Navigate B1+ Intermediate Coursebook.pdf [qn85zy0ejyn1]

Navigate B1+ Intermediate Coursebook.pdf

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  • Words: 118,554
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RachaeiRoberts,HeatherBuchanan and Emma Pathare series Adviser Catherine Walter

• course book with video

1ntermed iate

RachaeiRoberts,HeatherBuchanan and Emma Pathare series Adviser Catherine Walter

• course book with video

1ntermediate

OXFORD ·u ·NIVERSITY PRESS

Owr Oxford 3000™

Contents

Navigate has been based on the Oxford 3000 to ensure that learners are only covering the most relevant vocabulary.

1 Trends • • • • • • • •

page 6

Talk about things that are changing Talk about friendships Talk about spending Talk about states. thoughts and feelings Listen for key words Noun suffixes Ask for and give opinions Write for social media

2 What a story!

1.1 Are you really my friend? p6

Present simple, continuous and perfect p6

1.2 Why spending's #trending p8

State verbs p9

1.3 Vocabulary and skills development p10 1.4 Speaking and writing p12 1.5

page 16

Talk about past experiences Use narrative forms sequence events Talk about communication Understand references in a text Use comment adverbs Engage a listener and show interest Write a narrative

Narrative forms p17

2.2 unbelievable? p18

Sequencing events p18

2.4 Speaking and writing p22

page 26

Talk about challenges and success Talk about ability Talk about work skills Talk about obligation, permission and possibility Recognize complex noun phrases (1) use compound adjectives • Give practical instructions • Write a paragraph supporting an opinion

Talk about living on water Talk about predictions and decisions Talk about the natural world Talk about probability • Understand consonant-vowel linking • Understand idiomatic phrases about places Avoid repetition Make enquiries

Review p25

Ability p27

3.2 Faking it? p28

Obligation, permission and possibility p29

3.3 Vocabulary and skills development p30 3.4 Speaking and writing p32 3.5

0

Video A woman's life: 1914 vs 2014 p34

Review p35

4.1 Living on water p36

will/be going to for predictions and decisions p37

4.2 Forest bathing p38

Probability p38

4.4 Speaking and writing p42

page 46

0

Video Songdo p44

Review p45

5.1 Universally popular? p46

-ing form and infinitive with to p47

5.2 Mosquito smasher! p48

Present perfect simple and past simple p49

5.3 Vocabulary and skills development pso 5.4 Speaking and writing p52

5.5

Talk about machines in our lives use defining and non-defining relative clauses Talk about the climate and extreme weather Talk about recent events and changes Recognize linkers in conversation Understand and use adjective suffixes Write a professional email Change arrangements

Video seven good stories p24

4.3 vocabulary and skills development p40

Talk about different genres of films -ing form and infinitive with to Describe a video game use present perfect simple and past simple Understand linkers use extreme adjectives Write a film review Compare and recommend

6 In control?

0

3.1 Challenges p26

4.5

• • • • • • • •

Review p15

2.3 vocabulary and skills development p20

• • • •

5 Entertainment

Video social media marketing p14

2.1 I'll never forget that day p16

2.5

3 Life skills

0

page 56

0

Video Film studies p54

Review pss

6.1 Man and machine p56

Defining and non-defining relative clauses p57

6.2 Controlling the weather? p58

Present perfect simple and continuous p59

6.3 vocabulary and skills development p60 6.4 Speaking and writing p62 6.5

0

Video Mist catchers p64

Review p65

Spending p8 Noun suffixes p1 1

Listening key words p10 Speaking asking for and giving opinions p12 Writing social media p13

Describing past experiences p16 Auxiliary verbs: had+ was/were p17 communication p19 comment adverbs p21

Reading references p20 Intonation- showing interest p22

Challenges and success p26

Speaking showing interest p22 Writing a narrative p23

Word stress p26

Work skills p28

0

compound adjectives p31

Reading complex noun phrases (1) p30

Video vox pops 3 p29

Pauses in instructions p32

speaking practical instructions p32 Writing writing an opinion paragraph p33

Living on water p36 The natural world p38

Intonation- certainty p39

Idiomatic phrases about places p41

0

Video Vox pops 4 p39

Listening consonant-vowel linking p40 Writing avoiding repetition p42 Speaking enquiries p43

0

Going to the movies p46 Adjectives to describe a video game p48

Word stress in longer words p48

Extreme adjectives p51

Extreme adjectives p51

Video vox pops 5 p47

Reading understanding linkers pso Writing a film review p52 Speaking comparing and recommending p53

Machines p56 Climate and extreme weather p58 Adjective suffixes p61

compound nouns p58

0

Video vox pops 6 p59

Listening linkers in conversation p60 Writing writing a professional email p62 Speaking changing arrangements p63

7 Ambitions • • • • • • •

page 66

Talk about working conditions Talk about finished habits and situations Talk about experts and high achievers use question forms Understand paraphrasing use collocations Write an application letter or email Ask for and give clarification

used to and would p67

7.2 Ask an expert p68

Question forms p69

7.3 Vocabulary and skills development p70 7.4 Speaking and writing p72

7.5

8 Choices

page 7 6

Talk about happiness factors use real conditionals Talk about personality and behaviour Talk about unreal situations in the present and future Recognize changing sounds in linked words use prefixes Take notes while listening • Prepare and give a short talk from notes

9 Appearances • • • • • • • •

7.1 Good prospects p66

page 86

Describe appearances Make comparisons Describe paintings Speculate and make deductions Question a text use phrasal verbs Take part in online discussions Make effective complaints

Real conditionals p77

8.2 What makes a hero? p78

Unreal conditionals p79

8.3 Vocabulary and skills development p80 8.4 Speaking and writing p82 8.5

0

Video Happiness in Mexico p84

Review p85

9.1 Real beauty? p86

Comparison p87

9.2 Paintings p88

Deduction and speculation p89

9.4 Speaking and writing p92

page 96

Talk about business Talk about how things are done Talk about competition use articles Hear unstressed words • Phrases with take and have • Write about changes and differences Make recommendations

0

Video The selfie p94

Review p95

10.1 Crowd-funding p96

Passives p97

10.2 competitive sport p98

Using articles: alan, the,- (no article) p99

10.3 vocabulary and skills development p100 10.4 Speaking and writing p102 10.5

page 106

Talk about crime Talk about unreal situations in the past Talk about people's behaviour on social media Criticize past actions Hear modal verbs Understand words with multiple meanings come to a decision Apologize

page 11 6

• Talk about advertising Understand and use reported speech Talk about persuading people Understand and use reported questions Recognize complex noun phrases (2) use dependent prepositions Agree and disagree • Write an advantages and disadvantages essay

0

Video Borussia Dortmund p104

Review p105

11 .1 outlaws p106

Unreal past conditional p107

11 .2 1should never have clicked 'send'! p108

should/shouldn't have p109

11.3 Vocabulary and skills development p110 11 .4 Speaking and writing p112 11.5

12 Influence

Review p75

9.3 vocabulary and skills development p90

10 Compete and cooperate

• • • • • • • •

Video Moving abroad to work p74

8.1 world happiness report p76

9.5

11 Consequences

0

0

Video cybercrime p114

Review p115

12.1 Advertising p1 16

Reported speech p117

12.2 How to persuade and influence people p1 18

Reported questions p119

12.3 vocabulary and skills development p120 12.4 Speaking and writing p122 12.5

0

Video Starbucks p124

Communication page 126

Review p125

Grammar Reference page 136

Working conditions p66 High achievers p68 Collocations p71

Reading understanding paraphrasing p70 sounding polite p73

Happiness factors p76

Writing an application letter or email p72 Speaking clarification p73

Intonation in if sentences p77

Personality and behaviour p78 Prefixes p81

listening sound changes p80 Writing taking notes p82 Speaking giving a talk p83

Describing physical appearance p86

Changing stress p87

Describing paintings p88

Sentence stress speculating p89

Phrasalverbs p91

Reading questioning a text p90 Writing taking part in online discussions p92 Speaking making complaints p93

Business p96

Passives p97

Competitive sport p98

0

Phrases with take and have p1o1

listening unstressed words p1oo

Video vox pops 10 p99

Writing changes and differences p102 Speaking making recommendations p103

0

Crime p106 Behaviour on social media p108

Video Vox pops 11 p107

should/shouldn't have p109

Words with multiple meanings p111

listening hearing modal verbs p1 10 Speaking decisions p112 Writing apologizing p113

Advertising p116

Linking p117

0

Video vox pops 12 p117

Persuading people p118 Dependent prepositions p121

Reading complex noun phrases (2) p120 Speaking agreeing and disagreeing p122 Writing advantages and disadvantages essay p123

Audioscripts page 160

Irregular verbs page 174

Phonemic symbols page 175

Trends 1.1

Are you really my friend? GOALS •

Talk about things that are changing •

Talk about friendships

Grammar & Reading present simple, continuous and perfect 1

Work in small groups. Read the statement and discuss the questions. ( 'Among adu lt Facebook users, the average number of friends is 338.'

1 Does this statistic surprise you? Why/Why not? 2 Is it possible to really be friends with so many people? Why/Why not? Photos

Like ·comment · Share

Face-to-face with Facebook friends

Like ·comment · Share

v

How many of your Facebook friends have you seen lately? For Rob Jones, who 1 is currently meeting every single friend on his Facebook page, the answer could soon be 700. His aim to raise money for a children's charity means he has already come face-to-face with 123 internet 'friends' in seven countries, some of whom he has never met before. 2 He

takes a photo for his Facebook page with everyone he meets, and persuades them to give to his charity, and he has already raised more than £3,000. He hopes to have met all 700 within three years, travelling thousands of miles to thirty countries including New Zealand , on the other side of the world , in the process. People often say that Facebook friends aren't real friends. But Rob met his Polish girlfriend onli ne and 3 they've now been together for three years. He says 4 this proves that the internet is a powerful tool. ' I'm reuniting with friends, and in the process Sf'm learning a lot about myself. I now have good friends in people I have never met before this.' ' Everyone has been great so far; 6f generally spend a day with them and they choose what we do.' His adventure has taken him across Europe, visiting England, Scotland (top photo), Poland (photo in the centre), Finland, Germany and Switzerland, and 7he's a/so just visited a distant relative in the USA (bottom photo).

2

Read the article. Why is Rob Jones trying to meet all 700 of his Facebook friends? Discuss your ideas with a partner.

O.W Oxford 3000™

1.2

3

Read the information in the Grammar focus box and write sentences l-7 in the article next to the appropriate grammar rule, a- f.

1.4

1.5

6a Work with a partner. Look at the verbs/verb phrases and

decide if they are positive (P) or negative (N). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

GRAMMAR FOCUS present simple, present

continuous and present perfect simple • we use the present simple to talk about a things that are always or generally true. b things that happen regularly/repeatedly. • we use the present continuous to talk about c things that are happening at/around the time when we speak. ___________________________________ d things that are changing. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

get on (well) (with someone) meet up (with someone) have a lot in common (with someone) fall out (with someone) help (someone) out trust (someone) get/keep in touch (with someone) make friends (with someone) have an argument (with someone)

b 1.1 ))) Listen again to Sarah and Josh and check your answers. PRONUNCIATION

• we use the present perfect simple to talk about e our experience (our lives until now).

linking

When we speak at normal speed, we link phrases so they often sound like one word.

f things that have already/just happened.

7a Look at the phrases in exercise 6a. Mark the way the words

-+Grammar Reference page 136

link in each phrase. geCon well with someone

4a Choose the correct options to complete the questions. l

1.3

What is Rob trying I does Rob try to do?

b 1.2 ))) Listen, check and repeat.

2 How many friends does he meet I has he met so far? 3 Why does he take I is he taking a photo of everyone he meets? 4 Why does Rob believe that the internet has been I is a good way of making friends?

Sa Complete the statements using the correct fo rm of the verbs/verb phrases in exercise 6a.

1 I often groups of friends in the evening. 2 You don't need to _______________ someone to be friends. It's fine to have different interests. 3 I most people I know. There aren't many people I don't like. 4 A really good friend is someone you can call at midnight andaskthemto _______________

5 What is Rob learning I does Rob learn from the process? 6 Who usually decides I is deciding what to do when Rob meets a Facebook friend? 7 Which countries does he visit I has he visited? b Discuss the answers to the questions with a partner.

5 The friends you _ _ at school are often friends for life. 6 I'm always pleased when someone I haven't heard from in ages _______________

Vocabulary & Speaking friendship

7 I'm quite easy-going. I rarely ____________ my friends. 8 I'm not speaking to my sister at the moment - we've ______________. It seems a bit childish. 9 I can _ _ my closest fr iend with all my secrets.

Sa 1.1 ))) Listen to two friends, Sarah and Josh, ta lking about their friendships. Which diagram represents each person's friendship groups? close friends

friends from school

facebool< close friends

b 1.3 )»Listen and check your answers. How many of the statements are true for you? Explain why to a partner. 9 football

1

work

evening class

met on hOliday work

2

b Tell your partner which diagram is more like your friendship groups. Explain why.

0

il.i.'§3 Draw a diagram of your friendship groups, like the ones in exercise 5a. Talk to a partner about some of the people in it. Ask each other questions to get more information. VOX POPS VIDEO 1

1.2 Why spending's #trending GOALS • Talk about spending • Talk about states, thoughts and feelings

vocabulary & Listening

spending

Work with a partner. Look at the title of the lesson and discuss the questions.

1

1 What is happening in the photos? 2 What does it mean if something is 'trending'? 3 Why might spending be trending? 2a 1.4)» Listen to a short radio news item about Black Friday

and compare what you hear with your ideas from exercise 1. b Does anything you heard surprise you? 3a 1.4 »)Read the statements. Then listen again and decide

if the statements a re true (T) or fa lse (F). Correct the false statements. 1 The expression Black Friday has been used more than two billion times on Twitter recently. 2 Black Friday only happens in the USA. 3 Some people have queued overnight. 4 Shoppers around the world spent more than 11 billion dollars on Black Friday last year. 5 There have been five injuries in the last few years on Black Friday. b Compare your answers with a partner. 4a Put the words and phrases in the box into the correct groups.

customer consumer deals discounts half-price items purchaser purchases special offers two for the price of one

b Check your ideas with a partner.

\

shoppers

I people ~ buy

~ who

shoppiVf!J

/ .............

.

thmgs we buy

\

"

-

be'lf3e'livw/

buy at a lower price

/

'

5

Work with a partner or in small groups. Discuss the questions. 1 What have you bought recently that was a bargain? 2 Do you look for special offers such as t wo for the price ofone in the supermarket? How important are they to you in choosing your purchases? 3 Have you ever bought something you didn't need because it was a good deal? If so, give an example. 4 Would you be willing to queue for hours to get a good discount? For what kind of item?

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Grammar & Speaking state verbs 6

Look at the posters. Do you agree with the message in them? Why/Why not?

7a 1.5 l)) Listen to a radio interview with a supporter of Buy

Nothing Day. Which of the following points does he mention? Buy Nothing Day is important because it might encourage people not to ...

1 use shopping as a kind of therapy. 2 owe a lot of money. 3 support big compan ies.

1

4 consume more than their fair share of the world's resources. 5 buy goods where the workers are badly paid. 6 buy goods with unnecessary packaging.

b Which of the points would be most likely to make you think about buying less? Discuss with a partner. Sa Complete extracts 1-7 from the listening with the most appropriate form of the verbs in brackets.

1 Can you explain a little about what Buy Nothing Day _ _ _ _ _ _ (mean)? (think) about it, the 2 When you really idea of buying things as a way of spending your leisure time is crazy. (believe) shopping makes us h appy, 3 We but it doesn't. (agree), that's a good point. 4 Yes, I We all (own) far too much. 5 (prefer) people to 6 Most of the time we buy locally ... 7 Most people (not/understand) how difficult it is ... b 1.6 ))) Listen and check your answers. 9a What do all the completed verb fo rms in exercise Sa have

in common? Read the information in the Grammar focus box a nd check.

GRAMMAR FOCUS state verbs Some verbs are most often used in simple tenses, even if we mean 'just now'. These state verbs are often used to talk about: • How we think: know, mean, think, 1_ _ _ _ 2_ _ __

2 10a Look at the posters for Buy Nothing Day and complete the

text w ith the best fo rm of the verbs in brackets - present simple or present continuous. In Poster 1 there are some people who 1 _ (stand) (like) this one inside a shopping basket. I 2 (think) it shows the idea of being because I 3 (seem) to trapped by shopping very well. It 4 be saying that we s (not/understand) that we are in a cage. It's simple but quite a powerful message. (look) quite good, but I'm not sure Poster 2 6 (try) to say. It's obviously based on what it 7 the Tetris video game, and the four blocks at the top (fit), but I'm not sure that say 'buy' clearly s it would make me want to stop shopping. I definitely 9 (prefer) the first one.

b Compare your answers with a partner.

3

----

• What we feel: like, want, hate, love, dislike, feel 4 _ _ __ • What we possess: have, belong, s_ _ __ • What we experience: be, see, hear, look, smell, taste, seem

-+Grammar Reference page 137 b Put the verbs in exercise Sa into the correct category.

11a 1m3 Workinsmallgroups. Which of the posters do you

think is more effective? Give reasons. b Decide togeth er on the design of your own poster to promote Buy Nothing Day. Which of the points in exercise 7a

could you focus on? How will you make it effective? Present your ideas to the class.

1.3 Vocabulary and skills development GOALS • Listen for key words • Noun suffixes

Listening & Speaking

keywords

3

1.7 )»Read and listen to the information in the Unlock the

code box about listening for key words.

1a How has the internet changed people's lives? Work with

.l!

a

a partner and make a list of5- 10 things which have really changed since the internet was invented. 0



UNLOCK THE CODE

listening for key words

Key words carry the most important information. They are generally nouns and verbs and are usually spoken more loudly and clearly than other words. For example: three times a week

0

1send a lot of emails I like looking at shopping websites. 4a Look at these phrases from the review in exercise 2.

Which do you think are the most important words in each phrase? Discuss with a partner, and underline them. l

2 3 4 5 6 7

b Compare your list with another pair. Has life changed for the better? Are any aspects of life worse since the internet was invented? 2

Look at the cover of a recent book about the internet. Do you think the author is positive about the effect of the internet or negative? Read the book description and check your ideas.

This is a fascinating book. We a ll know that the internet is changing the way we do things, but Carr believes that it is also changing the very way our brains work. With the printed book, he argues, our brains learnt to think deeply. In contrast, the internet encourages us to read small bits of information from lots of different places. We are becoming better and better at multitasking, but much worse at concentrating on one thing.

O.W Oxford 3000™

This is a fascinating book. We all know that the internet is changing the way we do things, ... ... but Carr believes that it is also changing the very way our brains work. With the printed book, he argues, our brains learnt to think deeply. In contrast, the internet encourages us to read small bits of information from lots of different places. We are becoming better and better at multitasking, ... ... but much worse at concentrating on one thing.

b 1.8 )»Listen and check your ideas.

5

1.9 )»Listen and complete these opinions about the internet

with the missing key words. Shopping and 2 Looking at for our 3 People will other. 4 People don't

is _ _ __ all day is

l

how to

to each

enough

5 Online is not always 6 Hyperlinks in distracting. 7 We are now using more all our 8 Multitasking online makes us

are very to less

1.1

6a

1.10 ))) Listen to

part of a radio programme about the book. Which of the opinions in exercise 5 do you hear mentioned?

b 1.10 ))) Listen again. According to the speakers, which of the opinions in exercise 5 would Nicholas Carr agree with?

1.3

1.2

1.4

1.5

b Add the nouns from the review to the mind map.

friel'tA'ship membership

\

L

----..... __ -ship

3oventme11t

-m ent ::------__ 7a Which of the opinions in exercise 5 do you agree with?

Discuss in small groups. b What arguments in favour of the internet can you think of? Make a list in your group. Compare your list with another groups'.

\ " " ' develop»>e.U

Q_f-portuVl-itY- _

.

employmel1i"

nouns

-lty

securitY- - - /

/ ---

vocabulary & Speaking noun suffixes

·ion 8

I ~

Read the extract from a review of The Shallows. Name one thing the writer likes about the book, and one thing he dislikes.

I

Book Review: The Shallows by Nicholas Carr I ***** As someone who started working long before the internet arrived, I was shocked by the main ideas in The Shallows. The book says that even though the digital age has resulted in amazing improvements in the ways we can get information, it is also causing us to lose our ability to do one thing at a time. It made me think hard about the way I use the internet and manage my relationships with people online.

--

CO mmWUCe;ftLO VI,

10 Match nouns in the mind map to the definitions. l

2 3 4 5 6 7 11

However, although Carr raises many interesting questions, I am not convinced that the solutions to the problems he raises are as difficult as he suggests. Since I read the book, I have, for example, been keeping Facebook and my email inbox closed whi le I work, to prevent myself from being distracted. Surely, all we need is a little ~areful judgement and good sense?

l

2 3 4

nouns in the review that end in -ship, -ment, -ion and -ity.

5

VOCABULARY FOCUS noun suffixes

6

7

12

the state of having a job connections with friends, family, etc. change which makes something better ways to deal with a problem forming an opinion/making sensible decisions a thing you have done successfully having the chance to do something you want to do

Add noun suffixes to the words in brackets to complete the sentences.

9a Read the information in the Vocabulary focus box and find

• Suffixes often change the class of the word (verb, noun, adjective, etc.). secure (adjective) --.security (noun) achieve (verb) --. achievement (noun) connect (verb) --. connection (noun) Notice how the spelling can change: communicate --. communication; able --. ability • sometimes the word class stays the same, but the meaning is different. She is my best friend. (noun) we have a close friendship . (noun)

-----

The internet, and especially Skype, has improved _ _ _ _ (communicate) with friends who live abroad. The (develop) of smartphones has made a huge difference to the way we all access information. I am always extremely careful about my personal _ _ _ _ (secure) online. I t hink I'm lucky because I've always had a very close _ _ _ _ (relation) with my sister. I don't have gym (member) because I can't afford the time. Many people think the _ _ _ _ (govern) should have some control over the (inform) we can get on the internet. The internet offers great opportunities for finding (employ).

1m3

Which of the sentences in exercise 11 are true for you? Compare your answers with a partner and give reasons.

1.4 Speaking and writing GOALS • Ask for and give opinions •

Speaking & Listening

asking for and giving

Write for social media

2a 1.11 ))) Listen to a radio programme about guilt-free brands

and check your ideas.

opinions b 1

1.11 )»Listen

Look at the photos. Which of these do you think could be described as 'guilt-free brands'? Discuss your ideas with a partner.

Home Tips About us contact us

Diamond ring

o_

again and make notes in the table.

Reasons people Arguments in might feel guilty favour of guilt-free about what they buy brands

Arguments against guilt-free brands

SEARCH

c Which speaker do you agree with more, Gosia or Jem? Why? Discuss with a partner. 3a Complete the phrases from the conversation. l

2 3 4 5 6

Tesla electric car b

So, Jem, what do you the idea? Well, as anything which makes people think ... There's a lot more awareness, but _ _ _ _ _ __ it would be better if ...? I'm that if people really understood ... Well, _ _ _ _ the people who make Fairphone ... If you , we have to give people the option ...

1.12 }»Listen

and check your answers.

4a Divide the phrases in exercise 3 into three categories: • giving your opinion • ta lking about other people's opinions • asking for someone's opinion

b Check your answers in the Language for speaking box.

Fairphone

LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING asking for and

giving opinions Giving your opinion As far as I'm concerned, ... If you ask me ...

I'm convinced/certain ... Personally ...

Talking about other people's opinions some people say that . . . According to (someone), .. . Asking for someone's opinion 1 Negative questions (we expect someone to agree} Don't you think ... ? Shouldn't ... ? 2 Other ways:

What do you think (about) ... ? What are your views on ...?

How do you feel about ...?

1.1

5

B 2 A

B 3 A B

4 A B

1.4

1.5

the fact that guilt-free brands are often more expensive? it's fine to pay a bit more to know that the environment isn't being harmed. Most of us can't afford electric cars. _ _ __ people who buy electric cars are showing off how rich they are, rather than actually caring about the planet? You may be right, but everyone will drive electric cars in the future. we should just buy less stuff. What do you think about that? that's a good idea. We all have far more than we really need. the government make electric cars less expensive so everyone can afford one? Yes, definitely.

Ask your partner for their opinions on the questions in exercise 5.

Reading & Writing 7

1.3

Complete the conversations with appropriate phrases from the Language for speaking box. Compare your ideas with a partner. 1 A

6

1.2

social media

Read the post from social media page #haveyoursay. Which of the following statements do you agree with? Discuss with a partner. 1 Not everyone can afford to buy more expensive clothes. 2 Fashion changes quickly, so it's important to be able to

buy cheap clothes you can throw away when they go out of fashion. 3 If you don't buy clothes made in poorer countries, you are putting people out of work. 4 It should be easier to find out which companies look after their workers properly. 5 People buy far too many things these days.

8

Now read t he comments underneath the post and match them to the statements in exercise 7.

9

Read the information in the Language for writing box, then rewrite the comments as full sentences. LANGUAGE FOR WRITING

informal language for social media When we write for social media, we often: • miss words out, especially grammar words such as a/the/11 my/islam/it, e.g. Sitting on bed (I'm sitting on my bed) • use abbreviations or short forms, e.g. people= ppl, with = w/, especially= esp, should = shld • use letters or numbers for words which sound the same, e.g. you = u, are = r, see = c, for = 4

Cheap clothes can be made using children working in poor conditions. So should we stop buying cheap clothes, or simply be more careful about finding out how and where they were made?

Comments

II

•II II II 10a

lan Martin:

Every! shld just buy less. Cristina Oliveira:

2 keep up w/ fash ion u need 2 buy cheap clothes. Can't afford expensive ones. Pippa Jones:

Ppl need jobs, esp in poorer places. If u don't buy, they don't work. James Brook:

Some ppl can't afford 2 pay higher prices 4 clothes. Yumi Watanabe: Difficult 2 know which companies r OK 2 buy

from .

iZi!J3

Write your own comment on the post, using informal language.

b Look at the comments written by two other students in your class and reply to each one, using informal language.

1.5 Video Social media marketing Match the two halves of the sentences.

1

a b c d e

My company doesn't broadcast advertisements on Nowadays companies prefer posting advertisements on Online discussions show how advertisers engage Advertisers need to find a successful way of reaching I saw billboards advertising the product as I was walking

1 2 3 4 5

with consumers. their target audience. social media sites to advertising on TV. through the city centre. TV any more.

2

Work with a partner and discuss the different advertising methods you can see in the photos. Can you think of other ways companies could choose to advertise their products?

3

0

Watch the video. Which three things does the video talk about?

4

a b c d e f

the history of social media marketing how to get a job in advertising changes in the advertising industry more interaction with customers the process for creating a social media advertisement how to upload an advertisement on social media

0

Watch again. Correct the sentences.

a Most American advertising companies had an office in Madison Avenue in the 1950s. b 'Mad Men' is a common name for people who work in advertising these days. c Madwell designs and develops social media sites. d It can take a whole month to write a short social media post. e Advertisers will always engage in a conversation with clients these days. f Nowadays, the principal effects of social media are well known. Sa

l1i.§3 Work with a partner. Think about something you'd

like to advertise on social media. It could be an event, product, company or charity. Note down five key points you want the public to know about it. b Write an advertisement to go on Twitter. It must be no

longer than 140 characters.

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Review 1 a Complete the advice about frie ndship with the correct

form of the verbs in brackets. Use the present simple, present continuous or present perfect. l

2 3 4

5 6

If your life (change) recently, your friends might need to change too. If you (just/move) to a new area, it's a good idea to join some clubs. People usually (make) friends at work, so try inviting some work colleagues out socially. Don't automatically say no to an invitation, even if you (get) ready for bed when the phone rings. If you keep saying no, people will stop inviting you. Try to meet your friend's friends. They (like) them, so you probably will, too. When someone _ _ _ _ (refuse) your invitation, try again another time.

b Work with a partner. Which pieces of advice do you agree

b Work with a partner and explain your answers. Sa Complete the sentences using the noun form with a suffix of one of the words from the box. develop happy inform member relation secure l

2

3 4

5 6

_ _ _ _ is more important than having lots of money. My with my boss has never been very good. How can you afford the at the tennis club? He gave me some very useful _ _ _ _ about the new apps that are available for my phone. Have you seen the new of houses by the river? I don't really like my job, but I need the of a regular salary.

b Work with a partner. Try to think of at least one more noun that ends with each of the five suffixes used in exercise Sa.

with? Why/Why not? Can you add one more piece of advice? 6a Choose the correct word to complete each phrase. 2a Choose the most appropriate form to complete each

sentence. Sometimes both forms are possible.

l 2

Social networking sites 1 do not seem I are not seeming to help people make close friends, accord ing to researchers who stud ied how the websites 2 change I are changing friendships. Although social networking 3 means I is meaning that many people now 4 have I are having hundreds or even thousands of 'friends', the researchers s believe I are believing that to become a real friend, it is still important to actually meet up. Social networking 6 has become 1 is becoming very popular recently, but although people 7 now keep in touch I are now keeping in touch with more friends online, the researchers found that we still usually have only around five close friends. We only develop real friendships when we s know I are knowing we can trust someone. b Work with a partner and explain why you chose each form.

3 4

5

6

Personally I Definitely, I think ... Shouldn't/ Mustn't people ... ? I really ask I feel that ... ... if you tell I ask me. According I Along to ... As Jar I long as I'm concerned, ...

b Look at these quotations about friendship.

'A friend is someone who knows all about you and still loves you.' Elbert Hubbard 'It's the friends you can call up at 4 a.m. that matter.' Marlene Dietrich Work with a partner. Discuss how you would define friendship, using the phrases in exercise 6a.

3a 1.13 )»Listen to six questions and write them down.

b Work with a partner. Ask and answer the questions. 4a Choose the word which is different from the others.

purchaser 2 special offers 3 full price l

seller bargains half-price

consumer items discount

customer deals two for the price of one

What a story! 2.1

I'll never forget that day GOALS • Talk about past experiences • Use narrative forms

vocabulary & Reading

describing past

experiences 1

Look at the photo and the headline of the article and discuss the questions. 1 What do you consider to be a bad day at work?

2 How could a hippo be related to a bad day at work?

2

Read the magazine article. Were your ideas close to what actually happened?

3

Read the article again and choose the correct verbs.

A bad day at work I'll never 1forget I remind that day. It started out as just an ordinary day aL work. I never 2 expected I wondered that within a few hours I would be in great danger! I was 27 and had been a river guide for several years, taking people down the Zambezi River. The sun was setting and we were reaching the end of the tour one evening, when something knocked into the boat. Thinking it was the other boat, I turned round to push it away, when suddenly everything went dark. I was stuck inside something. I managed to free one hand and felt arou nd - my hand touched a hippo's nose. It was only then that I 3 believed I realized I was underwater, my upper body actually in the hippo's mouth! I tried to move as much as I could, and when he opened his mouth, I managed to swim away. But seconds later, he struck again, pulling me u nder the water. I 4 remember I remind looking up at the surface of the water, and 5 recognizing I wondering wh ich of

O.W Oxford 3000TM

us could hold his breath the longest. Suddenly the hippo released me. By chance, a medical team was nearby, and they helped me to reach a hospital. Meanwhile, the hippo had quietly 6 appeared I disappeared. I 7 believe I expect, though, that ' Imet himonemoreti rne. Two years later I was travelling down the Zambezi again. Being there obviously s recognized I reminded me of what had happened. Then, just as we were going past the same place in the river, a huge hippo suddenly 9 appeared

I realized.

1 10 screamed I

whispered so loudly that

those with me said they'd never heard anything like it. He went back under the water and was never seen again. I'm sure I 11 recognized I realized the same hippo. still just as angry.

2.1

4a Complete the questions with the verbs in the box. believe expect realize rem ind wonder

recognize

2.4

2.5

remember

A lucky escape That rem inds me of another story I heard about a (be) man who had a lucky escape. He 1 at a barbecue restaurant on top of a mountain, and (decide) not to take the after the meal he 2 cable car down w ith his friends, b ut to walk down instead. While he 3 (look) for the path, he 4 (fall) into a stream and 5_ _ __ (break) his leg. Unable to move, he 6 (try) (work) to phone for help, but his mobile 7 because he 8 (drop) it in the stream. Knowing he was missing, teams of people 9_ _ __ (look) for him, but it was twenty-four days before they 1o (find) hi m. Luckily he 11 (b ring) a bottle of barbecue sauce w ith him to the barbecue, (survive) by drinking water mixed and he 12 wit h the barbecue sauce.

b Discuss your answers with a partner.

5

2.3

7 a Complete the story with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

1 When did the writer that his head was inside a hippo? How do you think he felt? so clearly 2 Why do you think the writer what he was seeing and about while he was underwater? the writer really the 3 Do you same hippo two years later, or did it just _ _ __ h im of t he hippo th at attacked h im? the writer to return to being a river 4 Did you guide after what happened? Would you?

Grammar & Speaking

2.2

narrative forms

Work with a partner. Match verbs 1-5 to descriptions a- c. 1 I was 27 and 1 had been a river guide for several years. 2 The sun 2 was setting and we 3 were reaching the end of the tour one evening, when something knocked into t he boat. 3 ... something 4 knocked into the boat. Thinking it was the other boat, I 5 turned round to push it away ... a Setting the background to t he story: _ _ __ b The main events in a story: _ _ __ c An event that happened before the main events in the story: _ _

b 2.1 »)Listen and check your answers.

c Work with a partner. What could the man h ave said about h is lucky escape a few years later?

6a Read the Grammar focus box to check your ideas.

b Add one more example of each form from the article on page 16 to the box.

GRAMMAR FOCUS narrative forms • In narratives, we use the past simple for the main events in a story. Something knocked into the boat.

PRONUNCIATION

auxiliary verbs: had + was/were

Sa Look at these two sentences from the story. What is the difference between the two underlined verbs? How will their pronunciation be different? 1 That reminds me of another story I heard about a man who h ad a lucky escape. 2 He'd been at a barbecue restaurant.

1

---------------------------------------

• We use the past continuous for background events, or longer actions interrupted by a shorter event. The sun was setting ... we were reaching the end of the tour one evening, when something knocked into the boat.

b How are was and were pronounced in these sentences? Why? 3 While he was looking for the path ... 4 Knowing he was missing, teams of people were looking for him ...

2

---------------------------------------

• We use the past perfect for events that happened before the main past time we are talking about. 1was 27 and had been a river guide for several years.

c

2.2 )»Listen, check and repeat.

3

-+Grammar Reference page 138

9

iZlm3

0

VOX POPS VIDEO 2

Work with a partner. Student A, turn to page 126. Student B, turn to page 132.

2.2 Unbelievable? GOALS •

Grammar & Reading

Sequence events •

Talk about communication

sequencing events

1 a Work with a partner. Look at the photos and match them to the three short articles 1-3.

Hoaxes

o_

SEARCH

1 Recently a picture has been circulating on the internet of a bright blue watermelon, described as a Japanese moon melon. It seems the fruit grows in Japan and eating it will change the taste of anything you eat afterwards, making sweet things taste sour, and so on. Each watermelon is supposed to cost about $200, but no one is actually offering it for sale, because it doesn't exist. 2 On October 15, 2009, the media reported that a six-year-old boy was inside a large silver balloon floating high in the sky. When the balloon landed, the boy was nowhere to be found , leading to fears that he had fallen out. However, it was later discovered that the whole story had been made up by the boy's parents, in an attempt to get a real ity TV deal.

l b What do all three stories have in common?

3 In the early twentieth century, scientists were keen to find some evidence that would prove the link between early man and apes. In 1912, it seemed the evidence had been found in Piltdown, England, when Charles Dawson dug up a human skull with an ape-like jaw. For more than thirty years, everyone believed that this skull , known as 'Piltdown Man', was genuine; but in 1953 a team of researchers discovered that it was, in fact, a fake, made from an ancient human skull and a modern ape jaw.

• skull the bones in the head of a human or animal • jaw the two large bones in your skull that contain your teeth

2

Read the stories again. Which story ... ? 1 2 3 4

3

is the oldest is going round online did people believe for the longest time was a result of someone wanting to be famous

Work with a partner and discuss these questions. 1 Have you heard any of these stories before, or any similar ones? 2 Why do you t hink people carry out hoaxes like these?

4a 2.3 )»Listen to a radio programme about hoaxes. Did they mention any of your reasons? b Work with a partner. List three of the reasons for carrying out the hoaxes that are mentioned in the programme.

c 2.3 )»Listen again and check your answers.

O.W Oxford 3000TM

2.1

Sa Complete the extracts about the first hoax mentioned in the radio programme, using the correct linking word or phrase from the box. Use each word or phrase only once.

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

7a Read the story of the Piltdown Man and choose the best time linker options.

1 While the early twentieth century, scientists were keen to find some evidence that would prove the link between early man and apes . In 1912 that evidence seemed to have been found 2 meanwhile 1 while Dawson and Woodward were digging on a site in Piltdown, in the south of England. 3 As soon as 1 Until they saw the jawbone and the skull, they dec ided that this must be the evidence science needed. Woodward claimed that both bones be longed to a human being who had lived about half a million years ago, 4 by the time 1 during what is known as the Lower Pleistocene period. Most scientists accepted this opinion 5 until 1 while nearly forty years later, when it was discovered that the Pi ltd own Man was a fake. 6 By the time 1 Meanwhile, Dawson, who most people consider responsible for making the fake, had died . 1 During

as soon as by the time (that) during meanwhile until while 1 A couple, Richard and Mayumi Heene, let a large gas

2

3 4

5

b 6

balloon float off into the air and then, it was high in the sky, they claimed that their six-year-old son was inside the balloon. The police were informed and helicopters were sent up to track the balloon they could find a safe way of getting him down. _ _ _ _ the balloon landed an hour or so later, about 80 km away, the story was live on television. When the boy was not found inside, the media reported that he had fallen out the flight, and a huge search started. , the boy was actually safe at home, h iding. The parents suddenly announced that they had found him at home, asleep. We can't say for sure because the couple never admitted it, but reporters were interviewing the family on TV, the boy accidentally mentioned that they'd done it to be on TV. He was supposed to keep quiet about that.

2.4 )»Compare your answers with a partner. Listen and check your answers.

Read the sentences in exercise Sa again. Choose the correct option to complete the information in the Grammar focus box.

The Piltdown Man hoax truly damaged science because 7 while 1 by the time the hoax was discovered, scientists had wasted nearly forty years believing a lie. b 2.5 »)Listen and check your answers.

vocabulary & speaking communication Sa Work with a partner. Look back at the extracts from the radio programme in exercise Sa and find the verbs which describe different ways of communicating or not. b Now complete the news items with the most appropriate

verbs from the box in the correct form.

GRAMMAR FOCUS t ime linkers

announce claim interview mention tell

we use time linkers to describe how the timing of events in a story relates to one anot her. 1 until 1 while describes when something happened but not fo r how long 2 as soon as I by the time (that) describes an event that happens immediately after an event 3 until I meanwhile describes a contrasting event that happens while something else is happening 4 by the time (that) I during describes an action that happened before the main events 5 during I as soon as describes an action that happens at a point within this period of time 6 during I until describes an action that continued up to a point and then stops

Police 1 yesterday that calls to the emergency 999 number had risen sharply in recent months. They 2 the public to ignore a hoax story which 3 that dialling 999 will charge your phone battery.

admit inform invent keep quiet report The newspaper which recently 4 that Beijing was showing digital sunrises on huge screens because a ir pollution was too bad for people to see the real thing has now 5 that a journalist actually 6 the story.

... Grammar Reference page 139 9

ll..\l:l3

Work with a partner or in small groups. Go to page 126. Choose one of the stories about a hoax.

2.3 Vocabulary and skills development GOALS •

Reading & Speaking 1

Understand references in a text •

use comment adverbs

references

Work with a partner. Discuss your reactions to the quotation below.

' EXPERT: A MAN WHO MAKES THREE CORRECT GUESSES CONSECUTIVELY.' DR L. J. PETERS (AMERICAN EDUCATIONALIST AND WRITER) 2a Read the sentences. What does the underlined word in

each sentence refer to? I We all read the article, but none of us liked n. 2 We all had to study science up to the age of sixteen at school, and so do students at secondary school nowadays. 3 He may be the most famous scientist of all time, but Albert Einstein only got his first scientific job when he was twenty-nine. b What is different about the way the reference word is used

in sentence 3? 3a Read the information in the Unlock the code box.

.{! UNLOCK THE CODE understanding references

a

• we use reference words (e.g. she, us, those, one, so) to refer to a word or group of words in a text. sometimes these words refer to a noun or phrase that came before them.

We all ate !the pizza~ but none of us liked[m The bossi teft,eart~land so did~ • sometimes they refer to something after them.

When~arrested the men, !the p'olicelwere very satisfied. b Now read paragraph 1 of the article. I Underline the reference words. 2 What do they refer to? 4

Read the article. What is the main point it is making? I Women are better musicians tha n men. 2 Even experts a re influenced by what they see. 3 Orchestras have improved the way they choose their musicians.

O.W Oxford 3000TM

1 In his book Blink, the Canadian author Malcolm Gladwell tells a wonderful story. It shows, he says, that even if they are very experienced and intelligent, experts can be wrong. It's about music, but it's true for all kinds of other situations.

2 Before the 1980s, when they wanted to find and employ a new musician, orchestras used a very simple system. A group of three 'judges' from the orchestra would sit in a room . One musician after another would come in and play their instrument in front of them , and then the judges would choose the best. Under this system, most of the musicians who were chosen were men. Naturally, since the judges were all experts, nobody thought much of this: they must be able to tell a good musician from a bad one. Men were probably simply better musicians.

3 But then, for a number of reasons, in the 1980s, orchestras started putting up screens in the rooms where these auditions took place, so the judges couldn't see if the musicians were men or women. Amazingly, orchestras started hiring many more women. In fact, 1 hired more women than men, which suggested that women were better musicians!

4 The conclusion was that the judges were deciding not on what they could hear, but what they could see. Their judgement probably changed according to whether 2 were seeing a man or a woman . Personally, I find 3 very worrying -the idea that even experts are strongly influenced in this way. Gladwell even jokes that when 4 looks around his classes at the best colleges in the USA, he thinks that every student has been chosen because 5 is the prettiest, not the best.

2.1

Sa Read paragraph 2 ofthe article and decide what the underlined words refer to. Check your answers with a partner.

they (line 1) the best (line 6) _ _ __ one (line 9)

6

he/she

it

they

2.4

2.5

7a Look at the sentence from the article on page 20. Underline

them (line 5) _ _ __ this (line 8)

they

2.3

Vocabulary & Speaking conanaentadverbs the word which gives the writer's opinion. 'Amazingly, orchestras started hiring many more women.'

b Read paragraphs 3 and 4. Add the words below in the correct place and draw an arrow to the noun they refer to. Check your answers with a partner. he

2.2

b What does the writer feel about orchestras hiring women

like this? Read the information in the Vocabula ry focus box. Underline two more examples of comment adverbs in the magazine article.

8

Work in small groups and discuss the questions. 1 Why did orchestras start hiring more women? 2 What do you think people judge other people on? 3 What do you notice when you fi rst meet people?

VOCABULARY FOCUS comment adverbs •

some adverbs tell us the view or opinion of the speaker, e.g.

curiously, luckily, remarkably, sadly, surprisingly, unfortunately • Comment adverbs usually go at the beginning of sentences.

surprisingly, orchestras started hiring many more women. • Sometimes comment adverbs can go in the middle of a sentence.

Orchestras, curiously, started hiring women left, right and centre.

How does the choice of comment adverb affect the meaning of these sentences?

9

1 Interestingly I Fortunately, I know lots of people who want to work on television. 2 I got to the bus stop about five minutes after the bus was due, but luckily I remarkably all the buses were running late. 3 Remarkably I Sadly, none of the students passed the final exam. 4 Personally I Curiously, I find learning new things easy. 10a

iZl!Sf3 Work with a partner. Choose a situation or think of one of your own when things went wrong or something unexpected happened. • a meal in a restaurant • missing a train/plane • thinking you recognize someone you know but actually don,t know

b Tell your partner about them, using some of the comment

adverbs.

2.4 Speaking and writing GOALS •

Speaking & Listening

Engage a listener and show interest •

3

showing interest

1 a Work with a partner. Look at the pictures and words.

What do you think happened in this true story?

-

write a narrative

Which of these statements do you agree with? Why? Discuss with a partner. • coincidences are often meaningful and 'meant to happen'. • Coincidences are just maths. If enough people are involved, many odd-seeming coincidences wi ll happen. For example, at a typical football match with 50,000 people, statistica lly 135 people will share your birthday.

4a 2.6 )»Listen again and write down the phrases the speakers use to engage the listener and show interest. 1

b Check your answers in the Language for speaking box.

LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING engaging the listener

and showing interest Engaging the listener

1heard this incredible story about ... Someone told me about ... You're not going to believe this, but ... Showing interest

Really? How amazing/surprising ... ! That's awful/incredible ... ! What, you mean ... ? No way! You're joking!

PRONUNCIATION

intonation - showing interest

Sa 2.7 »)Listen to the ways of showing interest. For each one, mark if you think the speaker sounds interested or not interested. What makes their voice sound interested? 1 What happened? 2 Oh no, that's awful. 3 You're joking. 4 What, you mean the ring was on the carrot?! 5 Really? 6 No way! That's incredible! b 2.7 »)Listen and repeat.

b Ask your teacher yes/no questions to find out more about the story.

c When you think you have enough facts, work together with your partner to tell the whole story. 2

2.6 )»Listen to the story and compare with your ideas.

6

Work with a partner. Student A, turn to page 127. Student B, turn to page 133.

2.1

Reading & Writing

a narrative

LANGUAGE FOR WRITING time expressions In a narrative it is important to say when events happened, as well as how quickly they happened. Try to use a variety of time expressions. After a while/In the end/In an instant/Just then A few yearslmonths/weeks!days!hours ago Recently Straightaway

9

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first, using a time expression from the Language for writing box. There is one expression you do not need. 1 As soon as he heard the news, he rang her. When he heard the news, he _ _ __ 2 Not long ago he had changed his job. He had changed his job _ _ __ 3 At that moment, the car suddenly stopped. _ _ _ __, the car suddenly stopped. 4 Finally, he went back to Australia. _ _ _ __, he went back to Australia. 5 Within seconds, everything had changed. _ _ _ _, everything had changed. 6 A short time later, he picked up his bag and left. _ _ __, he picked up his bag and left.

D Colin said, 'I didn't recognize him at all, but it is great to have my dad back.' 1 E A few years ago, a taxi driver called Barry

Bagshaw had a life-changing experience when he went to work one day.

10 Use the following story skeleton, or your own ideas, to

write a story about a coincidence. Think about the order of events, and how to use time expressions to link the events together.

G By an amazing coincidence, it turned out that his son, Colin, who had been living in South Africa, had recently arrived to take up a new job in the same small town where his father lived.

• • • • • • • •

b Which sections relate to the narrative structure from the Communication exercise in Lesson 2.1? Announcing a story is about to start Giving background information Main events Conclusion Final comment

2.5

writing box did you find?

B After a while, the woman happened to notice Barry's identity card, hanging up in the cab. 'Isn't that funny,' she said to her boyfriend, 'you've got the same name as the taxi driver.'

1 2 3 4 5

2.4

b How many of the time expressions in the Language for

A As soon as he told his son, they hugged each other and went for a coffee to talk. Barry had lost contact with his family while he was working abroad.

F It seemed like any other day. Barry picked up a man and his girlfriend from a hotel in the seaside town where he lived.

2.3

Sa Read the story again and underline any words and phrases used to say when something happened.

7a Put the sections in the right order to make a logical story.

C The man then said, jokingly, 'Is your first name Barry?' In an instant, the taxi driver's mouth went dry. He waited until there was somewhere safe to park, pulled the car over and said, 'Yes.' The taxi driver had realized that the man in the back of his cab was his son, who he had not seen for thirty-four years.

2.2

11

Man paints picture and sends it to a gallery. Man finds picture thrown into his garden. Did gallery owner really hate it? Man rings gallery owner/asks why she did this. Gallery owner says she really likes picture. Picture and other things stolen from her car. Thieves kept valuables/threw picture away into a garden. Th ieves threw picture away into artist's garden!

Read your partner's version of the story and answer the questions. 1 What time expressions have they used? 2 How is their story the same as or different from yours?

2.5 Video Seven good stories Match the questions to the answers.

1

Does the story have an exciting plot? Does the story make you laugh? Does the story make you cry? Is it a frightening story? Are there any surprising moments in the story? Do you like the ending?

1 2 3 4 5 6

Yes, it's a really funny comedy. Yes, because the characters all live happily ever after! Yes, it's a tragedy. The couple die in each other's arms. Yes, one man goes on an adventure. He meets many people, and some amazing things happen to them. e Yes, it's a shock when we discover that the hero of the story is actually the little boy who lives next door. f Yes, it is. You believe the villain is going to kill everyone. a b c d

2

Work with a partner. Match a photo with one of the stories from the list below. What do you know about these stories? • Macbeth • Jaws • Dracula • Aladdin • The Wizard of oz • Harry Potter • Cinderella

3

0

4

0

Watch the video. Note down the seven types of stories. Match these to the stories in exercise 2.

Watch again and choose the correct options to complete the text. Everyone I certain people believe that stories are all based on seven types of plot. In Cinderella, Aladdin and Harry Potter, the main characters all 2 win and lose 1 lose something before learning a lesson about life. Villains 3 always I normally die at the end of tragedies. In sagas, the main characters go on a great journey. At the end of these stories, they usually 4 reach I fail to reach their destination. In a 'voyage and return' story, the main character will usually return home with s nothing at all I a greater understanding of the world. You will always find 6 a romantic tale I some funny characters in a comedy. 1

Sa

~ Work with a partner. Choose a story you know well. The story can be from a film or a book. Ask each other questions about your story. Use the questions from exercise 1 to help you.

b Decide which of the seven plot types your partner's story belongs to.

2.1

2.3

2.2

2.4

2.5

Review b Work with a partner. Choose one of the sentences and decide together what happened before and after this sentence. Write it as a short story, using some different time linkers.

1 a Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets: past simple, past continuous or past perfect simple.

3a 2.9 )»You will hear definitions for each of the verbs below. Number each word as it is defined.

appear expect forget realize A bad day 1 Last Tuesday my computer broke while I _ _ __ (try) to finish an important piece of work. 2 So I (call) a friend who knows about computers, and he came over straightaway. 3 He (have) a look at it, but he couldn't fix it. 4 He (take) my keys so he could come back to fix it the next day while I was at work. 5 The next morning when I (try) to leave for work, I discovered that he (lock) my front door from the outside, and I couldn't get out of the flat. (travel) abroad, and no one else 6 My parents I know (have) a spare key. 7 I tried to call my friend, but he (leave) his phone in my flat. It (ring) right next to me. 8 I (have) to wait for him to arrive, and so I was very late for work. b Work with a partner. Circle had, was and were in the completed sentences. Decide together which should be pronounced as a 'weak' form. c 2.8 )»Listen and check your answers. Practise reading the sentences aloud together.

recognize remind scream wonder

b Work with a partner. Choose five of the verbs and write sentences using them. Vary the topics and tenses you use. c Work with a different pair. Read out your sentences, leaving out the verbs. The other pair has to put in the correct verbs in the correct form. 4

Complete the sentences with an appropriate verb from the box in the correct form. admit announce

cla im inform

keep quiet mention

1 Lucy you had a new job, but she didn't say much about it. 2 At first he denied having taken the money, but in the end he it was him. 3 'Ladies and gentlemen, I am very happy to _ _ __ that the winner oft he award is ...' 4 He he had once worked for the Queen, but I didn't believe him. 5 Ifyou can't say anything nice, you'd better _ _ __ 6 'I'm sorry to you that the company is closing down.' Sa Add a comment adverb to show your attitude to each statement. 1

2a Each of the sentences comes from a different story. Choose the correct option to complete each sentence. 1 By the time I As soon as he arrived, she had already left. 2 While I During the summer, he worked in an ice cream van. 3 He stayed there alone by the time I until it got dark, then, feeli ng sad, he went home. 4 He walked off happily. Meanwhile I While, she was already planning her revenge. 5 As soon as I During he got home, he turned on the news. 6 By the time I While I was walking to work, I saw something very strange.

women in most countries earn between 70% and 90% of what men earn. 2 55% of university graduates in the UK are women. 3 women talk almost three times as much as men. 4 , women live longer than men. b Discuss the statements with a partner. 6a 2.10 )»Listen and write down four statements.

b Read the statements to your partner and respond to each one by showing interest.

Life skills 3.1

Challenges GOALS •

Talk about challenges and success •

vocabulary & Listening

challenges and

5

3.3 )» Complete the phrases in the text with the verbs in the box in the correct form. Then listen and check your answers.

success 1

Work with a partner. What do you find difficult to resist? For example: buying clothes, spending too much time online, eating junk food.

2

Work with a partner. Look at the photo. The children are trying to resist the temptation to eat the marshmallow. Which child do you think is more likely to succeed? Why?

Talk about ability

avoid be deal give succeed in wait

PRONUNCIATION

3

3.1 )»Listen to the first part of a talk on the Marshmallow Test results. What was Mischel's experiment?

4

3.2 ))) Listen to the rest of the talk and answer the questions. Check your answers with a partner. 1 How long did the children have to wait without eating the marshmallow? 2 How many of them failed the test? 3 In what ways were the children who didn't eat the marshmallows more successful in later life? 4 How did the successful children manage not to eat the marshmallow? 5 Why is it important to be able to wait for something you want?

In the Marshmallow Test, researchers left four-yearold children alone in a room with a marshmallow. If the children managed to 1 resist temptation and not eat the marshmallow, the researcher promised them a reward of two marshmallows. However, most of the children found it difficult to 2 patient and 3 in before the t ime was up. They 4 to have something immediately rather than s for what they really wanted. The researchers found that, as adults, those ch ildren who could 6 to the challenge were generally much more successful than the others.

O.W Oxford 3000™

make (x2) prefer feSts.t rise

word stress

6a Work with a partner. Say the verbs in the box aloud and mark the stress on each verb. achieve avoid succeed

manage observe

prefer resist

b What is the most common stress pattern in verbs with two syllables?

c

3.4 )»Listen, check and repeat.

The best technique was to 7 thinking about the marshmallow at all. The successful children s_ _ __ with the problem by looking away or covering their eyes. If they didn't think about the marshmallow, they didn't have to 9 an effort not to eat it. When Mischel taught a different set of children this waiting technique, nearly all the children 10 the ful l time . Learning these techniques can help in adu lt the life because being able to wa it helps us to 11 right choices.

3.1

7

Work with a partner and discuss the questions. What kind of things do children find hard to wait for? 2 What happens if children get everything they want immediately? 3 How can children learn to be patient? 4 What techniques do you use when you need to resist temptation? For example, avoid thinking about it, promise yourself a reward later, ... I

Grammar & speaking 8

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

9a Work with a partner. Complete the tips in the blog using can/can't, could/couldn't, (not) manage to, (not) succeed in, and (not) be able to in the correct form. Home > Success > How to succeed

How to succeed

ability

~

Remember that you 1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ choose to resist temptation ifyou want to. Just because you 2_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ stop yourself yesterday, doesn't mean you 3 never do it.

~

Think about something else. If you

Read the information in the Grammar focus box. Match sentences a- e to 1- 5 in the box. a Some ate it straightaway, some managed to wait a while before giving in. b Only 30% of the kids were able to wait the full fifteen m inutes. c The kids who couldn't resist temptation were generally less successful. d When he taught the children some simple techniques ... nearly all the children succeeded in waiting the full fifteen minutes. e ... you will be able to make better decisions about your future.

turning your attention away from the chocolate for a while, you may forget about it altogether.

4

~

Stop for a minute. Perhaps you felt you 5 spare the time to go for a run yesterday? But if you stopped and really thought about it, you'd see i t was much more important than many of the th ings you did 6

~

Think ahead. Plan for the future and you will 7 achieving your goals.

~

Never buy things on impulse. Go home and think about it. If you really like it, you 8_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (still) buy it tomorrow, or next week.

~

Spend lime with people who arc

GRAMMAR FOCUS ability Present and past

• To talk about general ability, we use can/can't+ infinitive or am/are/is able to. • To talk about doing or not doing something with some difficulty, we use (don't/doesn't) manage to + infinitive/ succeed in + -ing.

d~

resist temptation themselves. Pick up some valuable lessons by observing someone whose patience you admire. 9

• In the past we use: a could/couldn't or was(n't)/were(n't) able to + infinitive (general ability) 1_ _ b was(n't)/were(n't) able to (on a specific past occasion) 2

c (didn't) manage(d) to/succeed(ed) in (with some difficulty on a specific past occasion) 3_ _ 4_ _

b Work with a partner or in small groups. Which are the most useful tips? Put them in order of usefulness.

Future

• To talk about future ability we use: a will/won't be able to+ infinitive (general ability and on a specific future occasion) s_ _ b will/won't manage to + infinitive/will/won't succeed in + -ing(with some difficulty on a specific future occasion) If you work hard, I'm sure you'll manage to get the grades you need.

-+Grammar Reference page 140

10

mlSJ3 Work with a partner. Tell your partner about ... • something you can do now that you couldn't do a few years ago. • a time when you succeeded in resist ing temptation. • a time when you managed to deal with a problem successfully or make the right choice. • something you hope you will be able to do in the futu re and how you plan to do it.

3.2 Faking it? GOALS •

Talk about work skills •

Talk about obligation, permission and possibility

vocabulary & Reading work skills Sunday, 20 April

1

Work with a partner. Look at the two jobs in the photos and decide what skills, apart from cooking skills, are needed for each job.

Review Last night's TV The best thing on TV last night was Faking ft. It takes someone with no experience in a particular job and sends them to live and train with an expert for four weeks. They then have to take part in a contest against professionals, and a panel of expert judges decides which participant is the 'faker'. At the beginning of the programme, we met Ed working in a fast food van in all weathers, selling chips and burgers. In this job he didn't need to do much apart from arrive at work on time and be reasonably pleasant to people. All this changed as he had to learn how not to be pleasant to people as a head chef in a top London restaurant.

2

Work with a partner. Read the newspaper review of a recent television programme and discuss these questions. I Did the participant succeed in his challenge? 2 What difficulties did he face?

3

Would you enjoy learning to do something completely new in four weeks? Why/Why not? Discuss with a partner.

4

Look at the list of skills below (1- 13). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

being a good leader being confident in yourself making decisions managing (tight) schedules persuading people to do things taking responsibility working well under pressure

8 9 10 11 12 13

solving problems being reliable managing a team multitasking setting goals working hard

Which skill(s) is/are about ... ? • working with other people • managing limited time • using your intelligence

• being a good boss • being a good worker

Some skills can be in more than one category. 5

Work in small groups. Decide together which skills Ed needed for both jobs. Give reasons for your choices.

O.W Oxford 3000™

According to Ed's teacher, one of London's top chefs, to succeed as a chef you must have a passion for food, the ability to run a team, confidence, work to very precise times, and be able to cook. So, could Ed cook? He explained his technique was to 'wait until the burger went brown on both sides'; 1 he didn't have to do much more. To test his skills, his teacher asked him to cook the food in his fridge, 2 telling Ed he could prepare it any way he wanted. The results were not good. Even the vegetables were overcooked, as Ed didn't realize that 3 he didn 't need to boil carrots for an hour or more. But Ed's biggest problem was that he hated tell ing people what to do. As the top chef explained to Ed, 4 'he couldn't be a head chef and be nice'. Ed was shocked to realize that she couldn't say please and thank you all the time if he wanted the team to respect him. 6 He also had to learn how to walk and stand more confidently. Amazingly, after four weeks of hard work and quite a few problems, none of the judges realized that Ed was a complete beginner. In fact, one offered him a job as a chef.

3.1

Grammar & Speaking

obligation, permission and possibility

6

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

7a Complete the text which compares Ed's old job with his new one, using the verbs from the Grammar focus box. Sometimes more t han one answer is possible.

Read the information in the Grammar focus box. Look at phrases 1- 6 in the review on page 28 and match them to rules a-fin the box.

When he was working in the burger van, Ed 1 be reliable and turn up for work on time. He also 2_ _ _ _ _ _ __ be polite to the customers. However, he 3_ _ _ _ _ __ take much responsibility as his boss dealt with the money. He 4 get up early because the van opened at 11 a.m. When he wanted to, he s_ _ __ even take a day off work.

GRAMMAR FOCUS obligation, permission and

possibility Present • If something is necessary or obligatory, we use must when talking about the feelings and wishes of the speaker, and have to to talk about obligations that come from someone or somewhere else.

Now that he's training to be a chef, it's very different. He 6 manage a team, even though he finds it difficult to tell people what to do. It's also a very high-pressure job, so he 7 work to tight deadlines. However, he 8 work outside any more, and he 9 take home really nice food when the restaurant has closed.

• If it is necessary or obligatory NOT to do something, we use mustn't, and don't have to/don't need to if it isn't necessary or obligatory. Past • If something was necessary/obligatory, we use had to. a

b 3.5 l)) Listen and check your answers.

we can't use 'must' with this meaning in the past. • If something wasn't necessary, we use didn't have to/ didn't need to .

Work with a partner. Student A, turn to page 127. Student B, turn to page 133.

8

b

c

permission and possibility- could/couldn't

9a Make a list of six work skills you feel you possess.

b How did you acquire these skills? For example:

Present

we use can/can't if something is/isn't allowed or possible. Past If something was/wasn't allowed or possible, we use could! couldn't. d

e

... Grammar Reference page 141

I'm good at working in a team. I used to be captain of the football team. I had to take responsibility for choosing the right players. I could ... Make similar notes about each of the skills you chose.

c mm3 Work with a partner. Ask each other these questions. • What are your th ree most important skills? • What three positive th ings would your last boss/team colleagues/friends say about you? Give full and convincing answers, with reasons and examples.

0

VOX POPS VIDEO 3

3.3 Vocabulary and skills development GOALS •

Reading & Speaking

Recognize complex noun phrases (1 ) •

complex noun

4a Look at the numbered sentences in the article. Underline

the subject and circle the verb.

phrases (1) 1

b Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false statements.

Work with a partner. Have you ever done any of these things? How did you feel? a taken a very important exam b made a speech or presentation to a large number of people c sung in public d had an interview for a job you really wanted

2a Read the information in the Unlock the code box about recognizing complex noun phrases.

£! UNLOCK THE CODE II recognizing complex noun phrases (1) Sometimes the subject of a sentence can be very long or contain another verb. Subject

Main verb

Making a speech

is

sometimes hard to do.

Learning these new techniques

helps

in later life.

one of the test groups

experienced

symptoms of stress.

One group who took part in the experiment

were told

nothing.

Use compound adjectives

l

2 3 4 5 5

It's difficult to find information on the internet about how to reduce your stress. The Social Stress Test is a way of measuring stress. The signs of stress show that you are ready for a difficult experience. Only one group had some damage to their body. Some people think these results are difficult to prove.

Work with a partner and discuss the questions. How would you feel in the situations in the Social Stress Test? 2 Do you agree that stress can sometimes be good for you? 3 How do you feel after a challenging experience? l

When you read, it is important to be able to identify the subject and the main verb quickly.

b Look at the statements. Underline the subjects and circle the verbs. Stress can actually be good for you. 2 Taking an important exam often causes people to lose sleep. 3 Speaking in front of a large group of people can be very stressful. 4 People who are most under stress show physical signs such as shaking or sweating. l

3a Look at the photos and the title of the article. What do you think the article will say? Discuss with a partner. b Read the article. Were your ideas in the article?

O.W Oxford 3000™

Stress could be good for you - if you believe it is Have you ever given a talk or speech to a large group of people? If so, you'll probably remember it as a very stressful experience ... you sweat, your mouth goes dry, your heart starts beating fast.

3.1

Vocabulary & Speaking

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

c Read the information in the Vocabulary focus box about

compound adjectives

compound adjectives and check your answers.

6a Look at these compound adjectives from the article.

VOCABULARY FOCUS compound adjectives

Which nouns do they describe?

Compound adjectives are generally made up of two words, usually either becoming a single word or joined by a hyphen. Here are some of the most common forms they can take. 1 ending in a past participle: left-handed, short-sleeved

2 ending in -ing: good-looking, hard-working 3 ending in a noun: two-hour, full-time

Add a word from the box to make a compound adjective. going hand known speaking star

1 easy2 home3 five4 over-

made

page

priced

5 5006 second7 English8 well-

Work with a partner. What do you think the compound adjectives mean?

c

3.6 l)) Listen and mark the main stress in each one.

d

3.6 l)) Listen again and practise saying the words.

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8 And most people believe that stress is bad for you. 1 Putting 'reduce your stress levels' into Google gets you 34 million hits. Articles in the newspapers or on health websites are always telling us how to reduce our stress levels. 2 Titles like '23 scientifically proven ways to reduce stress right now!' are common. But what if it isn't actually true?

1 Have you ever bought a car? 2 When you were young, did you ever wear _ _ _ __ clothes? 3 Would you rather read a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ novel or watch a six-hour film? 4 When was the last time you thought something was _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ina shop?

Experiments with a technique called the Social Stress Test suggest that stress is only harmful if you believe that it is. In the experiment, two groups of people were asked to perform a series of stress-producing actions, such as doing a maths test while the 'instructor' shouted, ' Faster! faster! That's not very good!' Or giving a five-minute talk to a group of 'experts' who were pretending to be bored. 3

But the two groups had been treated differently before they took the test. The first group had not been told anything, whereas the second group were told that stress is good for you, and that 4 the dry mouth and beating heart are the body's way of preparing you for a challenge. Amazingly, the results were quite different. 5 The people who had been told nothing showed signs of damage to the blood vessels around the heart, while those of the other group were normal - as if they were not under stress at all .

These results have been confirmed by other tests. It seems that the effects of stress depend on what you believe about stress! 6

Complete the questions with the compound adjectives in exercise 7a. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.

5 Who is the most mus1c1an in your country? Do you like him/her? Why/Why not? 6 Do you prefer a very strict or a very _ _ _ _ _ __ teacher? Why? 7 Have you ever stayed in a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ hotel? Where? When? 8 Can you name five _ _ _ _ _ _ _ countries? 9

IZlE3 Work with a partner. Ask and answer the questions in exercise 8. Report the most interesting answers to the class.

3.4 Speaking and writing GOALS •

Listening & Speaking

Give practical instructions •

practical instructions

Write a paragraph supporting an opinion

3a 3.8 )»Listen and complete the instructions.

1

you do is cut a hole in the metal. 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ done that, put the bottle in the hole in the metal ... theglue's _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 3 fill the bottle with water ... 4 that, it's time to go to the roof.

Look at the photos. What do you think a 'Litre of Light' is?

1

Alfredo Moser, a Brazi lian mechanic, invented the 'Litre of Light' in 2002. Many thousands of homes around the world now have light for free, using no electricity.

b

3.8 )»Compare your answers with a partner. Listen again

and check. PRONUNCIATION

pauses in instructions

We often put pauses in instructions to help people understand. 4a 3.9 ))) Listen and finish marking the pauses in the

instructions below. Next,// rub the bottle with sandpaper. // When you've done that, put the bottle in the hole in the metal and glue the bottle in place.

b Practise giving the instructions clearly.

2a Look at the illustrations. Describe what you see in each. 5

IZlm3 Work in small groups and give instructions on how to do something.

2

1 Choose a skill you are good at and make brief notes on how to do it. Include five steps. 2 Use the information in the Language for speaking box. Add pauses to make the instructions clearer. 3 Work in small groups. Give each other the instructions. When you listen, ask questions to make sure you understand.

3

LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING giving instructions 4

b

5

3.7 )»Listen to the instructions and complete

1- 6 with one

word in each gap. 1 2 3

a hole in the metal sheet. the plastic bottle with sandpaper. the bottle in the hole in the metal and _ _ _ _ it in place. 4 _ _ _ _ the bottle with water and _ _ __ ten millilitres of bleach. 5 _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ on the bottle. 6 _ _ _ _ a hole in the roof the same size as the bottle.

Putting instructions in order The first thing you do is .. . When you've done this, .. . Explaining or showing You do it like this. Let me give you an example. Asking questions How do you ... ? can you say that part again?

