African Americans in Atlanta
Atlanta has long been known as a center of black wealth, higher education, political power and culture; a cradle of the Civil Rights Movement and the home of Martin Luther King Jr. It has often been called a "black mecca".
|Pop. 2010||% of total 2010||Pop. 2000||% of total 2000||absolute
|% change 2000-2010|
From 2000 to 2010 Atlanta saw significant shifts in the racial composition of its neighborhoods. (See: Demographics of Atlanta: Race and ethnicity by neighborhood) There was a decrease in the black population in the following areas:
- In NPU W (East Atlanta, Grant Park, Ormewood Park, Benteen Park), the black population went from 57.6% to 38.0%, and the white proportion rose from 36.5% to 54.8%
- In NPU O (Edgewood, Kirkwood, East Lake area), the black population went from 86.2% to 58.7%, and the white proportion rose from 11.3% to 36.9%.
- In NPU L (English Avenue, Vine City), the black proportion of the population went down from 97.5% to 89.1%, while the white proportion rose from 1.3% to 6.1%. Note that there many infill residential units were added in the King Plow Arts Center area, which falls under English Avenue but which in character is an extension of the Marietta Street Artery and West Midtown.
- In NPU D, stretching from West Midtown along the border of Buckhead and northwestern Atlanta, westward towards the river, the white proportion rose from 49.3% to 59.2% with the black proportion dropping from 36.5% to 23.9%
While there was an increasing black population in these areas:
- In NPU X (Metropolitan Parkway corridor), the black proportion of the population rose from 59.5% to 83.2%, while the White, Asian and Hispanic proportion dropped about three percentage points each.
- NPU B (central Buckhead) became more diverse, with the white proportion dropping from 82.8% to 75.5%, the black proportion rising from 5.9% to 12.3%, and the Asian proportion from 3.1% to 5.3%
In Metro Atlanta, Black Americans are the largest racial minority at 32.4% of the population, up from 28.9% in 2000. From 2000 to 2010, the geographic distribution of blacks in Metro Atlanta changed significantly. Long concentrated in the city of Atlanta and DeKalb County, the black population there dropped while over half a million African Americans settled across other parts of the metro area, including approximately 112,000 in Gwinnett County, 71,000 in Fulton outside Atlanta, 58,000 in Cobb, 50,000 in Clayton, 34,000 in Douglas, and 27,000 each in Newton and Rockdale Counties.
|Year||Black pop. in
City of Atlanta
|Black pop. in
|Total black pop.
Atlanta + DeKalb
|Total black pop.
|Proportion of black pop.|
in Atlanta + DeKalb
According to a 2015 analysis of census data, Metro Atlanta had the greatest numerical gain in new black residents than any metropolitan area in the U.S. (Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex was second), with more than 198,031 black residents moving there.
In 1870, William Finch and George Graham became the first African Americans to be elected to the Atlanta Board of Aldermen (now the Atlanta City Council), and no other until the election of Q.V. Williamson to the Board in 1966. Since 1973, Atlanta has consistently elected black mayors, and two in particular have been prominent on the national stage, Andrew Young and Maynard Jackson. Jackson was elected with the support of the predominantly white business community, including the chairmen of Coca-Cola, Citizens & Southern National Bank, the Trust Company of Georgia, and architect and Peachtree Center developer John Portman. They were hopeful that a new progressive coalition would be forged between downtown and City Hall; but they were not prepared for the level of support for the goals of the black community that the mayor provided through support for minority-based businesses and for neighborhood-based organizations.
Since then, there has been "a sometimes uneasy partnership between black political clout and white financial power that has helped Atlanta move closer to its goal of becoming a world-class city."
Atlanta is home to the Atlanta University Center (AUC), the nation's oldest and largest contiguous consortium of historically-black colleges, comprising Clark Atlanta University, Morehouse College, Spelman College, Morehouse School of Medicine, and Interdenominational Theological Center. The first of these colleges were established shortly after the Civil War and have made Atlanta one of the historic centers of black intellectualism and empowerment.
The Atlanta's John Marshall Law School is a historically white private law school that became Georgia's only mostly black law school in the mid-2010s. In 2020, the law school hired its first black dean.
