Page semi-protected

COVID-19 pandemic in Canada

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

COVID-19 pandemic in Canada
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Canada (Pop Density).svg
Total cases per million inhabitants by province/territory
COVID-19 Outbreak Deaths in Canada (Pop Density).svg
Total deaths per million inhabitants by province/territory
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseToronto, Ontario
Arrival dateJanuary 22, 2020[1]
(1 year and 4 days)
Confirmed cases753,011[2]
Active cases62,447[2]
Fatality rate2.55%
Government website

The COVID-19 pandemic in Canada is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus was confirmed to have reached Canada on January 27, 2020, after an individual who had returned to Toronto from Wuhan, Hubei, China, tested positive.

The Government of Canada has released modelling anticipating 11,000–22,000 deaths over the course of the pandemic, assuming "stronger epidemic control".[3]

Most cases over the course of the pandemic have been in Quebec, Ontario and Alberta. Confirmed cases have been reported in all of Canada's provinces and territories,[4] with Nunavut reporting its first confirmed case on November 6.[5] Until March, all cases were linked to recent travel to a country with a substantial number of cases. The first case of community transmission in Canada was confirmed in British Columbia on March 5.[6] In mid-March 2020, as cases of community transmission were confirmed, all of Canada's provinces and territories declared states of emergency. Provinces and territories have, to varying degrees, implemented school and daycare closures, prohibitions on gatherings, closures of non-essential businesses, restrictions on entry, and mandatory self-isolation for travellers.[7] Canada severely restricted its border access, barring travellers from all countries with some exceptions. The federal Minister of Health invoked the Quarantine Act for the first time in its legislative history, legally requiring all travellers (excluding essential workers) returning to the country to self-isolate for 14 days.

By mid to late summer of 2020, the country saw a steady decline in active cases. Beginning late summer and through autumn, the country saw a resurgence of cases in most provinces and territories. Prime Minister Trudeau declared that Canada was experiencing a second wave of the virus.[8] New restrictions and reactions from provincial governments were put in place once again as cases increased, including variations of regional lockdowns. In late November there was a disbandment of the Atlantic Bubble, a travel-restricted area of the country set up amongst New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia & Newfoundland and Labrador. The federal government passed legislation to approve further modified economic aid for businesses and individuals.[9] Following Health Canada's approval of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, and later the mRNA-1273 vaccine developed by Moderna, vaccinations began nation-wide December 14, 2020.[10][11]

Background and epidemiology

On January 12, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was reported to the WHO on December 31, 2019.[12][13]

The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 has been much lower than SARS of 2003,[14][15] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[16][14]

COVID-19 pandemic in Canada by province and territory, 26 January 2021 0055 UTC ()
Province Population Tests Per k Cases Per m Recov. Deaths Per m Active Ref.
British Columbia British Columbia 5,110,917 1,663,576 325.6 64,828 12,686 57,831 1,154 225.8 4,392 [17]
Alberta Alberta 4,413,145 3,108,982 704.5 121,535 27,540 110,622 1,574 356.7 9,337 [18]
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan 1,181,666 493,132 417.6 22,416 18,981 18,890 254 215.1 3,272 [19]
Manitoba Manitoba 1,377,517 466,635 338.9 28,810 20,922 24,464 804 583.9 3,542 [20]
Ontario Ontario 14,711,827 9,344,959 635.2 256,960 17,467 227,494 5,846 397.4 23,620 [21][22]
Quebec Quebec 8,537,674 5,674,108 664.6 254,836 29,851 228,887 9,521 1,115.3 16,424 [23][24]
New Brunswick New Brunswick 779,993 187,710 240.7 1,151 1,476 788 14 17.9 348 [25]
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island 158,158 84,787 536.1 110 694 103 0 0 7 [26]
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia 977,457 275,588 281.9 1,571 1,607 1,491 65 66.5 15 [27]
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador 521,365 78,257 150.1 398 763 386 4 7.7 5 [28]
Yukon Yukon 41,078 6,229 151.6 70 1,704 69 1 24.3 0 [29]
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories 44,904 11,855 264 43 958 37 0 0 6 [30]
Nunavut Nunavut 39,097 6,306 161.3 282 7,213 264 1 51.2 17 [31]
 Repatriated travellers N/A N/A N/A 13 N/A 13 0 N/A 0 [32][33][34]
Canada Canada 37,894,839 21,402,124 564.8 753,023 19,872 671,339 19,238 507.7 60,985


On January 1, 2020, the WHO set up the IMST (Incident Management Support Team) across all three levels of the organization: headquarters, regional headquarters and country level, putting the organization on an emergency footing for dealing with the outbreak.[35]

On January 7, when it appeared that there was a health crisis emerging in Wuhan, Public Health Canada advised travellers to China to avoid contact with animals, noting that they were very carefully monitoring the situation but there wasn't evidence of what caused the illness, or how it's spread.[36]

On January 14, a person in Thailand was the first patient outside of China who was confirmed to have COVID-19.[35]

On January 15, the federal government activated its Emergency Operations Centre.[37]

On January 17, the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) indicated plans were in progress "to implement signage" in the Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver airports to raise awareness of the virus, and that there would be an additional health screening question added to the electronic kiosks for passengers arriving from central China. The agency noted the overall risk to Canadians was low and there were no direct flights from Wuhan to Canada. The CBSA said it would not be, at that time, implementing extra screening measures, but would "monitor the situation closely".[38][39]

On January 23, the federal Minister of Health, Patty Hajdu, said that five or six people were being monitored for signs of the virus.[40][41] That same day, Dr. Theresa Tam was a member of the WHO committee that broadcast that it was too early to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The following day, in Wuhan, China, construction began on a new hospital to treat COVID-19 patients. The hospital took only 10 days to build and was widely reported around the world.[42]

