List of epidemics

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17th-century German "plague panel" depicting the triumph of death. Panels of this kind were placed on the walls of houses to warn against the plague. A plague epidemic raged in Augsburg, Bavaria between 1632 and 1635.

This is a list of the largest known epidemics and pandemics caused by an infectious disease. Widespread non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer are not included. An epidemic is the rapid spread of disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time; in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic.[1]

Due to the long time spans, the first plague pandemic (6th century–8th century) and the second plague pandemic (14th century–early 19th century) are shown by individual outbreaks, such as the Plague of Justinian (first pandemic) and the Black Death (second pandemic).

Major epidemics and pandemics[edit]

By death toll[edit]

Extant epidemics are in boldface. For a given epidemic, the average of its estimated death toll range is used for ranking. If the death toll averages of two or more epidemics equal, then the smaller the range, the higher the rank. For the historical records of world population, see World population.[2][3]

Epidemics and pandemics with at least 1 million deaths
Rank Epidemics/pandemics Disease Death toll Global population lost Regional population lost Date Location
1 Black Death Bubonic plague 75–200 million 17–54%[Note 1] 30–60% of European population[4] 1346–1353 Europe, Asia, and North Africa
2 Spanish flu Influenza A/H1N1 17–100 million 1–5.4%[5][6] 1918–1920 Worldwide
3 Plague of Justinian Bubonic plague 15–100 million 7–56%[Note 1] 25–60% of European population[7] 541–549 Europe and West Asia
4 HIV/AIDS global epidemic HIV/AIDS 36.3 million (as of 2020) [Note 2] 1981–present Worldwide
5 Third plague pandemic Bubonic plague 12–15 million [Note 2] 1855–1960 Worldwide
6 COVID-19 pandemic COVID-19 5.2–20 million (as of 25 November 2021)[Note 3] 0.07–0.25%[2] 2019[Note 4]–present Worldwide
7 Cocoliztli epidemic of 1545–1548 Cocoliztli 5–15 million 1–3%[Note 1] 27–80% of Mexican population[13] 1545–1548 Mexico
8 Antonine Plague Smallpox or measles 5–10 million 3–6%[3] 25–33% of Roman population[14] 165–180 (possibly up to 190) Roman Empire
9 1520 Mexico smallpox epidemic Smallpox 5–8 million 1–2%[Note 1] 23–37% of Mexican population[13] 1519–1520 Mexico
10 1918–1922 Russia typhus epidemic Typhus 2–3 million 0.1–0.16%[15][Note 5] 1–1.6% of Russian population[16] 1918–1922 Russia
11 1957–1958 influenza pandemic Influenza A/H2N2 1–4 million 0.03–0.1%[2] 1957–1958 Worldwide
12 Hong Kong flu Influenza A/H3N2 1–4 million 0.03–0.1%[2] 1968–1969 Worldwide
13 Cocoliztli epidemic of 1576 Cocoliztli 2–2.5 million 0.4–0.5%[3] 50% of Mexican population[13] 1576–1580 Mexico
14 735–737 Japanese smallpox epidemic Smallpox 2 million 1%[3] 33% of Japanese population[17] 735–737 Japan
15 1772–1773 Persian Plague Bubonic plague 2 million 0.2–0.3%[3] [Note 6] 1772–1773 Persia
16 Naples Plague Plague 1.25 million 0.2%[3] [Note 6] 1656–1658 Southern Italy
17 1846–1860 cholera pandemic Cholera 1 million+ 0.08%[3] 1846–1860 Worldwide
18 1629–1631 Italian plague Bubonic plague 1 million 0.2%[3] [Note 6] 1629–1631 Italy
19 1889–1890 flu pandemic Influenza (disputed)[18][19] 1 million 0.07%[3] 1889–1890 Worldwide

Depopulation of the Americas[edit]

Not included in the above table are many waves of deadly diseases brought by Europeans to the Americas and Caribbean. Western Hemisphere populations were decimated mostly by smallpox, but also typhus, measles, influenza, bubonic plague, cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, mumps, yellow fever and pertussis. The lack of written records in many places and the destruction of many native societies by disease, war, and colonization make estimates uncertain. Deaths probably numbered in the tens or perhaps over a hundred million, with perhaps 90% of the population dead in the worst-hit areas. Lack of scientific knowledge about microorganisms and lack of surviving medical records for many areas makes attribution of specific numbers to specific diseases uncertain.

