GSMST Literary Devices and Literary Terms Flashcards | Quizlet
 
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GSMST Literary Devices and Literary Terms

Terms in this set (397)

Accumulation is derived from a Latin word which means "pile up." It is a stylistic device that is defined as a list of words which embody similar abstract or physical qualities or meanings, with the intention to emphasize the common qualities that words hold. It is also an act of accumulating the scattered points. Accumulation examples are found in literary pieces and in daily conversations.

xamples of Accumulation in Literature
Example #1: Henry V (by William Shakespeare)
"Then shall our names,
Familiar in his mouth as household words,
Harry the King, Bedford and Exeter,
Warwick and Talbot, Salisbury and Gloucester,
Be in their flowing cups freshly remembered."

In this excerpt, Shakespeare has gathered similar words to describe King Harry. Henry memorizes the name and nobility of the king by mentioning: "Bedford, Exeter, Warwick, Talbot, Salisbury, and Gloucester."

Example #2: Ulysses (by James Joyce)
"What syllabus of intellectual pursuits was simultaneously possible? Snapshot photography, comparative study of religions, folklore relative to various amatory and superstitious practices, contemplation of celestial constellations...."

If you are searching for examples of accumulation in literature, James Joyce is the author to check out as he is famous for using this literary device. Here, Joyce has accumulated similar and related words in the form of a list. There are options given between different intellectual careers. These include "snapshot photography, comparative study of religions, superstitious practices."

Example #3: The Little Virtues (by Natalia Ginzburg)


"I don't know how to manage my time; he does.
I don't know how to dance and he does.
I don't know how to type and he does.
I don't know how to drive ... "

The writer has used negation in the given sentences. All four lines are written in accumulated form, and the scattered points are listed together, hence contributing to the vocabulary of the readers.

Example #4: A Modest Proposal (by Jonathan Swift)
"... having no other motive than the public good of my country, by advancing our trade, providing for infants, relieving the poor, and giving some pleasure to the rich ... "

This is a very good example of accumulation wherein Swift gives suggestions on how to get rid of poverty. He has listed various motives and ways to resolve the problems, adding and contributing to the meaning of the sentences.

Example #5: When Will Jesus Bring the Pork Chops (by George Carlin)
I'm a modern man, digital and smoke-free;
a man for the millennium.

A diversified, multi-cultural, post-modern deconstructionist;
politically, anatomically and ecologically incorrect.

I've been uplinked and downloaded,
I've been inputted and outsourced.
I know the upside of downsizing,
I know the downside of upgrading."

Here, George Carlin has used three categories of accumulation. In the first two lines, "a modern man" is described as "digital and smoke-free," and as "a man for the millennium." In the following two lines, he added, "a diversified, multi-cultural ... politically ... incorrect."

Example #6: Holy Thursday (by William Blake)
"Is this a holy thing to see
In a rich and fruitful land,
Babes reduced to misery,
Fed with cold and usurous hand?

Is that trembling cry a song?
Can it be a song of joy?
And so many children poor?
And their fields are bleak and bare,
And their ways are filled with thorns."

Here is the accumulation of three questions that induce a resentful response. Similarly, three assertions come in the third stanza in a similar grammatical pattern. These are: "And their son does never shine," "And their fields are bleak and bare," and "And their ways are filled ..."

Example #7: Ulysses (by James Joyce)
"Rangoon beans, strikes of tomatoes, drums of figs, drills of Swedes, spherical potatoes and tallies of iridescent kale, York and Savoy, and trays of onions, pearls of the earth, and punnets of mushrooms and custard marrows......and rape and red green yellow brown russet sweet big bitter ripe pomellated apples and chips of strawberries and sieves of gooseberries, pulpy and pelurious, and strawberries fit for princes and raspberries from their canes... "

This excerpt is a perfect example of accumulation. In the beginning, there is a listing of flowers and vegetables. These include "Rangoon beans, strikes of tomatoes, drums of figs," and again an accumulation of different colors, such as "red green yellow brown russet."

Function of Accumulation


Accumulation is used in literature, poetry and all types of rhetorical writing. The basic function is to make language livelier and contribute to the meanings of the words. Also, it describes the qualities of an object through different explanations, if otherwise it would be left vague or ambiguous.
An acrostic is a literary device in which the first letter of every verse consecutively forms a word or message. An acrostic is mostly applied in poetry, but can also be used in prose or word puzzle. This word or alphabet is often connected to the theme of the poem. It is deliberately inserted to make readers discover the layered message. It also acts as a mnemonic device that can quicken the pace of the memorization process. Acrostic poetry can be written in any meter, or free verse form, with or without a rhyme scheme. However, the most common types of acrostic poems are those in which the initial letter of each line forms a word, and is often capitalized.

Types of Acrostic Poems
Telestich: These are the poems in which the last letters of each line spell a word or message.
Mesostich: The poems in which the middle of words or verses forms a word or a message.
Double Acrostic: The poem in which words are spelled by both the first and last letters of each line in a way that one word is read vertically down the left side of the text, and another word is read vertically down the right side of the text.
Abecedarian: Acrostic in which alphabets are spelled instead of words. Chaucer's poem "La Priere de Nostre Dame" is a good example of an abecedarian acrostic.
Non- Standard: Non-standard acrostics do not use first or last letters to spell out a word. Instead, they emphasize letters in different places within the poem.
Examples of Acrostic in Literature


Example #1
Acrostic in Lewis Carroll's "Acrostic"

Little maidens, when you look
On this little story-book,
Reading with attentive eye
Its enticing history,
Never think that hours of play
Are your only HOLIDAY,
And that in a HOUSE of joy
Lessons serve but to annoy:
If in any HOUSE you find
Children of a gentle mind,
Each the others pleasing ever—
Each the others vexing never—
Daily work and pastime daily
In their order taking gaily—
Then be very sure that they
Have a life of HOLIDAY.

This is a very famous acrostic by Lewis Carroll. Carroll wrote this poem for three children on Christmas. The poem illustrates the lovely sense of domestic life during the holidays. The poet seems to explain why we should take a break out of busy lives to enjoy these times of the holidays. However, it is the most common type of acrostic, as the initial letters of the poem spell out the names of three sisters: Lorina, Alice, and Edith.

Example #2
Acrostic in Nabokov's "The Vane Sisters"

"I could isolate, consciously, little. Everything seemed blurred, yellow-clouded, yielding nothing tangible. Her inept acrostics, maudlin evasions, theopathies—every recollection formed ripples of mysterious meaning. Everything seemed yellowly blurred, illusive, lost."

This is the best example of acrostic formed in prose. It is a story about a professor who believes that codes and concealed meanings wrapped in acrostics evoke the thrill of discovery. Therefore, the first letters of each word in the final paragraph of the text spells out a phrase, "Icicles by Cynthia; Meter from me, Sybil." Although these words may sound like nonsense if someone has not come across the story, they are the keywords to interpret the story's mysterious plot.

Example #3


An Acrostic by Edgar Allan Poe

Elizabeth it is in vain you say
"Love not" — thou sayest it in so sweet a way:
In vain those words from thee or L.E.L.
Zantippe's talents had enforced so well:
Ah! if that language from thy heart arise,
Breath it less gently forth — and veil thine eyes.
Endymion, recollect, when Luna tried
To cure his love — was cured of all beside —
His follie — pride — and passion — for he died.

This famous acrostic has been written by a renowned American poet, Edgar Alan Poe in which he talks about love by using the name, ELIZABETH as a word. The L. E. L in the third line may refer to an English poet, Letitia Elizabeth London, who is famous for signing her works with these initials. The poem speaks about the love and merry-making of a couple. Poe has used acrostic style to illustrate how most of the people find hope in love.

Example #4
Acrostic in Cage's Overpopulation and Art



This poem is a mesostic poem in which key letters are placed in the middle of each line. Cage, very skillfully, talks about the phenomenon of overpopulation in this long mesostic poem. He has used these formal strategies to show that in this overcrowding world the individual is no longer the center of social or aesthetic forms of organization in a digitalized world.

Acrostics Meaning and Function
It is used as a tool to add a new dimension to the texts. The writers, very artistically, transform a simple text into a word puzzle by allowing the audience to interpret the hidden message of the text. Also, it enables the writers to project information comically. However, it is not something comic. The writers purposefully choose this strategy to convey their thoughts, ideas, and messages. Also, the acrostic style makes poems easy to remember. This conventional style of poetry is widely exercised in children literature to make learning fun for them.
In grammar, an active voice is a type of a clause or sentence in which a subject performs an action and expresses it through its representative verb. To simply put it, when a subject performs an action directly, it is in active voice. It then uses transitive verb to show the action.

Style guides usually encourage the use of active voice, because it is clear and direct. For example, "Some customers prefer mulled ale. They keep their mugs on the hob until the ale gets as hot as coffee. A sluggish cat named Minnie sleeps in a scuttle beside the stove" (The Old House at Home, by Joseph Mitchell). All of these sentences are in active voice, as the verbs "refer," "keep," "get" and "sleep" are in active mode.

Examples of Active Voice in Literature
Example #1: Harold and Maud (by Colin Higgins)
"You know, at one time, I used to break into pet shops to liberate the canaries. But I decided that was an idea way before its time. Zoos are full, prisons are overflowing. Oh my, how the world still dearly loves a cage."

Active voice in these example sentences is underlined. The subject "I" is performing an action through the verbs "break" and "decided." The subject "world" is performing an action through the verb "loves." All the sentences are in active voice.

Example #2: Hillary's Once in a Lifetime (by Kathleen Parker)
"Finally, Hillary swept in and moved down a line of huggers toward a raised platform centered in the room...Her positioning meant that she had to keep turning in order to hug back. Around and around and around she turned, 360 degrees, over and over, her arms outstretched in perpetual greeting, like a jewel-box ballerina whose battery has run low."

Here the subject "Hillary" is taking action through the verbs "swept in," "moved down," "had," "turned," and "has run." The verbs are in active mode, the reason that all sentences are in active voice.

Example #3: Mr. Personality (by Mark Singer)


"Seven days a week, Paul Schimmel ventures into the subway with his clarinet. In the IND station at Sixth Avenue and Forty-second Street one recent afternoon, he paid his fare with a free pass."

The use of active voice has added directness to this passage. The subject is "Paul Schimmel," who is doing "ventures," and has "paid" fare.

Example #4: Heart of Darkness (by Colin Higgins)
"I looked at him, lost in astonishment...'Ah, he talked to you of love!' I said, much amused. 'It isn't what you think,' he cried, almost passionately. 'It was in general.' "He threw his arms up...He had his second illness then. Afterwards I had to keep out of the way; but I didn't mind. He was living for the most part in those villages on the lake. When he came down to the river, sometimes he would take to me, and sometimes it was better for me to be careful. This man suffered too much."

In this passage, the author has written all of the sentences in active voice, which are direct and clear in meaning. The verbs of active voice include "looked," "talked," "think," "threw," "had," "living," "came down," and "suffered."

Example #5: The Catcher in the Rye (by J.D. Salinger)
"If you really want to hear about it, the first thing you'll probably want to know is where I was born, and what my lousy childhood was like... They're nice and all—I'm not saying that - but they're also touchy as hell. Besides, I'm not going to tell you my whole goddam autobiography or anything. I'll just tell you about this madman stuff that happened to me around last Christmas..."

In this excerpt, the author has used the verbs "hear," "want," "saying," "going," and "tell" in active voice.

Function of Active Voice


Active voice plays an important role in creative writing and business reports because these types of writings need to be to the point, clear, and direct. It adds interest and helps grab attention of the readers. Not only does it maintain audience's interest, it also improves the quality of a written work. Active voice gives energy and life to a sentence, as it is less wordy and consequently less difficult. In addition, active voice maintains focus and attention of the readers on a single point.
Ad hominem is a Latin word that means "against the man." As the name suggests, it is a literary term that involves commenting on or against an opponent, to undermine him instead of his arguments.

There are cases in which, whether consciously or unconsciously, people start to question the opponent or his personal associations, rather than evaluating the soundness and validity of the argument that he presents. These types of arguments are usually mistaken for personal insults, but they are somehow different in nature, and the distinction is very subtle.

Arguers who are not familiar with the principles of making logical arguments commonly end up saying something that would draw the audience's attention to the distasteful characteristics of the individual. Such people use this fallacy as a tool to deceive their audiences. Making such a blatant personal comment against somebody makes it hard for people to believe it isn't true. Typically, even the arguer himself believes that such personal traits or circumstances are not enough to dispose of an individual's opinion or argument. However, if looked at rationally, such arguments - even if true - never provide a valid reason to disregard someone's criticism.

Examples of Ad Hominem
Example #1:
"How can you argue your case for vegetarianism when you are enjoying that steak?"

This clearly shows how a person is attacked instead of being addressed for or against his argument.

Example #2:
A classic example of ad hominem fallacy is given below:

A: "All murderers are criminals, but a thief isn't a murderer, and so can't be a criminal."
B: "Well, you're a thief and a criminal, so there goes your argument."

Example #3: VeloNews: The Journal of Competitive Cycling


After an article about the retirement of Lance Armstrong, the VeloNews webpage shared a post with its readers. A commenter posted a comment saying how great an athlete Armstrong was, and that people should be proud of his achievements.

Another commenter wrote in response to the first commenter:

"He's not a great athlete; he's a fraud, a cheat and a liar. That's why not everybody is 'happy for Lance.'"

The reasons given by the arguer may very well be true, but he does not support his argument with reason and logic. He rather takes the disregarding approach. He does not say anything to prove that the premises he proposes are problematic. Instead, he goes on attacking the person who proposed them.

Function of Ad Hominem


A writer's background is considered to be a very important factor when it comes to judging his work. A book written on a particular subject in history will be perceived differently, keeping in mind the background of the author. Therefore, it is important to understand that a writer's traits and circumstances have a pivotal role to play in his feelings, thinking, and the construction of his arguments.

To put it simply, the considerations regarding the use of ad hominem can explain certain arguments and the motives behind them better. Nevertheless, such considerations are not enough on their own to evaluate an individual's opinion, and are certainly not sufficient to disregard them as false or invalid.

The fact is that ad hominem is a kind of fallacy that leaves a great impression on the audience's mind. It is an argumentative flaw that is hard to spot in our daily lives. Although, the personal attack that has been made on the opponent might not have even a speck of truth in it, it somehow makes the audience biased. Ironically, despite being flawed, ad hominem has an amazing power of persuasion.

The worst thing about using ad hominem purposely is that an opponent insults you publicly. Whenever this happens to you, you must recover from the humiliation and then point out the false connection in the argument, which was used as a trap for the audience. Moreover, the dilemma with ad hominem is that, once it has been used against a person, it smears his reputation. Once somebody makes such a judgmental argument about someone, the audience instead of evaluating it on logical grounds takes it to be true.
An adage is a short, pointed, and memorable saying that is based on facts, and which is considered a veritable truth by the majority of people. Famous adages become popular due to their usage over a long period of time. In fact, an adage expresses a general fact or truth about life, which becomes more and more popular before it is accepted as a universal truth. For instance, "God helps those who help themselves" is now considered a universal truth because of its usage throughout human history. Often repeated sayings and quotes become adages that pass on to many generations. However, some adages are metaphoric, having hidden meanings, and embody common observations. Sometimes proverbs are referred as adages, but there is a slight difference.

Adage vs. Proverb
Both of these terms represent sayings that convey a deeper meaning. However, there are some differences between them. A proverb has a practical aspect, but it is a common belief that an adage is true to have been tested in various ages. The adage is a more general term than a proverb; therefore, proverbs could be adages, in the manner that Merriam Webster defines proverbs as adages. Adages are general truths with universal applications, reflecting wisdom; whereas proverbs are more traditional and are often used in everyday speeches.

Examples of Adage from Literature


Many authors have employed adages in their works, such as C.S Lewis, Geoffrey Chaucer, William Shakespeare, Benjamin Franklin, J.K. Rowling, Aesop, George Bernard Shaw, Friedrich Nietzsche, and many others.

Example #1: In Memoriam (by Alfred Lord Tennyson)
Tis better to have loved and lost
Than never to have loved at all.

In these lines, Tennyson is giving advice about having love in one's life, which is a truth used in literary texts even today.

Example #2: As You Like It (by William Shakespeare)
All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players.
They have their exits and their entrances,
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages.

This is the most frequently quoted adage by Shakespeare. Here he has made a comparison between the world and the stage, as well as between life and play. He also refers to seven stages in the lives of humans as seven ages of humans.

Example #3: The Tortoise and the Hare (by Aesop)


"Things are not always what they seem."

(From The Bee-Keeper and the Bees)

"Appearances often are deceiving."

(From The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing)

"Slow and steady wins the race."

(From The Tortoise and the Hare)

The following lines are very popular in literature as well as in everyday use. People use these adages in their common speeches as witty sayings.

Example #4: Adagia (by Desiderius Erasmus)
"God helps those who help themselves."

"Put the cart before the horse."

"Call a spade a spade."

Erasmus is famous for using adages in his works. The given lines are commonly used sayings in daily conversation. These are now accepted as a universal truths.

Example #5: The Holy Bible (by Multiple Authors)
"Don't cast your pearls before swine." - Matthew 7:6
"More blessed to give than to receive." - Acts 20:35
"Pride goes before a fall." - Proverbs 16:18
"To everything there is a season." - Ecclesiastes 3:1

The Bible has also employed adages with deeper, moral meanings. The purpose of these sayings is to educate, and increase the readers' awareness.

Example #6: Poor Richard's Almanack (by Benjamin Franklin)
"Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise."
"Eat to live, and not live to eat."
"To err is human, to repent divine; to persist devilish."
"Well done is better than well said."
"A penny saved is a penny earned."

Franklin published this book on a yearly basis from 1732-1758, which became popular due to extensive use of witty adages and wordplay. These are some popular adages used to this day.

Function of Adage
Adages are not only found in literature, but also in advertising and scripts of films. The first major function of adage is to give awareness to the readers about some facts of life. Secondly, adages are applicable in any circumstance or situation, as they convey deeper meanings of wisdom. Most of these sayings are witty and suggest a moral lesson, having long lasting impacts of universal application of the truths contained in them. They become imprinted on the minds of the users. Moreover, they sum up the moral lesson of a story such as in Aesop's Fables. The authors use this device to make their works effective, compact and rich.
Adynaton is from the Greek word adunaton, which means "impractical," or "impossible." It is a rhetorical device that is a form of hyperbole in which exaggeration is taken to a great extreme where it seems impossible. In other words, when hyperbole is magnified to such an extent that it is completely unfeasible, it is called adynaton. Ideas in the use of adynaton are exaggerated in order to emphasize something.

Adynaton and Hyperbole
Adynaton is a kind of hyperbole, though it is an extreme form. When hyperbole goes to an extreme level, that is completely impossible in reality, it is called adynaton. It is presented as an exaggerated comparison or contrast.

Examples of Adynaton in Literature


Example #1: To His Coy Mistress (By Andrew Marvell)
"Had we but world enough, and time
This coyness, lady, were no crime.
We would sit down, and think which way
To walk, and pass our long love's day.
Thou by the Indian Ganges' side
Shouldst rubies find; I by the tide
Of Humber would complain. I would
Love you ten years before the flood
And you should, if you please, refuse
Till the conversion of the Jews."

Saying that a lady's "coyness" is a crime, in the first bold phrase above, is clearly an adynaton since no lawmaker would be insane enough to pass a law criminalizing coyness.

The bold phrase, "Till the conversion of the Jews" refers to predictions about the Jews converting to Christianity, which have been made by many for centuries. Yet, just like predicted dates of the end of the world have come and gone, a conversion of the Jews has not happened, and is showing no sign of happening.

Example #2: Macbeth (By William Shakespeare)
"Whence is that knocking?
How is't with me when every noise appals me?
What hands are here? ha! They pluck out mine eyes.
Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood
Clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather
The multitudinous seas in incarnadine,
Making the green one red..."

In these lines, an effective use of adynaton is evident. The tragic hero "Macbeth" feels guilty after having murdered King Duncan. He feels so much regret that even the big oceans cannot wash the king's blood from his hands.

Example #3: As I Walked Out One Evening (By W. H. Auden)


"I'll love you, dear, I'll love you
Till China and Africa meet,
And the river jumps over the mountain
And the salmon sing in the street,
I'll love you till the ocean
Is folded and hung up to dry
And the seven stars go squawking
Like geese about the sky ..."

Adynaton is very clear in the highlighted lines, as the poet expresses his love by overstating that the continents of China and Africa will meet, a river will jump over a mountain, fish will sing in the street, and the ocean will be folded and hung up to dry. These are extreme exaggerations, which are impossible in real life.

Example #4: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
"Why then, O brawling love, O loving hate,
anything, of nothing first create!
heavy lightness, serious vanity,
Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms ...

Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health,
Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is!
This love feel I, that feel no love in this.
Dost thou not laugh?"

In this excerpt, Romeo compares his love to several things. He intermingles love with hatred, mixes up beautiful things with ugly, hot with cold, dark with bright, and so on. He also labels love as fighting love and loving hate. These too are great exaggerations of love.

Function of Adynaton
Adynaton is used to create exaggeration, in order to emphasize some point. The basic purpose of using adynaton is to draw the attention of the audience by overstating some thing or idea.

Adynaton examples are found in literary pieces written as early as the Classical and Medieval periods. However, examples of adynaton are seen in folklore, drama, and fiction of the modern age. In everyday conversations, the function of adynaton is to create amusing effects by highlighting an idea. It is employed both for comic as well as serious purposes. By using extravagant statements, poets and writers make ordinary human feelings extraordinary.
Allegory is a figure of speech in which abstract ideas and principles are described in terms of characters, figures, and events. It can be employed in prose and poetry to tell a story, with a purpose of teaching or explaining an idea or a principle. The objective of its use is to teach some kind of a moral lesson.

Difference Between Allegory and Symbolism
Although an allegory uses symbols, it is different from symbolism. An allegory is a complete narrative that involves characters and events that stand for an abstract idea or event. A symbol, on the other hand, is an object that stands for another object, giving it a particular meaning. Unlike allegory, symbolism does not tell a story. For example, Plato, in his Allegory of Cave, tells a story of how some people are ignorant, while at the same time other people "see the light." Plato's allegory stands for an idea and does not tell an actual story.

Examples of Allegory in Everyday Life


Allegory is an archaic term, which is used specifically in literary works. It is difficult to spot its occurrence in everyday life, although recently we do find examples of allegory in political debates. The declaration of former U.S. President George W. Bush was allegorical when he used the term "Axis of Evil" in referring to three countries considered a danger to the world. He later used the term "allies" for those countries that would wage war against the "Axis."

Examples of Allegory in Literature
Example #1: Animal Farm (By George Orwell)
Animal Farm, written by George Orwell, is an allegory that uses animals on a farm to describe the overthrow of the last Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, and the Communist Revolution of Russia before WW I. The actions of the animals on the farm are used to expose the greed and corruption of the revolution. It also describes how powerful people can change the ideology of a society. One of the cardinal rules on the farm is this:

"All animals are equal but a few are more equal than others."

The animals on the farm represent different sections of Russian society after the revolution.

For instance, the pigs represent those who came to power following the revolution; "Mr. Jones," the owner of the farm, represents the overthrown Tsar Nicholas II; while "Boxer" the horse, represents the laborer class. The use of allegory in the novel allows Orwell to make his position clear about the Russian Revolution and expose its evils.

Example #2: Faerie Queen (By Edmund Spenser)
Faerie Queen, a masterpiece of Edmund Spenser, is a moral and religious allegory.

The good characters of book stand for the various virtues, while the bad characters represent vices. "The Red-Cross Knight" represents holiness, and "Lady Una" represents truth, wisdom, and goodness. Her parents symbolize the human race. The "Dragon," which has imprisoned them, stands for evil.

The mission of holiness is to help the truth fight evil, and thus regain its rightful place in the hearts of human beings. "The Red-Cross Knight" in this poem also represents the reformed church of England, fighting against the "Dragon," which stands for the Papacy or the Catholic Church.

Example #3: Pilgrim's Progress (By John Bunyan)


John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress is an example of spiritual allegory. The ordinary sinner, Christian, leaves the City of Destruction, and travels towards Celestial City, where God resides, for salvation. He finds Faithful, a companion who helps him on his way to the City. On many instances, many characters, including Hypocrisy, Apollyon, Mr. Worldly Wiseman, Obstinate, and Pliable try to discourage or stop him from achieving his aim. Finally, he reaches the Celestial City, carried by Hopeful's faith.

The moral learned through this allegory is that the road to Heaven is not easy, and it is full of obstacles. A Christian has to be willing to pay any price to achieve salvation. A man is full of sins, but this does not stop him from achieving glory.

Function of Allegory
Writers use allegory to add different layers of meanings to their works. Allegory makes their stories and characters multidimensional, so that they stand for something larger in meaning than what they literally stand for. Allegory allows writers to put forward their moral and political points of view. A careful study of an allegorical piece of writing can give us an insight into its writer's mind, how he views the world, and how he wishes the world to be.
Alliteration is derived from Latin's "Latira". It means "letters of alphabet". It is a stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur close together in a series.

Consider the following examples:

But a better butter makes a batter better.
A big bully beats a baby boy.
Both sentences are alliterative because the same first letter of words (B) occurs close together and produces alliteration in the sentence. An important point to remember here is that alliteration does not depend on letters but on sounds. So the phrase not knotty is alliterative, but cigarette chase is not.

Common Examples of Alliteration
In our daily life, we notice alliteration in the names of different companies. It makes the name of a company catchy and easy to memorize. Here are several common alliteration examples.

Dunkin' Donuts
PayPal
Best Buy
Coca-Cola
Life Lock
Park Place
American Apparel
American Airlines
Chuckee Cheese's
Bed Bath & Beyond
Krispy Kreme
The Scotch and Sirloin
We also find alliterations in names of people, making such names prominent and easy to be remembered. For instance, both fictional characters and real people may stand out prominently in your mind due to the alliterative effects of their names. Examples are:

Ronald Reagan
Sammy Sosa
Jesse Jackson
Michael Moore
William Wordsworth
Mickey Mouse
Porky Pig
Lois Lane
Marilyn Monroe
Fred Flintstone
Donald Duck
Spongebob Squarepants
Seattle Seahawks
Alliteration Examples in Literature


Example #1
From Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner"

"The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
The furrow followed free;
We were the first that ever burst
Into that silent sea."

In the above lines we see alliteration ("b", "f" and "s") in the phrases "breeze blew", "foam flew", "furrow followed", and "silent sea".

Example #2
From James Joyce's "The Dead"

"His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling faintly through the universe and faintly falling, like the descent of their last end, upon all the living and the dead."

We notice several instances of alliteration in the above mentioned prose work of James Joyce. Alliterations are with "s" and "f" in the phrases "swooned slowly" and "falling faintly".

Example #3


From Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings"

"Up the aisle, the moans and screams merged with the sickening smell of woolen black clothes worn in summer weather and green leaves wilting over yellow flowers."

Maya gives us a striking example of alliteration in the above extract with the letters "s" and "w". We notice that alliterative words are interrupted by other non-alliterative words among them but the effect of alliteration remains the same. We immediately notice alliteration in the words "screams", "sickening smell", "summer", "weather" and "wilting".

Example #4
From William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" (prologue to Act 1)

"From forth the fatal loins of these two foes;
A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life."

This is an example of alliteration with the "f" and "l." in words "forth, fatal, foes" and "loins, lovers, and life".

Example #5
Percy Bysshe Shelley's (English Romantic poet) "The Witch of Atlas" is a famous poem that is full of examples of alliterations. Just a few of them are "wings of winds" (line 175), "sick soul to happy sleep" (line 178), "cells of crystal silence" (line 156), "Wisdom's wizard. . . wind. . . will" (lines 195-197), "drained and dried" ( line 227), "lines of light" (line 245), "green and glowing" (line 356), and crudded. . . cape of cloud" (lines 482-3).

Function of Alliteration
Alliteration has a very vital role in poetry and prose. It creates a musical effect in the text that enhances the pleasure of reading a literary piece. It makes reading and recitation of the poems attractive and appealing; thus, making them easier to learn by heart. Furthermore, it renders flow and beauty to a piece of writing.

In the marketing industry, as what we have already discussed, alliteration makes the brand names interesting and easier to remember. This literary device is helpful in attracting customers and enhancing sales.
Allusion is a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance. It does not describe in detail the person or thing to which it refers. It is just a passing comment and the writer expects the reader to possess enough knowledge to spot the allusion and grasp its importance in a text.

For instance, you make a literary allusion the moment you say, "I do not approve of this quixotic idea," Quixotic means stupid and impractical derived from Cervantes's "Don Quixote", a story of a foolish knight and his misadventures.

Allusion Examples in Everyday Speech
The use allusions are not confined to literature alone. Their occurrence is fairly common in our daily speech. Look at some common allusion examples in everyday life:

"Don't act like a Romeo in front of her." - "Romeo" is a reference to Shakespeare's Romeo, a passionate lover of Juliet, in "Romeo and Juliet".
The rise in poverty will unlock the Pandora's box of crimes. - This is an allusion to one of Greek Mythology's origin myth, "Pandora's box".
"This place is like a Garden of Eden." - This is a biblical allusion to the "garden of God" in the Book of Genesis.
"Hey! Guess who the new Newton of our school is?" - "Newton", means a genius student, alludes to a famous scientist Isaac Newton.
"Stop acting like my ex-husband please." - Apart from scholarly allusions we refer to common people and places in our speech.
Examples of Allusion in Literature


Let us analyze a few examples of the use of allusions in literature:

Example #1
Milton's "Paradise Lost" gives allusions a fair share. Look at the example from Book 6 below:

"All night the dread less Angel unpursu'd
Through Heav'ns wide Champain held his way, till Morn,
Wak't by the circling Hours, with rosie hand
Unbarr'd the gates of Light. There is a Cave
Within the Mount of God, fast by his Throne"

In the above lines "dread less Angel" is a reference to "Abdiel", a fearless angel. "Circling Hours" alludes to a Greek Myth "The Horae", the daughters of "Zeus" and "Themis" namely "Thallo (Spring), Auxo (Summer) and Carpo (Fall). " With rosie hand" Milton refers to Homer's illustration of the "rosy fingered dawn" (Odyssey Book 2).

Example #2
Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus" is replete with instances of allusions. Read the example from Act III below:

"Learnèd Faustus, to find the secrets of astronomy
Graven in the book of Jove's high firmament,
Did mount him up to scale Olympus' top,
Where, sitting in a chariot burning bright,
Drawn by the strength of yokèd dragons' necks,
He views the clouds, the planets, and the stars."

Jove's high firmament refers to the outer stretches of the universe. "Olympus' top" is an allusion to Greek Mythology where Mount Olympus is home of gods. Similarly, "a chariot burning bright" refers to a Greek Myth of "god Apollo" who is said to drive the sun in his chariot.

Example #3


In Conrad's "Heart of Darkness", "the two knitting women" whom Marlow sees alludes to "Moirae" or Fates as visualized in Greek Mythology:

"The two knitting women increase his anxiety by gazing at him and all the other sailors with knowing unconcern. Their eerie looks suggest that they know what will happen (the men dying), yet don't care"

The thread they knit represents human life. The two women knitting black wool foreshadows Marlow's horrific journey in the "Dark Continent".

Example #4
We find a number of allusions in Keats's "Ode to the Grecian Urn". For example:

"Sylvan historian, who canst thus express
A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:
What leaf-fringed legend haunts about thy shape
Of deities or mortals, or of both,
In Tempe or the dales of Arcady?"

"Sylvan" is a goat-like-man deity of Greek mythology. "Tempe" alludes to the "Vale of Tempe" in Greece, a place (from Greek mythology) frequently visited by Apollo and other gods. Likewise, "the dales of Arcady" refers to the home of "Pan", the god of rustic music.

Function of Allusion
By and large, the use of allusions enables writers or poets to simplify complex ideas and emotions. The readers comprehend the complex ideas by comparing the emotions of the writer or poet to the references given by them. Furthermore, the references to Greek Mythology give a dreamlike and magical touch to the works of art. Similarly, biblical allusions appeal to the readers with religious backgrounds.
Ambiguity, or fallacy of ambiguity, is a word, phrase, or statement which contains more than one meaning. Ambiguous words or statements lead to vagueness and confusion, and shape the basis for instances of unintentional humor.

For instance, it is ambiguous to say "I rode a black horse in red pajamas," because it may lead us to think the horse was wearing red pajamas. The sentence becomes clear when it is restructured as, "Wearing red pajamas, I rode a black horse."

Similarly, same words with different meanings can cause ambiguity, such as in, "John took off his trousers by the bank." It is funny if we confuse one meaning of "bank," which is a building, to another meaning, which is "an edge of a river." Context usually resolves any ambiguity in such cases.

Common Ambiguity Examples
Below are some common examples of ambiguity:

A good life depends on a liver - Liver may be an organ or simply a living person.
Foreigners are hunting dogs - It is unclear whether dogs were being hunted, or foreigners are being spoken of as dogs.
Each of us saw her duck - It is not clear whether the word "duck" refers to an action of ducking, or a duck that is a bird.
The passerby helped dog bite victim - Is the passerby helping a dog bite someone? Or is he helping a person who has been bitten by a dog? It's not clear.
Examples of Ambiguity in Literature


Although ambiguity is considered a flaw in writing, many writers use this technique to allow readers to understand their works in a variety of ways, giving them depth and complexity. Let us analyze some ambiguity examples in literature.

Example #1: The Catcher in the Rye (By J. D. Salinger)
Read the following excerpt from The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger:

"I ran all the way to the main gate, and then I waited a second till I got my breath. I have no wind, if you want to know the truth. I'm quite a heavy smoker, for one thing—that is, I used to be. They made me cut it out. Another thing, I grew six and a half inches last year. That's also how I practically got t.b. and came out here for all these goddam checkups and stuff. I'm pretty healthy though."

The words "they" and "here" used by the speaker are ambiguous. But the readers are allowed to presume from the context that "they" might be the professionals helping out Holden, and "here" might be a rehabilitation center.

Example #2: The Sick Rose (By William Blake)
The Sick Rose, a short lyric written by William Blake, is full of ambiguities:

"O Rose thou art sick.
The invisible worm,
That flies in the night
In the howling storm:
Has found out thy bed
Of crimson joy;
And his dark secret love
Does thy life destroy"

Many of the words in the above lines show ambiguity. We cannot say for sure what " bed of crimson joy" means; neither can we be exact about the interpretation of "dark secret love." The ambiguous nature of such phrases allows readers to explore for deeper meanings of the poem.

Some of those who have analyzed this poem believe that "Has found out thy bed / Of crimson joy" refers to making love.

Example #3: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)


On a larger scale, ambiguity may develop in a character, or in an entire story. For instance, Hamlet is a morally ambiguous character.

He kills to avenge his father's murder
He is good because he wants to protect his mother
He is bad because he is willing to kill whom he must to achieve this end
The ambiguity in Hamlet's character is seen when he is hurt by the death of Ophelia, which is his personal loss, but he does not appreciate the effect that his actions are going to have on others.

Example #4: Ode to a Grecian Urn (By John Keats)
We find ambiguity in the first line of Keats' Ode to a Grecian Urn:

"Thou still unravish'd bride of quietness..."

The use of the word "still" is ambiguous in nature. Here, it may mean "an unmoving object," or it may be interpreted as "yet unchanged."

Function of Ambiguity
Ambiguity in literature serves the purpose of lending a deeper meaning to a literary work. By introducing ambiguity in their works, writers give liberty to readers to use their imagination to explore meanings. This active participation of the readers involves them in the prose or poetry they read.
Amplification is a rhetorical device writers use to embellish a sentence or statement by adding further information. The objective is to increase readability and worth of the statement or sentence. They usually use it when a simple sentence is abrupt, and cannot convey the desired implications. Writers then use amplification to make structural additions, and give further meanings by describing and repeating a certain statement or idea. The purpose of this rhetorical device is to bring the readers' attention to an idea, which they may miss otherwise.

Examples of Amplification in Literature
Example #1: Our Mutual Friend (by Charles Dickens)
"Mr. and Mrs. Veneering were bran-new people in a bran-new house in a bran-new quarter of London. Everything about the Veneerings was spick and span new. All their furniture was new, all their friends were new, all their servants were new, their place was new, ... their harness was new, their horses were new, their pictures were new, they themselves were new, they were as newly-married as was lawfully compatible with their having a bran-new baby ..."

In this excerpt, Dickens amplifies the phrase "bran-new," and then describes it further by giving more details about everything, such as furniture, friends, servants, place, horses, pictures, etc.

Example #2: Northern Exposure (by Chris Stevens)
"Goethe's final words: 'More light.' Ever since we crawled out of that primordial slime, that's been our unifying cry: 'More light.' Sunlight. Torchlight. Candlelight. Neon. Incandescent ... Light is metaphor. Thy word is a lamp unto my feet. Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Lead, Kindly Light, amid the encircling gloom, Lead Thou me on! The night is dark, and I am far from home — Lead Thou me on! Arise, shine, for thy light has come. Light is knowledge. Light is life. Light is light."

You can notice that emphasis is on the "light" in the excerpt given above. Moving on from literal meaning to the metaphorical meaning of the light, the speaker is describing the purpose of light in human lives.

Example #3: The Twits (by Roald Dahl)


"If a person has ugly thoughts, it begins to show on the face. And when that person has ugly thoughts every day, every week, every year, the face gets uglier and uglier until you can hardly bear to look at it.

A person who has good thoughts cannot ever be ugly. You can have a wonky nose and a crooked mouth and a double chin and stick-out teeth, but if you have good thoughts it will shine out of your face like sunbeams and you will always look lovely."

Here in this excerpt, Dahl elaborates to explain in depth the way an ugly person can turn out to be uglier, and how a beautiful person remains beautiful, despite having physical imperfections.

Example #4: All Stories Are True (by John Edgar Wideman)
"A massive tree centuries old holds out against the odds here across from my mother's house, one of the biggest trees in Pittsburgh, anchored in a green tangle of weeds and bushes, trunk thick as a Buick, black as night after rain soaks its striated hide... If it ever tore loose from its moorings, it would crush her house like a sledgehammer ... "

In this example, John Edgar Wideman gives an expanded and enriched description of a huge old tree. He repeatedly describes how it has anchored itself along with weeds and bushes against his mother's house.

Example #5: The Scarlet Letter (by Nathaniel Hawthorne)
"It is a little remarkable, that—though disinclined to talk 0ver much of myself and my affairs at the fireside, and to my personal friends—an autobiographical impulse should twice in my life have taken possession of me, in addressing the public."

This introduction by Nathaniel Hawthorne in his famous novel, The Scarlett Letter, uses amplification. The speaker explains that he is resolved to write his autobiography. Instead of telling it simply, he uses in-depth language to add the main idea into it.

Function of Amplification


By using amplification, writers repeat something they already have said with the purpose to add more information and details to the original description. In writing and speech, amplification tends to highlight the importance of an idea, to stimulate an emotional response among the audience. In fact, it adds an exaggeration, increases the rhetorical effect, and emphasizes to further elaborate definitions, descriptions, and arguments in a piece. Amplification also highlights the persuasive aspects of an idea by elaborating the reason why it needs to be considered. Besides, in creative writing, it draws readers' attention to the most vivid, thought provoking, and compelling parts of a narrative.
Anachronism is derived from the Greek word anachronous, which means "against time." Therefore, an anachronism is an error of chronology or timeline in a literary piece. In other words, anything that is out of time and out of place is an anachronism.

Anachronisms appear in literature, paintings, and other works, and it is fascinating to explore them. Generally, they are considered errors that occur due to lack of research. For example, if a painter paints a portrait of Aristotle, and shows him wearing a wrist watch, it would be an example of anachronism, as we are all aware that wristwatches did not exist during Aristotle's time. Similarly, the presence of a wall clock in a stage setting that depicts the interior of a Roman fort is an anachronism.

Examples of Anachronism in Literature
Example #1: The Great Gatsby (By F. Scott Fitzgerald)
The most famous anachronism example comes from Act 2, Scene 1 of William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar:

Brutus: "Peace! Count the clock."
Cassius: "The clock has stricken three."

The time this play depicts is a point in history dating back to 44 A.D. Mechanical clocks referred to in the above-mentioned dialogue had not been invented at that time, but were present in Shakespeare's time. Thus, the mention of a clock in this play is an anachronism.

The same play presents another example of anachronism in Act 1, Scene 2:

"... he plucked me open his doublet and offered them his throat to cut."

Romans at the time of Julius Caesar did not wear a doublet, a close-fitted jacket. This was, however, a fashion among men at the time of Shakespeare, and therefore its use in the play is an anachronism.

Example #2: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
It is interesting to cite an instance of anachronism in Shakespeare's play Hamlet. Hamlet, the protagonist, is the Prince of Denmark. We are told in the play that he has been attending the University of Halle-Wittenberg.

It is a historical fact that the aforementioned institute was established in 1502 A.D. The time that was depicted in the play was that of the 7th or 13th century. Shakespeare did not bother much to set the mistake right, nor did people ever call into question the presence of the university mentioned above in the Hamlet character's time.

Example #3: Macbeth (By William Shakespeare)


Yet another example of Shakespearean anachronism comes from Act 1, Scene 2 of his play Macbeth:

"Ross: That now
Sweno, the Norways' king, craves composition:
Nor would we deign him burial of his men
Till he disbursed at Saint Colme's inch
Ten thousand dollars to our general use."

The use of the word "dollar" in the above excerpt is clearly an example of an anachronism, as the dollar was not the monetary unit during the time that the play is set. Shakespeare's lack of research caused him to mention an item out of its time.

Example #4: Pharaoh (By Boleslaw Prus)
Another example of anachronism caused by a lack of research is in the novel Pharaoh, written by the Polish writer Boleslaw Prus. The setting of the novel is the regime of Ramses XII (1087-1085 B.C). The writer mentions in his novel a Prince Harim's canal in the time of Ramses XII, and claims that it was the size of the Suez Canal. Careful research reveals that the canal existed before the mentioned timeline of the narrative, and it was much smaller than the Suez Canal.

Example #5: Ode on a Grecian Urn (By John Keats)
An example of anachronism can be traced in John Keats' poem Ode on a Grecian Urn:

"Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard
Are sweeter: therefore, ye soft pipes play on."

Notice the use of the century-old and formal term "ye," rather than the informal and more appropriate to Keats' time, "you." It is an anachronism, but its use here is intentional, as it is used to show the respect that the urn inspires in Keats; hence, produces an artistic effect.

Function of Anachronism


Generally, an anachronism is considered an unintentional error that is a result of a writer's carelessness, and his lack of research. At times, however, it is employed in order to produce a special artistic effect, in order to attract the attention of the readers by an appropriate use of anachronism.
Anacoluthon is derived from the Greek word anakolouthos, which means "lacking sequence." It is a stylistic device defined as a syntactic deviation, and interruption within a sentence from one structure to another. In this interruption, the expected sequence of grammar is absent. The grammatical flow of sentences is interrupted in order to begin more sentences.

Characteristics of Anacoluthon
It is employed intentionally, unintentionally, or as a rhetorical device. In rhetoric, anacoluthon is also known as a figure of disorder in which the syntax of a sentence does not correlate with whatever is expected. However, it should not to be mixed-up with hyperbaton, which also involves a change in the normal position of words, phrases, and sentences. Anacoluthon is the interruption within a sentence from one construction to another against the expected logical order of the sentence. This change can occur within a sentence or in the form of tense.

Examples of Anacoluthon in Literature


Example #1: Ulysses (By James Joyce)
"... I could have brought him in his breakfast in bed with a bit of toast so long as I didnt do it on the knife for bad luck or if the woman was going her rounds with the watercress and something nice and tasty there are a few olives in the kitchen he might like I never could bear the look of them in Abrines I could do the criada the room looks all right since I changed it the other way you see something was telling me all the time I'd have to introduce myself not knowing me from Adam very funny wouldn't it ..."

This is one example of anacoluthon where stream of consciousness makes its use easy. Since the thoughts are not coherent, and lack grammatical sequence, it makes readers stop and think about sentence order.

Example #2: King Lear (By William Shakespeare)
"I will have such revenges on you both,
That all the world shall—I will do such things,
What they are, yet I know not..."

In the above example, King Lear talks about exacting revenge. However, he himself does not know how he will exact revenge because he is in a confused state of mind. This excerpt can be considered as a good anacoluthon example, as there is interruption from one sentence to another, and such interruption is done to attract the readers' attention.

Example #3: A Portrait of Mabel Dodge (By Gertrude Stein)


"A plank that was dry was not disturbing the smell of burning and altogether there was the best kind of sitting there could never be all the edging that the largest chair was having..."

In this case, Gertrude has deviated from one sentence to another. In the beginning, he talks about a plank and its smell. Then more sentences are added, and the result is that the grammatical order is changed.

Example #4: The Walrus and the Carpenter (By Lewis Carroll)
"'The time has come,' the Walrus said,
'To talk of many things:
Of shoes—and ships—and sealing-wax—
And cabbages—and kings—
And why the sea is boiling hot—
And whether pigs have wings.'"

Here, Walrus proclaims to all listening oysters that the time has come to speak about many things. Following his statement that "the sea is boiling hot," there is an interruption in the grammatical flow of the sentences through a sudden change and insertion of conjunctions.

Function of Anacoluthon
The common use of anacoluthon is to imitate a thought or speech, and then shift the necessary information towards the start of the sentence. It is frequently used in literary writings and in casual speeches. In casual conversation, it is used in such a way that the sentence would not be considered correct grammatically. In written works, however, it is employed to imitate ungrammatical, confused, and informal speech, and to draw the attention of readers.

Anacoluthon is used extensively in poetry, plays, and dramatic monologues. In addition, this technique is well-suited to the stream of consciousness writing style that is planned to signify thoughts in proximity to one another, because thoughts are not always consistent and hardly grammatically correct.
The term anadiplosis is a Greek word, which means "to reduplicate." It refers to the repetition of a word or words in successive clauses in such a way that the second clause starts with the same word which marks the end of the previous clause.

Anadiplosis exhibits a typical pattern of repeating a word. For example, the repetition of the word "give" in the sentence "When I give, I give myself" is termed anadiplosis, as it occurs at the end of the first clause and marks the beginning of the following clause.

Similarly, notice how the use of anadiplosis repeats in its typical fashion the word "reliability" to highlight the main point of the sentence, "This public school has a record of extraordinary reliability, a reliability that every other school is jealous of in the city."

Anadiplosis and Chiasmus
It is important to note that anadiplosis is part of another figure of speech, chiasmus. However, every anadiplosis does not necessarily reverse its structure like it is done in chiasmus. For instance, "Forget what you want to remember, and remember what you want to forget" is an example of chiasmus (as it involves a reversal of structure in the second clause) and anadiplosis, as the word "remember" marks the end of one clause and the start of the subsequent clause.

Anadiplosis does not always employ a reversal of structure as in the sentence "The land of my fathers, and my fathers can have it." It is an example of anadiplosis involving a typical repetition of the word "my fathers" but, unlike chiasmus, the structure of the final clause is not reversed.

Anadiplosis Examples in Literature
Writers employ anadiplosis in their literary texts to produce special stylistic effects, such as decorating texts by means of its typical repetitive pattern, and laying emphasis on an important point. Let us have a look at a few examples of this stylistic device from literature.

Example #1: The Holy Bible, II Peter, 1:5-7 (By the Apostle Peter)
"... you must make every effort to support your faith with goodness, and goodness with knowledge, and knowledge with self-control, and self-control with endurance, and endurance with godliness, and godliness with mutual affection, and mutual affection with love."

In this verse, one is able to see how all the mentioned qualities are connected to each other with the use of anadiplosis.

Example #2: Lycidas (By John Milton)
"For Lycidas is dead, dead ere his prime,
Young Lycidas and hath not left his peer."

Here the word "dead" has been repeated to put emphasis on the death of Lycidas. Milton often used anadiplosis in his works to convince or persuade his readers. The word "dead" serves the same purpose in these lines of Lycidas.

Example #3: Lolita (By Vladimir Nabokov)


"What I present here is what I remember of the letter, and what I remember of the letter I remember verbatim (including that awful French)."

Just observe the beautiful use of the phrase, "what I remember of the letter," as an anadiplosis. The writer clearly wants his readers to focus on what he is saying and repeating in these lines. The message is further enhanced by the use of the word "verbatim."

Example #4: Untitled (By Francis Bacon)
"He retained his virtues amidst all his - misfortunes - misfortunes which no prudence could foresee or prevent."

Here, Bacon has used the word "misfortunes" twice, to bring home to his readers the main idea he is discussing, which is that misfortune is always unpredictable.

Example #5: The Isles of Greece (By Lord Byron)
"The mountains look on Marathon - And Marathon looks on the sea ..."

This is a good use of anadiplosis by Lord Byron. Here, he has stressed the word "Marathon," and repeated it to make it significant in the poem.

Example #6: Gladiator movie (By David Franzoni)
"The general who became a slave. The slave who became a gladiator. The gladiator who defied an emperor. Striking story!"

This is an excerpt of dialogue from the famous movie Gladiator (2000), in which a general is sold as a slave, who then had to work as a gladiator to make himself known in the arena and then defy the emperor. Look at the effects produced by the anadiplosis.

Function of Anadiplosis


It repeats a word in quick succession, in successive clauses, in order to add emphasis to the main idea. This works because readers tend to focus on the repetition of words, and thereby on the idea emphasized by them. Anadiplosis also serves to decorate a piece of writing or a speech. Often, CEOs and modern executives are fond of using this device to make their suggestions and commands effective.Anadiplosis exhibits a typical pattern of repeating a word. For example, the repetition of the word "give" in the sentence "When I give, I give myself" is termed anadiplosis, as it occurs at the end of the first clause and marks the beginning of the following clause.

Similarly, notice how the use of anadiplosis repeats in its typical fashion the word "reliability" to highlight the main point of the sentence, "This public school has a record of extraordinary reliability, a reliability that every other school is jealous of in the city."

Anadiplosis and Chiasmus
It is important to note that anadiplosis is part of another figure of speech, chiasmus. However, every anadiplosis does not necessarily reverse its structure like it is done in chiasmus. For instance, "Forget what you want to remember, and remember what you want to forget" is an example of chiasmus (as it involves a reversal of structure in the second clause) and anadiplosis, as the word "remember" marks the end of one clause and the start of the subsequent clause.

Anadiplosis does not always employ a reversal of structure as in the sentence "The land of my fathers, and my fathers can have it." It is an example of anadiplosis involving a typical repetition of the word "my fathers" but, unlike chiasmus, the structure of the final clause is not reversed.

Anadiplosis Examples in Literature
Writers employ anadiplosis in their literary texts to produce special stylistic effects, such as decorating texts by means of its typical repetitive pattern, and laying emphasis on an important point. Let us have a look at a few examples of this stylistic device from literature.

Example #1: The Holy Bible, II Peter, 1:5-7 (By the Apostle Peter)
"... you must make every effort to support your faith with goodness, and goodness with knowledge, and knowledge with self-control, and self-control with endurance, and endurance with godliness, and godliness with mutual affection, and mutual affection with love."

In this verse, one is able to see how all the mentioned qualities are connected to each other with the use of anadiplosis.

Example #2: Lycidas (By John Milton)
"For Lycidas is dead, dead ere his prime,
Young Lycidas and hath not left his peer."

Here the word "dead" has been repeated to put emphasis on the death of Lycidas. Milton often used anadiplosis in his works to convince or persuade his readers. The word "dead" serves the same purpose in these lines of Lycidas.

Example #3: Lolita (By Vladimir Nabokov)


"What I present here is what I remember of the letter, and what I remember of the letter I remember verbatim (including that awful French)."

Just observe the beautiful use of the phrase, "what I remember of the letter," as an anadiplosis. The writer clearly wants his readers to focus on what he is saying and repeating in these lines. The message is further enhanced by the use of the word "verbatim."

Example #4: Untitled (By Francis Bacon)
"He retained his virtues amidst all his - misfortunes - misfortunes which no prudence could foresee or prevent."

Here, Bacon has used the word "misfortunes" twice, to bring home to his readers the main idea he is discussing, which is that misfortune is always unpredictable.

Example #5: The Isles of Greece (By Lord Byron)
"The mountains look on Marathon - And Marathon looks on the sea ..."

This is a good use of anadiplosis by Lord Byron. Here, he has stressed the word "Marathon," and repeated it to make it significant in the poem.

Example #6: Gladiator movie (By David Franzoni)
"The general who became a slave. The slave who became a gladiator. The gladiator who defied an emperor. Striking story!"

This is an excerpt of dialogue from the famous movie Gladiator (2000), in which a general is sold as a slave, who then had to work as a gladiator to make himself known in the arena and then defy the emperor. Look at the effects produced by the anadiplosis.

Function of Anadiplosis


It repeats a word in quick succession, in successive clauses, in order to add emphasis to the main idea. This works because readers tend to focus on the repetition of words, and thereby on the idea emphasized by them. Anadiplosis also serves to decorate a piece of writing or a speech. Often, CEOs and modern executives are fond of using this device to make their suggestions and commands effective.
Anagnorisis is a moment in a plot or story, specifically a tragedy, wherein the main character either recognizes or identifies his/her true nature, recognizes the other character's true identity, discovers the true nature of his situation, or that of the others - leading to the resolution of the story.

Aristotle discussed anagnorisis in his Poetics in detail. He defines it as "a change [that] occurs from ignorance to knowledge, creating love or hate between the individuals doomed by the poet for bad or good fortune." Simply, it is a startling discovery, which brings a change from ignorance to knowledge.

For instance, in William Shakespeare's "The Winter's Tale," a recognition scene occurs in the final act, which reveals that Perdita is the daughter of the king, and not a shepherdess - the reason that she is suitable for a royal lover.

Examples of Anagnorisis in Literature
Example #1: Oedipus Rex (by Sophocles)
In "Oedipus Rex," anagnorisis occurs when a messenger comes and reveals to King Oedipus his true birth. Oedipus then recognizes his queen, Jocasta, as his real mother, and the man whom he has killed at crossroads as his real father, as well as himself as an unnatural sinner, who has caused the disaster in the city of Thebes. Oedipus' recognition is artistically satisfying, as peripeteia (reversal of fortune) accompanies it. Here peripeteia is a reversal of fortune from good to bad, moving to a tragic catastrophe.

Example #2: The Choephoroi (by Aeschylus)
Another famous example of anagnorisis is found in Aeschylus' Greek "The Choephoroi." It happens when Electra identifies Orestes, her brother, who returns after exile at Agamemnon on their father's grave, whom their mother, Clytemnestra has murdered. Electra recognizes Orestes as her brother by finding three evidences: a lock of hair belonging to Orestes on their father's grave, his footprints near the grave, and a weaving piece that she has embroidered for him. She finds that hair and footprints are similar to hers. Electra's awareness of her brother' presence gives her support to avenge the murder of their father.

Example #3: Macbeth (by William Shakespeare)


One such moment in "Macbeth" occurs in the final scene when Macbeth, on the battlefield, encounters vengeful Macduff, who declares that he is not "of woman born," but instead "untimely ripped" from the womb of his mother - which is now called a C-Section. This is the moment when Macbeth learns that the prophecy of witches is about to come true, and that Macduff would kill him. Though Macbeth realizes that he is destined, he continues to fight with Macduff, who eventually kills him.

Example #4: Othello (by William Shakespeare)
There is another example in another play "Othello." Othello believes only what others tell him, especially those who come to see him first. He believes in the story of deceit of Iago, though it is based on words and a handkerchief, yet he does not trust Desdemona, his wife. The moment of recognition occurs when he realizes that he has wrongly killed his beloved wife. Therefore, he kills himself too.

Example #5: Cherry Orchard (by Anton Chekhov)
Still another example occurs in Act-III of Cherry Orchard, by Anthon Chekhov. During a party, Lyubov Andreyevna makes a critical realization that her cherry orchard, the place she has grown up, having created beautiful childhood memories, is bought by Lophakhin. Anagnorisis occurs exactly when Lopakhin enters and proudly declares, "It is sold ... I bought it ... I bought it! ... The cherry orchard is mine now, Mine! ... I've bought the estate where my father and grandfather were slaves, where they weren't even allowed into the kitchen."

Lyubov starts weeping, and Varya leaves the party angrily. This is the anagnorisis of both Lyubov and Lopakhin. Lyubov discovers who has finally bought her Orchard, and Lophakhin realizes that he eventually has bought the estate where his ancestors worked as slaves.

Function of Anagnorisis


The use of this literary device is very common in plays and novels. It is a very important part of the plot in a tragedy, in which the protagonist recognizes his tragic flaw. This happens at the climax, leading to his eventual downfall. The end of anagnorisis leads to catharsis in the readers. The ideal moment for this device to happen is the moment of peripeteia, a reversal of fortune, where the protagonist realizes some important insight or fact, human nature, his own situation, or a truth about himself. It, in fact, unravels all the major complexities of the plot.
Anagram is a form of word play in which letters of a word or phrase are rearranged in such a way that a new word or phrase is formed.

An anagram is formed by using exactly the same letters of the original word, but with a different arrangement. For example, the letters in the word "Shakespeare" can be rearranged to form a word, "keshareapes." However, an anagram in literature is not a nonsensical arrangement of words, as in the previous example. Rather, it aims at parodying, criticizing, or praising its subject - the original word. For instance, a famous anagram for "William Shakespeare" is "I am a weakish speller."

Common Anagram Examples
We play with words in our everyday, life to create anagrams that are funny and witty. Usually, anagrams are most interesting when they are relevant to each other. Some hilarious anagram examples are given below:

Mother-in-law = Hitler woman
Debit card = Bad credit
Dormitory = Dirty room
The earthquakes = The queer shakes
Astronomer = Moon starrer
Punishments = Nine thumps
School master = The classroom
Anagrams to create Pseudonyms
In literature, the use of anagrams is most commonly connected to pseudonyms, where the writers jumble the letters of their original names to create interesting pennames for themselves. Below are some famous examples:

Jim Morrison = Mr. Mojo Risin
Edward Gorey = Ogdred Weary
Dave Barrey = Ray Adverb
Glen Duncen = Declan Gunn
Damon Albarn = Dan Abnormal
Anagrams in Naming Characters
We see anagrams being employed by several writers in titles of their works, and in naming their characters, giving them a touch of wit and mystery. Look at the examples below:

William Shakespeare's "Hamlet" is an anagram of "Amleth," a Danish prince.
Vladamir Nabakov, in his novel Lolita, presents the character "Vivian Darkbloom," which is an anagram of his own name.
K. Rowling, in her Harry Potter series, uses an anagram "I am Lord Voldemort" for her character "Tom Marvolo Riddle," to reveal the two different identities of the villain.
The two main characters of Libba Bray's fantasy novel The Rebel Angels, use anagrams to give themselves different names: Claire McCleethy - "They Call Me Circe"; Hester Asa Moore - "Sarah Rees-Toome."
Examples of Anagram in Literature


Depending on the topics at hand, writers tend to vary their use of anagrams. Let us see some examples of anagrams in literature:

Example #1: Da Vinci Code (By Dan Brown)


In Dan Brown's novel Da Vinci Code, the curator of the museum - Jacques Saunière - wrote the following inscription with his blood:

"O, Draconian devil!
Oh, lame saint!
So dark the con of Man"

These were actually the clues related to Leonardo Da Vinci, and were decoded as:

"O, Draconian devil!" = Leonardo Da Vinci

"Oh, lame saint!" = The Mona Lisa

"So dark the con of Man" = Madonna of the Rocks

In the same novel, we see a character, Leigh Teabing, who is the Holy Grail expert, inventing an apt name for himself by anagramming the names of the authors of The Holy Blood and The Holy Grail, Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh, and Henry Lincoln.

Example #2: Gulliver's Travels (By Jonathan Swift)
Jonathan Swift had an uncanny skill of inventing new and unusual names for his fictitious characters and places by using the anagrammatic method. We find interesting examples of anagrams in Jonathan Swift's novel "Gulliver's Travels".

For instance, "Brobdingnag," a land occupied by giants, is an anagram of three words: big, grand, and noble (excluding the syllable -le). Similarly, "Tribinia" and "Langden," the two other kingdoms traveled by Gulliver during his voyage, are anagrams of Britain and England respectively.

Function of Anagram
The above discussion reveals that anagrams are commonly used in both everyday life and literature. They often provide instances of wit and humor. Additionally, this word play presents itself as a recreational activity in the form of word puzzles (cross words, upwords, scrabble, etc.) to sharpen the deciphering skills of kids, as well as adults.

In literature, authors may use anagrams to hide their identity, by coining pseudonyms for themselves, but still giving interesting clues to keen observers. Similarly, the anagrammatic names of characters and places in a literary piece add layers of meaning to the otherwise nonsense names, and therefore further motivate and develop readers' interest. In mystery or detective novels and short stories, anagrams play a vital role in proving clues to unfold a mystery.
An analogy is a comparison in which an idea or a thing is compared to another thing that is quite different from it. It aims at explaining that idea or thing by comparing it to something that is familiar. Metaphors and similes are tools used to draw an analogy. Therefore, analogy is more extensive and elaborate than either a simile or a metaphor.

Here, an atomic structure is compared to a solar system by using the word "like." Therefore, it is a simile. Metaphor is used to relate the nucleus to the sun, and the electrons to the planets, without using the words "like" or "as." Hence, similes and metaphors are employed to develop an analogy.

Examples of Analogy in Everyday Life
We commonly use analogy in our everyday conversation. Some common analogy examples are given below:

Life is like a race. The one who keeps running wins the race, and the one who stops to catch a breath loses.
Just as a sword is the weapon of a warrior, a pen is the weapon of a writer.
How a doctor diagnoses diseases is like how a detective investigates crimes.
Just as a caterpillar comes out of its cocoon, so we must come out of our comfort zone.
You are as annoying as nails on a chalkboard.
Examples of Analogy in Literature


Example #1: Night Clouds (By Amy Lowell)
The white mares of the moon rush along the sky
Beating their golden hoofs upon the glass Heavens.

Here, the poet constructs an analogy between clouds and mares. She compares the movement of the white clouds in the sky at night with that of the white mares on the ground.

Example #2: A Hanging (By George Orwell)
The lines below were taken from George Orwell's narrative essay A Hanging, which exhibits an analogy between a prisoner and a fish.

They crowded very close about him, with their hands always on him in a careful, caressing grip, as though all the while feeling him to make sure he was there. It was like men handling a fish which is still alive and may jump back into the water.

The people are taking a prisoner to the gallows to be hanged. They are holding him firmly, as if he were a fish which might slip away and escape.

Example #3: The Day Is Done (By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow)


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow uses analogy in the following lines taken from his poem The Day is Done:

Read from some humbler poet,
Whose songs gushed from his heart,
As showers from the clouds of summer,
Or tears from the eyelids start.

He relates his poems to the summer showers and tears from the eyes. He develops the similarity to show spontaneity of art when it directly comes out from the heart of an artist.

Example #4: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
These lines are taken from William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Act II, Scene 2:

What's in a name? That which we call a rose
By any other word would smell as sweet.
So Romeo would, were he not Romeo called...

Juliet is indirectly saying that, just like a rose that will always smell sweet by whichever name it is called, she will love Romeo even if he changes his name.

Example #5: The Flea (By John Donne)
John Donne, in his poem The Flea, uses analogy of a flea to describe his love with his beloved:

This flea is you and I, and this
Our marriage bed, and marriage temple is...

In the quoted lines, he tells his darling that, as a flea has sucked blood from both of them, and their blood has mingled in its gut, so the flea has become their "wedding bed."

Function of Analogy
Writers use analogy to link an unfamiliar or a new idea with common and familiar objects. This makes it is easier for readers to comprehend a new idea, which may have been difficult for them to understand otherwise. In addition, by employing this literary tool, writers catch the attention of their readers. Analogies help increase readers' interest as analogies help them relate what they read to their life.
Analytical implies the breaking down of something into parts, or the discussion of something in a way that it becomes a dissection of the whole. An analytical type of essay differs from other types of essays in that its primary goal is to explain something bit by bit to enhance understanding. Most of the times, an analytical essay is written about the analysis of a text, or a process, or an idea. In literature, however, it is a critical analysis of some literary text which is done to enhance its understanding.

Difference Between an Analytical Essay and a Critical Essay
An analytical essay is just an analysis of a literary text. By contrast, a critical essay involves, not only an analysis of the text in question, but also dissection of the literary terms and devices used by the author to make his meanings clear. The critical essay also explains the functions of the literary terms used, and evaluates their usage, and whether they have achieved the intended purposes or not.

Types of Analytical Essay


Cause and Effect: One way of analyzing something is to discuss the cause of something, and its effect on other things.
Comparison and Contrast: Another way of analyzing something is to compare and contrast things among themselves.
Classification: Classification is yet another method of analyzing things, to learn of their nature.
Process: Process is also a type of analysis writing.
Definition: Defining things is also a way of analyzing the nature of things.
Examples of Analytical Essay in Literature
Example #1: Liposuction: The Key to Energy Independence (by Barbara Ehrenreich)
"I say to my fellow humans: It's time to stop feeding off the dead and grow up! I don't know about food, but I have a plan for achieving fuel self-sufficiency in less time than it takes to say 'Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.' The idea came to me from reports of the growing crime of French fry oil theft: Certain desperate individuals are stealing restaurants' discarded cooking oil, which can then be used to fuel cars. So the idea is: why not skip the French fry phase and harvest high-energy hydrocarbons right from ourselves?"

This is an excerpt from the essay of Barbara Ehrenreich, in which she has made comparison and contrast between human beings and animals, regarding food choices. This is a good analysis of the food we use.

Example #2: Freedom (by Joyce M. Jarett)
"On the first day of school, I was escorted by hordes of national guardsmen. Like a funeral procession, the steady stream of official-looking cars followed me to the campus. Some patrolmen were parked near campus gates, while others, with guns strapped to their sides, stood near building entrances. Though many of my escorts had given me smiles of support, still I was not prepared for what I encountered upon entering my new school."

This is a paragraph from a process analysis. The author, Joyce M. Jaret, has beautifully described her experience of the security in this paragraph, and how it is deployed when an important figure faces security issues in his life. This is an analysis of the process of security deployment.

Example #3: The Ways of Meeting Oppression (by Martin Luther King, Jr.)


"The third way open to oppressed people in their quest for freedom is the way of nonviolent resistance. Like the synthesis in Hegelian philosophy, the principle of nonviolent resistance seeks to reconcile the truths of two opposites—the acquiescence and violence—while avoiding the extremes and immoralities of both. The nonviolent resister agrees with the person who acquiesces that one should not be physically aggressive toward his opponent; but he balances the equation by agreeing with the person of violence that evil must be resisted. He avoids the nonresistance of the former and the violent resistance of the latter. With nonviolent resistance, no individual or group need submit to any wrong, nor need anyone resort to violence in order to right a wrong."

This is the analysis by classification that Marth Luther King, a famous human rights activist, has done regarding oppression against African Americans.

Function of Analytical Essay
An analytical essay dissects something such as a concept, an idea, a thing, or even a character. Its major aim is to enhance the understanding of readers. An analysis could be done through a process, definition, classification and division, or comparison and contrast. The thing or idea is broken into several parts, through classification and division, and then analyzed. A process is broken into several steps for analysis. Not only do analytical essays enhance understanding, but they also make readers aware of minute details of things.
Anapest is a poetic device defined as a metrical foot in a line of a poem that contains three syllables wherein the first two syllables are short and unstressed, followed by a third syllable that is long and stressed. For example: "I must FInish my JOURney aLONE." Here, the anapestic foot is marked in capitals.

Difference Between Anapest and Dactyl
Anapest is known as antidactylus, since it is a reverse pattern of dactyl meter. The difference is that anapest consists of three syllables, where the first two are unstressed and the last one is stressed, in an unstressed/unstressed/stressed pattern. However, dactyl is the opposite of this pattern. It is a metrical foot that consists of three syllables wherein the first two syllables are stressed, and the last one is unstressed, such as stressed/stressed/unstressed pattern.

Examples of Anapest in Literature


Example #1: The Destruction of Sennacherib (By Lord Byron)
"The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold,
And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold;
And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea,
When the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee.

Like the leaves of the forest when Summer is green,
That host with their banners at sunset were seen:
Like the leaves of the forest when Autumn hath blown...

For the Angel of Death spread his wings on the blast...
And their hearts but once heaved, and forever grew still!"

Byron has written this poem in anapestic tetrameter pattern, which consists of four anapests in each line. In this extract, anapests are marked in bold. The entire poem has the same pattern, where the first two syllables are unstressed, followed by a third stressed syllable.

Example #2: Verses Supposed to Be Written by Alexander Selkirk (By William Cowper)
"I am monarch of all I survey,
My right there is none to dispute;
From the centre all round to the sea,
I am lord of the fowl and the brute.
Oh, solitude! where are the charms...

Better dwell in the midst of alarms...

I am out of humanity's reach,
I must finish my journey alone,
Never hear the sweet music of speech...
They are so unacquaintted with man,
Their tameness is shocking to me..."

This poem shows examples of anapests and iamb combinations. And at some places, iambs are substituted by anapests. The poem is written in anapestic trimeter in each line, which means there are three anapests in each line.

Example #3: 'Twas the Night before Christmas (By Clement Clarke Moore)


" 'Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house
Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse;
The stockings were hung by the chimney with care...
While visions of sugar plums danced in their heads...
had just settled our brains for a long winter's nap...
As dry leaves that before the wild hurricane fly,
when they meet with an obstacle, mount to the sky...
with the sleigh full of toys, and St. Nicholas too."

This poem is a perfect example of anapest, which runs throughout the poem. Most of the lines are following anapestic tetrameter. Like in the first line, there are four anapests. However, three anapests are also used in other lines.

Example #4: The Cloud (By Percy Bysshe Shelley)
"May have broken the woof of my tent's thin roof,
The stars peep behind her and peer;
And I laugh to see them whirl and flee,
Like a swarm of golden bees,
When I widen the rent in my wind-built tent...
Are each paved with the moon and these...
And the Moon's with a girdle of pearl;
The volcanoes are dim, and the stars reel and swim,
When the whirlwinds my banner unfurl...
Sunbeam-proof, I hang like a roof,
The mountains its columns be.
The triumphal arch through which I march...
When the Powers of the air are chained to my chair...
While the moist Earth was laughing below."

This poem is also a very good example of anapest. Each long line has three anapests (anapestic trimeter) followed by shorter lines with two anapests (anapestic dimeter). It is lending rhythm and regular beats to the poem.

Function of Anapest
It helps create artistic lines with a regular meter in a poem. Since anapest ends in a stressed syllable, it makes strong rhyming lines that create music in a poem. It plays a very important role in poetry, and the most common role in verse is that of a comic meter, which is, the foot used in the limerick for comical effects.
In writing or speech, the deliberate repetition of the first part of the sentence in order to achieve an artistic effect is known as Anaphora.



Anaphora, possibly the oldest literary device, has its roots in Biblical Psalms used to emphasize certain words or phrases. Gradually, Elizabethan and Romantic writers brought this device into practice. Examine the following psalm:

"O LORD, rebuke me not in thine anger, neither chasten me in thy hot displeasure.
Have mercy upon me, O LORD; for I am weak: O LORD, heal me; for my bones are vexed.
My soul is also sore vexed: but thou, O LORD, how long?"

The repetition of the phrase "O Lord," attempts to create a spiritual sentiment. This is anaphora.

