April 1970

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
01 02 03 04
05 06 07 08 09 10 11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30  
April 17, 1970: Apollo 13 astronauts safely return after near-catastrophe
April 8, 1970: 34 children killed by Israeli air attack on Egyptian school
April 24, 1970: China launches its first orbital satellite[1]
April 30, 1970: U.S. President Nixon announces that 2,000 U.S. troops have crossed into Cambodia, says "This is not an invasion."
April 19, 1970: AvtoVAZ introduces the Lada
April 1, 1970: AMC introduces the Gremlin

The following events occurred in April 1970:

April 1, 1970 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Sixty-one of the 82 persons aboard a Royal Air Maroc Caravelle twin-jet were killed when the aircraft crashed on its approach to Nouasseur Airport near Casablanca.[2] The passengers were returning from the vacation resort of Agadir on a one-stop flight to Paris.[3]
  • All 45 people on Aeroflot Flight 1661 were killed after the plane collided with a weather balloon at an altitude of 5,400 metres (17,700 ft), severing the nose section and sending the plane into an uncontrollable descent. The Antonov An-24B had departed Novosibirsk 25 minutes earlier, at 3:42 a.m., and was bound for Krasnoyarsk[4]
  • U.S. President Richard M. Nixon signed the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act into law, banning cigarette television and radio advertisements in the United States effective January 2, 1971. The "one, big last day" on January 1 was permitted by Congress to allow television networks to get tobacco revenue for the college football bowl games on New Year's Day[5][6]
  • American Motors Corporation (AMC) introduced the Gremlin.[7]
  • The 1970 United States Census began to count on all persons residing in the U.S.; the final tally was that there were 203,392,031 United States residents on April 1, 1970.
  • Died: U.S. Army Brigadier General William R. Bond, 51, was shot and killed by a Viet Cong sniper, moments after stepping off of a helicopter to inspect a patrol in the Bình Thủy District of South Vietnam.[8] General Bond, the commander of the 199th Infantry Brigade, became the highest ranking American officer (and the only U.S. general) to be killed in combat on the ground. Four other generals had been killed in aircraft crashes.

April 2, 1970 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to challenge the obligation of individual participation in the Vietnam War as unconstitutional, as Governor Francis W. Sargent signed the "War Bill" passed by both houses of the state legislature the day before.[9][10] The measure, which passed 127 to 92 in the state House and 29 to 3 in the state Senate[11] declared that no resident of Massachusetts "shall be required to serve outside of the territorial limits of the United States in the conduct of armed hostilities not an emergency and not otherwise authorized" by a declaration of war by the[12]

April 3, 1970 (Friday)[edit]

April 4, 1970 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The disposal of the remains of Adolf Hitler was carried out at the Soviet Union's military base in Magdeburg, East Germany. Only the commander of the base was aware that the burnt skeletons of Hitler, Eva Braun, General Hans Krebs, Joseph Goebbels, Magda Goebbels and the Goebbels children, had been interred there. Hitler's skull had been sent to Moscow in 1945, where they were placed in the State Archives in Moscow.[17] In that the base was scheduled to be relinquished to East Germany, the commander consulted KGB Director Yuri Andropov for instructions. To prevent the site from becoming a shrine for neo-Nazis, Andropov ordered that the grave's contents be crushed, burned and scattered. The process was completed the next day at Schönebeck, and what was left over was dumped into the Elbe River. In 1995, the long secret story would be revealed in the book The Death of Hitler: The Full Story with New Evidence from Secret Russian Archives, by Ada Petrova and Peter Watson[18]
  • In what the Professional Bowlers Association would rank in a 2018 poll as its most dramatic game, Don Johnson had perfection until a frustrating final moment in winning the PBA Tournament of Champions. Johnson had bowled 11 consecutive strikes, but on the 12th and final frame, the "300 game" was foiled when only nine of the 10 pins fell.[19] The #10 pin in the upper right corner remained, and although Johnson finished 299 to 268 ahead of his closest challenger, Dick Ritger, the failure to reach 300 cost him a $10,000 bonus and a new car.[20]
  • The 222nd and last original episode of the rural situation comedy Petticoat Junction was telecast, bringing and end to the show after seven seasons that began on September 24, 1963.
  • A group of 50,000 demonstrators picketed in Washington for what has been called "the era’s largest pro-war demonstration", the "March for Victory", organized by fundamentalist radio evangelist Carl McIntire.[21] The marchers, mostly well-dressed, middle-aged white Americans, protested U.S. President Nixon's decision to reduce the American commitment rather than to take the war into North Vietnam.[22]
  • Citizens in the Stickney Township, west of Chicago, voted 4,071 to 1,552 to incorporate the new city of Burbank, Illinois.[23] The Chicago Tribune noted that "The new city is bounded by 77th and 87th streets and Cicero and Sayre avenues and will have a population of about 30,000 residents."[24]
  • Born: Barry Pepper, Canadian film and Emmy-award-winning television actor; in Campbell River, British Columbia

April 5, 1970 (Sunday)[edit]

  • In the worst killing in California police history, four California Highway Patrol officers were shot and killed while confronting two armed suspects outside of a restaurant in Newhall, California[25] Officers Walt Frago, Roger Gore, George Alleyn, and James Pence were all fatally wounded within four minutes before midnight after Frago and Gore had stopped a car driven by Bobby Davis[26] A passenger in the car, Jack Twinning, fired the first shots after Frago made his approach to the vehicle, and Gore was killed by Davis. The next day, Twinning killed himself after being cornered by police. Davis was arrested, and eventually hanged himself in prison, 39 years after the killings.[27]
  • In order to prevent the court-ordered busing of students to achieve racial desegregation, Florida's Governor Claude Kirk issued an executive order appointing himself as the School Superintendent of Manatee County and suspending superintendent Jack Davidson and the rest of the school board[28] and then traveled to Bradenton the next day to order bus drivers not to comply with the orders of U.S. District Judge Ben Krentzman[29] Kirk reversed himself the following Sunday, after Judge Krentzman ruled that he was in contempt of court.[30] Krentzman assessed a fine of $10,000 per day (equivalent to more than $66,500 a day fifty years later) to be paid personally by Governor Kirk for every day that he interfered with the court's orders.[31]
  • Twenty-seven people were treated at the Memorial Hospital of California in Los Angeles for food poisoning after ingesting the hallucinogen LSD on potato chips served at a private party.[32][33] The 27, eight of whom were admitted, were among 40 who were taken by the Los Angeles County sheriff's department after being called to the festivities at the South Bay Club, a "singles apartment" complex for unmarried persons in Playa Del Rey, California, where 200 guests were attending a party for a departing tenant. One of the people identified as a guest would later be arrested[34] and sentenced to six years to life in prison after pleading guilty[35]
  • Died:

