June 1970

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June 18, 1970: Edward Heath and the Conservative Party score upset win in United Kingdom elections
Brazil defeats Italy, 4-1, to win World Cup
Prime Minister Harold Wilson and Labour Party voted out
Soviet Soyuz 9 cosmonauts Nikolayev and Sevastyanov spend record 17½ days in orbit

The following events occurred in June 1970:

June 1, 1970 (Monday)[edit]

June 2, 1970 (Tuesday)[edit]


June 3, 1970 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Richard M. Nixon announced in a nationwide television and radio address that American troops would be pulled back out of Cambodia after the achievement of "all our major military objectives", and that half of the 31,000 U.S. troops in Cambodia had been returned to fight in South Vietnam.[6]
  • Died:
    • Hjalmar Schacht, 93, German politician and financier who served as President of the Reichsbank and as Adolf Hitler's Minister of Economics from 1935 to 1937 during Germany's dramatic recovery from the worldwide economic recession
    • Aníbal Milhais, 74, Portugal's most highly decorated soldier and national hero.
    • Ruth Sawyer, 89, American children's author and adult fiction novelist
    • R. K. Mellon, 70, American financier and philanthropist

June 4, 1970 (Thursday)[edit]

Flag of Tonga
  • The Kingdom of Tonga was granted independence from the United Kingdom, after 70 years as a British protectorate, with Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV as King and his brother Fatafehi Tuʻipelehake as Prime Minister. Independence celebrations were held in the capital at Nukuʻalofa at a soccer field next to the royal palace, but attended by only 3,000 of the nation's 80,000 residents; most citizens on the island of Tongatapu were preparing instead for the arrival of 1,700 passengers from the ocean liner Oriana.[7]
  • The hijacking of a TWA Flight 486, and its 51 passengers, ended eight hours after it started, when police in at Dulles International Airport in Washington persuaded Arthur G. Barkley to leave the plane. Three hours earlier, Barkley had been paid the first ransom ever given to an American hijacker when TWA provided him with $100,750 when the Boeing 727 flight from Phoenix to Washington landed at its intended destination of Dulles. Barkley was upset, however, to discover that he was not being provided the ransom of $100,000,000 he had demanded[8] and forced the plane to take flight again.[9] Barkley would later be found not guilty by reason of insanity, of crimes arising from the wounding of Flight 486's pilot, and the air piracy charges would be dropped when he was committed to a hospital for the criminally insane[10]
  • Born: Izabella Scorupco, Polish-born Swedish film actress known for GoldenEye; in Bialystok
  • Died: Menasha Skulnik, 80, American stage and radio comedian, known for his performances in Yiddish theater and as the recurring character "Uncle David" on The Goldbergs

June 5, 1970 (Friday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Richard M. Nixon held a meeting with the four chiefs of the American intelligence agencies (J. Edgar Hoover of the FBI, Richard Helms of the CIA, Noel Gayler of the NSA and Donald V. Bennett of the Defense Intelligence Agency) and prepared a plan for the "Huston Plan", a program to spy against, infiltrate, and make arrests of the members of, groups protesting against the Vietnam War[11] Tom Charles Huston, a lower level member of the White House staff, delivered a detailed proposal on June 26, which President Nixon approved on July 14. The Huston plan, however, was abruptly canceled the next day before it could be implemented.[12] Existence of the plan would later be revealed during testimony by Huston before U.S. Senate Armed Services Committee in 1973.[13]

June 6, 1970 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Two masterpiece paintings, Paul Gauguin's "A Still Life of Apples and Grapes" and Pierre Bonnard's Les Deux Sauteuils ("The Two Chairs"), were stolen from the North London home of a British philanthropist Mathilda Marks-Kennedy,[14] Sir Mark Kennedy, creating a mystery that would remain unsolved for the next 43 years. Sold for US$25 at a police auction in Turin in 1975 after being abandoned by the burglars in a railway station, the paintings would be found in 2014 in the home of an Italian auto worker who was unaware of their value. In 1970, the Gauguin was valued at £120,000 (US$228,000) and the Bonnard at £35,000 (US$84,000).[15] By 2014, the worth of the Gauguin and the Bonnard works together would be valued at US$50,000,000.[16] The good faith purchaser "known only as Nicolo", would be allowed to keep the Gauguin painting[17]

June 7, 1970 (Sunday)[edit]