Georgia State University (GSU) is a historically white public institution that since the 2010s has been mostly black and composed of more black students than any other university in the nation. GSU is the largest university in Georgia and leads the nation in producing black college graduates with bachelor's degrees.
Atlanta has a well-organized black upper class which exerts its power in politics, business and academia, and historically, in the religious arena. Mayors Maynard Jackson and Andrew Young were representative of the upper, not working class, and rose to national standing. The black academic community is the largest of any US city's because of the presence of the Atlanta University Center (AUC), a consortium of six historically black colleges (HBCUs). In business, Atlanta is home to the nation's largest black-owned insurance company (Atlanta Life), real-estate development firm (H.J. Russell) as well as some of the country's top black-owned investment and law firms, car dealerships, and food service companies. An old-guard black elite, graduated from AUC schools and whose status dates back to the glory days of Sweet Auburn or before, guards its social circles from "new" black money—families such as Herndon, Yates, Bond, Milton, Yancey, Blayton, Rucker, Aikens, Harper, Cooper, Dobbs and Scott. The First Congregational Church is their church of choice.
The concentration of a black elite in Atlanta can be explained by:
- the early establishment of black colleges in the city immediately after the Civil War, producing graduates who remained in the city as leaders
- the high proportion of blacks in the general population (as compared to New York or Chicago), providing a large market for goods and services
- After the 1906 Atlanta Race Riot, blacks removed their businesses from downtown Atlanta to seek safety; during the same period, explicit segregationist legislation was introduced, which had the effect of producing a concentrated and dynamic separate black business community in the refuges of Sweet Auburn and the area around Ashby Street (now Rev. Dr. Joseph E. Lowery Boulevard).
In the 1920s, Hunter Street (now Martin Luther King Drive) and Collier Heights became the black elite neighborhoods of choice, while today areas in far southwest of the city around Camp Creek Marketplace, neighborhoods such as Niskey Lake, are also popular. Upperclass Black Americans also reside in Eastern Atlanta in Dekalb County which is the second richest predominantly black county in the country.
- superior economic opportunities for blacks, often as assessed by the presence of a large black upper-middle and upper class
- black political power in a city
- leading black educational institutions in a city
- a city's leading role in black arts, music, and other culture
- harmonious black-white race relations in a city
Atlanta has been referred to as a black mecca since the 1970s.
Culture and recreation
The National Black Arts Festival has been based in Atlanta since the late 1980s. Throughout the year, the festival features performing arts, literature and visual arts produced by creative artists of African descent.
The Atlanta Jazz Festival in Piedmont Park is one of the largest free jazz festivals in the country and features mostly black artists. The annual event is hosted by the City of Atlanta Office of Cultural Affairs.
The A3C Festival & Conference is an annual fall event that mostly highlights African-American artists, creatives, innovators, activists, and entrepreneurs.
The One Musicfest is an annual summer Hip-Hop/R&B concert held in Atlanta.
Edgewood Avenue (Old Fourth Ward/Downtown) has a notable concentration of popular black businesses and social spaces.
The Sweet Auburn Music Festival is a large free outdoor black music event that place every fall in the historic Sweet Auburn district.
The HBCU Alumni Alliance 5K Run/Walk is an annual summer fundraising event in Atlanta.
The Black Writers Weekend annual conference is based in Atlanta as of 2014. The conference is the nation's only entertainment award show and gathering for black creatives in publishing, film and TV enthusiasts.
HBCU Summerfest is annual event celebrating and promoting unity amongst the nation's HBCUs.
The Atlanta Funkfest is an annual event soul and R&B concert held in the summer.
The Cascade Skating Rink is a popular black-owned roller rink that was featured in the movie ATL (film) and is frequently patronized by black celebrities. Metro Fun Center and Skate Zone are other popular black-owned roller rinks in the area.
LudaDay Weekend is an annual event established by Ludacris and his foundation in 2005 that brings together the Atlanta community over Labor Day Weekend in dedication to social service and responsibility.
The Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History opened in 1994 and is located in the Sweet Auburn Historic District.
There are several black owned and operated comedy clubs and productions in the Atlanta area. Uptown Comedy Corner is one of the oldest black comedy clubs in the nation.