While you're doing this, ... After doing this, ... Let me show you. Make sure ... OK, what next? can you show me?

3.1

Reading & Writing writing an opinion

paragraph 6

Work in small groups and discuss the questions. 1 What was the last thing you learned to do? 2 Do you think it's important to learn new things as we get older? Why/Why not?

7

Read the paragraph from an article in an educational magazine. 1 What is the writer's general opinion? 2 Which phrase shows the writer is giving their opinion?

9

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

Work with a partner. Choose the correct options to complete these sentences on the same topic as in the article. 1 Some people say that older people who continue to learn new things, such as I as well language and computer skills, stay healthier. 2 Research seems to show that learning new skills is good for our brains; for instance I on top of that, the activity of learning improves our memory. 3 A new hobby gives us something to talk about with our friends and family. Too I In addition, research has shown that our happiness levels increase as we learn. 4 Learning helps us to stay interesting, too I such as, because it gives us new experiences and makes us solve new problems.

TECHNOLOGY- OPINION Nowadays the idea that learning is only for children is obviously not true. It seems to me that as an adu lt you can't rely on what you learnt in school to get by any longer. Technology at work and at home, such as computerized household appl iances, tablets and mobile phones, C!re an essentia l part of everyday life. On top of that, all these devices are constantly developing. So, if you want to be able to function in the 21st century, you have to keep learning and developing, too!

Sa Read the paragraph again and underline one phrase fo r adding information to support the idea and one for giving an example.

b Compare with your partner. Then read the information in the Language for w riting box to check. LANGUAGE FOR WRITING supporting an opinion Support an opinion by adding more information and giving examples.

Adding more information • on top of that, .. .!In addition, ...

.. . as well.

It's important to learn new things and it seems it's actually good for your brain as well. Giving an example • ... such as .. . for instance, . ..

your opinions. • Everyone should learn how to do something new after the age of fifty. • Companies should pay for their employees to receive training and education. • Adults can be better at learning new things than children. b Make a note of three main points to support your opinion.

Think of examples for each point.

It's important to learn new things. In addition, it seems that learning new things is actually good for your brain. • .. . also .. .

10a 1m3 Work with a partner. Choose a topic and discuss

for example, ...

English and French used to be the most important languages to learn, but now other languages are becoming increasingly essential, e.g. Chinese and Arabic.

c Now write the paragraph. Use the phrases in the Language for w riting box to support your opinion with extra information and examples.

3.5 Video A woman's life: 1914 vs 2014 1

Look at the photos. Work with a partner and discuss the possible connection between the three photos.

2

How do you think life was different for women in Britain one hundred years ago? Discuss your ideas with a partner. Write one idea for each heading. • Family Life • Marriage

3

0

4

0

• Work • Women's Rights

Watch the video. Did the presenter mention any of your ideas from exercise 2? Watch again a nd choose the correct options to answer the questions. 1 How many people visit the museum every year? a About half a million. b Nearly a million. 2 Why didn't many women receive a full education about one hundred years ago? a Only a few schools allowed girls to complete their education. b It was unusual for girls to stay at school until eighteen years old.

3 What had the suffragettes achieved by 1914? a They had changed the lives of many women. b They had persuaded society to pay more attention to women's rights. 4 Which women got the vote in 1918? a The women who had carried out certain jobs during the First World War. b Property-owning women who were also over a certain age. 5 What does the presenter say about women in Britain today? a There are more working women than at any other time in history. b The number of women at work is increasing faster than the number of men. Sa

l1i.§3 Work in small groups. Make a list of five skills

needed in society one hundred years ago. Then make a list of five skills needed today. Are the lists very different? b Compare your lists with another group. Which skills do both groups agree are important in society today?

3.1

3.2

3.4

3.3

3.5

Review 1 a Cross out the options which are not possible.

6a Complete the conversation with the phrases in the box.

1 I couldn't I can't I wasn't able to swim until I was nearly ten. 2 It was difficult, but I finally succeeded in I managed to I was able to learning. 3 However, I still couldn't I can't I can swim very far. 4 I managed to I could I succeeded in pass my driving test the third time I took it. 5 I was quite good at driving, but I couldn't I wasn't able to I managed to park correctly. 6 After I passed, I can I was able to I managed to drive to see my parents.

b Work with a partner. Explain why the forms you crossed out are incorrect. 2a 3.10 )»Listen and write the sentences you hear.

b Work with a partner. Decide if the sentences are about obligation (O), lack of obligation (LO), permission (P) or lack of permission (LP). 3a Match 1-5 to a- e to make expressions. 1 be a temptation 2 deal b the right choice 3 make c with a problem 4 resist

d to a challenge e patient

5 rise

Make sure let me show you What next The first thing you do is While you're doing that How do you you do it like this

A b Choose one of the completed phrases and tell your partner about a time in your life when you did this. 4a Which verb can be used with each group of phrases?

1 be I have a good leader, confident in yourself, reliable 2 deal I manage a team, tight schedules 3 make I work hard, well under pressure

1

to put some flour in a bowl, with a little salt. Then you crack an egg into the bowl. B I'm not very good at that. 2_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ crack the egg without getting bits of shell in the bowl? A No problem, 3 . Look, you crack it on the edge of the bowl, like this. Then you mix it in and add the milk. 4

b Wh ich three skills are most important for a manager? Discuss with a partner.

sa

3.11 )»Listen to the first

part of six compound adjectives and complete them with a word from the box. -going -hand

-known

-looking -speaking -working

b Write a sentence using each completed compound adjective. Compare your answers with a partner.

~um~hvMy

thoroughly, so there aren't any lumps. B s

?

A Then you have to wait for about thirty minutes. 6 you can get ready whatever you want to put on the pancakes. Then you heat some oil or butter and put some mixture in the pan. When the first side is cooked, you flip it over. Look, 7_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ B Wow! That's clever. b 3.12 )»Listen and check your answers.

c Work with a partner. Write a similar conversation explaining how to do something, using the phrases in exercise 6a.

Space 4.1

Living on water GOALS • Talk about living on water • Talk about predictions and decisions

vocabulary & Speaking living on water 1

Work with a partner. Look at the photos and use the words in the box to describe them. at sea beach canal coast ferry float inland island lake mainland ocean reeds sand waves

2a Read the article from a business magazine and look at the photos. What does the article say about each ofthem? Discuss your answers with a partner.

b How many of the words in exercise 1 can you find in the text? Underline them. 3

Work with a partner or in small groups and discuss the questions. l What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of living on water? 2 Do you agree that large numbers of people will start living on water, rather than on land? Why/Why not? 3 Would you like to live on water? Why/Why not?

O.W Oxford 3000TM

NEWS

MONEY ARTS+LIFE PEOPLE

Living on water As cities become bigger, those who can't move inland are starting to consider moving out, onto the sea itself. There are already cultures where a life on water is nothing new. Islands made from reeds float in the middle of Peru's Lake Titicaca, home to an ancient community. Venice is made up of 118 islands; and the Thai capital, Bangkok, with its canals, is famous for its floating markets. Fishermen live at sea for long periods, but could large numbers of people really move onto the water? Koen Olthuis, the Dutch founder of Waterstudio.nl and a floating architecture expert, thinks so. His company is involved in a project in the Maldives, a group of islands just 1.5 metres above sea level. By 2100, their beautiful beaches and white sand could be completely underwater. However, before the architects can solve this problem, some cash has to

4.1

Grammar & Speaking

will/be going to for predictions and decisions

4.3

4.4

4.5

Sa Complete the blog entry about a trip to Peru using will or be going to and the verbs in brackets. ~ Travel Blog '-..._./

4a Work with a partner. Complete the sentences with the

correct form of will/be going to to make predictions. 1 The rise in sea levels 2 Look at those black douds. It

4.2

Destinations Themes Shop Bookings Insurance

cause huge problems. rain.

So, yesterday we took the train from La Paz, Bolivia, into Peru, stopping at Puno, and today we 1 (visit) the floating islands on Lake Titicaca. I can't wait. Ever since I first heard about these islands in a geography class many years ago, I've wanted to see them. Actually, I don't really enjoy boat trips, but I'm sure the water on the lake 2 (be) quite calm, as it's a c lear sunny day. It's quite cold, though, so I 3 (take) an extra sweater to keep warm .

b Complete the sentences with the correct form of will/he going to for decisions. help you. 3 You look a bit confused. Don't worry, I 4 Tony go to California next spring. c Check your answers with a partner. d Read the Grammar focus box and choose the correct options to complete the rules.

I'm really interested in finding out more about how people live there. I believe we 4_ _ __ (be able to) ask them questions through a guide. I'd love to know what people eat- a lot of fish, I suppose! I'd also like to know what they think the future holds for them and their families. Do they think their children s (stay) on the islands? What effect 6_ _ __ technology (have) on their lives? I know they already have solar power and even black and white TVs.

GRAMMAR FOCUS will/be going to for predict ions and decisions Predictions • When we want to talk about what we believe or think about the future, we use 1 will I be going to. • When there is some evidence in the present to support the prediction, or an action is starting or clearly on the way, we use 2 will 1 be going to. Decisions • When we make a decision at the moment of speaking, we use 3 will 1 be going to. • When we have already made a decision, we use 4 will I be going to.

Just thought! It would be great to have some photos for the blog, so I 7 (take) my camera, too. Just hope I don't drop it in the water ...

-+Grammar Reference page 142

b Compare your answers with a partner and give reasons for your choices. To do this, Waterstudio will create a luxury floating development (with a conference centre, golf course and 185-villa resort), and use the money from this to develop artificial islands to provide houses for the Maldives' poorer citizens.

c 4.1 )»Listen and check your answers. 6

As well as building on the water, architects are now starting to think about building under the water. AT Design have produced plans for a 10 km 2 floating city off the coast of Hong Kong, with islands above the water connected by underwater tunnels and walkways. If and when it is completed, the city will have gardens, a huge entertainment arena for sports matches and concerts and even its own farms, making it self-sufficient. People will be able to travel back and forth from the mainland by ferry, and the designers predict that it will be a huge tourist attraction. So, it seems that a life at sea will have a lot to offer!

1Ziim

Work with a partner. Look at the interview questions. Imagine you are someone who lives in one of the four places pictured in exercise 1, and write a conversation, answering the questions (don't mention the name of the place). • What is the best thing about living here? • Are there any disadvantages? • Tell me about a typical day. What are you going to do today, for example? • Do you think you'll ever move away? Why/Why not? • What do you think life wi ll be li ke here in fifty years?

7

Read your conversation to another pair. Can they guess where the person being interviewed lives?

4.2 Forest bathing vocabulary & Speaking the natural world 1a 4.2 l)) Listen to two people who have each been to one of the places in photos 1- 4. Which ones has he/she been to?

b Which words helped you decide? 2

Choose one of the other photos and make some notes describing it using the words in the box. cliffs greenery forest fresh air pools landscape peaks season scenery soil steep sunset sunshine rocks valley(s) waterfalls

3

Take turns to listen to your partner's description a nd decide which photo he/she is describing.

Grammar & Listening 4

probability

Read the quotation. What do you think might be the benefits of forest bathing? Discuss with a partner.

'Shinrin-yoku, or forest bathing, is simply visiting the forest (or other natural area) and walking slowly, taking in everything that you can see, hear, smell and even taste.' Sa 4.3 l)) Listen to a radio interview and note down three benefits of spending time in green spaces. 1 2 3

b Compare your list with a partner.

O.W Oxford 3000TM

6a Work with a partner. Look at the predictions and complete them with the numbers in the box. 3 8.5 30 50 52 61

92

1 In the US people now spend _ _ hours a day looking at a screen, and this trend will definitely spread around the world as smartphones become more common. 2 The percentage of British people living in cities is likely to rise to _ _ % by 2030. 3 Countries such as Botswana, where in 1950 only _ _ % of people lived in a city, may end up in a similar situation. 4 Nowadays _ _% of Botswana's population lives in cities and this percentage will probably rise further. 5 Walking in a forest for _ _ minutes improves mood and might even stop you getting ill. 6 After a two-hour walk some people showed a _ _ % increase in the white blood cells needed to help fight disease. 7 The Japanese government will build _ _ more forest bathing trails within the next ten years, and other countries may follow. b 4.4 )»Listen and check your predictions.

4.1

7 a Look at the sentences in exercise 6a. Read the information in the Grammar focus box and choose the correct options to complete the rules.

4.4

4.5

opinions about the future, using a probability phrase from the Grammar focus box. 1 By 2030 I eighteen cities I have more than twenty million inhabitants.

probability



4.3

9a Write the predictions so they agree with your own

GRAMMAR FOCUS will/may/might to talk about •

4.2

Modal verbs we can use the modal verbs will, may and might to talk about how sure we are about something. Might/may suggests a 1 smaller I greater possibility than will.

2 Pollution I increase. 3 Food prices I rise as we need more space for people to live.

Adverbs and adjectives we can also use the adverbs probably, possibly and definitely and the adjectives likely and unlikely to give more information about how sure we are.

4 Food I on the top of tall buildings. 5 Cities I more green spaces.

Definitely, probably and possibly come 2 after 1 before the modal verb in positive sentences and 3 after I before the modal verb in negative sentences.

6 People I get much fresh air. 7 Every block of flats I a communal garden.

Likely and unlikely are followed by 4 infinitive + to I infinitive without

8 People I spend as much time in nature.

to.

-+Grammar Reference page 143 b Compare your ideas with a partner. Give reasons for your

opinions.

b Compare your answers with a partner and give reasons for

your choices. 10 PRONUNCIATION

• How often do you get out into green spaces? can you describe a time you did? What made it memorable? • How important do you think access to nature and green spaces is? Why? • Do you think this access to nature w ill become more or less important in the future? Why?

intonation - certainty

Our intonation can often signal how certain we feel about what we are saying.

8a 4.5 )»Listen to four statements and write them down. b Answer questions 1-3.

1 In positive statements, does the stress fall or rise on the modal verb (will/may/might) or on the adverb (probably/possibly/definitely)? 2 Is it the same in negative statements? 3 Where does the stress fall in sentences using (un)likely?

c

4.5 )»Listen again

and repeat.

l1.im3 Work in small groups and discuss your ideas.

0

VOX POPS VIDEO 4

4.3 Vocabulary and skills development GOALS • Understand consonant-vowel linking •

Listening & Speaking

5

1 a Look carefully at the photo for one minute. Then close the

book and tell your partner as many things as possible that you remember seeing in the photo. b Work with a partner and discuss the questions.

2a 4.6 ))) Listen to two phrases. How many words do you hear? 2

b What happens to the words when you say them at normal

speed?

c

4.7 )»Read and listen

to the information in the Unlock the code box about consonant-vowellinking.

.l!_ UNLOCK THE CODE understanding consonant-vowel linking

a

When one word finishes in a consonant, and the next word begins with a vowel (or the other way round), the consonant often becomes 'attached' to the vowel. This means that it is difficult to hear the correct words: The person you are listening to actually said: I'll ask her /relres.b /, but you hear: Alaska. While you are listening, you have to check that what you hear makes sense in the situation.

3a 4.8 ))) Listen to six phrases and write down what you hear. Compare what you have written with a partner. b

4

4.9 ))) Listen again

to the same phrases in sentences. Practise saying the phrases linking the words naturally. 4.10 ))) Listen to

an interview with Maurice, a person who hoards things, and answer the questions. 1 What kinds of things does Maurice hoard? 2 What does he keep in the garden? 3 How does his wife feel about it?

O.W Oxford 3000rM

4.10 )»Listen again and

complete the sentences from the

interview. 1 Ijust can't _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 2 I'm starting to _________ space. 3 They might one day. 4 I've _ _ _ _ _ _ _ newspapers, too, going back to 1995. 5 So your house must _________, then? 6 To be honest, she's not very happy. But _ _ _ _ _ _ ?

consonant-vowel linking

1 What adjectives would you use to describe the room? 2 Why do you think people hoard things in this way? 3 What would it be like to live with someone who did this?

understand idiomatic phrases about places

6

Work with a partner and discuss the questions. 1 What kinds of objects do you keep for a long time? 2 Why do you keep them? 3 Is your room/office/house tidy or untidy? 4 Do you get stressed when your living space is very untidy?

4.1

Vocabulary & Speaking idiomatic phrases

about places 7

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

9a Look at the photo. Can you use any of the idioms in exercise 7 to describe what you see?

Read the conversations. Choose a orb as the better meaning for the idiomatic phrases in bold. A How's the new job? Do you feel at horne yet? B I'm starting to. But I'm not used to working nine to five!

l

a feel healthy b feel relaxed and comfortable A I think we need to move to a bigger office. B I agree. We've run out of space here!

2

a We don't need more. b We've used it all. 3

A What's your journey to work like? B It's awful, we're packed in like sardines on the Tube. a uncomfortably crowded b smelling a lot A Do you live in the city centre? B Well, actually, we live miles from anywhere.

4

a in the suburbs b far from other people 5

A Are you sure you know how to get there? B Relax, I know this part of town like the back of my hand. a be very familiar with a place b be new to a place

6

A Have you lost something? B I can't find my glasses, I've looked all over the place. a everywhere in this room b in every room

7

A Have you heard? Carlo's buying a house. B Yes, he told me a while ago that he and Liza were thinking of settling down. a choosing a permanent home b buying a bigger house

8

Read the Vocabulary focus box.

VOCABULARY FOCUS idiomatic phrases It is often easier to learn idioms in a topic group; for example, places. I feel at home here. They're thinking of settling down.

They are generally fixed phrases. I've looked all over the place NOT I've looked ever all the 13/ace.

b 4.11 ))) Richard's friend Abby is visiting him on his first day in his new flat. Listen to the conversation. What problem did Richard have? c 4.11 )»Listen again. What do you think these phrases mean? • make yourself at home • make room • have (got) a lot of room • take up space • get rid of (something) 10a mm3 Complete these sentences so they are true for you. l 2 3 4 5

If your work space is in a mess, it's a sign ... It's important to make room in your life for ... The thing in my home I would most like to get rid of ... I don't/didn't want to settle down until ... The place I feel most at home is ...

b Work in small groups. Discuss your sentences and see what you have in common.

4.4 Speaking and writing Reading & Writing

avoiding repetition

1 a Read the description taken from a travel website. Which place in the

photos do you th ink it is describing?

T!ve T;a,tJ-ellef<'

BLOG

ABOUT

CONTACT US

Wandering through is like stepping back in time. Narrow streets and houses vvith orange-red roofs are surrounded by mountains and green fields. In spring the meadows are full of brightly coloured wild flowers. Perhaps the best view of the ancient city, and

the nearby countryside, is found by walking around the top of the medieval city walls. Still in excellent condition, they are a lovely place to walk, shaded by trees. Or enjoy the sunshine by strolling through the beautiful seventeenth-century gardens of the Parco Villa Reale. If you're lucky enough to visit on the third weekend of the month, don't

b Which paragraph ...?

miss the fascinating antique market, selling silver and brass, furniture and rare books. Fancy a picnic? Stop off at Forno A Vapore Amedeo Giusti for home-made sandwiches, made with tasty local produce. Or sit outside at Vineria I Santi and watch the world go by while you eat a variety of delicious snacks.

Essaouira, Morocco

a describes places to eat b describes what you can do there c describes how the place looks c Does the description make you want to go there? Why/Why not? 2

Read the information in the Language for writing box and answer the questions.

Make your descriptive writing more interesting by:

3a Read another description. Which place in the photos is being described this time?

• referring to the same thing with different phrases and words ... surrounded by mountains and green fields. In spring the meadows are full of brightly coloured wild flowers. • using a mixture of nouns and reference words ... walking around the top of the medieval city walls. Still in excellent condition, they provide a calm walkway, shaded by trees.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ is known as 'the windy city'. The buildings are mostly painted white, and there is a red-brick wall around the city.

• addressing the reader directly, using imperatives and questions ... enjoy the sunshine ... Fancy a picnic?

It is too windy at the beach to enjoy sunbathing, but the beach is very nice for surfers. The city is a relaxed place, and it is nice to walk around the streets. You can go shopping and buy nice things, such as boxes made from thuja wood .

• using a variety of adjectives narrow ancient tasty

You can eat nice food such as grilled sardines at Chez Sam. Chez Sam is at 'spor t.

fascinating

I Find two other words in the description which have the same meaning as 'walking'. 2 Find another word in the last paragraph which has the same meaning as 'delicious'. 3 List at least five adjectives used to add interest to the description. 4 Find three examples of imperatives addressing the reader.

b How could this description be improved? Discuss with a partner and write an improved version together. 4

Choose a place you know quite well and write a similar description, using the Language for writing box to help you.

4.1

Listening & Speaking 5

enquiries

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

Sa Put the conversation in the right order.

a Yes, that's right. It's in the basement. b Yes, just one last question. Do I need to take a towel with me, or are they provided? c Thank you. Could you tell me the opening hours, please? d Hello, I understand that the hotel has a gym? e It's open from 7 a.m. until9 p.m. f Hello, how can I help you? g Thank you, that's great. h Can I help you with anything else?

4.12 )»When you

travel, you often need to call people to make enquiries. Listen to someone making an enquiry and choose the correct situation.

• Asking about opening hours • Asking about lost property • Asking about hotel facilities

b

4.13 l)) Listen

1

and check your answers.

c Work with a partner and role-play the conversation the customer then has with the manager. 9a

1m3 Do a role-play with a partner. On your own, choose one ofthese situations. You have to check out of your hotel room at II a.m., but you are not leaving the city until4 p.m. You need somewhere to leave your luggage. Call the front desk of the hotel and ask for help. You work in a big company. You think you left your phone in the canteen at lunchtime. Call the main reception of the company and ask them to check. You have just started a course at your local college, but you now have a problem with the class time. You would prefer to study later or on a different day. Call the secretary and ask if you can change class.

6a How did the woman ask the waiter to check for her?

Tell a partner. A Check for me. B Could you check for me? C I wonder if you could check for me. b Work with a partner. Cross out the letters or words to make

true statements. I A I B I C is an instruction and the other two are polite enquiries. 2 A I B I C is the most polite form. 3 Polite forms in English often use more I fewer words and conditional I imperative forms. 7

Work with a partner. Ask politely, starting with I wonder if, ... 1 for a phone number. 2 for some information. 3 if someone can repeat what they said.

b Take turns to make your enquiries. Use the Language for speaking box to help you.

LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING making enquiries When we make enquiries, we generally use polite forms in English. Dealing with enquiries

How can 1help you? could 1just check some details? Can I help you with anything else? Making enquiries

could you check this number for me? 1wonder if you could check this number for me. Just one last question.

4.5 Video Songdo 1

Work with a partner. Discuss the meaning of the phrases in bold. Find examples of some of these phrases in the photos. Inmytown, ... a you can see a lot of large property development projects at the moment. b many people use environmentally friendly forms of transport such as walking or cycling. c designers are developing cutting-edge technology to help keep pollution levels low. d there are fast transport links to the country's other main cities.

2

Tell your partner if you think the sentences in exercise 1 are true (T) or false (F) about your hometown. Why?

3

0

Watch the video. Answer the questions.

a Why did city planners decide to develop a new city? b How is Songdo different to many other cities?

0

Watch again. Complete the summary with the words in the box.

4

businesses university park space waste and rubbish land pollution City developers are building Songdo on 1 which was underwater until some years ago. There are plenty of green spaces in the city, and there is a large 2_ _ _ __ in the centre with skyscrapers all around it. Property developers have built 80,000 new homes as well as schools and a 3 . The city aims to watch 4_ _ _ __ levels carefully by using technology to measure energy use and car use. Designers are also planning a system which will soon use the population's 5 to generate renewable energy. Families like living here because there is so much 6 . Planners also hope that they will soon see more 7 in Songdo when transport links with seoul are even faster. songdo is a city of the future, and it could become a model for many other cities around the world.

Sa

11'.mi3

Work with a partner. Student A lives in Songdo and loves it. Student B has a small business and young family, and is thinking of moving to Songdo. Discuss whether or not Student B should move to Songdo.

b Work with another pair and compare your ideas.

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

Review 1 a Complete the replies with the correct

3a Choose the best words to complete the text.

form of will or going to and the verbs in brackets. l

2

3 4

5

6

b Tell your partner about some plans you

have already made about: • holidays • work or study • celebrations 2a Choose the correct options to complete

the sentences. l

2 3

4 5 6

In 1998 British artist Richart Sowa created his first artificial island. He filled nets with empty plastic bottles, covered them with wood and 1 , and then planted mangrove plants. The island had a twostorey house and three 2_ _ __ where Sowa could relax and sunbathe. Unfortunately, the island was destroyed by a hurricane in 2005, but Sowa has now built an even better one, with two sea-water 3 and even a solar-powered 4 . His house also has a washing machine powered by the 5_ _ __ Sowa believes that 6 islands could be built on rivers, 7 and oceans all over the world, saving space, and meaning that people's homes would be safe when the level of the water rose.

A I just can't do this maths problem. B Don't worry, I (help) you. A Can you lend me £20? B I suppose so. A Thanks, I promise I _ _ __ (give) it back next week. A I'm starting college next week. B Really? What (study)? A Have you got any plans for your birthday? B Yes, I (have) a big party. A Why have you got your coat on? B I (get) a few groceries we need from the supermarket. A You look tired. B Yes, you're right. I think I _ _ __ (go) to bed now.

I might I I'm not likely to get a new car soon. My old one is 10 years old now. I'll probably I I'm going to go out tonight, but I haven't quite decided yet. I'm definitely going to I I'm going definitely to live abroad one day. I may I won't move house soon. It's too expensive at the moment. I will likely I definitely visit Bolivia one day. I probably won't I won't probably move to another city. I like living here.

b Change three of the sentences so they are true for you. Discuss your sentences with a partner.

l

2 3

4

5 6 7

a a a a a a a

season peaks pools coast waves fresh peaks

b b b b b b b

sand canals rocks sand beaches steep lakes

c c c c c c c

sea beaches cliffs waterfall forests floating greenery

b Would you like to live on an island like this? Work with a partner and think of three advantages and three disadvantages of living there. 4a Read the conversation between a receptionist (R) and a guest (G) and

complete each sentence with up to four words. R Hello, Grand Hotel. 1 you? G Hello, I think I may have left my briefcase at reception this morning. if it's been handed in? I wonder 2 R Certainly. Could I 3 some 4 ? What colour was it? G It's black, and it has my initials on it, MHG, Miguel Hernandez Garcia. R Thank you ... one moment ... Yes, we have it. G That's great. I 5 I could come and pick it up this evening? R Yes, any time. Can I help you with 6 ? G No, that's all. Thank you fo r your help, though. I really 7

b 4.14 )»Listen and check your answers.

c Have the conversation with a partner. Close your book and try to remember it.

Entertainment 5.1

Universally popular? GOALS •

vocabulary & Listening 1

2

going to the movies

What are your favourite kinds of films? • • • •

action f ilms comedies musicals thrillers

-ing form and infinitive with to

Talk about different genres of films •

• • • •

science fiction animated films rom cams horror films

Work with a partner. Look at the film posters. What kind of film do you think each one is? Which film would you probably prefer to see? Why?

3

5.1 ))) Listen to a review of both films and answer the

questions. l Which genre/kind does the reviewer say each film is? 2 Which film does the reviewer prefer? 3 Which film has won a prize?

4a Complete the sentences with the words/phrases in the box.

THE SECRET LIFE OF WALTER MITTY action hero actors cast (n) character performance plays (v) remake (n) scenes special effects stars (v) l

Ben Stiller

in the film The Secret

Life of Walter Mitty.

2 The film is a/an of a film made in 1947. 3 He the part of the main _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _,Walter Mitty. who 4 Mitty dreams of being a/an rescues people from dangers. 5 The filmed in Iceland and the Himalayas have amazing and show Mitty doing apparently impossible things. 6 Although there are several very good _ _ _ _ _ __ in the Stiller's _ _ _ _ __ is the best. b Complete the sentences with the words/phrases in the box.

fZIO 20CJ6: A/TOfZY OF LOVE AN r FU rzy animated

characters plot (n) set (v)

voiced

l Rio 2096: A Story ofLove and .Fury is a/an _ _ _ __ film, which is in three different periods of Brazil's history. are _ _ _ _ _ __ 2 The main by Brazilian actors, Selton Mello and Camila Pitanga. 3 The is quite difficult to follow if you don't know about Brazilian history. c Have you changed your mind about which film you would prefer to see? Why/Why not? Discuss your reasons with a partner.

O.W Oxford 3000™

5.1

5.3

5.4

5.5

7a Work with a partner. Complete the description of the plot of Stepping on the Flying Grass, a film from Indonesia, by choosing t he correct form of the verb. In some sentences, both forms are possible.

-ingform and

Grammar & Speaking

5.2

infinitive with to Sa Look at the extracts from the review and choose the correct form of t he verbs: -ing or infinitive with to. Some verbs can take both forms. 1 Walter Mitty is a quiet man who secretly dreams of 2

3 4

5 6 7

8 9 10

being I to be an action hero. Soon, however, his adventures start becoming I to become real. He decides setting out I to set out on a journey to find a missing photographic negative. At the start of the film, we meet the main character, a Tupinamba Indian in Brazil, attempting saving I to save his tribe. After he fails saving I to save them and the woman he loves, he magically turns into a bird. He hopes being I to be with Janaina, the woman he loves, once more. We then see the couple living in 1825 and 1970 before returning I to return to the future in 2096. It is a disturbing future where poor people can't afford buying I to buy water. He and Janaina continue fighting I to fight against evil. The story is told with such passion that you can't help enjoying I to enjoy it.

A beautifu l f ilm about the dreams of village school children in rura l Indonesia, Stepping on the Flying Grass is both visually stunning and tru ly moving. When their teacher asked them to write an essay about their dearest dreams and wishes, a group of village schoolchildren begin 1 (think) seriously about 2 what they plan (do) with their lives. Puji enjoys 3

(be) useful and just wants 4 (help) others. Mei fant asizes about s_ __ (become) an actress. She spends hours practising in front of the mirror, but does she really love 6 (act), or is it actually her mot her's dream? Agus's fam ily can't afford 7 (eat) any special food at home, but he really wants s_ (eat) at an authentic Padang restaurant in the city. When an opportun ity arises to make some money, he decides 9 (make) his dream come true. As the film progresses, he gradually realizes that for dreams to come true you need 1o_ __ (work) at them.

b Check your answers with a partner. 6

Read the information in the Grammar focus box and complete the rules with verbs or prepositions from exercise 5 with a partner.

GRAMMAR FOCUS -ing and infinitive with to -ingform

b 5.2 ))) Listen and check your answers.

• After some verbs we use the -ing form of other verbs: avoid, imagine, finish, miss, recommend, suggest,

1 _ __

These include verbs expressing likes and dislikes:

8

verbs in brackets. Work with a partner. Ask and answer the questions.

can't stand, enjoy, feel/ike, hate, like, love, prefer

we also use the -ing form after prepositions: about, after, at, by, in, on, 2 3_ _ __

1 Do you avoid (watch) any particular genre of film? If so, which one? Why? 2 Are there any actors you really can't stand _ _ __ (watch)? Why/Why not? 3 Do you like (watch) films based on books that you have enjoyed (read)? Why/Why not? 4 Have you ever enjoyed a film you didn't expect _ _ __ (like)? Why did you change your mind? (think) is the most 5 What do you tend important: the plot, the cast or the script? Why? (see) in the 6 Are there any films you hope near future? Why do you want (see) them?

infinitive with to

• After some verbs we use the infinitive with to of other verbs. These include: afford, agree, aim, appear, expect, intend, manage, need, plan, seem, tend, want, would like, 4_ _ _ _J

5

6

7

8

both forms

• Some verbs can be followed by both -ing and infinitive wit h to, with little or no change in meaning (though note that we don't usually use two -ing forms next to each other): begin, can't stand, hate, like(= enjoy), love, prefer, 9

10

-+Grammar Reference page 144

llml3 Complete the questions w ith the correct form of the

0

VOX POPS VIDEO 5

5.2 Mosquito smasher! GOALS •

Describe a video game •

Use present perfect simple and past simple

vocabulary & Reading adjectives to

describe a video game 1

TECHNOLOGY

Work w ith a pa rtner or in sma ll groups and discuss the questions. • Do you play any games on your phone, computer or tablet? • Which adjectives could you use to describe any of the games?

Nigerian video games score highly Meet Sharp Sule! He works hard to make a living by dashing through the streets of Lagos, Nigeria on his bike, avoiding cars, trucks and potholes, while collecting the coins he needs to realize his dream of owning a bigger transport business.

amusing disappointing dull enjoyable entertaining intelligent ord inary original predictable silly surprising unexciti ng violent

PRONUNCIATION

word stress in longer words

In longer words with more than two syllables, it is important to put the stress on the correct syllable to be understood.

There are plenty of people just like Sharp Sule in Lagos, but he's actually a character in an original new video game, designed, as Hugo Obi, founder of M aliyo Games, says, 'to showcase African culture to the world, through games'.

2a Put the adjectives in exercise 1 with more than two syllables into the colu mns according to the stress pattern.

•••

•••

••••

••••

c:!!WtUSL~

b 5.3 )»Listen, check and repeat.

3

Read the article and answer the questions. I Why is the video games industry growing so fast in Nigeria? 2 What is special about the games produced by Maliyo Games? 3 Which adjectives does the writer use to describe video games?

I

Over the past few years, a growing middle class that is looking for entertainment has resulted in Nigerian movies and music sweeping across the continent, as su b-Saharan Africa becomes increasingly connected online. Now game publishers hope to achieve the same success. Last year N igerians bought an astonishing 21.5 million mobile phones, so more and more people are looking for entertaining apps and games. The global video game industry is now worth $66 billion - more t han Hollywood- but so far many of the games produced have been rather unexciting and predictable. In contrast, Maliyo aims to produce something clever, amusing, and definitely African. As well as Sharp Sule, Maliyo has also recent ly produced another highly enjoyable game, Mosquito Smasher. Like many video games, it's quite violent - but the only things that get hurt are the mosquitos, a constant irritation in Lagos and in many other countries around the world. In fact, the games do seem to have a worldwide appeal. European companies have already copied Mosquito Smasher and Nigerian company Gamsole, which a few mont hs ago became the first in the region to gain more than 1 million app downl oads, said most of its fans log in from Brazil, India and the US.

O.W Oxford 3000™

5.1

Grammar & Speaking present perfect

5.4

5.5

Read a blog about living in New York and choose the correct form of the verbs.

Look at these extracts from the article. Which of the verbs in bold a re about a specific, finished time in the past and which are about unfinished time?

ABOUT EVENTS BLOG

1 Over the past few years, a growing middle class that is looking for entertainment has resulted in Nigerian movies a nd m usic sweeping across the continent, as sub-Saharan Africa is becoming increasingly connected online. 2 Last year Nigerians bought an astonishing 21.5 million mobile phones, so more and more people are looking for entertaining apps and games. 5

5.3

6a The article on page 48 is about daily life in Lagos, Nigeria.

simple and past simple 4

5.2

~

SEARCH

[email protected]

••

BLDG ENTRY /26 JULY 1

I've lived I /lived in New York for about three years now. It's an exciting place to live, but there are quite a few annoying things about it, too. For a start, it's incredibly expensive. When 2 I've moved I I moved into my flat three years ago, the rent was already quite high, but it 3 has gone up I went up three times since then .

Read the Grammar focus box and choose the correct options to complete the rules.

It can also be quite a violent place. 4 / haven't been I I wasn't mugged yet, but my best friend has. Luckily, she wasn't actually hurt; s they've just taken I they just took her bag.

GRAMMAR FOCUS time expressions w ith present perfect and past simple We use the present perfect to talk about • 1 finished 1 unfinished time periods

And the traffic- it's dreadful. It 6 has taken I took me more than an hour to get to work today, and nearly as long to get home.

so far many of the games produced have been rather unexciting ...

However, 7 I've never lived I I never lived anywhere where there is so much to do. Over the past month s I've been I I went to the theatre three times, as well as to a number of great art exhibitions. 9 I've a/so just I I a/so just started salsa classes. You can find everything from everywhere here.

• a past action with a 2 past I present result

European companies have copied Mosquito Smasher ... Other time expressions often used with the present perfect:

ever, for, just, never, since, yet we use the past simple for 3 finished 1 unfinished time periods.

So, although living in New York has some bad points, on balance I don't think I want to live anywhere else in the world.

Last year Nigerians bought an astonishing 2.5 million mobile phones ... Other time expressions often used with the past simple:

last, in January, on Wednesday, recently, when, yesterday

-+ Grammar Reference page 145

b 5.4 })) Listen and check your answers. 7a

mm3 Work in small groups. Describe the positive or negative features of a video game you know that you would include in a video game like Sharp Sule. If you don't know a video game, make one up.

b Use the questions below to plan a video game and present your idea to other students. • Who is/are the main character(s}? Give them some background. • What do they have to do in the video game? • what adjectives cou ld you use to describe your video game and make it attractive to people?

c Describe the video game.

5.3 Vocabulary and skills development GOALS • Understand linkers •

Reading & Speaking

use extreme adjectives

understanding linkers

1 The kids are in bed, the house is quiet, and my wife and I turn on the TV. What's on? It doesn't really matter, because thirty seconds later, I'm working on my laptop. Meanwhile my wife is on Facebook on her phone. This is a typical evening in our house. And what's more, it's how many of us watch TV. The second screen is part of modern-day life, especially for young people. 2 A second screen can be a tablet, a smartphone, a laptop or a hand-held gaming unit used whilst watching TV. Smartphone and tablet owners in particular are very keen on second-screen viewing. People use second screens to look at things that are related to or totally different from what they are watching on TV.

comments 1

Work in small groups and discuss the questions. •

How much TV do you watch on average each day?



Do you do anything else while you are watching TV?

2a Look at the headline and the photo and discuss what you think the art icle is about.

1 2 3 4

adding information emphasizing something saying two things happen at the same time giving both sides of the argument

b Read the informati on i n the Unlock the code box about linkers to check your answers.

£! II

The more ways we have to interact with people the better- it's absolutely essential we are accessible al l the time, especially I what's more with a job li ke mine, where customers email at all hours of the day and night.

2

If you ask me, it is extremely rude. Nobody talks to each other any more. My son plays games all day. Meanwhile I As well my daughter spends her days chatting online. It's absolutely infuriating.

3

On the one hand I In addition, I don't like the idea of constantly looking at screens, but on the other, I must admit that unless the programme is absolutely fascinating, I tend to check email s and messages while I watch .

we use linkers to organize information when we speak and write. They are like signposts and have different purposes: • adding information: as well, what's more • saying two things happen at the same time: meanwhile • emphasizing: above all, especially • giving both sides of the argument: on the one hand

c

4

Read the three comments on the article above and choose the correct options.

5

Read the whole article and answer the questions. Check your answers with a partner.

UNLOCK THE CODE

linkers

Read the rest of the art icle. Add the highlighted phrases to the categories in exercise 3a.

O.W Oxford 3000™

V

1

b Read paragraphs 1 and 2 and check your ideas. 3a Work with a partner and look at the highlighted expressions i n paragraph 1. Which phrases are linkers for ...?

Like · Comment · Share

1 What two types oftechnology are used most for second-screen viewing? 2 What kind of people like second-screen viewing? 3 In which countries are second screens most popular? And least? 4 What is the advantage of second-screen viewing? 5 What is the main disadvantage of second-screen viewing?

5.1

Vocabulary & Speaking 6

extreme adjectives

8

3 A recent study carried out in Brazil, Germany, Russia, the UK, and the USA showed that viewers use second screens to chat (72%); to follow/li ke programmes (57%); to share posts (61 %); to watch clips (61%); to find information (66%); and for gaming (49%). In addition, the study found that Brazilian viewers used second screens the most, while those in Germany used them the least.

PRONUNCIATION

3 good 4 important 5 interesting 6 difficult 7 scary

essential terrifying awful infuriating impossible brilliant fascinating

b Which adjectives are stronger? c Read the information in the Vocabulary focus box about extreme adjectives to check your answers. VOCABULARY FOCUS extreme adjectives •

Use extreme adjectives when you want to make the meaning of the adjective much stronger: bad~ awful; difficult~ impossible; annoying~ infuriating; important ~ essential; interesting~ fascinating; scary~ terrifying

• To make extreme adjectives sound even stronger, use absolutely: The game was absolutely brilliant. • With non-extreme adjectives, use very, or extremely: The film was extremely scary

extreme adjectives

9a 5.5 l)) Listen to the sentences and underline the stressed syllables in the adverbs and adjectives in bold. 1 2 3 4 5 6

meaning. a b c d e f g

5.5

When we use extreme adjectives, we stress both the adverb and the adjective.

7a Match adjectives 1-7 to adjectives a- gwhich have a similar

1 bad 2 annoying

5.4

1 I can't walk any further. I'm absolutely exhausted. I'll have to sit down. 2 She was absolutely amazed when she saw her sister standing at the front door. They hadn't seen each other for ten years. 3 That smells absolutely delicious. I love the smell of garlic. What are you cooking? 4 It's absolutely astonishing. This is the first time you haven't been late this year! 5 I can't carry that. It's absolutely enormous. I'll need some help to get it up the stairs. 6 Put the heater on. It's absolutely freezing in here.

1 It's absolutely infuriating. 2 ... the programme is absolutely fascinating ...

Like · Comment · Share V

5.3

Work with a partner. Here are some more extreme adjectives. Can you work out what the underlined adjectives mean?

Look at sentences 1- 2 from the comments in exercise 4. How does the writer feel? Which words does he/she use to express his/her feelings?

4 Of course, second screens are both good and bad for TV companies. On the one hand, they can take our attention away from the TV. On the other hand, they can improve our viewing experience with interesting information and chat. One thing is for sure: with apps and social med ia on the rise, the second screen is here to stay.

5.2

I'm absolutely exhausted. She was absolutely amazed. That smells absolutely delicious. It's absolutely astonishing. It's absolutely enormous. It's absolutely freezing in here.

b Practise the stress. c 5.6 l)) Now listen to the sentences in exercise 8 and practise them, stressing the extreme adverbs and adjectives. 10

I:Zi.m3

Work in small groups. What is your reaction in these situations? Why? Use some extreme adjectives to express how you feel. • You are having a mea l with a friend who keeps looking at his/her phone and sending messages. • You settle down t o watch your favourite TV programme and a friend calls you . • A friend invites you to dinner, but leaves the TV on and keeps watch ing while you are eating. • Your flatmate wants to play noisy video games, but you want to watch a TV documentary.

5.4 Speaking and writing GOALS • Write a film review • compare and recommend

Reading & Writing

3a Read the information in the Language for writing box

a film review

about contract linkers.

1a You are going to read a review of the classic American film, The Shawshank Redemption, based on a book by Stephen

King. What information do you expect to find in the review?

2

we use the following linkers to show that things are different. Although/Even though Although 1don't like action films, !loved this one.

b Compare your ideas with a-e below.

a the writer's opinion b the plot/storyline c the name of the director

LANGUAGE FOR WRITING contrast linkers

d who stars in the film e whether the book is better than the film

Read the review and match the information from the review (a- e) to the paragraph it is in.

Despite/In spite of Despite seeing the film twice, 1still didn't understand the ending. However However, !loved the rest of the film.

b Underline the linkers and what follows them in the review.

Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4

Reviews

The Best Film of All Time? What is your favourite film of all time? We are inviting fans to post reviews this month. Then you can vote for your favourite. 1 The Shawshank Redemption was directed by Frank Darabont and is based on a novel by Stephen King. Starring Tim Robbins and Morgan Freeman, the film is surprisingly sad in places, but essential ly, it is a positive story about friendship and hope. Despite failing at the box office when it was originally released in 1994, it has now become a modern classic. 2 The film is set in the late 1940s in the USA. Tim Robbins plays Andy Dufresne, a banker who is falsely sent to prison for killing his wife. At first, Andy finds prison life difficult. However, he soon makes friends with another prisoner, Ellis 'Red' Redding (Morgan Freeman), who is in for life. Andy gets a job in the prison library and helps with the prison's finances. This changes everything for Andy and allows him to spend years planning the surprising events at the end of the film. 3 Darabont makes few changes to King's original novel, and manages to make the end result even more exciting than the book. Thomas Newman's soundtrack creates an exciting atmosphere throughout the film. Director: Cast:

Frank Darabont Tim Robbins, Morgan Freeman

Release date: 1994

4 The Shawshank Redemption is terrific entertainment. Freeman's performance is very moving, and Tim Robbins gives one of his best performances of his career. Although the film is a little slow in places, the end is absolutely brilliant and I highly recommend it to everyone.

5.1

4

Complete the extracts from a review of the film One Day with the correct contrast linkers. Then check with a partner.

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

5.7 >))Listen to extracts from conversations about music and

7

entertainment and answer the questions. Conversation I Which statistic surprises one of the speakers? Conversation 2 Do they both want to watch the programme about the environment? Conversation 3 What doesn't the speaker recommend? 5.7 >))Listen again and complete the sentences. Which

8

phrases tell you what the speaker's opinion is? 1 The statistics look much _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 2 That _ _ _ _ _ _ __ that if you have to go to work the 3 next day! Complete the sentences with phrases from the Language for speaking box to express what you think about these topics, and finish the sentences so they are true for you. 1 going to 3D versions of films ... 2 _________ sitting through a whole opera ... 3 _________ sure that I like jazz ... 4 The first time I went to a live concert _ _ _ _ __ 5 Listening to recorded music is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

9

One Day is a story about love and friendship based on David Nicholls' very successful novel. The two main characters, Emma and Dexter (Anne Hathaway and Jim Sturgess) meet at university and become friends 1 they grow apart during the next few years. The story follows them on the same day every year ...

LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING comparing and recommending Comparing It's nothing like as good as ... 1expected it to be ... , but it's not really. It's more/less .. . than 1 thought it would be.

Sturgess p lays the upper-class Dexter with great ski ll. 2 , Hathaway's performance is the best in the film , 3 her terrible English accent.

Recommending (or not) I'd really recommend you see/hear/watch ... 1wouldn't recommend it. I'm not at all sure about that. I'm pretty sure that 1 ... It's really/not worth + noun or+ -ing It sounds/looks ... great/fantastic/awful/boring ...

Nicholls' novel was a charming, clever romantic comedy about how the world has changed over the past twenty years. 4 it is not as brilliant as the novel, the fi lm One Day is still funny, entertain ing and worth seeing.

Sa Think about a film you have recently enjoyed. Make notes

on the film using the points from exercise lb and the language in the Language for writing box on page 52.

mm3

Use the phrases in exercises 8 and 9 and the Language for speaking box to make notes for a short talk on one of these topics or one of your own. • My favourite music • A film/TV series 1really enjoyed/really didn't enjoy • A great video game

b Write a review of the film.

Listening & Speaking

10a

comparing and

recommending

b Work in small groups. Talk for a minute on your topic.

c Listen to the person talking and ask questions to find out 6

Work with a partner and discuss the questions. 1 When do you like to listen to music? 2 Is there one film you think everyone should see? Why? 3 What TV programmes do you never miss? Why?

more information.

5.5 Video Film studies 1 a You are a film production student and you want to make

a movie. When would you usually do each ofthese tasks? Put the tasks in the correct column. add music/special effects direct the actors edit the scene mix the sound record the sound shoot the film write the script Before filming

During filming

After filming

b Which of these tasks can you see in the photos?

0

Watch the video. Complete the course details with the words in the box.

2

jobs places process semesters stages years

.

Name of course: Filwt produaiovt.- course. Length of course: 2

1_ _ _ __

Number of 2_ _ _ _ _ : 4 Number of 3

:

25

Aim of course: during the course, you will be involved in all of the 4 of the film-makings and you will get valuable work experience doing many of the 6 you can find in the modern-day film industry.

0

Watch again. Choose the correct options to complete the sentences.

3

a These days it is common for people to have I want a job in the film industry. b The City College of New York is now I has always been a free university for poorer students. c Classes are always fun I usually full because there are just twenty-five places on each course. d At the end of the course, students will get a degree I begin to work in film production. 4a

illl3 Work with a partner. You are going to create a general knowledge quiz about the film industry. First, write down the name of a famous ... • f ilm

• actor

• director

b Write five questions using your ideas from exercise 4a.

c Work with another pair. Read your general knowledge quiz to each other. Can you answer all the questions?

I

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

Review 1 a Complete the statements with the correct form of the verbs

3

in brackets. 1 I tend _________ (prefer) watching a film to reading a book. 2 I can't stand (watch) horror films. 3 Once I've started a film I always carry on _________ (watch) it to the end, even ifl don't like it. 4 When I see well-known actors are in a film, I always expect (enjoy) watching it. (find) the time to 5 I never seem watch many films. (be) 6 If I got the chance, I'd like in a film.

action hero animated based on character plot starring The Wind Rises is a/an 2

main 3 Horikoshi, and the 4 account of his life. actors cast plays special effects

2a Choose the correct options to complete the text.

Animated films used to be clearly aimed at the under tens. But in the 1990s, Pixar, Dreamworks and other companies 1 has started I started to make films which 2 has appealed I appealed to both kids and adults. Take Toy Story, for example, which 3 has become I became a top-selling film as soon as it was released, and 4 has made I made $361 mi llion since then . A relatively new development, however, is animated films which are actually for adults. Hayao Miyazaki, for example, 5 has become I became world-famous in recent years for films such as Spirited Away. His latest film, The Wind Rises, 6 has been I was one of the Best Animated Feature Film nominees for the Oscars this year, alongside the more usual children's films.

1

fi lm, a short story by Tatsuo Hori. The is an aircraft designer, Jiro is basically an

performances scenes

The 5 of The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel are all very well -known 6 , and their 7 have generally been highly praised, especially that of Judi Dench, who s a recently widowed housewife.

b Which of these statements are true for you? Discuss with a partner.

Animated films for grown-ups

Complete the two texts with the words in each box. In each case there are two words you do not need.

4

Divide the adjectives in the box into those that have a positive meaning and those that have a negative one. amusing clever disappointing dull enjoyable entertaining ordinary original pred ictable silly surprising unexciting violent

Sa 5.8 l)) Listen to six sentences. Rewrite each sentence

you hear to make it stronger. Either change the normal adjective to an extreme adjective, or use a modifier. b Compare your sentences with a partner. Check that

together you have at least two different ways of making each sentence stronger. 6a 5.9 »)Listen to some negative opinions about a film and

complete the sentences with up to three words. 1 2 3 4 5

It was good as I expected it to be. It's really not _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ I it. I'm you wouldn't like it. It was much less interesting _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

b Work with a partner. Change each phrase to make it positive.

c Tell your partner about a film or TV programme you have b Do you enjoy animated films? Why/Why not? Discuss with a partner.

seen using some of the phrases (positive or negative). Talk for 1-2 minutes each. Try to use as many of the adjectives and opinion phrases as possible.

In control? 6.1

Man and machine GOALS • Talk about machines in our lives • use defining and non-defining relative clauses

vocabulary & Reading

machines

Do you prefer to be a passenger or the driver in a car. Why?

1

2a Complete paragraphs 1 and 2 in the online car magazine

article with the words in the box. brake (v) busy traffic driverless lane park (v) steering wheel

1

motorway

b Complete paragraphs 3 and 4 of the article with the words and phrases in the box. accidents at speed injured junctions overtake (v) speed limit traffic lights traffic jams

c

6.1

)»Listen and check your answers.

d Which words and phrases are illustrated in the photos?

What is happening at the junction?

Your car is now in charge: driverless cars are already here. 1 Driving along the 2 in 3_ _ _ __ the driver presses a button on the 4 _ _ _ __ The car is now driving itself. 2 This may sound like science fiction, but driverless cars are already on the roads in California. Many cars can already 5 themselves by the side of automatically when the car the road, 6 needs to slow down, and warn the driver if they are slipping out of the correct 7 , so going driverless is just the next step. 3 Driverless cars come with fast broadband, allowing them to 8 other cars safely, and even communicate with 9 as they approach 1o . Being stuck in 11 could become a thing of the past, as driverless cars will be able to drive 12 much closer to each other. 4 More than fifty million people die or are 13_ _ _ __ in road 14 every year, and 90% of these accidents are caused by human error. Google's driverless car sticks to the 15 and doesn't get tired. So wouldn't it be much safer if all cars were driverless?

3a Work with a partner. Answer the questions on advantages

and disadvantages of driverless cars. 1 Would driverless cars actually reduce busy traffic or traffic jams? Why/Why not? 2 Would they reduce the number of people injured in accidents? Why/Why not? 3 Who might particularly benefit from not having to hold a steering wheel or use the pedals? 4 Would you trust the car's computer with your life?

b Work with another pair and compare your ideas.

O.W Oxford 3000TM

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

Grammar & Speaking defining and

non-defining relative clauses 4

Read comments a-c. Are they for or against driverless cars?

G) Ecco254

a

I hate commuting to work- it's so stressful. 1 Having a car that drives itself would be wonderful for me, and 2 anyone else who has to drive a lot. but doesn't enjoy it. I must spend about 15 hours a week driving. 3 Think of all the extra time that I could use to check my emails or read a book.

G) Dobs

b

G)

@Lucyloop - People were worried about seat belts too at one t imet 4 MY cousin,_ who has actually been in one of these cars. said he felt perfectly safe, and so would I.

Sa Read the information in the Grammar focus box and match examples 1-6 in exercise 4 to a-fin the box.

c

ltsme22

Driverless cars would provide transport to people who can't drive themselves, such as b li nd people or those who are physically disabled. 5 My own P-hysical disability, which I have had since birth. means that I wil l never be able to drive a 'real' car, so a driverless car could really change my life. 6 It would also be great for people whose eyesight has got worse with age, or who have simply lost confidence in their driving.

6a 6.2 )» Complete the extract from a newsp aper article with the correct rel ative pronouns. Sometimes no relative pronoun is necessary. Listen and check your answers.

GRAMMAR FOCUS defining and non -defining relative clauses

TECHNOLOGY

• we use defining relative clauses to identify who or what we are talking about.

Intelligent machines 1_ _ __ can serve us in supermarkets, give us directions and even drive for us Amazon drone are becoming part of all our lives. 2 Some of the things _ _ __ machines can do now would have seemed impossible just a few years ago. And there's more to come. Amazon will deliver our promises robot drones 3 packages, and Rolls-Royce says robo-ships, 4_ _ __ won't need any crew, wil l soon be sailing our seas.

a _ _ _ __ 1 Who or that- for people 2 Which or that- for things b _ _ _ __ 3 Whose - for possessions c _ _ _ __ we can leave out the relative pronoun if it is the object of the verb. d _ _ __

• we use non-defining relative clauses to give extra information. It is already clear who or what we are talking about. 1 Who (NOT t+lat) - for people

e _ _ __

2 Which- for things we use commas around the relative clause, to show that it is extra information.

But what will this mean for our workers? Some think that only people 5 skills are better than the machines' abilities will have work. Those 6_ _ __ don't have high-level skills risk being unemployable, or will have to work for very low wages.

-+Grammar Reference page 146 b Look at the sentence Think ofall the extra time that I could use to check my emails or read a book. What does 'that' refer to? Why can it be left out?

b Decide which exampl es in the article are defining relative clauses and which are non-defining.

c 7a

Compare answers with a partner.

ll&i3

Work with a partner. Make two lists, one of arguments for an d one of arguments against intelligent machines.

b Work with another pair. One pair should argue in favour of intelligent machines, the other should argue against. Which arguments are most convincing?

6.2 Controlling the weather? GOALS • Talk about the climate and extreme weather • Talk about recent events and changes

vocabulary & Speaking

climate and extreme weather

1 a Look at the photos and use the words in the box to

PRONUNCIATION

compound nouns

describe what you can see. 2a Look at the compound nouns in the box and divide them

climate change crop damage destroyed housing decrease/increase in rainfall drought fires floods global warming heatwave high temperatures landslide strong winds tropical storms water shortages

into two columns, according to which word carries the main stress: the first or the second. climate change global warming strong winds tropical storms water shortages crop damage

b Do you think climate change and extreme weather events

b 6.3 )»Listen and check your answers.

are caused by global warming?

c Work with a partner. Think about what part of speech each

c Put the rest of the words into the correct column. Extreme weather events

Effects/Consequences of extreme weather events

word is, e.g. noun or adjective, and work out a rule. 3

Work in small groups. Discuss these questions. Do you think the weather has been getting worse in recent years? Why/Why not? 2 Do you think anything can be done to control extreme weather? If yes, what? l

O.W Oxford 3000TM

6.1

present perfect simple and continuous

Grammar & Listening

b 6.5 )»Listen to the rest ofthe interview and answer the questions. What is cloud seeding? Why doesn't cloud seeding work well in drought areas? How can cloud seeding help prevent hurricanes? Why do people worry about using cloud seeding? What solution have scientists in Geneva found?

Look at these extracts from the interview and answer the questions.

~ it seems that one group of scientists has found a

a

6.4

6.5

In recent years, there 1 (be) a noticeable increase in extreme weather events. Many scientists now agree that c limate change 2 (cause) this increase. The science correspondent in the programme 3_ _ _ __ (just finish) researching ways in which scientists around the world 4 (try) to artificially control or change weather patterns. These scientists s (explore) various techniques, including cloud seeding, over the past few years. However, many people are worried about putting chemicals into the atmosphere. Recently one team of scientists in Geneva 6 (discover) a way to use lasers to control the weather.

scientists researching ways to control the weather?

5

6.3

7a Complete the summary of the listening with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.

4a 6.4 )»Listen to the start of a radio interview. Why are

1 2 3 4 5

6.2

b 6.6 l)) Listen and check your answers.

l_solution.' 8 b

'Professor Jean-Pierre Wolf and Dr Jerome Kasparian ... have been experimenting with using lasers to control the weather.'

Read the news item and discuss with a partner. What kind of solutions might be possible?

world NEWS

1 Which action began in the past and is still continuing? 2 Which action was completed at some point before now?

WORLD

6a Add t he two examples in exercise 5 to the correct place in the Grammar focus box.

BUSINESS

WEATHER

SPORTS

World News > Thailand

v

Statistics fro m Thailand 's Meteorological Department show that in the last four decades, average temperatures in the country's nort h-east region have steadil y increased. In addition, the s eas onal rains have been arriving later and later over the last ten years. Crops have died from water s hortages.

GRAMMAR FOCUS present perfect simple and continuous • we use the present perfect simple for completed actions which happened at some point before now and still have an influence on the present. Subject+ have/has + past participle 1

However, although the problem is very serious, local people have begun to find new and imaginative solutions.

• we use the present perfect continuous for unfinished actions which started in the past and continue up to now. It often answers the question How long ...? subject+ have/has + been + present participle 2

We don't generally use present perfect continuous with state verbs, such as be, have and know.

9

different rice farmers from Thailand. Student A, turn to page 128. Student B, turn to page 133.

-+Grammar Reference page 147

b Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. (rise) over 1 It now seems clear that temperatures the past decades, and the trend looks likely to continue. 2 Clearly if changes in weather patterns _ _ __ (happen) as a result, we should be trying to prevent further warming. 3 Many scientists (study) the effects of global warming on weather patterns and (publish) the results of this research.

m1'SI3 Work with the same partner. Read about two

0

VOX POPS VIDEO 6

6.3 Vocabulary and skills development GOALS •

Listening & Speaking

Recognize linkers in conversation • understand and use adjective suffixes

linkers in conversation

111111111

b 6.8 )»Listen and complete the extracts. , somewhere where the weather

l

is a bit more reliable. 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , I'm sure the challenge keeps you healthy. 3 , we've just booked two weeks exploring the lakes and volcanoes of Nicaragua. I can't wait ... 1

In a recent survey in the UK, people talked about the items they couldn't live without. Look at the infographic and discuss the information with a partner. Do the results surprise you? 2 Do you think the results would be different in your country? 3 What do you think would be in the top ten? l

2a 6.7 )»Listen to someone being asked what she couldn't

live without. What does she answer?

3a What do you think the meaning/use of each m issing

phrase is in exercise 2b? Discuss with a partner. b 6.9 ))) Read and listen to the information in the Unlock the code box about linkers in conversation to check your answers.

.{! UNLOCK THE CODE II linkers in conversation we use linkers to show how ideas are connected and to help listeners to follow the conversation. For example: • to get someone's attention we may say actually, in fact • to paraphrase we may say in other words, to put it another way, what 1mean is

• to return to a previous topic we may say as 1was saying, anyway, anyhow

O.W Oxford 3000TM

6.1

4

Which sentence a-d follows 1-4 most logically? 1 2 3 4

I wear a lot of make-up to feel confident. I also think it will cost too much money. I think you should always try something new. I hate waiting at bus stops or in train stations.

a What I mean is, I'm a bit impatient. b In other words, don't stick with the same old things you'll get old before you should. c Actually, I never leave home without putting it on. I just don't want people to see me without it. d Anyway, to get back to the point, I don't agree with the idea at all. 5a 6.10 )»Listen to four more speakers. What items can't they

live without? b 6.10 )»Listen again and complete the extracts. Speaker 1: , I'm in charge. Speaker 2: , I usually wear flat ones to get to the event. Speaker 3: , where is it? I had it a moment ago, wait it must be ... Speaker 4: , I think the real reason I love it so much is ... 6a Work in small groups. Discuss the things you feel you can't live without. Give your reasons, using the phrases in the Unlock the code box on page 60. b Make a list of the top five things you can't live without.

vocabulary & Speaking

adjective suffixes

7 a Look at these sentences from the listening in exercise 5 and underline the adjectives. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Get nervous about catching the tra in. 1 find it very stressful. They're rather uncomfortable. 1 only wear them to specia l events. It reminds me of all the happy times I had ... I'd be helpless without it.

b How do you know they are adjectives? Read the Vocabulary focus box and check your answers. VOCABULARY FOCUS adjective suffixes We can make adjectives from verbs and nouns by adding suffixes. some of the most common adjective suffixes are: -ful -+ careful, cheerful -less-+ helpless, careless -ous -+ dangerous, nervous -able -+ washable, sociable, reliable -a/ -+ musical, practical -y-+ cloudy, dusty

8

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

Add the correct suffix to complete the adjectives in these sentences. -al

-y -ous -able -fu l -less

1 Eating chips is not very health._ __ 2 Mobile phones used to be really enorm___. Now they're much smaller and lighter. . We could 3 Most of our possessions are replace live comfortably with a lot less. 4 She's really music . She can play three different instruments, and sing. . All the 5 This guidebook is completely use information is out of date. 6 My shoes may not be fashion , but they are very comfort_ __ 7 I think this cheese is off. It's very smell_ _ 8 She loves wearing very colour clothes. 9a Complete the sentences so they are true for you. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

The one possession I own that is not replaceable is ... To be successful in life, I think you should ... I feel nervous when ... I'm/I'm not a practical person. I can/can't ... The most sociable person I know is ... At weddings, it's traditional to ... I think what I eat is healthy/unhealthy because ... I find it easy/difficult to be cheerful when ... I feel comfortable when ... I'm totally useless at ... I'd love to/hate to take part in dangerous sports because ... I think you need to be very careful when ...

b Compare your answers in small groups.

helpless

carelessd washable cloudy

angerous

eOS'fcsuccesstul sociable

care1~~sty usefu I

·tt· I cheerful freliable practical dI ICU traditional nervous replaceable

6.4 Speaking and writing GOALS • write a professional email • Change arrangements

Reading & Writing writing a professional

2

email 1

Read the email from a student to a professor. How do you think the professor reacted? Why?

Read the Language for writing box and find at least five examples of inappropriate language in the email in exercise 1. LANGUAGE FOR WRITING

writing a professional email Subject box

Put enough information in the subject box so that the recipient (the person receiving it) can see instantly who it is from and what it is about. Subject: RE deadline for report Addressing the recipient

Generally use the surname and title and 'Dear', not 'hi' or 'hello'. Dear Dr Smart, If you are on an equal level, you might use the first name. Dear Chris, certain set phrases can be useful. Thank you for your email. 1wonder if you could help me. 1would like to apologize for ... unfortunately, 1will not be able to ... Using abbreviations

The kinds of abbreviations you can use on social media are not appropriate. Using too much punctuation

Avoid using exclamation marks (!)and emoticons, e.g. :) Signing off

Always sign off with your name (full name if they might not know who you are) and one of the following. Best wishes, Many thanks, Yours sincerely, (this is the most formal way) To: prof.c.d.wh [email protected] From: [email protected] Subject: Help!!!

3a Work with a partner. Rewrite the email in exercise l to make it appropriately professional. b Swap your email with another pair. Compare what you wrote.

Hi Prof W can u help mew/ essay u set thurs? i no u went over it in class but I missed class. Too much WORK!! lol. pleeease help :) Danny

4

Your boss has set you a deadline for a piece ofwork. You have been ill and will miss the deadline. Write a professional email to your boss, apologizing and explaining what has happened.

6.1

Listening & Speaking

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

changing

arrangements Sa 6.11 )»Listen to a phone conversation between two friends,

Pedro and Sara, and answer the questions. 1 Why can't Sara meet tomorrow lunchtime? 2 Why can't Pedro meet after work? 3 What has Sara arranged to do on Thursday? b Check your answers with a partner.

6a Complete extracts 1- 6 from the phone conversation. 1 There's been 2 I've got tomorrow lunchtime. after work instead? 3 How 4 I'm really sorry, but I then. playing tennis with 5 I'm my sister. you. 6 I'll speak to her, then b 6.12 ))) Listen, check and repeat. 7

Replace three of the phrases in exercise 6 with these more formal alternatives, using the Language for speaking box to help you. 1 I'll confirm it with you. 2 I'm not available then. 3 Would you be able to ... ? LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING

changing arrangements Changing arrangements I'm meant to .. ., but .. . we had thought we'd ... , but now ... How about getting together ... ? Would you be able to meet on ...? Saying you are/aren't free I'm (not) available then. 1can('t) make it then. That's fine with me. confirming arrangements I'll confirm it with you. I'll get back to you.

sa

mm3

Work with a partner. Choose one of these situations. You have arranged to ... • go to the cinema. • have a lunchtime meeting in a restaurant. • work on a presentation in the library.

b Take turns to have a phone conversation, using the

prompts, the phrases in exercise 6a and the Language for speaking box to help you. A

B

say hello and say who you are.

You need to change the time/place because of work/family/studies.

It's difficult for you to change it because you're busy at work/you have family problems/you are going on holiday.

suggest a different time/ place.

Say why you can't do that time.

Find a time you are both happy with and agree to meet.

+

say you'll check your diary and confirm later.

6.5 Video Mist catchers Look at the photos, which show some mist catchers in the Atacama Desert. Match the words and phrases in the box to things in the photos.

1

a container a net a pipe drinking water moisture poles 2

Work with a partner. Answer the questions using some of the words from exercise l. a Why do you think people use mist catchers in the Atacama desert? b How do you think mist catchers work?

3

0

4

0

Watch the video. Check your ideas from exercise 2. Were you right? Watch again. Match the two halves of the sentences.

l There are a few areas in the desert which have had no rain 2 The mist catchers in the Cerro Grande Reserve have been collecting rainwater 3 The fog drifts over the land from 4 Some water pipes carry water straight to 5 Water conservationists may find this system useful in 6 People in the Atacama Desert have been using water collection techniques

a b c d e f Sa

other dry regions around the world. the Pacific Ocean. the fields where crops are growing. for hundreds of years. for about six years. since history began.

1:1.mm Work in groups. Read the situation. There is a serious lack of fresh water in your country. Water shortages have become common. You can't live without water and so you need to save every drop!

b Plan how to deal with these water shortages, at home or in you r school. List your ideas under these two headings. • Saving water • Coll ecting water

c Present your ideas to the class. Decide which ideas are the best and why.

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.5

6.4

Review 1 a Work with a partner. How is the inside of this car different

3a Match the two halves of each compound noun.

from a standard car? Who might want a car like this?

1 climate a warming 2 crop b change 3 global c waves 4 heat d damage

b Read the article and compare it with your ideas.

5 land 6 strong 7 tropical 8 water

e f g h

shortages winds slides storms

b 6.13 )»Listen and check your answers. Practise the

pronunciation with a partner. 4

Complete the questions using the present perfect simple or continuous form of the verbs in brackets. If both are possible, use the present perfect continuous. 1 Do you think that the weather _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ (get) worse in recent years? Why/Why not? 2 you (enjoy) the weather recently? Why/Why not? 3 What's the worst weather you _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ (experience)? What happened? 4 (Rough ly) how many times you _ _ __ (see) snow? Is it common in your country? 5 there (be) any weather-related disasters in your country? What happened? 6 you (listen) to the weather forecasts recently? If so, why?

