Jurassic Park (film)
|Directed by||Steven Spielberg|
|Based on||Jurassic Park|
by Michael Crichton
|Music by||John Williams|
|Edited by||Michael Kahn|
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures|
|Box office||$1.033 billion|
Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science fiction action film directed by Steven Spielberg and produced by Kathleen Kennedy and Gerald R. Molen. It is the first installment in the Jurassic Park franchise, and the first film in the Jurassic Park trilogy, and is based on the 1990 novel of the same name by Michael Crichton and a screenplay written by Crichton and David Koepp. The film is set on the fictional island of Isla Nublar, located off Central America's Pacific Coast near Costa Rica. There, wealthy businessman John Hammond and a team of genetic scientists have created a wildlife park of de-extinct dinosaurs. When industrial sabotage leads to a catastrophic shutdown of the park's power facilities and security precautions, a small group of visitors and Hammond's grandchildren struggle to survive and escape the perilous island.
Before Crichton's novel was published, four studios put in bids for its film rights. With the backing of Universal Studios, Spielberg acquired the rights for $1.5 million before its publication in 1990; Crichton was hired for an additional $500,000 to adapt the novel for the screen. Koepp wrote the final draft, which left out much of the novel's exposition and violence and made numerous changes to the characters.
Filming took place in California and Hawaii from August to November 1992, and post-production rolled until May 1993, supervised by Spielberg in Poland as he filmed Schindler's List. The dinosaurs were created with groundbreaking computer-generated imagery by Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) and with life-sized animatronic dinosaurs built by Stan Winston's team. To showcase the film's sound design, which included a mixture of various animal noises for the dinosaur roars, Spielberg invested in the creation of DTS, a company specializing in digital surround sound formats. The film also underwent an extensive $65 million marketing campaign, which included licensing deals with over 100 companies.
Jurassic Park premiered on June 9, 1993, at the Uptown Theater in Washington, D.C., and was released on June 11 in the United States. It went on to gross over $912 million worldwide in its original theatrical run, becoming the highest-grossing film of 1993 and the highest-grossing film ever at the time, a record held until the release of Titanic in 1997. It received highly positive reviews from critics, who praised its special effects, acting, John Williams' musical score, and Spielberg's direction. Following its 3D re-release in 2013 to celebrate its 20th anniversary, Jurassic Park became the seventeenth film in history to surpass $1 billion in ticket sales. The film won more than twenty awards, including three Academy Awards for its technical achievements in visual effects and sound design. Jurassic Park is considered a landmark in the development of computer-generated imagery and animatronic visual effects. The film was followed by four commercially successful sequels: The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997), Jurassic Park III (2001), Jurassic World (2015), and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018), with a fifth sequel, Jurassic World: Dominion, scheduled for a 2022 release.
Industrialist John Hammond has created a theme park of cloned dinosaurs, Jurassic Park, on Isla Nublar, an island off the Costa Rican coast. After a dinosaur handler is killed by a Velociraptor, the park's investors, represented by lawyer Donald Gennaro, demand that experts visit the park and certify its safety. Gennaro invites mathematician and chaos-theorist Ian Malcolm, while Hammond invites paleontologist Dr. Alan Grant and paleobotanist Dr. Ellie Sattler. Upon arrival, the group is shocked to see a live Brachiosaurus.
At the park's visitor center, the group learns that the cloning was accomplished by extracting dinosaur DNA from prehistoric mosquitoes preserved in amber. DNA from frogs was used to fill in gaps in the genome of the dinosaurs, and to prevent breeding, all the dinosaurs were made female by direct chromosome manipulation. The group witnesses the hatching of a baby Velociraptor and visits the raptor enclosure. During lunch, the group debates the ethics of cloning and the creation of the park; Malcolm warns about the implications of genetic engineering and scoffs at the park's conceptualization, saying that it will inevitably break down.
The group is joined by Hammond's grandchildren, Lex and Tim Murphy, for a tour of the park, while Hammond oversees the tour from the control room. The tour does not go as planned, with most of the dinosaurs failing to appear and the group encountering a sick Triceratops; it is cut short as a tropical cyclone approaches Isla Nublar. Most of the park employees leave for the mainland on a boat while the visitors return to their electric tour vehicles, except Sattler, who stays behind with the park's veterinarian to study the Triceratops.
Jurassic Park's disgruntled lead computer programmer, Dennis Nedry, has been bribed by Dodgson, a man working for Hammond's corporate rival, to steal fertilized dinosaur embryos. Nedry deactivates the park's security system to gain access to the embryo storage room and stores the embryos inside a container disguised as a shaving cream can. Nedry's sabotage also cuts power to the tour vehicles, stranding them just as they near the park's Tyrannosaurus rex paddock. Most of the park's electric fences are deactivated as well, allowing the Tyrannosaurus to escape and attack the group. After the Tyrannosaurus overturns a tour vehicle, it injures Malcolm and devours Gennaro, while Grant, Lex and Tim escape. On his way to deliver the embryos to the island's docks, Nedry becomes lost in the rain, crashes his Jeep Wrangler, and is killed by a Dilophosaurus.
Sattler helps the game warden, Robert Muldoon, search for survivors; they recover an injured Malcolm, but are chased away by the returning Tyrannosaurus before they can find Grant, Tim, and Lex, who take shelter in a treetop and encounter a Brachiosaurus. Those three later discover the broken shells of dinosaur eggs, and Grant concludes that the dinosaurs have been breeding, which occurred because of their frog DNA—some West African frogs can change their sex in a single-sex environment, allowing the dinosaurs to do so as well.
Unable to decipher Nedry's code to reactivate the security system, Hammond and chief engineer Ray Arnold reboot the park's system. The group shuts down the park's grid and retreats to an emergency bunker, while Arnold heads to a maintenance shed to complete the rebooting process. When Arnold fails to return, Sattler and Muldoon head to the shed. They discover the shutdown has deactivated the remaining fences and released the Velociraptors. Muldoon distracts the raptors, while Sattler goes to turn the power back on, before being attacked by a raptor and discovering Arnold's severed arm. Meanwhile, Muldoon is caught off-guard and killed by the other two raptors.
Grant, Tim, and Lex reach the visitor center. Grant heads out to look for Sattler, leaving Tim and Lex inside. Tim and Lex are pursued by the raptors in a kitchen, but they escape and join Grant and Sattler, who have returned. The group reaches the control room, where Lex uses a computer to restore the park's power, allowing Hammond to call for help. As the four try to escape by the front entrance, they are cornered by the raptors, but they escape when the Tyrannosaurus appears and kills the raptors. Hammond arrives in a jeep with Malcolm, and the group boards a helicopter to leave the island.
- Sam Neill as Dr. Alan Grant
- Laura Dern as Dr. Ellie Sattler
- Jeff Goldblum as Dr. Ian Malcolm
- Richard Attenborough as John Hammond
- Bob Peck as Robert Muldoon
- Joseph Mazzello as Tim Murphy
- Ariana Richards as Lex Murphy
- Samuel L. Jackson as Ray Arnold
- Wayne Knight as Dennis Nedry
- Martin Ferrero as Donald Gennaro
- B.D. Wong as Dr. Henry Wu
- Jerry Molen as Dr. Harding
- Miguel Sandoval as Juanito Rostagno
- Cameron Thor as Dodgson
- Greg Burson as the voice of Mr. DNA
- Whit Hertford as Volunteer Boy
Michael Crichton originally conceived a screenplay about a graduate student who recreates a dinosaur. He continued to wrestle with his fascination with dinosaurs and cloning until he began writing the novel Jurassic Park. Before its publication, Steven Spielberg learned of the novel in October 1989, while he was discussing a screenplay with Crichton that would become the television series ER. Spielberg recognized what really fascinated him about Jurassic Park was it was "a really credible look at how dinosaurs might someday be brought back alongside modern mankind", going beyond a simple monster movie.
Before the book was published, Crichton had demanded a non-negotiable fee of $1.5 million for the film rights and a substantial percentage of the gross. Warner Bros. and Tim Burton, Columbia Pictures and Richard Donner, and 20th Century Fox and Joe Dante bid for the rights, but Universal Studios eventually acquired them in May 1990 for Spielberg. After completing Hook, Spielberg wanted to film Schindler's List. Sid Sheinberg, president of Music Corporation of America (Universal Pictures's parent company at the time) gave the green light to Schindler's List on the condition Spielberg make Jurassic Park first. He said later by choosing a creature-driven thriller, "I was really just trying to make a good sequel to Jaws, on land." Spielberg also cited Godzilla as an inspiration for Jurassic Park, specifically Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956), which he grew up watching. During production, Spielberg described Godzilla as "the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was really happening."