Common Anaphora Examples
It is common for us to use anaphora in our everyday speech, to lay emphasis on the idea we want to convey, or for self affirmation. The following are anaphora examples:

"Every day, every night, in every way, I am getting better and better."
"My life is my purpose. My life is my goal. My life is my inspiration."
"Buying diapers for the baby, feeding the baby, playing with the baby: This is what your life is when you have a baby."
"I want my money right now, right here, all right?"
"The wrong person was selected for the wrong job, at the wrong time, for the wrong purpose."
"Their property was sold, their homestead was sold, and their everything was sold for want."
"Who is to blame, who is to look to, who is to turn to, in a tough situation like this."
"In adversity, his close friends left him, his close colleagues left him, and his best close relatives left him."
"Everything looked dark and bleak, everything looked gloomy, and everything was under a blanket of mist."
"All the people were moving in the same direction; all the people were thinking about the same thing; and all the people were discussing the same topic."
"After a long term of studies, the students wanted to go home, they wanted to play, and they wanted to meet their parents and friends."
"The players were much exited for the tour; the players wished to do a lot of shopping; the players planned to go sightseeing."
"The young writer was given the award for his best seller. The young writer was exited to get the reward, and he decided to celebrate the occasion in a fitting manner."
"Tell them to be good, tell them to follow their elders, and tell them to mind their manners."
"The young athlete was in a decent uniform, and wanted to perform very well."
"My mother liked the house very much, but she couldn't buy it."
"An apple fell on the head of a peasant, but he couldn't grasp the laws of motion."
"The search party barely got to the middle of the desert, when a storm overtook it."
"The film was based on a true story, but it failed to get viewers' attention."
Examples of Anaphora in Literature


Example # 1: Richard II, Act 2, Scene 1 (By William Shakespeare)
"This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England,
This nurse, this teeming womb of royal kings [. . .]
This land of such dear souls, this dear dear land,"

Here, Shakespeare does not disappoint us in the use of anaphora. The repetition of the word "this" creates an emotional effect on the readers, particularly those who are English. Further, it highlights the significance of England. The repetition of the word "dear" shows the writer's emotional attachment to the land, and expects to elicit a similar response from the readers as well.

Example # 2: A Tale of Two Cities (By Charles Dickens)
"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair."

The repetitive structure used in the above lines make it the most memorable and remarkable start of a narrative ever achieved by a writer. The word "it" - repeated all the way through the passage - makes the reader focus more on the traits of the "age" they are reading about.

Example # 3: Tintern Abbey (By William Wordsworth)
This technique is employed by William Wordsworth in "Tintern Abbey":

"Five years have passed;
Five summers, with the length of
Five long winters! and again I hear these waters..."

Wordsworth also employs the technique of anaphora in this piece. The repetition of the word "five" at the beginning of each line gives melody to the lines, which matches well with its nostalgic tone.

Example # 4: The Tyger (By William Blake)
"What the hammer? what the chain?
In what furnace was thy brain?
What the anvil? what dread grasp
Dare its deadly terrors clasp?"

The repetition of a series of questions, which starts with the query, "what," creates a rhythm that elicits the effect of awe in readers.

Example # 5: WWII Speech (By Winston Churchill)
Politicians frequently use anaphora as a rhetorical device, in their addresses and political speeches, to evoke passion among the audience. Read an excerpt from Winston Churchill's speech during the Second World War:

"We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender."

This extract from Winston Churchill's speech is full of anaphoric examples in which the speaker has spoken the phrase "we shall" several times to refer to the plural form that he is using for the whole nation.

The repetitive structures in the above passage suggest the importance of the war for England. Moreover, it inspires patriotic sentiments among the masses.

Example # 6: I have a Dream (By Martin Luther King Jr.)
"Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed."

This extract from I have a Dream contains the repetition of the phrase "go back to" many time. The whole speech is full of the anaphoric example.

Function of Anaphora
Apart from the function of giving prominence to certain ideas, the use of anaphora in literature adds rhythm, thus making it more pleasurable to read, and easier to remember. As a literary device, anaphora serves the purpose of giving artistic effect to passages of prose and poetry.

As a rhetorical device, anaphora is used to appeal to the emotions of the audience, in order to persuade, inspire, motivate, and encourage them.
Anecdote is defined as a short and interesting story, or an amusing event, often proposed to support or demonstrate some point, and to make the audience laugh. Anecdotes can include an extensive range of tales and stories. In fact, it is a short description or an account of any event that makes the readers laugh or brood over the topic presented for the purpose.



Types of Anecdote
There are several types of anecdotes. Amusing anecdotes are often used in literature, or at such events as family reunions, wedding receptions, and other get-togethers. Teachers tell anecdotes to their students in classrooms about eminent people and celebrities. Writers and poets use them in their literary works.

Examples of Anecdote in Literature


Example #1: The Crucible (By Arthur Miller)
Parris: "(It is very hard to say): Aye, a dress. And I thought - someone naked running through the trees!"

Abigail: (In terror) "No one was naked! You mistake yourself, uncle!"

Parris: (With anger) "I saw it! (Her moves from her, then, resolved.) Now tell me true, Abigail. And I pray you feel the weight of truth upon you, for now my ministry's at stake, my ministry and perhaps your cousin's life. Whatever abomination you have done, give me all of it now, for I dare not be taken unaware when I go before them down there."

Abigail: "There is nothin' more. I swear it, uncle."

Parris: (Studies her, then nods, half convinced) "Abigail, I have fought here three long years to bend there stiff-necked people to me, and now, just now when some good respect is rising for me in the parish, you compromise my very character. I have given you a home, child, I have put clothes upon your back - now give me upright answer. Your name in the town - it is entirely white, is it not?"

Abigail: (With an edge of resentment) "Why, I am sure it is, sir. There is no blush about my name."

Parris: (To the point) "Abigail is there any other cause that you have told me, for you being discharged from Goody Proctor's service? I have heard it said, and I tell you as I heard it, that she comes so rarely to church this year for she will not sit so close to something soiled. What signified that remark?"

Abigail: "She hates me, uncle; she must, for I would not be her slave. It's a bitter woman, a lying; cold, sniveling, woman, and I will not work for such a woman!"

Parris: "She may be. And yet it has troubled me that you are now seven month out of their house, and in all this time no other family has ever called for your service."

Abigail: "They want slaves, not such as me. Let them send to Barbados for that. I will not black my face for any of them! (With ill-concealed resentment at him.) Do you begrudge my bed, uncle?"

Parris: "No - no."

Abigail: (in a temper) "My name is good in the village! I will not have it said my name is soiled! Goody Proctor is a gossiping liar!"

Here in this literary text, Reverend Parris finds her niece Abigail Williams chanting and dancing in the woods, along with the native village girls. He suspects them of magic and witchcraft. However, she does not accept any of the accusations of Parris and starts narrating whimsical stories to justify her actions. Abigail makes an account that Goody Proctor is a liar. The stories of Abigail are perfect examples of anecdotes.

Example #2: Death in the Arctic (By Robert W. Service)
is that? Bells, dogs again! Is it a dream? I sob and cry. See! The door opens, fur-clad men Rush to my rescue; frail am I; Feeble and dying, dazed and glad. There is the pistol where it dropped. "Boys, it was hard - but I'm not mad ... Look at the clock - it stopped, it stopped. Carry me out. The heavens smile. See! There's an arch of gold above. Now, let me rest a little while - Looking to God and Love ... and Love..."

In this poem, the speaker is freezing slowly in the Arctic. He recollects the memories of his life and tells the whole story to the readers, but sees flashes of his life before he dies. In fact, he is using anecdotes to tell his life story.

Function of Anecdote
Anecdotes and humorous pieces are not only jokes, but exquisite literary devices as well. Their primary purpose is to stir up laughter, to disclose a truth in a general way, or to describe a feature of a character in such a way that it becomes humorous, and at the same time gives us a better understanding of the character.

Anecdotes may also serve as cautions. Writers tell their readers about the possibilities of future happenings, in case they do not follow particular processes and techniques.
In literature, an antagonist is a character, or a group of characters, which stands in opposition to the protagonist, which is the main character. The term "antagonist" comes from the Greek word antagonistēs, which means "opponent," "competitor," or "rival."



It is common to refer to an antagonist as a villain (the bad guy), against whom a hero (the good guy) fights in order to save himself or others. In some cases, an antagonist may exist within the protagonist that causes an inner conflict or a moral conflict inside his mind. This inner conflict is a major theme of many literary works, such as Doctor Faustus, by Christopher Marlowe, Hamlet, by William Shakespeare, and A Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man, by James Joyce. Generally, an antagonist appears as a foil to the main character, embodying qualities that are in contrast with the qualities of the main character.

Examples of Antagonist in Literature
Example #1: Antigone (By Sophocles)
A classical example of an antagonist is that of King Creon in Sophocles' tragedy Antigone. Here, the function of the antagonist is to obstruct the main character's progress, through evil plots and actions. Antigone, the protagonist, struggles against King Creon, the antagonist, in her effort to give her brother a respectable burial. Through his evil designs, Creon tries to hamper her in this attempt by announcing that her brother was a traitor, and decreeing that "he must be left to the elements." This protagonist-antagonist conflict becomes the theme of this tragedy.

Example #2: Othello (By William Shakespeare)
Another example of an antagonist is the character of Iago in Shakespeare's Othello. Iago stands as one of the most notorious villains of all time, having spent all of his time plotting against Othello, the protagonist, and his wife Desdemona. Through his evil schemes, Iago convinces Othello that his wife has been cheating on him, and even convinces him to kill his own wife despite her being faithful to him. The thing that separates Iago from other antagonists is that we do not really know why he wants to destroy Othello.

Example #3: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (By Robert Louis Stevenson)


In his novel Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Robert Louis Stevenson explores the theme of doppelganger in which Hyde is not only an evil double of the honorable Dr. Jekyll, but his antagonist. Jekyll creates Hyde by a series of scientific experiments in order to prove his statement:

"Man is not truly one, but truly two."

He means that a human soul is a mixture of evil and good. In other words, every man's antagonist exists within himself. Hyde is the manifestation of the evil that existed in the honorable Dr. Jekyll. Well-known as a respectable Victorian gentleman, Jekyll could never have fulfilled his evil desires. He separated his "evil-self" and gave him a separate identity, thus inventing his own antagonist who, as a result, brings his downfall.

Example #4: To Kill a Mocking Bird (By Harper Lee)
Bob Ewell is a malicious antagonist in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mocking Bird. Being convinced that Mayella may have been guilty of committing a crime, Ewell is bent on making sure that someone else gets the punishment. Ewell keeps on following Atticus, Judge Taylor, and Helen Robinson - even after the case is finished - and goes to the extent that he almost kills the Finch kids. In defense of Boo over the killing of Bob Ewell, Heck Tate said:

"To my way of thinkin', Mr Finch, taking the one man who's done you and this town a great favour an' draggin' him with his shy ways into the limelight - to me, that's a sin. It's a sin and I'm not about to have it on my head. If it was any other man, it'd be different. But not this man, Mr. Finch."

Function of Antagonist


Conflict is a basic element of any plot. The presence of an antagonist alongside a protagonist is vital for the typical formula of a plot. The antagonist opposes the protagonist in his endeavors, and thus the conflict ensues. The protagonist struggles against the antagonist, taking the plot to a climax. Later, the conflict is resolved with the defeat of the antagonist; or, as in tragedies, with the downfall of the protagonist.
Antanaclasis is a rhetorical device in which a phrase or word is repeatedly used, though the meaning of the word changes in each case. It is the repetition of a similar word in a sentence with different meanings, or a word is repeated in two or more different senses. Many of Shakespeare's literary pieces contain examples of antanaclasis. Like in these lines, "Put out the light, then put out the light..." (Othello). The first meaning is that Othello would extinguish the candle, and in the second reference its meaning is that he would end Desdemona's life.



Difference Between Epizeuxis and Antanaclasis
There is a slight difference between epizeuxis and antanaclasis, though both mean the repetition of words. In epizeuxis, the words or phrases are repeated in a succession in the same sentence or line. Such as in this passage, "Alone, alone, all all alone, /Alone on a wide, wide sea..."(The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, by Samuel Coleridge).

The words or phrases are repeated in a sentence or passage with different meanings. Such as, "I will dissemble myself in't; and I would I were the first that ever dissembled in such a gown." (Twelfth Night, by William Shakespeare). In this case, the first meaning of dissemble is disguised, and the second meaning is to act hypocritically.

Examples of Antanaclasis in Literature


Example #1: Twelfth Night (By William Shakespeare)
Viola: "Save thee, friend, and thy music! Dost thou live by thy tabour?"
Clown: "No, sir, I live by the church."
Viola: "Art thou a churchman?"
Clown: "No such matter, sir: I do live by the church; for I do live at my house, and my house doth stand by the church."

In this example, the word "live" is repeatedly used. Viola is Cesario in disguise, and conversing with Feste (Fool). In the first sentence, it means that he makes his living by playing the drum, and in the later lines it means he lives near the church.

Example #2: Walter Savage Landor (By Walter Savage Landor)
"Death, tho I see him not, is near
And grudges me my eightieth year.
Now I would give him all these last
For one that fifty have run past.
Ah! He strikes all things, all alike,
But bargains: those he will not strike..."

Landor has used, in the final two lines of the poem, the word "strike," with contrasting meanings. In the first instance, it means killing everyone and everything, while in the second reference it means the opposite.

Example #3: Stopping By Woods on Snowy Evening (By Robert Frost)


"The woods are lovely, dark, and deep,
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep."

Here, the poet uses antanaclasis in the last two lines of the poem. The first use of the word "sleep" means nocturnal rest, and in the last line it has the meaning of death. This device is helping to draw the readers' attention.

Example #4: Henry V (By William Shakespeare)
KingHenry:

"And tell the pleasant prince this mock of his
Hath turned his balls to gun-stones, and his soul
Shall stand sore chargèd for the wasteful vengeance
That shall fly with them; for many a thousand widows
Shall this his mock mock out of their dear husbands,
Mock mothers from their sons, mock castles down,
And some are yet ungotten and unborn
That shall have cause to curse the Dauphin's scorn..."

Henry V, as one can see in the above excerpt, is one of Shakespeare's works which contains examples of antanaclasis. The word "mock," repeatedly used in this excerpt, has two meanings - "to cheat," and "to taunt."

Function of Antanaclasis
Antanaclasis helps in giving an exciting contrast with different meanings of the same word. It enhances the dramatic and persuasive impact of a piece of writing or speech. Antanaclasis creates comic effect when used in the form of irony and pun. Apart from that, it makes the literary text memorable due to repetition. It is used as a rhetorical device in poetry, prose, and political speeches. Political leaders make use of this technique in order to persuade and draw the attention of their audiences.
Antecedent is an earlier clause, phrase, or word to which a pronoun, noun, or another word refers. Broadly speaking, antecedent is a literary device in which a word or pronoun in a line or sentence refers to an earlier word. For instance, "While giving treats to children or friends offer them whatever they like." In this line, children and friends are antecedents, while they is a pronoun that refers to friends and children. It is a typical linguistic term and originates from grammar.



Often antecedents and their respective pronouns agree in number, which means if an antecedent is singular, the pronoun that replaces it will also be singular. However, sometimes writers might not follow this rule, and we see singular antecedents are replaced with plural pronouns. Likewise, antecedents and their following pronouns have the same gender.

Difference Between Antecedent and Postcedent
These terms are opposite to one another, as antecedent refers to in front of or before. It is an expression that gives meaning to a proform (a noun, pronoun, pro-adverb or pro-verb). Hence, proforms follow their respective antecedents such as "Elizabeth says, she likes coffee." Sometimes these proforms or pronouns precede them that are called postcedents, meaning behind or after such as, "when it gets ready, I shall definitely get my cup of tea."

Common Examples of Antecedent


David plays football in the courtyard. All the children have gathered there.
My uncle likes candies. He asks everyone to give him candies as gifts.
When children are happy, they clap to express their pleasure.
The leaves have turned yellow; even then they are on the tree.
The bird ate the fish quickly, and immediately it
A good story must have a quality about it; it must have characters, a setting, narration, and dialogues.
Examples of Antecedent in Literature
Example #1: Ode to Autumn (By John Keats)
"And still more, later flowers for the bees,
Until they think warm days will never cease,
For Summer has o'er-brimmed their clammy cell."

In the above lines, bees are used as antecedent, and the pronouns "they" and "their" refer to this noun used earlier. See that the antecedent and its pronouns are italicized. If we remove the pronouns, these lines will have an entirely different and confusing impression, and the meaning will change.

Example #2: A Comedy of Errors (By William Shakespeare)
"There's not a man I meet but doth salute me
As if I were their well-acquainted friend
And every one doth call me by my name.
Some tender money to me; some invite me ..."

Here, Shakespeare uses pronouns of vague reference by employing a singular antecedent, "a man," with the plural pronoun "their." However, the noun everyone is singular, and both agree in their numbers. The speaker tries to explain he did not meet a single person, but everyone knew his name, and hence refers to everyone as "their."

Example #3: A Poison Tree (By William Blake)


"... I was angry with my foe:
I told it not, my wrath did grow.

And I watered it in fears,
Night and morning with my tears;
And I sunned it with smiles ..."

This poem presents a very good example of antecedent, in which the speaker uses the noun "foe" as antecedent, and replaces it with the pronoun "it" in the very next line. Similarly, he again makes use of "wrath" as an antecedent, and replaces it with "it."

Example #4: Othello (By William Shakespeare)
"Me thinks the wind has spoke aloud at land,
A fuller blast ne'er shook our battlements
If it hath ruffianed so upon the sea
What ribs of oak, when mountains melt on them ..."

In this excerpt, the antecedent is "wind," and the pronoun "it" is its denotation, replacing it in the third line. Antecedent makes these lines clear and easy to understand for the readers.

Function of Antecedent
Antecedent is a very important and useful literary device, as it makes the sense of a sentence clear to the readers. By using references such as they, their, them, it, he, and she without any antecedent subject would become confusing. Hence, antecedent makes the composition words, grammar, and the expression of the writers clear and precise, as without it, a sentence remains vague and cannot convey exact meaning. It is a tricky concept, though a worthwhile rule to grasp, because it helps writers improve their writing style too.
Anthimeria has originated from the Greek word anti-meros, which means "one part for another." It is a rhetorical device that uses a word in a new grammatical shape, often as a noun or a verb. Simply, it replaces one part of speech with another.



For instance, Shakespeare converts a noun "peace" into verb in this line: "The thunder would not peace at my bidding" (King Lear). Using nouns as verbs has become such a common practice that now many nouns are often used as verbs. In grammar studies, anthimeria has another name, "functional shift," or "conversion." In fact, language is always fluid, and is in constant transformation. Therefore, use of a verb as a noun or vice versa is not a surprise for linguists.

Use of Anthimeria in Songs
Example #1: These Boots Are Made for Walking (by Nancy Sinatra)
"Yeah, you keep lyin' when you oughta be truthin'
And you keep losing when you oughta not bet
You keep samin' when you oughta be a changin'
Now, what's right is right but you ain't been right yet."

This song by Nancy Sinatra shows two nouns used as verbs, which are "truthing" and "saming."

Types of Anthimeria


Depending upon its usage, anthimeria has two types:

Temporary Anthimeria
This type may be trendy or popular; however, it does not make its appearance permanent in language. For instance, these days a temporary anthimeria is "hashtagging;" since it has emerged recently, but it may not last long.

Permanent Anthimeria


This type has become a permanent part of language after its emergence. For instance, "texting" has become a permanent part of language. Another one is "typing."

Examples of Anthimeria in Literature
Example #1: Under the Greenwood Tree (by Thomas Hardy)
"The parishioners about here," continued Mrs. Day, not looking at any living being, but snatching up the brown delf tea-things, "are the laziest, gossipest, poachest, jailest set of any ever I came among. And they'll talk about my teapot and tea-things next, I suppose!"

Hardy was popular for his creativity, inventiveness, and coining completely weird and new words such as, "gossipest," "poaches," and "jailest" in this excerpt taken from Under the Greenwood Tree.

Example #2: Letter to F. Scott Fitzgerald (by Thomas Wolfe)
"Flaubert me no Flauberts. Bovary me no Bovarys. Zola me no Zolas. And exuberance me no exuberances. Leave this stuff for those who huckster in it and give me, I pray you, the benefits of your fine intelligence and your high creative faculties, all of which I so genuinely and profoundly admire."

In these lines, the names of the writers are changed into plural forms, which we have never seen before. This is another good example of anthimeria.

Example #3: In the Marvelous Dimension (by Kate Daniels)
"Until then, I'd never liked
petunias, their heavy stems,
the peculiar spittooning sound
of their name. Now I loved
a petunia for all it was worth
—a purplish blue bloom
waving in a red clay pot outside
an office window."

In this poem, Kate has changed the noun "spittoon" into a verb "spittooning," and changed the color purple into an adjective.

Example #4: More Die of Heartbreak (by Saul Bellow)
"I've often got the kid in my mind's eye. She's a dolichocephalic Trachtenberg, with her daddy's narrow face and Jesusy look."

In this example, "Jesus" is transformed into a new form of adjective "Jesusy." It gives a complete new expression to a noun.

Example #5: Emma (by Jane Austen)
"Let me not suppose that she dares go about, Emma Woodhouse-ing me!"

Austen has invented a verb "woodhouse-ing" from an existing noun "woodhouse," giving a new shape to an old noun.

Function of Anthimeria
Anthimeria is very common in novels, short stories, and particularly in poetry, where such replacement evokes mild emotions of confusion. However, the proposed meaning is not difficult to recognize from the ways and methods of expression commonly used in literature. It happens in advertisements, because the culture of this world is constantly changing, language must also grow, improve, and develop. Anthimeria, in fact, provides writers a method to describe ideas in a unique way that makes the readers think. Sometimes, writers use a new word to create images and imagery. Besides this, it is a method through which we transform and change our language over time.
The term anthology originates from a Greek word, anthologia, meaning a "collection of flowers." An anthology is a compilation of literary works such as poems, plays, short stories, excerpts, including television programs, dramas, movies and songs. There are different categories of anthologies such as comic anthologies, essay collections, fiction anthologies, poetry anthologies, anthologies of films, and of television programs. Its most common category is literary one, which editors compile from different sources and publish in book forms.



Examples of Anthologies in Literature
Example #1: The Garden Party and Other Stories (by Katherine Mansfield)
Mansfield published her collection, "The Garden Party and Other Stories," in 1922, just a year prior to her death due to tuberculosis. She was a pioneer modernist writer, who was brought up in New Zealand, then moved to England, where she befriended Virginia Woolf and D.H. Lawrence. The title story is one of Mansfield's well-known works, which she wrote in the modernist style, using a simple backdrop of a family making preparations for a beautiful garden party. Mansfield, against this setting, has brilliantly interwoven meditations on life, class, illusion, reality, and death. This is perhaps the first short story collection published by an English female writer, which included herself in her own anthology.

Example #2: The Collected Stories (by Lorrie Moore)
"The Collected Stories," by Lorrie Moore, is a beautiful collection of tales that allows readers to plunge in and out of the writer's experience observing of human behavior. Ms. Moore is famous for her sharp humor and ironic tone. Moore writes about family dynamics, infidelity, and terminal illness. However, the way she shifts smoothly from one theme to another, makes this anthology a popular one. The most popular story from this volume is, "How to Be an Other Woman." The book is counted as an excellent anthology of its time.

Example #3: The Faerie Queens (by David Rankine)


"The Faerie Queens" is another noted anthology of essays exploring magic, myths, and mythology in ancient times. This collection is mysterious, otherworldly, and powerful, which has spread its magic across the entirety of Europe for centuries, captivating those who have read the essays. In fact, Rankine has given his readers critical reviews of myths, mythologies, legends, and epic figures.

Example #4: 100 Best Love Poems (by Philip Smith)
"100 Best Love Poems" is a popular collection of poems in the English language. The works are compiled together, not only for their popularity, but also for their literary quality. From the middle ages, to the twentieth century, these poems remain all-time favorites, and have the ability to captivate and engage the minds of readers, and keep their spirits fresh.

Example #5: Renaissance Drama: An Anthology of Plays and Entertainments (by Arthur F. Kinny)
"An Anthology of Plays and Entertainments" is a ground-breaking collection of non-Shakespearean Renaissance drama. It covers a full sweep of dramatic performances, such as court masques, and state balls. This second edition anthology includes pageants and plays that are not anthologized anywhere else, including plays about the coronation of Queen Anne and Elizabeth I, as well as "A Woman Killed with Kindness" by Thomas Heywood. Mr. Kinny has added more material, including "The Second Shepherd's Play," "Noah," "The Tragedy of Antony," "The Malcontent," and "The Masque of Queen."

Function


Perhaps the greatest function of an anthology is to give readers a look into places, experiences, and people they would not otherwise experience. This is done by linking together stories, poems, and plays, by their themes, characters, and places. The successful editor puts pieces together to make sense - not merely as individual works, but as a whole unit with coherence, that otherwise might be overlooked. Readers can just pull an anthology from the shelf, and get lost in a story or poem that reflects their feelings.

Another important function of an anthology is to prevent readers from getting bored, or being tied to one particular theme or element. Rather, they explore different types of worlds and feelings, in a variety of stories and poems - all of which are linked by a single theme. Another function of anthologies is to enable students to easily find the best pieces, put together according to times, reviews, critical theories, settings and plots.
Anthropomorphism is a literary device that can be defined as a technique in which a writer ascribes human traits, ambitions, emotions, or entire behaviors to animals, non-human beings, natural phenomena, or objects.



Difference Between Anthropomorphism and Personification
Anthropomorphism is also a type of personification that gives human characteristics to non-humans or objects, especially animals. However, there is a slight difference between these two. Personification is an act of giving human characteristics to animals or objects to create imagery, while anthropomorphism aims to make an animal or object behave and appear like it is a human being.

Pinocchio, the famous wooden doll, was anthropomorphized when he was given the ability to talk, walk, think, and feel like real boy. Fables and fairy tales usually have characters that can serve as anthropomorphism examples.

Examples of Anthropomorphism in Literature


Example #1: The Jaguar (By Ted Hughes)
"But who runs like the rest past these arrives
At a cage where the crowd stands, stares, mesmerized,
As a child at a dream, at a dream, at a jaguar hurrying enraged
Through prison darkness after the drills of his eyes

On a short fierce fuse. Not in boredom -
The eye satisfied to be blind in fire,
By the bang of blood in the brain deaf the ear -
He spins from the bars, but there's no cage to him

More than to the visionary his cell:
His stride is wildernesses of freedom:
The world rolls under the long thrust of his heel.
Over the cage floor the horizons come."

This poem is based on a jaguar, a fierce animal. Hughes is showing the world to his readers through the eyes of a jaguar that is thinking like a human.

Example #2: Animal Farm (By George Orwell)
"Comrades, you have heard already about the strange dream that I had last night. But I will come to the dream later. I have something else to say first. I do not think, comrades, that I shall be with you for many months longer, and before I die, I feel it my duty to pass on to you such wisdom as I have acquired. I have had a long life, I have had much time for thought as I lay alone in my stall, and I think I may say that I understand the nature of life on this earth as well as any animal now living. It is about this that I wish to speak to you ... Man is the only creature that consumes without producing. He does not give milk, he does not lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the plough."

Animal Farm is one of the perfect examples of anthropomorphism. In this excerpt, one of the pigs named Old Major is delivering a political speech to his fellows against the evils imposed by the human rulers. Here, Old Major is instigating them to rise to rebellion against a tyrant human. This entire use is a good example of anthropomorphism.

Example #3: A Dog's Tale (By Mark Twain)


"My father was a St. Bernard, my mother was a collie, but I am a Presbyterian. This is what my mother told me, I do not know these nice distinctions myself. To me they are only fine large words meaning nothing. My mother had a fondness for such; she liked to say them, and see other dogs look surprised and envious, as wondering how she got so much education ... When I was well grown, at last, I was sold and taken away, and I never saw her again. She was broken-hearted, and so was I, and we cried; but she comforted me as well as she could ..."

The protagonist of this story is a dog, which is describing his life as a puppy. The story is told from the loyal pet's perspective. The dog possesses human traits like emotions, shame, fear, anguish, happiness, and hopelessness.

Function of Anthropomorphism
There are various reasons for using anthropomorphism. The primary one is to make a wider appeal to the readers. With the use of objects or animals, the story can become visually appealing and non-threatening to readers. Hence, it could attract the attention of a wide audience (including children) by presenting animated characters in tales and animated movies. In literature, it serves as an effective tool for creating political and social satires. Hence, it has a wider scope than merely to entertain children.
Anti-climax is a rhetorical device that can be defined as a disappointing situation, or a sudden transition in discourse from an important idea to a ludicrous or trivial one. It is when, at a specific point, expectations are raised, everything is built-up, and then suddenly something boring or disappointing happens — this is an anti-climax. Besides that, the order of statements gradually descend in anti-climax.



Types of Anti-Climax
There are two types of anti-climax. The first is used in narrations, such as the anti-climax about the overall plot of the story. The second one is a figure of speech, which might occur anywhere in the story.

Examples of Anti-Climax in Literature


In literature, there are lots of examples of anti-climax, whether narrative or as a figure of speech. Let us consider a few of them:

Example #1: The Rape of the Lock (By Alexander Pope)
"Here thou, great Anna, whom three realms obey,
Dost sometimes counsel take, and sometimes tea..."

In the extract, it is used as a figure of speech. Pope is drawing the attention of readers to the falseness. Anna is Queen of England, who holds meetings, and indulges also in afternoon tea customs. Ludicrous effect is created by using the anti-climax.

Example #2: The Deserted House (By Alfred Lord Tennyson)
"Come away: for Life and Thought
Here no longer dwell;
But in a city glorious—
A great and distant city—have bought
A mansion incorruptible.
Would they could have stayed with us."

Here, the last line of poem presents anti-climax, as the poet is describing issues associated with life on Earth. Here, heaven is referred as "city glorious." He asks whether people could come and live in heaven, which is a change in discourse from an important note to trivial.

Example #3: Othello (By William Shakespeare)


OTHELLO:
"Well, hurry up and confess. Be quick about it.
I'll wait over here.
I don't want to kill you before you've readied your soul.
No, I don't want to send your soul to hell when I kill you..."

DESDEMONA:
"Send me away, my lord, but don't kill me..."

OTHELLO:
"It's too late..."

This is one of the narrative anti-climax examples from Shakespeare's works. Here, a sudden transformation can be seen, when Othello stabs Desdemona. It is creating a disappointing and thrilling effect in the end.

Example #4: Much Ado About Nothing (By William Shakespeare)
DON PEDRO:
"Why, then are you no maiden.— Leonato,
I am sorry you must hear. Upon mine honor,
Myself, my brother, and this grievèd count
Did see her, hear her, at that hour last night
Talk with a ruffian at her chamber window
Who hath indeed, most like a liberal villain,
Confessed the vile encounters they have had
A thousand times in secret."

This is a good example of anti-climax, when Hero is publicly denounced and humiliated at her wedding. Her chastity is challenged by her fiancé Claudio. Here climax turns into anti-climax.

Example #5: Dr.Fautus (By Christopher Marlowe)
Faustus:
"Nay! Let me have one book more,
and then I have done, wherein I might see all plants, herbs, and trees that grow upon the earth."

Meph:
"Here they be."

Faustus:
"O thou art deceived..."

This is an example of anti-climax as a figure of speech, which has taken place in the final line of this excerpt. Marlowe uses it as a warning to the audience not to follow the ways of Faustus, because it could bring shallow reward and superficial happiness only.

Example #6: A Tale of Two Cities (By Charles Dickens)
"In a moment, the whole company was on their feet. That somebody was assassinated by somebody vindicating a difference of opinion was the likeliest occurrence. Everybody looked to see somebody fall, but only saw a man and a woman standing staring at each other; the man with all the outward aspect of a Frenchman and a thorough Republican; the woman, evidently English."

In this excerpt, everybody is expecting that somebody has been killed, or someone has fallen down dead. However, there is only a man and woman standing there, staring at each other. This is a disappointing anti-climax.

Function of Anti-Climax
Generally ludicrous or comic effect is produced by anti-climax. When employed intentionally, it devalues the subject. Therefore, it is frequently used for satirical and humorous composition in literature and movies. However, sometimes it is used unintentionally - then it is known as "bathos."
Anti-hero is a literary device used by writers for a prominent character in a play or book that has characteristics opposite to that of a conventional hero. The protagonist is generally admired for his bravery, strength, charm, or ingenuity, while an anti-hero is typically clumsy, unsolicited, unskilled, and has both good and bad qualities.



The origin of this literary device is marked in the 18th century, but there have been literary figures who believe that the concept of an anti-hero existed well before that. Recently, the usage of anti-hero in television and books has increased and became bolder than ever. Nowadays, there are thousands of shows, books, and movies that portray such characters, who are widely admired by audiences.

Common Anti-Hero Examples
Tylor Durden from Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk
Don Draper from Mad Men, role played by Jon Hamm
Edward Rochester from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte
Examples of Anti-Hero


The majority of television shows these days portray dark characters. The most celebrated TV shows have anti-heroes who seem to possess both positive and negative traits. Many have successfully explored and impressively depicted the darkest aspects of a human life, fantasies and psyches. Particular characters from these shows are discussed below:

Example #1: Dexter (By Jeff Lindsay)
Dexter Morgan - the primary character of the celebrated TV series Dexter - is one of the most celebrated anti-heroes of recent times. He is a blood spatter analyst for the Miami Police Department. He is a kind and loving father, friend, and husband who has an anti-social personality that makes him murder criminals.

The idea of killing only the guilty people does not seem such a bad thing to do at first. Rather, to some extent, it sounds rational but it is not. Dexter did not become a serial killer to rid society of crime. He did so because he took pleasure in it, while the social cleansing part came in as a spinoff. The show depicts that he is slowly moving towards redemption, and that is what keeps the audience glued. This is a good case of a modern anti-hero.

Example #2: Lord of the Rings (By J. R. R. Tolkien)
There is a wide array of opinions on whether or not Tolkien's character Gollum should be considered an anti-hero. He does not really have any good or useful characteristics, but his character is a perfect example of the struggle that we go through in our daily lives when choosing between good and evil.

Gollum is portrayed as a swamp creature who warns those who want the ring. The good side of him that occasionally surfaces makes him a loyal servant. The dark side of him that is infected by the greed to have the ring makes him do evil things, which eventually leads to his death. Thus, Gollum can justly be called an anti-hero of the novel.

Function of Anti-Hero
Anti-hero can serve a great purpose if used skillfully. An anti-hero brings the spice and flavor to a script that an ordinary hero-villain format cannot. The more secular approach to the idea of using anti-hero shows that it has much more potential as compared to the conventional style. It can be used to represent many things at the same time, such as social flaws, human frailties, and political culture.

An anti-hero is usually given the most prominent role after the protagonist, and is represented as an amalgamation of both good and evil. Instead of having two different people to represent two extremes, an anti-hero combines both into one person, and thus shows the real nature of humanity.

This is why people associate themselves with some stories better than others. Gulliver of Jonathan Swift's Guliver's Travels, and Jean Valjean of Victor Hugo's Les Misérables are two such characters. They have been portrayed to have flaws, but still they held fast to their natures. These two characters can exemplify anyone who has suffered all through their lives, but they are not the kind of characters one can look up to.

Moreover, in modern society when we are presented with a character that is overly righteous and upright, we find it too good to be true. The social turmoil that the entire world as a community has been facing recently has disposed us to be skeptical of almost everything. The greatness that a conventional antagonist shows is something we do not witness in society, which is why we find it far from reality. Suffering and sorrow are a part of human life. So, we relate better to a character that has suffered through life, and who has both good and bad sides, than a character that is only seen doing good.
Antimetabole is derived from a Greek word which means "turning about." It is a literary term or device that involves repeating a phrase in reverse order. For example:



"You like it; it likes you."
"Fair is foul and foul is fair."
Chiasmus and antimetabole are usually expected to be overlapped in usage, and this overlap is also often used as a synonym for epanados (the repeating of a phrase or sentence in reverse order) in modern day books. However, the writer would make them distinct through his use.

Famous Antimetabole Examples
Since the time of Socrates, we see the use of antimetabole. Some of them are:

"Eat to live, not live to eat." - Socrates
"I go where I please, and I please where I go." - Attributed to Duke Nukem
"In America, you can always find a party. In Soviet Russia, Party always finds you!" - Yakov Smirnoff
"If you fail to plan, you plan to fail."
"Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country." - John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, January 20, 1961.
"He who questions training only trains himself at asking questions." - The Sphinx, Mystery Men (1999)
"The great object of [Hamlet's] life is defeated by continually resolving to do, yet doing nothing but resolve." - Samuel Taylor Coleridge on Shakespeare's Hamlet
"We do what we like and we like what we do." - Andrew W.K., "Party Hard"
"We didn't land on Plymouth Rock. Plymouth Rock landed on us." Malcolm X, "Malcolm X"
"If you can't be with the one you love, love the one you're with." - Billy Preston
"You stood up for America, now America must stand up for you." - Barack Obama, December 14, 2011.
Difference Between Chiasmus and Antimetabole


Antimetabole and chiasmus are very closely related, and some experts even use them interchangeably. However, both the terms still exist to refer to two distinct literary devices. According to scholars, when a sentence is repeated by reversing it, so as to convey an idea or stress a point, it is called chiasmus. Antimetabole is not very much different from chiasmus, only that in an antimetabole the words and grammatical structure is also reversed, because just reversing the meaning is not enough. So in the light of these facts, it can be deduced that all the antimetaboles are chiasmus, but not all instances of chiasmus are antimetaboles.

A chiasmus is a sentence repeated inversely. The only condition of a chiasmic sentence is that the two clauses in the phrase are opposite in meaning. For example, the popular saying by Havelock Ellis: "Charm is a woman's strength, strength is a man's charm," the sentence is an example of chiasmus, but is not an antimetabole. This is because the two clauses have opposite meanings, but the words and the grammatical makeup are dissimilar.

In an antimetabole the word order in a sentence is reversed to contrast the meanings. One very good example is Mae West's catchphrase, "It's not the men in my life; it's the life in my men." As you can see, in this sentence the words, rhythm, and grammatical structure in the second phrase are exactly similar to the first one, but the meaning is opposite. Many experts refer to antimetabole as a subtype of chiasmus.

Functions and Effectiveness of Antimetabole
For antimetabole to be effective, it does not only have to be grammatically correct, but should also be logical. People, after studying literature for a while, start thinking that they can churn out antimetaboles with a snap of a finger. They fail to understand the fact that a sentence cannot be called an antimetabole if it is not based on a logical theme.

Antimetaboles are popular and effective solely because they appeal to reason and are easy to remember. If the first half is relatable, then the reader or listener will automatically make sense of the second half. For example: "It is not about the years in your life, but about the life in your years." A sentence like this can be called an antimetabole because it is appealing, correct (logically and grammatically) and has a message to convey to the readers.
Antiphrasis originated from the Greek word antiphrasis, which means "opposite word." Antiphrasis is a figurative speech in which a phrase or word is employed in a way that is opposite to its literal meaning, in order to create an ironic or comic effect. In simple words, it is the use of phrases or words in their opposite sense from the real meaning.



The following is an example of antiphrasis:

"Yes, I killed him. I killed him for money-and a woman-and I didn't get the money and I didn't get the woman. Pretty, isn't it..." (Double Indemnity, by Billy Wilder and Raymond Chandler).

Here, the speaker is making an ironic statement by using the opposite sense of the word "pretty." He has committed murder, yet he describes his act "pretty."

Examples of Antiphrasis in Literature
Example #1: Home to Harmony (By Philip Gulley)
"Owen would just smile and eat his eggs, and maybe reach over and slap Ernie's back and say, 'That's real funny, Ernie. You're pretty clever.' All the while thinking to himself, you moron. What do you know? ... Which, of course, he couldn't say out loud. He could think it, but he couldn't say it. When you're a public figure in a small town, you have to treat people with dignity, even Ernie Matthews ..."

In this example, Owen is mocking Ernie Matthews. He comments that Ernie is "pretty clever," but what he really thinks deep inside him is the complete opposite to the literal meaning of the phrase.

Example #2: Filthy Rich (By Dorothy Samuels)
"I was awakened by the dulcet tones of Frank, the morning doorman, alternately yelling my name, ringing my doorbell, and pounding on my apartment door ..."

Here, the real meaning of the phrase "dulcet tones" means melodious tones. In this particular situation, it is used in its opposite meaning. The speaker is trying to use irony to indicate that the doorman irritates him early in the morning by yelling, ringing the bell, and knocking on his door.

Example #3: Oyster Blues (By Michael McClelland)


"He looked like a Vulcan fresh emerged from his forge, a misshapen giant not quite sure of how to maneuver in this bright new world ... His real name, the name given to him by his youthful mother before she abandoned him in a Brooklyn orphanage, was Thomas Theodore Puglowski, but his friends all called him Tiny ... At least, Tiny supposed, they would if he had any friends ..."

In this excerpt, the writer first describes a character named Thomas Theodore Puglowski, as "a misshapen giant," and then uses the word "tiny." Antiphrasis examples like this are meant to convey sarcasm and create humorous effect.

Example #4: Julius Caesar (By William Shakespeare)
CASSIUS:
"I did mark how he did shake ... tis true this god did shake ... His coward lips did from their color fly ..."

In these lines, Cassius, in spite of knowing the worldly flaws of Caesar, makes an ironic remark and calls him "this god" for comic and ironic effect.

Example #5: The Unknown Citizen (By W. H. Auden)
"Our researchers into Public Opinion are content
That he held the proper opinions for the time of year;
When there was peace, he was for peace; when there was war, he went.
He was married and added five children to the population,
Which our Eugenist says was the right number for a parent of his generation.
And our teachers report that he never interfered with their education.
Was he free? Was he happy? The question is absurd:
Had anything been wrong, we should certainly have heard ..."

This is an ironic poem based upon the modern form of government, which appreciates those citizens who conform to its rules, without considering whether an individual citizen is happy and free or not.

Function of Antiphrasis


Like other rhetorical devices, antiphrasis also brings about additional meanings to a text and situation. The use of opposite meanings of situations and statements in literature draws readers' interest. Besides, it makes the literary piece of writing more captivating, and helps the readers make use of their own thoughts, and understand the underlying meaning of the words and phrases. It is also frequently employed in everyday situations and expressions. Furthermore, it brings the literary piece of writing closer to real life.
Antistrophe is a derivative of a Greek word that means "turning back." It is a rhetorical device that involves the repetition of the same words at the end of consecutive phrases, clauses, sentences, and paragraphs. Like in the following excerpt, the phrase "but it is not this day" comes repeatedly at the end:



"A day may come when the courage of men fails, when we forsake our friends and break all bonds of fellowship. But it is not this day. An hour of wolves and shattered shields, when the age of men comes crashing down! But it is not this day! This day we fight! "

(The Return of the King, by J. R. R. Tolkien)

Similarity with Epistrophe
Antistrophe is similar to epistrophe, which also involves the repetition of words at the ends of successive clauses or sentences. However, it is opposite to anaphora, which is a repetition of words at the beginning of sentences or clauses.

Examples of Antistrophe in Literature


Example #1: The Holy Bible, 1 Corinthians 13:11 (By the Apostle Paul)
"When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things..."

This excerpt is one of the examples of antistrophe found in the Holy Bible. The phrase "as a child" is repeated several times at the ends of phrases. This creates rhythm in the literary piece.

Example #2: The Soul of Man and Prison Writings (By Oscar Wilde)
"Selfishness is not living as one wishes to live. It is asking others to live as one wishes to live ..."

In this example, the recurring phrase "as one wishes to live" creates rhythm and cadence in the text, and hence appeals to the readers' emotions.

Example #3: The Grapes of Wrath (By John Steinbeck)


"Then I'll be all aroun' in the dark. I'll be ever'where - wherever you look. Wherever they's a fight so hungry people can eat, I'll be there. Wherever they's a cop beatin' up a guy, I'll be there ... An' when our folk eat the stuff they raise an' live in the houses they build - why, I'll be there ..."

The repeated use of "I'll be there" lays emphasis and draws the attention of readers to the phrase.

Example #4: The Tempest (By William Shakespeare)
"Hourly joys be still upon you! Juno sings her blessings on you ... Scarcity and want shall shun you, Ceres' blessing so is on you ..."

Shakespeare has used this device frequently in his works, which can be noticed clearly here as well.

Example #5: The Holy Bible, Deuteronomy 32:10 (By the prophet Moses)
"In a desert land he found him, in a barren and howling waste. He shielded him and cared for him; he guarded him as the apple of his eye ..."

Again, in this instance from the Bible, a word is repeated at the end of the sentences to create a pattern and emphasize it.

Example #6: Gift from the Sea (By Anne Morrow Lindbergh)
"Perhaps this is the most important thing for me to take back from beach-living: simply the memory that each cycle of the tide is valid, each cycle of the wave is valid, each cycle of a relationship is valid ... Relationships must be like islands, one must accept them for what they are here and now, within their limits - islands, surrounded and interrupted by the sea ..."

Antistrophe examples like the above excerpt draw readers to focus on the repeated words and their meanings.

Function of Antistrophe
The main function of this rhetorical device is to place emphasis on a particular thought or idea. The repetition of words helps in making the text pleasurable to read. Besides poetry, this is a rhetorical device found in a range of works, such as music, literature, political speeches, and sacred texts like the Bible to highlight a point or idea. The pattern and rhythm created with the use of antistrophe enables writers to appeal to readers' emotions, and helps them appreciate a text better.
Antithesis, which literally means "opposite," is a rhetorical device in which two opposite ideas are put together in a sentence to achieve a contrasting effect.



Antithesis emphasizes the idea of contrast by parallel structures of the contrasted phrases or clauses. The structures of phrases and clauses are similar, in order to draw the attention of the listeners or readers. For example:

"Setting foot on the moon may be a small step for a man but a giant step for mankind."

The use of contrasting ideas, "a small step" and "a giant step," in the sentence above emphasizes the significance of one of the biggest landmarks of human history.

Common Antithesis Examples
Some famous antithetical statements have become part of our everyday speech, and are frequently used in arguments and discussions. Below is a list of some common antithetical statements:

Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice.
Man proposes, God disposes.
Love is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing.
Speech is silver, but silence is gold.
Patience is bitter, but it has a sweet fruit.
Money is the root of all evil: poverty is the fruit of all goodness.
You are easy on the eyes, but hard on the heart.
Examples of Antithesis in Literature


In literature, writers employ antithesis not only in sentences, but also in characters and events. Thus, its use is extensive. Below are a few examples of antithesis in literature:

Example #1: A Tale of Two Cities (By Charles Dickens)
The opening lines of Charles Dickens' novel A Tale of Two Cities provides an unforgettable antithesis example:

"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way."

The contrasting ideas, set in parallel structures, markedly highlight the conflict that existed in the time discussed in the novel.

Example #2: Julius Caesar (By William Shakespeare)
In William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, we notice antithesis in the characters of Mark Antony and Marcus Brutus. Brutus is portrayed as the "noblest of Romans," close to Caesar, and a person who loved Rome and Caesar. Antony, on the contrary, is shown as a man with the evil intentions of harming Caesar, and taking charge of Rome. These antithetical characters highlight the conflict in the play.

Example #3: An Essay on Criticism (By Alexander Pope)


Alexander Pope, in his An Essay on Criticism, says:

"To err is human; to forgive divine."

Fallibility is a trait of humans, and God - the Creator - is most forgiving. Through these antithetical ideas, Pope reveals the basic nature of human beings. He wants to say that God is forgiving because his creation is erring.

Example #4: Community (By John Donne)
We find antithesis in John Donne's poem Community:

"Good we must love, and must hate ill,
For ill is ill, and good good still;
But there are things indifferent,
Which we may neither hate, nor love,
But one, and then another prove,
As we shall find our fancy bent."

Two contrasting words "love" and "hate" are combined in the above lines. It emphasizes that we love good because it is always good, and we hate bad because it is always bad. It is a matter of choice to love or hate things which are neither good nor bad.

Example #5: Paradise Lost (By John Milton)
John Milton, in Paradise Lost, says:

"Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heav'n."

The contrasting ideas of reign/serve, and Hell/Heav'n are placed in this sentence to achieve an antithetical effect.

Function of Antithesis
A literary device, like antithesis, uses words to convey ideas in different ways from the common words and expressions of daily life. Thus, it conveys meaning more vividly than ordinary speech. When contrasting ideas are brought together, the idea is expressed more emphatically.

As a literary device, antithesis makes contrasts in order to examine pros and cons of a subject under discussion, and helps to bring forth judgment on that particular subject.
Aphorism is a statement of truth or opinion expressed in a concise and witty manner. The term is often applied to philosophical, moral, and literary principles.



To qualify as an aphorism, it is necessary for a statement to contain a truth revealed in a terse manner. Aphoristic statements are quoted in writings, as well as in our daily speech. The fact that they contain a truth gives them a universal acceptance. Scores of philosophers, politicians, writers, artists, sportsmen, and other individuals are remembered for their famous aphoristic statements.

Aphorisms often come with a pinch of humor, which makes them more appealing to the masses. Proverbs, maxims, adages, and clichés are different forms of aphoristic statements that gain prevalence from generation to generation and frequently appear in our day-to-day speech.

Common Aphorism Examples
Let us look at some common aphorism examples:

Youth is a blunder; Manhood a struggle; Old age regret. [Benjamin Disraeli]
Pride goeth before a fall. [Proverb]
The man who removes a mountain begins by carrying away small stones. [William Faulkner]
Life's tragedy is that we get old too soon and wise too late. [Benjamin Franklin]
Yesterday is but today's memory, and tomorrow is today's dream. [Khalil Gibran]
The simplest questions are the hardest to answer. [Northrop Frye]
...even a proverb is no proverb until your life has illustrated it. [John Keats]
Words are, of course, the most powerful drug used by mankind. [Rudyard Kipling]
Examples of Aphorism in Literature


Many pieces of literature are appreciated for the aphorisms they contain, which are often cited by scholars as well as laymen. Below are some examples of aphorisms in literature:

Example #1: Various Works (By Sir Francis Bacon)
Sir Francis Bacon excels in the aphoristic style of writing. Possibly, his sayings are the most quoted of all. Consider the following examples:

"Studies serve for delight, for ornament and for ability." (Of Studies)
"To use too many circumstances, ere one come to the matter, is wearisome, to use none at all, is Blunt." (Of Discourse)
"Praise is the reflection of the virtue. But it is the reflection glass or body which giveth the reflection." (Of Praise)
Example #2: Various Works (By William Shakespeare)
William Shakespeare does not fall behind any writer in the use of aphorisms in his plays. The use of abundant aphorisms testifies to his keen insight and judgment. Below are some examples:

"Having nothing, nothing can he lose." (Henry VI)
"Life is a tale told by an idiot - full of sound and fury, signifying nothing." (Macbeth)
"Lord, what fools these mortals be!" (A Midsummer Night's Dream)
Example #3: To Kill a Mocking Bird (By Harper Lee)


An example of aphorism can be seen in To Kill a Mocking Bird, by Harper Lee. Atticus Finch tells her daughter:

"You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view - until you climb into his skin and walk around in it."

The above statement holds truth, as we cannot claim to judge a person unless we understand the way he views the world and its affairs.

Example #4: The Writing on My Forehead (By Nafisa Haji)
Nafisa Haji provides us an example of aphorism in her novel The Writing on My Forehead. Big Namina, a wise character, says:

"If? There is no if. There is only what is. What was? What will be."

We can perceive the truth in the above statement because it gives a message to always live in the moment. It tells us that it is useless to have regrets about the past, and we should move on with our lives for a better present and future.

Example #5: Various Works (By Alexander Pope)
Alexander Pope was a great aphorist of the 18th century. Following are some memorable quotes from his works:

"'Tis education forms the common mind; just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclined." (Golden Treasury of the Familiar)
"To err is human, to forgive divine." (An Essay on Criticism)
"What Reason weaves, by Passion is undone." (Essay on Man and Other Poems)
"Act well your part; there all the honour lies." (An Essay on Man)
Function of Aphorism
As already mentioned in the above discussion, making use of aphorisms allows a writer to teach a philosophical or moral truth. The revealed truths prove relevant to human experiences of real life. Therefore, readers relate the piece of literature to real life, and become more fascinated and vigilant in their reading.

Moreover, as truths are universal, revealing general truths in literature adds to their universal commendation. Motivational speeches quote aphorisms from such sources to inspire motivation among individuals.
Aphorismus is borrowed from a Greek word that means "marking off," "banishment," or "rejection." It is a figure of speech that brings into question the meaning of words, in case the words are used inappropriately. Aphorismus often appears as a rhetorical question used to create a difference between the current situation being discussed and the general idea of the subject. Aphorismus examples are found both in casual conversations and in literary pieces.



Difference Between Aphorismus and Aphorism
Aphorismus should not be confused with "aphorism," because aphorismus is challenging the meaning of words by pointing out a question such as,

"I am Pozzo! (Silence.) Pozzo! (Silence.) Does that name mean nothing to you? (Silence.) I say does that name mean nothing to you?"

(Waiting for Godot, by Samuel Beckett).

However, aphorism is a totally different figure of speech, which is a brief statement containing personal truth, or a phrase that conveys a principle of thought. In these lines, Francis Bacon has said:

"Praise is the reflection of the virtue. But it is the reflection glass or body which giveth the reflection."

(Of Praise, by Francis Bacon).

Examples of Aphorismus in Literature


Example #1: Broken Love (By William Blake)
"He scents thy footsteps in the snow
Wheresoever thou dost go,
Thro' the wintry hail and rain.
When wilt thou return again?

Dost thou not in pride and scorn
Fill with tempests all my morn,
And with jealousies and fears
Fill my pleasant nights with tears?

'O'er my sins thou sit and moan:
Hast thou no sins of thy own?
O'er my sins thou sit and weep,
And lull thy own sins fast asleep."

Blake uses different lines that appear as rhetorical questions at the ends of each stanza. Here, the speaker expresses his feelings to his lover, who finally repudiates his love. Hence, he asks questions like, "Is she not the cause of his mourning?" This calls into question the meaning of the ideas or words.

Example #2: A Dream (By Edgar Allan Poe)
"Ah! what is not a dream by day
To him whose eyes are cast
On things around him with a ray
Turned back upon the past?

That holy dream - that holy dream,
While all the world were chiding,
Hath cheered me as a lovely beam
A lonely spirit guiding.

What though that light, thro' storm and night,
So trembled from afar-
What could there be more purely bright
In Truth's day-star?"

Poe also uses aphorismus in this poem. At the end of the first and third stanzas, there is a rhetorical question that is about the meaning of the ideas discussed before these lines, and the two questions are shown in bold.

Example #3: Paradise Lost (By John Milton)


"If such astonishment as this can seize
Eternal spirits; or have ye chos'n this place
After the toyl of Battel to repose
Your wearied vertue, for the ease you find
To slumber here, as in the Vales of Heav'n?
Or in this abject posture have ye sworn
To adore the Conquerour?"

Milton makes a difference between the current situation, "To slumber here, as in the Vales of Heav'n," and about the general idea of the subject, by calling into question its meaning. It helps in laying emphasis on the meaning.

Example #4: Richard II (By William Shakespeare)
"For you have but mistook me all this while.
I live with bread like you, feel want,
Taste grief, need friends: subjected thus,
How can you say to me I am a king?"

This is among the perfect examples of aphorismus. The speaker explains his living standard, then raises a question about how he can be called a king because he lives like a common man. The comparison is made between the two situations by challenging the meaning of phrase "I am a king."

Function of Aphorismus
The role of aphorismus is to emphasize the meanings of a sentence or phrase by challenging or raising questions about it. It brings into question the underlying meanings words and phrases, since the meaning of words can have a variety of connotations that help extend and enrich the language. Therefore, the role of aphorismus is important in literary texts, to challenge meanings by questioning one of its forms. Also, it makes a phrase memorable and arouses emotions by raising questions.
Aporia is a figure of speech wherein a speaker purports or expresses doubt or perplexity regarding a question (often feigned), and asks the audience how he ought to proceed. The doubts may appear as rhetorical questions, often in the beginning of the text.



Aporia is a logical paradox in which the speaker sows seeds of doubt on a subject. This rhetorical strategy can make the audience feel sympathetic toward the speaker regarding the dilemma he is in.

Features of Aporia
Aporia is used as a rhetorical device in literature.
It is also called "dubitation," which means that the uncertainty is always untruthful.
It could be a question or a statement.
It is often used in philosophy. It relates to philosophical questions and subjects which have no obvious answers.
Plato and Socrates were well-known for using aporia.
Examples of Aporia in Literature


Example #1: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
"To be, or not to be: that is the question.
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep;
Than fly to others that we know not of?
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all..."

This is a prominent example of aporia available in English literature. This is an opening soliloquy, spoken by Hamlet in the famous play. Here, the statement, "To be or not to be" introduces uncertainty that characterizes the paragraph.

Example #2: The Unnamable (By Samuel Beckett)
"Where now? Who now? When now? Unquestioning. I, say I. Unbelieving. Questions, hypotheses, call them that. Keep going, going on, call that going, call that on."

"...or by affirmations and negations invalidated as uttered, or sooner or later?"

"...There must be other shifts. Otherwise it would be quite hopeless. I should mention before going any further..."

"Can one be aphetic otherwise than unawares? I don't know."

"What am I to do, what shall I do, what should I do, in my situation, how proceed? By aporia pure and simple..."

"It will be I? It will be the silence, where I am, I don't know, I'll never know, in the silence you don't know, you must go on, I can't go on, I'll go on."

Beckett's entire work is characterized by the use of aporia. These passages have a lot of questioning and doubts, and deferral of meaning. For Beckett, aporia can never be considered as an invariable condition of unknowing.

Example #3: American Buffalo (By David Mamet)


Don: "We have a deal with the man."
Teach: "With Fletcher."
Don: "Yes. "
Teach: "We had a deal with Bobby."
Don: "What does that mean?"
Teach: "Nothing."
Don: "It don't?"
Teach: "No. "
Don: "What did you mean by that?"
Teach: "I didn't mean a thing."
Don: "You didn't."
Teach: "No?"

The above excerpt is an example of aporia that illustrates a great deal of doubt in the speech. There is uncertainty, and due questioning, but it is expressed in a lighter tone.

Example #4: The Road not Taken (By Robert Frost)
"Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I—
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference."

In the last two lines in the given poem, the poet uses aporia, which is a self-contradictory deadlock that cannot be resolved in the text. Similarly, in the poem the readers find themselves at an impasse, while the final evidence falls into a paradox.

Function of Aporia
Aporia is an expression of doubt or uncertainty. When uncertainty and doubt are genuine, it can indicate a real impasse, and stimulate the audience to consider different options for resolution. It could show the humbleness of a speaker if the doubt he expresses is genuine. However, it functions to provide guidance to the audience as to what the speaker wants to say if the doubt is insincere.

Aporia causes uncertainty, and makes the audience discover the certainty through subsequent statements of the speaker. The main objective is to provide the audience a chance to analyze and judge the situation.
Aposiopesis is derived from a Greek word that means "becoming silent." It is a rhetorical device that can be defined as a figure of speech in which the speaker or writer breaks off abruptly, and leaves the statement incomplete. It is as if the speaker is not willing to state what is present in his mind, due to being overcome by passion, excitement, or fear. In a piece of literature, it means to leave a sentence unfinished, so that the reader can determine his own meanings.



Types of Aposiopesis
Aposiopesis examples may be classified according to the following types:

Emotive aposiopesis - This type of aposiopesis is used in conditions of conflict between emotional outbursts of a speaker, and an environment that does not react. Usually, the writer or speaker pauses in the middle of a sentence.
Calculated aposiopesis - This type of aposiopesis is based on the conflict of missing thought and its opposing force that rejects the substance of that thought. Hence, the idea is removed that is explicitly expressed afterwards.
Audience-respecting aposiopesis - It is based on the removal of thoughts which are unpleasant to the readers, or offensive to the audience.
Transitio-aposiopesis - It removes the ideas from the end part of a speech in order to immediately get the audience interested in the subsequent section.
Emphatic aposiopesis - It avoids the use of full utterance, to present the idea as greater and really inexpressible.
Some Forms of Aposiopesis


Sometimes a word is used to indicate something completely different from its literal meaning. Such as in this example, "Tis deepest winter in Lord Timon's purse; that is, one may reach deep enough, and find little" (Timon of Athens, by William Shakespeare).
Sometimes a word is used to indicate something whose actual name is not used like, "A chair's arm."
Sometimes a paradoxical statement is used to create illogical strained metaphors. Such as, "Take arms against a sea of troubles."
Abusio is a subtype of Aposiopesis, which results from the combination of two metaphors.
Examples of Aposiopesis in Literature
Example #1: King Lear (By William Shakespeare)
King Lear:
"I will have revenges on you both
That all the world shall - I will do such things -
What they are yet, I know not; but they shall be
The terrors of the earth!"

Shakespeare has used this technique wonderfully to show moods of his characters. Here, it is employed when King Lear gets furious against his wicked daughters. He cannot declare punishment, but he breaks down and burst into tears.

Example #2: Ulysses (By James Joyce)
"All quiet on Howth now. The distant hills seem. Where we. The rhododendrons. I am a fool perhaps, He gets the plums, and I the plumstones. Where I come in."

In this passage, Joyce deliberately paused twice in order to create dramatic effect. The idea is left unfinished. This break also gives an impression of reluctance to continue. The unfinished thoughts are shown in bold.

Example #3: Henry IV (By William Shakespeare)


Hotspur:
"O, I could prophesy,
But that the earthy and cold hand of death
Lies on my tongue. No, Percy, thou art dust,
And food for —

Prince Hal:
"For worms, brave Percy: fare thee well, great heart!"

Shakespeare has been famous for using emotional pauses, or moments of sudden silence in soliloquies. The unfinished thought in this extract is shown with a long dash (—). This is a pivotal moment in the play where a character pauses abruptly.

Example #4: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (By Mark Twain)
"She looked perplexed for a moment, and then said, not fiercely, but still loud enough for the furniture to hear:

'Well, I lay if I get hold of you I'll -'

She did not finish, for by this time she was bending down and punching under the bed with the broom, and so she needed breath to punctuate the punches with. She resurrected nothing but the cat ..."

There are two examples of aposiopesis in this excerpt. First, the writer pauses at "hold of you I'll -," and then at the end of the excerpt, "nothing but the cat." Both sentences are left incomplete.

Example #5: Julius Caesar (By William Shakespeare)
"O judgment! thou art fled to brutish beasts,
And men have lost their reason. Bear with me,
My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar,
And I must pause till it come back to me..."

Again, Shakespeare uses aposiopesis in the soliloquy spoken by Antony at Caesar's funeral ceremony. Anthony is making an emotional speech; hence, he is unable to finish his thought. This gives a perfect dramatic impact.

Function of Aposiopesis
The purpose of using aposiopesis is to create dramatic or comic effect. The writers or speakers use it whenever they want to express ideas that are too overwhelming to finish. Several playwrights use this technique to make dialogues seem sincere and realistic. But the most effective use of aposiopesis is seen when readers successfully figure out the missing thoughts that the writer has left unfinished.
In literature, apostrophe is a figure of speech sometimes represented by an exclamation, such as "Oh." A writer or speaker, using apostrophe, speaks directly to someone who is not present or is dead, or speaks to an inanimate object.



It is important not to confuse apostrophe, the literary device, with the apostrophe punctuation mark ('). The punctuation mark shows possession, or marks the omission of one or more letters (contraction). Apostrophe in literature is an arrangement of words addressing a non-existent person or an abstract idea in such a way as if it were present and capable of understanding feelings.

Examples of Apostrophe in Literature
English literature is replete with instances of apostrophe. Let us have a look at a few examples.

Example #1: Macbeth (By William Shakespeare)
William Shakespeare makes use of apostrophe in his play Macbeth:

"Is this a dagger which I see before me,
The handle toward my hand?
Come, let me clutch thee!
I have thee not, and yet I see thee still."

In his mental conflict before murdering King Duncan, Macbeth has a strange vision of a dagger and talks to it as if it were a person.

Example #2: The Star (By Jane Taylor)
Jane Taylor uses apostrophe in the well-known poem, The Star:

"Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky."

This poem became one of the most popular nursery rhymes told to little children - often in the form of song. In this nursery rhyme, a child speaks to a star (an inanimate object). Hence, this is a classic example of apostrophe.

Example #3: Frankenstein (By Mary Shelly)


Look at how Mary Shelly uses apostrophe in her novel Frankenstein:

"Oh! Stars and clouds and winds, ye are all about to mock me; if ye really pity me, crush sensation and memory; let me become as naught; but if not, depart, depart, and leave me in darkness."

Talking to stars, clouds, and winds is apostrophe.

Example #4: Death Be Not Proud (By John Donne)
"Death be not proud, though some have called thee
Mighty and dreadful, for, thou art not so,
For, those, whom thou think'st, thou dost overthrow,
Die not, poor death, nor yet canst thou kill me."

Here, Donne speaks to death, an abstract idea, as if it were a person capable of comprehending his feelings.

Example #5: The Sun Rising (By John Donne)
John Donne once more uses apostrophe in his poem The Sun Rising:

"Busy old fool, unruly Sun,
Why dost thou thus,
Through windows, and through curtains, call on
us?
Must to thy motions lovers' seasons run?
Saucy pedantic wretch ..."

The poet addresses the sun in an informal and colloquial way, as if it were a real human being. He asks the Sun in a rude way why the Sun appeared and spoiled the good time he was having with his beloved.

Example #5: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (By James Joyce)
James Joyce uses apostrophe in his novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man:

"Welcome, O life! I go to encounter for the millionth time the reality of experience and to forge in the smithy of my soul the uncreated conscience of my race."

Being able to talk to something abstract - like life itself - is possible only in literature.

Example #6: To a Stranger Born in Some Distant Country Hundreds of Years from Now (By Billy Collins)
In this excerpt, the poet uses conventional apostrophe starting with "O":

"O stranger of the future!
O inconceivable being!
Whatever the shape of your house,
However you scoot from place to place,
No matter how strange and colorless the clothes you may wear,
I bet nobody likes a wet dog either.
I bet everyone in your pub,
Even the children, pushes her away."

The speaker is talking to an imaginary character, the "stranger."

Example #7: Sire (By W. S. Merwin)
Another apostrophe example comes from the poem Sire, written by W. S. Merwin:

"Forerunner, I would like to say, silent pilot,
Little dry death, future,
Your indirections are as strange to me
As my own. I know so little that anything
You might tell me would be a revelation."

Function of Apostrophe


By employing apostrophe in their literary works, writers try to bring abstract ideas or non-existent persons to life, so that the nature of emotions they want to communicate comes across in a better way. It is more convenient for readers to relate themselves to abstract emotions when they observe them in their natural surroundings. In addition, the use of apostrophe motivates readers to develop a perspective that is fresh, as well as creative.
When a noun or word is followed by another noun or phrase that renames or identifies it, this is called appositive. This is a literary device that appears before or after a noun or noun phrase. It is always used with a comma. Simply, we can define it as a noun phrase or a noun that defines or explains another noun, which it follows.



In this grammatical structure, writers place elements like noun phrases side-by-side, where one element serves to define the other, and one is in apposition to the other. For instance:

"We were waiting outside the condemned cells, a row of sheds fronted with double bars, like small animal cages." (A Hanging, by George Orwell)

In this line, "the condemned cells" is a noun phrase, while "a row of sheds" is an appositive that explains this noun phrase.

Types of Appositive
Restrictive Appositive
Restrictive appositive gives essential information to identify the phrase or noun in apposition. It clarifies the meaning of a phrase but, if the appositive is removed, the meaning of the entire sentence changes. Commas are not necessarily used in this type of appositive, such as in, "John's friend, Michael, likes chocolates." Here, John has others friends, but the statement is restricted to only Michael.

Non-Restrictive Appositive
Non-restrictive appositive gives non-essential or extra information, which is not important to identify the phrase or noun in apposition. This type of appositive is often used with commas, for example, "John, my friend, likes to eat chocolates." Here, my friend is a non-restrictive appositive, because it is not necessary for identifying John.

Examples of Appositive in Literature


Example #1: A Christmas Memory (By Truman Capote)


"Christmas Eve afternoon we scrape together a nickel and go to the butcher's to buy Queenie's traditional gift, a good gnawable beef bone."

In the above excerpt, a restrictive appositive is clarifying and describing a noun "traditional gift." Here, this literary device has appeared after the noun, specifying the type of gift.

Example #2: Bronx Primitive (By Kate Simon)
"Though her cheeks were high-colored and her teeth strong and yellow, she looked like a mechanical woman, a machine with flashing, glassy circles for eyes."

In this example, the noun "mechanical woman" is defined and identified by a long noun phrase, a restrictive appositive, "flashing, gassy circles for eyes," which serves as a useful device in this excerpt, and brings variety to the sentence, enhancing its meaning.

Example #3: The Pride of the Yankees (By Gary Cooper as Lou Gehrig)
"I have had the great honor to have played with these great veteran ballplayers on my left -Murderers Row, our championship team of 1927. I have had the further honor of living with and playing with these men on my right — the Bronx Bombers, the Yankees of today.

Gehrig identifies a noun, "ballplayers," by using the restrictive appositive "murderers row," and he adds a noun "championship team." These two appositives are used with commas and add meaning and significance to the sentence.

Example #4: Inside Cape Town (By Joshua Hammer)
"The Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, Africa's only nuclear power plant, was inaugurated in 1984 by the apartheid regime and is the major source of electricity for the Western Cape's 4.5 million population."

In the above extract, Hammer has used an appositive immediately after the noun phrase "Nuclear power station," which adds information to the sentence. This presents an example of non-restrictive appositive which, if removed, does not change the meaning of the sentence.

Example #5: Beauty: When the Other Dancer is the Self (By Alice Walker)
"My father, a fat, funny man with beautiful eyes and a subversive wit, is trying to decide which of his eight children he will take with him to the county fair."

This is another good example of non-restrictive appositive, in which the noun "father" does not need extra information, but the author has used a long noun phrase, "a fat, funny man ... and a subversive wit," to describe it.

Function of Appositive
The function of appositive in literary works is to provide information, which is either essential or additional. It also gives meanings to different sentences in literary texts, and helps in identifying other nouns. An appositive noun also defines, explains, and clarifies the meaning of a sentence. It is helpful to combine sentences to avoid too many choppy and short sentences. In addition, an appositive phrase gives variety to a literary work by using sentences of varied lengths, allowing the writers to use interesting details with smooth flow of the reading experience.
Archaism is the derivative of the Greek word archaïkós, which means "beginning," or "ancient." It is a figure of speech in which a used phrase or word is considered very old fashioned and outdated. It can be a word, a phrase, a group of letters, spelling, or syntax.



Archaism is the use of writing or speech that is now rarely used; the use of older versions of language and art. Such as in these lines, "To thine own self be true" (Hamlet, by William Shakespeare). Sentences that may be considered examples of archaism will most probably contain words like "thine" and "thou."

Evolution of Archaism
Archaism is also known as "archaic diction." Languages evolve over the years. The English language written and spoken by Shakespeare was very different from English used today. The use of archaic language is found in the literary works of ancient medieval ages, as well as in the Victorian and Edwardian, 19th and 20th centuries.

Examples of Archaism in Literature


Archaism examples are found in the masterpieces of Shakespeare, S. T. Coleridge, Hemingway, and Keats.

Example #1: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (By S. T. Coleridge)
"It is an ancient Mariner,
And he stoppeth one of three.
'By thy long grey beard and glittering eye,
Now wherefore stopp'st thou me?

He holds him with his skinny hand,
'There was a ship,' quoth he.
'Hold off! unhand me, grey-beard loon!'
Eftsoons his hand dropt he
'I fear thy skinny hand! ...

I fear thee and thy glittering eye,
And thy skinny hand, so brown.'—
Fear not, fear not, thou Wedding-Guest!
This body dropt not down ..."