Timeline of outbreak in Canada

COVID-19 cases in Canada  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
Last 15 daysLast 15 days
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-01-25 1(n.a.)
2020-01-26 1(=)
2020-01-27 2(+100%)
2020-01-28 3(+50%)
2020-01-31 4(+33%)
2020-02-04 5(+25%)
2020-02-05 5(=)
2020-02-06 7(+40%)
2020-02-12 7(=)
2020-02-13 7(=)
2020-02-14 8(+14%)
2020-02-19 8(=)
2020-02-20 9(+12%)
2020-02-23 10(+11%)
2020-02-24 11(+10%)
2020-02-25 11(=)
2020-02-26 12(+9.1%)
2020-02-27 14(+17%)
2020-02-28 16(+14%)
86(+28%) 1(n.a.)
95(+10%) 1(=)
116(+22%) 1(=)
156(+34%) 1(=)
198(+27%) 1(=)
257(+30%) 1(=)
341(+33%) 1(=)
441(+29%) 4(+300%)
597(+35%) 8(+100%)
727(+22%) 9(+12%)
872(+20%) 12(+33%)
1,087(+25%) 13(+8.3%)
1,331(+22%) 18(+38%)
1,470(+10%) 20(+11%)
2,091(+42%) 24(+20%)
2,792(+34%) 27(+12%)
3,409(+22%) 35(+30%)
4,043(+19%) 39(+11%)
4,757(+18%) 55(+41%)
5,655(+19%) 61(+11%)
6,320(+12%) 66(+8.2%)
7,448(+18%) 89(+35%)
8,591(+15%) 101(+13%)
9,731(+13%) 111(+9.9%)
11,283(+16%) 138(+24%)
12,549(+11%) 187(+36%)
14,018(+12%) 233(+25%)
15,512(+11%) 280(+20%)
16,667(+7.4%) 323(+15%)
17,897(+7.4%) 381(+18%)
19,291(+7.8%) 435(+14%)
20,765(+7.6%) 508(+17%)
22,148(+6.7%) 569(+12%)
23,318(+5.3%) 653(+15%)
24,383(+4.6%) 717(+9.8%)
25,680(+5.3%) 780(+8.8%)
27,063(+5.4%) 903(+16%)
28,379(+4.9%) 1,010(+12%)
30,106(+6.1%) 1,195(+18%)
31,927(+6%) 1,310(+9.6%)
33,383(+4.6%) 1,470(+12%)
35,056(+5%) 1,587(+8%)
36,831(+5.1%) 1,690(+6.5%)
38,422(+4.3%) 1,834(+8.5%)
40,190(+4.6%) 1,974(+7.6%)
42,110(+4.8%) 2,147(+8.8%)
43,888(+4.2%) 2,302(+7.2%)
45,354(+3.3%) 2,465(+7.1%)
46,895(+3.4%) 2,560(+3.9%)
48,500(+3.4%) 2,707(+5.7%)
50,026(+3.1%) 2,859(+5.6%)
51,597(+3.1%) 2,996(+4.8%)
53,236(+3.2%) 3,184(+6.3%)
55,061(+3.4%) 3,391(+6.5%)
56,714(+3%) 3,566(+5.2%)
59,474(+4.9%) 3,682(+3.3%)
60,772(+2.2%) 3,854(+4.7%)
62,046(+2.1%) 4,043(+4.9%)
63,496(+2.3%) 4,232(+4.7%)
64,922(+2.2%) 4,408(+4.2%)
66,434(+2.3%) 4,569(+3.7%)
67,702(+1.9%) 4,693(+2.7%)
68,848(+1.7%) 4,871(+3.8%)
69,981(+1.6%) 4,993(+2.5%)
71,157(+1.7%) 5,169(+3.5%)
72,278(+1.6%) 5,304(+2.6%)
73,401(+1.6%) 5,472(+3.2%)
74,613(+1.7%) 5,562(+1.6%)
75,770(+1.6%) 5,677(+2.1%)
77,002(+1.6%) 5,782(+1.8%)
78,072(+1.4%) 5,842(+1%)
79,112(+1.3%) 5,912(+1.2%)
80,142(+1.3%) 6,031(+2%)
81,324(+1.5%) 6,152(+2%)
82,480(+1.4%) 6,250(+1.6%)
83,621(+1.4%) 6,355(+1.7%)
84,699(+1.3%) 6,424(+1.1%)
85,711(+1.2%) 6,545(+1.9%)
86,647(+1.1%) 6,639(+1.4%)
87,517(+1%) 6,765(+1.9%)
88,511(+1.1%) 6,877(+1.7%)
89,417(+1%) 6,979(+1.5%)
90,189(+0.86%) 7,073(+1.3%)
90,946(+0.84%) 7,295(+3.1%)
91,705(+0.83%) 7,326(+0.42%)
92,410(+0.77%) 7,395(+0.94%)
93,085(+0.73%) 7,498(+1.4%)
93,726(+0.69%) 7,637(+1.9%)
94,335(+0.65%) 7,703(+0.86%)
95,057(+0.77%) 7,773(+0.91%)
95,699(+0.68%) 7,800(+0.35%)
96,244(+0.57%) 7,835(+0.45%)
96,652(+0.42%) 7,896(+0.78%)
97,125(+0.49%) 7,960(+0.81%)
97,530(+0.42%) 7,994(+0.43%)
97,945(+0.43%) 8,049(+0.69%)
98,410(+0.47%) 8,107(+0.72%)
98,787(+0.38%) 8,146(+0.48%)
99,147(+0.36%) 8,175(+0.36%)
99,467(+0.32%) 8,213(+0.46%)
99,853(+0.39%) 8,254(+0.5%)
100,220(+0.37%) 8,299(+0.55%)
100,629(+0.41%) 8,346(+0.57%)
101,019(+0.39%) 8,410(+0.77%)
101,337(+0.31%) 8,430(+0.24%)
101,637(+0.3%) 8,436(+0.07%)
101,963(+0.32%) 8,454(+0.21%)
102,242(+0.27%) 8,484(+0.35%)
102,622(+0.37%) 8,504(+0.24%)
102,794(+0.17%) 8,508(+0.05%)
103,032(+0.23%) 8,516(+0.09%)
103,250(+0.21%) 8,522(+0.07%)
103,918(+0.65%) 8,566(+0.52%)
104,204(+0.28%) 8,591(+0.29%)
104,420(+0.21%) 8,619(+0.33%)
104,771(+0.34%) 8,642(+0.27%)
105,090(+0.3%) 8,663(+0.24%)
105,316(+0.22%) 8,674(+0.13%)
105,535(+0.21%) 8,684(+0.12%)
105,934(+0.38%) 8,693(+0.1%)
106,106(+0.16%) 8,708(+0.17%)
106,433(+0.31%) 8,737(+0.33%)
106,804(+0.35%) 8,749(+0.14%)
107,125(+0.3%) 8,759(+0.11%)
107,347(+0.21%) 8,773(+0.16%)
107,812(+0.43%) 8,783(+0.11%)
108,156(+0.32%) 8,790(+0.08%)
108,486(+0.31%) 8,798(+0.09%)
108,827(+0.31%) 8,810(+0.14%)
109,264(+0.4%) 8,827(+0.19%)
109,669(+0.37%) 8,839(+0.14%)
109,999(+0.3%) 8,848(+0.1%)
110,338(+0.31%) 8,852(+0.05%)
111,124(+0.71%) 8,858(+0.07%)
111,697(+0.52%) 8,862(+0.05%)
112,240(+0.49%) 8,870(+0.09%)
112,672(+0.38%) 8,874(+0.05%)
113,206(+0.47%) 8,881(+0.08%)
113,556(+0.31%) 8,885(+0.05%)
113,911(+0.31%) 8,890(+0.06%)
114,597(+0.6%) 8,901(+0.12%)
114,994(+0.35%) 8,912(+0.12%)
115,406(+0.36%) 8,919(+0.08%)
115,799(+0.34%) 8,929(+0.11%)
116,312(+0.44%) 8,935(+0.07%)
116,599(+0.25%) 8,941(+0.07%)
116,884(+0.24%) 8,945(+0.04%)
117,031(+0.13%) 8,947(+0.02%)
117,792(+0.65%) 8,958(+0.12%)
118,187(+0.34%) 8,962(+0.04%)
118,561(+0.32%) 8,966(+0.04%)
118,985(+0.36%) 8,970(+0.04%)
119,221(+0.2%) 8,976(+0.07%)
119,451(+0.19%) 8,981(+0.06%)
120,132(+0.57%) 8,987(+0.07%)
120,421(+0.24%) 8,991(+0.04%)
120,844(+0.35%) 9,006(+0.17%)
121,234(+0.32%) 9,015(+0.1%)
121,652(+0.34%) 9,020(+0.06%)
121,889(+0.19%) 9,024(+0.04%)
122,558(+0.55%) 9,026(+0.02%)
122,872(+0.26%) 9,032(+0.07%)
123,151(+0.23%) 9,044(+0.13%)
123,487(+0.27%) 9,049(+0.06%)
123,870(+0.31%) 9,054(+0.06%)
124,372(+0.41%) 9,064(+0.11%)
124,629(+0.21%) 9,071(+0.08%)
124,896(+0.21%) 9,073(+0.02%)
125,647(+0.6%) 9,083(+0.11%)
125,969(+0.26%) 9,090(+0.08%)
126,417(+0.36%) 9,094(+0.04%)
126,848(+0.34%) 9,102(+0.09%)
127,358(+0.4%) 9,108(+0.07%)
127,673(+0.25%) 9,113(+0.05%)
127,940(+0.21%) 9,117(+0.04%)
128,948(+0.79%) 9,126(+0.1%)
129,425(+0.37%) 9,132(+0.07%)
129,923(+0.38%) 9,135(+0.03%)
130,493(+0.44%) 9,141(+0.07%)
131,124(+0.48%) 9,141(=)
131,495(+0.28%) 9,143(+0.02%)
131,895(+0.3%) 9,145(+0.02%)
132,142(+0.19%) 9,146(+0.01%)
133,621(+1.1%) 9,153(+0.08%)
134,294(+0.5%) 9,155(+0.02%)
134,924(+0.47%) 9,163(+0.09%)
135,626(+0.52%) 9,163(=)
136,141(+0.38%) 9,170(+0.08%)
136,659(+0.38%) 9,171(+0.01%)
138,010(+0.99%) 9,179(+0.09%)
138,803(+0.57%) 9,188(+0.1%)
139,747(+0.68%) 9,193(+0.05%)
140,867(+0.8%) 9,200(+0.08%)
141,911(+0.74%) 9,205(+0.05%)
142,774(+0.61%) 9,211(+0.07%)
143,649(+0.61%) 9,217(+0.07%)
145,415(+1.2%) 9,228(+0.12%)
146,663(+0.86%) 9,234(+0.07%)
147,753(+0.74%) 9,243(+0.1%)
149,094(+0.91%) 9,249(+0.06%)
150,456(+0.91%) 9,255(+0.06%)
151,671(+0.81%) 9,262(+0.08%)
153,125(+0.96%) 9,268(+0.06%)
155,301(+1.4%) 9,278(+0.11%)
156,961(+1.1%) 9,291(+0.14%)
158,758(+1.1%) 9,297(+0.06%)
160,535(+1.1%) 9,319(+0.24%)
162,659(+1.3%) 9,409(+0.97%)
164,471(+1.1%) 9,462(+0.56%)
166,156(+1%) 9,481(+0.2%)
168,960(+1.7%) 9,504(+0.24%)
171,323(+1.4%) 9,530(+0.27%)
173,123(+1.1%) 9,541(+0.12%)
175,559(+1.4%) 9,557(+0.17%)
178,117(+1.5%) 9,585(+0.29%)
180,179(+1.2%) 9,608(+0.24%)
181,864(+0.94%) 9,613(+0.05%)
182,839(+0.54%) 9,627(+0.15%)
186,881(+2.2%) 9,654(+0.28%)
189,387(+1.3%) 9,664(+0.1%)
191,732(+1.2%) 9,699(+0.36%)
194,106(+1.2%) 9,722(+0.24%)
196,321(+1.1%) 9,746(+0.25%)
198,150(+0.93%) 9,760(+0.14%)
201,437(+1.7%) 9,778(+0.18%)
203,688(+1.1%) 9,794(+0.16%)
206,357(+1.3%) 9,829(+0.36%)
209,148(+1.4%) 9,862(+0.34%)
211,732(+1.2%) 9,888(+0.26%)
213,959(+1.1%) 9,922(+0.34%)
216,104(+1%) 9,946(+0.24%)
220,213(+1.9%) 9,973(+0.27%)
222,887(+1.2%) 10,001(+0.28%)
225,586(+1.2%) 10,032(+0.31%)
228,542(+1.3%) 10,074(+0.42%)
231,999(+1.5%) 10,110(+0.36%)
235,444(+1.5%) 10,136(+0.26%)
238,688(+1.4%) 10,179(+0.42%)
241,961(+1.4%) 10,208(+0.28%)
244,935(+1.2%) 10,279(+0.7%)
248,218(+1.3%) 10,336(+0.55%)
252,140(+1.6%) 10,381(+0.44%)
255,809(+1.5%) 10,435(+0.52%)
260,055(+1.7%) 10,490(+0.53%)
264,648(+1.8%) 10,522(+0.31%)
268,734(+1.5%) 10,564(+0.4%)
273,035(+1.6%) 10,632(+0.64%)
277,596(+1.7%) 10,685(+0.5%)
282,569(+1.8%) 10,768(+0.78%)
287,315(+1.7%) 10,828(+0.56%)
292,589(+1.8%) 10,891(+0.58%)
297,390(+1.6%) 10,953(+0.57%)
301,917(+1.5%) 11,027(+0.68%)
306,032(+1.4%) 11,086(+0.54%)
310,539(+1.5%) 11,186(+0.9%)
315,408(+1.6%) 11,263(+0.69%)
320,492(+1.6%) 11,334(+0.63%)
326,327(+1.8%) 11,406(+0.64%)
331,910(+1.7%) 11,455(+0.43%)
337,796(+1.8%) 11,521(+0.58%)
342,444(+1.4%) 11,617(+0.83%)
347,464(+1.5%) 11,710(+0.8%)
353,100(+1.6%) 11,798(+0.75%)
359,066(+1.7%) 11,894(+0.81%)
365,559(+1.8%) 11,976(+0.69%)
372,036(+1.8%) 12,032(+0.47%)
378,138(+1.6%) 12,130(+0.81%)
383,468(+1.4%) 12,209(+0.65%)
389,774(+1.6%) 12,324(+0.94%)
396,268(+1.7%) 12,407(+0.67%)
402,569(+1.6%) 12,496(+0.72%)
409,562(+1.7%) 12,606(+0.88%)
416,554(+1.7%) 12,692(+0.68%)
423,059(+1.6%) 12,777(+0.67%)
429,034(+1.4%) 12,866(+0.7%)
435,329(+1.5%) 12,982(+0.9%)
442,073(+1.5%) 13,109(+0.98%)
448,839(+1.5%) 13,251(+1.1%)
455,550(+1.5%) 13,378(+0.96%)
462,128(+1.4%) 13,472(+0.7%)
468,861(+1.5%) 13,552(+0.59%)
475,206(+1.4%) 13,658(+0.78%)
481,630(+1.4%) 13,799(+1%)
488,638(+1.5%) 13,916(+0.85%)
495,346(+1.4%) 14,040(+0.89%)
502,242(+1.4%) 14,154(+0.81%)
508,932(+1.3%) 14,226(+0.51%)
515,313(+1.3%) 14,331(+0.74%)
521,509(+1.2%) 14,423(+0.64%)
528,354(+1.3%) 14,596(+1.2%)
535,212(+1.3%) 14,719(+0.84%)
538,572(+0.63%) 14,719(=)
546,108(+1.4%) 14,825(+0.72%)
552,020(+1.1%) 14,963(+0.93%)
557,146(+0.93%) 15,158(+1.3%)
565,506(+1.5%) 15,378(+1.5%)
572,982(+1.3%) 15,472(+0.61%)
581,428(+1.5%) 15,606(+0.87%)
586,164(+0.81%) 15,606(=)
596,373(+1.7%) 15,715(+0.7%)
603,508(+1.2%) 15,865(+0.95%)
611,424(+1.3%) 16,074(+1.3%)
618,644(+1.2%) 16,233(+0.99%)
626,791(+1.3%) 16,369(+0.84%)
635,133(+1.3%) 16,578(+1.3%)
644,346(+1.5%) 16,707(+0.78%)
653,010(+1.3%) 16,844(+0.82%)
661,334(+1.3%) 16,967(+0.73%)
668,179(+1%) 17,084(+0.69%)
674,470(+0.94%) 17,231(+0.86%)
681,328(+1%) 17,382(+0.88%)
688,895(+1.1%) 17,536(+0.89%)
695,707(+0.99%) 17,728(+1.1%)
702,767(+1%) 17,865(+0.77%)
709,647(+0.98%) 18,014(+0.83%)
715,072(+0.76%) 18,118(+0.58%)
719,757(+0.66%) 18,262(+0.79%)
725,492(+0.8%) 18,461(+1.1%)
731,442(+0.82%) 18,622(+0.87%)
737,407(+0.82%) 18,828(+1.1%)
Sources: The Globe and Mail and the Government of Canada
* On 17 July 2020, the large number of recoveries is due to a revision of the algorithm used in Quebec to determine whether a patient who is neither deceased nor currently hospitalized may be considered recovered.[43]