Infectious diseases with high prevalence[edit]

There have been various major infectious diseases with high prevalence worldwide, but they are currently not listed in the above table as epidemics/pandemics due to the lack of definite data, such as time span and death toll.

  • Tuberculosis (TB) became epidemic in Europe in the 18th and 19th century, showing a seasonal pattern, and is still taking place globally.[20][21][22] The morbidity and mortality of TB and HIV/AIDS have been closely linked, known as "TB/HIV syndemic".[22][23] According to the World Health Organization, approximately 10 million new TB infections occur every year, and 1.5 million people die from it each year – making it the world’s top infectious killer (before COVID-19 pandemic).[22] However, there is a lack of sources which describe major TB epidemics with definite time spans and death tolls.
  • According to the World Health Organization, as of 2019 there are about 296 million people living with chronic hepatitis B, with 1.5 million new infections each year. In 2019, hepatitis B caused about 820,000 deaths, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer).[24] In many places of Asia and Africa, hepatitis B has become endemic.[25] In addition, a person is sometimes infected with both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV, and this population (about 2.7 million) accounts for about 1% of the total HBV infections.[24]
  • According to the World Health Organization, there are approximately 58 million people with chronic hepatitis C, with about 1.5 million new infections occurring per year. In 2019, approximately 290,000 people died from the disease, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer).[26] There have been many hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics in history.[27][28][29]

Chronology[edit]

Events in boldface are ongoing.