To create the dinosaurs, Spielberg thought of hiring Bob Gurr, who designed a giant mechanical King Kong for Universal Studios Hollywood's King Kong Encounter. Upon reflection, he felt life-sized dinosaurs would be too expensive and not at all convincing. Instead Spielberg sought the best effects supervisors in Hollywood. He brought in Stan Winston to create the animatronic dinosaurs; Phil Tippett (credited as Dinosaur Supervisor) to create go motion dinosaurs for long shots; Michael Lantieri to supervise the on-set effects; and Dennis Muren of Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) to do the digital compositing. Paleontologist Jack Horner supervised the designs, to help fulfill Spielberg's desire to portray the dinosaurs as animals rather than monsters. Certain concepts about dinosaurs, like the theory they evolved into birds and had very little in common with lizards, were followed. This prompted the removal of the raptors' flicking tongues in Tippett's early animatics, as Horner complained it was implausible. Winston's department created fully detailed models of the dinosaurs before molding latex skins, which were fitted over complex robotics. Tippett created stop-motion animatics of the raptors in the kitchen and the Tyrannosaurus attacking the car. Despite go motion's attempts at motion blurs, Spielberg found the end results unsatisfactory for a live-action feature film. Muren told Spielberg he thought the dinosaurs could be built using computer-generated imagery; the director asked him to prove it. ILM animators Mark Dippé and Steve Williams developed a computer-generated walk cycle for the T. rex skeleton and were approved to do more. When Spielberg and Tippett saw an animatic of the T. rex chasing a herd of Gallimimus, Spielberg said, "You're out of a job," to which Tippett replied, "Don't you mean extinct?" Spielberg later injected this exchange into the script, as a conversation between Malcolm and Grant. Although no go motion was used, Tippett and his animators were still used by the production to supervise dinosaur movement. Tippett acted as a consultant for dinosaur anatomy, and his stop motion animators were re-trained as computer animators. The animatics made by Tippett's team were also used, along with the storyboards, as a reference for what would be shot during the action sequences. ILM's artists were sent on private tours to the local animal park, so they could study large animals — rhinos, elephants, alligators, and giraffes — up close. They also took mime classes to aid in understanding movements.
Universal paid Crichton a further $500,000 to adapt his own novel, which he had finished by the time Spielberg was filming Hook. Crichton noted that because the book was "fairly long" his script had about 10 to 20 percent of the novel's content; scenes were dropped for budgetary and practical reasons, and the violence was toned down. Malia Scotch Marmo began a script rewrite in October 1991 over a five-month period, merging Ian Malcolm with Alan Grant.
Spielberg wanted another writer to rework the script, so Universal president Casey Silver recommended David Koepp, co-writer of Death Becomes Her. Koepp started afresh from Marmo's draft, and used Spielberg's idea of a cartoon shown to the visitors to remove much of the exposition that fills Crichton's novel. While Koepp tried to avoid excessive character detail "because whenever they started talking about their personal lives, you couldn't care less", he tried to flesh out the characters and make for a more colorful cast, with moments such as Malcolm flirting with Sattler leading to Grant's jealousy. Some characterizations were changed from the novel. Hammond went from being a ruthless businessman to a kindly old man, because Spielberg identified with Hammond's obsession with showmanship. He also switched the characters of Tim and Lex; in the book, Tim is aged eleven and interested in computers, and Lex is only seven or eight and interested in sports. Spielberg did this because he wanted to work with the younger Joseph Mazzello, and it allowed him to introduce the sub-plot of Lex's adolescent crush on Grant. Koepp changed Grant's relationship with the children, making him hostile to them initially to allow for more character development.
Two scenes from the book were ultimately excised. Spielberg removed the opening sequence with Procompsognathus attacking a young child as he found it too horrific. For budgetary reasons Koepp cut the T. rex chasing Grant and the children down a river before being tranquilized by Muldoon. Both parts were included in film sequels. Spielberg suggested adding the scene where the T. rex pursues a jeep, which at first only had the characters driving away after hearing the dinosaur's footsteps.
William Hurt was initially offered the role of Alan Grant, but turned it down without reading the script. Harrison Ford was also offered the role of Grant, before Sam Neill was ultimately cast three or four weeks before filming began. Neill said "it all happened real quick. I hadn't read the book, knew nothing about it, hadn't heard anything about it, and in a matter of weeks I'm working with Spielberg." Janet Hirshenson, the film's casting director, felt Jeff Goldblum would be the right choice to play Ian Malcolm after reading the novel. Jim Carrey also auditioned for the role. According to Hirshenson, Carrey "was terrific, too, but I think pretty quickly we all loved the idea of Jeff."
Cameron Thor had previously worked with Spielberg on Hook, and initially auditioned for the role of Malcolm, before trying out for the role of Dodgson. In the film, Dodgson gives Nedry a container disguised as a can of shaving cream that is used to transport the embryos. Thor said about his casting, "It just said 'shaving-cream can' in the script, so I spent endless time in a drug store to find the most photogenic. I went with Barbasol, which ended up in the movie. I was so broke that I took the can home after the audition to use it." Laura Dern was Spielberg's first choice for the role of Ellie Sattler though she was not the only actress offered the part. Robin Wright turned down the role. Spielberg chose to cast Wayne Knight after seeing his acting performance in Basic Instinct, saying, "I waited for the credits to roll and wrote his name down."
Ariana Richards who plays Lex Murphy, said, "I was called into a casting office, and they just wanted me to scream. I heard later on that Steven had watched a few girls on tape that day, and I was the only one who ended up waking his sleeping wife on the couch, and she came running through the hallway to see if the kids were all right." Christina Ricci also auditioned for the role. Joseph Mazzello had screen-tested for a role in Hook, but was deemed too young. Spielberg promised him they would work together on a future film.
After 25 months of pre-production, filming began on August 24, 1992, on the Hawaiian island of Kauaʻi. While the Dominican Republic and Costa Rica were considered as locations, given they are the novel's settings, Spielberg's concerns over infrastructure and accessibility made him choose a place where he had already worked. The three-week shoot involved various daytime exteriors for Isla Nublar's forests. On September 11, Hurricane Iniki passed directly over Kauaʻi, costing a day of shooting. Several of the storm scenes from the movie are of actual footage shot during the hurricane. The scheduled shoot of the Gallimimus chase was moved to Kualoa Ranch on the island of Oahu. One of the early scenes had to be created by digitally animating a still shot of scenery. The opening scene was shot in Haiku, on the island of Maui, with additional scenes filmed on the "forbidden island" of Niihau. The exterior of the Visitor Center was a large façade constructed on the grounds of the Valley House Plantation Estate in Kauai. Samuel L. Jackson was to film a lengthy death scene where his character is chased and killed by raptors, but the set was destroyed by Hurricane Iniki.
By mid-September, the crew moved to California, to shoot the raptors in the kitchen at Stage 24 of the Universal studio lot. Given the kitchen set was filled with reflective surfaces, cinematographer Dean Cundey had to carefully plan the illumination while also using black cloths to hide the light reflections. The crew also shot the scenes involving the power supply on Stage 23, before going on location to Red Rock Canyon for the Montana dig scenes. The crew returned to Universal to shoot Grant's rescue of Tim, using a fifty-foot prop with hydraulic wheels for the car fall, and the Brachiosaurus encounter. The crew filmed scenes for the Park's labs and control room, which used animations for the computers lent by Silicon Graphics and Apple. While Crichton's book features electric-powered Toyota Land Cruisers as the tour cars in Jurassic Park, Spielberg made a deal with the Ford Motor Company, who provided seven Ford Explorers. The Explorers were modified by ILM's crew and veteran customizer George Barris to create the illusion they were autonomous cars by hiding the driver in the car's trunk. Barris also customized the Jeep Wranglers featured in the production.
