HIST 111 Medieval History UMD Final | StudyHippo.com

HIST 111 Medieval History UMD Final

question

First Crusade
answer

Who: Frankish nobles and warriors, Alexios I, Pope Urban II What: goal= Jerusalem; success b/c of Muslim division Where: Constantinople When: 1071-1099 Why: Byzantine Emperor Alexios I needs help from Pope Urban II b/c of Seljuk Turks + assumed Alexios would provide food & military support for the crusader armies Legacy: “Jus ad bellum;” determined who is allowed to initiate war + who must help (all Christians) + for what reason (Peace of God movement: protect the defenseless) + whom to fight against (non-Christians/heretics); idea that holy war= remission of sins; Edessa sent precedent for crusader lords taking lands for themselves. Timeline: http://www.lordsandladies.org/timeline-first-crusade.htm
question

Fourth Crusade
answer

Who: Pope Innocent III, Doge Dandolo What: Pope III + crusaders want to regain Jerusalem from Muslims Where: Venice, Zara, Constantinope When: 1198-1207 Why: Indebted to Venetians= had to sack Christian Zara; Emperor Isaac II Angelos was blinded and deposed by his brother who took the name Emperor Alexios III and imprisoned his nephew, Isaac III’s son Alexios Angelos= Diversion to Constantinople & Treaty of Zara; Prince Alexios Angelos promised crusaders 2x amt of Venetian bill. Venetians set fire to Constantinople, Prince aka Alexios IV doesn’t have the $ & plunders churches; murdered by Alexios V. Legacy: Rise of papal power; precedent for going by sea; Redefined an attack on Christian Constantinople as a legitimate function of the crusade; Teutonic Knights.
question

Albigensians and 4th Lateran Council
answer

Who: Pope Innocent III, Count Raymond VI of Toulouse (excommunicated by pope as heretic + murderer & joins crusade), Papal Legate Peter (assassinated), Count Simon of Montfort (crusade leader), King Peter II of Aragon (Defender of Christendom), Dominican Inquisitors What: Pope Innocent III launched the Albigensian Crusade in an effort to extirpate Albigensian/Cathar heresy (a dualist religion, believing the universe is a battleground b/w a good God and the fallen angel Lucifer, who created the Earth; crusade failed & became motivated by greed). 4th Lateran Council goal (1215)= Reform the church and motivate a crusade to recover Jerusalem which had been lost since 1189 + attempted to regulate all Christians’ lives & lives of non-christians under Christian rule Where: Southern France When: 1209-1229 Why: Albigensians/Cathars threatened papal power & attacked church sacraments; Pope Innocent III sent papal legates to southern France to reform the local church, preach the Gospel, and engage in public debates w/ heretics Legacy: transubstantiation, Bernard of Gui’s manual for Inquisitors= Inquisition would wipe out all heresy; 4th Lateran Council;
question

Magna Carta
answer

Who: King John of England, Barons, King Philip II of France What: Magna Carta 1.0 fails b/c of “security clause” (barons can’t depose king if he doesn’t respect their views); Discretionary power taken away from the king Guarantee the freedom of elections. Where: England When: 1215-1216 Why: King John was a jerk: his baronial justice was arbitrary and designed to reward friends and chastise enemies. Loss of Normandy to King Philip II of France in 1214 Battle of Bouvines led to increasing exploitation of England, king’s revenues derived from his feudal rights, the profits of justice, the royal forest, Jews, and from the king’s own lands Legacy: Papal authority (king was vassal to Innocent 3 b/c of excommunication); Regulation of tax collection, enforce justice, subjected the king to law, Freedom of petition, Due process of law, just compensation, no excessive bail and fines etc. , The Stamp Act of 1765 (link to American revolution), people can hold leader accountable
question