April 6, 1970 (Monday)[edit]

The King and his Bentley
  • BBC Radio 4 broadcast the first edition of its long-running evening news programme PM.[37]
  • Photojournalists Sean Flynn of Time magazine, and Dana Stone of CBS, crossed into Cambodia by motorcycle to report on the Vietnam War, and disappeared.[38] Flynn, who was the son of actor Errol Flynn, and Stone were among five journalists who had crossed together for their assignments to take photos and film footage. Captured also were freelance photographer Claude Arpin of France, and two cameramen for Japan's Fuji Commercial Television, Yujiro Takagi and Akira Kusaka. The last time their colleagues saw them was when the men were waved through a roadblock set up by the North Vietnamese Army, which had used Cambodia as a base for operations. In 1986, the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency would declassify a report that had concluded that Flynn and Stone "probably were executed in 1971 by an officer of the Khmer Rouge".[39]
  • King Frederik IX of Denmark overturned his Bentley convertible automobile while driving on a Copenhagen street, but was not seriously injured. After climbing out of his car, which skidded on a slippery street.. hit the curb and landed on its side", the King rode part of the way back to the Amalienberg Palace in an ambulance, then asked the driver to stop, got out, and walked the rest of the way, "apparently wary that his arrival by ambulance might cause alarm."[40]
  • Died:
    • Dr. Sam Sheppard, 46, American neurosurgeon who had served 12 years in prison after being wrongfully convicted of murdering his wife; from encephalopathy associated with his consumption of alcohol.
    • El Deif Ahmed, 33, Egyptian comedian and film actor and part of the film trio Tholathy Adwa'a El Masrah; from a heart attack

April 7, 1970 (Tuesday)[edit]

John Wayne

April 8, 1970 (Wednesday)[edit]

April 9, 1970 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Only two days before the scheduled liftoff of the Apollo 13 lunar mission, command module pilot Thomas K. Mattingly was removed from the crew and replaced by the backup CM pilot, John L. Swigert Jr..[51] The alternative, to liftoff on April 11 with a replacement crew member would have been to postpone the launch to the next favorable launch date, May 9. A pre-launch physical examination showed that Mattingly had contracted rubella (also called German measles) after exposure to the disease from another member of the backup crew, Charles M. Duke Jr. (who, in turn, had contracted the disease from one of his children).
  • With the switch of one state legislator's vote from "no" to "yes", the New York State House of Representatives cleared the way for legalized abortion in that U.S. state. The State Senate had previously voted, 31 to 26, to pass an even more wide-reaching bill. With 150 members, the State House required at least 76 votes to approve a bill, and the initial roll call vote was 74 to 74, with the House Speaker declining to cast a vote. At that point, Assemblyman George M. Michaels stood up and, crying, told the group that he was changing his vote, adding that "I cannot go back to my family and say George Michaels killed this bill. I fully appareciate that this is the termination of my career." With the vote now 75 in favor, 73 against, Speaker Perry B. Duryea Jr. then added the 76th vote, clearing the way for abortions during the first 24 weeks of pregnancy.[52] As Michaels had predicted, his yes vote did mean the end of his political career and he was never elected to another office[53]/

April 10, 1970 (Friday)[edit]

April 11, 1970 (Saturday)[edit]

April 12, 1970 (Sunday)[edit]

April 13, 1970 (Monday)[edit]

Apollo 13 patch
  • At 9:08 in the evening Central Time (April 14 03:08 UTC), the Mission Control team at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, received word from the Apollo 13 crew that an oxygen tank in the command module had exploded, and that electrical power was gradually dropping, an event that led to an abort of the planned lunar landing. The mission shifted to recalculation of the Apollo 13 route in hopes of getting the three astronauts safely back to Earth.[63] Nine minutes after the crew had finished a 40-minute live broadcast to television viewers, astronaut Fred Haise began alerting with the words "Okay, Houston..." and Jim Lovell followed with "I believe we've had a problem here." When ground control asked him to repeat the statement, Lovell said, "Houston, we've had a problem."[64][65] Twenty-five years later, the film Apollo 13 would have actor Tom Hanks, as Lovell, saying "Houston, we have a problem." The initial observation was an undervoltage in two of the power-producing cells. After 93 minutes, Haise reported that oxygen pressure in the command module was dropping, and by 10:59 p.m., Mission Control determined that the three LM fuel cells had failed, that only 15 minutes of electrical power remained, and that the crew should transfer immediately to the lunar module.[66]
  • In the village of Xom Bien, a massacre of about 600 ethnic Vietnamese residents of Cambodia was carried out by the Khmer National Army as part of a campaign by the government of Cambodian leader Lon Nol against the nation's Vietnamese-speaking minority. Shortly after midnight, troops entered the village, founded as a Roman Catholic mission on the waters of the Mekong River in the Chrouy Changvar area near Phnom Penh and removed the men and boys, placed them on Vietnamese Navy riverboats, and shot them. Days later, hundreds of the corpses of the victims (which included more from outside of Xom Bien) were seen floating down the Mekong along South Vietnam[67]
  • SS La Jenelle, an idle luxury cruise ship which had formerly been called SS Bahama Star, capsized in a storm as it sat at anchor in the harbor of Port Hueneme, California, and would remain tilted at a 45 degree angle for the next two years before dismantling began in 1972. While stranded in low waters, the ship was boarded by thrillseekers, and the jetty that its remains "created one of the best surf spots in California".[68]
  • At the Masters Tournament in Augusta, Georgia, Billy Casper shot a 69 to defeat Gene Littler in an 18-hole playoff to win the championship.[69]
  • Born:
  • Died:
    • William H. Johnson, African-American expressionist painter
    • Merriman Smith, 57, American journalist and senior White House correspondent for United Press International, shot himself at his home
    • Hugh Francis Redmond, 50, American CIA agent who had been held captive in a prison camp in China since his arrest in 1951. China's news agency announced on July 10, 1970, that Redmond had slit his wrists with "a U.S.-made razor blade".[70]