The crew moved to Warner Bros. Studios' Stage 16 to shoot the T. rex's attack on the LSX powered SUVs. Shooting proved frustrating because when water soaked the foam rubber skin of the animatronic dinosaur, it caused the T. rex to shake and quiver from the extra weight when the foam absorbed it. This forced Stan Winston's crew to dry the model with shammys between takes. On the set, Malcolm distracting the dinosaur with a flare was included at Jeff Goldblum's suggestion. He felt a heroic action was better than going by the script, where like Gennaro, Malcolm was scared and ran away. The ripples in the glass of water caused by the T. rex's footsteps were inspired by Spielberg listening to Earth, Wind and Fire in his car, and the vibrations the bass rhythm caused. Lantieri was unsure how to create the shot until the night before filming when he put a glass of water on a guitar he was playing, which achieved the concentric circles in the water Spielberg wanted. The next morning, guitar strings were put inside the car and a man on the floor plucked them to achieve the effect. Back at Universal, the crew filmed scenes with the Dilophosaurus on Stage 27. Finally, the shoot finished on Stage 12, with the climactic chases with the raptors in the Park's computer rooms and Visitor's Center. Spielberg changed the climax to bring back the T. rex, abandoning the original ending where Grant uses a platform machine to maneuver a raptor into a fossil tyrannosaur's jaws. The scene, which already included the juxtaposition of live dinosaurs in a museum filled with fossils, while also destroying the bones, now had an ending where the T. rex saved the protagonists, and afterwards made what Spielberg described as a "King Kong roar" while an ironic banner reading "When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth" flew. The film wrapped twelve days ahead of schedule on November 30, and within days, editor Michael Kahn had a rough cut ready, allowing Spielberg to go ahead with filming Schindler's List.
Dinosaurs on screen
Despite the title of the film's referencing the Jurassic period, Brachiosaurus and Dilophosaurus are the only dinosaurs featured that actually lived during that time; the other species featured did not exist until the Cretaceous period. This is acknowledged in the film during a scene where Dr. Grant describes the ferocity of the Velociraptor to a young boy, saying: "Try to imagine yourself in the Cretaceous period ..."
- Alamosaurus appears as a skeleton in the Jurassic Park visitor center.
- Brachiosaurus is the first dinosaur seen by the park's visitors. It is inaccurately depicted as chewing its food and standing up on its hind legs to browse among the high tree branches. According to artist Andy Schoneberg, the chewing was done to make the animal seem docile, resembling a cow chewing its cud. The dinosaur's head and upper neck was the largest puppet without hydraulics built for the film. Despite scientific evidence of their having limited vocal capabilities, sound designer Gary Rydstrom decided to represent them with whale songs and donkey calls to give them a melodic sense of wonder. Penguins were also recorded to be used in the noises of the dinosaurs.
- Dilophosaurus was also very different from its real-life counterpart, made significantly smaller to ensure audiences did not confuse it with the raptors. Its neck frill and its ability to spit venom are fictitious. Its vocal sounds were made by combining a swan, a hawk, a howler monkey, and a rattlesnake. The animatronic model, nicknamed "Spitter" by Stan Winston's team, was animated by the puppeteers sitting on a trench in the set floor, using a paintball mechanism to spit the mixture of methyl cellulose and K-Y Jelly that served as venom.
- Gallimimus are featured in a stampede scene where one of them is devoured by the Tyrannosaurus. The Gallimimus was the first dinosaur to be digitized, being featured in two ILM tests, first as a herd of skeletons and then fully skinned while pursued by the T. rex. Its design was based on ostriches, and to emphasize the birdlike qualities, the animation focused mostly on the herd rather than individual animals. As reference for the dinosaurs' run, the animators were filmed running at the ILM parking lot, with plastic pipes standing in as the tree that the Gallimimus jump over. The footage inspired the incorporation of an animal falling as one of the artists did trying to make the jump. Horse squeals became the Gallimimus's sounds.
- Parasaurolophus appear in the background during the first encounter with the Brachiosaurus.
- Triceratops has an extended cameo, depicted as sick from eating a toxic plant. Its appearance was a logistical nightmare for Stan Winston when Spielberg asked to shoot the animatronic of the sick creature earlier than expected. The model, operated by eight puppeteers in the Kaua'i set, wound up being the first dinosaur filmed during production. Winston also created a baby Triceratops for Ariana Richards to ride on, a scene ultimately cut from the film for pacing reasons. Gary Rydstrom combined the sound of himself breathing into a cardboard tube with the cows near his workplace at Skywalker Ranch to create the Triceratops vocals.
- Tyrannosaurus was acknowledged by Spielberg as "the star of the movie", and he rewrote the ending to feature the T. rex for fear of disappointing the audience. Winston's animatronic T. rex stood 6.1 metres (20 ft), weighed 17,500 pounds (7,900 kg), and was 12 metres (40 ft) long. Jack Horner called it "the closest I've ever been to a live dinosaur". While the consulting paleontologists did not agree on the dinosaur's movement, particularly its running capabilities, animator Steve Williams decided to "throw physics out the window and create a T. rex that moved at sixty miles per hour even though its hollow bones would have busted if it ran that fast". The major reason was the T. rex chasing a Jeep, a scene that took two months to finish. The dinosaur is depicted with a vision system based on movement, though later studies indicated the T. rex had binocular vision comparable to a bird of prey. Its roar is a baby elephant mixed with a tiger and an alligator, and its breath is a whale's blow. A dog attacking a rope toy was used for the sounds of the T. rex tearing a Gallimimus apart, while cut sequoias crashing to the ground became the sound of the dinosaur's footsteps.
- Velociraptor plays a major role in the film. The creature's depiction is ultimately not based on the actual dinosaur genus in question, which was also significantly smaller. Shortly before Jurassic Park's theatrical release, the similar Utahraptor was discovered, although it proved to be even bigger in appearance than the film's raptors. This prompted Stan Winston to joke, "We made it, then they discovered it." For the attack on character Robert Muldoon and some parts of the kitchen scene, the raptors were played by men in suits. Dolphin screams, walruses bellowing, geese hissing, an African crane's mating call, tortoises mating, and human rasps were mixed to formulate various raptor sounds. Following discoveries made after the film's release, most paleontologists theorize that dromaeosaurs like Velociraptor and Deinonychus were fully covered with feathers like modern birds. This feature is included only in Jurassic Park III for the male raptors, who are shown with a row of small quills on their heads.
Special effects work continued on the film, with Tippett's unit adjusting to new technology with Dinosaur Input Devices: models which fed information into computers to allow them to animate the characters like stop motion puppets. In addition, they acted out scenes with the raptors and Gallimimus. As well as the computer-generated dinosaurs, ILM also created elements such as water splashing and digital face replacement for Ariana Richards' stunt double. Compositing the dinosaurs onto the live action scenes took around an hour. Rendering the dinosaurs often took two to four hours per frame, and rendering the T. rex in the rain took six hours per frame. Spielberg monitored their progress from Poland during the filming of Schindler's List, and had teleconferences four times a week with ILM's crew. The director described working simultaneously in two vastly different productions as "a bipolar experience", where he used "every ounce of intuition on Schindler's List and every ounce of craft on Jurassic Park". some of the software used to create dinosaurs and other visual effects was Autodesk Softimage.
Along with the digital effects, Spielberg wanted the film to be the first with digital sound. He funded the creation of DTS (digital theater system), which allows audiences to "really hear the movie the way it was intended to be heard". The sound effects crew, supervised by George Lucas, were finished by the end of April. Sound designer Gary Rydstrom considered it a fun process, given the film had all kinds of noise—animal sounds, rain, gunshots, car crashes—and at times no music. During the process, Spielberg would take the weekends to fly from Poland to Paris, where he would meet Rydstrom to see the sound progress. Jurassic Park was finally completed on May 28, 1993.
Composer John Williams began scoring the film at the end of February, and it was recorded a month later. John Neufeld and Alexander Courage provided the score's orchestrations. As with Close Encounters of the Third Kind, another Spielberg film he scored, Williams felt he needed to write "pieces that would convey a sense of 'awe' and fascination" given it dealt with the "overwhelming happiness and excitement" that would emerge from seeing live dinosaurs. In turn more suspenseful scenes such as the Tyrannosaurus attack required frightening themes. The first soundtrack album was released on May 25, 1993. For the 20th anniversary of the film's release, a new soundtrack was issued for digital download on April 9, 2013, including four bonus tracks personally selected by Williams.