Sa

6.14 )»Write down each word you hear and then add the correct suffix to each root word you hear to make an adjective.

Why shou ld a car 1 is self-driving look like an ord inary car? The Swiss company Rinspeed has designed a car 2 transf orms into a mobile office. This would allow t he passengers, 3 now don't have to drive, to use their time to work or relax. The steering wheel wou ld slide away and a desk, 4_ _ __ wou ld be large enough for a laptop, could be pul led out instead. The driver, s seat wou ld be moveable, could t urn to face the other passengers to chat, or just relax and watch t he fi lms 6 would be ava ilable on four separate screens.

c Complete the article using that, who, which or whose. Use that where possible. 2a Complete the sentences with up to two words. The first letter of each is given.

b Work with a partner. Think of at least two more adjectives with each suffix used in exercise 5a. 6a Put the conversation in the right order.

a Ah, I'm meant to be meeting my brother and his wife for dinner next Saturday. But I'll talk to them and get back to you. b Hi, Joanne. c Hi, it's Joanne here. 1 d Oh dear. Sorry, but I'm not available then. How about next Saturday? e OK, that's fine. f You know we were supposed to be going to the cinema on Saturday? I'm really sorry, but there's been a change of plan. Can we go on Sunday instead?

1 You should keep both hands on the s._ _ __ w when you are driving. 2 Before you decide to o a car, make sure the road ahead is completely clear. 3 Don't drive over the speed 1._ _ __ 4 If the t l are turning orange, you should stop rather than try and rush through. 5 Many people fall asleep while driving on the m , so take regular breaks. 6 Don't p on the pavement; it can be dangerous for blind people. b Check your answers with a partner. Decide together which

are the three most important pieces of advice. Say why.

b

6.15 )»Listen and

check your answers.

c Work with a partner. Write a similar conversation. Practise your conversation together.

Ambitions 7.1

Good prospects

Young Europeans flock to Argentina for job opportunities vocabulary & Reading working conditions 1

Work with a partner. Look at the cities on the map and discuss the questions. 1 What do you know about each city and/or the country? 2 If you had to choose one of these cities to live in, which one would you choose? Is there anywhere else you'd like to live and work?

2

Work with a partner. Read the extract from a magazine a rticle and answer the questions. 1 Which countries do many of the young people moving to Argentina come from? 2 What reason for moving does each person give? 3 Is each person happy with their decision?

O.W Oxford 3000™

A mix of Italian, Span ish and Eng lish accents stand out in Buenos Aires neighbourhoods such as San Telmo, as the city we lcomes a growing number of you ng professiona ls who have come here looking for jobs and a more relaxed lifestyle. Two years ago, Hanson decided to change his occupation, leav ing his job at a London fi nancia l services firm to teach Eng lish privately to business executives in Buenos Aires . 'The company was mak ing people redundant/ he says. 'Sunny Buenos Aires is a we lcome change from that stress. The cli mate is perfect, gett ing a job here was pretty easy and the people are great.' For Chiara Bosch iero, a 33-year-old film producer from Italy, Argentina has provided better career prospects. 'In Italy, it is very difficu lt for a d irector under 40 to make a f ilm. But Argentina is young, and there are many directors and producers here younger than I am who are very successful.'

7.1

3

Underline any words from the box in the article. What do you think they mean?

8

7.3

7.4

7.5

Read the information in the Grammar focus box and complete it with example sentences a-d. a Maria would spend all day calling people and getting nowhere. b Dermot didn't use to be a manager. c Maria designs gardens. d Joaquim used to live in Lisbon.

career prospects job satisfaction occupation promotion qualification (make) redundant rent-free accommodation salary sick/holiday pay unemployed working conditions working hours

4

7.2

Match the other words in the box in exercise 3 to the definitions.

GRAMMAR FOCUS used to and would for past habits and states

1 the money a person receives for the work they have done 2 an exam you have passed or course you have completed 3 the pleasure you get from your work 4 a place to live that your employer pays for 5 a move to a higher position or more challenging job 6 money you get when you are temporarily not at work 7 when you are not able to find a job 8 the period of time when you are working 9 the situation you work in

• we use used to/didn't use to+ infinitive for finished habits and states: things that were true but are not now. 2



we can also use would to talk about finished habits and typical past behaviour. 3

• However. note that we CANNOT use would to talk about past states, only actions and typical behaviour. Dermot used to live in Ireland. NOT Dermot would Hve iA lfeleAfl.

Sa Work in small groups. Decide the five most important reasons why someone might choose a job and put them in order of importance.



used to/didn't use to is only for past habits. For present habits we use the present simple. 4

b What other reasons can you think of?

-+ Grammar Reference page 148

Grammar & Speaking 6

used to and would

7.1 )»Listen to three people who moved abroad to work.

9a Choose the correct options to complete the sentences. Use used to only or both used to and would.

1 Which countries did each speaker moved to/from? • Dermot

• Maria

1 I like staying up very late, but now I'm in bed by 10.00 p. m. every night. 2 When I was a teenager, I play a lot of sport, but now I just watch them on TV. 3 I have very long hair when I was a teenager. 4 I get very nervous before examinations when I was at university. 5 When I was a child, I spend hours making model cars and planes. 6 I think life would be easy when I became an adult - but that's not true at all.

• Joaquim

2 What reasons do they give for their move? 7

Work with a partner. Look at the following statement about one of the speakers and answer the questions. Dermot used to work in Ireland. He would spend a lot less time at work.

Was this true in the past? Is it true now? How do we know?

b Make the sentences true for you and compare your answers with a partner. 10

ll'.i.'m3 Work with a partner. Student A, turn to page 128. Student B, turn to page 134.

0

VOX POPS VIDEO 7

7.2

Asl< an expert GOALS • Talk about experts and high achievers •

vocabulary & Reading

use question forms

high achievers

1

Work with a partner. The photos show three people who are well known as experts. What do you think they are expert at? Do you recognize any of them?

2

Read biographies 1-3 and check if your ideas were correct.

1 ~ Daniel Barenboim ..................................................•......... Daniel Barenboim was born in 1942 in Bue nos Aires. and moved to Israel in 1952 . A talented musician, he began to learn t he piano at five and gave his first public concert aged seven. As we ll as being an excellent musicia n and cond uctor, he is also wel l known for his work with young people. In 1999 he co-founded the West-Eastern Divan orchestra with Professor Edward Sa id to unite Israeli and Arab musicians. Barenboim has also set up a number of other projects to enco urage young people to play music and has received va ri ous awa rds for his ach ieveme nts .

2 ~ Jane Goodall •............••..............•........•..•...•.............. Jane Goodall was born in London in 1934. In her early twenties, she went to Ta nzania, initially as a secretary to t he anthropologist Lou is Lea key. However. Jane was hard working and ambitious, and soon became a resea rcher herself. study ing t he behaviour of wild apes and ch impanzees. Her discoveries changed many beliefs about ape behaviour, and she became an expert on the subject. In 199 1 she set up Roots & Shoots, a globa l environme nta l and humanitarian youth education progra mme now based in more than 100 countri es.

3a Work with a partner. Look at the highlighted words in

the biographies and decide if each one is a noun, verb or adjective. Work out what they mean. b Complete the sentences using a suitable word from the

article. Compare your answers with a partner and give reasons for your choices. 1 Many people never become really _ _ __ because they are too shy. 2 He's very . He wants to become President one day. 3 She is to _ _ _ _ the highest mark in her class. 4 If you want to become a _ _ _ _, you will need to train every day. 5 She never won any for her _ _ _ _, but her research changed the world.

.~..:. .~.~!?~~~~. ~~.l.i.J)~~9.f)....................... . Rebecca Adlington was born in Mansfield, UK. in 1989. At ninetee n she suddenly became fa mous as a champio n swimmer, after wi nning two gold medals at the Be ijng Olympics, the fi rst British swimmer for 100 years to achieve t his. She also did well at the London Olympics, win ning two bronze medals. In 2005, Ad lington's sister became dangerously ill, with encephalitis*. She recove red, but Adlington has said that her sist er's illness made her 'more determined' to succeed. In 2013 she reti red from swimming, but uses her fa me to raise money for an encephalitis charity. • encephalitis

an infection or allergic reaction which causes the

brain to swell

O.W Oxford 3000™

4

mm3

Work with a partner or in small groups and discuss the questions. 1 To become an expert at something, which is more important - hard work or talent? 2 Is being ambitious always a good thing? Why/Why not?

7.1

Grammar & Speaking question forms

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

6a Read t he information about question forms in the Grammar fo cus box, then add an example for each type of question from the questions in exercise 5.

Sa The three experts all took part in an interview in a British newspaper. Look at the questions and answers and try to guess which person is answering. Discuss your answers with a p artner.

GRAMMAR FOCUS questions Direct questions • In questions we normally put an auxiliary verb (do, does, did) before the subject.

b Based on their answers, which person would you most/ least like to meet? Why?

• If the question word is the subject of the question, we don't use do/does/did.

1 +

2

-----------------------------------

Indirect questions • we use indirect questions to make questions more polite. The word order doesn't change and we don't use do/does/did.

Which living person do you most admire, and why? My mum. She is the most thoughtful person that I've ever known.

could you tell me which living person you most admire? 3

2 How would you like to be remembered?

• Note that to make yes/no indirect questions we use if.

As someone who enjoyed life. was bubbly and worked hard.

would you mind telling me if you think you are ambitious? I'd like to know if you think you are ambitious.

3 Would you mind telling us what you most

-+Grammar Reference page 149

dislike about your appearance? My big shoulders.

b Look at the questions in exercise 5 and make them indirect.

2 +

7

Do you like giving interviews? No.

1 Give an example of a n embarrassing moment. What I happen? 2 What I favourite smell? 3 Like I watch sport? Why/Why not? 4 Tell me about a time when you felt angry. Who I make I angry and why? 5 How I relax? 6 What I think I greatest achievement? 7 Tell I favourite film?

2 When were you happiest? When I didn't have to give interviews.

3 What would your super power be? To trave l back in time - in order to spend a day with Mozart.

4 What makes you unhappy? When I don't understand somethi ng. 8

3 + What is your most treasured possession? I don't like possessions.

2 What is your earliest memory? When I was two. a dragonfly fl ew near me. A man knocked it to the ground and trod on it. I remember crying because I'd caused the dragon fly to be killed.

3 How would you like to be remembered? As someone who helped to cha nge attitudes towa rds animals.

I('Bp008

auer £

WIOQU8J'B8 J8!U'BO C:

UOl6U IJPif 'B008Q8C:J ~

Make interview questions using the prompts. Make at least two indirect questions.

IZm!3

Work with a partner. Go to page 128 and prepare your questions.

7.3

Vocabulary and skills development GOALS • Understand paraphrasing • use collocations

Reading & Speaking

understanding

paraphrasing

The Festival of Errors

1a Look at the statements. What do they mean? Do you agree with them? Discuss with a partner. 1 I have not failed. I have simply found ten thousand ways

that won't work. (Thomas Edison) 2 Failure is the key to success; each mistake teaches us something. (Morihei Ueshiba) b Look at the first statement in exercise la. Which word or

phrase is expressed in different words in the second statement? 2a Read the information in the Unlock the code box about

paraphrasing.

£!. II

UNLOCK THE CODE understanding paraphrasing

To avoid repetition, writers talk about the same thing in different ways. Writers use a synonym (either a word or phrase that means almost the same thing) to refer to the thing. sometimes the new phrase has a different grammatical form . I

I

People whoido welllin their jobsiget promote(A

b Read paragraph 1 of the article. The underlined words or phrases are paraphrased later in t he paragraph. Circle the phrases which are their near synonyms. 3a Think of two reasons why doing a task and failing could be

good for you.

b Read the rest of the article. What reasons does the writer give for the value of failure?

1 Some French education specialists recently put on a festival in Paris to encourage children to make mistakes. ~es, it's true! The~were worried that young people m France were not creative and innovative enough for the modern world. Since they believe that a school system that concentrates on marks and grades will reduce the ability of the kids to produce new ideas, the activities in the week-long event showed the participants the wonder and pleasure of getting things wrong. 2 Most people believe in success. In sport, politics and business, success is king. Look at our education systems: they're based on the idea of encouraging people to be successful. We reward success in exams, for example, with entrance to university. We reward success at university with a good job. People who do well in their jobs get promoted to higher positions, and so on. 3 But there are reasons why we should value failure as well. The problem with the success model is that it tends to give credit for safe behaviour. We follow the procedures, obey the rules. More importantly, it encourages people to hang on to old ideas. On the other hand, people who like to take risks, think creatively, and come up with new, perhaps impossible, ideas, are told they are failures. In a very fast-changing world, this is not good practice. 4 Another point of view is provided by Dr Astro Teller who works for Google, a company famous for its incredible successes, and equally unbelievable failures. He says that if you criticize people for having good ideas, they will give up. His example is: imagine you send out a group of scouts* to a new land to find mountains to climb. They do their best to find one, but can't. If you blame them when they come back, those scouts will quit. 5 And what about learning a language? Sometimes you have to take risks, because otherwise it becomes difficult to communicate. If you're trying to talk to a person, and they don't understand you, then you have to find a completely different way of saying what you want to say! So making a mistake can mean you also make progress! • scout a person sent ahead to get information

O.W Oxford 3000™

7.1

4

The underlined words in paragraphs 2-5 are synonyms for words that come earlier in the article. Write the words they refer to.

7

give credit for

Paragraph 4

unbelievable blame quit

• verb + noun-+ obey the rules

talk to

• adverb + adjective -+ hugely important

be su..c.c.essfu..L

There are several different types of collocations organized by word class, noun, verb, adjective, etc. The most common are: • adjective + noun -+ a good job • verb + adverb or adverb + verb -+ think creatively When you record collocations, it is essential to note down the grammar words like a or my as well . If you use the wrong grammar words, it will sound unnatural.

Answer the questions.

Work with a partner. What are the main ideas from the article that you both agree with?

e.g. 1always try to do my best. NOT J a.'ways e-y ro do #le best.

9

Work with your partner. Write a summary of the article, using your ideas from exercise 6 and the collocations in exercise 7 to help you.

10a Complete the questions about work and study with collocations made from one word in column A and one word in column B.

collocations

Find these collocations in the article in exercise 3. In your own words, what do you think they mean? Paragraph 2

1 a good job 2 get promoted 3 higher positions 4 5 6 7

Paragraph 4

8 do their best

Column A

Column B

job take obey/follow temporary supervise think

job employees creatively risks satisfaction the rules

I Which is more important - a good salary or a/an/? 2 At work, is it better to obey the rules, or to ? ? What was it? Did you 3 Have you ever had a want it to become permanent? 4 Have you ever had a job where you had to _ _ __ other ? Did you like the responsibility? 5 Would you like a job where you had to come up with new ideas, or one where you simply ? 6 Do you find it easy to and come up with new ideas? How do you do it?

follow the procedures obey the rules think creatively come up with ideas

Paragraph 3

Paragraph 5

7.5

VOCABULARY FOCUS collocations

Paragraph 3

vocabulary & Speaking

7.4

Read the information in the Vocabulary focus box about collocations.

dowell

I According to the article, how are successful people rewarded at work? 2 Why can fa ilure be useful? What does it teach us? 3 What is the example of the scouts in paragraph 4 supposed to show? 4 What does the writer think you need to do to communicate in another language? 6

7.3

Paragraph 2

Paragraph 5

5

8

7.2

9 take risks 10 completely different 11 make progress

b 7.2 )»Listen and check your answers. 11 a

mm:3

Work with a partner or in small groups. Ask and answer the questions in exercise IO. Give reasons for your answers.

b Report the two most interesting answers to the class.

7.4

Speaking and writing GOALS •

Write an application letter or email •

Ask for and give clarification

2a Which of the three advertisements in exercise 1 is

Asuncion applying to? 1

Work with a partner. Read the adverts and answer the questions. 1 Which advert needs people who are interested in learning about different cultures? 2 Which needs people who have ideas about the latest trends? 3 Wh ich advert needs people with good group work skills? 4 Which appeals to you most? And least? Why? 1

Want to get into management? Already got experience?

We are looking for new and experienced leaders to manage our expanding group of coffee shops. We want excellent

decision-makers who are good with people to organize and lead teams of up to ten employees in our new branches across the country. Opportunities for international travel.

Applicat ions to Raj at [email protected] No phone enquiries, please.

2

Study trips abroad Have the experience of a lifetime: spend two months studying abroad. Trips available for studying science, sport, art, local culture or languages. Included in the trip:

1 Dear I

To _ _ __

A 2 This email is about I I am writing regarding your posted on the Jobs & advertisement for Training website t his month.

B 3 As you will see from the attached C\1, I Read the CV and you'll see that, at present, I am working as an assistant manager in an international relocation office, helping companies set tJP abroad. In my present posit ion, my main responsibility is organizing project teams to help companies f ind good locations in other countries, and I recently won a company award for this work. C With my work experience and skills, I believe I would be ideally suited to a ·management position in your company. I am highly organized, hard-working and positive. My business knowledge and IT skills are up to date, and I am also very active in the world of bu~iness networking. I am now ready for more challenges in my working life. 4 1 want to I I would like to work for your company as it has a very good reputation for quality and customer care, 5 You need to give me the chance to I I would like the opportunity to use my skills to help your company grow.

D 6 Please invite me for I I would be happy to attend an interview and I would be able to start work at the beginning of next month. 7 If you nf?ed further informa~ion, please I Do you want to know more? Then call me on 01422 44327, or email me at [email protected] '

• Overnight visits to places of local interest • Short stays with local families

E Bl look forward to hearing from you. I I am waiting for your cal/.

Applicants should have at least a school Ieaver's certificate, plus a strong interest in travel. Send applications to Carmen Ramos at [email protected] or apply online.

Yours sincerely, Asuncion Rico

b Read the information in the Language for writing box. Work with a partner to choose the correct phrases for 1- 8 in Asu ncion's email.

3

LANGUAGE FOR WRITING formal phrases A.re you good with words and happy to write in your own language a~d/or English? We are looking for writers with something to say about social media, fashion, food and entertainment. Our readers love to learn about what's new around the world. If you have great ideas and experiences to share with our magazine's on line community, apply now to Sam Fielding at [email protected] Interviews start next week (face-to-face or Skype).

If we are applying for a job, we need to sound formal in the init ial letter/ema il to make a good impression. we use fixed phrases like:

Formal

Neutral

1am writing regarding ...

1wanted to know ...

1would like to ... 1would be happy to attend ... !look forward to hearing from you.

I'd like to ... I'd like to come to ... Let me know.

7.1

3

Here is a list of things people usually include in an application email or letter. Which paragraph was each in? • • • • •

Give the reason for writing Say you are sending your CV Give information about your current situation Give information about your skills Say why you would be good for the job/ company/course • Give extra contact details • Write a closing sentence asking the reader to reply

Li Yan Parissa Sophie _ _

A

7.5

Marina Ken

b 7.3 l)) Listen again and complete the phrases the people used.

LiYan l Could mean? 2 Well, , I spent three years working in a similar situation in ... Parissa 3 I'm not _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ what job will I have? 4 Yes ... in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , what are your goals for the next few years? Sophie 5 Could _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , please? Marina 6 Letme _ _ _ _ _ _ __

• reasons for applying

b Write the application email. Use your notes, the Language for writing box on page 72 and phrases from Asuncion's email to help.

5

7.4

question from exercise 6a?

make notes for an application email using these headings.

listening & speaking

7.3

7 a 7.3 l)) Listen to people in job interviews. Who answers each

4a Choose the advert you would most like to reply to and

• work experience • job and personal skills

7.2

Ken 7 What _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , what makes you ... ? 8 Could that?

clarification

Look at the photo and imagine you are waiting for a job interview. Which person in the photo would you feel most like? Tell your partner why.

PRONUNCIATION

sounding polite

In a situation like an interview, it is important to sound interested and polite.

Sa

7.4 l)) Listen

to the eight phrases in exercise 7b. Mark the intonation, the rise and fall, in each phrase.

~ ___.:J' Could you explain what you mean? b 9a

7.4 l)) Listen

again and practise the phrases.

il!mJ

Work in small groups. Read each other's application emails or letters. Together, choose four questions from exercise 6a and add two more.

b Interview each other. Use the phrases in the Language for

speaking box to ask for and give clarification.

6a Read the interview questions. Which do you think is the

most difficult to answer? l

2 3 4 5

Where do you see yourself in five years' time? What motivates you and what doesn't? Why should we employ you? When was the last time you had a disagreement at work, and how did you deal with it? If you were a type of food, what would you be?

b Why do interviewers ask questions like these?

LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING asking for and giving clarification Ask for clarification

could you explain what you mean? I'm not sure 1understand. Do you mean ... ? Give clarification

Let me give you a good example . ..

Well, for instance ...

Get time to think

Let me see .. .

Let me think...

Now, what's the word again?

c Tell each other the two best answers each person gave and explain why.

7.5

Video

Moving abroad to work 1

Work with a partner. Guess the meaning of the phrases in bold. a I'm bored with my life here, so I'm going to try my luck somewhere else. b This job has good prospects, and I'll have the chance to obtain new skills, too. c I don't live in the same town as my job, so I'll need to commute to work by train. d It's exciting to start anew doing a different job in another country.

2

Look at the photos. What job do you think Zsuzsanna does? Where do you think she has lived?

3

0

Watch the video. Which of the following are mentioned?

a b c d e f g

her education in Hungary reasons for moving abroad to work the career benefits of moving abroad finding new friends in the UK the challenges of moving abroad returning to Hungary difficulties people might have when they go home

0

Watch again. Complete the table showing the differences between life in Hungary and the UK.

4

Hungary

The UK

cost of living

A typical working day Travelling to work

Sa

1m3 Look at these reasons for moving to a new country for work. Why would you decide to move? Put these reasons in order of importance for you (1= most important). • to challenge myself • to find new friends • to improve my career prospects • to have an adventure

• to have a more relaxed lifestyle • to learn a new language • any other reason

b Compare your ideas with a partner. Do you have similar reasons?

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

Review 1 a Read the sentences and cross out the forms which are not

4a 7.5 l)) Listen to the definitions and choose which word of

possible. Sometimes both forms may be correct.

each pair is being defined.

1 When I was little, I used to I would want to be a pop star when I grew up. 2 I used to I would practise in front of the mirror with a hairbrush as a microphone. 3 My mother used to I would laugh, but kindly. 4 She used to I would tell me that I could be anything I wanted. 5 But she used to I would warn me that it wouldn't be easy to be a pop star. 6 I really used to I would believe I could do it, but now I'm quite happy being a dentist!

1 2 3 4 5 6

b Talk to your partner. Tell them about the ambitions you had when you were a child, using used to and would where appropriate.

b Think of a person you could describe using all or some of the adjectives in exercise 4a. Tell your partner about him/her. Sa 7.6 l)) Listen and write down the words you hear.

b Work with a partner and put the words together to

make six collocations. Then write a sentence using each collocation. 6a Put the words in the right order to make the sentences/

2a Make questions using the prompts.

1 2 3 4 5 6

ambitious I famous hard-working I determined well-known I expert talented I famous hard-working I well-known determined I talented

What I being successful I mean to you? Who I successful I in your family? What I your biggest goal I in life? What I one job I you wouldn't like to do? Which I better - an indoor I outdoor job? Why? What I your dream job?

b Make the questions indirect using Would you mind telling me ... , I'd like to know ... or another suitable starter. Then use the questions to interview your partner. Ask follow-up questions.

questions. 1 2 3 4 5 6

repeat I you I please I that I could? you I mean I explain I you I could I what? me I example I give I let I you I good I a . I I sure I understand I not I I'm . word I the I what's I again ? examples I that I some I you I could I of I give ?

b Work with a partner. Decide which of the expressions in

exercise 6a are a) ways of asking for clarification b) ways of giving clarification and c) ways of getting time to think.

3a Read the text and complete it with one word in each space. The first letter is given. According to a recent survey, about 20% of workers around the world work from home at least once a week, and nearly 10% work from home every day. There are obvious advantages. You can often fit in your 1 w_ _ __ h at any time that's convenient for you, and you don't have to spend some of your 2 s_ __ on travelling to and from the office. The 3 w c might also be a lot better in the peace and

comfort of your own home. However, many people also felt that if they weren't in the office, they were less likely to be given 4 p as the boss might not notice their good work . Being out of the office could therefore damage their s c_ _ __ p . Equally, they might be more likely to be made 6 r_ _ __ if the company got into trouble, because they had not been able to build a relationship with the boss.

b Do you, or would you like to, work from home? Why/Why not? Discuss with a partner.

Choices 8.1

World happiness report GOALS •

Talk about happiness factors •

use real conditionals

'

vocabulary & Listening happiness factors 1

Work with a partner or in small groups. Put the words and phrases in the correct category in the table. Some words may fit into more than one category. balanced diet childcare cultural activities healthcare high taxes neighbours physical activity pollution poverty strong economy volunteer

Health

Money

c Discuss the questions together.

Family/Society

1 Are you surprised by any of the countries named in the list, or their position? If so, why? 2 What do you think is good about your country and how it does the things mentioned in exercise 1?

Leisure I

3a 8.1 )»Listen to an extract from a podcast about Denmark,

2a Which factors are most important in order to have a good

quality oflife? With your partner or group put the four categories in order of importance. b Read an extract from a newspaper article about the UN

World Happiness Report. According to the report, what makes a country a happy place to live in?

which was recently na med the happiest country in the world. Number the ideas shown in the photos in the order in which they are discussed. b 8.1 )»Listen again. What do they say about each photo?

c Do you think the same things are important? Why/Why not?

World Happiness You might think that the happiest country in the world would have plenty of sunshine, but you'd be wrong. According to the rec~nt United Nations World Happiness Report, nearly all of the top ten countries are well kn,own for long ,,cold, dark winters. But what they do have is a strong economy, reliable government, and people who look after themselves and each other.

O.W Oxford 3000TM

1

Denmark

6 Canada

2

Norway

7

Finland

3 · Switzerland

8 Austria

4 Netherlands

9 Iceland

5 Sweden

10

Australia

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

b Match these sentences to a- c in the Grammar focus box. • Money doesn't make you happy unless everyone has enough. • If people work a thirty-seven hour week, they have quite a lot ofleisure time. • If you look a bit further down the list, you'll see that money isn't everything. Sa Choose the correct option in each sentence. 1 2 3 4 5

IfI Unless people spend more than an hour travelling to work, they are generally less content. IfI Unless you have some close friendships, you will find it hard to be happy. IfI Unless you do regular exercise outdoors, you'll be able to work more efficiently. People tend to be happier ifI unless they are in a longterm relationship. If I Unless people are active in work and free time, they'll probably be healthier.

b 8.2 )»Listen and check your answers. PRONUNCIATION

intonation in if sentences

6a 8.2 ))) Listen again. Which clause rises in intonation? Which clause falls?

Grammar & Speaking

b 8.2 )»Listen again and repeat.

real conditionals

4a Look at the information in the Grammar focus box and choose the correct options 1- 4.

7

GRAMMAR FOCUS sentences with if - real conditionals

(not have to) pay to visit museums, 1 If they then people (visit) them more often. 2 Extreme weather events (happen) more often and (be) more severe unless we _ _ _ _ (do) something about climate change. 3 If parents (be) allowed paid time off after the birth of a baby, they (decide) how to share the time. 4 People (tend) to have more job satisfaction if they (work) reasonable hours and in pleasant conditions. 5 If there (be) a cheap and reliable public transport system, people (use) their cars less. 6 Doctors say that if you _ _ _ _ (eat) lots of fresh fruit and vegetables and (exercise) regularly, you (probably live) longer.

If-sentences usually have two clauses: the if-clause and the result clause. • When we talk in general about things that can possibly happen, we use: If+ 1 present simple 1 will,

2 present simple 1 will If people enjoy their job, they are happier in general.

a --------------------------------------• When we talk about specific situations in the future, and their possible results, we use: If+ 3 present simple 1 will,

4 present

simple 1 will If you eat a balanced diet, you'll feel healthier. b ______________________________________

• we can use modal verbs, particularly can and may, in either clause. If you can cycle for thirty minutes a day, it may add one to two years to your life. • Unless usually means except if

c __~---------------===========~ -+ Grammar Reference page 150

Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use a modal verb where possible.

8

1mmJ

0

VOX POPS VIDEO 8

Work in groups of four. Take the roles of government ministers and discuss the budget. Turn to page 129.

8.2 What mal<es a hero? GOALS • Talk about personality and behaviour • Talk about unreal situations in the present and future

vocabulary & Reading

personality and

behaviour

2a Read the magazine article a nd compare your ideas with

your partner.

1 a Read the th ree short descriptions. Which of these people

do you think are heroes? Why/Why not? Discuss with a partner or in small groups.

What makes a hero? Kerry Clark was sitting in the backyard of his farm when he saw a small plane crash in the nearby woods. He rushed over there immediately and started to rescue people, even though the plane was on fire and might explode any minute. 'Somebody needed to help,' Clark said afterwards. 'You do it because you have to.' But if you saw a crash, would you risk your life to help? Was Clark crazy or unusually brave? Researchers at Berkeley University have spent the last five years studying what exactly makes people act heroically. They have made some fascinating discoveries ... • One in five people has done something heroic, such as helping another person in a dangerous situation, or being honest when they find out about something unfair, even if it risks their safety or job. • The more educated you are, the more likely you are to be a hero. • Kind, generous people are more likely to be heroes. One third of the heroes in the study had also volunteered up to 5-9 hours a week. • Men reported heroism more than women. However, this may be because women can be a bit embarrassed about their heroic actions. • Having been lucky enough to survive a disaster yourself makes you three times more likely to be a hero and a volunteer. The researchers bel ieve that we are all capable of becoming heroes. It's about learning to make the right choices in a particular situation, about doing the right thing even if we are afraid. Everyone needs to realize that they are responsible for making the world a better place. They have created an online course, the Heroic Imagination Project, to train ord inary people to become less selfish and more heroic. For example, to stay calm in a difficult situation, so that we don't just automatically do what everyone else is doing.

b What other kinds of people or behaviour could be

considered heroic?

O.W Oxford 3000TM

b Did anything discovered through this research surprise you? Why/Why not?

8.1

seven highlighted words in the article to match to your set of definitions.

8.4

8.5

your answers to exercise 4.

GRAMMAR FOCUS unreal conditionals

Student A 1 thinking only about yourself and not of other people 2 not excited, worried or angry 3 having studied and learnt a lot 4 normal, not different from others 5 acting like a hero 6 caring about others 7 telling the truth



we use If+ past tense, would+ infinitive without to to talk about a hypothetical/unreal situation in the present or future and its imaginary result.

If 1saw someone in trouble, 1would (I'd) go and help. • The clauses can be in any order, but we don't use a comma if the would clause comes first. •

After if we use were instead of was. 1 in certain fixed phrases:

If 1were you, I'd keep quiet.

StudentB 8 having good luck 9 happy to give more than is usually expected 10 ready to do things that are dangerous or difficult without showing fear 11 feeling fear 12 having the job of dealing with something 13 feeling uncomfortable because of something silly you have done 14 not sensible, not logical

Grammar & Speaking unreal conditionals

8.3

c Read the information in the Grammar focus box and check

3a Work with a partner as Student A and Student B. Find

b Test your partner on your set of words.

8.2

2 in a more formal style:

If 1were stronger, 1would stop that bully! • When we are not sure about the result. we can use might or could instead of would.

If you tried to help, you could/might hurt yourself. •

we can also use could to mean would be able to. If someone had an accident, 1could help him because 1 know first aid.

-+Grammar Reference page 151 Sa Complete the sentences using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use modal verbs where possible to express uncertainty or ability.

1 If I (be) braver, I (be) a firefighter. 2 We (volunteer) more if we _ _ __ (have) more time. you (do) if you _ _ __ 3 What (see) someone being robbed? (win) the lottery, we (give) 4 If we some money to charity. 5 I (notdo)ajobifit (be)riskyor dangerous. 6 He (be) so embarrassed if he _ _ __ (know) people were talking about his heroism.

4a Work with a partner. Look at the following sentence from

the text and answer the questions.

Ifyou saw a crash, would you risk your life to help? 1 What form is the verb after if? Is this talking about something that happened in the past, present or future? Is this situation real or imaginary? 2 Which word in the second clause tells us we are talking about an imaginary situation?

b Look at the following sentence and answer the questions. If I saw someone in trouble, I might/could/would help.

1 Which two modal verbs express possibility? 2 Which modal verb means would be able to?

b 8.3 }»Listen and check your answers.

c Work with a partner. How does using would, could or might change the meaning of each sentence? 6

mm1

Work in small groups. Go to page 129, discuss the scenarios and complete the other tasks.

8.3 Vocabulary and skills development GOALS •

Listening & Speaking 1

Recognize changing sounds in linked words •

use prefixes

sound changes

Work with a partner. Look at the photos oflcelandic culture and answer the questions. 1 What do you think each photo tells us about Iceland? 2 Would you see the same things in your country?



2

8.4 ))) Read and listen to the information in the Unlock the

code box .

.(! UNLOCK THE CODE changing sounds when we link words

a

Speaking at natural speed, we often change the last sound of a word to make it easier to say the words together, for example, when one word ends in sounds tor d and the next word starts with sounds such as b, p, k, g, m. Listening to natural speech, these changes can make groups of words more difficult to understand. written form

-+

natural speed

would move that place

-+

/wu(b)mu:v/ /orepleis/

-+

O.W Oxford 3000TM

3

8.5 ))) Listen to the phrases. Underline t he sound that

changes. red pram _ _ 2 could be 3 white coffee 4 mild coffee l

5 should go _ _

6 cold metal 7 hot pepper _ _ 8 hot milk

8.1

4a 8.6 )»Listen to the first part of a podcast and complete the text with two words in each gap.

7

1 badly 2 again

5

1 In the summer, north of the Arctic Circle, it stays light twenty-four hours a day. The stars stop coming out at night and don't (appear) until August. 2 If you move to a very different culture, people may easily (understand) your behaviour. 3 I haven't got a lot of money this month, so I'll have to be careful I don't (spend). 4 I used to wear very smart suits to the office, but people here are much more (formal) and even wear jeans to work. 5 The flight had to be (schedule) due to the bad weather. We arrived back a day late. 6 Parents can be very embarrassed if their children _ _ _ _ (behave) in public.

Vocabulary prefixes Read an online article about culture shock. What fo ur different stages can you identify? What stage do you think Julia is at?

o_ SEARCH

ABOUT EVENTS BLOG When you first arrive in a foreign culture, often your first reaction is completely positive. Everything seems exciting, different and fascinating. It's an adventure. If you're just on a short holiday, you'll probably never leave this phase, but if you stay longer, your altitude can start to change. As you start to realize how little you really understand the new culture, life can get frustrating. People misunderstand what you're trying to say, or they may laugh at you for saying something jncorrectiY. Even simple things, like posting a letter, can seem impossibly difficult, and you are likely to overreact by getting angry or upset when things go wrong. With time, though, you start to adjust, to become more comfortable with the differences and better able to handle frustrating situations. Your sense of humour reaQP.ears. Finally, you reach the stage of feeling able to be enthusiastic about the culture once again, enjoy living in it, and maybe even prefer certain aspects of the culture to your own.

3 too (much) 4 not

Use the prefixes re-, under-, over- or mis- and the words in brackets to complete the sentences. Check your answers with a partner.

8

Work in small groups and discuss the questions.

BLOG ENTRY /5 JUNE

8.5

Prefixes are groups of letters that added to the beginning of a word change the meaning of the word: mis- (= do badly) misjudge, misbehave re- (=do again) replace, rearrange in- (= not) inactive, inconvenient over- (= too much) overpriced, overspend

1 How do you think life in Iceland would be different from life in your country? 2 Do you think you would enjoy living in Iceland? Why/Why not?

6

8.4

VOCABULARY FOCUS prefixes

b 8.7 )» Listen to the rest of the podcast and answer the questions. Why do Icelanders leave their babies outside to sleep? What Icelandic habit used to make Julia feel annoyed? What did Julia discover Icelandic people don't worry about? What skill do 10% oflcelanders have? Why does Julia now enjoy Icelandic food?

8.3

Look at the highlighted words in the article and match the meanings of each prefix to the definitions below.

If you 1 anywhere in the world to live, where 2 would you go? not be the most obvious choice, but I don't 3 here. I came to study earth science at the University of Iceland. Iceland has volcanoes, glaciers and earthquakes. 4 you see here? I came to study the natural world, but I stayed in Iceland because I love the way of life.

1 2 3 4 5

8.2

9a

mm:3

Think about an interesting place you have been to. Use the questions below to prepare a short talk about it. Use at least three words with prefixes. • • • •

What is interesting about the place? what facts do you know about the place? Why might you choose to move there? What things about the culture might be very different from your own?

b Talk for about two minutes about the place. Listen to your partner's talk and ask at least two questions about the place.

8.4 Speaking and writing GOALS • Take notes while listening •

Writing & Listening 1

Prepare and give a short talk from notes

taking notes

Make a list of at least five decisions you have made today. 1 Put the decisions in order of importance. 2 Tell a partner about one of the more important decisions on your list. Did you make it quickly, or think about it for a long time'? Did you discuss it with anyone else'?

2

8.8 )»Listen to the beginning of a lecture about making

decisions and tick the topic the speaker mentions. • Types of decisions we make • Why we all make bad decisions • The number of decisions we make 3a 8.8 )»Look at the note a student took during

the lecture. Listen again and complete the note.

IVt:tra: Av. persOVv - 17!pprox.. _ _ __ duisiaVvS/dl7!y! 8.9 )»Listen to the next part of the lecture. Complete the notes

5

using abbreviations. Compare your answers with a partner. b Look at the abbreviations. What do you think the full

words are'? 4a Read the information in the Language for writing box

and check your answers.



LANGUAGE FOR WRITING taking notes

of duisioVvS we wtC'Ike too wt171VvY duisioVvS wtCfke; bmiVv tired.

1

• To wtC'Ike 2_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ duisioVvS, do it el7!rly.

When taking notes, to write quickly and save time: • write only the key information; leave out prepositions and articles:

• Also c.oVvSider how muc.k 3- - - - - - - you Vveed. Poss to k17!Ve too muc.k.

Av. person- the average person

• use abbreviations (often the beginning of the word):

• Stress C.C'!Vv wtl7!ke you tkiVvk mare 4 positive results tk171Vv

intro - introduction av. - average approx. -approximately

. 5

b Work with a partner and look at the abbreviations. What 6a

do you think they are short for'? pers info neg adv disadv

poss probs abt imp no.

8.10 )»Listen to the last part of the lecture and take notes on

the main points, using abbreviations where you can.

• • • • b Compare your answers with a partner.

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8a Prepare and give a two-minute talk. Choose a topic and make notes for the introduction, the main body and the conclusion. Use the Language for speaking box to help you. Social: A difficult decision I have made. The country I would most like to move to. Work:

A job I would like to do. How to be a successful manager/other job.

Study: The course I would most like to study. How to pass exams.

LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING giving a talk Introduction

• introducing yourself/your topic: Hello, everyone. I'm and I'm here to talk to you about ... , I'm going to talk about ...

• talking about the structure of your talk: firstly, ... , then ... , and finally ... Main body

• sequencing your points: the first point I'd like to talk about is ... , our next (factor) is ... , the third and last (factor) ... is ...

• starting a new section: Let's move on now to look at ... Conclusion

• starting the conclusion: so we've looked at ... Now I'd like to finish with ...

• inviting questions:

speaking giving a talk

Does anyone have any questions? Are there any questions?

7 a Look at some of the phrases from the lecture. Match each group a-fto a category (1-6). a I'm going to talk about ... I firstly, ... I then ... I and finally ...

b Does anyone have any questions? Are there any questions?

c t he first one I'd like to talk about is ... I our next (factor) is ... I the third and last (factor) ... is ...

d Hello, everyone. I'm and I'm here to talk to you about ... I I'm going to talk about ...

e So we've looked at ... Now I'd like to finish with ... 1 2 3 4 5 6

b Work with a partner. Practise the talk you have prepared. c Give your talk to the class or to your group. As you listen to other talks, decide what the most interesting piece of information in each talk is. Compare your choice with a partner. 9

1 =needs improvement, 2 =OK, 3 =excellent 1 spoke

f Let's move on now to look at ...

introducing yourself/your topic talking about the structure of your talk sequencing your points starting a new section starting the conclusion inviting questions

b Check your answers with a partner. Use the Language for speaking box to help you.

After you have given your talk, complete the selfassessment of your performance by circling a number at the end of each sentence.

slowly and

2 3

1 was

happy with my use of grammar.

1 2 3

1 used

1 2 3

a range of phrases from the key language box.

10

1

clearly.

1 made appropriate eye contact with the audience.

1 2 3

1 used

positive body language (e.g. 1 looked confident and smiled).

1 2 3

I was happy with my use of vocabulary.

1 2 3

1D Work with a partner. Talk about the assessment in exercise 9 and together choose two things that were good about your talks and two ways you could improve in the future.

8.5 Video Happiness in Mexico Look at the photos. Which photos show ...

1

1 a strong bond between close friends? 2 a close-knit community? 3 two generations spending time together? Work with a partner. Match the factors used for measuring happiness to statements a- e.

2

1 2 3 4 5

Health Wealth Social support Freedom to make choices Political satisfaction

a 'If I have a problem, my friends, family and neighbours are all ready to help.' b 'I can rely on my government to keep our country safe and secure.' c 'I feel I can do anything I want in my life.' d 'I earn enough money to live quite comfortably.' e 'I am usually well, and I don't suffer from stress.' 3

0

4

0

Watch the video. Which of the reasons below make Mexico a happy country? • Increasing wealth • Good weather • A friendly society • A healthy lifestyle • Green spaces Watch again. Decide if sentences a-fare true (T), false (F) or if the video doesn't say (DS). Correct the false sentences.

The UN World Happiness Report says ... a health and wealth are the two most important factors when measuring a population's happiness. b Denmark was higher on the list than all the other northern European countries. c most people expected Mexico to be higher on the list than the USA. In Mexico, ... d people know that their families will usually help them when life gets difficult. e it is normal for people to meet up with their neighbours. f the fine weather is the main reason for the population's happiness. Sa

im:l3 Which activities increase or decrease your happiness?

b Work with a partner. Compare your answers and say why

each activity increases or decreases your happiness. Do you and your partner have a lot in common?

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

Review 1 a Choose the correct option to complete the sentences. Can money buy happiness? 1 If you spend it on the right things, money must/ can/ has to buy happiness. 2 Most people will be happier unless I ifI whether you spend time with them rather than spend money on them. 3 If you're going on holiday, you should I would I will be happier if you pay for it straightaway. 4 People should buy experiences rather than things, especially if they are I will be I are going to be older. 5 People don't enjoy things as much unless they will have to I have to I have work hard for them. b 8.11 )»Mark in exercise la whether the intonation rises or falls at the end of each clause. Then listen and check.

c Which sentences do you agree or disagree with? Discuss with a partner. 2a 8.12 )»Listen to the beginning of six sentences. Write down what you hear and complete the sentence in anyway you like. b Compare your sentences with a partner and explain what you wrote. 3a Rewrite each sentence, using one of the words or phrases in the box to replace the underlined words. a balanced diet childcare cu ltural activities healthcare high taxes leisure time neighbours physical activity pollution poverty a strong economy volunteer

1 The people who live in your street can help you if you have a problem. 2 Being poor can definitely make you unhappy. 3 At the weekends I work for nothing at a charity. 4 It's important to eat healthily. 5 There are plenty of opportunities to enjoy the arts in my town. 6 Exercise really helps me to stay fit and healthy. b Work with a partner. Choose three of the other words and write sentences using them. c Compare your ideas with another pair.

4a Divide the following adjectives into positive and negative

(some may be both). afraid brave crazy calm educated embarrassed generous heroic honest kind lucky ordinary responsible selfish

b Compare your answers with a partner. Explain the reasons for your choices. Sa Complete each sentence with a prefix and word from the box. misresuperunder-

appear arrange behave ground heat human married model pronounced store water

1 2 3 4

A is a kind of really large shop. The London railway is often called the 'Tube'. Diving equipment allows you to breathe _ _ __ If my coffee goes cold, I just it in the microwave. 5 I didn't understand what she said because she _ _ __ one of the words. 6 After her husband died, she never _ _ __

b Choose another word and prefix. Define it, giving clues to help your partner guess it. 6a Match phrases a- fto the correct section of the talk 1- 3. 1 Introduction _ _ _ __ 2 The main body _ _ _ __ 3 The conclusion _ _ _ __ a The third and last point is .. . b Now I'd like to finish with .. . c I'm going to talk about ... d Let's move on now to talk about ... e Hello, everyone. I'm ... f Does anyone have any questions? b Plan a 1-2 minute talk about a good decision you made. Make sure you use some of the phrases to signpost each section of your talk.

c Take turns to listen to your partner's talk. Which phrases did your partner use?

• •

Appearances 9.1

Real beauty?

vocabulary & Reading appearance

describing physical

1 a Work in small groups. Make a list of five things that make a

person attractive - not just physical appearance. b Look at photos l - 6. Which words from the box can you use to describe the people? blond(e) clean-shaven curly double chin dyed elderly fringe going bald grey in good shape twenties large forehead long eyelashes middle-aged moustache overweight large jaw round face shoulder-length slim spiky stubble thick eyebrows well-bu ilt

c Work with a partner. Put t he words in exercise Ib in the correct category in the table. Age

Build

BEAUTY BEAUTY NEWS

Facial features

WHATTO WEAR

FASHION BEAUTY PEOPLE STYLEFILES

SHOWS & TRENDS

As other people see !JOU? 1 Dove, the beauty company famous for its campaigns to

Hair

I 2a

9.1 )»Listen to three

descriptions. For each description, say which person in exercise Ibis being described.

b 9.1 )»Listen again and note which words and expressions you hear from exercise Ib to describe the people. 3a Read the first two paragraphs of a magazine article. What do you think the beauty company was trying to prove through their experiment? Discuss with a partner.

b Now read the rest of the article and check if your ideas were correct.

O.W Oxford 3000™

make people feel better about themselves, have created the most interesting film they've ever done. 2 For the film Dove, Real Beauty Sketches, they asked a group of women to turn up to a place they hadn't been to before, and then make friends with another woman there. They were later asked to go into a room and describe their own faces, honestly, to a complete stranger who was hidden behind a curtain: police artist, Gil Zamora. All the women were very negative about their appearance. They used phrases like 'round face ' and 'big forehead'. Once the sketch was done, Zamora thanked them and they left. 3 Next, each woman was asked back into the room to describe to Zamora the face of the woman they had made friends with. Already, you get the idea of what Dove was trying to prove; the descriptions were so much more positive. A 'protruding jaw', for example, was described as a 'nice and thin chin'.

9.1

4

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

b Look at the highlighted forms in the article. Which use a modifier?

Work with a partner and discuss the following questions. I Do you think it's true that women tend to believe they are less attractive than they really are? Why/Why not? 2 Are men equally self-critical? Why/Why not? 3 Does it depend on age? Do you become more or less self-confident as you get older?

I

2

3

c Look at 3 in the Grammar focus box. I Which modifiers make the difference between the things being compared bigger/stronger? a b c d _ ___

Grammar & Speaking comparison Sa Look at the highlighted forms in the article, and add

2 Which make the difference smaller/weaker? a b _______

examples from the article to the Grammar focus box.

GRAMMAR FOCUS comparison 1 we use comparatives to compare people and things with each other.

Complete the sentences using a comparative form of the adjectives in brackets and a modifier where possible.

6

I Why is the campaign only about women? Are men _________________ (confident) women? 2 Actually, I think men can be _________________ (insecure) as women, can't they? 3 The campaign is not _________________ (supportive) of women as it says. Why is it important to be beautiful anyway? 4 Surely, there are (valuable) things being beautiful. 5 The (big) problem I have with the advert is that it's made by a beauty products company. 6 Although the campaign is selling beauty, I still think the advert is (good) adverts that make women feel bad about themselves.

round-+ rounder; attractive -+ more attractive

a -------------------------------------2 To make a negative comparison use less +adjective. Many women thought they were less attractive than they actually were.

b -------------------------------------3 we use a modifier when you want to give more detail about the degree of difference between things. a bit a little a lot far much

very much

4 To say something is the same use (just) as ... as; to say something is not the same, we use not as/so ... as. 5 we use superlatives to compare a person or thing with all the other people or things in their group.

c ~~------------~~~~~~ -+Grammar Reference page 152

Which of the statements in exercise 6 do you agree or disagree with? Why? Discuss with a partner.

7

PRONUNCIATION

4 When the two sketches were done, Zamora put them side by side and asked the women back in to take a look at both pictures, revealing the sketches from the women's descriptions of themselves, and the sketches the strangers had helped him to draw.

Sa 9.2 ))) Listen to the sentences and mark which word in each

sentence carries the most stress. I 2 3 4 5

5 The difference between the two sketches in every case is incredible. Looking at her self-described portrait, one woman described her face as 'a lot more closed off and fatter, sadder, too,' while her second one 'looks much friendlier and happier.'

8 This is one campaign that will make you think, and

hopefully, feel far more beautiful.

The descriptions were more positive. The descriptions were much more positive. The descriptions were far more positive. The descriptions were a bit more positive. Their descriptions weren't as positive as their friends'.

b Compare your answers with your partner. What do you notice about the changing stress?

6 'We spend a lot of time as women trying to fix the things that aren't quite right, and we should spend more time appreciating the things we do like,' she goes on. 'We seem to feel less beautiful than other people think we are.' 7 'Do you think you're more beautiful than you say?' Zamora asks one woman. 'Yes,' she admits.

changing stress

c 9.2 ))) Listen again and repeat.

9

1mm

0

VOX POPS VIDEO 9

Work with a partner. Go to page I30.

9.2 Paintings GOALS •

Describe paintings •

vocabulary & Listening

describing paintings 1

Look at the paintings. Which painting is a) abstract, b) a landscape, c) a portrait? Which painting do you like best? Do you normally like this kind of painting? Discuss with a partner or in small groups.

2

Work with a partner or in small groups. Which of these words and phrases could you use to describe each of the paintings? bright colourful curves detailed historical looks modern mysterious old-fashioned seems soft colours straight lines tells a story traditional warm

3a 9.3 )»Listen to two speakers talking about the paintings. Which paintings are they talking about? b Did they choose any of the same words

and phrases as you?

O.W Oxford 3000™

Speculate and make deductions

9.1

4

9.3 l)) Listen again and complete sentences

4

5

We use look+ adjective- when something 4 is I appears to be ... It looks cold.

-+Grammar Reference page 153

sa Complete sentences 1-10 about the paintings in exercise 1 with suitable modal verbs. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.

using the phrases in exercise 4.

Speaker 1 1 The river _ _ _ _ be frozen over, because they're skating on it in the valley. too cold. 2 It _ _ _ _ be summer; it be coming back from the hunt because one has 3 The hunters something on his back. 4 The painting be a few hundred years old, I suppose.

1

there are some sharp, snowy mountain peaks. 2

there are four or five tall black trees, with no leaves. 3

there are some houses.

Speaker2 5 It be a picture of an old story or something. 6 It be a modern painting; it looks too old-fashioned. be a mirror; I can see the reflection of her face. 7 It

4

someone is walking over a snowy bridge. 5 The people look very small.

Speaker3 8 The abstract painting be very modern. I don't think it was painted a long time ago. 9 It be older than you think. People started painting abstracts more than one hundred years ago. lO It be a painting of a mandrill. I can't see a mandrill in the painting at all!

b 9.4 )»Listen and check.

Grammar & Speaking deduction

and speculation 6

Look at these extracts from the listening. Which phrase is used when you are sure about something (S), and which when you are not sure about something (NS)? Write downS or NS with each phrase. 1 ... it must be either an old painting or a painting of a historical scene. 2 ... they might be going out to hunt. 3 They could be cooking something. _ 4 It can't be a window. 5 It looks cold.

9.5

we use the following modals to tell the listener how sure we are about something. • must- when you are very sure something 1 is 1 is not true: It must be either an old painting or a painting of a historical scene. • can't- when you are very sure something 2 is I is not true: It can't be a window ... • might/could - when you are not sure, but you think something 3 is I is not possible: They might be going out to hunt. They could be cooking something.

are some men with dogs. Just there's a group of women. There's lots of snow on the ground and on the mountains in People are skating on it in the valley towards the of the picture. The woman is in the of the picture, but the is also really detailed.

sa Complete sentences 1- 5 about painting 2,

9.4

GRAMMAR FOCUS deduction and speculation

cor-11.-e-r there 1 In the- bottom Ldt-k&ii~Ut' ,

3

9.3

Read the information in the Grammar focus box. Complete rules 1- 4.

7

1-5 to describe which part ofthe painting each speaker is talking about.

2

9.2

b 9.5 »)Listen and check your answers. PRONUNCIATION

sentence stress -speculating

9a 9.5 ))) Listen again to the sentences in exercise Sa. Which verb is stressed

more, the modal verb or the main verb? b 9.5 ))) Listen again and repeat. 10

mlm

Work with a partner. Student A, turn to page 130. Student B, turn to page 134.

9.3 Vocabulary and skills development GOALS •

Reading 1

2

Question a text •

use phrasal verbs

questioning a text

myblog

Look at the title and photos from a recent blog, a nd in one sentence a nswer the question: Wha t do you think the text is about?

POSTS ABOUT FOLLOW ARCHIVE

Seeing faces

G._

SEARCH

Look at some of the key words from the blog in the box below, and change your sentence from exercise 1 if you need to.

1 Nowadays, all aspects of human behaviour are faces houses laugh teapots website

3

meaning museum

scientists

Read paragraph l of the blog and think about the question : Wha t do you want to find out from the text?

the subject of scientific research and enquiry. And sometimes we can learn about ourselves from even the seem ingly silliest things.

2

One example comes to mind from my recent surfing on the internet. I'm an architect, and like most people, I often use the internet for professional research. The other day, I was looking for pictures of interesting houses for an article that a magazine had asked me to write, and I came across a website called 'Houses that look like Faces'.

3

The website interested me, (and really made me laugh) not only because the houses looked like faces, as you might expect, but because they seemed to express emotions as well. Some looked happy, some looked a bit irritated, and several looked really sad! I noticed that the website had a huge number of visitors, and I wondered why this might be.

4

I talked to some of my colleagues about this, and found out that, in fact, there are websites devoted to all kinds of objects that resemble faces. Taps, teapots, tape recorders - it seems as if we can't help making out faces where there aren't any. And once we have seen them, it is impossible 'not' to see them.

5

Of course, in some cases, the photos are fakes, but they started me thinking about why this happens. I did some research and found out that this phenomenon is called pareidolia1 . Scientists have come up with various ideas to explain it. One is that humans are 'programmed' to see faces, perhaps because it helped us to survive many thousands of years ago, or because we simply try to find meaning and patterns in chance lines, blobs, and colours. Another idea is that we want to see faces, so we do.

6

The study of pareidolia is a serious business. A German design studio is making a database of such faces. And interestingly, images of some of these houses were put up on a wall at Exploratorium, a museum of 'science, art and human perception' in San Francisco as an example of how we find patterns in everyday objects.

Use the photos, key words and the start of the blog to write a question you want the text to answer. For example: Which 'silly things' will the text talk about? 4

5

Read paragraphs 2-4 of the blog and see if you are able to answer your question . Read the information in the Unlock the code box about questioning a text.

.l!

II

UNLOCK THE CODE

questioning a text

If you ask questions about a text before and while you read it, you will be more likely to understand it. Sometimes the questions will be quite general: Do 1want to read this text? What is the text about? Is the text going to give me useful information for my job/study! research? At other times, they wil l be more specific: What is the author writing about? What is the main point he/she is making? Where is the museum/gallery/city ...?

6a Look at paragraphs 5-6 of the blog. Which of questions l-4

do you expect to be answered? 1 Which other websites has the writer visited? 2 How does the human eye work? 3 Why do humans like to see faces where they don't

actually exist? 4 How do websites attract visitors? b Discuss w ith a partner. How did you choose? Write two more questions you would like the text to answer.

c Read the paragraphs and check if your questions h ave been answered.

O.W Oxford 3000™

1 -pronounced

/preri'doulid/

9.1

7

Work with a partner and answer these questions. I Did any part of the blog answer your questions? 2 Do you think asking questions before and while you read helped you to understand the text better?

a b c d e

consider fix and display find an answer find by chance manage to see

9.4

9.5

VOCABULARY FOCUS phrasal verbs • There are many common phrasal verbs in English. The meaning is often very different from the two separate words. They contain a main verb and one or two particles (prepositions or adverbs).

Match the phrasal verbs in bold from the blog to their meanings. I I came across a website ... 2 we can't help making out faces where there aren't any ... 3 they started me thinking about why this happens ... 4 Scientists have come up with various ideas to explain it. 5 images were put up on a wall ...

9.3

b Check your answers in the Vocabulary focus box. Make a note of whether a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable when you learn a new one.

vocabulary & Speaking phrasal verbs 8

9.2

The plane took off at 6.30 a.m. I'm looking forward to the party.

• These verbs are often separable. An object pronoun like it, her or us must come between the verb and the particle. we looked up the word. OR we looked the word up ...

But we looked it up in the dictionary. NOT we looked up ft .. .

• With an inseparable verb. the object always comes after the particle. we looked after the baby. We looked after him.

9a True (T) or false (F)? Discuss the rules with a partner. I Phrasal verbs contain a main verb and one or two particles (like up or out). 2 They are very rare. 3 Some phrasal verbs can be separated by another word or words.

10a 9.6 )»It is important to be able to hear phrasal verbs. Listen to the eight sentences and write down the phrasal verbs. I 2

~ a ~-----

gwe

3 4

5 6 7

8

b 9.6 )»Listen to the sentences again and decide what the phrasal verbs mean. Check your answers with a partner. c When could you use the verbs in exercise lOa? Match them to the situations. When you want to ... I invite somebody to your house. _______ 2 talk about a future event that you a re excited about. 3 talk about somebody starting a new hobby. _______ 4 describe your relationship to somebody older in your family. _______ 5 move an event until a later time. _ _ ___ 6 talk about your relationship with somebody. _ _ ___ 7 say that something is continuing. _______ 8 talk about something you had to stop doing because it was too difficult. _______ 11 ~ Write four questions using a phrasal verb from exercise lOa. They must be real questions! Ask your partner the questions. Tell the class the most interesting thing you found out.

9.4 Speaking and writing Reading & Writing

taking part in online discussions

1

Look at the photos. Do you think the people are dressed appropriately for work? Why/Why not? Discuss your ideas with a partner.

2

Read the question in an online discussion forum. How would you answer it? Check with a partner.

Forum .

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ABOUT US

Problem solved?

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2 repl ies

I just don't know how to dress for work any more. I see colleagues wearing jeans, shorts, flip flops ... how do I know if what I'm wearing is appropriate? And does it even matter these days?

Reply • Favourite • For ward

RECENT COMMENTS

Jay

24

OCTOBER

Cape Town

That's a great question. Thanks for posting it! Rules about what we wear have changed so much in the last few years, and not everyone likes this. However, in my opinion, these changes are good, especially in the office. I don't think appearance should be important there. People should judge us on the work we do, not the clothes we wear. Reply • Favourite • Forward

7:21PM

Chia ra

25

OCTOBER 11:37 AM

3

Turin

I read your comment with interest. As you say. things have changed a lot. Many people, young and old, are not as formal at work now. I believe, though. that how we look still matters a lot. The issue is not really about dressing in a formal or informal style. but it is more about matching or 'fitting in' with our colleagues. In other words, we need to dress to suit where we work. Reply • Favourite • Forward

Read the two comments on the question asked in the discussion forum. Which comment do you agree with most? Why?

9.1

4a Read the information in the Language for writing box.

Listening & Speaking

9.2

9.3

9.4

making complaints

LANGUAGE FOR WRITING taking part in discussion board posts

6

To add a post to a discussion board, make connections with what other people have written.

7 a 9.7 )»Listen to the start of two conversations.

That's a very important/great question. Thanks for commenting on/posting ... 1read your post/comments with interest. As you say, ... You make some good/interesting points. As previously commented, ...

b Choose t he best comment to come next. Explain your choice to a partner.

9.5

What you wear at work could cause problems. Think of other situations that might cause problems at work.

1 What is the problem in each one? 2 Which conversations are between friends, and which between a boss and an employee? How do you know? b 9.8 ))) What would be a good result for each conversation? Discuss the question with a partner, and then listen to check what actually happened. 8a Match 1- 5 to a- e to complete extracts from the

conversations.

26

OCTOBER 12:06 PM

Post A No one cares what people look like nowadays. You can make your own rules and you shou ldn't worry about what other people think.

1 2 3 4 5

I'm sorry to h ave to say this, Look, it's a bit awkward, but I'd like to apologize It would really help Would you mind

a b c d e

for being so annoying. if you could just clear up your stuff. but I need to talk to you about somet hing. taking the calls in your own time? I'm afraid there's something I'm not happy about.

Reply • Favour ite • Forward

26

OCTOBER 15:56 PM

Post B You make some good points, Chiara. As previously comment ed, people should judge us on the work we do. It seems, however, that very often they don't, and research shows this. Reply • Favourite • Forward

c Underline six making connections phrases in the three comments posted in the forum. 5

b 9.9 ))) Listen, check and practise. 9

lll!St3 Work with a partner. Read the in formation in t he Language for speaking box. Go to page 131 and choose one of the tasks. LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING complaining effectively

Work in small groups. Take part in written discussions.

Introducing the complaint

1 On your own, choose one of the questions. Write it at the top of your piece of paper.

Sorry to bother you, but ... I'm afraid there's a problem with ... There's something I'm not happy about ... Can 1have a word? It's a bit awkward, but ...

• Is it right to judge people by how they dress? • Is getting work experience more important than having qualifications? • Is it OK to use office equipment to print or copy things for your personal use?

2 Write a post under your question to start the discussion. 3 Exchange w ith someone in your group. Read the question and the first post, and add your post to the discussion. 4 Exchange with a different student. Read and then add your post. Continue until you have added a post fo r each question.

Explaining the problem

To be honest, ... The problem's been going on for ... They keep ... -ing ... 1think it's unfair that .. . We're getting a bit fed up with it. Proposing a solution

Do you think you could ... ? Apologizing

I'm sorry about that. 1didn't mean to ... f'll make sure ... We often get more formal when we are making a complaint. especially if we feel uncomfortable about it.

9.5 Video The selfie Complete the sentences with words from the box.

1

bust selfies self-portrait portrait

a Do you like the stone of Beethoven sitting on top of the piano? b In Van Gogh's we see that he painted himself wearing a bandage over one ear. of themselves on c Many celebrities post social media so everyone can see their latest image. d I sat for two days while the artist painted my _ _ _ __ 2

Work with a partner. Describe the photos, using some of the words in exercise 1 to help you. Which of these art forms would you choose to see in an art exhibition?

3

0

Watch the video. Complete the statement with the best option.

Modern-day selfies ... a are completely different to the portraits in the National Portrait Gallery. b are very similar to the portraits in the National Portrait Gallery. c share a few similarities with the portraits in the National Portrait Gallery.

0

4

a b c d e

Sa

Watch again and answer the questions. What did Oxford Dictionaries do in 2013? Why have artists been creating portraits of people for hundreds of years? What negative opinions of selfies does the presenter mention? What is the value of selfies? What can great portraits show us that selfies might not be able to?

11\13 Choose a question, A-D. Go around the class, ask your question and note down the answers people give you. A B

Do you take selfies? Why/Why not? Do you like looking at other people's selfies? c What do you do with selfies you have taken? D What do you think of selfies?

b Work in groups, with a Student A, B, C and Din each group.

Report your answers. Does your group think selfies are a good thing or not?

9.1

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

Review 1

Work with a pa rtner. Describe the people in the photos. Give as much detail as possible.

a

b

4

Complete the sentences with the most suitable words or phrases from the box. bright colourful curves detailed historical looks modern mysterious old-fashioned seems soft colours straight lines tells a story traditiona l warm

1 The painting uses a lot of _________________ with very few curves. 2 Although it was painted nearly 100 years ago, it still feels quite _________________ 3 It as if it was painted outside. , with reds, 4 It's very bright and blues, yellows and black and white. 5 The picture obviously ; you can see exactly what's going to happen next. 6 The man in the foreground seems _ _ _ _ _ _ __ because we can't see his face. Sa 9.11 l)) Listen and write down as much of the text as you can.

b Work with a partner. Try to reconstruct the text. C 9.11 l)) Listen again to

check. How many phrasal verbs can

you find? 6a Put the conversation in the right order.

2a Write five sentences comparing the two people in the

photos, using modifiers and at least one (not) as ... as construction.

b Compare your sentences with a partner. Do you agree? 3a 9.10 l)) Listen to each sentence and write a conclusion, using

might, must or can't and the word in brackets. She's wearing a uniform. (police officer) She mi_ght be ~ police officer 1 (curly) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

2 3 4 5

(very old) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (ingoodshap~--------------------------(clean-shaven) _____________________________ (going bald) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

b Work with a partner. Describe someone in the class. After each sentence, say what your conclusion is. A He's got blond hair.

B It can't be Marek because he's dark.

a Do you have the receipt? b Do you think you could get the manager? He might remember selling it to me. c Er, no I don't, actually. d I only bought it a few weeks ago, but it keeps turning itself off. e Oh, I'm sorry to hear that. What seems to be the problem? f Sorry to bother you, but I've got a bit of a problem with this tablet. 1 g Well, I'm afraid I can't help you, then. b 9.12 l)) Listen and check your answers.

c With a partner, role-play the conversation the customer then has with the manager.

compete and cooperate 10.1 Crowd-funding GOALS • Talk about business • Talk about how things are done

vocabulary & Reading 1

business

Work with a partner. Look at the photo. What kind of company do you think Kickstarter might be? Discuss your ideas in pairs. Do you think it is ... ? a a company that helps entrepreneurs find investors b a company that lends money to entrepreneurs c a company that arranges bank loans for entrepreneurs

2a Read the article about Kicks tarter and check your

predictions. b Work with a partner. Answer questions 1-3.

1 What first gave Perry Chen the idea for Kickstarter? 2 What is the minimum amount anyone can invest? 3 What does Kickstarter not guarantee? 3a Choose the correct option to make a business phrase.

1 raise money I in value 2 share an investor I the risk 3 set up money I a business 4 present an idea I a bank loan 5 back a project I money 6

7 8 9

10

11 12

become a guarantee I an investor find yourself short ofcash I the risk get funding I a profit take out a project I a bank loan increase in value I an idea give a guarantee I a project make a profit I a bank loan

The 21st-century way to start a business? When Perry Chen, a musician, had to cancel a concert because he couldn't raise the $20,000 he needed to put it on, he started to think about ways he cou ld share the risk with others. Together with Yancey Strickler and Charles Adler, he started up Kickstarter, a crowd -funding website. Anyone who wants to set up a business can present their idea on the website, setting out exactly how much money they are looking for, and anyone who wants to back their

b Check your answers in the article. 4a Choose six phrases in exercise 3a. Write a sentence/

definition for each and read it to a partner. Can they guess which one it is? b Work with a partner. Use the phrases above to write a list

of advantages and disadvantages of crowd-funding for entrepreneurs or investors. Crowd-funding is an easy way to become an investor.

c Compare your ideas with another pair.

O.W Oxford 3000TM

projects can become an investor, sometimes for as little as $1. For entrepreneurs who find themselves short of cash, it's a great way to get funding without having to take out a bank loan . For investors, it's fun and there's always the possibility that their investment will increase in valuealthough Kickstarter won't give any guarantees that the new businesses will make a profit.

10.1

7

Grammar & Speaking passives Work with a partner. Read the article Travel in comfort. Answer questions l-5. l

2 3 4 5

2 3 4 5

What is the product or service? Who was the product or service aimed at? How many investors backed the idea? How much funding did the entrepreneur get? Has the business been successful? Why/Why not?

6

Sign up

backers

$195,094 $70,000 goal

Back This Project!

10.4

10.5

by The Ostrich Pillow company is co-ownedA_Ali Ga njavian. The pillow invented in Ganjavian's studio. The Ostrich Pillow been well designed. You are protected from all sides a soft cushion. There are two holes which located near your ears so you can put in earplugs. It a rrived safely and it packed well.