April 14, 1970 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Nixon made his third nomination to replace the vacancy on the United States Supreme Court that had existed since the resignation of Abe Fortas. The new nominee, in the wake of the failure of Clement Haynsworth and G. Harrold Carswell to receive confirmation, was Judge Harry A. Blackmun[71] Blackmun would be approved unanimously by the Senate only four weeks later.[72]
  • NASA canceled the scheduled landing of Apollo 13 on the Moon and began new calculations for a course that could swing the spacecraft around the Moon and then bring the command module and lunar module back to Earth. By 9:30 p.m. EST (0230 UTC 15 April), the ship had completed its circuit of the Moon and fired the engines to speed the spacecraft back toward the Earth.[66]
  • Born: Shizuka Kudo, Japanese actress and pop music singer with 11 number one hits on the Oricon Singles Chart; in Hamura, Tokyo

April 15, 1970 (Wednesday)[edit]

April 16, 1970 (Thursday)[edit]

  • At 1:10 in the morning local time, an avalanche buried a tuberculosis sanatorium in the French Alps near Sallanches, killing 74 people. The avalanche, 600 feet (180 m) wide, swept down the Plateau d'Assy and struck the children's wing of the hospital and two nursing dormitories, with a 60 feet (18 m) wide wall of snow.[74] Most of the dead were boys under the age of 15, who were asleep when the disaster struck[75]
  • Two Protestant ministers with views regarding majority rule in Northern Ireland, were elected to the Stormont, the House of Commons of Northern Ireland.[76] Reverend Ian Paisley and his assistant, Reverend William Beattie, both of the Unionist Party, defeated Labour candidates in a by-election to fill the vacancies.
  • The National Basketball Players Association and its attorney and executive director, Larry Fleisher, filed an antitrust lawsuit to prevent a possible merger between the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the rival American Basketball Association (ABA), until a guarantee could be assured for free agency for the players of a merged league.[77] Filed in the name of NBAPA President (and NBA point guard) Oscar Robertson against the 11 ABA and 17 NBA team owners, the lawsuit averred that a single 28-team league would prevent players from being able to negotiate with the highest bidder between the rival circuits. A partial merger would finally take place in 1976, after a court ruling to void the reserve clause in contracts that gave teams the first option to renew a player's contract, and an 18-team NBA would bring in four of the remaining ABA teams.[78]
  • Died: Richard Neutra, 78, Austrian-American architect

April 17, 1970 (Friday)[edit]

  • Apollo 13 splashed down safely in the South Pacific Ocean near American Samoa, and was recovered by the amphibious assault ship USS Iwo Jima.[79] Astronauts Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert and Fred Haise reported that they were exhausted because the intense cold during the return trip had prevented them from sleeping.
  • Born: Redman (stage name for Reginald Noble), American rap artist; in Newark, New Jersey
  • Died: Alexius I, Patriarch of Moscow and all of Russia (b. Sergei Vladimirovich Simansky), 92, Russian Orthodox cleric and the highest ranking religious leader authorized by the Soviet Union from 1945 until his death. He was succeeded on a temporary basis by the Metropolitan of Leningrad, Patriarch Pimen I, whose election would be made permanent in 1971.

April 18, 1970 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The day after their safe return to Earth following a near disaster in space, the three Apollo 13 astronauts were presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom by U.S. President Nixon at a ceremony in Honolulu. Jim Lovell, Fred Haise and Jack Swigert were told by Nixon, "You did not reach the Moon but you reached the hearts of millions of people on Earth by what you did.".[80]
  • Born:
    • Saad Hariri, Prime Minister of Lebanon from 2009 to 2011 and again from 2016 to present; as the son of Lebanese politician (and later Prime Minister) Rafic Hariri in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    • Heike Friedrich, East German swimmer who held the women's record for the 200m freestyle from 1986 to 1994; winner of two gold medals in the 1988 Summer Olympics and four in the 1986 world championships
  • Died: Michał Kalecki, 70, Polish economist and neo-Marxian economics theorist

April 19, 1970 (Sunday)[edit]