Universal took the lengthy pre-production period to carefully plan the Jurassic Park marketing campaign. It cost $65 million and included deals with 100 companies to market 1,000 products. These included: three Jurassic Park video games by Sega and Ocean Software; a toy line by Kenner distributed by Hasbro; McDonald's "Dino-Sized meals"; and a novelization for young children.
The film's trailers provided only a fleeting glimpse of the dinosaurs, a tactic journalist Josh Horowitz described as "that old Spielberg axiom of never revealing too much" after Spielberg and director Michael Bay did the same for their production of Transformers in 2007. The film was marketed with the tagline "An Adventure 65 Million Years In The Making". This was a joke Spielberg made on set about the genuine, thousands of years old mosquito in amber used for Hammond's walking stick.
The film premiered at the Uptown Theater (Washington, D.C.) on June 9, 1993, in support of two children's charities. The film had previews on 1,412 screens starting at 9:30 pm EDT on Thursday, June 10, 1993 and officially opened on Friday in 2,404 theater locations and an estimated 3,400 screens. Following the film's release, a traveling exhibition called "The Dinosaurs of Jurassic Park" began, showcasing dinosaur skeletons and film props. The film began its international release on June 25, 1993 in Brazil before further openings in South America and then rolling out around most of the rest of the world from July 16 until October.
Jurassic Park was broadcast on television for the first time on May 7, 1995, following the April 26 airing of The Making of Jurassic Park. Some 68.12 million people tuned in to watch, garnering NBC a 36 percent share of all available viewers that night. Jurassic Park was the highest-rated theatrical film broadcast on television by any network since the April 1987 airing of Trading Places. In June–July 1995 the film was aired a number of times on the Turner Network Television (TNT) network.
In anticipation of the Blu-ray release, Jurassic Park had a digital print released in UK cinemas on September 23, 2011. It wound up grossing £245,422 ($786,021) from 276 theaters, finishing at eleventh on the weekend box office list.
Two years later, on the 20th anniversary of Jurassic Park, a 3D version of the film was released in cinemas. Spielberg declared that he had produced the film with a sort of "subconscious 3D", as scenes feature animals walking toward the cameras and some effects of foreground and background overlay. In 2011, he stated in an interview that Jurassic Park was the only one of his works he had considered for a conversion. Once he saw the 3D version of Titanic in 2012, he liked the new look of the film so much that he hired the same retrofitting company, Stereo D. Spielberg and cinematographer Janusz Kamiński closely supervised the nine-month process in-between the production of Lincoln. Stereo D executive Aaron Parry said the conversion was an evolution of what the company had done with Titanic, "being able to capitalize on everything we learned with Jim on Titanic and take it into a different genre and movie, and one with so many technical achievements." The studio had the help of ILM, which contributed some elements and updated effects shots for a better visual enhancement. It opened in the United States and seven other territories on April 5, 2013, with other countries receiving the re-release over the following six months. In 2018, the film was re-released in select theaters to celebrate its 25th anniversary.
Jurassic Park was first released on a Collector's Edition DVD and VHS on October 10, 2000, in both Widescreen (1.85:1) and Full Screen (1.33:1) versions, and as part of a box set with the sequel The Lost World: Jurassic Park and both movies' soundtrack albums. It was the 13th best-selling DVD of 2000 counting both versions, finishing the year with 910,000 units sold. Following the release of Jurassic Park III, a new box set with all the films called Jurassic Park Trilogy was released on December 11, 2001; it was re-released on VHS and DVD as part of its 15th anniversary on October 8, 2004. It was repackaged as Jurassic Park Adventure Pack on November 29, 2005.
The trilogy was released on Blu-ray on October 25, 2011, debuting at number five on the Blu-ray charts, and nominated as the best release of the year by both the Las Vegas Film Critics Society and the Saturn Awards. In 2012, Jurassic Park was among twenty-five films chosen by Universal for a box set celebrating the studio's 100th anniversary, while also receiving a standalone 100th anniversary Blu-ray featuring an augmented reality cover. The following year, the 20th anniversary 3D conversion was issued on Blu-ray 3D.
Jurassic Park became the highest-grossing film released worldwide up to that time replacing Spielberg's own E.T. the Extraterrestrial (1982). It grossed $3.1 million from Thursday night screenings in the United States and Canada on June 10, and $47 million in its first weekend from 2,404 theaters, breaking the opening weekend record set by Batman Returns the year before. By the end of its first week, Jurassic Park had grossed a record $81.7 million, and remained at number one for three weeks. It eventually grossed $357 million in the U.S. and Canada, ranking second of all-time behind E.T. Box Office Mojo estimates the film sold over 86.2 million tickets in the US in its initial theatrical run.
The film also did very well in international markets and was the first to gross $500 million overseas, surpassing the record $280 million overseas gross of E.T. It broke opening records around the world including in the United Kingdom, Japan, India, South Korea, Mexico, Germany, Australia, Taiwan, Italy, Denmark, South Africa and France.  In Japan, Jurassic Park grossed $8.4 million from 237 screens in two days (including previews) In the United Kingdom, it also beat the opening weekend record set by Batman Returns with a gross of £4.875 million ($7.4 million) from 434 screens, including £443,000 from Thursday night previews, and also beat Terminator 2's opening week record, with £9.2 million. After just three weeks, it became the highest-grossing film of all-time in the UK surpassing Ghost, eventually doubling the record with a gross of £47.9 million. In Australia, the film had the widest release ever and was the first film to open with a one-day gross of more than A$1 million, grossing A$5,447,000 (US$3.6 million) in its first four days from 192 screens beating the opening record of Terminator 2 and also beating the weekly record set by The Bodyguard with a gross of A$6.8 million. In the same weekend, it also set an opening record in Germany with a gross of 16.8 million Deutsche Mark ($10.5 million) from 644 screens. In Italy, it also had the widest release ever in 344 theaters and grossed a record 9.5 billion lire ($6.1 million). It eventually opened in France on October 20, 1993 and grossed a record 75 million French franc ($13 million) in its opening week from over 515 screens.
The film set all-time records in, among others, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Japan (in US Dollars), Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Spain, Thailand and the United Kingdom. Ultimately the film grossed $912.7 million worldwide in its initial release, with Spielberg reportedly earning over $250 million from the film, the most a director or actor had earned from one film at the time. Its record gross was surpassed in 1998 by Titanic, the first film to gross over $1 billion.
The 3D re-release of Jurassic Park opened at fourth place at the US box office, with $18.6 million from 2,771 locations. IMAX showings accounted for over $6 million, with the 32 percent being the highest IMAX share ever for a nationwide release. The international release had its most successful weekend in the last week of August, when it managed to climb to the top of the overseas box office with a $28.8 million debut in China. The reissue earned $45.4 million in the United States and Canada and $44.5 million internationally as of August 2013[update], leading to a lifetime gross of $402.5 million in the United States and Canada and $628.7 million overseas, for a worldwide gross of $1.029 billion, making Jurassic Park the 17th film to surpass the $1 billion mark. It was the only Universal Pictures film to surpass the $1 billion mark until 2015, when the studio had three such films, Furious 7, Minions, and the fourth installment of the Jurassic Park franchise, Jurassic World. The film earned an additional $374,238 in 2018 for its 25th anniversary re-release. In June 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic closing most theaters worldwide and limiting what films played, Jurassic Park returned to 230 theaters (mostly drive-ins). It grossed $517,600, finishing in first for the fourth time in its history. It became the first time a re-issue topped the box office since The Lion King in September 2011. It currently ranks as the 37th highest-grossing film of all time in the United States and Canada (not adjusted for inflation) and the 40th highest-grossing film of all time.
Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes retrospectively reported an approval rating of 91% based on 128 reviews, with an average rating of 8.34/10. The site's critical consensus reads: "Jurassic Park is a spectacle of special effects and life-like animatronics, with some of Spielberg's best sequences of sustained awe and sheer terror since Jaws." Metacritic gave the film a weighted average score of 68 out of 100, based on reviews from 20 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale.