Popular Religion, Lay Piety, and Mendicant Orders
answer

Who: clergy, laity, Peter Waldo (1140-1218; French merchant; Waldensians), Hildegard of Bingen, benguines, beghards, friars, Dominicans, Franciscans What: Largest lay movement= Waldensians threatened church power. Forms of Lay Piety: penitent, anchorites, chaste marriage, tertiaries. Beguines became economic power. Hildegard of Bingen, famous mystem w/ prophetic visions got papal approval to preach + travel Where: Medieval Europe When: Late 1100s – Early 1200s Why: Dissatisfied laity sought new paths of religious expression (est. church had worldly concern with wealth and power) that the church condemned as heretical; conn. intimately w/ God; modify gender roles; Beguines (Single ladies and widows lived together w/o a rule or formal vows) began acquiring property jointly and living in beguinages. Legacy: Waldensians translated the bible into the vernacular; Protestant reformation desired to make the bible accessible and eliminate priests as mediator b/w people and god; In 2012 Hildegard was declared a Doctor of the Church, one of 4 women. Doctors of the church made contributions to theology. Lay piety and popular religion provided an alternative to Christians who wanted to practice their religion outside of the monastery or church hierarchy. Women were esp. attracted to expressions of lay piety. The mendicant orders were innovative b/c they worked in cities & at the forefront of encouraging christian piety, preaching against heresy, dev the university + going on missions. Ppl. continue to question whether leaders should live simply b/c of Franciscans.
question

Leprosy and Jews
answer

Who: Jews, Christians What: Church segregated ppl w/ Leprosy. Used Jews as scapegoat b/c they didn’t recognize christ as the messiah + desecration of the host + responsible for crucifixion; blood libel. Were to be persecuted & protected (but restricted) b/c their mass conversion to christianity was a prerequisite for Christ’s 2nd coming; Pope Innocent III declared that Jews wear diff. clothing in 4th Lateran Council. Friars= monks who worked in the city Where: Medieval Europe When: 11th -13th century Why: Church declared that leprosy was divine punishment for lechery and other sins; supported by the fact that sexually transmitted syphilis had similar symptoms to leprosy; disease and sin were directly related (leprosy, sin, sex, heresy); 13th century= christians began demanding that jews live separately. Legacy: formation of jewish ghettos in the 16th century;
question

The Rise of Universities
answer

Who: Goliards (wandering students who moved from town to town and university to university. Characterized as the followers of Golias; clerics known for drinking and gambling + riotous behavior), What: Before uni= monastic + cathedral schools. 2 types of uni= studium generale vs. supported by the church. Mendicants in uni wanted to learn to preach, dispute heretics + teach the faithful. Where: Paris, Italy When: 9th -12th c. Why: Goal= to obtain stability + privileges that would protect them + students from bullying bishops & city authority + standardize education & maintain order Legacy: Cambridge est. “chests” = scholarships & housing; Curriculum: liberal arts, trivium, rhetoric, logic, quadrivium; bachelors, masters, doctorate degrees; Friars would become some of the most important scholars.
question

Knights
answer

Who: Milites (soldiers), Equites (soldiers who fought on horseback), Pedites (soldiers who fought on foot) What: politics, war + religion created chivalric knights + led to tech advances & horse breeding b/c kings needed to surround themselves w/ soldiers. The militarization of society strengthened the relationship b/w lords and their vassals. 12th c. military orders consisted of monk-knights + took monastic vows of poverty, chastity + obedience & were trained as milites. By the mid 12th c, mounted combat was codified. Tournaments helped forge chivalric ethos + develop new battle techniques + advance knights. Church thought tournaments promoted sin, the vices of pride, hatred and vanity + led to gluttony and lechery. Where: Medieval Europe When: 11th-13th c. Why: concern w/ milites behavior led the church to define their duties + make them holy. Technological innovations: modified the art of war and conferred on the knights greater socio-economic status. Legacy: The chivalrous ideology was fostered through romance literature and tournaments
question

Mongols (1)
answer

Who: Chinggis Khan What: Mongol lifestyle cultivated excellent soldiers b/c of steppe region. Believed in Shamanism. Forged blood brother relationships (anda) w/ wealthier and more powerful leaders. As he conquered, he would send envoys to foreign rulers w/ “orders of submission.” if they submitted to his rule, paid tribute, provide military support, he let them keep their rulers (under supervision). Used Chinese seige experts to attack walled cities. Best cavalry in the world. Endurance and speed of man and horse. Skilled archers. Excellent at psychological warfare. Pretend retreat. Massacre to obtain capitulation. Created a postal system called Yams. Where: Mongolia When: 1162-1227 Why: Military organization promoted efficient communication Legacy: Chinggis and his descendants carved out the largest contiguous land empire in world history. Unified the Mongols and neighboring related tribes tolerated foreign religions. Employed qualified foreign advisors. Eg. Uyghur created the 1st Mongolian script. “Upheld” the Yasa: a legal code of sorts that governed the military and commoners. Patronized craftspeople: Chinggis shipped craftspeople by the tens of thousands all over the Mongol empire.
question