Logarithmic plot of detected cases (blue) and deaths (red) from CoViD-19 in Canada, based on numbers reported by World Health Organization


In anticipation of a COVID-19 vaccine, the Canadian government purchased more than 75 million hypodermic needles and syringes in summer 2020.[44] The government made deals with the leading research companies developing a vaccine.[45]

On December 9, 2020, Health Canada approved the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The Public Health Agency of Canada supervises the rollout and administration of the vaccine.[46]

Healthcare institutions began administering the first 30,000 doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in Canada on December 14. A total of 249,000 doses are expected to be delivered by the end of 2020.[47] Because of the cold storage logistics, the initial doses were delivered to 14 distribution sites in the provinces, with none being sent to the Canadian territories. The 14 original distribution sites are located in St. John's, Halifax, Charlottetown, Miramichi, Quebec City, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Winnipeg, Regina, Edmonton, Calgary, and two in the Greater Vancouver area.[48] The Canadian government expects the vaccine to be administered to high-priority groups, designated by each province, until the end of March.[47] Most provinces are first prioritizing some subset of healthcare workers, except for Quebec, which is prioritizing residents of long-term care homes, as well as British Columbia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, which are prioritizing both. Most provinces also have plans to expand priority status to additional groups—such as the elderly, or adults in Indigenous communities—before expanding to the general public.[49]

The same week as initial vaccinations for the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, it was announced Canada would receive 168,000 doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine (also known as the Moderna vaccine) before the end of 2020, approved by Health Canada on December 23.[11][50] Unlike the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, the Moderna vaccine does not require extreme cold temperature storage.[50]

Due to their inability to properly store the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine at cold temperatures, the territories had initially not received any vaccines. As of December 28, Northwest Territories and Yukon had received their first shipments of 7,200 each of the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine.[51] Vaccinations in each province are not scheduled to occur until mid-January.[52]

Vaccination rollout

COVID-19 vaccinations in Canada by province and territory, January 26, 2021 ()
Province Population Doses allocated to province[a] Doses administered[b] People fully vaccinated[c] Ref
British Columbia British Columbia 5,110,917 144,550 110,566 2,202 [54]
Alberta Alberta 4,413,146 122,725 99,047 7,272 [55][56][57]
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan 1,181,666 32,725 33,039[d] 3,564 [59][56]
Manitoba Manitoba 1,377,517 55,650 28,941 3,396 [60][56]
Ontario Ontario 14,711,827 411,650 286,110 71,256 [61][56]
Quebec Quebec 8,537,674 238,100 218,755 0 [e] [63][57]
New Brunswick New Brunswick 779,993 21,675 10,436 2,567 [54]
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island 158,158 9,225 6,525 1,799 [54]
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia 977,457 28,850 10,575 2,705 [54][56]
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador 521,365 16,500 8,549 1,495 [54][56]
Yukon Yukon 41,078 14,400 3,730 Unknown [56]
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories 44,904 14,400 1,893 Unknown [56]
Nunavut Nunavut 39,097 12,000 4,458 Unknown [56]
Canada Canada 37,894,839 1,122,450 822,624 >96,256
  1. ^ Each province is distributed an allocation of doses from the Federal government, to be administered by their own Provincial vaccination programme
  2. ^ Two doses are currently required for full vaccination by both of the approved vaccines being rolled out.[53][54]
  3. ^ Full vaccination of the two approved vaccines currently require two doses. The first Canadians received their second doses January 4, 2021. Not all provinces are reporting number of people fully vaccinated.
  4. ^ The province of Saskatchewan claims to have used 101% of vaccine supply due to finding efficiencies through drawing extra doses from received vials of the vaccine.[58]
  5. ^ Quebec has controversially opted to delay their second doses for 90 days, against the manufacturer's advice.[62]

Additionally, 3,600 Moderna vaccines have been kept for "Federal Application" for use with the Canadian Armed Forces and the Correctional Service of Canada.[64]

Vaccines on order

There are several COVID-19 vaccines at various stages of development around the world. As of 2 December 2020 the Canadian government had invested over $1 billion[65] in, including pre-placed orders for seven different vaccines, two of which are now approved by Health Canada. These pre-orders total up to 398 vaccines.[66][67][65] Eight of the nine vaccines require two doses each to be effective, with the exception of the Janssen Pharmaceutica (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine candidate which only requires one dose.[65]

Vaccine Progress Doses ordered Approval Deployment
Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine phase III clinical trials up to 76 million Green check.svg 9 December 2020[68] Green check.svg 14 December 2020
Moderna phase III clinical trials 40 million Green check.svg 23 December 2020[69] Green check.svg 31 December 2020
Oxford-AstraZeneca phase III clinical trials 20 million Pending Pending
Novavax phase III clinical trials up to 76 million Pending Pending
Medicago phase II clinical trials[70] up to 76 million Pending Pending
GSK/Sanofi Pasteur phase I clinical trials up to 72 million Pending Pending
Janssen phase III clinical trials up to 38 million Pending Pending

Government response


Public health

The federal government activated its Emergency Operations Centre on January 15.[37] The federal government's pandemic response is based on two primary documents: the Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness planning guidelines, which outlines risks and measures to address a viral disease,[71] and the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Public Health Response Plan for Biological Events, which includes identifying, tracking, and ensuring rapid access to medical care.[72] As of February 27, the response plan was at level 3 (escalated).[73]

On March 18, the federal Minister of Health, Patty Hajdu, announced that the federal government had signed an interim order to speed up access to COVID-19 test kits that would allow provincial labs to increase testing. The test kits are made by Switzerland-based Roche Molecular Systems and Thermo Fisher Scientific.[74] According to Health Canada, "an Interim Order is one of the fastest mechanisms available to the Government of Canada to help make health products available to address larger scale public health emergencies. This Interim Order provides the Minister with the flexibility to consider the urgent circumstances relating to the need for the medical device, authorizations granted by foreign regulatory authorities, or possible new uses for medical devices that are approved in Canada."[75]

Social distancing at Shoppers Drug Mart in Toronto with limited number of shoppers allowed inside the store.