Janet Maslin of The New York Times called it "a true movie milestone, presenting awe- and fear-inspiring sights never before seen on the screen [...] On paper, this story is tailor-made for Mr. Spielberg's talents [but] [i]t becomes less crisp on screen than it was on the page, with much of the enjoyable jargon either mumbled confusingly or otherwise thrown away." In Rolling Stone, Peter Travers described the film as "colossal entertainment—the eye-popping, mind-bending, kick-out-the-jams thrill ride of summer and probably the year [...] Compared with the dinos, the characters are dry bones, indeed. Crichton and co-screenwriter David Koepp have flattened them into nonentities on the trip from page to screen." Roger Ebert gave the film three stars out of four, saying, "The movie delivers all too well on its promise to show us dinosaurs. We see them early and often, and they are indeed a triumph of special effects artistry, but the movie is lacking other qualities that it needs even more, such as a sense of awe and wonderment, and strong human story values." Henry Sheehan of Sight & Sound argued, "The complaints over Jurassic Park's lack of story and character sound a little off the point," pointing out the story arc of Grant learning to protect Hammond's grandchildren despite his initial dislike of them. Empire magazine gave the film five stars, hailing it as "quite simply one of the greatest blockbusters of all time."
In March 1994, Jurassic Park won all three Academy Awards for which it was nominated: Best Sound Editing, Best Sound Mixing, and Best Visual Effects (at the same ceremony, Spielberg, editor Michael Kahn, and composer John Williams won Academy Awards for Schindler's List). The film won honors outside the U.S. including the 1994 BAFTA for Best Special Effects, as well as the Award for the Public's Favorite Film. It won the 1994 Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, and the 1993 Saturn Awards for Best Science Fiction Film, Best Direction, Best Writing for Crichton and Koepp and Best Special Effects. The film won the 1993 People's Choice Awards for Favorite All-Around Motion Picture. Young Artist Awards were given to Ariana Richards and Joseph Mazzello, with the film winning an Outstanding Action/Adventure Family Motion Picture award. In 2001, the American Film Institute ranked Jurassic Park as the 35th most thrilling film of American cinema. The film is included in the book 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die, film lists by Empire magazine, and The Guardian.
|1993||Bambi Awards||International Film||Jurassic Park||Won|
|1994||66th Academy Awards||Best Sound Effects Editing||Gary Rydstrom and Richard Hymns||Won|
|Best Sound||Gary Summers, Gary Rydstrom, Shawn Murphy and Ron Judkins||Won|
|Best Visual Effects||Dennis Muren, Stan Winston, Phil Tippett and Michael Lantieri||Won|
|Saturn Awards||Best Director||Steven Spielberg||Won|
|Best Science Fiction Film||Jurassic Park||Won|
|Best Special Effects||Dennis Muren, Stan Winston, Phil Tippett and Michael Lantieri||Won|
|Best Writing||Michael Crichton and David Koepp||Won|
|Best Actress||Laura Dern||Nominated|
|Best Music||John Williams||Nominated|
|Best Performance by a Young Actor||Joseph Mazzello||Nominated|
|Best Performance by a Young Actor||Ariana Richards||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actor||Jeff Goldblum||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actor||Wayne Knight||Nominated|
|Awards of the Japanese Academy||Best Foreign Film||Jurassic Park||Won|
|BAFTA Awards||Best Special Effects||Dennis Muren, Stan Winston, Phil Tippett and Michael Lantieri||Won|
|Best Sound||Gary Summers, Gary Rydstrom, Shawn Murphy and Ron Judkins||Nominated|
|BMI Film Music Award||BMI Film Music Award||John Williams||Won|
|Blue Ribbon Awards||Best Foreign Language Film||Steven Spielberg||Won|
|Bram Stoker Award||Screenplay||Michael Crichton and David Koepp||Nominated|
|Cinema Audio Society||Outstanding Achievement in Sound Mixing for a Feature Film||Gary Summers, Gary Rydstrom, Shawn Murphy and Ron Judkins||Nominated|
|Czech Lions||Best Foreign Language Film||Steven Spielberg||Won|
|Grammy Awards||Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion Picture or for Television||John Williams||Nominated|
|MTV Movie Awards||Best Action Sequence||Nominated|
|Best Movie||Jurassic Park||Nominated|
|Best Villain||T. rex||Nominated|
|Mainichi Film Concours||Best Foreign Language Film (Fan Choice)||Steven Spielberg||Won|
|Motion Picture Sound Editors||Best Sound Editing||Won|
|People's Choice Awards||Favorite Motion Picture||Jurassic Park||Won|
|Young Artist Awards||Best Youth Actor Co-Starring in a Motion Picture Drama||Joseph Mazzello||Won|
|Best Youth Actress Leading Role in a Motion Picture Drama||Ariana Richards||Won|
|Outstanding Family Motion Picture – Action/Adventure||Jurassic Park||Won|
|Hugo Awards||Best Dramatic Presentation||Jurassic Park||Won|
Since its release, Jurassic Park has frequently been cited by film critics and industry professionals as one of the greatest movies of the action and thriller genres. The movie is also an example of a Technothriller. The American Film Institute named Jurassic Park the 35th-most thrilling film of all time on June 13, 2001. On Empire magazine's 15th anniversary in 2004, it judged Jurassic Park the sixth-most influential film in the magazine's lifetime. Empire called the first encounter with a Brachiosaurus the 28th-most magical moment in cinema. In 2008, an Empire poll of readers, filmmakers, and critics also rated it one of the 500 greatest films of all time. On Film Review's 55th anniversary in 2005, it declared the film to be one of the five most important in the magazine's lifetime. In 2006, IGN ranked Jurassic Park as the 19th-greatest film franchise ever. In a 2010 poll, the readers of Entertainment Weekly rated it the greatest summer movie of the previous 20 years. The popularity of the movie led the management of the National Basketball Association expansion franchise founded in Toronto in 1995 to adopt the nickname Raptors. In addition, during the team's playoff games, fans watch the game on a large television in a fan area outside the arena, which has been nicknamed Jurassic Park. The film is seen as giving rise to the "Jurassic Park" generation, to young people inspired to become paleontologists and to a surge in discoveries about dinosaurs in real life.
Jurassic Park's biggest impact on subsequent films was a result of its computer-generated visual effects. Film historian Tom Shone commented on the film's innovation and influence, saying that, "In its way, Jurassic Park heralded a revolution in movies as profound as the coming of sound in 1927." Many filmmakers saw Jurassic Park's effects as a realization that many of their visions, previously thought unfeasible or too expensive, were now possible. ILM owner George Lucas, realizing the success of creating realistic live dinosaurs by his own company, started to make the Star Wars prequels; Stanley Kubrick decided to invest in pet project A.I. Artificial Intelligence, to which he would later bring Spielberg to direct; and Peter Jackson began to re-explore his childhood love of fantasy films, a path that led him to The Lord of the Rings and King Kong. Jurassic Park has also inspired films and documentaries with dinosaurs such as the American adaptation of Godzilla, Dinosaur from the Deep, Carnosaur (in which Laura Dern's mother Diane Ladd starred), Dinosaur Island and Walking with Dinosaurs. Stan Winston, enthusiastic about the new technology pioneered by the film, joined with IBM and director James Cameron to form a new special effects company, Digital Domain.
Sequels and merchandise
After the enormous success of the film, Spielberg asked Crichton to write a sequel novel, leading to the 1995 book The Lost World. This, in turn, was adapted as the film The Lost World: Jurassic Park. Released in May 1997, it was directed by Spielberg and written by David Koepp. Another film, Jurassic Park III, was released in July 2001, under the direction of Joe Johnston, with Spielberg as executive producer. It featured an original script that incorporated unused elements from Crichton's original Jurassic Park. A fourth installment, Jurassic World, was released in theaters in June 2015. Spielberg again produced, with Colin Trevorrow directing a script he wrote with Derek Connolly. Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, the fifth film in the franchise, was released in June 2018, with Spielberg as producer once more and J. A. Bayona as director. A sixth film, Jurassic World: Dominion, will be directed by Trevorrow and is scheduled for release in June 2022.
The story of the film was continued in auxiliary media, at times even unattached to the film sequels themselves. These included a series of Jurassic Park comic books written by Steve Englehart for Topps Comics, and video games such as Ocean Software's Jurassic Park 2: The Chaos Continues (1994), Vivendi's Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis (2003) and Telltale Games' Jurassic Park: The Game (2011).