June 8, 1970 (Monday)[edit]

Ex-president Ongania
President Levingston
  • Argentina's President Juan Carlos Ongania was overthrown in a military coup d'etat, after Ongania fired the commander-in-chief of the Argentine Army, Lieutenant General Alejandro Agustín Lanusse.[22] As military units began seizing control of strategic points in Buenos Aires and the rest of the nation, Ongania barricaded himself inside the presidential offices at the Casa Rosada, protected by 1,200 members of his presidential guard. After 12 hours of negotiation, Ongania agreed to be driven, with police escort, to army headquarters where he submitted his resignation, then departed to the presidential residence at Quinta de Olivos. A three-man junta consisting of Lanusse, Admiral Pedro Gnavi and Air Force General Juan Carlos Rey, then advised the Argentine Supreme Court that they had assumed control of the executive branch and that they would name a president within ten days. On June 14, they designated General Roberto M. Levingston as the new President.[23]
  • Russian serial killer Boris Serebryakov, who had murdered nine victims over 14 months, was arrested in Kuybyshev, three days after he had killed a family of four.[24][25] He would be executed by a single gunshot to the back of his head after a trial in 1971.
  • Born:
  • Died: Abraham Maslow, 62, American psychologist known for formulating the theory of hierarchy of needs

June 9, 1970 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The Supreme Court of the United States had nine members again after having operated with only eight for more than a year. Harry A. Blackmun, the third nominee for the vacancy, was sworn in as the new Associate Justice, 13 months after the resignation of Abe Fortas on May 15, 1969.[26]
  • Died: Rafael Ángel Calderón, 70, President of Costa Rica from 1940 to 1944

June 10, 1970 (Wednesday)[edit]

June 11, 1970 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Anna Mae Hays and Elizabeth P. Hoisington of the U.S. Army were formally promoted to the rank of brigadier general, making them the first female generals in American history.[27] General Hayes was the director of the Army Nurse Corps, and General Hoisington commanded the Women's Army Corps.
  • Wheelus Air Base, the last American military unit in Libya, was turned over to the Libyan government as the last 47 U.S. troops in the North African nation withdrew.[28] The base, located near Tripoli, was renamed Okba Ben Nafi Airfield and became the main base for the Libyan Air Force. In 1995, it would be converted to civilian use and renamed the Mitiga International Airport.
  • Viet Cong troops attacked Thanh My hamlet, Phu Thanh village in Quang Nam Province near Da Nang and killed 70 of the 2,000 civilian residents in the Thanh My massacre. According to survivors, the attackers raced through the streets and shot bystanders, as well as throwing grenades into shelters and homes. Another 44 were killed in attacks outside of Ba Ren[29]
  • The Library of Tibetan Works and Archives was founded by the exiled 14th Dalai Lama in the city of Dharamshala in India's Himachal Pradesh, where most Tibetans had moved to after China's invasion of the Himalayan nation. The library now houses Tibetan Buddhist books, manuscripts and other items rescued by the Tibetans.
  • The U.S. state of Louisiana voted to ratify the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution (granting women the right to vote) almost 50 years after the amendment had become effective nationwide.[30] Louisiana had previously rejected the amendment on July 1, 1920. With the ratification, only two states had failed to ratify. North Carolina would approve on May 6, 1971, and Mississippi would finally vote to approve on March 22, 1984.
  • Died:
    • Alexander Kerensky, 89, Prime Minister of Russia in 1917 after the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II, until his own overthrown three months later by the Bolshevik revolution. Kerensky had lived in exile for more than 50 years and had lived in New York since 1961.[31]
    • Frank Laubach, 85, American Christian missionary and activist for literacy
    • Frank Silvera, 55, Jamaican-born American stage, film and TV actor, was accidentally electrocuted in his home[32]
    • A. A. Allen, 59, American evangelist and reputed faith healer

June 12, 1970 (Friday)[edit]