In 2009, The New York Times noted that after 2000, Atlanta moved "from the margins to becoming hip-hop's center of gravity, part of a larger shift in hip-hop innovation to the South." Producer Drumma Boy called Atlanta "the melting pot of the South". Producer Fatboi called the Roland TR-808 ("808") synthesizer "central" to Atlanta music's versatility, used for snap, crunk, trap, and pop rap styles. The same article named Drumma Boy, Fatboi, Shawty Redd and Zaytoven the four "hottest producers driving the city".
Atlanta is the setting for many movies and popular TV shows such as the Real Housewives of Atlanta, Tyler Perry's series, What Men Want, Atlanta, Being Mary Jane, and Star. Due to Perry, the Housewives, and others, Atlanta is known as the center of black entertainment in the U.S. Atlanta's status as the center of black entertainment was more solidified with the 2019 opening of an upgraded Tyler Perry Studios. Tyler Perry Studios is one of the largest major film production studios in the nation and first owned outright by an African-American.
The MEAC/SWAC Challenge is an annual historically black college football game showcasing a teams from the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC) and Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC). The game moved to the Georgia State Stadium in 2018.
The Celebration Bowl is the only HBCU football bowl game in the nation. The bowl game provides a match-up between the champions of the Mideastern Athletic Conference and the Southwestern Athletic Conference in the Mercedes-Benz Stadium.
The annual Black College Football Hall of Fame ceremony is held in Atlanta. The event founded by Grambling State University alumni and NFL greats Doug Williams and James Harris, honors extraordinary football players who played at historically black institutions.
The annual Taliah Waajid World Natural Hair Show bills itself as the world's largest natural black hair show and conference.
The Curl, Kinks, and Culture (CKC) Festival held annually in Atlanta is an event focused on celebrating natural black hairstyles and culture.
Atlanta is the host city for the annual Honda Battle of the Bands. The event showcases several HBCU marching bands and celebrity music artists in front of 50,000+ spectators and fans. It is the largest and most popular collegiate marching band event in the country.
The Atlanta University Center serves as an important site for cultural enrichment and civic engagement.
The Atlanta Black Pride celebration is the largest in the world for black LGBT people. The event attracts over 100,000 participants and has a major economic impact on the city. Atlanta has one of the highest concentrations of black, openly LGBT people in the world.
Only New York City rivals Atlanta in the number of museums about black history, art and cultural heritage. The King Historic Site and APEX Museum are in the Sweet Auburn area just east of Downtown: John Wesley Dobbs called "Sweet" Auburn Avenue "the richest Negro street in the world" in the early 20th century. Most other African American museums are within walking distance of each other on the Atlanta University Center campus or in nearby West End, a neighborhood of Victorian houses which has become the center of the Afrocentric movement in Atlanta.
- The Martin Luther King Jr. National Historical Park includes a museum chronicling the Civil Rights Movement, the preserved boyhood home of Dr. King, the church where he pastored, and his final resting place
- Herndon Home - the mansion of Alonzo Franklin Herndon, a rags-to-riches hero who was born into slavery, but went on to become Atlanta's first black millionaire
- Hammonds House Museum of African American fine art. Located in a historic Queen Anne-style house; celebrates the culture of the African diaspora, West End
- Zucot Gallery is the largest black owned art gallery in the Southeast U.S.
- Spelman College Museum of Fine Art on the Spelman College campus, specializing in art by and about women of the African diaspora
- The Art Museum at Clark Atlanta University emphasizes art by people of the African diaspora
- Omenala Griot Afrocentric Teaching Museum is located in the West End
- Old Zion Baptist Church Heritage Museum preserving the history, art and culture of the black community in Cobb County
- The Madame CJ Walker Museum, an original Madame CJ Walker Beauty Shoppe
- The Trap Museum displays aspects and historic moments of Trap music culture
- The National Center for Civil and Human Rights is in Pemberton Place adjacent to Centennial Olympic Park.
|See also: Timeline of Atlanta|
Slavery in the state of Georgia mostly constituted the main reason for early African American residency in the Atlanta area. The area that included Decatur was opened to settlement in 1823 following the forced abandonment of the area by the Cherokee Nation; with the ceding of the area under the Treaty of New Echota in 1835, plantations of rice and, later, cotton were installed in the area. Most slaves were brought from major ports such as Savannah and Charleston.