Event Date Location Disease Death toll (estimate) Ref.
1350 BC plague of Megiddo 1350 BC Megiddo, land of Canaan Amarna letters EA 244, Biridiya, mayor of Megiddo complains to Amenhotep III of his area being "consumed by death, plague and dust" Unknown [30]
Plague of Athens 429–426 BC Greece, Libya, Egypt, Ethiopia Unknown, possibly typhus, typhoid fever or viral hemorrhagic fever 75,000–100,000 [31][32][33][34]
412 BC epidemic 412 BC Greece (Northern Greece, Roman Republic) Unknown, possibly influenza Unknown [35]
Antonine Plague 165–180 (possibly up to 190) Roman Empire Unknown, possibly smallpox 5–10 million [36][37]
Jian'an Plague 217 Han Dynasty Unknown, possibly typhoid fever or viral hemorrhagic fever Unknown [38][39]
Plague of Cyprian 250–266 Europe Unknown, possibly smallpox Unknown [40][41]
Plague of Justinian (beginning of first plague pandemic) 541–549 Europe and West Asia Bubonic plague 15–100 million [7][42][43]
Roman Plague of 590 (part of first plague pandemic) 590 Rome, Byzantine Empire Bubonic plague Unknown [44]
Plague of Sheroe (part of First plague pandemic) 627–628 Bilad al-Sham Bubonic plague 25,000+
Plague of Amwas (part of first plague pandemic) 638–639 Byzantine Empire, West Asia, Africa Bubonic plague 25,000+ [45]
Plague of 664 (part of first plague pandemic) 664–689 British Isles Bubonic plague Unknown [46]
Plague of 698–701 (part of first plague pandemic) 698–701 Byzantine Empire, West Asia, Syria, Mesopotamia Bubonic plague Unknown [47]
735–737 Japanese smallpox epidemic 735–737 Japan Smallpox 2 million (approx. 13 of Japanese population) [17][48]
Plague of 746–747 (part of first plague pandemic) 746–747 Byzantine Empire, West Asia, Africa Bubonic plague Unknown [45]
Black Death (start of the second plague pandemic) 1346–1353 Worldwide Bubonic plague 75–200 million (30–60% of European population) [49]
Sweating sickness (multiple outbreaks) 1485–1551 Britain (England) and later continental Europe Unknown, possibly an unknown species of hantavirus 10,000+ [50]
1489 Spain typhus epidemic 1489 Spain Typhus 17,000 [51]
1510 influenza pandemic 1510 Asia, North Africa, Europe Influenza Unknown, around 1% of those infected [52]
1520 Mexico smallpox epidemic 1519–1520 Mexico Smallpox 5–8 million (40% of population) [13]
Cocoliztli epidemic of 1545–1548 1545–1548 Mexico Possibly Salmonella enterica 5–15 million (80% of population) [53][54][55][56]
1557 influenza pandemic 1557–1559 Asia, Africa, Europe, and Americas Influenza Unknown
1561 Chile smallpox epidemic 1561–1562 Chile Smallpox Unknown (20–25% of native population) [57]
1563 London plague (part of the second plague pandemic) 1563–1564 London, England Bubonic plague 20,100+ [58]
Cocoliztli epidemic of 1576 1576–1580 Mexico Possibly Salmonella enterica 2–2.5 million (50% of population) [53][54][55][56]
1582 Tenerife plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic) 1582–1583 Tenerife, Spain Bubonic plague 5,000–9,000 [59]
1592–1596 Seneca nation measles epidemic 1592–1596 Seneca nation, North America Measles Unknown [60]
1592–1593 Malta plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic) 1592–1593 Malta Bubonic plague 3,000 [61]
1592–1593 London plague (part of the second plague pandemic) 1592–1593 London, England Bubonic plague 19,900+ [62]
1596–1602 Spain plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic) 1596–1602 Spain Bubonic plague 600,000–700,000 [63]
1600–1650 South America malaria epidemic 1600–1650 South America Malaria Unknown [citation needed]
1603 London plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic) 1603 London, England Bubonic plague 40,000 [64][65][66]
1616 New England infections epidemic 1616–1620 Southern New England, British North America, especially the Wampanoag people Unknown, possibly leptospirosis with Weil syndrome. Classic explanations include yellow fever, bubonic plague, influenza, smallpox, chickenpox, typhus, and syndemic infection of hepatitis B and hepatitis D Unknown (estimated 30–90% of population) [67][68]
1629–1631 Italian plague (part of the second plague pandemic) 1629–1631 Italy Bubonic plague 1 million [69]
1632–1635 Augsburg plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic) 1632–1635 Augsburg, Germany Bubonic plague 13,712 [70]