June 13, 1970 (Saturday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Nixon appointed nine people (five white, four African-Americans) to create the President's Commission on Campus Unrest, chaired by former Pennsylvania governor William Scranton, 41 days after the shootings at Kent State University and subsequent student demonstrations[40] The Scranton Commission would release its report on September 26[41]
  • On the same day, Kent State University reopened its campus for the first time since the May 4 shootings so that 1,200 of the 1,900 graduates of the class of 1970 could receive their diplomas.[42][43] The rest of the semester had been canceled after the deaths of four students. Under heavy security, the event was closed to everyone except for the 6,000 persons invited, and state, city and campus police blocked all entrances to the campus to turn away anyone else. University President Robert I. White gave the commencement address, and all speakers were university employees.
  • "The Long and Winding Road" became the Beatles' 20th and final single to reach number one on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 chart in the magazine's June 13 rankings. Billboard's magazine and Top 40 had been released on June 6.[44] The song would stay a second week at #1[45] before dropping to #4[46] and moving back down the charts.[47] During their six-year recording career, the Beatles had averaged one #1 hit single every 3.7 months.
  • Born:
  • Died: Gonzalo Roig, 79, Cuban musician, founder of the Cuban National Opera and co-founder of the Havana Symphony Orchestra

June 14, 1970 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Elections were held in the Soviet Union for the 767 member lower house (the Soviet of the Union) and the 750 member upper house (the Soviet of Nationalities). TASS, the Soviet news agency, reported a 99.92% turnout, with fewer than 65,000 of the 153 million eligible voters failing to appear[48] The 1,517 candidates were all unopposed, and the only choice for voters was to vote yes or no. TASS praised the turnout as "vividly showing the unshakable unity of the Party and the people, a new victory of the bloc of Communists and non-party people."
  • Died: Roman Ingarden, 77, Polish philosopher

June 15, 1970 (Monday)[edit]

June 16, 1970 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • The leftist terrorist group Ação Libertadora Nacional released West Germany's ambassador to Brazil, Ehrenfried von Holleben, the day after the Brazilian government freed 40 political prisoners and five days after von Holleben had been kidnapped. Under the terms of the ransom, von Holleben would be freed only after the group received confirmation that the prisoners had landed safely in Algeria.[52] Von Holleben, who was released unharmed the next day, had been kidnapped on June 11 by the leftist.[53]
Phil Mickelson
Brian Piccolo
  • Structural engineer Kenneth A. Gibson overwhelmingly defeated incumbent Hugh J. Addonizio in the race for Mayor of Newark, New Jersey, becoming the first African-American to be elected as mayor of major east coast American city.[54] Newark, at the time, had a population of almost 382,000 people. A few weeks after his July 1 departure from office, Adonizzio, already under criminal indictment at the time of the election, was found guilty of extortion in a jury trial and sentenced to 10 years in federal prison.
  • Born: Phil Mickelson, American professional golfer, three-time winner of the Masters, as well as one PGA championship and the British Open; in San Diego
  • Died:
    • Brian Piccolo, 26, American NFL running back from 1965 to 1969, from cancer. Piccolo attained greater fame posthumously as the subject of the film Brian's Song
    • Charles P. McCormick, 74, American businessman who built the spice manufacturer McCormick & Company into a multi-billion dollar international conglomerate
    • Heino Eller, 83, Estonian-Soviet classical music composer

June 17, 1970 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • After protests by top-ranking Soviet scientists, the Soviet Union released geneticist Zhores Medvedev from confinement at the Kaluga psychiatric hospital, where he had been held as an alternative to imprisonment for his criticisms of the Soviet and Communist system.[55] Medvedev had been arrested by the KGB on May 29 and then, in accordance with a Soviet practice at the time for prominent dissidents, sent to an insane asylum. His arrest had angered his fellow scientists to the extent that even highly decorated Soviets such as Andrei Sakharov and Pyotr Kapitsa joined author Alexander Solzhenitsyn in denouncing the Kremlin.
  • A bill to lower the voting age for Americans from 21 to 18 was passed Congress after the U.S. House of Representatives voted, 272 to 132, to join the U.S. Senate in amending the Voting Rights Act of 1965, effective January 1.[56] Nixon signed the bill into law on June 22, but the relevant part of the amendment would be declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court on December 21 in the case of Oregon v. Mitchell, in a finding that the federal government could only regulate national elections. The 26th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution would be ratified a little more than a year later in 1971 to lower the voting age in all elections.
  • In Dallas, a three-judge panel of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas ruled unanimously in Roe v. Wade that the Texas law prohibiting abortion of any pregnancy (unless the mother's life was in danger) violated the Ninth Amendment of the United States Constitution. By that time, Norma McCorvey (identified in the caption as "Jane Roe" to protect her privacy) had already given birth and the child was adopted by another family. The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade on January 22, 1973, would provide the right to an abortion nationwide.
  • The residents of a trailer court in Clackamas County voted, 49 to 10, to incorporate as the city of Johnson City, Oregon.[57] With an area of about 45 acres (18 ha), the town now has about 570 residents.
  • Born: Will Forte, American comedian and actor; as Orville Willis Forte IV in Moraga, California
  • Died: James H. Fields, 49, American Medal of Honor recipient