In 1850, the area which would become Atlanta, previously known as Terminus and Marthasville, had a population which included 493 African slaves, 18 free blacks, and 2,058 whites. The general population of the area had only recently skyrocketed from a mere total of 30 residents in 1842 due to the building of two Georgia Railroad freight and passenger trains (1845) and the Macon & Western (1846, a third railroad) which connected the little settlement with Macon and Savannah. In the 1850s, Mary Combs and Ransom Montgomery became the first two African-Americans to own property in Atlanta.
Civil War and Reconstruction
African slaves in the Atlanta area became divided in their loyalties to the then-current status quo as the American Civil War took place between the Confederacy, of which Georgia was a constituent member, and the Union states; the slavery regime also became harsher against both slave and free Africans, who were severely restricted in their movements by both local and state government in order to prevent desertion of the Africans to the Union side. However, many slaves from Atlanta took the chance to escape with Union soldiers under William Tecumseh Sherman in his March to the Sea following the razing of Atlanta to the ground; they followed his men to the Atlantic coast of Georgia, where they were granted land under Sherman's Special Field Orders, No. 15 (later rescinded under president Andrew Johnson).
In 1865, the Atlanta City Council vowed equal protection for whites and blacks, and a school for black children, the first in the city, opened in an old church building on Armstrong Street. The Methodist Episcopal Church's Freedman Aid Society founded a coeducational school for African American legislators that would later become Clark College (now Clark Atlanta University) in Atlanta. In 1870, following the ratification of the 15th Amendment by the state legislature, the first two African American members, George Graham and William Finch, were elected to the City Council from the third and fourth wards respectively, while Radical Republican Dennis Hammond sat as mayor.
According to the US Census and Slave Schedules, from 1860 to 1870 Fulton County more than doubled in population, from 14,427 to 33,336. The effects of African-American migration can be seen by the increase in Fulton County from 20.5% enslaved African Americans in 1860 to 45.7% colored (African-American) residents in 1870. [permanent dead link] In a pattern seen across the South after the Civil War, freedmen often moved from plantations to towns or cities for work. They also gathered in their own communities where they could live more freely from white control. Even if they continued to work as farm laborers, freedmen often migrated after the war. Fulton was one of several counties in Georgia where African American population increased significantly in those years. 
Post-Reconstruction and Jim Crow
In the aftermath of Reconstruction, which mostly ended in 1877, African Americans in Atlanta were left to the mercies of the predominantly white state legislature and city council, and were politically disenfranchised during the Jim Crow era; whites had used a variety of tactics, including militias and legislation, to re-establish political and social supremacy throughout the South. By the turn of the century, Georgia passed legislation that completed the disenfranchisement of African Americans. Not even college-educated men could vote. However, while most black Atlantans were poor and disenfranchised by Jim Crow, the gradual nationwide rise of the black urban middle class became apparent in Atlanta, with the establishment of African American businesses, media and educational institutions.
Booker T. Washington, principal of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, delivered a speech to the 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition which urged African Americans to focus more upon economic empowerment instead of immediate socio-political empowerment and rights, much to the anger of other civil rights leaders, including W. E. B. Du Bois, a graduate of Fisk University and Harvard, who would become one of the major civil rights activists of the first half of the 20th century.
Competition for jobs and housing gave rise to fears and tensions. These catalyzed in 1906 in the Atlanta Race Riot. This left at least 28 dead, 25 of them African American, and over seventy people injured. Neighborhoods became more segregated as Blacks sought safety in majority-Black areas such as Sweet Auburn and areas west of Downtown. As racial tensions rose, particularly resentment from working-class whites against better-off Blacks, segregation was introduced into more areas of public life. For example, Atlanta's streetcars were officially segregated in 1910, with Blacks forced to sit at the rear.
In 1928, the Atlanta Daily World began publication, and continues as one of the oldest African American newspaper in circulation. From the 1920s to the 1940s, the Atlanta Black Crackers, a baseball team in the Negro Southern League, and later on, in the Negro American League, entertained sports fans at Ponce de Leon Park; some of the members of the Black Crackers would become players in Major League Baseball following the integration of the Negro leagues into the larger leagues. Sweet Auburn would become one of the premier predominantly African American urban settlements to the current day.