Massachusetts smallpox epidemic 1633–1634 Massachusetts Bay Colony, Thirteen Colonies Smallpox 1,000 [71]
1634–1640 Wyandot people epidemic 1634–1640 Wyandot people, North America Smallpox and Influenza 15,000–25,000 [72]
1637 London plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic) 1636–1637 London and Westminster, England Bubonic plague 10,400 [73]
Great Plague in late Ming Dynasty (part of the second plague pandemic) 1633–1644 China Bubonic plague 200,000+ [74][75]
Great Plague of Seville (part of the second plague pandemic) 1647–1652 Spain Bubonic plague 500,000 [76]
1648 Central America yellow fever epidemic 1648 Central America Yellow fever Unknown [77]
Naples Plague (part of the second plague pandemic) 1656–1658 Italy Bubonic plague 1,250,000 [78]
1663–1664 Amsterdam plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic) 1663–1664 Amsterdam, Netherlands Bubonic plague 24,148 [79]
Great Plague of London (part of the second plague pandemic) 1665–1666 England Bubonic plague 100,000 [80][81]
1668 France plague (part of the second plague pandemic) 1668 France Bubonic plague 40,000 [82]
1675–1676 Malta plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic) 1675–1676 Malta Bubonic plague 11,300 [83]
1676–1685 Spain plague (part of the second plague pandemic) 1676–1685 Spain Bubonic plague Unknown [84]
1677–1678 Boston smallpox epidemic 1677–1678 Massachusetts Bay Colony, British North America Smallpox 750–1,000 [85]
Great Plague of Vienna (part of the second plague pandemic) 1679 Vienna, Austria Bubonic plague 76,000 [86]
1681 Prague plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic) 1681 Prague, Czech Kingdom Bubonic plague 83,000 [87]
1687 South Africa influenza outbreak 1687 South Africa Unknown, possibly influenza Unknown [88]
1693 Boston yellow fever epidemic 1693 Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony, British North America Yellow fever 3,100+ [89]
1699 Charleston and Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic 1699 Charleston and Philadelphia, British North America Yellow fever 520 (300 in Charleston, 220 in Philadelphia) [90]
1702 New York City yellow fever epidemic 1702 New York City, British North America Yellow fever 500 [91]
1702–1703 St. Lawrence Valley smallpox epidemic 1702–1703 New France, Canada Smallpox 1,300 [92]
1707–1709 Iceland smallpox epidemic 1707–1709 Iceland Smallpox 18,000+ (36% of population) [93]
Great Northern War plague outbreak (part of the second plague pandemic) 1710–1712 Denmark, Sweden, Lithuania Bubonic plague 164,000 [94][95]
1713–1715 North America measles epidemic 1713–1715 Thirteen Colonies and New France, Canada Measles Unknown [96][97]
Great Plague of Marseille (part of the second plague pandemic) 1720–1722 France Bubonic plague 100,000+ [98]
1721 Boston smallpox outbreak 1721–1722 Massachusetts Bay Colony Smallpox 844 [99]
1730 Cádiz yellow fever epidemic 1730 Cádiz, Spain Yellow fever 2,200 [100]
1732–1733 Thirteen Colonies influenza epidemic 1732–1733 Thirteen Colonies Influenza Unknown [101]
1733 New France smallpox epidemic 1733 New France, Canada Smallpox Unknown [102]
1735–1741 diphtheria epidemic 1735–1741 New England, Province of New York, Province of New Jersey, British North America Diphtheria 20,000 [103]
Great Plague of 1738 (part of the second plague pandemic) 1738 Balkans Bubonic plague 50,000 [104]
1738–1739 North Carolina smallpox epidemic 1738–1739 Province of Carolina, Thirteen Colonies Smallpox 7,700–11,700 [105]
1741 Cartagena yellow fever epidemic 1741 Cartagena, Colombia Yellow fever 20,000 [106]
1743 Sicily plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic) 1743 Messina, Sicily, Italy Bubonic plague 40,000–50,000 [107][108]
1759 North America measles outbreak 1759 North America Measles Unknown [109]
1760 Charleston smallpox epidemic 1760 Charleston, British North America Smallpox 730–940 [110][111]
1762 Havana yellow fever epidemic 1762 Havana, Cuba Yellow fever 8,000 [106]
1763 Pittsburgh area smallpox outbreak 1763 North America, present-day Pittsburgh area Smallpox Unknown [112]
Russian plague of 1770–1772 (part of the second plague pandemic) 1770–1772 Russia Bubonic plague 50,000 [113]
1772 North America measles epidemic 1772 North America Measles 1,080 [114]
1772–1773 Persian Plague (part of the second plague pandemic) 1772–1773 Persia Bubonic plague 2 million [115]