June 18, 1970 (Thursday)[edit]

  • In a surprise upset, voters in the United Kingdom gave the UK's Edward Heath and the Conservative Party a majority in the House of Commons, ending the leadership of the government by Prime Minister Harold Wilson and the rule by the Labour Party after nearly six years.[58] Most opinion polls had predicted a third successive Labour win.[59] The Labour Party had been so heavily favored[60] that British bookmakers had set odds of 7 to 2 against the Conservatives winning control of Commons[61] The Tories won 330 of the 630 seats in the Commons, gaining 77 while Labour lost 75 to win only 288 seats. Before the election, Labour had a 364 to 253 majority.
  • Muhammad Bassiri, the Sahrawi leader of the fight for independence of the Spanish Sahara from Spain, was arrested by Spanish police and not seen again in public. Testimony from three Sahrawi witnesses later indicated that Bassiri was executed on July 29.
  • Argentine Army Brigadier General Roberto M. Livingston was sworn in as the new President of Argentina, four days after being appointed by the three-man junta that had overthrown President Juan Carlos Ongania.[62]

June 19, 1970 (Friday)[edit]

  • The Patent Cooperation Treaty was signed at Washington, DC, by representatives of 46 nations.[63] It would enter into force as international law on January 24, 1978, providing a unified procedure for filing patent applications to protect inventions.
  • Soyuz 9 returned to Earth at 6:59 p.m. local time (1259 UTC) at a site in the Kazakh SSR 47 miles (76 km) west of Karaganda. Cosmonauts Nikolayev and Sevastyanov returned after a then-record 17 days, 16 hours and 59 minutes in outer space[64]
  • Seven construction workers in Albert City, Iowa, were killed in the sudden collapse of a 130 feet (40 m) tall grain silo while they were pouring concrete to cover the steel structure. When the 12-man crew was almost done, the roof suddenly collapsed, sending eight of the men falling the equivalent of nine stories to the ground.[65] The eighth victim was seriously injured.
  • The first, and only championship of the seven-team International Boxing League (IBL), was won by the New York Jolts over the Chicago Clippers, 46 to 24, in Chicago[66] The IBL scoring format was based on seven three-minute bouts at various weight classes, with points awarded for each round (one for a draw, two for a win) and four points for winning the bout.[67]
  • Born:

June 20, 1970 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Dave Kunst and his brother John Kunst, along with a supply-carrying pack mule named "Willie Makeit", set off on foot from Waseca, Minnesota in an attempt to become the first persons to walk around the world.[68] John would be killed, and Dave would be wounded, by bandits while traveling through Afghanistan in 1972. After recovering from his injuries, Dave resumed the journey in 1973 from the spot where his travels had stopped and, on October 5, 1974,[69] would complete the first verified "circumnavigation by foot" (he flew on commercial airlines to cross bodies of water), calculated to have been 14,452 miles (23,258 km).
  • Born:

June 21, 1970 (Sunday)[edit]

Brazil Team Captain Carlos Alberto
  • Brazil defeated Italy, 4–1, to win the 1970 FIFA World Cup before a crowd of 112,000 in Mexico City's Azteca Stadium.[70] Both nation's teams had won the World Cup twice— Brazil in 1958 and 1962, and Italy in 1934 and 1938, so the Jules Rimet Trophy, to be awarded permanently to the first three-time winner, was at stake.
  • In the largest U.S. corporate bankruptcy, up to that date, the Penn Central Railroad filed a petition for Section 77 bankruptcy.[71] The board of directors of Penn Central voted to file the petition after the President Nixon withdrew a plan for a $200,000,000 guaranteed loan to the nation's largest railroad company in the face of opposition from Congress. U.S. District Judge William Kraft, Jr. signed the order on the petition at his Philadelphia home at 5:35 in the afternoon, allowing the petition but permitting Penn Central to continue operating its scheduled rail service until bankruptcy trustees could be appointed.
  • Four Franciscan friars who had been burned at the stake on orders of the Muslim Caliph of Jerusalem on November 14, 1391 in JerusalemNicholas Tavelic, Deodatus of Aquitaine, Peter of Narbonne and Stephen of Cuneo— were canonized as Saints of the Roman Catholic Church by Pope Paul VI[72] Tavelic was the first Croatian saint in Roman Catholicism.[73]
  • Ecuador's President, José María Velasco Ibarra, carried out an autogolpe two years into his elected term, dismissing the South American nation's legislature and supreme court, and assuming dictatorial powers.[74] Ecuador's military leaders, who had supported the suspension of government, would remove him in a coup d'etat before the scheduled end of his term in 1972.
  • Died: Sukarno, 69, the first President of Indonesia, from 1945 until being deposed and arrested in 1967. Sukarno, who was reportedly had five of his wives by his bedside, was allowed to lay in state after his death, and tens of thousands of Indonesians passed by his body "for a last look at the once-fiery little man who led them to independence."[75]