On March 19, 2020, the federal government announced that it had added to Trudeau's March 11 announcement of $275 million in funding for an additional 49 projects to bring the total to 96 research projects that will focus on developing and implementing measures to detect, manage, and reduce the transmission of COVID-19.[76][77]

On March 20, as part of the announcement on Canada's industrial strategy (see below), Trudeau stated that the National Research Council will work with small- and medium-sized companies on health research to fight the virus.[78]

On March 23, Theresa Tam began appearing in public service announcements on radio and television, urging personal hygiene, social distancing, and against unnecessary travel.[79]

On April 6, Tam began to suggest that the use of non-medical face masks in public could be an "additional measure" to "protect others around you in situations where physical distancing is difficult to maintain", but that this is not proven to protect the wearer, and is considered complementary to all existing health guidance issued thus far.[80]

In response to backlogs in COVID-19 testing, especially provinces like Ontario, Health Canada approved new rapid testing for the virus.[81]

Long-term care homes

"Thank You Heroes" sign at a long-term care home in Markham, Ontario

Long-term care homes have been impacted heavily by the pandemic; on April 13, Tam reported that at least half of COVID-19 deaths in Canada had been linked to long-term care homes (with the exact number varying by province), and that "these deaths will continue to increase, even as the epidemic growth rate slows down.[82][83] Tam cited factors such as outside visitors, communal living spaces, and staff being transferred among multiple facilities, as particular vulnerabilities.[84][85] The pandemic has exacerbated pre-existing staffing issues at some facilities, including underpaid staff, and being understaffed in general.[86][82][87] On April 28, Tam stated that as many of 79 percent of Canada's COVID-19 fatalities occurred in long-term care homes.[88]

Health Canada has issued recommendations for long-term care homes, encouraging them to restrict outside visitors and volunteers, restrict employees from being transferred between multiple facilities, provide personal protective equipment, enforce physical distancing during meals, screen staff and essential visitors, On April 15, Trudeau announced that the federal government planned to provide additional pay to long-term care workers.[89][90]

Canadian Armed Forces

Travel and entry restrictions

An almost empty SkyTrain in Vancouver on a Saturday afternoon

On March 14, Canada recommended against any international travel, and advised those returning from outside of Canada, except for essential workers (such as flight crew), to self-isolate for 14 days.[91] The Quarantine Act was invoked by Hajdu on March 26, making self-isolation a legal mandate for travellers (excluding essential workers) returning to the country, and also prohibiting those who are symptomatic from using public transit as transport to their place of self-isolation, and prohibiting self-isolation in settings where they may come in contact with those who are vulnerable (people with pre-existing conditions and the elderly).[92]

Since March 16, only Canadian citizens and their immediate families, permanent residents, and U.S. citizens are allowed to enter the country. The only exceptions are flight crews, diplomats, and trade and commerce. Travellers showing COVID-19 symptoms are not allowed to board flights into Canada, regardless of their citizenship.[93][94] International flights to Canada from outside the Caribbean, Mexico, and the U.S. were instructed to land at either Calgary International Airport, Montréal–Trudeau International Airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport, or Vancouver International Airport.[93][94]

Since March 20, Canada and the United States have temporarily restricted all non-essential travel across their border, while maintaining supply chains between both countries;[95][96] On April 16, Trudeau stated that the Canada/U.S. border restrictions would remain in place "for a significant amount of time";[97] the next day, it was reported that Canada and the United States had agreed to extend their entry restrictions, which were to expire on April 21, for an additional 30 days beyond that date.[98] In fact, the border restrictions were later extended until at least September 21, 2020.[99]

Since March 30, individuals showing COVID-19 symptoms must be refused boarding on domestic flights (10 seats or more) and passenger trains. This excludes buses and intercity passenger rail services.[100] Since April 20, all travellers are required to wear non-medical face masks while departing and arriving on air travel, including during security screenings. Those who do not comply will be prevented from proceeding.[101]

As the border with the United States continued to be closed to non-essential travel, the Canadian government announced plans in October to allow family members to reunite under compassionate terms.[102] Within the country, the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador established the Atlantic Bubble, restricting travel from other provinces, but allowing free movement amongst citizens of the member provinces.[103]

Regionally, Atlantic Canada established the Atlantic Bubble on July 3, 2020 until it's temporary suspension in November 2020.

Governmental cancellations

A First Ministers' meeting scheduled for March 12 and 13 was cancelled after Trudeau and his wife Sophie Grégoire entered self-isolation.[104] The Canadian House of Commons was suspended between March 14 and April 20, immediately after passing the new North American free trade deal. The federal budget, previously scheduled for March 20, was also suspended.[105]

Bank of Canada rate changes

In March 2020, the Bank of Canada twice lowered its overnight rate target by 50 basis points—first to 1.25 percent on March 4, and then to 0.75 percent on March 13. It cited the "negative shocks to Canada's economy arising from the COVID-19 pandemic and the recent sharp drop in oil prices" in explaining the move.[106][107]

On March 27, the Bank lowered the rate a third time to 0.25 percent, citing "serious consequences for Canadians and for the economy" due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[108] The Bank also launched a program to "alleviate strains in the short-term funding markets" and another program to acquire Government of Canada securities at a minimum of $5 billion per week.[109]

Federal aid

On March 18, the federal government announced an $82-billion response package with a variety of measures.[110] On March 25, the COVID-19 Emergency Response Act received royal assent from Governor General Julie Payette.[111]

The measures in this first package included:

  • Canada Child Benefit (CCB): Payments for the 2019–20-year were increased by $300 per child.[112]
  • Goods and Services Tax (GST) credit: The maximum annual GST credit payment amount for the 2019–20 year was doubled.[113]
  • Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB): This new benefit provided a taxable benefit of $2,000 a month for up to four months for those who had lost their job, were sick, quarantined, or taking care of someone sick with COVID-19, as well as working parents staying home to take care of their kids.
  • Canada Student Loans: A six-month moratorium was placed on repayment.
  • Temporary business wage subsidy: Eligible small employers received a three-month 10 percent wage subsidy.
  • Tax flexibility: The income tax filing deadline was also extended from April 30, 2020 to June 1, 2020. Tax payments were deferred to September 2020.

The CERB launched on April 6.[114] On April 15, Trudeau announced that the CERB would be extended to workers making up to $1,000 per month, and that the government planned to work with the provinces to implement salary top-ups for essential workers who make less than $2,500 per month.[115]

The Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy (CEWS) was announced on April 1, an expanded version of the temporary business wage subsidy. The Parliament reconvened on April 11 to pass the COVID-19 Emergency Response Act, No. 2 on division. It implemented the CEWS—which allows eligible companies to receive a 75 percent subsidy on each of their employees' wages (up to their first $58,700) for 12 weeks retroactive to March 15.[116]

Trudeau introduced new financial aid programs on April 10, including the Canada Emergency Business Account (CEBA) which offers loans, interest-free until the end of 2022, of up to $40,000 for small- and medium-sized businesses.[117][118] The CEBA was expanded on April 16 to make more businesses eligible.[how?]

The Canada Emergency Student Benefit (CESB) was announced by Trudeau on April 22.[119]

On April 30, Parliamentary Budget Officer Yves Giroux issued a report projecting the federal deficit for fiscal year 2020 could be in excess of $252 billion, based on nearly $146 billion in spending on federal aid measures.[120]

On October 12, 2020, the federal government rolled out a new income support program after the ending of CERB, the Canada Recovery Benefit (CRB).[121] Another program, the Canada Recovery Caregiving Benefit (CRCB) supports Canadians that have been working but have to take a break to care for dependents (a child below 12 years of age or a disabled family member). The benefit only applies if schools and care centres are closed, or the dependent fell sick, or contracted COVID-19.[122]


On July 3, 2020, the Ethics Commissioner announced an investigation into Trudeau and the government's decision to have WE Charity administer the summer student grant program.[123][124] We Charity was criticized for its close ties to the Trudeau family. On the same day, Minister of Diversity and Inclusion and Youth, Bardish Chagger, announced that WE Charity would no longer be administering the Canada Student Service Grant program.[125]

Industrial strategy

On March 20, the government announced a plan to ramp up production of medical equipment, switching assembly lines to produce ventilators, masks and other personal protective gear. Companies will be able to access funds through the government's Strategic Innovation Fund. The PM stated that Canadian medical supply firms Thornhill Medical, Medicom and Spartan Bioscience were looking to expand production. In order to address shortages and supply-chain disruption, Canada passed emergency legislation that waived-patent protection, giving the government, and companies or organizations that it selects, the right to produce patented products without permission from the patent holder.[126] According to Innovation, Science and Industry minister Navdeep Bains, "the country's entire industrial policy will be refocused to prioritize the fight against COVID-19".[127][128]