East Berlin's Lenin Monument
  • Elections were held in Colombia for a new President and for the Senate and the Chamber of Representatives. Pursuant to an agreement that Colombia's Conservative Party and Liberal Party would alternate control of the presidency, all four of the candidates were from factions of the Conservative Party, and none won a majority. Misael Pastrana Borrero, formerly Colombia's ambassador to the United States, received 1,625,025 votes (40.7%) of those cast. His closest challenger, former President Gustavo Rojas Pinilla of the ANAPO (Alianza Nacional Popular, the National Popular Alliance) faction, had 1,561,468 or 39.1% of the votes. Charging fraud, Rojas Pinilla threatened to capture the presidency by force (as he had done in a 1953 military coup) and President Carlos Lleras Restrepo placed the country under martial law the next day[81]
  • In advance of the centennial of the April 22, 1870 birth of Vladimir Lenin, a 62 feet (19 m) high statue of the father of Communism Lenin was dedicated in East Berlin's Leninplatz. East Germany's Prime Minister and Communist Party general secretary, Walter Ulbricht, told a crowd of tens of thousands that the monument would remind Germans of the more than 300,000 Soviet soldiers who died in the battle for Berlin in 1945.[82] The granite statue would be dismantled, removed and buried in 1992, after the reunification of Germany, the head would be unearthed in 2015 for a display in an exhibition.[83]
  • The first Lada compact car, the initial offering of the Soviet Union's AvtoVAZ automobile company, rolled off the assembly line of the Volga Automotive Plant in the city of Tolyatti, in the Russian SFSR.[84] The original model, the VAZ-2101, was marketed in Eastern Europe as the "Zhiguli", and in the rest of the world as the "Lada 2101".
  • The first intercontinental World Cup Rally (so called because the destination from London was the city where the quadrennial FIFA World Cup was scheduled) began at Wembley Stadium as 50,000 spectators watched the start of the 1970 London to Mexico World Cup Rally, sponsored by the London Daily Mirror tabloid.[85] The 96 drivers (from 22 nations) drove through London and on to Dover to board the ferry across the English Channel to continental Europe, with a route going through Europe, Africa and South America before proceeding through Central America. The Ford Escort team of Finland's Hannu Mikkola and Sweden's Gunnar Palm arrived first in Mexico City, on May 27[86][87]
  • Born: Luis Miguel (stage name for Luis Miguel Gallego), U.S.-born Mexican pop singer and one of the most successful recording artists in Latin American history; in San Juan, Puerto Rico

April 20, 1970 (Monday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Nixon announced that he would order the withdrawal of 150,000 American troops from South Vietnam over the next 12 months as part of the process of turning conduct of the Vietnam War over to the South Vietnamese people.[88] Ten days after declaring that "The decision I have announced tonight means that we have in sight the just peace we are seeking", Nixon reversed the decision and announced that troop strength would not be decreased and that the war would exapnd into Cambodia[89]
  • A new comic strip, Broom-Hilda, began its daily run in 69 American daily newspapers as one of the offerings of the Chicago Tribune Syndicate.[90] Featuring a broom-riding witch as its title character, the strip is still drawn by cartoonist Russell Myers more than 49 years later. While Sunday, April 19, 1970, is sometimes listed as the date of the first strip, the appearance was limited to an advertisement in the Sunday comics section of the Chicago Tribune where Broom-Hilda told readers "My friends and I will be in the Tribune every day, starting tomorrow. Come and see us."
  • The New York Knicks overwhelmed the Milwaukee Bucks, 132 to 96, to win Game 5 of a best-4-of-7 semifinal and to earn the right to face the Los Angeles Lakers in the National Basketball Association championship series. The Lakers had won the NBA's Western Division crown the day before against the Atlanta Hawks.
  • Less than two weeks after the U.S. Senate declined to approve his nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court, G. Harrold Carswell resigned his lifetime appointment as a federal judge, apparently confident that he could win office as a United States Senator for Florida.[91] Carswell failed to become the Republican Party nominee, losing by a wide margin in the September 8 primary to Congressman William C. Cramer.
  • Born:

April 21, 1970 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • All 36 people on Philippine Airlines Flight 215 were killed in a crash caused by a bomb explosion in the aircraft's restroom at an altitude of 10,500 feet (3,200 m).[92] The Hawker Siddeley HS-748 had departed from Cauayan on a 174 miles (280 km) to Manila.[93]
  • Leonard Casley, a disgruntled wheat farmer in the state of Western Australia, declared his 18,500 acres (7,500 ha) farm to be the "Hutt River Province", and would contend for the rest of his life that his 29 square miles (75 km2) of territory had seceded from Australia and was no longer subject to national or state laws. A little more than a year later, Casley began making money by arranging to have postage stamps printed for sale to collectors and tourists.[94] Funded by tourism for his micronation, Casley began referring to himself as "Prince Leonard of Hutt River" and expanded to minting coins and printing currency.[95] Casley died on February 13, 2019, two years after abdicating his throne to his son Graeme Casley.[96]
  • Born:

April 22, 1970 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Earth Day was celebrated in the United States for the first time. The Associated Press reported the next day, "Across the nation, trash was gathered, streets swept, ponds and parks cleaned, trees and flowers planted" as "youth joined hands with age across the generation gap".[97]
  • In a secret meeting at the White House of his National Security Council, U.S. President Richard M. Nixon discussed the options for the United States response to the continuing use of Cambodia by the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong as a base from which to launch attacks against American forces during the Vietnam War. Nixon's chief national security adviser, Henry Kissinger, would recount later that the three choices were to continue the current response, favored by Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird and Secretary of State William P. Rogers; providing financial and adviser aid to an invasion by South Vietnam's army without committing ground troops (favored by Kissinger); or sending U.S. troops and planes into Cambodia to attack Communist sanctuaries (favored by General Earle Wheeler, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff). While Nixon supported Kissinger's option, U.S. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew made the argument for committing U.S. troops to Cambodia, the decision that Nixon ultimately adopted.[98]
  • A non-violent protest, that created Chicano Park in San Diego, California, when college student Mario Solis saw construction crews preparing to clear a popular gathering place to build a new California Highway Patrol station in a majority Hispanic-American section of the city, Barrio Logan. Much of the neighborhood had already been razed to build Interstate Highway 5 and the San Diego–Coronado Bridge. Solis quickly organized the occupation of the site by 300 neighborhood residents,[99] and the city of San Diego and the state relented after a 12-day standoff, allowing the residents to build their own park[100]
  • Born: Regine Velasquez, best-selling Philippine singer and award-winning actress; in Manila

April 23, 1970 (Thursday)[edit]