1775–1776 England influenza outbreak 1775–1776 England Influenza Unknown [116]
1775–1782 North American smallpox epidemic 1775–1782 Native populations in what is now the Pacific Northwest of the United States Smallpox 11,000+ [117][118]
1778 Spain dengue fever outbreak 1778 Spain Dengue fever Unknown [119]
1788 Pueblo Indians smallpox epidemic 1788 Pueblo Indians in northern New Spain (what is now the Southwestern United States) Smallpox Unknown [120]
1789–1790 New South Wales smallpox epidemic 1789–1790 New South Wales, Australia Smallpox Unknown (50–70% of native population) [121][122]
1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic 1793 Philadelphia, United States Yellow fever 5,000+ [123]
1800–1803 Spain yellow fever epidemic 1800–1803 Spain Yellow fever 60,000+ [124]
1801 Ottoman Empire and Egypt bubonic plague epidemic 1801 Ottoman Empire, Egypt Bubonic plague Unknown [125]
1802–1803 Saint-Domingue yellow fever epidemic 1802–1803 Saint-Domingue Yellow fever 29,000–55,000 [126]
1812 Russia typhus epidemic 1812 Russia Typhus 300,000 [51]
1812–1819 Ottoman plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic) 1812–1819 Ottoman Empire Bubonic plague 300,000+ [127]
1813–1814 Malta plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic) 1813–1814 Malta Bubonic plague 4,500 [128]
Caragea's plague (part of the second plague pandemic) 1813 Romania Bubonic plague 60,000 [129]
1817–1819 Ireland typhus epidemic 1817–1819 Ireland Typhus 65,000 [130]
First cholera pandemic 1817–1824 Asia, Europe Cholera 100,000+ [131]
1820 Savannah yellow fever epidemic 1820 Savannah, Georgia, United States Yellow fever 700 [132]
1821 Barcelona yellow fever epidemic 1821 Barcelona, Spain Yellow fever 5,000–20,000 [133][134]
Second cholera pandemic 1826–1837 Asia, Europe, North America Cholera 100,000+ [135]
1828–1829 New South Wales smallpox epidemic 1828–1829 New South Wales, Australia Smallpox 19,000 [136][137]
Groningen epidemic 1829 Netherlands Malaria 2,800 [138]
1829–1833 Pacific Northwest malaria epidemic 1829–1833 Pacific Northwest, United States Malaria, possibly other diseases too 150,000 [139][140]
1829–1835 Iran plague outbreak 1829–1835 Iran Bubonic plague Unknown [141]
1834–1836 Egypt plague epidemic 1834–1836 Egypt Bubonic plague Unknown [142]
1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic 1837–1838 Great Plains, United States and Canada Smallpox 17,000+ [143]
1841 Southern United States yellow fever epidemic 1841 Southern United States (especially Louisiana and Florida) Yellow fever 3,498 [144]
1847 North American typhus epidemic 1847–1848 Canada Typhus 20,000+ [145]
1847 Southern United States yellow fever epidemic 1847 Southern United States (especially New Orleans) Yellow fever 3,400 [146]
1847–1848 influenza epidemic 1847–1848 Worldwide Influenza Unknown [147]
1848–1849 Hawaii epidemic of infections 1848–1849 Hawaiian Kingdom Measles, whooping cough, dysentery and influenza 10,000 [148]
1853 New Orleans yellow fever epidemic 1853 New Orleans, United States Yellow fever 7,970 [133]
Third cholera pandemic 1846–1860 Worldwide Cholera 1 million+ [149]
1853 Ottoman Empire plague epidemic 1853 Ottoman Empire Bubonic plague Unknown [150]
1853 Copenhagen cholera outbreak 1853 Copenhagen, Denmark Cholera 4,737 [151]
1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak 1854 London, England Cholera 616 [152]
1855 Norfolk yellow fever epidemic 1855 Norfolk and Portsmouth, England Yellow fever 3,000 (2,000 in Norfolk, 1,000 in Portsmouth) [153]
Third plague pandemic 1855–1960 Worldwide Bubonic plague 12–15 million (India and China) [154][155]
1855–1857 Montevideo yellow fever epidemic 1855–1857 Montevideo, Uruguay Yellow fever 3,400 (first wave; 900, second wave; 2,500) [156]
1857 Lisbon yellow fever epidemic 1857 Lisbon, Portugal Yellow fever 6,000 [133]
1857 Victoria smallpox epidemic 1857 Victoria, Australia Smallpox Unknown [157]
1857–1859 Europe and the Americas influenza epidemic 1857–1859 Europe, North America, South America Influenza Unknown [158]
1862 Pacific Northwest smallpox epidemic 1862–1863 Pacific Northwest, Canada and United States Smallpox 20,000+ [159][160][161]
1861–1865 United States typhoid fever epidemic 1861–1865 United States Typhoid fever 80,000 [162]