States of emergency

Restrictions imposed by provincial and territorial governments
Province or territory Emergency declared Gatherings banned Border status [a] Face mask compulsory [b] Stay-at-home ordered Closures ordered [c] Sources
Alberta Alberta March 17, 2020 All gatherings Open December 13, 2020
August 1, 2020 (locally)[d]
No Indoor dining [129][130][131]
British Columbia British Columbia March 18, 2020 All gatherings Open November 19, 2020 No Indoor dining
(reduced seating)
Manitoba Manitoba March 20, 2020 Over 5 Screened[e] November 2, 2020
September 25, 2020 (locally)
No Indoor dining [137][138][139][130][140]
New Brunswick New Brunswick March 19, 2020 Over 10 Screened[f] October 9, 2020 No Indoor dining
(reduced seating)
Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador March 18, 2020 Over 5 Screened[f] August 24, 2020 (age 5+) No Indoor dining
(reduced seating)
Northwest Territories Northwest Territories March 18, 2020 All gatherings Restricted No No Indoor dining
(reduced seating)
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia March 22, 2020 Over 10 Screened[f] July 31, 2020 No Indoor dining
Nunavut Nunavut March 18, 2020 All gatherings Restricted[g] No No ? [153][130]
Ontario Ontario March 17, 2020 All gatherings[h] Open October 3, 2020
July 7, 2020 (locally)[i]
December 26, 2020
to February 11, 2021[j]
Indoor dining[h] [155][156][157][158][159][160][130][k][l][m]
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island March 16, 2020 Over 5 Screened[f] November 20, 2020 No Indoor dining
(reduced seating)
Quebec Quebec March 12, 2020 All gatherings Regional restrictions[n] July 18, 2020 (age 12+)
August 24, 2020 (age 10+)
December 25, 2020
to February 8, 2021[o]
Indoor dining
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan March 18, 2020 Over 10 Regional restrictions[p] November 19, 2020 No Indoor dining
(reduced seating)
Yukon Yukon March 18, 2020 Over 10 Screened December 1, 2020 No Indoor dining
(reduced seating)
  1. ^ Refers to status of internal borders only. Although the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees broad mobility rights to Canadian citizens, during a state of emergency provincial and territorial governments can effectively restrict or deny entry due to primarily their lawful authority to, at their discretion, refuse any person permission to use their roads:
    Open: No restrictions on entry from other Canadian provinces and territories.
    Screened: Health checks and/or self-isolation mandatory for persons entering from other Canadian provinces and territories.
    Restricted: Entry prohibited for non-residents without a valid reason to enter the province or territory.
    Regional: Entry restricted to (a) specific region(s) of the province or territory.
  2. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, face masks are compulsory for ages 2 and up. Generally, several exceptions apply.
  3. ^ For most provinces, takeout and delivery orders are still permitted even though dine-in section is closed.
  4. ^ Calgary, Edmonton, Lethbridge, Banff, Canmore, Jasper, St. Albert, Spruce Grove, Strathcona County, Leduc, Beaumont, Fort Saskatchewan, Chestermore, Cochrane, Airdrie, Okotoks, Edson, Sturgeon County
  5. ^ Travellers from east of Terrace Bay, Ontario are required to isolate for 14 days.
  6. ^ a b c d Effective July 3, the Atlantic Provinces have formed a travel bubble that allows travel between the four provinces of the Atlantic region. Visitors outside of this bubble must continue to follow all public health orders.
  7. ^ Nunavut is not accessible from the rest of Canada by road. Its entry restrictions are therefore effectively enforced with respect to prospective non-resident air travellers by federal transportation officers serving at airports from which flights depart for the territory. Returning Nunavummiut and others permitted to enter the territory are required to isolate at designated hotels in the city of departure for fourteen days prior to boarding a flight.
  8. ^ a b All indoor gatherings and dining are shut down for the duration of the stay-at-home order. Effective January 14, 2021, outdoor gatherings are limited to 5 people per group.
  9. ^ On July 7, 2020, Toronto and Ottawa implemented mandatory mask by-laws. Most other regions in Ontario subsequently implemented such by-laws until October 3, 2020, when the entire province of Ontario mandated masks.
  10. ^ Ontario ordered a province-wide lockdown on December 26, 2020. On January 14, 2020, the province issued a second state of emergency, and the lockdown was changed to a stay-at-home order, with slightly more restrictions. Additionally, several regions began their lockdowns earlier: Toronto and Peel (November 23, 2020), York and Windsor-Essex (December 14, 2020), and Hamilton (December 21, 2020).[154]
  11. ^ Effective July 27, daycares can open if they have 15 people (staff and children) per group.[161]
  12. ^ Stage 3 is effective July 17 in most regions, July 24 in a few other regions, July 31 in Peel and Toronto, and August 12 in Windsor-Essex.
  13. ^ Dancing is prohibited but if the dancers are hired by the bar they are allowed to dance.[162]
  14. ^ Essential travel only in Nunavik and James Bay Territory
  15. ^ Québec is additionally implementing a curfew from January 9, 2021 to February 8, 2021. The curfew forces residents to stay at home from 8 PM to 5 AM, with exceptions for travelling to work, pharmacies, gas stations and walking pets.[165]
  16. ^ Since April 24, non-essential travel to and from Northern Saskatchewan has been restricted.[173][174]

On March 12, Quebec declared a public health emergency, requiring international travellers to self-isolate for 14 days and banning gatherings of 250 people. The ban has been extended to all gatherings outside workplaces and retail.[182]

On March 16, Prince Edward Island declared a public health emergency. Alberta and Ontario declared emergencies on March 17, followed by British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan and Yukon on March 18. New Brunswick, Manitoba, and Nova Scotia declared emergencies on March 19, March 20, and March 22 respectively.[183]

These emergencies allowed provinces to ban gatherings and require international travellers to self-isolate. On March 25, mandatory self-isolation was imposed federally, making it a legal requirement for all provinces who had not done so already.[184]

New Brunswick, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and have all restricted entry through interprovincial borders, prohibiting the entry of non-residents without valid reason. Quebec has additionally restricted travel into 9 of its 18 regions and parts of 3 other regions. The borders of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador are being screened, while also requiring travellers to self-isolate for 14 days upon entering the province.[185]

Schools and universities

Let's Work Together Stop the Spread sign at a school in the GTA.

Public schools (under Provincial control) across the country quickly followed suit and closed.[186]

Laurentian University in Greater Sudbury, was the first to voluntarily suspended classes and moved to online instruction on March 12.[187] This was quickly followed by many other universities across the country.

Business closures

Playground in Port Moody, British Columbia, closed off with caution tape. A sign indicates the playground is closed because of COVID-19.

Bars, restaurants, cinemas, and other businesses have been ordered closed by provinces, territories, and municipalities across the country. Initially, some jurisdictions allowed restaurants or bars to stay open with reduced capacity and social distancing. Takeout and delivery orders are largely still permitted.[185] Jurisdictions have differed on daycare closures. In particular, British Columbia and Saskatchewan have faced criticism for allowing daycares to remain open while closing schools, bars, and restaurants.[188]

Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan have mandated the closure of all businesses not deemed essential by the provinces. Essential businesses include grocery stories, takeout and delivery restaurants, pharmacies, transportation, manufacturing, food production, energy, and healthcare.[189][190][191]

Liquor and cannabis stores have largely remained open across the country, with governments reversing their closure orders due to concerns surrounding alcohol withdrawal syndrome.[192][193]

Aid programs

Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Manitoba all offered one-time payments that aimed to bridge the gap before the implementation of the federal Canada Emergency Response Benefit. Quebec's Temporary Aid for Workers Program offers up to four weeks of payments for those who do not qualify for federal assistance. Prince Edward Island also provides payments to those who have kept their jobs but work reduced hours.[194]

Many provinces and territories have increased payments for those already receiving income supports.


Courts across the country instituted measures to reduce public contact, while maintaining access to the courts.[195] The Supreme Court of Canada has closed the building to public tours, while maintaining the ability to file documents for cases electronically. It has also adjourned appeals which were to be heard in March, to dates in June.[196] Other courts have prioritized the cases which will be heard, generally giving priority to ongoing criminal trials and trials in family and child protection matters, while adjourning most pending cases to later dates.

First Nations

On March 19, the Pimicikamak Cree Nation in northern Manitoba restricted entry to essential travellers, and Chief David Monias said the Sayisi Dene and others are doing the same.

As of March 19, the Council of the Haida Nation said it was discouraging all non-resident travel to the islands "for the time being."[197]

On March 27, Wasauksing First Nation declared a state of emergency with Gimaa (chief) Wally Tabobondung announcing the creation of a response team and the state of emergency via YouTube video. In an update posted on May 16, the chief and council announced they had installed cameras with facial and licence plate recognition technology at local checkpoints to identify outsiders entering the territory. Cottagers leasing property on the territory had been barred from entering until June 6. As of June 6, anyone entering the Wasauksing must have a tag issued by the band government and provide information for a centralized registry. Re-opening has been occurring in phases. As of an update posted June 21, the state of emergency had been extended an additional 90 days.[198]

On October 1, in anticipation of the "Second Wave," Tk’emlups te Secwepemc Secwépemc First Nation instituted a mandatory face mask policy in indoor spaces where physical distancing was not possible, including hallways, staircases, and shared vehicles.[199]

As of October 8, the infection rate in Indigenous communities had been one-third of the infection rate in non-Indigenous communities, according to an update from Indigenous Services Minister Marc Miller in which he praised Indigenous leadership and, along with Indigenous Services Canada's Chief Medical Officer Dr. Tim Wong, encouraged Indigenous people to remain vigilant and safe.[200]

First nation communities are prioritized amongst others in the first phase of vaccinations against the virus.[201]

Economic impact

Panic buying: empty toilet paper shelves on 12 March 2020 at an Atlantic Superstore in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

The COVID-19 pandemic had a deep impact on the Canadian economy, leading it into a recession. The governments' social distancing rules had the effect of limiting economic activity in the country. Companies started considering mass-layoffs of workers, which was largely prevented by the Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy. But despite these efforts, Canada's unemployment rate was 13.5% in May 2020, the highest it has been since 1976.[202]

Many large-scale events that planned to take place in 2020 in Canada were canceled or delayed. This includes all major sporting and artistic events.[203] Canada's tourism and air travel sectors were hit especially hard due to travel restrictions.[204] Some farmers feared a labour shortfall and bankruptcy.[205]

The COVID-19 affected consumer behaviours. In the early stages of the pandemic, Canadian grocery stores were the site of large-scale panic buying which lead to many empty shelves. By the end of March, most stores were closed to walk-in customers with the exception of grocery stores and pharmacies, which implemented strong social distancing rules in their premises. These rules were also implemented in other Canadian businesses as they began to re-open in the following months.