Andorra
  • The tiny European co-principality of Andorra granted women the right to vote[101] The decree provided the franchise to 1,300 women in the nation, located in the Pyrenees on the border between Spain and France. It was signed by its joint heads of state, Spain's Bishop of Urgell (Joan Martí i Alanis) and by Martí's fellow co-prince, France's President Georges Pompidou. Women were still ineligible, however, to run for office.
  • U.S. President Nixon issued an Executive Order ending any future deferment from the military draft based on occupation, agriculture or fatherhood.[102]

April 24, 1970 (Friday)[edit]

People's Republic of China
Republic of China
  • The People's Republic of China became the sixth nation to launch a satellite into Earth orbit, as the spacecraft Dong Fang Hong 1 was sent up using the Changzheng-1 (CZ-1) rocket (named for the Long March).[103] The 346 pounds (157 kg) spacecraft, named for revolutionary song "The East Is Red", which it transmitted continuously while making an orbit of the Earth every 114 minutes.[104]
  • Chiang Ching-kuo, the future President of the Republic of China (on the island of Taiwan), was shot at by a would-be assassin as he entered the Plaza Hotel in New York City.[105] A plainclothes officer of the New York City Police Department struck the assassin's arm and the deflected shot struck the hotel's revolving door as Chiang was preparing to enter. The shooter, Peter Huang Wen-hsiung, was a Ph.D. candidate at Cornell University. He and his brother-in-law, Cheng Tzu-tsai, were arrested at the scene. Chiang, the son, and eventual successor, of Taiwanese President Chiang Kai-shek was the Vice-Premier of the island republic at the time. Cheng and Huang fled the United States after being released on bail and, after Chiang Ching-kuo's 1988 passing, would return to Taiwan in 1996.[106]
  • The West African nation of Gambia became a republic shortly before midnight, after certification of the results of a four day long referendum; Gambian voters approved the measure by more than the required two-thirds needed under the former British colony's constitution, with 84,968 in favor and 35,638 against[107]
  • The 452nd and final episode of the American western anthology series Death Valley Days was shown on syndicated television, bringing an end to the program after 18 seasons.[108] The series had been broadcast at different times by American television stations since October 1, 1952.

April 25, 1970 (Saturday)[edit]

  • A mutiny of the Trinidanian Army came to a peaceful end after five days, when the government of Trinidad and Tobago negotiated a surrender of the mutineers in return for amnesty.[109] On Tuesday, soldiers in Chaguaramas had seized the Teteron Barracks in the small Caribbean nation.
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a warning, to 400,000 owners of the "Relaxacizor", that the machine, marketed as an electrical weight-loss device, could seriously injure or even kill its users because of its process of "exercising" specific muscles with electric shocks to stimulate muscle contraction[110] On April 14, a federal court had issued an injunction to the Eastwood General Corporation, prohibiting future sales unless the Relaxacisor was prescribed by a physician, but the order did not affect the units already sold[111][112]
  • Born: Jason Lee, American television actor, known as the title character in My Name Is Earl; in Santa Ana, California
  • Died: Anita Louise, 55, American film and television actress, died suddenly at her home of a stroke[113]

April 26, 1970 (Sunday)[edit]

April 27, 1970 (Monday)[edit]

  • A five-member team of physicists at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in Berkeley, California, led by Albert Ghiorso, reported that they had synthesized a new chemical element (now called Dubnium) number 105 on the periodic table[117] At the same time, the California team disputed a 1968 report from a Soviet team at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, outside of Moscow, that the Soviets had synthesized the element first. The IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party, convened by the international unions of pure and applied chemistry and of physics, would later credit both teams with the discovery. Ghiorso's team had bombarded californium-249 (an isotope of element number 98) with ions of an isotope of nitrogen and concluded that it had created an isotope of 105.
  • An unidentified 58-year-old woman became the first person to receive a heart pacemaker to be powered by an atomic battery, in a four-hour operation at the Hôpital Broussais in Paris. The battery, powered by 150 micrograms of plutonium, reportedly had a life span of 10 years[118]

April 28, 1970 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Roman Catholic Church restrictions on interfaith marriage were partially lifted, as the U.S. National Conference of Catholic Bishops announced a decision made by Pope Paul VI.[119] Previously, under the 1907 papal decree Ne Temere, the non-Catholic husband or wife had to promise to raise any children in the Catholic faith. The new rules eliminated the promise, but did require that the Roman Catholic partner had to promise to do everything in their power "to have all the children baptized and brought up in the Catholic Church" as a prerequisite for the marriage to be recognized by the Church, and for the non-Catholic partner to state understanding of the Catholic obligation. The new rules were to take effect on October 1.
  • Born:
    • Nicklas Lidström, Swedish ice hockey defense man, seven-time winner of the NHL Norris Trophy over a 20-year career for the Detroit Red Wings, and Olympic gold medalist for Sweden in 2006; in Krylbo, Avesta Municipality
    • Diego Simeone, Argentine soccer football midfielder with 106 appearances for the national team in 14 years, later the manager for Spain's Atletico Madrid team; in Buenos Aires
  • Died: Ed Begley, 69, American film actor and winner of the 1962 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor; father of film and TV star Ed Begley Jr. The senior Begley was attending a party at the home of his publicist when he collapsed, and could not be revived.[120]

April 29, 1970 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • In extra time, the Blues of Chelsea F.C. won England's FA Cup in a replay of the final, after having tied Leeds United, 2 to 2, in the 86th minute of the April 11 game. The replay, watched by a record television audience and played at Old Trafford stadium in Manchester, saw Leeds U. take a 1-0 lead in the first half, until Chelsea's Peter Osgood tied the score in the 78th minute for a 1-1 score at the end of regular play. In the 30 minute extra time period, David Webb headed the ball in at the 104th minute, after a long throw from Ian Hutchinson (whom a reporter said "can throw a bar farther than some men can kick it")[121]
  • Later in the day, England's Manchester City won the European Cup Winners' Cup, defeating Poland's Górnik Zabrze (the Zabrze Miners), 2-1, before a crowd of less than 8,000 in the Austrian capital, Vienna[122] The "Citizens" of Manchester City had won the Football League Cup in March to qualify, while Zabrze had taken their third straight Puchar Polski in the spring.
  • Born:
    • Andre Agassi, American professional tennis player, winner of eight men's Grand Slam event titles, and ATP-ranked #1 in the world six times between 1995 and 2003; in Las Vegas
    • Uma Thurman, American film actress and model; in Boston
  • Died: Charles R. Chickering, 78, American freelance artist whose designs included many of the postage stamps issued by the U.S. Department of the Post Office.