June 22, 1970 (Monday)[edit]

  • The United States Supreme Court ruled, 7 to 1, that the jury in a criminal trial no longer required the traditional 12 persons, a custom that had dated to 14th Century England.[76] In the majority opinion that declared Florida's proposal for a six-member jury to be acceptable under the U.S. Constitution, Justice Byron R. White wrote "The fact that the jury at common law was composed of precisely 12 is an historical accident, unnecessary to effect the purposes of the jury system and wholly without significance except to mystics." White also wrote that a state could set any number for a jury (besides 6 or 12) as long as the accused received the "common-sense judgment of a group of laymen".
  • Died: Frank J. Wilson, 82, Chief of the United States Secret Service, 1936 to 1947

June 23, 1970 (Tuesday)[edit]

Roscoe Turner
  • Died:
    • Roscoe Turner, 74, American aviator and airplane racing champion
    • Dang Thuy Tram, 27, medic for the North Vietnamese Army and for the Viet Cong whose diary, Last Night I Dreamed of Peace, would be published worldwide 35 years after she was shot during a U.S. Army raid

June 24, 1970 (Wednesday)[edit]

The Bildplattenspieler for TeD videodiscs

June 25, 1970 (Thursday)[edit]

June 26, 1970 (Friday)[edit]

June 27, 1970 (Saturday)[edit]

June 28, 1970 (Sunday)[edit]

June 29, 1970 (Monday)[edit]

  • U.S. ground troops withdrew from Cambodia after two months. In all, 339 U.S. servicemen were killed in Cambodia during the unpopular 61-day incursion from South Vietnam.[89]
  • In Jersey City, New Jersey, former world heavyweight boxing champion Sonny Liston came back from a defeat and defeated Chuck Wepner when the referee stopped the bout because Wepner was severely bleeding.[90] The victory would prove to be Liston's last fight, and he was found dead in his home a little more than six months later. Wepner, nicknamed "The Bayonne Bleeder" for his hometown of Bayonne, New Jersey and his determination to keep fighting even after being cut, required more than 100 stitches to his face, and would later lose in a memorable bout in 1974 with world heavyweight boxing champion Muhammad Ali.[91]
  • Died:

June 30, 1970 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Delegates to the Lutheran Church in America (LCA) convention approved a resolution allowing women to be ordained as ministers. The proposal was approved overwhelmingly by voice vote at the annual meeting in Minneapolis of the LCA, the largest of the three major Lutheran denominations in the United States[94]
  • Riverfront Stadium opened in Cincinnati as a dual-purpose stadium for the Cincinnati Reds baseball team and the Cincinnati Bengals NFL team. In the inaugural event, the Reds lost to the Atlanta Braves, 8 to 2. Six days earlier, the Reds had played their final game at Crosley Field, a 5 to 4 win over the San Francisco Giants.
  • Born: Leonardo Sbaraglia, Argentine-born Spanish film actor; in Buenos Aires
  • Died: Arthur Leslie (stage name for Arthur L.S. Broughton), 70, British actor and playwright