All of the Universal Parks & Resorts include a Jurassic Park-themed ride. The first was Jurassic Park: The Ride at Universal Studios Hollywood on June 15, 1996, built after six years of development at a cost of $110 million. This attraction was replicated by Universal Studios Japan in 2001. Islands of Adventure in Orlando, Florida, has an entire section of the park dedicated to Jurassic Park that includes the main ride, christened "Jurassic Park River Adventure", and many smaller rides and attractions based on the series. At Universal Studios Singapore, opened in 2010, the Themed Zone named "The Lost World" consists mostly of Jurassic Park rides, such as the roller coaster Canopy Flyer and the river rapids Jurassic Park Rapids Adventure.
- British Board of Film Classification (August 23, 2013). "Jurassic Park". BBFC. Retrieved November 7, 2020.
- "Jurassic Park". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- "Jurassic Park (1993) - Steven Spielberg | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related". AllMovie.
- "Jurassic Park (1993)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- Barnes, Mike (December 12, 2018). "'Jurassic Park,' 'The Shining,' 'Brokeback Mountain' Enter National Film Registry". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- "National Film Registry Turns 30". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
- "Complete National Film Registry Listing | Film Registry | National Film Preservation Board | Programs at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
- Crichton, Michael (2001). Michael Crichton on the Jurassic Park Phenomenon (DVD). Universal.
- McBride 1997, p. 416–9.
- "Return to Jurassic Park: Dawn of a New Era". Jurassic Park (Blu-ray ed.). 2011.
- DVD Production Notes
- McBride 1997, p. 418.
- Ryfle, Steve (1998). Japan's Favorite Mon-star: The Unauthorized Biography of "The Big G". ECW Press. p. 15. ISBN 9781550223484.
- Ryfle, Steve (1998). Japan's Favorite Mon-star: The Unauthorized Biography of "The Big G". ECW Press. p. 17. ISBN 9781550223484.
- Epstein, Sonia (June 14, 2016). "Science on Screen: Interview with Jack Horner, Jurassic World". Sloan Science & Film. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
- Jones, James Earl (Host) (1995). The Making of Jurassic Park (VHS). Universal.
- French, Lawrence. "Jurassic Park: Dinosaur Movements". Cinefantastique. 24 (2). p. 9.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 49.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 134–5.
- "Return to Jurassic Park: Making Prehistory". Jurassic Park (Blu-ray ed.). 2011.
- Failes, Ian (April 4, 2013). "Welcome (back) to Jurassic Park". FX Guide. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- Caron, C. (June 20, 2018). "The Hidden History of the Jurassic Park Logo". TIFF. Retrieved June 24, 2018.
- Appelo, Tim (December 7, 1990). "Leaping Lizards". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- Biodrowski, Steve. "JURASSIC PARK: Michael Crichton on Adapting his Novel to the Screen Archived November 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine". Cinefantastique Magazine, August 1993 (Vol. 24, No.2), pg. 12
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 39–42.
- McGilligan, Patrick (2010). Backstory 5: Interviews with Screenwriters of the 1990s. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25105-2.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 55–6.
- Biskind, Peter (May 1997). "A World Apart". Premiere.
- McBride 1997, p. 421–422.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 70.
- "A Tale Of Two 'Jurassics'". Entertainment Weekly. June 18, 1993. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- "David Koepp: Writer's block". The A.V. Club. September 8, 1999. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
- "Answers to all that jazz about 'Jurassic'". The San Bernardino Sun. June 19, 1993. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- Clark, Noelene (September 16, 2011). "Harrison Ford on an 'Indy' sequel, turning down 'Jurassic Park'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- Stack, Tim; Staskiewicz, Keith (April 4, 2013). "Welcome to Jurassic Park: An oral history". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- de Semlyen, Nick (September 2013). "Jurassic Park 20th Anniversary: When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth" (PDF). Empire. p. 5. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- "Robin Wright Penn Writes Off Blockbuster Roles". Star-News. July 13, 1997. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- Sears, Rufus (October 12, 2014). "How Jurassic Park Became The Biggest Movie Of All Time". Empire. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
- Harris, Will (July 25, 2012). "Wayne Knight talks about The Exes, Newman, and working in the mud for Jurassic Park". The A.V. Club. Retrieved June 28, 2016.
- Schuldt, Scott (May 26, 1995). "Star Lives Up to Her Precocious Image". The Oklahoman. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 65 and 67.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 86.
- MJ Harden (February 18, 2014). "NBC Features Rappel Maui on 1st Look with Audrina Patridge". Retrieved June 11, 2014.
- Eric P. Olsen (February 18, 2003). "Hawaii Plantsman Confounds Greenies; Keith Robinson has a green thumb with endangered plants and a belief that the 'green' tactics used by the environmental establishment are a total waste of time". Inisght on the News blog. CBS Interactive Business Network. Archived from the original on November 3, 2010. Retrieved October 25, 2010.
- "Jurassic Park filming locations". Retrieved February 25, 2018.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 91–92.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 95–105.
- Shone 2004, p. 219.
- "All The Right Movies". New York: 20. November 29, 1993. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- Barris, George; Fetherston, David (1996). Barris TV and Movie Cars. MotorBooks International. p. 41. ISBN 1-61060-818-6.
- Udel, James C. (2013). The Film Crew of Hollywood: Profiles of Grips, Cinematographers, Designers, a Gaffer, a Stuntman and a Makeup. McFarland & Company. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-7864-6484-5.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 110–1.
- "The 200 things that rocked our world". Empire. February 2006. p. 131.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 113–114.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 118.
- Archerd, Army (December 1, 1992). "Spielberg parks 'Jurassic' under sked, budget". Variety. Retrieved January 27, 2007.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 126.
- "Jurassic Park's T-Rex – Sculpting a Full-Size Dinosaur". Stan Winston School of Character Arts. December 15, 2012. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- Gould, Stephen (August 12, 1993). "Dinomania". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
- Guzman, Rafer (April 4, 2013). "Movies: Dino-mite! Back to Jurassic Park, in 3-D". Portland Press Herald. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- Switek, Brian (March 25, 2009). "See Tyrannosaurus Take a Bite out of Alamosaurus". Smithsonian. Retrieved August 27, 2015.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 144–6.
- "Jurassic Park's Brachiosaurus Animatronic Puppet Rehearsal". Stan Winston School of Character Arts. January 23, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 36.
- "Jurassic Park's Spitter – Building the animatronic Dilophosaurus dinosaur puppet". Stan Winston School of Character Arts. April 5, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 135.
- "Return to Jurassic Park: The Next Step in Evolution", Jurassic Park Blu-ray (2011)
- Buchanan, Kyle (September 4, 2013). "You'll Never Guess How the Dinosaur Sounds in Jurassic Park Were Made". Vulture. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- Nelson, Ray (November 1996). "Jurassic Park". Popular Science. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 83.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 64.
- Corliss, Richard (April 26, 1993). "Behind the Magic of Jurassic Park". TIME. Retrieved January 26, 2007.
- Shone 2004, p. 217.
- Jaffe, Eric (June 28, 2006). "Sight for 'saur eyes: T. rex vision was among nature's best". Science News. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- "What Do We Really Know About Utahraptor? | Dinosaur Tracking". Blogs.smithsonianmag.com. doi:10.1080/02724634.2001.10010852. S2CID 220414868. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- G. S. Paul (2002). Dinosaurs of the Air: The Evolution and Loss of Flight in Dinosaurs and Birds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Knep, Brian; Hayes, Craig; Sayre, Rick; Williams, Tom (1995). "Dinosaur Input Device". Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. pp. 304–309. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008.
- Peterson, John; Williams, Steve; Letteri, Joe (1994). "Jurassic Park – The Illusion of Life". Silicon Valley ACM Siggraph. p. 1. Archived from the original on October 11, 2006. Retrieved April 19, 2008.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 138.
- "The long and lonely death of Softimage". DigitalArts. Retrieved June 14, 2015.
- Shay & Duncan 1993, p. 123.
- Siegel, Robert (February 20, 2012). "The Making of Steven Spielberg's Jurassic Park". Blu-Ray.com. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
- "Jurassic Park (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)". AllMusic. Retrieved March 29, 2007.