In the following extract, archaic words are used extensively. These words are shown in bold.

Example #2: For Whom the Bell Tolls (By Earnest Hemingway)
"'Where the hell are you going?' Agustín asked the grave little man as he came up...

'Thy duty,' said Agustín mockingly. 'I besmirch the milk of thy duty.' Then turning to the woman, 'Where the un-nameable is this vileness that I am to guard?'
'In the cave,' Pilar said. 'In two sacks. And I am tired of thy obscenity.'
'I obscenity in the milk of thy tiredness,' Agustín said.
'Then go and befoul thyself,' Pilar said to him without heat.
'Thy mother,' Agustín replied."

Hemingway has filled this paragraph with archaism. For instance, the words "un-namable" and "vileness" are old fashioned and out of use. He has, however, used them purposefully to create special mysterious effect.

Example #3: Ode to Autumn (By John Keats)


"Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store?
Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find
Thee sitting careless on a granary floor,
Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind; ...

Drowsed with the fume of poppies, while thy hook
And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep
Steady thy laden head across a brook; ...
Thou watchest the last oozings, hours by hours."

John Keats has used archaism frequently in his poems. This example is also based on old fashioned words. Like, "hath" is an older version of "has," "thou" has replaced "you," and "watchest" is used as the past participle of "watch."

Example #4: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
"Perhaps he loves you now,
And now no soil nor cautel doth besmirch
The virtue of his will

There; my blessing with thee!
And these few precepts in thy memory
Look thou character. Give thy thoughts no tongue ...

I find thee apt;
And duller shouldst thou be than the fat weed
That rots itself in ease on Lethe wharf,
Wouldst thou not stir in this ..."

Shakespeare is famous for using archaic words to make his work more rhythmic, realistic, and to draw the attention of readers. Here, the words marked in bold are considered archaic.

Function of Archaism
Archaism is frequently used in poetry, prose, science, law, geography, ritual, and technology speech and writing. It may have been used accidentally or purposefully. The role of archaism in history is to suggest a superior, but maybe mythical, ancient golden age. Also, it can be used for creating humor and irony. However, the most effective use of archaism is in poetry. The sound patterns of archaic words are helpful when it comes to assonance, alliteration, and rhyme scheme.
In literature, an archetype is a typical character, an action, or a situation that seems to represent universal patterns of human nature.



An archetype, also known as "universal symbol," may be a character, a theme, a symbol, or even a setting. Many literary critics are of the opinion that archetypes - which have a common and recurring representation in a particular human culture, or entire human race - shape the structure and function of a literary work.

Carl Jung, Swiss psychologist, argued that the root of an archetype is in the "collective unconscious" of mankind. The phrase "collective unconscious" refers to experiences shared by a race or culture. Such experiences include such things as love, religion, death, birth, life, struggle, and survival. These experiences exist in the subconscious of every individual, and are re-created in literary works, or in other forms of art.

Examples of Archetype in Literature
Below is the analysis of common archetypes that exist in literature.

Archetypes in Characters
Example #1: The Hero
He or she is a character who predominantly exhibits goodness, and struggles against evil in order to restore harmony and justice to society. Examples of hero include Beowulf, in the book Beowulf, Hercules, in the book Hercules, and d'Artagnan, from The Three Musketeers.

Example #2: The Mother Figure


Such a character may be represented as a Fairy God Mother, who guides and directs a child, Mother Earth, who contacts people and offers spiritual and emotional nourishment, or a Stepmother who treats their stepchildren poorly. Examples of a mother figure include:

In Literature:

Lucy and Madame Defarge, from Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities
Disely, from William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury
Gladriel, from J. R. R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings
Glinda, from the Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
In Fairy Tales:

The wicked stepmother in Charles Perrault's Cinderella
The fairy godmothers in Charles Perrault's Sleeping Beauty
Mother Goose
The grandmother in Charles Perrault's Little Red Riding Hood
In Mythology:

The mythological figures of Persephone, Demeter, Hecate, Gorgon, Medusa

Example #3: The Innocent Youth
He or she is inexperienced, with many weaknesses, and seeks safety with others. Others like him or her because of the trust he or she shows in other people. Usually, the experience of coming of age comes in the later parts of the narratives. Examples of innocent youth include:

Pip in Charles Dickens' Great Expectations
Nicholas in Charles Dickens' The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby
Joseph from Henry Fielding's The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews
Example #4: The Mentor
His or her task is to protect the main character. It is through the wise advice and training of a mentor that the main character achieves success in the world. Examples of mentor include:

Gandalf in J. R. R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings
Parson Adams in Henry Fielding's Joseph Andrews
Senex in Madeleine L'Engle's A Wind in the Door
Example #5: The Doppelganger
It is a duplicate or shadow of a character, which represents the evil side of his personality. Examples of doppelganger in popular literary works include:

William Shakespeare's Hamlet
Mary Shelley's Frankenstein
Edgar Allen Poe's William Wilson
Robert Louis Stevenson's Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Example #6: The Scapegoat
A character that takes the blame for everything bad that happens. Examples of scapegoat include:

Snowball, in George Orwell's Animal Farm
Example #7: The Villain
A character whose main function is to go to any extent to oppose the hero, or whom the hero must annihilate in order to bring justice. Examples of villain include:

Shere Khan, from Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book stories
Long John Silver, from Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island
Archetypes in Situations
Example #8: The Journey
The main character takes a journey, which may be physical or emotional, to understand his or her personality, and the nature of the world. Examples of archetype in journey include:

Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy
Henry Fielding's The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews and of his Friend Mr. Abraham Adams
Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels
Example #9: The Initiation
The main character undergoes experiences that lead him towards maturity. Examples of archetypes in initiation include:

Henry Fielding's History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
Laurence Sterne's The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman
Voltaire's Candide
Example #10: Good Versus Evil
It represents the clash of forces that represent goodness with those that represent evil. Examples of this archetype include:

William Shakespeare's King Lear
Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness
Example #11: The Fall
The main character falls from grace in consequence of his or her own actions. Examples of archetype in fall include:

Oedipus, from Sophocles' Oedipus Rex
Lear, from William Shakespeare's King Lear
Function of Archetype


The use of archetypical characters and situations gives a literary work a universal acceptance, as readers identify the characters and situations in their social and cultural context. By using common archetypes, writers attempt to impart realism to their works, as the situations and characters are drawn from the experiences of the world.
An argument is the main statement of a poem, an essay, a short story, or a novel, which usually appears as an introduction, or a point on which the writer will develop his work in order to convince his readers.



Literature does not merely entertain. It also intends to shape the outlook of readers. Therefore, an argument does not intend to serve only as an introduction, but it attracts the reader's focus to an issue that will be made clear gradually.

Common Argument Examples
In our everyday life, we use different arguments in our discussions to convince others to accept our viewpoints. We do it in the same way in literature, meaning we state what we believe is true, and then we gradually build an argument around it to make others believe it is true as well.

For example, the subject of an argument might be, "The internet is a good invention." Then, we support this contention with logical reasons, such as "It is a source of endless information," and "It is a hub of entertainment," and so on. In the end, we conclude the argument by giving our verdict.

Examples of Argument in Literature


Let us now analyze a few examples of argument from literature:

Example #1: David Copperfield (By Charles Dickens)
Charles Dickens starts his novel David Copperfield with this literary argument:

"Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show."

The above opening line is considered one of the best opening lines of a novel. It becomes the main statement or argument of the novel, as the whole novel depicts the adventures of the narrator, David. Many people let him down, and many others support him in hard times. In the end, he alone was not the hero of his life, but there were others who deserve the same status.

Example #2: Paradise Lost (By John Milton)
John Milton provides his argument or purpose of the poem in the first five lines of Paradise Lost, Book I:

"Of Man's First Disobedience, and the Fruit
Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal taste
Brought Death into the World, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat..."

In the above lines, Milton states the reasons why man was thrown out of Eden, what is the reason for all our "woes," and how "one greater Man" (Jesus Christ) restored our status. The rest of the epical poem develops this argument - to "justify the ways of God to men".

Example #3: Pride and Prejudice (By Jane Austen)


Similarly, the opening lines of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice give a suitable example of argument:

"It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife."

The plot of the novel revolves around this argument. We see girls and their parents hunting for rich bachelors. The eligible bachelors seem to have no other worries in their life except looking for beautiful partners. Hence, we see a game of matchmaking occupying the entire novel.

Example #4: Rime of the Ancient Mariner (By S. T. Coleridge)
S. T. Coleridge appended his argument at the beginning of his poem Rime of the Ancient Mariner. He writes:

"How a Ship having passed the Line was driven by storms to the cold Country towards the South Pole; and how from thence she made her course to the tropical Latitude of the Great Pacific Ocean; and of the strange things that befell; and in what manner the Ancyent Marinere came back to his own Country."

Coleridge gives us a summary of his poem in a nutshell.

Function of Argument
Literature, on face value, may be seen as a tool to entertain us - with attractive verse, with sweet melody, or with a story with instances of humor or emotion displayed by interesting characters. However, this is not its ultimate aim. Writers consider literature as a powerful tool in their hands to shape or reform our thinking. Arguments come into play at this time. Writers carefully play with words, as well as giving reasons and examples, to persuade us to their points of view. Our outlook is molded by words that also entertain us.
An argumentative essay is a type of essay that presents arguments about both sides of an issue. It could be that both sides are presented equally balanced, or it could be that one side is presented more forcefully than the other. It all depends on the writer, and what side he supports the most. The general structure of an argumentative essay follows this format:



Introduction: Attention Grabber / hook, Background Information, Thesis Statement
Body: Three body paragraphs (three major arguments)
Counterargument: An argument to refute earlier arguments and give weight to the actual position
Conclusion: Rephrasing the thesis statement, major points, call to attention, or concluding remarks.
Models for Argumentative Essays
There are two major models besides this structure given above, which is called a classical model. Two other models are the Toulmin and Rogerian models.

Toulmin model is comprised of an introduction with a claim or thesis, followed by presentation of data to support the claim. Warrants are then listed for the reasons to support the claim with backing and rebuttals. However, the Rogerian model asks to weigh two options, lists strengths and weaknesses of both options, and gives a recommendation after an analysis.

Examples of Argumentative Essay in Literature


Example #1: Put a Little Science in Your Life (by Brian Greene)
"When we consider the ubiquity of cellphones, iPods, personal computers and the Internet, it's easy to see how science (and the technology to which it leads) is woven into the fabric of our day-to-day activities. When we benefit from CT scanners, M.R.I. devices, pacemakers and arterial stents, we can immediately appreciate how science affects the quality of our lives. When we assess the state of the world, and identify looming challenges like climate change, global pandemics, security threats and diminishing resources, we don't hesitate in turning to science to gauge the problems and find solutions.

And when we look at the wealth of opportunities hovering on the horizon—stem cells, genomic sequencing, personalized medicine, longevity research, nanoscience, brain-machine interface, quantum computers, space technology—we realize how crucial it is to cultivate a general public that can engage with scientific issues; there's simply no other way that as a society we will be prepared to make informed decisions on a range of issues that will shape the future."

These two paragraphs present an argument about two scientific fields — digital products and biotechnology. It has also given full supporting details with names.

Example #2: Boys Here, Girls There: Sure, If Equality's the Goal (by Karen Stabiner)
"The first objections last week came from the National Organization for Women and the New York Civil Liberties Union, both of which opposed the opening of TYWLS in the fall of 1996. The two groups continue to insist—as though it were 1896 and they were arguing Plessy v. Ferguson—that separate can never be equal. I appreciate NOW's wariness of the Bush administration's endorsement of single-sex public schools, since I am of the generation that still considers the label "feminist" to be a compliment—and many feminists still fear that any public acknowledgment of differences between the sexes will hinder their fight for equality."

This paragraph by Karen Stabiner presents an objection to the argument of separation between public schools. It has been fully supported with evidences of the court case.

Example #3: The Flight from Conversation (by Sherry Turkle)


"We've become accustomed to a new way of being "alone together." Technology-enabled, we are able to be with one another, and also elsewhere, connected to wherever we want to be. We want to customize our lives. We want to move in and out of where we are because the thing we value most is control over where we focus our attention. We have gotten used to the idea of being in a tribe of one, loyal to our own party."

This is an argument by Sherry Turkle, beautifully presented it in the first person plural dialogues. However, it is clear that this is part of a greater argument instead of the essay.

Function of Argumentative Essay
An argumentative essay presents both sides of an issue. However, it presents one side more positively or meticulously than the other one, so that readers could be swayed to the one the author intends. The major function of this type of essays is to present a case before the readers in a convincing manner, showing them the complete picture.
Normally playwrights use characters' dialogues to tell their stories, but often it becomes difficult for them to express what their characters are thinking. Hence, they use a typical dramatic device, called "aside," to solve this problem. An aside is a short comment or speech that a character delivers directly to the audience, or to himself, while other actors on the stage appear not to hear. Only the audience knows that the character has said something to them.



In essence, through an aside, a character comments on what happens in the play. Simply, we can define aside as a short commentary that reveals private opinions and reactions of the character. However, it refers to the major conflict in a play, though it may not involve his personal conflict.

Difference Between Aside and Soliloquy
Both asides and soliloquies are dramatic devices; they have similarities and differences. The similarity between them is that a single character speaks directly to himself, or to the audience, and no other character can hear his comments. The difference between them is that an aside is a shorter comment, while a soliloquy is a longer speech. Another difference is that an aside reveals hidden secrets or judgments, whereas the soliloquy reveals motives, inner thoughts, or internal struggles going on in the mind of the character.

Examples of Aside in Literature


Aside became a popular dramatic technique during the Elizabethan era, when structure and arrangement of the theaters themselves were changing. The structure of stages was transformed into a three-sided shape that allowed spectators to come closer to actors than ever before. Hence, this friendly setting made asides more realistic. Following are a few examples of aside from literature:

Example #1: Macbeth (By William Shakespeare)
"Time thou anticipat'st my dread exploits.
The flighty purpose never is o'ertook
Unless the deed go with it. From this moment
The very firstlings of my heart shall be
The firstlings of my hand."

Here, readers learn that the leading character, Macbeth, feels regret to launch an attack on MacDuff. However, his speech announces that Macbeth would attack MacDuff's castle and kill his family. This speech reveals Macbeth has lost his moral values. First, he struggles with the decision to kill the king, but now he does not feel hesitation to murder the king's whole family. This aside makes it clear that he has transformed into a violent and ambitious man.

Example #2: Crucible (By Arthur Miller)
Arthur Miller, in his play Crucible, uses aside through the last words of Elizabeth towards the conclusion of the play, when she says:

"He have his goodness now. God forbid I take it from him."

Elizabeth forgives her husband of his adultery, and John - after making many mistakes - makes the right decision and confesses his sin. This good moral decision restores his goodness. Therefore, when Reverend Hale asks Elizabeth to convince her husband not to give up his life, she makes an aside, saying that she cannot do this when he finally realizes that he has his goodness.

Example #3: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)


Another example of aside occurs in Shakespeare's Hamlet. In this play, after the death of the King of Denmark, the king's brother Claudius takes the charge of the throne, rather than Prince Hamlet. Moreover, Claudius marries the king's wife. In the first act of this play, when Claudius talks to Hamlet, by calling him his son and nephew, Hamlet makes an aside by saying:

"A little more than kin, and less than kind."

Example #4: Cherry Orchard (By Anton Chekhov)
Yasha: (Aside.)
"Lyubov Andreyevna, could I have a word? I was wondering if Madame would be going back to Paris ... the food's uneatable, that old man wandering about muttering to himself ..."

In this example, Yasha makes an aside to express that he wants to go back to Paris with Mrs. Ranavesky, as there are no standards living in her estate, and also he is not satisfied with the behavior of its residents.

Function of Aside
Aside gives special information to the audience about the plot and other characters onstage. It is like a window into the thoughts of characters. Since aside is a comment about the characters without bringing into their knowledge, it gives better understanding to the audience about the essence of the matter.

Asides also create an enjoyable experience for the audience, as a character talks to them directly, drawing them closer to his or her actions and thoughts. They can enter into the true thoughts and feelings of the characters. However, in comedies asides are delightful, and as a result, playwrights could imagine how the audience enjoys their work.
When someone makes a statement investing his strong belief in it, as if it is true, though it may not be, he is making an assertion. Assertion is a stylistic approach or technique involving a strong declaration, a forceful or confident and positive statement regarding a belief or a fact. Often, it is without proof or any support. Its purpose is to express ideas or feelings directly, for instance, "I have put my every effort to complete this task today."



Types of Assertion
Assertion has four types, including:

Basic Assertion
It is a simple and straightforward statement for expressing feelings, opinions, and beliefs such as:

"I wish I could have expressed this idea earlier, because now someone else has taken the credit."
"Excuse me, first I want to finish my work, then I shall go with you."
Emphatic Assertion
It conveys sympathy to someone, and usually has two parts: the first encompasses recognition of the feelings or situations of the other person, and the second is a statement that shows support for the other person's viewpoint, feelings, or rights such as:

"I understand you are busy, and me too, but it is difficult for me to finish this project on my own. So, I want you to help me complete this project."
"I know this is making you angry and frustrated because you have not gotten a response yet. But I can help you by giving you an estimate of how long it might take."
Escalating Assertion


It occurs when someone is not able to give a response to a person's basic assertions, and therefore that person becomes firm about him or her such as:

"If you do not finish this work by 6:00 tonight, I I will engage the services of another worker."
"I really want to finish this point before you start yours."
Language Assertion
It involves the first person pronoun "I," and is useful for expressing negative feelings. Nevertheless, it constructively lays emphasis on a person's feelings of anger such as:

"When you speak harshly, I cannot work with you because I feel annoyed. Therefore, I want you to speak nicely and then assign me a task."
"When I don't get enough sleep, it affects my nerves and I feel irritated. Therefore, I try to go to bed earlier."
Examples of Assertion in Literature


Example #1: Animal Farm (By George Orwell)
In Animal Farm, pigs make use of assertion as a tool for making propaganda in the entire novel. This is to weaken the position of other animals, preventing contradiction with their rules and leadership. In chapter seven, Squealer informs other animals that they need not sing the original anthem of the Old Major, Beasts of England — a song they used to inspire the revolution in the chapter one. Squealer asserts, saying:

"It's no longer needed, comrade ... In Beasts of England we expressed our longing for a better society in days to come. However, that society has now been established. Clearly this song has no longer any purpose."

Look at his language where he gives them information that is obvious, which they have realized already, and no one can make arguments against it. Thus, no one argued against his assertion.

Example #2: Pride and Prejudice (By Jane Austen)
Elizabeth conceals her surprise at the news of Darcy's plan to marry her. When Lady Catherine objects to this marriage, as Bennets have low connections and their marriage would ruin Darcy's position before his friends and society, Elizabeth attempts to defend her family background by asserting:

"I am a gentleman's daughter."

In fact, she sets herself free from the exasperating control of snobs like Miss Bingley, Mr. Collins, and Lady Catherine, and declares:

"I am ... resolved."

Then further says with assertion:

"... to act in that manner, which will, in my own opinion, constitute my happiness, without reference to you, or to any person so wholly unconnected with me."

Example #3: Cherry Orchard (By Anton Chekov)
Trofimov and Lopakhin exchange barbed words, and Lopakhin calls Trofimov an "eternal student." When Lopakhin asks Trofimov's views about him, Trofimov replies that he considers Lopakhin as "a soon-to-be-millionaire," and "a beast of prey." Then, Gayev points towards the conversation about pride the two men had earlier.

Trofimov asserts with reasoning about the folly of their pride, as man is a "pretty poor physiological specimen," they are in misery, and "the only thing to do is work." Although, he was pessimistic about the current situation of humans, however, he starts feeling optimistic for their future. He expresses this idea with assertion and rebukes Russian intellectuals, as they do not even know the meaning of work.

Example #4: Othello (By William Shakespeare)
DESDEMONA:
"I never did
Offend you in my life, never loved Cassio
But with such general warranty of heaven
As I might love. I never gave him token."

In these lines, Desdemona makes a dying assertion that she is innocent, denying Othello's accusations. However, blinded by emotion and furious, Othello is resolved to kill her.

Function of Assertion
The function of assertion is to let readers to feel that they should not disagree or dispute what they read or hear; rather, they should accept the idea or notion as an indisputable fact. It has proved to be one of the best approaches for writers to express their personal feelings, beliefs, and ideas in a direct way. By using this technique, writers can defend others' feelings and rights if violated. This rhetorical style also expresses self-affirmation and rational thinking of personal respect or worth. It is very common in various fields of life, like literature, politics, advertisements, and legal affairs.
Assonance takes place when two or more words, close to one another repeat the same vowel sound, but start with different consonant sounds.



For instance, in the following sentence:

"Men sell the wedding bells."

The same vowel sound of the short vowel "-e-" repeats itself in almost all the words, excluding the definite article. The words do share the same vowel sounds, but start with different consonant sounds - unlike alliteration, which involves repetition of the same consonant sounds. Below are a few assonance examples that are common.

Common Assonance Examples
We light fire on the mountain.
I feel depressed and restle
Go and mow the lawn.
Johnny went here and there and everywhe
The engineer held the steering to steer the vehicle.
Brief Examples of Assonance


"If I bleat when I speak it's because I just got . . . flee"
— Deadwood, by Al Swearengin
"Those images that yet,
Fresh images beget,
That dolphin-torn, that gong-tormented sea."
— Byzantium, by W. B. Yeats
"Strips of tinfoil winking like people"
— The Bee Meeting by Sylvia Plath
"I must confess that in my quest I felt depressed and restless."
— With Love, by Thin Lizzy
Examples of Assonance in Literature
Assonance is primarily used in poetry, in order to add rhythm and music, by adding an internal rhyme to a poem. Let us look at some examples of assonance from literature:

Example #1: Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (By Robert Frost)
Try to recognize the use of assonance in Robert Frost's poem Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening:

"He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sound's the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.
The woods are lovely, dar and deep.
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep."

The underlined bold letters in the above extract are vowels that are repeated to create assonance.

Example #2: Early Moon (By Carl Sandburg)
Assonance sets the mood of a passage in Carl Sandburg's Early Moon:

"Poetry is old, ancient, goes back far. It is among the oldest of living things. So old it is that no man knows how and why the first poems came."

Notice how the long vowel, "o", in the above extract, helps emphasize the idea of something being old and mysterious.

Example #3: Outer Dark (By Cormac McCarthy)


The sound of long vowels slows down the pace of a passage, setting an atmosphere that is grave and serious. Look at the following example from Cormac McCarthy's Outer Dark:

"And stepping softly with her air of blooded ruin about the glade in a frail agony of grace she trailed her rags through dust and ashes, circling the dead fire, the charred billets and chalk bones, the little calcined ribcage."

The repetition of the long vowel sound in the above passage lays emphasis on the frightening atmosphere that the writer wants to depict.

Example #4: Do Not Go Gentle into the Good Night (By Dylan Thomas)
Similarly, we notice the use of long vowels in a passage from Dylan Thomas' famous poem, Do Not Go Gentle into the Good Night:

"Do not go gentle into that good night,
Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage, against the dying of the light.
Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight,
Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light."

The poet deliberately uses assonance in the above lines to slow down the pace of the poem, and to create a somber mood, as the subject of the poem is death.

Example #5: Daffodils (By William Wordsworth)
William Wordsworth employs assonance to create an internal rhyme in his poem Daffodils:

"I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o'er vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host, of golden daffodils;
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze..."

Example #6: The Feast of Famine (By Robert Louis Stevenson)
"From folk that sat on the terrace and drew out the even long
Sudden crowings of laughter, monotonous drone of song;
The quiet passage of souls over his head in the trees;
And from all around the haven the crumbling thunder of seas."
Farewell, my home," said Rua. "Farewell, O quiet seat!
To-morrow in all your valleys the drum of death shall beat."

This is a good example of assonance, in which almost all the lines contain one example of assonance. All the examples have been written in bold. In the first line, the /a/ sound has been repeated. In the second line, the /o/ sound, as in dog, has been repeated. In the third line, the /o/ sound as in go has been repeated. In fourth line, /ʌ/ as in must has been repeated. In the fifth line, the /a/ sound as in air, and the /e/ sound, as in ten have been repeated. In the sixth line, the long /e/ sound, as in sheep has been repeated.

Example #7: When I have Hears (By John Keats)
"When I have fears that I may cease to be
Before my pen has gleaned my teeming brain,
Before high-piled books, in charactery,
Hold like rich garners the full ripened grain ..."

This excerpt has been taken from John Keats' sonnet, When I Have Fears. The first line exhibits repetition of the long /i/ sound, as in tripe. The second line again contains the same long /i/ sound. The fourth line repeats /ai/ sound as in bye.

Example #8: The Master (By Edgar Allan Poe)
"And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain
Thrilled me - filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;
So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeating`
'Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door -
Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door; "
This it is, and nothing more."

The Master, by Edgar Allan Poe, is teeming with the examples of assonance. The first line repeats the /ur/ sound, as in bird. The second line starts with the repetition of the short /i/ sound, and ends with the repetition of the short /e/ sound. The fourth line repeats the long /i/ sound twice. The third line has a short /i/ sound twice. The last line has again short /i/ sound repeated four times.

Function of Assonance
Similar to any other literary device, assonance has a very important role to play in both poetry and prose. Writers use it as a tool to enhance a musical effect in the text by using it for creating internal rhyme. This consequently enhances the pleasure of reading a literary piece. In addition, it helps writers to develop a particular mood in the text that corresponds with its subject matter.
Asyndeton is derived from the Greek word asyndeton, which means "unconnected." It is a stylistic device used in literature and poetry to intentionally eliminate conjunctions between the phrases, and in the sentence, yet maintain grammatical accuracy. This literary tool helps in reducing the indirect meaning of the phrase, and presents it in a concise form. It was first used in Greek and Latin literature.



Types of Asyndeton
Asyndeton examples may be classified into two types:

Used between words and phrases within a sentence
For example:
"Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, Shrunk to this little measure?"
(Julius Caesar, Act 3, Scene 1, by William Shakespeare)
Used between sentences or clauses
For example:
"Without looking, without making a sound, without talking"
(Oedipus at Colonus, by Sophecles)
Difference Between Syndeton and Asyndeton


Syndeton and asyndeton are opposite to one another. Syndeton includes the addition of multiple conjunctions, such as in this example: "He eats and sleeps and drinks." On the other hand, asyndeton is the elimination, or leaving out, of conjunctions, such as in this example: "He eats, sleeps, drinks."

Each creates a completely different effect. Syndeton slows down the rhythm of speech, and makes it moderate, whereas asyndeton speeds up the rhythm of the speech.

Examples of Asyndeton in Literature
Example #1: Othello (By William Shakespeare)
IAGO
"Call up her father.
Rouse him. Make after him, Poison his delight,
Proclaim him in the streets. Incense her kinsmen,
And, though he in a fertile climate dwell..."

In this excerpt, Shakespeare has eliminated conjunctions deliberately. There is a shortage of the conjunctions and, for, or, and but, which are required to join the sentences. Due to this, the words have been emphasized, and feelings of anger and jealousy are articulated explicitly.

Example #2: The Scholar-Gipsy (By Matthew Arnold)
"Go, shepherd, and untie the wattled cotes!
No longer leave thy wistful flock unfed,
Nor let thy bawling fellows rack their throats,
Nor the cropp'd herbage shoot another head...
Thou hast not lived, why should'st thou perish, so?
Thou hadst one aim, one business, one desire;
Else wert thou long since numbered with the dead..."

This is a good example of asyndeton. The conjunctions are missing in the sentences, such as the second and sixth lines are not connected with adjoining words. However, it produces speed in the poem.

Example #3: The Winter's Tale (By William Shakespeare)


"Is whispering nothing?
Is leaning cheek to cheek? is meeting noses?
Kissing with inside lip? stopping the career
Of laughter with a sigh? (a note infallible
Of breaking honesty!) horsing foot on foot? "

In this excerpt, we can observe both types of asyndeton. The first type (between the words) such as "from" is removed between the words "leaning" and "cheek" and similarly the second type (between the sentences) with the sentences not being joined by conjunctions.

Example #4: Rhetoric (By Aristotle)
"This is the villain among you who deceived you, who cheated you, who meant to betray you completely..."

The word "and" is not featured in the given lines, which could have functioned as a conjunction here. Aristotle believed that asyndeton could be effective if used in the ending of the texts. Here he himself employed this device.

Example #5: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (By James Joyce)
"Consciousness of place came ebbing back to him slowly over a vast tract of time unlit, unfelt, unlived..."

Joyce has also used this device, omitting the conjunctions in order to give rhythm and pace to the text. Here, we can see the elimination of conjunctions, which could have joined the words unlit, unfelt, and unlived. This creates are creating a frantic and hurried effect.

Function of Asyndeton
Asyndeton helps in speeding up the rhythm of words. Mostly this technique is employed in speech but can be used in written works too. It helps in attracting readers to collaborate with the writers, since it suggests that words, phrases, and sentences are incomplete, and the readers would have to do some work to deduce meanings. This version creates immediate impact, and the readers are attuned to what the author is trying to convey.

Asyndeton is often applied intentionally in order to give a unique emphasis to the text, thereby drawing the attention of readers towards a particular idea the author wants to convey.
A literary technique, atmosphere is a type of feeling that readers get from a narrative, based on details such as setting, background, objects, and foreshadowing. A mood can serve as a vehicle for establishing atmosphere. In literary works, atmosphere refers to emotions or feelings an author conveys to his readers through description of objects and settings, such as in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter tales, in which she spins a whimsical and enthralling atmosphere. Bear in mind that atmosphere may vary throughout a literary piece.



Difference Between Atmosphere and Mood
Many people use both terms interchangeably, as there is no concrete difference between them. However, in literature we find a mild difference. This is because atmosphere is a broader term, and may be set by a certain venue, such as a theater.

However, mood is a more specific and narrow term, concerning emotions of a certain individual or group of individuals, and it does not incorporate the emotions or feelings radiating throughout a venue. Simply, mood is about internal feelings, while atmosphere exists at a particular spot. Besides, a mood contributes for building up the entire atmosphere of a narrative.

Examples of Atmosphere in Literature


Example #1: An Unspoken Hunger (By Terry Tempest Williams)
"It is an unspoken hunger we deflect with knives - one avocado between us, cut neatly in half, twisted then separated from the large wooden pit. With the green fleshy boats in hand, we slice vertical strips from one end to the other. Vegetable planks. We smother the avocado with salsa, hot chiles at noon in the desert. We look at each other and smile, eating avocados with sharp silver blades, risking the blood of our tongues repeatedly."

Here, Williams creates a dangerous atmosphere, where she presents the hazards of knives and avocados. In fact, when an author tries to establish atmosphere by using objects, these objects represent unspoken reality. Besides, appearance of two characters also adds to a sexually charged atmosphere.

Example #2: The Vision (By Dean Koontz)
"The woman raised her hands and stared at them; stared through them.
Her voice was soft but tense. 'Blood on his hands.' Her own hands were clean and pale."

When we read these lines, they immediately bring to our mind an emotional response, and draw our attention. This is exactly what atmosphere does in a literary work.

Example #3: The Raven (By Edgar Allen Poe)


"Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore -
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door -
"Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door -
Only this and nothing more."

In this excerpt, the experience of readers is suspenseful and exciting, as they anticipate horror due to feelings within the narrative. As we see, this character hears tapping on the door and, when opens it, he finds nobody there, only darkness; making the atmosphere fearful and tense.

Example #4: A Tale of Two Cities (By Charles Dickens)
Charles Dickens, in A Tale of Two Cities, creates an important atmosphere whenever a major event occurs in a plot. For instance, we see a ghostly mood of a messenger's entrance in Dover mail, which indicates things of the future. Then, Dickens builds up an atmosphere through the actions of his characters in the room of Dr. Manetas.

Within this, the author gives attributes to these places with different concepts and ideas. For instance, when Jerry goes to find Dover mail, to convey a message to Mr. Lorry, Dickens creates a gloomy and mysterious atmosphere, alluding to the darker end. Another type of atmosphere we see in the courtroom towards the end. During the scene, you would notice the public is searching and buzzing for victim after victim. Thus Dickens links the atmosphere of this place with death.

Function of Atmosphere
The purpose of establishing atmosphere is to create emotional effect. It makes a literary work lively, fascinating, and interesting by keeping the audience more engaged. It appeals to the readers' senses by making the story more real, allowing them to comprehend the idea easily. Since atmosphere makes the audience feel in an indirect way, writers can convey harsh feelings with less severity. Writers control the impact of prevailing atmosphere by changing the description of settings and objects.
Generally, attitude is a behavior a person adopts toward other people, things, incidents, or happenings. In literature, the term "attitude" can be referred as perspective or tone of the writer he adopts in a certain work.



It is the way a writer develops his characters, describes his stories and designs his narratives. His attitude explains the real nature of the characters and the story. He makes use of an appropriate attitude to provide an in-depth insight into a character's personality. The attitude of a writer can be serious as well as humorous. In certain cases, the attitude can be critical or witty. It is through the attitude readers come to know the feelings of a writer regarding his topic, subject or belief.

As written works have a central idea or theme for the audiences, different writers approach themes with different attitudes and tone, which are developed by the choice of words and style. The two examples given below discuss the same subject matter; however, the first demonstrates an informal and casual attitude, while the second example discusses the same theme in a highly formal attitude.

"I want to ask the authorities what is the big deal? Why do they not control the epidemic? It is eating up lives like a monster."
"I want to draw the attention of the concerned authorities toward damage caused by the epidemic. If steps are not taken to curb it, it will further injure our community"
Examples of Attitude in Literature
Attitude plays a significant role in literature, because it bridges the gap between the reader and the writer.

Example #1: The Catcher in the Rye (By J. D. Salinger)
"All morons hate it when you call them a moron."

"If a girl looks swell when she meets you, who gives a damn if she's late? Nobody."

"******* money. It always ends up making you blue as hell."

"Catholics are always trying to find out if you're Catholic."

This is a selection of dialogues from J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye, all of which are uttered by Holden Caulfield. It is easy to understand the nature and real personality of the character through these statements. Most of the remarks are quite sarcastic, as Holden talks about real things in criticizing manner. It is not only a way to know the personality of the character, but it opens a window to the writer's viewpoint of real life objects. In fact, the characters are the mouthpieces of the writer's attitude and thinking. That is why this shows the attitude of D. J. Salinger too.

Example #2: The School (By Donald Barthelme)
"And the trees all died. They were orange trees. I don't know why they died, they just died. Something wrong with the soil possibly or maybe the stuff we got from the nursery wasn't the best. We complained about it. So we've got thirty kids there, each kid had his or her own little tree to plant and we've got these thirty dead trees. All these kids looking at these little brown sticks, it was depressing."

A fine example of attitude is presented in this passage. This passage is from Donald Barthelme's short story The School. The author uses certain adjectives like "dead" and "depressing," which develop a gloomy attitude toward the story. Trees symbolize life in these lines, and their death, which has been unexpected, colors the passage with gloomy and negative shades. This is the attitude of the writer as well.

Example #3: The Road Not Taken (By Arthur Miller)


"I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I,
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference."

The influence of attitude can easily be perceived in the last stanza of The Road Not Taken, a poem composed by Robert Frost. When the poet, Robert Frost, talks about his past, he mentions it with a "sigh." The use of the sigh draws a picture of nostalgia for the past. The poet's attitude reveals that the speaker was compelled to make a choice that was very difficult for him, but now he is nostalgic about it.

Function of Attitude


The function of attitude is to give a certain shape and form to a piece of writing. While reading it, the attitude helps the reader to treat it in a specific way. The attitude makes the readers feel in a particular way about the topic the author wants him to feel. It is attitude, which stimulates the feelings of seriousness, comedy or distress while going through a piece of literature. Not only does it give tongue to characters to speak, but also highlights the personality and nature of the characters for readers' full understanding of the given perspective.
An Audience is the person for whom a writer writes, or composer composes. A writer uses a particular style of language, tone, and content according to what he knows about his audience. In simple words, audience refers to the spectators, listeners, and intended readers of a writing, performance, or speech. For instance, Stephenie Meyer's novel series, Twilight, has targeted primarily younger female audiences. Similarly, J. K Rowling's Harry Potter series became a blockbuster hit, with a target audience of youth, and adult fantasy fiction lovers.



Examples of Audience in Literature
Example #1: Fahrenheit 451 (by Ray Bradbury)
Ray Bradbury, in his novel, Fahrenheit 451, has targeted both adults and young adult readers as his audience. This story is equally appealing to the people of all ages, because its themes concern nuclear destruction, and readers see a battle between nature and technology. It depicts how technology is replacing curiosity, intellectualism, and literature. Above all, it has become a replacement for friendship, family, and real conversation. In this story, the audience sees a future in which the world has evolved into technology, and how government in such a time treats its people differently.

Example #2: To Kill a Mockingbird (by Harper Lee)
Harper Lee tells the story, To Kill a Mockingbird, through the eyes of a character named Scout; reflecting upon the life of an adult. Throughout the narrative, readers observe her perspective from the lens of one person's recollection, which appears on the very first page of the story. It begins as, "When enough years had gone by to enable us to look back on them, we sometimes discussed the events leading to [Jem's] accident." After this, the author takes the readers back to the times of Scout's first grade, and then onward to her eighth birthday. She is not only a first-person narrator, but also a participant in the story. The story evolves uniquely, through both a child's eyes, and from a mature perspective. This benefit of hindsight is what makes this story so appealing for both children its adult audience.

Example #3: Animal Farm (by George Orwell)


The intended audience for George Orwell's, "Animal Farm," is the general public, particularly the people of the former Soviet Union. The author intends to inform his readers about dangers of Communism, and its logical outcomes during the Second World War. Furthermore, Orwell wants to inform the next generation about Communism, and its negative impacts on people's lives. By using different styles and writing techniques, Orwell has conveyed his message in such a way that it is easy for the common reader to understand hidden meanings. He has also used satire and allegory, which have made some seemingly worthless and useless characters, which were notable in Russian history, appear as important figures in history. This technique targets the Russian audience.

Example #4: The Declaration of Independence (by Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin)
"The Declaration of Independence" had three types of audiences: American colonists, the British government, and the general public. For American audiences, the purpose was to explain to them why they needed to create a new nation, and why their leaders needed their support. Immediately, they distributed the Declaration throughout the states and colonies to, pushing it out to reach as many people as possible.

The second target audience was the British Parliament. By putting blame on the king, and delivering eloquent arguments on freedom and democracy, they were hopeful that the British would support the Americans. This won support of some of the British Parliamentarians, such as Edmund Burke. The third intended audience included the peoples of the world, particularly European nations that were at odds with the British, in an attempt to convince them to support the revolution. The Declaration of Independence did, in fact, affect the American allies: Spain, France, and the Dutch Republic.

Function


Since the term audience refers to the readers, many writers prefer to adopt different styles of voice - mixed, formal, or casual - depending upon their intended audience. Knowing his audience helps the writer to determine what level of details he should provide, and what type of word choices he may make, because the word choice and tone should match the expectations of the audience.

The role of the audience in dramas and stage plays is unique, as the audience members transmit their energy and emotion to the players and actors through their responses during the performance. In this example, the function of the audience is to respond to the performance of the work.
Auditory imagery is used to explain things, ideas and actions using sounds that appeal to our sense of hearing. It is intended to invoke up sound images in the minds of the readers. In literature, it means to use words and literary devices in a way that they make readers experience sounds when reading poetry or prose.



It gives the writers a tool to make their texts vibrant and gripping with the use of the words targeting to the sense of hearing of the readers. In fact, it is deliberately inserted to evoke sensory experiences. In this sense, it makes the text appealing to the ears. Its pivotal role is to make the readers connect to the text. It is written as a phrase of two words auditory and imagery. It means that it is related to the images of sounds that we feel in our ears through words.

Examples Auditory Imagery from Literature
Example #1
To Autumn by John Keats

Where are the songs of spring? Ay, where are they?
Think not of them, thou hast thy music too,—
While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day,
And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue;
Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn
Among the river sallows, borne aloft
Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies;
And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn;
Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft
The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft;
And gathering swallows twitter in the skies.

To Autumn is a phenomenal poem that relates the life's stages to the autumn season. The poem explores the phenomenon of unconventional appreciation for the fall season. It comprises the experience of the poet, his meditation and poetic imagination. However, Keats has used auditory imagery in this final paragraph of the poem where animal sounds appealing to the sense of hearing such as, "lambs loud bleet", "hedge cricket sing", "the red-breast whistles" and "gathering swallows twitter".

Example #2
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening by Robert Frost

My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.

He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sound's the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.

The poem captures the pull between man and nature. It is about the limitations in which human beings lead their lives, and which never allow them to get distracted from their targets in life. The wandering speaker intends to stay longer in the catchy woods, but the pull of obligations forces him to leave the woods. Therefore, he suppresses his desire and moves on. Frost has used auditory imagery in the poem to make the scenes even more realistic such as, "harness bells a shake" and sound of "easy wind and downy flake." This auditory imagery is coupled with the thematic strand of the poem giving the readers a sense of the bells shaking and wind blowing.

Example #3


Macbeth by William Shakespeare, Act-II, Scene-III, Lines 1-8

PORTER:

"Here's a knocking indeed! If a man were porter of

hell-gate, he should have old turning the key. Knock

Knock, knock, knock, knock! Who's there, i' the name of

Belzebub? Here's a farmer that hanged himself on th'

expectation of plenty. Come in time! Have napkins

enow about you; here you'll sweat for't. Knock

Knock, knock! Who's there, in th' other devil's name?"

This extract has been taken from the third scene of the second act of the play, Macbeth by William Shakespeare. Porter speaks these lines after the murder of King Duncan. He thinks that he is going to be a guard on the gate of the hell. He is hallucinating and delivering dirty jokes to provide comic relief after the gruesome incident. To show all this, Shakespeare has used auditory imagery. The repetition of 'knock' shows how auditory imagery is effectively used to make readers perceive sounds.

Example #4
The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe

Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore—
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
"'Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door—
Only this and nothing more."

The Raven is one of the excellent literary pieces. The poem comprises the fear and loneliness of a person, victim of unfortunate circumstances. The use of auditory imagery has made this text more engaging and vibrant. For example, "came a tapping", gently rapping" and "I muttered" are the words that can help readers to develop an ability to create imagery using auditory senses. This imagery helps readers construct the murky atmosphere when the raven comes to tap on the door.

Example #5
Splinter by Carl Sandburg

The voice of the last cricket
across the first frost
is one kind of good-by.
It is so thin a splinter of singing.

Splinter is a beautiful short poem, and it comprises the reality of life that it is continually. The "voice of cricket" symbolizes a new beginning and the last song of cricket represents its last goodbye before winter. The poet tries to show that life moves on. Therefore, people should also move on, leaving the memories behind. However, the use of auditory imagery throughout the poem has made the poem effective and captivating, as, it connects the readers with the symbolic meaning of the poem.

Auditory Imagery Meaning and Functions


Auditory imagery aids the reader's imagination about different sounds, types of sounds and their impacts on the readers. This imagery provides the audience with an opportunity to perceive things with their sense of hearing. It also gives them a chance to understand the fictive world and to envision the writer's imagination about sounds. Its effective use can make the text more lifelike and descriptive.
Autobiography is one type of biography, which tells a life story of its author, meaning it is a written record of the author's life. Rather than being written by somebody else, an autobiography comes through the person's own pen, in his own words. Some autobiographies are written in the form of a fictional tale; as novels or stories that closely mirror events from the author's real life. Such stories include Charles Dickens' David Copperfield, and J.D Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye. In writing about personal experience, one discovers himself. Therefore, it is not merely a collection of anecdotes - it is a revelation to the readers about author's self-discovery.



Difference between Autobiography and Memoir
In an autobiography, the author attempts to capture important elements of his life. He not only deals with his career, and growth as a person, he also uses emotions and facts related to family life, relationships, education, travels, sexuality, and any types of inner struggles. A memoir is a record of memories, and particular events that have taken place in the author's life. In fact, it is the telling of a story or an event from his life; an account that does not tell the full record of a life.

Examples of Autobiography in Literature


Example #1: The Box: Tales from the Darkroom (by Gunter Grass)
A noble laureate and novelist, Gunter Grass, has shown a new perspective of self-examination by mixing up his quilt of fictionalized approach in his autobiographical book, "The Box: Tales from the Darkroom." Adopting the individual point of view of each of his children, Grass narrates what his children think about him as their father and a writer. Though it is really an experimental approach, due to Grass' linguistic creativity and dexterity, it gains an enthralling momentum.

Example #2: The Story of My Life (by Helen Keller)
In her autobiography, The Story of My Life, Helen Keller recounts her first twenty years, beginning with the events of the childhood illness that left her deaf and blind. In her childhood, a writer sent her a letter and prophesied, "Someday you will write a great story out of your own head that will be a comfort and help to many."

In this book, Keller mentions prominent historical personalities, such as Alexander Graham Bell, whom she met at the age of six, and with whom she remained friends for several years. Keller paid a visit to John Greenleaf Whittier, a famous American poet, and shared correspondence with other eminent figures, including Oliver Wendell Holmes, and Mrs. Grover Cleveland. Generally, Keller's autobiography is about overcoming great obstacles through hard work and pain.

Example #3: Self Portraits: Fictions (by Frederic Tuten)


In his autobiography, "Self Portraits: Fictions," Frederic Tuten has combined fringes of romantic life with reality. Like postmodern writers, such as Jorge Luis Borges, and Italo Calvino, the stories of Tuten skip between truth and imagination, time and place, without warning. He has done the same with his autobiography, where readers are eager to move through fanciful stories about train rides, circus bears, and secrets to a happy marriage; all of which give readers glimpses of the real man.

Example #4: My Prizes (by Thomas Bernhard)
Reliving his success of his literary career through the lens of the many prizes he has received, Thomas Bernhard presents a sarcastic commentary in his autobiography, "My Prizes." Bernhard, in fact, has taken few things too seriously. Rather, he has viewed his life as a farcical theatrical drama unfolding around him. Although Bernhard is happy with the lifestyle and prestige of being an author, his blasé attitude and scathing wit make this recollection more charmingly dissident and hilarious.

Example #5: The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (by Benjamin Franklin)
"The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin" is written by one of the founding fathers of the United States. This book reveals Franklin's youth, his ideas, and his days of adversity and prosperity. He is one of the best examples living the American dream - sharing the idea that one can gain financial independence, and reach a prosperous life through hard work.

Function
Through autobiography, authors can speak directly to their readers, and to their descendants. The function of the autobiography is to leave a legacy for its readers. By writing an autobiography, the individual shares his triumphs and defeats, and lessons learned, allowing readers to relate and feel motivated by inspirational stories. Life stories bridge the gap between peoples of differing ages and backgrounds, forging connections between old and new generations.
A balanced sentence is made up of two segments which are equal, not only in length, but also in grammatical structure and meaning. It could be a periodic or cumulative sentence. A reader finds both parts equal when he goes through such a sentence.



For instance, Abraham Lincoln, in his Gettysburg speech, "... government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth," gives us an example of parallel forms. In writing, both parts are clearly parallel forms, and they appear grammatically parallel. If there are multiple parts of a balanced sentence, then they are separated by a semicolon or adjoining words, such as "but," "or," "and," etc. Since balanced sentences always have parallelism, writers need to use parallelism with similar grammatical forms, structure, and word order.

Use of Balanced Sentence in Presidential Address
"While the Inaugural Address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war, seeking to dissolve the Union and divide effects by negotiation" and "All dreaded it, all sought to avert it." [Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, 1865]

Lincoln has used balanced syntax in this address, with a combination of short and long sentences, which evokes an idea of a united and balanced nation. This difference in sentence lengths represents differences between North and South, and by combining them he emphasizes on the unity of the divided nation.

Use of Balanced Sentence in Advertising


"Light is faster, but we are safer." (Global Jet Airlines' advertising slogan)
"Buy a bucket of chicken and have a barrel of fun." (KFC's advertising slogan)
Examples of Balanced Sentence in Literature
Example #1: Coon Tree (by E.B. White)
"On days when warmth is the most important need of the human heart, the kitchen is the place you can find it; it dries the wet socks, it cools the hot little brain."

This is a good example of a balanced sentence. The last two clauses are parallel in this sentence, having the same length and the same grammatical structure. The two identical pieces are giving rhythmical flow to the lines.

Example #2: In Cold Blood (by Truman Capote)
"Like the waters of the river, like the motorists on the highway, and like the yellow trains streaking down the Santa Fe tracks, drama, in the shape of exceptional happenings, had never stopped there."

This balanced sentence is also a periodic sentence, as the main action happens at the end. There are parallel grammatical structures in each part of this sentence which makes its rhythmic and clear to understand.

Example #3: The Life of Samuel Johnson (by James Boswell)


"Every man has a right to utter what he thinks truth, and every other man has a right to knock him down for it."

This is another very simple and clear example of a balanced sentence. Both clauses have the same length and word order, emphasizing the idea of truth and adding pleasing rhythm.

Example #4: Pride and Prejudice (by Jane Austen)
"... and though the mother was found to be intolerable, and the younger sisters noted worth speaking to, a wish of being better acquainted with them was expressed towards the two eldest."

Austen is famous for using balanced sentences to illustrate contrast between things, people, or duality of situations. In these lines, she does the same and compares Bennet sisters and their mother.

Example #5: The Scarlet Letter (by Nathaniel Hawthorne)
"Her needle-work was seen on the ruff of the Governor; military men wore it on their scarfs, and the minister on his band; it decked the baby's little cap; it was shut up, to be mildewed and moulder away, in the coffins of the dead."

By using a series of parallel clauses, narrator compares members of government, military, and religion to rotting dead and infants. This balanced syntax makes a commentary on the corruption and blindness of governing bodies.

Function of Balanced Sentence
A balanced sentence gives rhythmical flow to the text. It draws attention of the readers to the sentence and makes it stand out among the rest. Writers use balanced sentences to emphasize particular ideas to make meanings clear, as well as to create pleasing rhythms. In fact, it puts a spotlight on a series of clauses or a sentence. Hence, it helps the writers to make their work stand out from the rest of the text. On the other hand, public speakers, singers, and advertising agencies use it, because its rhythmical qualities have a good impact on the audience.
The word ballad is of French provenance. It is a type of poetry or verse which was basically used in dance songs in ancient France. Later on, during the late 16th and 17th centuries, it spread over the majority of European nations. Owing to its popularity and emotional appeal, it remained a powerful tool for poets and lyricists to prepare music in the form of lyrical ballads, and earn a handsome income from it.



The art of lyrical ballad, as well as ballad poetry, lost popularity during the latter half of the 19th century. However, it is still read and listened to with interest in most European countries, including the British Isles.

Evolution of Ballad
Two schools of thought, namely the communal school of thought, and the individualist school of thought, have dominated the world of ballad throughout its development. Communalists believe that the evolution of the ballad was a result of the joined and shared literary endeavors of many people. Individualists negate this approach to the extent that they consider the later development as a modification of the archetype.

Most of the ballad examples in ancient times used to be passed from generation to generation through oral traditions. This is because there was no language in which to write them down.

However, in the modern world, the preservation and transmission of such literary treasures has become easier. The availability of advanced technology and common languages has improved not only the documentation, but the accessibility of these resources for people in every part of the world.

Distinguishing Features of Ballads


Ballads, no matter which category they fall into, mostly rely on simple and easy-to-understand language, or dialect from its origin. Stories about hardships, tragedies, love, and romance are standard ingredients of the ballad. This is irrespective of geographical origins.

Another conspicuous element of any ballad is the recurrence of certain lines at regular intervals. Ballads can also be in interrogative form, with appropriate answers to every question asked. Ballads seldom offer a direct message about a certain event, character, or situation. It is left to the audience to deduce the moral of the story from the whole narration.

Categories of Ballad
Following is a broad list of categories of ballad:

Stall ballad
Lyrical ballad
Popular ballad
Blue ballad
Bush ballad
Fusion ballad (pop and rock)
Modern ballad
All these categories are primarily meant to convey popular messages, stories, or historical events to audiences in the form of songs and poetry.

Examples of Ballad
Example #1: Tam Lin (Unknown)
Scottish traditional ballad

" 'O I forbid you, maiden all,
That wears gold in your hair,
To come or go by Carterhaugh
For young Tam Lin is there."

Example #2: Rime of an Ancient Mariner (By Samuel Taylor Coleridge)
Lyrical ballad

"Day after day, day after day
We stuck nor breathe, nor motion;
As idle as a painted ship
Upon a painted ocean."

Example #3: Stagolee (By John Hurt)


Blue ballad with roots in American folk music

"Stagolee was a bad man
They go down in a coal mine one night
Robbed a coal mine
They's gambling down there"

Example #4: Drover (By Elton John)
Bush ballad

"From the sunburnt plains of far off North Australia
Came a fella born to ride the wide brown land
Oh he grew up running wil
But soon by all was styled
As the country's greatest-ever droving man"

Example #5: The Ballad of Billy the Kid (By Billy Joel)
Modern ballad

"From a town known Wheeling, Wes Virginia
Rode a boy with six gun in his hands
And his daring life crime
Made him a legend in his time
East and west of Rio Grande"

Function of Ballad: Dramatic Uses
Ballads, as stage performances, enjoyed the status of being one of the main sources of entertainment in ancient times. Legends and historical events were narrated in the form of a ballads, which would comprise song and dance.

Ballad was a perfect substitute for our current day technology-based entertainment, albeit with more emotional appeal. In the 18th century, the ballad-based stage entertainment came to be known as "ballad opera." According to ballad aficionados, the first formal ballad opera was staged in the first half of the 18th century, with the theme of "The Beggar's Opera."
Bandwagon is a persuasive technique and a type of propaganda through which a writer persuades his readers, so that the majority could agree with the argument of the writer. He does this by suggesting that, since the majority agrees, the reader should too. For instance, "Everyone is voting for David, so definitely he is the best presidential candidate," is intended to convince others. The term bandwagon means, to "jump on the bandwagon," to follow what others are doing, or to conform.



While listening to a politician, or reading a book, it is often observed that the speaker or the writer tries to encourage the audience to think or act in a particular way because others are doing that, despite having ideas and beliefs of their own.

Examples of Bandwagon in Literature
Example #1: Animal Farm (By George Orwell)
In the novel Animal Farm, George Orwell uses bandwagon technique effectively. At the very beginning, a song "Beasts of England" seems to be very appealing and catchy, because everyone picks it up so swiftly as if they like the idea. Again, we see this technique when Boxer, a powerful and loyal animal on the farm, promotes bandwagon propaganda inadvertently with his work ethics, as he always tries to work hard. He maintains the view that, "If Comrade Napoleon says it, it must be right." This shows he wishes to follow Comrade Napoleon and his ideas.

Bandwagon technique continues to exist as the animals only accept the ideals and changing commandments because other animals are doing the same. Another bandwagon technique comes out when Mollie is curious to know whether she will be able to wear precious ribbons and have sugar after Rebellion. However, Snowball informs her that they symbolize slavery and Mollie accepts this without any resistance, although she never believes it.

Example #2: Julius Caesar (By William Shakespeare)
In William Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar, Mark Antony delivers his famous speech at the funeral of Caesar, which is a brilliant example of bandwagon. Mark Antony has delivered this magnificent speech to win over the favor of the audience. He negates excuses that Brutus had made, though he had calmed down the public and persuaded them that Caesar had to die for their good.

Antony comes forward and tells them that he hopes the crowd would not riot, and convinces them that Cassius and Brutus were murderers and responsible for ripping apart the town. Speaking on a personal level, Antony grabs public attention as he leaves his position and, being a commoner saying, "Friends, Romans, Countrymen."

Example #3: The Crucible (By Arthur Miller)


Abigail: "I go back to Jesus; I kiss His hand. I saw Sarah Good with the Devil! I saw Goody Osburn with the Devil! I saw Bridget Bishop with the Devil!"

Betty: "I saw George Jacobs with the Devil! I saw Goody Howe with the Devil!...I saw Martha Bellow with the Devil!"

Abigail: "I saw Goody Sibber with the Devil!"

Putnam: "The marshal, I'll call the marshal!"

Betty: "I saw Alice Barrow with the Devil!"

Hale: "Let the marshal bring irons!"

In this excerpt, Abigail Williams claims that she has seen many women with the devil. While she proposes this idea, suddenly all of the girls jump on the bandwagon, and start following Abigail by accusing those women whom they dislike.

Example #4: 1984 (By George Orwell)
George Orwell uses bandwagon technique in his novel, 1984. In this novel, the leading party uses fear techniques to manipulate people to follow the majority. The bandwagon technique plays effectively on their feelings of isolation and loneliness. The party ensures that nobody is trustworthy. They even turn the children against their parents. No one can have relationships without their permission.

Its best example is "Two Minute Hate" - a particular time in which everyone shouts at Goldstein, the enemy of the party. Everyone participates in this bandwagon and consequently intense hatred overwhelms Winston, who also takes part and produce feelings of achievement in his heart.

Function of Bandwagon


The purpose of this technique is to make the audience think and act in a way that the majority follows. This tendency of following the beliefs and actions of others occurs when an audience sees others are also conforming. We see its usage in literature, politics, and advertisements. Bandwagon is in fact a good approach for persuasive writing that successfully works on human minds and psychology. Conversely, writers often use it as a pressure tactic by creating a sense of fear among the readers if they do not agree with their beliefs.
Bathos is a literary term derived from a Greek word meaning "depth." Bathos is the act of a writer or a poet falling into inconsequential and absurd metaphors, descriptions, or ideas in an effort to be increasingly emotional or passionate.



Some confuse bathos with "pathos." The term was used by Alexander Pope to explain the blunders committed inadvertently by unskilled writers or poets. However, later on, comic writers used it intentionally to create humorous effects. The most commonly used bathos involves a sequence of items that descend from worthiness to silliness.

Examples of Bathos in Literature
Example #1: The Mary Tyler Moore Show (By James L. Brooks and Allan Burns)
The Mary Tyler Moore Show had an episode that involved the death of the clown Chuckles, who was killed very brutally by a stampeding elephant. Everyone on the station keeps making jokes about it that Mary does not approve of. Later on, when she attends the funeral, she starts laughing hysterically while the rest of the people stare at her exasperated.

Example #2: The Naked Gun (By David Zucker, Jim Abrahams, Jerry Zucker, Pat Proft)


Absurd styles of humor can use the bathos method. Such is the television series Police Squad!, which uses bathos very often. Excerpts from The Naked Gun show numerous points where a serious scenario is built up only to knock it down subsequently with Frank Drebin's silly comments. For example:

FRANK: "A good cop - pointlessly cut down by some spineless hoodlums."

ED: "That's no way for a man to die."

FRANK: "No ... you're right, Ed. A parachute not opening ... that's a way to die, getting caught in the gears of a combine ... having your nuts bit off by a Laplander, that's the way I want to go!"

WILMA NORDBERG: "Oh ... Frank. This is terrible!"

ED: "Don't you worry, Wilma. Your husband is going to be alright. Don't you worry about anything! Just think positive. Never let a doubt enter your mind."

FRANK: "He's right, Wilma. But I wouldn't wait until the last minute to fill out those organ donor cards." (The Naked Gun, 1988)

Example #3: Northanger Abbey (By Jane Austen)
Jane Austen is among the few serious writers who used this tool. It helped her give a sense of merriness to her novel Northanger Abbey. In this novel, Austen highlights the ingenuous and imaginative nature of the leading character, Catherine Morland. She uses Catherine's increasingly active imagination to work like bathos in order to parody the plot used in Ann Radcliffe's Gothic novels, and the likes of her.

In Radcliff's The Romance of the Forest, a character finds a human skeleton in the chest. In Northanger Abbey, Austen uses a mysterious chest in her story as a prop to build on, and to successfully satirize the extremes of the Gothic fiction of the 18th century.

Catherine became skeptical when she saw the enormous chest in her room during her stay at the Abbey. Certain questions arose in her mind about that chest, and about what it held, and why it was placed in her room. Catherine, who seemed to be very naïve, went on investigating the chest.

You can see that the novel at this particular point adopts a very gothic tone. It starts using short clauses that consist of many inauspicious words, for instance "trembling hands," "alarming violence," and "fearful curiosity." The selection of words at this point aids in building up the suspense in the readers' and audience's minds, only to discover consequently that the chest holds only a folded bed sheet.

Example #4: I'm Sorry I'll Read That Again (BBC Radio Comedy)


The British radio series I'm Sorry I'll Read That Again also provides us with many bathos examples. John Cleese and Jo Kendall appeared in the roles of a couple whose relationship is on the brink of failure.

MARY: "John - once we had something that was pure, and wonderful, and good. What's happened to it?"

JOHN: "You spent it all."

When Mary says "something pure and wonderful," she is actually referring to the deep, sacred, noble form of love. However, the description is vague enough for John to manipulate.

Function of Bathos
Bathos is a device which, if used skillfully, can really build up a nice comic scene. Bathos brings a certain degree of wit to a scene by highlighting the contrast in tone. Initially, it is used to create a serious and powerful dramatic situation. This might be slightly hard to create for comedy writers. Thus, comedy writers must be very careful when they insert jokes here and there in the middle of a serious scene. There is a great danger that their jokes will break the tempo of a serious scene in a prose.
Bias is as an undue favor, support or backing extended to a person, group or race or even an argument against another. Although bias mostly exists in the cultural context, it can creep into various other forms of academic life and in literature such as sexuality, gender, nation, religion, subjects, and general life. In other words, it is a single-side or one-side illogical and non-neutral support of a viewpoint in favor against the other side. Etymologically the word 'bias' has been derived from the French word "biais" which means angle or slant.



Types of Bias
There are various types of biases. It exists even in the non-literary texts. It could be propaganda, gender-related, age-related, racial discrimination, religious discrimination, marginalization and also stereotyping.

Examples of Bias in Literature


Example #1

"None of your damned business," Al said. "Who's out in the kitchen?"

"The ******."
"What do you mean the ******?"
"The ****** that cooks."
"Tell him to come in."
"What's the idea?"
"Tell him to come in."

("The Killer" by Ernest Hemingway)

Although Hemingway is never accused of being biased, however, his story "The Killers" has words that show the characters are biased toward the African American community. The use of the word "******" is an insult to their ethnicity, which was used to call the African American young man. Max uses this word to tell Al that he is working in the kitchen which shows his racial bias toward him.

Example #2

"Scout," said Atticus, "******-lover is just one of those terms that don't mean anything—like snot-nose. It's hard to explain—ignorant, trashy people use it when they think somebody's favoring Negroes over and above themselves. It's slipped into usage with some people like ourselves, when they want a common, ugly term to label somebody."

"You aren't really a ******-lover, then, are you?"

"I certainly am. I do my best to love everybody... I'm hard put, sometimes—baby, it's never an insult to be called what somebody thinks is a bad name. It just shows you how poor that person is, it doesn't hurt you."

(To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee)

This is an extract from Harper Lee's novel, To Kill a Mockingbird. Scout's explanation, though seems highly unbiased and effective, does not impact Atticus. Atticus believes that these are just fancy words for drawing room discussions. This does not happen in reality. Bias exists and will continue to exist in life. The use of the word "******-lover" is too prominent to disappear in reality.

Example #3

Has she," asked the Doctor, with a smile, "has she been associating of late with a circle of pseudo-intellectual women-super-spiritual superior beings? My wife has been telling me about them."

"That's the trouble," broke in Mr. Pontellier, "she hasn't been associating with anyone. She has abandoned her Tuesdays at home, has thrown over all her acquaintances, and goes tramping about by herself, moping in the street-cars, getting in after dark. I tell you she's peculiar. I don't like it; I feel a little worried over it."

(The Awakening by Kate Chopin)

The doctor is clearly against women and assumes that modern women have impacted the mind of Mrs. Pontellier. Mr. Pontellier is describing how his wife, Edna Pontellier has acted in a different way than a woman having children and a husband should behave. However, the doctor's views reflect his gender bias. Leonce has also verified these comments of a doctor. This shows that both the men are biased against the only female in the story, Edna Pontellier.

Example #4

Mark you this, Bassanio,
The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose.
An evil soul producing holy witness
Is like a villain with a smiling cheek,
A goodly apple rotten at the heart.

(The Merchant of Venice, Act-I, Scene-III by William Shakespeare)

Antonio, a character in the Merchant of Venice speaks these words about Shylock, the Jew. He is referring to him in highly scornful terms to demonstrate that the Jew is an evil incarnate. These lines are important as Antonio and Bassanio display bias against Shylock or the entire Jewish community. He is being referred to as a wicked person due to his profession and as if he is on the devil's side.

Example #5

IAGO
"Even now, now, very now, an old black ram
Is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise!
Awake the snorting citizens with the bell,
Or else the devil will make a grandsire of you.
Arise, I say!"

(Othello Act-1. Scene-I, by William Shakespeare)

These lines from Othello shows how Iago uses bias to make Barbantio and other senators turn against Othello. He terms him an "old black ram" which is a racist term. He is using a racial slur against Othello to make people hate him.

Bias Meaning and Function
Bias in literature is used to implicitly send a message to the readers about specific prejudice against a community, faith, sect or race. It is used to make people aware of certain defects in people. It is also used to make people think in a different way than they usually do. In fact, bias is used to create prejudice, leading to hatred and war-mongering. It is also called "othering" of the people different from us.
Bildungsroman is a special kind of novel that focuses on the psychological and moral growth of its main character, from his or her youth to adulthood.



A bildungsroman is a story of the growing up of a sensitive person, who looks for answers to his questions through different experiences. Generally, such a novel starts with a loss or a tragedy that disturbs the main character emotionally. He or she leaves on a journey to fill that vacuum.

During the journey, the protagonist gains maturity, gradually and with difficulty. Usually, the plot depicts a conflict between the protagonist and the values of society. Finally, he or she accepts those values, and they are accepted by society, ending the dissatisfaction. Such a type of novel is also known as a "coming-of-age" novel.

Examples of Bildungsroman in Literature
There are numerous examples of bildungsroman or coming-of-age novels in English literature. Let us briefly analyze a few:

Example #1: The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (By Henry Fielding)
This is among the famous bildungsroman examples written in a comic mode. Squire Allworthy, a wealthy landowner, discovers a foundling, Tom Jones, on his property. Tom Jones grows up into a lusty but honest young man, in contrast to his half-brother Blifil, who was a personification of hypocrisy.

Tom falls in love with Sophia Western, but the relationship is opposed by her father, on the basis that Tom is a "bastard." After this loss, Tom undergoes many experiences, and finally it is revealed that Tom is the son of Mr. Summer, a friend of Allworthy, and Mrs. Waters, who is Allworthy's sister. Therefore, society accepts him when it is established that he is not a bastard.

Example #2: David Copperfield (By Charles Dickens)
This can be termed as a bildungsroman, as it traces the life of David Copperfield from his childhood to maturity. His mother re-marries a man named Edward Murdstone, who sends David to work for a wine merchant in London. He then runs away to finally reach his eccentric aunt Betsey Trotwood, who agrees to raise him, and calls him "Trot." We see a change in David's "undisciplined heart," as after Dora's death, he does some soul-searching, and chooses sensible Agnes - a woman who had always loved him - as his wife.

Example #3: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (By James Joyce)


This is a coming-of-age story of the character Stephen Dedalus. The story starts with Stephen in a boarding school at the age of sixteen. One day he goes back to his room, falls sick due to the unbearable load of his sins, and decides to change himself. He goes to the church for a confession, and the cleric is exceptionally kind. Thus, Stephen discovers another path in his life, as he becomes a cleric. Later in the novel, Stephen's life takes another turn. He realizes that he cannot waste his life as a cleric. He needs to live in society and be innovative like an artist.

Example #4: Never Let Me Go (By Kazuo Ishiguro)
This is a recent example of a bildungsroman novel. The novel is divided into three acts: childhood, adult and donor. It traces the life of Kathy, the protagonist and narrator of the novel. She is a "donor" who is harvested for organs to be donated to gravely ill patients.

We see Kathy as free-spirited, kind, and loving in her childhood. As a young woman she shows less emotion looking back at her past. At the end of the novel, she is a mature woman, and accepts the lives of herself and her friends.

Function of Bildungsroman


The bildungsroman novel depicts and criticizes those vices of society which cause the protagonist to suffer. The novel conveys a sense of realism, because the protagonist is a common sensitive person who is affected by the loss that they suffer, and this loss, ultimately, changes the course of their life.

In addition, the psychological and moral growth of the protagonist gives us a deep insight into the character, and also helps to understand the conflict in his or her life. As a result, we can identify ourselves with the coming-of-age characters, and feel emotionally attached and interested as we see them pass different stages of their lives, until they finally change for the good.
A biography is simply an account or detailed description about the life of a person. It entails basic facts, such as childhood, education, career, relationships, family, and death. Biography is a literary genre that portrays the experiences of all these events occurring in the life of a person, mostly in a chronological order. Unlike a resume or profile, a biography provides a life story of a subject, highlighting different aspects of his of her life. A person who writes biographies, is called as a "biographer."



Types of Biography
There are three types of biography:

Autobiography
An autobiography tells the story of a person's own life. While that person writes his own account, he or she may take guidance from a ghostwriter or collaborator.

Biography
A biography narrates the life story of a person, as written by another person or writer. It is further divided into five categories:

Popular biography
Historical biography
Literary biography
Reference biography
Fictional biography
Memoir


This is a more focused writing than an autobiography or a biography. In a memoir, a writer narrates the details of a particular event or situation that occurred in his or her lifetime.

Examples of Biography in Literature


Example #1: Shakespeare: A Life (By Park Honan)
This biography is the most accurate, up-to-date, and complete narrative ever written about the life of William Shakespeare. Park Honan has used rich and fresh information about Shakespeare in order to change the perceptions of readers for the playwright, and his role as a poet and actor.

This book completely differs from other biographies that imagine different roles for him, commenting on his sexual relationships and colorful intrigues. Though detailed psychological theories and imaginative reforms about the famous playwright could be amusing, in fact, they damage the credibility of the sources. Therefore, many attempts have been made to know about Shakespeare, but this one is a unique example.

Example #2: Arthur Miller: Attention Must Be Paid (By James Campbell)
This biography is written in the form of a drama, presented in just two acts. In the first act, the author shows the famous dramatist, Arthur Miller, in his early success, having the love of the most beloved woman in the world, and resisting tyranny. However, in the second act of this biography, the author shows that the hero was badly assaulted and ridiculed by a rowdy mob called critics, who are expelled from the conventional theater. He ends his book with rhetorical details related to a revitalization in the fortunes of the playwright.

Example #3: The Life of Samuel Johnson (By James Boswell)
This biography is frequently hyped as a perfect example of modern biography, and all-time best example in the English language. This masterpiece of James Boswell has covered the whole life of the ubiquitous literary writer Samuel Johnson, with whom Boswell was well-acquainted. The unique quality of this book is that it shows Johnson as a walking intellectual amongst us.

Example #4: The Bronte Myth (By Lucasta Miller)
Emily, Anne, and Charlotte Bronte were very famous and eminent writers in the history of English literature. Many rumors and gossips were associated with them when they reached the peaks of their careers and received great approval for writing the most admired novels of the nineteenth century. In their biography, Lucasta Miller chunks the myths related to these young enigmatic women. This is a fine example of a biography.

Example #5: Why this World: A Biography of Clarice Lispector (By Benjamin Moser)
After perusing his own private manuscripts and writings, this modernist writer, Benjamin Moser, has explored the mystique surrounding Brazilian writer Clarice Lispector. This is one of Moser's biographies, which comes a little closer to finding her true nuances. All those readers who are going to read her myriad of works for the first time would find this biography interesting, and her life as beautiful and tragic, yet riveting.