Travel in comfort 1,846

10.3

Add one missing word to each sentence. l

5

10.2

Log in

0. SEARCH

A surprise Kickstarter hit has been t he 'Ostrich Pillow', a kind of padded hat that people can pull over their heads to take a nap. It has been backed by 1,846 people who have pledged $195,094. Ali Ganjavian, who co-owns the studio where the pillow was invented, admitted that they had no idea it would be th is popular. 'We thought that it would appeal to travellers,' Ganjavian said, 'but we've had lots of emails from people in all different kinds of fields saying that they have found it useful, li ke a firefighter who spends a lot of time waiting on call.' Five thousand pillows were sold in t he first three months and shipped to fifty-two different countries. More are currently being manufactured.

6a Read the information in the Grammar focus box and

choose the correct options.

Sa Complete the sentences with the correct form (passive or active) of the verbs in brackets. l

GRAMMAR FOCUS active and passive forms • We use active verbs to describe 1 what someone or something does I what happens to someone or something. Ali Ganjavian co-owns the design studio.

2 3

a -------------------------------------• We use passive verbs to describe 2 what someone or something does I what happens to someone or something. If we want to say who or what does the action, we use by. The design studio is owned by Ali Ganjavian. • Often the person or thing that does the action is 3 known I not known, obvious or 4 important I unimportant . .. . how the beans were roasted. b _____________________________________ • we also choose 5 active I passive to continue talking about the same thing or person. A surprise Kicks tarter hit has been the 'Ostrich Pillow' ... It has been backed by 1,846 people ...

c ------------------~~~~~~ -+ Grammar Reference page 154

4 5

b 10.1 l)) Listen and check your answers. PRONUNCIATION

passives

9a 10.2 »)Listen to sentences l-5 in exercise Sa again. Mark

the main stress. Which is stronger, the main verb or the auxiliary verb? b 10.2 l)) Listen again and repeat. 10

b Complete the explanations in the box with sentences from the article in exercise 5.

Ali Ganjavian noticed that people who _______ (travel) a lot often get very tired. The Ostrich Pillow (invent) to help longdistance travellers. It's a kind of hat that _______ (pull) over the head in order to take a nap. So far, over $195,000 (pledge) by its backers. In the first three months of production, Ganjavian's company (ship) five thousand pillows to fifty-two countries.

B3 Work in small groups. Student A, turn to page 131. Student B, page 134.

10.2 Competitive sport GOALS •

Talk about competition •

vocabulary competitive sport Look at the photos. Work with a partner and discuss the q uestions.

1

• Which of the sports and activities do you consider to be competitive or non-competitive? • Which did you (not) enjoy at school, or do you (not) enjoy now?

2a Read the article about what the government thinks of

competitive sports. Do you agree with t he government's point of view?

-

OLYMPICS

SPORTING COMPETITION?

As figures show that more and more children are overweight, the government has announced that highly 1 sports days and 2_ _ __ are to be re-introduced at schools. Under the new plans, schools will play 3 each other in an Olympics-style event, with sports such as footbal l, ath letics, rugby, swimming, tennis and cycling. Winning teams will 4 in sixty county competitions before going on to a national

3

Choose the correct options to complete the sentences. l

5

----

For too long, schools have been avoid ing competitive sports, introducing activities such as yoga, trampolining, cheerleading and dancing instead. They seem to believe that losing a 6 will make people feel bad about themselves. We have to realize that taking 7 in competitive sport is not bad for people's self-esteem. Whether you s_ _ __ or 9 , competitive sport teaches people to work in a 10 and to try hard to be the best that they can be. These are skills which are just as important in the workplace as they are in school. It is also hoped that the new plans will help Britain to 11 records in future Olympic Games.

2 3 4 5 6

A prize was given to the win I winner of the race. There were several different types of sports in a race I tournament. Next week my football team will play against I take part in the current champion. As well as winning a gold medal, she also broke I competed the world record. He's so competitive- he hates losing I taking part. We won the first few matches, but lost in the race I final.

4a 10.4 )»Listen to six different opinions on competitive sports

and tick the box you think is closest to each opinion. Speaker

1

2

3

4

5

6

Against In favour of

b Complete the article using the words in the box. against break compete competitive final part race team tournaments win

c

10.3 )»Listen and check your answers.

O.W Oxford 3000TM

lose

Has a different idea

b 10.4 »)Listen again. Make notes about what each speaker says and the reasons they give. Discuss your answers with a partner.

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

10.5

7a Complete the text with a/an, the or - (no article).

Almost unheard of in Europe, sepak takraw is 1 extremely popular sport throughout East Asia, and is growing in popularity in countries like the United States, Switzerland and Canada. Roughly thril ling mixture translated as 'kickball ' it is 2 of soccer, volleyball and gymnastics. 3_ _ __ game is played w ith 4 net and ball, but s players are only allowed to use their feet to get 6 ball over 7 net. Each team has three players and s first team to score 21 w ins. Usually introduced to sepak takraw at 9 school, p layers have to be very fit and almost practise daily to achieve 1o super-hero skills needed to win 11_ _ __ international matches.

Grammar & Speaking using articles: a/an, the, - (no article) Sa Complete the ext racts from the listening with a/an, the or -(no article).

1 It's just unrealistic for children to be told that everyone can win; 1 life is competitive. 2 2 If you lose race, then you should just try harder. 3 That's what I learnt when I was at 3_ _ _ _ school. answer. 4 I don't think more competition is 4 5 5 The school used to hold sports days in _ _ __ public park, so everyone in 6 park could watch. b Match 1- 11 to rules a- f in the Grammar focus box.

b 10.5 »)Listen and check your answers.

6

Match answers 1-6 in exercise Sa to rules a- fin the Grammar focus box.

8a

'Whoever said, "It's not whether you win or lose that counts," probably lost.'

GRAMMAR FOCUS a/an, the, -(no article) • we use alan (indefinite article): a when something is one of many _ _

Martina Navratilova (tennis player)

b when we mention something for the first time _ _

1ust play. Have fun . Enjoy the game.

• We use the (definite article): c when it is the only one of something, or the only one in a place _ _

'You have to fight to reach your dream. You have to sacrifice and work hard for it.

• we use no article: e when we talk about plural and uncountable nouns in general. _ _ f in some common phrases after a preposition _ _

I

Michael Jordan (basketball player)

d when we have talked about the things before _ _

-+Grammar Reference page 155

1m3 Work with a partner. Which quote do you agree with most? Give your reasons.

I

Lionel Messi (soccer player) b Listen to another pair who have a different view.

Discuss the different views together.

===

c Decide together who had the best arguments. Why?

0

VOX POPS VIDEO 10

10.3 Vocabulary and skills development GOALS •

Listening & Speaking

Hear unstressed words •

Phrases with take and have

unstressed words

1a Work with a partner. Look at the photo and make guesses

about what you think it shows.

c

10.10 ))) Listen and

read the information in the Unlock the code box about unstressed words and check your ideas. ~

II

UNLOCK THE CODE unstressed words

words which carry the main meaning of a sentence are usually stressed; the other words, which are 'grammar' words, are generally unstressed. The following kinds of 'grammar' words are usually unstressed: • the verb to be •

auxiliary verbs: do, did, will



pronouns: he, it, they

• articles: a, an, the •

conjunctions: and, so, when



prepositions: to, from, at, with

There may be two or three unstressed words between two stressed words. However, the length of time between the two stressed words remains about the same, no matter how many unstressed words there are between the two stressed words. This can make it harder to hear the unstressed words.

Sa 10.11 »)Listen to the sentences and write down how many

words there are in each.

b

10.6 )»Listen to

2a

10.7 )»Listen to

another clue. Does this help you to guess?

the first part of a radio programme and check your ideas.

b Do you think this is a good idea? Why/Why not? Discuss

with a partner. 3a Look at the following extract from the listening. Underline

the three words which carry the main meaning and stress.

~he robots can cheer on their tea~ b 10.8 )»Listen and check if you underlined the correct words.

c What happens to the other words in the extract? 4a

Mark the main stresses in this extract in the same way. 'Then the robots can also cheer on their own team.'

b

10.9 )»Listen to both sentences and check your answers. What do you notice about the unstressed words in both sentences?

O.W Oxford 3000TM

1 2 3 4 5 b 10.11 »)Check your answers with a partner. Listen again

if necessary.

10.1

10.12 l)) Listen to

the rest of the radio programme and answer the questions.

6

9

1 What percentage of games do teams playing at their home stadium usually win? 2 What is it about Galatasaray's stadium that makes it particularly noisy? 3 What effect can the crowd have on the referees of a game? 4 What kinds of sport benefit from a noisy crowd? 5 What effect might a crowd have on an athlete who needs to focus and concentrate? 7a

I

10.5

be aware of something, but not certain about it try to do something be irrelevant or unrelated to something believe that something is important find that doing something is not easy expect someone or something to be always there for you, even when you aren't grateful

VOCABU~ARY FOCUS

take and have are two of the most common verbs in English

phrases. For example:

b Join with a pair who made the opposite list to yours and compare your ideas. Which pair has the best arguments?

phrases with take

and have

• • • • •

have difficulty in doing something have a go at doing something have a feeling that .. . have a responsibility to do something have nothing to do with something/someone

• • • • • •

take something seriously take advantage of take (no) notice of ... take something for granted take risks take a decision

Note that in these phrases the main meaning is not in the verb

Sa Complete the extracts from the listening with take or have. Compare your answers with a partner.

1 Don't the fans a responsibility to turn up and encourage their team? an advantage. 2 ... the home team really does 3 ... there are certain football stadiums ... which seem to be designed to advantage of the noise fans make. 4 ... they can learn to no notice of whatever the other team's fans might be shouting. 5 ... referees, or match officials, who have to _ _ __ decisions about whether to allow goals and so on. 6 ... noise from the crowd might cause them to _ _ __ unnecessary risks and make a mistake.

10.4

phrases With take and have

a Make a list of at least five reasons why going to see a live game or another sporting event live is better than watching it at home on the TV or internet. b Make a list of at least five reasons why watching a game or another sporting event on the TV or internet is better than going to see it live.

vocabulary & speaking

10.3

Work with a partner. Read the information in the Vocabulary focus box and match six of the phrases in the box to the definitions below. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Work with a partner. Do either of the following.

10.2

take or have, but in the whole expression. 10 Rewrite sentences 1-7, replacing the underlined words or

phrases with one of the phrases in the Vocabulary focus box. 1 Don't do anything dangerous- it's not worth it. 2 He used his frie nd's kindness to borrow a lot of money he couldn't pay back. 3 Just ignore him- he's being silly. 4 I know my studies are very important. 5 It's very important to make the right choice about which degree to do. 6 It's a bit difficult at first, but just try doing it. 7 I somehow think that this holiday will be a mistake ... I don't know why.

b 10.13 l)) Listen and check your answers. 11

lll!mt Choose three or four of the following situations and tell each other about them. Work with a partner. Ask questions to find out more information. A time when you ... • had difficulty in doing something. • had a go at something new. • had a feeling that someth ing was wrong. • took advantage of a situation or person (or a time when you were taken advantage of) • took a risk. • took an important decision.

10.4 Speaking and writing GOALS • write about changes and differences •

Reading & Writing

Make recommendations

changes and differences ISTANBUL

1

Work with a partner. Look at the photos oflstanbul, Liverpool and Riga and answer the questions.

THE NEW ISTANBUL

Istanbul has long been recognized as one of the world's great cities. However, whereas in the past it was famous for its magnificent ancient sights, today Istanbul is becoming just as well known for its modern galleries, designer shops and fashionable restaurants.

1 What do you know about these cities? 2 What do you think they might have in common?

In the past decades, development has dramatically changed many parts of the city. Whereas before, the skyl ine was dominated by historic buildings and monuments, now it is starting to resemble Manhattan in some districts where modern skyscrapers are rapidly being built. In preparation for the city becoming European Capital of Culture in 2010, the run-down buildings in many areas were renovated and turned into boutique hotels and trendy cafes. The neighbourhood of Ortakoy is now home to sophisticated nightclubs and restaurants, in contrast to the small fishing village that was once there. Compared to twenty years ago, the city's list of must-see attractions has also changed. In the past, most visitors explored the city's abundance of historic buildings, but today there is also a wide choice of exciting new art galleries and museums. One of the most talked about is the stunning Istanbul Modern -a former empty warehouse that is now a state-of-the-art gallery with a stylish restaurant that offers excellent views of the old city. In 2014 the city was voted the world's top destination in TripAdvisor's Travel lers' Choice Awards, and there's no doubt that Istanbul is now one of Europe's most popular and vibrant cities.

2a 10.14 l)) Listen to an extract from a radio programme and

4a Look at the article again and underline five words

check your ideas.

or phrases used for comparing things. What is being compared?

b Which city in your country would you recommend for this competition? Why? Tell your partner.

b Check your answers in the Language for writing box.

LANGUAGE FOR WRITING writing about changes

3a Read the article about Istanbul and make notes about past

and differences

and present Istanbul with the headings. Past

r

The Ortakoy area Istanbul Modern b Check your answers with a pa rtner.

Present

When writing about changes and differences we use phrases like: I

before ... now ... whereas in the past ... today ... whereas before ... , now ... in contrast to .. . compared to .. . one of the most important changes ... another important change ...

10.1

5

Complete the text about the city of Liverpool in the UK. Use the information in the Language for writing box to help you.

sa

4

5 6 7

8

10.4

learning flamenco ...

Portillo or Valle Nevado, both world-class ski resorts. Is there anything ? Where I stay? Well, trying a traditional Japanese inn? They're the in luxury and relaxation. That . I'll definitely try it.

a ask for a recommendation: _ _ __ b recommend something: _ _ _ _ _ _ __ c respond to a recommendation: _ _ __

9

Choose two cities you know and make a list of 3- 5 things you would recommend to someone who is going to visit the cities for work, study or social purposes.

10

mm3 Work with a partner (A and B). Use the expressions in exercise 8a, the Language for speaking box and the prompts below to have a conversation about cities to visit. Then change roles.

can be seen in the

Albert Dock area. s in the early 1980s it lay empty and forgotten, it is now Liverpool's most popular tourist attraction, with more than four million people a year visiting its shops, museums, galleries and street festivals.

B

A

6a Think about a city or town you know that has changed.

Make notes about at least five changes to the city. b Write a paragraph about the city or town. Use the language from the Language for writing box to describe the changes.

Listening & Speaking

making

recommendations 7 a 10.15 ))) Listen to some

people talking about different cities.

1 Which cities are they talking about? 2 What do they recommend doing? Cities

10.5

b Which expressions:

2

4_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

10.3

complete the expressions.

1 You 2 OK, I'll 3 If you like skiing, I'd

A city which has changed its image a great deal since it was named European Capital of Culture in 2008 is Liverpool. 1 before, people in the UK thought of Liverpool as a cit y of high unemployment and poverty, now they are more likely to link it with positive cultural events such as art exhibitions and music concerts. has been the Liverpool One development in the cit y centre, which opened in 2008. 3 the old, often empty buildings that were there before, this fashionable shopping, living and leisure area now attracts millions of visitors a year and is the biggest open-air shopping centre in the UK.

10.16 )» Listen and

10.2

Ask for a recommendation for a city to go to. Give a reason why you need to go there.

-t--1~ suggest a

Say why that's not suitable for you. Ask for another recommendation. Ask for recommendations about what to do there. Thank B and accept the recommendation.

Recommendation

1

LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING

making recommendations 2

Ask for a recommendation could you recommend (a) ... ?

3

Recommend something I'd definitely recommend ... . .. it might be a good idea to ... Don't miss ...

4

b Compare answers with a partner.

Respond to a recommendation Thank you, that's a great suggestion, but ... That's a good idea, (but) ...

city.

10.5 Video Borussia Dortmund Look at the phrases in the box and choose which you would not connect with international football.

1

affordable tickets big business wealthy investors

loyal fans

2a Work with a partner. In one minute, list some more words

or phrases on the topic of international football. Use the photos to help you. b Compare your ideas with another pair.

0

Watch the video. Complete the information about modern fo otball.

3

countries decisions fans investors matches players projects teams tickets

people

There is one big difference between 1 in the German football league and football clubs in most other 2 around the world. Instead of being controlled by rich 3 , it is the 4 who own most of the club. As a result, s are taken that help the club rather than making its investors even wealthier. Borussia Dortmund is one example of an extremely rich club. It has some top-level 6 , and it is very successful. But 7 for s are not terribly expensive. The club is involved in many community 9 , and the 1o of Dortmund are very proud of their local team.

0

4

Watch again. What do these numbers refer to?

• 3 bi llion • 16- 76 • 1909 Sa

• soo • 2011 and 2012 • 100

• 4 • 80,000

ll.i:m3 Work in small groups. Read the situation. You are on the board of directors of a big football club. The directors need to discuss some ideas for some community projects in your city, e.g. organizing a charity football match to raise money for a local children's hospital.

b In your group, write down three ideas for community projects.

c Share your ideas with the class. Make a list of everyone's ideas. Take a vote. Which idea is the most popular?

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

10.5

Review 1 a Choose the correct options to complete the text.

4a Divide the words in the box into nouns, verbs and adjectives;

two words can be in more than one of the categories. Havaianas 1 were developed I developed in Brazil in the late 1950s. They 2 were based I based on the sandals which 3 wear I were worn by BrazilianJapanese immigrants, but these sandals soon 4 became I were become a hit with everyone. Being cheap but exotic, tourists 5 were packed I packed them in their baggage and their fame spread all over the world. In the mid-1990s the flip-flops 6 were redesigned I redesigned. New colours and an improved style 7 caused I was caused an explosion in sales. Nowadays around 22 million pairs 8 export I are exported annually to 80 markets.

b What are some of the typical products from your country? How are they made or grown? Who are they bought or used by? Discuss with a partner. 2a Complete the text using a/an, the or- (no article). With its tropical weather and snow-free mountains, 1 Jamaica may not seem like 2_ _ __ obvious country to send competitors to 3_ _ __ Winter Olympics. But 4 Jamaican bobsled team were determined to make it to the Games. They qualified but needed to find $80,000. So Lincoln Wheeler, 5 fan of the Winter Games, set up 6 campaign on the crowd-funding site Crowdtilt in 2014. Within days 7 campaign had raised more than $115,000. 'This is 8 internet coming together,' said James Beshara, the Crowdtilt CEO. 'It couldn't have been done five years ago.'

b Work with a partner and discuss the following questions. 1 Do you watch the Winter or Summer Olympics? Why/Why not? 2 What are your (least) favourite events? Why? 3a Choose the correct verb to complete each phrase. a b c d e f

make I get an idea set up I make a profit increase I become an investor get I make funding become I give a guarantee support I find yourself short of cash

break a record compete competitive final lose play against race take part team tournaments win winner

b Compare your answers with a partner. c Write five sentences together using any of the words from the box. Sa Cross out the word or phrase that doesn't go with the verb in the first column. 1 take

2 have

3 take

4 have

advantage of something a feeling that ... care of someone something seriously a word with not ... a clue about something someone's word for it nothing to do with someone turns notice of difficulty in doing something something to do with

b Choose one of the completed verb phrases and tell your partner about a time when you did this, or this happened to you. 6a Put the conversation in the right order. A I'd really like to get a bit fitter. What sport or activity would you recommend? 1 A Thank you, that's a good idea. I'll give it a go. A That's a good idea, but I have some problems with my knees. Could you recommend something a bit gentler? B Have you thought of swimming? It's really good for you. B I strongly recommend running; you'll get fit very fast. b 10.18 )»Listen and check your answers.

c Role-play with a partner. You have moved to a new city and have been working very hard in your new job. Now you would like your partner to recommend a sport that will ... • help you meet new people. • get you outside in the fresh air.

Change roles once you have heard your partner's suggestions. b 10.17 )»Listen to six definitions. Match each definition to a

phrase in exercise 3a.

consequences 11.1 Outlaws GOALS •

Talk about crime •

vocabulary & Reading

Talk about unreal situations in the past

crime

1a Work with a partner. Look at the title of the news article. What do you think a 'barefoot bandit' is?

2

3a Match the highlighted words in the article to the following

definitions. 1 crimes involving entering a building illegally in order to steal 2 thought to be guilty of a crime 3 people who are killed or hurt by someone else 4 catch someone you have been following or looking for 5 a building where criminals are kept as a punishment 6 taken without permission 7 crimes involving stealing from a place or person, especially using violence 8 given a punishment (of) 9 got away 10 making someone a prisoner 11 crimes involving stealing something 12 a person who has done something illegal and is hiding to avoid being caught

b Read the article and compare it with your ideas.

News Online 'Barefoot bandit' Colton Harris-Moore sentenced to 7 years in prison Suspected of more than 100 thefts in the United States and Canada, including bicycles, cars and planes, the police had been trying to capture 19-year-old Colton Harris-Moore for nearly two years. Known as 'the barefoot bandit', Harris- Moore often carried out his robberies with no shoes on leaving his footprints behind. After this, he drew chalk footprints on the floor of a grocery store that he robbed .

Why do you think he became a 'Facebook sensation'? Give 2- 3 possible reasons.

b

Check your answers with a partner, then work together to complete the table.

Although none of his victims were actually injured, his burglaries terrified local residents, as no one knew where he might turn up next. Nevertheless, the outlaw became an internet sensation, with a Facebook fan page collecting thousands of 'likes'. As the police came close to arrest ing him, he escaped by flying a stolen plane all the way from Indiana to the Bahamas. He had reportedly taught himself to fly, using information he found on the internet- though that didn't stop him from crash-landing in the sea. He then attempted to escape from local police officers using a stolen motorboat, but the police managed to stop the boat and arrested him.

I

Noun (person)

Noun (action)

thief

1

2

burglary

robber

3

4

stealing

5

CRIII/I,..-

I

I

! I

theft

• bandit a thief, sometimes violent

O.W Oxford 3000™

verb

11.2

Choose the correct words to complete the text.

4

6a Look at the following extract from the listening and

answer the questions. 'If he had crashed the p lane in a town, he would probably have killed someone.'

I Did Colton crash the plane in a town? 2 Did he kill anyone? b Read the example sentences in the Grammar focus box and

The police or authorities are unfair. The outlaw is kind to ordinary people. People admire the outlaw's bravery. The outlaw is defending something he/she believes in.

choose the correct options to complete the information.

GRAMMAR FOCUS unreal past conditional • If+ past perfect, would/might/could have + past participle If he had crashed the plane in a town, he would probably have killed someone. He would probably have killed someone if he had crashed the plane in a town.

11.1 l)) Listen to

a radio programme where two people are discussing popular outlaws and complete the texts.



we use the unreal past conditional to talk about 1 real I unreal situations in the 2 past I present- things that are different from what actually happened.



If the meaning is clear, the clauses can be in any order, but we 3 don't use I use a comma if the result clause comes first.

Colton Harris-Moore Known as 1_ __ People found his story very 2_ __ and loved the fact he taught himself to

-+ Grammar Reference page 156

3

Complete the unreal past conditional sentences about the three outlaws, using the verbs in brackets.

7

Ned Kelly

11.5

conditional

Sa Look at the list of reasons why outlaws sometimes become popular with the public. Which reasons could apply to Harris-Moore? Discuss with a partner.

b

11.4

Grammar & Speaking unreal past

A 1 burglar I victim was 2 caught I escaped on Friday night, after getting stuck in a bathroom window. The man who lived in the house found him when he went to the bathroom in the m iddle of the night. He called the police, who came and 3 arrested I sentenced the burglar. Police 4 suspect I escape that the man had already carried out several 5 thieves I thefts in the local area.

I 2 3 4

11.3

I If Colton (not steal) a plane, he _________ (might/not become) so famous. 2 They (not make) a film about Colton if he (not have) so many Facebook fans. 3 Ned Kelly thought that if he _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ (not be) Irish, he _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (not get) into trouble with the police. 4 If the police _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (not arrest) Ned for (not rob) any banks. murder, he 5 If Attila _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (give) the money away, he (might/be) even more popular. 6 If Attila _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (not have) any bed sheets, he (could/not escape).

.

Arrested for 4_ _ _, but claimed he was innocent. He and three friends then started 5 , but they were 6_ _ _ to the people who worke? there. Ned claimed the police were unfair to him because 7_ __

Attila Ambrus His crime was also 8 . He was polite to the bank workers and even 9 . People supported him because they felt 10 _ __

Sa Write one sentence about each of the outlaws, Colton Harris-Moore, Ned Kelly and Attila Ambrus, using an unreal past conditional form and your own ideas. b Compare your sentences with a partner, and explain

your ideas. 9

&:m3 Work with a partner. Student A, turn to page I32. Student B, turn to page I35.

c Compare your answers with a partner's.

0

VOX POPS VIDEO 11

11.2 I should never have cliclced 'send'! GOALS • Talk about people's behaviour on social media • Criticize past actions

vocabulary & Reading

behaviour on social

media

b Read the article again and match statements 1-3 to the

percentages of the two thousand people who agreed. 26%

1

Work in small groups and discuss the questions. 1 What differences are there between communicating online and face-to-face? 2 Look at the headline of the article. Why do you think one in four people regrets sending their messages?

36%

55%

1 People nowadays communicate more online than faceto-face. _ _ __ 2 I have said something online which I wouldn't say in real life. _ _ __ 3 I have seen online bullying or been a victim of it myself.

2a Read the article and compare your ideas with the

survey findings.

The fact that the communication is not face-to-face makes people online more likely to criticize and insult each other, a survey of 2,000 people has found . While social media websites are becoming places for people to stand up for what they believe in, people can also often feel they shouldn't have pressed the 'send ' button so quickly. More than half (55%) of the 2,000 people surveyed said that they felt social media had replaced face-to-face interaction; and nearly two in five (39%) people said they used social media to speak up about something they felt passionate about. Of these 39%, nearly half (44%) believed what they said had made a real difference because it led to people blogging or tweeting about the issue, or actual changes being made. However, social media does have some problems. More than a quarter (26%) admitted they have said something

O.W Oxford 3000™

nasty on a social media website they would never say to someone's face. Some 44% of those regretted it because what they said had been rude, while 27% regretted it because they thought it had upset someone. The research also revealed that online bullying was a serious problem, with more than a third (36%) having seen someone become a victim of online bullying or been one themselves. Professor Adrian Dunbar said: 'Our research has shown that people are more likely to say something on social media that they later regret, because in these digital environments we don't receive the immediate feedback that we get during face-to-face interactions. This can therefore result in a careless or unpleasant tweet, or at worst, cyberbullying.'

11.1

c Work with a partner and discuss the questions. I Which findings would you agree with? 2 How accurate do you think this survey is? Give reasons.

3a Work with a partner. Read the article again. Student A, work out the meaning of the words or phrases in groups I-4. Student B, work out the meaning ofthe words or phrases in groups 5- 8. Work out how the words and phrases are different in each group.

b Explain any differences in meaning in each pair of words or phrases to your partner. Give examples to show the differences. 4

Work with a partner or in small groups. Which ofthe following statements do you agree with more? Give your reasons. I People are more likely to say something rude or nasty online that they would never say to someone's face. 2 Online communication is essential for our lives. Its benefits are much more important than any possible drawbacks.

11.3

11.4

11.5

Grammar should/shouldn't have 5

Read the information in the Grammar focus box and choose the correct options to complete the rules.

GRAMMAR FOCUS should/shouldn't have we use should have+ past participle to talk about and criticize things we did and didn't do in the past.

They should have thought more carefully before putting something on a social media site.

Student A I criticize/insult 2 rude/nasty 3 communicate face-to-face/say something to someone's face 4 stand up for what you believe in/speak up about something you feel passionate about StudentB 5 have a positive effect/make a real difference 6 be sorry you did something/regret doing something 7 not thinking enough about what you are doing/ being careless 8 blog or tweet about an issue/(be a victim of) cyberbullying

11.2

They 1 did I didn't think carefully- that was a 2 good I bad idea.

They shouldn't have pressed the 'send' button so quickly. They 3 did I didn't press the send button - that was a 4 good 1 bad idea.

-+Grammar Reference page 157 6a 11.2 ))) Listen to two people talking about mistakes they made with social media and complete the sentences with should/shouldn't have+ the correct form of the verbs in brackets. I

2

3 4 5 6

7

8

She (be) more careful when she posted the video. She (accept) her boss as a 'friend' online. (behave) badly at the party. She She (post) any videos online. He (think) before pressing send. He (say) anything negative about the interviewer online. He (wait) u ntil he was offered the job. (give) him the job anyway They if he was the best candidate.

b 11.3 ))) Listen and check. c Do you agree with all the statements? Discuss your ideas with a partner. PRONUNCIATION

should/shouldn't have

11.4 ))) Listen to two sentences. What do you notice about the pronunciation of have?

She should have been more careful. She shouldn't have behaved badly. 11.4 ))) Listen again and repeat.

lm:l3

11.5 ))) Listen to two more people talking about their

mistakes. After each one, discuss what happened with a partner, using should/shouldn't have. Do you agree with each other? And with the class?

11.3 Vocabulary and skills development GOALS •

Listening 1

Hear modal verbs •

Understand words with multiple meanings

hearing modal verbs

4

Look at the pictures. What is happening in each photo?

11.7 )»Read and listen to the information in the Unlock the code box about hearing modal verbs.

~ UNLOCK THE CODE

II

hearing modal verbs

Modal verbs such as must, may and could are very important for the meaning of a sentence, but they are often difficult to hear. we sometimes form the past using a different verb. For example:

we must get permission.

1had to help.

When you are listening, use the context to decide if the speaker used a modal verb, and which one suits the context best.

Sa Read the definition of 'unintended consequences'. Can you think how the photos could relate to the definition? Discuss with a partner. The idea of unintended consequences is an important one in politics and economics, but it is also common in everyday life. It means that the consequence or result of an action is sometimes very different from our intention. This can be a good or a bad consequence.

b 11.8 l)) Listen to a radio programme about the unintended consequences of a law about crash helmets -. for cyclists. Were your ideas the same as the example in the programme?

c Answer the questions about the 2

crash helmet law example.

11.6 l)) Listen to the conversation related to each photo.

1 2 3 4

For each conversation, answer the questions. 1 What did the person in the photo do? 2 What did they want to happen? 3 What actually happened? 3

d 11.8 l)) Compare your answers with your partner. Which modal verbs did you hear in the answers? Listen again and check.

11.6 l)) Listen again and complete the sentences from

the conversations. What kind of verbs do all the spaces contain? Conversation 1 1 I decided to borrow a laptop from the office so _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ it at home ... 2 We _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ permission ... 3 Anyway, I into work on the Tuesday ... Conversation 2 1 I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Professor Dudley ... 2 I thought my exams.

O.W Oxford 3000™

a better grade in

What does the law say? What is the intention behind the law? What's the young person's reaction to the crash helmets? What are the consequences of this reaction?

6

ll'.§3 What might be the unintended consequences

of these actions? Choose one to discuss with a partner. Report your answers to the class. 1 A doctor makes patients pay a fine if they are late for an appointment. 2 In order to improve his performance in an exam, a student drinks three large cups of coffee ten minutes before the exam starts. 3 To stop customers eating a meal and then leaving without paying, a restaurant makes them pay for the meal at the same time as they order the food.

11.1

Vocabulary & Speaking

word from the box that goes in both sentences.

b 2 a

b 3 a b

a b

if

3 It's important that the change ...

a b 4 I saw a match which ...

a b 5 We had to stop playing because the light ...

a

4 a My mother gave me a final _ _ _ _ goodbye as

the train left the station. b The boat was sunk by an enormous _ _ __ 5 a There was a terrible traffic _ _ _ _ on the way to the airport. b For breakfast, they gave us toast and _ _ __ b All of the words in the box have two meanings. Match the words to the pairs of meanings.

1 • • 2 • • 3 • • 4 • • 5 • • 6 • •

key light match

rock square

large stone type of loud music shape with four equal sides area of a town with four sides and buildings all around thing for locking a door answer to a problem game between two teams piece of wood for lighting something the energy that comes from the sun something you turn on when it's dark money which is coins (not notes) something different from before

8a Read the Vocabulary focus box. VOCABULARY FOCUS words with multiple meanings There are many pairs of words in English which have the same spelling and pronunciation but different meanings. Sometimes these are the same parts of speech (e.g. both nouns). a traffic jam vs bread and jam Sometimes they are different word classes. pay a fine/feel fine (a noun and an adjective)

use the context to decide which meaning is correct.

11.5

2 I couldn't find the key because ...

performance wave

they missed an appointment. It was a , sunny day as they left for the picnic. The _ _ _ _ starts at 7.30, so don't be late! Over the last ten years, China's economic _ _ __ has been very strong. They stopped at the to get some money. We pulled the fish out of the river and put it on the _ _ __

change

11.4

1 The square was ... a drawn on a piece ofpaper. b full of people shouting.

7a Look at the pairs of sentences. For each pair, choose one

1 a The doctor made the patients pay a

11.3

b Finish the sentences in two different ways to show the two meanings of each word.

words with

multiple meanings

bank fine jam

11.2

b 6 We saw the rock ...

a b

9

m.¥!3 Work with a partner. Write four sentences each using words from exercises 7 and 8. Put a space where the word you have chosen goes. Then swap sentences with your partner and complete them. The small boy threw a and broke the window. OR I'm not keen on _ _ _ _ music - I prefer salsa. Answer: rock

lg

rock wave match square

11.4 Speaking and writing GOALS •

come to a decision • Apologize

Listening & Speaking decisions 'What are the three most important factors in choosing where to live? Location, location, location.'

1 a Do you agree with the quotation above? What are the most

4a Read the information in the Language for speaking box.

important factors for you? Make a list with a partner.

LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING making decisions

b What are the consequences of (not) having each factor?

Controlling the time

For example: If it's in a good area, it may be very expensive. 2

Could we move on? Let's leave that for now. We're running out of time.

11.9 l)) Listen to a group of friends talking about moving to a different apartment. Which of the factors you listed in exercise 1 do they mention?

Discussing options

Are there any other suggestions? What would happen if .. .? Making your point stronger

3a 11.10 l)) Listen and complete the expressions.

I'm convinced that .. . You must admit that ...

1 Let's extras like that _ _ __ 2 a balcony is essential ...? 3 Well, another to go for a ground-floor apartment ... 4 So, _ _ _ _ a three-bedroomed apartment ...

Arriving at a decision

so, what we're saying we've decided is ... That's settled, then.

b b Work with a partner and match the four phrases in

exercise 3a to categories a-d. a Arriving at a decision b Discussing options

c Making a point stronger d Controlling the time

c Practise saying the expressions.

l1!mJ

Work in small groups. Look at the descriptions on page 132 and decide together which home would be best for a couple with a girl aged nine and a boy aged eleven. Present your ideas to another group and compare your decisions a nd the reasons you gave for them .

11.1

Reading & Writing 5

Work in small groups. Have you ever done any of these things? What were the consequences? • • • •

6

missed an important deadline at work or college left someone out of an important decision forgotten to thank someone for helping sent a special invitation to the wrong friend

Sent: Tuesday 10.16

apologize -say you are sorry inconvenience - trouble

More formal (MF) English uses complete sentences. Less formal (LF) English can miss out words.

r

Hi Tomoe,

Formal

I'm so sorry for sending you that email by mistake. I can understand that you were a bit upset when you spoke to Susie. I had actually meant to send that email to her- she really likes the theatre, so I thought it would be good to offer her my spare t icket.

Apologizing

1apologize for the delay in replying.

sorry for not getting in touch sooner.

Please accept my apologies for ...

Apologies for ... !Sorry for ...

I really hope you understand! Why don't we get together soon anyway? Do you fancy a coffee next week?

1apologize for the inconvenience.

sorry for the trouble this causes.

Apologies again,

1hope you will be able to forgive me.

Please forgive me.

1hope you understand. 1can see now it would have been better to ...

1can understand that you ...

-

3

11.5

It is important to get the tone right when you apologize. We can say the same thing in more or less formal ways, depending on the words we choose to use.

Tania

2

11.4

LANGUAGE FOR WRITING apologizing

Work with a partner. Read the three messages and match each to a situation in exercise 5.

1

11.3

Decide which phrase in each pair in exercise 7 is more formal (MF) and which is less formal (LF). Then read the information in the Language for writing box to check your answers.

8

apologizing

11.2

Sorry for not getting in touch sooner. Please forgive me! I just wanted to say thanks so much for the other dayI really appreciated the help!

II[X'

Sent: Friday 15.25

Dear Dr Phillips,

! Informal

Accepting an apology

1understand completely.

It's perfectly all right.

There's no need to apologize.

That's OK!fine.

I' 9a Read Dimitri's email apologizing to a customer. What is

the problem with the tone? How do you think the customer will react when he receives the email?

Please accept my apologies for the late submission of this term's work. I have had some problems completing work in the last month due to family issues. I can see now it would have been better to ask for an extension earlier. If I face similar problems in the future, I will make sure I discuss them with you.

I~

Sent: Saturday 18.57

II

Hi there, Mr Carter, Sorry for not writing sooner - I have been a bit busy. Apologies for the problem you had in our shop last Tuesday. It was a very busy day and some staff were off sick. Please forgive us!

I apologize for the inconvenience. Best wishes, Raul

Dimitri 7

l Customer Services

Find phrases in the messages with similar meanings to phrases 1-4. Write them here. 1 Sorry for the trouble this causes. 2 I apologize for the delay in replying. 3 I hope you will be able to forgive me. 4 I apologize once again.

-

b Rewrite the email with the correct tone. 10

il.im3 Write an email to apologize. a Work with a partner. Choose one of the situations in exercise 5, or think of your own and discuss the details. b On your own, write an email to apologize. c Read your partner's email. Is the tone and style right?

11.5 Video Cybercrime 1

Work with a partner. Complete the sentences with words in the box. Discuss the meaning of the verbs in bold. malware Web application

criminals/hackers

a As I was browsing the I was redirected to a different site. in b This website has been hacked by order to infect your machine. c My computer has become infected with _ _ _ _ __ and install it to d Please download this protect your system. 2

Work with a partner. What do you know about Sophos? Use the photos and the words in exercise 1 to help you talk about what they do.

3

0

Watch the video. Choose the best summary of the information given in this interview.

a This video summarizes the internet security firm Sophos's latest product which can protect systems against most cyber attacks. An employee offers advice on how we can protect our computers and other electronic devices these days. b The video describes the challenges for users and internet security firms these days. An employee from Sophos explains that the threat of cyber crime is growing because there are so many different ways in which data can now be stored.

0

Watch again. Decide if these statements are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false sentences.

4

SVPPOIU

a Fraser Howard sells internet security products. b Fraser Howard gives an example of how a cyber attack could take place. c 'Security Shield' is a piece of software which protects computers against cyber attacks. d In this example, the servers which host the hackers' activities are in Canada. Sa

m1:13 Work in groups. List five threats from computer hackers. Put them in order of the highest to the lowest threat.

Security45e simple. ~

b Compare your ideas with another group. Were any of your ideas the same? Have any of these things happened to you?

~

..L.

~

Q,

11.1

11.2

11.3

11.4

11.5

Review 1 a Complete the sentences below each situation. 1 Anna was burgled while she was on holiday. She left a window open. (lock) the a She should window. b She shouldn't _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (leave) the window open. (leave) the window c If she open, she (be) burgled. 2 Thieves broke into my car and stole my handbag. (hide) my handbag a I should in the boot. b I shouldn't _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (leave) my handbag in the car. c If I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (leave) my handbag in the car, they (break) in. b Work with a partner. Talk about the following situations using should/shouldn't have and a past unreal conditional. 1 Nick made an insulting comment on a friend's social networking page. He was only joking, but his friend was very upset. 2 I was in a hurry to catch my train, so I didn't buy a ticket. The ticket inspector fined me a lot of money. 3 Lucy responded angrily to a comment on her blog. Now the person who made the comment keeps posting more and more angry comments. 2a Read the biography of 'the Gentleman Bandit' and complete the text with the correct form of the words in the box. arrest escape

prison

robbery steal

b Why do you think Miner became a folk hero? Discuss with a partner. 3a Match the first part of the phrase to the correct second part. 1 be a victim of 2 make 3 feel 4 stand up for 5 speak up 6 upset

a b c d e f

a real difference about something what you believe in online bullying someone passionate about something

b Tell your partner about something you feel passionately about. Try to use at least three of the phrases in exercise 3a. 4a 11.11 l)) Listen to the beginning of six sentences. Write them down and complete them in any way that makes sense. b Compare your sentences with a partner's. Is the meaning of the noun in each sentence the same or different? Sa Put the phrases in the right order. 1 running I time I of I we're I out . 2 suggestions I are I any I there I other ? 3 settled I then I that's . 4 for I let's I that I now I leave . 5 must I that's I true I admit I you . 6 would I option I another I be I that . 7 that I convinced I I'm ... 8 saying I we're I what I so I is ... b 11.12 )»Listen and check your answers.

thief victim

The Gentleman Bandit Ezra All en Miner, known as 'Bill Miner', was nicknamed 'the Gentleman Bandit' because he was polite and considerate as he 1 from stagecoaches and trains in the Old West. Many people believe he was the first 2 to say, 'Hands up!' Miner became a for folk hero in Canada after he was 3 the 4 of a Canadian Pacific Railway train in 1906. The company was very unpopular at the time and hundreds of Canadians cheered Miner as the police took him to s . Miner never actually hurt any of his 6 , but he spent most of his adult life in prison, apart from a couple of exciting but short-lived 7 _ _ __

c Work with a partner. Decide ifthe phrases in exercise 5a are a) controlling the time, b) discussing options, c) making your point stronger or d) arriving at a decision.

Influence 12.1 Advertising GOALS • Talk about advertising •

vocabulary & Listening 1

advertising

Understand and use reported speech

2a Work w ith a partner. Find examples of the words in the box

in the photos in exercise 1.

Work w ith a partner. Look at the photos and discuss which advertisement you think makes the biggest impact and why.

advert billboard

brand

logo poster product slogan

b Match the adjectives in the box to definitions l-7. amusing clever confusing effective memorable persuasive unpleasant l

2 3 4 5 6 7

able to make someone do or believe something causing you to laugh or smile successfully producing the effect that you want difficult to understand not nice or enjoyable worth remembering or easy to remember showing skill or intelligence

c Which adjectives could you use to describe each of the photos in exercise I? 3

O.W Oxford 3000TM

12.1 l)) Listen to

three people talking about a memorable advertisement. Match speakers l-3 to photos a-c. a b c _ _ __

12.1

12.1 )»Listen again and write the number of the speaker

4

7

12.2

12.3

12.4

12.5

Use the information in the Grammar focus box to report these statements.

next to the statement which most closely matches what they say. There is one extra statement you do not need to use.

1 The best ad I've seen had a serious point. He said ___________________

a People dislike being told they aren't allowed to do something. __ b I was really upset when I saw this advert. __ c Adverts can make people aware of social issues. __ d Funny adverts can be a good way to influence people.

2 Earth Hour is about saving energy.

He told us that _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 3 They asked homeless people to present the weather forecast on TV. She said that _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 4 In future people will think before they text.

Grammar & Speaking reported speech

She told us that _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 5 I don't like being told what to do.

5

a The man said that it was just one light and wouldn't make any difference. b She said (that) the point ofthe advert had been to persuade people not to send texts while driving. 1 What do you think the original words in each advert were? 2 What is the difference between the tense used in the original words and in the reported speech? 6

He said that _________________

Look at sentences a-b about the listening in exercise 3 and answer the questions.

6 There were lots of silly little accidents.

He told us __________________ PRONUNCIATION

Sa 12.2 l)) Listen to these extracts from the listening and listen

to how the words in bold are linked. 1 The best ad I've seen had a serious point. 2 Earth Hour is about saving energy.

I saw an amazing ad ... 4 Lots of them were offered help. 5 The instructor told them that a new law had been passed. 6 There were lots of silly little accidents. 3

Read the information in the Grammar focus box on tense changes in reported speech and complete the examples.

GRAMMAR FOCUS reported speech Tense changes

• we use reported speech to tell people what someone said. Tenses usually move one tense back, for example go -+ went, did/have done -+ had done, will -+ would, to show that the words were spoken in the past, and the pronoun can also change (e.g. from 1-+ he). Direct speech

Reported speech

'It's really memorable.' 'The ad has won an award.' 'It was really moving.'

He said (that) it 1_ _ _ _ really memorable. She said (that) the ad 2_ _ __ an award. He said it 3_ _ _ _ really moving.

'They are hoping more countries will doitnextyear.

He said they 4_ _ _ _ more do it the countries s following year.

linking

b Work with a partner. Look again at the words in bold and circle all the vowel sounds (sounds, not letters) and underline all the consona nt sounds.

c Look at how each pair of words in bold are linked. What happens when a consonant sound ends one word and a vowel sound starts the next word? d Practise linking with the extracts. 9a

iZim3 Work with a partner. Use questions 1-5 to tell your partner about a memorable advert you have seen. 1 Was the advert for a brand or was it a public service announcement? 2 What happened in the advert (if a film), or what could you see (if a picture)? 3 What was it trying to persuade people to do or buy? 4 Did it use a slogan or a logo? Was that effective? Why/Why not? 5 What adjectives would you use to describe it?

• we often use say or tell. Note that tell must have a personal object we tell somebody something. say doesn't have a personal object we say something (to somebody). He said it was really amusing. He told us it was really amusing.

.... Grammar Reference page 158

b Find a new partner and report to them what your partner from exercise 9a said. Juan told me about an advert he'd seen that ...

0

VOX POPS VIDEO 12

12.2 How to persuade and influence people GOALS • Talk about persuading people •

vocabulary & Reading 1

Understand and use reported questions

persuading people

Look at the advertisement fo r a book. What kind of book is it?

How to Persuade and Influence People by Philip Hesketh

I ***** Do you want to be able to persuade and influence people?

Wouldn't it be great if you could always get people to see th ings your way? Now you can. You won't be successful in business if you can't bring people round to your way of thinking. Some people find it easy; the rest of us just need a little help. This second edition contains plenty of practical exercises to help you ... • Find the perfect way to win people over

• Know why people buy what they buy

• Become an amazing negotiator

• Make sure people remember you and what you want

• Understand the other person's point of view

• Overcome objections

Philip Hesketh is a full-time international business speaker on the psychology of persuasion. Thousands of people have benefited from his advice. In his book, he gives the reader plenty of simple and memorable persuasion techniques that can be used to deal with many of life's challenges.

It's up to you to use them.

2a Read t he advertisement for the book. What would you expect to read in the book?

• .3e-t your ow11.- wory

b What kind of person might wa nt or feel they need to read this book? Would you read it? Why/Why not?



3a The two phrases on t he list mean to persuade or influence



someone. Find four more phrases in t he in formation in the advertisement that mean the same thing and add them to the list.

O.W Oxford 3000TM







c.0 11.-Vi~-U.e- so m.e-o~-te-

you're- rf.9ht

12.1

b Complete the questions with the six phrases in exercise 3a.

I How important is it for you to get _ _ _ _ _ _ __ own ? 2 If someone doesn't like you at first, do you try to win _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ?Why/Why not?

12.4

12.5

GRAMMAR FOCUS reported questions •

Reported questions also usually move one tense back to show that the words were said in the past.

• As a reported question is no longer a direct question: a The word order is the same as in statements. Where is he going? - She asked where he was going. b we do not use auxil iaries.

Where do you live?- He asked where /lived. 1

When did you arrive? He asked _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___

c Work with a partner. Ask and answer the questions.

2

4a Read this short extract from the book. What different

Where will you go?

Yes/No questions use if or whether. Do you like reading?- He asked if/whether she liked reading.

things could the assistant do to make a sale? Discuss with a partner.

3 Have

4

I was in town recently in a menswear store. A smartly dressed man came in and the owner asked, 'Can I help you?' The man smiled, and said, in a very polite way, 'I'm looking for a BOSS suit. I like the brand BOSS. Do you sell BOSS?'

b Work with a partner. Look at suggestions I-3 from the book and choose the best option. What would be the benefits or drawbacks of this solution? I Tell the customer that you don't sell BOSS, but you know where he could find it. 2 Say that you agree that BOSS is a fine brand and although you don't sell it yourself, you have something similar. 3 Say that you agree BOSS is a fine brand and ask him what in particular he likes about it.

12.3

6a Read the information in the Grammar focus box and complete 1-4.

3 If someone disagrees with you, are you usually able to see things ? 4 If you argue with a friend, will they usually bring _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ their way of thinking, or will you _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ them you are right? 5 What do you think is the best way to overcome someone's to an idea?

The shop didn't sell BOSS. So what would you do if you were the assistant?

12.2

you been to France?

can !leave early?

-+ Grammar Reference page 159 b Rewrite the seven questions in exercise 5b as reported

questions. Did you enjoy it? - He asked ifshe had enjoyed it. 7a

12.3 ))) Listen again

and make notes about the answers to the questions in exercise 5b.

b Take turns to report the questions and answers to a partner. Sa

In the interview Tania says: 'But probably the most important thing is to really listen to people and to ask questions to find out what's really important to them ... '

Write five questions that could help you to understand someone else better - for example, about their family, their hobbies, etc. • Who do you get on best with? • How do you like to relax? • What's the most dangerous sport you have tried?

c Work with two pairs who have looked at different options and compare your ideas. Look at the author's solution on page 135.

b Work with a partner. Take turns to ask and answer your

Grammar & Listening

questions.

reported questions 9

Sa

12.3 )»Listen to

a review of the book on a radio programme. Is the review positive or negative?

b 12.3 )»Listen again and write down the seven questions that the presenter asks.

~ Work with a new partner and tell them about your

conversation. Use reported speech and reported questions. I asked Maria what she usually did to relax. She said she enjoyed jogging and thought it was really good for getting rid ofstress.

12.3 Vocabulary and skills development GOALS •

Reading & Speaking

Recognize complex noun phrases (2) •

complex noun

3

Look at the highlighted verbs in the article. Underline the object of each of the verbs.

4

Read the article again. Work with a partner and answer questions 1- 4. What does it say about ... ?

phrases (2) 1 a Look at the sentences about soft power. What do you think

soft power is? Do you think it's important? Why? 1 What's interesting is that soft power has little to do with politics. 2 According to a 2013 survey Germany is the country that currently has the most soft power, followed by the UK, the US, France and Japan. 3 Italy's strength is its reputation for great food, fashion and a rt. 4 The Olympic Games can increase a country's soft power. By hosting the 2020 Games Japan has something big to aim for in the coming years. 5 The 226 Alliance Fran~aises throughout the world and France 24 online provide an alternative to the Englishlanguage dominated news agenda, i.e. news from a different perspective.

use dependent prepositions

1 2 3 4

South Korean TV shows and pop music. Iranian TV viewers. Monocle magazine. social media.

Sa Discuss with a partner. Which other countries do you think have soft power? Why? Use the ideas in the box to help you. architecture businesses cinema famous people fashion music sport

b Work with another pair. Compare your ideas.

South Korea's 'soft power'

b Circle the subject (who does the action) and the verb and

underline the object (what they do) in sentences 4 and 5 in exercise la.

a global success

c Read the Unlock the code box. Check your answers.

£! II

Something has been changing in South Korea in recent years, and the world has definitely noticed. What has changed is its 'soft power'.

UNLOCK THE CODE

recognizing complex noun phrases (2)

Objects, like subjects, often consist of more than one word, and are sometimes quite complex. Here are some common kinds of more complex object.

Since the 1990s, a new wave of South Korean culture called Hallyu, or Korean Wave (~ff-), has changed the country's image abroad.

By hosting the 2020 Games Japan has something big to aim for in the coming years. The 226 Alliance Fram;aises throughout the world and France 24 online provide an alternative to the English-language dominated news agenda. i.e. news from a different perspective.

TV shows such as jumong and Dong Yi, and K-pop (Korean pop) singers like Kim j ae joong and Kim Hyun -joong have mad ~ an incredible difference to the country's image. In fact, many think they have done more than the government. Even the popularity of South Korean food has increased.

2a Before you read the article about soft power in South

Korea, discuss the questions with a partner. 1 What aspects of South Korean culture are shown in the photos? 2 How do you think these aspects make South Korea a more important or successful country? Give reasons for your answer.

jumong, a historica l drama, was sold to ten Asian countries and proved extremely popular. In fact, in Iran, 80% of TV viewers watched it. And who could forget Psy's Gangnam Style video, wh ich broke all records for YouTube views?

b Read the article and compare what it says to your answers.

.., ,

O.W Oxford 3000TM

12.1

Vocabulary & Speaking

dependent

12.5

1 2

3

• They don't rely 1 radio stations to tell them what music they should listen 2 any more. • One thing is for sure -South Korea's influence is ? growing. Who knows what it w ill lead 3

b 12.4 l)) Listen again. Complete these extracts with the missing prepositions. 1 Countries no longer depend _ _ force or politics to increase their influence abroad. 2 We're not afraid _ _ being more open in the workplace any more. Of course, we have women to thank _ _ a lot of these changes. 3 We want to work in a group and deal _ _ problems effectively, ...

VOCABULARY FOCUS dependent prepositions • With some verbs, we have to put a preposition before the object (noun or verb + -ing). She works for an international company. You can't rely on the weather in England, even in the summer. He's good at communicating. They are interested in South Korean films.

12.4

business. What does each person say about the subject?

What prepositions go in 1-3?

• some adjectives also have dependent prepositions.

12.3

7a 12.4 l)) Listen to three people talking about soft power and

prepositions 6

12.2

Sa Write the correct preposition from the box next to words 1-10.

about for in on to 1 worried t?tbout 2 talk 3 succeed 4 interested 5 believe

ft MSUN

6 refer 7 lead

8 listen 9 concentrate 10 work

b 12.5 )»Listen to ten sentences and check your answers. 9

12.5 l)) Listen to the sentences in exercise 8b again. Work with

a partner and decide how we pronounce the prepositions.

10a i:lZm3 Work with a partner. Complete questions 1-10 with a dependent preposition and your own ideas. Use the Vocabulary focus box to help you.

All this has increased the country's soft power, its ability to make a positive impression through things like culture, arch itecture, sport and popu lar brands. The international magazine Monocle recently 12ublished a report about the countries with the most soft power. Tyler Brule, the magazine's editor-in-chief, ~ai d soft power was more important than ever before. He said it is now fash ionable for countries to use culture rather than force or even politi cs to increase their influence abroad. Interesti ng ly, Ha llyu has largely attracted attenti on through socia l media. People al l over the world are watching K-pop videos on the internet. They don't rely on rad io stations to tell them what music they shou ld listen to any more. One thing is for sure - South Korea's influence is growing . Who knows what it will lead to?

1 Are you good ? 2 Are you interested _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _? 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Have you ever worked Are you afraid Do you find it hard to concentrate Do you ever get bored Do you believe Would you like to succeed Do you ever worry Do you find it difficult to talk

b Ask and answer the questions.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

12.4 Speaking and writing GOALS •

Listening & Speaking

Agree and disagree •

Write an advantages and disadvantages essay

b Look at the phrases in the first two columns of the table in exercise 4a. WriteS if the phrase shows strong agreement or disagreement, and W ifit shows weak agreement or disagreement.

agreeing and

disagreeing

c Check your answers in the Language for speaking box.

1 a Work with a partner. Add at least three more things to this list of things that can go in and out of fashion.

LANGUAGE FOR SPEAKING

agreeing and disagreeing

clothes restaurants cars diets mobile phones video games

Asking if someone agrees Don't you agree? Don't you think ...?

would you agree? wouldn't you say that ... ?

Agreeing

Disagreeing

Agree strongly

Disagree strongly

I was just going to say that! That's just what I thought. Absolutely! 1couldn't agree more. My thoughts exactly. That's a good point.

1totally disagree. Rubbish! Disagree weakly

I'm not sure about that. Yes but I can't help thinking .. . I agree up to a point .. .

Agree weakly

1suppose so. You might be right, but ...

b Discuss the questions with a partner. 1 Would you buy a new phone because yours felt old-fashioned? Why/Why not? 2 Do you notice if people's clothes are (un)fashionable? Does it affect your opinion ofthem? 2

3

12.6 )»Listen to th ree conversations about how fashionable things are. What three things in exercise la are the speakers talking about? Tick the words in exercise la. 12.6 )»Listen to the conversations again and decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F).

Both speakers think that ... 1 Andrew's new phone will be good for taking photos on holiday. 2 old-fashioned things sometimes look better than newer things. 3 the prices at the new restaurant are too high. 4 the restaurant is in a good position. 4a Use the phrases from the listening to complete the table.

You might be right. 1was just going to say that! Don't you think ...? I'm not sure about that. 1couldn't agree more. That's just what 1thought. Absolutely! 1totally disagree.

Agreeing

Disagreeing

Asking if someone agrees

d 12.7 )»Listen and repeat the phrases fo r agreeing and disagreeing in the Language for speaking box. 5

Work with a partner and choose two topics. Use the prompts to have a conversation. • There is no difference between expensive branded clothes and cheaper versions. • we don't need books any longer. • we have too many possessions nowadays. • Everyone shou ld speak at least two languages. • People who follow fashion have no originality or ideas of their own.

A Give an opinion on topic l. Ask ifB agrees. B Agree strongly. Add another reason. A Agree or disagree not very strongly. B Give an opinion on topic 2. Ask if A agrees. A Agree strongly. Add another reason. B Agree or disagree not very strongly. 6a Work with a partner. Read the statement and write down three reasons to agree with it and three reasons to disagree. 'We spend too much time, money and effort staying in fashion.'

b Join another pair. Decide which pair will agree with the statement and which pair will disagree and discuss.

c Do most people agree or disagree with the statement?

12.1

lft!DUI lUI advantages and disadvantages essay 7 a Work with a partner. What do you think fast fashion is? b Check your ideas in the first paragraph of the essay. 1

2

3

Broadly speaking, 'fast fashion' companies make and sell the latest fashions very quickly. The clothes are heavily influenced by the international fashion shows in London, Milan, etc., and can even appear on the high street within two weeks of the show. They introduce new clothes into the shops every two or three months, not twice a year, li ke trad itional fashion houses. The main objectives of 'fast fashion' are to bring high-fashion clothes into the shops quickly and cheaply. However, this has both advantages an_d disadvantages. One advantage 1 customers can buy very.up-to-date, fashionable clothes. 2 major 3 is that there is a greater variety of clothes in the shops. This means that a smaller number of each item of clothing is made, so you probably won 't find other people wearing the same clothes as you . hand, there are also several with 'fast fashion'. 6 disadvantage can be that the designs are not original; they are copied from the fashion shows of famous designers, which people 'should be discouraged from doing. Another 7 the clothes are usually made very cheaply, which can mean that the quality is poor and that tt)e people who make the clothes are not well paid. This can give the companies a negative image. 4

s

4

12.2

12.3

12.4

12.5

Sa Work with a partner and write down two good things and two bad things about fast fashion. b Read the rest of the essay and underline any ideas you thought of. c Which paragraph talks about advantages? Which talks about disadvantages? 9a Read the information in the Language for writing box.

LANGUAGE FOR WRITING

advantages and disadvantages Advantages There are several benefits. one advantage is that ... Another major positive is that ... Disadvantages One disadvantage can be that ... Another drawback (of fast fashion) is that ... on the other hand ... ... there are also problems with ...

b Complete the essay in exercise 7b with one to three words in each gap. 10 Find and underline two generalizations in the introduction and conclusion. 11 a Look at the essay title. What are the advantages and disadvantages of buying the latest technology?

Work in small groups and complete the table with your ideas.

Overall, we have seen that fast fashion can be a , l< good or a bad thing . We need to realize that we are responsible for the choices we make when we are shopping; and "the difference those choices make to other people in the world.

Advantages

Disadvantages

• • •

• • •

b Work with a partner. Complete the essay plan with two ideas for each paragraph. • • • •

Introduction (general points about buying technology) Advantages Disadvantages conclusion (general points/need to consider both sides)

12a 1m3 Write an essay on the topic below. The advantages and disadvantages of buying the latest technology.

Write 200-250 words. b Swap your essay with another student. Read your partner's work and tell them two things you like about the essay and one thing they could improve (e.g. the ideas, the organization, spelling, use of tenses).

12.5 Video Starbucks Work with a partner. Follow the instructions below.

1

When you see the Starbucks logo, what do you think of? In one minute, list as many words and phrases as you can which you connect with this famous coffeehouse. use the photos to help you. 2

Compare your list with another pair. Did you write any of the same words or phrases?

3

0

Watch the video. Use the words below to give a brief description of Starbucks to your partner. the criticism a global brand the logo the philosophy a slogan

0

Watch again. Add events to the timeline below to show the history of Starbucks through the decades.

4

1970 Sa

1980

1990

2000

2010

now

mm3 Work in pairs. Student A, work with another Student A and read the situation. You both own a busy family-run cafe in a medium-sized English town. Starbucks would like to open a new coffeehouse next door to your cafe. List 4-5 reasons why you are strongly against the idea. Student B, work with another Student Band read the situation. You both work for Starbucks in the business development department. You are planning to open a new coffeehouse in a medium-sized English town. List 4-5 reasons why you think a new coffeehouse in this town would be very successful, and why it would benefit the town.

b Pair A, work with Pair B. Present your ideas to each other.

c As a class, list the main points from both sides. Decide which side has the winning argument.

12.1

12.2

12.3

12.4

12.5

Review 1a

Read the text and underline six words related to advertising.

3a 12.9 ))) Listen to six questions and write them down.

l

4

2

5

3

6

b Work with a partner. Ask and answer the questions in

exercise 3a.

Anew way of seeing

c Now write a short report of the questions you asked and the answers you received, using reported speech.

the world

4a Match the two halves to make six phrases.

Recently Google announced plans for a new advertising system using Google Glass. It is a kind of wearable computer which looks a little like a pair of glasses wh ich allows you to google information on the go. Currently companies pay Google every time someone clicks their advert to find out more about their product. But in the future, it seems that just looking may be enough. Imagine you are walking down the street and glance at a billboard by the side of the road, or a poster at a bus stop. Google Glass will be able to tell exactly what your eyes are looking at and for how long. And there's more. It will probably also be able to measure how you feel about the brand. If you find something surprising, funny or interesting, the pupils in the middle of your eye get bigger, and Google will be able to track that as well. So they will be able to tell how effective the slogan or image actually is. b Work with a pa rtner and discuss the questions.

1 Do you or would you use Google Glass? Why/Why not? 2 How do you feel about advertisers knowing which ads you are looking at, or how you feel about them? 3 In what other ways do you think advertising might change in the future? 2a

12.8 )» Listen to some different opinions about adverts and

match them to an adjective with a similar meaning. amusing clever confusing memorable persuasive unpleasant

b

12.8 )»Work with a partner. Listen to the opinions again

and report what each person said, using reported speech. 1 He said 2

4 5

3

6

l 2 3 4 5 6

bring people round get get people to overcome understand the win

a b c d e f

objections people over your own way other person's point of view see things your way to your way of thinking

b Tell a partner about when and how you did one of these

things. Sa Complete the phrases with the correct preposition.

l 2 3 4 5 6

I don't usually worry _ _ __ I find it hard to concentrate I'm pretty good _ _ __ I don't believe _ _ __ I often listen _ _ __ I'm very interested _ _ __

work when ...

b Complete the sentences in exercise Sa in ways that are true

for you. Tell a partner about your sentences. 6a Complete the conversation.

A Apparently the government is going to ban advertising for junk food during children's TV programmes. What's your opinion on that? B I'm not sure 1 that. I can't 2_ _ __ thinking the government shouldn't be trying to control things like that. , but children are so A Well, I agree up to a 3 easily influenced, aren't they? C My thoughts 4 . Adults can decide for themselves, but it's different for children. B I suppose 5_ _ __ b Work with a partner or in a small group. What do you

think about banning the advertising of junk food during children's TV programmes?

Communication 2.1

Student A

2.2

Exercise 9

a Work with a partner. Look at the following structure for telling a story. Identify the different sections in the two stories in exercises 2 on page 16 and 7 on page 17. 1 Announcing a story is about to start

That reminds me of .. . 1 remember the time when ... I'll never forget that day ...

2 Giving background information

The sun was setting ... I was driving home when .. .

3 Main events

1 had just opened the door when she suddenly appeared. 1 recognized him straightaway.

4 conclusion

He was never seen again.

5 Final comment

I've never forgotten what happened. 1 can laugh about it now, but it was really scary at the time.

b What verb forms are typically used in each section? c Work with a partner. 1 Use the notes and the structure for telling a story to plan a 'lucky escape' story. 2 Tell the story to a partner, with lots of detail. Try to use the correct narrative forms and some of the verbs in exercises 4 and 5 on page 17.

Surfer Lvt, AustmlLPf PfttQfcku{ by shPfrk 0

He.Qfrd bi:.9 bPfVI!J Flew throV!jh Q!Lr Discovered bi:.9 bite. Wt.Pfrk Lvt, suifbMrd Surfer uvt,hQfrme.d

Studen!S A & B

Exercise 9

Work with a partner or in small groups. Choose one of the stories about a famous hoax, either the Cottingley fairies or the 'near miss'. 1 Match the sentences to the right picture. 2 Put the story in the right order. 3 Rewrite the story together, using appropriate verb forms and time linkers.

COMMUNICATION

1

• •

If people jumped in the air at 9.47 a.m., they would float. on 1 April 1976, the well-known astronomer Patrick Moore announced on the BBC that at 9.47 a.m. something strange was going to happen. • One woman claimed that she and her friends all floated around the room. • He reported that Pluto was going to pass behind the planet Jupiter. • Th is wou ld affect gravity on Earth. • When it was 9.47 a.m., hundreds of people rang the BBC to tell their stories.

2

• Two years later, Polly was at a meeting and mentioned the photos. • Perhaps surprisingly, Sir Arthur conan Doyle, author of t he Sherlock Holmes books, became interested and supported the story. • Elsie's father saw the photos and decided they were fake, but her mother, Polly, believed the girls. • In 1981 the cousins were interviewed for a magazi ne and finally confessed to the hoax. • For decades many people believed the photos were real. • In 1917 two young cousins, Elsie and Francis, living in Bradford, England, claimed to have taken photos of fairies.

2.4

student A

Exercise 6

a Use the following notes to prepare to tell the story of another coincidence. • • • • • •

American novelist Anne Parrish/on holiday in Paris Look/bookstores with her husband Find/favourite childhood book/Jack Frost and other stories Anne/show book to husband Husband/open book/see Anne's name and address Book/used to belong to Anne

b Tell your partner your story, using the phrases in the Language for speaking box on page 22 to engage your listener. When listening to your partner, use the phrases to make sure you sound interested.

3.2

student A

Exercise 8

a Work with a partner. Read the paragraph about a Faking It episode. Use the notes and your own ideas to write a

similar paragraph about a similar type of programme.

Chess player to football manager FIRST BROADCAST: 26 September DURATI ON : 49:03

Former professional chess player trades his chessboard for the football pitch as he attempts to fake it as a football manager in a month.

PP~st - Wt.P~ke

duisioYU, hP~Ve time to thivtk, spel1.d hours plP~yiJ113 e-hus Now - Wt.P~JIIN!9e. pe.ople., le.p~.d, work ul1.de.r pressure., tP~ke. rupOYUihility, le.P~rvt, P~hout joothP~ll

b Now tell your p artner about the person you wrote about.

6. 2

student A

Exercise 9

7.1

student A

Exercise 10

a Read about Manoon, a rice farmer from Thailand. Answer the questions. I What problems did the weather cause him? 2 What was h is solution?

When it didn't rain, rice farmer Manoon had trouble getting enough water for his crops. There was a well nearby, but he cou ldn't get the water from the well to his fields. This meant that his crops wouldn't grow properly, even if his whole family spent time carrying water from the well to the fields. So he decided to bu ild a windmil l pump to get water from the well. He made the sails from old advertising boards. Now he has enough water for his crops, even if the rain comes late.

b Work with a partner who has read the other story. Take it in turns to interview each other. Answer as Manoon. Try to use present perfect simple and continuous in your answers. • • • •

What has been happening to the weather in your area? What effect has this had on your crops? How has th is affected your life and your fam ily? What have you done to improve the situation?

Prepare to talk for a minute about how offices have changed since the 1970s, using used to and would. Look at the photo and think about computers, paper, women at work, working hours and conditions, attitudes to work, etc.