Mongols (2)
answer

Who: Il-Khanate, Ogodei Khan (1229-1241), Khubilai, Sorghaghtani Beki, Güyük Khan, the pope, Jochi, Hulegu, Yuan Dynasty What: Chinggis chose Ogodei as his successor, but didn’t leave instruction for future choices= civil war and destructive familial conflicts. Golden Horde: Mongol state comprising most of Russia; ruled by descendants of Jochi (1240s-1502); did military campaign during the winter for easy travel. As great Khatun, Toregene (wife of Ogodei) ran the Mongol empire from 1241 until 1246, when she got her son Guyuk elected Great Khan at a khurilta. Tolui’s wife, Sorghaghtani Beki raised 4 sons (Mongke, Khubilai, Hulegu, Ariq Boke) who would become great khans. She was also a Nestorian Christian; famously seen as ideal queen and mother. Hulegu (1256-65) First conquered the Hashashin (sect of Shia Islam in mountainous areas), aka The Assassins & exploited Islamic division. Muslim leaders in the region were happy to see the Assassins fall. Hulegu ended the Abbasid Caliphate in 1258= Muslims grieved for destruction of Baghdad but relatively peaceful relations w/ Mongols. After Il-Khans convert to Islam in 1295, attempt to place the Mongols within Islamic history=problematic. Khubilal founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). Had to synicize to accomodate Chinese but main. Mongols invaded vietnam 3x. 2 vietnamese kingdoms paid tribute to the Yuan, but the Mongols suffered heavy losses. Distance was the problem, could withhold tribute for long periods Navies staffed by Korean and Chinese soldiers Khubilai tried to invade japan twice in 1274 and 1281= failed Where: China When: 1229-1405 Why: Khubilai needed to serve the Mongols, and control the Chinese but not oppress them b/c of their large number. Khubilai “sinicized” (built new capital Daidu/Khanbalik), but maintained mongol traditions. Criticized by family for becoming “too Chinese.” Legacy: Enacted fixed and regular system of taxation. Favored artisans: higher status than under Chinese rule. Received good salaries, rations of food and clothing, exemptions from corvee (conscript) labor, sell surplus production. Valued merchants as spies + treasurers.
question

Fall of Acre: Loss of the Holy Land
answer

Who: Mamluk Sultanate, Il-Khanate What: Mamluks were slaves who received Islamic education + elite military training as cavalry, archers, and the bodyguard of the Sultan & got an “iqta”, or land grant after emancipation. The Mamluk system became the Mamluk Sultanate when an Ayyubid Sultan created the mamluk Bahriyya regiment. Mamluk system was 1 gen; 2nd gen= spoiled sissies. Mongols invade Syria (1258-1323). 1st-time Mongols were defeated and unable to avenge their loss at Battle of Ayn Jalut. Victory provided the young Mamluk sultanate great prestige. Il-Khan Abaqa (1265-1282) asks West for allies against Mamluks aka 8th Crusade+ Il-Khans start marrying Byzantine royals. Antioch Falls to Mamluks (1268) & marks end of Latin presence in crusader state. Il-Khan Argun sent Rabban Sauma to France + England to procure army. King Louis 9 of France makes it to Tunisia but dies in 8th crusade & fails b/c didn’t understand landscape + disease. Mamluk sultan Qalawun exploited outremer factionalism by making separate treaties w/ cities. Where: Syria, Egypt When: Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1517) Why: Military skills led to decline of Sultanate + caused problems w/in regiment: slavery created ambitious + vicious leaders. The sultans had to keep on importing more mamluks. This was very expensive and contributed to a high sultan turnover rate Legacy: Re-established English & Byzantine relations. End of crusader states.
question