Pandemic by province or territory


The Canadian province of Alberta has the third-most number of cases of COVID-19 in Canada. Alberta is the fourth most populated province in Canada with a population of 4,306,039 representing 11.57%. By January 25, there were 121,535 confirmed cases, 9,337 active cases and 1,574 deaths in Alberta.[206] The national total is 750,925 confirmed cases, 62,677 active cases and 19,187 deaths.[207] The largest number of cases by zone have been in the Edmonton zone, which has had 50,737 total cases.

Jason Kenney, the Premier of Alberta, working closely with the Emergency Management Cabinet Committee, followed the recommendations of Alberta's Chief Medical Officer of Health, Dr. Deena Hinshaw, in response to the "rapidly evolving global threat". A state of public health emergency was declared on March 17. Alberta's public health laboratory greatly increased tests for COVID-19, reaching 1,000 a day by March 8, and 3,000 a day by March 26.[208] Hinshaw said that by March 20, "World-wide, Alberta has been conducting among the highest number of tests per capita."[209] As of January 25, 3,108,982 tests have been conducted in Alberta.[206] On June 12, the entire province of Alberta moved to Stage 2 of the government's economic relaunch plan.[210]

The peak of the first wave was reached on April 30, when the number of active cases of COVID-19 in the province reached 3,022.[211] By October 19, during the second wave, the number of active cases reached 3,138, which was the highest reported in Alberta.[211] By January 23, there were 9,337 active cases and 637 hospitalizations.[206]

British Columbia

Deserted exterior of Canada Place in Vancouver.

On January 28, 2020, British Columbia became the second province to confirm a case of COVID-19 in Canada.[212] The first case of infection involved a patient who had recently returned from Wuhan, Hubei, China.[213] The first case of community transmission in Canada was confirmed in British Columbia on March 5, 2020.[214]

British Columbians have taken numerous emergency measures in an effort to reduce the spread of the virus, such as social distancing and self-isolation. On March 23, British Columbian Premier John Horgan announced the details of the province-wide emergency relief plan, which includes income support, tax relief and direct funding in order to mitigate economic effects of the pandemic.[215]


Manitoba ranks at fifth in the provinces and territories in terms of cases during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. As of January 25, 2021, Manitoba has reported 28,810 cases, with the first three reported on March 12.[216] There have been 24,464 recoveries, 804 deaths, and 466,635 tests completed.[216] All of Winnipeg's cases were identified after March 12.[217]

Manitoba's rate of testing was increased to more than 500 tests a day on March 14.[218] By May, the province had the capacity to perform up to 1000 tests per day, but had averaged only 530 tests per day for the first two weeks of the month, so on May 14, 2020, Manitoba lowered the testing criteria to include anyone showing any symptoms of cold or flu.[219] By August, the province expected a testing capacity of 2500 per day.[220]

In Manitoba's first case, the person had returned to Winnipeg from the Philippines, and self-isolated at home.[221][216]

New Brunswick

The COVID-19 pandemic in New Brunswick is an ongoing viral pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a novel infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).</noinclude> The province of New Brunswick has the eighth-most cases (out of ten provinces and three territories) of COVID-19 in Canada. As of January 23, 2021, New Brunswick has reported 1,104 cases, with the first one reported on March 11. There have been 762 recoveries and 13 deaths.[222] Over 183,796 tests have been completed as of January 23rd.[222]

In New Brunswick's first case, the person had returned to southeastern New Brunswick from France, and self-isolated at home.[223] The second case was a close contact.[223]

On July 3, New Brunswick joined three other provinces to create an Atlantic Bubble, allowing free travel amongst the member provinces and restricting access to travellers from outside provinces.

Newfoundland and Labrador

As of November 20, 2020, there have been 308 cases confirmed in Newfoundland and Labrador, with 294 recoveries and 4 deaths. As of that date, 57,944 people have been tested in total.[224]

On March 14, a presumptive case was announced in the province.[225] By March 25, the number of cases had risen to 67, 44 of them associated with an outbreak at a funeral home, which occurred between March 15 and 17.[226][227]

On July 3, the province joined three other provinces to create an Atlantic Bubble, allowing free travel amongst the member provinces and restricting access to travellers from outside provinces. On August 17, 2020, pursuant to section 28 of the Public Health Protection and Promotion Act, Chief Medical Officer Dr. Janice Fitzgerald, announced that non-medical masks will be mandatory for people in indoor public spaces, starting August 24.

Northwest Territories

As of November 27, 2020, there have been 15 confirmed cases in the Canadian territory of the Northwest Territories with all 15 cases recovered. 7,530 tests have been conducted, with 7,515 negative results.[228]

On March 21, the Northwest Territories reported its first case of COVID-19; the individual had travelled to British Columbia and Alberta before returning home to Yellowknife.[229]

Nova Scotia

On March 15, 2020, three presumptive cases in Nova Scotia were announced. All three were travel-related.[230] The province is amongst four provinces in the Atlantic Bubble, along with New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland & Labrador which have reported a significantly smaller portion of cases during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada.


COVID sign at one of the local stores in Cambridge Bay

Until November 6, 2020, Nunavut remained the only province or territory in Canada, and the only place in North America, that had not yet recorded a confirmed case of COVID-19,[231][232] with two early presumptive cases later ruled to be false positives,[233][234] and clusters of cases at mines in September and October involving employees flown in from outside of the territory.[235][236][237][238]

On November 6, 2020, Nunavut recorded its first confirmed case of COVID-19 in-territory. By mid-November, evidence of community transmission began to emerge, prompting the territory to reimplement restrictions in the affected communities. Nunavut's Chief Medical Officer Michael Patterson announced on November 16 that a territory-wide restriction period would take effect on November 18, reinstating the closure of schools and all non-essential businesses for at least two weeks.


Social distancing markers at Whole Foods Market in Toronto.

The first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Canada was announced on January 25, 2020, involving a traveler who had recently returned to Toronto from travel in China, including Wuhan. As of November 10, 2020, Ontario has the second-largest number of confirmed COVID-19 cases among Canada's provinces and territories, behind only Quebec.[239]

With increasing transmission province-wide, a state of emergency was declared by Premier Doug Ford on March 17, 2020, including the gradual implementation of restrictions on gatherings and commerce. On April 3, 2020, the province released modelling projecting that over the full course of the pandemic with no mitigation measures 100,000 deaths would have occurred, and with the then-current measures 3,000 to 15,000 deaths would occur.[240] Projections for test-confirmed cases April 30, 2020 were 12,500 (best case scenario), 80,000 (expected case scenario), and 300,000 (worst-case scenario).[240]

From late spring to early summer, the majority of the deaths were residents of long-term care homes.[240] In late April, 2020, one out of five of all long-term care homes in Ontario had an outbreak[240] and 70% to 80% of all COVID-19 deaths had been in retirement and long-term care homes.[241] Following medical assistance and observation by the Canadian Armed Forces, the military released a report detailing "a number of medical, professional and technical issues" amongst 'for-profit' long-term-care homes including neglect and lack of equipment and allegations of elder abuse.[242]

Prince Edward Island

As of September 12, 2020, Prince Edward Island has reported 55 confirmed cases of the virus, 47 of which have resolved.[243] As of that date, 28,653 tests have come back negative and 84 are currently under investigation.[243] On March 14, 2020, the first confirmed case in Prince Edward Island was announced, a woman in her 50s who had returned from a trip on a cruise ship on March 7.[244] By March 26, there were five cases, all of which had been travel related, i.e., been contracted while persons were abroad.[245] To date, there was no re-transmission reported in the island province.[246]

On July 3, the province joined three other provinces to create an Atlantic Bubble, allowing free travel amongst the member provinces and restricting access to travellers from outside provinces. On November 23, 2020, Premier King announced that Prince Edward Island is withdrawing from the Atlantic bubble for a two-week period. The withdrawal is currently extended indefinitely.