April 30, 1970 (Thursday)[edit]

  • In a nationally televised address, U.S. President Nixon announced that he had sent 2,000 American combat troops into Cambodia and ordering U.S. B-52 bombers to begin airstrikes. In addition, Nixon reversed an April 20 announcement that he would withdraw 150,000 troops from Vietnam over the next year, in effect providing that there would again be a need to draft young American men to maintain the current level. Despite appearances, Nixon told viewers "This is not an invasion of Cambodia." Instead, Nixon explained, the attacks were upon territory in Cambodia that were "completely occupied and controlled by North Vietnamese forces." By the time the President's speech started at 9:00 in the evening Washington time, the U.S. operations in Cambodia had already been underway for two hours.[123][124]
  • Born: Halit Ergenç, Turkish TV, film and stage actor; in Istanbul
  • Died: Inger Stevens, 35, Swedish-born American film and TV actress; of suicide by barbiturate overdose

References[edit]

  1. ^ attribution: User:Dr. Bernd Gross
  2. ^ "57 Die in Plane Near Casablanca", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 2, 1970, p1
  3. ^ "Aviation Safety Network". Archived from the original on 2019-06-07. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  4. ^ "Aviation Safety Network". Archived from the original on 2018-11-24. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  5. ^ "Nixon Snubs Out Cigarettes On TV", Cincinnati Enquirer, April 2, 1970, p1
  6. ^ "The Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1970" Archived 2019-08-01 at the Wayback Machine, by Jody Brumage, Robert C. Byrd Center for Congressional History and Education
  7. ^ "It's Gremlin day today", by Walt McCall, Windsor (ON) Star, April 1, 1970, p26
  8. ^ "Sniper Kills U.S. General In S. Vietnam", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 2, 1970, p1
  9. ^ "Sargent Signs Undeclared-War Bill", Boston Globe, April 3, 1970, p18
  10. ^ ""Today in Civil Liberties History: Massachusetts Declares Vietnam War Unconstitutional"". Archived from the original on 2016-06-19. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  11. ^ "Measure Passes Legislature— Sargent to Act on War Bill Today", Boston Globe, April 2, 1970, p1
  12. ^ U.S. Congress "Viet War Bill, how it reads...", Boston Globe, April 2, 1970, p5
  13. ^ "Japanese Hijackers Release 100 on Plane", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 3, 1970, p1
  14. ^ "Stolen Jet Flies Into N. Korea", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 4, 1970, p1
  15. ^ "Japanese Hijack Hostage Is Home", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 6, 1970, p5
  16. ^ "Ex-Premier Fatally Shot", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 4, 1970, p2
  17. ^ Michael R. Beschloss, The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941-1945 (Simon and Schuster, 2002) p238n1
  18. ^ [https://web.archive.org/web/20190729182830/https://www.newsweek.com/tales-myth-file-183268 Archived 2019-07-29 at the Wayback Machine "Tales from the 'Myth File'", Newsweek magazine, May 7, 1995
  19. ^ "Johnson's Striking Day: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, $!%(& ... 299!", Akron (OH) Beacon Journal, April 5, 1970, pB-1
  20. ^ ""One for the ages: Ritger part of PBA's No. 1 Greatest Moment"". Archived from the original on 2019-07-24. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  21. ^ "'Win In Viet' March Attracts 50,000", Pittsburgh Press, April 5, 1970, p2-9
  22. ^ https://blogs.weta.org/boundarystones/2017/03/02/silent-majority-storm-national-mall Archived 2019-07-24 at the Wayback Machine "The Silent Majority Storm The National Mall", WETA.org
  23. ^ "Burbank, "New Kid on the Block, Marks 20th Year" Archived 2011-06-17 at the Wayback Machine, Northern Illinois University
  24. ^ "New City OK'd by Stickney Area Voters, Chicago Tribune, April 5, 1970, p6
  25. ^ "FOUR CHP OFFICERS SLAIN AT NEWHALL— All Shot Fatally in Blazing Gunfight, Los Angeles Times, April 6, 1970, p1
  26. ^ http://archive.signalscv.com/archives/11568/"The Newhall Incident" Archived 2019-07-29 at the Wayback Machine, SCVHistory.com, Santa Clarita Valley Historical Society
  27. ^ "2 notorious Calif. inmates commit suicide" Archived 2019-08-02 at the Wayback Machine, San Diego Union-Tribune, August 18, 2009
  28. ^ "Kirk Running Manatee Schools", Fort Lauderdale (FL) News, April 6, 1970, p1
  29. ^ "Kirk Grabs School Unit, Defies Court, Pittsburgh Press, April 6, 1970, p13
  30. ^ "Kirk ends defiance; 'solution up to court'", Miami News, April 13, 1970, p1
  31. ^ "Claude Kirk, Florida’s Governor, takes on the District Court", U.S. District Court, Middle District of Florida website
  32. ^ "26 at Party Stricken by Food Apparently Spiked With LSD", Los Angeles Times, April 6, 1970, p1
  33. ^ "LSD Potato Chips Drug 27 at Party", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 6, 1970, p1
  34. ^ "Man Held in LSD Spiking of Party Food", Los Angeles Times, August 11, 1970, p20
  35. ^ "Man Sentenced", Los Angeles Times, March 21, 1971, pL-2
  36. ^ "W. German Envoy to Guatemala Is Found Slain", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 6, 1970, p1
  37. ^ "The new-look radio", by Gillian Reynolds, The Guardian (Manchester), April 6, 1970, p8