Function of Biography
The function of writing biographies is to provide details regarding the life of a person or a thing in an entertaining but informative manner. By the end of a biography, readers feel like they are well-acquainted with the subject. Biographies are often non-fictional, but many biographers also use novel-like format, because a story line would be more entertaining with the inclusion of strong exposition, rising conflict, and then climax. Besides, the most inspirational life stories could motivate and put confidence into the readers.
Black humor is a literary device used in novels and plays to discuss taboo subjects while adding an element of comedy. Cambridge dictionary defines it as a non-serious way of treating or dealing with serious subjects. It is often used to present any serious, gruesome or painful incidents lightly. The writers use it as a tool to explore serious issues, inciting serious thoughts and discomfort in the audience.



In literature, this term is often associated with tragedies and is sometimes equated with tragic farce. In this sense, it makes the serious incident or event bit lighter in intensity. Although it is often inserted to induce laughter, it plays a significant role in advancing the action of the play or novel. Etymologically, black humor is a phrase of two words black and humor. The meanings are clear that it is a humorous way of treating something that is serious. It is also called black comedy, dark comedy or gallows humor.

Examples of Black Humor from Literature
Example #1
"Billy is spastic in time, has no control over where he is going next, and the trips aren't necessarily fun. He is in a constant state of stage fright, he says, because he never knows what part of his life he is going to have to act in next."

(Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 2)

These lines are taken from the second Two of Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut. The writer explains that the protagonist of the novel, Billy Pilgrim never had control over his life. He illustrates the war-torn mentality of Billy that has disturbed the normal pace of his life. Billy thinks that he has already visited all the events of his life. His planetary movements and theories about life and death have left a profound impact on his real life. This description proves black humor as it contributes to the novel's anti-war message.

Example #2
"They're trying to kill me," Yossarian told him calmly.
No one's trying to kill you," Clevinger cried.
Then why are they shooting at me?" Yossarian asked.
They're shooting at everyone," Clevinger answered. "They're trying to kill everyone."
And what difference does that make?"

(Catch-22 by Joseph Heller, Chapter- 22)

These lines occur in chapter twenty-two of Catch-22 by Joseph Heller. The protagonist, Yossarian, is expressing his fears to his friend. Yossarian thinks that everyone intends to kill him, while Clevenger takes it in a very light way, implying death is something normal on the war-front. To him, death is an accepted reality during wars, so it should not be taken seriously. Therefore, he suggests that they are not specifically trying to kill Yossarian but everyone. This is a sort of humor for the readers when the tragedies become too heavy for them.

Example #3


"Since she happened to be clutching the long broom, she tried to tickle him from the door way. This had no effect, and so she grew annoyed and began poking Gregor. It was only upon shoving him from his place but meeting no resistance that she became alert. When the true state of affairs now dawned on the charwomen, her eyes bulged with amazement and she whistled to herself. But instead of dawdling there, she yanked the bedroom door open and hollered into the darkness; "Go and look it's croaked; it's lying there absolutely crooked."

(The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka)

These lines occur toward the end of the text, Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka. These lines show the attitude of the woman hired by the family to clean Gregor's room. After the gruesome incident, the demise of Gregor. Here the word "crooked" refers to Gregor's death, which adds the element of black humor in the situation. The miserable plight of Gregor is narrated absurdly. Ironically, his death provides solace to his family and also illustrates that his metamorphosis was a must to alter the circumstances of his family. This incident presents black humor as it provides the audience to see the way the death of a family member has been described as if he is really an insect.

Example #4
"ESTRAGON
Let's go.
VLADIMIR
We can't.
ESTRAGON
Why not?
VLADIMIR
We're waiting for Godot."

(Waiting for Godot by Samuel Becket, Act- I Scene-II, Lines 91-94)

This is another example of black humor from the play, Waiting for Godot by Samuel Becket. There are two characters in the scene. They are talking about the Godot, whom they are waiting for. These lines show that this wait never allows them to go for independent choices. Vladimir is so promising that he does not want to move until he meets Godot. This black humor shows the audience a chance to see their sufferings with a wry smile on their faces.

Functions of Black Humour
Black humor is a type of hiatus or pause for the audience after a heavy dose of tragic or serious incidents and similar to comic relief. It also gives them a chance to experience laughter and discomfort at the same time. As black humor means to end the tragic seriousness of the previous scenes or incidents, it often makes the same subject or topic or incident a bit lighter than it is. For example, it could be the discussion about the death as in Catch-22, or silliness of the very serious situation in which the fate of people is in someone's hand but it is made a common absurd situation such as in Waiting for Godot.
Blank verse is a literary device defined as un-rhyming verse written in iambic pentameter. In poetry and prose, it has a consistent meter with 10 syllables in each line (pentameter); where, unstressed syllables are followed by stressed ones, five of which are stressed but do not rhyme. It is also known as "un-rhymed iambic pentameter."



Features of Blank Verse
Blank verse poetry has no fixed number of lines.
It has a conventional meter that is used for verse drama and long narrative poems.
It is often used in descriptive and reflective poems and dramatic monologues — the poems in which a single character delivers his thoughts in the form of a speech.
Blank verse can be composed in any kind of meter, such as iamb, trochee, spondee, and dactyl.
Types of Blank Verse Poetry


Iamb pentameter blank verse (unstressed/stressed syllables)
Trochee blank verse (stressed/unstressed syllables)
Anapest blank verse (unstressed/unstressed/stressed syllables)
Dactyl blank verse (stressed/unstressed/unstressed syllables)
Short Examples of Blank Verse
The dreams are clues that tell us take chances.
The source of faith in happiness and
Daylight changes, and it is time to take
The night frost drips silently from the roof
Human cadences always searching for this
The moon takes its bath in lovely silver dust.
The buds luminous in white sway happily,
and sparkling valleys darkened by angst.
Only if mountains might give me a push
Only if sunrise lights could converse hope.
Listen to your heart while using your wisdom
A valuable treasure you have is your ta
Beholding red and golden sparkles of sunlight
Sweet-sparks of light glowing before the eyes.
Within the stars your dreams can be fulfilled,
now you can fly the unlimited starlight
If passports are passwords to the heaven above,
then we shall read the riddle
If there is a twelfth player, who does not play,
He only leaves the field when free.
Birds chirp in the orchard of the cherry and try to sing a little later.
Enemies reached at the inimical stage of enmity.
Examples of Blank Verse from Literature
The Earl of Surrey introduced blank verse in English literature in 1540. Milton, Shakespeare, Marlowe, John Donne, John Keats, and many other poets and dramatists have used this device in their works. Have a look at some examples of blank verse:

Example #1: Mending Walls (By Robert Frost)
Something there is that doesn't love a wall.
That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it,
And spills the upper boulders in the sun;

This poem has no proper rhyme scheme. However, there is consistent meter in 10 syllables of each line. It is following the iambic pentameter pattern with five feet in each line. Only the first line is written in trochee pattern. All the stressed syllables are marked in bold.

Example #2: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
But, woe is me, you are so sick of late,
So far from cheer and from your former state,
That I distrust you. Yet, though I distrust,
Discomfort you, my lord, it nothing must. ...

Hamlet gives us a perfect example of a typical blank verse, written in iambic pentameter. Shakespeare employed the deliberate effort to use the syllables in a particular way. He brought variation by using caesuras (pause) in the middle of the line, as in the third line. Shakespeare has other literary pieces that are also good sources of blank verse examples.

Example #3: Dr. Faustus (By Christopher Marlowe)


You stars that reign'd at my nativity,
Whose influence hath allotted death and hell,
Now draw up Faustus like a foggy mist
Into entrails of yon labouring clouds, ...
So that my soul may but ascend to Heaven ...

Marlowe developed this potential in the late 16th century. Marlowe was the first author who exploited the potential of blank verse for writing a powerful speech, as given here. The pattern utilized here is iambic pentameter.

Example #4: Ulysses (By Alfred Lord Tennyson)
It little profits that an idle king,
By this still hearth, among these barren crags
Match'd with an aged wife, I mete and dole
Unequal laws unto a savage race ...
That hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me.

Just look at the above example in which the first line is written in regular pentameter. However, there is a little variation in the stressed pattern in the following lines that is again revived in the last two lines, and does not follow any rhyme scheme.

Example #5: Macbeth (By William Shakespeare)
Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,
To the last syllable of recorded time;
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death ...

William Shakespeare wrote verses in iambic pentameter pattern, without rhyme. Macbeth is a good example of blank verse. Many speeches in this play are written in the form of blank verse.

Example #6: Frost at Midnight (By Samuel Taylor Coleridge)
But thou, my babe! shalt wander like a breeze
By lakes and sandy shores, beneath the crags
Of ancient mountain, and beneath the clouds,
Which image in their bulk both lakes and shores.
And mountain crags: so shalt thou see and hear
The lovely shapes and sounds intelligible
Of that eternal language, which thy God...

Coleridge has used iambic pentameter - ten syllables, with five stressed syllables in this example. Though there is no rhyme scheme, readers can feel the rhythm of a real speech due to proper use of meter in this blank verse.

Example #6: Thanatopsis (By William Cullen Bryant)
To him who in the love of Nature holds
Communion with her visible forms, she speaks
A various language; for his gayer hours
She has a voice of gladness, and a smile.

This blank verse does not have any rhyme scheme, but it brings a slight rhythm and cadence that mimics a pattern readers could hear and feel like listening to nature.

Example #8: Tintern Abbey (By William Wordsworth)
Five years have past; five summers, with the length
Of five long winters! And again I hear
These waters, rolling from their mountain-springs
With a soft inland murmur. - Once again
Do I behold these steep and lofty cliffs ...
The landscape with the quiet of the sky.
The day is come when I again repose ...

This example does not follow any rhyme scheme, but it is written in blank verse with iambic pentameter patterns of unaccented and accented syllables.

Example #9: This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison (By S.T. Coleridge)
Well, they are gone, and here must I remain,
This lime-tree bower my prison! I have lost
Beauties and feelings, such as would have been
Most sweet to my remembrance even when age
had dimmed mine eyes to blindness! They, meanwhile...
The slip of smooth clear blue betwixt two Isles
Of purple shadow! Yes! they wander on
In gladness all; but thou, methinks, most glad,
My gentle-hearted Charles! for thou hast pined ...

Coleridge has jotted down these lines as a spontaneous feel while sitting in his garden. He has written it in a blank verse without any rhyme scheme, yet it follows iambic pentameter.

Function of Blank Verse
Originating from Latin and Greek sources, blank verse is widely employed as a vehicle in English dramatic poetry and prose, to create specific grandeur. Blank verse has similarity to normal speech but it is written in a variety of patterns, which bring interruptions such as pauses. Therefore, the intention is to produce a formal rhythmical pattern that creates musical effect. Hence, it tends to capture the attention of the readers and the listeners, which is its primary objective.
If we speak literally, cacophony points to a situation in which there is a mixture of harsh and inharmonious sounds. In literature, however, the term refers to the use of words with sharp, harsh, hissing, and unmelodious sounds - primarily those of consonants - to achieve desired results.



Common Cacophony Examples
In everyday life, an example of cacophony would be the amalgamation of different sounds you hear in a busy city street or market. You hear sounds of vehicles, announcements on loudspeakers, music, and chatter of people, or even a dog barking at the same time and without any harmony. You can rightly point to the situation as being the cacophony of a busy street or market. We can notice the manifestation of cacophony in language as well. For instance, in the sentence,

"I detest war because cause of war is always trivial."

The phrase "because cause" is cacophonic as because is followed by the word cause, which has a similar sound, but different meaning. Generally, it sounds unpleasant as the same sound is repeated in two different words.

Similarly, a discordant sound of a musical band, tuning up their musical instruments, is an example of cacophony.

Cacophony and Euphony


Cacophony is opposite to euphony, which is the use of words having pleasant and harmonious effects. Generally, the vowels, the semi-vowels, and the nasal consonants (e.g. l, m, n, r, y) are considered to be euphonious. Cacophony, on the other hand, uses consonants in combinations that require explosive delivery (e.g., p, b, d, g, k, ch-, sh- etc.).

Examples of Cacophony in Literature
In literature, the unpleasantness of cacophony is utilized by writers to present dreadful or distasteful situations. Let us look at a few Cacophony examples in literature:

Example #1: Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (By Lewis Carroll)
Abundant use of cacophonic words can be found in Lewis Carroll's nonsense poem Jabberwocky, in his novel Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There.

" 'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;
All mimsy were the borogoves,an
And the mome raths outgrabe.

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!
The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!
Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun
The frumious Bandersnatch!"

In the excerpt, we see a collection of nonsense words, which are at the same time unmelodious. After reading the poem, Alice, the main character of the novel, gives her impression, which clearly reflects the purpose of the poem. She says:

"Somehow it seems to fill my head with ideas—only I don't exactly know what they are! However, somebody killed something: that's clear, at any rate."

Example #2: The Bridge (By Hart Crane)
Another example of cacophony is found in Hart Crane's poem The Bridge:

"The nasal whine of power whips a new universe...
Where spouting pillars spoor the evening sky,
Under the looming stacks of the gigantic power house
Stars prick the eyes with sharp ammoniac proverbs,
New verities, new inklings in the velvet hummed
Of dynamos, where hearing's leash is strummed...
Power's script, - wound, bobbin-bound, refined -
Is stopped to the slap of belts on booming spools, spurred
Into the bulging bouillon, harnessed jelly of the stars."

The disorder and confusion of the industrial world has been expressed here by the writer, through deliberate selection of cacophonic words and phrases.

Example #3: Gulliver's Travels (By Jonathan Swift)


Look at the following excerpt from Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels:

"And being no stranger to the art of war, I have him a description of cannons, culverins, muskets, carabines, pistols, bullets, powder, swords, bayonets, battles, sieges, retreats, attacks, undermines, countermines, bombardments, sea-fights..."

In order to describe the destructive consequences of war, the writer chooses words and arranges them in an order that produces an effect that is unmelodious, harsh, and jarring, which corresponds with the subject matter.

Example #4: Rime to the Ancient Mariner (By Samuel Taylor Coleridge)
Read the following lines from Coleridge's Rime to the Ancient Mariner:

"With throats unslaked, with black lips baked,
Agape they heard me call."

These lines illustrate cacophony by using the words black, baked and agape, which corresponds with the severity of the situation faced by the Mariner and other people on board.

Function of Cacophony
Writers use cacophony as a tool to describe a discordant situation using discordant words. The use of such words allows readers to picture and feel the unpleasantness of the situation the writer has described through words.
Cadence is derived from the Latin word cadentia, which means "a falling." It is the term used to signal the rising and falling of the voice when reading a literary piece. In poetry, it is the momentary changes in rhythm and pitch. Cadences help set the rhythmic pace of a literary piece.



Types of Cadences
Most of the cadence examples in literature

Imperfect or half cadence - In poetry, a half cadence is a pause. Half cadence is represented with a comma, or a semi-colon, in poetry and prose. This rhythm does not sound final, and often the lines end with indecisive tension.
Perfect or authentic cadence - Perfect cadence comes at the end of the phrase in a poem.
Examples of Cadence in Literature


Example #1: Painting of a Bedroom with Cats (By Elizabeth Bartlett)
"The curved cane chair has dented cushions, the cats
Catch spiders and craneflies on the wardrobe tops,
The guitar lies in its funeral case, the road is quiet,
The apple trees have dropped their fruit in the grass;

Rain is coming in from the west; the garden is lush and damp,
The draught is over, and the day is at the eleventh hour,
Sleep is nearly here on fern-patterned pillowcases,
Books slither to the floor, cats is stretched on the quit..."

In this poem, cadence appears in the middle of the fourth line of each stanza, giving the speech a pause. This pause is shown by a semi-colon. It also gives a momentary variation to the rhythm of poem.

Example #2: The Raven (By Edgar Allan Poe)
"Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore—
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
' 'Tis some visiter,' I muttered, 'tapping at my chamber door—
Only this and nothing more.' ...

"And the Raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting
On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;
And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming,
And the lamp-light o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;
And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor."

The Raven is a perfect example of cadence. Here we can see breaks and ends within a piece of poetry. These endings come in the middle of the poem, and are represented by dashes and semi-colons. Due to these pauses, it speeds up and slows down the tone of the whole poem.

Example #3: London (By F. S. Flint)


"It is not the sunset
Nor the pale green sky
Shimmering through the curtain
Of the silver birch,
Nor the quietness;
It is not the hopping
Of the little birds
Upon the lawn,
Nor the darkness
Stealing over all things
That moves me..."

The style of this poem is a free verse, which does not have a distinct meter. Since most of the free verse poems have cadences, the same is the case here. In this poem, cadence is used in the middle as a little pause that changes the rise and fall of the tone when reading out loud.

Function of Cadence
Cadence is a musical movement, marked by melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic characteristics. It is used to establish sectional articulation and closure. However, the basic purpose of cadence is a communicative function that indicates to the listeners when a part ends, and therefore helps them elucidate the formal composition of the piece.

Cadences are used in poetry and in music, where they sync with a variety of musical idioms. Poets use cadence to put rhythm in their poems. Cadence plays a significant role in making the sounds and the senses in a poem connect to each other.
Everyone speaks, and everyone breathes while speaking. For instance, when you say, "Maria has taken a break," you take breath before further saying, "But Adam did not." Then again you take a little breath and say, "He fell on his ankle." Such pauses come from natural rhythm of your speech. Poetry also uses pauses in its lines.



One such pause is known as "caesura," which is a rhythmical pause in a poetic line or a sentence. It often occurs in the middle of a line, or sometimes at the beginning and the end. At times, it occurs with punctuation; at other times it does not. Poets indicate such a pause with a parallel symbol thus: ||. Caesura can be medial (occurring in the middle of line), initial (occurring at the beginning of poetic line), or terminal (occurring at the end of a poetic line).

Types of Caesura
Caesural breaks, or caesura, are of two types in poetry:

Feminine Caesura
A feminine caesural pause occurs after a non-stressed and short syllable in a poetic line. This is softer and less abrupt than the masculine version. For instance:

"I hear lake water lapping || with low sounds by the shore..."

(The Lake Isle of Innisfree by William Butler Yeats)

It has two subdivisions:

Epic Caesura
Lyric Caesura
Masculine Caesura
Masculine pause occurs after a long or accented syllable in a line. It creates a staccato effect in the poem, such as:

"of reeds and stalk-crickets, || fiddling the dank air,
lacing his boots with vines, || steering glazed beetles"

(The Bounty by Derek Walcott)

Short Examples of Caesura


The headphone explodes, || breaking the mold
Roses, roses! || Two bucks a bunch! They say
The boys in the street, || ready to sell you.
Lilac, || locust, || and roses, || perfuming
East End, || West End, || wondrously blooming
From mother earth.
You're nobody! ||Are you?
No, ||You are somebody, ||are you?
My candle burns
It may last till mid night;
Oh but, ||my friends, ||and ah, || my foes-
It gives me a shiny light.
I saw a red cow,
I assure you, ||anyhow,
I'd again see that one!
The day is dark and dreary;
It's raining, ||and the clouds are not weary;
Often in summer, || the wild bees turn tigers, || their wings
gathering black in a hole
Of a rotten tree.
Tonight the moon rises
In my window. || Its glazing light
scattered around the room.
From my balcony, || I see the stars
Blistering in the river water much brighter.
Love the rain, ||the seagull dives
Love the rain, ||it will bring more rain.
The rain, || falls in my backyard where I see it,
Coming down slowly at different rates.
I saw you, || she says-
But whom she saw? ||-is it
That right-handed schoolboy?
Meow, || meow in my ears,
A little cat follows me everywhere.
We gather, || we shout,
Then we gossip together on festivities.
Examples of Caesura in Literature
Example #1: The Winter Tales (William Shakespeare)


It is for you we speak, || not for ourselves:
You are abused || and by some putter-on
That will be damn'd for't; || would I knew the villain,
I would land-damn him. || Be she honour-flaw'd,
I have three daughters; || the eldest is eleven

This passage is an instance of feminine caesura, which occurs immediately after an unstressed syllable like "speak," the second syllable "bused," in abused, "him," and "ters" in word daughters.

Example #2: Mother and Poet (By Elizabeth Barrett)
Dead ! One of them shot by the sea in the east...
What art can a woman be good at? || Oh, vain !
What art is she good at, || but hurting her breast
With the milk-teeth of babes, || and a smile at the pain ?
Ah boys, // how you hurt! || you were strong as you pressed,
And I proud, || by that test.

This poem presents a perfect example of masculine caesura. Look at the pauses occurring after stressed syllables including "at," "babes," "boys," "hurt," and "proud." You can see the first line uses initial caesura, at "Dead," followed by a pause at the beginning of line.

Example #3: Eloisa to Abelard (By Alexander Pope)

Alas, how chang'd! || what sudden horrors rise!
A naked lover || bound and bleeding lies!
Where, where was Eloise? || her voice, her hand,
Her poniard, || had oppos'd the dire command.
Barbarian, stay! || that bloody stroke restrain;...
Death, || only death, can break the lasting chain;

Pope has frequently used caesural pauses in his poems to bring depth. Mostly he has used masculine caesura happening in the middle of the lines. However, sometimes initial caesura occurs, such as in the sixth line, it comes after "Death." This variation clears the meaning of the text.

Example #4: I'm Nobody! Who Are You? (By Emily Dickinson)

I'm nobody! || Who are you?
Are you nobody, too?
Then there's a pair of us || - don't tell!
They'd banish || - you know!

Dickinson has used masculine caesural pauses in the middle of verses. These breaks create a staccato effect, an uneven rhythm in the flow of sound, conveying the depth of an idea.

Example #5: Walking Wounded (By Vernon Scannell)

The mud and leaves in the mauled lane
smelled sweet, || like blood. || Birds had died or flown...
Their heads were weighted down by last night's lead
And eyes still drank the dark. || They trail the night
Along the morning road. || Some limped on sticks;

This couplet uses both caesura and enjambment. Enjambment appears in the first line. In the second, fourth, and fifth lines, the periods cause readers to pause for a while and create a caesura.

Example #6: My Last Duchess (By My Last Duchess)

E'en then would be some stooping; || and I choose
Never to stoop. || Oh sir, she smiled, no doubt,
Whene'er I passed her; || but who passed without
Much the same smile? || This grew; || I gave commands
Then all smiles stopped together. || There she stands
As if alive. || Will't please you rise? || We'll meet
The company below, || then...

The caesuras in this example tell readers that the speaker is hiding something and stopping to think. Through these pauses, the Duke is trying to distract the attention of his readers from his own persona.

Example #7: Ozymandias (By Percy Bysshe Shelley)

Who said—"Two vast and trunkless legs of stone
Stand in the desert ... || Near them, || on the sand ...
My name is Ozymandias, || King of Kings; ||
Look on my Works, || ye Mighty, || and despair!
Nothing beside remains. || Round the decay ...

The poet has broken up all the lines rhythmically by using punctuation. The use of multiple caesuras serves to make lines more interesting. In the third and fourth lines, they emphasize the pride of Ozymandias' works, while the fourth line has used initial and medial caesuras.

Function of Caesura
A caesural break creates various effects, depending upon the way it is used. Sometimes it breaks the monotonous rhythm of a line and forces readers to focus on the meaning of the phrase preceding the caesura. In some other cases, it might create a dramatic or ominous effect. Normally, it happens in the middle of a sentence, or phrase in poetry. It also adds an emotional and theatrical touch to a line, and helps convey depth of the sentiments.
Originated from the Greek term "kanon," canon means "a yard stick," or "a measuring rod." Generally, the term canon is used in three different meanings.



First, it is defined as a traditional collection of writings, against which other writings are evaluated. In other words, it means "a long list of works taken as authentic." For example, the Bible - both written in Hebrew, and even translated versions. This sense of the term makes canon opposite to "apocrypha," which means "written works having anonymous authors." The Bible was considered a yardstick to evaluate other literary pieces, according to a certain criterion.

Secondly, students of literature use it to refer to the writings included in anthologies, or textbooks under certain genres, and thus are evaluated according to the genre under which they are placed. This meaning covers the entire literature generally thought as suitable for aesthetic admiration and academic use.

The third definition of the term indicates the literary writings of a particular author, which are considered by scholars and critics in general to be the genuine creations of that particular author. This is based on some already deduced rules intended to be applied on the future pieces in the same genre. The term "canon" is also confused with a homonym "cannon," which means "a military weapon."

Difference Between Canon and Apocrypha
Apocrypha is also a literary term, which means "hidden," or "anonymous literary pieces," which were considered not to have confirmed to the rules set by the written Bible, in Hebrew or in Latin. It describes those books, which have dubious authorship or the authority, or where the accuracy of the writers is questionable. However, canon is a literary rule that is used to evaluate books and writings against certain models, such as plays are evaluated against Oedipus the King by Sophocles, where Oedipus the King is a yardstick which has set canons for plays.

Examples of Canon from Literature


Example #1: The Plowman's Tales (By Geoffrey Chaucer)
"In a summer season when soft was the sun,
I clothed myself in a cloak as I shepherd were,
Habit like a hermit's unholy in works,
And went wide in the world wonders to hear.
But on a May morning on Malvern hills,
A marvel befell me of fairy, me thought."

Taken from The Plowman's Tale, these lines exemplify the third definition of canon. Chaucer's canon includes "The Canterbury Tales", for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, "The Plowman's Tale," which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. The canon is the use of archaic language that Chaucer used in his works but not used in this part.

Example #2: Authors Who Made Extraordinary Contributions to Literature
In the history of literature, a number of authors and poets have made such an extraordinary contributions that their literary works are considered yardsticks to have set canons to evaluate other works. Their literary works obtain in themselves the position of literary canon which the successive writers use as touchstone to compare their creations with. For example:

Greek Poet Homer


For a very long time the world considered the Greek epics of Homer, the Iliad, and Odyssey, as the most sublime examples of literature. However, we have no idea whether the popular and well-known author was a genuine person. Homer, and the other writers inspired by him, have made their way to the list of the greatest literary brains of the world since antiquity - only by following the literary canons of writing.

English Writer William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare wrote both tragedies and comedies for Elizabethan audiences, throughout the late 16th, and early 17th centuries. However, Shakespeare's earned appreciation for these works became yardstick by which other writers to judge their places in literature. For many decades, English writers compared themselves with Shakespeare. This approach of looking at, and following a writer's work for measuring literary excellence and success is, in fact, called a "Shakespearean canon."

English Novelist Jane Austen
Jane Austen is one of those female writers who came to the limelight by breaking all the traditional and conventional shackles. She wrote mild and smiling romantic novels, such as Pride and Prejudice and Emma, setting them in England, and making marriage her subject to be explored. As she used round characters in her novels, uniquely different from her counterparts, this became her style, and finally a canon against which other female writers would be evaluated.

Function of a Canon
The function of a canon has always raised confusion and complexity. The works, traditionally considered as following a certain canon, belong to the writers who have long been dead. Moreover, only the white and male writers of antiquity have been given membership to this exclusive club. Women, minorities, and non-Western writers were kept out of this kind of arbitrary practice for a long time - until they won recognition such as the writers of the Harlem Renaissance.

Furthermore, philosophical and political biases also resulted in disputes over literary canons. Hence, a number of critical circles suggest that the idea of having specific canons for specific genres needs to be abandoned. On the contrary, some other critics advocate the expansion of canons by including the extended range of sampling to broaden the horizon literary canons.
Canto is a subdivision or part in a narrative or epic poem, consisting of five or more lines such, as a stanza, which could also be a canto. The word "canto" originates from the Latin word cantus, which means "a song."



The Italian poets Dante, Matteo Boiardo, and Ludovico used cantos to divide their poems into shorter sections for thematic understanding. In English literature, Edmund Spenser is the first poet who used this division in his famous poem "The Faerie Queene." Lord Byron also used this division in his poem, "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage."

Examples of Canto in Literature
Example #1: The Faerie Queene (by Edmund Spenser)
"The Patron of true Holinesse,
FouleErrour doth defeate:
Hypocrisie him to entrappe,
Doth to his home entreate.
Gentle Knight was pricking on the plaine,
Y clad in mightiearmes and suluershielde,
Wherein old dints of deepe wounds did remaine,
The cruellmarkes of many' a bloudyfielde;
Yet armes till that time did he neuer wield;
His angry steede did chike his foming bitt,
As much disdaining to the curbe to yield."

This canto describes the character of the knight, who represents all the qualities of chivalry, such as bravery and fighting spirit. It comprises eleven lines, as compared to six or seven lines of Italian cantos.

Example #2: Inferno (by Dante Alighieri)
"One night, when half my life behind me lay,
I wandered from the straight lost path afar.
Through the great dark was no releasing way;
Above that dark was no relieving star.
If yet that terrored night I think or say,
As death's cold hands its fears resuming are.
Gladly the dreads I felt, too dire to tell,
The hopeless, pathless, lightless hours forgot,
I turn my tale to that which next befell,
When the dawn opened, and the night was not."

This is another good example of canto, a major section of Dante's "Divine Comedy." Here, Dante describes how he loses the right path when travelling through the forest. However, this canto comprises ten lines as opposed to eleven lines of the first example.

Example #3: The Cantos (by Ezra Pound)

"And then went down to the ship,
Set keel to breakers, forth on the godly seas, and
We set up mast and sail on that swart ship,
Bore sheep aboard her, and our bodies also
Heavy with weeping, and winds from sternward
Bore us out onward with bellying canvas,
Circe's this craft, the trim-coifed goddess ..."

Ezra Pound has written this poem in 129 parts, and each part is a separate canto. This is the first part in which he describes a journey by ship, which is loaded with sheep, and is sailing away from some hidden place. The word 'Circe' is a reference to Homer's epic, "The Odyssey," which points to the eerie atmosphere created by Pound in this poem.

Example #4: Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (by Lord Byron)


"I stood in Venice, on the Bridge of Sighs;
A Palace and a Prison on each hand
I saw from out the wave her structures rise
As from the stroke of the Enchanter's wand:
A thousand Years their cloudy wings expand
Around me, and a dying Glory smiles
O'er the far times, when many a subject Land
Looked to the winged Lion's marble piles,
Where Venice sate in state, throned on her hundred isles!"

This is the fourth canto of "Child Harold's Pilgrimage," in which he describes his journey to Italy. It also shows his lamentation on the decay of ancient civilization.

Example #5: Don Juan (by Lord Byron)
"I want a Hero: an uncommon Want,
When every Year and Month sends forth a new one,
Till, after cloying the Gazettes with Cant,
The Age discovers he is not the true one;
Of such as these I should not care to vaunt
I'll therefore take our ancient friend Don Juan;
We all have seen him in the Pantomime,
Sent to the Devil, somewhat ere his time."

This is the first canto, in which Lord Byron says that his own age is unable to provide a suitable hero for his poem - the reason that he is using an old friend, Don Juan, as a hero.

Function


Canto is used as an introduction to a poem, as well as serves as a unitary prologue to an entire epic. It also enables the reader to understand different turning points in the poem. The use of canto divides episodes in a poem to make it easier for the reader to understand.
Caricature is a device used in descriptive writing and visual arts, in which particular aspects of a subject are exaggerated, to create a silly or comic effect. In other words, it can be defined as a plastic illustration, derisive drawing, or a portrayal based on exaggeration of the natural features, which gives a humorous touch to the subject.



During the 16th century, numerous painters (Holbein, Bruegel, and Bosch, for example) used particular aspects of caricature in their work. However, it did not involve anything comic until the 17th century. Later, in the 18th century, Carracci introduced caricature in a witty way in his works. Caricatures started gaining popularity in England when artists like Hogarth, Rowlandson, and Gillray followed Carracci's footsteps. The genre slowly developed to accommodate social and political satire as well.

Examples of Caricature in Literature
Example #1: Ethnic Distinctions, No Longer So Distinctive (By Matt Bai, New York Times, June 29, 2010)
Several authors have written about how President Obama is unpredictable. A piece of writing was published in The New York Times that shed light on this particular subject by highlighting how people have exaggerated certain aspects of the President's personality. Following is an excerpt from the same paper by Matt Bai:

"Over the course of the last several weeks, commentators have taken to portraying Mr. Obama as clinical and insufficiently emotive, which is really just another way of saying the president is not really knowable. It is a caricature his opponents can exploit in part because a lot of voters remain murky on his cultural identity."

Caricature arises from the forcing and the embellishment of the basic rule of good description, that is, the principle of the dominant impression.

Example #2: Bleak House (By Charles Dickens)
One of the great examples of caricature from Charles Dickens has been given below:

"Mr. Chadband is a large yellow man, with a fat smile, and a general appearance of having a good deal of train oil in his system. Mrs. Chadband is a stern, severe-looking, silent woman. Mr. Chadband moves softly and cumbrously, not unlike a bear who has been taught to walk upright. He is very much embarrassed about the arms, as if they were inconvenient to him."

It is beautiful example of caricaturing through words. The dominating impression is made by words like "oily" and "fat," which sound quite literal initially. However, you realize shortly that the literal oiliness is a representation of the character Chadband. Chadband has a 'fat' smile, and on the whole he appears to be slightly unctuous, like a phony preacher.

Function of Caricature


The caricature examples above have underscored the functions and role of caricature, and how it has evolved in modern day literature. Coming up with novel ideas to explain oneself, and the nature of the human race in general, is not something new to the world. This sort of representation has been witnessed since the time when men lived in caves.

Caricature was introduced to the masses during the age of enlightenment, and it bestowed the age it belongs to, with its subtlety and critical attitude. As a branch of modernism, it played a great role in expressing facts that were suppressed because of the conformists in the society at that point in time. It was a reminder for those who believed that the sword was mightier than the pen, and it started being used as a visual expressioof conventional society.

Nowadays, caricature is a highly dignified form of art that is approved of and used worldwide. Newspaper editors show great respect for the artists who create caricatures for their papers, which ofttimes publish caricatures that might even represent a conflicting ideology. Where this distinctive form of art can be used to portray important and transforming social and political ideas, it can also be provocative to certain groups. Underdeveloped countries have had a hard time warming up to this form of expression because they believe it is a creation of evil by governments.
Catachresis is a figure of speech in which writers use mixed metaphors in an inappropriate way, to create rhetorical effect. Often, it is used intentionally to create a unique expression. Catachresis is also known as an exaggerated comparison between two ideas or objects.



Features of Catachresis
Mixed metaphors are good examples of catachresis, and writers often use them to create rhetorical effect. They are used to express extreme alienation or heightened emotions. Catachresis is considered as a mistake in language, as it may change the meanings of words. It is a combination of different types of figures of speech. It is prominently used in post-structuralist literary works, since those writers were expert in using wordplay, and creating confusion in literary texts, which is an important part of catachresis.

Some Forms of Catachresis


Sometimes a word is used to indicate something completely different from the literal meaning of that word. Such as in this example, "Tis deepest winter in Lord Timon's purse; that is, one may reach deep enough, and find little" (Timon of Athens, by William Shakespeare).
Sometimes a word is used to indicate something whose actual name is not used like, "A chair's arm."
Sometimes a paradoxical statement is used to create illogical strained metaphors. Such as, "Take arms against a sea of troubles."
Abusio is a subtype of catachresis, which results from the combination of two metaphors.
Examples of Catachresis in Literature
Example #1: On Revenge (By Francis Bacon)
"A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green..."

Bacon uses metaphorical language by comparing revenge with wounds. The writer has made a connection between seemingly unconnected topics. However, catachresis is creating a rhetorical effect in this serious text.

Example #2: King John (By William Shakespeare)
"I do not ask much:
I beg cold comfort ..."

We can find numerous catachresis examples in Shakespeare's works, as he regularly used mixed metaphors intentionally in his literary writings. Here, he has used catachresis, "cold comfort."

Example #3: Poem 640 (By Emily Dickinson)


"With just the Door ajar
That oceans are — and Prayer—
And that White Sustenance — Despair—"

In the first and second lines, we can see the paradox in phrases that are shown in bold. These describe two differing distances that spread hopelessness. In the same way, "white sustenance" means colorless nourishment that actually does not nourish the body.

Example #4: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
Hamlet:
"... Or to take arms against a sea of troubles
And, by opposing, end them? To die, to sleep—"

Here, Hamlet is just thinking futilely after facing a sea of problems. In this way, Shakespeare has used a straight metaphor, albeit taken as a catachresis here.

Example #5: somewhere i have never travelled, gladly beyond (By E. E. Cummings)
"The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses -
nobody, not even the rain, has such small hands ..."

In this extract, the poet is making an illogical comparison between the voice of his beloved's eyes, and roses and rain with the hands. The poet is trying to express the power of his beloved over him, and her importance to him.

Example #6: The Tempest (By William Shakespeare)
"His complexion is perfect gallows ..."

In the given line, the character Gonzalo is implying that Boatswain looks like a criminal, and must be hanged. Here, "perfect gallows" is used as a mixed metaphor. The two objects are compared, though there is no obvious similarity between them.

Example #7: Peri Bathous (By Alexander Pope)
"Mow the beard,
Shave the grass,
Pin the plank,
Nail my sleeve ..."

In the above example, the metaphoric words are shown in bold. The literal and metaphorical meanings can be understood in the context, which the poet is describing as: know-how, capacities, dispositions, and skills.

Function of Catachresis
Catachresis can be used both in poetry and prose. In poetry it is used by misusing a phrase or word to deliberately create a mixed metaphor. Poets use catachresis to achieve a stylistic effect, or to exert great compression in both comic as well as serious writing. Also, sometimes it is used to create a reference that did not exist, but the major reason of using this technique is to express the ideas in a unique and creative way.
Catalog or Catalogue is a literary device used in poetry and prose to give a list of things and create a rhetorical effect. Writers use it to make a list of multiple thoughts in a unified form. However, the poet's do not add Catalogs randomly, and they are well thought. The list is deliberately inserted to make the audience enjoy the conventional style of poetry. Etymologically, Catalog refers to a list.



Features of Catalog
It often involves repetition
Catalog verses can be a list of people, places or ideas.
It can include rhyme or can be a free verse poem.
Examples of Catalog from Literature


Example #1
Pied Beauty by Gerard Manley Hopkins

"Glory be to God for dappled things -
For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow;
For rose-moles all in stipple upon trout that swim;
Fresh-firecoal chestnut-falls; finches' wings;
Landscape plotted and pieced - fold, fallow, and plough;
And áll trádes, their gear and tackle and trim."

This extract has been taken from one of the famous poems of Hopkins, "Pied Beauty." The poet praises God for dappled and spotted things. The poet comments on the changeable nature of the world. As an act of prayer, he thanks God and provides a list of things God created for mankind. In this stanza, he Catalogs variety of creation by God and symbolically illustrates the existences of all species on the earth. He talks about the seas, the plants, the animals and the landscape that humans have altered in a Catalog.

Example #2
Goblin Market by Christina Rossetti

Morning and evening
Maids heard the goblins cry:
"Come buy our orchard fruits,
Come buy, come buy:
Apples and quinces,
Lemons and oranges,
Plump unpeck'd cherries,
Melons and raspberries,
Bloom-down-cheek'd peaches,
Swart-headed mulberries,
Wild free-born cranberries,
Crab-apples, dewberries,
Pine-apples, blackberries,
Apricots, strawberries;—
All ripe together
In summer weather,—
Morns that pass by,
Fair eves that fly;
Come buy, come buy:

Our grapes fresh from the vine,
Pomegranates full and fine,
Dates and sharp bullaces,
Rare pears and greengages,
Damsons and bilberries,
Taste them and try:
Currants and gooseberries,
Bright-fire-like barberries,

It's a long narrative poem about two sisters, Lizzie and Laura, and how Laura tempts to taste the fruits sold by the goblin. The writer Catalogs the variety of fruits available in the Goblin's market and can be interpreted in various ways. However, the use of cataloging technique has made it a conventional poem.

Example #3


Song of Myself by Walt Whitman

Houses and rooms are full of perfumes, the shelves are crowded with perfumes,
I breathe the fragrance myself and know it and like it,
The distillation would intoxicate me also, but I shall not let it.

The atmosphere is not a perfume, it has no taste of the distillation, it is odorless,
It is for my mouth forever, I am in love with it,
I will go to the bank by the wood and become undisguised and naked,
I am mad for it to be in contact with me.

This poem is about celebration and the poet wants the entire world to be part of this jubilation. He tries to contain the whole world within himself. Therefore, he provides the list of whole stuff belongs to him. In this part, he presents the Catalog of things he loves and wants to keep in life. He has presented a list of things through a chain of associated thought to make the meanings clear giving a unique quality to the poem.

Example #4
Catalog by Naomi Replansky

My blurring eyes, my deafened ears—
O careless sadism of the years!

Sun-loving and sun-ravaged skin—
One-sided love has done you in.

My teeth—less said, less missed!—my heart—
My runaway, my telltale heart—

Heart whose misfirings can defeat
The pulse of this iambic beat!

(While hypochondria detects
Whatever ill it hears of next.)

She has prepared a long list of her body parts one by one and stated how they are related to her emotions and poetic output. She has started this list from her eyes and goes on to list teeth and heart with each having its own features and contribution in her poetic output.

Example #5
Fear by Raymond Carver

"Fear of seeing a police car pull into the drive.
Fear of falling asleep at night.
Fear of not falling asleep.
Fear of the past rising up.
Fear of the present taking flight.
Fear of the telephone that rings in the dead of night.
Fear of electrical storms.
Fear of the cleaning woman who has a spot on her cheek!
Fear of dogs I've been told won't bite.
Fear of anxiety!
Fear of having to identify the body of a dead friend.
Fear of running out of money.
Fear of having too much, though people will not believe this.
Fear of psychological profiles.
Fear of being late and fear of arriving before anyone else.
Fear of my children's handwriting on envelopes.
Fear they'll die before I do, and I'll feel guilty.
Fear of having to live with my mother in her old age, and mine.
Fear of confusion.
Fear this day will end on an unhappy note.
Fear of waking up to find you gone.
Fear of not loving and fear of not loving enough.
Fear that what I love will prove lethal to those I love.
Fear of death.
Fear of living too long.
Fear of death.
I've said that."

Raymond Carver, famous for writing short stories, has illustrated the example of Catalog poetry through this poem. He presents the list of the types of fear one by one until he has reached the end of what he has stated earlier. This is one of the best examples of Catalog poem in which an exhausted list has been presented for rhetorical impacts.

Catalog Meaning and Function
Catalog or Catalogue provides writers with a tool to portray their feelings, emotions, and ideas in a logical sequence. The writers use Catalog to assemble multiple things in a series. It gives them a chance to bring together many things, ideas, and images and present them for attention in a poem format. Also, the repetition of the words strengthens the importance of ideas discussed.
Catastrophe is a final resolution that appears in a narrative plot or a long poem. It unravels the mystery or intrigue, and brings the story toward a logical end. In a tragedy, it could be the death of a protagonist or other character; and in a comedy, it could be the union of major characters. Catastrophe is a synonym of denouement. It is, in fact, the final part following protasis, epitasis, and catatasis.



Catastrophe wraps up the messy and noisy beginning, such as in Arthur Miller's play, Death of a Salesman, in which catastrophe is brought on when the main character, Willy Loman, dies in a car wreck, ostensibly committing suicide, so that his family could collect his life insurance. His widow says at his funeral that "Willy, I can't cry ... I made the last payment on the house today..."

Types of Catastrophe
Simple Catastrophe
In a simple catastrophe, the main characters do not undergo any change, nor does anything unravel; the plot merely serves as a passage. Simple catastrophe usually appears in epic poems, rather than in tragedies.
Complex Catastrophe
Complex catastrophe is a very common tool, in which the protagonist either undergoes a major change of fortune. This type of change is probable and necessary to resolving the plot. Complex catastrophe usually appears in novels, plays, movies, and theatrical performances.
Examples of Catastrophe in Literature


Example #1: Macbeth (by William Shakespeare)
"Despair thy charm;
And let the angel whom thou still hast serv'd
Tell thee, Macduff was from his mother's womb
Untimely ripp'd."

The following lines present a perfect example of catastrophe, which involves the death of the primary character. Macbeth falls in a mortal fight with Macduff, a man whom Macbeth has nearly wronged. Here it seems that he himself has invited his end.

Example #2: Mourning Becomes Electra (by Eugene O'Neil)
Eugene O'Neil's play "Mourning Becomes Electra" contains a series of catastrophic events, beginning with the murder of Ezra. Christine manipulates her lover Brant into helping her kill her husband with poison. After his murder, Lavinia and Orin find Brant and shoot him with a pistol.

This catastrophe leads to another catastrophe, in the form of Christine's suicide. Orin, consumed by a sense of guilt that he had driven their mother into killing herself, goes insane and commits suicide. Now Lavinia lives in a house of her dead relatives' ghosts, which is a punishment for what they have done.

Example #3: Romeo and Juliet (by William Shakespeare)


There are multiple characters who invited catastrophe in the play "Romeo and Juliet." However, Romeo himself has invited the worst type of catastrophe after he kills Tybalt. Everything in his and Juliet's life crumbles after that; as a result, Romeo faces a period of exile, leading to a number of other catastrophic events. Had Romeo not killed Tybalt, Friar would have provided a much better plan to hide Juliet, rather than using poison.

The best scene of catastrophe happens in Act-V, Scene-III, in which the fall of Paris and two lovers occurs. After the tragic conclusion of the love scene, Friar tells about the marriage and intrigue. The story ends with the death of star-crossed lovers.

Example #4: Oedipus Rex (by Sophocles)
In Sophocles' "Oedipus Rex," peripeteia leads to anagnorisis, which in turns leads to catastrophe or a terrible suffering. Catastrophe reveals the truth about the origin of Oedipus, after which the Queen Jocasta hangs herself, and Oedipus stabs his eyes, pleading to be exiled. Together all these elements make up catastrophe that King Oedipus invites by exploring his birth. Had he not explored, he might have saved himself and his family from this catastrophe.

Example #5: The Return of the Native (by Thomas Hardy)
Catastrophe in Hardy's novel, The Return of the Native, comes at the point when Eustacia becomes closer to her old lover, Damon Wildeve; which leads to the death of Clym's mother. It happens when Clym goes blind, and the couple faces economic crisis. After this tense period, Clym has a serious fight with his wife and the two separate. Eustacia plans to run away with her lover in the night. However, there comes a heavy storm, which ends up drowning them.

Function
The function of a catastrophe is to unravel the plot in a story. It comes after the falling action. It, in fact, serves as a conclusion of the narrative, when the conflict in the story in question is resolved. Catastrophe returns the situation to normal, as the characters experience catharsis, and readers feel a sense of relief. Catastrophe is also a moment when the protagonist faces the world with a new outlook. It tests human qualities, and makes readers decide if the character is good or bad.
A Catharsis is an emotional discharge through which one can achieve a state of moral or spiritual renewal, or achieve a state of liberation from anxiety and stress. Catharsis is a Greek word meaning "cleansing." In literature, it is used for the cleansing of emotions of the characters. It can also be any other radical change that leads to emotional rejuvenation of a person.



Originally, the term was used as a metaphor in Poetics by Aristotle, to explain the impact of tragedy on the audiences. He believed that catharsis was the ultimate end of a tragic artistic work, and that it marked its quality. He further said, in Poetics:

"Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; ... through pity [eleos] and fear [phobos] effecting the proper purgation [catharsis] of these emotions" (c. 350 BCE, Book 6.2).

Examples of Catharsis from Literature
Example #1: Macbeth (By William Shakespeare)
William Shakespeare wrote two famous examples of catharsis. One of these catharsis examples is his tragic drama Macbeth. The audience and readers of Macbeth usually pity the tragic central figure of the play because he was blinded by his destructive preoccupation with ambition.

In Act 1, he is made the thane of Cawdor by King Duncan, which makes him a prodigy, well-regarded for his valor and talent. However, the era of his doom starts when he, like most people, gets carried away by ambition, and the supernatural world as well. Subsequently, he loses his wife, his veracity, and eventually his life. The temptation of ambition robs him of the essence of his existence as a human being, and leaves behind nothing but discontent and a worthless life. In Act V, Macbeth gathers this idea in his soliloquy. He says, while speaking of his life:

"... a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more. It is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing."

Example #2: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
"Here's to my love! [Drinks] O true apothecary! Thy drugs are quick. Thus with a kiss I die. [Falls]"

In Romeo and Juliet, Romeo commits suicide by drinking the poison that he erroneously thinks Juliet had tasted too. The audience usually finds themselves crying at this particular moment for several reasons. Primarily because losing a loved one is a feeling that all of us have experienced. Watching or reading such a scene triggers the memories of someone we have lost (either by death or by mere separation), and because we are able to relate to it, we suddenly release the emotions that we have been repressing.

Function of Catharsis: Dramatic Uses


In dramatic art, the term catharsis explains the impact of tragedy, comedy, or any other form of art on the audience - and in some cases even on the performers themselves. Aristotle did not elaborate on the meaning of "catharsis," and the way he used it in defining tragedy in Poetics.

According to G. F. Else, the conventional and the most prevalent explanation of catharsis as "purgation" or "cleansing" does not have a basis in Poetics. It has rather stemmed from other non-Aristotelian and Aristotelian contexts. Such confusion regarding the origin of the term has led to assorted interpretations of its meaning.

An authoritative version of Poetics by D. W. Lucas thoroughly covered, in an appendix dedicated to "Pity, Fear, and Katharsis," the different shades of meaning and aspects inherent in the interpretation of the word (Aristotle: Poetics, Oxford, 1968, pp. 276-79). Lucas identifies that there is a chance that catharsis may have some aspect of meanings like "purgation," "intellectual clarification," and "purification."

However, the kind of discussion he conducts on these terms is not as precise as other leading scholars would want it to be. He does not consider any interpretations other than his own, and rather takes a different approach. His approach is centered on "the Greek doctrine of Humours," which was not received too well.

The most common interpretations of the term are purgation and purification, which are still widely used. The most recent interpretation of the term catharsis is "intellectual clarification."
Human beings often try to find root causes of things, happenings and phenomena. This research leads to the discovery of effects, too. It is because human beings always desire to understand reasons for things, and why they happen. A composition written to find out reasons and results is called a cause and effect essay. It makes discovery of the causes of something and resultantly finds out effects.



Signal Words for Cause and Effect Essays
Cause and effect uses special words for causes, effects, and predictions, such as led to, because, cause, reason, explanation, so etc. However, for effects, the words most commonly used are therefore, as a result, consequently, thus, then, and thanks to. For predictions, the most commonly used words are if, when, after, as soon as, may, might, or possible.

Examples of Cause and Effect Essay in Literature


Example #1: Why We Crave Horror Movies (by Stephen King)
"I think that we're all mentally ill: those of us outside the asylums only hide it a little better—and maybe not all that much better, after all. We've all known people who talk to themselves, people who sometimes squinch their faces into horrible grimaces when they believe no one is watching, people who have some hysterical fear—of snakes, the dark, the tight place, the long drop ... and, of course, those final worms and grubs that are waiting so patiently underground.

When we pay our four or five bucks and seat ourselves at tenth-row center in a theater showing a horror movie, we are daring the nightmare.

Why? Some of the reasons are simple and obvious. To show that we can, that we are not afraid, that we can ride this roller coaster. Which is not to say that a really good horror movie may not surprise a scream out of us at some point, the way we may scream when the roller coaster twists through a complete 360 or plows through a lake at the bottom of the drop. And horror movies, like roller coasters, have always been the special province of the young; by the time one turns 40 or 50, one's appetite for double twists or 360-degree loops may be considerably depleted."

Stephen King tells the reasons people like to watch something horrible or terrible. This passage sheds light on those reasons.

Example #2: Innocents Afield (by Buzz Bissinger)
"We are clinging to the supposed virtues of high school athletics with particular zeal. Everybody knows that pro sports is too far gone (take your pick of recent scandals). Everybody knows that college sports is too far gone (take your pick of recent scandals). But still there's high school sports, still the classic battle of one rival against the other in shaggy glory, what James Jones described in From Here to Eternity as "the magnificent foolishness of youth as if the whole of life depended on this game." A half-century later, the depiction of noble sacrifice at the high school level still forms our baseline, gives us hope that something in sports is still unsullied, restores our faith in the family values fad that has overtaken the low-carb diet."

This passage sheds light on the reasons that school sports are necessary. The whole essay revolves around the games, reasons for the games, and their effects.

Example #3: Black Men and Public Space (by Brent Staples)


"My first victim was a woman—white, well dressed, probably in her early twenties. I came upon her late one evening on a deserted street in Hyde Park, a relatively affluent neighborhood in an otherwise mean, impoverished section of Chicago. As I swung onto the avenue behind her, there seemed to be a discreet, uninflammatory distance between us. Not so. She cast back a worried glance. To her, the youngish black man—a broad six feet two inches with a beard and billowing hair, both hands shoved into the pockets of a bulky military jacket—seemed menacingly close. After a few more quick glimpses, she picked up her pace and was soon running in earnest. Within seconds she disappeared into a cross street."

This passage describes the cause of a woman's fear in a narrative, as well as the effect of her fear. As it is part of a long essay, the next passage sheds light on the effects on women.

Function of Cause and Effect Essay
A cause and effect essay explains the real situation to readers. Readers understand what lies behind a happening, and how it effects, or how it will impact, human beings. Mostly, such essays are used for scientific topics. It is because these essays explore the nature of things, and their likely effects on us, or the things around us.
All stories need certain necessary elements. Without these elements, literary works often fail to make sense. For instance, one of the essential elements of every story is a plot with a series of events. Another important element is a character. A character can be any person, a figure, an inanimate object, or animal. There are different types of characters, and each serves its unique function in a story or a piece of literature.



Types of Character
There are many types of the characters which include:

Confidante
A confidante is someone in whom the main character confides. He reveals the central character's thoughts, intentions, and personality traits. However, a confidante need not necessarily be a person. An animal can also be a confidante.

Dynamic Character
A dynamic character changes during the course of a novel or a story. This change in character or his/her outlook is permanent. That is why sometimes a dynamic character is also called a "developing character."

Static Character


A static character remains the same throughout the whole story. Even the events in a story or novel do not change character's outlook, perceptions, habits, personality, or motivations.

Antagonist
An antagonist is a bad guy, or an opponent of the protagonist or the main character. The action in the story arises from a conflict between the protagonist and the antagonist. The antagonist can be a person, an inanimate object, an animal, or nature itself.

Protagonist
Every story has a protagonist, the main character, who creates the action of the plot and engages readers, arousing their empathy and interest. The protagonist is often a hero or heroine of the story, as the whole plot moves around him or her.

Round Character
The round characters are well-developed and complex figures in a story. They are more realistic, and demonstrate more depth in their personalities. They can make surprising or puzzling decisions, and attract readers' attention. There are many factors that may affect them, and round characters react to such factors realistically.

Flat Character
A flat character does not change during a story. Also, he or she usually only reveals one or two personality traits.

Stock Character
A stock character is a flat character that is instantly recognizable by readers. Like a flat character, the stock character does not undergo any development throughout the story.

Examples of Character in Literature


Example #1: The Lord of the Rings trilogy (By J. R. R.)
In The Lord of the Rings Trilogy, Frodo and his friend Sam discover their unexpected personal commitment, emotional and physical strength, and dedication to the cause. Gandalf discovers that his trust was broken by his fellow wizards, thus he transforms into a magician with a stronger character. Aragorn, an heir to line of kings, gives up his title; however, over the period of time he discovers his leadership skills, and decides to regain his crown. All of these characters provide us with good examples of round characters, each having depth of personality, and abilities to surprise the readers.

Example #2: A Christmas Carol (by Charles Dickens)
In Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, Ebenezer Scrooge is a tightfisted person. He forces his workers to work hard, but gives them peanuts in return. However, after undergoing some very strange and disturbing experiences with the ghosts, he changes his ways - paying his employees more than their fair wages, giving them days off work, and even gives gifts. This transformation makes him fit into the role of a dynamic character.

Example #3: Hedda Gabler (by Henrik Ibsen)
Hedda Gabler is manipulative, cold, and "demonic," even though she is the title character - the focus of the play. She is the most complex and psychologically compelling character, the reason that she is a dynamic character.

Example #4: Othello (by William Shakespeare)
At some points, it seems that Iago is the protagonist, since he dominates the entire play and delivers soliloquies. However, he does not change at all, and most of the protagonists undergo some sort of change during a play. Also, in the opening lines, Iago describes himself as someone who wishes to destroy Othello. Thus, his actions transform him into a tragic antagonistic type of character, though he is the central character of the play.

Function of Character
The main function of a character in a story is to extend or prolong the plot, make it readable and interesting. Many stories use multiple characters, and every story has a main character that affects the plot a great deal. The main character could be a protagonist, an antagonist, a dynamic, a static, a flat, or a round character. Readers feel that the characters given in the literary pieces exist, and they enjoy reading their real and lifelike figures and actions.
Characterization is a literary device that is used step-by-step in literature to highlight and explain the details about a character in a story. It is in the initial stage in which the writer introduces the character with noticeable emergence. After introducing the character, the writer often talks about his behavior; then, as the story progresses, the thought-processes of the character.



The next stage involves the character expressing his opinions and ideas, and getting into conversations with the rest of the characters. The final part shows how others in the story respond to the character's personality.

Characterization as a literary tool was coined in the mid 15th century. Aristotle in his Poetics argued that "tragedy is a representation, not of men, but of action and life." Thus the assertion of the dominance of plot over characters, termed "plot-driven narrative," is unmistakable. This point of view was later abandoned by many because, in the 19th century, the dominance of character over plot became clear through petty bourgeois novels.

Types of Characterization
An author can use two approaches to deliver information about a character and build an image of it. These two types of characterization include:

Direct or explicit characterization
This kind of characterization takes a direct approach towards building the character. It uses another character, narrator, or the protagonist himself to tell the readers or audience about the subject.

Indirect or implicit characterization
This is a more subtle way of introducing the character to the audience. The audience has to deduce for themselves the characteristics of the character by observing his/her thought process, behavior, speech, way of talking, appearance, and manner of communication with other characters, as well as by discerning the response of other characters.

Characterization in Drama


On stage or in front of the camera, actors usually do not have much time to characterize. For this reason, the character faces the risk of coming across as underdeveloped. In dramaturgy, realists take a different approach, by relying on implied characterization. This is pivotal to the theme of their character-driven narrative. Examples of these playwrights are Anton Chekhov, Henrik Ibsen, and August Strindberg.

Classic psychological characterization examples, such as The Seagull, usually build the main character in a more indirect manner. This approach is considered more effective because it slowly discloses the inner turmoil of the character, over the course of the show, and lets the audience connect better.

The actors who act in such roles usually work on them profoundly to get an in-depth idea of the personalities of their respective characters. Often, during such shows, plays, or dramas, no direct statements about the character's nature are found. This kind of realism needs the actors to build the character from their own perspective initially. This is why realistic characterization is more of a subtle art, which cannot directly be recognized.

Examples of Characterization in Literature
Example #1: The Great Gatsby (By F. Scott Fitzgerald)
There are many examples of characterization in literature. The Great Gatsby, is probably the best. In this particular book, the main idea revolves around the social status of each character. The major character of the book, Mr. Gatsby, is perceptibly rich, but he does not belong to the upper stratum of society. This means that he cannot have Daisy. Tom is essentially defined by his wealth and the abusive nature that he portrays every now and then, while Daisy is explained by Gatsby as having a voice "full of money."

Another technique to highlight the qualities of a character is to put them in certain areas that are symbolic of a social status. In the novel, Gatsby resides in the West Egg, which is considered less trendy than East Egg, where Daisy lives. This difference points out the gap between Jay's and Daisy's social statuses. Moreover, you might also notice that Tom, Jordan, and Daisy live in East Egg while Gatsby and Nick reside in West Egg, which again highlights the difference in their financial background. This division is reinforced at the end of the novel when Nick supports Gatsby against the rest of the folk.

Occupations have also been used very tactfully in the novel to highlight characteristics of certain protagonists. The prime example is Gatsby who, despite being so rich, is known by his profession: bootlegging. He had an illegal job that earned him a fortune, but failed to get him into the upper class of New York society. In contrast, Nick has a clean and fair job of a "bond man" that defines his character. The poor guy Wilson, who fixes rich people's cars, befriends his wife; and then there is Jordon, who is presented as a dishonest golf pro.

Function of Characterization
Characterization is an essential component in writing good literature. Modern fiction, in particular, has taken great advantage of this literary device. Understanding the role of characterization in storytelling is very important for any writer. To put it briefly, it helps us make sense of the behavior of any character in a story by helping us understand their thought processes. A good use of characterization always leads the readers or audience to relate better to the events taking place in the story. Dialogues play a very important role in developing a character, because they give us an opportunity to examine the motivations and actions of the characters more deeply.
Chiasmus is a rhetorical device in which two or more clauses are balanced against each other by the reversal of their structures in order to produce an artistic effect.



Let us try to understand chiasmus with the help of an example:

"Never let a Fool Kiss You or a Kiss Fool You."

Notice that the second half of this sentence is an inverted form of the first half, both grammatically and logically. In the simplest sense, the term chiasmus applies to almost all "criss-cross" structures, and this is a concept that is common these days. In its strict classical sense, however, the function of chiasmus is to reverse grammatical structure or ideas of sentences, given that the same words and phrases are not repeated.

The Difference Between Chiasmus and Antimetabole
Chiasmus is different from antimetabole. An antimetabole is the repetition of words in consecutive clauses, but in an inverted or transposed order. For example:

"You forget what you want to remember, and you remember what you want to forget."

Antimetabole examples resemble chiasmus, as they are marked by the inversion of structure. In examples of chiasmus, however, the words and phrases are not repeated. Generally, chiasmus and antimetabole are regarded by many critics as similar tools of rhetoric.

Examples of Chiasmus from Greek Sages


The use of chiasmus as a rhetorical device dates back to the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Its traces have been found in the ancient texts of Sanskrit, and also in ancient Chinese writings. Greeks, however, developed an unmatched inclination for this device, and made it an essential part of the art of oration.

Example #1: Aeschylus, 5th Century B.C.
"It is not the oath that makes us believe the man,
but the man the oath."

Example #2: Bias, 6th Century B.C.
"Love as if you would one day hate,
and hate as if you would one day love."

Example #3: Socrates, 5th Century B.C.


"Bad men live that they may eat and drink,
whereas good men eat and drink that they may live."

Examples of Chiasmus from Literature
Example #1: Othello (By William Shakespeare)
"But O, what damned minutes tells he o'er
Who dotes, yet doubts; suspects, yet strongly loves."

Example #2: Essay on Man (By Alexander Pope)
"His time a moment, and a point his space."

Example #3: Do I Love You Because You're Beautiful? (By Oscar Hammerstein)
"Do I love you because you're beautiful?
Or are you beautiful because I love you?"

Example #4: Paradise Lost (By John Milton)
"...in his face
Divine compassion visibly appeared,
Love without end, and without measure Grace..."

Example #5: Quote (By Judith Viorst)
"Lust is what makes you keep wanting to do it, Even when you have no desire to be with each other. Love is what makes you keep wanting to be with each other, Even when you have no desire to do it."

Example #6: Quote (By John Marshall)
"In the blue grass region,
A paradox was born:
The corn was full of kernels
And the colonels full of corn."

Example #7: Quote (By Alfred P. Solan)
"Some have an idea that the reason we in this country discard things so readily is because we have so much. The facts are exactly opposite - the reason we have so much is simply because we discard things so readily."

Example #8: Quote (By Voltaire)
"The instinct of a man is
to pursue everything that flies from him, and
to fly from all that pursues him."

Example #9: Quote (By Thomas Szaz)
"When religion was strong and science weak, men
mistook magic for medicine;
Now, when science is strong and religion weak, men
mistake medicine for magic."

Function of Chiasmus
As the above discussion reveals, chiasmus is a unique rhetorical device that is employed by writers to create a special artistic effect, in order to lay emphasis on what they want to communicate. In his treatise, Analyzing Prose, Richard A. Lanham puts forward his interesting point of view about chiasmus in the following words:

"By keeping the phrase but inverting its meaning we use our opponent's own power to overcome him, just as a judo expert does. So a scholar remarked of another's theory, 'Cannon entertains that theory because that theory entertains Cannon.' The pun on 'entertain' complicates the chiasmus here, but the judo still prevails — Cannon is playing with the power of his own mind rather than figuring out the secrets of the universe."
Circumlocution is a rhetorical device that can be defined as an ambiguous or paradoxical way of expressing things, ideas, or views. In fact, when somebody wants to remain ambiguous about something, and he does not want to say a thing directly, it means he is using circumlocution.



Common Features
Examining all the examples of circumlocution, one would find that they share the following features:

It is used when the speaker is unable to choose the right words to express or say something.
It is used for social purposes in order to avoid using offensive words.
It is used in politics and law, and sometimes it becomes difficult to judge which perspective of a politician or a lawyer should be supported.
In poetry and verse, it is used to create a regular meter.
Examples of Circumlocution in Literature


Example #1: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
LAERTES:
"Then weigh what loss your honour may sustain
If with too credent ear you list his songs,
Or lose your heart, or your chaste treasure open
To his unmast'red importunity."

Laertes gives his domineering suggestion genuinely here, but his tone seemed to be of a prepared speech. He neither shows real awareness of, nor consideration for, Ophelia's feelings. By using circumlocution, he underscores her feminine inferiority.

Example #2: The Rape of the Lock (By Alexander Pope)
"Close by those meads, forever crowned with flowers,
Where Thames with pride surveys his rising towers,
There stands a structure of majestic frame,
Which for the neighb'ring Hampton takes its name.
Here Britain's statesmen oft the fall foredoom
Dost sometimes counsel take—and sometimes tea.

Not louder shrieks to pitying Heav'n are cast,
When husbands or when lap-dogs breathe their last,
Or when rich China vessels, fall'n from high,
In glitt'ring dust and painted fragments lie!"

In the preceding excerpt, Pope criticizes the aristocracy by describing Hampton Court Palace. Circumlocution is employed to reveal the harsh realities, apart from the amusement of court. Pope points out both serious matters and trivial occasions happening in royal houses.

Example #3: Kubla Khan (By S. T. Coleridge)


"So twice five miles of fertile ground
With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
Enfolding sunny spots of greenery."

Here, Coleridge uses circumlocution to illustrate the underlying concepts. He describes the outside natural world, which is wild, and the things that are protected and peaceful within the palace walls.

Example #4: Heart of Darkness (By Joseph Conrad)
"The edge of a colossal jungle, so dark green as to be almost black, fringed with white surf, ran straight, like a ruled line, far, far away along a blue sea whose glitter was blurred by a creeping mist. The sun was fierce, the land seemed to glisten and drip with steam..."

Conrad is intentionally presenting ambiguous descriptions of the nature of morality and truth, which forces readers to take part in comprehending the novella. Here, the depiction of nature - of forests, and sea, of sun and mist - represents racial, political, psychoanalytical, and feminist perspectives.

Example #5: The Importance of Being Earnest (By Oscar Wilde)
"I was within a hair's breadth of the last opportunity for pronouncement, and I found with humiliation that probably I would have nothing to say..."

In this excerpt, the idea of earnestness has appeared in various forms. It can be understood by its opposites. Here, it is offered as the reverse of triviality, and elsewhere as the opposite of seriousness. Though ostensibly it is a quality of candor, the exact meanings are still vague.

Example #6: Holy Sonnet 14 (By John Donne)
"Divorce me, untie or break that knot again;
Take me to you, imprison me, for I,
Except you enthrall me, never shall be free,
Nor ever chaste, except you ravish me."

Donne talks about the conflict that rages within himself, which he expresses through circumlocution. He says a man cannot avoid Satan's influence, but he must rely on God to get freedom spiritually from Satan.

Function of Circumlocution
Circumlocution is extensively used in poetry, music, and rhetorical speech. It is, in fact, the embellishment of putting different words together so as not to say what a person wants not to say. Circumlocution makes the verses soft and beautiful, since it is a way to set aside harsh speech, and make words sound sweeter. However, the major use of circumlocution is to express something ambiguously, and often in poetry to create regular rhyme. Also, it is employed to give different ideas to readers.
A statement essentially arguable, but used as a primary point to support or prove an argument is called a claim. If somebody gives an argument to support his position, it is called "making a claim." Different reasons are usually presented to prove why a certain point should be accepted as logical. A general model is given below to explain the steps followed in making a claim:



Premise 1
Premise 2
Premise 3 ...
Premise N
Therefore,
Conclusion

In this model, the symbol and the dots before it signify that the number of premises used for proving an argument may vary. The word "therefore" shows that the conclusion will be restating the main argument, which was being supported all the way through.

With the help of a claim, one can express a particular stance on an issue that is controversial, so as to verify it as a logically sound idea. In case of a complex idea, it is always wise to start by classifying the statements you are about to put forward. Many times, the claims you make stay unnoticed because of the complex sentence structure; specifically, where the claims and their grounds are intertwined. However, a rhetorical performance, such as a speech or an essay, is typically made up of a single central claim, and most of the content contains several supporting arguments for that central claim.

Types of Claim
There are many types of claim used in literature, and all of them have their own significance. The type that we will be discussing here has great importance in writing and reading about literature because it is used frequently to build arguments. It is called evaluative claim.

Evaluative claims involve the assessment or judgment of the ideas in the original piece. They have been divided further into two types: ethical judgment and aesthetic judgment. As the name implies, aesthetic judgment revolves around deciding whether or not a piece of writing fulfills artistic standards.

You can easily find evaluative claim examples in book reviews. This type is about assessing an argument, or the entire essay on ethical, social, political, and philosophical grounds, and determining whether an idea is wise, good, commendable, and valid. The evaluative and interpretive claims typically consist of well-versed viewpoints. Where interpretive claims strive to explain or clarify the views communicated in and by the text, evaluative claims study the validity of those views by drawing comparison between them and the writer's own opinions.

Claim Examples


Interpretive Claims
Example #1: Animal Farm (By George Orwell)
The great thing about Animal Farm by George Orwell is that it has presented all animals equal in the eyes of the laws framed by them. They framed Ten Commandments when they expelled Mr. Jones from Manor Farm, and this rule, "All animals are equal," became a shibboleth for them.

This interpretive claim presents an argument about the exploration of the meanings, and the evidence that is given within quotation marks has been interpreted as well.

Similarly, "To be or not to be..." is an evidence of the excessive thinking of Prince Hamlet in the play Hamlet, written by William Shakespeare. If a person interprets the play, he has evidence to support his claim. Papers on literary analysis are treasure troves of examples of claim.

Evaluative Claims


Example #2: Animal Farm (By George Orwell)
As the majority of the animals were in the process of framing rules, it was understood that, although rats and several other animals were not present, whatsoever had four legs is an animal, and therefore is equal to any other animal. Hence, a general rule was framed that whatever walks on four legs is good. Later on, birds (having two wings and two legs) and other non-four-legged animals were also considered as animals. Therefore, all are equal.

Now this argument clearly shows the judgment given at the end, but it is after evaluation of the whole situation presented in the novel. This is called evaluative claim.

Function of Claim
The role of claims in writing any narrative or script is essential. If used correctly, they can strengthen the argument of your standpoint. The distinction between different types of claim can be highly confusing, and sometimes complicated. For instance, a composition that claims that Vogel's play gives out a socially and ethically impolite message about abuse, can also assert that the play is aesthetically flawed. A composition that goes on developing and advocating an interpretive claim about another script shows that it at least deserves philosophical or aesthetical interpretation. On the other hand, developing an evaluative claim about a composition always remains in need of a certain level of interpretation.

Hence, the dissimilarities are subtle, and can only be identified after close and profound observation; but all things considered, they are important. Thus, lest it is suggested you do otherwise, you must always leave the evaluative claims for conclusions, and make your essay an interpretive claim.
Cliché refers to an expression that has been overused to the extent that it loses its original meaning or novelty. A cliché may also refer to actions and events that are predictable because of some previous events.