- "Remastered Jurassic Park Soundtrack Includes 4 Unreleased John Williams Tracks" (Press release). Universal Music Enterprises. March 26, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
- Broeske, Pat H. (March 12, 1993). "The Beastmaster". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- Meikleham, Dave (June 11, 2013). "Twenty years on after Jurassic Park's release, a look back at the video games inspired by the dinosaur franchise". Daily Mirror. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Wasko, Janet (1995). Hollywood in the Information Age: Beyond the Silver Screen. University of Texas Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-292-79094-0. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- Gail Herman; Michael Crichton; David Koepp (1993). Jurassic Park. Grosset & Dunlap. p. 88. ISBN 0-448-40172-X.
- Sauter, Michael (June 4, 1993). "Trailer Park". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- Horowitz, Josh (February 15, 2007). "Michael Bay Divulges 'Transformers' Details — And Word Of 'Bad Boys III'". MTV. Retrieved February 15, 2007.
- Steven Spielberg directs Jurassic Park. Jurassic Park DVD: Universal Pictures. 2001.
- "Three Big Movies at the Uptown Theater". Ghosts of DC. August 14, 2012.
- August, Lissa (May 21, 1993). "Beltway Barbra". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- "The Stars Rain Down On Washington". Entertainment Weekly. June 11, 1993. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- Klady, Leonard (June 21, 1993). "Dinosaurs fone home". Variety. p. 3.
- Fox, David J. (June 15, 1993). "Weekend Box Office : Universal's Monster Smash". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- Shone 2004, p. 224.
- Klein, Julia M. (October 31, 1995). "Dino Dominion". The Philadelphia Inquirer. pp. C1, C7. Retrieved February 2, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
- Klady, Leonard (October 4, 1993). "Billion-Dollar dinos' merchandising mania". Variety. p. 11.
- Mink, Eric (April 25, 1995). "'Making of Jurassic Park' Really Dino-mite". Daily News. New York. Retrieved February 26, 2013.[dead link]
- Huff, Richard (May 10, 1995). "Ratings: 'Jurassic' Parks NBC Right At the Top of the Nielsens". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on August 15, 2011. Retrieved February 26, 2013.[dead link]
- White, James (August 26, 2011). "Jurassic Park Is Back On The Big Screen". Empire. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
- "UK Box Office: 23- 25 September 2011". British Film Institute. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- "Release Dates for Kick-Ass 2, 47 Ronin, Jurassic Park 3D, R.I.P.D., Identity Thief, 2 Guns and About Time". Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- Alexander, Bryan (April 3, 2013). "20 years later, 'Jurassic Park' reopens in 3-D". USA Today. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
- Rosen, Christopher (December 20, 2011). "Steven Spielberg on 'Tintin,' Andy Serkis's Oscar Bona Fides and 'Jurassic Park 3D'". Moviefone. Archived from the original on January 10, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- Chitwood, Adam (December 3, 2011). "Producer Kathleen Kennedy Talks JURASSIC PARK 4, a 3D Re-Release for Jurasssic Park, and the Tintin Sequel". Collider. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
- Kaufman, Debra (April 18, 2013). "Jurassic Park 3D: A New Dimension For A Modern Classic". Creative COW Magazine. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- Loria, Daniel (April 7, 2013). "Global: 'Oz' Reaches $450M; 'G.I. Joe' Holds With $40.2M Weekend; 'Croods' Posts $34.1M Weekend". Box Office Media. Archived from the original on May 11, 2013. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
- Subers, Ray (April 9, 2013). "Around-the-World: 'G.I. Joe' Nears Predecessor, 'Croods' Passes $200M". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- Bui, Hoai-Tran (August 16, 2018). "'Jurassic Park' Stomps Back into Theaters for Three Days This Fall". /Film. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
- "'Jurassic' rumbles to vid in October". Variety. March 22, 1994. Retrieved January 27, 2007.
- Hettrick, Scott (April 25, 2000). "Spielberg classics swim up to DVD". Variety. Retrieved January 27, 2007.
- "Challenge of Selling a Hit Film to TV Viewers : Television: NBC's promotional dilemma is how to generate interest in the 2-year-old 'Jurassic Park,' which is the highest-grossing motion picture in history". Los Angeles Times. May 6, 1995. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
- Hettrick, Scott (June 14, 2000). "U Home Video preps 'Jurrassic' DVD launch". Variety. Retrieved March 6, 2007.
- "Universal Studios Home Video Announces First Time DVD Releases Of Jurassic Park and The Lost World". PR Newswire. Cision. June 13, 2000. Archived from the original on August 29, 2000. Retrieved June 18, 2019 – via Yahoo.com.
- "Year End 2000 Top DVD sellers". Variety. December 30, 2000. Archived from the original on July 1, 2018. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- "Jurassic Park Trilogy". IGN. Retrieved March 6, 2007.
- IGN DVD (November 17, 2005). "Jurassic Park Adventure Pack". IGN. Retrieved March 6, 2007.
- Chitwood, Adam (June 27, 2011). "JURASSIC PARK Trilogy Hits Blu-ray October 25th, Trailer Released". Collider. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
- Arnold, Thomas K. (November 2, 2011). "'Captain America' Overtakes 'Pirates of the Caribbean' for No. 1 on DVD Charts". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
- Knegt, Peter (December 13, 2011). ""The Artist," Winding Refn Win At Las Vegas Critics Awards". IndieWire. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- Goldberg, Matt (February 29, 2012). "Saturn Award Nominations Announced; Hugo and Harry Potter Lead with 10 Nominations Each". Collider. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- Chitwood, Adam (February 29, 2012). "Universal Announces Fantastic 25-Film 100th Anniversary Blu-ray Collection". Collider. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- "Universal Pictures partner with Aurasma to celebrate 100th Anniversary: Watch the movies come to life in a brand new way" (Press release). Aurasma. November 20, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- Lawler, Richard (January 27, 2013). "Jurassic Park 3D Blu-ray comes home April 23rd after its one-week theatrical return". Engadget. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- McFarland, K. (June 1, 2016). "8 New Things You Gotta Watch on Netflix This Month". Wired. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
- Cobb, Kayla (June 1, 2016). "Here's Everything New on Netflix June 2016: 'Jurassic Park', 'Orange is the New Black', 'Pretty Little Liars', and More". Archived from the original on June 2, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
- Jurassic Park Collection 4K Blu-ray, retrieved March 18, 2018
- Kilday, Gregg (January 21, 1994). "Hollywood Scores Big". Entertainment Weekly. No. 206. pp. 32–33. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- Corliss, Richard (June 28, 1993). "Hollywood's Summer: Just Kidding". Time. Retrieved January 26, 2007.
- Fox, David J. (January 3, 1994). "THE YEAR IN MOVIES : '93 a Record-Smasher at the Box Office". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- "Jurassic Park (1993) – Weekend Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
- "Jurassic Park (1993)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- Groves, Don (September 14, 1993). "'Park' strides past 'E.T.' for o'seas B.O. title". Daily Variety. p. 26.
- Groves, Don (November 22, 1993). "Dinos set o'seas mark of $500 mil". Variety. p. 16.
- Groves, Don (July 20, 1993). "'Jurassic' renders Japan B.O. record extinct". Daily Variety. p. 1. Retrieved February 3, 2021.
- Groves, Don (September 7, 1993). "Dinos dominate world". Daily Variety. p. 30.
- Groves, Don (September 21, 1993). "'Park' conquers Italy". Daily Variety. p. 18.
- Groves, Don (November 8, 1993). "French coin points 'Park' at $500 mil". Variety. p. 9.
- Groves, Don (July 26, 1993). "U.K. yields to the call of the dinosaurs". Variety. p. 12.
- "International box office". Variety. August 2, 1993. p. 18.
- Groves, Don (August 2, 1993). "'Park' keeps stomping on world B.O.". Variety. p. 18.
- Groves, Don (August 16, 1993). "'Park' leader of summer B.O. pack". Variety. p. 11.
- BFI Statistical Yearbook (PDF) (2012 ed.). London: British Film Institute. 2013. pp. 22. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
- "International box office". Variety. September 20, 1993. p. 13.
- Groves, Don (September 20, 1993). "Healthy fall kickoff in Euro B.O.". Variety. p. 13.
- "International Box Office". Variety. November 8, 1993. p. 9.
- "EDI Box Office News: Star Translations". Variety. May 26, 1997. p. 19.