Civil Rights Movement
Since the rise of the civil rights movement, African Americans have wielded an increasingly potent degree of political power, most resultant in the currently unbroken string of African American mayors of the City of Atlanta since the election of Maynard Jackson in 1973; the current mayor of Atlanta is Keisha Lance Bottoms. In addition, Atlanta's city council has long been majority black. All elected mayors of Atlanta are and have been members of the Democratic Party.
In May 2018, Atlanta area resident and Spelman College alumna Stacey Abrams became the first black woman to win a major party nomination for governor in the United States. In November, she lost the controversial 2018 Georgia gubernatorial election by less than three percentage points. Due to the election being so close, Abrams committed to running for office again. In February 2019, Stacey Abrams became the first black woman to give an official State of the Union address.
In January 2021, Atlanta area resident and Morehouse College alumnus Raphael Warnock became the first black U.S. senator elected in Georgia and the first black U.S. Democratic senator elected in the South.
- Atlanta Student Movement
- List of African-American newspapers in Georgia
- 100 Black Men of America
- National Coalition of 100 Black Women
- Tyler Perry Studios
- Music in Atlanta
- ""Who's right? Cities lay claim to civil rights 'cradle' mantle"/'"Atlanta Journal-Constitution". Politifact.com. June 28, 2011. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- *"A CHAMPION FOR ATLANTA: Maynard Jackson: 'Black mecca' burgeoned under leader", Atlanta Journal-Constitution, June 29, 2003
- "the city that calls itself America's ' Black Mecca'" in "Atlanta Is Less Than Festive on Eve of Another 'Freaknik'", Washington Post, Apr 18, 1996
- "The Black Mecca leads the nation in numbers of African American millionaires; at the same time, it leads the nation in the percentage of its children in poverty" in The Black metropolis in the twenty-first century: race, power, and politics by Robert Doyle Bullard
- "the city that earned a national reputation as America's 'black mecca'" in In search of Black America: discovering the African-American dream by David J. Dent
- "the cornerstone upon which today's 'Black Mecca' was built" in The New South's Capital Likes to Contradict Itself by William Jelani Cobb, July 13, 2008, Washington Post
- "And, they said, don't forget Atlanta's reputation as a black mecca" in "Georgia second in nation for black-owned businesses", Atlanta Journal-Constitution, August 5, 2010
- "Atlanta is New Mecca for Blacks", Ebony, September 1997
- "Atlanta's allure as the black mecca" in "Atlanta contest shows battered black electorate", MSNBC, December 4, 2009
- " the Southern capital regarded as the nation's black mecca" in "Race, attacks expected in Atlanta mayor runoff" (Associated Press article) in Marietta Daily Journal, November 5, 2009
- "Is Atlanta the new black mecca?", Ebony, March 2002
- "Atlanta, black mecca of the South", Ebony, August 1971
- "Money talks: Atlanta has the highest percentage of middle-class blacks of any city in the nation", Atlanta magazine, March 2003
- “Atlanta is a city that is known as the black mecca" in  "Upcoming city elections will show how Atlanta is undergoing profound changes", '"Saporta Report, October 2009]
- "Some people call Atlanta the Black Mecca" in "Atlanta: The City of the Next Generation", Black Enterprise, May 1987
- "That stockpile of black brain power has made Atlanta the nation's mecca for blacks, especially buppies looking for Afro-American affluence and political clout." in "Bond vs. Lewis - it's Atlanta's loss that only one of the two can win ", Atlanta Journal-Constitution, August 16, 1986
- "Is it this that has made Atlanta the mecca of the black middle class?" in America behind the color line: dialogues with African Americans by Henry Louis Gates
- "Atlanta emerges as a center of black entertainment", The New York Times, November 26, 2011
- Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2012-07-16.
- Bureau, U. S. Census. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau.