7•2

students A & B

Exercise 8

Choose one of the following activities. a Decide on one of the people you chose in exercise 5b on page 69. Write 7-8 interesting interview questions you would like to ask them. You can make them direct or indirect. Then interview each other, taking the roles of the people you chose. OR

b Write 7-8 interesting interview questions you would like to ask your partner. You can make them direct or indirect. Interview each other, then share some of the interesting things you found out with another pair, or with the whole class.

COMMUNICATION

8 •1

All students

Exercise 8

Work in groups of four. Imagine each student in each group is one of the government ministers. 1 Decide which government minister you are.

2 You have to decide together how much money to spend on healthcare, childcare, cultural activities and transport. Read your role card and prepare some good arguments. Use conditional sentences. If we spend more money on a healthy eating campaign, more people will have a balanced diet and we will spend less on hospitals. 3 Discuss the budget together and decide what percentage of the budget should be spent on each area. 4 Explain your decisions to the class or another group. Give reasons. Student A: Healthcare You think a large percentage of the budget should be spent on healthcare. Think about people's need for physical activity, a balanced diet, access to good doctors and hospitals.

8. 2

All students

Exercise 6

a Work in small groups. Look at the three scenarios and discuss what you would do. Decide together on the best thing to do. 1 You have just bought a coffee on the way to work. You have left the cafe and you are in a hurry. You realize that the server has given you too much change.

2 In a car park, you accidently dent someone's car with your car door. Do you leave a note with your name and address?

3 You are working in a shop or cafe. A customer insists he has given you a £20 note, but you have only given him change for a £10 note.

b Write three similar scenarios for another group to discuss.

Have some ideas about your own answers. Give these situations to a different group. Student B: Childcare You think a large percentage of the budget should be spent on childcare. Think about how childcare helps parents to work- which is good for individuals and the economy. Also think about how it can help children make a good start at school.

Student C: Cultural activities You think a large percentage of the budget should be spent on cultural activities. Think about how it will improve people's social life and happiness, and how it will help them become better educated.

Student D: Transport You think a large percentage of the budget should be spent on transport, including bicycles which are free for anyone to use. Think about how fewer private cars will reduce pollution, how cycling makes people healthier, and how cheaper public transport will help poverty.

c Now discuss another group's three scenarios. Compare your ideas with those of the group that wrote the scenarios.

9.1

students A & B

Exercise 9

9.2

student A

Exercise 10

Work with a partner. a Look at the two pairs of sketches and describe the differences between them, using comparatives, superlatives and modifiers.

Work with a partner.

b Can you tell which one was created from the woman's own description?

a Take turns to describe your picture without showing it to your partner. Give as much detail as possible, using the vocabulary in exercise 2 on page 88, and making some deductions and speculations. b Listen to the description of a picture Student B gives, and try to imagine what you hear. Then look at the original picture. How close was the description Student B gave?

COMMUNICATION

9. 4

students A & B

Exercise 9

a Work with a partner. Choose a situation and a problem,

10.1

student A

Exercise 10

a Read about the Kickstarter project called Everpurse and

then decide on ...

answer the following questions.

I background details of the story. What's the problem? Why does it cause you difficulties? 2 what you are going to say to the person you have a complaint about. 3 the result you want from your complaint.

What was the service or product? What was special about it? 2 What evidence was there that the business is worth investing in? 3 What investment was needed? How many investors did Everpurse get?

work A colleague arrives late for meetings all the time; he/ she is usually very disorganized; your boss is getting angry when things don't happen as they should.

I

b Join two or three students who have read the same text. Prepare a short presentation about your project, using the questions in exercise 5 on page 97 to guide you.

c Present your project to the rest of the class. Discover

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study You are giving a presentation to your class; your partner didn't do much work for the project, but then says you did it together.

social You are getting a bit fed up because when you and your friends go out, one of the group never pays for anything.

b Work with a different pair. Make your complaint to one of the pair. Use the phrases in the Language for speaking box on page 93 to make your complaint, explain the problem and try to agree on a solution. c Go back to your original partner in exercise 9a. Compare the results from your complaints. Who got the best result?

Have you ever noticed that smartphones always run out of energy just when they're needed most? Smartphones are used for so many things nowadays- emailing, checking social media, finding out how to get somewhere- that most people get to the end of the day and need to charge their phones. With Everpurse, you can charge your phone while it's in your bag. It's the first bag with a built-in charger. Everpurse can be carried inside a bigger bag, or by itself. When you get home, you just drop it onto the white charging mat and leave it overnight. It's that simple. Everpurse needed $100,000 to make Everpurses for as many people as possible. If you invested $99 or more, you were one of the first people to receive one. More than 1,400 investors pledged almost $240,000.

11.1

student A

Exercise 9

a Work with a partner. Read about another outlaw and answer the questions. I What crime(s) did the outlaw commit? 2 What were the reasons they became well known or popular?

2 .1

Exercise 9

a Work with a partner. Look at the following structure for telling a story. Identify the different sections in the two stories in exercise 2 on page I6 and exercise 7 on page I7.

MARIA BONITA Maria Bonita (Beautiful Maria) was the girlfriend of the Brazilian outlaw leader, Virgul ino Ferreira da Silva, known as Lampiao. Virgulino's father was killed by the police in 1919, which led Lampiao to fight back against the police, with a large group of other outlaws. Maria Bonita joined Lampiao in 1930, when she was in her early twenties. She and the other female outlaws in the group dressed like the men and were, apparently, just as tough. She took part in all the battles with the police, though people say that she sometimes stopped Lampiao from being cruel to his victims.

student B

1 Announcing a story is about to start

That reminds me of ... 1 remember the time when ... I'll never forget that day ...

2 Giving background information

The sun was setting ... 1 was driving home when ...

3 Main events

1 had just opened the door when she suddenly appeared. 1 recognized him straightaway.

4 conclusion

He was never seen again.

5 Final comment

I've never forgotten what happened. 1 can laugh about it now, but it was really scary at the time.

b What verb forms are typically used in each section?

c Work with a partner. Use the notes and the structure for telling a story to plan a 'lucky escape' story. 2 Tell the story to a partner, with lots of detail. Try to use the correct narrative forms and some of the verbs in exercises 4 and 5 on page I7. l

Lorry driver uc.P!pu from c.msh vo1.hurt

b Write three third conditional sentences about what happened to the outlaw.

Ivt- R.ussiP! ovt- motorWP!Y

c Tell your partner about what you found out and use the sentences you wrote.

5uovt-d truc.k c.rQ!shed ivt-to him

d Decide together which outlaw you admire most/least.

Driver c.P!me thro~h frovt-t wivt-dsc.reevt-

Explain why.

WP!l.k ed P!WP!y uvt-hurt

11 •4

All stu~ents

Exerc1se 4

I A three-bedroomed apartment in the town centre. Near the children's school. No garden. Two bathrooms and a large kitchen/dining room. Expensive but just affordable. 2 A three-bedroomed house in the suburbs. A thirty-minute bus ride to school or fifteen-minute drive. Large garden. One bathroom. Reasonably priced. 3 A four-bedroomed house in a noisy and slightly dangerous area of town. Within walking distance to school. Two bathrooms and a small garden. Large kitchen/dining room.

COMMUNICATION

2.4

student B

6.2

Exercise 6

a Use the following notes to prepare to tell the story of another coincidence. • TV reporter lrv Kupcinet/in London on a work trip

• In hotel room/find items belonging to his friend/Harry Hannin • Meanwhile/Hannin in Paris • In his hotel room/find tie with Kupcinet's name on it

student B

Exercise 9

a Read about Thongsa, a rice farmer from Thailand. Answer the questions. 1 What problems did the weather cause her? 2 What was her solution?

b Tell your partner your story, using the phrases in the

Language for speaking box on page 22 to engage your listener. When listening to your partner, use the phrases to make sure you sound interested.

3. 2

Student B

Exercise 8

a Work with a partner. Read the paragraph about a Faking It episode. Use the notes and your own ideas to write a

similar paragraph about a similar type of programme.

Thongsa Juansang was a rice farmer. Growing rice needs a lot of water, and when the rain didn't come, her crop died. So she has introduced new crops, growing food that needs less water. Instead of growing rice, she's changed to growing fruit and vegetables, and she can now feed her famil y. She also has some food left over which she can sell at markets in order to buy rice.

b Work with a partner who has read the other story. Take

it in turns to interview each other. Answer as Thongsa. Try to use present perfect simple and continuous in your answers.

Newsagent to showbiz reporter

• • • •

FIRST BROADCAST: 08 November DURATION: 49:28

Twenty-nine-year-old working mum swaps bringing up children and working in the family newsagent's shop to become a TV showbusiness reporter.

Pc'ISt - _ge-t up urrly, de-e>~l with custome-rs, work ke>trd, look cifte-r fe>~mily

Now - be- co~de-"f11:, work i~-t e>r tee>rm, pe-ople- to te>~lk to you, look _good

persue>~de

b Tell your partner about the person you wrote about.

What has been happening to the weather in your area? What effect has this had on your crops? How has this affected your life and your family? What have you done to improve the situation?

7.1

student B

Exercise 10

10.1

student B

Exercise 10

a Read about the Kickstarter project called Good & Proper Tea and answer the questions. 1 What was the service or product? What was special about it? 2 What evidence was there that the business was worth investing in? 3 What investment was needed? How many investors did The Good & Proper Tea van get? b Join two or three students who have read the same text. Prepare a short presentation about your project, using the questions in exercise 5 on page 97 to guide you.

c Present your project to the rest of the class. Try to get as Prepare to talk for a minute about homeworking using used to and would. Look at the photo and think about how people working from home can communicate with the office and customers nowadays, and how attitudes have changed over the past decades.

9.2

many people to back you as possible. Discover

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student B

Exercise 10

Work with a partner. a Listen to the description and try to imagine what you hear. Then look at the original picture. How close was the description Student A gave? b Describe your picture without showing it to your partner. Give as much detail as possible, using the vocabulary, and making some deductions and speculations.

If you buy a cup of coffee these days, you can choose what style of coffee you want and even find out how the beans were roasted. But tea drinkers are rarely provided with the same kind of choice and quality. Instead, said Emilie Holmes, 'we are presented with a cup of not-quite-hotenough water, with a teabag hidden somewhere in the depths'. She explained her idea in a video on Kickstarter, hoping to raise the £10,000 she needed to convert her van into a mobile tea stall. The money was raised in just one week. In fact, she raised £14,682 from 372 backers. It was a busy week. Every time some money was pledged, Emilie received an email and she replied in person to every single investor. Her business is now well established, providing customers with an excellent cup of tea.

COMMUNICATION

11.1

student B

Exercise 9

a Work with a partner. Read about another outlaw and answer the questions. I What crime(s) did the outlaw commit? 2 What were the reasons they became well known or popular?

TWMmONCATI Twm Sion Cati was born in Wales in 1530 and became famous for his clever ways of stealing goods and money. For example, one story tells how a farmer came looking for Twm because he had stolen his cow. He arrived at Twm's house and asked a man nearby if this was Twm's hOl:JSe. The man said it was, and offered to hold the farmer's horse while the farmer went inside. As soon as the farmer went in, Twm (who was the man outside) jumped on the horse and went to the farmer's house. He then told the farmer's wife that her husband was in trouble and needed money straightaway. She believed him because he was riding the farmer's horse. Twm then escaped to London having stolen both the horse and the money.

b Write three third conditional sentences about what happened to the outlaw. c Tell your partner about what you found out and use the sentences you wrote.

d Decide together which outlaw you admire most/least. Explain why. Author~s

solution

12 . 2 Exerc1se 4

Clearly option I is helpful, but you have little or no chance of making a sale. Option 2 is a much better answer, but you're still guessing. Option 3 is clearly the best. People like people who respect their opinions, and you have the best chance of matching his need to something you do have in the shop.

Grammar reference 1.1

Present simple, present continuous and present perfect simple 1

GR1 .1a l)) 1 Everyone needs friends. Real friends are important.

There [email protected]/ are being over one billion Facebook users worldwide. And this number 2 increases I is increasing all the time. It is clear that Facebook 3 changes I has changed the way we 4 1ook I have looked at friendship. The word 'friend' s becomes I has become a verb, and 'friends' now 6 include I have included people we only 7 know I are knowing online and who we s are never meeting I have never met. one positive side to Facebook is that friends who 9 lose I have lost contact, often many years ago, 10 are now able I have now been able to get in touch again. 'More and more people 11 connect I are connecting with old friends via Face book,' says a spokesperson for the website. 'And Face book also 12 means I has meant that friends never 1 3 need 1 have needed to lose touch; people can stay friends for life.'

2 1see my old school friends every few months. We generally have dinner together. 3 He doesn't like all his Facebook friends 4 Do you talk to all your friends regularly? •

we use the present simple to talk about: a things that are always or generally true b things that happen regularly or repeatedly. Remember the 's' for the third person singular (like -+ likes). Sometimes the spelling changes (watch -+ watches, try-+ tries). we use do/does to form the present simple negative and questions.

J 2

GR1 .1b l))

Choose the correct options to complete the text about Facebook.

Complete the conversations with t he present simple, present continuous or present perfect form of the verbs in brackets. 1 A Where

Please be quiet. I'm watching TV.

do yoli work ?

in Berlin, but I B Well, normally I Stuttgart at the moment. (work)

2 We're learning about the history of music at school. 3 The Earth's temperature is increasing.

2 A • We use the present continuous to talk about: a things that are happening at the time when we speak. b things that are happening around the time when we speak. c things that are changing.

you

Jake?

B Yes, we _ _ _ each other for a few years. (know) 3 A

you

in London?

B Yes, I do. Actually, I 4

we form the present continuous with be + -ing form. Be careful with the spelling of -ing forms (begin -+ beginning,

A Jameela's busy at the moment. She lesson.

5 A _ _ _ you B I

GR1.1c l))

Andy yet?

him right now, actually. (email)

B Not many. I think I (have got)

2 Have you ever been to Brazil? B No, he's already left.

See the Irregular verbs list on page 174.

you

?

about fifty or sixty.

7 A I _ _ _ for my phone. B _ _ _ you _ _ _ in the kitchen? I think I saw it in there a few minutes ago. (look)

we use the present perfect simple to talk about: a things up to now, our experience (our lives until now). b things that have already or just happened. We form the present perfect with have + past participle. The past participle for regular verbs is the same as the past simple form (live- lived, work- worked), but some verbs are irregular (e.g. know- knew-+ known, eat-+ ate -eaten).

a piano

one every Wednesday.

6 A How many Facebook friends

I've lived here all my life.



there all my life. (live)

B Oh yes, of course. She (have)

make - making).

3 A Is Marco here?

in

8 A You

l

B Usually, yes. But I now. (see/not see)

her for a few weeks

9 A I a great book at the moment- Tribal Life by Bruce James. you it? B No, but I

I

Karen quite often, don't you?

another one of his books. (read)

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

1. 2

State verbs

,-

1

1 A Shall we take a break from bargain hunting and have a coffee? B That8/ is sounding like a good idea. 2 A Do you have I Are you having a few minutes to help me? B Yeah, sure. 3 A I don't understand I'm not understanding. What do you mean I are you meaning by 'trending'? B Oh, don't worry. I'll explain later. 4 A I try I 'm trying to download some photos. Can you help me? B Sure. Do you know why it isn't working I doesn't work? A I think I'm thinking the file's too big. It looks I is looking like that's what causes/'s causing the problem.

GR1 .2 l)) 1 1think it's a great

idea. 2 Do you want some coffee? 3 Who does this bag belong to? 4 The soup tastes delicious. Most verbs express actions, and we can use them in simple tenses (e.g. 1 use the internet all the time) and continuous tenses (e.g. I'm using the internet at the moment). some verbs usually express states, such as thoughts, feelings, possession and things we experience. we most often use these verbs in simple tenses, even if we mean 'just now'. common state verbs include verbs for: • how we think think, know, believe, agree, prefer, understand, mean, imagine, realize, remember, forget, recognize Do you believe me? 1don't agree.

Choose the correct options.

2

Complete 1-11 using the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 This is Carlos. He e-amu (come) from Spain. 2 Peter is on his way. He (come) by bus. 3 I (see) your point, but I (not/agree) with you. 4 You're quiet? What (you/think) about? 5 What (you/think) ofthe new James Bond film? 6 I (imagine) you're very tired after your journey. 7 Jamal isn't here. He (have) his lunch. 8 (anybody/have) any questions? (belong) to 9 The umbrella's not mine. I think it Annette. 10 Yuck! This soup (taste) horrible. And it _ __ (look) disgusting, too. 11 I (look) for my keys. (you/know) where they are?

• what we feel like, dislike, hate, love, want, feel (have an opinion), seem, appear,looksoun~need

How do you feel about the news?

• what we possess have (got), belong, own, include Do you have any money on you?

• what we experience be, see, hear, look, smell, taste, seem The flowers smell really nice.

Note that we can sometimes use some state verbs, particularly verbs that express how we feel, in continuous tenses when we want to emphasize that the feeling or attitude is temporary. I'm feeling tired.

They can also be used in informal speech as a modern idiom . I'm loving this pizza.

some verbs are also used in the present simple and present continuous with different meaning. 1have a headache. (illness) I'm having lunch. (action) 1 think it's a great idea. (opinion) I'm thinking of getting a new phone. (consider) 1wasn't thinking about what 1was doing.

3

Complete the article about online shopping with the correct form of the verbs in the box. agree be (x2) include increase know make prefer

seem Online shopping 1 seems to become more popular every year. According to a recent report, over half of us consumers with internet access now 2_ _ shopping online, and just 1% say they have never shopped online. Experts 3_ _ that consumers spend on average around $100 per online order. The most common types of goods bought online 4_ _ electronics, books, clothing and household goods. There are a number of reasons why online shopping s_ _. Cheaper prices and a large variety of products 6_ _ the main reasons, according to the survey. The ability to compare products and read reviews 7_ _ another reason. Most online shoppers say that they often s_ _ a decision to buy a product when five or more reviewers 9_ _ that the product is good value fo r money.

2.1

Narrative forms

GR2.1 )))

Put the underlined events in the order they happened or started.

1 1arrived at midnight.

l

1

(a) Jenny and I started our website in order to market (b) the clothes we had designed while (c) we were studyin to ether at universit r.

2 He didn't realize how dangerous it was. 3 Did they arrive in time to save him?

CfJD D

4 we were walking along the beach, when we saw someone waving at us.

2 (a) I decided that I wanted to become a pilot while (b) I was sitting in the garden one day and (c) saw several aeroplanes crossing the sky.

5 we had been on the train for about an hour, when it suddenly stopped.

DOD

A narrative is a description of a past event. we generally use three main verb forms in a narrative.

3 (a) I first noticed the man while (b) I was travelling by train from Paris to Milan. (c) He was reading a book by my favourite author. (d) I'd been watching him for about an hour when (e) he spoke to me.

• we use the past simple for the main events in a story. Most past simple verbs are formed by adding -ed to the infinitive (want -+ wanted). However, many common verbs are irregular (make --+ made).

we wanted to leave early the next morning so we went to bed at 10 p.m. something made a loud noise.

DDDDD 2

Choose the correct options to complete narrative extracts l-7. l

Negatives and questions are formed with did and the infinitive without to. we didn't recognize the stranger who was standing outside the house. What did he want with us?

2 3

• we use the past continuous for background events. we also use it for longer actions interrupted by a shorter event. She was sitting in the corner of the room. They were having dinner when the phone rang.

5

we form the past continuous with was/were and the -ing form. 1was feeling nervous.

6

4

7

• we use the past perfect for events that happened before one of the main events or that happened before the time of the story. I'd stayed in the same hotel twice before. we form the past perfect with had and the past participle. I'd taken the train to London an hour before.

3

We were walking !~bout two kilometres before we realized I were realizing that we left I 'd left the map behind. We went I 'd gone for a walk when we were finishing I 'd finished the meal. The sun was shining I had shone. People sat I were sitting on the grass in the park. I was I 'd been exhausted after a long day at work, so I went I was going to bed early. Sam didn't recognize I wasn't recognizing me, even though we were meeting I 'd met a few weeks before. I locked I was locking the office door after I'd checked I was checking that everyone went I had gone home. My parents first met I had met when they were I had been at university together. They were both studying I had both studied history.

Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. I'll always remember the time we were struck by lightning when we 1 were. jlyi11g (fly) back from Singapore. we 2_ _ (be) in the air for about an hour, and the plane 3_ _ (move) up and down quite a lot. outside you 4_ _ (can) see flashes of lightning across the sky and dark clouds. Suddenly there s_ _ (be) a loud bang. At first a few people 6_ _ (start) screaming. But then the whole plane 7_ _ (become) strangely quiet. The pilot s_ _ (speak) to tell us we were about to land, which was a great relief to everyone. But just as we 9_ _ (land), the whole plane 10_ _ (start) shaking violently again. In the end we 11 _ _ (land) safely. When we 1 2_ _ (get off) the plane, we 13_ _ (see) that there 14_ _ (be) an enormous hole in the tail fin.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

2.2 Time linkers 1 GR2.2 )»

Choose the correct options. 1 I found some old [email protected]; meanwhile I during I was tidying up the attic recently. They all had stories about famous hoaxes in them. 2 I almost fell asleep during I while I meanwhile the meeting this afternoon. It was so boring. 3 The US belonged to the UK by the time I until I while 1776, when it gained independence. 4 I was looking for my phone. By the time I Meanwhile I As soon as, my wife had found it and was looking for me. 5 We called the police by the time I meanwhile I as soon as we discovered the house had been robbed. 6 We spent ages looking for the shop and as soon as I while I by the time we found it, it was closed. 7 There were many important discoveries during I while I by the time the 1800s. 8 Luke and I met during I meanwhile I while we were working together in a cafe.

They realized the story was false as soon as they found the boy. 2 I saw Paul while 1 was walking to work. 3 They were working for the same newspaper when they met each other. 4 we were waiting for Julia outside the cinema . Meanwhile, she was waiting for us at the bus station . 5 By the time 1realized, it was too late. 6 There were many scientific discoveries during the 18th century. 1 7 we lived in warsaw until 1 was twelve. we use time linkers to show how the timing of events in a story relate to one another. Some of the more common time linkers include:

as soon as/while • as soon as (one thing happens immediately after another) I called her as soon as 1saw the story on TV.

2

Complete the text with the time linkers in the box. as soon as

• while (something happens while something else is in progress.

by the time

during (x2)

meanwhile

while

or two things are in progress at the same time) I met ursula

while we were skiing. could you wait here while 1 find the manager? we can often use when in a similar way to while.

Although it's very popular nowadays, 1duriVJg the 1950s pasta was an unusual meal in the UK. Not many British people had been to Italy, and very few people knew how pasta was made. so. for Apri l Fool's Day in 1957, the BBC news programme Panorama decided to make a story about spaghetti growing on trees. 2_ _ the programme, viewers were told that the harvest that year was particularly good because of the weather. And 3_ _ the presenter explained how spaghetti was grown, there was a film of workers in the background cutting the spaghetti from the t rees. 4_ _ the programme had been broadcast, the BBC started receiving phone calls from people who wanted to grow their own spaghetti. s_ _, the BBC continued the joke by instructing anyone who wanted to grow a spaghetti tree to 'place a piece of spaghetti in a tin of tomato sauce.' 6_ _ the story was revealed to be an April Fool's Day joke, hundreds of people had contacted the BBC.

II

They lost their passports when they were waiting in the airport. We use when (not while) to introduce an action that 'interrupts' an action already in progress. I was cycling to the shops when 1 fell off my bike. I

meanwhile/by the time (that) • meanwhile (two things happen at the same time, but in two different sentences)

Tom and I drove to the city centre. Meanwhile, Anna drove to our house. As a result, we missed each other. •

by the time (that) (something is completed before the main event happens) By the time we got there, Mark had left.

during/until • during (something happens at a point within a certain period of time) I fell

asleep during the film.

• until (something happens up to a particular point in time) 1was awake until about four in the morning

3

Complete the sentences with the correct time linker. 1 I woke up three times duriVJg the night. 2 Sorry I didn't speak to you earlier, but I phoned you I could. 3 We were very late and the party had finished _ _ we got there. 4 We walked all day _ _ it got dark, and then we went home. 5 We just couldn't find the plane tickets. We looked everywhere. _ _, the taxi to the airport was waiting for us outside.

3.1

Ability 1

GR3.1 l))

Choose the correct option s. My parents say I can ; @ walk when I was about nine months old.

l

The researchers discovered that some children are able to wait for fifteen minutes to eat the marshmallow.

2 The DVD player wasn't working, but in the end we could I managed to fix it.

2 1could ride a bike by the age of six. 3 She was able to speak French in the restaurant because she'd studied it for years at school.

3

Do you think you'll manage to I succeed in finish your assignment by the weekend?

4 we weren't able to get tickets for the concert. They'd sold out.

4

How many languages do you manage I can you speak?

5 Will you be able to finish the report on time?

6 Some people can I succeed in learn languages easily.

6 They didn't succeed in winning the prize.

7

5 I couldn't I won't be able to meet you tom orrow, I'm afraid.

7 I'm sure you'll manage to resist the temptation.

8 Anyone is able I can to learn a musical instrument if they try.

Can, could and be able to w e generally express ability using can, could and be able to.

2

Complete the sentences wit h the verbs in the box.

Present •

can

we use can/can't + infinitive or am/are/is(n't) able to + infinitive to express general ability.

l

• We can use will/won't be able to + infinit ive to express general ability and ability on a particular future occasion.

J'/1 be able to help you in a few minutes. 1won't be able to give you a lift tomorrow, I'm afraid.

Manage to and succeed in •

we can use manage to + infinitive or succeed in + -ing when there is some difficulty in achieving t he task.

Present She usually manages to achieve her ambitions. She usually succeeds in getting what she wants.

Past 1didn't manage to speak to the boss. He succeeded in getting a place at university.

Future I'm sure you'll manage to get a ticket. I'm sure she'll succeed in persuading you.

manage (x2)

A We _ _ decide where to go on holiday. Can you recommend anywhere?

B Yes, I _ _. I went to Rome last year, it was beautiful.

1could run 100 metres in twelve seconds when 1was younger. 1was able to swim when 1was about four.

Future

cou ldn't

A Are you able to resist temptation?

3

we use could/couldn't + infinit ive or was(n't)/were(n't) able to + infinitive t o express general ability in t he past.

we use was(n't)!were(n't) able to to talk about ability on a specific past occasion. we were able to ski even though there wasn't much snow. Alex wasn't able to help me.

could

2 When I was a child, I _ _ never resist eating all the biscuits as soon as we got them.

Past



can't

B No, I nev er wt&'ll1,tll3e.. to stick t o a diet!

I can wait for things 1want. 1can't resist chocolate. some people are able to resist most temptations.



Did they manage to I succeed in reaching the top of the mountain?

4 A I usually _ _ to resist temptation. Apart from video games, that is. Last night I just _ _ stop playing a game. I stayed awake until well after midnight trying to finish i t!

3

Complete the text with the words and phrases in the box. is able

was able

can

could

managed to

succeeded in

Daniel Tam met has an amazing ability for mathematical calculations, memorizing facts and language learning. He holds the European record for memorizing pi (n). In 2004, he 1sll(u.e..e..de..d i.11..-writing the numbers in pi up to 22,514 in just over five hours, without error. He has entered the world Memory Championships twice, but he has never 2_ _ win. Tam met 3_ _ also speak eleven languages. Because of his incredible memory, he 4 _ _ to learn new languages very quickly. To prove this for a television documentary, he was challenged to learn Icelandic in one week. Seven days later he appeared on television in Iceland and he 5_ _ to have a conversation in Icelandic. Tammet's abilities first became clear as a child. He 6_ _ read and do complex mathematics at a very early age and he says he has always loved counting.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

3.2 Obligation, permission and possibility must, have to, need to

1

Complete the sentences with the words in brackets. usually choose my own hours at work, but I 1 I C()Ht hctve to work at least forty hours a week. (have to, can) use your mobile. It _ _ _ be switched 2 You off. (must, can't) pay in pounds. You also pay in 3 You euros or dollars if you prefer. (can, don't have to) 4 The main requirements in my job are that you _ __ be good at making decisions and you be a good leader. (must, have to) stay at work and finish 5 Sorry I'm late home. I a report. I leave until I'd sent it to my boss. (couldn't, had to) 6 You have a university degree to work here, but you have a lot of relevant experience. (don't need to, must) study at least one foreign language 7 We at school, but we study English. We _ __ choose from English, Russian, German and Chinese. (could, didn't have to, had to)

2

Choose the correct options to complete the job description.

GR3.2a l))

1 Raul is unhappy because he has to work very long hours. 2 Must you leave so soon? 3 I don't have to work on Saturdays or Sundays. 4 In my last job we had to ask permission if we wanted to work at home. 5 Before I became the team leader, I didn't need to set other people's goals.

Present • we use must and have to to say that something is necessary or an obligation. we often use must to talk about the feelings and wishes of the speaker and have to to talk about obligations that come from someone or somewhere else. You must work hard to be successful in life. In my job, 1have to manage a team of twenty people. Do you have to wear a suit and tie at work?

• we use mustn't to say it is necessary or an obligation NOT to do something. You mustn't be late for work.

• we use don't have to and don't need to to say something isn't necessary or an obligation.

A PA (personal assistant) gives support to managers or directors. To be a PA, you 1 mustn't [email protected]'t have}Vhave any specific qualifications, but you 2 can I must have the right skills and personal qualities. PAs 3 must I can have good knowledge of the organization in which they work, and they 4 can I have to know who the important people in the company are. Managers often communicate with customers and collegues through their PA, so they s must I can be good communicators. In the past, PAs 6 must I had to have good typing skills, but today this isn't as important.

We don't have to wear a suit and tie at work. we don't need to be at work until nine o'clock.

Past • we use had to to say something was necessary or an obligation in the past. we had to wear a uniform when 1was at school.

• we use didn't have to and didn't need to to say something wasn't necessary or an obligation in the past. we didn't have to wear a uniform when I was at school.

3

can, could GR3.2b l))

In my present job 1 can set my own goals. 2 Employees can't make personal calls while at work. 3 At school we could choose which foreign languages we studied. I chose German and Spanish. 4 women couldn't study to become doctors in the UK until1876.

Rewrite the sentences using the verbs in the box. Begin with the words given. could couldn't have to don't have to had to must mustn't

1 It's the law to wear a seatbelt in a car in the UK. You hctve to wectr ct secttbelt i.vt- ct c.ctr i.vt- the IAI<... 2 It's not necessary to book a ticket for the concert. You _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____

Past

3 In all jobs, being reliable is extremely important. In all jobs, you _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 4 I missed the bus, so my only option was to get a taxi. I missed the bus, so _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 5 It's not OK to take photos in the museum. You _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____

• we use could to say something was allowed or was OK in the past and couldn't to say something wasn't allowed or wasn't OK.

6 Sorry I'm late. I wasn't allowed to leave work early. Sorry I'm late.! _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Present • we use can to say something is allowed or is OK and can't to say something isn't allowed or isn't OK.

4 •1

will(b_e going to for predictions and deCISIOnS 1

Predictions

Complete the conversation w ith will or be going to and the verbs in brackets. l A B 2 A B

GR4.1a l)) Climate change will cause huge problems. 2 soon there won't be space in cities for all t he people who want to live in them. 3 Look at the traffic! It's going to take a long time to get there.

A 3 A B 4 A B

we can use both will+ infinitive without to and be going to to talk about predictions for the future. • We generally use will/won't when we want to say what we believe or think about the future. This is often when the prediction is based on personal feeling or opinion. You'll have a great time on holiday You won't pass the test. You haven't studied enough.

A 5 A

we often say 1don't think ... will for a negative prediction NOT I #9iRk ... WOR't. I don't think people will live in floating cities in the future. •

B 6 A B

we generally use be going to when there is some evidence in the present to support the prediction or an action is starting or clearly on the way. There isn't a cloud in sight. It's going to be a lovely day I'm not going to finish this report today I haven't got enough time.

A 7 A B A B 8 A

Decisions GR4.1b )» 1 What a lovely day! I'll have a swim later. 2 We're going to have a few days in Paris next month.

B we can use both will and be going to to talk about decisions. • We generally use will when we make a decision at the moment of speaking. I'm exhausted. 1think I'll go to bed. I'm full. 1won't have dessert.

2

Do you know any good travel websites? Just a minute. I'll show (show) you some. You're going to the US this summer, aren't you? Yes. We (hire) a car and drive round California. Lucky you! You (have) a great time. (rain). Look at those clouds! I think it Yes. I think you're right. I (get) my umbrella. Are you free on Wednesday? Sorry. I'm (see) my grandparents in London . How about the week after? OK, I (call) you early next week. Here's the book I was talking about. I think you _ _ _ (enjoy) it. Thanks. I _ _ _ (give) itbacktoyounextweek, if that's OK. I think you've missed the last bus. I (get) a taxi, then. How much do you think it (cost)? I'm really not sure, but I guess it (not be) more than ten euros. Where are you going? To the shops. I (get) something to eat. While you're there, we need some milk. OK, I (get) some milk as well. Oh no! The plane's delayed by four hours. It _ __ (be) a long day! Oh well. In that case, I _ _ _ (do) some work while we're waiting.

Complete the text with will or be going to and the verbs in the box. In some cases, both forms are possible. be

do (x2)

go

have

not have

help reRt

-

we often use will in cafes and restaurants when we are ordering drinks and meals. I'll have a pizza and a green salad, please. • We generally use be going to when we have already made a decision. This is often when we are talking about plans and intentions. My brother's going to visit us in the summer. I'm not going to take my driving test until next year.

Hi Jules, You asked about our summer holiday plans. well, we 1're.. goiM to re.-1-tt a boat in Turkey and spend two weeks sail ing along the coast. I've never sailed before, so 1 think 1 2 a couple of lessons before we go. They have courses near here at the sailing club in Portsmouth, there. But the other people we are going with so I 3 are all experienced sailors, so I'm pretty sure we 4_ _ __ any problems. 1 guess they s most of the sailing and 16 a little when needed. Anyway, I'm really looking forward to it - 1 think it 7 fun. What about your holidays? s you anything this summer? See you soon, Denise

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

4.2 will/may/might to talk about probability 1

1 likely I is I global warming I for several hundred years I continue I to .

GR4.2 l))

People will continue to move from the countryside to the city, so in the next fifty years there may be many cities with populations of more than ten million.

ylob~l w~rmi11:9

In the future, __________________ 3 will I the planet Mars I one day I humans I colonize I possibly. Oneda~ ------------------4 spend I computer screens I will I we I probably I in front of I more and more time .

Modal verbs • we can use the modal verbs will, might and may to talk about how sure we are about something. Will generally expresses more certainty. Might and may have very similar meanings.

VVe _____________________ 5 to I are I with aliens I unlikely I we I ever make contact .

The population will continue to rise, and it may reach ten billion by the end of the century. Walking in the countryside might have a number of health benefits.

VVe ______________________ 6 will I in the future I inside buildings I humans I most of their time I spend . In the future, __________________

Adverbs and adjectives

7 to be I ever live I won't I humans I two hundred years old /probably. Humans _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____

• we can use the adverbs probably, possibly and definitely with will/might/may to give more information about how sure we are. However, this is most common with will. The adverb generally goes after will and before won't/will not.

• we can also use the adjectives likely and unlikely. we use the infinitive with to after (un)likely. Urban living is likely to continue increasing. They're unlikely to arrive before midnight.

is likely to c.ovtti)IU{.e for seveml

hii(Ytdred ye~rs. 2 might I with animals I in the future I communicate I be able to I humans .

2 Owning their own home might become impossible for most people. 3 Temperatures are likely to rise over the next century, and this may possibly have an impact on weather.

They probably won't arrive before midnight. We'll possibly go for a walk later this afternoon. I'll definitely see you sometime next week. Deforestation may possibly continue for another 100 years.

Put the words in the right order to make sentences.

2

Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. 1 I don't think they will arrive in time. (unlikely)

They

~re

uvtl.ikely to

~rrive

iJ.t time.

2 Cities of the future are likely to have more green spaces. (probably) 3 It's probable that unemployment will continue rising. (likely)

Here is a summary of degree of certainty: certain

1

Possible

unlikely

Impossible

4 The ice caps are unlikely to melt completely. (probably)

-

will (definitely) will probably is unlikely to will possibly probably won't may is likely to might

(definitely) won 't

5 It will possibly rain later. (may) 6 I don't think I'll finish my report before Friday. (unlikely) 7 lfUnited Nations forecasts are correct, by 2050 the global population might be between nine and ten billion. (likely)

5.1

-ing form and infinitive with to

GR5.1 l)) 1 They finished filming in January.

v

"'

2 my friend I insisted on I pay I for the cinema tickets I last night.

2 1don't feel like going out tonight.

3 1ran five kilometres without stopping.

4 we agreed to meet at 6.30.

3 Adam I hopes I get I to London I at about two-thirty.

5 Carole chose not to go to the party as she had a job

interview the next day. 4 I I didn't expect I enjoy I the film I s o much .

When a verb which isn't a modal verb is fo llowed by another verb, the second verb is either in the -ing form (e.g. /like watching TV) or the infinitive with to (e.g. I want to watch TV).

5 let's I watch I a film at home tonight I instead of I go I to the cinema .

-ingform 6 we I have I great memories of I live

• we use the -ing form after the following verbs: admit, avoid, consider, deny, finish, help, imagine, miss, practise, recommend, suggest. David recommended seeing the latest Bond film. • we also use the -ing form after verbs expressing likes and dislikes, such as: can't stand, enjoy, feel/ike, hate, like, love, (don't) mind, prefer. 1really enjoy going to the cinema.

7 did you I manage I finish I write I your report ?

2

Complete the conversations with the verbs in the box. Use the -ing form or infinitive with to.

act become come do (x2) go (X3) take

• we also use the -ing form after prepositions such as: about, after, at, before, by, in, of, on, to, without. Justyna insisted on paying for the meal. We're thinking of going to the cinema tonight.

1 A We're thinking of~ to see a film. Would you like

with us? B Great, thanks. I'd do anything to avoid _ _ this work! 2 A I'm thinking of ac ting lessons .

Infinitive with to

B You're going to start

! I never knew you were interested in an ac tor. 3 A Are you interested in _ _ to that film exhibition? I'm going with Francesca tomorrow. B I'd really like to, but I've promised _ _ out for the day with my mum. I think she's planning _ _ all sorts of t hings. I can't let her down.

• We use the infinitive with to after the following verbs: afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, attempt, choose, decide, demand, expect, fail, forget, hope, intend, manage, need, offer, plan, start, seem, tend, want, would like. Amir offered to give us a lift to the conference. 1promise not to tell anyone. Note that to form the negative, we put not between the two verbs. I decided not to say anything.

I in Austria .

3

Rewrite t he sen tences to m a ke one sentence with simila r m eaning. Use the words in brackets.

1 He was late. He didn't apologize. (for)

-ing form or infinitive with to • The following verbs can be followed by both the -ing form and the infinitive with to, with little or no change in meaning: attempt, begin, can't stand, continue, hate, like, love, prefer, start, stop. we continued working. we continued to work. • we don't usually use two -ing forms next to each other. I'm starting to feel better. NOT §'m star#Rg fee!iRg better.

Spelling rules Note that we sometimes make changes to the spelling of a word when we add -ing. For example, we may drop the final -e, change -ie to -y and sometimes we double the final letter. make- making lie- lying begin- beginning

He clicll'l!t Cllpolqgizefor beivt9 lCIIte. 2 Francesco left. He didn't say goodbye. (without) 3 Carmen plays t he guitar. She's very good. (at) 4 Ingrid wants a new a car. She can't afford it. (buy)

5 I take my driving test tomorrow. I'm nervous. (about) 6 I didn't book the tickets. I didn't remember. (forgot)

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

5 •2

Time expressions with present perfect and past simple 1

GR5.2 )»

Choose the correct options to complete the conversations.

you mo;;_yl have you moved to Frankfurt? Six months ago I Since six months. I've been very busy yesterday I recently. Me too. I started a new project at work since last week I last week. I haven't had lunch yet I already. I'm starving. Oh, I went I 've been to that new cafe for lunch. It was I has been really good. You should go there. Yes, I went there a jew days ago I already. I agree -

1 A [email protected]

B

1 Marco's eaten three bars of chocolate so far today. He'll be sick.

2 A

2 A When did you arrive? 8 We've been here since Tuesday.

B

3 A Have you ever been to Egypt? 8 Yes, 1went about four years ago. It was fantastic.

3 A B

I

We can think of time periods as being unfinished (e.g. this week, recently) or finished (e.g. yesterday, in 2014).

A

it's good.

4 A I didn't see I haven't seen Junko's new apartment yet. Did I Have you? B Yes, I saw I 've seen it a few days ago. 5 A We lived I 've lived in Venice for seven years. From 2005 to 2012. B I never went I 've never been to Venice. I hear it's

Unfinished time periods We generally use the present perfect for unfinished time periods.

I've sent lots of emails today Have you seen Okito recently? We've been here since nine o'clock. Expressions of unfinished time that we often use with the present perfect include:

beautiful. 6 A Have you finished your exams on Friday I yet?

recently, already, just, never, ever, yet, so far, for (ten minutes, three weeks, etc.), since (2013, ten o'clock, etc.), over the past (two days, six months, etc.), since

B No, I've done two of them last week I so far. 2

Complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. Use the past simple or present perfect.

Finished time periods we generally use the past simple for finished time periods.

1got my first games system when 1 was ten. I finally went to bed at midnight. Did you see Jamal last week? Expressions of finished time that we often use with the past simple include:

yesterday, last (night, weekend, year, etc.), in (January, 2012, the summer, etc.), on (Wednesday, my birthday, etc.), (a few days, three years, etc.) ago, when (I was at university, etc.), recently

Unfinished or finished time periods Note that some time expressions can refer to both unfinished or finished time, depending on the context.

Have you seen LUciana this morning? (it is still this morning)

Did you see LUciana this morning? (the morning is finished)

I've bought a few new video games recently. (focus on time until now)

1bought a new phone recently (focus on the time of buying the phone)

Video games 1 k(ifve existed (exist) for over sixty years. The first video games 2 (appear) in the 1940s, when academics 3 (begin) designing simple games, simulations, and artificial intelligence programs as part of their computer science research. However, video gaming 4 (not/reach) mainstream popularity until the 1970s and 1980s, when arcade games, gaming consoles and home video games 5 (become) available to the general public. Before the development of realistic computer graphics that 6 (occur) recently, the games that 7 (drive) the industry in the 1970s s (be) basic games like Ping Pong and, a little later, Space Invaders. Since then, video gaming 9 (become) a popular form of entertainment and a part of modern culture in most parts of the world, and today almost everyone under the age of fifty 10 (play) a video game at least once.

6.1

Defining and non-defining relative clauses

There are two types of relative clause: defining and non-defining. In both types, the relative clause gives information about a person or thing. The relative clause comes after this person or thing has been mentioned and starts with a relative pronoun (who, which, that or whose).

1

Complete the text with appropriate relative pronouns. An automobile, or motor car, is defined as a vehicle with wheels 1 th~~tt has its own engine or motor and 2_ _ is used mainly for transporting passengers. The invention of the automobile goes back to 1886, when the German inventor Karl Benz, 3_ _ is generally regarded as the inventor of the first modern automobile, introduced the Motorwagen to the publ ic. Motorized vehicles soon started to replace animal-powered carriages, 4 _ _ had for centuries been the main form of long-distance transport. The first affordable automobile s_ _ sold in large numbers was the Model T, 6_ _ was introduced in the USA in 1908 and 7_ _ was produced by Henry Ford, 8_ _ Ford Motor Company had been founded in 1903. Many other automobile manufacturers soon began producing vehicles in the same way as Ford, and by the 1930s there were hundreds of different automobile companies around the world.

Defining relative clauses GR6.1a ))) I want to meet the person who found my handbag. I'd like to t hank them. 2 What's it called? It's the gadget that is used for opening cans. 3 Look, isn't that the woman whose handbag you found? 4 The man 1 met yesterday told me how to get to the concert hall. • we use defining relative clauses to identify who or what we are talking about. we can use: a who -for people b which or that - for things c whose- for possessions and family relationships • We can leave out the relative pronoun if it is the object of the verb. The first car (that) 1had was a ten-year-old Volkswagen.

Non-defining relative clauses

2

Which of the relative clauses in the text in exercise 1 are defining and which are non-defining? Defining: Non-defining:

3

OJ D D D D D D D

Rewrite the two sentences as one sentence using a relative clause. I've just read a book. I think you'll like it. I've ju.st re~~td 11t book whic.hlthllft I thil11<.. youll Like. 2 They're buildi ng a new factory. It will have no humans and only use robots. l

GR6.1b )» Nicolaus Otto, who died in 1891, was the inventor of the petrol engine. 2 The Bugatti veyron, which is one of the most expensive cars ever, was first produced in 2005.

3 What's the name of the scientist? The one who discovered the X-ray?

3 It was invented by Richard Beeston, whose father and grandfather were also inventors. • we use non-defining relative clauses to give extra information. Non-defining relative clauses do not identify who or what we are talking about. It is usually already clear who or what we are talking about. we can use: a who -for people b which - for things c whose- for possessions and family relationships

4 You can book an $80,000 balloon flight. It goes into space.

• we do not usually use that in a non-defining relative clause. rAe Bugatti 'tfCjft"OFI, that is OFie Of the FFIOSt expeFISiiiC COt'S evet", was fiFst pmduced iR2005.

7 Is that the girl? We went to her party last weekend.

5 I've got a new mobile phone. It's got a 128GB memory. 6 I met someone yesterday. He knows you.

8 The program isn't working properly. You loaded it yesterday.

Note that we use commas around a non-defining relative clause. Or before the relative clause if the clause is at the end of the sentence.

4 We can also use the relative adverbs when and where in relative clauses. Is this the hotel where we stayed last year? Rush hour is the time of day when people drive to or from work.

In which sentences in exercise 3 do we not need to use a relative pronoun?

DO

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

6.2 Present perfect simple and continuous 1 GR6.2 )»

Choose the correct options to complete the sentences. 1 2 3 4

1 The bus hasn't come. I've been waiting here for ages. 2 Stefan hasn't been working for this company for very long. 3 How long has Caroline been teaching at that school? 4 Have you had breakfast yet?

5 • we use the present perfect continuous (have/has + been + -ing) for unfinished actions which started in the past and continue up to now. It often answers the question How long ...? It's been raining all afternoon. Scientists have been investigating climate change. How long have you been working here? • we use the present perfect simple (have/has+ past participle) for completed actions which happened at some point before now and still have an influence on the present. we don't know or aren't focusing on exactly when the action happened. It's stopped raining. Have you seen the weather forecast?

6 7 8 2

It's rained ;@een rain~since I got up. Have they finished I been finishing the experiment yet? Have you ever seen I been seeing a tropical storm? We've tried I 've been trying to find a solution to the problem for weeks. Good news! Sam's found I been finding a solution to the problem! Sorry I'm late. How long have you waited I been waiting? Scientists have tried I been trying to find a solution to climate change for decades. It hasn't snowed I been snowing for ages.

Complete the sentences with the verbs in the box. In each pair, use the present perfect simple in one sentence and the present perfect continuous in the other. fix

increase

investigate snow speak

1 The average global temperature kQ!s beevt- ivt-cnQ!sina for at least 100 years. The average global temperature _ _ every year for at least the last hundred years. 2 It _ _ a couple of times so far this year. It _ _ since this morning. 3 Researchers _ _ the phenomenon for a number of years. Researchers _ _ the phenomenon on several different occasions. 4 He _ _ the washing machine all morning. _ _ he _ _ the washing machine yet? 5 I _ _ French for ages - not since I left school. We _ _ French for the past hour or so.

• There is sometimes little difference between the present perfect simple and continuous. The choice is often about how we see the action. The weather's been improving. (We see this as something in process.) The weather's improved. (We see this as a finished state.) We generally don't use the present perfect continuous with state verbs such as be, have, and know. We've aeeR kRowfRg al:JotJt gJoaaf b'riarffliflg fer over 100 years.

3

Complete the text about Arctic sea ice with the verbs in brackets in the most probable tense: present perfect simple or continuous. Scientists 1 kQ!ve beevt- studyiVf8 (study) changes in Arctic sea ice for around 100 years. As measuring devices and satellite analysis 2 (become) more accurate, it 3 (become) clear that the amount of Arctic sea ice 4 (decrease) steadily for several decades. In 5 fact, the Arctic (lose) 75% of its summer sea ice volume over the past three decades. This is mainly due to global warming. However, the amount of ice lost each year 6 (depend) not only on global warming, but on a number of other things such as local weather patterns. In some years these things 7 (cause) more or less sea ice to melt. However, even though in one year there may 8 (be) more sea ice than in the previous year, the trend is that Arctic summer sea ice 9 (disappear) at a rate of around 2.5% per year.

7.1

used to and would for past habits and states

we can use both used to and would to talk about situations that existed in the past but do not exist now.

1

If possibl e, rew rit e t hese sentences w ith would. If t his is not possible, put a cross.

l

I used to hate job interviews, but now I like them. X

2 My grandfather used to wear a suit and tie every day.

GR7.1 l))

Mygr(lfl'tdf(lftker WOIA..ld

1 1 used to like listening to my grandmother reading me stories when I was a child.

We(lfr

(If

siA..it (lfl'td tie every d(lfy.

3 The boss u sed t o arrange a party ever y year.

2 Did people ever use t o think the Earth was flat? 3 Leo didn't use to like cooking, but now he's really into it.

4

4 In the past children would learn everything by heart, but nowadays people rarely do t hat.

5 Anna used to sit at her desk and write all day.

5 My grandfather would tell me the names of all the trees and flowers when we went for walks in the countryside.

6 In the past, a lot of people u sed to do t he same job all their life.

used to

7

We use used to+ infinitive for both past habits and past states: things that were true but are not now. we used to live in Madrid. (but now we don't) There used to be an office block here. (but now there isn't) 1used to drive to work. (but now 1 don't) 1didn't use to like my job. (but now 1 do) Note that t here is no final 'd' in negatives and questions. I didn't use to drink tea. Did you use to work for the UN? NOT f didn't used to drink reo. Did you used to v.;ork for the UN? Remember that used to is only for past habits. For present habits we use the present simple. Oliver cycles to work.

would We can also use would + infinitive to talk about past habits and typical past behaviour. 1would usually drive to work. I would usually get to work at about 730 and 1generally wouldn't leave until after six o'clock. However, we do not use would to talk about past states, only actions and typical behaviour. we v10uld live iA LoAdoA.

There woufd be an office bfock here.

I u sed to like visiting my m u m's office.

People used to be m ore for mal at work.

8 I used to see the park from my w i ndow, but now I'm in a different office.

2

Complete the text using would or used to and the verbs i n brackets. Use would where possible; only used t o if would is not possible.

Office life - it's so much better now It's a good time be an office worker. Technology has made the biggest change. Communication is easier and work is more interesting. In the past, people 1 WOIA..ld spel'td (spend) ages at work doing boring jobs; these days computers can do these same jobs quickly and easily. Attitudes to men and women at work have changed a lot over the last fifty years, too. 'In the 1960s, my boss was a woman who was t he same age as me,' says David Harper. 'When we went to meetings toget her, people 2_ _ (be) surprised that she was the boss, not me. 1 3_ _ (tell) people how good she was.'

.

Offices have become more pleasant places to work in. Companies 4_ _ (have) strict rules about clothes and behaviour in the office, but these days things are more easygoing. Relationships are more equal now. Peoples_ _ (speak) to their manager very formally, but now conversations can be more relaxed; and offices themselves are nicer places t o work in. 'The office where 1 worked was small and it 6_ _ (smell) really bad,' one of my friends t old me. 'Every morning 1 7_ _ (open) the window as w ide as I could, but it never helped!' Perhaps not everything is better, though. These days, people often stay at work late and take their work home with t hem. It wasn't always like that. 'When I worked in an office, we s_ _ (st art) work at 9.00 and we 9_ _ (go) home at 5.30,' said my uncle. 'The manager 1o_ _ (tell) us all to go home at 5.30 and we didn't think about work until the next day!'

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

7. 2

Questions 1

GR7.2 )))

1 What does she think of your new car?

William James Sid is was a child genius, born in the us in 1898. After his death, his sister claimed he was the most intelligent person who ever lived, with an IQ between 250 and 300. He could read at eighteen months. He had written four books and was fluent in eight languages before he was ten. Harvard University accepted him as a student when he was just twelve. After he graduated at sixteen, he joined Rice University as a maths professor. However, the students at Rice didn't take him seriously because of his age and he left after only eight months. He went back to Harvard to study law. While he was studying law he became concerned with social issues, and in 1919 he was arrested while he was taking part in a political parade that turned violent. He spent eighteen months in jail. After his release from prison, he hid away and started writing books on subjects such as the universe, American history and psychology. William James Sidis died in 1944.

2 Where did he use to work? 3 Who opened the box of chocolates? 4 Can you tell me where the railway station is? 5 would you mind telling me if the hotel dining room is open after 10 p.m.?

Object and subject questions There are two basic types of question: object questions and subject questions. • In object questions, the question word is the object. we normally put an auxiliary verb before the subject. For the present and past simple tenses, we use the auxiliary do/does/did. Who do you most admire? -1 most admire my parents. What did she buy? - She bought some books.

1 Whe.11.- We;rs= Te;rwte.s 5.idis bor11.-? In 1898. 2 ? His sister. ? Between 250 and 300. 3 ? Harvard University. 4 5 ? He was arrested. 6 ? Eighteen months. 7 ? In 1944.

• In subject questions, the question word is the subject. We don't use do/does/did. Who inspired you to become an athlete? - My sports teacher inspired me to become an athlete. Who invented the computer? - Several people helped invent it. NOT Wf:lo did iRVCRt tf:lc COFI'If)Utcr?

Indirect questions we use indirect questions to make questions softer or more polite.

Read the text and then write the questions. There are both object and subject questions.

2

• Indirect questions begin with a question phrase (e.g. could you tell me ...; I'd like to know ... ; Would you mind telling me .. .). • After the question phrase, the word order is like a statement rather than a question: we do not invert the auxiliary verb and the subject and we do not use do/does/did. Could you tell me who you most admire? NOT could you wH Fl'le wl1o do you Fl'lost adfl'lire? I'd like to know why you decided to leave university.

Urban free-climber Claudette Dubois has climbed up the outside of some of the tallest structures in the world, including the Eiffel Tower, Sydney Opera House and the Petronas 1\N'in Towers. Rewrite the direct questions in this interview with Claudette as indirect questions. Begin with the words given. 1 How do you feel before you do a big climb? Could you te.ll me. how yovtf e.e.L before. yovt do g big c.Limb? 2 When were you last truly scared? Would you _________________________________

• we use if (in place of a question word) for indirect questions where the answer is yes or no. I'd like to know if you have any further ambitions.

3 What did you want to be when you were growing up? I'd like _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 4 Is there anyone famous you'd like to meet? Could ___________________________________ 5 How would you like to be remembered? I'd like _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 3

Match the questions in exercise 2 to answers a- e. a Just before my last climb. I always get scared. b I feel very nervous, but quite calm at the same time. c As a funny and disciplined person who liked to challenge herself. d Yes, Philippe Petit. I've always admired him. e A Hollywood stuntwoman.

8.1

sentences with if- real conditionals 1

GR8.1 )»

A What do you think is the secret to happiness? B Well, lots of things. But I believe that if people hPCve (have) a positive attitude towards everything, they generally _ _ (feel) much happier. A And what's the secret to a long life? B As well as a positive at titude, if you _ _ (exercise) regularly and _ _ (be) carefu l about what you eat, you _ _ (probably/live) longer. 2 A I think I need to improve my diet. B Well, for a s tart, if you _ _ (eat) at least five portions of fruit and vegetables each day, you _ _ (start) to feel much healthier. And if you _ _ (drin k) lots of w ater all the t ime and less coffee and tea, you _ _ (have) more energy. 3 A If you _ _ (not/hurry), we _ _ (not/get) to the cinema in t ime. B OK, I'm getting ready as fast as I can. What _ _ (happen) if we _ _ (get) there a fter the film starts? Can we still get in? A Well, yes. But what _ _ (be) the point of going in if we _ _ (miss) the beginning of th e film? l

1 If people enjoy their job, they are happier in general. 2 If you eat a balanced diet, you'll feel healthier. 3 If we have a positive attitude, we won't feel down when

things don't work the way we want them to. 4 If people don't have any friends, they can become very lonely. 5 They'll arrive at 7 p.m. unless the plane is delayed. 6 My brother is quite shy; he won't speak in public unless

he has to. In sentences with if, we usually talk about situations and events which are uncertain. If-sentences usually have two clauses: the if-clause and the result clause. They are also called conditional sentences. • When things can possibly happen, so can be real, we use the same tenses with if as with other conjunctions. so, we can use the present tense to refer to the present. If+ present simple, ..... present simple If people enjoy their job, they are happier in general. If people work a thirty-seven hour week, they have quite a lot of leisure time.

• When we talk about specific situations in the future and their possible results, we normally use a present tense in the ifclause to talk about the future.

2

2 If you spend you r life w aiting for the perfect moment, 3 You will never be h appy _

4 Unless you love what you a re doing, _

a b c d

If 1see Jim, I'll give him your message. I'll give Jim your message if 1see him.

• we can use modal verbs, particularly can, may and might in either clause.

we'll go for a walk later unless it rains. = we'll go for a walk later if it doesn't rain. Money doesn't make you happy unless everyone has enough. = Money doesn't make you happy except if everyone has enough.

Happiness is like a cloud. If you stare at it long enough, __12._

The conditional clause and the result clause can usually go in either order. When the conditional clause is first, it is followed by a comma. When the result clause comes first, there is no comma.

• unless usually means if ... not or except if.

Match l - 4 to a- d to m ake sentences about happiness. l

If+ present simple, ..... will If you eat a balanced diet, you'll feel healthier. You'll be happier as a country if you pay higher taxes.

If a country has quite high taxes, it can provide free healthcare to everyone. If you can cycle for thirty minutes a day, it may add one to two years to your life. If Aydin can't get a job, he might do some voluntary work.

Complete the conversations with the best form of the words in brackets.

3

you probably won't be successful. it goes away. it may never arrive. if you spen d all your time thinking about what happiness means.

Complete the second sentences so they mean the same as the first sentences. You won't succeed if you don't make an effort. Yo~~t- wol-t't s~~t-c.c.eed unless yo~~t- mPCke Pll't effort. 2 We'll get the bus unless we see a taxi first. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - if ---------------3 If you spend it wisely, money can buy happiness. Unless __________________________ l

4 We should arrive at about 3.30 unless we get delayed. If _______________________________

5 You're not allowed in t h e club except if you're d ressed smartly. _____________ unless ____________

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

8.2 sentences with if- unreal conditionals 1 GR8.2 )))

Complete the dilemma questions with the correct form of the words in brackets.

1 If 1 had more time, I'd take up marathon running.

l

do (you/do)?

2 They wouldn't drive to work if there was a good bus or train service.

2 If you _ _ (see) someone being attacked in the street, _ _ _ _ (you/try) to help them? 3 If you _ _ (do) something heroic, _ _ __ (you/want) to be in the newspaper or on the TV news?

3 If we lived in London, we could go to the theatre more often. 4 If he were Prime Minister, he would change the law.

4 If you _ _ (see) someone stealing from a shop, _ _ _ _ (you/tell) a shop assistant? 5 What _ _ (you/do) if you (know) a new work colleague had lied on his or her CV? 6 If you _ _ (find) a winning lottery t icket, _ _ __ (you/claim) the money? 7 Where _ _ (you/live) if you (can/live) anywhere in the world?

If sentences usually have two clauses: the conditional cla use (often using if) and the result clause.

unreal conditionals express something that is imaginary or hypothetical. • To talk about an unreal s ituation and its result in the present or futu re, we use If+ past tense + would (or 'd) + infinitive without to. The if clause talks about an unreal situation and the would clause talks about the hypothetical or imaginary result. This is sometimes called a second conditional. If + past tense, would ('d) + infinitive without to If someone needed my help, I'd do my best to help them. If we were all less selfish, the world would be a better place. I'd be much happier if the weather wasn't so bad.

If you fou'Mi (find) a wallet in the street, what would you

8 If you _ _ (can/have) any job, what

2

(it/be)?

James wants some things in his life to be different. Write conditional sentences using t he prompts. l

be richer- buy a bigger house Ifi were richer, I'd buy&~~ bij3er house. 2 be you nger - play more sports

The conditional clause and the result clause can usually go in either order. When the conditional clause is first, it is followed by a comma. When the result clause comes first, there is no comma. If 1were you, I'd be more careful. I'd be more careful if 1were you.

3 have more t ime - read a lot more 4 not rain so much - be much happier

• When we are not sure about the result, we can use the modal verbs might and could instead of would. If 1were braver, 1might do a bungee jump for charity. If you didn't know what you were doing, you could hurt yourself. • we a lso use could to mean would be able to. If it wasn't raining, we could go for a walk. • In the conditional clause, with 1/he/she/ it, we often use were instead of was. This is considered a more formal style. Formal: If 1were younger, I'd take up snowboarding. Informal: If Katia was here, she'd be able to help us. we a lso use were in certain fixed phrases:

5 my job be not so boring- enjoy life more 6 not eat so much junk food - be much healthier

3

Rewrite sentences l - 6 in the conditional.

l

I can't buy a new mobile because I haven't got enough money.

Ifi

h&~~d

more mo~y. I could buy &~~

~w

mobile.

2 I can't go out tonight because I have to write a report.

If I were you, I'd do more exercise.

3 Julia isn't here so we can't ask her t o help. 4 We ca n't go skiing because there isn't en ough snow. 5 I can't help you because I'm so busy. 6 I work such long hours a nd I'm always tired.

9.1

comparatives and superlatives 1

Complete the sentences with the correct comparative form ofthe adjectives in brackets. l Helen is muc.h slwrter (short) than her younger brother, David. (warm and dry) climates 2 People who live in are often (healthy) than people who live in _ _ _ _ (cold and damp) climates. (easy) and slightly (quick) 3 It is to cycle to work than to go by bus. 4 The doctor told Steve he was _ _ _ _ (likely) to get ill because he didn't do much exercise. (much/big) than in my 5 The cities here are country, where the population is (small). (good) sunglasses 6 You should wear than those. Your eyes should be (well/ protected) from the sun.

2

Complete the text with the comparative or superlative form of the adjectives in brackets and any other necessary words.

GR9.1 )»

1 George is a banker. He's richer than most of his friends. 2 Living in London is more expensive than living in Birmingham. 3 Some people think that watching golf is less exciting than watching football. 4 It's the best meal I've ever had. 5 The Pyramids in Egypt are some of the oldest buildings in the world.

comparatives we use the comparative form of adjectives to compare people and things with each other. I'm taller than my sisters. Paris is more beautiful than London. • For one-syllable adjectives, we add -er (or -r for adjectives that end in -e). For multi-syllable adjectives, we use more. short -+ shorter ancient -+ more ancient • For some two-syllable adjectives, we can either add -er or use more. However, for two-syllable adjectives ending in -y, we generally change the -y to i and add -er happy-+ happier gentle -+gentler/more gentle • To make a negative comparison, we use less + adjective Beards are less popular than they used to be. • we use than when we make a direct comparison between two things. Pedro's hair is darker than LUcca's. • To say something is the same, we use as ... as. To say something is not the same, we use not as/so ... as. Paola's hair is not as long as before. I'm as tall as my dad. we use modifiers when we want to give more detail about the degree of difference between two things. I'm a bit taller than my brother. Anna is much older than Andre. • To make the difference between the things being compared stronger: a lot far much so much very much • To make the difference between the things being compared smaller: a bit a little slightly • To say there is no difference between the things being compared: notany no

superlatives we use superlatives to compare people and things with everything in their group. Alex is the tallest person 1know. She's the most intelligent person I've ever met. For one-syllable and most two-syllable adjectives we use the and add -est. For multi-syllable adjectives, we use the most. short -+ the shortest beautiful -+ the most beautiful

Physical changes in human appearance have occurred ever since we first appeared. However, 1 more.. re..c.e..J.tt (recent) changes have not been 2 (dramatic) they were in the 3 (distant) past. This is because we have become 4 (much/good) at adapting the environment to suit us rather than evolving to fit in with the environment. some changes have been 5 (global) whereas others have been 6 (regional) and localized. The 7 (important) change affecting us is that the human body has become s (slightly/small). Humans are not 9 (tall or heavy) they used to be. The 1 0_ _ _ _ (tall) humans lived around 40,000 years ago, with an average height of 183 em. This is 11 (much/tall) today's average height of 175 em. Perhaps surprisingly, the human brain is also not 12_ _ __ (big) as it used to be. In fact. the human brain is now the 13 (small) it has been at any time in the past 100,000 years, and is about 14 (10%/small) when humans first appeared.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

9.2

Modals of deduction and speculation 1

GR9.2 )»

Perhaps my keys are in the kitchen. My keys mi_ght be i11.- the kitche11.- . 2 I guess Erika likes black. She always wears black. Erika _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. She always wears it. 3 Perhaps that apartment over there is Frank's. That apartment _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 4 It's possible that this painting is by Rembrandt. It's his style. This painting _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ l

The lights are on. Someone must be at home. 2 He can't be English. Listen to his accent- 1think he's south African. 3 It's very cold. It might snow soon. 4 Don't you think she looks a bit like Andrea? She could be his sister. 1

When we are making a deduction or speculating(= making a guess, usually based on evidence). we use the modal verbs must, can't, might and could to express how sure we are about something.

5 It's impossible that this is Ute's house. She said hers has a bright red door.

Must and can't

This . Hers has a bright red door. 6 Ten euros for a coffee! Surely there's a mistake. Ten euros for a coffee! There _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 7 Ten euros for a coffee! I'm sure that's not right. Ten euros for a coffee! That _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

• we use must when we are very sure something is true. You've been driving all day. You must be tired. My keys must be here somewhere!

• We use can't when we are very sure something is not true. This photo can't have been taken in the UK. They're driving on the right. This can't be satiana's coat. It's too big.

• we do not use mustn't in this way. This rnusA't be SatiaAa's coat. Ws too big.

Might and could • we use might or could when we are not sure, but we think something is possible. Might and could have the same meaning. This photo might/could be in the UK. They're driving on the left. This might/could be Alex's phone. He's got one like this.

• We can use might not, but we do not use could not. This might not be Jenny's house. 1think hers has a green door.

This could Aot be )CArry's house. J thiAf< hers flas a greeA door.

we use look+ adjective- when something appears to be ... It looks cold.

Complete the second sentence using must, can't or might/ could so the meaning is the same as the first sentence.

2

As part of a competition, two people are trying to match some photos with the countries: the UK, Australia, the USA and South Africa. Complete the conversat ions using must, can't or might/could. A What about this photo? Where do you think this is? B Well, it 1_ _ be the UK - the weather's too nice, and there are no beaches like that in the UK. But it looks a bit like the UK. It 2_ _ be Australia, maybe. Ah, look I think that's the Australian flag in the background. It 3_ _ be Australia. A OK, and what about this one? B Well, I'd say this one 4_ _ be the UK, but I'm not sure. A Yes, I agree. Look at that cloudy sky. I think you're right. And the number plate looks British. Yes, this one 5_ _ be of the UK. B OK, so this next one 6_ _ be the UK or Australia we've already got those. So, it 7_ _ be either the US or South Africa. Which do you think? A Well, it's difficult to say. Its_ _ be either, I suppose. There's nothing obvious. Oh, hang on. I'm not sure, but I think this one 9_ _ be South Africa. B What makes you think that? A Look at the roads in the distance - the cars are driving on the left. I think they drive on the left in South Africa, don't they? B Yes, I think they do. So it 10_ _ be the US -they drive on the right there. A OK, so this one 11_ _ be South Africa. And that means the last one 12_ _ be the US.

10.1

Active and passive forms 1

GR10.1 l)) 1 Jaguars are found in South America, not Africa.