- Groves, Don (September 6, 1993). "'Sliver' hot, 'Shots' tops in o'seas B.O.". Variety. p. 10.
- Groves, Don; Wan, Teresa (December 13, 1993). "B.O. gets rocky for chopsockys". Variety. p. 1.
- "Once Were Warriors (advertisement)". Variety. December 12, 1994. p. 22.
- McBride 1997, p. 424.
- Klady, Leonard (March 3, 1998). "'Titanic' Sails to All-Time Box Office Record". Variety. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- Subers, Ray (April 6, 2013). "Weekend Report: Audiences Thrill to 'Evil Dead,' 'Jurassic Park 3D'". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- McClintock, Pamela (August 25, 2013). "Global Box Office: 'Jurassic Park 3D' Clobbers the Competition, Huge in China". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 26, 2013.
- "Jurassic Park 3D". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- White, James (August 23, 2013). "Jurassic Park Joins The Billion Dollar Club". Empire. Retrieved August 26, 2013.
- Han, Angie (June 23, 2015). "'Jurassic World' Sets Record for Fastest Race to $1 Billion". /Film. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- "Jurassic Park (2018 Re-release)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- Anthony D'Alessandro (June 22, 2020). "'Jurassic Park' Roars To No. 1 Again At Weekend Box Office, 27 Years After Original Release". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
- "Jurassic Park (1993)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
- "Jurassic Park Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
- "Find CinemaScore" (Type "Jurassic Park" in the search box). CinemaScore. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
- Maslin, Janet (June 11, 1993). "Screen Stars With Teeth To Spare". The New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2007.
- Travers, Peter (June 1993). "Jurassic Park". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on August 24, 2007. Retrieved February 4, 2007.
- Ebert, Roger (June 11, 1993). "Jurassic Park". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved February 4, 2007.
- Westbrook, Caroline (August 1993). "Review of Jurassic Park". Empire (50). Retrieved January 7, 2014.
- "Jurassic Park Awards". Allmovie. Retrieved February 13, 2007.
- "1994 Hugo Awards". Thehugoawards.org. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
- "Past Saturn Awards". Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films. Archived from the original on February 11, 2009. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
- "1993 20th People's Choice Awards". The Envelope – Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- "Fifteenth Annual Youth in Film Awards 1992–1993". Young Artist Association. Archived from the original on April 3, 2011. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
- "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Thrills". American Film Institute. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
- Schneider, Steven Jay, ed. (2012). 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die. Quintessence Editions (5th ed.). Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series. p. 960. ISBN 978-1844037339. OCLC 796279948.
- Simon Braund, Glen Ferris, Ian Freer, Nev Pierce, Chris Hewitt, Dan Jolin, Ian Nathan, Kim Newman, Helen O'Hara, Olly Richards, and Owen Willams. "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Empire. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2010.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "1000 films to see before you die". June 27, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- "Burda Publications, Inc. Congratulates its 1993 Bambi Award Recipients" (Press release). Hubert Burda Media. December 9, 1993.
- "The 66th Academy Awards (1994) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- "17th Annual Japanese Academy Awards" (in Japanese). Japan Academy Prize Association. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- "1993 BAFTA Awards and Nominations". bafta.org. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- Borzillo, Carrie (May 28, 1994). "BMI Gives Awards to Television, Movie Music". Billboard. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- ルビー・モレノ快進撃 「月はどっちに出ている」3冠 (in Japanese). The Association of Tokyo Film Journalists. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- "Past Bram Stoker Nominees & Winners". horror.org. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "The Cinema Audio Society Awards For Outstanding Achievement In Sound Mixing 1993–2002". Cinema Audio Society. Archived from the original on June 8, 2004. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- "Český lev 1993 – Přehled ocenění" (in Czech). Czech Film and Television Academy. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- Moon, Tom (January 7, 1994). "Sting, R.e.m., Houston Grab Grammy Bids Nominations Predictably Conservative; Mariah Carey, Michael Bolton Blocked From Big Awards". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "1994 MTV Movie Awards". MTV. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "48th 日本映画大賞". Mainichi Shinbun (in Japanese). Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- Cox, Dan (March 20, 1994). "Spielberg pix sound great at MPSE's Golden Reels". Variety. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- "People's Choice Awards 1994 Nominees". People's Choice Awards. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "15th Annual Young Artist Awards". youngartistawards.org. Archived from the original on April 3, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "The Hugo Awards: 1994 Hugo Awards". thehugoawards.com. Archived from the original on May 7, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "Crypto, Sci-Fi, Soldiers, Spies (and Disasters, of Course): 5 Varieties in the Technothriller Genre". Writer's Digest. July 19, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- "AFI's 100 Years, 100 Thrills". AFI. June 13, 2001. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved February 13, 2007.
- Freer, Ian (April 30, 2004). "The 15 Most Influential Films Of Our Lifetime". Empire. p. 120.
- "50 Most Magical Movie Moments". Empire. November 28, 2003. p. 122.
- Braund, Simon; Glen Ferris, Ian Freer, Nev Pierce, Chris Hewitt, Dan Jolin, Ian Nathan, Kim Newman, Helen O'Hara, Olly Richards, and Owen Willams. "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Empire. Retrieved January 7, 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Film Review Special #59 – 55 Years Anniversary contents". Film Review. July 28, 2005. Retrieved March 6, 2007.
- Stax; Linder, Brian; Gilchrist, Todd; Moro, Eric; Carle, Chris (November 30, 2006). "Top 25 Movie Franchises of All Time: #19". IGN. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
- "Summer Blockbusters: The New Generation", Entertainment Weekly, Page 32, Issue #1112, July 23, 2010.
- "Laying the Groundwork for the NBA in Toronto". Toronto Raptors. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Welcome to Jurassic Park, where hope springs eternal for Toronto sports fans". CBC. May 19, 2019. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
- Many Paleontologists Today Are Part Of The 'Jurassic Park' Generation. NPR. July 10, 2018. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- Shone 2004, p. 213.
- Marcus Hearn (2005). "ILM and the Digital Revolution" The Cinema of George Lucas. New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc, Publishers. p. 174. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7.
- Sibley, Brian (2006). Peter Jackson: A Film-maker's Journey. London: HarperCollins. p. 310. ISBN 0-00-717558-2.
- "Rex n' Effects". Entertainment Weekly. June 18, 1993. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
- "The Lost World". MichaelCrichton.com. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
- Smith, Steven (May 29, 1997). "In 'The Lost World,' Bits of Old Movies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
- The Making of Jurassic Park III. Jurassic Park III DVD: Universal Pictures. 2002.
- Rottenberg, Josh (June 11, 2015). "'Jurassic World' is Trevorrow Land". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
- Kenny, Glenn (June 19, 2018). "Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom". rogerebert.com. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (October 6, 2020). "'Jurassic World: Dominion' Stomps To Summer 2022". Deadline. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
- "Jurassic Park". stevenenglehart.com. Archived from the original on April 28, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2007.
- "Jurassic Park: The Ride (1996–present)". The Studio Tour. Retrieved March 13, 2007.
- "Jurassic Park: The Ride". Universal Studios Japan. Retrieved January 7, 2014.
- "Challenging Disney". Ocala Star-Banner. April 4, 1999. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
- Schneider, Mike (July 5, 1998). "Theme Parks Set in Motion Around Conference Tables". Lakeland Ledger. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- "The Lost World – Universal Studios Singapore". Resorts World Sentosa. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- McBride, Joseph (1997). Steven Spielberg. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-19177-0.
- Shay, Don; Duncan, Jody (1993). The Making of Jurassic Park: An Adventure 65 million Years in the Making. Boxtree Limited. p. 61. ISBN 1-85283-774-8.
- Shone, Tom (2004). Blockbuster: How Hollywood learned to stop worrying and love the summer. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-3568-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jurassic Park.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jurassic Park (film)|
- Jurassic Park at IMDb
- Jurassic Park at AllMovie
- Jurassic Park at Rotten Tomatoes
- Jurassic Park at Metacritic
- Jurassic Park at the TCM Movie Database
- Jurassic Park at Box Office Mojo
- Free ebook about Jurassic Park
- From Director Steven Spielberg: Jurassic Park archive
- The Making of Jurassic Park (full documentary) at Documentary Mania
- Jurassic Park on the Movie-Map