  1. ^ "2 Men Orbited In First Soviet Shot Since Oct.", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 2, 1970, p1
  2. ^ "Artificial Gene Is Created in Lab", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 3, 1970, p1
  3. ^ Phillips confirms discovery of major oil fields", by Victor Keegan, The Guardian, June 3, 1970, p12 (London)
  4. ^ "Major oilfield discovered between Scotland, Norway", Montreal Gazette, June 3, 1970, p26
  5. ^ "Bruce McLaren Killed In Crash At 180 MPH", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, June 2, 1970, p9
  6. ^ "Cambodian Objectives Achieved, Nixon Says", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 4, 1970, p1
  7. ^ "Tonga's Free; All 100 of Its Army Marches", Chicago Tribune, June 5, 1970, p5
  8. ^ "HIJACKER DEMANDS $100 MILLION CASH— Jetliner Started Flight In Phoenix", Tucson (AZ) Daily Citizen, June 4, 1970, p1
  9. ^ "Wounded Hijacker Is Captured", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 5, 1970, p1
  10. ^ "Skyjacker Ruled Insane", Daily News (New York), November 17, 1971, p102
  11. ^ "Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans", Report of the U.S. Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, April 14, 1976 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976) p. 953
  12. ^ "President Nixon Withdraws Approval of Huston Plan For Spying, Illegal Actions Against Americans", by Samule Walker, from Today in Civil Liberties History
  13. ^ "Nixon Aides Planned CIA Spying in U.S.", Atlanta Constitution, May 22, 1973, p1
  14. ^ "Paintings Stolen In Three-Man Ruse", The Courier-Journal, June 7, 1970, p2
  15. ^ "£155,000 art theft", The Observer (London)
  16. ^ "Stolen Masterpieces Worth $50M Found in Auto Worker's Home", by Clark Bentson, ABC News (U.S.), April 2, 2014
  17. ^ "Pensioner allowed to keep stolen $50M Gauguin", Windsor Star, December 13, 2014, pA18
  18. ^ "The Who and 'Tommy' Rock the Met", by McCandlish Phillips, The New York Times, June 8, 1970, p42
  19. ^ "Swiss Vote Is Heavy Against Alien Ouster", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 8, 1970, p2
  20. ^ "Voters Reject Plan for New German State", Chicago Tribune, June 8, 1970, p3-10
  21. ^ "Rookie Sets 3 PBA Records In Seattle Victory", Indianapolis News, June 8, 1970, p28
  22. ^ "Argentina's Chief Ousted By Military— Ongania Gives Resignation To Heads of Junta", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 9, 1970, p2
  23. ^ "Junta Picks New Leader Of Argentina", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 15, 1970, p4
  24. ^ "Maniac from the Soviet past", by Valery Erofeev, Volzhskaya Kommuna, September 24, 2010 (Russian language
  25. ^ "'Night Creature': Serebryakov in Kuibyshev (1969-1970)", by Oleg Ivanets, in IvanetsOleg Live Journal (Russian language)
  26. ^ "Blackmun Takes Seat on Top Court", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 10, 1970, p2
  27. ^ "Two Women Generals First in Army History", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 12, 1970, p2
  28. ^ "Wheelus Fades Away Amid Cheers", Binghamton (NY) Evening Press, June 11, 1970, p1
  29. ^ "114 Villagers Feared Killed By Viet Cong", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 12, 1970, p1
  30. ^ "19th Amendment By State", U.S. National Park Service
  31. ^ "Kerensky, Ex-Ruler Of Russia, Dies— Anti-Red Exile Passes Away In New York", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 12, 1970, p4
  32. ^ "Frank Silvera, Actor-Director, Electrocuted in Coast Mishap", The New York Times, June 12, 1970
  33. ^ "Metric Conversion Act 1970", Federal Register of Legislation, Australian Government website
  34. ^ Enerhodar— Home to an Impressive Nuclear Power Plant", Ukraine.com
  35. ^ "Ellis Fires No-Hitter Against Padres, 2-0", by Charley Feeney, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 13, 1970, p10
  36. ^ "Ellis: I pitched no-hitter on LSD", by Bob Smizik, Pittsburgh Press, April 8, 1984, pD-1
  37. ^ "Did Dock Ellis Pitch a No-Hitter on LSD?", by David Mikkelson, Snopes.com, June 9, 2003
  38. ^ Mulvoy, Mark (August 10, 1970). "Plain Words at Westchester". Sports Illustrated. p. 12.
  39. ^ "MoraBanc Andorra", Asociacion de Clubs de Baloncesto website
  40. ^ "Nixon names 5 whites, 4 black to investigate campus unrest", Arizona Republic (Phoenix), June 14, 1970, p1