Complete the sentences with the passive form of the verbs in the box.

develop eat make order send Sffift: use

2 Henry VIII, the famous English king, was married six times. 1 The first online retail site Wors

3 The programme will be broadcast at eight o'clock tomorrow evening.

2 The int ernet military.

4 Modern furniture can be made of wood, plastic or other man-made materials. • we form the passive with the verb be + past participle. Thousands of new websites are set up every day. The business was started by James Davis in 1997. Over a million units have been sold. When was the business started? Most things can be bought online these days. Smoking is not allowed in the restaurant.

storrted in 1994.

in the 1960s by the US

3 Today, the internet _ _ _ _ regularly by over a billion people. 4 Billions of internet searches _ _ _ _ every day. 5 The first mobile phone text message late 1990s.

in the

6 About three billion pizzas _ _ _ _ in America every year, and most of these online.

2

Note that we form the negative of simple tenses by putting not between the auxiliary be and the past participle (e.g. 1was not asked). For other tenses, not goes between the two auxiliary verbs (e.g. The office has not been cleaned).

Complete the text about online shopping using the correct passive or active form of the verbs in brackets. The first version of online shopping 1 Wgs i11Ve11ted (invent) in 1979 by UK businessman Michael Aldrich. His system, which 2_ _ (call) Videotex, 3_ _ (connect) a modified TV to a computer using a phone line. In 1980, he 4_ _ (set up) a system which 5_ _ (allow) customers and suppliers to be connected so that business could 6_ _ (complete) electronically. During the 1980s, he 7_ _ (create) a number of online shopping systems, using Videotex technology. These 8_ _ (use) mainly by large corporations.

• we use active verbs to describe what someone or something does. Perry Chen, Yancey Strickler and Charles Adler started

Kicks tarter. • we use passive verbs to describe what happens to someone or something.

Online shopping 9_ _ (not/become) popular until the introduction of the world Wide Web in the early 1990s. In 1994, Pizza Hut was the first business to offer online ordering. Many other commercial websites soon 10_ _ (follow). Amazon and eBay 11 _ _ (launch) in 1995. Today millions of items 12_ _ (sell) online every day.

Often the person or thing that does the action is not known, or is obvious or unimportant.

over two million dollars was invested in the business. The product is manufactured in over twenty countries. • we use by if we want to say who or what does the action. Kickstarter was started by Perry Chen, Yancey Strickler and

Charles Adler. • We often use the passive to continue talking about the same thing or person. Kickstarter is a crowd-funding platform. It was started in 2009.

3

Rewrite the sentences using the passive. 1 They started the business in 2012.

The busivt.Us wors storrted i11 :2-012.. 2 People invested over ten million dollars in the business. 3 They don't use the euro in Switzerland. 4 When did someone send the first text message? 5 The Chinese invented paper about 4,000 years ago. 6 People buy and sell millions of i tems online every day.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

10.2 alan, the and no article 1

GR10.2 )»

Choose the correct opti ons to complete the conversations. 1 A Did you pl ay any sports when you were at the school?

1 What would you like, an apple or a banana?

B Yes, I was in - I the school football team. I was a I the captain, actually.

2 The Shard is one of the newest buildings in London. 3 I can see a car in the distance. 1think the car's red.

2 A I think the I - competition is good for a I - child's development.

4 Football is probably the most popular sport in the world.

5 I became interest ed in astronomy when 1 was at school.

B I agree. But it can also have a I the negative effect if someone is always on the I - l osing side.

we use alan: •

A I think i t's totally wrong that the I- celebrities get paid so much money.

3

when something is one of many

Have you ever been to a football match? Did you have a good seat in the stadium?

B Well, they do give the I - entertainment to m illions of the I - people. And also, they can have a I the short career, so they need to earn a I the lot of money in a I the short period of time.

• when we mention something for the first time

My town has got an indoor and an outdoor swimming pool. The outdoor pool is open only in the summer.

4 A Is a I the game on the I - TV this evening?

we use the:

B Yes, it is. I think the I - start is at 7.45. Are you going to watch it at the I - home or shall we go to a I - bar t o watch it?

• when it's the only one of something, or the only one in a place

!love the Olympics. can you close the door, please? •

18

5 A Have you got a I the favourite sport?

when we have talked about the thing(s) before

Did you have a good seat in the stadium? My town has got an indoor and an outdoor swimming pool. The outdoor pool is only open in the summer.

B Not really, I'm not a I the big sports fan . But I generally like winter sports like - I the skiing and - I the ice skating. I always love the I - Winter Olympics.

We use - (no article): •

when we talk about plural and uncountable nouns in general

some schools have banned(- ) competitive sports. !love watching(-) swimming on TV •

in some common expressions after a preposition (e.g. at school,

at university, in hospital, in bed, to bed, on TV) I was in the athletics team at(-) university. I'm tired. I'm going to(-) bed. With school, university, college, hospital, church, prison and bed you sometimes use the and you sometimes use - (no article). • You use the when you are talking about the 'physical' place.

The station is very old. The football stadium is near the university. • You use - (no article) when you are talking about the 'activity' associated with a place. 1go to church every sunday. (= 1 go to a religious ceremony every Sunday.) What did you study at university? (= What did you do as a student?)

2

Complete the text about the origin of the Olympic Games with a/an, the or - (no article) 1

The. Olympic Games originated long ago in ancient Greece. One story about 2_ _ origin of3_ _ Games concerns 4_ _ god zeus. It is said that zeus once fought his father, Kronos, for 5_ _ control of 6_ _ world. They fought at 7_ _ top of 8 _ _ mountain that overlooked 9_ _ valley in south-western Greece. After zeus defeated his father, 10 _ _ temple and 11 _ _ enormous statue of zeus were built in 12_ _ valley below 13_ _ mountain. 14_ _ valley was called Olympia, and soon 15_ _ religious festivals were held there as 16_ _ people came to worship zeus and celebrate his physical strength. It is believed that these religious festivals eventually led to 17_ _ Olympic Games. Although we do not know exactly when 18_ _ Games first took place, 19_ _ earliest recorded Olympic competition occurred in 776 BC. It had only one event, 20_ _ running race, which was won by 21_ _ cook named Coroebus. Over time, 22_ _ new sports involving running, jumping, throwing and fight ing were added to 2 3_ _ Games. 24_ _ winner of each event received 25_ _ wreath of 2 6_ _ olive leaves and was considered 27_ _ hero. Only 28_ _ men were allowed to compete, and 29_ _ women were not even allowed to watch 30_ _ Games.

11.1

sentences with if - unreal past conditional

1

GR11.1 )»

Complete the unreal past conditional sentences in the conversations with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1 A Sorry we're late. We got stuck in traffic. B Well, if you'd set ojj(set off) earlier, you wou.J.d've missed (miss) the heavy traffic. I did warn you. 2 A Was the thief who burgled you arrested? B No. There wasn't enough evidence. They _ _ (arrest) him if they _ _ (find) the things he'd stolen. 3 A Did you get the job? B No, I didn't bother applying. A Oh, I'm sure you _ _ (get) the job if you _ _ (apply) for it. 4 A I see you didn't manage to clean the kitchen. B Well, if you _ _ (ask) me earlier, I _ _ (can/ clean) it. But I was too busy, sorry. 5 A I thought you and Johann had met a few years ago. B No, I don't think so. I'm sure I _ _ (remember) ifi _ _ (met) him before. I didn't recognize him at all.

1 If the bank robber had escaped, he wouldn't have gone

to prison. 2 The burglar might have escaped if the alarm hadn't gone off. we use the unreal past conditional to talk about unreal situations in the past. we use it to talk about situations or events that are contrary to, or the opposite of, what actually happened. • If + past perfect would have + past participle If you had locked the car, no one would have stolen it.

(You didn't lock the car, so it was stolen.) If he'd been caught, he wouldn't have been able to commit any more crimes. (He wasn't caught, so he was able to commit

more crimes.) If the police had arrived five minutes earlier, they would have caught the burglar.

The if-clause and the result clause can usually go in either order. When the if-clause is first, it is followed by a comma. When the result clause comes first, there is no comma.

2

Rewrite the summary with conditional sentences to show how things might have been different. Johnny didn't work hard at school. -+ He failed all his exams. -+He didn't get a job. -+ He had no money. -+ He went back to school. -+ He went to university. -+ He got a good job.

If I'd seen you, 1would have said hello. 1would have said hello if I'd seen you.

-

• we can also use the modal verbs could and might instead of would. If the police had arrived five minutes earlier, they might have caught the burglar. If we'd left earlier, we could have stopped off on the way.

1 If }ohvJYf¥ J.u;.cd worked J.u;.crd (lft school. he would~t J.u;.cve "

fqiled gll his

~gwt.s.

2 If he hadn't failed his exams, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 3 If _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___

4 If _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 5 If _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 6 If _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___

In informal spoken English and in informal writing (e.g. social media), we usually contract had and would to 'd, especially after pronouns. We sometimes also contract have to 've. If I'd seen anything, I would've told you.

3

Write an unreal past conditional sentence for each story about how things might have been different. 1 A nineteen-year-old man stole $200 from a shop. A few days later he saw a security camera photo in a local newspaper and showed it to his mother. She contacted the police and he was arrested. If he J.u;.cdnt shoWVL- the picture to his mother, she

wouldnt h(lfve col'tt(lfe-ted the police. 2 A man was robbing a shop in Madrid in Spain and he pulled a bag out of his pocket to put the money in. He pulled out his ID card at the same time by mistake. It fell on the floor. An hour later he was arrested. 3 A man robbed a shop and jumped onto a bus to escape. He didn't have the correct money to pay for a ticket, so he got back off the bus and was arrested by a policeman who was passing by.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

11. 2

should/shouldn't have 1

GR11 .2 l))

You really should have contacted me sooner about the problem.

Read the situations and write what was the correct or better thing to have done in each situation, using shouldn't have. Begin with the words given. 1 In 2000, millions of people received an email with the subject li ne 'I love you'. Opening the email was a mistake as it activated one of the worst computer viruses, the 'Love Bug' virus, which infected over fifty million computers around the world. People shouLd-.{t lutve ope~-ted the em(ifil.

2 They shouldn't have spent so much money on a holiday. 3 Who should we have told about the change of arrangements for the meeting? 4 They shouldn't have taken the money.

2 A few years ago, an employee of an insurance company started a rumour via email that another company had serious financial problems. The other company saw the email and took the company that had started the rumour to court. They received £450,000. The employee _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

we use should have or shouldn't have + past participle to criticize things we or other people did or didn't do in the past and to say what was the correct or better thing to have done. 1should have waited before 1sent the email. She should never have posted the letter You shouldn't have said anything to him. He's really upset now. 1didn't know what to do. In your opinion, what should 1have done?

3 A CEO of an international company criticized 400 of his employees by email. The email became public and the value of the company fell by almost 30%. The CEO _______________________________

In spoken English, we usually contract have to 've. we should've waited a little longer You shouldn't've said anything.

4 In 2010, a fourteen -year-old girl posted on Facebook that she was having a party. 21,000 people clicked that they were going to attend. Her parents cancelled the party. The girl _________________________________ 5 In 2009, the University of California emailed 46,000 applicants and told them they were accepted as students ofthe university. The university had accidentally sent the email to all the applicants rather than just to the successful applicants. The university _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 2

Look at the things Dmitry did and didn't do when he went for a job interview. Write what was the correct or better thing to have done, using should have or shouldn't have. He didn't have a shave. He wore jeans and aT-shirt. He didn't arrive on time. He kept looking at his phone. He didn't ask any questions. He didn't say goodbye. l

2

3 4 5 6

He should lutve lutd (if slutve.

12 .1

Reported speech 1

we use reported speech to talk about what someone said. We often use the reporting verbs say and tell most commonly (the past forms said and told).

l

2 3

GR12.1a )»

4

Direct speech

Reported speech

1 'It's a great idea.'

He said that it was a great idea.

2 'I really like the new

she said that she really liked the new ad.

ad.' 3 'It was a long journey.'

5

I 2

will increase.' 6 'It'll get easier with

practice.'

David s111id he was an actor. He _ _ he'd been in several TV ads that year. Anna me she wanted to be a model. Kate _ _ she had designed the brochure. Andy _ _ us he was from Canada.

Rewrite the s tatements as reported speech.

Til watch the film with you.'

l

Tom said {tkl?lt} hid W111tck tke. film witit us. 2 'We don't understand what the advert is selling.' They said __________________________________ >

He told us that it had been a long journey.

..,

3 'Marek watched TV all day.' Joanna told us _______________________________

4 'I've never been there.' She told us she'd never been there.

5 'We're hoping sales

Complete the sentences with said or told.

He said they were hoping sales would increase.

4 'I think we're going to the cinema at the weekend.' Sharon said _________________________________

He told them it would get easier with practice.

5 'We don't like action movies.'

Andrea and Pawel said ----------------------6 'I've seen this documentary before.' Andy told me _____________________________

• Tell must have a personal object (e.g. He told me, 1told them). say does not have a personal object (NOT : le said me). • We can general ly use reported speech with or without that (e.g. He said ... or He said that ... ).

3

Alexia is talking about her acting experience and her hopes for the future. Report what she says.

Tense changes

'1

1really want to be an actor. 2 1think 1have a natural talent for acting. 31've been in a few plays. 4 1was once in a TV advert. s 1played a woman queuing in a bank. 6 It was a great experience and 1really enjoyed it. 7 I hope I'll get another chance to be on TV again. 81'm determined to become a professional actor.'

When we use reported speech, tenses usually move one tense back (do -+ did, is -+ was, did or have done -+ had done, will-+ would, etc.). This helps to show that the words were spoken in the past. The pronoun can also change (e.g. from I to he). However, we sometimes do not change the tense. This is usually when something is still true or important. She said they'll be ten minutes late.

l

Site Sl?lid/told wte.. {tkl?lt) site

ree?~lly

W1111-tted to be l?lrt 111ct0r.

2 3

'Here and now' words

4

words which talk about time and place may also sometimes change when the reporter's 'here and now' is not the same as the original speaker's.

5 6 7 8

GR12.1b )»

Direct speech 1 'The film was released

last summer.'

He said (that) the film had been released the previous summer.

2 'The filming is tomorrow.'

She said (that) the filming was the next day.

3 'I saw him here

He said (that) he'd seen him there the day before.

yesterday.' 4 'It's on TVthis

Monday.' -

I Reported speech

She told me (that) it was on TV that Monday.

4 I

The time and place references in these statements have now changed. Report the statements, changing the 'here and now' words. l

'I saw this film last week.'

He said {tkl?lt) ke' d seert tke.filwt tke. Week before/the. previous Week. 2 'We're having a meeting tomorrow.' She told me -------------------------------3 'I'm going to London this Monday.' He said ___________________________________ 4 'The award ceremony will be held here in the hotel.' They announced _____________________________

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

12.2 Reported questions 1 GR12.2a )»

1 'Where do you work?'

Direct question

Reported question

1 'When are they

She asked when they were going.

He gcsked where I worked. 2 'Do you live near Istanbul?' She ______________________________________

going?'

3 'Have you lived there long?' He ________________________________________

2 'Where does she live?' He asked me where she lived.

3 'What have you

done?'

4 'Where did you go to university?' She ______________________________________

She wanted to know what I'd done.

5 'Can you give me some advice?' He ________________________________________

we use reported questions to say what someone asked. we usually use the reporting verb asked. we can use asked with an object (e.g. He asked me what ...) or without an object (e.g. He asked what ...). we can use wanted to know instead of asked. When we report questions, as with reported speech, we usually move one tense back (do -+ did, is -+ was, will-+ would, etc.). This helps to show that the words were spoken in the past. Because a reported question is no longer a direct question, we do not invert the subject and the auxiliary verb, and we do not use the auxiliary verb do.

I GR12.2b )» Direct question

I Reported question

1 'Did you understand?'

She asked us if we'd understood.

2 'Have you seen Hitoshi?'

He wanted to know if I'd seen Hitoshi.

I 3 'Do you read a lot?'

Rewrite the questions as reported questions.

She asked whether 1 read a lot.

I

6 'Will you help me later?'

He ________________________________________ 7 'Have you ever read any Shakespeare?' She ______________________________________ 8 'What are you doing this evening?' She _______________________________________

2

Read this interview with businessman Peter Horspath and then report the questions. 1 I P 2 I P 3 I P 4 I

To report yes/no questions we use if or whether. With questions with be, we sometimes put the verb at the end of the reported question . This is more usual when the question is short. 'What's your favourite film?' He asked what my favourite film was. NOT usually He asked what vtDs my fa'rfOurite film.

P

5 I P 6 I P 7 I P 8 I P

What makes a good leader? A good leader needs people to follow them. What is the highest compliment you have been paid? It's that I am always honest and fair. What is the worst thing anyone has said about you? Someone once said that my success was a result ofluck. What do you look for in the people you do business with? I look fo r honesty and hard work. What is your worst fault? I sometimes don't give people a second chance. What is the best piece of career advice you can give? It's important to step outside your comfort zone on occasions. Do you have a favourite book? My favourite book is How to Win Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie. What do you do to relax? I go to the gym.

1 The interviewer asked WMt m.gde g <:-MOd Legder. 2 Sheasked __________________________________

3 4 5 6 7

8

Audioscripts Unit 1 Trends 1.1 )» S So, how many friends would you say you had? J Well, it all depends what you mean by friends, doesn't it? I mean, I get on well vvith a lot of people at work - that's maybe twenty people I'd say were friends ... S Do you socialize outside work? J Oh, yes. Maybe not that often, but we meet up after work from time to time ... Then there are the friends I play football with. I guess I don't have a lot in common with them apart from football, but I'd say they were friends all the same. S But how many of those friends would you ask to help you out if you were in trouble? J Ah, well, that's different. Friends you can really t rust ... there aren't so many of those. Maybe five or six? S And what about online? Do you have a lot of Facebook friends? J No, not really. I can't be bothered with it, really. I guess I've got about fifteen to twenty, but I don't use it much. \o\That about you? S Oh, I have a lot of friends on Facebook, about 150, I think. J 150?! Do you keep in touch with all of them? S Yes, well, kind of- you know, we send the occasional message to each other. J And have you actually met all of them, faceto-face? S No. Some of them are people I've met on holiday or something, and we wanted to keep in touch. Some of them are old friends from school. But there are quite a lot of friends who are people I've never actually met at all. I just made friends with them on Facebook. J I don't see how you can be friends with someone you've never met. S Of course you can. I probably chat to some of them more than you talk to your friends from football! J Hmm. And what about in the real world? How many friends do you have in real life? S Well, a lot of the friends I see often in real life are on Facebook, too, actually. I've got friends from work like you, and then there are the people in my evening class. I'm learning German ... J And what about really close friends? S I've only got a couple of really close friends that I share everything ·with. Actually, ifi'm honest, recently just one, because I've fallen out with one of my best friends. We're not speaking to each other at the moment. J Did you have a big argumem? S Not exactly. It all started when ... 1.2 )» get_on well with someone meet_up \Vith someone have_a lotjn common with someone fall_out with someone

help someone_out trust....someone getjn touch_with someone keepjn touch_with someone make friends_with someone have_an_argument with someone 1.3 )» 1 I often meet up with groups of friends in the evening. 2 You don't need to have a lot in common with someone to be friends. It's fine to have djfferent interests. 3 I get on well with most people I know. There aren't many people I don' t like. 4 A really good friend is someone you can call at midnight and ask them to help you out. 5 The friends you make at school are often friends for life. 6 I'm always pleased when someone I haven't heard from in ages gets in touch. 7 I'm quite easy-going.! rarely fall our ""ith my friends. 8 I'm not speaking to my sister at the moment, we've had an argument. It seems a bit childish. 9 I can trust my closest friend with all my secrets. 1 .4)» P And now, in our regular look at what's trending on social media, and why: 1ight now, it's something called Black Friday. This term has been used more than n.vo million times on 1\.vitter in the last 48 hours. Black Friday is the fourth Friday in Novembe1~ when the shops have amazing special offers in the run up to Christmas. Many items are half price or two for the price of one, and it's now the busiest shopping day of the year in some countries. It started in the USA, but it's spreading round the world now, to the UK, Australia and more recently to shoppers in Brazil, Mexico and other Latin American countries. Many shops have been opening very early in the morning, and in some places people have been so keen to get a bargajn that they have started queuing outside the shops the night before. Last year it is estimated that shoppers in the USA spent over eleven billion dollars on Black Friday. I Iowever, while you may get a good discount on your purchases, you should be careful. Firstly, there's the real danger of spending more than you intended or can really afford, buying things on credit, and owing a lot of money. And secondly, it may be dangerous, with over fifty injuries in the past five years, caused by people fighting over things in the sales.

1.5 l)) P Let's go over to a busy shopping centre and find out what shoppers there think. Today is one of the busiest shopping days of the yea1~ and this shopping centre is

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I L

I L

I L

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full of people shopping. However, today something different is happening here. It's Buy Nothing Day, and some people are here to try to persuade the rest of us to do just that ... to buy nothing. Lewis Castle is one of them. He's standing here in the main entrance of the shopping centre, holding a big sign saying 'Stop Shopping, Start Living: Le\>Vis, can you explain a little about what Buy Nothing Day means'? Yes, of course. It's pretty simple, really. We're asking everyone to think about their spending habits and buy nothing at all for just one day. And what difference will that make? Well, the idea is to make people stop and thlnk about what they're buying. When you really think about it, the idea of buying things as a way of spending your leisure time is crazy. We are all buying more things than we really need. We believe shopping makes us happy, but it doesn't In fact, it can do the opposite if people end up owing a lot of money. Yes, I agree, that's a good point. People often buy things they don't really need or want. Exactly, it's amazing to realize that only 20% of the world's population is consuming over 80% of the Earth's natural resources. Does that seem fair to you? In countries like the UK, we all own far too much. Does it make any difference what you buy? Yes, that's part of it, too. We're trying to get people to think about the effect their buying choices have on the rest of the world. Something might seem a great bargain, but that could be because it's been made in a country where the workers aren't paid enough. In addition, most of the time we prefer people to buy locally because transporting goods by air has a harmful effect on the environment. But v.rill it really make a difference if we stop shopping for just one day? Actually, most people don't understand how difficult it is to last 24 hours without spending any money. But you'll feel great if you achieve it. Are a lot of people taking part in Buy Nothing Day this year? Yes, and more and more do every year. I think it started in Canada more than twenty years ago, but now there are Buy Nothing Day movements in over 65 countries.

1.6 )» 1 Can you explain a little about what Buy Nothing Day means? 2 \o\fhen you really thlnk about it, the idea of buying things as a way of spending your leisure time is crazy. 3 We believe shopping makes us happy, but it doesn't. 4 Yes, I agree, that's a good point.

AUDIOSCRIPTS

5 We all ov.rn fartoo much. 6 Most of the time we pre1er people to buy locally. 7 Most people don't understand how difficult itis ... 1.8 )»

This is a fascinating book. We all know that the internet is changing the way we do things, but Carr believes that it is also changing the very way our brains work. With the printed book, he argues, our brains learnt to think deeply. In contrast, the internet encourages us to read small bits of information from lots of different places. We are becoming better and better at multitasking, but much worse at concentrating on one thing. 1.9 )»

l 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

Shopping and banking online is unsafe. Looking at screens all day is bad for our eyes. People will forget how to talk to each other. People don't spend enough time outside. Online information is not always reliable. Hyperlinks in online texts are very distracting. We are now using far more electricity to power all our screens. Multitasking online makes us work less effectively.

1.10 l)) A So, this week we're going to be talking about The Shallows, a book by Nicholas Carr, in which he argues that using the internet is actually changing the way our brains work. How is that? B Well, it's actually a very interesting book because, rather than just talk about all the ways people say the internet is bad for us ... you know, that staring at a screen is affecting our eyesight or making our children fat because they don't go outside and play any more, Carr takes quite a scientific approach. I Ie isn't exactly saying that the internet is bad for us, but he is saying that it is making our brains work differently, and that the changes may be permanent. A In what way? B Well, he starts off by talking about when people started writing and reading books. That was a huge change as well, and lots of people felt it was a bad idea. What would happen, they argued, if people didn't have to memorize everything because it was all written do\.vn in books? Sounds a bit like the argum ents people make today about people looking facts up online - that they don't remember things any more. But Carr says that in fact books taught us to really focus on one thing at a time, whereas now we are constantly looking at lots of different things at the same time. Hyper linking, where we are encouraged to click on an underlined word or phrase and we go off to a different website, is a particular problem. A But isn't multitasking good for the brain? B Well, according to Carr, no. The studies show that when we try to do two things at once, we do both of them less well. We are also less likely to remember what we've done or read. There are some obvious benefits to the internet, but all the same, it is changing our culture so that we are less able to concentrate

or make deep connections in our brain, and that can't be a good thing, can it? 1.11 )» P It seems like every day we find another

reason to feel guilty about what we buy. Maybe it's food that we know isn' t good for us, or clothes which are made by poorly paid workers, or products which are damaging the environment. Manufacturers know we feel this way, and the latest trend is for so-called 'guilt-free brands' - brands which claim to be better for us, for workers and for the planet- so that we can buy them and not feel guilty. Sounds great, but is it as good as it sounds? With us today we have Gosia Szlachta and Jem Norris, both members of the same environmental group but with very different views on the idea of guilt-free brands. So, Jem, what do you think about the idea? J Well, as far as I'm concerned, anything which makes people think more about what they're buying is a good idea. Take the Fairphone, for example. Until that was produced, most people didn't even realize how bad conditions were for electronics workers in many parts of the world. Now there's a lot more awareness ... G There's a lot more awareness, but don't you think it would be better if people understood that there is no need at all to keep buying new phones? There seems to be an idea that you have to have a new phone every two years. I'm convinced that if people really understood how much damage this causes, to workers and to the planet, they wouldn't do this. I think people should feel guilty. Producing guiltfree brands just gives people an excuse not to think about these issues, and just keep buying more and more stuff ... J Well, according to the people who make Fairphone, their phones will last longer and be easier to repair. Ifyou ask me, we have to give people the option of buying something which is better for the planet, not just say they shouldn't buy something at all. 1.12 l)) 1 So, Jem, what do you think about th e idea?

2 Well, as far as I'm concerned, anything which makes people think ... 3 There's a lot more awareness, but don't you think it would be better if ...? 4 I'm convinced that ifpeople really understood ... 5 Well, according to the people who make Fairphone, ... 6 If you ask me, we have to give people the option ... 1.13 )» 1 How do you decide when you can trust

someone? Do you have a lot in common with your closest friend? 3 When was the last time you made friends with someone new? 4 How do you keep in touch with family or friends who live far away? 5 When was the last time you fell out with someone? 6 Who in your family do you get on with best? 2

Unit 2 What a story! 2.1



That reminds me of another st01y I heard about a man who had a lucky escape. He had been at a barbecue restaurant on top of a mountain, and after the meal he decided not to take the cable car dov.rn with his friends but to walk dO\'\IIl instead. While he was looking for the path, he fell into a stream and broke his leg. Unable to move, he tried to phone for help, but his mobile wasn't working because he had dropped it in the stream. Knowing he was missing. teams of people were looking for him, but it was twentyfour days before they found him. Luckily he'd brought a bottle of barbecue sauce with him to the barbecue, and he survived by drinking water mixed with the barbecue sauce. 2.2 ~ 1 That reminds me of another story I heard about a man who had a lucky escape. 2 He'd been at a barbecue restaurant. 3 While he was looking for the path ... 4 Knowing he was missing, teams of people were looking for him.

2.3)» P So ... to ow- next story. A national newspaper was embarrassed recently after publishing a story about a super-fruit, the blue melon, which, it turns out, was another internet hoax. Does the internet make hoaxing too easy? Laura, you work for a national newspaper; do you think there are more hoaxes these days? L Well, there have always been hoaxes, but, yes, there are more ofthem now. It is easy to create a hoax now that everyone can change photos and videos digitally. And the internet makes it easier to spread the hoax around the world. Everything moves so fast nowadays, and online stories aren't checked before they're published. P One recent hoax I remember was the socalled Balloon Boy hoax. L Oh yes, than.vas a big story. A couple, Richard and Mayumi Heene, let a large gas balloon t1oat off into the air and then, as soon as it was high in the sky, they said that their six-year-old son was inside the balloon. The police were informed and helicopters were sent up to track the balloon until they could find a safe way of gettin g him down. By the time the balloon landed an hour or so later, about 80 kilometres away, the story was live on television. When the boy was not found inside, the media reported that he had fallen out during the flight, and a huge search started. Meanwhile, the boy was actually safe at home, hiding. The parents suddenly announced that they'd found him at home, asleep. P Did the parents really think he was in the balloon? L Well, we can't say for sure, of course, because they never admitted it; but while reporters were interviewing the family on TV, the boy accidentally mentioned that they'd done it to be on TV. He was supposed to keep quiet about that, of course.

P That's incredible. Do you think most hoaxes are carried out to become famous? L Yes, and that's not a new thing. Take the example of Piltdown Man. The scientists who claimed to discover that skull became very well known as a result. The publicity you get from a good hoax can also be useful in marketing a product. There have been quite a few advertising campaigns like that But I don't think becoming famous or getting publicity is the only reason. Quite often, no one knows who started the hoax. Take the blue melon, for example. I imagine someone did that because they thought it was funny to make people believe it. P But not all hoaxes arc funny. For example, people in Britain have been calling the emergency number 999 because of a hoax saying that calling this number charges your phone battery. L Really? P Yes, it sounds stupid, but a lot of people believe this hoax, and it's caused real problems for the police and fire service. Some people seem to like creating hoaxes to cause as much trouble as possible. 2.4)» 1 A couple, Richard and Mayumi Heene, let a large gas balloon float off into the air and then, as soon as it was high in the sky, they claimed that their six-year-old son was inside the balloon. 2 The police were informed and helicopters were sent up to track the balloon until they could find a safe way of getting him dovvn. 3 By the time the balloon landed an hour or so later, about 80 kilometres away, the stmy was live on television. 4 When the boywas not found inside, the media reported that he had fallen out during the flight, and a huge search started. Meanwhile, the boy was actually safe at home, hiding. The parents suddenly announced that they'd found him at home, asleep. 5 We can't say for sure because the couple never admitted it, but while reporters were interviewing the family on TV, the boy accidentally mentioned that they'd done it to be on TV. He was supposed to keep quiet about that.

2.5 )» During the early twentieth century, scientists were keen to find some evidence that would prove the link between early man and apes. In 1912 that evidence seemed to have been found while Davvson and Woodward were digging on a site in Piltdown, in the south of England. As soon as they saw the jawbone and the skull, they decided that this must be the evidence science needed. Woodward claimed that both bones belonged to a human being who had lived about half a million years ago, during what is known as the Lower Pleistocene period. Most scientists accepted this opinion until nearly forty years later, when it was discovered that the Piltdown Man was a fake. Meanwhile, Dawson, who most people consider responsible for making the fake, had died. The Piltdown Man hoax truly damaged science because by the time the hoax was discovered,

scientists had wasted nearly forty years believing a lie.

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2.6 l)) A I heard this incredible story from a friend about a woman who lost her wedding ring ... B \IVhat happened? A Well, she'd lost her wedding ring years ago, in ... 1995, I think, while she was baking in her kitchen; and although she looked everywhere, even taking up the kitchen floor, she couldn't find it anywhere. B Oh no, that's awful. A Yes, but then she found it again more than ten years later. B How? A You're not going to believe this, but she was in the garden digging up carrots and she suddenly noticed that one of the carrots was 'wearing' her ring! B What, you mean the ring was on the carrot?! Really? A Yes, it's true, the carrot had grown through the ring ... B No way! That's incredible! A It is, isn't it? I'm sure she's keeping it safe now!

3.1 )» 1n the late 1960s, Walter Mischel, a professor at Stanford University in the United States, carried out an experiment which is known as the Marshmallow Test. Ile and his researchers took four-year-old children into a room, all by themselves, and put a marshmallow in front of them. Then the researcher told the child: 'You can eat this now if you want. Or, if you can be patient and wait until I come back, and not eat the marshmallow, you can have two marshmallows as a reward: 1hen they left the child alone with the marshmallow for fifteen minutes. Of course, they filmed what the children did.

2.7 l)) 1 What happened? 2 Oh no, th at's awfuL 3 You're joking. 4 What, you m ean the ring was on the carrot?! 5 Really? 6 No way! That's incredible! 2.8 l)) 1 Last Tuesday my computer broke while I was ttying to finish an important piece of work. 2 So I called a friend who knows about computers, and he came over straightaway. 3 He had a look at it, but he couldn' t fix it. 4 He took my keys so he could come back to fix it the next day while I was at work. 5 The next morning when I tried to leave for work, I discovered that he had locked my front door from the outside, and I couldn' t get out of the flat. 6 My parents were travelling abroad, and no one else I know had a spare key. 7 I tried to call my friend, but he had left his phone in my tlat. It rang right next to me. 8 I had to wait for him to arrive, and so I was very late for work. 2.9 )» 1 to think or believe that something will come or happen 2 to not be able to remember something 3 to ask yourself questions about something 4 to know again someone or something that you have seen or heard before 5 to help someone remember something 6 to suddenly be seen 7 to know or understand that something is true, or that something has happened 8 to cry out loudly in a high voice 2.10 )» 1 You're not going to believe this, but I've lost my job. 2 Someone told me there's going to be a bad storm tonight. 3 I heard that Jack has won the lottery.

Apparently, the office is closed this week.

Unit 3 Life skills

3.2 )» Fifteen minutes is a long time if you're a child and you really like marshmallows! So, what happened? How many children do you think ate the marshmallow? Well, nearly 70% ate it. Some ate it straightaway, some managed to wait a while before giving in. Only 30% of the children were able to resist temptation and wait the full fifteen minutes. OK, the researchers found out that most of the children preferred to have something immediately to having to wait for what they really wanted. Not that surprising, really. But some years later, they discovered something much more interesting. When these children became adults, the researchers contacted them again. And what do you think they discovered? All the children who were able to wait were very successful. They had done well at school, had good relationships, and were healthy. 'They earned a lot more money, too. The children who couldn't resist temptation were generally less successful in all these ways. In the original Marshmallow Test, the researchers noticed the children who managed not to eat the marshmallow were using some effective techniques. Those children who stared at the marshmallow, or picked it up, or smelt it, always ended up eating it. The successful children found a way to deal with the problem, by looking away from the marshmallow, or covering their eyes. Watching the successful children made the researchers realize that the important thing was to avoid thinking about the marshmallow at all. Then the children didn't have to make an effort not to eat it. In a later experiment, Mischel proved that when he taught the children some simple techniques, such as imagining the marshmallow wasn't real, that it was just a picture of a marshmallow, nearly all the children succeeded in waiting the full fifteen minutes. So, everyone can learn to wait if they want to. This is important b ecause this experiment isn't just about waiting for a marshmallow. If you can wait for a marshmallow, then you'll be able to choose to study rather than watch TV, knowing it's better for your future. You'll succeed in saving up money for something you really want, rather than spending it without thinking. And, in this way, you will be able to make better decisions about your future, and eventually get a bette1~ and higher-paid, job.

AUDJOSCRIPTS

3.3)» In the Marshmallow Test, researchers left four-year-old children alone in a room with a marshmallow. If the children managed to resist temptation and not eat the marshmallow, the researcher promised them a reward of two marshmallows. However most of the children found it difficult to be patient and gave in before the time was up. They preferred to have something immediately rather than wait for what they really wanted. The researchers found that, as adults, those children who could rise to the challenge were generally much more successful than the others. The best technique was to avoid thinking about the marshmallow at all. The successful children dealt with the problem by looking away or covering their eyes. If they didn't think about the marshmallow, they didn't have to make an effort not to eat it. When Mischel taught a different set of children this technique, nearly all the children succeeded in waiting the full time. Learning these techniques can help in adult life because being able to wait helps us to make the right choices.

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3.4 >))

So, let's get started ... The first thing you do is cut a hole in the metal sheet. How do you do that? Like this. Look. You need to use special metal -cutters, and you need to measure carefully. And make sure you don't cut the hole too big. Got that? Yeah, thanks. OK, what next'? Next, rub the plastic bottle with sandpaper. When you've done that, put the bottle in the hole in the metal and glue it in place. Like this. While the glue's drying, fill the bottle with water and add ten millilitres of bleach. Then put the top on the bottle. It should look like this one I made earlier. Can you say the part about the glue again? Yes, let me show you again. Put the bottle in the normal way up, like this, and put the glue all around near the top. Make sure you use enough glue ... OK? Yeah, thanks. After you've done that, it's time to go to the roof. So you need to cut a hole in the roof the same size as the bottle. Can you show us how to start cutting the hole? Yes, of course. Look. You do it like this. Then you continue cutting round. OK'? That's great, thanks. Now, you put the bottle in the hole this way, and add more glue to make it secure. And there you have it! A light that needs no electricity, but with sunlight outside, it can light up the whole room. Wow, that's incredible!

achieve avoid manage observe prefer resist succeed

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3 .5 l)) When he was working in the burger van, Ed had to be reliable and turn up for work on time. He also had to be polite to the customers. However, he didn't have to take much responsibility as his boss dealt with the money. He didn't need to get up early because the van opened at 11 a.m. When he wanted to, he could even take a day off work. Now that he's training to be a chef, it's ve1y different. He has to manage a team, even though he finds it difficult to tell people what to do. It's also a very high-pressure job, so he must work to tight deadlines. Howeve1~ he doesn' t have to work outside any more, and he can take home really nice food when the restaurant has closed.

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3.6 >)) 1 easy-going 2 home-made 3 five-star 4 over-priced 5 five -hundred-page 6 second-hand 7 English-speaking 8 well-known 3.7 >» I So, today I'm going to show you how to do something amazing using only seven things - 1 a plastic bottle, 2 some water, 3 some bleach, 4 a piece of metal, 5 some glue, 6 sandpaper and 7 a metal roo[ What are we going to make? We're going to make a light that doesn't use electricity. The light goes in the roof and is strong enough to give light to a whole room.

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1 The first thing you do is cut a hole in the metal. 2 When you've done that, put the bottle in the hole in the metal ... 3 While the glue's drying, fill the bottle with water ... 4 After you've done that, it's time to go to the roof. 3.9>»

Next, rub the bottle with sandpaper. When you've done that, put the bottle in the hole in the metal and glue the bottle in place. 3.10 >))

1 If I come into work early, I can leave early. 2 In my last job 1had to wear a uniform. 3 You can't use the phone for private calls. 4 You don't need to wear a tie. 5 You must remember to lock up before you go. 3.11 >» 1 good-

2 English3 well4 hard5 easy6 second3.12>»

A The first thing you do is to put some flour in a bowl, with a little salt. Then you crack an egg into the bowl. B I'm not very good at that. How do you crack the egg "vithout getting bits ofshell in the bowl? A No problem, Let me show you. Look, you crack it on the edge of the bowl, like this. Then you mix it in and add the milk. Make

sure you mix it very thoroughly, so there aren't any lumps. B Whatnext? A 'lhen you have to wait for about 30 minutes. While you're doing that you can get ready whatever you want to put on tl1e pancakes. Then you heat some oil or butter and put some mixture in the pan. When the first side is cooked, you tlip it over. Look, you do it like this. B ·wow! That's clever.

Unit 4 Space 4.1 >»

So, yesterday we took the train from La Paz, Bolivia, into Peru, stopping at Puno, and today we're going to visit the floating islands on Lake Titicaca. I can't wait. Ever since I first heard about these islands in a geography class many years ago, I've wanted to see them. Actually, I don't really enjoy boat trips, but I'm sure the water on the lake will be quite calm, as it's a clear sunny day. It's quite cold, though, so I'm going to take an extra sweater to keep warm. I'm really interested in finding out more about how people live there. I believe we'll be able to ask them questions through a guide. I'd love to know what people eat - a lot of fish, I suppose! I'd also like to know what theytl1ink the future holds for them and their families. Do they think their children will stay on the islands? What effect is technology going to have on their lives? I know they already have solar power and even black and white TVs. Just thought! It would be great to have some photos for the blog, so I'll take my camera, too. Just hope I don't drop it in the water ... 4.2 >)) 1 It was the end of September and a beautiful

sunny day. Autumn is the most beautiful season here and the leaves on the trees were beginning to turn golden in places. As we climbed through the forest, we enjoyed the fresh air and the smell of the soil. Moving slowly up the steep, winding path, we came to the edge of the forest and suddenly we could see a gorgeous lake at the edge of a mountain range in the distance. The peaks and cliffs of the mountains were partly covered in snow, even at this time of the year. The scene1y was just amazing. 2 We had b een walking all day and it was slowly getting dark. We had seen gorgeous mountains with lovely greenery, refreshing waterfalls and clear pools amongst the rocks. We had enjoyed playing in the pools in the hot sunshine, but at the end of the day we had descended back into the valley. Walking down towards where we were staying for the night, the sunset was amazing, beautiful and red with the silhouettes of the palm trees in the distance. I don't think I've ever seen such a beautiful and unusual landscape. 4.3>»

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Good afternoon and welcome to Science

Matters. Walking through the park yesterday, it was iull of people enjoying the sunshine. Recent research, howeve1~

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suggests that people are spending less lime outdoors. One study looked at trends in visits to national parks in the United States, Japan and Spain, and found that the number of visits had gone down by 18% since the late 1980s. A recent British study found that even during the summer, people spend just one to two hours outside per day. So, why is this happening, and what should we do about it? Our science reporter Julie Mayers has been researching into the benefits of being outdoors. So Julie, why do we stay indoors so much? Hello. Well, it may be that rather than enjoying the beauty of nature, we prefer to sit in front of a screen. Statistics show that people in the US now spend around eight and a half hours a day looking at a screen, and this trend will definitely spread around the world as smartphones become more common. Another explanation is that more people live in cities. In 1950, 79% of the UK population lived in cities, but that percentage is likely to rise to around 92% by 2030. And even traditionally less urbanized countries may end up in a similar situation. For example, Botswana in 1950 had less than 3% of its population living in cities; now it has about 61%, and this percentage will probably rise further over the next few years. But does it actually matter if we don't get outside much? Well, yes, obviously there are the physical benefits. We know that people who live near green spaces are more likely to be physically active. In fact, nearly 45% of Californian teens who live near a park take part in physical activities for at least one hour a day, at least five days a week, whereas only one third of teens who don't have access to a nearby park have the same level of physical activity. But there's more than that. According to researchers at Heriot Watt University, in Edinburgh, people's brains actually change when they spend time in natural environments, reducing stress and improving mood. The Japanese have known this for some time. Shinrin-yoku, or forest bathing, is simply visiting a forest or other natural area and walking slowly, taking in everything you see, hear, smell, and even taste. Scientific research shows that walking in the forest for 30 minutes will reduce depression, and lower your blood pressure. They even think it might prevent you fro m becoming ill. Really? That seems very hard to believe. How's that? It seems that the trees give off chemicals which help to keep you healthy. One study showed a 50% increase in the white blood cells needed to fight illness after a two-hour walk. Research taking place at the moment will tell us more about how this works. The Japanese government has already built forty-eight official forest bathing trails, and say they will definitely build another fiftytwo within the next ten years. Really? That's a lot. Do you think it could become as popular in other countries? Yes, it probably will. In fact, South Korea has already started building its own forest

bathing centres, and other countries, like Finland, may soon follow.

4.4)» 1

In the US people now spend 8.5 hours a day looking at a screen, and this trend will definitely spread around the world as smartphones become more common. 2 The percentage of British people living in cities is likely to rise to 92% by 2030. 3 Countries such as Botswana, where, in 1950, only 3% of people lived in a city, may end up in a similar situation. 4 Nowadays 61% of Botswana's population lives in cities and this percentage will probably rise further. 5 Walking in a forest for 30 minutes improves mood and might even stop you getting ill. 6 After a two-hour walk, some people showed a 50% increase in the white blood cells needed to help fight disease. 7 The Japanese government will build 52 more forest bathing trails within the next ten years, and other countries may follow. 4.5 l))

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This trend will definitely spread around the world. The number is likely to rise. This percentage probably won't rise much further. People who live near green spaces are more likely to be active.

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neat and tidy in a bit of a mess

4.8 l)) l What a mess! 2 in a while 3 take up too much space 4 peace and quiet 5 a nice drink 6 a big apartment

4.9 )» 1 What a mess this room is! We need to tidy it up. 2 I hope to finish the decorating in a while. 3 1wanted to put the bookshelf here, but it takes up too much space. 4 The best thing about this house is the peace and quiet. 5 Would you like a nice drink? 6 She lives in a big apartment in Berlin. 4.10 >)) I Can you tell me about your problem? M Well, I'm a hoarder. I just can't throw things away. So my house is full of ... stu ff. I'm starting to run out of space. I What kind of stuff do you keep? M Everything - newspapers, old yoghurt pots, clothes, toys ... Old yoghurt pots? Why do you keep those? M Well, because they might come in useful one day. You know, I might decide to grow plants in them. I But don't they take up a lot of space? Where do you keep them? M In my shower cubicle. I You're joking!

M No, seriously. I've got a load of newspapers, too, going back to 1995. They're in a shed in the garden. I So your house must be pretty full, th en? M There's no room for anything. Our front garden is full of old machines like dishwashers and fridges. I What a nightmare! And how does your wife feel about this? M To be honest, she's not very happy. But what can I do about it? 4.11 )» A So, how's it going? Enjoying your new t1at? R Yes, I love it. A You've got a fantastic view from the windows. R Yes, we're on the top floor. I spent the whole weekend going up and down the stairs with boxes. A Yes, I can see! R Look, make yourself at home. Have a seat. A Er ... where? R Yes, I sec what you mean. Well, why don't you sit on a box? A No, don't worry, I can make room on this sofa, if I just ... move this suitcase ... How did you manage to move all your stuff over a weekend? R Oh, I didn't do it all at the weekend. I took some time off from work last week. A It'll look great once you've got everything unpacked. You've got a lot of room here ... R Yeah, it's so much bigger than my old place. Mind you, I've really got too much stuff. This old sofa and chairs take up so much space, and there's furniture in the flat already. A Maybe you should get rid of your old furniture. R Yes, perhaps. I think I really need to get everything unpacked first, and then I can see what I need and don't need. Are you going to give me a hand? A Sure ... 4 .12 l)) W Hello, Bell's Bistro. C Oh, hello. I had lunch at your restaurant today and I think I may have left my mobile phone there on one of the tables ... I wonder if you could check for me? W Certainly. Could I just take some details t:irst? C Yes, of course. W Could you tell me the make of the phone? C Yes, it was a ... 4.13 >)) R Hello, how can I help you? C Hello, I understand that the hotel h as a gym? R Yes, that's right. It's in the basement. C Thank you. Could you tell me the opening hours, please? R It's open from 7 a.m. until 9 p.m. C Thank you, that's great. R Can I help you with anything else? C Yes, just one last question. Do I need to take a towel with me, or are they provided? 4 .14 >»

R Hello, Grand I Iotel. How can I help you? G Hello, I think I may have left my briefcase at reception this morning. I wonder if you could check if it's been handed in? R Certainly. Could 1just take some details? What colour was it?

AUDIOSCRIPTS

G It's black, and it has my initials on it, MHG, Miguel Hernandez Garcia. R Thank you ... one moment... Yes, we have it. G That's great. I wonder if I could come and pick it up this evening? R Yes, anytime. can I help you with anything else? G No, that's all. Thank you for your help, though. I really appreciate it.

Unit 5 Entertainment 5.1 )» The first film we're looking at today is The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, starring Ben Stiller and Kristen Wiig. A remake of a classic comedy from 1947, based on James Thurber's book, which was written even earlier, in 1939, the film manages to bring the story up to date quite well. Walte r Mitty is a quiet man who secretly dreams of being an action hero, rescuing people from burning buildings or travelling into space. Soon, however, his adventures start to become real, as he decides to set out on a journey to fi nd a missing photographic negative. The special effects are pretty impressive, esp ecially in the scenes set in Iceland and the Himalayas; but despite a cast with several excellent comic actors, the film just isn't very funny. Kristen Wiig, who plays the woman Mitty is secretly in love with, is just wasted, with no real humour in what she has to say. Stiller's performance is better, but overall the film's a bit disappointing. The other film we're looking at today is Rio 2096: A Story ofLove and Fury. I enjoy going to sec animated films with my kids, but to b e honest, I'm not usually a big fan of animated films for adults. So I didn't expect to enjoy this one. After about ten minutes, though, I realized I was wrong. It's fantastic. The film is set in four different periods of Brazil's history. It starts in the future, in 2096, where a man and a woman, voiced by Brazilian stars Selton Mello and Camila Pitanga, stand at the top of a skyscraper in the middle of the night. 'To live without knowing the past is like walking in the dark; says the man. Suddenly the film goes back in time almost600 years, to 1566, when the Portuguese arrived in Brazil. The man explains that in 1566 h e was a Tupinamba Indian, attempting to save his tribe, who were all killed when Rio de Janeiro was first built. Having failed to save any of them, including his great love, Janaina, he magically turns into a bird. He return as a man in the future, when he hopes to be with Janaina once more. We then see the couple living through slavery in 1825 and the military dictatorship in 1970 before returning to the future in 2096. It is a disturbing future where poor people can't afford to buywate1~ but h e and Janaina continue to fight against evil, as they've done throughout the last 600 years. The plot is a little complicated if you aren't familiar with Brazilian history, but the story is told with such passion that you can't h elp enjoying it. It really deserved to win the top prize at the 2013 Annecy International Animated Film Festival.

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5.2 )» A b eautU'ul film about the dreams of village school children in rural Indonesia, Stepping on

the Flying Grass is both visually stunning and truly moving. When their teacher asked them to write an essay about their dearest dreams and wishes, a group of village schoolchildren begin to think seriously about what they plan to do with their lives. Puji enjoys being useful and just wants to help others. Mei fantasizes about becoming an actress. She spends hours practising in front of the mirror, but does she really love acting, or is it actually her mother's dream? Agus's family can't afford to eat any special food at home, but he really wants to eat at an authentic Padang restaurant in the city. When an opportunity arises to make some money, he decides to make his dream come true. As the Jilm progresses he gradually realizes that for dreams to come true you need to work at them. 5.3 )»

amusing surprising ordinary violent enjoyable intelligent original predictable disappointing entertaining unexciting 5.4 l)) I've lived in New York for about three years now. It's an exciting place to live, but there are quite a few annoying things about it, too. For a start, it's incredibly expensive. When I moved into my flat three years ago, the rent was already quite high, but it has gone up three times since then. It can also be quite a violent place. I haven't been mugged yet, but my best friend has. Luckily, she wasn't actually hurt; they just took her bag. And the traffic- it's dreadful. It took me more than an hour to get to work today, and nearly as long to get home. However, I've never lived anywhere where there is so much to do. Over the past month I've b een to the theatre three times as well as to a number of great art exhibitions. I've also just started salsa classes. You can find everything from everywhere here. So, although living in New York has some bad points, on balance I don't think I want to live anywhere else in the world. 5.5)»

1 I'm absolutely exhausted. 2 She was absolutely amazed. 3 That smells absolutely delicious. 4 It's absolutely astonishing. 5 It's absolutely eno1mous. 6 It's absolutely freezing in here. 5.6 )»

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I can't walk any further. I' m absolutely exhausted. I'll have to sit down. She was absolutely amazed when s he saw her sister standing at the front door. They h adn't seen each other for ten years. That smells absolutely delicious. I love the smell of garlic. What are you cooking?

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It's absolutely astonishing. This is the first time you haven't been late this year. I can't carry that. It's absolutely enormous. I'll need help to get it up the stairs. Put the heate r on . It's absolutely freezing in here.

5.7 )» Conversation 1 A Did you see that stuff on Facebook about how much music people listen to every day? B Yes, but I'm not sure I believe it, though. The statistics look much higher than I'd expect. I mean, who listens to music when they are going to sleep? A Me -and 32% of the people they asked! Conversation 2 A What do you fancy watching on TV tonight? B I thought we could watch the programme on climate change. A Aw, no. That sounds really boring. I really don't want to watch another programme about the weather. B Well, I thought it looked quite interesting; but il' you're really sure you don't want to watch it, there's a sci-fi movie on the othe r channel. A That sounds much more interesting. Conversation 3 A Have you tried this new film site? Is it any good? B Yes, it's great. I expected it to be really expensive, but it isn't. Butyouhaveto be careful. A Oh,why? B I stayed up till4 a.m. this morning watching a whole series. I wouldn't recommend that if you have to go to work the next day! I'm exhausted! 5.8 )» l I feel tired.

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The film was good. That meal was tasty. It's cold today. That piece o f cake is large. It looks bad.

5.9 )» It was nothing like as good as I expected it to be. 2 It's really not worth seeing. 3 I wouldn't recommend it. 4 I'm pretty sure you wouldn't like it. 5 It was much less interesting than I expected. l

Unit 6 In control? 6.1 $ Your car is now in charge: driverless cars are already here. Driving along the motorway in busy traffic, the driver presses a button on the steering wheel. The car is now driving itself. 1his may sound like science fiction, but driverless cars are already on the roads in California. Many cars can already park themselves by the side of the road, brake automatically when the car needs to slow down, and warn the driver ifthey are slipping out of the correct lane, so going driverless is just the next step. Driverless cars come with fast broadband, allowing them to overtake other cars safely, and even communicate with traffic lights as they

approach junctions. Being stuck in traffic jams could become a thing of the past, as driverless cars v.rill be able to drive at speed much closer to each other. More than fifty million people die or are injured in road accidents every year, and 90% of these accidents are caused by human error. Google's driverless car sticks to the speed limit and doesn't get tired. So wouldn't it be much safer if all cars were driverless? 6.2 )» Intelligent machines that can serve us in supermarkets, give us directions and even drive for us are becoming part of all our lives. Some of the things machines can do now would have seemed impossible just a few years ago. And there's more to come. Amazon promises robot drones which will deliver our packages, and Rolls-Royce says robo-ships, which won't need any crew, will soon be sailing our seas. But what v.rill this mean for our workers? Some think that only people whose skills are better than the machines' abilities will have work. Those who don't have high-level skills risk being unemployable, or will have to work for very low wages.

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climate change crop damage water shortages global warming strong \\rinds tropical storms 6.4)»

P Welcome to The World Today. Today we're talking about extreme weather. Recently there seem to have been a lot of extreme weather events. While there have always been strong v.rinds and tropical storms, many scientists now agree that climate change has been causing higher temperatures, and more storms, floods and droughts. It's a serious situation, and although governments have been trying to reduce pollution and stop the global temperature rising, we haven't been vety successful so far. Could there be a different solution? With us in the studio today we have Neil Clough, our science correspondent, who has been researching ways in which scientists around the world have been ttying to artificially control or change the weather. Neil, can anything be done to prevent these extreme weather events? N Well, if these changes in weather patterns have been happening as a result of global warming, then we should try to prevent further warming, by reducing pollution, protecting trees and so on. However, scientists have been exploring another method. It seems possible that we might be able to actually do more to control the weather directly. 6.5 l)) P Tell us more about controlling the weather. N Well, scientists have been working on techniques to create or prevent rain for quite some time now. The best-known

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method is called cloud seeding. This involves putting chemicals into the air to encourage any water in the air to form clouds and hopefully rain. So, if we can make it rain when we want it to, why do we still have problems v.rith droughts? Ah, well, unfortunately it isn't quite as a simple as that. If there is a drought, there probably won't be any clouds in the sky at all. The only thing you could do is to do cloud seeding when there are clouds and then save the water for when there is a drought. That could be helpful, I guess ... And can it help with storms and hurricanes as well? Yes. Hurricanes form in warm, tropical waters. That's why global warming is having an impact; as the seas get warmer, there are likely to be more hurricanes. But it seems possible that we could use cloud seeding to cool the seas down. That sounds incredible! But is it actually a good idea to try and change the weather? 1 mean, what about putting chemicals into the atmosphere? That can't be a good idea, can it? Well, this is one of the things we need to find out. There is some concern that creating rain in one area of the world might take it away from somewhere else. But in terms ofthe chemicals, it seems that one group of scientists have found a solution. Professor Jean-Pierre Wolf and Dr Jerome Kasparian, at the University of Geneva, have been experimenting v.rith using lasers to control the weather. Lasers? Their experiments have shown that pulses oflight from a laser can be used to make rain clouds, v.rithout using any chemicals. They also think that lasers can be used to direct storms away from certain buildings, such as airports. Wow. That is quite amazing. I still feel that perhaps we shouldn't be playing with the weather like this. Yes, a lot of people would agree with you. But you've got to remember that we have been changing the weather for a long time anyway through global warming. This type of technology is nothing compared v.rith that, and it could be helpful, rather than harmful.

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In recent years there has been a noticeable increase in extreme weather events. Many scientists now agree that climate change has caused this increase. The science correspondent in the programme has just finished researching ways in which scientists around the world have been trying to artificially control or change weather patterns. These scientists have been exploring various techniques, including cloud seeding, over the past few years. However, many people are worried about putting chemicals into the atmosphere. Recently one team of scientists in Geneva has discovered a way to use lasers to control the weather. 6.7)»

It's important to get away from your everyday life at least once a year; and if you live here

in the UK, you need to find somewhere with guaranteed sunshine. \1\ihat I mean is, somewhere where the weather is a bit more reliable. It's great to do something you'd never do at home. In fact, I'm sure the challenge keeps you healthy. Anyway, we've just booked two weeks exploring the lakes and volcanoes of Nicaragua. I can't wait ... 6.8)»

1 What I mean is, somewhere where the weather is a bit more reliable. 2 In fact, I'm sure the challenge keeps you healthy. 3 Anyway, we've just booked two weeks exploring the lakes and volcanoes of Nicaragua. I can't wait ... 6.10 l))

1 You know, as soon as I get behind the steering wheel, I feel great. I'm in control. I decide where I'm going and how fast. What I mean is, I'm in charge. I don't have to wait at the bus stop or get nervous about catching the train, or it not turning up. I find travelling by bus and train much more stressful. 2 I must have about twenty pairs, in all colours. I wear them so I can feel taller, and that makes me feel much more confident. My favourite ones are silver and very high. I only wear them to special events because, although they look great, they're rather uncomfortable. In fact, I usually wear flat ones to get to the event and then slip them on before I go in. 3 I suppose it's true. My whole life is on it - I just couldn't function without it. I mean, I've put everything on it, my friends' numbers, my Facebook, photos, music, games and loads of apps. I'd be completely lost v.rithout it. I never write anything down; I just put it on here, let me show you ... Actually, where is it'? I had it a moment ago ... wait ... it must be in here ... 4 I think it all began when I was a kid, and my grandma used to bring me a bar when she came round to babysit. Now I love it- in cakes, biscuits or just a big boxful. I have to have some every day- I feel a bit down if I don't. But as I was saying, I think the real reason I love it so much is because it reminds me of all the happy times I had with my lovely grandma. 6.11 l))

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Hi, Pedro- it's Sara. Oh, hi. I was just thinking about you, Sara. We're meeting for lunch with Estelle tomorrow, aren' t we? S Actually that's why I'm phoning. There's been a change of plan. I'm afraid I've got something else on tomorrow lunchtime - I've got a work meeting from 12 till2 that I can't change - so how about getting together after work instead? Say6 o'clock? We could go for an early dinner. P Let me just have a look at my diary ... Hmm, I'm really sorry, but I can't make it then. I'm meeting someone in town at 6.30. Are you free on Thursday after work? S Well, I'm supposed to be playing tennis with my sistet; but we can probably change it to another day. I'll speak to her, then I'll P

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get back to you. OK? And will you see if Thursday is OK v.rith Estelle? No problem. I'll speak to you later, then. Bye.

6.12 l)) 1 There's been a change of plan. 2 I've got something else on tomorrow lunchtime. 3 How about getting together after work instead'? 4 I'm really sorry but I can't make it then. 5 I'm supposed to be playing tennis with my sister 6 I'll speak to her, then I'll get back to you. 6.13 l)) 1 climate change 2 crop damage 3 global warming 4 heatwaves 5 landslides 6 strong winds 7 tropical storms 8 water shortages 6.14 1 music 2 cloud 3 danger 4 luck 5 stress 6 success 7 fashion 8 comfort 6 .15)»

J Hi, it's Joanne here. M Hi, Joanne.

J You know we were supposed to be going to the cinema on Saturday? I'm really sorry, but there's been a change of plan. Can we go on Sunday instead? M Oh dear. Sorry, but I'm not available then. How about next Saturday? J Ah, I'm meant to be meeting my brother and his wife for dinner next Saturday. But I'll talk to them and get back to you. M OK, that's fine.

unit 7 Ambitions 7.1 l)) 1

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For many years people have moved to Europe in search of a brighter future and a higher standard of living. In recent years, however, the pattern seems to be changing, with thousands of young people moving from Europe to Africa, Asia and South America. We spoke to three people who have made the move to find out why they moved and how it has worked out for them. Dermot, you're from Ireland, aren't you, but you live and work in the Philippines. D Yes, that's right. I came to the Philippines in 2005 for a job in property, selling office buildings. At that time, Ireland was doing really well economically, and a lot of people couldn't understand why I was going abroad. It was a fantastic opportunity for me, though, as I was quickly promoted to manager when I'd just been a sales person back in Ireland. The job also came with

rent-free accommodation in a beautiful apartment, and everyone was so friendly. And after two years I became a director. So my career prospects have definitely been improved by coming to Manila. I didn't work such long hours in Ireland, it's true, but I didn't get the benefits I have now, like private medical care and great training. And the weather is a lot better! 2 I

That certainly sounds like a very positive move. And Maria, what about you? M Well, I'm a qualified architect, with a masters' degree, but when I was made redundant in Athens, I just couldn't find another job. I used to spend all day ringing people up and getting nowhere. I'd been unemployed for over a year when I decided to try Australia. I still haven't been able to find work as an architect in Melbourne, but I have been able to retrain as a landscape designer, designing gardens instead of houses. It's great being outside so much, because the weather's nearly always good. I also have a lot of job satisfaction now. Because I have relatives here, it wasn't too difficult to get a visa. In fact, Melbourne is the biggest Greek city in the world, outside of Greece! I Do you think you'll stay as long as Dermot has? M Probably. I really like it here. 3 I And what about you, Joaquim? You're currently working in Luanda, Angola, aren't you? Do you think you'll stay there? J Well, the job is just temporary, for four months, but now I'm here I think I'll stay a lot longer. The working conditions are much better at the moment than in Lisbon, where I'm from. I get sick pay and holiday pay, and plenty of time off. My salary is a lot higher as well, although Luanda is a very expensive city these days. In fact, it's now supposed to be the most expensive city in the world! There's plenty of work, though, both skilled and unskilled. Angola has one ofthe fastestgrowing economies in the world. 7.2 l)) 1 Which is more important - a good salary or job satisfaction? 2 At work, is it better to obey the rules, or to take risks? 3 Have you ever had a temporary job?VVhat was it? Did you want it to become permanent? 4 Have you ever had a job where you had to supervise other employees? Did you like the responsibility'? 5 Would you like a job where you had to come up with new ideas, or one where you simply followed the rules? 6 Do you find it easy to think creatively and come up with new ideas? How do you do it? 7.3)» LiYan L I'm not sure I understand. Could you explain what you mean? Well, yes, of course ... so, you've applied for this job and you want to get this job. But why should we give it to you?

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Oh, I see. OK, you should give me the job because I have a lot of experience that will help your company. I Could you give some examples of that? L Well, to give you a good example, I spent three years working in a similar situation in ... Parissa A I'm not sure I understand. Do you mean what job will I have? I Yes ... in other words, what are your goals for the next few years? What do you want to do? A Ah, I see. Well, I'm very ambitious. First, I'd like to get some good work experience with a company like yours and then, in a couple of years, I plan to start a part-time master's course in ... Sophie S I'm sorry. Could you repeat that, please? I Yes, of course. I asked when was the last time you had a difference of opinion with someone at work - a time you disagreed with someone? S Ah, OK. Let me see ... a time I had a different opinion. Well ... actually, last month I was working in a project team, and I didn't agree with the team leader about the time we needed to complete the project. I And how did you deal with that? What did you do? S Well, I ... Marina M Oh, that's a difficult question! Let me think ... well, I suppose I would be something like an egg ... yes, an egg! I Whyanegg? M vVell, because an egg is very ... now, what's the word again? ... Useful, yes, an egg is very useful - it goes in so many dishes, and it is one of those foods that is eaten all over the world ... so, useful, international ... and very healthy, of course! Ken K I'm sorry. Could you explain what you mean'? I Yes, of course. What I mean is, what makes you want to work, to do a good job ... and the opposite of that- what stops you being interested or working well? K Ah, OK, now I get it Well, goals are very important to me. I work really well when I have clear goals - I know what I am doing, why I am doing it and when I need to do it by. Could you give some examples of that? K Yeah, of course. One example was when ... 7.4)» 1 Could you explain what you mean? 2 Well, to give you a good example, I spent three years working in a similar situation. 3 I'm not sure I understand. Do you mean what job will I have? 4 Yes, in other words, what are your goals for the next few years? 5 Could you repeat that, please'? 6 Let me think. 7 What I mean is, what makes you want to work? 8 Could you give me some examples of that? 7.5 l)) l wanting to become rich or successful 2 not willing to let anything stop you from doing what you want to do 3 having special skills or knowledge

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a lot of people have heard their name or know about them putting in a lot of effort vety good at doing something

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Unit 8 Choices 8.1 l)) According to a recent World Happiness Report, Denmark is the happiest country in the world. But just why is that, and what, if anything, can other countries learn from it? 'lhe first point to make is that, clearly, Denmark, and most of the oth er countries in the top ten don't have much poverty. Money may not buy happiness, but a strong economy certainly helps. However, if you look a bit further down the list, you'll see that money isn't everything. Mexico, for example, comes higher up the list than the United States. Money doesn't make you happy unless everyone has enough. Big differences between rich and poor tend to make people unhapp ier. 1\lso, just because a country is rich, it doesn't mean that it looks after its people well . Many people in the United States, for example, don't have free healthcare. But if a country has quite high taxes, like Denmark, it can provide free healthcare to everyone. You may not believe that you'll be happier if you pay higher taxes, but as a country, you v.rill. And Danish people have a healthy lifestyle, too. They tend to eat a balanced diet and get plenty of physical exercise. In fact, 50% of trips to work and school in Copenhagen are made by bicycle rather than car or bus. As well as the positive impact on reducing pollution, doctors estimate that if you can cycle for thirty minutes a day, it may add one to two years to your life. Denmark is also a very equal society. There aren't big differences between rich and poor, and men and women are treated equally, too. Both parents are allowed paid time off work after the birth of a baby, and they can decide how to share the time. It's a very family-friendly country, v.rith free or vety cheap childcare provided by the government. The Danes only work thirty-seven hours a week on average. If people work a thirty-seven hour week, they have quite a lot of leisure time, and the Danes spend much of this time socializing and enjoying cultural activities. The \>\Tinter may be cold and dark, but there is a special term, 'hygge; to describe a kind of cosy meeting v.rith friends and family. People light candles, keep warm, and eat delicious food together.

And, finally more than 40% of Danes use their extra leisure time to do voluntary work, helping their neighbours. I'm beginning to see just why it's such a great place to live. 8 .2 )» 1 If people spend more than an hour travelling to work, they are generally less content. 2 Unless you have some close friendships, you \>\rill find it hard to be happy. 3 If you do regular exercise outdoors, you'll be able to work more efficiently. 4 People tend to be happier if they are in a long-term relationship. 5 If people are active in work and free time, they'll probably be healthier. 8.3 l)) 1 If I were braver, I might be a firefighter. 2 We could volunteer more if we had more time. 3 \Nhat would you do if you saw someone being robbed? 4 If we won the lottery we could give some money to charity. 5 I wouldn't do a job ifit were risky or dangerous. 6 I Ie'd be so embarrassed if he knew people were talking about his heroism. 8 .5 l)) 1 redpram 2 could be 3 white coffee 4 mild coffee 5 should go 6 cold metal 7 hotpepper 8 hotmilk 8 .6 l)) If you could pick anywhere in the world to live, where would you go? Iceland might not be the most obvious choice, but I don't regret moving here. I came to study earth science at the University of Iceland. Iceland has volcanoes, glaciers and earthquakes. \Nhat can't you see here? I came to study the natural world, but I stayed in Iceland because I love the way oflife. 8.7 l)) There was a bit of culture shock at first. I was surprised at just how much time people spend outdoors. People are close to nature in a way that many other countries have forgotten, and even when the temperatures are freezing, people love getting out into the fresh air. Look outside any cafe and you're likely to see lots of babies sleeping outside in prams. Icelanders believe that the cold fresh air could be good for their health and helps them sleep better. And no one worries about th eir safety. Crime rates are very low indeed. I also found it hard to get used to the way that time seems to have no meaning h ere. If friends arrange to meet between half seven and eight, you'd better not be surprised if they don't turn up until about half past nine. At first this used to drive me mad. I thought people were being really rude. Gradually, though, I realized that it wasn't rudeness - people just don't worry about punctuality the way we do at home.