  38. ^ "Cambodian Reds Seize Newsmen", Spokane (WA) Spokesman-Review, April 7, 1970, p1
  39. ^ "Missing journalists probably executed— 15 years late, a grim report on two American men who disappeared in Cambodia", by John C. Hanna and Elizabeth Boyd, San Francisco Examiner, May 8, 1986, p14
  40. ^ "King of Denmark Wrecks His Car— Walks Away", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 7, 1970, p1
  41. ^ "X-Rated 'Cowboy,' Old Cowhand Wayne Win Oscars", Philadelphia Daily News, April 8, 1970, p5
  42. ^ "Sentimental favorite John Wayne finally captures and Oscar", Winona (MN) Daily News, April 8, 1970, p1
  43. ^ "Milwaukee County Stadium" Archived 2019-03-20 at the Wayback Machine, Ballparks of Baseball.com
  44. ^ "Angels Tread on Brewers", Milwaukee Journal, April 8, 1970, p2-1
  45. ^ ""Welcome to the Town of McIntosh, AL Incorporated in 1970"". Archived from the original on 2019-07-29. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  46. ^ "Israeli Jets Kill 30 Children", UPI report in The Press Democrat (Santa Rosa CA), April 8, 1970, p1
  47. ^ "Egypt's Bahr Al-Baqar: Flashbacks of an Israeli war crime" Archived 2019-08-02 at the Wayback Machine, Al-Ahram (Cairo)
  48. ^ Simon Dunstan, Israeli Fortifications of the October War 1973 (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2012) pp33-34
  49. ^ "Blasts Kill 88 Near Expo 70", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 9, 1970, p1
  50. ^ "Senate Rejects Carswell, 51-45", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 9, 1970, p1
  51. ^ "Backup Astronaut Crams for Mission", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 10, 1970, p1
  52. ^ "One Vote Does It— Abortion Bill OK With Sobbing Aye", The Democrat and Chronicle (Rochester NY), April 10, 1970, p1
  53. ^ "New York State Assemblyman George M. Michaels" Archived 2019-08-02 at the Wayback Machine, by Emily Ullman, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library "Profiles in Courage" Essay winner
  54. ^ "Music-versary: Paul McCartney announces his departure from the Beatles via press release on April 10, 1970" Archived August 1, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, SiriusXM.com "Music-versary" blog, April 8, 2016
  55. ^ "McCartney and Beatles splitsville?", Montreal Gazette, April 10, 1970, p1
  56. ^ "Independent Status OK'd For Church", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Apr 25, 1970, p6
  57. ^ "Orthodox Church In America (OCA)" Archived 2019-08-01 at the Wayback Machine, New Catholic Encyclopedia online
  58. ^ "Tomos of Autocephaly"[permanent dead link], Orthodox Church In America
  59. ^ "In 1970, a Russian Atomic Submarine Sank. It Was Armed with Nuclear Weapons" Archived 2018-11-01 at the Wayback Machine, by Robert Farley, NationalInterest.org, May 16, 2018
  60. ^ "Red A-Sub Sinking Off Spain Likely" Archived 2015-11-01 at the Wayback Machine, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 14, 1970, p2
  61. ^ "15 die in Adelaide smash— Death toll may rise", The Age (Melbourne), April 13, 1970, p1
  62. ^ "Wasleys train and bus level crossing crash still evokes vivid memories for rescue workers" Archived 2019-08-07 at the Wayback Machine, by Stuart Stansfield, ABC South East SA, July 1, 2019
  63. ^ "ASTRONAUTS FIGHT TO RETURN, COMMAND MODULE IS DISABLED— 2 Enter Moon Lander To Conserve Oxygen" Archived 2015-11-01 at the Wayback Machine, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 14, 1970, p1
  64. ^ "Apollo's world almost ended with a bang", by Thomas O'Toole, Washington Post, April 19, 1970
  65. ^ NASA Apollo 13 transcript Archived 2019-07-21 at the Wayback Machine, at 02 07 55 35
  66. ^ a b "Review of Troubles That Beset Apollo 13", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 17, 1970, p5
  67. ^ "1,000 Civilians Slain In Cambodia— Youth Describes Massacre Of 600 Seized At Village", Indianapolis Star, April 19, 1970, p1
  68. ^ "Silver Strand shipwreck back in the spotlight" Archived 2016-10-03 at the Wayback Machine, by Doug Thompson, Ventura County Star (Camarillo CA), August 26, 2016
  69. ^ "Casper Surges Past Littler for Masters Title". Tri-City Herald. Associated Press. April 14, 1970. p. 10. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  70. ^ "Red Chinese Free U.S. Priest— Reds Report Jailed Businessman Killed Self", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 11, 1970, p2
  71. ^ "Nixon Names Minnesotan To High Court", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 15, 1970, p1
  72. ^ "Blackmun Approved, 94-0; Nixon Hails Vote by Senate", The New York Times, May 13, 1970, p1
  73. ^ "What’s The Farthest Humans Have Gone In Space?" Archived 2019-07-30 at the Wayback Machine, ScienceABC.com
  74. ^ "Alps Avalanche Rams Hospital, 56 Feared Dead", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 16, 1970, p1
  75. ^ "Deaths Rise To 72 in Alps Slide Disaster", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 16, 1970, p1
  76. ^ "Extremist Pastors Win In Ireland", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 17, 1970, p4
  77. ^ "NBA Players Sue to Stop ABA Merger", Philadelphia Daily News, April 16, 1970, p70