Italy
answer

Who: Frederick I “Barbarossa” (Red Beard) (r. 1155 – 1190), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, and king of Germany, conquered the Italian lands in 1154 – 1155. Crowned by Pope Adrian IV as Holy Roman Emperor. Hussities were followers of Jan Hus, a Bohemian priest who rejected teahcings of the Catholic church that didn’t have biblical foundations; executed =Hussites rebelled= obtained tolerance from Bohemian king . What: Holy Roman Emperor reigned over a fractured empire. Rise in city states caused by pop. increase, growing cities, urbanization, restoration and construction of churches and cathedrals, relative economic and political freedom. Lombard League (pro-papal) was formed in 1167 to resist the Emperor’s effort to dominate N. Italy. In 1176, the Lombard League defeated Frederic in battle. In exchange for their recognition of the imperial overlordship, he granted them autonomy in the Treaty of Constance (1183). 2 parties formed in Italian cities: The Guelfs (pro-pope) vs The Ghibellines (pro-holy roman emperor). Communes and their urban noble leaders developed trade networks. City-states were gov. by a Podesta (foreign urban noble) for 6-12 mos. Early 13th C= the popolo (mid. class workers) began demanding greater political power + deposed Podesta = conflict. Most popolo were members of guilds (self-regulating associations of craft masters and professionals. Where: Northern Italy When: 1000-1300 Why: N. Italy consisted of a collection of self-regulated and self-governed communes (city-states). Territories were governed by different princes, dukes, and even Archbishops= division. Factionalism, oligarchy, & violence paved the way for the accession of the signori – regimes dominated by one man, aka despots Legacy: The Golden Bull of 1356 sealed the mode of election of the HRE for the next 400 years. Italian city-states forged in late medieval era the most prosperous trade and banking system of Western Europe. Facilitated communication b/w East and West through trade.
question

Marco Polo
answer

Who: Marco Polo (Venetian merchant who traveled across Asia at the height of the Mongol Empire & became confidant of Kublia Khan) What: Historians question whether Marco Polo actually went to China. Many believe he never passed Persia. Polo is not mentioned in Chinese texts. Where: China, Persia, Venice, Mongolia When: 1254-1324 Why: The Travels of Marco Polo was written by a romance writer (Rustichello)= often dramatized to appeal to readers. Polo didn’t know Chinese (it wasn’t the Lingua Franca), no evidence of Polo as governor (if he was one of many he wouldn’t be mentioned), Polo didn’t describe Chinese script (probably didn’t interact w/ that many Chinese + had translators), Chinese probably wanted to downplay Mongol success. EVIDENCE: Description of Paiza, account of trip to Hormuz (princess Kokecin) Legacy: Age of Discovery- Standard narrative of Atlantic expansion is of rather powerful Europeans established themselves on the E. seaboard of N. and S. and slowly advancing towards domination of the continents inhabited by “unsophisticated” natives
question

Black Death
answer

Who: plague affected ppl indiscriminantly What: Plague spread most quickly by boats. Types= bubonic, septicimic, pneumonic, typhus, TB, black death. Medieval plague originated b.w borderlines of tibet and china. Spread to Europe from contaminated port to uncontaminated port. Christians saw the plague as a punishment for sin; Islamic sources portray it more neutrally as an event in god’s will (less apocalyptic; weren’t affected as seriously). Impact= economy, pop. life expectancy. Blamed plague on Jews. Rise in public flagellance Where: Medieval Europe When: 1300s Why: Yersinia pestis survives in pop. of wild rodents + transfered by feas Legacy: science
question

Legacy of Medieval Ages
answer

Who: Nazis, Russians, Italy, Iceland What: People today look to history to justify actions today. But looking back, history is often skewed w/ modern perspective aka “Re-Remembering History”. Today’s national boundaries don’t necessarily reflect historical boundaries. In the west, 18th c. writers like Voltaire denounced institutional religion France 19th c. crusades are rehabilitated as an example of the country’s greatness. Arab nationalist movements draw on the re-memory of the crusades by European imperial powers + has shaped how muslims view the west today Where: Everywhere When: Why: Nazis justified the invasion of many countries– poland, baltic nations– because medieval Germanic teutonic knights had at one time ruled them Legacy: Today ppl re-remember history to suit their political agenda (France), looks to history for inspiration (Italy), ppl look to history for their identity. ppl still use “crusader” rhetoric. Ultimate legacy= UNIVERSITIES

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member