiner, Rachel. "Political and health leaders' embrace of Floyd protests fuels debate over coronavirus restrictions". Washington Post. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  367. ^ Goodnough, Abby (June 12, 2020). "C.D.C. Calls for Masks at Large Gatherings, Warning of Crowd Risks". The New York Times. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  368. ^ "Fauci underscores concerns about protests spreading coronavirus". The Hill. June 10, 2020.
  369. ^ a b "Will the Protests Spread Coronavirus? Experts Say It's Too Soon to Tell". bloomberg.com. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  370. ^ Lemos, Gregory (June 2, 2020). "Floyd family says public memorial service will be held in Houston on Monday". CNN. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  371. ^ Ly, Laura (May 30, 2020). "Philadelphia mayor urges protesters to be peaceful and maintain social distancing as much as possible". CNN. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  372. ^ a b Ransom, Jan (June 4, 2020). "Despite Virus, Hundreds Arrested in Unrest Are Held in Cramped Jails". New York Times.
  373. ^ Baker, Mike (June 3, 2020). "Corrosive Effects of Tear Gas Could Intensify Coronavirus Pandemic". The New York Times.
  374. ^ Meyer, Robinson (June 1, 2020). "The Protests Will Spread the Coronavirus". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  375. ^ Weintraub, Ken Alltucker and Karen. "Experts warn large protests may 'become breeding grounds' for the coronavirus". USA Today. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  376. ^ a b "Mass gatherings, erosion of trust upend coronavirus control". The Seattle Times. May 31, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  377. ^ a b Simon, Mallory. "Over 1,000 health professionals sign a letter saying, Don't shut down protests using coronavirus concerns as an excuse". CNN. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  378. ^ "Covid-19 Cases Were Already Rising Before the George Floyd Protests". Wired. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  379. ^ Harmon, Amy; Rojas, Rick (June 7, 2020). "A Delicate Balance: Weighing Protest Against the Risks of the Coronavirus". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  380. ^ Powell, Michael (July 6, 2020). "Are Protests Dangerous? What Experts Say May Depend on Who's Protesting What". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  381. ^ Williams, Thomas Chatterton (June 8, 2020). "We often accuse the right of distorting science. But the left changed the coronavirus narrative overnight". the Guardian. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  382. ^ Greenwald, Glenn. "The Abrupt, Radical Reversal in How Public Health Experts Now Speak About the Coronavirus and Mass Gatherings". The Intercept. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  383. ^ a b c d e f Hal Bernton (June 30, 2020). "Protests don't appear to be driving coronavirus surge in Seattle area or elsewhere, researchers say". Seattle Times.
  384. ^ a b Dhaval M. Dave, Andrew I. Friedson, Kyutaro Matsuzawa, Joseph J. Sabia, Samuel Safford (June 2020). "NBER Working Paper No. 27408: Black Lives Matter Protests, Social Distancing, and COVID-19". National Bureau of Economic Research.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  385. ^ a b c d e Joseph Goldstein (July 1, 2020). "Did Floyd Protests Lead to a Virus Surge? Here's What We Know". New York Times.
  386. ^ a b German Lopez (June 26, 2020). "Coronavirus cases are increasing, but Black Lives Matter protests may not be to blame. Here's why". Vox. So what is causing the recent uptick in Covid-19 cases, which led to the US hitting its highest number of daily new cases ever this week? Experts pointed to states reopening, particularly allowing indoor gatherings — at bars, restaurants, barbershops, workplaces, and so on — in which the coronavirus is more likely to spread. Studies show that previous measures to close down such gatherings likely helped lower Covid-19 cases.
  387. ^ Nik DeCosta-Klipa (June 23, 2020). "Charlie Baker announces results of coronavirus testing". Boston.com.
  388. ^ Shalby, Colleen (June 22, 2020). "For third day in a week, L.A. County reports more than 2,000 new coronavirus cases". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  389. ^ a b Kaplan, Fred (June 17, 2020). "It Doesn't Look Like the Protests Are Causing a COVID-19 Spike". Slate Magazine. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  390. ^ Ted Oberg (June 30, 2020). "200 HPD officers under COVID-19 quarantine, chief not among them". KTRK.
  391. ^ "D.C. National Guard Members Test Positive for Coronavirus After Protests". Time. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  392. ^ Mansell, William; Cathey, Libby (May 30, 2020). "Twitter flags Trump, White House for 'glorifying violence' in tweets about George Floyd protests". ABC News. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  393. ^ Purnell, Newley; Restuccia, Andrew (May 29, 2020). "Twitter Flags Trump Tweet About George Floyd Protests for 'Glorifying Violence'". wsj.com. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  394. ^ Panetta, Grace. "Trump claims his 'when the looting starts, the shooting starts' remarks weren't a call to violence but instead a 'fact'". Business Insider. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  395. ^ Rogers, Katie (June 1, 2020). "As Trump Calls Protesters 'Terrorists,' Tear Gas Clears a Path for His Walk to a Church". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2020.

Further reading

Arrangement is chronological.

External links