  78. ^ ""The Oscar Robertson Rule: landmark court decision changed the balance of power in professional sports"". Archived from the original on 2019-08-01. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  79. ^ "APOLLO CREW RETURNS SAFELY— Trio In Good Health, Examinations Reveal", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 18, 1970, p1
  80. ^ "Air Force 1, Apollo's 3 Complete 13's Odyssey", St. Petersburg (FL) Times
  81. ^ "Rojas Claim Met By Martial Law", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 22, 1970, p1
  82. ^ "East Berlin Unveils New Lenin Statue", El Paso (TX) Times, April 20, 1970, p6
  83. ^ "After ‘Goodbye Lenin’, a Berlin resurrection" Archived 2019-08-02 at the Wayback Machine, Agence France-Presse article in Hürriyet Daily News (Istanbul), July 24, 2015
  84. ^ "LADA Celebrates the Day of the First Car" Archived 2019-08-02 at the Wayback Machine, AvtoVAZ website
  85. ^ "World Cup Auto Rally Underway", Tampa Tribune, April 20, 1970, p5-C
  86. ^ ""Ford Europe" blogspot". Archived from the original on 2019-08-02. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  87. ^ "Finish at Last For Auto Rally", San Francisco Examiner, May 28, 1970, p60
  88. ^ "Nixon to Pull Out 150,000 by May '71", Bridgeport (CT) Telegram, April 21, 1970, p1
  89. ^ Denise M. Bostdorff, The Presidency and the Rhetoric of Foreign Crisis (University of South Carolina Press, 1994) p92
  90. ^ "'Broom Hilda' Creator Tells Of Love Affair", Daily News (New York), April 26, 1970, p84
  91. ^ "Carswell to Run for the U.S. Senate", Bridgeport (CT) Telegram, April 21, 1970, p1
  92. ^ "Aviation Safety Network". Archived from the original on 2019-04-14. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  93. ^ "Philippine Plane Crash Kills 33", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 22, 1970, p1
  94. ^ "New Aust 'State' — First Stamp", Sydney Morning Herald, August 29, 1971, p18
  95. ^ "Australian 'Prince' Secedes Over Wheat Quota Dispute", Los Angeles Times, April 18, 1974
  96. ^ "Hutt River Province founder Prince Leonard dies aged 93" Archived 2019-08-17 at the Wayback Machine, Sydney Morning Herald, February 13, 2019
  97. ^ "Participants In Earth Day Sweep Nation", AP report in Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 22, 1970, p1
  98. ^ Office of the Historian Archived 2019-07-31 at the Wayback Machine, Foreign Service Institute, United States Department of State
  99. ^ "State's project blocked", AP report in Escondido (CA) Times-Advocate, April 23, 1970, p3
  100. ^ "The History of Chicano Park" Archived 2019-02-17 at the Wayback Machine, by Jess Santos, La Prensa San Diego, April 15, 2005
  101. ^ "Women Given Right to Vote in Tiny Andorra", AP report in Lancaster (PA) New Era, April 23, 1970, p1
  102. ^ "Nixon Abolishes Job, Fatherhood Draft Deferment", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 24, 1970, p1
  103. ^ "Red China Orbits 1st Satellite— Peking Joins Space Race", Pittsburgh Press, April 25, 1970, p1
  104. ^ "PEKING ORBITS A MUSIC BOX— Satellite Broadcasts Anthem", Sunday News (New York), April 26, 1970, p1
  105. ^ "Chiang's Son Esacapes Assassination By Demonstrator At Hotel In N.Y.— Shot Deflected As Policeman Hits Gunman", Baltimore Evening Sun, April 24, 1970, p1
  106. ^ "Would-be Assassin Resurfaces in a Changed Taiwan" Archived 2019-08-01 at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press report by Christopher Bodeen, May 6, 1996
  107. ^ "Gambia Becomes A Republic", Calgary Herald, April 25, 1970, p2
  108. ^ Internet Movie Database, imdb.com
  109. ^ "Trinidad Rebels Begin Turning In Their Arms", Los Angeles Times, April 26, 1970, pA-2
  110. ^ "Strong Warning On 'Relaxacisor'", Des Moines (IA) Register, April 26, 1970, p1
  111. ^ "United States v. Relaxacisor, Inc." Archived 2019-08-18 at the Wayback Machine, 340 F. Supp. 943 (C.D. Cal. 1970), on Justia.com
  112. ^ "The Fitness Wearable So Dangerous It Was Supposed to Be Destroyed" Archived 2019-08-18 at the Wayback Machine, by Kate Knibbs, July 14, 2015
  113. ^ "Stroke Fatal To Actress Anita Louise", Indianapolis Star, April 27, 1970, p1
  114. ^ Arpad Bogsch, The First Twenty Five Years of the World Intellectual Property Organization (1967-1992) (World Intellectual Property Organization, 1992) p124
  115. ^ Dan Dietz, The Complete Book of 1990s Broadway Musicals (Rowman & Littlefield, 2016) p205
  116. ^ "Ex-Stripteaser Gypsy Rose Lee Dies of Cancer at UCLA Center" Archived 2019-07-14 at the Wayback Machine, by Ted Thackrey Jr., Los Angeles Times, April 27, 1970, p3
  117. ^ "California Team Discovers New Radioactive Element", Baltimore Sun, April 28, 1970, pA7
  118. ^ "1st Atomic Pacemaker Implanted", Ottawa Citizen, April 28, 1970, p1
  119. ^ "Interfaith Marriage Rules Eased by Pope", Chicago Tribune, April 29, 1970, p1
  120. ^ "Actor Ed Begley, Oscar Winner, Collapses And Dies at Party", Los Angeles Times, April 29, 1970, p1
  121. ^ "Final blow for Leeds— Chelsea take FA Cup in cliffhanger finish", by Eric Todd, The Guardian (Manchester), April 30, 1970, p22
  122. ^ "Cup for City in Vienna", The Guardian (Manchester), April 30, 1970, p1
  123. ^ "GIs Attacking in Cambodia, Not an Invasion, Says Nixon", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, May 1, 1970, p1
  124. ^ "President Nixon’s Speech on Cambodia, April 30, 1970" Archived July 31, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Temple University archive