The pandemic first spread to Quebec in February 2020, with seventeen cases by March 12, and restrictions on public gatherings were announced the same day. On March 15, the government enforced the closure of various entertainment and recreational venues, and on March 23, all non-essential businesses were ordered to close. By the end of March, over four and a half thousand cases had been confirmed in all regions of the province. Quebec has reported the highest number of cases and deaths of COVID-19 in Canada. As of January 22, 2021, there have been over 252,100 confirmed cases, 225,200 recoveries and 9,400 deaths.[247]

The province confirmed its first case on February 28—a 41-year-old woman from Montreal who had returned from Iran on the 24th on a flight from Doha, Qatar.[248][249][250] She was transferred to Jewish General Hospital on March 3, and released on March 4;[251][252] since then, she has remained in isolation at her home in Verdun.[253] On March 5, the Ministry of Health and Social Services announced a second presumptive case, involving a man who had travelled to India in February, and was being treated in Mont-Laurier for symptoms similar to coronavirus. On March 4, the person was transferred to Jewish General Hospital, where he was diagnosed with pneumonia.[254] Hours afterwards, a third presumptive case was confirmed, involving a woman who had returned from France on March 3.[255][256]

A fourth case was confirmed March 8, involving a woman from Montérégie, Longueuil who had recently returned from a cruise that had visited Mexico.[257] On March 10, authorities stated that the person had used public transit between February 24 and March 6, and had travelled through the Berri–UQAM, Champ-de-Mars, and Longueuil metro stations.[258][259] Premier François Legault initially classified the threat posed by the virus as being "weak".[260]


The province of Saskatchewan, throughout the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada ranks sixth amongst provinces and territories in terms of overall cases.

Chief Medical Officer Saqib Shahab announced the first presumptive case of in the province on March 12, a person in their 60s that had recently returned from Egypt.[261] A provincial state of emergency was declared on March 18, and the province began to institute mandatory closures of non-essential facilities and lines of business over the days that followed.[262][263] Saskatchewan reported its first deaths from COVID-19 on March 30.[264] By April 6, the number of new recoveries began to regularly equal or exceed the number of new cases, which also began to steadily drop.[265][266][267][268][269] On April 23, 2020, Premier Scott Moe stated that Saskatchewan's caseload was 70% below the national average per-province, and hospitalizations and deaths were 90% below average.[270]

The province's first major surge began in late-April, centred upon the remote northwestern community of La Loche. It was traced to an outbreak at the Kearl Oil Sands Project in northern Alberta, with wider community spread attributed to overcrowded living conditions in local First Nations communities.[271] In June and July, a new surge emerged in the western and central regions of the province, centred around communal Hutterite colonies. The province hit a new peak of 332 active cases during the spike, which subsided by late-August.[272] In early-October, the number of new cases in Saskatchewan began to rapidly increase in urban communities, with a gospel outreach in Prince Albert being attributed as a superspreader event,[273] and increasing community spread in Saskatoon — particularly at nightclubs — which prompted restrictions to be introduced on their operating hours.[274]


As of November 21, 2020 in the Canadian territory of Yukon has reported 29 confirmed cases of COVID-19, of which 22 have recovered and one has died. 4,509 tests have been completed, with 4,361 confirmed negative and 121 still under investigation.[275]

On March 22, 2020, Premier Sandy Silver and the Chief Medical Officer, Brendan Hanley, announced that Yukon had its first cases of coronavirus, a couple who had attended a convention in the United States and then returned home to Whitehorse. They developed symptoms upon their return and immediately sought medical assistance. They have self-isolated and have meticulously followed all public health directions.[276]

During the pandemic, the territory opened its first public university in the north, Yukon University.[277]

COVID-19 testing

COVID-19 testing can be used to track the prevalence and spread, to diagnose individuals for treatment, to identify infections for isolation and contact tracing, to screen at-risk populations, to clear exposed healthcare workers to return to work, and to identify individuals with potential immunity. The World Health Organization says that jurisdictions should aim to test every suspected case of COVID-19.[278] Since health care is under provincial jurisdiction, almost all testing is conducted by the provinces and territories rather than the federal government. On April 23, Trudeau identified broader testing as key to reopening the country, mentioning the target of 60,000 tests per day set by Dr. Theresa Tam, but warned that up to 120,000 per day may be required.[279] As of late April, approximately 20,000 tests per day were being performed in Canada.[280] Total numbers of tests conducted for the provinces and Canada show that over 800,000 Canadians have been tested as of early May 2020. The displayed chart shows the testing rates per capita in the provinces and territories from March to May 2020.

The COVID-19 testing rates in the provinces and territories of Canada from March to June 2020. The lines are a 7-day moving average. Sources:[281] and Statistics Canada. Table 17-10-0009-01 Population estimates, quarterly

Role of the Government of Canada

Federal approval and regulation of diagnostic tests

Only COVID-19 tests approved by Health Canada can be imported or sold in Canada.[282] Since this is usually a lengthy process, on March 18, Minister of Health Hajdu issued an interim order to allow expedited access to COVID-19-related medical devices for use by healthcare providers, including diagnostic test kits.[283] The same day, the first commercial tests were approved, RT-PCR tests from Roche and Thermo Fisher.[284] Another 13 diagnostic products have since been approved, all based on Nucleic Acid tests.[284] As of April 30, 21 diagnostic device applications were listed as submitted by Health Canada.[282]

National Microbiology Lab

Canada's National Microbiology Lab in Winnipeg performs diagnostic testing for and research into COVID-19.[285] Samples from suspected cases early in the pandemic were sent by provinces and territories to this national lab for testing, either as the sole test or as a check of an in-province test result.[286] The first confirmed case in Canada was diagnosed by the lab on January 27, 2020.[287] Since then, provinces and territories have established their own testing capacity but have occasionally sent samples to the national lab for a second test as a check.[288]

Federal facilitation of testing

Provinces have faced COVID-19 testing backlogs due to a shortage of supplies, including the chemical reagents required to complete the tests.[289] In late April, the federal government arranged for a cargo flight from China that delivered the equivalent of about six to nine months of production for one particular raw material for the 20-odd raw materials needed by supplier LuminUltra to supply reagent kits for RT-PCR machines.[290]

Types of COVID-19 tests

Virus-RNA tests

Health Canada identifies nucleic acid-based testing as "the gold standard used in Canada and abroad, for the diagnosis of active COVID-19 infection in patients with symptoms."[291] The predominant type of testing used is RT-PCR. In it, a carefully produced and validated swab is used to collect a sample from a person's throat, back of the nose, or front of the nose. The swab is put inside a sealed container containing a medium that preserves the virus, which is sent to test-processing centres in the corresponding province or territory. At the centres, highly skilled technicians use large commercial machines from a variety of manufactures to process batches of tens to hundreds of samples at a time. The test chemically strips the RNA from the sample then mixes it with a test kit containing chemical reagents designed to detect RNA signatures of SARS-CoV-2. The sample is cycled between a set of temperatures to amplify the chemical RNA signature. This leads to processing times that range from 4 to 24 hours.[292] The actual RT-PCR test is 99 percent accurate. However, false negative results are estimated to occur 8 to 10 percent of the time due to poor swabbing technique and might be as high as 30 percent depending on how long after symptom onset the test was performed.[293][294]

Provinces have faced COVID-19 testing backlogs due to a shortage of the chemical reagents and swabs required to complete the tests.[289]

Virus-RNA test reagent kits

LuminUltra Technologies Ltd. of Fredericton is producing reagent test-kits to use with automated RT-PCR machines. On April 15, Trudeau announced that the company would be "ramping up production ... to meet the weekly demand in all provinces."[289] The company announced the same day that it would provide "500,000 urgently needed COVID-19 tests per week to the Canadian federal government for use across Canada."[290]

Canadian-made viral RNA test systems

Spartan Bioscience of Ottawa signed contracts with the federal government and the provinces of Alberta, Quebec, and Ontario to supply virus-RNA testing systems that process a single swab sample in 30 to 60 minutes.[295] Together the contracts were for over one million swab test kits, and at least 250 handheld devices.[296][295] On April 13, Health Canada approved this test, but on May 3 the test was recalled due to unreliable results.[297]

Precision Biomonitoring of Guelph signed a Letter of Intent on March 31 with the federal government to co-develop a novel point-of-care test kit for COVID‑19, which is now pending an authorization from Health Canada.[298] Their 1.2 kg battery-operated mobile device performs nine tests per hour and takes 60 minutes to produce a result.[299]

Bio-ID Diagnostics of Edmonton developed a direct 24-hour virus test that can be scaled to 20,000 samples per day. Since it is based on sequencing DNA it avoids false positives, and it detects a low concentration of the virus substantially reducing false negatives in asymptomatic individuals.[293]

On October 5, Health Canada approved a portable PCR test — the Hyris bCUBE —which was based on technology developed at the University of Guelph and can process tests in 90 minutes.[300][301]

Serological testing for antibodies

These blood tests look for antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and range in complexity from laboratory tests to at-home kits similar to pregnancy tests.[302] Antibodies do not form immediately upon infection, so these tests are not well-suited for detecting a current infection. However, they can potentially identify those who have been infected in the past.[302] Health Canada has been evaluating a number of antibody tests.[291] Health Canada deemed that "Serological tests are not appropriate for early diagnosis of COVID-19, largely due variability in the time required after infection to develop antibodies."[291] On May 12, 2020, Health Canada announced the first antibody test approved for use, a laboratory test from DiaSorin, an Italian multinational biotechnology company.[303] Health Canada wrote that the test will "contribute to a better understanding of whether people who have been infected are immune to the virus."[303]

Research and population immunity

Health Canada posts "studies will be required to determine how long the antibodies remain detectable, whether for weeks, months or years" and "the relationship between antibodies and immunity to future viral infection."[291] Nonetheless, many countries are conducting or planning large-scale testing to determine what proportion of the population has been infected and is potentially now immune. As of April 20, the WHO estimated that at most 2 to 3 percent of people in affected countries have been infected.[304] On April 23, 2020, Trudeau created a COVID-19 Immunity Task Force of researchers, including Dr. Tam, Dr. David Naylor, and Dr. Mona Nemer, to coordinate monitoring of immunity and vulnerability to COVID-19 in the Canadian population.[305] The taskforce will oversee national antibody surveys over the next two years in which will test one million Canadians.[279] Researchers at Sinai Health's Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute in Toronto are developing a robotic system that can process mass numbers of antibody tests.[306]