All examples of cliché are expressions that were once new and fresh. They won popularity in the public and hence have been used so extensively that such expressions now sound boring and at times irritating, due to the fact that they have lost their original color. For instance, the phrase "as red as a rose" must have been a fresh and innovative expression at some point in time, but today it is considered universally as a cliché, and does not make such an impact when used in everyday or formal writing.

Expressions that are not Clichés
It is important to keep in mind that constant reuse of expressions does not necessarily create a cliché. Typical expressions that are used almost at all times in formal ceremonies, festivals, courts, etc. are not considered cliché examples; rather they befit such occasions, and are regarded as more appropriate. Following are a few examples:

"I second the motion" (Board or council meeting)
"I now pronounce you man and wife" (Wedding Ceremony)
"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States." (Oath-taking ceremony)
"Happy Birthday!"
Similarly, certain epithets like "reverend" and "father" are attached to the names of church officials. Besides, people of the royal family are addressed with epithets "Your Grace," "Your Highness," or "Your Royal Highness." Such expressions are part of proper etiquette, and do not fall under the category of cliché.

Common Cliché Examples


Example #1
In describing time, the following expressions have turned into cliché:

in the nick of time - to happen just in time
only time will tell - to become clear over time
a matter of time - to happen sooner or later
at the speed of light - to do something very quickly
lasted an eternity - to last for a very long time
lost track of time - to stop paying attention to time
Example #2
In describing people, these expressions have turned into cliché:

as brave as a lion - describes a very brave person
as clever as a fox - describes a very clever person
as old as the hills - describes an old person or idea
a diamond in the rough - describes someone with a brilliant future
fit as a fiddle - describes a person in a good shape
as meek as a lamb - describes a person who is too weak and humble
Example #3


In describing various sentiments, a number of expressions have turned into cliché:

frightened to death - to be too frightened
scared out of one's wits - to be too frightened
all is fair in love and war - to go to any extent to claim somebody's love
all is well that ends well - a happy ending reduces the severity of problems that come in one's way
every cloud has a silver lining - problems also have something good in them
the writing on the wall - something clear and already understood
time heals all wounds - pain and miseries get will heal, with the passage of time
haste makes waste - people make mistakes when rushing
Example #4
Below is a list of some more common clichés:

They all lived happily ever after
Read between the lines
Fall head over heals
Waking up on the wrong side of the bed
The quiet before the storm
Between the devil and the deep blue sea
Function of Cliché
Anton C. Zijderveld, a Dutch sociologist, throws light on the function of cliché in the following excerpt, taken from his treatise On Clichés:

"A cliché is a traditional form of human expression (in words, thoughts, emotions, gestures, acts) which - due to repetitive use in social life - has lost its original, often ingenious heuristic power. Although it thus fails positively to contribute meaning to social interactions and communication, it does function socially, since it manages to stimulate behavior (cognition, emotion, volition, action), while it avoids reflection on meanings."
A cliffhanger is a type of narrative or a plot device in which the end is curiously abrupt, so that the main characters are left in a difficult situation, without offering any resolution of conflicts.



As a result of a sudden end, suspense is created at the very end of the novel, leaving the readers in such a state that they could not help but to ask, "What will happen next?" This type of end is common to serially-published novels, which end at a dramatic or suspenseful moment. The cliffhanger plot device ensures readers will buy the next installment, in order to read and find out what happens.

Cliffhanger Examples in Everyday Life
Cliffhanger examples in television series are abundant. Episodes of TV series end during moments of high drama in order to ensure the following of viewers in the next episode. One famous example is the TV series Lost, which ended almost every episode with a cliffhanger. Commercial breaks compel writers to include a cliffhangers in the plot before each break to maintain suspense, and ensure viewership following the break.

Examples of Cliffhanger in Literature


Example #1: One Thousand and One Nights (By Muhsin Mahdi)
Cliffhanger has its roots in ancient oriental literature. One example is in the collection of stories known as One Thousand and One Nights, in which the king Shehreyar orders his queen Scheherzade to be hanged. She devises a plan to tell a story to the king every night, ending that story with a cliffhanger. The king postponed the order of execution every day to hear the rest of the story.

Example #2: A Pair of Blue Eyes (By Thomas Hardy)
The term "cliffhanger" seems to get its name from the Thomas Hardy's novel A Pair of Blue Eyes, which was published in a magazine in a series format, with a chapter published every month. At the end of one of the episodes, Hardy left his main character, Henry Knight, hanging onto a cliff, staring at the stony eyes of a fossil embedded in rocks below. Since then, every abrupt end has been termed a "cliffhanger."

Example #3: The Tempest (By William Shakespeare)


William Shakespeare could not afford for his audience to be bored, and for this reason he uses a cliffhanger in Act 1, Scene 1 of his play The Tempest. The scene of a storm and shipwreck is depicted in a most vivid manner, but the audience is unsure if anybody on the ship has survived. The device is employed with the purpose that the audience will return to see the next act. Finally, the fate of the crew on board is revealed in Act 2, Scene 1 and the focus of the audience is ensured by that time.

Example #4: Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (By J. K. Rowling)
J. K. Rowling, in her famous work Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, employs many cliffhangers. To cite an example from Chapter 3, " Letters from No One":

"One minute to go and he'd be eleven. Thirty seconds...twenty...ten...nine - may be he'd wake Dudley up, just to annoy him - three...two...one...

BOOM!

The whole shack shivered and Harry sat bolt upright, staring at the door. Someone was outside, knocking to come in."

Obviously, you will turn the page and start reading the next chapter to know who was outside knocking at the door. The obvious reason for such endings is to create interest in the readers, so they will move on to the next chapter without the slightest hesitation.

Function of Cliffhanger
By nature, man is a curious creature. Cliffhangers in any form of literature appeal to our curiosity. The main purpose of employing this device is to maintain suspense in the plot in order to ensure the interest and focus of the readers. It acts as bait to lead the readers from one part of the text to another with more interest than before.

Cliffhangers, undoubtedly, are enjoyable to read at the end of the chapters of novels. However, it can be very frustrating at the very end of a novel, as it leaves readers discontented after all the effort they put in to read the novel.

In TV series, where the cliffhanger tool is perhaps most popular, they make use of this device to great effect. The viewers' favorite characters are left in a lurch, and the viewers yearn to know more about their fate. As a result, viewers are likely to want to keep up in the next episode.
Climax, a Greek term meaning "ladder," is that particular point in a narrative at which the conflict or tension hits the highest point. It is a structural part of a plot, and is at times referred to as a "crisis." It is a decisive moment or a turning point in a storyline at which the rising action turns around into a falling action. Thus, a climax is the point at which a conflict or crisis reaches its peak, then calls for a resolution or denouement (conclusion). In a five-act play, the climax is close to the conclusion of act 3. Later in the 19th century, five-act plays were replaced by three-act plays, and the climax was placed close to the conclusion or at the end of the play.



Examples of Climax in Literature
Let us analyze a few climax examples in literature:

Example #1: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
In William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet, the story reaches its climax in Act 3. In the first scene of the act, Romeo challenges Tybalt to a duel after he (Tybalt) killed Mercutio:

"And fire-eyed fury be my conduct now!
Now, Tybalt, take the 'villain' back again
That late thou gavest me; for Mercutio's soul
Is but a little way above our heads ..."

As soon as he killed Tybalt, Romeo says:

"O! I am Fortune's Fool!"

He realizes that he has killed his wife's cousin. This juncture in the play is a climax, as the audience wonders how Romeo would get out of this terrible situation. Similarly, it qualifies as a climax because, after this act, all the prior conflicts start to be resolved, and mysteries unfold themselves, thus moving the story toward its logical conclusion during the coming scenes.

Example #2: The Heart of Darkness (By Joseph Conrad)
In Joseph Conrad's novel The Heart of Darkness, the narrative reaches its climax when Marlowe starts his journey in his steam boat, in the direction of the inner station, and his final discovery upon reaching the station and meeting "Kurtz." He was shocked to discover that Kurtz had abandoned all norms and morals of his civilization, after giving in to the savage customs of the wild Congo. Following this point in the novel, the mystery surrounding Kurtz is unfolded, and the questions in the mind of Marlow find their answers automatically when he sees the real situation.

Climax as a Stylistic Device


As a stylistic device, the term climax refers to a literary device in which words, phrases, and clauses are arranged in an order to increase their importance within the sentence. The following are examples of climax as a stylistic device:

Example #3: The Passionate Pilgrim (By William Shakespeare)


See how William Shakespeare achieves climax in the passage below, taken from his Sonnet The Passionate Pilgrim:

"Beauty is but a vain and doubtful good;
A shining gloss that vadeth suddenly;
A flower that dies when first it gins to bud;
A brittle glass that's broken presently:
A doubtful good, a gloss, a glass, a flower,
Lost, vaded, broken, dead within an hour."

The phrase "dead within an hour" is placed at the very end, as it marks the climax of the fate of beauty, which he introduces as "a vain and doubtful good."

Example #4: I Have a Dream speech (By Martin Luther King, Jr.)
"This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable Rights of Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."

This line from Martin Luther King's famous speech, I Have a Dream, qualifies as the climax of the speech. It criticizes and rejects racial discrimination suffered by black Americans at the hands of white Americans.

Function of Climax
A climax, when used as a plot device, helps readers understand the significance of the previously rising action to the point in the plot where the conflict reaches its peak. The climax of the story makes readers mentally prepared for the resolution of the conflict. Hence, it is important to the plot structure of a story. Moreover, climax is used as a stylistic device or a figure of speech to render balance and brevity to speech or writing. Being pre-employed, it qualifies itself as a powerful tool that can instantly capture the undivided attention of listeners and readers alike. Hence, its importance cannot be underestimated.
Coherence is a Latin word, meaning "to stick together." In a composition, coherence is a literary technique that refers to logical connections, which listeners or readers perceive in an oral or written text. In other words, it is a written or spoken piece that is not only consistent and logical, but also unified and meaningful. It makes sense when read or listened to as a whole. The structure of a coherent paragraph could be general to particular and particular to general or any other format.



Types of Coherence
Local Level Coherent Text
In this type of text, coherence occurs within small portions of a passage or a text.
Global level Coherent Text
In this type of text, coherence takes place within the whole text of a story or essay, rather than in its few parts.
Examples of Coherence in Literature


Example #1: One Man's Meat (by E.B. White)
"Scientific agriculture, however sound in principle, often seems strangely unrelated to, and unaware of, the vital, grueling job of making a living by farming. Farmers sense this quality in it as they study their bulletins, just as a poor man senses in a rich man an incomprehension of his own problems. The farmer of today knows, for example, that manure loses some of its value when exposed to the weather ... But he knows also that to make hay he needs settled weather - better weather than you usually get in June."

This is a global level coherent text passage in which White has wonderfully unified the sentences to make it a whole. He has started the passage with a general topic, scientific agriculture, but moved it to a specific text about farmers and their roles.

Example #2: A Tale of Two Cities (by Charles Dickens)
"The wine was red wine, and had stained the ground of the narrow street in the suburb of Saint Antoine, in Paris, where it was spilled. It had stained many hands, too, and many faces, and many naked feet, and many wooden shoes. The hands of the man who sawed the wood, left red marks on the billets; and the forehead of the woman who nursed her baby, was stained with the stain of the old rag she wound about her head again. Those who had been greedy with the staves of the cask ... scrawled upon a wall with his finger dipped in muddy wine-lees—BLOOD."

Taken from the novel, A Tale of Two Cities, this passage's emphasis is on the idea of staining, and scrawling the word "blood," which further brings coherence into the lines. The connection is thus made through the appearance of Wood-Sawyer, a man who scares Lucie later. This is how it achieves coherence.

Example #3: Animal Farm (by George Orwell)


"Now, comrades, what is the nature of this life of ours? Let us face it: our lives are miserable, laborious, and short. We are born, we are given just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies, and those of us who are capable of it are forced to work to the last atom of our strength ...

"No animal in England knows the meaning of happiness or leisure after he is a year old. The life of an animal is misery and slavery: that is the plain truth."

Through the speech of the Old Major, Orwell starts the passage about the miserable nature of the life of animals on the animal farm, and then he inspires them to think about how to safeguard their interests on the farm. The entire paragraph is an example of coherent speech.

Example #4: Unpopular Essays (by Bertrand Russell)
"The word "philosophy" is one of which the meaning is by no means fixed. Like the word "religion," it has one sense when used to describe certain features of historical cultures, and another when used to denote a study or an attitude of mind which is considered desirable in the present day. Philosophy, as pursued in the universities of the Western democratic world, is, at least in intention, part of the pursuit of knowledge, aiming at the same kind of detachment as is sought in science ..."

See how brilliantly Russell has connected the ideas of philosophy and politics, by moving from a general to a specific topic, with sentences connecting one to another, creating coherence.

Function
Coherence links the sentences of a work with one another. This may be done with paragraphs, making sure that each statement logically connects with the one preceding it, making the text easier for the readers to understand and follow. Also, ordering thoughts in a sequence helps the reader to move from one point to the next smoothly. As all of the sentences relate back to the topic, the thoughts and ideas flow smoothly.
In literature, colloquialism is the use of informal words, phrases, or even slang in a piece of writing. Colloquial expressions tend to sneak in as writers, being part of a society, are influenced by the way people speak in that society. Naturally, they are bound to add colloquial expressions to their vocabulary.



However, writers use such expressions intentionally too, as it gives their works a sense of realism. For instance, in a fiction story depicting American society, a greeting "what's up?" between friends will seem more real and appropriate than the formal "How are you?" or "How do you do?"

Colloquialism Examples in Everyday Life
Colloquial expressions vary from region to region. Below is a list of some colloquialism examples of American origin:

Bamboozle - to deceive
Bo bananas, or go nuts - go insane or be very angry
Wanna - want to
Gonna - going to
Y'all - you all
Be blue - to be sad
Buzz off - go away
Examples of Colloquialism in Literature


Example #1: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (By Mark Twain)
Mark Twain, in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, used black-American vernacular to realistically show how the "negroes" [Black Americans] talked:

"I didn't want to go back no more. I had stopped cussing, because the widow didn't like it; but now I took to it again because pap hadn't no objections... But by-and-by pap got too handy with his hick'ry, and I couldn't stand it. I was all over with welts. He got to going away so much, too, and locking me in. Once he locked me in and was gone three days. It was dreadful lonesome."

The use of double negatives is evident in the above passage, and was used as a typical characteristic of black-American vernacular.

Example #2: The Sun Rising (By John Donne)
John Donne uses colloquialisms in his poem The Sun Rising:

"Busy old fool, unruly Sun,
Why dost thou thus,
Through windows, and through curtains, call on us?
Must to thy motions lovers' seasons run?
Saucy pedantic wretch..."

The poet addresses the sun in an informal and colloquial way, as if it were a real human being. He asks the sun in a rude manner why he had appeared and spoiled the good time he was having with his beloved. Not finishing there, he commands the "saucy pedantic sun" to go away.

Example #3: Burro Genius (By Victor Villasenor)


We cite the use of colloquial expressions in the play Burro Genius, by Victor Villasenor:

"'I don't understand!' roared my father, putting his money back in his pocket. 'Hell, I've forgotten more than you or most people will EVER UNDERSTAND!'

'Salvador,' said my mother as quietly as she could, 'why don't you and Mundo go outside and let me talk to this woman alone.'

'Damn good idea!' said my father."

In this passage, Salvador's father uses colloquial words like "hell" and "damn," which gives insight into his aggressive and harsh nature. The idea of using colloquialisms is to put diversity into the characters.

Example #4: Of Mice and Men (By John Steinbeck)
Yet another instance of colloquialism can be seen in Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck:

"'Sure I will, George. I won't say a word.'

'Don't let him pull you in—but—if the son-of-a-bitch socks you—let 'im have it.'

'Never mind, never mind. I'll tell you when. I hate that kind of guy. Look, Lennie, if you get in any kind of trouble, you remember what I told you to do?'

Lennie raised up on his elbow. His face contorted with thought. Then his eyes moved sadly to George's face. 'If I get in any trouble, you ain't gonna let me tend the rabbits.'"

In the above example, the writer shows how vulgar colloquial expressions can be, depending upon who uses them, and how they use them. The above colloquial expressions are realistic enough as they are uttered by middle-aged men of a working class who are not well educated or refined.

Function of Colloquialism
Colloquial expressions in a piece of literature may give us deep insights into the writer's society. They tell us about how people really talk in their real lives. Therefore, they help a writer to form strong connections with readers. Colloquial expressions impart a sense of realism to a piece of literature, which again attracts readers as they identify it with their real life. Moreover, they add variety to the characters which makes them more interesting and memorable.
Comedy is a literary genre and a type of dramatic work that is amusing and satirical in its tone, mostly having a cheerful ending. The motif of this dramatic work is triumph over unpleasant circumstance by creating comic effects, resulting in a happy or successful conclusion.



Thus, the purpose of comedy is to amuse the audience. Comedy has multiple sub-genres depending upon the source of the humor, context in which an author delivers dialogues, and delivery methods, which include farce, satire, and burlesque. Tragedy is opposite to comedy, as tragedy deals with sorrowful and tragic events in a story.

Types of Comedy
There are five types of comedy in literature:

Romantic Comedy
Romantic comedy involves a theme of love leading to a happy conclusion. We find romantic comedy in Shakespearean plays and some Elizabethan contemporaries. These plays are concerned with idealized love affairs. It is a fact that true love never runs smoothly; however, love overcomes difficulties and ends in a happy union.

Comedy of Humors
Ben Johnson is the first dramatist who conceived and popularized this dramatic genre during the late sixteenth century. The term humor derives from the Latin word humor, which means "liquid." It comes from a theory that the human body has four liquids, or humors, which include phelgm, blood, yellow bile, and black bile. It explains that, when human beings have a balance of these humors in their bodies, they remain healthy.

Comedy of Manners


This form of dramatic genre deals with intrigues and relations of ladies and gentlemen living in a sophisticated society. This form relies upon high comedy, derived from sparkle and wit of dialogues, violations of social traditions, and good manners, by nonsense characters like jealous husbands, wives, and foppish dandies. We find its use in Restoration dramatists, particularly in the works of Wycherley and Congreve.

Sentimental Comedy
Sentimental drama contains both comedy and sentimental tragedy. It appears in literary circles due to reaction of the middle class against obscenity and indecency of Restoration Comedy of Manners. This form, which incorporates scenes with extreme emotions evoking excessive pity, gained popularity among the middle class audiences in the eighteenth century.

Tragicomedy
This dramatic genre contains both tragic and comedic elements. It blends both elements to lighten the overall mood of the play. Often, tragicomedy is a serious play that ends happily.

Comedy Examples from Literature


Example #1: A Midsummer Night's Dream (By William Shakespeare)
William Shakespeare's play, A Midsummer Night's Dream, is a good example of a romantic comedy, presenting young lovers falling comically in and out of love for a brief period. Their real world problems get resolved magically, enemies reconcile, and true lovers unite in the end.

Example #2: Every Man in His Humor (By Ben Johnson)
In his play Every Man in His Humor, Ben Johnson brings a comedy of humors. An overpowering suspicion of, and obsession with, his wife - that she might be unfaithful to him - controls Kitely. Then a country gull determines every decision of George Downright in order to understand the manners of the city gallant. Kno'well worried for moral development of his son, tries to spy on him.

Example #3: The Conscious Lovers (By Sir Richard Steele)
Sir Richard Steele's play, The Conscious Lovers, is a best-known and popular sentimental comedy, which is like a melodrama. It characterizes extreme exaggeration, dealing with trials of its penniless leading role Indiana. The play ends happily with the discovery of Indiana as heiress.

Example #4: All's Well that Ends Well (By William Shakespeare)
Shakespeare's play, All's Well that Ends Well, perfectly sums up tragic and comic elements. This tragicomedy play shows antics of low-born but devoted Helena, who attempts to win the love of her lover, Bertram. She finally succeeds in marrying him, though she decides not to accept him until she wears the family ring of her husband and bears him a child. She employs a great deal of trickery by disguising herself as Bertram's other, and fakes her death. Bertram discovers her treachery at the end but realizes Helena did all that for him and expresses his love for her.

Function of Comedy
Comedy tends to bring humor and induce laughter in plays, films, and theaters. The primary function of comedy is to amuse and entertain the audience, while it also portrays social institutions and persons as corrupt, and ridicules them through satirizing, parodying, and poking fun at their vices. By doing this, authors expose foibles and follies of individuals and society by using comic elements.
Comic relief is a literary device used in plays and novels to introduce light entertainment between tragic scenes. It is often used in the shape of a humorous incident, a funny incident, a tricky remark or a laughing commentary. It is deliberately inserted to make the audiences feel relief. In this sense, it makes the tragedy seem less intense. Although it is often considered a diversion, it plays a significant role in advancing the action of the play or the novel. Etymologically, comic relief is a phrase of two words comic and relief. The meanings are clear that it is a relief provided through comic incidents or remarks.



Examples from Literature
Example #1
PORTER:

"Here's a knocking indeed! If a man were porter of

hell-gate, he should have old turning the key. Knock

Knock, knock, knock, knock! Who's there, i' the name of

Belzebub? Here's a farmer that hanged himself on th'

expectation of plenty. Come in time! Have napkins

enow about you; here you'll sweat for't. Knock

Knock, knock! Who's there, in th' other devil's name?"

(Macbeth by William Shakespeare, Act-II, Scene-III, Lines 1-8)

These lines occur in the third scene of the second act of Macbeth by Shakespeare. Porter is delivering these lines between two gruesome incidents; the murder of King Duncan and the discovery of his dead body. Porter thinks that he seems to be on guard of the gate of the hell. He is hallucinating and delving inappropriate jokes and abuses. This scene brings a brief comic relief after the tragic death of King Duncan.

Example #2
THE FOOL:

"Fathers that wear rags

Do make their children blind;

But fathers that bear bags

Shall see their children kind."

(King Lear by William Shakespeare, Act-II, Scene-II, Lines 55-58).

It is very interesting that King Lear, was indeed a powerful and a beloved father, enjoying the love of his daughters. When he was a wealthy king, they used to flatter him. However, when he is a poor man after dividing property, every daughter becomes blind toward him. The joking and mocking behavior of the court jester provide this comic relief at several other places in the play. These lines bring relief for the readers when the tragedy is overwhelming.

Example #3


FIRST CLOWN

"Give me leave. Here lies the water; good: here
stands the man; good; if the man go to this water,
and drown himself, it is, will he, nill he, he
goes,-mark you that; but if the water come to him
and drown him, he drowns not himself: argal, he
that is not guilty of his own death shortens not his own life."

(Hamlet by William Shakespeare, Act-V, Scene-I, Lines 14-20)

This is another great example of comic relief from Hamlet by William Shakespeare. The two clownish gravediggers in this scene are talking about the drowning of Ophelia and her burial in the graveyard. These lines show how jestingly this first gravedigger is exampling the suicide in a way that it does not seem that he is accusing the dead; rather, he is accusing the water. This is comic relief as it provides the audience a chance to smile after going through heavy sorrows of the death of Hamlet's father and melancholy of the young Hamlet.

Example #4
HORSE-C:

"Well, sir.—Now I am made man for ever. I'll not leave my horse for forty. If he had but the quality of hey-ding-ding, hey-ding-ding, I'd made a brave living on him: he has a buttock as slick as an eel. [Aside.] Well, God b' wi' ye, sir, your boy will deliver him me: but hark you, sir; if my horse be sick or ill at ease, if I bring his water to you, you'll tell me what it is."

(Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlow, Scene-XI, Lines 20-24).

Horse courser is a character in Dr. Faustus, who wants to buy Faustus' horse when they are in the emperor's court. Faustus warns him not to ride his horse in water. At first, he displays his seriousness in understanding his instructions. Later he begins to cut jokes over this issue saying that the horse's behind is "slick as an eel" making others laugh over the argument. However, it is interesting that when he rides on it through water, it vanishes, leaving him on the grass. This comic scene occurs when the situation becomes profoundly serious and intense in the play.

Functions of Comic Relief
Comic relief is a pause for the audience. It provides them with an opportunity to feel light-hearted and enjoy something new. It also gives them a chance to smile at something different. Although it sometimes seems awkward, it happens in real time, too, that humor is the spice of life where tragedy becomes too heavy to tolerate. Also, it proves a moment of reflection for the characters.
Every day, people compare things, places, and people. They compare things and objects using specific words such as than, more, or less, etc. This comparison is called "comparative form." In grammar, a comparative is an adjective or adverb form used to make a comparison between two nouns, such as people, places, or things, to describe actions (verbs), or the words describing verbs (other adverbs).



For instance, in the excerpt " 'Take some more tea,' the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly. 'I've had nothing yet,' Alice replied in an offended tone, 'so I can't take more.' 'You mean you can't take less,' said the Hatter: 'it's very easy to take more than nothing.' " (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, by Lewis Carroll) See that all underlined words in the above lines are comparatives.

Characteristics of Comparatives
One Syllable Comparatives/Adjectives
One syllable comparatives are made by adding "-er" to the base form of the adjective, or one-syllable adverb. For instance:
This dress is brighter than that dress.
They may reach higher than us.
Two Syllables Comparatives/Adjectives
Two syllables comparatives/adjectives are made by replacing "-y" with "-ier," if the base form of a two-syllable comparative ends in"-y." For instance:
She is funnier than you.
Two, three, or more Syllables Comparatives/Adjectives
These comparatives are made by adding "more" or "less" before three-syllable adjectives, or adverbs ending in "-ly." For instance:
This book is more expensive than that book.
He plays more beautifully now that he is grown.
Common Use of Comparatives


This house is better than that one.
They are looking happier
Today the shops are more crowded than yesterday.
English lessons are more enjoyable than mathematics lessons.
She is taller than her sister.
Examples of Comparatives in Literature
Example #1: Right Ho, Jeeves (By P.G. Wodehouse)
"He had been looking like a dead fish. He now looked like a deader fish, one of last year's, cast up on some lonely beach and left there at the mercy of the wind and tides."

In this example, the comparative is shown underlined as "deader." This presents a single syllable adjective or comparative, to which "-er" has been added at the end.

Example #2: I'll Mature When I'm Dead (by Dave Barry)
"[W]e did learn some important life lessons from sports. I learned, for example, that even though I was not as big, or fast, or strong, or coordinated as the other kids, if I worked really hard-if I gave 100 percent and never quit-I would still be smaller, slower, weaker, and less coordinated than the other kids."

This is another good instance of single syllable and two or more syllable comparatives. The single syllable adjectives are "small," "slow," and "weak." The example of a two or more syllable comparative is "less coordinated."

Example #3: Lost Worlds (by Michael Bywater)


"Keg beer ... poured at random, got everywhere, and always ran out. But in its benign gleam, the music sounded better, the lights were softer, the girls more beautiful and potentially yielding, oneself manlier, one's friends friendlier, the night darker, the stars brighter, the moon fuller, the air warmer, the hour later, the future brighter, the present aching with that particular adolescent promise which does not need to be fulfilled to make it miraculous."

This excerpt presents an excellent example of all types of comparatives, the single-syllable comparatives include "better," "softer," "darker," "brighter," "fuller," "warmer," and "later." The two-syllable comparatives are "manlier" and "friendlier. Two or more than two syllables comparative include "more beautiful."

Example #4: The Sacred and Profane Love Machine (by Iris Murdoch)
"After a second of shock he had recognized Edgar Demarnay. They had not met for several years. An Edgar grown fatter and grosser and older, but Edgar still, with his big pink boy's face and his fat lips and his copious short fluffy hair now pale grey instead of pale gold."

There are three comparatives in this example: "fatter," "grosser," and "older." Through the given comparatives, the author has described the physical features of a character, Edgar.

Function of Comparatives
The basic function of comparatives is to a make comparison between two people or things. They help define and describe people, things, and actions. By comparing two things, in fact, comparatives highlight the good or bad qualities of the two things being compared, and let the audience see it. Also, they give a better understanding of the things and people.
Comparison is a rhetorical or literary device in which a writer compares or contrasts two people, places, things, or ideas. In our everyday life, we compare people and things to express ourselves vividly. So when we say, someone is "as lazy as a snail," you compare two different entities to show similarity i.e. someone's laziness to the slow pace of a snail.



Comparisons occur in literary works frequently. Writers and poets use comparison in order to link their feelings about a thing to something readers can understand. There are numerous devices in literature that compare two different things to show the similarity between them, such as simile, metaphor, and analogy.

Examples of Comparison in Literature
In the following comparison examples, we will try to analyze literary devices used to show comparisons.

Metaphor
A metaphor makes a hidden comparison between two things or objects that are dissimilar to each other, but have some characteristics common between them. Unlike simile, we do not use "like" or "as" to develop a comparison in a metaphor. Consider the following examples:

Example #1: When I Have Fears (By John Keats)
These lines are from When I Have Fears, by John Keats.

"Before high-pil'd books, in charact'ry
Hold like rich garners the full-ripened grain,"

John Keats compares writing poetry with reaping and sowing, and both these acts stand for the insignificance of a life and dissatisfied creativity.

Example #2: As You Like It (By William Shakespeare)


This line is from As You Like It, by William Shakespeare.

"All the world's a stage and men and women merely players..."

Shakespeare uses a metaphor of a stage to describe the world, and compares men and women living in the world with players (actors).

Simile
A simile is an open comparison between two things or objects to show similarities between them. Unlike a metaphor, a simile draws resemblance with the help of words "like" or "as."

Example #3: Lolita (By Vladimir Nabokov)
This line is from the short story Lolita, by Vladimir Nabokov.

"Elderly American ladies leaning on their canes listed toward me like towers of Pisa."

In this line, Vladimir Nabokov compares old women leaning on their sticks to the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Here the comparison made between two contrasting things creates a hilarious effect.

Analogy
An analogy aims at explaining an unfamiliar idea or thing, by comparing it to something that is familiar.

Example #4: The Noiseless Patient Spider (By Walt Whitman)
These lines are from Walt Whitman's poem The Noiseless Patient Spider":

"And you O my soul where you stand,
Surrounded, detached, in measureless oceans of space,
Ceaselessly musing, venturing, throwing, seeking the spheres to connect them,
Till the bridge you will need be form'd, till the ductile anchor hold,
Till the gossamer thread you fling catch somewhere, O my soul."

Walt Whitman uses an analogy to show similarity between a spider spinning a web and his soul.

Example #5: Night Clouds (By Amy Lowell)
These lines are from Night Clouds, written by Amy Lowell:

"The white mares of the moon rush along the sky
Beating their golden hoofs upon the glass Heavens."

Amy constructs an analogy between clouds and mares. She compares the movement of the white clouds in the sky at night with the movement of white mares on the ground.

Allegory
An allegory uses symbols to compare persons or things, to represent abstract ideas or events. The comparison in allegory is implicit.

Example #6: Animal Farm (By George Orwell)
Animal Farm, written by George Orwell, is an allegory that compares animals on a farm to the Communist Revolution in Russia before WW II. The actions of the animals on the farm can be compared with the greed and corruption after the revolution. The animals on the farm represent different sections of Russian society after the revolution.

For instance, "Pigs" can be compared to those who became the authority after the revolution;"Mr. Jones," the owner of the farm, is likened to the overthrown Tsar Nicholas II; and "Boxer," the horse, stands for the laborer class.

Example #7: Faerie Queen (By Edmund Spenser)
Faerie Queen is an allegory by Edmund Spenser, in which the good characters of the book can be compared to the various virtues, while the bad characters can be compared to vices. For example, "The Red-Cross Knight" represents Holiness, and "Lady Una" Truth, Wisdom, and Goodness. Her parents symbolize the Human Race, and the "Dragon," which has imprisoned them, stands for Evil.

Function of Comparison


The above examples of comparison help us realize that, in general, writers utilize different kinds of comparison to link an unfamiliar or a new idea to common and familiar objects. It helps readers to comprehend a new idea, which may have been difficult for them to understand otherwise. The understanding of a new idea turns out to be simpler when viewed with a comparison to something that is familiar to them.

In addition, by making use of various literary tools for comparison, writers increase their chances of catching the attention and interest of their readers, as comparisons help them identify what they are reading to their lives.
A comparison and contrast essay compares two similar objects, or contrasts dissimilar objects, in a way that readers become informed about the advantages and disadvantages of both the objects. Readers are then able to weigh pros and cons of the objects compared and contrasted to select a better product. It, however, does not mean that it is only a comparison or contrast of products, it could be a situation after which readers are to make a decision, weighing pros and cons. Although a comparison and contrast essay is set to demonstrate both similarities as well as differences, sometimes it only shows similarities, and at other times, only differences.



Difference Between a Division/Classification and Comparison/Contrast Essay
A division and classification essay, like comparison and contrast essay, is also an analysis essay whose objective is to break a thing or idea, or an essay into bits for analysis. A comparison and contrast essay, however, intends to point out qualities and deficiencies in things, or explain bad and good aspects of an issue. This is mostly done for decision making purposes.

Examples of Comparison and Contrast Essay in Literature


Example #1: A Slow Walk of Trees (by Toni Morrison)
"His name was John Solomon Willis, and when at age 5 he heard from the old folks that "the Emancipation Proclamation was coming," he crawled under the bed. It was his earliest recollection of what was to be his habitual response to the promise of white people: horror and an instinctive yearning for safety. He was my grandfather, a musician who managed to hold on to his violin but not his land. He lost all 88 acres of his Indian mother's inheritance to legal predators who built their fortunes on the likes of him. He was an unreconstructed black pessimist who, in spite of or because of emancipation, was convinced for 85 years that there was no hope whatever for black people in this country. His rancor was legitimate, for he, John Solomon, was not only an artist but a first-rate carpenter and farmer, reduced to sending home to his family money he had made playing the violin because he was not able to find work. And this during the years when almost half the black male population were skilled craftsmen who lost their jobs to white ex-convicts and immigrant farmers."

This passage compares two types of attitudes about the author's grandfather; one of the black community and the other of the response of the white to this blackness.

Example #2: Reality TV: Surprising Throwback to The Past? (by Patricia Cohen)
"To many critics, Cupid and other matchmaking shows that mix money and real-life marital machinations represent a cynical and tasteless new genre that is yet another sign of America's moral decline. But there's something familiar about the fortune hunters, the status seekers, the thwarted loves, the meddling friends, the public displays, the comic manners, and the sharp competitiveness—all find their counterparts in Jane Austen and Edith Wharton. Only now, three-minute get-to-know-you tryouts in a TV studio substitute for three-minute waltzes at a ball. Traditional family values, it turns out, are back on television after all."

In this passage, Patricia Cohen compares two attitudes: one of materialism, and the other of morality. She bemoans moral decline, but praises the literary taste.

Example #3: Euromail and Amerimail (by Eric Weiner)


"Euromail is stiff and cold, often beginning with a formal 'Dear Mr. X,' and ending with a brusque 'Sincerely.' You won't find any mention of kids or the weather or jellyfish in Euromail. It's all business. It's also slow. Your correspondent might take days, even weeks, to answer a message. Euromail is also less confrontational in tone, rarely filled with the overt nastiness that characterizes American e-mail disagreements. In other words, Euromail is exactly like the Europeans themselves. (I am, of course, generalizing. German e-mail style is not exactly the same as Italian or Greek, but they have more in common with each other than they do with American mail.)"

In this passage, Eric Weiner compares euromail and Amerimail to point out the drawbacks of one, and highlight the qualities of the other.

Functions of a Comparison and Contrast Essay
A comparison and contrast essay helps readers reach a critical decision. It could be a comparison and contrast of two products, two objects, two things, or two issues. Readers read the essays, weigh all aspects, and then decide whether to make a purchase and decide in favor of one thing or not. This type of essay also makes readers more cognizant of the situations or issues discussed.
Conceit is a figure of speech in which two vastly different objects are likened together with the help of similes or metaphors.



Conceit develops a comparison which is exceedingly unlikely but is, nonetheless, intellectually imaginative. A comparison turns into a conceit when the writer tries to make us admit a similarity between two things of whose unlikeness we are strongly conscious. For this reason, conceits are often surprising.

For example, it will not surprise us to hear someone saying, "You are a snail," or "You are as slow as a snail," as we understand that the similarity is drawn on a common quality of slowness. However, we will definitely be surprised to hear someone comparing "two lovers with the legs of a draftsman's compass." Thus, conceit examples have a surprising or shocking effect on the readers because they are novel comparisons, unlike the conventional comparisons made in similes and metaphors.

Conceits in Everyday Life
In everyday life, we can surprise and amuse others by using conceits like "Love is like an oil change," or "The broken heart is a damaged china pot." In these examples, the attempt to compare two noticeably unrelated objects makes the comparisons conceits. Conceits in real life may give complex ideas and emotions an air of simplicity, by comparing them to simple day-to-day objects, as in "My life is like a free online game, people seem to be playing with it."

Examples of Conceit in Literature


Let us analyze a few examples of conceit in literature:

Example #1: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
William Shakespeare makes use of a conceit in Act 3, Scene 5 of his play Romeo and Juliet. Here, Capulet comes to Juliet's room after Romeo has left. He finds her weeping and says:

"Thou counterfeit'st a bark, a sea, a wind;
For still thy eyes, which I may call the sea,
Do ebb and flow with tears; the bark thy body is,
Sailing in this salt flood; the winds, thy sighs;
Who, raging with thy tears, and they with them,
Without a sudden calm, will overset
Thy tempest-tossed body."

He compares Juliet to a boat in a storm. The comparison is an extended metaphor in which he compares her eyes to a sea, her tears to a storm, her sighs to the stormy winds, and her body to a boat in a storm.

Example #2: A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning (By John Donne)
The term conceit usually brings to mind certain examples from metaphysical poets of the 17th century. Of these, John Donne stands out as the best exponent of the use of metaphysical conceits. John Donne, in his poem A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, says:

"If they be two, they are two so As stiff
Twin compasses are two;
Thy soul, the fix'd foot, makes no show
To move, but doth, if th' other do.

And though it in the center sit,
Yet, when the other far doth roam,
It leans, and hearkens after it,
And grows erect, as that comes home."

This is one of Donne's most ingenious conceits. He compares his and his beloved's souls with the two legs of a drafting compass. He compares her soul to the fixed foot, and his to the other foot. He says the bodies of lovers may be separate like the two legs of a compass, but are always joined at the top that reminds us of the spiritual union of the two lovers.

Example #3: The Flea (By John Donne)


We find another striking example of conceit in John Donne's poem, The Flea:

"Oh stay! three lives in one flea spare
Where we almost, yea more than married are.
This flea is you and I, and this
Our marriage-bed and marriage-temple is..."

In the above lines, the poet tells his darling that she has no reason to deny him sexually, as the flea has sucked blood from both of them, and their blood has mingled in its gut, so the flea has become their "marriage bed," though they are not married yet.

Function of Conceit
Because conceits make unusual and unlikely comparisons between two things, they allow readers to look at things in a new way. Similes and metaphors may explain things vibrantly, but they tend to become boring at times because of their predictable nature. Conceits, on the other hand, surprise and shock readers by making farfetched comparisons. Hence, conceit is used as a tool in literature to develop interest in readers.
Concession is a literary device used in argumentative writing, where one acknowledges a point made by one's opponent. It allows for different opinions and approaches toward an issue, indicating an understanding of what causes the actual debate or controversy. It demonstrates that the writer is a mature thinker, and has considered the issue from all angles.



Concession writing style also shows that the writer is a logical and fair-minded person, able to realize that every argument has several sides to consider before it is presented. This type of writing can be considered strong as it finds common ground between the writer and his opponent.

Concession Examples
Example #1:
"Dad, I know taking a trip to another country with my friends may be expensive and unsafe, but I have studied so hard the past year and I think I deserve a vacation. You already know how responsible I have been all my life; I don't think there will be any problem."

The above statement is an example of concession writing. It demonstrates the negative aspects of traveling as a young group of boys, but argues against this with the fact that this particular boy has always been a responsible person and is not likely to get into trouble.

Example #2:
"I agree that many students act and lie about being sick, so that they can avoid school for whatever reason. However, most students who do not come to school are actually sick. Being sick, they should be focusing on getting better, not worrying about school and grades just because some students take advantage of the absentee policy."

This statement also shows the concession form of writing where the writer agrees that some students do lie about being sick, and that the writer is able to understand this issue. At the same time, the writer argues as to why students who are actually sick suffer because of those irresponsible students.

Example #3:


"An individual does have his own right to freedom, but medical evidence proves that second-hand smoke is harmful. Nobody has the right to harm the health of another, and smoking does just that."

Using concession, the writer has noted that everybody has freedom rights, but argues about the fact that nobody has the right to harm another person's health, no matter what the case is.

Example #4:
"It is true that issues may sometimes become polarized and debated heatedly. Certainly, there is a need for matters of public concern to be discussed rationally. But that does not mean that such concerns should not be expressed and investigated. After all, improper interference with academic freedom was found to have taken place. And the allegations raised by doctors are ones which deserve further inquiry."

The above statement demonstrates the concession writing technique, where the writer agrees that debating on issues can turn into a heated argument, but that does not mean the issues should stop being discussed and investigated. Using concession, the writer has considered the different viewpoints of the issue, and then stated his argument.

Example #5: Politics and the English Language (By George Orwell)
"I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable. Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words or constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail."

This is another example of concession writing showing that the writer is a fair person who has thought about the issue before giving his opinion. The writer agrees with the fact that we cannot do anything to develop the language. However it is not true if we go into details, Orwell says, because writers influence it too.

Function of Concession


Concession writing acknowledges that there are many different views to a story. This type of writing allows for different opinions that can or could be made toward an issue. It also shows that all points, positive as well as negative, have been considered before an argument is put forward. Presenting the other side and then arguing against it with valid points can make it a very strong piece of writing. Acknowledging the other side demonstrates respect for the other opinion. The concession writing technique is also known used as a method of persuasion and reasoning.
In literature, conflict is a literary element that involves a struggle between two opposing forces, usually a protagonist and an antagonist.



Internal and External Conflicts
Careful examination of some conflict examples will help us realize that they may be internal or external.



An internal or psychological conflict arises as soon as a character experiences two opposite emotions or desires - usually virtue and vice, or good and evil - inside him. This disagreement causes the character to suffer mental agony, and it develops a unique tension in a storyline, marked by a lack of action.



External conflict, on the other hand, is marked by a characteristic involvement of an action wherein a character finds himself in struggle with those outside forces that hamper his progress. The most common type of external conflict is where a protagonist fights back against the antagonist's tactics that impede his or her advancement.

Examples of Conflict in Literature


Example #1: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
Hamlet's internal conflict is the main driver in William Shakespeare's play Hamlet." It decides his tragic downfall. He reveals his state of mind in the following lines from Act 3, Scene 1 of the play:

"To be, or not to be - that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles
And by opposing end them. To die, to sleep..."

The conflict here is that Hamlet wants to kill his father's murderer, Claudius, but he also looks for proof to justify his action. This ultimately ruins his life, and the lives of his loved ones. Due to his internal conflict, Hamlet spoils his relationship with his mother, and sends Ophelia (Hamlet's love interest) into such a state of despair that she commits suicide.

Hamlet's indecisiveness almost got everyone killed at the end of the play. The resolution came when he killed Claudius by assuming fake madness so that he would not be asked for any justification. In the same play, we find Hamlet engaged in an external conflict with his uncle Claudius.

Example #2: Doctor Faustus (By Christopher Marlowe)
Another example of an internal conflict is found in the character of Doctor Faustus in Marlowe's Doctor Faustus. Faustus has an ambitious nature. In spite of being a respected scholar, he sold his soul to Lucifer by signing a contract with his blood, in order to achieve ultimate power and limitless pleasure in this world. He learns the art of black magic, and defies Christianity.

After the aforementioned action, we see Faustus suffering from an internal conflict where he thinks honestly about repenting, acting upon the advice of "the good angel," but "the bad angel" or the evil inside him distracts him by saying it is all too late. In conclusion, the resolution comes when devils take his soul away to Hell, and he suffers eternal damnation because of his over-ambition.

Example #3: The Lord of the Flies Farm (By William Golding)


The most straightforward type of external conflict is when a character in a story struggles against another character physically. In William Golding's novel The Lord of the Flies, for example, Ralph (the leader of the "good guys") steadily comes into conflict with Jack - a bully who later forms a "tribe" of hunters. Jack and his tribe give in to their savage instinct, and make attempts to hunt or kill the civilized batch of boys led by Ralph.

Example #4: To Kill a Mockingbird (By Harper Lee)
Another kind of external conflict sets a character against the evil that dominates a society. In this case, a character may confront a dominant group with opposing priorities. For instance, in Harper Lee's novel To Kill a Mockingbird, an honest lawyer, Atticus Finch, goes up against the racist society in which he lives. Atticus has the courage to defend a black man, Tom Robinson, who has been falsely accused of a rape. Though Atticus has the support of a few like-minded people, most of the townspeople express their disapproval of his defense of a black man.

Function of Conflict
Both internal and external conflicts are essential elements of a storyline. It is essential for a writer to introduce and develop them, whether internal, external, or both, in his storyline in order to achieve the story's goal. Resolution of the conflict entertains the readers.
Connotation refers to a meaning that is implied by a word apart from the thing which it describes explicitly. Words carry cultural and emotional associations or meanings, in addition to their literal meanings or denotations.



For instance, "Wall Street" literally means a street situated in Lower Manhattan, but connotatively it refers to wealth and power.

Positive and Negative Connotations
Words may have positive or negative connotations that depend upon the social, cultural, and personal experiences of individuals. For example, the words childish, childlike and youthful have the same denotative, but different connotative, meanings. Childish and childlike have a negative connotation, as they refer to immature behavior of a person. Whereas, youthful implies that a person is lively and energetic.

Common Connotation Examples


Below are a few connotation examples. Their suggested meanings are shaped by cultural and emotional associations:

"He's such a dog." - In this sense, the word dog connotes shamelessness, or ugliness.
"That woman is a dove at heart." - Here, the dove implies peace or gentility.
"There's no place like home." - While home may refer to the actual building someone lives in, connotatively, it most often refers to family, comfort, and security.
"What do you expect from a politician?" - Politician has a negative connotation of wickedness and insincerity. To imply sincerity, the word statesperson might be used.
"That woman is so pushy!" - Pushy refers to someone who is loud-mouthed, insisting, and irritating.
"My mom and dad worked hard to put me through college." - The words Mom and Dad, when used in place of mother and father, connote loving parents, rather than simply biological parents.
Examples of Connotation in Literature
In literature, it is a common practice among writers to deviate from the literal meanings of words in order to create novel ideas. Figures of speech frequently employed by writers are examples of such deviations.

Example #1: Sonnet 18 (By William Shakespeare)
Metaphors are words that connote meanings that go beyond their literal meanings. Shakespeare, in his Sonnet 18, says:

"Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day..."

Here, the phrase "a Summer's Day" implies the fairness of his beloved.

Example #2: The Sun Rising (By John Donne)
Similarly, John Donne says in his poem The Sun Rising says:

"She is all states, and all princes, I."

This line suggests the speaker's belief that he and his beloved are wealthier than all the states, kingdoms, and rulers in the whole world because of their love.

Example #3: The Merchant of Venice (By William Shakespeare)


Irony and satire exhibit connotative meanings, as the intended meanings of words are opposite to their literal meanings. For example, we see a sarcastic remark made by Antonio to Shylock, the Jew, in William Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice:

"Hie thee, gentle Jew.
The Hebrew will turn Christian: he grows kind."

The word "Jew" generally had a negative connotation of wickedness, while "Christian" demonstrated positive connotations of kindness.

Example #4: The Animal Farm (By George Orwell)
George Orwell's allegorical novel Animal Farm is packed with examples of connotation. The actions of the animals on the farm illustrate the greed and corruption that arose after the Communist Revolution of Russia. The pigs in the novel connote wicked and powerful people who can change the ideology of a society. In addition, Mr. Jones (the owner of the farm), represents the overthrown Tsar Nicholas II; and Boxer, the horse, represents the laborer class.

Example #5: Julius Caesar (By William Shakespeare)
Metonymy is another figure of speech that makes use of connotative or suggested meanings, as it describes a thing by mentioning something else with which it is closely connected. For example, Mark Anthony, in Act III of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, says:

"Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears."

Here, the word "ear" connotes the idea of people listening to him attentively.

Example #6: Out, Out (By Robert Frost)
Read the following lines from Robert Frost's poem Out, Out:

"As he swung toward them holding up the hand
Half in appeal, but half as if to keep
The life from spilling"

In the line "The life from spilling," the word "life" connotes "blood." It does make sense as well because loss of blood may cause loss of life.

Example #7: As you Like It (By William Shakespeare)
Connotation provides the basis for symbolic meanings of words because symbolic meanings of objects are different from their literal sense. Look at the following lines from Shakespeare's play As you Like It:

"All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances;
And one man in his time plays many parts ..."

Here, a stage connotes the world; players suggests human beings; and parts implies different stages of their lives.

Function of Connotation
In literature, connotation paves way for creativity by using figures of speech like metaphor, simile, symbolism, and personification. Had writers contented themselves with only the literal meanings, there would have been no way to compare abstract ideas to concrete concepts, in order to give readers a better understanding. Therefore, connotative meanings of words allow writers to add to their works dimensions that are broader, more vivid, and fresher.
Consonance refers to repetitive sounds produced by consonants within a sentence or phrase. This repetition often takes place in quick succession, such as in "pitter, patter."



It is classified as a literary device used in both poetry as well as prose. For instance, the words chuckle, fickle, and kick are consonant with one another, due to the existence of common interior consonant sounds (/ck/).

The literary device of consonance is inherently different from assonance, which involves the repetition of similar vowel sounds within a word, sentence, or phrase. Another distinction to be appreciated is that between consonance and rhyme. In the case of rhyme, consonant sounds can be present at the beginning, middle, or end of several successive words, rather than merely at the ends of words. Further, the device of consonance needs to be distinguished from alliteration. In contrast to alliteration, consonance involves repetition of consonant sounds only.

William Harmon, his book A Handbook on Literature, notes that "most so-called eye rhymes (such as 'word' and 'lord,' or 'blood,' 'food,' and 'good') are the most common examples.

Common Consonance Examples
The ship has sailed to the far off sh
She ate seven sandwiches on a sunny Sunday last year.
Shelley sells shells by the seash
Examples of Consonance in Literature


Example #1: Zealots (By Fugees)
The following lines from a song also show how consonant sounds have been used repeatedly.

"Rap rejects my tape deck, ejects projectile
Whether Jew or gentile, I rank top percentile
Many styles, more powerful than gamma rays
My grammar pays, like Carlos Santana plays."

Example #2: T was later when the summer went (By Emily Dickson)
" 'T was later when the summer went
Than when the cricket came,
And yet we knew that gentle clock
Meant nought but going home.
'T was sooner when the cricket went
Than when the winter came,
Yet that pathetic pendulum
Keeps esoteric time."

It can be seen from these lines that Emily Dickinson has made use of the consonant "m" frequently in the italicized words.

Example #3: Shall I Wasting in Despair (By George Wither)


"Great, or good, or kind, or fair,
I will ne'er the more despair;
If she love me, this believe,
I will die ere she shall grieve;
If she slight me when I woo,
I can scorn and let her go;
For if she be not for me,
What care I for whom she be?"

Here, the use of consonance can be seen through in the letters r, d, and f.

Example #4: As imperceptibly as Grief (By Emily Dickinson)
This poem by Dickinson makes good use of consonance:

"A Quietness distilled
As Twilight long begun,
Or Nature spending with herself
Sequestered Afternoon—

Here, Emily Dickinson has relied on the consonant "n" to create the intended effect.

Function of Consonance
Consonance is commonly employed in a range of situations, from poetry to prose writing. However, as the examples given above highlight the use of consonance is significantly greater in poetry writing than in the prose form. The use of consonance provides the structure of poetry with a rhyming effect.

A writer normally employs the tool of consonance for the purpose of reiterating the significance of an idea or theme. Further, the use of the device makes the structure of poetry or prose appealing for the reader. The poet generally makes use of consonance in an attempt to underscore the emotions behind their words that simple words cannot convey.

Furthermore, the use of consonance adds a lyrical feeling to the poetry that otherwise cannot be added. The significance of the use of consonance in poetry is enhanced by the fact that it is often used to make the imagery clearer. It acts as a tool that enables the poet to formulate a fine and powerful structure for his poetry, and to create a background for the themes underlying the poetry.
Context is the background, environment, setting, framework, or surroundings of events or occurrences. Simply, context means circumstances forming a background of an event, idea or statement, in such a way as to enable readers to understand the narrative or a literary piece. It is necessary in writing to provide information, new concepts, and words to develop thoughts.



Whenever writers use a quote or a fact from some source, it becomes necessary to provide their readers some information about the source, to give context to its use. This piece of information is called context. Context illuminates the meaning and relevance of the text, and may be something cultural, historical, social, or political.

Examples of Context in Literature
Example #1: A Tale of Two Cities (by Charles Dickens)
Dickens begins his novel, A Tale of Two Cities, in 1770, by describing the release of Doctor Manette from Bastille, before taking the story to 1793 and early 1794. In this time span, the narrative covers a broad story. In a larger view, this novel begins in 1757, while its final scene looks forward to the situation of the post-revolutionary Paris.

This story has a historical context, which Dickens has organized around various events that occurred during the French Revolution. He has drawn historical features from major events, including the fall of Bastille, the September Massacres, and the Reign of Terror. This backdrop is the story's context.

Example #2: Animal Farm (by George Orwell)
George Orwell felt disillusioned by Soviet Communism, and its revolution during his time. In the phenomenal novel, Animal Farm, Orwell has expressed himself by using satire through the allegorical characters of Old Major and Boxer; relating them to the Russian Revolution and its characters. Orwell uses animals to explain history and context of Soviet Communism, some of which relate to party leaders. For instance, the pig Napoleon represents Joseph Stalin, and Snowball represents Leon Trotsky. In fact, Orwell uses this fable for political and aesthetic reasons, following the Russian Revolution as its context.

Example #3: Dr. Faustus (by Christopher Marlowe)


Historical context of Christopher Marlowe's Dr. Faustus is religious, as it hints at cultural changes taking place during Marlowe's time. In 16th century Europe, there was a conflict between Roman Catholicism and the Protestant English Church. During this entire period, Calvinism was popular within the English churches; however, it was controversial. According to Calvinistic doctrine, the status of the people was predestined as saved or damned. Scholars and readers have debated on the stance that Marlowe's play takes regarding the Calvinist doctrine, in whether Faustus is predestined to hell or not. The Renaissance period provides context for this play by Marlowe.

Example #4: Oedipus Rex (by Sophocles)
There is a popular saying that stories indicate values and cultures of the societies in which their authors live. In Oedipus Rex, Sophocles presents his protagonist, Oedipus, struggling to implement his will against the destiny set forth by the Greek gods. During this process Sophocles reveals Greek values of the period during which he wrote the play.

He has illustrated the context of this play through the words and actions of Oedipus and other characters; as their Greek ideals concerning their governance, fate, and human relationships with the gods. These were some of the more popular themes of that era, and so form context of the Oedipus Rex.

Example #5: Lord of the Flies (by William Golding)
"While stranded on a deserted island, a group of boys believe there is a dangerous creature lurking in the underbrush; Simon is the first to identify this menace, suggesting to the boys that 'maybe,' he said hesitantly, 'maybe there is a beast'."

This excerpt provides an excellent example of context, as it narrates an incident involving a group of young men on a deserted island. Context describes why they were afraid, giving a clear picture of the situation and setting.

Function


Context is all about providing a background or picture of the situation, and of who is involved. Context is an essential part of a literary text, which helps to engage the audience. If writers ignore context, they may overlook a critical aspect of the story's intent. Without context, readers may not see the true picture of a literary work. Context helps readers understand the cultural, social, philosophical, and political ideas and movements prevalent in society at the time of the writing.
Contrast is a rhetorical device through which writers identify differences between two subjects, places, persons, things, or ideas. Simply, it is a type of opposition between two objects, highlighted to emphasize their differences.



Contrast comes from the Latin word, contra stare, meaning to stand against. Usually, though not always, writers use phrases and words to indicate a contrast such as but, yet, however, instead, in contrast, nevertheless, on the contrary, and unlike. for instance, E. B. White, in his novel Stuart Little, brings a contrast between Stuart and other babies, using the word unlike:

"Unlike most babies, Stuart could walk as soon as he was born."

Types of Contrast
Point-by-point Contrast - In this type of contrast, writers deal with a series of features of two subjects, and then present their contrast, discussing all points successively.
Subject-by-subject Contrast - In this type of contrast, a writer first discusses one subject thoroughly, and then moves on to another.
Examples of Contrast in Literature


Example #1: Eminent Men I Have Known, Unpopular Essays (By Bertrand Russell)
"To begin with the differences: Lenin was cruel, which Gladstone was not; Lenin had no respect for tradition, whereas Gladstone had a great deal; Lenin considered all means legitimate for securing the victory of his party, whereas for Gladstone politics was a game with certain rules that must be observed. All these differences, to my mind, are to the advantage of Gladstone, and accordingly Gladstone on the whole had beneficent effects, while Lenin's effects were disastrous."

In this example, Russell presents a point-by-point contrast between two persons, Vladimir Lenin - a Russian communist revolutionary, and William Gladstone - a British Liberal politician. By the end, the author expresses his favor for Gladstone over Lenin.

Example #2: Sonnet 130 (By William Shakespeare)
"My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips' red;
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I have seen roses damasked, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks ..."

In the first five lines of this poem, Shakespeare employs a number of contrasts to lay emphasis on his beloved's qualities. He contrasts her with the sun, coral, snow, and wire. Simply, he wants to convey the idea that, while his woman is not extraordinary, she is substantial.

Example #3: A Tale of Two Cities (By Charles Dickens)


Charles Dickens, in the very first chapter of his novel A Tale of Two Cities, presents a sweeping background of events and forces, which shape the characters' lives later on. In the first paragraph, he begins to share a dual theme, as he compares and contrasts the ideas of "best" and "worst" of times, "light" and "darkness," and then "hope" and "despair."

These contrasting ideas reflect images of good and bad that would recur in situations and characters throughout the novel. Dickens makes contrast between two countries, England and France. Both countries experience very different and very similar situations simultaneously. The differences he compares are concepts of justice and spirituality in each country.

Example #4: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet is about contrasts of love and hate. This tragic play embodies these emotions in different ways, as we see a romance between two young lovers, Romeo and Juliet, whereas their families are at war and hate each other. However, their love forbids this war.

Characters in this play also contrast each other. Romeo and Juliet, though both are lovers, are different too. Romeo is impulsive and dependent, while Juliet is organized, brave and practical. Montague's marriage is successful, while Capulet's is not. Along with a steady contrast in characters, we notice contrasts in mood, theme, and action of the play as well.

Function of Contrast
Writers address a number of features and characteristics of two subjects, persons, places, and events by contrasting them from one point to another. While the major purpose of contrast is to elucidate ideas and clear their meanings, readers can easily understand through this device what is going to happen next. Through opposite and contrasting ideas, writers make their arguments stronger, thus making them more memorable for readers due to emphasis placed on them. In addition, contrasting ideas shock the audience, heighten drama, and produce balanced structures in literary works.
A couplet is a literary device that can be defined as having two successive rhyming lines in a verse, and has the same meter to form a complete thought. It is marked by a usual rhythm, rhyme scheme, and incorporation of specific utterances.



It could be an independent poem, and might be a part of other poems, such as sonnets in Shakespearean poetry. If a couplet has the ability to stand apart from the rest of the poem, it is independent, and hence it is called a "closed couplet." A couplet that cannot render a proper meaning alone is called an "open couplet."

One of the commonly used couplet examples are these two lines from William Shakespeare's Hamlet:

"The time is out of joint, O cursed spite
That ever I was born to set it right!"

Types of Couplets
Short Couplet
Split Couplet
Heroic Couplet (Closed and Open Couplets)
Shakespearean Couplet
Alexandrine Couplet
Qasida
Chinese Couplet
Examples of Couplet in Literature


Example #1: Sonnet III (By William Shakespeare)
"Look in thy glass, and tell the face thou viewest
Now is the time that face should form another;
Whose fresh repair if now thou not renewest,
Thou dost beguile the world, unbless some mother,
For where is she so fair whose unear'd womb...
But if thou live, remember'd not to be,
Die single, and thine image dies with thee."

This is one of the Shakespearean sonnets that contains 14 lines; a couplet at the end of the poem usually rhymes, and concludes the poem. These lines generally give commentary on the theme.

Example #2: One Happy Moment (By John Dryden)
"O, no, poor suff'ring Heart, no Change endeavour,
Choose to sustain the smart, rather than leave her;
My ravish'd eyes behold such charms about her,
I can die with her, but not live without her:
One tender Sigh of hers to see me languish,
Will more than pay the price of my past anguish..."

This excerpt is an example of closed heroic couplets. The lines are following an iamb pentameter pattern. All the couplets are forming complete separate thoughts and ideas, and the rhyme scheme is perfect.

Example #3: Hero and Leander (By Christopher Marlowe)


"At Sestos Hero dwelt; Hero the fair,
Whom young Apollo courted for her hair,
And offered as a dower his burning throne,
Where she should sit for men to gaze upon.
The outside of her garments were of lawn,
The lining purple silk, with gilt stars drawn..."

This is another very good example of open heroic couplets, where the end of each couplet is enjambed - its phrasal and syntactic sense is carried to the next lines. Or in poetic terms, it can be said that there is no caesura.

Example #4: An Essay on Criticism (By Alexander Pope)
"A little learning is a dangerous thing;
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring:
There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,
And drinking largely sobers us again.
Fired at first sight with what the Muse imparts,
In fearless youth we tempt the heights of arts..."

This excerpt is a good example of closed heroic couplets. Here, all the couplets make complete sense - meaning they do not carry their sense into the following lines. Moreover, these couplets also rhyme.

Example #5: The Canterbury Tales (By Geoffrey Chaucer)
"Whan that aprill with his shoures soote
The droghte of march hath perced to the roote,
And bathed every veyne in swich licour
Of which vertu engendred is the flour;
Whan zephirus eek with his sweete breeth
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth
Tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
Hath in the ram his halve cours yronne..."

This excerpt is an example of open heroic couplets that have iambic pentameter pattern. All the lines rhyme, they do not give independent meanings in a single line, and the sense is carried to subsequent lines.

Function of Couplet
The rhyming couplets are usually used in poetry in order to make a poem interesting and rhythmic. They help create a rhyming effect in a poem. In literature, Chaucer, Dryden, Pope and Shakespeare have been famous for using rhyming heroic couplets. In Arabic and Chinese literature, rhyming couplets have also been used extensively.
Contrary to the literal name of "critical," this type of essay is not only an interpretation, but also an evaluation of a literary piece. It is written for a specific audience, who are academically mature enough to understand the points raised in such essays. A literary essay could revolve around major motifs, themes, literary devices and terms, directions, meanings, and above all - structure of a literary piece.



Evolution of the Critical Essay
Critical essays in English started with Samuel Johnson. He kept the critical essays limited to his personal opinion, comprising praise, admiration, and censure of the merits and demerits of literary pieces discussed in them. It was, however, Matthew Arnold, who laid down the canons of literary critical essays. He claimed that critical essays should be interpretative, and that there should not be any bias or sympathy in criticism.

Examples of Critical Essay in Literature


Example #1: Jack and Gill: A Mock Criticism (by Joseph Dennie)
"The personages being now seen, their situation is next to be discovered. Of this we are immediately informed in the subsequent line, when we are told,

Jack and Gill
Went up a hill.

Here the imagery is distinct, yet the description concise. We instantly figure to ourselves the two persons traveling up an ascent, which we may accommodate to our own ideas of declivity, barrenness, rockiness, sandiness, etc. all which, as they exercise the imagination, are beauties of a high order. The reader will pardon my presumption, if I here attempt to broach a new principle which no critic, with whom I am acquainted, has ever mentioned. It is this, that poetic beauties may be divided into negative and positive, the former consisting of mere absence of fault, the latter in the presence of excellence; the first of an inferior order, but requiring considerable critical acumen to discover them, the latter of a higher rank, but obvious to the meanest capacity."

This is an excerpt from the critical essay of Joseph Dennie. It is an interpretative type of essay in which Dennie has interpreted the structure and content of Jack and Jill.

Example #2: On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth (by Thomas De Quincey)
"But to return from this digression, my understanding could furnish no reason why the knocking at the gate in Macbeth should produce any effect, direct or reflected. In fact, my understanding said positively that it could not produce any effect. But I knew better; I felt that it did; and I waited and clung to the problem until further knowledge should enable me to solve it. At length, in 1812, Mr. Williams made his debut on the stage of Ratcliffe Highway, and executed those unparalleled murders which have procured for him such a brilliant and undying reputation. On which murders, by the way, I must observe, that in one respect they have had an ill effect, by making the connoisseur in murder very fastidious in his taste, and dissatisfied by anything that has been since done in that line."

This is an excerpt from Thomas De Quincey about his criticism of Macbeth, a play by William Shakespeare. This essay sheds light on Macbeth and Lady Macbeth and their thinking. This is an interpretative type of essay.

Example #3: A Sample Critical Essay on Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises (by Richard Nordquist)


"To keep Jake Barnes drunk, fed, clean, mobile, and distracted in The Sun Also Rises, Ernest Hemingway employs a large retinue of minor functionaries: maids, cab drivers, bartenders, porters, tailors, bootblacks, barbers, policemen, and one village idiot. But of all the retainers seen working quietly in the background of the novel, the most familiar figure by far is the waiter. In cafés from Paris to Madrid, from one sunrise to the next, over two dozen waiters deliver drinks and relay messages to Barnes and his compatriots. As frequently in attendance and as indistinguishable from one another as they are, these various waiters seem to merge into a single emblematic figure as the novel progresses. A detached observer of human vanity, this figure does more than serve food and drink: he serves to illuminate the character of Jake Barnes."

This is an excerpt from an essay written about Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises. This paragraph mentions all the characters of the novel in an interpretative way. It also highlights the major motif of the essay.

Functions of a Critical Essay
A critical essay intends to convey specific meanings of a literary text to specific audiences. These specific audiences are knowledgeable people. They not only learn the merits and demerits of the literary texts, but also learn different shades and nuances of meanings. The major function of a literary essay is to convince people to read a literary text for reasons described.
Critique is a literary technique that means to critically evaluate a piece of literary work, or a political or philosophical theory in detail. A critique could be a critical essay, an article evaluating a literary piece, or a review. It may be just like a summary that identifies the central issue, raises questions, takes notice of theoretical and experimental approaches, and reviews the significance of the results. Apart from that, its purpose is to highlight both the shortcomings as well as strengths of a literary piece or a work of art. Moreover, critical evaluation or assessment requires sufficient knowledge about the subject matter.



Examples of Critique in Literature
Example #1: The Guardian (By Philip Hope-Wallace)
In The Guardian, critic Philip Hope-Wallace has portrayed Beckett's play, Waiting for Godot, as "inexplicit and deliberately fatuous." He also claimed this play to have "bored some people acutely. [while] Others found it a witty and poetic conundrum." Godot would possibly be a God, and the dresses of tramps are like Chaplinesque zanies in a circus. Both speak futile cross talks like music hall exchanges. This play bored audience acutely, while others consider it as a poetic and witty conundrum. Finally, he calls the play a dramatic vacuum. It is without any plot, climax, denouement, beginning, middle and end.

Example #2: The Washington Post (By The Washington Post)
A famous writer, Jonathan Yardley, gives a complete analysis of F. Scott Fitzgerald's popular novel, The Great Gatsby in The Washington Post. He calls the novel an enormous achievement in Fitzgerald's career. It is his masterwork and seems that no other American novel could ever come close to its literary artistry.

This novel is very popular, and its every passage is famous, thus there is no need to retrace its details and familiar background. Fitzgerald has written it with unusual subtlety and sustained that tone in the entire novel. In the end, he says that this novel is "the most beautiful, compelling and true in all of American literature." Then he says, "If from all of our country's books I could have only one, The Great Gatsby, would be it."

Example #3: Hamlet: Poem Unlimited (By Harold Bloom)


In his book, Hamlet: Poem Unlimited, Harold Bloom declares William Shakespeare's Hamlet as "unlimited," coming "of no genre," because its greatness "... competes only with the world's scriptures." This amazing significance cannot emerge from a work, which is about tendentious and politicized things.

Bloom abandons the idea that Prince Hamlet's double shock of his father's death and his mother's second marriage has brought a drastic change in Hamlet. The truth, however, is that "Something in Hamlet dies before the play opens." In fact, the theme or central idea of this play is "Hamlet's consciousness of his own consciousness, unlimited yet at war with itself." Thus, the play is about awakening of self-awareness, and Hamlet fights with "his desire to come to an end of playacting."

Example #4: The Daily Telegraph (By Victoria Lambert)
Victoria Lambert, in The Daily Telegraph, writes her critical reviews on Jane Austen's novel, Pride and Prejudice. She describes the novel as surprisingly comforting as much as iconoclastic. It is a great story that challenges the people's perceptions, and also draws a line through their thoughts and female history.

Certainly, there is an enjoyment of the Georgian grace, a world where we can solve problems by a ball invitation, a new gown, and scrumptious gossip. The social life at Hampshire Vicarage, its complex social mores, obsessions with money and class, its picnics and parities, draw the readers - especially females - to a point of obsession. The critics appreciate Austen's overall depiction of the way money rules a society. She also admits Austen's ability to describe the human heart in detail, setting her literary pulse racing.

Function of Critique


Critiques vary widely, ranging from giving reviews of books, as these reviews might determine whether a book is going to be popular or not, to rhetorical analysis of articles and pieces of artwork. Its advantage is that, despite negative criticism and reviews, many books win commercial success. Sometimes a critic serves as a scholarly detective, authenticating unknown books and unearthing master pieces. Thus, obscure scholarly skills could work as a most basic criticism, bringing literary pieces to public attention.

Besides, a critique may antagonize the author. Many authors do not feel that literature needs investigators, and advocates are not happy when they hear that their works are imitative, incomplete, or have unintended meanings. However, most critiques are useful, as they help improve the works of authors.
A cumulative sentence is known as a "loose sentence," that starts with an independent clause or main clause, which is simple and straight, provides main idea, and then adds subordinate elements or modifiers. It adds subordinate or modifying elements after the subject and the predicate. Writers use these types of sentences when they want to put forth the main idea first, and provide details to elucidate the idea further thereafter. They use these details in the form of dependent or subordinate phrases or clauses.



These types of sentences work better in various forms of writing, specifically in explaining theories, by giving the main idea at the beginning, and then adding more information to build up the idea further. For instance, in the sentence, "Llanblethian hangs pleasantly, with its white cottages, and orchard and other trees..." (The Life of John Sterling, by Thomas Carlyle), the main clause is short, independent, and straightforward, while the subordinate elements clarify the idea further.

Examples of Cumulative Sentence in Literature
Example #1: More Die of Heartbreak (by Saul Bellow)
"The radiators put out lots of heat, too much, in fact, and old-fashioned sounds and smells came with it, exhalations of the matter that composes our own mortality, and reminiscent of the intimate gases we all diffuse."

In these lines, the main idea is simply the heat of radiators. After that, comes additional information, telling how dangerous the smell of these radiators could be for the humans.

Example #2: Some Dreamers of the Golden Dream (by Joan Didion)
"The San Bernardino Valley lies only an hour east of Los Angeles by the San Bernardino Freeway but is in certain ways an alien place: not the coastal California of the subtropical twilights and the soft westerlies off the Pacific but a harsher California, haunted by the Mojave just beyond the mountains, devastated by the hot dry Santa Ana wind that comes down through the passes at 100 miles an hour and whines through the eucalyptus windbreaks and works on the nerves."

In this example, the main clause is independent, setting a scene for this essay, and describing the location of San Bernardino Valley. The modifying elements further enhance this description.