  41. ^ “President’s Panel Warns Split on Youth Perils U.S.,” The New York Times, September 27, 1970, p1
  42. ^ "Kent State Revisited — in Peace", by George Cantor, Detroit Free Press, June 14, 1970, p1
  43. ^ "1,200 Given Degrees at Kent U. Ceremony", Chicago Tribune, June 14, 1970, p7 (the other 700 graduates had their diplomas mailed to them)
  44. ^ "Beatles Back on Top", Albuquerque (NM) Journal, June 8, 1970, p12
  45. ^ "British Lead U.S. Charts", Albuquerque (NM) Journal, June 15, 1970, p8
  46. ^ "The Tops In Pops", Palm Beach (FL) Post, June 21, 1970, pD13
  47. ^ Philippe Margotin, Jean-Michel Guesdon, All The Songs: The Story Behind Every Beatles Release (Running Press, 2014)
  48. ^ "Red Voting Gets 99.9% Turnout", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 16, 1970, p1
  49. ^ "Soviets Foil Plane Hijack, 12 Arrested", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 22, 1970, p2
  50. ^ "Why North Carolina's 'Land of Oz' Theme Park Closed, and Why It's Reopening", WFMY-TV (Greensboro NC), May 27, 2019
  51. ^ "Cosmonauts Set New Space-Time Record— Soyuz 9 Passes Gemini 7", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 16, 1970, p1.
  52. ^ "Brazil's 40 Prisoners Are Freed", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 16, 1970, p2
  53. ^ "Kidnappers Free Pale, Tired West German Ambassador", El Paso (TX) Times, June 17, 1970, p1
  54. ^ "Negro Elected Mayor of Newark", Wilkes-Barre (PA) Record, June 17, 1970, p1
  55. ^ "Russians Free Scientist", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 18, 1970, p5
  56. ^ "18-Year Olds' Vote Bill OKd, Sent to Nixon", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 18, 1970, p1
  57. ^ "Trailer Court Votes 49–10 to become 'Johnson City'", The Oregonian (Portland OR), June 17, 1970
  58. ^ "Wilson Appears Out As Britain's Leader— Tories' Upsets Putting Heath in Command", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 19, 1970, p1
  59. ^ "Shock election win for Heath". On This Day. BBC. 2016-06-19. Retrieved 2016-04-10.
  60. ^ "Could Be Landslide— Big Labor Win Looms in Britain", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 15, 1970, p2
  61. ^ "Labor Party Odds Kill Off British Election Betting", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 11, 1970, p1
  62. ^ "Junta Makes Obscure General Argentine Chief", Courier-Journal & Times (Louisville KY), June 14, 1970, pA2
  63. ^ "Nations to Sign Patent Treaty", Des Moines (IA) Register, June 19, 1970, p7
  64. ^ "Soviet Cosmonauts End Record Flight", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 20, 1970, p1
  65. ^ "7 Killed in Iowa Silo Collapse", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 20, 1970, p1
  66. ^ "New York Jolts Chicago, Wins Boxing Crown", Detroit Free Press, June 21, 1970, p6-D
  67. ^ "Saints Win One Bout In Denver", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, November 21, 1969, p4B
  68. ^ "2 on Around World Walk", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 22, 1970, p9
  69. ^ "Native son gets a hero's welcome after all", Minneapolis Star Tribune, October 6, 1974, p1
  70. ^ "Brazil Tops Italy For World Cup Title, 4-1", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 22, 1970, p24
  71. ^ "PENN CENTRAL BANKRUPT— Action Is Filed Sunday After Congress Balks At U.S. Guaranteed Loan", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 22, 1970, p1
  72. ^ "Martyrs Become Catholic Saints", UPI report in Santa Maria (CA) Times, June 22, 1970, p1
  73. ^ "Pope Canonizes 1st Croat Saint", Philadelphia Inquirer, June 22, 1970, p19
  74. ^ "Ecuador President Seizes All Power", Orlando Evening Star, June 22, 1970, p1
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  88. ^ "Pirates Close Forbes Field With Two Wins", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 28, 1970, p1
  89. ^ "Reds Pour It On As Last GI Units Leave Cambodia", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 29, 1970, p1
  90. ^ "Liston TKOs Wepner In Comeback", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 29, 1970, p12
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  94. ^ "Women Get Lutheran OK", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, July 1, 1970, p2