- City of Atlanta Quick Facts, US Census Bureau Archived 2012-08-02 at the Wayback Machine
- (PDF). 21 December 2011 https://web.archive.org/web/20111221063813/http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2003/11_livingcities_Atlanta/atlanta.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 December 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2019. Missing or empty
- U.S. Census 2010 vs. 2000 population estimates by race
- Eltagouri, Marwa. "Chicago-area black population drops as residents leave for South, suburbs". Chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
- Fosler, R. Scott (1982). Public-Private Partnerships in American Cities:Seven Case Studies. Lexington Publishers. pp. 293ff. ISBN 0-669-05834-3.
- ""Atlanta and the Powers That Be", Sylvester Monroe, The Root, June 8, 2010". Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
- Stirgus, Eric. "Fire damaged Morris Brown College offices, president says". ajc.
- "Rankings - Georgia Tech". Gatech.edu. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "Study: Some black college students face hidden mental health crisis". Fox5atlanta.com. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- "At Georgia State, more black students graduate each year than at any U.S. college - The Hechinger Report". Hechingerreport.org. 25 November 2016. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-08-21. Retrieved 2015-08-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Georgia State University". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
- Graham, Lawrence Otis (1999). Our Kind of People: Inside America's Black Upper Class. HarperCollins Publishers. pp. chapter 14. ISBN 0060183527.
- Ltd, Earl G. Graves (November 8, 1991). "Black Enterprise". Earl G. Graves, Ltd. – via Google Books.
- "National Black Arts Festival in Atlanta - Atlanta Festivals". Atlanta.net.
- "City of Atlanta, Mayor's Office of Cultural Affairs | Atlanta Jazz Festival".
- Wicker, Jewel (October 7, 2019). "A3C, Atlanta's longest-running hip-hop festival, aims to become the next SXSW".
- Ruggieri, Melissa. "One Musicfest 2019 lineup will drop June 4". ajc.
- "V-103 WinterFest". THE PEOPLE'S STATION V103.
- "Live Music, Food & Fun at Sweet Auburn Springfest in Atlanta". www.atlanta.net.
- "Under Construction". www.sweetauburnmusicfest.com.
- "Atlanta". AFROPUNK.
- "Our Story". Taste of Soul Atlanta.
- Tia Mitchell, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. "Atlanta 5K more than just fundraiser for HBCUs". ajc.
- "Black Writers Weekend – The largest gathering for black literary creatives".
- "HBCU Summer Fest – Scholarship and programming fundraiser by Educate ME Foundation". hbcusummerfest.com.
- "Funk Fest Atlanta". Concierge Services of Atlanta.
- "Juneteenth Celebrations To Take Place Across Metro Atlanta". Atlanta PlanIt. May 24, 2019.
- John Caramanica, "Gucci Mane, No Holds Barred ", The New York Times, December 11, 2009
- Kim Severson, "Stars Flock to Atlanta, Reshaping a Center of Black Culture", The New York Times, November 25, 2011
- MEAC/SWAC Challenge – ESPN Events. Archived 2016-06-25 at the Wayback Machine ESPN.
- "Black College Football Hall Of Fame". Blackcollegefootballhof.org.
- "Our Story - Bronner Bros. International Beauty Show". Bronnerbros.com. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
- "Escape The Trap Atlanta". Escape The Trap Atlanta.
- "The Top Cities for Readers of African American Literature". Aalbc.com. 21 October 2014. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
- "Sweet Auburn Historic District--Atlanta: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary". Nps.gov.
- Link, William (2013). Atlanta, Cradle of the New South. UNC Press Books. p. 160. ISBN 9781469607764.
- "The Daily Intelligencer". Atlanta, Ga. 9 February 1871. p. 1. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
- "Atlanta Race Riot". Archived from the original on 2008-09-21. Retrieved 2006-09-06.
- Warmbrodt, Zachary. "Abrams plans to run again". Politi.co. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
- Newburger, Emma (4 February 2019). "Stacey Abrams, first black woman in the nation to give the State of the Union response". Cnbc.com. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- National Park Service - African American experience in Atlanta
- Atlanta History Timeline
- Carole Merritt, "African Americans in Atlanta: Community Building in a New South City," Southern Spaces, 20 March 2004.
- Rev. Edward R. Carter, The Black Side: a partial history of the business, religious, and educational side of the Negro in Atlanta, Ga. (1894)