The education system is much more relaxed, too. 1here isn't the same emphasis on tests and exams. In primary school children spend a lot of time playing outside and learning practical skills, such as knitting. But they are still very highly educated in the end, and, apparently, one in ten Icelanders is a published author. The food took a bit of getting used to as well. There are some dishes I had to be persuaded to try, like sheep's head or shark. But my husband, Gustav, is such a good cook that he can make most things taste nice. 8.8 )» Hello, evetyone. My name is Stu art French and I'm here to talk to you about something we all have to do about seventy times every day ... make a decision. Obviously some arc more straightforward than others. Most people don't have too much trouble deciding what to have for breakfast, for example, but some decisions can be a lot trickier. So, in to day's talk I'm going to look at how understanding the decision-making process can help us to make better decisions when we really need to. First, I want to tell you about some factors that affect our decision-making. Then I'll talk about methods people use to make decisions. And finally, I'll give you some tips about decision-making. 8.9 l)) So, what factors affect our decision-making? The first thing I'd like to mention is the number of decisions we make. Recent research seems to show that making conscious decisions actually makes the brain feel tired. As we make more and more decisions, we become less effective. So, if you have an important decision to make, it's probably best to do it early in the day before you've had to make too many other less important decisions. Another major factor that affects our decisionmaking is how much information we have to consider. It's obviously a good idea to have some information before we make a decision. However, studies show that if we have too much information to deal with, we're more likely to make the wrong decision. It seems that it's just too much for our brains. The third and last factor I want to mention today is stress. Researchers have found that people making decisions under stress are more likely to think about the possible positive results of a decision and less likely to think about the negatives. So if you're under stress at work and trying to decide whether to leave, you're more likely to think about how great it will feel to leave and less about how you'll actually get a new job. 8.10 l)) Now, let's move on to look at how to make a decision. One common method is to gather the necessary information (but not too much, remember!), list the possible solutions and set a time limit. This helps you to be more decisive. Another useful thing to do is to make two lists on a piece of paper- the advantages and the disadvantages- and then see if you have more advantages than disadvantages and how

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important each one is. In fact, Charles Darwin, the great evolutionary scientist is said to have used this method to decide whether to ask his girlfriend to marry him. Not a great romantic, though ... Many people believe that it's sometimes a good idea to be guided by our heart - our gut feeling - so remember that ove1thinking things can sometimes make your decision-making ability worse. So, we've looked at some of the things that affect our ability to make decisions and some ways to make decisions; now I'd like to finish with a tip. Decision-making can be a difficult and complicated process. Don't expect everyone to agree with your decisions, and be prepared to accept that sometimes you v.rill make the wrong choices. Are there any questions? 8.11 )» 1 If you spend it on the right things, money can buy happiness. 2 Most people will be happier if you spend time with them rather than spend money on them. 3 Ifyou're going on holiday, you v.rill be happier if you pay for it straightaway. 4 People should buy experiences rather than things, especially if they are older. 5 People don't enjoy things as much unless they have to work hard for them. 8.12 )» 1 If! were president of my country, ... 2 I would move to another country if ... 3 Jfi spoke fluent English, ... 4 I could earn more money if ... 5 Ifi had more money, ... 6 I'd be happier if.. .

unit 9 Appearances 9.1 )» 1 He's got dark hair and a bit of stubble on his

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chin. He looks quite middle-aged and he's got a bit of a double chin. He's quite wellbuilt, possibly a bit overweight. Oh, and he's going bald. But he's got kind eyes! I'd say he's in good shape. l-Ie's probably in his late twenties. He's got quite a square jaw and a big nose, but it looks good! He's got a bit of a beard and a moustache. His hair is shoulder-length and dark brown. I think she's quite slim. She's got short blonde hair, with a bit of a fringe. Her hair might be dyed, actually. I'd say she was in her late thirties or early forties.

9.2 l)) 1 The descriptions were more positive. 2 The descriptions were much more positive. 3 The descriptions were far more positive. 4 The descriptions were a bit more positive. 5 Their descriptions weren't as positive as their friends: 9.3 l)) 1 I love this painting because it's so detailed, and it really tells a story. The colours are quite soft, mainly white, brown and a kind ofbluey-green. It's a landscape, and it must

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be either an old painting or a painting of a historical scene. In the bottom left-hand corner there are some men with dogs. I think they might be going out to hunt. Ah, no, they can't be going out to hunt because I can see they've caught something. Just to their left, there's a group of women doing something v.rith a big fire. I'm not sure exactly what they're doirlg! They could be cooking something. It all looks very cold. There's lots of snow on the ground and on the mountains in the distance. The river must be frozen over, because people are skating on it in the valley towards the righthand side of the picture. I think this painting is really beautiful. It's a portrait of a woman. She's wearing an oldfashioned long dress in a lovely bright shade of red, with a purple scarf round it There's the same red on her lips, and on the side of the book she's got in front of her. She's drinking from a blue glass bowl. I have no idea why; it's really mysterious. It might be a picture of an old story or something. The woman is in the foreground of the picture, but the background is also really detailed. Behind her there's a curved window ... no, actually, it can't be a window. I think it must be a mirror. It's reflecting the sea and two old-fashioned sailing ships. I'd love to know what this picture is actually about!

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In the top right-hand corner there are some sharp, snowy mountain peaks. 2 In the foreground there are four or five tall black trees, with no leaves. 3 On the left there are some houses. 4 In the bottom right-hand corner someone is walking over a snowy bridge. 5 The people in the background look ve1y small. 1

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Speaker 1 1 The river must be frozen ove1; because they're skating on it in the valley. 2 It can't be summer, it looks too cold. 3 The hunters must be coming back from the hunt because one has something on his back. 4 The painting could be a few hundred years old, I suppose. Speaker2 5 It might be a picture of an old story or something. 6 It can't be a modern painting; it looks too old-fashioned. 7 It must be a mirror; I can see the re11ection of her face. Speaker3 8 The abstract painting must be very modern. I don't think it was painted a long time ago. 9 It could be older than you think. People started painting abstracts more than one hundred years ago. 10 It can't be a painting of a mandrill. I can't see a mandrill in the painting at all! 9.6)»

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The search for the missing climbers went on all night. 2 But in the end they had to give up.

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Jon took up bird-watching in his teens, and he's never got tired of it. Dan takes after his father in looks, but his mother in character. I'm really looking forward to the concert tomorrow. I haven't seen any live music for years! Jill and I get on really well, even though we only see each other every five years. Why don't you come round later and we'll watchaDVD? We had to put off the meeting because the projector broke down.

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Conversation 1 J Look, I'm sorry to have to say this, but I need to talk to you about something. L Oh, what's that? What's wrong? J Well, I'm afraid there's a problem with noise. L Noise? J Yes. There are a lot of us in this office trying to work, and, well, it's a bit noisy at times. L Yeah, actually you're right. It is noisy sometimes, isn't it? J No, what I mean is you're a bit noisy at times. On the phone. L Well, I did have one long call today - sorry about that. J To be honest, the problem's been going on for a while now. You keep making personal caUs in our shared workspace. Conversation 2 A Dan, can I have a word? D Oh, hi, Andy. Yeah, sure. What's up? A Well, sony to bother you, but ... D Is everything OK? A Well, actually, no, not really. Look, it's a bit awkward, but I'm afraid there's something I'm not happy about .. . D Oh ... what's that? A It's the office kitchen- well, you don't ever seem to wash up your stuff; you just leave your coffee cups for someone else to do, and you leave food out on the counter. Look, Dan, to be honest, we're all getting a bit fed up with it. 9.8 l)) Conversation 1 continued J Do you think you could take your personal calls outside the office? L Yes, of course ... I'll make sure I get up and go out in future, so people can't hear me. J Well, actually, would you mind taking the calls in your own time rather than when we're working'? Maybe in your lunchtime? Sometimes you're too busy on the phone when one of us needs to speak to you. L Yes, of course I can do that And listen, I'd really like to apologize for being so annoying. I didn't realize it was that bad. Conversation 2 continued D Oh, Andy, I'm sorry about that. I just didn't think. A It's OK ... it's just that it's a bit annoying at times, especially when everyone else manages to do it. Look, I know it might not seem such a big deaL but it would really help if you could just clear up your stuff -

The school used to hold sports days in a public park, so everyone in the park could watch.

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As figures show that more and more children

Sound ofa crowd cheering at a baseball or football match.

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I'm sorry to have to say this, but I need to talk to you about something. Look, it's a bit awkward, but I'm afraid there's something I'm not happy about. I'd like to apologize for being so annoying. It would really help if you could just clear up your stuff. Would you mind taking the calls in your own time?

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Her hair isn't straight at all. He has been trying Lo grow a beard for a month. She runs marathons every weekend. He doesn't like beards or moustaches. He has lots of hair.

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I think I'm more like my father than my mother. He's the kind of person who always looks forward to the future, and so am I. My mother always thinks about what might go wrong. Recently my father took up cycling and wanted to teach her how to ride, but she kept making excuses and putting it off. In the end he gave up trying to persuade her. 9.12>»

C Sorry to bother you, but I've got a bit of a problem with this tablet. A Oh, I'm sorry to hear that. What seems to be the problem? C I only bought it a few weeks ago, but it keeps turning itseu· off. A Do you have the receipt? C Er, no I don't, actually. A Well, I'm afraid I can't help you, then. C Do you think you could get the manager? He might remember selling it to me.

Unit 10 compete and cooperate 10.1 >» 1 Ali Ganjavian noticed that people who

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travel a lot often get very tired. The Ostrich Pillow was invented to help long-distance travellers. It's a kind of hat that is pulled over the head in order to take a nap. So far, over $195,000 has been pledged by its backers. In the first three months of production, Ganjavian's company shipped five thousand pillows to fifty-two countries.

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1 Ali Ganjavian noticed that people who travel a lot often get very tired. 2 Ihe Ostrich Pillow was invented to help long-distance travellers. 3 It's a kind of hat that is pulled over the head in order to take a nap. 4 So fa1~ over $195,000 has been pledged by its backers.

In the first three months of production, Ganjavian's company shipped five thousand pillows to fifty-two countries.

5

you know, wash your mugs, put things away in the fridge. D Yeah, of course. I'm sorry. I'll make sure I do that next time ... I mean every time!

are overweight, the government has announced that highly competitive sports days and tournaments are to be re-imroduced at schools. Under the new plans, schools will play against each other in an Olympics-style event, with sports such as football, athletics, rugby, swimming, tennis and cycling. Winning teams will compete in s ixty county competitions before going on to a national final. For too long, schools have been avoiding competitive sports, introducing activities such as yoga, trampolining, cheerleading and dancing instead. They seem to believe that losing a race will make people feel bad about themselves. We have to realize that taking part in competitive sport is not bad for people's selfesteem. Whether you win or lose, competitive sport teaches people to work together in a team and to try hard to be the best that they can be. These are skills which are just as important in the workplace as they are in school. It is also hoped that the new plans will help Britain to break more records in future Olympic Games. 10.4 >))

1

It's just unrealistic for children to be told that everyone can win; life is competitive. Ifyou lose a race, then you should just try harder. That's what I learnt when I was at school. 2 I don't think more competition is the answer. Sport at school isn't about teaching children how to be competitive; it's about encourag~ng them to exercise. 3 There are plenty of children who don't do well academically, who are brilliant at sports. Why shouldn't they be allowed to play against each other and prove how well they can do? No one says that trying to get a good mark in an exam is too competitive. 4 I went to a school that insisted on competitive sports. The school used to hold sports days in a public park, so everyone in the park could watch. I was small for my age and always came last in all the races. It was awful. 5 Competition is healthy, but taking part is more important than winning. Everyone should feel good about having done their best, whether they win or lose. 6 If everyone knows at the start of a race who the winner is going to be, then it can be boring and demotivating. Why can't children be encouraged to compete against themselves, to break their own personal records instead? 10.5 >))

1

2 3 4

It's just unrealistic for children to be told that everyone can win; life is competitive. If you lose a race, then you should just try harder. That's what I learnt when I was at school. I don't think more competition is the answer.

10.7 >»

P

There's nothing quite like the atmosphere of the crowd at a big game, is there? Well, actually a South Korean baseball team, the Hanwha Eagles, think they can create something like the atmosphere of the crowd by using robots instead of real live fans. The robots can cheer on their team, and human fans who aren't able to attend the game in person v.r:ill be able to upload their faces onto the robot, and make the robots clap and wave. They can also send text messages which the robots will display to the players.

10 .8 >)) 1 1he robots can cheer on their team. 10.9 >» 1 1he robots can cheer on their team.

2

Then the robots can also cheer on their own team.

10.11 >))

The atmosphere at the match was amazing. We couldn't have had a better result. 3 I was able to sit right at the front. 4 I rang my friend at the end of the first half of the game. 5 She couldn't come, but she was happy to hear the score. 1 2

10.12 )»

Convenient it might be, but allending a game virtually couldn't possibly be as exciting as being at a real game, surely? And what about the effect on the players? Don't the fans have a responsibility to turn up and encomage their team? Sporting teams always preferto play in their home stadium, where 70- 80% of the crowd will be made up of their own fans, and there is plenty of evidence to show that the home team really does have an advantage. On average, teams playing in their home stadium win about 53% of the time, and there are certain football stadiums, such as the 1\Jrkish team Galatasaray's Ali Sarni Yen Stadium, which seem to be designed to take advantage of the noise fans make, using the shape of the stadium to make the noise as loud as possible. This then makes it very difficult for the visiting team to do well. Some teams now train using recordings ofthe other team's fans, so that they can learn to take no notice of whatever their opponents might be shouting. J-Iowevet~ there is some evidence to suggest that the biggest impact of the crowd is not on the players, but on the referees, or match officials, who have to take decisions about whether to allow goals and so on. It seems that shouting from the crowd can affect their decisions, and make them more likely to favour the home team. But is the noise of their supporters always a positive thing for players or athletes? Not necessarily. In general, crowds seem to improve performance for team sports and sports that

AUDJOSCRIPTS

involve strength or the ability to keep going, such as running or cycling. However, sports which require a lot of concentration don't benefit from the excitement caused by the screaming crowd. These kinds of athletes need calm and quiet to do well, and noise from the crowd might cause them to take unnecessary risks and make a mistake. 10.13 )»

1 2 3

4

5

6

Don't the fans have a responsibility to turn up and encourage their team? ... the home team really does have an advantage. .. . there are certain football stadiums ... which seem to be designed to take advantage of the noise fans make. ... they can learn to take no notice of whatever the other team's fans might be shouting. ... referees, or match officials, who have to take decisions about whether to allow goals and so on. .. . noise from the crowd might cause them to take unnecessary risks and make a mistake.

10 .14)»

Helsinki, Lisbon, Istanbul, Bologna, Liverpool, Riga, Santiago de Compostela ... what do they all have in common'? They're all in Europe, of course, but they're also all past winners of the title of European Capital of Culture. Since 1985, when Athens was first given the title, a different city has been chosen each year to organize a series of cultural events. As well as the honour of being chosen, the winning cities have often been able to attract more visitors and improve their image, so competition is fierce. 10.15 )» 1 A So how long are you going to be in Spain?

B Six months. My company is opening an office in Seville, and I'm involved in setting it up. A I loved living in Spain. You are so lucky to be going there. B Yes, but I hope I don't get lonely - being so far from home. A Well, there's one thing you could do to meet people - you could try learning flamenco. I tried it and I loved it - I made loads of friends. B But I'm not much of a dancer. A That doesn't matter. There are fantastic schools - they can teach anyone to dance. B OK, I'll give it a go! 2

I've just got back from Santiago in Chile. It's such a fabulous city, mountains in one direction, the beach in the other. If you like skiing, I'd strongly recommend Portillo or Valle Nevado, both world-class ski resorts. In the city itself, one of the most interesting things to do is to go to La Chascona, one of the houses of the famous Chilean poet, Pablo Neruda. It's fascinating. 3 A Didn't you use to live in Prague? B Yes, why? Are you thinking of going there? A We've just booked a weekend there. Is there anything we shouldn't miss while we're there?

B Well, you just have to go to the Charles Bridge and up to the castle - especially at night. It's very romantic. The area near the castle has lots of restaurants and bars where you eat traditional Czech food, and, of course, drink some of our famous beer.

P

4

A OK, I arrive in Kyoto on Thursday. Where would you recommend I stay? B Well, have you thought of trying a traditional Japanese inn? It's called a ryokan. I stayed in one last year and it was a great experience. They're the last word in luxury and relaxation - you can enjoy traditional Japanese foods and baths - just everything you could ever want. A That sounds fabulous. I'll definitely try it.

S P

10.16 l)) 1 You could try learning flamenco. 2 OK, I'll give it a go.

3

4

5 6 7

8

If you like skiing, l'd strongly recommend Portillo or Valle Nevado, both world-class ski resorts. Is there anything we shouldn't miss? Where would you recommend I stay? Well, have you thought of trying a traditional Japanese inn? They're the last word in luxury and relaxation. That sounds fabulous. I'll definitely tty it.

S

10.17 )»

1 2

3 4

5 6

get money to start a business put money into someone else's business discover that you don't have very much money promise that something will be done or will happen think of something new make money from a business

10.18 l)) A I'd really like to get a bit fitter. What sport or activity would you recommend? B I strongly recommend running; you'll get fit very fast. A That's a good idea, but I have some problems with my knees. Could you recommend something a bit gentler? B Have you thought of sv.rimming? It's really good for you. A Thank you, that's a good idea. I'll give it a go.

Unit 11 consequences 11.1 )» P And now let's move on to a new film which has just been announced, about the life and crimes of Colton Harris-Moore, known as the 'barefoot bandit: Apparently the money Colton makes from the film will be going straight to his victims, but can it be right to make films which celebrate someone's crimes in this way? Susie, will you be going to see the film? S Yes, definitely. I think it's a fascinating stmy. P Why do you think people are so interested in his story? Dido' t he get a lot of fans on Facebook as well? S Yes, he did. I think the biggest thing v.rith Colton is that the story was just so entertaining. Everyone wanted to know what would happen next. And lots of people

P

just loved the idea of him teaching himself to fly- who wouldn't want to do that?! Et; me for one! But seriously, he wasn't really someone to be admired, was he? I mean, if he had crashed the plane in a town, he would probably have killed someone. But there are examples of criminals who actually did some good. I can understand those more. Take Ned Kelly, for instance. I've heard of him, but I'm not sure what he did. He was an outlaw in Australia in the 1800s. His trouble started when a police officer was shot in Ned's house. Ned was arrested for murdet; but he claimed he hadn't done it and escaped with his brother and two friends. The four of them then went around robbing banks, but they were kind to the people who actually worked in the banks, and shared the money with other people. Ned claimed that he was being unfairly treated because his family was Irish. Vlhen he was finally arrested, thousands of people protested outside the prison. That reminds me of someone else I heard about - a Hungarian called Atill a Ambrus. He robbed bartks as well, back in the early 1990s. No one was ever hurt, and he treated the people working at the bank very politely. He even gave the women working there flowers! He became popular because many people felt that the banks deserved it! Though I don't think he ever gave any of the money away. ·w hen he was arrested, he escaped from prison by tying his bed sheets together! It's a great story, and there's been a film made about him since. Really? People do seem to love this kind of story, don't they?

11.2 )»

1

2

I accidentally posted a video of myself and some friends at a party and my boss saw it. I didn't mean to post it. I was uploading a different video and accidentally clicked on this video, too. It was really embarrassing, and now my boss thinks I'm really unprofessional. I had just had a job interview and one of the interviewers was very rude to me. So I tweeted about it. As soon as I pressed Send, I knew it was a mistake, but it was too late. Later I found out that I would have been offered the job, but someone saw my tweet and they changed their minds and gave the job to someone else.

11.3 )»

1 She should have been more careful when she posted the video. 2 She shouldn't have accepted her boss as a 'friend' online. 3 She shouldn't have behaved badly at the party. 4 She shouldn't have posted any videos online. 5 He should have thought before pressing Send. 6 He shouldn't have said anything negative about the interviewer online. 7 He should have waited until he was offered the job. 8 They should have given him the job anyway, if he was the best candidate.

11.4 l))

She should have been more careful. She shouldn't have behaved badly. 11.5 l))

1

2

I really wanted to go to a big football game, but I was supposed to be working. So I told my boss I was ill. The game was brilliant, but unfortunately I got so excited I started tweeting about it and my boss saw the tweets, so she knew I wasn't at home sick. I ended up losing my job. It really wasn't my fault. I was looking after my parents' house while they were away, and I decided to have a party. It was only going to be a few friends, but one of my friends decided to write about it on Face book. He didn't realize it, but that meant that 500 people knew about the party and about 150 people turned up. It was a great party, but the house was a terrible mess afterwards.

big business and government. Today we have Dr Michelle Hall with us. She's been researching into an area known as 'unintended consequences~ Good morning, Dr Hall. Just to start off with, can you tell us what you mean exactly by 'unintended consequences'? H Good morning, Peter. Well, yes, the easiest way to explain is through an example: let's imagine that we pass a law which says that all young people must wear helmets when they are cycling. This looks like a very sensible law. Obviously our intention is that if a young cyclist were to have an accident, their head would be protected. I Yes, it sounds like a very good idea! H But the problem is that wearing helmets is very 'uncool; or unfashionable, so young people mjght say, 'I don't want to wear a helmet~

I

car. 'this means they may take less exercise. And then they could put on weight, and later in life that might bring health problems. And that all means that the unintended result is as bad as the original problem.

11.6 )»

Conversation l M Something horrible has happened at work. W Oh no! \1\lhat?

M I had to finish a report for Tuesday morning, and by Monday afternoon, I hadn't even started it. I decided to borrow a laptop from the office so I could write it at home, and bring it in on 'fuesday morning. W OK.So ... ? M The thing is, it's against the rules. Our manager says we must get permission before we do that. W Hight ... M So I took the laptop home, and was writing the repmt at home. But then during the night I got really sick ... W You were probably feeling guilty ... M Jlmmm. Maybe. Anyway, I couldn't go into work on the Tuesday after all, because I was sick. And they discovered the laptop was missing. W And they realized it was you! M No, worse than that, actually! They called in the police! W Why don't you just phone in and tell them it was you'? M Because then they'll realize I was going to be late with the report ... Conversation 2 M Where were you last night? w I had to help Professor Dudley with his new research project. M Again? That's all you do at the moment. w I know! I ·wish I'd never olfered to help him. M So why did you? w I thought it would get me a better grade in my exams. But ... M But...? W I have to work day and night for him -for free! And I don't think he even knows my name. I'm just a slave. M Ha! Serves you right.

11.9 l)) A OK, so when do we have to move? B By the end of the month; I think the last day's the 28th. C I've been checking all the estate agent's sites on the internet, and there seem to be quite a few apartments that would suit us. A Great. Let's see. It would be a good idea for us to decide what we have to have. C Well, to start off, a bedroom each, and a nice living room ... B I'd like the apartment to have a balcony. C Let's leave extras like that for now and concentrate on the essentials. B Don't you think a balcony is essential? What will we do in the summer when it's hot? A Well, another option would be to go for a ground-Boor apartment, or a building with a shared garden. C OK, we can see what's available. Could we move on to thinking about where we want to live? A Near the centre - that would be good for you at the university and for our office. B OK, now for the difficult question: how much rent can we afford to pay? C Could we all go up by 100 euros a month? We'd get somewhere really nice for that. A I suppose so. C So, we're looking for a three-bedroomed apartment, near the city centre ... B With a balcony or garden ... 11.10 )» 1

2 3 4

11.8 )»

I

Over the past three programmes, we've looked at the results of actions- both our personal actions and the actions of

And so ...?

H So they'll stop cycling, and go everywhere by

Let's leave extras like that for now ... Don't you think a balcony is essential? Another option would be to go for a groundfloor apartment ... So, we're looking for a three-bedroomed apartment ...

11.11

1 2



In the square I saw ... The light was ...

3 4

5 6

The match was rubbish - it ... Please can you give me the key- I need it to .. . We need change - it's important because .. . I'll meet you at the bank- bring some ...

11.12 )» 1 We're running out of time. 2 Are there any other suggestions?

That's settled, then. Let's leave that for now. You must admit that's true. 6 That would be another option. 7 I'm convinced that... 8 So what we're saying is ... 3

4 5

Unit 12 Influence 12.1 l)) 1 The best ad I've seen had a serious point, but it was actually really amusing. There

were three guys sitting outside somewhere in Australia. There was a house behind them, and the light was on. One of them asked another one to go and turn the light off because it was Earth Hour. You know, every year it's one hour when everyone around the world is supposed to turn off their lights to save energy and make people think about using less electricity. Anyway, the man couldn't be bothered to turn the light off - he said it was just one light and it wouldn't make any difference. Then, suddenly, he saw a HUGE cloud of moths coming towards them. Maybe every moth in Australia was heading for their light because all the others had been switched ofH I really think that the most effective adverts are those that make people laugh. 2 I saw an amazing ad to raise our awareness of the problems homeless people have. It said that the weather was one of the biggest problems homeless people have, and that during the previous winter many of them had died. I Iowever, because they were homeless, no one really noticed them. So, in Germany, Switzerland, Russia and a few other countries they asked homeless people to present the weather forecast on TV. '!his helped people watching to see them as real people, just like them, and lots of them were offered help and jobs. They are now hoping more countries will do it next year. 3 I really liked a public service ad called 'The impossible texting and driving test: It was really clever. It was made in Belgium, and the point was to persuade people not to send texts on their mobile phones while driving. Of course, no one likes being told not to do something - well, I don't anyway - so they decided the best way to convince people that it's a stupid idea was to show what happens when you actually force people to text and drive! So the ad shows real people learning to drive at a driving school in Brussels. The instructor told them that a new law had been passed and that they now had to prove they could use a mobile phone while driving. Of course, no one could do it, and there were lots of silly little accidents.

AUDJOSCRIPTS

12.2 )» 1 The best ad I've seen had a serious point. 2 Earth Hour is about saving energy. 3 I saw an amazing ad ... 4 Lots of them were offered help. 5 The instructor told them that a new law had been passed. 6 There were lots of silly little accidents. 12.3 )» P So, Tania, you've been reading our book of the week, How to Persuade and Influence People. Did you enjoy it? T Yes, actually. I thought it might be useful, but I didn't really expect to enjoy reading it. But it was really quite entertaining. There are a lot of personal stories by the authOI~ and some of them are quite funny. P Can you give an example? T Er, well, the author probably tells the stories better, but there's one where a bird attacked the audience at a presentation ... P Really?! T Yes, the author had thought it would be a good idea to have a real owl in his presentation, but it escaped! Amazingly, he still got the job. P So, what did you actually learn from reading the book? T Well, there were some very useful tips for remembering people's names. He says that's important in getting people to trust you, so that you can then int1uence them. P Oh, I'm not very good at remembering names. What were the tips? T Erm, to believe that you could do it, to listen carefully when the person first says their name, to use their name in the conversation, to look at their face and associate it with the name, and to write down their name and everything you can remember about them afterwards. P That sounds sensible. Have you got better at remembering names since you read the book? T Actually, I think I have ... a bit, at least. It probably takes practice. P And what does the book say about persuading people'? T Well, there's a lot of information - you'll have to read it, really. But probably the most important thing is to really listen to people and to ask questions to find out what's really important to them, what matters to them. When they see that you understand them, you'll be better able to int1uence or persuade them. P I guess that makes sense, too ... So, most important question: are you better at persuading people now? T I'm not sure. Ask me again in a few months

P

I certainly will...

12.4)» 1 Well, the interesting thing is that soft power is now all about business. Countries no longer depend on force or politics to increase their influence abroad. I mean, when the distinguished American political scientist Joseph Nye used the words 'soft power: he was referring to foreign policy,

but now soft power is used in business, too. The idea is that to succeed in business, you need to int1uence people - so nothing new there - but the best way to do that is through communication and soft skills. You need to respond to your employees and show that you believe in them. Then they will work hard for you and make your business successful. 2 One thing that's really changed in business is the way we persuade people through communication skills and not force. We're not afraid of being more open in the workplace any more. Of course, we have women to thank for a lot of these changes. Women are stat1ing more businesses than ever, so female int1uence is increasing. Poor leadership and communication lead to employees becoming dissatisfied with their boss and maybe even leaving. That's a disaster because we depend on our employees to make our business a success. 3 The thing we're all concentrating on now is working together and finding work that we find satisfying. We want to work in a group and deal \1\rith problems effectively, not spend our time blaming other people for the problems, or feeling jealous of other people's success. I think a lot of young people have stopped worrying about how they are going to get a promotion. They just want to be good at something and to feel they're working for a company that values them as a person. 12.5)» 1 We're not worried about showing our emotions in public. 2 What we're talking about is a country's influence in business and culture. 3 The idea is that to succeed in business, you need to influence people. 4 We're b ecoming more interested in how other people see us. 5 You need to respond to your employees and show that you believe in them. 6 Joseph Nye was referring to foreign policy. 7 Poor communication can lead to employees becoming dissatisfied. 8 Managers need to listen to their staff. 9 The thing we're all concentrating on now is working together. 10 They just want to feel they're working for a company that values them as a person. 12.6 l)) 1 Emily and Andrew E Ooh? Is that new? Very fancy! A Yes, well I decided to treat myself- my old one wasn't working properly. It has a really good camera - 12 megapixels. That'll be really useful for my holiday. E I was just going to say that! You won't need to take your camera with you now. A And the internet is really good on it as well, so I don't think I'll need my computer as much as before. E I'm not sure about that. Don't you think the screen's a bit too small to read? A Mm, you might be right. Maybe I'll still use the computer for work. It really does look good, though, doesn' t it? Hey, maybe I can persuade you to get one as well!

2 Lena and Matt L So how did you get home from the party last night? M In the end I got a lift with Andre. Have you seen that thing he drives? It looks absolutely terrible. So old-fashioned. L Oh no, I totally disagree ... I think it's really cool to go around in something like that. It's so different. M Yes, but I can't help thinking that 'different' doesn't mean good-looking! L Well, I think some of the old styles look better than the modern ones. And anyway, we shouldn't be under pressure to buy new stuff. M I couldn't agree more. But this model never was stylish! It's just awful! 3 Isabella and Marina I Have you been to that new place in town yet - you know, at the top of the hill? M Yes, I went last week, actually. What was your impression? I Well, the food is fantastic, but so expensive. And they encourage you to order so much! Don't you agree? M Yeah, that's just what I thought. I must say, we enjoyed it, but I didn't enjoy paying the bill. I think it's in a great spot, though, looking out over the city. I Absolutely! It's a great view. It's even better if someone else is paying! 12.7 )» Agree strongly I was just going to say that! That's just what I thought. Absolutely! I couldn't agree more. My thoughts exactly. That's a good point. Agree weakly I suppose so. You might be right, but ... Disagree strongly I totally disagree. Rubbish! Disagree weakly I'm not sure about that. Yes, but I can't help thinking ... I agree up to a point ... 12.8)» 1 It really makes me want to try the product. 2 I'll never forget that advert. 3 I didn't really understand what it was trying to say. 4 It was really funny. 5 I've never seen anything so horrible. Yuck! 6 It is really imaginative and different. 12.9)» 1 Do you usually watch adverts on TV? 2 What kinds of adverts do you notice? 3 Have you ever bought a product because of advertising? 4 What slogans can you remember? 5 Was advertising better when you were a child? 6 What do you think about advertising to children?

Irregular verbs l•mm

~~m

~I•J;LUlii!J •ml

be beat

was/were beat

been beaten

become begin bite blow

became began

become begun

bit blew broke

bitten blown broken

brought built bought could caught

brought built bought been able to caught

chose came

chosen come

cost cut dig

cost cut dug

cost cut dug

do draw dream

did drew dreamt/dreamed

done drawn dreamt/dreamed

drink drive

drank drove

eat fall feed feel fight

ate fell

drunk driven eaten fallen

find fly

found flew

fed felt fought found flown

forget forgive freeze get give

forgot forgave froze got gave

forgotten forgiven frozen got given

go grow

went grew

have hear hide hit hold

had heard hid hit

gone/been grown had

ili'l;ll

break bring build buy can catch choose come

fed felt fought

hurt keep know lay

held hurt kept knew laid

lead learn leave

led learnt/learned left

O.W Oxford 3000™

heard hidden hit held hurt

I

i iWI:)

lend let lie light

I

I I

I I

I

I I

kept known laid led learnt/learned left

I• m m

!

~blJ.u.l!WJ lent

lm)l ffiTiffill •I m

let lay lit

lent let lain lit

lose make

lost made

lost made

mean meet must pay put

meant met had to paid put

read ride ring rise run say

read rode rang rose ran

meant met had to paid put read ridden rung risen run

see sell send

said saw sold sent

said seen sold sent

set shake shine

set shook shone

shoot show shut sing sit sleep

shot showed shut sang

set shaken shone shot

sat slept

sat slept

speak spend spoil

spoke spent spoilt/spoiled

spoken spent spoilt/spoiled

stand steal stick swim

stood stole

stood stolen

stuck swam

take teach tear

took taught tore told thought

stuck swum taken

tell think throw understand wake wear w in write

threw understood woke wore won wrote

shown/showed shut sung

taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn won written

I

Phonemic symbols Gtn.~o.·n••t:lii~~~

t..'flll;,I[;Jlfll~f;fl;ll~~

/i:/

tree

/tri:/ his

III

/hrz/

/i/

;•hrepi/

/u/

/gud/

/u/ /u:/

lei

happy good usual

flju:3ugl/ school

/sku!!/ ten

/ten/

/g/ /3:/

computer

/kgm•pju:tg/ learn

/13m/ four

f>j!f

/fJ:/

Ire/

/hret/

/AI /a:/

In/

hat sunny

flsAni/ car

/km/ clock

/kink/

/p/ /b/

fig/ /ug/ /eg/ /e1/

near /m~/

tour

/tug/ wear /we~/

train

/trem/

f>jlf

/ail /gu/ /au/

/b:Jr/ try

/trar/ so /s~u/

out

/aut/

big

/brg/ tea

/ti:/

/d/

/du:/

/1f/ ld:JI /k/

If/ boy

/pen/

It/

/g/ ltJitiiUi 1IU~'1({irt1Jiil[";:n_,, tlT;fL~II-'11 II; 1~

pen

/v/ /9/

!of

do children ltfddr~n/

journey

fld33mi/ cat

/kret/ go /g~u/

fly

/flail very

flveri/ thing

/9rTJI this

lorsl

Is/ lzl

see

/si:/ lazy

fllerzi/ shower

If/

lfaug/

131

flteliVI3ll/

/m/

In/ /IJ/

/h/ /1/

/r/ /w/

/j/

television man

/mren/ never

flnevg/ sing

/srrj/ hot

/hot/ like

/lark/ river

flrrvg/ water flW'J!t~/

yes

/jes/

Name ____________________________________________________

Navigate

81+ Wordlist Unit 1

Here is a list of useful or new words from Unit 1 of Navigate 81+ coursebook. You can insert your own translation . Words marked with a key (O.W) all appear in the Oxford 3000. adj = adjective adv= adverb

ability 0wr n

conj = conjunction n =noun

phr v = phrasal verb pi= plural

The internet is changing our culture so that we are less able to concentrate or make deep connections in our brain.

able 0wr adj /'e1bl/

n

pron = pronoun V= verb

The courses available are for different levels of ability.

/~'bd~ti/

achievement 0wr

phr = phrase prep = preposition

/~'tfi:vm~nt/

adventure 0wr n /~d 'ventJ~ (r)/

Although it was hard work, it was an amazing achievement. His adventure has taken him across Europe.

bargain 0wr

n /' ba:gm/

What have you bought recently that was a bargain?

behave o.w

v /bi'heiv/

The internet is changing the way our bra ins behave.

/ 'tfrer~ti/

charity Owr n

His aim is to raise money for a children's charity.

choice 0wr n /tf:>Is/

We're trying to get people to think about the effect their buying choices have on the rest of the world.

come face-to-face with phr / ,kAm 'feis t~ ,fe1s w1o/

He has already come face-to-face w ith 123 internet friends.

communication 0wr

v

connect 0wr

/k~n'sju:m~(r)/

adj /k~n'vmst/

convinced

currently 0wr adv deal 0wr

/k~,mju:m'keifn/

/k~'nekt/

n

consumer o.w

n

/'kAr~ntliJ

n /di:ll

The internet, and especially Skype, has improved communication with friends who live abroad. I think this cable connects to the back of the computer. High-street shops have a wide choice of products for the consumer. I'm convinced my life has improved since 1 started my new job. Rob Jones is currently meeting every single friend on his Facebook page. Have you ever bought something you didn't need because it was a good deal?

deeply Owr adv / 'di:plil

we never take any time to think about things deeply.

definition 0wr n / ,defi'mJn/

What is your definition of a true friend?

develop 0wr digital age

v /di 'vebp/

n / 'drd31tl e1d3/

effect 0wr n II'fekt/ expression 0wr

n IIk'spre.fn/

our friendship has developed over time. The digital age is making us lose our ability to do one thing at a time. Don't you think they have an effect on young people? The expression Black Friday has been used more than two billion times on TWitter recently.

fall out (with someone) phr v /f:>:l'aut (WIO ,SAffiWAn)/

1 rarely

friendship 0wr n /'frendfip/

Her friendship means a lot to me.

get on (well with someone) phr v / get 'on ('wel wro ,sAmWAn)/

1 get

v / 'gAvn/ government o.w n /' gA v~nm~nt/

Who is the region governed by?

govern 0wr

guilt-free

adj !gilt 'fri:/

fall out with my friends.

on really well with Jill.

The government has announced the latest tax proposals. How do you feel about the fact that guilt-free brands are often more expensive?

half-price adj /ha:f 'pra1s/

1 bought

these in the sale. They were half-price!

harmful 0wr adj / 'ho:mf J/

It has a harmful effect on the environment.

have a lot in common phr /,hrev ~,lot m ' kom~n/

1 guess 1 don't

have a lot in common w ith them .

1

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 1

Navigate

help (someone) out phr v /help (,SAffiWAll 'aut)/

A really good friend is someone you can ring at midnight and ask them to help you out.

improvement o.w

There have been some amazing improvements in the way we can get information. How do you keep in touch with family or friends who live far away?

n

IIm'pru:vm~nt/

in touch (with someone) phr /m 'tAtJ (WIO ,SAffiWAn)/ injury o.w n

/'md3~ri/

There have been five injuries in the last few years on Black Friday.

o.w n /'ait~ml judgement o.w n /'d3Ad3m~nt/ item

All of these items are half-price.

lately adv flleitli/

His book shows us that we need to use our judgement before we let computers take over. How many of your Facebook friends have you seen lately?

leisure time

n /'le3~ taim/

The idea of buying things as a way of spending your leisure time is crazy.

media o.w n

/'mi:di~/

meet up phr v /mi:t •Api

When we use new media, our brain works and develops in a different way to how it did before the internet. 1 often meet up with groups of friends in the evening.

membership o.w n

The annual membership is too expensive for me.

movement o.w n

/'memb~Jip/

/'mu:vm~nt/

adj /~'ke13~nl/

occasional

on credit o.w phr /on 'kred1t/

Now there are Buy Nothing Day movements in over 65 countries. we send the occasional message to each other.

opportunity o.w n I, op~'tju:n~ti/

There's a danger of spending more than you intended and buying things on credit. This is a great opportunity.

persuade o.w

He persuades them to give to his charity.

v

process o.w n prove o.w

/p~'sweid/

/'pr~uses/

He hopes to have met all 700 Facebook friends within three years, travelling thousands of miles in the process.

v /pru:v/

purchase o.w n

This proves the internet is a powerful tool.

/'p3:tf~s/

v /kju:/ resources o.w n pi /n's:):siz, -'z:):siz/ queue

v /,ri:ju:'na1t/ run-up n /'rAn Ap/ reunite

secure o.w ad} security o.w

n

/s1'kju~r~ti/

smartphone

n

/'sma:tf~un/

socialize

'of~(r)/

transport o.w v /trren'sp:):t/ trend

v /trend/

trust o.w admit o.w

v /trAst/

v

!~d'mitl

People should be encouraged not to consume more than their fair share of the world's resources. I'm reuniting with friends. The shops have amazing special offers in the run-up to Christmas.

/si'kju~(r)/

v f1 s~uJ~laiz/ special offer o.w n /,spefl

While you may get a good discount on your purchases, you should be careful. some people have queued overnight.

The important thing is to feel secure in your job. 1 am always extremely careful about my personal security online. The development of smartphones has made a huge different to the way we all access information. Students in the USA spend 51% of their time socializing.

Do you look for special offers such as buy one get one free in the supermarket? I'm not sure transporting goods by air is a good ide What's trending in social media? 1 can

trust my closest friend with all my secrets.

The newspaper has admitted the story was a hoax. 2

Name ____________________________________________________

Navigate

81+ Wordlist Unit 2

Here is a list of useful or new words from Unit 2 of Navigate 81+ coursebook. You can insert your own translation . Words marked with a key (O.W) all appear in the Oxford 3000. adj = adjective adv= adverb

announce o.w appear o.w

conj = conjunction n =noun

v /d 1nauns/

v /d pld(r)/ 1

n /d 1tempt/

attempt 0wr

be stuck phr lbi 1 St.Ak/

v /bi li:v/

believe 0wr

1

n lbree!

breath 0wr

cable car Owr n / 1 ke1bl ka:(r)/

v ltfa:d3!

charge 0wr

phr v = phrasal verb pi= plural

phr = phrase prep = preposition

pron = pronoun V= verb

Police announced yesterday that calls to the emergency 999 number had risen sharply in recent months. A huge hippo suddenly appeared. The whole story had been made up by the boy's parents, in an attempt to get a reality TV deal. I realized I was stuck inside something. I believe, though, that I met him one more time. I remember wondering which of us could hold his breath the longest. He decided not to take the cable car down with his friends, but to walk down instead. A hoax story claimed that dialling 999 would charge your phone battery.

circulate

v / s3:kjdleit /

Recently, a picture has been circulating on the internet of a bright blue watermelon.

claim 0wr

v /klenn/

The hoax story claims that calling 999 will charge your phone battery.

1

n /kdU 1InSiddns/

coincidence

conclusion Owr n consecutively

/k~.:m 1 klu:3nl

adv /kdn 1 sekj dt IVli/

v /kri 1e1t/

create 0wr

adv / 1kjudridsli/

curiously

disappear 0wr escape 0wr

v / 1 diSd 1 pld(r)/

n /I Ske1p/ 1

evidence 0wr n / 1 eVIddns/ expect 0wr fake

v 1Ik1spekt/

n /fe1k/

float Owr

The conclusion was that the judges were deciding not on what they could hear, but what they could see. Expert: a man who makes three correct guesses consecutively. It is easy to create a hoax now that everyone can change photos and videos digitally. Orchestras, curiously, started hiring women left, right and centre. The hippo had quietly disappeared. That reminds me of another story 1 heard about a man who had a lucky escape. Scientists were keen to find some evidence that would prove the link. Did you expect that to happen? In 1953 a team of researchers discovered that it was, in fact, a fake.

v /fldut/

fortunately

Coincidences are often meaningful and 'meant to happen'.

adv /'f:):tJdndtli/

On October 15, 2009, the media reported that a six-year-old boy was inside a large silver balloon floating high in the sky. Fortunately, we got to the airport on time.

free 0wr

v /fri:/

1 managed to free one hand and felt around - my hand touched a hippo's nose.

hire 0wr

v / 1ha1d(r)/

orchestras started hiring many more women .

n /hduks/ inform 0wr v /m f:):m/

hoax

1

interestingly adv / 1 mtrdstiiJlil

It turns out the story was another internet hoax. The police were informed. Interestingly, I know a lot of people who want to work on television.

1

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 2 v

interview 0wr

fimt~vju:/

v /m 'vent/

invent 0wr

A journalist actually invented the story.

Scientists were keen to find some evidence that would prove the link between early man and apes.

adj /ki:n/

keep quiet phr /ki:p

'kwar~t/

phr /'nok ,mtu:, ,mt~/

knock into

The boy spoke to someone while reporters were interviewing the family on TV. It had an ape-like jaw.

jaw n /d3:):/ keen

Navigate

He was supposed to keep quiet about it. something knocked into the boat.

live 0wr adv /laiv/

By the time the balloon finally landed about 80 km away, an hour or so later, the story was live on television .

lose contact phr /lu:z 'kontrekt/

Barry had lost contact with his family while he was working abroad.

luckily adv / 'lAkilil

Luckily, she wasn't actually hurt.

medical 0wr adj I' m ed ikll

By chance, a medical team was nearby, and they helped me to reach a hospital.

v / 'menJn/

The boy accidently mentioned that they'd done it to be on TV.

/':):kistr~/

A group of three 'judges' from the orchestra would sit in a room .

mention 0wr orchestra

n

ordinary Owr adj /':):dnri/ personally 0wr adv realize 0wr

v

/ 'ri:~larz/

v

recognize 0wr

v

remember Owr

report 0wr

/'rek~gna1z/

adv /n'ma:k~bli/

remarkably

remind 0wr

/' p3: s~n~li/

/n ' memb~(r)/

v /n 'mamd/

v /n'p:):t/

responsible 0wr adj

/n ' spons~bl/

sadly 0wr adv /'sredli/ scream Owr screen 0wr

v /skri:m/ n /skri:n/

sharply 0wr adv / 'Ja:plil skull

stream 0wr

/ 'sau~(r)/

n /stri:m/

surface 0wr n /'s3:fls/ surprisingly adv survive 0wr system 0wr tell 0wr

v n

Personally, I prefer tea . Did you realize what was going to happen? Did you recognize it? Remarkably, the company made 600 million dollars from the new chunky sauce. 1remembered it so clearly. What did it remind you of? The media reported that a six-year-old boy was inside a large silver balloon floating high in the sky. Meanwhile, Dawson, who most people consider responsible for making the fake, had died. Sadly, none of the students passed the final exam. I screamed loudly. Orchestras started putting up screens in the rooms where the auditions took place. Police announced yesterday that calls to the emergency 999 number had risen sharply in recent months. He dug up a human skull.

n lskAll

sour 0wr adj

It started out as just an ordinary day at work.

/s~ 'prai ZIIJlil

The moon melon will change the taste of anything you eat afterwards, making sweet things taste sour, and so on. He fell in a stream and broke his leg. 1remember looking up at the surface of the water. surprisingly, the results which Moskowitz obtained were completely confusing.

/s~'vaiv/

He survived by drinking water mixed with the barbecue sauce.

/'sist~rnl

Under this system, most of the musicians who were chosen were men.

v /tel/

They told the public to ignore the hoax.

2

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 2 track

v /trrek/

turn around

phr v /t 3:n d'raund/

Navigate

The police were informed and helicopters were sent up to track the balloon. I turned round to push it away, when suddenly everyth ing went dark.

underwater o..r adv /,Andd'w-J:td(r)/

I realized I was underwater.

unfortunately o..r adv !An'f-J:tfdndtli/

Unfortunately, we weren't able to talk to Dr Green at the conference. By the time the hoax was discovered, scientists had wasted nearly forty years believing a lie. Each watermelon is supposed to cost about $200.

waste o..r watermelon

v /we1st/ n / 'w-J:tdmeldn/

weak o..r adj /wi:k/

Most people like weak coffee.

whisper o..r

He whispered something to me.

v /'wispd(r)/ wonder o..r v /'wAndd(r)/

1 wonder

if we'll go there again.

3

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 3

Navigate

Here is a list of useful or new words from Unit 3 of Navigate 81+ coursebook. You can insert your own translation. Words marked with a key (O.W) all appear in the Oxford 3000. adj = adjective adv= adverb

admire o.w

v

attention o.w

phr= phrase prep = preposition

pron = pronoun V= verb

Pick up some valuable lessons by observing someone whose patience you admire.

n

If you succeed in turning your attention away from the chocolate for a while, you may forget about it altogether.

1

1

/~ tenJn/

You sweat, your mouth goes dry, your heart starts beating fast.

n /bli:t.f/

Fill the bottle with water and add ten millilitres of bleach.

n l'blAd 1 vesl/

blood vessel

phr v =phrasal verb pi= plural

/~d ma i~(r)/

v /bi:t/

beat 0wr bleach

conj = conjunction n =noun

There are signs of damage to the blood vessels around the heart.

adj /k~m 1 pju:t~raiz/

computerized

Technology, such as computerized household appliances, are an essential part of everyday life.

confidence 0wr n I' konf1d~ns/

You need a lot of confidence to succeed as a chef.

contest 0wr n 11kontest/

They take part in a contest.

crack 0wr

v /krrek/

crack the egg into the bowl.

damage 0wr n I' drem1d3/

There are signs of damage.

deadline

n / 1 dedlam/

It's also a very high-pressure job, so he must work to tight deadlines.

deal with

phr v / 1 di:l WIO/

The successful children deal with the problem by looking away or covering their eyes.

decision 0wr n /d1 1 SI3n/

An important member of the team is someone who can make decisions.

device o.w

All these devices are constantly developing.

n /di Vais/ 1

easy-going adj / 1i:zi

1

Do you prefer a very strict or a very easy-going teacher?

Q~UIJJ/

English-speaking adj 11 IJJghJ 1 Spi:kiJJ/

Can you name five English-speaking countries?

experiment o.w

One group who took part in the experiment were told nothing.

n

1

1Ik spenm~nt/

expert 0wr n / 1 eksp3:t/

They send someone with no experience in a particular job to live and train with an expert for four weeks.

v /fed/ five-star adj / 1faiv sto:(r)/ flip v /fhp/ full-time adj 11ful 1 tamll

How many of them failed the test?

fail 0wr

give in

Have you ever stayed in a five-star hotel? When the first side is cooked, you flip it over. He is a full-time international business speaker.

phr v /g1v In/

Most of the children gave in before the time was up.

1

good-looking adj / 1 gud lukiJJ/ 1

hobby 0wr

n l'hobil

instructor

n

leader 0wr left-handed

n

The instructor shouted, 'Faster! Faster!'.

/m tehd3~ns/ 1

1

/ li:d~(r)/

v / 1 mremd3f

He's good at using his intelligence to solve problems. Audrey is a good leader.

adj /left 1hrend1d/

make an effort phr 11meik manage 0wr

he's very good-looking.

A new hobby gives us something to talk about with our friends and family.

/m 1 strAkt~(r)/

intelligence 0wr n

1 t hink

1

~n ef~t/

Did you know that Karen is left-handed? If they didn't think about the marshmallow, they didn't have to make an effort not to eat it. She manages the team really well.

1

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 3

Navigate

marshmallow n /,ma:J'mreldu/

If you can be patient and wait until I come back and not eat the marshmallow, you can have two marshmallows as a reward .

measure o.w

You need to use special metal-cutters, and you need to measure carefully.

v /'me3d(r)/

v /, mAlti'ta:sk/

multitask

v /d b'z3:v/

observe 0ww on impulse

phr /on 'ImpAls/

v / ,duvd'kuk/

overcook overpriced panel o.w

ad} /,duvd 'praist/

He's great at multitasking. Pick up some valuable lessons by observing someone whose patience you admire. Never buy things on impulse. The vegetables were overcooked. When was the last time you thought something was overpriced? A panel of judges decides who w ins.

n / ' prenl/

participant n /pa: 'tiSlpdnt/

The judges decide which participant is 'the real thing'.

n /'prefn/ patient 0ww ad} / 'peiJnt/ pleasant o.w ad} /'pleznt/

He has a passion for food .

polite o.w ad} /pd'la1t/

He also had to be polite to the customers.

passion

precise 0ww

ad} /pn' sa1s/

professional 0ww n /prd'fefdnl/

v /n'z1st/

resist 0ww

responsibility 0ww

n /n,sponsd' bild ti/

n ln 'zAltl reward 0ww n /n'w:):d/ result 0ww

rise to the challenge

He didn't need to do much apart from arrive at work on time and be reasonably pleasant to people. As a chef, it's important to work to very precise times. They take part in a contest against professionals. If the children managed to resist temptation, the researcher promised them a reward .

v /n'spekt/

respect Oww

Most of the children found it difficult to be patient.

phr

/ ,ra1z td od 'tfrelmd3/ rub 0ww v lrAbl

Ed was shocked to realize that he couldn't say please and thank you all the time if he wanted the team to respect him. You must take responsibil ity for your actions. The results were not good. The researcher promised them a reward of two marshmallows. Those children who could rise to the challenge were generally much more successful than the others. Next, rub the bottle with sandpaper.

n /' srendpe1pd(r)/ schedule 0ww n /'Jedju:ll

She's the best one in the team at managing schedules.

scientifically proven

The results have been scientifically proven.

sandpaper

phr

Rub the bottle with sandpaper.

/,saidn,tifikli 'pru:vn/ second-hand ad} /'sekdnd hrend/

Have you ever bought a second-hand car?

set goals phr /set 'gdulz/

He's very good at setting goals.

shocked

ad} /Jokt/

short-sleeved

ad} /'J:):t sli:vd/

v /sped(r)/ stress 0ww n /stres/ stressful ad} / 'stresfll spare 0ww

Ed was shocked to realize that he couldn't say please and thank you all the time if he wanted the team to respect him. I'm going to wear a short-sleeved shirt to work today. can you spare the time to go for a run this afternoon? The social Stress Test is a way of measuring stress. one of the most stressful things you can ever do is speak in front of a large group of people.

sweat 0ww

v Is wet/

When I give a speech or a talk, I sweat, my mouth goes dry, and my heart starts beating fast.

symptom

n /' simptdm/

One of the test groups experienced symptoms of stress.

2

Name _________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 3 take part in (something)

phr

Navigate

They then have to take part in a contest against professionals.

1

/te1k pa:t m CsAm(hJJ)/ take responsibility phr /te1k ri 1 Spons~ bd~ti/ talk o... n /t~:k/

However, he didn't have to take much responsibility as his boss dealt with the money.

1

t echnique 0... t emptation

n /tek ni:k/ 1

n /temp tetfn/ 1

phr v /9IJJk

think ahead turn up

Have you ever given a talk or speech to a large group of people?

~~bed/

van 0... n /vren/

Think ahead. Plan for the futu re and you will succeed in achieving your goals.

Jack works in a fast-food van in all weathers. 1

phr /w3:k ha:d/

work well under pressure

/w3:k 1Wel

The children are trying to resist the temptation to eat t he marshmallow.

When he was working in the burger van, Ed had to be reliable and turn up for work on time.

phr v /t3:n 1 Ap/

work hard

Did he explain what his technique was?

phr

She's good at working hard on a project. Does she work well under pressure?

1

And~ pref~(r)/

3

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 4

Navigate

Here is a list of useful or new words from Unit 4 of Navigate 81+ coursebook. You can insert your own translation . Words marked with a key (O.W) all appear in the Oxford 3000. adj = adjective adv= adverb

conj = conjunction n =noun

all over the place

phr

phr v = phrasal verb pi= plural

pron = pronoun V= verb

I can't find my glasses; I've looked all over the place.

~ ~mv~(r) o~

h:l

ple1s/ artificial o..r adj / a:ti fiJII

The company will develop artificial islands to provide houses for the Maldives' poorer citizens.

1

1

/~ spai~n.IJ / 1

aspiring adj

n

canal

Are you an aspiring travel writer?

/k~ 1 nrel/

communal

The Thai capital, Bangkok, has many canals.

/k~ mju:nll 1

adj

chemical o..r cliff

phr = phrase prep = preposition

Every block of flats has a communal garden.

n 1 kem1kl/

It seems that the trees give off chemcials which help to keep you healthy.

1

n /khf/

You could also sit underneath the waterfalls coming down the cliffs into the river below.

n 11 kju:bikJ/

cubicle

culture o..r

The shampoo is in the shower cubicle.

1

/ kAltJ~(r)/

n

feel at home phr / 1fi:l

There are already cultures where a life on water is nothing new.

~t h~um/ 1

n 1 feri S3!VIs/

ferry service

1

There is a daily 30-minute ferry service.

phr

we need to get rid of some of our books - we have too many.

1

get rid of (something)

/get 1 rid ~v CsAm8IIJ)/ give off phr v /g1v of/

It seems that the trees give off chemicals which help to keep you healthy.

1

n 1 1 gl~ub~lai

globalization greenery

n

hoarder n

ZeiJnl

The project is all about globalization. There was plenty of greenery, but also the most amazing rocks.

l'gri:n~ril

It's a mixture of historic buildings and natural beauty.

1

/ h~:d~(r)/

inhabitant n inland

1

adj /hi 1stonk/

historic

I feel at home in my new job already.

I'm a hoarder - I'm just not able to throw things away.

1

/m hrebit~nt /

By 2030, eighteen cities will have more than twenty million inhabitants.

adv /m 1lrend/

As cities become bigger, those who can 't move inland are starting to consider moving out, onto the sea itself.

know (someone/something) like the back of your hand phr /n~u CsAmwAnl

Relax, 1 know this part of town like the back of my hand.

SAm8IIJ) laik o~ brek ov j~: hrend/ landscape o.w n / 1 lrendske1p/

1 don't

luxury n 1 1AkJ~ri/

This project isn't about luxury living.

1

1

1

1

mainland

n / memlrend/

make room

think I've ever seen such a beautiful and unusual landscape.

There are daily ferries to the mainland.

1

phr lmeik 1 ru:m/

make yourself at home phr /me1k j~: 1 self <)t 1 h<)um/ miles from anywhere phr

I'm sure we can make room for one more person. come in and make yourself at home. Well, actually we live miles from anywhere.

1

/madz from £-ni we~/ mixture o..r n l'mikstJ~(r)/ neat and tidy phr 11 ni:t ocean

o.w n

l'~uJn/

~n

1

This part of town is a really interesting mixture of buildings.

taidi/

I like to keep my living space neat and tidy. Why do you think so many people want to go and live in the middle of the ocean? 1

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 4

Navigate

packed in like sardines phr /prekt m lmk so:' di:nz/ peak o..r n /pi:k/

It's awful, we're packed in like sardines on the Tube.

permanent o..r adj

He's choosing a permanent home.

/'p3:m~n~nt/

pool o..r n /pu :II reed

n /ri:d/

rock o..r n lrok!

I could see the mountain peaks and the deep green valleys.

In between the rocks were lots of clear pools for swimming, with bluish water. Islands made from reeds float in the middle of Peru's Lake Titicaca. The landscape had the most amazing rocks.

run out of (something) phr v IrAn 'aut ov (. sAm9IIJ)/

1 agree.

scenery n / ' si :n~ri/

As 1 came out of the trees, 1 could see the beautiful scenery.

season 0wr n / 'si: zn/

Autumn is perhaps the most beautiful season.

set off phr v / set 'of/

It was the end of september, and quite a cold, grey day, as set off. 1didn't want to settle down until 1was 35.

settle down

phr v /,setl'daun/

solar power n

/' s~ul~ ,pau~(r)/

We've run out of space here!

They use solar power to make electricity.

steep o..r adj /sti:p/

The path was pretty steep.

suburb n /'sAb3:b/

Do you live in the suburbs?

sunset n / 'sAnset/

1 think

sunshine trail

n

n

/'sAn.fainl

/tred/

valley o..r

n /'vreli/

wave o..r n /we1v/

1

the most incredible thing was the sunset.

The park was full of people enjoying the sunshine. As I climbed, I could hear the sound of the river by the side of the trail. I could see the most amazing deep green valleys. I love walking on the sandy beaches and looking at the waves.

2

Name ____________________________________________________

Navigate

81+ Wordlist Unit 5

Here is a list of useful or new words from Unit 5 of Navigate 81+ coursebook. You can insert your own translation. Words marked with a key (O.W) all appear in the Oxford 3000. adj = adjective adv= adverb

conj = conjunction n =noun

absolutely o.w adv /' rebs~lu :tli/

phr v =phrasal verb pi= plural

phr= phrase prep = preposition 1 absolutely

pron = pronoun V= verb

love it here.

accessible

adj /~k'sesdbl/

It's absolutely essential we are accessible all the time.

action film

n /'rekfn film/

1

addicted

adj /d'diktid/

amusing o.w adj animated

,hi~r~u/

n /'rekfn

action hero

/~'mju:ziiJ/

adj /'remmeitid/

app n /rep/

astonishing adj /d'stomfiiJ/

n

Who plays the action hero in the film? I hadn't really realized that you could become addicted to your screen. Maliyo aims to produce something clever, amusing and definitely African. Rio 2096 is an animated film. More and more people are looking for entertaining apps and games. In fact, the games do seem to have a world-wide appeal.

appeal o.w n /d'pi:l/

atmosphere o.w

prefer action films.

/'retm~sfid(r)/

Last year, Nigerians bought an astonishing 21.5 million mobile phones. Thomas Newman's soundtrack creates an exciting atmosphere throughout the film.

banker n /'breiJkd(r)/

Agus's family would love to eat at an authentic Indonesian restaurant. Tim Robbins plays Andy Dufresne, who is a banker.

base on

The film is based on a novel by stephen King.

authentic

adj /::>:'8entik/

phr v /be1s (on)/

brilliant o.w adj /'bnlidnt/

Although the film is a little slow, the end is absolutely brilliant.

cast o.w

There are several very good actors in the cast.

n /ka:st/ character o.w n /'krerdktd(r)/ chat o.w v ltfretl classic o.w n /'klresik/ clip dash

n lklipl

He plays the part of the main character in the film. Meanwhile, my daughter spends her days chatting online. It has become a modern classic. Viewers use second screens to watch clips.

v /dreJ/

He makes a living by dashing through the streets of Lagos.

/di~(r)/

The teacher asked them to write an essay about their dearest dreams and wishes.

despite o.w prep /di'spait/

Despite failing at the box office, the film has become popular.

difficult o.w adj

The exam was extremely difficult.

dear adj

/'(hfik~lt/

disappointing o.w adj

/,dis~'p::>mtiiJ/

1 thought

the game was rather disappointing.

disturbing o.w adj /di'st3:biiJ/

It is a disturbing future where poor people can't afford to buy water.

documentary n /,dokju 'mentri/

1 watched

dreadful

The traffic is dreadful.

adj /'dredfJJ

entertaining o.w adj

/,ent~'teiniiJ/

essentially o.w adv II' senfdlil exhibition

o.w n

/,eksi'biJn/

an interesting documentary on TV this week.

It was the most entertaining game I've ever played. The film is surprisingly sad in places, but essentially, it is a positive story. over the past month, I've been to the theatre three times, as well as a number of art exhibitions.

1

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 5

Navigate

falsely

adv / 'fJ:lsli/

In the film, he plays a banker who is falsely sent to prison for killing his wife.

fan 0wr

n /fren/

Most of its fans log in from Brazil, India and the

v

fantasize genre n

/'frent~sa1z/

/'3onr~/

grow apart phr v

lgr~m ~·pa:t/

harmless 0wr adj / 'ha:mhs/ hope 0wr

n

incredibly adv /m' kred~ bli! /m'fju~rieitiiJ/

It's absolutely terrible to think that something that looks as harmless as a video game can have such an effect on your life. It's incredibly expensive. It's absolutely infuriating. The more ways we have to interact with people t he better.

n /, In'teifn/

The only things that get hurt are the mosquitos, a constant irritation in Lagos.

phr v /log 'm/

log in

A second screen can be a tablet, a smartphone, a laptop or a hand-held gaming unit used whilst watching TV.

/,mt~r'rekt/

interact v irritation

In the fi lm, the two main characters meet at university and become friends; however, they grow apart for t he next few years.

The film is about friendship and hope.

/h~up/

infuriating adj

Mei fantasizes about becoming an actress. What genre of film do you prefer?

adj /'hrendheld/

hand-held

us.

magically adv / 'mred31kli/ middle class

n /mxdl 'kla:s/

military o.w adj

/'mil~tril

Most of its fans log in from Brazil, India and the

us.

In the film, he magically turns into a bird. A growing middle class that is looking for entertainment has resulted in Nigerian movies and music sweeping across the continent. The film shows the couple living through military dictatorship in 1970.

modern-day adj /'modn de1/

The second screen is part of modern-day life, especially for young people.

moving 0wr adj /'mmviiJ/

Freeman's performance is very moving.

mug

It can be quite a violent place. 1 haven't been mugged yet, but my friend has.

v !mAgi

n / 'novll

novel 0wr on balance

phr !on

'brel~ ns/

/~'nd3~nl/

original Owr adj performance o.w plot 0wr

I've read the novel, but I haven't seen the film.

n

/p~'f:):m~ns/

n /plot/

Although living in New York definitely has some bad points, on balance 1 don't think 1 want to live anywhere else. He's a character in an original new video game. His performance in the film is the best. The plot is quite difficult to follow.

post 0wr

v lpdustl

We are inviting fans to post reviews this month.

pothole

n /'pothdul/

He dashes through the streets of Lagos on his bike, avoiding cars, trucks and potholes.

predictable prisoner 0wr

adj /pn'diktdbl/

n

/'pnzn~(r)/

v /,rek~'mend/ release o.w v /n 'li:s/ recommend 0wr

The game was good, although it was quite predictable. He soon makes friends with another prisoner. 1 highly

recommend it to everyone.

Despite failing at the box office when it was originally released, it has now become a modern classic.

remake

n / 'ri:me1k/

It's a remake of an old film.

result in

phr v /n 'z Alt In/

It has resulted in Nigerian movies and music sweeping across the continent.

2

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 5 n f! rom kom/

rom com

n /' srels~/ scene OM n /si:n/

Some of the scenes were filmed in Denmark.

phr v /set •aut/

v /' f ~ukexs/

showcase

n

/ ' skmskreip~(r)/

/'sleiv~ri/

n

slavery

soundtrack

n /'saundtrrek/

special effects

n pi l,spefl x'fekts/

stunning adj / 's tAmiJ/ sweep (across) OM

terrific

adj /t~'nfik/

t errifying thriller

v / 'swi:p (~,kros)/

v /tend/

tend OM

n

topic OM

It is designed to showcase African culture to the world through games. The film starts in the future, where a man and a woman stand at the top of a skyscraper in the middle of the night. we then see the couple living through slavery in 1825. Thomas Newman's soundtrack creates an exciting atmosphere throughout the film. There are some amazing special effects. Stepping on the Flying Grass is both visually stunning and truly moving. It has resulted in Nigerian movies and music sweeping across the continent. I tend to check emails and message while I watch. The Shawshank Redemption is terrific entertainment.

adj /'tenfaniJ/

It was a terrifying experience.

/'On l~(r)/

Do you like thrillers?

n /'top1k/

we asked Paul to choose a topic that he found really interesting and relevant to people his age.

unexciting adj / ,Amk 'sartiiJ/ violent OM adj

/'vai~l~nt/

v /v:ns/ vote OM v /v~ut/ world-wide adj /w3:ld 'wmd/ voice OM

He decides to set out on a journey to find a missing photographic negative.

1t hought it was really silly.

silly OM adj / 'sdi/ skyscraper

This film is a rom com. I've also just started salsa dance classes.

salsa

set out

Navigate

It's a pretty unexciting game, really. It can also be quite a violent place. The main characters are voiced by Brazilian actors. we want you to vote for your favourite film of all time. In fact, the games do seem to have a world-wide appeal.

3

Name ____________________________________________________

Navigate

81+ Wordlist Unit 6

Here is a list of useful or new words from Unit 6 of Navigate 81+ coursebook. You can insert your own translation . Words marked with a key (O.W) all appear in the Oxford 3000. adj = adjective adv= adverb

accident o.

conj = conjunction n =noun / 'reks1d~nt/

n

/ ,:):t~'mretikli/

basically o. adv /' beisikli/

cheerful

o.w

adj /'tfi~fl/ /'klaTm~t

n

climate change

I find it difficult to be cheerful when the weather is bad. tJemd3/

cloud seeding n /'klaud si:diJJ/

v

commute confirm o.