Fourth cholera pandemic 1863–1875 Middle East Cholera 600,000 [163]
1867 Sydney measles epidemic 1867 Sydney, Australia Measles 748 [164]
1871 Buenos Aires yellow fever epidemic 1871 Buenos Aires, Argentina Yellow fever 13,500–26,200 [165]
1870–1875 Europe smallpox epidemic 1870–1875 Europe Smallpox 500,000 [166][167]
1875 Fiji measles outbreak 1875 Fiji Measles 40,000 [168]
1875–1876 Australia scarlet fever epidemic 1875–1876 Australia Scarlet fever 8,000 [164]
1876 Ottoman Empire plague epidemic 1876 Ottoman Empire Bubonic plague 20,000 [169]
1878 New Orleans yellow fever epidemic 1878 New Orleans, United States Yellow fever 4,046 [126]
1878 Mississippi Valley yellow fever epidemic 1878 Mississippi Valley, United States Yellow fever 13,000 [126]
Fifth cholera pandemic 1881–1896 Asia, Africa, Europe, South America Cholera 298,600 [170]
1885 Montreal smallpox epidemic 1885 Montreal, Canada Smallpox 3,164 [171]
1889–1890 influenza pandemic 1889–1890 Worldwide Influenza or Human coronavirus OC43 / HCoV-OC43[172][173] (disputed) 1 million [174]
1894 Hong Kong plague (part of the third plague pandemic) 1894–1929 Hong Kong Bubonic plague 20,000+ [175]
Bombay plague epidemic (part of the third plague pandemic) 1896–1905 Bombay, India Bubonic plague 20,788 [176]
1896–1906 Congo Basin African trypanosomiasis epidemic 1896–1906 Congo Basin African trypanosomiasis 500,000 [177]
1899 Porto plague outbreak (part of the third plague pandemic) 1899 Porto, Portugal Bubonic plague 132 [178]
Sixth cholera pandemic 1899–1923 Europe, Asia, Africa Cholera 800,000+ [179]
San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 (part of the third plague pandemic) 1900–1904 San Francisco, United States Bubonic plague 119 [180]
1900 Sydney bubonic plague epidemic (part of the third plague pandemic) 1900 Australia Bubonic plague 103 [181]
1900–1920 Uganda African trypanosomiasis epidemic 1900–1920 Uganda African trypanosomiasis 200,000–300,000 [177]
Papua New Guinea kuru epidemic 1901–2009 Papua New Guinea Kuru 2,700–3,000+ [182][183]
1903 Fremantle plague epidemic (part of the third plague pandemic) 1903 Fremantle, Western Australia Bubonic plague 4 [184]
1906 malaria outbreak in Ceylon 1906–1936 Ceylon Malaria 80,000 [185]
Manchurian plague (part of the third plague pandemic) 1910–1911 China Pneumonic plague 60,000 [186]
1915 encephalitis lethargica pandemic 1915–1926 Worldwide Encephalitis lethargica 500,000 [187][188][189]
1916 United States polio epidemic 1916 United States Poliomyelitis 7,130 [190]
1918 influenza pandemic ('Spanish flu') 1918–1920 Worldwide Influenza A virus subtype H1N1
H1N1 virus
17–100 million [191][192][193]
1918–1922 Russia typhus epidemic 1918–1922 Russia Typhus 2–3 million [194]
1924 Los Angeles pneumonic plague outbreak 1924 Los Angeles, United States Pneumonic plague 30 [195]
1924–1925 Minnesota smallpox epidemic 1924–1925 Minnesota, United States Smallpox 500 [196]
1927 Montreal typhoid fever epidemic 1927 Montreal, Canada Typhoid fever 538 [197]
1929–1930 psittacosis pandemic 1929–1930 Worldwide Psittacosis 100+ [198]
Croydon typhoid outbreak of 1937 1937 Croydon, United Kingdom Typhoid fever 43 [199]
1937 Australia polio epidemic 1937 Australia Poliomyelitis Unknown [200]
1940 Sudan yellow fever epidemic 1940 Sudan Yellow fever 1,627 [201]
1942–1944 Egypt malaria epidemic 1942–1944 Egypt Malaria Unknown [142][202]
1946 Egypt relapsing fever epidemic 1946 Egypt Relapsing fever Unknown [142][202]
1947 Egypt cholera epidemic 1947 Egypt Cholera 10,277 [142][202][203]
1948–1952 United States polio epidemic 1948–1952 United States Poliomyelitis 9,000 [190]
1957–1958 influenza pandemic ('Asian flu') 1957–1958 Worldwide Influenza A virus subtype H2N2 1–4 million [191][204][205]
1960–1962 Ethiopia yellow fever epidemic 1960–1962 Ethiopia Yellow fever 30,000 [206]
Seventh cholera pandemic 1961–1975 Worldwide Cholera (El Tor strain) Unknown [207]
Hong Kong flu 1968–1970 Worldwide Influenza A virus subtype H3N2
H3N2 virus
1–4 million [191][204][205]
1971 Staphorst polio epidemic 1971 Staphorst, Netherlands Poliomyelitis 5 [208]
1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak 1972 Yugoslavia Smallpox 35 [209]
London flu 1972–1973 United States Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 1,027 [210]