Example #3: Life and Times of Chaucer (by John Gardner)


"The unwieldy provision carts, draught horses, and heavily armed knights kept the advance down to nine miles a day, the huge horde moving in three parallel columns, cutting broad highways of litter and devastation through an already abandoned countryside, many of the adventurers now traveling on foot, having sold their horses for bread or having slaughtered them for meat."

This is a perfect description of a cumulative sentence. The main clause is about carts, and then there are further details that explain how carts move down the road.

Example #4: Gentlemen of the Road: A Tale of Adventure (by Michael Chabon)
"He wept silently, after the custom of shamed and angry men, so that when the pursuit party came tumbling, pounding, scrabbling down the trail, past the fold in which he and Hillel stood concealed, he could hear the creak and rattle of their leather armor with its scales of horn; and when the Arsiyah returned, just before daybreak, at the very hour when all of creation seemed to fall silent as if fighting off tears, Zelikman could hear the rumbling of the men's bellies and the grit in their eyelids and the hollowness of failure sounding in their chests."

This is another very good example of cumulative sentence. The main clause is very short and straight, telling someone has wept; thereafter, the author has given a detailed description of why someone, mentioned in the main clause, wept silently.

Function of Cumulative Sentence


Cumulative sentences are easier to understand, straightforward, and simple. The additional details in these sentences become relatively important, as they elucidate the main idea, given in a few words at the beginning. They are useful when the goal of a writer is clarity rather than suspense. Cumulative sentences give an informal, conversational, and relaxed feeling to a work of art.

Besides, one must be judicious while explaining a main clause through subordinate and modifying phrases or clauses. At times, readers might not read full details in the entire sentence, as they have already read the main idea. Moreover, if a sentence becomes too long, they might lose interest, or forget the main idea at the end of a sentence.
Dactyl is a metrical foot, or a beat in a line, containing three syllables in which the first one is accented, followed by second and third unaccented syllables (accented/unaccented/unaccented) in quantitative meter, such as in the word "humanly." In dactyl, we put stress on the first syllable, and do not stress second and third syllables, try to say it loud: "HU-man-ly." Dactyl originates from the Greek word dáktylos, which means "finger," because it is like bones of human fingers, beginning from a central long knuckle, which is followed by two short bones.



Opposite to Anapest
Dactyl is opposite to anapestic meter, as dactyl in a quantitative meter consists of a first stressed syllable, and then two unstressed syllables (stressed/unstressed/unstressed), such as a dactyl from Longfellow's poem Evangeline: "Loud from its rocky caverns, the deep-voiced neighboring ocean." However, anapest in a quantitative meter that contains first an unstressed syllable, followed by two stressed syllables (unstressed/stressed/stressed), such as William Cowper's anapestic line from his poem Verses Supposed to be Written by Alexander Selkirk, "I must finish my journey alone."

Examples of Dactyl in Literature


Example #1: The Charge of the Light Brigade (By Alfred Lord Tennyson)
"Half a league, half a league,
Half a league onward,
All in the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred.
'Forward, the Light Brigade!
Charge for the guns!' he said.
Into the valley of Death
Rode the six hundred."

In this poem, Tennyson has used dactylic meter perfectly. Notice this dactylic pattern as one accented syllable, followed by two unaccented syllables. Dactylic syllables give rhythm and pause while reading, thus laying emphasis on certain words.

Example #2: Evangeline (By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow)
"THIS is the forest primeval. The murmuring pines and the hemlocks,
Bearded with moss, and in garments green, indistinct in the twilight ...

Distant, secluded, still, the little village of Grand-Pre ...

Dikes, that the hands of the farmers had raised with labor incessant ...

Leaped like the roe, when he hears in the woodland the voice of the huntsman? ...

Darkened by shadows of earth, but reflecting an image of heaven? ...

List to the mournful tradition, still sung by the pines of the forest ... "

This is a very popular example of dactylic meter appearing in combination with spondaic meter. Look at the words shown in bold, with a stress pattern of one accented syllable followed by two unaccented syllables.

Example #3: The Lost Leader (By Robert Browning)


"Just for a handful of silver he left us,
Just for a riband to stick in his coat—
Found the one gift of which fortune bereft us,
Lost all the others she lets us devote;
They, with the gold to give, doled him out silver,
So much was theirs who so little allowed:
How all our copper had gone for his service!"

Browning has used dactylic meter to create a great rhythmic effect. Most of the lines of the above verses contain four dactyls.

Example #4: (Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking (By Walt Whitman)
"Out of the cradle, endlessly rocking
Out of the mockingbird's throat, the musical shuttle
Out of the Ninth-month midnight ..."

Whitman is using dactyl in the phrase, "Out of the ..." as a pulse riding throughout this poem, which is generating a starting point for each new line.

Example #5: Higgledy Piggledy (By Ian Lancashire)
"Higgledy piggledy,
Bacon, lord Chancellor.
Negligent, fell for the
Paltrier vice.

Bribery toppled him,
Bronchopneumonia
Finished him, testing some
Poultry on ice."

This is a perfect example of a double dactyl poem. It is constructed of two quatrains, each consisting of dactylic dimeter lines. Here, the first line is a nonsense phrase, and the second one is a proper name, while the sixth line is a single double-dactylic word. Double dactyl creates rhythm and humor in this poem.

Function of Dactyl
Dactyl meter is rare in English poetry, as its prolong use has distorted the normal accent of words. Also, it gives the lines a jerky movement. The major purpose of dactylic rhythm is to create lilting movement and a break. Apart from this, it makes poems pleasing, as intrinsically it is delightful, and makes it more meaningful by using stressed and unstressed patterns. As far as the origin of its usage is concerned, Greek and Latin have introduced this metrical form in classical epic poetry for melody. However, later in the nineteenth century, it started appearing regularly after poets like Algernon Charles Swinburne and Robert Browning successfully used it.
Deductive reasoning is defined as a way of building an argument from general premises to a conclusion. If the principle selected is correct and clear, the rules of deductive reasoning are prepared. It is also called a top to down thinking or taking general statements to specific one sand then to a conclusion. For example, if B = C and C = D, then obviously B = D. First two premises are general while the third conclusion is specific.



Deductive reasoning is a rhetorical device rather than a literary device. However, it is used in literature as well as philosophy to build arguments.

Rules for Deductive Reasoning
There are three major rules in deductive reasoning.

The first is modus ponens, which means "law of detachment." This is inference rule in which conclusion is deduced from the first premise that is condition and second premise that is antecedent.
The second rule is modus tollens, which is called "law of contrapositive". It is based on the first premise as conditional with the second premise as a negation of the result followed by conclusion deduced from them.
The third law is that of the syllogism, which takes two conditionals and then forms a conclusion.
Rule-Based Examples
Premise 1: Johnson is a student.
Premise 2: All students are young men.
Conclusion: Johnson is a young man.

Premise 1: If it rains, it means that the sky is cloudy.
Premise 2: There is not any cloud in the sky.
Conclusion: Therefore, it means that it is raining.

Premise 1: If it is a York, it means it is a dog.
Premise 2: If it is a dog, it is also a mammal.
Conclusion: If the animal is a York, it means that it is a mammal, too.

Common Examples


If you want to find peace of mind, you need to identify what you can control and what you cannot. However, if others think what is not under your control is, it is their thinking. Therefore, you need not worry about what others think about you.
When there are two people in this room; Jonny and his brother and you know that both do not wear spectacles, it means that Jonny also does not wear spectacles. Therefore, both have good eyesight.
If there is an after two prime number and seven is also a prime number, it means that all odd numbers between two to eight are prime numbers. (Adopted from Patrick Hurley's Concise Introduction to Logic)
Examples from Literature
Example #1
Animal Farm by George Orwell

"A bird's wing, comrades," he said, "is an organ of propulsion and not of manipulation. It should therefore be regarded as a leg. The distinguishing mark of man is the HAND, the instrument with which he does all his mischief."

The birds did not understand Snowball's long words, but they accepted his explanation, and all the humbler animals set to work to learn the new maxim by heart. FOUR LEGS GOOD, TWO LEGS BAD, was inscribed on the end wall of the barn, above the Seven Commandments and in bigger letters. When they had once got it by heart, the sheep developed a great liking for this maxim, and often as they lay in the field they would all start bleating "Four legs good, two legs bad! Four legs good, two legs bad!" and keep it up for hours on end, never growing tired of it."

This paragraph from Animal Farm is an excellent example of deductive reasoning. Snowball is trying to prove that if wings are like legs, it means they are not hands. If they are not hands, it means that birds have four legs. Therefore, they have not two legs but four legs. Through this deductive reasoning, Snowball has proven that birds are actually animals and not human beings.

Example #2
The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway

"They sat on the Terrace, and many of the fishermen made fun of the old man, and he was not angry. Others, of the older fishermen, looked at him and were sad. But they did not show it, and they spoke politely about the current and the depths they had drifted their lines at and the steady good weather and of what they had seen."

This paragraph from The Old Man and the Sea is also one of the best examples of deductive reasoning. It shows the logic that as the fishermen make fun of the old man, and yet the old man is not angry. It means Santiago is not angry as he is also a man. Conversely, it also shows that as the older men do not show their anger and they are very patient.

Example #3


The Raven by Thomas Hardy

Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
"'Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door -
Only this, and nothing more."

This stanza from "The Raven" also shows an example of deductive reasoning used in literature. It shows that when there is tapping on the door, and it is also gentle, it means that there is only one visitor. It also means that there is no other source of tapping except that visitor.

Functions of Deductive Reasoning
Deductive reasoning proves highly useful during discussions, speeches, writings, and literary pieces. They are also included in logical and argumentative novels or plays. The written pieces often become very persuasive and convincing when constructed with deductive reasoning. The use of deductive reasoning makes it easy to convince the audiences, using general examples to reach a specific point. Moreover, deductive reasoning allows the writing and speaking clear, rhetorical, and effective. It removes ambiguities and confusions in the arguments and helps a person become a fluent and eloquent speaker and flawless writer.
Denotation is generally defined as literal or dictionary meanings of a word in contrast to its connotative or associated meanings.



Let us try to understand this term with the help of an example. If you search for the meaning of the word "dove" in a dictionary, you will see that its meaning is "a type of pigeon, a wild and domesticated bird having a heavy body and short legs." In literature, however, you frequently see "dove" used to mean a symbol of peace.

Denotation and Connotation
In literary works, we find it a common practice with writers to deviate from the dictionary meanings of words to create fresher ideas and images. Such deviations from the literal meanings are referred to as "figurative language," or "literary devices," e.g. metaphors, similes, personifications, hyperboles, understatements, paradoxes, and puns. Even in our daily conversation, we diverge from the dictionary meanings of words, preferring connotative or associated meanings of words in order to accurately convey our message.

Below is a list of some common deviations from denotative meanings of words that we experience in our day-to-day life:

Dog - suggests shamelessness or an ugly face.
Dove - suggests peace or gentility.
Home - suggests family, comfort, and security.
Politician - suggests negative connotation of wickedness and insincerity
Pushy - suggests someone is loud-mouthed and irritating.
Mom and Dad - when used instead of "mother and father" suggest loving parents.
Short Examples of Denotation


She recognized the lovely aroma of her mother's cooking. (Smell)
Vegetables are an inexpensive (Cheap)
Hanna's interest in interior decoration has turned into her leisure pursuit. (Hobby)
Aunt Jolly lives in a hut deep down in the forest. (Cabin)
I stopped for brunch at a diner situated in the bay area. (Café)
His parents are conservationists. (Environmentalists)
My old computer has died. (Venerable)
In a stealthy and quiet way, Bob entered into his lawyer's chambers. (Cautious)
The son was somewhat intimidated by father's assertive (Confident)
Ben is an adventurous (Courageous)
Emily moved around the shore and stopped to take rest. (Relax)
The man is flocking together young sheep. (Lambs)
Harry has a pet and keeps it in a cage. (tamed animal)
Sara forgot her sweater at home and is cold during her walk. (Chilly)
John returns to his home (Family)
Denotation Examples in Literature
Example #1: Mending Wall (By Robert Frost)
"And on a day we meet to walk the line
And set the wall between us once again.
We keep the wall between us as we go.
To each the boulders that have fallen to each."

In the above lines, the word "wall" is used to suggest a physical boundary, which is its denotative meaning, but it also implies the idea of an emotional barrier.

Example #2: A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal (By William Wordsworth)
"A slumber did my spirit seal;
I had no human fears —
She seemed a thing that could not feel
The touch of earthly years.
No motion has she now, no force;
She neither hears nor sees;
Roll'd round in earth's diurnal course
With rocks, and stones, and trees."

Wordsworth makes a contrast between a living girl and a dead girl in the first and second stanzas respectively. We are familiar with the meanings of the words used in the last line of the second stanza: rock, stone, and tree. However, the poet uses them connotatively, where "rock" and "stone" imply cold and inanimate objects, and the tree suggests dirt and thus the burial of that dead girl.

Example #3: As you Like It (By William Shakespeare)


"All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances,
And one man in his time plays many parts, ..."

Shakespeare moves away from the denotative meanings of words in the above lines, in order to give a symbolic sense to a few words. The phrase "a stage" symbolizes the world, the word "players" suggests human beings, and the word "parts" implies different stages of their lives.

Example #4: Wild Asters (By Sara Teasdale)
"In the spring, I asked the daisies
If his words were true,
And the clever, clear-eyed daisies
Always knew.
Now the fields are brown and barren,
Bitter autumn blows,
And of all the stupid asters
Not one knows."

Sara Teasdale develops a number of striking symbols by deviating from the denotative meanings of the words. In the above lines, "spring" and "daisies" are symbols of youth. "Brown and barren" is a symbol of transition from youth to old age. Finally, "bitter autumn" symbolizes death.

Example #5: Richard Cory (By E. A. Robinson)
"And he was always quietly arrayed,
And he was always human when he talked ...
"Good-morning," and he glittered when he walked.
And he was rich — yes, richer than a king ...
And Richard Cory, one calm summer night,
Went home and put a bullet through his head."

Here, the poet uses denotative language to emphasize the personality of Richard Cory, who was wealthy, indeed he was "richer than a king." He was well-educated, and a perfect celebrity - everyone in the town wished to be like him. He shines brightly in his speech and mannerisms, nevertheless, he kills himself in the end.

Example #6: Nicomachean Ethics (By Aristotle)
"[C]ontemplation is both the highest form of activity (since the intellect is the highest thing in us, and the objects that it apprehends are the highest things that can be known), and also it is the most continuous, because we are more capable of continuous contemplation than we are of any practical activity."

In these lines, Aristotle explains the literal function of contemplation in the human mind. Also, he explains that contemplation is a human activity that is done continuously. He uses phrases and words that directly describe contemplation.

Example #7: Fire and Ice (By Robert Frost)
"Some say the world will end in fire,
Some say in ice ...
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice ..."

In the above lines, the poet has used a number of denotative meanings of words. Here, "some say" denotes a group of people, and "I know" represents personal experience. Then "end," "fire," "perish," and "destruction" denote destruction and death.

Example #8: Moby Dick (By Herman Melville)
"What the white whale was to Ahab, has been hinted; what, at times, he was to me, as yet remains unsaid. Aside from those more obvious considerations touching Moby Dick...It was the whiteness of the whale that above all things appalled me."

Ishmael opens the above example by referencing the white whale, calling him "Moby Dick." Also, he specifies and refers to the white color of the whale, and using it in its literal meaning.

Function of Denotation
Readers are familiar with denotations of words but denotations are generally restricted meanings. Writers, therefore, deviate from the denotative meanings of words to create fresh ideas and images that add deeper levels of meanings to common and ordinary words. Readers find it convenient to grasp the connotative meanings of words because of the fact that they are familiar to their literal meanings.
Denouement is derived from the French word denoue, which means "to untie." Denouement is a literary device that can be defined as the resolution of the issue of a complicated plot in fiction. The majority of examples of denouement show the resolution in the final part or chapter, often in an epilogue.



Denouement is usually driven by the climax. In mystery novels, however, the climax and denouement might occur simultaneously. In most of the other forms of literature, it is merely the end of the story.

Examples of Denouement in Literature
Denouement is a significant part of a literary piece, because it resolves the conflicts of the story, as shown in the following denouement examples.

Example #1: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
CAPULET:
"O brother Montague, give me thy hand.
This is my daughter's jointure, for no more
Can I demand..."

MONTAGUE:
"But I can give thee more,
For I will raise her statue in pure gold,
That whiles Verona by that name is known...
As that of true and faithful Juliet..."

CAPULET:
"As rich shall Romeo's by his lady's lie,
Poor sacrifices of our enmity..."

PRINCE:
"A glooming peace this morning with it brings.
The sun, for sorrow, will not show his head..."

The denouement occurs in the play when the Capulets and Montagues see their beloved children committing suicide at the tomb. The heads of the family realized that their bitter rivalry must end. Lord Capulet and Lord Montague agree to end their dispute to avoid further tragedy in the future.

Example #2: The Great Gatsby (By F. Scott Fitzgerald)
"'They're a rotten crowd,' I shouted across the lawn. 'You're worth the whole damn bunch put together...'"

The denouement in The Great Gatsby happens when Nick decides to go back to Minnesota, to get away from the rich people engaged in all those things Nick thinks are part of the moral worthlessness in Gatsby's life. All the people in Gatsby's circle were unfaithful.

Example #3: The Catcher in the Rye (By J. D. Salinger)


"... That's all I'm going to tell about. I could probably tell you what I did after I went home, and how I got sick and all, and what school I'm supposed to go to next fall, after I get out of here, but I don't feel like it. I really don't. That stuff doesn't interest me too much right now... I mean how do you know what you're going to do till you do it? The answer is, you don't. I think I am, but how do I know? I swear it's a stupid question..."

The denouement in this story occurs in the last part of the novel. Here, the character Holden is living in a psychiatric facility, from which he is recounting the story. He tells readers that, after the merry-go-round ride of Phoebe, he would go home to attend school and face his parents.

Example #4: The Winter's Tale (By William Shakespeare)
Gentleman:
"One that gives out himself Prince Florizel/
Son of Polixenes, with his princess, she
The fairest I have yet beheld, desires access..."

Leontes:
"What with him? he comes not
Like to his father's greatness: his approach..."

Florizel:
"Most royal sir, from thence; from him, whose daughter
His tears proclaim'd his, parting with her: thence
A prosperous south-wind friendly, we have cross'd..."

Leontes:
"My lord, Is this the daughter of a king? ... His tears proclaim'd his, parting with her: thence..."

Leontes:
"My lord, Is this the daughter of a king..."

In this excerpt from The Winter's Tale, the denouement occurs when Polixenes chases Florizel and Perdita to Sicily. After the true identity of Paulina is discovered, Polixenes and Leontes make up, and both families become happy. Leontes also reunites with the family and finds Hermoin alive.

Function of Denouement


The denouement is a final resolution or clarification in a literary work. It is used in different types of storytelling: novels, plays, movies, etc. In fact, it wraps up the whole story, and usually comes after a huge climax. When a heart-racing climax has created anxiety and excitement, denouement provides the audience a chance to breathe a sigh of relief. It places everything in proper order, and allows the central theme or sentiments of the movie or novel to resonate. Denouement is very important, as it resolves the issues in the end. The whole story can be destroyed if the denouement is written poorly.
The term deus ex machina refers to the circumstance where an implausible concept or a divine character is introduced into a storyline, for the purpose of resolving its conflict and procuring an interesting outcome.



The use of deus ex machina is discouraged, for the reason that the presence of it within a plot is viewed as a sign of an ill-structured plot. The explanation that the critics provide for this view is that the writer's sudden resort to random, insupportable, and unbelievable twists for the purpose of procuring an ending, highlights the inherent deficiencies of the plot. Hence, deus ex machina is a rather debatable, and often criticized, form of literary device.

The term is Latin for "god out of the machine," and has its origins in ancient Greek theatre. It denotes scenes in which a crane (machine) was used to lower actors or statues playing a god or gods (deus) onto the stage to set things right, usually near the end of the play.

Requirements of Deus Ex Machina
Deus ex machinas are solutions. They are not to be seen as unexpected twists and turns in the storyline that end up making things worse, and not as something that contributes towards changing the understanding of the story. Further, it must be shown that the problem solved by a deus ex machina is one that is unsolvable or otherwise hopeless.

It is also that they are sudden or unexpected. This means that the inherent capacity of deus ex machina to solve the mystery is not apparent until the time the device is actually employed to procure a viable ending for the plot. However, if some other type of intervention - like common sense - could have been employed to procure the same result, then no matter how sudden the solution is, it would not be termed as deus ex machina.

Euripides was one of the most prominent users of deus ex machina. Some scholars believe that he was the first writer to employ the device in his tragedies. His work is often met with criticism for the way he structured his plots, and for his underlying ideas.

Deus Ex Machina Examples


Example #1: Medea (By Euripides)
When Medea is shown in the chariot of the sun god Helios, the god himself isn't present. From her vantage point in the chariot, she watches the grieving Jason. The argument goes about that this specific scene is an illustration of the employment of the deus ex machina device within the plot of the tragedy.

Example #2: Hippolytus (By Euripides)
There are three deities present in this play: the jealous Aphrodite, Artemis the object of Hippolytus' affection, and vengeful Poseidon. However, it is only Artemis who appears. She explains to Theseus that Hippolytus was innocent all along, and that it was Aphrodite who had sinned and caused all the grief. Artemis also promises to destroy any man Aphrodite ever loves.

Example #3: Andromache (By Euripides)


In the end of the play, Thetis the sea goddess appears to Peleus. She comes to take Peleus back with her to her ocean home. The play ends with Peleus going with Thetis his wife, into the ocean.

Example #4: Helen (By Euripides)
Theoclymenos is furious when Helen and Menelaus trick him and run away together. In consequence, he tries to murder his sister for not telling him that Menelaus was not dead. The demi-gods Castor and Polydeuces - Helen's brothers, and sons of Zeus and Leda - appear astonishingly to interrupt.

Example #5: Orestes (By Euripides)
Apollo appears on stage to bring things in order. Apollo clears the situation by informing the characters (and the audience) that Helen had been put amongst the stars, and therefore Menelaus should return to Sparta. He also orders Orestes to travel to Athens to stand trial in their court, and ensures him of his subsequent acquittal. Further, Apollo states that Orestes will marry Hermione, and that Pylades and Electra will also marry.

Function of Deus Ex Machina
The tool of deus ex machina remains a popular one even today, being employed in modern films, novels, and short stories. However the scope of the term has been effectively widened to present it as a multifaceted tool.

It can be employed for the purposes of moving a story forward, or when the writer has "painted himself into a corner" and finds no other escape. He uses this to surprise the audience, to bring a happy ending to the tale, or as a comedic device.
Diacope has originated from a Greek work thiakhop, which means "to cut into two." This literary device is a repetition of a phrase or word, broken up by other intervening words. For instance, a very popular example of diacope is in William Shakespeare's Hamlet, "to be, or not to be!" In this line, you can notice that the speaker has repeated the phrase "to be," which is separated by another phrase "or not." This is called diacope.



Popular use of Diacope
Example #1: The Roar (by Katy Perry)
"You held me down, but I got up"
You hear my voice, you hear that sound ...
You held me down, but I got up
Get ready 'cause I've had enough
I see it all, I see it now"

In this song, the phrase "You held me down," lays emphasis on main idea, which is confidence and strength in the time of adversity. Then, the repetition of the phrase "you hear" and "I see it" gives rhythm to the song.

Types of Diacope


There are two types of diacope:

Vocative diacope
This type of diacope just repeats a phrase or word for emphasis such as:

"The horror! Oh, the horror!"

Repetition in this line is on the phrase "the horror," which emphasizes how horrific something is! It also shows how a character is mentally overwhelmed.

Elaborative diacope


This version of diacope repeats a phrase or word with an additional description or adjective that describes, clarifies, or further lays emphasis on a particular aspect of the thing or subject such as:

"He is standing with a lovely woman. A tall, well-dressed and beautiful woman."

Here elaborative diacope adds further clarity to the appearance of a woman: tall, well-dressed and beautiful.

Examples of Diacope in Literature
Example #1: Antony and Cleopatra (by William Shakespeare)
"Cleopatra: O sun,
Burn the great sphere thou movest in!
darkling stand
The varying shore o' the world. O Antony,
Antony, Antony! Help, Charmian, help, Iras, help;
Help, friends below; let's draw him hither ...

"Antony: I am dying, Egypt, dying; only
I here importune death awhile..."

This is a very good example of vocative diacope, where Cleopatra is repeating the words "Antony," "help," and "dying," which are shown in bold, for emphasis.

Example #2: Deep Thoughts (by Jack Handey)
"I can picture in my mind a world without war, a world without hate. And I can picture us attacking that world, because they'd never expect it."

This is another example of vocative diacope in which the author has repeated the phrase "a world without" to emphasize the world.

Example #3: The Life that I Have (by Leo Marks)
"And the life that I have
Is yours.
The love that I have
Of the life that I have
Is yours and yours and yours.
Yet death will be but a pause ...
In the long green grass
Will be yours and yours and yours."

Here are two phrases "that I have" and "yours" the poet repeats to highlight love of a lover for the loved one. It also adds rhythm to the lines.

Example #4: Growing Up (by Russell Baker)
"He wore prim vested suits with neckties blocked primly against the collar buttons of his primly starched white shirts. He had a primly pointed jaw, a primly straight nose, and a prim manner of speaking that was so correct, so gentlemanly, that he seemed a comic antique."

In the excerpt given above, the author has used elaborative diacope using a word "primly" to emphasize and illustrate man's primness that he is prim in looks, actions and dressing, etc.

Example #5: A Child is Born (by Stephen Vincent Benet)
"Life is not lost by dying! Life is lost
Minute by minute, day by dragging day,
In all the thousand, small uncaring ways."

In the first sentence, the phrase "Life is not lost" is followed by same phrase "Life is lost," which is an instance of elaborative diacope. The author has re-defined and clarified it. Another repetition is on the words "minute" and "day," which emphasizes passing of time.

Function of Diacope
Diacope is frequently used in writing, advertising, slogans, catch-phrases, speeches, TV shows, and music, as well as in movie scripts. Its purpose is to describe, specify, and emphasize an idea or subject. Writers often use diacope to express their strong emotions, and to draw attention towards repeated phrase or words. It also serves to make a phrase memorable and rhythmic.
A dialect is the language used by the people of a specific area, class, district, or any other group of people. The term dialect involves the spelling, sounds, grammar and pronunciation used by a particular group of people and it distinguishes them from other people around them.



Dialect is a very powerful and common way of characterization, which elaborates the geographic and social background of any character.

Examples of Dialect in Literature
Example #1: Huckleberry Finn (By Mark Twain)
Jim: "We's safe, Huck, we's safe! Jump up and crack yo' heels. Dat's de good ole Cairo at las', I jis knows it."

Huck: "I'll take the canoe and go see, Jim. It mightn't be, you know."

One of the best dialect examples in literature, in which it is used as a literary device, occurs in this piece by Mark Twain. Here, Twain uses exaggerated dialect to distinguish between the characters.

Example #2: To Kill a Mockingbird (By Harper Lee)
Characters that are less educated and less sophisticated are usually shown to be speaking with a much stronger dialect. At certain points you might even need translations. Such as:

Walter: "Reckon I have. Almost died first year I come to school and et them pecans — folks say he pizened 'em and put 'em over on the school side of the fence."

Translation: I suppose I have. The first year I came to school and ate those pecans, I almost died. Some people accuse him [Mr. Radley] of poisoning them, and keeping them over on the school side of the fence.



Examples of Dialect in Poetry


Example #4: Poor Bit of a Wench (By D. H. Lawrence)


"Will no one say hush! to thee,
poor lass, poor bit of a wench?
Will never a man say: Come, my pigeon,
come an' be still wi' me, my own bit of a wench!"

Example #5: Gipsy (By D. H. Lawrence)
"I, the man with the red scarf,
Will give thee what I have, this last week's earnings.
Take them and buy thee a silver ring
And wed me, to ease my yearnings.

For the rest when thou art wedded
I'll wet my brow for thee
With sweat, I'll enter a house for thy sake,
Thou shalt shut doors on me."

You can also find great examples of dialect usage in two of George Eliot's novels, Silas Mariner and Middlemarch. Another method of using dialect is to knowingly misspell a word to build an artistic aura around a character, which is termed "metaplasmus."

Dialects in American and British English
There have been several very unique dialects in literature in the past, out of which some have grown to be more dominant. Old and middle English had distinctive regional dialects. The major dialects in old English involved Kentish, Northumbrian, Mercian, and West Saxon dialects. As the years passed, the West Saxon dialect became the standard. Moreover, middle English included Southern, West Midlands, Northern, East Midlands, and Kentish dialects.

In the British Isles, modern English give out hints of class as well as regional dialects. Almost every British country has its own variation to a certain extent. A. C. Baugh pointed out that in one place, at times, you can mark three dialectal regions in a single shire. Modern American English consists of dialects such as Eastern New England, Mid-southern, Inland Northern, Southern, General American North, Midland, New York, and Black English Vernacular.

Function of Dialect
The narrative voice in literature usually aspires to speak in concert with the reality it illustrates. African American authors often criticize this condition, while discussing the significance of speaking in so-called "standard" American English in comparison with African American English. Toni Cade Bambara has made a remarkable contribution to this aspect by choosing the language of her culture and community.

She used her language as a very productive critical tool, and her dialect illustration in The Lesson functioned as an examination of how the people who listen to it ultimately hear the disparaged speech. By reviving the language, which had long been marginalized, she contributes towards the effort to salvage the cultural identity of African Americans. This integration of non-standard linguistic features into the literature in "the lesson" works as an insightful response to marginalization. It also proves the strength and power of language in portraying the diverse realities of people from different places.
A dialogue is a literary technique in which writers employ two or more characters to be engaged in conversation with one another. In literature, it is a conversational passage, or a spoken or written exchange of conversation in a group, or between two persons directed towards a particular subject. The use of dialogues can be seen back in classical literature, especially in Plato's Republic. Several other philosophers also used this technique for rhetorical and argumentative purposes. Generally, it makes a literary work enjoyable and lively.



Types of Dialogue
There are two types of dialogue in literature:

Inner Dialogue - In inner dialogue, the characters speak to themselves and reveal their personalities. To use inner dialogue, writers employ literary techniques like stream of consciousness or dramatic monologue. We often find such dialogues in the works of James Joyce, Virginia Wolf, and William Faulkner.
Outer Dialogue - Outer dialogue is a simple conversation between two characters, used in almost all types of fictional works.
Examples of Dialogue in Literature


Let us see how famous writers have used dialogues for resonance and meaning in their works:

Example #1: Wuthering Heights (By Emily Bronte)
"Now he is here," I exclaimed. "For Heaven's sake, hurry down! Do be quick; and stay among the trees till he is fairly in."

"I must go, Cathy," said Heathcliff, seeking to extricate himself from his companion's arms. "I won't stray five yards from your window..."

"For one hour," he pleaded earnestly.

"Not for one minute," she replied.

"I must-Linton will be up immediately," persisted the intruder.

Miss Bronte has employed surprises, opposition, and reversals in this dialogue like will-it-happen, when he says, "But, if I live, I'll see you ..." She has inserted these expressions in order to develop conflict in the plot.

Example #2: Crime and Punishment (By Fyodor Dostoevsky)
"But who did he tell it to? You and me?"

"And Porfiry."

"What does it matter?"

"And, by the way, do you have any influence over them, his mother and sister? Tell them to be more careful with him today ..."

"They'll get on all right!" Razumikhin answered reluctantly.

"Why is he so set against this Luzhin? A man with money and she doesn't dislike him ...

"But what business is it of yours?" Razumikhin cried with annoyance.

In this excerpt, notice the use of conflict, emotions, information, conflict, reversal, and opposition flowing by. The ideas and information are expressed with perfect timing, but here an important point is that the characters are not responding with a definite answer. This is a beautiful piece of dialogue.

Example #3: A Dialogue Between Caliban and Ariel (By John Fuller)


Cal. "Have you no visions that you cannot name?"

Ar. "A picture should extend beyond its frame,
There being no limitation
To bright reality:
For all their declaration
And complexity,
Words cannot see."

Fuller has written this poem in the dialogue form. Two characters, Caliban and Ariel, are conversing, revealing the conflict, as Caliban asks questions, and Ariel gives answers that make the poem alive and interesting.

Example #4: Pride and Prejudice (By Jane Austen)
"Oh! Single, my dear, to be sure! A single man of large fortune; four or five thousand a year. What a fine thing for our girls!"

"How so? How can it affect them?"

"My dear Mr. Bennet, "replied his wife, "how can you be so tiresome! You must know that I am thinking of his marrying one of them...

My dear, you flatter me. I certainly have had my share of beauty, but I do not pretend to be anything extraordinary now...she ought to give over thinking of her own beauty."

Austen explores the characters in her novels through dialogue. Likewise, in this conversation, the author unfolds Mrs. Bennet's character as being stupid and worthless. Mr. Bennet makes fun of her wife, and this dialogue sums up their relationship and gives hints about their personalities.

Function of Dialogue
The use of dialogue is prevalent in fiction, but this technique can also be found in poetry, non-fiction, films, and drama. The dialogue has several purposes, such as advancing the plot of a narrative, and revealing the characters that cannot be understood otherwise. Further, it presents an exposition of the background or past events, and creates the tone of a narrative. Its usage can also be seen in modern literary works, where it colors the personalities of the characters, creates a conflict, highlights the vernacular, and moves the storyline forward. Moreover, dialogue makes a literary piece interesting and alive, and gives enjoyable experience to the readers.
Diatribe is a violent or bitter criticism of something or someone. It is a rhetorical device used as a verbal attack against a person, group, institution, or a particular behavior. Merriam Webster defines diatribe as, "An angry and usually long speech or piece of writing that strongly criticizes someone or something." Its purpose is to point out the follies and weaknesses of something or someone. However, if the focus of criticism diverts from targeting the main object, it may become negative or destructive criticism on account of its harshness.



Examples of Diatribe in Literature
Example #1: Heart of Darkness (By Joseph Conrad)
Joseph Conrad's narrative Heart of Darkness is based on forced labor of subjugated Africans, as well as the mistreatment and beatings by European colonialists. This serves as an adequate diatribe of imperialism and colonialist countries. The tone of this account is sympathetic toward Africans, while the character Marlowe describes imperialism as:

"The conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or who have slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing..."

Further, he uses severe criticism terming it a "robbery with violence, aggravated murder on a great scale," and Europeans "grabbed what they could get for the sake of what was to be got."

Example #2: Cherry Orchard (By Anton Chekov)
The character Trofimov appears a stronger person in Act II of Anton Chekov's Cherry Orchard, and also the only person who speaks out words of wisdom. In one of the scenes, Trofimov and Lopakhin begin quarrelling, needled by Lopakhin's remarks about his status as "eternal student," and his flirtation with Anya. Thereby, Trofimov launches a diatribe against Lopakhin and Russian intelligentsia, as they failed to improve the social conditions of deprived people by saying,

"The vast majority of those intellectuals whom I know seek for nothing, do nothing, and are at present incapable of hard work. They call themselves intellectuals, but they use 'thou' and 'thee' to their servants, they treat the peasants like animals, they learn badly, they read nothing seriously, they do absolutely nothing, about science they only talk, about art they understand little ..."

Example #3: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)


In the chambers of Polonius, Laertes counsels Ophelia to rebuff the advances of Prince Hamlet. Laertes uses diatribe by describing Hamlet in this manner:

"For Hamlet and the trifling of his favor,
Hold it a fashion and a toy in blood,
A violet in the youth of primy nature,
Forward, not permanent, sweet, not lasting."

Meanwhile, Polonius enters and launches his own diatribe about the topic going on between Laertes and Ophelia, saying:

"Do not believe his vows, for they are brokers
Not of that dye which their investments show."

He calls Prince Hamlet a robust who is just playing with her feelings.

Example #4: Gulliver's Travels (By Jonathan Swift)
In Gulliver's Travels, Jonathan Swift attacks humanity. Swift not only uses satire, but also a diatribe against the follies of human learning, aristocracy, royalty, government of England, the dominant Whig Party, and war with France. He criticizes the failures and flaws of humanity to develop its order, reason, and harmony. His first voyage represents a commentary on the moral state and political events of England. For instance, Swift describes Lilliputians as six inches in height, displaying a smallness and pettiness symbolic of human institutions, such as state and church, and the Lilliputian Emperor represents English King George I.

Example #5: The Canterbury Tales (By Geoffrey Chaucer)
Geoffrey Chaucer has employed bitter criticism in his collection of stories, The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer attacks Monk violently, by saying that, though his duty is to serve churches and people, instead he takes an interest in hunting and riding most of the time. Then comes the Friar, a clergyman whose duty is to hear confessions of the people, but he has married several women in the town. Chaucer describes him:

"He hadde made ful many a marriage/ Of yonge women at his owene cost."

Similarly, Chaucer criticizes other characters, such as a nun, the Prioress, the Wife of Bath, the Parson, the Summoner, and the Pardoner.

Function of Diatribe


Diatribe sharpens the critical faculty of writers. It also enables readers to understand and access a work, lending it a powerful effect on their lives. Diatribes or bitter criticisms appeal to multiple readers in different ways, due to their conflicting interpretations and comparisons about the objects criticized. In addition, diatribe makes readers aware of good and bad qualities of the objects and persons in question. Besides, it is very common in literary works, politics, and everyday speech.
Dichotomy is from the Greek word dichotomia, which means "dividing in two." Dichotomy is a literary technique that divides a thing into two equal and contradictory parts, or between two opposing groups. In literary works, writers use this technique for creating conflicts in their stories and plays. Its common examples in literature are good and evil, soul and body, real and imaginary, heaven and hell, male and female, and savage and civilized, among others. Often, dichotomy appears in a single character; however, sometimes writers use separate characters for representing opposing ideas.



Use of Dichotomy in Everyday Speech
We need to improve infrastructure of this country; therefore, we will have to raise taxes.
He is simple, yet strangely entangled in intuition.
The income of this company is increasing; while its revenue, on the other hand, is decreasing.
U.S. society claims to be the most affluent society in the world, but still there is a clear demarcation between rich and poor.
Examples of Dichotomy in Literature


Example #1: Doctor Faustus (By Christopher Marlowe)
Good Angel: "O Faustus! lay that damned book aside,
And gaze not upon it lest it tempt thy soul."

Evil Angel: "Go forward, Faustus, in that famous art,
Wherein all Nature's treasure is contain'd ..."

Good Angel: "Sweet Faustus, think of Heaven, and heavenly things."

Evil Angel: "No, Faustus, think of honour and of wealth."

This is the most notable example of dichotomy, where good and bad angels represent two parts of Faustus's consciousness. Good angel asks Faustus to repent, and ensures his path to heaven; while bad angel asks him to seek power, lust, and knowledge that would lead to eternal damnation.

Example #2: Heart of Darkness (By Joseph Conrad)
Conrad has employed different dichotomies in his novel Heart of Darkness, such as light versus dark, turmoil versus calmness, and savagery versus civilization. In this story, the most significant dichotomy is savagery and civilization, as in the novel the imperialistic powers are of the view that they are representing civilization, while the natives are symbolizing savagery.

However, as the story progresses, the civilized imperialistic powers are engaged in brutality against the locals. Kurtz himself presents an example of dichotomy as, though he is a modern civilized man, he becomes savage and brutal while living among savages. He realizes this in the end saying, "The horror...the horror."

Example #3: As You Like It (William Shakespeare)


William Shakespeare opens his play, As You Like It, by providing a dichotomy of city versus country life, where the pastoral mood depends on this contrast. In Act I, Scene I of the play, Orlando talks about life's injustices with Oliver, and complains by saying that he "know[s] no wise remedy how to avoid it."

When later in this scene, Charles shows a relation between Duke Senior's whereabouts and his followers, the remedy becomes clear as he says:

"... in the forest of Ardenne ... many young gentlemen ... fleet the time carelessly, as they did in the golden world."

Many people heal in the dense forest, lovers unite, and duke returns to his throne. However, Shakespeare reminds his readers that life is not permanent in Ardenne. As the characters get ready to move back to the court, the author does not favor country life over city life. Instead, he suggests a necessary and delicate balance between these two sides.

Example #4: Beowulf (By Anonymous)
You can find a perfect example of dichotomy in the old English poem, Beowulf. This one expounds upon the theme of good versus evil, where Beowulf is a good character, and three monsters are evil characters. Beowulf is a larger-than-life personality, who kills Grendel, his mother, as well as the dragon. As a descendent of Cain, Grendel is evil, selfish, and strives for personal gain. Beowulf is a triumphant hero, who fights for others, serves them, and defends them.

This poem also contains the dichotomy of light versus darkness, such as when Grendel appears to attack on mead hall at night, which shows evil and dark attacking good and light. Like Grendel, death represents darkness, whereas treasures Beowulf receives represent light.

Function of Dichotomy
You can find the use of dichotomy in literature, linguistics, philosophy, politics, mathematics, and life science, which is proof of its wide scope. Since it presents a striking contrast between two opposite objects or persons, it gives a better understanding to the readers by emphasizing the differences between opposite qualities of two things, or the same thing. In other words, it allows the readers to see conflicting sides with more clarity. It is also a very useful literary tool to identify things and ideas, and to differentiate contradictions between them.
Diction can be defined as style of speaking or writing, determined by the choice of words by a speaker or a writer. Diction, or choice of words, often separates good writing from bad writing. It depends on a number of factors. Firstly, the word has to be right and accurate. Secondly, words should be appropriate to the context in which they are used. Lastly, the choice of words should be such that the listener or reader understands easily.



Proper diction, or proper choice of words, is important to get the message across. On the other hand, the wrong choice of words can easily divert listeners or readers, which results in misinterpretation of the message intended to be conveyed.

Types of Diction
Individuals vary their diction depending on different contexts and settings. Therefore, we come across various types of diction.

Formal diction - formal words are used in formal situations, such as press conferences and presentations.
Informal diction - uses informal words and conversation, such as writing or talking to friends.
Colloquial diction - uses words common in everyday speech, which may be different in different regions or communities.
Slang diction - is the use of words that are newly coined, or even impolite.
Examples of Diction in Literature


Depending on the topics at hand, writers tend to vary their diction. Let us see some examples of diction in literature:

Example #1: Ode on a Grecian Urn (By John Keats)
John Keats, in his Ode on a Grecian Urn, uses formal diction to achieve a certain effect. He says:

"Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard
Are sweeter: therefore, ye soft pipes, play on ..."

Notice the use of the formal "ye," instead of the informal "you." The formality here is due to the respect the urn inspires in Keats. In the same poem he says:

"Ah, happy, happy boughs! that cannot shed
Your leaves, nor ever bid the spring adieu."

It is more formal to use "adieu" than to say "goodbye."

Example #2: The Sun Rising (By John Donne)
In sharp contrast to Keats, John Donne uses colloquialism in his poem The Sun Rising:

"Busy old fool, unruly Sun,
Why dost thou thus,
Through windows, and through curtains, call on us?
Must to thy motions lovers' seasons run?
Saucy pedantic wretch, go chide. "

Treating the sun as a real human being in this excerpt, the poet speaks to the sun in an informal way, using colloquial expressions. He rebukes the sun because it has appeared to spoil the good time he is having with his beloved. Further, he orders the "saucy pedantic sun" to go away.

Example #3: The School (By Donald Barthelme)


Writers skillfully choose words to develop a certain tone and atmosphere in their works. Read the following excerpt from a short story The School, by Donald Barthelme:

"And the trees all died. They were orange trees. I don't know why they died, they just died. Something wrong with the soil possibly or maybe the stuff we got from the nursery wasn't the best. We complained about it. So we've got thirty kids there, each kid had his or her own little tree to plant and we've got these thirty dead trees. All these kids looking at these little brown sticks, it was depressing."

The use of the words "died," "dead," "brown sticks," and "depressing" gives a gloomy tone to the passage.

Example #4: A Tale of Two Cities (By Charles Dickens)
Sometimes writers repeat their chosen words or phrases to achieve an artistic effect, such as in the following example from A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens:

"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair."

By repeating the phrase "It was the ..." throughout the passage, the writer ensures that the readers will give more consideration to the characteristic of the era they are going to read about in the novel.

Function of Diction
In literature, writers choose words to create and convey a typical mood, tone, and atmosphere to their readers. A writer's choice of words, and his selection of graphic words, not only affect the reader's attitude, but also conveys the writer's feelings toward the literary work. Moreover, poetry is known for its unique diction, which separates it from prose. Usually, a poetic diction is marked by the use of figures of speech, rhyming words, and other devices.
Didacticism is a term that refers to a particular philosophy in art and literature that emphasizes the idea that different forms of art and literature ought to convey information and instructions, along with pleasure and entertainment.



The word didactic is frequently used for those literary texts that are overloaded with informative or realistic matter, and are marked by the omission of graceful and pleasing details. Didactic, therefore, becomes a derogatory term referring to the forms of literature that are ostentatiously dull and erudite. However, some literary texts are entertaining as well as didactic.

Didacticism in Morality Plays
Morality plays of medieval Europe were perhaps the best exemplars of didactic literature. These plays were a type of theatrical performance that made use of allegorical characters to teach the audience a moral lesson. The most common themes that were presented in morality plays were what are commonly known as "the seven deadly sins": pride, lust, greed, envy, wrath, sloth and gluttony. Another theme that such plays exploited was that repentance and redemption were possible for a person, even when that person intentionally gave in to temptation. Historically, morality plays were a transitional step that lay between Christian mystery plays and the secular plays of the Renaissance theatre.

Examples of Didacticism in Literature


Example #1: Pilgrim's Progress (By John Bunyan)
John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress is one of the best didacticism examples in the form of spiritual allegory. The poem describes a religious and spiritual journey of a man on the way to deliverance.

The poem describes an ordinary sinner, "Christian," who leaves the City of Destruction and travels towards Celestial City, where God resides, for salvation. On his way, he finds a companion, "Faithful," who helps him on his way to the City.

On many occasions, many characters - "Hypocrisy," "Apollyon," "Worldly Wiseman," and "Obstinate and Pliable" - try to discourage or stop him from achieving his goal. Finally, he reaches the Celestial City carried by Hopeful's faith.

The moral or didactic lesson that this allegorical poem intends to instruct is that the road to Heaven is not easy, and it is full of obstacles. Moreover, a Christian has to be willing to pay any cost to achieve his salvation. Besides, a man is full of sin, but this does not stop him from achieving glory.

Example #2: Essay on Man (By Alexander Pope)
Alexander Pope's Essay on Man is a moral treatise. It is a satirical verse that intends to instruct individuals in an indirect way by ridiculing vices of a society.

"Know then thyself, presume not God to scan
The proper study of Mankind is Man.
Placed on this isthmus of a middle state,
A Being darkly wise, and rudely great:
With too much knowledge for the Sceptic side,
With too much weakness for the Stoic's pride,
He hangs between; in doubt to act, or rest;
In doubt to deem himself a God, or Beast;
In doubt his mind or body to prefer;
Born but to die, and reas'ning but to err;
Alike in ignorance, his reason such,
Whether he thinks too little, or too much;"

The above excerpt is taken from the first verse paragraph of the second book of the poem. It clearly sums up the humanistic and religious principles of the poem.

Example #3: Animal Farm (By George Orwell)


George Orwell's Animal Farm is an allegory, or a moral and didactic tale, that uses animals on a farm to describe the overthrow of the last of the Russian Tsar, Nicholas-II, and exposes the evil of the Communist Revolution of Russia before WWII. Clearly, the actions of the various animals on the farm are used to expose the greed and corruption of the revolution. It also contains a depiction of how powerful people can alter the ideology of a society. One of the cardinal rules on the farm is:

"All animals are equal but a few are more equal than others."

The animals on the farm stand for different sections of the then-Russian society occupying Russia after the revolution. For example, "pigs" represents those who became the authority after the revolution; "Mr. Jones," the owner of the farm, represents the overthrown Tsar Nicholas II; and "Boxer," the horse, represents the laborer class. Didacticism in the novel permits Orwell to make his position on the Russian Revolution apparent, in order to expose its evils.

Function of Didacticism
Didacticism in literature aims at offering something additional to its readers, rather than merely offering pleasure and entertainment. Some critics may argue that didacticism may reduce literature to a tool for boring instructions, nevertheless it definitely gives readers a chance to improve their conduct, and comprehend evils which may lead him astray.
While reading a narrative, a reader comes across several sudden interruptions in the main action of the story, which provides him background information, establish his interest, describes a character's motivation, and builds suspense. These interruptions are called "digressions." A digression is a stylistic device authors employ to create a temporary departure from the main subject of the narrative, to focus on apparently unrelated topics, explaining background details. However, after this temporary shift, authors return to the main topic at the end of the narrative.



Examples of Digression in Literature
Example #1: Iliad (By Homer)
Homer is one of the earliest users of digression during the Grecian Era. He uses digressions in Iliad to provide the readers with a break from the main narrative, offering background information and enhancing verisimilitudes of the story. For instance, in Book 11, Homer uses a small digression when Agamemnon encounters the brothers Hippolokhos and Peisandros in a battle. When they come to Agamemnon as suppliants, he reminds them that their father once denied emissaries of Menelaos. Homer employs it as a short interlude that provides the readers a serious note on the nature of rivalries and the beginnings of war.

Example #2: The Catcher in the Rye (By J. D. Salinger)
J. D. Salinger's novel The Catcher in the Rye is rich with digression. Many thought patterns of Holden Caulfield in the novel seem to be straying from the main topic, and hence unrelated. However, these digressions are relevant and important for the main topic, as they allow readers to gain insight into this character. For instance, his statements about the intelligence of his sister, followed by a description of how carefully she listens, reveals Holding's concerns.

Another example of digression is his tension about the nuns. Although he enjoyed discussion, he was worried about being asked whether he is a Catholic or not. This shows his tension for being judged morally and ethically, and his associations with moralists, who look down upon those who hide such realities from them.

Example #3: Oliver Twist (By Charles Dickens)


"If it did not come strictly within the scope and bearing of my long-considered intentions and plans regarding this prose epic ... to leave the two old gentlemen sitting with the watch between them long after it grew too dark to see it ... I shall not enter into any such digression in this place: and, if this be not a sufficient reason for this determination, I have a better, and indeed, a wholly unanswerable on, already stated; which is, that it forms no part of my original intention to do so."

Dickens launches a lengthy discussion to show how the plot is progressing. This excerpt is a perfect instance of breaks and digressions in the story, reminding the readers this is not a real story but a novel, which keeps a distance between readers and characters.

Example #4: Odyssey (By Homer)
Homer's Odyssey also contains several interludes and digressions, which take readers away from the main action of the story. Despite that, these digressions are thematically connected to the main narrative, namely Odysseus' journey to home and his several encounters during this journey. The poem's style ranges from comic and conversational, to pithy, compact, and abstruse. For instance, the poem uses similes, comparing one event or action to another situation or happening in an elaborate or extended manner. For instance, the poet compares a squid clinging to a rock to Odysseus holding to his boat.

Function of Digression


The main function of digression is to provide a description of characters, give background information, establish interest, and create suspense for the readers. However, these functions vary from author to author. Some use it to provide scholarly background, while others use it to prevent confusion of illusions in a narrative.

Another function is to emphasize or illustrate an idea through anecdotes or examples, and establish a channel through which authors satirize a person or place. Besides these, many authors fear that if they do not digress from the main topic, naïve readers might not be able to differentiate between the reality and fiction. The reason is that some topics are close to reality, such as poverty, strained relationships, and crime. Hence, they use it to put a check on their audience's sympathetic identification with certain characters.
Dilemma is a Greek word that means "double proposition," or "perplexing situation," which presents two different possibilities, both of which seem practically acceptable. Dilemma is a rhetorical device in which a conflicting situation arises for a person to choose between right and wrong, where both seem of equal worth. Often times, dilemma involves an ethically wrong decision that may produce desirable outcomes, but which could have moral consequences. Or it involves a decision in which a person needs to choose one of the two options, both of which are equally good or bad.



Examples of Dilemma in Literature
Example #1: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
In the play Hamlet, William Shakespeare's leading character, Hamlet, struggles with a dilemma in how to out the orders of his father's ghost to kill his stepfather; in order to exact revenge for marrying his mother, and usurping the throne. Ophelia also faces a dilemma in the play, as her brother and father believe that Hamlet is not faithful to her, and would rather use her; whereas her heart is convinced that Hamlet loves her. Neither of them could reconcile the situation following the ethical dilemmas they got entangled in.

Example #2: Dr. Faustus (By Christopher Marlowe)
We find a perfect example of moral dilemma in Christopher Marlowe's play, Dr. Faustus. His major moral dilemma is he desires to get extensive knowledge for his benefit, but intends to use it to exploit others. For this, he sells his soul to the representative of Mephistopheles. We see his moral dilemma through his lust. He wishes to get things that were impossible to get, like power to rule an entire kingdom, but at heart he feels that he is doing wrong.

Example #3: Othello (By William Shakespeare)


William Shakespeare uses several conflicts in his play, Othello, and one of them is person versus person. We find main the character, Othello, in a dilemma when he faces internal about conflict whether he should believe in Desdemona or not, and whether she is faithful to him or not. Othello trusts and loves her, until jealousy arises in him due to Iago's cruel manipulations.

Example #4: Jane Eyre (By Charlotte Bronte)
Charlotte Bronte, in her novel Jane Eyre, demonstrates the characters struggling with their consciences after facing moral dilemmas. The most prominent characters are Rochester, Saint John, and Jane. While analyzing Saint John's character, we come to know that he is determined to devote his life as a missionary. He thus feels inclined to like the work ethics of Jane, and proposes to her.

Though John loves another girl, Rosamond Oliver, he cannot marry her, as she would not make as good a wife as a missionary would. Jane, on the other hand, also struggles with a dilemma when John tempts her. There is appeal to the life of a missionary, but then she refuses because she does not love John. Jane's second moral dilemma comes in the question of whether to marry Rochester or not, as he is already married to Bertha Mason. She finally resolves this one by marrying Rochester.

Example #5: Crime and Punishment (By Fyodor Dostoyevsky)
In Fyodor Dostoyevsky's novel Crime and Punishment, Raskolnikov commits a murder in order to test his assumption that some people have a right to act in this way because they are capable of doing such things. Raskolnikov tries several times to justify his actions, and mentally compares himself with Napoleon Bonaparte, determining that murder is acceptable for pursuing a higher purpose.

Example #6: Oedipus Rex (By Sophocles)
Sophocles raises moral dilemma in his phenomenal play Oedipus Rex, in which he falls victim to a great tragedy when he sets out to discover the truth of his birth. He seeks the truth with the expectation that, after knowing the truth, he would be able to set things right in his city. However, we learn that despite his righteous intentions, everything proves to be a trauma for him. He faces the dilemma of relieving the people from plague, or leaving it to save himself.

Function of Dilemma


In literature, dilemma is a struggle occurring within the mind of a character. Therefore, it gives readers an insight into characters' lives. There may be a single or multiple dilemmas in a story. However, the purpose is to create a tension and complexity in a narrative by adding confusing and conflicting ideas. It also creates suspense and excitement in the story from the beginning to the end. Simply put, the leading characters have to struggle, evolve, and make choices in a story to change effectively.
Direct characterization means the way an author or another character within the story describes or reveals a character, through the use of descriptive adjectives, epithets, or phrases. In other words, direct characterization happens when a writer reveals traits of a character in a straightforward manner, or through comments made by another character involved with him in the storyline.



Direct characterization helps the readers understand the type of character they are going to read about. For instance, in Arthur Miller's The Crucible, he describes his character John Proctor in this way: "He was the kind of man - powerful of body, even-tempered, and not easily led - who cannot refuse support to partisans without drawing their deepest resentment."

Examples of Direct Characterization in Literature
Example #1: The Most Dangerous Game (By Richard Connell)
"The first thing Rainsford's eyes discerned was the largest man Rainsford had ever seen - a gigantic creature, solidly made and black bearded to the waist. ...

" 'Ivan is an incredibly strong fellow,' remarked the general, 'but he has the misfortune to be deaf and dumb. A simple fellow, but, I'm afraid, like all his race, a bit of a savage.' "

The above passage shows a good example of a direct characterization. Here Zaroff has explicitly described another character Ivan in the story The Most Dangerous Game, leaving readers with no more questions about him. Ivan is a muscular, huge man, having a long black beard. He is deaf and dumb, yet strong, Zaroff says.

Example #2: The Old Man and the Sea (by Earnest Hemingway)
"The old man was thin and gaunt with deep wrinkles in the back of his neck. The brown blotches of the benevolent skin cancer the sun brings from its reflection on the tropic sea were on his cheek ... Everything about him was old except his eyes and they were the same color as the sea and were cheerful and undefeated."

Hemingway uses the method of direct characterization to describe the old man's personality traits, especially the vivid eyes of his main character, the old man, Santiago in his novel.

Example #3: Hedda Gabler (by Henrik Ibsen)


"MISS JULIANA TESMAN, with her bonnet on a carrying a parasol, comes in from the hall, followed by BERTA, who carries a bouquet wrapped in paper. MISS TESMAN is a comely and pleasant- looking lady of about sixty-five. She is nicely but simply dressed in a grey walking-costume. BERTA is a middle-aged woman of plain and rather countrified appearance...GEORGE TESMAN comes from the right into the inner room ... He is a middle-sized, young-looking man ... He wears spectacles, and is somewhat carelessly dressed in comfortable indoor clothes."

In this excerpt, Henrik Ibsen has described three characters: Miss Tesman, Berta, and George Tesman. He has clearly shown their personalities and mannerism through direct characterization.

Example #4: Pride and Prejudice (by Jane Austen)
"Mr. Bingley was good-looking and gentlemanlike; he had a pleasant countenance, and easy, unaffected manners. ... he was discovered to be proud, to be above his company, and above being pleased; and not all his large estate in Derbyshire could then save him from having a most forbidding, disagreeable countenance, and being unworthy to be compared with his friend."

Mr. Bingley, the romantic interest of Jane, and his friend, Mr. Darcey, are described in this excerpt through direct characterization. She has admired Mr. Bingley for his pleasant countenance, comparing him to Mr. Darcy.

Example #5: The Canterbury Tales (by Geoffrey Chaucer)
"He yaf nat of that text a pulled hen,
That seith that hunters ben nat hooly men,
Ne that a monk, whan he is recchelees...
His heed was balled, that shoon as any glas,
And eek his face, as he hadde been enoynt.
His eyen stepe, and rollynge in his heed,
That stemed as a forneys of a leed;
His bootes souple, his hors in greet estaat."

Through monk's portrait, his physical and social life, readers see a satire of the religious figures that should live a proper monastic life of hard work and deprivation. This is the achievement of the description of Chaucer that he has described a character through direct characterization.

Function of Direct Characterization


Direct characterization shows traits as well as motivation of a character. Motivation can refer to desires, love, hate, or fear of the character. It is a crucial part that makes a story compelling. Descriptions about a character's behavior, appearance, way of speaking, interests, mannerisms, and other aspects draw the interest of the readers and make the characters seem real. Also, good descriptions develop readers' strong sense of interest in the story.
Foucault presents possibly the best definition of discourse. He defines discourse as, "Systems of thoughts composed of ideas, attitudes, and courses of action, beliefs and practices that systematically construct the subjects and the worlds of which they speak."



Originally, it has roots in the Latin language. The term assumes slightly different meanings in different contexts. In literature, discourse means speech or writing, normally longer than sentences, which deals with a certain subject formally. In other words, discourse is the presentation of language in its entirety, while performing an intellectual inquiry in a particular area or field, such as theological discourse or cultural discourse.

General Classifications of Discourse
Discourse can be classified into four main categories, namely:

Exposition
The main focus of this type of discourse is to make the audience aware about the topic of the discussion. Definitions and comparative analysis of different ideas and beliefs are examples of discourse exposition.

Narration
Narration is a type of discourse that relies on stories, folklore or a drama as a medium of communication.
Stage play, story, and folklore are narrative discourse examples.

Description


This type involves describing something in relation to the senses. Descriptive discourse enables the audience to develop a mental picture of what is being discussed. Descriptive parts of novel or essay are descriptive discourse examples.

Argument
This type of discourse is based on valid logic and, through correct reasoning, tries to motivate the audience. Examples of argumentative discourse include lectures, essays, and prose.

Examples of Discourse in Literature
Poetic Discourse
Poetic discourse is a type of literary conversation which focuses on the expression of feelings, ideas, imaginations, events, and places through specific rhymes and rhythms. Poetic discourse makes use of common words in appealing ways to present feelings and emotions. The mechanism of poetic discourse involves certain steps starting from different sources, then entering the mental process, mental realization, and then finally into a finished product as poetry.

Example #1: A Character (By William Wordsworth)
"I marvel how Nature could ever find space
For so many strange contrasts in one human face:
There's thought and no thought, and there's paleness and bloom
And bustle and sluggishness, pleasure and gloom."

Expressive Discourse
Expressive discourse does not involve the presentation of facts, or the motivating of others, but is rather a reflection of our emotions that form the foundation of our expressions. This is a form of basic or entry-level discourse, and is beneficial for beginners in the field of literature. It primarily deals with generating ideas with no concrete source. Examples include academic essays and diaries.

Example #2: The Diary of Samuel Pepys (By Samuel Pepys, 1660)
"We met very early at our office this morning to pick out the twenty-five ships which are to be first paid off. After that to Westminster and dined with Mr. Dalton at his office, where we had one great court dish, but our papers not being done we could [not] make an end of our business till Monday next. Mr. Dalton and I over the water to our landlord Vanly, with whom we agree as to Dalton ..."

Transactional Discourse
The basic aim in this kind of discourse is to convey the message in such a way that it is clearly understood without any confusion. Whatever is said has no ambiguity - everything is clear for the reader. Usually, this type of discourse is in active voice. Examples include instructions, guidelines, manuals, privacy policies, and patient instructions as written by doctors.

Function of Discourse


The role of discourse is hard to ignore in our daily intellectual pursuits, for it provides a basis to conduct a comparative analysis and frame our perceptions about different things. For instance, two competing discourses about the civil war in Syria today can be used to qualify the war as either "war against dictatorship," or "war against imperialism." On the other hand, it could be deemed as "war against Islam," or "war for humanity." Thus, both discourses provide a distinct style, vocabulary, and presentation, which are required to convey the respective ideas to a specific audience.

According to Jacques Lucan and Ferdinand de Saussure, language (discourse) is the main force which works behind all kinds of human activities and changes in social fabric; whereas Modernists attribute discourse to development and progress. Another important function of discourse is to generate and preserve truth as argued by the Postmodernist theories.
Dissonance is the use of impolite, harsh-sounding, and unusual words in poetry. In other words, it is a deliberate use of inharmonious words, phrases, or syllables intended to create harsh sounding effects. Dissonance is opposite of assonance, and similar to cacophony, which is also a use of inharmonious sounds. This unpleasant combination of consonants and vowels create an awkward sound, which makes the reading uncomfortable, and adds emotional depth to a situation or moment.



Use of Dissonance in Everyday Life and Music
Dissonant sounds also occur in everyday life. For instance, the sound of a crying baby and a screaming person are dissonant sounds. These sounds are annoying and alarming to the listeners. In music, dissonance might make listeners feel uncomfortable; however, it helps to create a sense of tension in musical compositions.

Examples of Dissonance in Literature


Example #1: Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister (by Robert Browning)
"Gr-r-r-there go, my heart's abhorrence!
Water your damned flower-pots, do!
If hate killed men, Brother Lawrence,
God's blood, would not mine kill you!
What? your myrtle-bush wants trimming?
Oh, that rose has prior claims -
'St, there's Vespers! Plena gratia
Ave, Virgo! Gr-r-r-you swine!"

Browning captures the attention of his readers by beginning and ending the above poem with a word "Gr-r-r." While in the rest of the stanza, he has employed dissonance.

Example #2: The Dalliance of the Eagles (by Walt Whitman)
"The clinching interlocking claws, a living, fierce, gyrating wheel,
Four beating wings, two beaks, a swirling mass tight grappling,
In tumbling turning clustering loops, straight downward falling."

Whitman has employed dissonance by describing eagles. He has combined assonance and mono and bi-syllabic words to create dissonance.

Example #3: Wind (by Ted Hughes)


"At noon I scaled along the house-side as far as
The coal-house door. Once I looked up -
Through the brunt wind that dented the balls of my eyes
The tent of the hills drummed and strained its guyrope...
The wind flung a magpie away and a black-
Back gull bent like an iron bar slowly."

See how vowel sounds are so different in the following lines that they seem clashing with each another. These harsh sounds create disturbing effect that catches our attention.

Example #4: Sunday Morning (by Wallace Stevens)
"Complacencies of the peignoir, and late
Coffee and oranges in a sunny chair,
And the green freedom of a cockatoo
Upon a rug mingle to dissipate
The holy hush of ancient sacrifice."

This is a very good instance of dissonance, where harsh-toned words interrupt the smooth and rhythmical flow of the words and hence create disturbing and jarring effect.

Example #5: Macbeth (by William Shakespeare)
"Of all men else I have avoided thee.
But get thee back. My soul is too much charged
With blood of thine already."

In the above lines, Shakespeare has used blank verse and variant vowel sounds to create unpleasant effects.

Example #6: Carrion Comfort (by Gerard Manely Hopkins)
"Not untwist — slack they may be — these last strands of man
Can something, hope, wish day come, not choose not to be.
Scan...
With darksome devouring eyes my bruisèd bones?"

Hopkins has used alliteration with high accented syllables and dissonance that echo speaker's inner turmoil and noise and uncomfortable situations.

Example #7: Princess Ida (by Gilbert and Sullivan)
"Women of Adamant, fair neophytes—
Who thirst for such instruction as we give,
Attend, while I unfold a parable.
The elephant is mightier than Man,
Yet Man subdues him. Why? The elephant
Is elephantine everywhere but here (tapping her forehead)..."

These lines have used abrupt and conversational style. Also, the use of dissonance brings more abruptness in its style, causing shock and surprise to the readers.

Function
The use of inharmonious sounds creates unpleasant effects and draws attention of the readers by creating interesting variations. It is found in poetry, plays, advertising, music and everyday life. Its purpose is to depict some sort of discomfort, making the readers or the audience to feel shock and surprise. It helps to describe the situations, which are emotionally turbulent and tumultuous. However, sometimes the poets use dissonance to create humorous effects too. They often use these sounds in an unexpected manner to discover the limits of the language.
Distortion is a literary device that twists, exaggerates, changes, and makes something quite different from what it actually is. Writers can distort a thought, an idea, a situation, or an image. They may use symbolism, satire, and personification to present distortion. For instance, in his novel Animal Farm, George Orwell uses personification and symbolism to distort stereotypes and historical figures. Read on to learn more about distortion in literature.



Examples of Distortion in Literature
Example #1: 1984 (by George Orwell)
"Don't you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? In the end, we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to express it. Every concept that can ever be needed will be expressed by exactly one word, with its meaning rigidly defined and all its subsidiary meanings rubbed out and forgotten."

"[...] Every year fewer and fewer words, and the range of consciousness always a little smaller. Even now, of course, there's no reason or excuse for committing thoughtcrime. It's merely a question of self-discipline, reality-control. But in the end there won't be any need even for that."

"[...] In fact there will be no thought, as we understand it now. Orthodoxy means not thinking - not needing to think. Orthodoxy is unconsciousness."

In the above excerpt taken from 1984, George Orwell has used distortion of several facts as a manipulative device. He expresses that this is an important part of human thought, as it either limits or structures the ideas of individuals. Orwell has rather focused on political language to distort the story's concepts and events by naming them differently than their names in our reality.

Example #2: Gulliver's Travels (by Jonathan Swift)
Swift uses distortion in his writings, such as the use of diminution to launch an attack on human grandeur. For instance, in Book I of Gulliver's Travels, Swift presents the Lilliputian king as greedy and powerful, and people as diminutive mortals. In fact, the author ridicules their king, because kings are symbolic figures of grandeur and power. However, the Lilliputian king is just six inches tall. By manipulating the fact of their physical smallness, the author emphasizes the moral smallness and pettiness of the Lilliputians.

Example #3: Catch 22 (by Joseph Hellen)


Hellen has used distortion many times in ironic situations to get his message across in his novel, Catch 22. He has used distortion of justice, which is influenced by problematic personal integrity and greed. For instance, in part-5, Yossarian asks Orr if it is possible that he could remain on the land. In fact, anyone who is crazy could stay on the land. Doc replies that Orr can definitely remain on the land; however, first he would have to send a request. Orr is crazy and does not make a request. If he asks to stay on the land, it means he is not crazy; thus, those who want to get out of combat duty are not crazy, nor can they get out.

Example #4: Shrek (by William Steig)
Shrek is contradictory to traditional fairy tales, because the author did not use a pretty princess and pompous prince as his leading characters. Rather, he uses an Ogre as a hero, and a less-than-attractive woman as the damsel in distress. This is a completely reverse situation, with the author using distorted characters, creating humor as well as an odd storyline.

Distortion satire can be seen in a number of reversal of situations.

Fiona beats robin-hood, who tries to save her from the ogre. This shows distorts the situation, showing Fiona to be a damsel in distress, who ends up rescuing herself.
The ogre takes the place of a prince, as he goes on a quest to save the princess with a secret.
Donkey lives with the ogre, taking him as a friend - which is absurd, because ogres are gruesome.
Donkey falls in love with a dragon that is likely to eat him. This is a reversal that is unbelievable for the readers - that donkey and dragon could live together peacefully.
Finally, the distortion satire is complete when Fiona herself turns into an ogre at sundown.
Function


The use of distortion is found mostly in novels, short stories, and advertising. Its basic purpose is to create humor, and lay emphasis on a point, a thing, or a person by distorting reality. Sometimes, distortion may highlight a remarkable action or feature through comparison and contrast. It also criticizes, makes fun, and gives comic relief to readers. In addition, distortion describes an important feature of the story as being worse or better than it actually is.
Doppelganger, a German word meaning "look-alike," or "double walker," originally referred to a ghost, or shadow of a person; but in modern times it simply refers to a person that is a look-alike of another person.



Types of Doppelganger
In literature, a doppelganger is usually shaped as a twin, shadow, or a mirror-image of a protagonist. It refers to a character who physically resembles the protagonist, and may have the same name as well. Several types of doppelganger can be spotted in world literature. It may take the form of an evil twin, not known to the actual person, who confuses people related to that original person.

It may also be figured as one person existing in two different places at the same time. Sometimes, a doppelganger is a person's past or future self. In some cases, it may simply be a person's look-alike.

Doppelganger in Folklore


In traditional folklore, doppelganger is a malicious and evil character, having no shadow or reflection. It troubles and harms its counterpart by putting bad thoughts and ideas in his or her head. In some cultures, seeing one's doppelganger is bad luck, and is often a sign of serious illness or approaching death.

Examples of Doppelganger in Literature
Let us see some doppelganger examples and their role in literature:

Example #1: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
The ghost of Hamlet's father in Shakespeare's Hamlet is an example of doppelganger. The idea of getting revenge is put in Hamlet's mind by the apparition of his father, who tells him that he was murdered. The use of a doppelganger helps Shakespeare to set up the plot of his play, which revolves around the theme of revenge.

Example #2: William Wilson (By Edgar Allan Poe)
William Wilson, a short story by Edgar Allan Poe, follows the theme of doppelganger. William, the protagonist, meets another boy in school, who had the same name and looked surprisingly like him. He dressed like him, and even walked like him. The only difference between them was that William's doppelganger could only talk in a whisper.