/k~'mju:t/

v

/k~n'f3:m/

contract o. n I' kontrrekt/ correspondent crew

n

/,kor~ ' spond~nt/

n /kru :/

crop o.

n /krop/ decrease o. n / 'di:kri:s/ disability n

driving test drone

n

drought

/ ,dxs~'bd~ti/

adj /'draiv~l~s/

driverless

Driverless cars will be able to drive at speed much closer to each other. Many cars can already brake automatically. Basically, due to problems with staff illness in her team, she's behind with her work. Many cars can already brake automatically when they need to slowdown.

v /bre1k/

brake

pron = pronoun V= verb

I read a report on ways in which scientists around the world have been trying to artificially control or change the weather.

phr l~t 'spi:d/

automatically adv

phr = phrase prep = preposition

90% of these accidents are caused by human error.

artificially adv / ,a:ti ' fiJ~li/ at speed

phr v = phrasal verb pi= plural

n /'draiVIJJ test/

Many scientists now agree that climate change has been causing higher temperatures. These scient ists have been exploring various techniques, including cloud seeding, over the past few years. 1 hate commuting to work, it's so stressful. I'll check my diary and will confirm later. We've won a new contract with the same company. With us in the studio today we have Neil Clough, our science correspondent. Rolls-Royce says robo-ships, which won't need any crew, will soon be sailing our seas. Crops have died from water shortages. They hope this means a decrease in rainfall. My own disability, which 1 have had since birth, means that 1 will never be able to drive a 'real' car. Driverless cars are already on the roads in california. How did you feel before your driving test?

/dr~un/

Amazon promises robot drones which will deliver our packages.

n /draut/

Many scientists now agree that climate change has been causing floods and droughts.

dusty adj /'dAsti/

This room is very dusty.

explore o.

Scientists have been exploring another method.

v IIk'spb:(r)/

extreme o.w adj IIk'stri:m/ fire o.

n

/'fm~(r)/

heatwave o. n /'hi:tweiv/ helpless

adj / ' helpl ~s/

imaginative adj in charge

II'mred3m~tiv/

phr lm 'tJa:d3/

In recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in extreme weather events. Have you heard about the terrible fires in Australia? There's going to be a heatwave next week. 1 feel

absolutely helpless.

Although the problem is very serious, local people have begun to find new and imaginative solutions. Your car is now in charge: driverless cars are already here.

1

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 6 phr lm k~n'tr~ul/

in control

There has been an increase in tropical storms. More than so million people die or are injured in road crashes every year.

/'md3~(r)/

v

injure 0wr

You know, as soon as I get behind the steering wheel, I feel great. I'm in control.

n /'IIJkri:s/

increase Owr

instant messaging n

v

interrupt 0wr

/,mst~nt

Navigate

'mes1d3IIJ/

/,mt~'rApt/

Do you think instant messaging has made it easier to organize your social life? Don 't you ever get annoyed when people interrupt a meeting with a personal call?

junction

n /'d3AIJkJn/

Driverless cars come with fast broadband and can communicate with traffic lights as they approach junctions.

landslide

n /'lrendslaid/ n /lem/

The road is blocked because of a landslide.

lane 0wr

adj /,mi:ti~r~'lod31kl/

meteorological motorway n

/'m~ut~wex/

musical 0wr ad} /'mju:zikl/ nowadays adv

/ 'nau~de1z/

v /,~uv~'te1k/ v /pa:k/

overtake park 0wr

possession 0wr n

/p~'zeJn/

practical 0wr adj / 'prrekt1kll prevent Owr

v /pn'vent/

protect 0wr

v

pulse

/pr~'tekt/

n /'remf~:l/

replaceable

In 'plexs~bll

adj

seasonal 0wr adj /' si:z~nl/

n

shortage

He works in the meteorological department. What's it like being in a driverless car on a motorway? She's a very musical person. I think most people organize their social life by mobile nowadays. They are able to overtake other cars safely. Many cars can already park themselves by the side of the road. Most of our possessions are replaceable. I'm not a very practical person. They have been working on techniques to create or prevent rain. we should try to prevent further global warming by reducing pollution, protecting trees and so on. Their experiments have shown that pulses of light from a laser can be used to make rain clouds.

n /pAls/

rainfall

The car is driving in the correct lane on the motorway.

/'J~:t1d3/

In some areas, there has been a decrease in rainfall. This is the one possession 1have that is not replaceable. The seasonal rains have been arriving later and later over the last ten years. There are water shortages across the country because of the heat wave.

n /skill

Some think that only people whose skills are better than the machines' abilities will have work.

slip out phr v /shp 'aut/

Driverless cars can warn the driver if they are slipping out of the correct lane.

sociable adj /'s~uJ~bll

The most sociable person I know is my sister.

skill Owr

social

adj /'s~ufll

He's a very social person.

speed limit n /'spi:d ,hm1t/ steering wheel

n /'str~niJ wi:l/

traditional 0wr adj traffic jam

ltr~'dif~nll

n / 'trrefik d3rernl

tropical 0wr adj /'trop1kll

Google's driverless car sticks to the speed limit. The driver presses a button on the steering wheel - the car is now driving itself! At weddings, it's traditional for the bride and groom to have the first dance. Being stuck in traffic jams could become a thing of the past. Did you hear about the tropical storms in the Philippines?

2

Name _________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 6 unemployable

adj /,Amm'pLn~bl/

wages Owr n, pi l'weid3IZI washable

adj /'woJ~b l/

weather pattern

n /'weo;;,(r) pretn/

Navigate

Those who don't have high-level skills risk being unemployable. They will have to work for very low wages. Is this material washable? If these changes in weather patterns have been happening as a result of global warming, then we should try to prevent further warming.

3

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 7

Navigate

Here is a list of useful or new words from Unit 7 of Navigate 81+ coursebook. You can insert your own translation . Words marked with a key (O.W) all appear in the Oxford 3000. adj = adjective adv= adverb

conj = conjunction n =noun

n

accommodation 0wr

/~,kom~ ' dei.fn/

/~d'v3:t1sm~nt/

phr v = phrasal verb pi= plural

phr = phrase prep = preposition

pron = pronoun V= verb

The job also came with rent-free accommodation in a beautiful apartment.

ambition 0wr n /rem'bi.fn/

I am writing regarding your advertisement for team leaders posted on the Jobs & Training website this month. I'd like to know if you have any further ambitions.

ambitious adj /rem'bi.f~s/

She was hardworking and ambitious.

advertisement 0wr

n

anthropologist

n

/,rener~'pol~d3Ist/

applicant

n

apply 0wr

v h'pla1/

/'replik~mt/

In her early twenties, she worked as a secretary to the anthropologist Louis Leakey. Applicants should have at least a school Ieaver's certificate plus a strong interest in travel. Send applications to Carmen Ramos at [email protected] travelabroad.com or apply online.

aspect o.w n /' respekt/

Did you like that aspect of the job?

assistant manager n /g ,srst;;m t 'rnremd3~(r)/

1 am

attend

o.w v /g'tend/ attitude o.w n /'ret1tju:d/

I would be happy to attend an interview.

award 0wr n

I want to be remembered as someone who helped to change attitudes towards animals. He has received various awards for his achievements.

l~ ' w-::>:d/

behaviour o.w n

/br 'hervj~(r)/

v /blemli

blame 0wr

blogger n /'blogg(r)/

n /bra:nt.f/

branch Owr

working as an assistant manager.

Jane soon became a researcher herself, studying the behaviour of wild apes and chimpanzees. You mustn't blame him. Social bloggers wanted for online lifestyle magazine. we are looking for people to lead teams in our new branches across the country.

bright 0wr adj /' brart/

For many years, people have moved to Europe in search of a brighter future.

bubbly adj /'bAbli/

1want

to be remembered as someone who enjoyed life, was bubbly and worked hard.

champion

adj / ' t.frempi~ru

Rebecca Adlington is a champion swimmer.

climb o.w

v /klaim/

Imagine you send out a group of scouts to a new land to find mountains to cl imb. They believe that a school system that concentrates on marks and grades will reduce the ability of the kids to produce new ideas. The experts were worried that young people in France were not creative and innovative enough for the modern world . He says that if you criticize people for having good ideas, they will give up.

concentrate o.w

v /' kons~ntre1t/

creative adj /kri'eitiv/ criticize 0wr

v /'kntisaiz/

customer care

n

/,kAst~mg 'ke~(r)/

Customer care is very important in this company.

decision maker n /di 'S13n ,mexkg(r)/

we want decision makers who are good with people.

determined o.w adj /di't3:mmd/

Her sister's illness made her more determined to succeed.

director o.w n /dg'rektg(r)/

After two years, 1 became a director.

disagreement o.w

When was the last time you had a disagreement at work?

n

/ ,dJsg'gri:mgnt/

1

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 7 /'drreg~nflm/

dragonfly n

Have you ever seen a dragonfly?

early o.w adj /'3:li/

What is your earliest memory?

entertainment o.w n entrance o.w n

Navigate

/,ent~'temm~nt/

/'entr~ns/

we are looking for writers with something to say about social media, fashion, food and entertainment. we reward success in exams, for example, with entrance to university.

environmental o.w adj /m, varr~n'mentl/

She set up a global environmental programme.

executive o.w

He left his job in London to teach English to business executives in Buenos Aires.

n

IIg'zekj~tiv/

expanding o.w adj IIk'sprendiiJ/

We are looking for new and experienced leaders to manage our expanding group of coffee shops.

failure o.w n

There are reasons why we should value failure as well.

/'fedj~(r)/

o.w n lfeim! famous o.w adj /'fe1m~s/ festival o.w n / 'festivll

She uses her fame to raise money for an encephalitis charity.

fame

flock

She became famous after winning two gold medals. Are you going to the music festival this weekend?

v /flok/

Young Europeans flock to Argentina for job opportunities. phr /get t~ 6~ 'top/

get to the top

high achiever n /hai

e~ 'tfi: v~(r)/

adj /hju : ,mrem 't e~ri~n/

humanitarian

/'In~v~tiv/

innovative adj

n /'d3ob sretis,frekJn/

job satisfaction lifestyle

n /'laifstail/

lifeti me

n / 'laiftamll 'pr~ugres/

make progress phr /me1k

Most people who work here want to get to the top. What does it take to be a high achiever in business? She works for a humanitarian youth education programme. The experts were worried that young people in France were not creative or innovative enough for the modern world. Job satisfaction is really important. It's good to feel happy and content about what you do. The city welcomes a growing number of young professionals who have come here looking for jobs and a more relaxed lifestyle. It's the experience of a lifetime. So making a mistake can mean you also make progress!

make (someone) redundant phr /me1k (.sAmw~n) n'dAnd~nt/

The company is making people redundant.

management o.w n

Do you want to get into management?

/'m~utiveit/

v

motivate

/ 'mremd3m~nt/

What motivates you and what doesn't?

networking n /'netw3:kiiJ/

1 am

obey o...

/~'be1/

we follow the procedures, obey the rules.

n I, okju 'pexJn/

Two years ago, Hanson decided to change his occupation.

v

occupation

online community n / ,onlam k~'mjum~til overnight adj

/,~uv~ 'nmt /

pattern o.w n /'pretn/ point of view position o.w n

/p~mt ~v

n

'vju :/

/pe~'zifn/

procedure o.w n producer o... n

/pr~'si :d3~(r)/

/pr~'dju : s~(r)/

very active in the world of business networking.

If you have great ideas and experiences to share with our magazine's online community, apply now. Included in the trip are overnight visits to places of local interest. In recent years, however, the pattern seems to be changing. Another point of view is provided by Dr Astro Teller who works for Google. I've been promoted to a higher position. Make sure you follow the procedures. There are many directors and producers here younger than am who are very successful.

1

2

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 7 prospects o.w n pi / 'prospekt s/

Navigate

quality o.w n /'kwohti /

My career prospects have definitely been improved by coming to Manila. This company has a good reputation for quality.

quit o.w

She quit her job.

relaxed

v lkwitl

o.w

relocation office rent-free

She changed her job because she wanted a more relaxed lifestyle.

adj In 'lrekst/

n

/,ri:l~u 'keifn

,ofis/

adj / 'rent fri:/

o.w n /,repju 'teifn/ researcher o.w n /n's3:tf~(r)/ reputation

rule

She soon became a researcher herself. 1 have

v /ri:'t r em /

retrain

o.w n

1 work in an international relocation office, helping companies set up abroad. The job came with rent-free accommodation in a beautiful apartment. Your company has a very good reputation.

been able to retrain as a landscape designer.

we have to obey t he rules.

/ru:l/

school Ieaver's certificate n

Applicants should have at least a school Ieaver's certificate.

/sku:l'li:v~s s~ 'tifik~t/

sick/holiday pay n /'s1k, 'hol~cle1 pe1/

I get sick pay and holiday pay and plenty of time off.

o.w adj /skdd/ specialist o.w n /'spef~hst/

The work available is mainly skilled work.

skilled

/ ,st rencl~d

standard of living n stay o.w suited

Some French education specialists recently put on a festival in Paris to encourage children to make mistakes!

;;:>V 'lrVIIJ/

n /ste1/

Short stays with local families are included in the trip. 1 believe 1 would be ideally suited to a management position in your company.

adj I' su :tid/

v

supervise

/'su:p~var z/

take risks phr /te1k 'nsks/ adj /'trel~ntld/

talent ed

team leader

n /ti:m

temporary o.w adj thoughtful

'li:d~(r)/

/'tempr~ri/

adj /'e:l:tfll

travel back in time phr /'trrevl brek m 'ta1rn./ adj /'tre3~d/

treasured

unbelievable adj

/,Anbr'li :v~bl/

unite o.w

v /ju'na1t/

unskilled

adj /,An'skdd/

up to date adj lAp

t~

'de1t/

value o.w v /'vrelju:/ visa

n /'vi:z-;;;,/

well known o.w adj wonder

n

They are searching for a higher standard of living.

Have you ever had a job where you had to supervise other employees? People who like to take risks think creatively. A talented musician, he began to learn piano aged five. Last month, 1 was working in a project team, and 1 didn't agree with the team leader about the time we needed to complete the project. Have you ever had a temporary job? She is the most thoughtful person that I've ever known . My super power would be to travel back in time. What is your most treasured possession? His company is famous for its unbelievable failures. He co-founded an orchestra in order to unite Israeli and Arab musicians. There's plenty of work, both unskilled and skilled. My business knowledge and IT skills are up to date. You should value your position in the company. It wasn't too difficult to get a visa.

/wel'n~un/

/ 'wAnd~(r)/

He is also well known for his work with young people. The activities in the week-long event showed the participants the wonder and pleasure of getting things wrong.

3

Name _________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 7 work experience

n /w3:k Ik'spi~ri~ns/

working conditions

/'w3:kiU

n pi

With my work experience and skills, I believe I would be ideally suited to a management position in your company. The working conditions are much better at the moment than in Lisbon, where I'm from .

k~n,di.fnz/

working hours n pi /'w3:kiQ

Navigate

,au~z/

What are your usual working hours?

4

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 8

Navigate

Here is a list of useful or new words from Unit 8 of Navigate 81+ coursebook. You can insert your own translation . Words marked with a key (O.W) all appear in the Oxford 3000. adj = adjective adv= adverb

conj = conjunction n =noun

phr v = phrasal verb pi= plural

phr = phrase prep = preposition

pron = pronoun V= verb

active o.w adj /'rektiv/

If people are active in work and free time, they'll probably be healthier.

adapt o.w

Some people have no problems adapting to different cultures.

v

/~'drept/

afraid o.w adj

/~'fre1d/

appreciate o.w

It's about learning to make the right choices, even if we are afraid.

v /g'pri:Jieit/

appropriate o.w adj audience o.w n

/g'prgupri~t/

/ ':-,:di~n s/

be capable of phr fbi

'ke1p~bl ~v/

brave o.w adj /bre iv/

bully

say they've definitely got some things right when it comes to bringing up children . If I were stronger, I would stop that bully! A firefighter risks his/her life every day to save people from burning buildings.

burning adj /'b3!niJJ/ adj / 'kre3u~l/

childcare

Researchers believe we are all capable of becoming heroes.

1 must

n /'buli/

casual

She made appropriate eye-contact with the audience.

Do you th ink Clark was crazy or unusually brave?

phr v / 'bnJJ Ap/

bring up

Make sure you are wearing the appropriate clothes for the meeting. Danish people tend to eat a balanced diet and get plenty of physical exercise.

adj / 'brehnst/

balanced

In the end, 1 came to appreciate Iceland's differences.

1 had

n /'t.faddkeg(r)/

to replace my very casual clothes with some smarter ones.

Denmark is a very family-friendly country, with free or very cheap childcare provided by the government.

cost of living n /,kos t ~v 'hviJJ/

The cost of living was another thing I quickly noticed.

cosy adj /' k~uzi/

The winter may be cold and dark, but there is a spec ial term 'hygge', to describe a kind of cosy meeting with friends and family.

craft o.w

I suppose it's one of their traditional crafts.

n lkra :ft/ cultural o.w adj / 'kAlt.f~r~l/ n

culture shock

/'kAlt.f~

disadvantage o.w n disaster o.w

n

/di'za:st~(r)/ k~ud/

n II ' kon~mi/

economy O.W educated

/,drs~ d'va:ntrd3/

n /'dres

dress code

Jok/

adj / 'ed3ukertrd/

embarrassed o.w adj explode o.w

v

/rm'brer~ st/

IIk'spl~ud/

extremely o.w adv IIk'stri:mli/ eye contact

n /'a1 ,kontrekt/

Danes spend a lot of their leisure time socializing and enjoying cultural activities. Since I moved to Iceland ten years ago, I've been through several different stages of culture shock. List all of the advantages and disadvantages on a piece of paper. Having been lucky enough to survive a disaster yourself makes you three times more likely to be a hero and a volunteer. Make sure you find out what the dress code is for the party. What they do have is a strong economy. The more educated you are, the more likely you are to be a hero. women can be a bit embarrassed about their heroic actions. He rushed over to help, even though the plane was on fire and might explode any minute. 1 was

extremely embarrassed about it.

I made eye-contact with them immediately.

1

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 8 n

factor 0wr

/ 'frekt~(r)/

The third and last factor that affects our decision-making is the amount of information we have.

fear 0wr n lfi~(r)/

n

firefighter

He's someone who is ready to do things that are dangerous without showing any fear.

/'fai~fait~(r)/

n /f3:st 'e1d/

first aid

formal 0wr

adj /'f~ :ml/

n

/'d3end~(r)/

gender

In the UK, we rarely wear formal clothes when we aren't at work. There's a difference with the genders when it comes to making decisions.

n /'d3 i:ni~s/

Kind, generous people are more likely to be heroes. Even a scientific genius like Charles Darwin is said to have used this method.

have no problems (-ing to)

/hrev

If I were braver, I would be a firefighter. If someone had an accident, 1could help him because 1know first aid.

generous 0wr adj /' d3en~r~s/ genius

Navigate

phr

some people have no problems adapting to different cultures.

'n~u ,probl~mz/

n /'heleke~(r)/ n /' h1~r~u/

healthcare

Many people in the United States don't have free healt hcare.

hero 0wr

The more educated you are, the more likely you are to be a hero.

adj /h~'r~u1k/

heroic

heroically adv

n

heroism

one in five people has done something heroic.

/h~'r~Uikli!

/'her~Uiz~m/

immediate 0wr adj II 'mi:di~t /

n

lottery

Men reported heroism more than women. some Icelanders wear suits to meet their immediate family on important days of the year. They teach knitting in schools.

n / 'mtiJJ/

knitting 0wr

Researchers at Berkeley University have spent the last five years studying what exactly makes people act heroically.

If we won the lottery, we would give some money to charity.

/'lot~ri/

n /'mee~d/ misbehave v /,misbi' herv/ method 0wr

One common method is to make two lists on a piece of paper. Parents can be very embarrassed if their children misbehave in public. once 1completely misjudged the dress code when 1was invited to a family m eal.

v

misunderstand

n

neighbour 0wr

v

overspend

/,misAnd~ ' strend/ /'ne1b~(r)/

/~uv~'spend/

physical activity n /,frzikl rek'trv~ti/ poverty pram

n I' pov~ti/

/,pAbhk

adv

reappear

v

1must be careful 1don't overspend this month. You'll be healthier if you have plenty of physical activity.

Look outside any cafe and you're likely to see lots of babies sleeping outside in prams.

n

'trrensp~:t sist~m/

rarely 0wr

Danes use thei r extra leisure time to do voluntary work, helping their neighbours.

Denmark doesn't have much poverty.

n /prrem/

public transport system

If you move to a very different culture, people may easily misunderstand your behaviour.

/'re~li/

/,ri:~'pi~(r)/

reasonable Owr adj /'ri:zn~bl/

If there was a cheap and reliable public transport system, people would use their cars less. Where I come from, we rarely do that. The stars stop coming out at night and don't reappear until August. People tend to have more job satisfaction if they work reasonable hours.

2

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 8 redecorate

v lri: 'dek~re1t l

renewable

adj

v l,ri:'Jedju:l/

reschedule rescue 0wr

v l'reskju:l

v lnskl

risk 0wr risky

ln'nju:~bll

sensible 0wr adj I' sens~bl/ n

ls~'sai~til

spectacularly adv stay up

Renewable energy comes from sources that will always exist. The flight has to be rescheduled due to the bad weather. He rushed over there immediately and started to rescue people. 1wouldn't do a job if it was risky or dangerous.

adj I' selfiJI

society 0wr

When we moved into the new apartment, we completely redecorated it.

If you saw a crash, would you risk your life to help?

adj I' nskil

selfish

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lspek 't rekj ~l~li/

phr v lste1 'Api

They have created an online course to train people to become less selfish and more heroic. She's a very sensible person. Denmark is also a very equal society. 1must say, it did look spectacularly beautiful. It was really exciting to stay up w ith my friends, having meals outside in the middle of the night.

suffer Owr

v

l'sAf~(r)l

Some people who move to another country suffer from culture shock.

superstar

n

l ' su:p~s ta:(r)l

Sometimes a superstar makes a smaller country more famous.

v

undercook

underdressed

I,And~'kukl

adj I,A nd~'drestl

1sent the steak back because it was undercooked - in fact, it was almost raw. 1felt extremely undressed!

volunteer

v

lvol~n 'ti~(r)l

One third of the heroes in the study had also volunteered up to 59 hours a week.

volunteer

n

lvol~n'ti~(r)l

Having been lucky enough to survive a disaster yourself makes you three t imes more likely to be a hero and a volunteer.

3

Name ____________________________________________________

Navigate

81+ Wordlist Unit 9

Here is a list of useful or new words from Unit 9 of Navigate 81+ coursebook. You can insert your own translation . Words marked with a key (O.W) all appear in the Oxford 3000. adj = adjective adv= adverb

conj = conjunction n =noun

abstract adj I' rebstrrekt/ background

o..r

n / 'brekgraund/

beauty o..r n / 'bju:til

bird-watching o..r n /'b3:dwotJIJJ/ blob

n /blob/

blond(e) o..r adj /blond/ campaign o..r n /krem'pem/ adj /, kli:n 'feivn/

clean-shaven

closed off adj /kle>uz d 'of/ phr v /kAm e> 'kros/

come across

phr v lkAm 'AP WIO/

come up with consider o..r

phr v = phrasal verb pi= plural

phr = phrase prep = preposition

pron = pronoun V= verb

The abstract painting is very modern. The background of the picture is really detailed. Although the campa ign is selling beauty, 1 think the advert is better than adverts that make women feel bad about themselves. Jon took up bird-watching in his teens. we try to find meaning and patterns in chance lines, blobs and colours. She's got short blonde hair. They are famous for their campaigns to make people feel better about themselves. He's clean-shaven. One woman described her face as 'a lot more closed off, and fatter, sadder too'. 1 came across a website called 'Houses that look like faces' . Scientists have come up with various ideas to explain it.

v /ke>n ' s1d~(r)/ curly o..r adj /'k3 :li/

There are several things we need to consider.

curtain o.w n /'k3:tn/

He was hidden behind a curtain .

curve o.w n /k3:v/

Look at the curves of the lines in the painting.

/'deit~beisl

n

database

She's got short curly hair.

A German design studio is making a database of such faces.

description o.w n /di' sknpJnl

The sketches were done from the women's descriptions of themselves.

detailed o..r adj /'di:teild/

1 love

devote o..r

There are websites devoted to all kinds of objects.

v

double chin dye

/d1'v~ut/

n / ,dAbl'tfm/

v ldml

the painting because it's so detailed.

He's got a bit of a double chin. Her hair might be dyed.

emotion o..r n II ' m~ufnl

The houses seemed to express emotions as well .

express o..r

Not only did the houses look like faces, but they seemed to express emotions as well.

v /1k'spres/

eyebrow n / 'aibrau/

He's got quite thick eyebrows.

n / 'allref/ foreground n / 'f:):graund/ fringe n /fnnd3/

She's got long eyelashes.

eyelash

go bald

phr

/g~u

'b:):ld/

The woman is in the foreground of the picture. She's got short hair, with a bit of a fringe. He's going bald.

grey o..r adj /gre1/

He's got grey hair.

historical o..r adj /h1'stonkJ/

It must be either an old painting or a painting of a historical scene. They were asked to describe their own faces, honestly, to a complete stranger.

honestly o.w adv /' omstlil

1

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 9 hunt o.w irritated

I think they might be going out to hunt.

v /hAnt/

o.w

adj l'Intextxd/ phr v /luk 'f~:w~d t~/

look forward to

Navigate

Some looked a bit irritated. I'm looking forward to the party.

look up phr v /'luk Ap/

we looked up the word in the dictionary.

make out phr v /mexk 'aut/

we can't help making out faces where there aren't any.

n

moustache

lm~'sta:fl

mysterious o.w adj

o.w

old-fashioned

adj /~uld 'frefnd/ /,~uv~ 'weit/

overweight adj

n /f~'nomm~n/

phenomenon

/'p~:trext/

portrait n

n

projector

/mx'stx~ri~s/

/pr~ ' d3ekt~(r)/

He's got a bit of a moustache. It's really mysterious. It can't be a modern painting; it looks too old-fashioned. He's possibly a bit overweight. 1did some research and found out that this phenomenon is called pareidolia. It can't be a portrait of a mandrill. we had to put off the meeting because the projector broke down.

put up phr v /put 'Ap/

Images have been put up on a wall.

reflect o.w

v /n'flekt/ reflection n /n 'flekfn/ seem o.w v /si:rnl

1think it must be a mirror. It's reflecting the sea.

seemingly adv l ' si:mruli/

She was seemingly calm when she took her driving test.

self-described

adj /,self dx'skraxbd/ adj / 'f~uld~ leiJ8/

shoulder-length

phr /, saxd bax 'said/

side by side skate

v /skext/

It must be a mirror; 1can see the reflection of her face. It seems to be moving.

Looking at her self-described portrait, one woman described her face as 'a lot more closed off and fatter, sadder, too'. His hair is shou lder-length and dark brown. He put the two sketches side by side. The river must be frozen over, because they're skating on it.

n /sketJ/ slim adj /shm/ spiky adj l' spa1ki/

They had sketches done of themselves.

stranger o.w n

They were later asked to go into a room and describe their own faces, honestly, to a complete stranger.

sketch

/'stremd3~(r)/

I think she's quite slim. He's got spiky hair.

stubble n /'stAbl/

He's got stubble.

suit o.w

We need to dress to suit where we work.

v /su:t/

tap o.w n ltrepl tape recorder

n /'te1p n,k~:d~(r)/

Taps, teapots, tape recorders- it seems as if we can't help making out faces where there aren't any. As well as taps and teapots, there are even tape recorders that resemble faces.

teapot n /'ti:pot/

This teapot resembles a face.

wear o.w

Rules about what we wear have changed so much in the last few years. He's quite well-built.

v

/we~(r)/

well-built adj /wei 'bdt/

2

Name ____________________________________________________

81 + Word list Unit 1o

Navigate

Here is a list of useful or new words from Unit 10 of Navigate B1+ coursebook. You can insert your own translation . Words marked with a key (O.W) all appear in the Oxford 3000. adj = adjective adv= adverb

conj = conjunction n =noun

phr v = phrasal verb pi= plural

phr = phrase prep = preposition

pron = pronoun V= verb

In the past, most visitors explored the city's abundance of historic buildings. academically adv /,rek~'demiklil

There are plenty of children who don't do well academically, who are brilliant at sports.

athlete n I' reeli:t/

Is the noise of their supporters always a positive thing for players or athletes? Not necessarily.

attraction

o..r n /;;,'trrekfn/

It is one of the most important attractions in the city.

back o..r

v /brek/

They are going to back the project and become an investor.

n /'breJJk l;;,un/ boutique hotel n /bu:, ti:k h~u'tel/ bank loan

phr /,brexk;;, 'rek~:d/

break a record

we had to take out a bank loan to pay for it. The old buildings were turned into boutique hotels. It is also hoped that the new plans will help Britain to break more records in future Olympic Games.

cheerleading

n

/'tfi~li:diJJ /

Cheerleading is very popular in American schools.

compete o..r

v

/k~m'pi:t/

Winning teams will compete in 60 county finals before going on to a national final.

competitive o..r adj crowd-funding

/k~m'pet;;,tyv/

n /'kraucl ,fAncliJJ/

Schools have been avoiding competitive sports. Together with Yancey Strickler and Charles Adler, he started up Kickstarter, a crowd-funding website. As well as yoga and trampolining, dancing is one of the activities offered at our school.

decade o..r

n /'de keid/

In the past decades, development has dramatically changed many parts of the city. In 2014 the city was voted the world's top destination in Trip Advisor's Travellers Choice Awards.

demotivating adj /di:'m;;,utiveitiJJ/

If everyone knows at the start of a race who the winner is going to be, then it can be boring and demotivating.

district o..r

It is starting to resemble Manhattan in some districts where modern skyscrapers are rapidly being built.

n / 'd1stnkt/

dramatically o..r adv dominate o..r

/dr~'mretJ.kJi/

v /'domme it/

earplug n /' I;;>plAg/

Development has dramatically changed many parts of the city. The skyline is dominated by skyscrapers. There are two holes which are located near your ears so you can put in ear-plugs. For entrepreneurs who find themselves short of cash, it's a great way to get funding.

event o..r

n II'ventl

fashionable o..r adj / 'frefn;;,bl/ field

o..r n /fi:ld/

figure

o..r n / 'fig;;,(r)/

Why do we go to big events such as music festivals? Istanbul is becoming just as well known for its modern galleries, designer shops and fashionable restaurants. We've had lots of emails from people in all different kinds of fields saying that they have found it useful. Recent figures show that more and more children are overweight. They won't give any guarantee that the new business will make a profit.

1

Name ____________________________________________________

81 + Word list Unit 1o

Navigate

have a clue (about) 0wr phr / ,hrev g 'klu: (g,baut)/

I haven't got a clue about racing.

have a feeling

I have a feeling this holiday will be a mistake.

have a go

phr /,hrev g 'fi:hiJ/

phr / ,hrev g 'ggu/

It's a bit difficult at first, but just have a go.

home stadium n /,hgum 'stei digm/

Sporting teams always prefer to play in their home stadium.

n /,hgum 'ti:m/ investment 0wr n /m 'vestmgnt/

The home team really does have an advantage.

home team

n /m'vestg(r)/

investor

magnificent adj /mreg'mfisnt/ manufacture 0wr

v / ,mrenju'frektfg(r)/

must-see adj / ,mgst 'si:/

n

nightclub

/'na~tklAb/

There's always the possibility that their investment will increase in value. Anyone who wants to back their projects can become an investor. Istanbul was traditionally famous for its magnificent ancient sights. More are currently being manufactured. compared to 20 years ago, the city's list of must-see attractions has also changed. There are lots of nightclubs in the city.

non-competitive adj /non kgm'petgtiv/

Yoga, dancing and cheerleading are all examples of noncompetitive sports.

open-air

It is the biggest open-air shopping centre in the UK.

adj /,gupgn 'eg(r)/

padded

adj /'pred1d/

v /pled3/ popularity n / ,popju'lrergti/

The 'Ostrich Pillow' is a kind of padded hat.

pledge

People have pledged $195,094.

present 0wr

It is growing in popularity in countries like the United States, Switzerland and canada . First of all, you need to present your idea to the bank.

v /pn'zent/

profit 0wr n /' prof it/

v /pul 'duvg(r)/

pull (over)

v /rexz/

raise 0wr

n /,refg'ri:/

referee renovate

v / ' rengve1t/

resemble

v /n'zembV

riot

n /'raidt/

rugby

n / 'rAgbi/

run-down

adj / ,rAn 'daun/

self-esteem

n /self I'sti:m/

service 0wr n /'s3:v1s/ set up phr v / set 'Ap/ short of cash

phr /.f~:t dv 'kre.f/

How much profit did they make on the business? It's a padded hat that people can pull over their heads to take a nap. He couldn't raise the money he needed. The biggest impact of the crowd is not on the players, but on the referees. The rundown buildings in many areas were renovated. There are websites devoted to all kinds of objects that resemble faces. The audience got out of control and the concert turned into a riot. Schools will play against each other in an Olympic-style event, with sports such as football, athletics, rugby, swimming, tennis and cycling. The run-down buildings in many areas were renovated and turned into boutique hotels and trendy cafes. we have to realize that taking part in competitive sport is not bad for people's self-esteem. Please give me some details about the product or service you are offering. Anyone who wants to set up a business can present their idea on the website. For entrepreneurs who find themselves short of cash, it's a great way to get funding.

2

Name ____________________________________________________

81 + Word list Unit 1o skyline

n Jlskailam/

The skyline was dominated by historic buildings and monuments.

adj /s~ ' fistikeitid/

sophisticated

state-of-the-art adj /,steit take a decision

~v

oi: 'a:t/

phr / ,teik ~ 'di'SI3n/

phr /,texk ~ 'nsk/

take a risk

Navigate

take no notice of (someone/something) phr / ,te ik ll~U 'n~Uti S OV (,SAIDWAn/

The neighbourhood is now home to sophisticated nightclubs. The warehouse is now a state-of-the-art gallery. It's very important to take the right decision. Don't take a risk- it's not worth it. Take no notice of him - he's being silly.

,SAID8IIJ)/ take (someone's) word for it phr

I'll take your word for it, since 1don't know much about it!

/teik (,SAIDWADZ) ' w3:d f~r ,It/ take (something/someone) seriously phr

/texk (,sAm8IJJ , ,sAmwAn)

1just can't take Paul seriously.

's1~ri~sli/

take advantage of phr

We've decided to take advantage of the warm weather.

/te1k ~d'va:nt1d3 ~v/ take care of phr /te1k 'ke~r ~v/

She's the nurse who takes care of my grandmother.

take out phr v /terk 'aut/

You will need to take out a bank loan to pay for it.

take turns phr l te1k 't3:nz/

sometimes we'll buy street food, and the rest of the time we're planning to take turns to cook in the evenings. It is a thrilling mixture of soccer, volleyball and gymnastics.

thrilling adj /'8nhJJ/

n

tournament trampolining

/'tu~n~m~nt/

n /'trremp~li:mi.J/

The government has announced that highly competitive sports days and tournaments are to be re-introduced at schools. Our school avoids competitive sports and has introduced activities such as dancing and trampolining.

trendy adj /'trendil

Some of the buildings are now trendy cafes.

unheard of phr 1An'h3:d ov/

Almost unheard of in Europe, sepak takraw is an extremely popular sport throughout East Asia. It's just unrealistic for children to be told that everyone can win. Istanbul is now one of Europe's most popular and vibrant cities.

unrealistic vibrant adj

adj

/,Ann~'listik/

/ 'va1br~nt/

3

Name ____________________________________________________

Navigate

81+ Wordlist Unit 11

Here is a list of useful or new words from Unit 11 of Navigate B1+ coursebook. You can insert your own translation . Words marked with a key (O.W) all appear in the Oxford 3000. adj = adjective adv= adverb

arrest o.w

conj = conjunction n =noun

v /;;,'rest/

phr v =phrasal verb pi= plural

phr= phrase prep = preposition

pron = pronoun V= verb

The police are close to arresting him.

bandit n l'brend1t/

They call him the 'barefoot bandit' .

barefoot adj /'be;;,fut/

He's known as the 'barefoot bandit', as he often carries out his robberies with no shoes on. It led to people blogging or tweeting about the issue.

blog

v /blog/

burglar n l'b3:gh(r)/

A burglar was caught on Friday night, after getting stuck in a bathroom window.

burglary n /'b3:gl;;,ri/

His burglaries have terrified local residents.

candidate o.w n /'krendid;;,t/

They should've given him the job anyway if he was the best candidate. The police have been trying to capture 19-year-old Cotton Harris-Moore for nearly two years. 1t hought it was very careless and unpleasant of him.

capture o.w

v /'kreptJ;;,(r)/

careless o.w adj / ' ke;;,l;;,s/ change o.w

v /tJemd3/

consequence o.w crash-land

n I' konsikw;;,ns/

v /krreJ 'lrend/

The school buildings have changed very little since 1was at school. The idea of unintended consequences is an important one in politics and economics. That didn't stop him from crash-landing in the sea.

criminal o.w n / 'knmxnl/

There are examples of criminals who actually did some good.

cyberbu llying n l'smb;;,, buliiJJ/ delay o.w n /di'lei/

This can therefore result in a careless or unpleasant tweet, or at worst, cyberbullying. 1 apologize for the delay in replying.

escape o.w

He escaped from prison.

v II'ske1p/

extension o.w n IIk'stenJnl

It would have been better to ask for an extension earlier.

fine o.w n /fam/

The doctor made the patients pay a fine if they missed an appointment.

illegally adv II'li:g;;,li/

They entered the building illegally.

inconvenience issue o.w

n /,mk;;,n'vi:ni;;,ns/

n /' 1Ju :/

insult o.w v IIn'sAlt/ interaction

n /, mt;;,r'rekJn/

1 apologize

for the inconvenience.

1 have had some problems completing work in the last month due to family issues.

They are more likely to insult each other when the communication is not face-to-face. More than half of the 2,000 people surveyed said that they felt social media had replaced face-to-face interaction.

light o.w n /lait/

Please can you turn on the light. It's very dark in here.

match o.w n lmretfl

Are you going to watch the match this evening?

nasty adj /'na:stil

More than a quarter (26%) admitted they have said something nasty on a social media website.

outlaw n /'autb:/

The outlaw became an internet sensation.

passionate adj /'preJ;;,n;;,t/

They felt passionate about it.

permission o.w n /p;;, 'mi fn/

The DVDs were taken without permission.

prison o.w n /'pnzn/

He is in prison.

1

Name ____________________________________________________

81+ Wordlist Unit 11 punishment o.

n

/'pAmJm~nt /

regret o.

v In ' gret/

reportedly

adv

Navigate

The court will decide on his punishment later today. More than a quarter of all users of Twitter and other social networking sites send messages they later regret. He had reportedly taught himself to fly, using information he found on the internet.

/n'p~: t1dli/

rob o.

v /rob/

They were planning to rob the bank.

robber

n

The robber is known to the police.

/'rob~(r)/

say (something) to (someone's) face

phr

/se1 (,sAm8IIJ) t~ (,sAmwAns) 'fe1s/ sensation n /sen 'seiJn/ sentence o.

v

spare o. adj

/spe~(r)/

/'sent~ns/

stolen

adj

1thought it would be good to offer her my spare ticket. Nearly two in five people said they used social media to speak up about something. Let's meet in t he town square this afternoon.

/skwe~(r)/

He escaped by flying a stolen plane all the way from Indiana to the Bahamas.

/'st~ul~n/

stop (someone) from (doing)

/stop

(,sAmw~n) fr~m

He became an internet sensation, with a Facebook fan page collecting thousands of 'likes'. He was sentenced to seven years in prison.

speak up phr v /spi:k 'Ap/ square o. n

Online, people are more likely to say something rude or nasty that they would never say to someone's face.

phr

That didn't stop him from crash-landing in the sea.

('duau)/

submission

n /s~b'miJn/

Please accept my apologies for the late submission of this term's work.

suspect o.

v

He is suspected of more than 1 oo thefts in the United states and canada. There have been a lot of thefts recently.

/s~'spekt /

n /8eftl thief o. n /8i:f/ theft

unfashionable unintended

adj /,Anm'tendid/

unprofessional upload

v

upset o. victim o.

adj IAn'freJn~bl/

adj /,Anpr~'fef~ml/

/,Ap 'l~ud/

v IAp'set/

n /'viktiml violence o. n /'vax~l~ns/

The thief was caught by the police earlier this morning. The problem is that wearing crash helmets is very 'uncool' or unfashionable. The idea of unintended consequences is an important one in politics and economics. Now my boss thinks I'm really unprofessional. 1was uploading a different video and accidentally clicked on this video, too. I didn't mean to upset you. None of his victims were actually injured. The thieves used unnecessary violence.

2

Name ____________________________________________________

81 + Word list Unit 12

Navigate

Here is a list of useful or new words from Unit 12 of Navigate B1+ coursebook. You can insert your own translation . Words marked with a key (O.W) all appear in the Oxford 3000. adj = adjective adv= adverb

advert o.

n I' redv3:tl

associate o.w

n

billboard

conj = conjunction n =noun

v

phr = phrase prep = preposition

pron = pronoun V= verb

I think the most effective adverts are those that make people laugh.

;~·s~ufieitl

/ ' bdb~:d/

brand o. n /brrend/ bring (someone) round to /bniJ 'raund/

phr v

/'dr~:brek/

drawback n

phr v = phrasal verb pi= plural

One tip for remembering a person's name is to look at their face and associate it with the name. Have you seen the new advertising billboards near the cinema? She always buys the well-known brands. You won't be successful in business if you can't bring people round to your way of thinking. Another drawback is the cost of production.

effective o. adj II'fektiv/

What are the most effective adverts?

homeless adj I ' h~uml~s/

1 saw

image o. n /' I m1d3/

1 t hink

influence o.w

Funny adverts can be a good way to influence people.

logo

n

an amazing ad to raise our awareness of the problems homeless people have.

/ 'mflu~ns/

v

this gives the companies a negative image.

Each product is recognized by its own logo.

/'l~ug~u/

make (someone) aware of phr /me1k (. s Amw~m) ~ · we~r ~v/

Adverts can make people aware of social issues.

major o. adj

What do you th ink are the major advantages?

/'me1d3~(r)/

adj / 'mem~r~bl/

memorable

menswear store n

/'menzwe~ st~:(r)/

n /moO/ negotiator n /m'g~ufieit~(r)/ moth

n /'nju:z

news agenda objection

n /~b'd3ekfn/

objective o.w n overcome o.

v I,~uv~ 'kArnl

perspective

n

persuasion

n

/p~'swe13n/

n

/p~'sweisiv/

/, p~mt ~v

'vju:/

/sa1'kol~ d3i/

phr v /n 'lat on/

He saw a huge cloud of moths coming towards them. With this book, you will become an amazing negotiator. France 24 online provides an alternative to the Englishlanguage dominated news agenda. The main objectives of 'fast fashion' are to bring high-fashion clothes into the shops quickly and cheaply. What do you think is the best way to overcome someone's objections to an idea? The instructor told them that a new law had been passed. The 226 Alliance Franc;aises and France 24 online provide news from a different perspective. Philip is a full-time speaker on the psychology of persuasion.

/'p~ust ~(r)/

psychology n rely on

'b:/

/p~'spektJv/

persuasive o.w adj point of view

~

I was in town recently in a menswear store.

This book will help you to overcome objections.

/~b'd3ekt1v/

pass a law phr / ,po:s

poster n

~.d3end~/

It's important to make sure our adverts are memorable.

It's a very persuasive advert. It's important that you understand the other person's point of view. Please can you put this poster up to advertise the concert? Philip Hesketh is a full-time international business speaker on the psychology of persuasion. They don't rely on radio stations to tell them what music they should listen to any more.

1

Name _________________________

81 + Word list Unit 12 slogan

n I' sl~mg~n/

soft power

n /soft

Navigate

What slogans can you remember?

'pau~(r)/

The Olympic Games can increase a country's soft power.

stylish o.w adj /'staihJ/

This particular model was never stylish! It's just awful.

switch off phr v /swrtJ 'of/

Maybe every moth in Australia was heading for their light because all the others had been switched off!

upset o.w adj IAp'se t/

1was really upset when 1saw this advert.

win over phr v lwm

·~uv;;,(r)/

This book will help you find the perfect way to win people over.

2

1 Video Are you really my friend? Vox pops

-'

I

'



- j

· 1111 - -,-



1a

Complete the sentences. • •

b 2

. •

.

~ ~~-- \ ..

--~,-

~-

How do you keep in touch with your friends? l Tick the ways of communicating that each speaker mentions. Sophie

.,

Sagar

Facebook Linkedln Telephone SMS texts

r~,

Do you think that Facebook and Linkedln friends are real friends? 2 Decide if the sentences are true (T) or fa lse (F). Correct the false sentences. l David only has good frien ds T F on his Facebook page. 2 Kiran knows most people on T F her Facebook page in real life. 3 Tom only uses social media T F for work purposes. 4 Sophie uses Facebook to keep T F in touch with close friends. 5 Sagar's Face book friends are always T F people he knows in real life.

Watch the video. Do sections l and 2.

Tom

-.~

,c;.l\- •

Compare sentences with a partner.

Kiran

""''I -~

...

-

• I

Close friends are ... Face book friends are ...

David

'

lllfll. i '



3a Work in s m all groups. Look at the list of ways of communicating in the table in section l of exercise 2. How do you keep in touch with your friends? Give reasons why.

snapchat WhatsApp Email

b Which is the most common way of staying in touch?

Which other way of keeping in touch do Tom and Sagar mention?

2 Video I'll never forget that day Vox pops 1

Work with a partner. Name two things that could go wrong in each situation. • • •

2

2 Work w ith a partner and circle the correct options to complete the sentences. l Hunter's manager I Hunter left his job and just walked out of the office. 2 David E's parents made him feel more relaxed I worried about his exams. 3 On her bad day, Sophie slipped and broke her ankle I had already broken her ankle when she slipped. 4 David R had to get down the stairs quickly because there was a fire I fire practice. 5 Alex tried to drive I walk to the garage in the snow.

You're driving to work in heavy snow. You fall over in the street. You have an important exam today.

Watch the video. Do sections l and 2.

Have you ever had a really bad day at work, college or when travelling? l Which speakers are on th eir way to work or at work (W), at university (U) or on crutches (C)? Tick up to two boxes for each speaker. 1 Hunter WO UO CO 2 DavidE WO UO CO 3 Sophie WO UO CO 4 DavidR WO UO CO 5 Alex WO UO CO

3a Walk around the class and find someone who ... a b c d e b

has been on crutches. had had a bad day of exams. has been stuck in t he snow. has done a fire practice recently. has had a puncture in their car.

Find out more about each story. (When? Where? Why? How?)

3 Video Life sl
What skills do you need to be successful in your ideal job?

1

2

Complete the phrases with the verbs from the box. Which of these skills do you possess in your personal life or at work?

cope

2

deal

have

manage

pay

l

... good people skills

4

... with many jobs at the

2 3

... my time ... well under pressure

same time 5 ... attention to detail

Watch the video. Do sections 1 and 2.

Do you cope well under pressure? 1

4 Andy's ideal job is being a _____, and

Match each person to a statement. I cope well, ... 1 and I often achieve more when there's a lot of pressure. 2 but only if I have some thinking time on my own first. 3 particularly if I have time to get things ready in advance. 4 but I can feel quite anxious if there's too much pressure. 5 even though my job involves managing a variety oftasks.

..

~ .... _ •

Complete the sentences with up to two words in each gap. 1 Stephanie's ideal job is to be a - - - -· and she'll need to be able to work very _ _ __ 2 Alba thinks she'll succeed if she is _ _ _ _- J _ _ _ _ _ and believes in herself. 3 Niall's ideal job is to be a , and he'll need to be good at long-term

he needs to be able to with a wide variety of people. 5 Bella's ideal job is working in _ _ _ _-J and she'll need to be able to cope well under pressure and be _ _ __ Work with a partner. Ask and answer the questions about the three d ifferent jobs .

3

Would you like to be a .•. ? 1 chef



2 comput er scientist

3 head t eacher

NO. Why not?

YES. Why?

I

I

What skil ls do you possess which cou ld he lp you do this job?

What skills wou ld you need to develop i n order to do this job?

4 Video Space Vox pops 1

2

a green environment enjoying the outdoors keep him calm take nice walks escape city life

Match words and phrases a-e to sentences l-5. Work with a partner and discuss which ideas play an important part in your life.

l

a nature c relaxation e fresh air b exercise d city living l I often go jogging along country paths. _ 2 I can breathe easily because the air quality is good. 3 4 5

2

People rush past my window on their way to work. __ I went on a yoga and meditation course. __ I love walking in the hills, watching the wildlife. _

Complete the sentences with phrases from the box.

Stephen thinks the countryside helps to _ _ _ _ __

and enjoy the sun. 2 Patricia likes to 3 Niall says the greatest benefit is _ _ _ _ __ a 4 Stephanie feels that it's good to little bit. 5 Andy likes doing sport in _ _ _ _ __

Watch the video. Do sections 1 and 2.

Work in small groups. Plan an ideal weekend in the countryside. Write one idea for each of the points below. Then present your plan to another group.

What are the benefits of visiting the countryside?

• Location

l

Circle one or two benefits that each speaker says. exercise quiet fresh air 1 Stephen: 2 Patricia: calm sun fresh air 3 Niall: fresh air nature walks 4 Stephanie: space exercise calm 5 Andy: exercise relaxation space

3

• Food

• Sport

• Nature

• Relaxation

5 Video Entertainment Vox pops 1

What's your favourite movie ofall time? 2 Connect the words in the three columns.

Complete these sentences with the name of a film you have seen. Compare your ideas with a partner. • •

really made me think. There's a clever twist at the end in _ _ _ __

• _ _ _ _ made me laugh out loud . 2

Watch the video. Do sections 1 and 2.

What's your favourite kind offilm? 1 Circle the correct option. 1 Kiran likes watchingfunny I science-fiction films. 2 Alex enjoys watching any kind of action film I science fiction films in particular. 3 Bella tends to like films which help her relax I make her think. 4 Ebbe prefers films that help him relax I make him think. 5 David likes only one genre I quite a few genres of film.

3

Person

Favourite film

Reasons for liking the film

Kiran

Dumb and Dumber

good plot and good acting

Alex

Heat

fascinating monologues

Bella

Pulp Fiction

a very good cast and several clever twists

Ebbe

Fight Club

good fun with a great twist at the end

David

Shawshank Redemption

it makes me laugh

Work with a new partner. What do you think of the genres of film in box A? Find an adjective in box B that matches your opinion about each genre of film. Discuss your opinions. A B action film comedy documentary style film historical film science fiction

..

.

- •.

enjoyable entertaining interesting predictable and dull silly

~,:_~Ul .. ~.;l£4l!i

!l!ll ..::::J:.1 ........,.--

-

6 Video Controlling the weather? Vox pops 1

2

Do you think the climate has been changing over the last 10 years? 1 Are the sentences true (T) or fa lse (F)? Correct the false sentences. 1 Bella doubts temperatures are becoming mor e extreme. T 2 David E studied geography at university. T 3 Lyndsay believes humans are completely responsible T for changing weather patterns. 4 David R believes there has been an increase in ra infall. T 5 Sophie has noticed that summers start later nowadays. T Can you give an example of what you consider extreme weather? 2 Tick the sentences that you hear. Extreme weather ... • causes really big disruption. 0 • causes damage to buildings. 0 • caused floods a n d hurricanes in the UK. 0 • is a typhoon or a hurricane. D

Match each situation to a result. Discuss your ideas about the meaning of the words in bold. Situation 1 Flooding has caused a lot of disruption in the city centre. 2 The ice caps are melting as global temperatures rise. 3 Everyone had received the warning that t h e typhoon was due to hit t h e coast of Thailand last night. 4 Data from the weather office reports a decrease in r ainfall. Result a Sea levels will rise in general. Ther e will be more flooding. b People had the chance to escape to a safer place in land. c Drough ts will happen more often in some places. d There is no bus service. The police have closed most roads.

Watch the video. Do sections 1 and 2.

3

Work with a partner. Write tomorrow's weather forecast. Exchange your fo recast with another pair. Discuss how the for ecasts will affect your plans.

F F F F F

7 Video Ambitions Vox pops 1

What are the advantages and disadvantages ofliving and working abroad? 2 Write the correct names. Advantages Who mentions that ... l it's easier to learn a particular language living among people who speak it? _ _ __ 2 it's a great chance to learn about different people and cultures? and _ _ __ 3 you cou ld earn more money abroad? _ _ _ _ and

Think of someone you know who has moved abroad. P repare to speak abou t this person. Use the question words in the box to help you plan what you are going to say. Who?

Why?

How long?

Where?

When?

Share your information about this person with other students in the class. Work with different partners and take notes. Do these people have a lot in common? 2

Disadvantages Who feels that ... 4 using a new currency could be difficult? _ _ __ 5 learning a new language isn't easy? _ _ _ _ and

Watch the video. Do sections 1 and 2.

Would you ever move abroad for a job? 1 Circle the answer each person gives. Write the r eason why. Why?

Sarah: Peter A: Peter E: Patricia: Andy:

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

No No No No No

6 they'd miss family and friends? _ _ _ _ and

(no reason given) 3

Look at the statement below. Do you agree or disagree? Everyone should spend some t ime living and working abroad.

Work with a partner. Pair A, prepare your arguments in favour of living and working abroad. Pair B, prepare your arguments against living and working abroad. Pair A, sit facing pair B. Discuss your reasons for or against the statement above. Who has the winning arguments?

8 Video World happiness report Vox pops 1

2

2

Decide if the sentences are true (T) or fa lse (F). Correct the false sentences.

Work in pairs. What three things would make you feel ver y happy if they happened today?

1 M ichael thinks that it is important to know T

Watch the video. Do sections 1 and 2.

2 Sarah feels that hobbies are more

Which three factors do you think are important to have a good quality of life? 1 Choose two correct options for each speaker. 1 Michael: happiness enjoyment community 2 Sarah: community education health happiness health enjoyment 3 Niall: 4 Kira: health family education Harry: education community health 5

F

what you want from life and why. T

F

3 Niall believes that you need to see the people you love every day.

T

F

4 Kira says that having a good range of job

T

F

T

F

important than job satisfaction.

prospects keeps people happy. 5 Harry believes that being surrounded by

family is the single most important factor. 3a Work with a partner. Com plete the sentences with a suitable piece of advice. How to have a good quality of life 1 It's a good idea to ... 4 Aim to ... every day. 2 You mustn't .. . 5 You should ... ifyou can. 3 You could try .. . b

Share your ideas with another pair. What is the best piece of advice?

9 Video Real beauty Vox pops 1a

1 Match each person to a statement.

Work with a partner. Replace the underlined sections with an item from the box which has an opposite meaning. 1 I like people who are generous, kind and funny. 2 Kindness and honesty are very attractive qualities. 3 Character is important, but looks are the first thing you notice. 4 I like people who are clever. 5 I like people who try to accept people the way they are. 2 Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false sentences. 1 Henry thinks that a person's character is more important than any other personal qualities. 2 Bella thinks that there is nothing more important than intelligence. 3 Hayden likes meet ing a wide variety of people. 4 Arielle believes that it is important to take yourself seriously. 5 Dav id likes people who are friendly and open.

easy-going friendly and open generous humorous intelligent

a He's 1 quite selfish and I'd say he is very 2 difficult to get on wit h. He also has some very 3 stupid ideas sometimes. b She can be very 1 serious when we are having a laugh. She is 5 not hall.RY- meeting_gp with people and chatting about herself.

b Write a short description of a person you would NOT like to meet. Work with a partner and discuss. 2

3

Watch the video. Do sections l and 2.

Work with a partner. Put the qualities in the box in exercise l in order of importance for you in your relationships (l= most important). Say why and give examples.

What qualities make a person attractive?

• •

I like people who are ... because ... I prefer people who are ... because ...

10 Video Competitive sport Vox pops 1

Do you prefer to play a team sport or a solo sport? 2 Circle the correct answers. 1 Ebbe enjoys competing against I being part of a team. 2 Lyndsay prefers playing sport on her own I team sports. 3 Henry cycles solo when he needs to feel better about himselfI have some thinking time. 4 Kiran enjoys meeting new people I feeling part of the group when she plays a team sport. 5 Since David was at university I has been living in London, he has been less involved in team sports.

Work with a partner. Ask and answer the following questions. Do you have a lot in common? Why/Why not? What sport did you last ... • ... watch on TV? • ... go and watch live? • ... do in a team? • ... do solo?

2

Watch the v ideo. Do sections l and 2.

Do you enjoy watching sports? If so, which sports? 1 Decide ifthe sentences are true (T) or false (F). Correct the false sentences. l Ebbe really enjoys watching football on TV. 2 Lyndsay really enjoys watching international football competition s. 3 Henry speaks about the sports he enjoys p laying. 4 Kiran is not a competitive person. 5 David likes both team sports and sport for individuals.

3

Work in small groups. T hink of one reason for doing each ofthese sports below and one reason for not doing them. Example: c.ric.ke.t For - it's ""~ "'fttrt'fc.tive Ag"'fiJIL,St - the n-t.les

• •

football motor racing

• •

t'fJIL,d

t'fn

trt'fditiOJIL,"'fl sport

very c.owtplic.t'fte.d

snooker cycling

• •

r unning trampolining

• •

yoga r ugby

Compare your answers as a class. Decide on the best reasons for and against each sport.

11 Video Outlaws Vox pops 1

Work with a partner. In one minute, list as many words or phrases as possible on these two topics below.

• Crime fiction 2

Do you have a favourite? 2 Tick the phrases you hear. 1 my favourite crime story is by Stephen King 2 it's filmed in Oxford 3 the acting of the cast was very good 4 it's a great film starring Bruce Willis 5 it had a really clever plot 6 it paints a very good picture 7 it's set in Victorian England 8 they really make you think



Thrillers

Watch the video. Do sections 1 and 2.

Do you enjoy reading crime fiction or watching thrillers? 1 Which speakers enjoy crime fiction? Which speakers enjoy thrillers? Which speakers enjoy both? Write C (crime), T (thrillers) orB (both) next to the names. 3

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Do a class survey. Ask and answer the questions. Do you enjoy crime fiction?

YES

NO

Why?

Why not?

I

What's t he best crime st ory you have read?

I

What would you prefer t o re ad?

Do you enjoy watching thrillers?

YES

NO

Why?

Why not?

I

What 's t he best t hr iller you have watched?

I

What type of fil m wo uld you pr efer to watch?

12 Video Advertising Vox pops 1

Work with a partner. Mat ch the adjectives in the box to the sentences and talk about an ad which matches each description. amusing dull

1 2 3 4 2

moving

persuasive

I felt tears in my eyes when I first watched the ad. It's just really boring. I went out and bought the product almost immediat ely. I certainly smiled when I first saw it.

Do you remember any ads, but not what they're for? 2 What do the speakers say about different kinds of ad? Match each person to a statement. 1 These adverts are all so similar. 2 It's difficult to understand this type of advert. 3 After an advertisement has finished, it's not always easy to remember what it was for. 4 These days it's easy to remember what advertisements are for because they are repeated so often. 5 It's easier to remember the celebrities than what the advertisements are for.

Watch the video. Do sections 1 and 2.

What advertisement has made a big impact on you? 1 Choose the correct options to complete the sentences. 1 Lauren thinks the Taco Bell advertisement was ... a terrible. b incredible. 2 John describes a persuasive advertisement which convinced him to ... a children's charity. a make a donation to b find out more about 3 Sarah thinks the bread advertisement created a romantic image of British life ... a nowadays. b many years ago. 4 Andy liked the car advertisement because it showed ... a the car's special features. b how it was built. 5 Stephanie enjoyed the coffee adverts because they ... a were amusing. b were very beautiful.

3

Work with a partner. Read the situation. Then plan and present your idea to the class.

You work for a TV and online ad agency. You need to design a two-minute advertisement for o ne of these products: • a coffee • a supermarket • a car • a perfume/an aftershave

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Cover Image: Getty Images (light u-ails{teekid). Oxford University Press (Laptop and tablet) Alamy Images pp.14 (website/Jeff Morgan 02), 23 (taxifi car), 28 (making burgersfZUMA Press. Inc), 29 (footballer holding baLl{Cultura Creative), 33 (older man using laptop{Cultura Creative), 34 (Emmeline Pankhurst statueDustin Kase zsixz), 38 (Savanna at dawn. Emas National Park, Brazil{ Frans Lanting Studio), 38 (Morskie Oko lake, Tatra Mountains, Polandflan Wlodarczyk), 50 (woman watching 1V and using tablet{Graham Hughes). 52 (The Shawshank Redemption poster/AF archive), 53 (One Day film still/AF archive), 74 (Oxford skyline/James Osmond), 76 (family dinner{Aurora Photos), 80 (nan1ral geothermal spa, Iceland/ Greg Balfour Evans), 80 (lmitting class/ZUMA Press, Inc), 80 (baby prams outside building/Arctic Images), 94 (statue{ imageBROKER), 94 ("John Adams" by Gilbert Stuart, 1821 Smitl1sonian National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC USA/ Washington Stock Photo). 98 (high school cheerleaders/H. Mark Weidman Photography), 100 (Galatasary Stadium, Istanbulfdpa picture alliance archive), 101 (furkish football club scatvesfJochen Tack), 102 (Liverpool docks/CW Images), 104 (Gareth Bale{ZUMA Press, Inc.), 105 (flip flops on sale/Jenny Matthews), 106 (fmgerprint/SDM IMAGES), 106 (crime scene tape{Michael Burrell). 108 (app icons{Lude Lang), 114 (Sophos headquarters{VIEW Picn•res Ltd), 114 (businessmanf!'etra Images). 116 (Sky 1V billboard advert{Clynt Garnham Business). 116 (teen girl taking driving lesson/MEl), 122 (iPhone packaging/Andrew Paterson). 123 (Uniqlo store{Iain Masterton). 123 (H&M store/Per Andersen), 124 (Starbucks sign/Matthew Horwood). 124 (Starbucl<s coffee shop/British Retail Photography), 125 (Google Glasses{dpa picture alliance), 134 (silk screen printing/Hero Images Inc.); Atlantic Books p.10 (TI1e Shallows book cover/Courtesy of Nick Ritchie); Bridgeman Images pp.88 (Hunters in the Snow-January, 1565, Bmegel, Pieter the Elder (c.1 525-69)/ Kunsthistorisches Museum. Vienna. Ausn·ia). 88 (Destiny, 1900 (oil on canvas), Waterhouse. John William (18491917)/@ Towneley Hall Art Gallery and Museum, Burnley, Lancashire). 88 (Mandrill. 1913 (oil o n cm·dboarcl). Marc. Franz (1880-1916)/Private Collection). 130 (Emperor Ch'in WangTi (221-206 BC) travelling in a palanquin, from a history of Chinese emperors (colour on silk). Chinese School, (17tll century){Bibliotheque Nationale, Pm·is, France/Archives Charmet), 134 (Portrait ofjeanne Hebuterne in a large hat. c.1918-19 (oil on canvas).

Modigliani, Amedeo (1884-1920)/Private Collection/ Giraudon); City ofVrulCouver Archives p.115 (Port p.S72/Bill Miner); Corbis pp.14 (train tv{Bobby Yip{Reuters). 15 (model using telephone in satin nightgown{Conde Nast Archive), 18 (ftrst cast ofPiltdown Man forgery{Bettmann), 36 (Lake Titicaca. the floating islands of the Uros people/Atlantide Phototravel), 36 (tropical beach), 37 (woman using solar panel{Hugh Sitton). 41 (couple packing moving boxes in living room{Hero Images Inc.), 42 (Rooftops Oflucca{Chris Caldicott{Design Pies), 56 (aerial view of road intersection/ David Jay Zinunennan). 58 (Hurricane Jimena/Jim Edds). 64 (Peruvians without Water{Mariana Bazo{Reuters), 64 (Abel Cruz/Mariana Bazo{Reuters). 66 (Lua11da undergoing major reconsu-uction. Angola{sergioafonso/ Demotix), 66 (Pink House, Buenos Aires{Midtael Runkel{ Robett Harding World In1agery), 68 Uane Goodall holding chimpanzee{Ketman Ward). 68 (Rebecca AdlingtonjPhilip Brown), 68 (Daniel Barenboim conducting{Alonso Gonzalez{Reuters), 92 (young man readingffodd Warnock). 98 (group in lotus position in yoga class). 107 (Hungarian bankrobber Attila "The Whiskey Robber" Ambms{fibor Bozi), 107 (Colton Hanis-Moore. the Barefoot Bandit/ Marcus Donncr{Reuters), 107 (police mugshot ofNed Kelly/ Ho New/Reuters), 110 (woman canying laptop/Image Werks), 121 (cabbage kimchi, Korean food{Topic Photo Agenc.y); Everpurse{www.everpurse.com p.131; Getty Images pp.6 (Edinburgh at sunset/Sara Winter), 6 (Warsaw's Old Town{jorg Greuel), 12 (Tesla Motors Model S{Justin Sullivan), 12 (Fairphone smartphone{Justin 'laJiis), 13 (clothes rail in shop{Mischa Photo Ltd), 14 (Times Square/ Siegfried Layda), 17 (rope way on Mount Kongo{ebiq), 18 (Richard and Mayumi Heene/RJ Sangosti), 20 (woman playing viol in in orcheso-ajHill Sn·eet Sn1dios). 20 (woodwind section/Erich Auerbach ), 26 (pink marshmallowsfAoortje), 30 (professor and students in lecnu·e haU{Clet·kenwell). 32 (bottle light, South Africa/ Gallo Images). 32 (Litre of Light project{Gallo Images), 34 (English suffragettes/Universal History Archive), 42 (lobster pots. Isle ofMull{VWB photos). 42 (Mol'Occo/ Henglein and Steers), 44 (lncheon park{Sungjin Kim), 44 (Songdo/Ann Hermes{I11e Cluistian Science Monitor); 49 (businessman sitting at desk smiling{I110mas Batwicl<). 56 !traffic lights/Nick Dolding), 58 (Yangtze river drought/ ClunaFotoPress), 66 (The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele 11, shopping centre. Milan{Tony C French), 67 (business towers. Buenos Aires/Nikada), 73 (people waiting for an intetview{Diane Diedet·ich). 78 (ftre fighter holding baby/ Chris Briscoe). 83 (college student giving presentation/Hero Images). 86 (close-up portrait ofman{Paul Burns), 86 (portrait of a mature woman/Johnnie Davis), 91 (ho use with face/Christian Beirle Gonz
28 (restaurant mealj2nix Studio), 29 (burger and chips{ ilolab). 36 (floating market. Tilailand/Anton Gvozdikov), 36 (Boat in San Francisco/Leonard Zhukovsky), 36 (water splashjFisher Photostudio), 39 (rice fields. Bali{Dudarev Mikhail), 39 (bamboo forest/Ru BaiLe). 43 (hotel receptionist/Gabriel Georgescu), 62 (young man looking at tablet/Alexander Image), 63 (Businessman making call{ Dragon Images). 66 (Belemtower on Tagus river. Lisbon{ Mario Savoia), 66 (Grattan Bridge, Dublinflittleny), 66 (Big Ben and red buses{PHOfOCREO Michal Bednarek), 66 (Manila. Philipp.ines{joyfull). 66 (Melbourne sl Telegraph Media Group Limited 2013. Reproduced by permission. p.208 Adapted exn·acts from "One in four regrets rash messages on social nerwork sites" by Stephen McGinty, www.scotsman.com, 27 January 2012. Reproduced by permission ofTI1e Scotsman Publications Limited. pp.118. 119 Extracts from How to Persuade and Influence People by Philip Hesketh, Capstone Publishing, 2010. Reproduced by permission of]ohn Wiley and Sons Inc.; permission conveyed tlu-ough Copyright Clearance Centre, Inc. p.96 Adapted exn·acts from "Kickstarter enn·epreneurs doing big business in the UK" by jessica Salter, www.telegraph.co.uk, 4 February 2013. ©Telegraph Media Group Limited 2013. Reproduced by permission. Sources: www.oxfam.org.au. World Happiness Repon 2013 edited by John Hclliwell. Richard Layard and Jeffrey Sachs. http:lftmsdsn.org., http:ffmyhero.com, http:lficelandreview. com. www.kickstmter.com With thanks to Katherine Griggs for the video pages. With thanks to Jon Hird for the Grammar Reference pages. Oxford UntversiLy Press would like to thank: Alamy images, Getty images, NASA, National Portrait Gallery, Museum of London, Borussia Dornmmd

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