1973 Italy cholera epidemic 1973 Italy Cholera (El Tor strain) 24 [211]
1974 smallpox epidemic of India 1974 India Smallpox 15,000 [212]
1977 Russian flu 1977–1979 Worldwide Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 700,000 [213][214]
Sverdlovsk anthrax leak 1979 Russia Anthrax 105 [215]
HIV/AIDS pandemic 1981–present Worldwide HIV/AIDS 36.3 million (as of 2020) [216]
1984 Western Sahara plague 1984 Western Sahara Bubonic plague 64 [citation needed]
1986 Oju yellow fever epidemic 1986 Oju, Nigeria Yellow fever 5,600+ [217]
1987 Mali yellow fever epidemic 1987 Mali Yellow fever 145 [218]
1988 Shanghai hepatitis A epidemic 1988 Shanghai, China Hepatitis A 31–47 [219][220][221]
1991 Bangladesh cholera epidemic 1991 Bangladesh Cholera 8,410–9,432 [222]
1991 Latin America cholera epidemic 1991–1993 Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala Cholera 8,000 [223][224]
1994 plague in India 1994 India Bubonic plague and Pneumonic plague 56 [225]
United Kingdom BSE outbreak 1996–2001 United Kingdom Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease / vCJD 178 [226][227]
1996 West Africa meningitis epidemic 1996 West Africa Meningitis 10,000 [228]
1998–1999 Malaysia Nipah virus outbreak 1998–1999 Malaysia Nipah virus infection 105 [229]
1998–2000 Democratic Republic of the Congo Marburg virus outbreak 1998–2000 Democratic Republic of the Congo Marburg virus 128 [230]
2000 Central America dengue epidemic 2000 Central America Dengue fever 40+ [231]
2001 Nigeria cholera epidemic 2001 Nigeria Cholera 400+ [232]
2001 South Africa cholera epidemic 2001 South Africa Cholera 139 [233][234]
2002–2004 SARS outbreak 2002–2004 Worldwide Severe acute respiratory syndrome / SARS 774 [235]
2003–2019 Asia and Egypt avian influenza epidemic 2003–2019 Southeast Asia and Egypt Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 455 [236]
2004 Indonesia dengue epidemic 2004 Indonesia Dengue fever 658 [237]
2004 Sudan Ebola outbreak 2004 Sudan Ebola 7 [238]
2004–2005 Angola Marburg virus outbreak 2004-2005 Angola Marburg virus 227 [239]
2005 dengue outbreak in Singapore 2005 Singapore Dengue fever 27 [240]
2006 Luanda cholera epidemic 2006 Luanda, Angola Cholera 1,200+ [241]
2006 Ituri Province plague epidemic 2006 Ituri Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo Bubonic plague 61 [242][243]
2006 India malaria outbreak 2006 India Malaria 17 [244]
2006 dengue outbreak in India 2006 India Dengue fever 50+ [245]
2006 dengue outbreak in Pakistan 2006 Pakistan Dengue fever 50+ [246]
2006 Philippines dengue epidemic 2006 Philippines Dengue fever 1,000 [247]
2006–2007 East Africa Rift Valley fever outbreak 2006–2007 East Africa Rift Valley fever 394 [248]
Mweka Ebola epidemic 2007 Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola 187 [249]
2007 Ethiopia cholera epidemic 2007 Ethiopia Cholera 684 [250]
2007 Iraq cholera outbreak 2007 Iraq Cholera 10 [251]
2007 Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Mexico dengue fever epidemic 2007 Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Mexico Dengue fever 183 [252]
2007 Uganda Ebola outbreak 2007 Uganda Ebola 37 [238]
2007 Netherlands Q-fever epidemic 2007–2018 Netherlands Q-fever 95 [253]
2008 Brazil dengue epidemic 2008 Brazil Dengue fever 67 [254]
2008 Cambodia dengue epidemic 2008 Cambodia Dengue fever 407 [255]
2008 Chad cholera epidemic 2008 Chad Cholera 123 [256]
2008–2017 China hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic 2008–2017 China Hand, foot, and mouth disease 3,322+ [257]
2008 India cholera epidemic 2008 India Cholera 115 [258]
2008 Madagascar plague outbreak 2008 Madagascar Bubonic plague 18+ [259]
2008 Philippines dengue epidemic 2008 Philippines Dengue fever 172 [260]
2008–2009 Zimbabwean cholera outbreak 2008–2009 Zimbabwe Cholera 4,293 [261]
2009 Bolivian dengue fever epidemic 2009 Bolivia Dengue fever 18 [262]
2009 Gujarat hepatitis outbreak 2009 India Hepatitis B 49 [263]
Queensland 2009 dengue outbreak 2009 Queensland, Australia Dengue fever 1+ (503 cases) [264]
2009–2010 West African meningitis outbreak 2009–2010 West Africa Meningitis 1,100 [265]
2009 swine flu pandemic 2009–2010 Worldwide Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 Lab confirmed deaths: 18,449 (reported to the WHO)