The doppelganger haunts William all his life. Worn out by interference from his double in his affairs, William stabs him, only to discover - looking in the mirror -that he has stabbed himself. He hears the voice of his rival as if it was his own:

"In me didst thou exist—and, in my death, see by this image, which is thine own, how utterly thou hast murdered thyself."

Example #3: The Secret Sharer (By Joseph Conrad)


Joseph Conrad uses a doppelganger theme in his short story The Secret Sharer. In the story, Laggatt, the ex-skipper of a ship, acts as a doppelganger of the Captain. The Captain discovers Laggatt swimming in the sea naked, helps him come aboard, and gives him his clothes to wear.

The men have both similarities and dissimilarities. Laggatt, who is full of calmness and self-confidence, helps the Captain to get rid of his uncertainty and undue apprehensions. In fact, Laggatt is other self of the Captain, whom he has failed to discover until then.

Example #4: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (By Robert Louis Stevenson)
Robert Louis Stevenson explores the theme of doppelganger in his novel Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Hyde is an evil double of the honorable Dr. Jekyll. Jekyll creates Hyde by scientific experiments, to prove his statement:

"... man is not truly one, but truly two."

He means that the human soul is a mixture of evil and good, and Hyde is the manifestation of the evil that existed in Dr. Jekyll. As a respectable Victorian gentleman, Jekyll can never fulfill the evil desires existing in him. Therefore, he separates his "evil-self," giving him a separate identity.

Function of Doppelganger
A survey of doppelganger examples leads one to conclude that this literary device serves a variety of purposes in literature. It may be used to show the "other self" of a character, which he or she has not discovered yet. This "other self" could be the darker side of the character that troubles, or the brighter side that motivates. Hence, the use of doppelganger helps writers to portray complex characters.

Moreover, doppelganger gives rise to a conflict in a story. The doppelganger acts in a way that promises dire consequences for the main character, who puts in efforts to undo the actions of his double. Sometimes, the conflict is an inner one, where a character tries to understand himself by understanding his doppelganger.
A double entendre is a literary device that can be defined as a phrase or a figure of speech that might have multiple senses, interpretations, or two different meanings, or which might be understood in two different ways. Oxford Dictionary says that it "conveys an indelicate meaning." The first meaning in double entendre is usually straightforward, while the second meaning is ironic, risqué, or inappropriate.



Examples of Double Entendre in Literature
Double entendre is used in literature, everyday life, films, magazines, and newspapers to criticize and provide entertainment, and sometimes to make people laugh. It is widely used for insinuation and irony. William Shakespeare and Geoffrey Chaucer have made use of double entendre in their works.

Example #1: The 2,548 Best things Anybody Ever Said (By Robert Byrne )
"Marriage is a fine institution, but I'm not ready for an institution." (Mae West)

The word "institution" in connection with marriage has two meanings in here. One, it refers to marriage as an important custom of a society. Two, marriage is something that will cause an individual to go to a mental institution.

Example #2: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
Nurse: "God ye good morrow, gentlemen."
Mercutio: "God ye good den, fair gentlewoman."
Nurse: "Is it good den?"
Mercutio: " 'Tis no less, I tell you; for the bawdy hand of the dial is now upon the prick of noon."
Nurse: "Out upon you! What a man are you!"

The audience may wonder why the nurse reacted negatively when Mercutio was plainly stating the time. This is because he was saying something quite different ... something that is sexual in meaning: bawdy, meaning "lustful," and prick, meaning "penis."

Example #3: Are You Being Served (By Jeremy Lloyd and David Croft)


Mrs. Slocombe: "Before we go any further, Mr. Rumbold, Miss Brahms and I would like to complain about the state of our drawers. They're a positive disgrace."
Mr. Rumbold: "Your what, Mrs. Slocombe?"
Mrs. Slocombe: "Our drawers. They're sticking. And it's always the same in damp weather."
Mr. Rumbold: "Really..."
Mrs. Slocombe: "They sent a man who put beeswax on them, but that made them worse."
Mr. Rumbold: "I'm not surprised."
Miss Brahms: "I think they need sandpapering."

Underwear and the sliding part of a cabinet (where items are placed) are both called "drawers." One can't help but laugh when one thinks of drawers as underwear, and hears the characters say their drawers are "sticking," and are thus "a positive disgrace," and when a man "...put beeswax on them," which "... made them worse."

Example #4: The Odyssey (By Homer)
It happens that Odysseus lands on the island of one-eyed giant Polyphemus and enters his caves with his twelve valiant soldiers. However, he is caught and imprisoned when the Cyclops closed its door with a huge stone wheel. When the Cyclops asks his name, he tells him that his name is "Nobody" and then plans with his surviving soldiers to blind him with a log made hot and sharpened with knives. When they succeed, the Cyclops cries out at the top of his voice saying, "Nobody has hurt me. Nobody is going to kill me."

Here, "Nobody" has been used as a double entendre as it has double meanings. On the one hand, it means that "Nobody" that is Odysseus has blinded him while on the other hand it means that nobody has done this to the Cyclops.

Function of Double Entendre


As double entendre is a phrase that expresses double meanings, the purpose of using double entendre is usually to articulate one thing perfectly and indirectly. This is generally an insult, or an insinuation. Shakespeare made use of this device to add humor to his work. If the audience is able to understand the different meanings that the actors or characters are trying to convey, double entendres will surely create laughter, or put forward a certain suggestion.
Drama is a mode of fictional representation through dialogue and performance. It is one of the literary genres, which is an imitation of some action. Drama is also a type of a play written for theater, television, radio, and film.



In simple words, a drama is a composition in verse or prose presenting a story in pantomime or dialogue. It contains conflict of characters, particularly the ones who perform in front of audience on the stage. The person who writes drama for stage directions is known as a "dramatist" or "playwright."

Types of Drama
Let us consider a few popular types of drama:

Comedy - Comedies are lighter in tone than ordinary works, and provide a happy conclusion. The intention of dramatists in comedies is to make their audience laugh. Hence, they use quaint circumstances, unusual characters, and witty remarks.
Tragedy - Tragic dramas use darker themes, such as disaster, pain, and death. Protagonists often have a tragic flaw — a characteristic that leads them to their downfall.
Farce - Generally, a farce is a nonsensical genre of drama, which often overacts or engages slapstick humor.
Melodrama - Melodrama is an exaggerated drama, which is sensational and appeals directly to the senses of the audience. Just like the farce, the characters are of a single dimension and simple, or may be stereotyped.
Musical Drama - In musical dramas, dramatists not only tell their stories through acting and dialogue, but through dance as well as music. Often the story may be comedic, though it may also involve serious subjects.
Examples of Drama in Literature


Example #1: Much Ado About Nothing (By William Shakespeare)
Much Ado About Nothing is the most frequently performed Shakespearian comedy in modern times. The play is romantically funny, in that love between Hero and Claudio is laughable, as they never even get a single chance to communicate on-stage until they get married.

Their relationship lacks development and depth. They end up merely as caricatures, exemplifying what people face in life when their relationships are internally weak. Love between Benedick and Beatrice is amusing, as initially their communications are very sparky, and they hate each other. However, they all of sudden make up, and start loving each other.

Example #2: Oedipus Rex (By Sophocles)
Tragedy:

Sophocles' mythical and immortal drama Oedipus Rex is thought to be his best classical tragedy. Aristotle has adjudged this play as one of the greatest examples of tragic drama in his book, Poetics, by giving the following reasons:

The play arouses emotions of pity and fear, and achieves the tragic catharsis.
It shows the downfall of an extraordinary man of high rank, Oedipus.
The central character suffers due to his tragic error called hamartia; as he murders his real father, Laius, and then marries his real mother, Jocasta.
Hubris is the cause of Oedipus' downfall.
Example #3: The Importance of Being Earnest (By Oscar Wilde)


Farce:

Oscar Wilde's play, The Importance of Being Earnest, is a very popular example of Victorian farce. In this play, a man uses two identities: one as a serious person, Jack (his actual name), which he uses for Cesily, his ward, and as a rogue named Ernest for his beloved woman, Gwendolyn.

Unluckily, Gwendolyn loves him partially because she loves the name Ernest. It is when Jack and Earnest must come on-stage together for Cesily, then Algernon comes in to play Earnest' role, and his ward immediately falls in love with the other "Ernest." Thus, two young women think that they love the same man - an occurrence that amuses the audience.

Example #4: The Heiress (By Henry James)
Melodrama:

The Heiress is based on Henry James' novel the Washington Square. Directed for stage performance by William Wyler, this play shows an ungraceful and homely daughter of a domineering and rich doctor. She falls in love with a young man, Morris Townsend, and wishes to elope with him, but he leaves her in the lurch. The author creates melodrama towards the end, when Catherine teaches a lesson to Morris, and leaves him instead.

Function of Drama
Drama is one of the best literary forms through which dramatists can directly speak to their readers, or the audience, and they can receive instant feedback of audiences. A few dramatists use their characters as a vehicle to convey their thoughts and values, such as poets do with personas, and novelists do with narrators. Since drama uses spoken words and dialogues, thus language of characters plays a vital role, as it may give clues to their feelings, personalities, backgrounds, and change in feelings. In dramas the characters live out a story without any comments of the author, providing the audience a direct presentation of characters' life experiences.
Dramatic irony is an important stylistic device that is commonly found in plays, movies, theaters, and sometimes in poetry. Storytellers use this irony as a useful plot device for creating situations in which the audience knows more about the situations, the causes of conflicts, and their resolutions before the leading characters or actors. That is why readers observe that the speech of actors takes on unusual meanings.



For instance, the audience knows that a character is going to be murdered, or will make a decision to commit suicide; however, one particular character or others may not be aware of these facts. Hence, the words and actions of characters would suggest a different meaning to the audience from what they indicate to the characters and the story. Thus, it creates intense suspense and humor. This speech device also emphasizes, embellishes, and conveys emotions and moods more effectively.

Examples of Dramatic Irony from Literature
Example #1: Macbeth (By J William Shakespeare)
"There's no art
To find the mind's construction in the face:
He was a gentleman on whom I built
An absolute trust."

This is one of the best examples of dramatic irony. In this case, Duncan says that he trusts Macbeth, not knowing about the prophecy of witches that Macbeth is going to be the king, and that he would kill him. The audience, on the other hand, knows about the prophecy. This demonstrates dramatic irony.

Example #2: There's Something About Mary (By Jonathan Richman)
"I've done it several times before."

"It's no big deal."

Jonathan Richman's comedy movie, There's Something About Mary, contains several instances of dramatic irony. For instance, when Ted thinks that the police have arrested him for picking up a hitchhiker, the audience knows that the police are actually interrogating him about a murder. Therefore, when Ted delivers these seemingly-innocuous lines, it is comedic to the audience.

Example #3: Othello (By William Shakespeare)


"Othello: I think thou dost.
And for I know thou 'rt full of love and honesty
And weigh'st thy words before thou giv'st them breath..."

This is another very good example of dramatic irony, when Iago manipulates Othello, and Othello puts his faith in Iago as an honest man. However, Iago is plotting against him without his knowledge. Again, the audience knows that Iago is deceiving, but Othello does not.

Example #4: Oedipus Rex (By Sophocles)
"If someone knows the killer is a stranger,
from some other state, let him not stay mute...
I pray, too,
that, if he should become an honoured guest
in my own home and with my knowledge,
I may suffer all those things I've just called down
upon the killers."

Oedipus Rex presents one of the best examples of dramatic irony of all time. In the play, Oedipus seeks to expose the murderer of King Laius to solve a riddle; nonetheless, he himself is the murderer. Here, he declares that the murderer, who has killed Laius, might also kill him, not realizing the fact that he himself is the murderer.

Example #5: A Doll's House (By Henrik Ibsen)
"To be able to be free from care, quite free from care; to be able to play and romp with the children; to be able to keep the house beautifully and have everything just as Torvald likes it!"

Nora is delightedly looking forward to those moments when she would be able to pay off her debts to Krogstad. This reflects that she would be free. However, her speech shows the use of dramatic irony when the readers know that her freedom is, in fact, bondage, which she comes to realize by the end of the story.

Function of Dramatic Irony


Many writers use dramatic irony as an effective tool to sustain and excite the readers' interest. Since this form of irony creates a contrast between situation of characters and the episodes that unfold, it generates curiosity. By allowing the audience to know important facts ahead of the leading characters, dramatic irony puts the audience and readers above the characters, and also encourages them to anticipate, hope, and fear the moment when a character would learn the truth behind events and situations of the story.

More often, this irony occurs in tragedies, where readers are lead to sympathize with leading characters Thus, this irony emphasizes the fatality of incomplete understanding on honest and innocent people, and demonstrates the painful consequences of misunderstandings.
Dramatic monologue means self-conversation, speech or talks which includes interlocutor presented dramatically. It means a person, who is speaking to himself or someone else speaks to reveal specific intentions of his actions. However, in literature, it is a poetic form or a poem that presents the speech or conversation of a person in a dramatic manner.



Features of a Dramatic Monologue
A dramatic monologue has these common features in them.

A single person delivering a speech on one aspect of his life
The audience may or may not be present
Speaker reveals his temperament and character only through his speech
Types of Dramatic Monologue


There are three major types of dramatic monologues such as:

Romantic monologue
Philosophical and psychological monologue
Conversational monologue
Dramatic Monologue Examples from Literature
Example #1
"My Last Duchess" by Robert Browning

"That's my last Duchess painted on the wall,

Looking as if she were alive. I call

That piece a wonder, now; Fra Pandolf's hands

Worked busily a day, and there she stands.

Will't please you sit and look at her? I said

"Fra Pandolf" by design, for never read

Strangers like you that pictured countenance,

The depth and passion of its earnest glance,

But to myself they turned (since none puts by

The curtain I have drawn for you, but I)

And seemed as they would ask me, if they durst,

How such a glance came there; so, not the first

Are you to turn and ask thus."

This extract is from the famous monologue of a duke. He tells his audience, possibly the father of his new bride, about his last duchess who could not survive his severity. It is a type of psychological monologue which tells the psychological state of mind of the speaker. Browning has exposed the duke's cruel state of mind through this poem "My Last Duchess."

Example #2
"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" by T. S. Eliot

"Let us go then, you and I,

When the evening is spread out against the sky

Like a patient etherized upon a table;

Let us go, through certain half-deserted streets,

The muttering retreats

Of restless nights in one-night cheap hotels

And sawdust restaurants with oyster-shells:

Streets that follow like a tedious argument

Of insidious intent

To lead you to an overwhelming question ...

Oh, do not ask, "What is it?"

Let us go and make our visit."

This extract is from the poem "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" by T. S. Eliot, a famous and popular modern poet. He has highlighted the thoughts of a modern young man who is madly in love but still hesitates from expressing it. Therefore, he faces an existential dilemma. The poem highlights his psychological state of mind through this contemporary monologue. This extract highlights this dilemma of hesitation in the very first line and then is repeated in the last line.

Example #3


"Lady Lazarus" by Sylvia Plath

I have done it again.

One year in every ten

I manage it—

A sort of walking miracle, my skin

Bright as a Nazi lampshade,

My right foot

A paperweight,

My face a featureless, fine

Jew linen.

This extract is from the famous monologue of Sylvia Plath's "Lady Lazarus." It also highlights her psychological state of mind about her act of committing suicide and subsequent failure. She has likened this act to the Holocaust to create her own powerful monologue.

Example #4
"Dover Beach" By Matthew Arnold

"The sea is calm tonight.

The tide is full, the moon lies fair

Upon the straits; on the French coast the light

Gleams and is gone; the cliffs of England stand,

Glimmering and vast, out in the tranquil bay.

Come to the window, sweet is the night-air!"

"Dover Beach" is another example of such an autobiographical monologue of Matthew Arnold. He has highlighted his own situation and his reaction over the sorrow that he is experiencing. This monologue expressed his thoughts about his bride when they were on honeymoon on the same breach. He recalls the past and writes about the sea again.

Example #5
"Hawk's Monologue" by Ted Hughes

"I sit in the top of the wood, my eyes closed.
Inaction, no falsifying dream
Between my hooked head and hooked feet:
Or in sleep rehearse perfect kills and eat.

The convenience of the high trees!
The air's buoyancy and the sun's ray
Are of advantage to me;
And the earth's face upward for my inspection."

These are the first two stanzas of the famous monologue of Ted Hughes. This poem presents a hawk perching high on a tree, thinking about his power and dreams. It presents a psychological state of mind of personified megalomaniac bird how he thinks when he holds power over the lives of other weak birds. This dramatic monologue is an example of how powerful people think when they have control over others.

Dramatic Monologue Meaning and Function
A monologue functions as a tool to give vent to one's thoughts. It provides an opportunity for the poets to use powerful words spoken through their characters. So, the characters can express themselves or their ideas without an obstacle or hindrance. A dramatic monologue is also a convenient device to present different characters and their inner thoughts through verses.
Like a round character, a dynamic character also undergoes changes throughout the narrative, due to conflicts he encounters on his journey. A dynamic character faces trials and tribulations, and takes time to learn from his encounters, his experiences, and his mistakes, as well as from other characters. Sometimes a character learns a lesson, and gains maturity, such as Prince Hal in Shakespeare's Henry IV.



Some characters discover mistakes in their points of view, and others discover important aspects of their own personalities, such as Neville Longbottom did in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. All of these changes make a character dynamic, but they are implied changes, not stated outright.

Difference between Dynamic and Round Character
Though dynamic and round characters both undergo character development, there is a slight difference between them. The traits of a dynamic character are not described outright. Rather, his traits are referred to as they change over time. On the other hand, a round character's traits are complex, and described by the author. Round characters are dynamic as well, such as Hamlet.

Examples of Dynamic Characters in Literature


Example #1: Harry, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (By J. K. Rowling)
The most important conflict in this novel is the inner conflict of Harry Potter, which makes him a dynamic character. Harry perceives that he shares some abilities similar to Tom Riddle, who becomes the evil Lord Voldemort, and this makes him worry that he might also turn out to be an evil character.

Dumbledore mentions Harry's presence in Gryffindor House, and Tom Riddle's in Slytherin House. Harry, in a defeated tone, says, "It only puts me in Gryffindor" because Harry did not want to go in Slytherin. Beaming again, Dumbledore says, "exactly ... Which makes you very different from Tom Riddle. It is our choices, Harry ... far more than our abilities." Harry learns this lesson about the importance of the choices one makes. It resolves his inner conflict, making him a good example of a dynamic character.

Example #2: Hamlet, Hamlet (by William Shakespeare)
Throughout the play, Hamlet is worried about life and death, and it is this apprehension that makes him a dynamic character. The greatest fear of Hamlet is the afterlife, which is quite understandable, because his father's Ghost comes out of purgatory and tells him about the horror and terror awaiting there.

Because of his preoccupation with this fear, Hamlet does not act out on his desire to take vengeance on Claudius. Nevertheless, when he visits the graveyard, and holds Yorick's dead skull, he becomes apprehensive of the inevitability of death. Hamlet thinks that even great men, such as Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, could not escape it. This philosophical change in his perspective about death lets him finally take revenge on King Claudius.

Example #3: Jack, Lord of the Flies (by William Golding)


There are four dynamic characters in this novel: Jack, Ralph, Simon, and Piggy. Jack is the most prominent among them - an important dynamic character who goes through a lot of changes during the course of the novel. On the island, Jack encounters life-changing experiences that develop and change the character forever. He has never thought that he would live the way he lives on the island. His authoritative nature, violence, and instinctual behavior make him a dynamic character.

Example #4: Sydney Carton, A Tale of Two Cities (by Charles Dickens)
Sydney Carton is another good example of a dynamic character. At the very beginning of the story, Carton describes himself as he states, "I am a disappointed drudge, sir. I care for no man on earth, and no man on earth cares for me." He throws himself in a depressed state - digging a hole from which he is sure he could never escape.

Sydney is frustrated, and thinks his purpose in life is only to serve C. J. Stryver. The only beautiful part of his life is his love for Lucie Manette. When he hears the news that she will marry Charles Darnay, Sydney is heartbroken, which drives him to reveal his feelings to her. This conversation brings a turning point in Sydney's life, which causes him to begin taking better care of himself and people around him.

Function of Dynamic Character
A dynamic character plays an important role in a narrative. Often it is the main character of the story, which helps to build a compelling and convincing story. By going through an important transition, having a coming-of-age experience, pulling through trials, gaining maturity, feeling a change of the heart, and developing likable qualities, a dynamic character shows he has made a full transformation. All these changes bring a flavor to the story line and an element of surprise to the readers.
Dysphemism is originated from the Greek word dys, means "miss," or "none," and pheme, which means "reputation," or "speech." It is a figure of speech that is defined as the use of disparaging or offensive expressions instead of inoffensive ones. Dysphemism is the use of negative expressions instead of positive ones. A speaker uses them to humiliate or degrade the disapproved person or character. Dysphemism examples may be classified according to the following types.



Types of Dysphemism
Synecdoche - It is used to describe something as a whole like, "she is a prick."
Dysphemistic Epithets - The use of animal names, such as "pig," "bitch," "rat," "dog," or "snake."
Euphemistic Dysphemism - This is when a soft expression is used without offending.
Dysphemistic Euphemism - It is used as a mockery between close friends without any animosity.
"-ist" Dysphemism - Targeted at a particular ethnicity.
Homosexual Dysphemism - These terms are used regarding homosexuality like, "gay," "******," and "queer."
Name Dysphemism - It is used when someone is called by his name, rather than by using his proper title, such as "How are you Bill?" (Instead of "Uncle Bill").
Non-verbal Dysphemism - It is used when offending someone with gestures.
Cross-cultural Dysphemism - Different slang terms are used as dysphemistic in one culture; on the other hand, they might have a totally different meaning in other cultures. For instance, "fag" is a slur used for gay man in American English, whereas, in British English it used for a cigarette.
Opposite to Euphemism


Euphemism is a mild and positive expression used to replace an unpleasant or negative one. Whereas dysphemism is the opposite of euphemism; it is the replacement of a positive or neutral expression with an unpleasant or negative one.

Examples of Dysphemism in Literature
Example #1: The Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man (By James Joyce)
"Let him remember too, cried Mr. Casey to her from across the table, the language with which the priests and the priests' pawns broke Parnell's heart and hounded him into his grave. Let him remember that too when he grows up.

"— Sons of bitches! cried Mr.Daedalus. When he was down they turned on him to betray him and rend him like rats in a sewer. Low-lived dogs! And they look it! By Christ, they look it! They behaved rightly, cried Dante. They obeyed their bishops and their priests. Honour to them!"

In this excerpt, Mr. Daedalus uses very harsh words in order to express his anger. Though he could have used less offensive words, Joyce has employed the dysphemistic technique. These humiliating expressions are shown in bold.

Example #2: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
HAMLET
"Oh, that this too, too sullied flesh would melt,
Thaw, and resolve itself into a dew,
Or that the Everlasting had not fixed
His canon 'gainst self-slaughter! O God, God...
Fie on't, ah fie! 'Tis an unweeded garden
That grows to seed...

So excellent a king, that was to this
Hyperion to a satyr..."

Hamlet feels despondency about his mother's second marriage to his uncle. Hence, he uses harsh language to state that his flesh could have melted away, or that God has not forbidden suicide, and "fie on't" means "damn it." His father is like a god (Hyperion), and his uncle is like a beast (satyr).

Example #3: The Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man (By James Joyce)


"Whatever else is unsure in this stinking dunghill of a world a mother's love is not..."

Stephen Daedalus, in this excerpt, uses a harsh and disparaging term for a world that is a "stinking dunghill," while comparing it to a mother's love which is opposite to that, being pure and free of such negativities of the world.

Example #4: Othello (By William Shakespeare)
OTHELLO
"By heaven, I saw my handkerchief in 's hand.
O perjured woman, thou dost stone my heart..."

DESDEMONA
"Alas, he is betrayed and I undone."

OTHELLO
"Out, strumpet! weep'st thou for him to my face?"

OTHELLO
"Down, strumpet."

Here, Shakespeare uses the first type of dysphemism, which is Synecdoche, which means he describes the character of Desdemona as a sinful person by calling her a "perjured woman," and a "strumpet," which is an offensive word meaning "*****."

Function of Dysphemism
Dysphemism is used as a device for degradation, minimization, or humiliation of individuals who are disapproved of or condemned. When a speaker uses this technique, he uses marked form directed towards a group or the listeners. The purpose is to express anger or social distance from a particular group. It is frequently employed in literary texts, political speeches, and colloquial expressions. Sometimes, dysphemism could be the result of hatred and fear, though disapproval and contempt might also motivate dysphemism to be used.
Dystopia is a world in which everything is imperfect, and everything goes terribly wrong. Dystopian literature shows us a nightmarish image about what might happen to the world in the near future. Usually the main themes of dystopian works are rebellion, oppression, revolutions, wars, overpopulation, and disasters. On the other hand, utopia is a perfect world - exactly opposite of dystopia.



Characteristics of Dystopia
Generally, there is no government, or if there is, it is an oppressive and controlling government.
Either there is a huge income gap between the poor and the rich, or everyone faces extreme poverty.
Propaganda put forth by the government or ruling class takes control of human minds.
Examples of Dystopia in Literature


Example #1: The Hunger Games (By Suzanne Collins)
Suzanne Collins depicts a dystopic world, Panem, in a futuristic society in her series, The Hunger Games. Consisting of a central government referred to as "Capitol," and thirteen remote districts, Panem displays a model of dystopian society due to harsh separation and discrimination between the unkind Capitol and the poor, enslaved outlying districts.

We notice throughout the novel that Panem's Capitol makes use of intimidation and violence to control its people living in the Districts. It forces the districts to engage in "The Games" to enforce servitude under the guise of celebrating an absence of war. Though Capitol itself might appear utopian, due to an excessive availability of opulent consumer goods, its abundance of riches comes at the expense of the remote Districts.

Example #2: 1984 (By George Orwell)
In his classic novel, 1984, George Orwell shows a dystopian society. He has written this novel to describe the future, and the ways government takes advantage of new technologies in order to rule and control the people. The leading character, Winston Smith, falls in a trap where Big Brother, a leader of the party always watches him and other low-grade members of that society.

Inner party members live a life of luxury, while outer members live in dirty apartments. Besides, there is no emotional and mental freedom. The party does not allow anyone to rebel, even by using their minds. We see violence everywhere in this dystopic society, and the majority of people are poor, which further proves it as a fine example of dystopia. We notice everything goes decrepit, and its scenes are often dreary and dark.

Example #3: Brave New World (By Aldous Huxley)


Aldous Huxley, in his most challenging novel, Brave New World, depicts a futuristic society where individual sacrifices for the cause of state, science controls and subjugates all types of history, and the arts are outlawed. Shortly, this book perfectly fits into a classic form of dystopian literature.

Huxley draws dystopia through emotional and political events. He brings a dystopian setting by the mention of technology and higher authorities. With the increased use of technology, the need for a human work force decreases, leaving them with a great deal of depression. The novel explores the dark side of an apparently successful world, where everyone looks satisfied and contented with excessive pleasures of technology, which they achieve by sacrificing their personal freedoms.

Example #4: The Giver (By Lois Lowry)
Lois Lowry wrote a dystopian fiction, The Giver, because she thought it to be the best way to express her dissatisfaction about the unawareness of human beings about their dependence upon each other, their surroundings, and their environment. By using ironical situations of the utopian appearances, she exposes dystopian realities, in order to provoke readers to raise questions, and value their individual identities and freedom.

In this novel, Jonas' community has no starvation, poverty, lack of housing, unemployment, or prejudice, and everything seems perfect. However, as the novel advances, Jonas gets insight into people's personal lives, and notices that they have given up their individualities and freedoms. Besides, the community is a hypocrite conforming to false ideas and becoming a bad place in which to live.

Function of Dystopia
Through dystopia, authors express their concerns about issues of humanity and society, and warn the people about their weaknesses. Authors use dystopia as a literary technique to discuss reality, and depict issues that might happen in the future. Thus, the role of dystopia in literary works is to educate and give awareness to the audience. Dystopias also serve as warnings about the current state of affairs of a government, or of those in power. In dystopic writings, authors point out the wrong-doings in a society or a system - the reason that it is often called a critique.
Elegy is a form of literature that can be defined as a poem or song in the form of elegiac couplets, written in honor of someone deceased. It typically laments or mourns the death of the individual.



Elegy is derived from the Greek work elegus, which means a song of bereavement sung along with a flute. The forms of elegy we see today were introduced in the 16th century. Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, by Thomas Gray, and When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd, by Walt Whitman are the two most popular examples of elegy.

Features of Elegy
Usually, elegies are identified by several characteristics of genre:

Just like a classical epic, an elegy typically starts with the invocation of the muse, and then proceeds by referencing traditional mythology.
It often involves a poet who knows how to phrase thoughts imaginatively in the first person.
Questions are raised by the poet about destiny, justice, and fate.
The poet associates the events of the deceased with events in his own life by drawing a subtle comparison.
This kind of digression gives the poet space to go beyond the main or crude subject to a deeper level where the connotations might be metaphorical.
Towards the end the poet generally tries to provide comfort to ease the pain of the situation. Christian elegies usually proceed from sorrow and misery, to hope and happiness because they say that death is just a hindrance in the way of passing from the mortal state into the eternal state.
An elegy is not always based on a plot.
Examples of Elegy from Literature


Example #1: In Memory of W. B. Yeats (By W. H. Auden)
"With the farming of a verse
Make a vineyard of the curse,
Sing of human unsuccess
In a rapture of distress;
In the deserts of the heart
Let the healing fountain start,
In the prison of his days
Teach the free man how to praise."

Example #2: O Captain! My Captain! (By Walt Whitman)
"O CAPTAIN! My Captain! our fearful trip is done;
The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is won;
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring:
But O heart! Heart! Heart!
O the bleeding drops of red,
Where on the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead.O Captain! My Captain! rise up and hear the bells;
Rise up-for you the flag is flung-for you the bugle trills; 10
For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths-for you the shores a-crowding;
For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;
Here Captain! Dear father!
This arm beneath your head;
It is some dream that on the deck,
You've fallen cold and dead.

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still;
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will;
The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done;
From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes in with object won; 20
Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells!
But I, with mournful tread,
Walk the deck my Captain lies,
Fallen cold and dead."

Whitman wrote this elegy for Abraham Lincoln (16th president of the United States).

Function of Elegy
Elegy is one of the richest literary forms because it has the capacity to express emotions that deeply influence people. The strongest of the tools elegy uses is its reliance on memories of those who are no more. Most of the poets who wrote elegies were evidently awed by the frailty of human beings, and how the world completely forgets about the deceased at some point.

However, the function of elegy is not as limited as it is thought. Whenever we take a look at elegy examples, what comes to mind are feelings like sorrow, grief, and lamentation; but, a study of the Latin elegy tells us otherwise. A great deal of genre created in western literature was inspired by Latin elegy, which was not always so somber. The most famous elegiac poets in Latin literature, such as Catullus, Ovid, and Propertius, used humor, irony, even slotted narratives into a poem and still called them elegy.
An elision is the removal of an unstressed syllable, consonants, or letters from a word or phrase, for the purpose of decreasing the number of letters or syllables when mixing words together. The missing letter is replaced by an apostrophe. Generally, the middle or end letter or syllable is eliminated, or two words are blended together, and an apostrophe is inserted.



Difference Between Contraction and Elision
By merely looking at contraction and elision examples, one would think the two are the same. However, there is a slight difference between them. Contraction is a more general term referring to the combination of two words to form a shorter word. For instance, can't is a contraction of "can" + "not," which is a combination of two words. On the other hand, elision is a specific term. It is the omission of sounds, syllables, or phrases, and replacing them with an apostrophe. For instance, ne'er is an elided form of "never." Similarly, gonna is an elision of the phrase "going to."

Examples of Elision in Literature


Example #1: Rape of Lock (By Alexander Pope)
"What dire offence from am'rous causes springs,
What mighty contests rise from trivial things,
I sing—This verse to Caryl, Muse! is due:
This, ev'n Belinda may vouchsafe to view...

Say what strange motive, Goddess! could compel
A well-bred lord t'assault a gentle belle?
O say what stranger cause, yet unexplor'd,
Could make a gentle belle reject a lord...

Sol thro' white curtains shot a tim'rous ray,
And op'd those eyes that must eclipse the day;
Now lap-dogs give themselves the rousing shake..."

In this excerpt, Pope has elided several words, such as amorous, which is elided into "am'rous," even into "ev'n," unexplored into "unexplor'd," and similarly, through and opened are shortened to maintain regular pentameter.

Example #2: Dr. Faustus (By Christopher Marlowe)
"Settle thy studies, Faustus, and begin
To sound the depth of that thou wilt profess:
Having commenc'd, be a divine in show,
Sweet Analytics, 'tis thou hast ravish'd me!
Is, to dispute well, logic's chiefest end?
Then read no more; thou hast attain'd that end:
Be a physician, Faustus; heap up gold,
Why, Faustus, hast thou not attain'd that end?
Whereby whole cities have escap'd the plague,
And thousand desperate maladies been cur'd?
The god thou serv'st is thine own appetite,
Wherein is fix'd the love of Belzebub:
To him I'll build an altar and a church..."

Elision is employed perfectly in Dr.Faustus. In this excerpt, the author has eliminated unstressed syllables in order to give a smooth flow to the speech. The elided words are marked in bold.

Example #3: Tam O'Shanter (By Robert Burns)


"Whiles holding fast his guid blue bonnet,
Whiles crooning o'er an auld Scots sonnet,
Whiles glow'ring round wi prudent cares,
Lest bogles catch him unawares:
Kirk-Alloway was drawing nigh,
Where ghaists and houlets nightly cry."

In this excerpt, the elided words include "o'er" and "glow'ring". The vowel "e" is eliminated and replaced with an apostrophe. Through elision the rhythm and meter of the poem is maintained.

Example #4: A Midsummer Night's Dream (By William Shakespeare)
"But with thy brawls thou hast disturb'd our sport
The ox hath therefore stretch'd his yoke in vain,
The ploughman lost his sweat, and the green corn
Hath rotted ere his youth attain'd a beard;
And crows are fatted with the murrion flock;
The nine men's morris is fill'd up with mud..."

Here the word disturbed is elided into "disturb'd." In a similar way, stretched, attained, and filled are elided.

Function of Elision
Usually used deliberately, elisions are often found in prose and poetry with the objective to continue a regular meter, or to create flow in iambic pentameter. Since a specific meter is required, elision is employed to achieve the set number of syllables necessary to create flow in a piece. Several other languages use elision to cut down the number of words or to improve the flow of speech.
Ellipsis is a literary device that is used in narratives to omit some parts of a sentence or event, which gives the reader a chance to fill the gaps while acting or reading it out. It is usually written between the sentences as a series of three dots, like this: "..."



Apart from being convenient, ellipses also help in advancing the story. Leaving out part of a sentence or an event by substituting it with ellipses is often done to either save time, or as a stylistic element. The ellipsis can be dated back to Ernest Hemingway, who presented the Iceberg theory, which is also called the theory of omission.

Examples of Ellipsis in Literature
Example #1: To the Lighthouse (By Virginia Woolf)
Among the famous examples of ellipsis in literature, the best would be Virginia Woolf's novel To the Lighthouse. This book involves two parts, one before the World War I was fought and won, and the latter accounts for the events occurring afterwards. All the events that occurred in between have not been mentioned in the book. Rather, it has left to the readers to deduce the events from the notable changes that have occurred in the characters' lives.

Example #2: Crash Blossoms, The New York Times, Jan. 27, 2010 (By Ben Zimmer)
"The potential for unintended humor in 'compressed' English isn't restricted to headline writing; it goes back to the days of the telegraph. One clever (though possibly apocryphal) example once appeared in the pages of Time magazine: Cary Grant received a telegram from an editor inquiring, 'HOW OLD CARY GRANT? - to which he responded: 'OLD CARY GRANT FINE. HOW YOU?' The omitted verb may have saved the sender a nickel, but the snappy comeback was worth far more."

Function of Ellipsis


Ellipsis is also very commonly used in filmmaking. The parts and scenes that are of no significance to the film are usually omitted by editing. For instance, there would be no point in showing a scene that involves a character walking to the door to answer it unless there is something absolutely important in that scene that you would like to highlight. Normally, such a scene would be cut short by editing out the unnecessary parts. In such cases, the narrative logic allows the audience to ignore the ellipsis.

A very good example of the use of ellipsis in filmmaking would be Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey. The movie directly proceeds to the modern technology (space station) from the most primitive tool of mankind (a bone). In film language, this kind of ellipsis is often called a match cut. It is bridged by the symbolic comparison between the two things.

Importance of Ellipsis in Avoiding Superfluity
The greatest of the artists over the years have tried to prove time after time their passion for getting things right. The process of writing and revision can be painstaking. A great piece of writing is not generally created overnight. It requires close observation and a keen eye that points out what should stay and what should go into the bin. A piece of writing cannot achieve that level of intensity without such exertion.

What is its significance in the actual composition? This question has been deemed very important, and many writers have answered it by underlining the importance of avoiding superfluity. Each and every part of a narrative has to fulfill a purpose or it's all for naught. As Aristotle writes about the action of tragedy:

"The structural union of the parts being such that, if any one of them is displaced or removed, the whole will be disjointed and disturbed. For a thing whose presence or absence makes no visible difference, is not an organic part of the whole" (Poetics 8).

Sir Philip Sidney's concern is slightly different from what has been stated above, but he still emphasizes that every component bears significance, as he said, "one word cannot be lost but the whole work fails" (An Apology for Poetry, 122). This idea is not just limited to classical narratives and poems. The idea of functionality, referring to the notion that every part is important, and what is not important is not necessary, assembles economic and organic principles. It is founded on the concept that there is no waste in nature. The relevance of economy does not become any less important if we move from looking at the inherent structure, to studying the meaning of the narrative as a representation of the ideas and perspective of the author.
If you have ever sung a song or read a poem aloud, you must have encountered end rhymes, because these are a common type of rhyming pattern used in a poetic structure. End rhyme occurs when the last syllables or words in two or more lines rhyme with each other. It is also known as "tail rhyme," and occurs at the ends of the lines. The lines ending in similar sounds are pleasant to hear, and give musical effect to the poem or song. This is called the end rhyme.



Types of Rhyme
There are several types of rhyme besides end rhyme, of which end rhyme is one of the most commonly used types of poetic rhymes. Other types of rhyme include:

End rhyme - It comes at the end of two successive lines.
Internal rhyme - It occurs within a single line or a verse.
Slant rhyme - The rhyming words sound similar; however, they are often not very close to make a complete rhyme.
Eye rhyme - It comprises of similar spellings, though not pronunciation, such as in "rough" and "through."
Identical rhyme - It uses the same word having identical sense and sound.
Masculine rhyme - It ends on stressed syllables like in "bells" and "hells."
Feminine rhyme - It rhymes on one or two unstressed syllables, like "enticing," and "endicing."
Monorhyme - It uses just a single rhyme in a stanza such as in Black's poem "silent, silent night."
Pararhyme - It uses vowels in identical consonant pairs, such as in the words "groined, and groaned."
End Rhyme and Internal Rhyme


Internal rhyme uses two rhyming words within a single line of poetry, such as:

Example #1: The Raven (By Edgar Allen Poe)
"Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary."

However, end rhyme comprises of the final words or syllables of the lines such as:

Example #2: The Tyger (By William Blake)
"Tyger Tyger, burning bright,
In the forests of the night;"

Examples of End Rhyme in Literature
Mostly, Aesop's fables are considered to have strong moral conclusions. However, almost all literary writings have some morals to be conveyed to readers. Literary works aimed at children are replete with moral lessons. They provide children with positive lessons and guidelines for the future. Maxims like "Be friends with whom you don't like," "Don't judge people by the way they look," and "Slow and steady wins the race" are normally the lessons found behind many stories.

Example #1: A Word is Dead (By Emily Dickinson)


"A word is dead
When it is said,
Some say.
I say it just
Begins to live
That day."

As can be seen, the first and the second lines use end rhyme with the words "dead" and "said." The other example of this rhyming pattern is in the third line with the sixth line on the words "say" and "day." Thus, it is the choice of the poet whether to use end rhyme throughout the entire poem for creating strong rhythm, or use some other rhyming pattern.

Example #2: In Flanders Fields (By Colonel John McCrae)
"In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly.
Scarce heard amid the guns below."

In these lines, the words "blow" and "row" rhyme in the first and second lines, and word "below" in final line also rhyme with them. Similarly, words "sky" and "fly" rhyme in the third and fourth lines. The poet uses end rhyme to create rhythmic flow, as he describes his sorrow for fallen soldiers died in the World War I.

Example #3: Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (By Robert Frost)
"Whose woods these are I think I know,
His house is in the village, though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow."

In this example, Frost has used end rhyme at the end of the first, second, and fourth lines with the words "know" "though," and "snow." These rhyming lines add flow to the piece, and a pleasant effect to the poem.

Example #4: Midstairs (By Virginia Hamilton Adair)
"And here on this turning of the stair
Between passion and doubt,
I pause and say a double prayer,
One for you, and one for you;
And so they cancel out."

See end rhyme occurring on the final syllables "stair" and "prayer" of the first and third lines; and "doubt" and "out" in the second and fifth lines.

Function of End Rhyme
The poets often use end rhyme to create rhythm in their works. If they use it throughout the entire poem, then it creates a beautiful rhyming pattern, giving musical quality to the poem, because it adds flow in a perfect rhythmic way. It serves as a strong mnemonic device that facilitates memorization. In addition, its regular use marks off the ending of the lines, thus elucidating metrical structure for the audience. Songwriters also make use of it frequently to make their lyrics sound appealing, and often it becomes easier for the audience to remember.
An end-stopped line is a poetic device in which a pause comes at the end of a syntactic unit (sentence, clause, or phrase). This pause can be expressed in writing as a punctuation mark, such as a colon, semi-colon, period, or full stop.



According to A. C. Bradley, a line would be an end-stopped line, when the meter and sense both make a natural pause at its end such as in this line:

"Yet to be known shortens my made intent ..."

(King Lear, by William Shakespeare)

Opposite of Enjambment
Enjambment is the opposite of end-stopped line. Thus, examples of end-stopped line should never be confused with enjambment examples. When a break or pause comes at the end of a line or sentence, it is called an end-stopped line. However, when a break comes in the middle of a phrase or line and the idea moves on to the next line, it is called "enjambment." Like in these lines:

"... I am not prone to weeping, as our sex
Commonly are, the want of which vain dew..."

(A Winter's Tale by William Shakespeare)

Examples of End-Stopped Line in Literature


Example #1: Bright Star (By John Keats)
"Bright Star, would I were as stedfast as thou art —
Not in lone splendor hung aloft the night,
And watching, with eternal lids apart,
Like nature's patient, sleepless Eremite ..."

These lines are very good example of end-stopped line. Each line ends with a punctuation mark, followed by a pause, which gives a sense of a separate unit. These pauses give rhythm and tempo to the poem.

Example #2: An Essay on Criticism (By Alexander Pope)
"A little learning is a dangerous thing;
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring.
There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain,
And drinking largely sobers us again."

These lines all end with grammatical breaks. Also, these end-stopped lines contain complete phrases and make sense. Here, each sentence corresponds to the length of a line, and that pause slows down the pace of poem.

Example #3: Sonnet 18 (By William Shakespeare)


"Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date ..."

This excerpt is a perfect example of end-stopped line. All of these lines carry a pause at the end. There is a pause in both meter and sense; therefore, this device gives a complete poetic effect.

Example #4: Alley Cat Love Song (By Dana Gioia)
"Come into the garden, Fred,
For the neighborhood tabby is gone.
Come into the garden, Fred.
I have nothing by my flea collar on,
And the scent of catnip has gone to my head.
I'll wait by the screen door till dawn.
The fireflies court in the sweetgum tree.
The nightjar calls from the pine,
And she seems to say in her rhapsody,
"Oh, mustard-bown Fred, be mine!"
The full moon lights my whiskers afire,
And the fur goes erect on my spine ..."

End-stopped line is used in this entire poem where each line ends with a pause marked by a punctuation sign. This gives rhythmic and poetic effect. Apart from that, it provides greater flexibility to the poet.

Example #5: The Burning Babe (By Robert Southwell)
"As I in hoary winter's night stood shivering in the snow,
Surprised I was with sudden heat, which made my heart to glow;
And lifting up a fearful eye to view what fire was near,
A pretty babe all burning bright did in the air appear ..."

In the above lines, the ends of the lines correspond to the ending of the clause. Also, there are strong breaks at the closing of each line, which helps making the meaning explicit.

Function of End-Stopped Line
The purpose of using end-stopped lines is to give poetic and rhythmic effect to the literary text. They tend to slow down the speed and give a clear idea of each line by creating a break at the end. Besides, it provides regularity to the meter of a poetic text. End-stopped lines make poetry more coherent and accessible, and helps the readers ponder on the sentences. Hence, the reader is able to explore deeper meanings and sense in lines where end-stop is given.
Enjambment, derived from the French word enjambment, means to step over, or put legs across. In poetry it means moving over from one line to another without a terminating punctuation mark. It can be defined as a thought or sense, phrase or clause, in a line of poetry that does not come to an end at the line break, but moves over to the next line. In simple words, it is the running on of a sense from one couplet or line to the next without a major pause or syntactical break.



Features of an Enjambment
Enjambment lines usually do not have a punctuation mark at the end.
It is a running on of a thought from one line to another without final punctuation.
It is used in poetry to trick a reader. Poets lead their readers to think of an idea, then move on the next line, giving an idea that conflicts with it.
Poets can achieve a fast pace or rhythm by using enjambment.
Multiple ideas can be expressed without using semi-colons, periods, or commas.
It helps reinforce the main idea that might seem to be confusing with pauses.
It can be seen in different songs and poems.
It helps readers to continue thinking about the idea, which is expressed in one line, and which continues through to the next.
Short Examples of Enjambment


I think I had never seen
A verse as beautiful as a flower.
Autumn showing off colors slowly
Letting the splendid colors
Flow softly to earth below.
The poet labors all his days
To build the beauty in his rhyme.
When rain drops are
Exposed to sunlight, even
Colorless become vibrant.
Longer days have come,
Cuckoos are here with joyous
Shades of dark green arise!
Amongst the bushes and thorns
Beautiful red rose blooms.
Breezy blue sky so clear,
So bright and relaxing
That escapes daily toil.
The sunlight brightens the horizon
Like the sky lightens a small island.
Cold morning time
Ice crystals reflect the rays
Of blazing sunrise.
Before the sunrise
A chain of red clouds
And all else is in the darkness.
Lovely nature has something to offer
you; so inhale the fresh air
And, beautifully, learn by deciding where to go.
Still in their cabins lay the murdered,
But the air is filled with pain
And tearful rain and gusty sighs.
The rooms feel mirror reflection
For that glowing face,
The windows were covered
With frost. Outside
Is a world of ice.
The moon moved above
The clouds, suspended between
Night and dawn.
How beautiful are sunflowers
That yield without difficulty,
Blooming so fully now
In the light of the sun.
Examples of Enjambment from Literature
Example #1: It is a Beauteous Evening (By William Wordsworth)
"It is a beauteous Evening, calm and free;
The holy time is quiet as a Nun
Breathless with adoration; the broad sun
Is sinking down in its tranquility;
The gentleness of heaven is on the Sea;
Listen! The mighty Being is awake,
And doth with his eternal motion make
A sound like thunder―everlastingly. ...

"Thou liest in Abraham's bosom all the year;
And worshipp'st at the Temple's inner shrine,
God being with thee when we know it not."

This poem is a perfect example of enjambment. In this poem, every line is running over to the next, while the sense is not finished at the end of lines, without pause or break. None of the lines make sense - or stand on their own - without the next line.

Example #2: Endymion (By John Keats)
"A thing of beauty is a joy forever:
Its loveliness increases; it will never
Pass into nothingness but still will keep
A bower quiet for us, and asleep
Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing."

Endymion is a famous example of enjambment. The first and last lines in the given poem have end marks, while the middle lines are enjambed. There is a flow of thought from one line to the next.

Example #3: The Winter's Tale (By William Shakespeare)
"I am not prone to weeping, as our sex
Commonly are; the want of which vain dew
Perchance shall dry your pities; but I have
That honorable grief lodged here which burns
Worse than tears drown ..."

Shakespeare frequently used enjambment in his plays. This extract is filled with the heavy use of enjambment. In each line, the linguistic unit finishes mid-line with a caesura. The meaning flows from one line to next, and readers are forced to read the subsequent lines.

Example #4: The Waste Land (By T. S. Eliot)


"April is the cruelest month, breeding
Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing
Memory and desire, stirring
Dull roots with spring rain.
Winter kept us warm, covering
Earth in forgetful snow, feeding
A little life with dried tubers."

In this extract, only two lines (4 and 7) are end-stopped. The rest of the lines are enjambed. Each line is expanded unexpectedly by enjambment. The thought and sense flow into the next lines.

Example #5: Don't You Wonder, Sometimes? (By Tracy K. Smith)
"After dark, stars glisten like ice, and the distance they span
Hides something elemental. Not God, exactly. More like
Some thin-hipped glittering Bowie-being—a Starman
Or cosmic ace hovering, swaying, aching to make us see."

In the above example, Smith has used enjambment at the end of each line, which continues until the last line, where an end-stop is used.

Example #6: Harlem (By Langston Hughes)
"What happens to a dream deferred?

Does it dry up
Like a raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore —
And then run? ...

Maybe it just sags
like a heavy load?

Or does it explode?"

This is a good example of enjambment. The poet uses a simile to compare a missed dream to a raisin getting dried in the sunlight, starting in the second line and ending in the third line. Then enjambment occurs in the ninth and the last lines. The fourth and seventh lines also use because the meaning continues to move on to the next lines.

Example #7: Endymion (By John Keats)
"The very music of the name has gone
Into my being, and each pleasant scene
Is growing fresh before me as the green
Of our own valleys: so I will begin
Now while I cannot hear the city's din ..."

Here the first four lines are enjambed, the meaning and thought not ending. It rather moves on to the next lines, which maintain rhythm and pull the readers along from line to line.

Example #8: The Red Wheelbarrow (By William Carlos Williams)
"So much depends
upon

a red wheel
barrow

glazed with rain
water

beside the white
chickens."

Williams has used enjambment in the entire poem. There are four couplets, all of which have meaning continuing into the next lines, giving a flow to the poem.

Functions of Enjambment
Enjambment can be used to surprise readers by delaying the meaning of a line until the following line is read. Some writers use this technique to bring humorous effects to their work. It is good to use in verse in order to create a sense of natural motion.

In poetry, the role of enjambment is normally to let an idea carry on beyond the restrictions of a single line. Another purpose of enjambment is to continue a rhythm that is stronger than a permanent end-stop, wherein complicated ideas are expressed in multiple lines.
An argumentative statement in which the writer or the speaker omits one of the major or minor premises, does not clearly pronounce it, or keeps this premise implied, is called an "enthymeme." However, the omitted premise in an enthymeme remains understandable even if is not clearly expressed. For instance, in the sentence, "Where there is smoke, there is fire," the hidden premise is: fire causes smoke.



Enthymeme is a rhetorical device like syllogism, and is known as truncated or rhetoric syllogism. Its purpose is to influence the audience, and allow them to make inferences. Such inferences can be easily recognized, as these statements comes after "because."

Enthymeme vs. Syllogism
Enthymeme is like syllogism, and yet different. The difference is that a syllogism is a deductive logic that contains three parts, and in which both premises have valid conclusion such as:

All reptiles are cold-blooded animals. (Major premise)
A lizard is a cold-blooded animal. (Minor premise)
Therefore, a lizard is a reptile. (Conclusion)
Whereas in enthymeme, writers keep one premise implied, which means both premises do not have valid conclusions. It is an incomplete argument such as:

He could not have committed this heinous crime. (Major premise)
I have known him since he was a child. (Minor premise)
The hidden premise: He is innocent by nature and, therefore, could never be a criminal.

Popular Examples of Enthymeme


"Senator, I served with Jack Kennedy. I knew Jack Kennedy. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy." - Lloyd Bentsen to Dan Quayle in U.S. Vice-Presidential debate in 1988. (The hidden premise: Jack Kennedy was a great man, but you are not.)
He is a U.S. citizen, so he is entitled to due process. (The hidden premise: All citizens of the U.S. are entitled to due process.)
With a name like Bonanza, it has to be good. (The hidden premise: Bonanza is a prestigious company, therefore it is good.)
Examples of Enthymeme in Literature
Example #1: Julius Caesar (By William Shakespeare)
Plebian: "Mark'd ye his words? He would not take the crown. Therefore 'tis certain he was not ambitious."

From the above line from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, it is clear that Brutus is an ambitious and honorable man. Thus, a major hidden premise is that all honorable and respectable men are ambitious.

Example #2: New York Times Interview, May 2, 2003 (By George Bush)
"The battle of Iraq is one victory in a war on terror that began on September the 11th, 2001, and still goes on ... With those attacks, the terrorists and their supporters declared war on the United States. And war is what they got."

This is an example of classic enthymematic argumentative speech by U.S. President Bush. He stated that the reason the U.S. declared war against Iraq was because the U.S. was attacked on Sept 11, 2001. However, the missing piece in this argument is — Saddam Hussein was the culprit, and involved in the 9/11 attacks.

Example #3: Beauty: When the Other Dancer Is the Self (By Alice Walker)


"[M]y parents decide to buy my brothers guns. These are not 'real' guns. They shoot 'BBs,' copper pellets my brothers say will kill birds. Because I am a girl, I do not get a gun."

In this example, the speaker omits the major premise that her parents have not given her a gun. However, she directly lets the readers know the reason why she does not have the gun.

Example #4: Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student (By Edward P. J. Corbett and Robert J. Connors)
"The gun has the defendant's fingerprints on the trigger. He is clearly guilty!"

In this example, the hidden premise is that fingerprints on an object show who has used it, therefore the defendant's fingerprints on the gun proves he is guilty.

Function of Enthymeme
The usage of enthymeme is very common in advertisements, political speeches, and literature. It makes the audience work out their own conclusions, and nudges them to read further to get a clearer picture of the premise or an idea. By forcing the audience to take a final step, it strengthens the argument of the writer. Often enthymemes help to hide the underlying idea upon which a major argument relies. In addition, the purpose of using an enthymeme is to persuade the audience by using implied arguments.
Enumeration is a rhetorical device used for listing details, or a process of mentioning words or phrases step by step. In fact, it is a type of amplification or division in which a subject is further distributed into components or parts. Writers use enumeration to elucidate a topic, to make it understandable for the readers. It also helps avoid ambiguity in the minds of the readers.



Examples of Enumeration in Literature
Example #1: I Have a Dream (by Martin Luther King)
"[W]hen we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, 'Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!' "

In this example, if we remove commas, apostrophes, and quotation marks, it would be difficult to understand the text.

Example #2: Hints Toward an Essay on Conversation (by Jonathan Swift)
"[A]mong such as deal in multitudes of words, none are comparable to the sober deliberate talker, who proceedeth with much thought and caution, maketh his preface, brancheth out into several digressions, findeth a hint that putteth him in mind of another story, which he promiseth to tell you when this is done; cometh back regularly to his subject, cannot readily call to mind some person's name, holding his head, complaineth of his memory; the whole company all this while in suspense; at length says, it is no matter, and so goes on. And, to crown the business, it perhaps proveth at last a story the company hath heard fifty times before; or, at best, some insipid adventure of the relater."

In this example, by using enumeration, Swift describes a sober, deliberate talker, and then adds details of his qualities, making his message clear to understand.

Example #3: Elegy for Jane (by Theodore Roethke)


"I remember the neckcurls, limp and damp as tendrils;
And her quick look, a sidelong pickerel smile;
And how, once startled into talk, the light syllables leaped for her,
And she balanced in the delight of her thought ... "

In the above lines, the speaker recalls how Jane - a dead student - looked. He gives details by remembering her smile, her hair, and her beautiful spirit.

Example #4: The Atlanta Compromise Address (by Booker T. Washington)
"Cast down your bucket among these people who have, without strikes and labour wars, tilled your fields, cleared your forests, builded your railroads and cities, and brought forth treasures from the bowels of the earth, and helped make possible this magnificent representation of the progress of the South. Casting down your bucket among my people, helping and encouraging them as you are doing on these grounds, and to education of head, hand, and heart, you will find that they will buy your surplus land, make blossom the waste places in your fields, and run your factories."

Booker describes people by adding their qualities one by one, which helps the audience to gain a real understanding of the writer's ideas.

Example #5: Address to the Jury during the Anti-Conscription Trial in New York City, July 1917 (by Emma Goldman)
"We say that if America has entered the war to make the world safe for democracy, she must first make democracy safe in America. How else is the world to take America seriously, when democracy at home is daily being outraged, free speech suppressed, peaceable assemblies broken up by overbearing and brutal gangsters in uniform; when free press is curtailed and every independent opinion gagged."

Emma Goldman discusses how America can save democracy while waging war. She lists details about what might happen if America does not make it safe at home.

Function


By using enumeration, writers lay emphasis on certain ideas to elaborate them further. In fact, enumeration easily creates an impression on the minds of the readers. The details and listing make it easy for them to convey the real message they want to impart. However, if there is no use of enumeration in a text, it might become difficult for the reader to get the true meanings of ideas.
The word epic is derived from the Ancient Greek adjective, "epikos", which means a poetic story. In literature, an epic is a long narrative poem, which is usually related to heroic deeds of a person of an unusual courage and unparalleled bravery. In order to depict this bravery and courage, the epic uses grandiose style.



The hero is usually the representative of the values of a certain culture, race, nation or a religious group on whose victor of failure the destiny of the whole nation or group depends. Therefore, certain supernatural forces, deus ex machina, help the hero, who comes out victor at the end. An epic usually starts with an invocation to muse, but then picks up the threads of the story from the middle and moves on to the end.

Difference Between an Epic and a Ballad
A ballad and an epic both are poems, which narrate stories. However, a ballad is shorter in length than an epic, while it is composed to be sung on some occasions, and not narrated. They are also known as folk ballads as well as popular ballads. Most of the ballads have unknown origin and source and usually pass on orally from generations to generations. On the other hand, an epic poem tells a story, but about the heroic ideals of a specific society. The actual difference between the two is the length and the fact that one is usually meant to be sung, while the other is to be narrated. Both differ in style where a ballad is composed in a simple language, while an epic demonstrates mastery in style such as Paradise Lost.

Examples of Epic from Literature


The Epic of Gilgamesh (~2000 BCE)
Perhaps, the Epic of Gilgamesh is the first example of an epic. It tells the story of the life of an Assyrian king, Gilgamesh. Like all other epics, the narrative of this epic revolves around the themes related to gods, human beings, mortality, legacy and seduction. Like other epics, it is also composed in a grand style. Gilgamesh is a young arrogant king due to his being half-god and half-human. His strength and masculine beauty becomes a constant source of trouble for others. Therefore, gods grow sick of Gilgamesh's arrogant and troublesome attitude and decide to teach him a lesson. He is made to fight his antagonist, Enkidu, and then go on a long journey to bring the plant of life — a journey on which he learns the lessons of life. Although the epic is written nearly 4,000 years ago, critics are unanimous that it is a human work.

The Iliad (800 BCE)
Iliad is another example of an epic. It was written by the popular Greek poet, Homer. It relates the story of the Trojan wars, involving themes of courage, boldness, love for one's country and nostalgia of family. However, it describes many legends related to the siege of Troy, the events took place before the siege, the gathering of the warriors prior to the siege and the causes of the war. Later, the epic foretold the looming death of Achilles and the destruction of Troy. The style of narration is grand, and suits an epic poem — the reason that it is still one the most celebrated work of antiquity.

Paradise Lost (1667)


Written on the same traditions but on a different subject, Paradise Lost, is an English epic by yet another blind poet of English origin, John Milton. It also is known colloquially as the Protestant Epic. In this epic, Milton argues Satan's fall from the heaven as well as Adam and Eve's fall from the Garden of Eden. Despite his blindness, Milton did not stop from explaining "the ways of God to men." He has depicted Satan as a highly complex character, who is at war with God. Despite his different subject, Milton has used several epic devices introduced by Homer such as invocation to the muse, extended similes and grand style.

Function of Epic
As the epic poem is the earliest form of poetry, it is the earliest form of entertainment as well. Epics were written to commemorate the struggles and adventures of kings and warriors. The main function of epic poetry was to elevate the status of the hero among the audiences to inspire them to be ready to perform heroic actions. Epic obtained most of its themes from the exploits performed by legendary characters and their illustrious ancestors. That is why these exploits became examples for others to follow, and still lived in books. It is through epics, models of ideal heroic behavior were supplied to the common people. Moreover, epics also were collections of historical events not recorded in common history books — the reason that they are read today to be enjoyed and be informed regarding the past.
Epigram is a rhetorical device that is a memorable, brief, interesting, and surprising satirical statement. It originated from the Greek word epigramma, which means "inscription," or "to inscribe." Often ingenious or witty statements are considered as epigrams, such as this quote by Eleanor Roosevelt:



"No one can make you feel inferior without your consent."

Oscar Wilde used an epigram in this quote:

"As long as war is regarded as wicked, it will always have its fascination. When it is looked upon as vulgar, it will cease to be popular."

Both of these epigrams are not only interesting and brief, but also satirical. The first one is about the sense of inferiority, while the second one is about war.

This literary device is commonly used in poetry, where it appears as a short satirical poem with a single subject, ending in an ingenious or witty thought. Poets like Alexander Pope, John Donne, William Shakespeare, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge popularized epigram as a literary device during the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries. Jane Wilde, an Irish poet, believed that epigrams were much better than an argumentative speech.

Common Use of Epigram
Below are some popular examples of epigram used in common speech:

"Mankind must put an end to war, or war will put and end to mankind." - John F. Kennedy
"If we don't end war, war will end us." - G. Wells
"It is better to light a candle than curse the darkness." - Eleanor Roosevelt
"A word to the wise ain't necessary; it's the stupid ones who need all the advice." - Bill Cosby
"Live simply, so that others may simply live." - Mother Teresa
"I'm starting with the man in the mirror." - Michael Jackson
"This is the moment when we must come together to save this planet. Let us resolve that we will not leave our children a world where the oceans rise and famine spreads and terrible storms devastate our lands." - Barack Obama
"Blessed are the peacemakers." - Jesus Christ
Examples of Epigram in Literature


Example #1: Auguries of Innocence (By William Blake)
"To see a world in a grain of sand,
And a heaven in a wild flower,
Hold infinity in the palm of your hand,
And eternity in an hour."

Blake wrote poetry about his existential and religious concepts during his times. The above quotation, from Auguries of Innocence, became very popular. The poem is packed with punch lines, and the poet has laid great emphasis on the concept.

Example #2: Sonnet 76 (By William Shakespeare)
"So all my best is dressing old words new,
Spending again what is already spent:
For as the sun is daily new and old,
So is my love still telling what is told."

These four lines of a sonnet by Shakespeare are a good example of an epigram. The poet refers to ideas and items simultaneously as both new and old. He tries to say that he has spent something, which he already has done. He is doing this to express perplexity with a lover, and also shows his feelings of desire for sexuality.

Example #3: The Picture of Dorian Gray (By Oscar Wilde)


"There is only one thing in the world worse than being talked about, and that is not being talked about."

"Women are a decorative sex. They never have anything to say, but they say it charmingly."

"There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written, or badly written. That is all."

Oscar Wilde was one of the most popular and skilled writers for using epigrams. This novel is filled with a number of epigrams, and here we have three prominent examples.

Example #4: Hero and Leander (By John Donne)
"Both robb'd of air, we both lie in one ground
Both whom one fire had burnt, one water drown'd."

This is a good example of epigram. While we cannot see any apparent humor, the contradiction is clearly visible in how two people could die with water and fire both. Therefore, the poem has some satirical purposes wrapped up in just two witty lines.

Function of Epigram
Epigram is a clever and witty statement expressed in just a few lines, pointing out foibles and truths of mankind. This is very common in poetry, but we also find it in prose, film, fiction writing, politics, and everyday speech. Epigrams serve the same purpose as do maxims and proverbs. However, the main purpose of using such statements is to leave a positive impression on the audience, as they demonstrate pure humor coupled with wisdom. Besides, writers use this literary device to cause listeners and readers to think deeply about their statements.
An epigraph is a literary device in the form of a poem, quotation, or sentence - usually placed at the beginning of a document or a simple piece - having a few sentences, but which belongs to another writer. An epigraph can serve different purposes, such as it can be used as a summary, introduction, example, or an association with some famous literary work, so as to draw a comparison, or to generate a specific context for the piece.



Epigraph is a very sophisticated form of literary device that can really brush up a story very well. Nevertheless, a question that usually comes to mind about this device is why an epigraph is always used in the beginning. Sometimes, when you are done reading a book, you are so swamped by the story that it makes you want to hold the book close to your chest and transfer everything in it to your soul directly. It is because the book is so amazing that it makes us want to remember everything in it. Now, imagine how moving it would be to turn the very last page thinking you have finished the book, and right there you find an epigraph that reflects on everything you just read.

Examples of Epigraph in Literature
Example #1: Heart of Darkness (By Joseph Conrad)
Many famous poems provide good examples of epigraph. For instance, "Mistah Kurtz, he dead," is a line from Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad, which was used in the famous poem The Hollow Men by T. S. Eliot to describe how modern people have dead souls, like the character Kurtz of Heart of Darkness. It is because they have taken materialism as their demigod, and accepted its domination, submitting their spirits to it like Kurtz did.

Example #2: Life: A User's Manual (By Georges Perec)


The epigraphs used in the preface of Georges Perec's Life: A User's Manual (La Vie mode d'emploi) notify the reader in advance that everything is not what it seems, and that tricks are going to be played.

Example #3: The Brothers Karamazov (By Fyodor Dostoevsky)
Epigraph examples are also found in philosophical novels. The epigraph used by Dostoevsky in The Brothers Karamazov is from the Holy Bible, specifically John 12:24. It says:

"Verily, verily, I say unto you, except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it dies, it bringeth forth much fruit."

Example #4: The Sun Also Rises (By Ernest Hemingway)


Ernest Hemingway used Gertrude Stein's famous quotation, "You are all a lost generation," in the beginning of his book The Sun Also Rises. Through this epigraph, Hemingway shows us the entire period in which they were forced to live. The lost generation phrase as coined by Steinbeck was truly reflected by Hemingway in his other pieces as well, but this novel proved to be a mouthpiece for the lost generation.

Example #5: The Godfather (By Mario Puzo)
"Behind every great fortune there is a crime."

This is a translated quotation from Honoré de Balzac given in The Godfather, a famous novel by Mario Puzo. The epigraph given in this novel presents the true picture of a gangster who earns a lot of wealth, and wields much control over the lives of others. The Godfather is a true reflection of what its epigraph suggests.

Function of Epigraph
The use of epigraph in an original work can create something very intriguing. It can be used as a thematic gatekeeper, by taking excerpts from influential authors to introduce people to your own ideas. It can be used in the form of quotations, proverbs, lyrics, lines, or verses, or even parts of a conversation. It can also be used to set the mood of the readers in the very beginning, for the prose they are to read next.

A writer can also give readers a preview of his notions and inspirations through an epigraph. Although the role of an epigraph in a work may seem very insignificant, it can be very instructive, if used cleverly. An epigraph deepens the readers' interest in the narrative just like an appetizer increases your appetite for a meal. It can also be used in places where the writer wants to highlight a particular point with the help of an already existing concept.
An epilogue, or "epilog," is a chapter at the end of a work of literature, which concludes the work.



Epilogue, Prologue, and Afterword
Epilogue is the opposite of prologue, which is a piece of writing at the beginning of a literary work. An epilogue is different from an afterword, in that it is part of the main story, occurring after the climax, and revealing the fates of the characters. An afterword is typically written by someone other than the author, and describes how the book came into being.

Usually, an epilogue is set a few hours after the main body of the story, or far into the future, where the writer speaks to the readers indirectly, through the point of view of a different character. In an afterword, on the other hand, an author speaks to the readers directly. In it, a writer may provide a reason for writing the book, and detail the research that has gone into writing the book.

Sometimes, a writer may employ an epilogue to cover loose ends of his story, resolving those issues that were brought up by the writer in the story, but were not resolved in the climax.

Epilogue in Greek and Elizabethan Stage Plays


Epilogue examples are abundant in Greek and Elizabethan stage plays, since including epilogues at the end of the plays was a common practice among their playwrights. After the end of the play, an actor would step forward, speaking directly to the audience, offering his gratitude to them for watching the play patiently.

In comedies, epilogues uttered by those actors were often used to show the main characters of the plays enjoying a happy and contented life after experiencing the disorder during the play.

Similarly, in tragedies the actors narrating the epilogue told the audience about the tragic hero's final suffering, caused by his poor moral choices. Moreover, the speaker of an epilogue would directly describe the lesson or moral the audience should have learned from the story.

Epilogue in Horror and Suspense Novels
In modern horror and suspense novels and stories, the epilogue is purposefully used to hint at a threat that still looms large on the horizon. The monster or villain is believed to have been done with, but the epilogue suggests that the danger is not over and still looms over them. Therefore, it adds to the horror and mystery of the work of literature, as the readers get the idea that the characters are not safe, though they might believe so. In some cases, epilogue can also be used to confirm that a narrative is not over, and there is still more to the story. It gives the readers an idea that there will be a sequel.

Examples of Epilogue in Literature
Example #1: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
Consider the following epilogue that is spoken in William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet:

"A glooming peace this morning with it brings;
The sun for sorrow will not show his head.
Go hence to have more talk of these sad things,
Some shall be pardoned, and some punished,
For never was a story of more woe
Than this of Juliet and her Romeo."

A post-play description of the play is given in a most poignant fashion, describing the gloomy atmosphere after the tragedy befell the two ardent lovers, Romeo and Juliet.

Example #2: As You Like It (By William Shakespeare)
Notice a carefree sort of epilogue that marks the end of yet another of Shakespeare's plays, As You Like It, spoken by Rosalind:

"... and I charge you, O men, for the love you bear to women — as I perceive by your simpering, none of you hates them — that between you and the women the play may please. If I were a woman, I would kiss as many of you as had beards that pleased me, complexions that liked me, and breaths that I defied not. And I am sure as many as have good beards, or good faces, or sweet breaths will, for my kind offer, when I make curtsy, bid me farewell."

It clearly shows how happy and contented Rosalind is.

Example #3: Animal Farm (By George Orwell)


We notice George Orwell appending an epilogue to his novel Animal Farm, as Chapter 10. He, in his epilogue, presents the situation of the Manor Farm after many years have passed, describing the fate of the characters who participated in the revolution. He says:

"YEARS passed. The seasons came and went, the short animal lives fled by. A time came when there was no one who remembered the old days before the Rebellion, except Clover, Benjamin, Moses the raven, and a number of the pigs."

Similarly, Orwell tells us about the evolution that has taken place in the dominating pigs that are still at the helms of power. He says:

"Twelve voices were shouting in anger, and they were all alike. No question, now, what had happened to the faces of the pigs. The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which."

Function of Epilogue
Writers of great examples of epilogue show how useful this device is to achieve the following ends:

To satisfy the readers' curiosity, by telling them about the fate of the characters after the climax
To cover loose ends of the story
To hint at a sequel or next installment of the story
Derived from the Greek word epiphaneia, epiphany means "appearance," or "manifestation." In literary terms, an epiphany is that moment in the story where a character achieves realization, awareness, or a feeling of knowledge, after which events are seen through the prism of this new light in the story.



James Joyce, the great Irish writer, used this term in his writings to indicate a sudden eye-opener regarding the nature of a person or situation. He said that it is the moment in which "the soul of the commonest object ... seems to us radiant, and may be manifested through any chance, word, or gesture." He means to say that even insignificant things in our lives can suddenly inspire in us an awareness that can change our lives for good.