Canadian-made antibody tests

MedMira of Halifax developed one of the first rapid detection kits for HIV and has now developed a COVID-19 antibody test that takes three minutes from taking the blood drop specimen.[307]

Plantform Corp. of Guelph applied for funding from the National Research Council to develop an antibody test for COVID-19.[308]

Rapid antigen testing

Tests for antigens, proteins that are part of the surface of the virus, were first approved by Health Canada on October 6, when it approved and ordered 20.5 million units of one manufactured by Abbott Laboratories as a point-of-care test.[309] They can produce results faster than PCR tests (in around 20 minutes),[309] but are generally considered to be less accurate than PCR tests. Abbott states that they are designed for preliminary results and not intended "as the sole basis for treatment or other management decisions." Deputy Chief Public Health Officer Howard Njoo stated that these tests could be deployed in settings such as workplaces and communal living environments.[309]

Canadian-made rapid antigen tests

Sona Nanotech of Halifax was developing point-of-care COVID-19 antigen test kits that provide results in 5–15 minutes and is anticipated to cost less than $50. If successful, the project will yield 20,000 test kits available per week, with the potential to scale-up to 1 million test kits per week.[298][310]


National maps


Total cases, active cases, recoveries, and deaths
Updated November 26

  Total cases   Active cases   Recoveries   Deaths

New cases per day
Updated November 26

  New cases   7-day average of new cases

New deaths per day[311]
Updated November 26

  New deaths   7-day average of new deaths

By age

Confirmed COVID-19 cases in Canada by age
Classification Cases Hospitalizations ICU Deaths Lethality
Number % Number % Number % Number %
All 436,632 100 27,274 100 5,258 100 13,579 100 31.1
Age ≥80 37,266 8.5 8,961 32.9 701 13.5 9,581 70.6 257.1
70–79 22,739 5.2 5,691 20.9 1,289 24.5 2,518 18.5 110.7
60–69 37,148 8.5 4,535 16.6 1,371 26.1 995 7.3 26.8
50–59 58,253 13.3 3,425 12.6 971 18.5 341 2.5 5.9
40–49 63,457 14.5 1,963 7.2 464 8.8 90 0.7 1.4
30–39 67,776 15.5 1,404 5.1 251 4.8 33 0.2 0.5
20–29 81,122 18.6 870 3.2 152 2.9 18 0.1 0.2
0–19 68,871 15.8 425 1.6 59 1.1 3 0.02 0.04
Source: Public Health Agency of Canada, as of December 18, 2020, 7 PM ET.[312]

Provincial and territorial

Daily new cases by province and territory (7-day moving average)
Updated November 26
Western Canada

  British Columbia   Alberta   Saskatchewan   Manitoba

Central Canada

  Ontario   Quebec

Atlantic Canada

  New Brunswick   Prince Edward Island   Nova Scotia   Newfoundland and Labrador

Northern Canada

  Yukon   Northwest Territories   Nunavut

See also


  1. ^ Marchand-Senécal, Xavier; Kozak, Rob; Mubareka, Samira; Salt, Natasha; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Eshaghi, Alireza; Allen, Vanessa; Li, Yan; Bastien, Natalie; Gilmour, Matthew; Ozaldin, Omar; Leis, Jerome A (March 9, 2020). "Diagnosis and Management of First Case of COVID-19 in Canada: Lessons applied from SARS". Clinical Infectious Diseases. ciaa227 (16): 2207–2210. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa227. PMC 7108147. PMID 32147731. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Outbreak update". Government of Canada. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved December 12, 2020.
  3. ^ "COVID-19 in Canada: Using data and modelling to inform public health action" (PDF). Government of Canada. Public Health Agency of Canada. April 9, 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 10, 2020. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
  4. ^ "Tracking every case of COVID-19 in Canada". Coronavirus. March 13, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  5. ^ "Nunavut confirms its first case of COVID-19". Global News. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  6. ^ Slaughter, Graham (March 5, 2020). "Canada confirms first 'community case' of COVID-19: Here's what that means". CTVNews. Archived from the original on March 8, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  7. ^ Chouinard, Tommy (March 15, 2020). "Legault ordonne la fermeture de lieux de rassemblement". La Presse (in French). Archived from the original on March 16, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
  8. ^ "Justin Trudeau's address to the nation: 'The second wave is underway' [Full transcript] -".
  9. ^ "CERB ends for millions of Canadians, new EI program takes its place - NEWS 1130".
  10. ^ Aiello, Rachel (December 10, 2020). "What we know about where Canada's first COVID-19 vaccines are going". Coronavirus.
  11. ^ a b
  12. ^ "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on January 30, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
  13. ^ Reynolds, Matt (March 4, 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on March 5, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  14. ^ a b "Crunching the numbers for coronavirus". Imperial News. Archived from the original on March 19, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
  15. ^ "High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England". Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on March 3, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  16. ^ "World Federation Of Societies of Anaesthesiologists – Coronavirus". Archived from the original on March 12, 2020. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
  17. ^ "BC COVID-19 Data". BC Centre for Disease Control. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  18. ^ "COVID-19 info for Albertans". Government of Alberta. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  19. ^ "Cases and Risk of COVID-19 in Saskatchewan". Government of Saskatchewan. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  20. ^ "COVID-19". Government of Manitoba. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  21. ^ "COVID-19 (Coronavirus) in Ontario". Government of Ontario. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  22. ^ "How Ontario is responding to COVID-19". Government of Ontario. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  23. ^ "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Quebec". Government of Quebec. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  24. ^ "Données COVID-19 au Québec". Institut national de santé publique. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  25. ^ "New Brunswick COVID-19 Dashboard". ArcGIS. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  26. ^ "COVID-19". Government of Prince Edward Island. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  27. ^ "Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) cases in Nova Scotia". Government of Nova Scotia. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  28. ^ "COVID-19 Newfoundland and Labrador - HUB". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  29. ^ "Information about COVID-19". Government of Yukon. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  30. ^ Government of the Northwest Territories, Government of the Northwest Territories (January 8, 2021). "COVID-19 NWT Dashboard". Government of Northwest Territories. Retrieved January 9, 2021.
  31. ^ "COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus)". Government of Nunavut. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  32. ^ "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Outbreak update". Government of Canada. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  33. ^ "COVID-19 Updates: Canada". Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  34. ^ "Tracking every case of COVID-19 in Canada". CTV News. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  35. ^ a b "Archived: WHO Timeline - COVID-19". Archived from the original on April 29, 2020. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
  36. ^ Favaro, Avis. "Canadian health authority warns travellers over mysterious illness sickening dozens in China". CTV News. Archived from the original on August 22, 2020. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
  37. ^ a b "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Outbreak update". Public Health Agency of Canada. March 15, 2020. Archived from the original on January 25, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  38. ^ "Canada to screen central China travelers for virus at 3 airports". Corus Entertainment. January 17, 2020. Archived from the original on January 18, 2020. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
  39. ^ "China reports 4 more cases of new strain of coronavirus". CBC News. January 18, 2020. Archived from the original on January 18, 2020. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  40. ^ "Coronavirus 2019-nCoV – Professionnels de la santé – MSSS". Government of Quebec (in French). January 28, 2020. Archived from the original on January 27, 2020. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  41. ^ "Several people in Canada being monitored for signs of coronavirus: Health minister". CTV News. January 23, 2020. Archived from the original on January 24, 2020. Retrieved January 23, 2020.
  42. ^ "The coronavirus hospital built in days". BBC News. February 2, 2020. Archived from the original on August 22, 2020. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  43. ^ Rowe, Daniel (July 17, 2020). "Quebec COVID-19 recovery rate skyrockets after new system implemented". CTV News. Archived from the original on July 17, 2020. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  44. ^ "Planning ahead: U.S., Canada order 177M more COVID-19 vaccine syringes from BD". FierceBiotech.
  45. ^ "With no successful vaccine candidates yet, Canada signs deal to secure 20M more COVID-19 vaccine doses | CBC News". CBC. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
  46. ^ Tasker, John Paul (December 9, 2020). "Health Canada approves Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine". CBC News. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
  47. ^ a b Bilefsky, Dan; Austen, Ian (December 14, 2020). "Canada and the Coronavirus Vaccine: Here's What It Means". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
  48. ^ "Here's the COVID-19 vaccine rollout plan, province by province | CBC News". CBC. December 10, 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
  49. ^ "When will Canadians get COVID-19 vaccines? The federal and provincial rollout plans so far". Retrieved December 15, 2020.
  50. ^ a b Aiello, Rachel (December 15, 2020). "Canada locks in thousands more early COVID-19 vaccine doses". CTVNews. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  51. ^
  52. ^ "First shipments of Moderna coronavirus vaccine arrive in Yukon, N.W.T." Global News.
  53. ^ "First health-care workers to be vaccinated against COVID-19 in Ontario get second dose". Toronto. January 4, 2021.
  54. ^ a b c d e f "COVID-19 in Canada". COVID-19 Canada Open Data Working Group. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
  55. ^ [1]
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i "ishaberry/Covid19Canada". GitHub.
  57. ^ a b "COVID-19 Tracker Canada - Vaccination Tracker".
  58. ^
  59. ^ "COVID-19 Vaccine | COVID-19". Government of Saskatchewan.
  60. ^ "Province of Manitoba | News Releases". Province of Manitoba.
  61. ^ "COVID-19 vaccines for Ontario".
  62. ^
  63. ^ "Data on COVID-19 in Québec".
  64. ^