Estimated death toll: 284,000 (possible range 151,700–575,400)

[266][267]
2010s Haiti cholera outbreak 2010–2019 Haiti Cholera (strain serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa) 10,075 [268]
2010–2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo measles outbreak 2010–2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo Measles 4,500+ [269][270]
2011 Vietnam hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic 2011 Vietnam Hand, foot and mouth disease 170 [271][272]
2011 dengue outbreak in Pakistan 2011 Pakistan Dengue fever 350+ [273]
2012 yellow fever outbreak in Darfur, Sudan 2012 Darfur, Sudan Yellow fever 171 [274]
2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak 2012–present Worldwide Middle East respiratory syndrome / MERS-CoV 941 (as of 8 May 2021) [275][276]
2013 dengue outbreak in Singapore 2013 Singapore Dengue fever 8 [277]
2013 Vietnam measles outbreak 2013–2014 Vietnam Measles 142 [278]
Western African Ebola virus epidemic 2013–2016 Worldwide, primarily concentrated in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone Ebola
Ebola virus virion
11,323+ [279][280][281]
2013–2014 chikungunya outbreak 2013–2015 Americas Chikungunya 183 [282]
2013–19 avian influenza epidemic 2013–2019 China Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 616 [283]
2014 Madagascar plague outbreak 2014–2017 Madagascar Bubonic plague 292 [284]
Flint water crisis 2014–2015 Flint, Michigan, United States Legionnaires' disease 12 [285]
2014 Odisha jaundice outbreak 2014–2015 India Primarily Hepatitis E, but also Hepatitis A 36 [286]
2015 Indian swine flu outbreak 2015 India Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 2,035 [287][288][289]
2015–2016 Zika virus epidemic 2015–2016 Worldwide Zika virus 53 [290]
2016 Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo yellow fever outbreak 2016 Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo Yellow fever 498 (377 in Angola, 121 in Congo) [291]
2016–2021 Yemen cholera outbreak 2016–present Yemen Cholera 3,981 (as of December 2020) [292]
2017 dengue outbreak in Peshawar 2017 Peshawar, Pakistan Dengue fever 69 [293]
2017 Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis outbreak 2017 India Japanese encephalitis 1,317 [294]
2017 dengue outbreak in Sri Lanka 2017 Sri Lanka Dengue fever 440 [295]
2018 Nipah virus outbreak in Kerala 2018 India Nipah virus infection 17 [296]
Kivu Ebola epidemic 2018–2020 Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda Ebola 2,280 [297][298][299]
2018 NDM-CRE outbreak in Italy 2018–present Italy New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae 31 (as of September 2019) [300]
2019 measles outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo 2019–2020 Democratic Republic of the Congo Measles 7,018+ [301]
2019–2020 New Zealand measles outbreak 2019–2020 New Zealand Measles 2 [302]
2019 Philippines measles outbreak 2019 Philippines Measles 415 [303]
2019 Kuala Koh measles outbreak 2019 Kuala Koh, Malaysia Measles 15 [304]
2019 Samoa measles outbreak 2019 Samoa Measles 83 [305]
2019–2020 dengue fever epidemic 2019–2020 Asia-Pacific, Latin America Dengue fever 3,930 [306]
2019 Nigeria Lassa fever epidemic 2019–present Nigeria Lassa fever 247 (as of May 2021) [307]
COVID-19 pandemic 2019–present Worldwide Coronavirus disease 2019 / COVID-19
5.2–20 million+ (as of 25 November 2021) [8][9][Note 7]
2020 Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola outbreak 2020 Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola 55 [308]
2020 Nigeria yellow fever epidemic 2020–present Nigeria Yellow Fever 296 (as of 31 December 2020) [309]
2021 India black fungus epidemic 2021–present India Black fungus / COVID-19 associated mucormycosis 4,332 [310]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d The estimates of global population at the time vary non-trivially (no consensus). The current estimates are based on the available population data from estimates of historical world population and [2][3].
  2. ^ a b Global population changed significantly (not due to the epidemic) during the period of this epidemic.
  3. ^ The governmental report of COVID-19 deaths is likely an undercount and is treated as the lower bound.[8] The academic upper bound is provided by Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, which agrees with the estimate of the World Health Organization on 21 May 2021 that the governmental number "would truly be two to three times higher."[9][10] In addition, the Economist keeps a daily estimate of the total excess deaths due to the pandemic (10.6–20 million as of 12 November 2021), including diseases other than COVID-19.[11]
  4. ^ The COVID-19 pandemic started as a regional outbreak/epidemic of COVID-19 in China in late 2019. The World Health Organization declared it as a "pandemic" on 11 March 2020.[12] The starting time of this epidemic is thus 2019, regardless of the time when it was formally recognized as a pandemic.
  5. ^ Epidemic typhus was not limited to Russia and several million citizens died in Poland and Romania. However, due to lack of exact data, only the Russian epidemic is included.
  6. ^ a b c No accurate data about the local population at the time of this epidemic.
  7. ^ The governmental report of COVID-19 deaths is likely an undercount and is treated as the lower bound. On 21 May 2021, the World Health Organization estimated that "this number would truly be two to three times higher."[10] In addition, the Economist keeps a daily estimate of the total excess deaths due to the pandemic (10.6–20 million as of 25 November 2021), including diseases other than COVID-19.[11]

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Further reading[edit]