A Common Example of Epiphany
Let us consider an epiphany of a smoker:

I used to smoke a lot. Everyone let me know that it was bad for my health however, I didn't pay any notice. One day I saw my two-year-old baby trying to grab a stubbed-out cigarette from the ashtray. Seeing this, it suddenly dawned on me how terrible smoking was, and I stopped smoking.

So, this sudden feeling of knowledge that brings to light what was so far hidden, and changes one's life, is called epiphany.

Examples of Epiphany in Literature


Let us analyze some epiphany examples from different genres of literature.

Example #1: Animal Farm (By George Orwell)
Animal Farm, written by George Orwell, is an epiphany that uses animals on a farm to describe the overthrow of the last Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, and the Communist Revolution of Russia before WWI. The actions of the animals on the farm are used to expose the greed and corruption of the revolution. It also describes how powerful people can change the ideology of a society. One of the cardinal rules on the farm is this:

All animals are equal but a few are more equal than others.

The animals on the farm represent different sections of Russian society after the revolution.

For instance, the pigs represent those who came to power following the revolution; "Mr. Jones," the owner of the farm, represents the overthrown Tsar Nicholas II; while "Boxer" the horse, represents the laborer class. The use of Epiphany in the novel allows Orwell to make his position clear about the Russian Revolution and expose its evils.

Example #2: Hamlet (By William Shakespeare)
William Shakespeare also makes use of an epiphany in his play Hamlet. It is when Hamlet, the hero, is on a ship sailing to England. Till then, he was over-burdened with thinking and planning a flawless revenge on his father's murderer, Claudius. Suddenly there is a flash of realization and he says:

[T]here is a divinity that shapes our ends, rough-hew them how we will.

He realizes that there is no wisdom for him in trying to inflict the perfect revenge on Claudius - he must take hold of the moment and go with the current.

Example #3: Miss Brill (By Katherine Manfield)


We find another example of epiphany in the short story Miss Brill, written by Katherine Manfield. Miss Brill, being delighted to be part of the season in the Jardins Publique, particularly on Sundays, prepares herself for the occasion on a chilly day. She wears her fur coat, and walks towards a band playing music in the park. She sees life everywhere around her. It pleases her to imagine that she is part of all that takes place. In a flash of epiphany, she recognizes that she and everyone else in the park are mere actors, acting out their roles. There was nothing important about that gathering of actors and she was alone despite being with a crowd.

Function of Epiphany
The purpose of epiphany in a novel or a short story is to point out a turning point for a character, or in the plot, in the near future. It may also be used to change the opinion of one character about other characters, events, and places after a sudden awareness of the situation. It may also be a sign of a conclusion in the story.
Epiphora, also known as "epistrophe," is a stylistic device in which a word or a phrase is repeated at the ends of successive clauses. Examples of epiphora are not only found in literary pieces, but debates and persuasive writings are also rich with epiphora examples.



Epiphora and Anaphora
Epiphora is an exact counterpart of another figure of speech, anaphora. An anaphora is repetition of the first part of successive sentences, whereas in an epiphora repetition occurs in the last part of successive clauses and sentences. For example, "Every day, every night, in every way, I am getting better and better" is an example of anaphora, as the word "every" is repeated in the successive clauses.

The sentence, "I am an American, he is an American, and everybody here is an American," exhibits epiphora, as the repetition is in the last part of the successive clauses. Despite being different in their structures, both anaphora and epiphora have the same function of laying emphasis on a particular point.

Examples of Epiphora in Literature


Example #1: The Tempest (By William Shakespeare)
"Hourly joys be still upon you! Juno sings her blessings on you ... Scarcity and want shall shun you, Ceres' blessing so is on you."

Here, Shakespeare wants to convey the importance of "you" through the use of epiphora.

Example #2: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
"Fie, fie, thou shamest thy shape, thy love, thy wit,
Which, like a userer, abound'st in all,
And uses none in that true sense indeed
Which should bedeck thy shape, thy love, thy wit."

Again, Shakespeare is at his best in using epiphora, as the phrase "thy shape, thy love, thy wit" comes twice within four lines. It puts much emphasis on three of Romeo's attributes. Friar Laurence is at his best when he speaks this dialogue.

Example #3: Merchant of Venice (By William Shakespeare)
BASSANIO:
"Sweet Portia,
If you did know to whom I gave the ring,
If you did know for whom I gave the ring
And would conceive for what I gave the ring
And how unwillingly I left the ring,
When nought would be accepted but the ring,
You would abate the strength of your displeasure."

PORTIA:
"If you had known the virtue of the ring,
Or half her worthiness that gave the ring,
Or your own honor to contain the ring,
You would not then have parted with the ring."

Shakespeare played with the phrase "the ring" in his famous play The Merchant of Venice. He makes both of his characters use the same phrase again and again in their dialogues.

Example #4: King Henry VI (By William Shakespeare)


"Then, since this earth affords no joy to me
But to command, to check, to o'erbear such
As are of better person than myself,
I'll make my heaven to dream upon the crown;
And, whiles I live, to account this world but hell,
Until my mis-shap'd trunk that bears this head
Be round impaled with a glorious crown.
And yet I know not how to get the crown,
For many lives stand between me and home."

Shakespeare plays with the word "crown," to emphasize his point here that it is important for the speaker.

Example #5: Merchant of Venice (By William Shakespeare)
"I'm a Pepper, he's a Pepper, she's a Pepper, we're a Pepper. Wouldn't you like to be a Pepper, too? Dr. Pepper."

This is an advertising jingle for the Dr. Pepper soft drink. The phrase "a Pepper" has been repeated in all the phrases, to emphasize the point for consumers that they must join the Dr. Pepper bandwagon.

Function of Epiphora
Epiphora, or epistrophe, is a literary device that serves the function of furnishing an artistic effect to passages, in both poetry and prose. It lays emphasis on a particular idea, as well as giving a unique rhythm to the text, which consequently becomes a pleasurable experience for the readers. That is the reason that it is easily understood and memorized, and easier to comprehend. As a rhetorical or stylistic device, epiphora is brought into action to appeal to the emotions of the audience in order to persuade them.
An epistle is a letter in the form of prose or poetry to a particular person or group. It can also be a story or a religious sermon similar to the New Testament letters written by Paul, Peter, and John to their church congregation or a small group of believers. Traditionally, an epistle was written to express love, philosophy, religion, and morality. However, the roots of epistle composition date back to ancient Roman poetic form and The Bible. Most of the epistles are written in free verse without following any strict meter or rhyme. In this sense, the writers are free to write in whatever narration, or character they select to write. Etymologically, epistle refers to a letter or written communication.



Types of Epistle
In literature, there are two basic traditions of verse epistles.

Horace's Epistles: The tradition of Horace's epistle deals with moral and philosophical themes and has been the most popular form since the Renaissance.
Ovid's Epistle: The tradition based on Ovid's epistle includes romanticism and other sentimental subjects. These epistles gained popularity in Europe during the Middle Ages. The best example of Ovid's epistle is the letter of Paul the Apostle that illustrates the spread of Christianity in the world.
Examples of Epistles from Literature


Example #1
Letter to N.Y. by Elizabeth Bishop

"In your next letter I wish you'd say
where you are going and what you are doing;
how are the plays, and after the plays
what other pleasures you're pursuing:

taking cabs in the middle of the night,
driving as if to save your soul
where the road goes round and round the park
and the meter glares like a moral owl?"

The writer has used rhyming couplets to express her isolation. The poet directly addresses the person whom she knows and asks about his routine. The first line of the poetry illustrates the use of epistolary mode, as it states a direct note to the person. This extract falls under the category of Ovid's epistle, as it deals with the subject of love.

Example #2
Epistle To A Young Friend by Robert Burns

"I Lang hae thought, my youthfu' friend,
A something to have sent you,
Tho' it should serve nae ither end
Than just a kind memento:
But how the subject-theme may gang,
Let time and chance determine;
Perhaps it may turn out a sang:
Perhaps turn out a sermon."

Robert has used rhyming couplets to express his affiliation with his friend. The poet addresses his friend at the beginning of the poem and expresses his wish that he wants to give something to his friend. However, the direct address of the person and the informal style of writing makes this poem an epistolary text. This is also an example of Ovid's epistle, as it deals with the subject of love.

Example #3


Epistle to a Lady by Alexander Pope

NOTHING so true as what you once let fall, "Most Women have no Characters at all.
" Matter too soft a lasting mark to bear, and best distinguished by black, brown, or fair.
How many pictures of one Nymph we view, all how unlike each other, all how true! Arcadia's Countess, here, in ermin'd pride, is, there, Pastora by a fountain side.

This extract is written in the form of Horatian epistle, a verse letter, which is a satire on women. The poet starts his argument with a claim that most of the women have no character and argues that the supposed character of women is always changeable. To him, they are best to be distinguished by their physical appearance, especially, by the color of their hair.

Example #4
The Bishop Orders His Tomb at Saint Praxed's Church by Robert Browning

"Vanity, saith the preacher, vanity! Draw round my bed: is Anselm keeping back? Nephews — sons mine — ah God, I know not! Well — She, men would have to be your mother once, Old Gandolf envied me, so fair she was! What's done is done, and she is dead beside, Dead long ago, and I am Bishop since, And as she died so must we die ourselves, And thence ye may perceive the world's a dream."

In this extract, the dying priest is addressing to his sons and nephews gathered around his death bed. He starts his speech with negative comments and gives them direction about his death and burial. He also refers to a mistress that has long been dead and starts questioning life. This is ironic for as a religious leader. It is because he should have been content and satisfied. However, his words speak of his fear and weaknesses. It is a type of Horatian epistle that exposes the mind of the religious leader. Moreover, it also shows how an epistolary mode is adapted to the poetic mode to give room to the poet's ideas.

Epistle Meaning and Function
Epistle functions as a tool to enable the writers to express their feelings and emotions in the form of conversation. It liberates them from the clutches of rules of formality. It is also that this colloquial or conversational style suits the addressees in a way that they understand the precise meanings. The epistolary mode has also been adopted for some novels to give a clear picture of both sides to the readers. The readers get a peep into the characters' thinking about different characters as well as about the character himself. In poetic form, it gives more room to the poets to express their hidden feelings in the poetic language embellishing it with literary devices to convey their messages effectively.
Epistolary comes from a Greek word, epistolē, which means "letter." Epistolary is a literary genre pertaining to letters, in which writers use letters, journals, and diary entries in their works, or they tell their stories or deliver messages through a series of letters. Though the usual format of epistolary is letters, writers sometimes use other forms of document such as newspaper clippings and diary entries. Recently, writers also use electronic documents like emails, blogs, radio broadcast, and recordings.



Examples of Epistolary in Literature
Example #1: The Color Purple (By Alice Walker)
Alice Walker's novel The Color Purpl, is a good example of an epistolary novel in which an impoverished black teenage girl, Celie, tells her story through writing letters to both her sister and God. Here, readers can learn about the difficult life of Celie through her words and the direct experiences she has faced. Alice Walker has chosen to let the readers encounter this story by using Celie's voice, providing Celie a power that she could not have in everyday life. However, in the film adaptation of this novel, these letters echoed through the monologues of characters.

Example #2: Frankenstein (By Mary Shelley)
Mary Shelley started her first novel, Frankenstein, in the form of letters. She uses three narratives or perspectives that allow readers to form opinions about the narrative. The first narrator is Robert Walton, who gives his point of view about Victor. Robert records the confessions and narrative of Victor when he is dying. The second narrator is Victor himself, who gives his point of view about Walton. Finally, the creature disrupts Victor and readers get its viewpoint. It is Walton who starts and ends this novel by relating a series of events through letters to his sister, creating suspense by using the word "demon." The letters of Victor and the monster's perspective on the other hand, give frames to the main body of the narrative.

Example #3: Dracula (By Bram Stoker)


Bram Stoker has employed epistolary format in his successful and widely recognized novel nineteenth century, Dracula. The author has compiled the entire novel in the form of letters, newspaper clippings, diary entries, doctor's notes, telegrams, and ship's logs. The narrators of this novel are protagonists, who supplement it with newspaper clippings to relate different events. Although this novel draws on letters form, it reduces the end of the narrative.

Example #4: Pamela (By Samuel Richardson)
Samuel Richardson' novel Pamela is another notable example of such novels in which you would find the device of epistolary. In this novel, Pamela attempts to run away from her lecherous master, Mr. B. Whenever her master tries to seduce her, she expresses her insecurities to impoverished parents by writing them letters. Mr. B., however, intercepts her letters, and gives her parents the wrong information by shifting her to another estate, and there she begins writing a journal, hoping that one day she would send it to her parents. By the end, Mrs. Jewkes finds letters written by Pamela, and gives them to Mr. B., who realizes Pamela's pious character, changes his mind, and decides to marry her.

Example #5: Diary of a Young Girl (By Anne Frank)
A teenage girl, Anne Frank, wrote Diary of a Young Girl, recording her experiences during World War II. She recounts her feelings and thoughts, including some important and some trivial details. After a month while writing this diary, Anne along with her family members was forced into hiding in some building in Amsterdam to avoid religious persecution at the hands of the Nazis. However, all of them died in 1944, except her father Otto Frank, who had her diary published in1947. Anne Frank's diary format provides the readers an intimate insight into Anne's feelings and thoughts during tough times. It is also remarkable in that Anne describes her dreams and hopes through historical context.

Function of Epistolary


Epistolary form can add realism to a narrative, as it imitates real life workings. It is therefore able to describe different points of view. The primary function of this form of writing is to give readers an intimate view of characters' feelings and thoughts, and develop a direct connection with the events through letters without interference of the author. This technique thus makes the literary piece a real experience for the readers. Also, a presentation of events from different viewpoint gives the story verisimilitude and dimension.
Epistrophe is derived from a Greek word that means "turning upon," which indicates the same word returns at the end of each sentence. Epistrophe is a stylistic device that can be defined as the repetition of phrases or words at the ends of the clauses or sentences. It is also called "epiphora." Epistrophe examples are frequently found in literary pieces, in persuasive writing, and in speeches.



The Difference Between Anaphora and Epistrophe
Anaphora is the opposite of epistrophe, and means the repetition of the same phrase or word at the beginning of successive sentences, such as in this example:

Five years have passed;
Five summers, with the length of
Five long winters! and again I hear these waters ...

However, in epistrophe, the repetition of phrases or words is at the end of successive sentences such as in this example:

"Hourly joys be still upon you! Juno sings her blessings on you ...
Scarcity and want shall shun you,
Ceres' blessing so is on you."

Examples of Epistrophe in Literature


Poets have written a number of poems in regular meters, and epistropheic meter is widely used in several of them.

Example #1: The Rebel (By D. J. Enright)
"When everybody has short hair,
The rebel lets his hair grow long.
When everybody has long hair,
The rebel cuts his hair short.
When everybody talks during the lesson,
The rebel does'n say a word.
When nobody talks during the lesson
The rebel does'n say a word.
When nobody talks during the lesson,
The rebel creates a disturbance.
When everybody wears a uniform,
The rebel dresses in fantastic clothes.
When everybody wears fantastic clothes
The rebel dresses soberly.
In the company of dog lovers,
The rebel expresses a preference for cats.
In the company of cat lovers,
The rebel puts in a good word for dogs.
When everybody is praising the sun,
The rebel remarks on the need for rain.
When everybody is greeting the rain,
The rebel regrets the absence of sun.
When everybody goes to the meeting
The rebel stays at home and reads a book.
When everybody stays at home and reads a book,
The rebel goes to the meeting.
When everybody says, yes please!
The rebel says, No thank you.
When everybody says: No thank you,
The rebel says, yes please!
It is very good that we have rebels
You may not find it very good to be one."

Here the phrases are repeated in consecutive lines throughout the poem.

Example #2: The Unnamable (By Samuel Beckett)
"Where now? Who now? When now?"

Examples of epistrophe abound in Beckett's works. In this excerpt, the word "now" is repeated three times to place emphasis, as well as making the line memorable. It also creates cadence and rhythm.

Example #3: Julius Caesar (By William Shakespeare)


BRUTUS:
"Who is here so base that would be a bondman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so rude that would not be a Roman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so vile that will not love his country? If any, speak; for him have I offended ..."

Again, Shakespeare is at his best in using this stylistic device. The repeated phrase at the ends of sentences is "for him have I offended." It appears three time in this excerpt. This shows the importance of the phrase.

Example #4: The Grapes of Wrath (By John Steinbeck)
"Then I'll be all aroun' in the dark. I'll be ever'where - wherever you look. Wherever they's a fight so hungry people can eat, I'll be there. Wherever they's a cop beatin' up a guy, I'll be there ... An' when our folk eat the stuff they raise an' live in the houses they build - why, I'll be there ..."

In the following excerpt, Steinbeck has employed the phrase "I'll be there" again and again as epistrophe. The phrase is creating a sense of connection and familiarity, and focuses the attention of readers on these words.

Example #5: Flood: A Romance of Our Time (By Robert Penn Warren)
"The big sycamore by the creek was gone. The willow tangle was gone. The little enclave of untrodden bluegrass was gone. The clump of dogwood on the little rise across the creek — now that, too, was gone ..."

In this novel, the phrase "was gone" is used as an epistrophe. These words act as common threads throughout the paragraph. It is also giving a regular rhyme and rhythm to the text.

Function of Epistrophe
The rhetorical function of this stylistic device is to give a striking emphasis to an idea, a thought, or a passage. The repetition helps in making the words memorable and pleasurable, due to the regular rhyme scheme. Also, it furnishes artistic effect, both in prose and in poetry. In addition, it lends rhythm to the text, and appeals to the emotions of readers.
When somebody from our family, or a friend dies, we want to commemorate his or her memory. For this, we use an epitaph, which is a brief writing or saying inscribed on a grave. Generally, it is a brief composition, having figurative sense in a verse or in prose form, written to pay tribute to a deceased person, or to remember a past event.



Strictly speaking, an epitaph is a short text on a plaque or tombstone, honoring a dead person. It is derived from the Greek word epitaphios, which means "funeral oration." Many poets and authors, such as William Shakespeare, Sylvia Plath, Oscar Wilde, and John Keats have written their own epitaphs prior to their deaths.

Epitaph and Eulogy
An epitaph and a eulogy have a similar function, which is to pay tribute to the dead. However, they are also different, as an epitaph is a brief and concise commemorative inscription engraved on the tombstone of a dead person; while a eulogy is a spoken or piece written in praise of a dead person, usually given at the funeral. A eulogy may also be used for a living person, as it incorporates stories, anecdotes, and memories of the individual. An epitaph, on the other hand, is just an honoring poem or an inscription written on the tombstone.

Examples of Epitaph in Literature


The use of epitaph flourished during the seventeenth century when writers struggled over the cultural significance of their dead ones. However, later in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, many ways were adopted to validate its importance and, therefore, renowned writers wrote their epitaphs before their death. Here we have a list of some good epitaphs:

Example #1: Oscar Wilde's Epitaph
Wilde's epitaph is inscribed on his gravestone in a very sentimental verse. It reads:

"And alien tears will fill for him,
Pity's long-broken urn,
For his mourners will be outcast men,
And outcasts always mourn."

This epitaph is from his popular poem The Ballad of Reading Gaol. The poem describes that death is also like a prison sentence. Further, he adds a witty statement that in the grave "the food in here is awful."

Example #2: Robert Frost's Epitaph
Robert Frost wrote his epitaph a few years prior to his death. He took the last lines from the poem The Lesson for Today, which read as:

"And were an epitaph to be my story
I'd have a short one ready for my own.
I would have written of me on my stone:
I had a lover's quarrel with the world."

Unfortunately, most of lovers cannot make up their love. However, Frost was nearly close to being done with his love, when he passed away at the age of 88. This quote gives an apt presentation by the poet.

Example #3: William Butler Yeats' Epitaph


Yeats in penned his epitaph, which reads:

"Cast a cold Eye
On Life, on Death.
Horseman, pass by!"

It seems that he is giving advice to his readers to not hang back over his corpse for a very long time, nevertheless the words have rather deep meaning. He had taken these lines from the poem Under Ben Bulben. This is one of the most popular modern epitaphs.

Example #4: William Shakespeare's Epitaph
"Good friend for Jesus' sake forebeare,
To dig the dust enclosed here.
Blessed be the man that spares these stones,
And cursed be he that moves my bones."

Shakespeare had given a prediction that somebody might dig up his grave and, due to this fear, he composed his epitaph in verse form before his death. This poem is chiseled on his gravestone.

Example #5: Sylvia Plath's Epitaph
Sylvia Plath's husband, Ted Hughes, had chosen her epitaph, which is engraved on her gravestone. It reads:

"Even amidst fierce flames, the golden lotus can be planted."

Function of Epitaph
The major function of writing an epitaph is to praise and pay tribute to a deceased person. It is used to provide an example of virtue and goodness, how a tomb of the good people could serve to provide a sense of their presence. In addition, a veneration of a dead person's memories could produce similar effects, as we would see in his or her presence. Another function is to let the audience know and warn them that their lives are also mortal like their predecessors. Finally, it preserves history, as it shows ancestral relationships, dates of birth and death, and accomplishments of the deceased persons.
Epithet is a descriptive literary device that describes a place, a thing, or a person in such a way that it helps in making its characteristics more prominent than they actually are. Also, it is known as a "by-name," or "descriptive title."



One can find many examples of epithet, may of which were Shakespeare's own coinages, in Shakespeare's works. For example:

"Thou mad mustachio purple-hued maltworms! (Henry IV)
"Death lies on her like an untimely frost. Upon the sweetest flower of all the field..." (Romeo and Juliet).
Types of Epithet
Kenning as Epithet
Kenning examples may also be considered as epithet examples. Kenning is a type of an epithet, which is a two-word phrase that describes an object by employing metaphors.
The Fixed Epithet
Fixed epithets are found in epic poetry that involves the repetitive use of a phrase or word for the same object. Such as in Homer's Odyssey, the wife is described as "prudent," Odysseus himself as "many-minded," and their son Telemachus as "sound-minded."
Argumentative Epithet
Expert orators use argumentative epithets. Short arguments use this type of epithet to give hints.
Epithet used as Smear Word
An epithet used as a smear word means a derogatory word or name for someone or something.
Misuse of Epithets


Contemporary writers and speakers take extra care when they use epithets. They do not want to misuse this device and be accused of using racial or abusive epithets.

Examples of Epithet in Literature
Example #1: Brendon Hills (A. E. Housman)
"Here of a Sunday morning
My love and I would lie,
And see the coloured counties,
And hear the larks so high
About us in the sky."

Here, "coloured" is an epithet used to describe the pleasant and beautiful spring season in those countries where the poet wishes to enjoy his beloved's company.

Example #2: Beauty and Beauty (By Rupert Brooke)
"The earth is crying-sweet,
And scattering-bright the air,
Eddying, dizzying, closing round,
With soft and drunken laughter..."

In this excerpt, the description of the air and earth is enhanced by the usage of epithets: "crying-sweet," "scattering-bright," and "soft and drunken laughter." These epithets help in developing imagery in the minds of readers.

Example #3: Ulysses (By James Joyce)


"God! he said quietly. Isn't the sea what Algy calls it: a great sweet mother? The snot-green sea. The scrotum-tightening sea! I must teach you. You must read them in the original. Thalatta! Thalatta! She is our great sweet mother..."

In this passage, Joyce uses several epithets to describe the sea. These epithets include "a great sweet mother," "snot-green sea," and "scrotum-tightening sea."

Example #4: In Blue Evening (By Rupert Brooke)
"My restless blood now lies a-quiver,
Knowing that always, exquisitely,
This April twilight on the river
Stirs anguish in the heart of me..."

Brooke makes use of epithets ("a-quiver," and "April twilight on the river") to describe the anguish and agitation he feels deep inside him.

Example #5: The Odyssey (By Homer)
"I've come,
As you surmise, with comrades on a ship,
Sailing across the wine-dark sea to men
Whose style of speech is very different..."

In these lines, the phrase "wine-dark' is used as an epithet in order to explain the color of the sea. This epithet enhances the description of the color of the sea.

Example #6: In Lycidas (By John Milton)
"What time the gray-fly winds her sultry horn,
Blind mouths! that scarce themselves know how to hold
A sheep-hook, or have learn'd aught else the least
That to the faithful herdman's art belongs!"

Milton employs epithets ("gray-fly," and "blind mouths") in this excerpt, describing first insects, and later referring to the desire of feeding the mouths.

Function of Epithet
With the use of epithets, writers are able to describe their characters and settings more vividly, in order to give richer meanings to the text. Since they are used as a literary tool, epithets help in making the description of someone or something broader and hence easier to understand. With the help of epithets, writers and poets develop suitable images in fewer words. Besides, the metaphorical use of epithets helps in making poetry and prose vibrant and strong.
Epizeuxis is derived from the Greek word epizeugnumi, which means "fastening together." It is defined as a rhetorical device in which the words or phrases are repeated in quick succession, one after another, for emphasis. It is also called "diacope."



Difference Between Epistrophe, Anaphora and Epizeuxis
These three literary devices have a major difference, in that epistrophe is the repetition of the words at the end of successive sentences, such as "Where now? Who now? When now..." (The Unnamable, by Samuel Beckett). Whereas, anaphora is the reverse of epistrophe; it is a repetition of the words and phrases at the beginning of successive sentences. The following is an example of anaphora:

"This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England,
This nurse, this teeming womb of royal kings
This land of such dear souls, this dear dear land,

(Richard II, by William Shakespeare)

The third term epizeuxis is less refined than epistrophe and anaphora. But, it makes a very strong impact. Epizeuxis is the repetition of words in succession within a same sentence, such as "The horror, the horror," in Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad.

Examples of Epizeuxis in Literature


Example #1: Cymbeline (By William Shakespeare)
"Hark, hark! the lark at heaven's gate sings,
And Phoebus gins arise,
His steeds to water at those springs
On chaliced flowers that lies;
And winking Mary-buds begin
To open their golden eyes:
With everything that pretty is,
My lady sweet, arise:
Arise, arise!"

This is considered a perfect example of epizeuxis. Shakespeare has used words, like "hark" and "arise," intentionally in order to emphasize his point.

Example #2: King Lear (By William Shakespeare)
"And my poor fool is hanged! No, no, no life!
Why should a dog, a horse, a rat have life,
And thou no breath at all? Thou'lt come no more,
Never, never, never, never!"

Shakespeare has beautifully used this device in this paragraph. In the first line, he has emphasized "no," repeating it three times. Similarly, he has repeated "never" four times in quick succession without using any other word.

Example #3: The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby (By Tom Wolfe)


"Phil Spector tamps his frontal lobes and closes his eyes and holds his breath. As long as he holds his breath, it will not rain, there will be no raindrops, no schizoid water wobbling, sideways, straight back, it will be an even, even, even, even, even, even, even world..."

In the above extract, the word "even" is repeated at the end. This repetition makes this text notable for the readers. Also, it brings an emotional effect within the text.

Example #4: The Spam (By Monty Python)
"Waitress: Shut up! Shut up! Shut up! Bloody Vikings. You can't have egg, bacon, Spam and sausage without the Spam.

Mrs. Bun: I don't like Spam!

Mr. Bun: Shh dear, don't cause a fuss. I'll have your Spam. I love it. I'm having Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam, Spam, baked beans, Spam, Spam, Spam and Spam ..."

The author has repeatedly used the words "shut up" and "Spam." Although, the repeated words are used here to emphasize a point, they are giving a comic effect too.

Example #5: Coda (By Dorothy Parker)
"There's little in taking or giving,
There's little in water or wine;
This living, this living, this living
Was never a project of mine."

In this excerpt, the poet uses "this living" repeatedly for emphasis. These words provide melody and emphasis on a specific way of living. Also, it creates an artistic effect in the poem.

Example #6: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (By Samuel Coleridge)
"Alone, alone, all, all alone,
Alone on a wide, wide sea."

Here, the repetition of words "alone," "all," and "wide" is creating a rhythmic effect. These words draw the attention of the readers toward the supernatural incident, which has killed crew members of the ship, and has left the mariner all alone.

Function of Epizeuxis
The major function of epizeuxis is to create an appeal to the emotions of readers — to hit them with a bang. It is employed to inspire, encourage, and motivate the audience. Epizeuxis examples are found in literary writings as well as political speeches. As a literary device, it furnishes freshness to the texts, and gives artistic effect to a piece. Apart from adding rhythm to the texts, epizeuxis makes the reading of the literary text pleasurable and memorable. Also, it helps in drawing the focus to a particular thought, idea, or emotion through repetition.
Eponym is a name of a legend or real person that writers associate with some other person, object, institution, or thing. Simply, we can define it as a famous person whose name is given to someone else, such as Homer has derived the name of his ancient epic The Odyssey from a major character, Odysseus. Many TV shows, books, and films have used eponymous characters like Emma, Harry Potter, and The Legend of Zelda. Besides, we commonly see the use of this literary device in literature, industry, places, and in several other fields.



Everyday Use of Eponym
The sandwich was given the name of a British politician, John Montagu, who was fourth Earl of Sandwich.
The cardigan sweater was named after the British military officer, James Thomas Brudenell, who was Seventh Earl of Cardigan.
The saxophone was given the name of Sax, a surname of a family from Belgium, which was skilled at making musical instruments.
Examples of Eponym in Literature


Example #1: The Secret Life of Walter Mitty (By James Thurber)
James Thurber in his novel, The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, introduces the main character Walter Mitty, who is a rather timid and unadventurous fellow, whose wife has the dominating role in their relationship. Beneath his humble and timid exterior, Walter Mitty hides dreams and a great fantasy in his life in which he imagines himself as a successful surgeon, a daredevil pilot, and a heroic naval commander. After his dreams, the phrase "Walter Mitty Dreams" is used to refer to a sort of wild fantasy that an average person can dream up to satisfy his/her daily grind.

Example #2: Gulliver's Travels (By Jonathan Swift)
Jonathan Swift, in his satirical novel Gulliver's Travels, uses the name "Lilliputian," which originates from the miniature and fictional name of an island nation situated in the South Pacific, where Gulliver was lashed to the ground. This term generally means anything small or miniature, or it may have a derogatory meaning, referring to pettiness or narrow-mindedness.

Swift also used the term "Yahoos," which are an uncouth or degraded race of people whom Gulliver encounters on the Houyhnhnm island in book IV. Initially, Gulliver felt some difficulty recognizing them as human beings, because they were so backward, and an intelligent race of horses known as the Houyhnhnm would treat Yahoos as beasts. Today, Yahoo means an ignorant, uncouth, or brutish person. Besides, Americans use it also as an exclamation of happiness or excitement. More recently, a very well-known internet service has named its search engine and service providing company as Yahoo.

Example #3: Life in London (By Pierce Egan)


A Victorian writer Pierce Egan in his 1821 book, Life in London, featured two popular characters, Tom and Jerry. This book became very popular and finally their adventurous story gained entry into in William T. Moncrieff's play. More recently, William Hannah and Joseph Barbara have created a cartoon cat and mouse duo, dubbed Tom & Jerry. Their popularity in different comic books and on television continues today.

Example #4: Pickwick Papers (By Charles Dickens)
In Pickwick Papers, Charles Dickens has created his most endearing and enduring character, Mr. Samuel Pickwick, who is head of the Pickwick Club in London. He and his associates make a travelling society to visit different areas in England, to study the phenomena and peculiarities of life. The purpose is to do something good for others. Along the way, they encounter some shady and evil characters, like Mr. Jingle.

However, the novel ends happily, as Mr. Pickwick successfully understands the crisis in a family and reunites a married young couple with their relatives. Hence, the term "Pickwickian" is used commonly now, meaning generosity and simplicity, like Mr. Pickwick demonstrated.

There is another popular term from this book, which has made it into dictionaries: "Pickwickian sense. Merriam Webster defines it as something "intended or taken in a sense other than the obvious or literal one." This term derives from an incident that occurred between Mr. Blotton and Mr. Pickwick, who apparently abuse each other but, in fact, pay high regards.

Function of Eponym
Eponym is like an allusion that refers to a famous person. Therefore, it develops a link between a reference and the thing being referred to, and through this connection, readers are able to understand the idea easily. The scope of eponym is wide. It is everywhere, as we can easily find its frequent use in literature, politics, advertising, sciences, discoveries, music, films, medicines, and legal studies. Besides, eponyms give further meanings to the terms and increase readers' information by providing them reference of the names of famous persons from history.
Eristic is a derivative of the Greek word eris, which means "to create strife," or "to wrangle." It is defined as a literary device in which the writers and speakers engage in a heated argumentation without reaching a conclusion or solving a particular issue. Also, this device has been used as a manner of argumentation in classical texts, which are usually based on specious reasoning and poor conclusions. It is also known as "discordia."



Difference Between Eristic and Dialectic
According to Plato, there is a slight difference between eristic and dialectic. Dialecticians apply proper divisions and distinctions to the subject being argued, while eristics do not apply such distinctions, since they follow verbal oppositions.

Examples of Eristic in Literature


Example #1: Macbeth (By William Shakespeare)
Lady Macbeth:
"How now, my lord, why do you keep alone,
Of sorriest fancies your companions making,
Using those thoughts which should indeed have died
With them they think on? Things without all remedy
Should be without regard: what's done, is done ...

To bed, to bed! There's knocking at the gate:
come, come, come, come, give me your hand. What's
done cannot be undone.—To bed, to bed, to bed!"

Lady Macbeth uses eristic arguments in these lines. In her arguments with her husband, she states that what has been done is done and cannot be undone.

Example #2: Why I am Not a Christian (By Bertrand Russell)
"It is an easy argument to parody. You all know Voltaire's remark, that obviously the nose was designed to be such as to fit spectacles. That sort of parody has turned out to be not nearly so wide of the mark as it might have seemed in the eighteenth century, because since the time of Darwin we understand much better why living creatures are adapted to their environment ... but that they grew to be suitable to it, and that is the basis of adaptation. There is no evidence of design about it ..."

Russell explains why he does not believe in God, and his doubt over Jesus' existence. He argues ad absurdum, and aims at winning the argument.

Example #3: Of Truth (By Francis Bacon)


"... men's minds, vain opinions, flattering hopes, false valuations ... and the like ... it would leave the minds, of a number of men ... full of melancholy and indisposition, and unpleasing to themselves ..."

In the above passage, Bacon tries to give possible reasons why men prefer to tell lies than tell the truth. There are so many causes, and not a single or a particular cause can resolve this issue.

Example #4: Waiting for Godot (By Samuel Beckett)
POZZO:
"No no, he does well to ask. Do I need the bones? (He turns them over with the end of his whip.) No, personally I do not need them any more. (Estragon takes a step towards the bones.) But ... but in theory the bones go to the carrier ..."

ESTRAGON:
"Mister ... excuse me, Mister ..."

POZZO:
"You're being spoken to, pig! Reply! (To Estragon.) Try him again."

ESTRAGON:
"Excuse me, Mister, the bones, you won't be wanting the bones?"

POZZO:
Mister! (Lucky bows his head.) Reply! Do you want them or don't you? They're yours ... I don't like it. I've never known him to refuse a bone before ... Nice business it'd be if he fell sick on me!" (He puffs at his pipe.)

This is one of the great examples of eristic argument. The characters are discussing bones and their functions for human survival. All of them make different arguments, but find no solution in this discussion.

Function of Eristic
A close look at the above eristic examples would lead one to correctly to assume that the main purpose of eristic argumentation is to prolong a conflict, rather than resolve it. Though it was started by Sophists, it is now used in modern literary texts, speeches, and contentious topics of political debate. The purpose is to confuse the opponent. Hence, it is employed for the sake of conflict, and might involve comic effect and conspiracy theory. Besides, by searching eristic argumentation, critiques discover literary weaknesses. As a result, critics have a tendency to distort the writers' intentions. The aim is to win arguments, and a clear answer is often not provided.
Essay is derived from the French word essayer, which means "to attempt," or "to try." An essay is a short form of literary composition based on a single subject matter, and often gives the personal opinion of the author. A famous English essayist, Aldous Huxley defines essays as, "a literary device for saying almost everything about almost anything." The Oxford Dictionary describes it as "a short piece of writing on a particular subject." In simple words, we can define it as a scholarly work in writing that provides the author's personal argument.



Types of Essay
There are two forms of essay: literary and non-literary. Literary essays are of four types:

Expository Essay - In an expository essay, the writer gives an explanation of an idea, theme, or issue to the audience by giving his personal opinions. This essay is presented through examples, definitions, comparisons, and contrast.
Descriptive Essay - As it sounds, this type of essay gives a description about a particular topic, or describes the traits and characteristics of something or a person in detail. It allows artistic freedom, and creates images in the minds of readers through the use of the five senses.
Narrative Essay - Narrative essay is non-fiction, but describes a story with sensory descriptions. The writer not only tells a story, but also makes a point by giving reasons.
Persuasive Essay - In this type of essay, the writer tries to convince his readers to adopt his position or point of view on an issue, after he provides them solid reasoning in this connection. It requires a lot of research to claim and defend an idea. It is also called an argumentative essay.
Non-literary essays could also be of the same types but they could be written in any format.

Examples of Essay in Literature


Example #1: The Sacred Grove of Oshogbo (By Jeffrey Tayler)
"As I passed through the gates I heard a squeaky voice. A diminutive middle-aged man came out from behind the trees — the caretaker. He worked a toothbrush-sized stick around in his mouth, digging into the crevices between algae'd stubs of teeth. He was barefoot; he wore a blue batik shirt known as a buba, baggy purple trousers, and an embroidered skullcap. I asked him if he would show me around the shrine. Motioning me to follow, he spat out the results of his stick work and set off down the trail."

This is an example of a descriptive essay, as the author has used descriptive language to paint a dramatic picture for his readers of an encounter with a stranger.

Example #2: Of Love (By Francis Bacon)
"It is impossible to love, and be wise ... Love is a child of folly. ... Love is ever rewarded either with the reciprocal, or with an inward and secret contempt. You may observe that amongst all the great and worthy persons...there is not one that hath been transported to the mad degree of love: which shows that great spirits and great business do keep out this weak passion...That he had preferred Helena, quitted the gifts of Juno and Pallas. For whosoever esteemeth too much of amorous affection quitted both riches and wisdom."

In this excerpt, Bacon attempts to persuade readers that people who want to be successful in this world must never fall in love. By giving an example of famous people like Paris, who chose Helen as his beloved but lost his wealth and wisdom, the author attempts to convince the audience that they can lose their mental balance by falling in love.

Example #3: The Autobiography of a Kettle (By John Russell)


"I am afraid I do not attract attention, and yet there is not a single home in which I could done without. I am only a small, black kettle but I have much to interest me, for something new happens to me every day. The kitchen is not always a cheerful place in which to live, but still I find plenty of excitement there, and I am quite happy and contented with my lot ..."

In this example, the author is telling an autobiography of a kettle, and describes the whole story in chronological order. The author has described the kettle as a human being, and allows readers to feel, as he has felt.

Function of Essay
The function of an essay depends upon the subject matter, whether the writer wants to inform, persuade, explain, or entertain. In fact, the essay increases the analytical and intellectual abilities of the writer as well as readers. It evaluates and tests the writing skills of a writer, and organizes his or her thinking to respond personally or critically to an issue. Through an essay, a writer presents his argument in a more sophisticated manner. In addition, it encourages students to develop concepts and skills, such as analysis, comparison and contrast, clarity, exposition, conciseness, and persuasion.
In rhetoric, ethos represents credibility, or an ethical appeal, which involves persuasion by the character involved.



Origin of Ethos
The term has its roots in Aristotle's "ingredients of persuasion," or "appeals." He divides means of persuasion into three distinct categories: ethos, pathos, and logos. He says in his treatise On Rhetoric:

"Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. [...] Persuasion is achieved by the speaker's personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible."

It is a means of convincing others of the character or credibility of the persuader. It is natural for us to accept the credibility of people whom we hold in reverence.

In an argument, it is of utmost value for a speaker or a writer to impress upon listeners and readers the idea that is worth listening to. In other words, the credibility of a speaker or a writer relies on his or her authority on the subject matter, as well as on how much he or she is liked and deemed worthy of respect.

Ethos and Ad Hominem Argument


In an attempt to confirm his credibility, a writer or speaker will make use of a typical type of argument called an "ad hominem argument." It is an argument "against the man," which undermines the ethos of a speaker or a writer in opposition. It is a strategy in which a speaker or a writer attacks the character or personality of an opponent speaker or writer, rather than criticizing the matter of his or her point of view. Such an argument, however, is generally thought to be a logical fallacy. Nevertheless, it can prove to be exceptionally successful and is fairly common in politics.

Examples of Ethos in Literature
Classification of ethos may be based on its position, such as the following examples of ethos.

Example #1:
Choice of words can confirm ethos with customers:

"Our expertise in roofing contracting is evidenced, not only by our 100 years in the business and our staff of qualified technicians, but in the decades of satisfied customers who have come to expect nothing but the best.

The advertisers try to build up their credibility with their customers by repeatedly mentioning the experience they have in the field, and the technical expertise of their staff.

Example #2:
"Doctors all over the world recommend this type of treatment."

People tend to believe the opinions of doctors in the matter of medical treatments.

Example #3:


"John is a forensics and ballistics expert, working for the federal government for many years. If anyone's qualified to determine the murder weapon, it's him."

Here, John is put forth as the most qualified person to determine the murder weapon - based on his ethos in working for the federal government as a forensic and ballistics expert.

Example #4:
"If his years as a soldier taught him anything, it's that caution is the best policy in this sort of situation."

A soldier's opinion is more credible than an ordinary man's opinion in violent situations.

Example #5:
"My three decades of experience in public service, my tireless commitment to the people of this community, and my willingness to reach across the aisle and cooperate with the opposition, make me the ideal candidate for your mayor."

The public can easily be persuaded by giving them some knowledge about a candidate's past experience, past actions, and preferred policies.

Example #6:
Ethos examples in TV ads are not only expressed in words. For instance, in a commercial for toothpaste, an actor puts on a white lab coat and talks about how that particular toothpaste is good for teeth. By putting on a white lab coat, an actor looks like a doctor, and thus gains credibility as people consider a doctor's remarks to be more credible than an actor's.

Function of Ethos
The above explanations and examples of ethos reveal the following facts about this device:

Ethos confirms the credibility of a writer or a speaker, and thus they become trustworthy in the eyes of listeners and readers who, as a result are persuaded by the arguments.
Ethos of a speaker or a writer is created largely by the choice of words he or she chooses to convince listeners or readers.
Being an expert on the subject matter determines his or her ethos.
Known as homily, the term eulogy originates from the Greek word eulogia, which means "to praise" somebody or something. A eulogy is a literary device that is a laudatory expression in a speech, or a written tribute to a person recently deceased. We can say, it is a commendation or high praise intended to give honor, generally to a dead family member or loved one, or it is a tribute given to a dead person at his or her funeral.



Eulogies are also paid as tributes to living persons; for instance, one can dedicate it to his retired colleagues, bosses, or employees for winning respectable position and noble deeds. Hence, in general, it is a gesture of honoring somebody.

Difference Between Eulogy, Elegy and Obituary
These three terms are often confused due in their meanings. A eulogy and an elegy are similar because both are written for the dead. An elegy is a song or a poem with a lamenting tone that expresses loss of a family member or a loved one. A eulogy, by contrast, is a speech or written tribute to the deceased, or perhaps to a living person, and it is not necessarily in the form of a poem. However, an obituary is a completely different term than eulogy and elegy, as it is a published biography intended to recount the life of someone who recently died.

Examples of Eulogy in Literature


Example #1: On Mr. Wm. Shakespeare, he died in April 1616 (By William Basse)
"Renowned Spenser, lie a thought more nigh
To learned Chaucer, and rare Beaumont lie
A little nearer Spenser to make room
For Shakespeare in your threefold, fourfold tomb.
Betwixt this day and that by fate be slain...
Sleep rare tragedian Shakespeare, sleep alone,
That unto us and others it may be
Honor hereafter to be laid by thee."

Basse has dedicated this eulogy to William Shakespeare 25 years after his death. He suggests that his grave should have been next to Spenser, Chaucer, and Beaumont in Westminster Abbey.

Example #2: After Thought (By William Wordsworth)
"I thought of Thee, my partner and my guide,
As being past away.—Vain sympathies! ...

Still glides the Stream, and shall for ever glide;
The Form remains, the Function never dies;
While we, the brave, the mighty, and the wise,
We Men, who in our morn of youth defied
The elements, must vanish;—be it so! ..."
Through love, through hope, and faith's transcendent dower,
We feel that we are greater than we know."

Wordsworth has written this eulogy in honor of his close friend. The speaker is recalling his deceased friend's memories in that, though he is physically no more with him, his noble deeds will never die.

Example #3: O Captain, O Captain (By Walt Whitman)


"O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done,
The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is won,
The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring;
But O heart! heart! heart! ..."

In this poem, Whitman pays tribute to American president Abraham Lincoln, whom many Americans recognize as a hero. The speaker calls him a captain, and then calls "dear father!" He pays high regards to his captain for making the mission successful, and for the services he has done for his country:

"From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes in with object won."

Example #4: A Farewell (By Alfred Lord Tennyson)
"A thousand suns will stream on thee
A thousand moons will quiver;
But not by thee my steps shall be
Forever and forever."

Alfred Lord Tennyson's poem A Farewell is also a eulogy in which the poet himself says goodbye to nature. He describes this fact beautifully, that death is inevitable and nobody can escape it. He says goodbye to trees, seas, and rivers and to other elements of nature because he will die and will be forgotten, except his good deeds. But nature will remain the same forever.

Function of Eulogy
Eulogies are written or spoken memorials that help recall happy and good memories of dead loved ones. In literary works, eulogies can make the deceased appear more real and good to all those people who have not seen or known them. Many writers and poets have written eulogies in the honor of famous literary figures. Another function of eulogy is to keep the memories of dead ones alive. As we have learned from the above-mentioned examples, the nature of a eulogy is optimistic, it is intended to boost the morale of the depressed family.
The term euphemism refers to polite, indirect expressions that replace words and phrases considered harsh and impolite, or which suggest something unpleasant. Euphemism is an idiomatic expression, which loses its literal meanings and refers to something else, in order to hide its unpleasantness. For example, "kick the bucket" is a euphemism that describes the death of a person. In addition, many organizations use the term "downsizing" for the distressing act of "firing" its employees.



Euphemism depends largely on the social context of the speakers and writers, where they feel the need to replace certain words that may prove embarrassing for particular listeners or readers in a particular situation.

Techniques for Creating Euphemism
Euphemism masks a rude or impolite expression, but conveys the concept clearly and politely. Several techniques are employed to create euphemism.

It may be in the form of abbreviations, such as O. (body odor), and W.C. (toilet).
Foreign words may be used to replace an impolite expression, such as faux (fake), or faux pas (foolish error).
Sometimes, they are abstractions, such as before I go (before I die).
They may also be indirect expressions replacing direct ones that may sound offensive, such as rear-end (one's back side or buttocks), unmentionables (underwear or lingerie).
Using longer words or phrases can also mask unpleasant words, such as flatulence (farting), perspiration (sweat), or mentally challenged (stupid).
Using technical terms may reduce the rudeness exhibited by certain words, such as gluteus maximus (backside, butt, or buttocks).
Deliberately mispronouncing an offensive word may reduce its severity, such as darn (damn), and shoot (shit).
Euphemism Examples in Everyday Life


Euphemism is frequently used in everyday life. Let us look at some common euphemism examples:

You are becoming a little thin on top (bald).
Our teacher is in the family way (pregnant).
He is a little tipsy (drunk).
We do not hire mentally challenged (stupid) people.
He is a special child (disabled or learning challenged).
Examples of Euphemism in Literature
Example #1: Othello (By William Shakespeare)
Examples of euphemism referring to sex are found in William Shakespeare's Othello. In Act 1, Scene 1, Iago tells Brabantio:

"I am one, sir, that comes to tell you your daughter and the Moor are now making the beast with two backs."

Here, the expression "making the beast with two backs" refers to the act of having sex.

Example #2: Antony and Cleopatra (By William Shakespeare)
Similarly, we notice Shakespeare using euphemism for sexual intercourse in his play Antony and Cleopatra." In Act 2, Scene 2, Agrippa says about Cleopatra:

"Royal wench!
She made great Caesar lay his sword to bed.
He plowed her, and she cropped."

The word "plowed" refers to the act of sexual intercourse, and the word "cropped" is a euphemism for becoming pregnant.

Example #3: The Flea (By John Donne)


John Donne, in his poem The Flea, employs euphemism. He says:

"Mark but this flea, and mark in this,
How little that which thou denies me is;
It suck'd me first, and now sucks thee,
And in this flea our two bloods mingled be.
Thou know'st that this cannot be said
A sin, nor shame, nor loss of maidenhead;
Yet this enjoys before it woo,
And pamper'd swells with one blood made of two;
And this, alas! is more than we would do."

In order to persuade his beloved to sleep with him, the speaker in the poem tells her how a flea bit both of them and their blood got mixed in it. This is a euphemism.

Example #4: Animal Farm (By George Orwell)
The Squealer, a character in George Orwell's Animal Farm, uses euphemisms to help the pigs achieve their political ends. To announce the reduction of food to the animals of the farm, he says:

"For the time being," he explains, "it had been found necessary to make a readjustment of rations."

Substituting the word "reduction" for "readjustment" was an attempt to suppress the complaints of other animals about hunger. It works because reduction means "cutting" the food supply, while readjustment implies changing the current amount of food.

Function of Euphemism
Euphemism helps writers convey those ideas that have become a social taboo, and are too embarrassing to mention directly. Writers skillfully choose appropriate words to refer to and discuss a subject indirectly that otherwise might not published due to strict social censorship, such as for reasons of religious fanaticism, political theories, sexuality, and death. Thus, euphemism is a useful tool that allows writers to write figuratively about the difficult issues.
The literary device euphony is derived from the Greek word euphonos, which means "sweet-voiced." It can be defined as the use of words and phrases that are distinguished as having a wide range of noteworthy melody or loveliness in the sounds they create. It gives pleasing and soothing effects to the ear due to repeated vowels and smooth consonants. It can be used with other literary devices like alliteration, assonance and rhyme to create more melodic effects. Examples of euphony are commonly found in poetry and literary prose.



Features of Euphony
All euphony examples share the following features:

Euphony involves the use of long vowel sounds, which are more melodious than consonants.
Euphony involves the use of harmonious consonants, such as l, m, n, r, and soft f and v sounds.
Euphony uses soft consonants or semi-vowels, including w, s, y, and th or wh, extensively to create more pleasant sounds.
Examples of Euphony in Literature


Example #1: Ode to Autumn (By John Keats)
"Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,
Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;
Conspiring with him how to load and bless
With fruit the vines that round the thatch -eves run;
To bend with apples the moss'd cottage-trees,
And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core;
To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells
With a sweet kernel; to set budding more,
And still more, later flowers for the bees..."

There are many different words and phrases that can create euphony. However, in the given piece, Keats has used euphony in the whole poem, which gives soothing and pleasing effects. Long vowel sounds like mellow, maturing, load, ripeness, and semi-vowel sounds, like s and w, are exquisitely used.

Example #2: Success (By Emily Dickinson)
"Success is counted sweetest
By those who ne'er succeed.
To comprehend a nectar
Requires sorest need. Not one of all the purple host
Who took the flag to-day
Can tell the definition,
So clear, of victory,

As he, defeated, dying,
On whose forbidden ear
The distant strains of triumph
Break, agonized and clear!"

In this poem, Emily Dickinson has used soft and harmonious consonants to create euphony. For example, s, v, and f sounds run throughout the poem. Such words are melodic in nature, hence they produce pleasing sounds.

Example #3: The Lotos-Eaters (By Alfred Lord Tennyson)


"'Courage!' he said, and pointed toward the land,
'This mounting wave will roll us shoreward soon.'
In the afternoon they came unto a land
In which it seemed always afternoon.
All round the coast the languid air did swoon,
Breathing like one that hath a weary dream.
Full-faced above the valley stood the moon;
And like a downward smoke, the slender stream
Along the cliff to fall and pause and fall did seem."

Tennyson is famous for using euphony in most of his poems. He uses long vowels and semi-vowels of soft consonants. The long vowels, such as mounting, soon, languid and slender whereas soft vowels include l, s, f and w sounds that are giving sense of pleasantness.

Example #4: Macbeth (By William Shakespeare)
"...Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day
To the last syllable of recorded time,
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools
The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!
Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player
That struts and frets his hour upon the stage
And then is heard no more. It is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,
Signifying nothing."

The language of Shakespeare is a great example of euphony. He has used pleasant, harmonious, and musical sounds in the above excerpt from Macbeth. Here, the euphonic words are shown in bold.

Function of Euphony
The purpose of using euphony is to bring about peaceful and pleasant feelings in a piece of literary work. The readers enjoy reading such pieces of literature or poems. The long vowels create more melodious effect than short vowels and consonants, making the sounds harmonious and soothing. In addition, pronunciation and enunciation become agreeable and easy. Furthermore, euphony is used in poetry and speeches to convey messages effectively to the audience and the readers.
Evidence is a type of literary device that appears in different categories of essays and theses, in the form of paraphrase and quotations. It is presented to persuade readers, and used with powerful arguments in the texts or essays.



It is factual information that helps the reader reach a conclusion and form an opinion about something. Evidence is given in research work, or is quoted in essays and thesis statements, but is paraphrased by the writer. If it is given as it is, then it is quoted properly within quotation marks.

In rhetoric, when a person makes a claim or presents an argument, he needs to present evidence in support of his claim or argument, in order to establish the veracity of his statements. If there is no evidence, the claim stands quashed. The same is true with a case in law, where a case or litigation is quashed if there is no evidence to support the claim. However, literary evidence is only used in literature, essays, and research papers for persuasion and convincing purposes.

Examples of Evidence in Literature
Example #1: The Bluest Eye (By Tony Morrison)
"I talk about how I did not plant the seeds too deeply, how it was the fault of the earth, our land, our town. I even think now that the land of the entire country was hostile to marigolds that year. This soil is bad for certain kinds of flowers. Certain seeds it will not nurture, certain fruit it will not bear, and when the land kills of its own volition, we acquiesce and say the victim had no right to live."

Morrison evidently analyzes the environment, as it has powerful effects on people. She provides strong evidence that that the Earth itself is not fertile for the marigold seeds. Likewise, people also cannot survive in an unfriendly environment.

Example #2: The Color of Water Juliet (By James McBride)
" '...while she weebled and wobbled and leaned, she did not fall. She responded with speed and motion. She would not stop moving.' As she biked, walked, rode the bus all over the city, 'she kept moving as if her life depended on it, which in some ways it did. She ran, as she had done most of her life, but this time she was running for her own sanity.' "

McBride supports his arguments and understanding of a mother as an individual who keeps moving in her life and does not stop to think about what is happening and why something is happening. Since the movement offers a solution, which though temporary, preserves her sanity.

Example #3: Educational Paragraph (By Anonymous)


An effective use of evidence in a quotation:

"Today, Americans are too self-centered. Even our families don't matter as much anymore as they once did. Other people and activities take precedence. In fact, the evidence shows that most American families no longer eat together, preferring instead to eat on the go while rushing to the next appointment (Gleick 148). Sit-down meals are time to share and connect with others; however, that connection has become less valued, as families begin to prize individual activities over shared time, promoting self-centeredness over group identity."

This is a best example of evidence, since the evidence is effectively incorporated into the text, as the author makes the link between her claim (question) and the evidence (logic), which is powerful.

Function of Evidence


When writing something about literature, or writing about a particular text, a writer needs to strengthen his discussion by providing powerful answers from the text as evidence of the questions he raises. It is not enough to just simply drop in quotations around the text and expect their relevance and importance of his arguments to be self-evident.

The fact is that simply making a claim and making an argument does nothing to convince the audience. The audience will only believe what the writer or the speaker has to say if he proffers strong evidence to back up his arguments. Therefore, evidence not only helps the writer convince his readers, but also persuades them to feel sympathy, or to support his argument. Mostly political speakers, research writers, and editorial writers use evidence extensively to turn public opinion for or against some issue.
Exact rhyme is a poetic device used to repeat the same stressed vowel sounds as well as consonant sounds that follow the vowel. It is used in poems and texts to create musical and pointed effects. Hence, the writers intentionally stress some syllables to emphasize some sounds that appeal to the readers. In this way, a powerful rhythm is created and makes the text enjoyable giving it a unique flow.



Examples of Exact Rhyme from Literature
Example #1
Song of the Witches From Macbeth by William Shakespeare

Double, double toil and trouble;
Fire burn and caldron bubble.
Fillet of a fenny snake,
In the caldron boil and bake;
Eye of newt and toe of frog,
Wool of bat and tongue of dog,
Adder's fork and blind-worm's sting,
Lizard's leg and howlet's wing,

Macbeth is one of the most popular compositions in English literature. The song is sung by three witches who are casting a spell on Macbeth. The whole text revolves around their foul play and prophecies. However, Shakespeare has used exact rhyme in the poem to make it appealing to the readers. In the words such as, "Trouble/bubble" and "snake/ bake," one can quickly identify the stressed consonant and vowels sounds at the end of each verse such as the use of /d/ and /b/ sounds in the very first line and again /b/ sound in the second line.

Example #2
Little Bo-Peep by Mother Goose

Little Bo-Peep has lost her sheep,
And can't tell where to find them;
Leave them alone, and they'll come home,
Bringing their tails behind them.

Little Bo-Peep fell fast asleep,
And dreamt she heard them bleating;
But when she awoke, she found it a joke,
For they were still all fleeting.

Then up she took her little crook,
Determined for to find them;
She found them indeed, but it made her heart bleed,
For they'd left their tails behind them.

Little Bo-Peep, a famous nursery rhyme, comprises the agony and guilt of a young girl who loses her flock of sheep and never meets them again. She finds the tails of her sheep hanging from a tree. This heart-wrenching incident snatches all her joys and leaves her mourning for her beloved flock. There are many examples of exact rhyme in this poem such as 'Bleating/fleeting', 'should/could' and 'peep/sleep'. It is due to the exact rhyme the poet has given a soft and a lyrical touch to the poem. The use of /b/ and /t/ sounds in the first and then last lines also show the use of consonant sounds to create musical quality.

Example #3


How Do I Love Thee? Let me count the ways by Elizabeth Barrett Browning

How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.
I love thee to the depth and breadth and height
My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight
For the ends of being and ideal grace.
I love thee to the level of every day's
Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light.
I love thee freely, as men strive for right;
I love thee purely, as they turn from praise.

The poem deals with the subject of love and affection. The poet counts how she expresses her love for her beloved. She describes the depth of her love and explains how her love will eventually get better and stronger with time. Also, she believes that the power of love will not vanish but will grow deeper after their death. Elizabeth has used exact rhyme in this poem to give her poetry a more conventional format. For example, "height/right", "light/right" and "ways/days" where the use of vowel sounds is very much prominent and add musical quality to all the lines.

Example #4


Hush little baby, don't say a word by Mother Goose

Hush little baby, don't say a word,
Papa's gonna buy you a mockingbird.

And if that mockingbird won't sing,
Papa's gonna buy you a diamond ring.

And if that diamond ring turns to brass,
Papa's gonna buy you a looking glass.

And if that looking glass gets broke,
Papa's gonna buy you a billy goat.

And if that billy goat won't pull,
Papa's gonna buy you a cart and bull.

This famous poem is also a lullaby. It deals with love and attachment of the parents with their children. It is written from the perspective of a mother who tries to console her child and promises that his/her daddy will buy a lot of presents. However, the use of exact rhyme in the text makes it appealing and enjoyable. Also, it allows easy memorization and creates a soothing and musical sound effect when reading out loud.

Functions of Exact Rhyme
Exact rhyme works as a tool that allows the writers to connect certain words in the poem. Its appropriate use gives uniqueness to the text. This conventional style of poetry is widely exercised in children's literature to make learning fun for them. It also acts as a mnemonic device that can quicken up the memorization process. Additionally, the repetition of the identical sounds strengthens the importance of the ideas presented.
We all exaggerate. Sometimes by spicing up stories to make them more fun, or simply to highlight our points. Exaggeration is a statement that makes something worse, or better, than it really is. In literature and oral communication, writers and speakers use exaggeration as a literary technique, to give extra stress and drama in a work or speech.



Everyday Examples of Exaggeration
This bicycle is a thousand years old.
He snores louder than a cargo train.
My dog only has cat friends.
He is drowning in his tears.
His brain is the size of a pea.
Types of Exaggeration


Overstatement
It is a statement that slightly exaggerates something to convey the meaning. Cole Porter's poem You're the Top provides a good example:

"You're the Nile,
You're the Tower of Pisa,
You're the smile
Of the Mona Lisa..."

Here, the poet overstates the actual truth and calls his beloved the river Nile, and the tower of Pisa. He also says that her smile like that of the Mona Lisa.

Hyperbole
Hyperbole is an extreme, extravagant, and impossible exaggeration, such as when Flannery O'Connor writes in his essay, Parker's Back:

"And the skin on her face was thin and drawn tight like the skin on an onion and her eyes were gray and sharp like the points of two ice picks."

Examples of Exaggeration in Literature
Example #1: A Modest Proposal (By Jonathan Swift)


Jonathan Swift has been notorious for employing exaggeration in his writings, to provide social and political commentary. Through his peculiar story, A Modest Proposal, Swift elevates the politics of society to an extent of barefaced absurdity. In this essay, Swift exaggerates by suggesting that the only way to save Ireland from poverty and overpopulation is to kill the children of the poor families. He further suggests that their meat would serve as a delicacy for the nobles of Ireland. He continues to exaggerate, considering ways and recipes to make their skin into handbags and gloves by saying:

"Those who are more thrifty may flay the carcass, the skin of which, artificially dressed, will make admirable gloves for ladies and summer boots for fine gentleman."

In fact, Swift exaggerates tenaciously this idea because the people of Ireland have failed to find a logical solution to reduce poverty and overpopulation.

Example #2: Candida (By Voltaire)
"I have wanted to kill myself a hundred times, but somehow I am still in love with life. This ridiculous weakness is perhaps one of our more stupid melancholy propensities, for is there anything more stupid than to be eager to go on carrying a burden which one would gladly throw away, to loathe one's very being and yet to hold it fast, to fondle the snake that devours us until it has eaten our hearts away?"

In this example, an old woman tells her story - how she faced hard times, exaggerating that she wanted to kill herself a hundred times, calling herself a burden.

Example #3: Song (By John Donne)
"Go and catch a falling star,
Get with child a mandrake root,
Tell me where all past years are,
Or who cleft the devil's foot,
Teach me to hear mermaids singing,
Or to keep off envy's stinging,
And find
What wind
Serves to advance an honest mind.

If thou be'st born to strange sights,
Things invisible to see,
Ride ten thousand days and nights,
Till age snow white hairs on thee,
Thou, when thou return'st, wilt tell me,
All strange wonders that befell thee,
And swear,
No where
Lives a woman true, and fair..."

John Donne uses exaggerated expressions in this poem. The first line of this poem, "Go and catch a falling star," employs an impossible undertaking. In the remaining stanzas, the poet urges readers to undertake more unachievable tasks, by using extreme exaggeration. These include finding a mandrake root - a mythical root in medieval lore, and hearing mermaids' songs.

In the second stanza, Donne suggests taking a journey of "ten thousand days and nights," to find a faithful woman. In fact, the entire poem is rich with exaggeratedly doubtful tasks.

Example #4: To His Coy Mistress (By Andrew Marvell)
"An hundred years should go to praise
Thine eyes and on thy forehead gaze;
Two hundred to adore each breast;
But thirty thousand to the rest."

Andrew Marvell has employed exceptional exaggeration in this excerpt to praise his beloved. His purpose of using this literary device is to lay emphasis on his point, rather than deception.

Function of Exaggeration
The function of any type of exaggeration, whether it is overstatement or hyperbole, is to lay emphasis and stress on the given idea, action, feature, or feeling by overstating it. Through exaggeration, writers describe an action or a feature in a remarkable and heightened manner. Sometimes, they also use it sarcastically and ironically to bring humor to their works. In poetry, on the other hand, poets use it by adding images, similes and metaphors.
Exemplum is a rhetorical device that is defined as a short tale, narrative, or anecdote used in literary pieces and speeches to explain a doctrine, or emphasize a moral point. They are generally in the forms of legends, folktales, and fables.



An exemplum clarifies and proves a point. The best examples of exemplum are found in stories of medieval times, such as The Two City Dwellers and the Country Man, The King and His Wife, and The Cursed Dancers of Colbeck.

Characteristics of Exemplum
The plural form of exemplum, also called "exemplification," is "exempla." Its subject matters are usually based on folktales, legends, fables, and real life history; in which a moral point is raised by emphasizing the good or bad characteristics of a character. The moral teaching in exemplum comes at the beginning, while a parable will have it at the end.

Types of Exemplum


Aristotle has divided exemplum into two categories:

Real Exemplum - This is from mythology or actual history.
Fictional Exemplum - These are from invented facts expressed in the form of parables, fables, and brief comparisons.
Examples of Exemplum in Literature
Example #1: The Canterbury Tales (By Geoffrey Chaucer)
"A FRERE ther was, a wantown and a merye,
A limitour, a ful solempne man.
In alle the ordres foure is noon that can
So muche of daliaunce and fair langage.
He hadde maad ful many a mariage
Of yonge wommen, at his owne cost ...
As doon the sterres in the frosty night.
This worthy limitour was cleped Huberd."

This story is a direct attack on the corruption in the Catholic Church during the 14th century in Europe. Two of the characters, "The Summoner" and "The Friar," are criticized severely because of their evil acts and their greed. The exemplum is those who engage themselves in greed and extortion will be thrown into hell.

Example #2: Democracy (By Joan Didion)
"In Flaundres whylom was a companye
Of yonge folk, that haunteden folye,
As ryot, hasard, stewes, and tavernes,
Wher-as, with harpes, lutes, and giternes ...

O cursed sinne, ful of cursednesse!
Thou blasphemour of Crist with vileinye
And with his precious herte-blood thee boghte,
Thou art so fals and so unkinde, allas!"

This is the Pardoners Tale from Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. It is among the exemplum examples that talk about how greed can destroy everything, and that it is the cause of all evil. In this story, nobody got to claim the most coveted treasure, since the characters involved ended up killing each other.

Example #3: Parallel Lives (By Plutarch)


"It being my purpose to write the lives of Alexander the king, and of Cesar, by whom Pompey was destroyed, the multitude of their great actions affords so large a field that I were to blame ... When once Alexander had given way to fears of super natural influence, his mind grew so disturbed and so easily alarmed ... But a diseased habit of body, caused by drugs which Olympias gave him, had ruined not only his health, but his understanding."

The excerpt is about an exemplum of the legendary Alexander the Great. The moral point of this narrative is that an individual can change a person's, as well as a whole nation's, destiny. Plutarch shows how, in history, characters like Alexander the Great have shaped the destinies of states and individuals.

Example #4: The Legend of Cleopatra (By Geoffrey Chaucer)
"After the death of Ptolemy the king,
Who of all Egypt had the governing,
There reigned his queen, Cleopatra;
And, truth to tell, Antonius was his name ...
Now, where to find a man as reliable,
Who will for love his death so freely take,
I pray God may never our heads so ache!"

This story is about Cleopatra, and how many wicked men betrayed her.

Function of Exemplum
Exemplum is one of the most widely used rhetorical devices in written works and oratory. Initially, it was employed by preachers in Christian homiletic writings, and stories in their sermons to guide audiences. Preachers used historical figures as good and bad examples in order to encourage listeners to do good deeds and avoid committing sin. Moreover, it is used as a basic method of argument and employed in everyday life.
Existentialism is a philosophy that focuses on the existence of mankind. It deals with their efforts of finding a way in this hostile universe. The writers apply existentialist philosophy in their texts to underpin the efforts of dejected, tormented and alienated humans, how they find themselves facing certain choices in the world. It is based on the concept that humans should choose their paths of life independently, and, try to make rational decisions in the irrational universe. In this sense, it liberates them from the clutches of moral values, social norms, and religious beliefs. Several literary pieces of the modern age demonstrate this philosophy in one or the other way. Etymologically, the word existence is derived from the Latin word "existere" which means "to stand out."



Existentialism Examples from Literature
Example #1
Why you? Why us for that matter? Why anything? Because this moment simply is. Have you ever seen bugs trapped in amber? Well, here we are, Mr. Pilgrim, trapped in the amber of this moment. There is no why."

(Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut, Chapter 4)

This quote is taken from chapter four of Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut. Billy is trapped by the strange creatures, Tralfamadorians and, is kept in a zoo at their planet, Tralfamadore. When Billy asks them why did they choose him, he does not get a satisfactory answer. As a Tralfamadorian state, there is no reason why Billy is chosen. There is no meaning and philosophy behind it. It is his fate that has dragged him into this situation. Billy's curiosity shows that humans beings, as a whole, tend to find greater meaning if anything happens. However, most of the times things happen in life without any reason. This quote proves existentialism as Billy is trying to figure out the purpose of his existence in an unknown planet.

Example #2
"Vladimir: Let's wait and see what he says.
Estragon: Who?
Vladimir: Godot.
Estragon: Good idea.
Vladimir: Let's wait till we know exactly how we stand.
Estragon: On the other hand, it might be bettering to strike the iron before it freezes."

(Waiting for Godot by Samuel Becket, Act I)

These lines occur in a play, Waiting for Godot written by Samuel Becket. Two Characters, Estragon and Vladimir, are waiting for Godot. Here Vladimir seems to be spiritual and religious about the arrival of Godot to come and direct them. However, Estragon suggests that they should not wait and move on. The writer uses the metaphor of "freezing," implying human beings do not have time to wait for their spiritual guidance to come and enlighten their souls. Instead, they should avail the chance in hand and make decisions without depending upon someone. Thus, the philosophy of existentialism shines in the suggestion of Estragon who is of the view that they should take their own path before it is too late.

Example #3


She said, "If you go slowly, you risk getting sunstroke. But if you go too fast, you work up a sweat and then catch a chill inside the church." She was right. There was no way out."

(Albert Camus, The Stranger)

A character, the nurse, speaks these words when addressing Meursault during the funeral procession. The nurse puts Meursault in a serious dilemma. Meursault's words that there is really no way out points to the frustration he is going through. He realizes that he is forced or condemned to choose one or the other options and that there is no escape. This is entirely an absurd situation that points to the existential situation.

Example #4
"As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams he found himself transformed in his bed into a gigantic insect."

(Franz Kafka, The Metamorphosis)

These are the opening lines of The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka. The protagonist, Gregor wakes up in the morning and finds himself transformed into a gigantic bug. The quote suggests that the transformation of Gregor was just an ordinary event, implying that the world around Gregor was inheritably purposeless, rather than rational so these type of incidents are considered normal. These lines exemplify the idea of existentialism that Gregor is living in an irrational, chaotic and meaningless world, where his miserable plight drags him into an existentialist crisis.

Existentialism Meaning and Functions


Existentialist philosophy serves as a pause for the audience. It gives them a chance to think and ponder upon the nature of their existence. It also gives them a chance to see things from a different perspective. Although it seems illogical to the people belonging to different schools of thoughts, it offers them a new dimension to magnify their existence to see its significance. However, by liberating humans from the chains of religion and moral belief system, it empowers them to make their own choices. Also, it proves a moment of action for the characters.
Expletive is a grammatical construction that starts with words like it, here, and there. This rhetorical device usually interrupts normal speech and lays emphasis on certain words. It originates from the Latin word explore, which means "to fill." It plays a syntactic role, but does not contribute to the meaning of a sentence or line. It is also known as empty words, such as in this sentence, "There are some guests waiting for you," in which there are is an expletive phrase.



Common Use of Expletive
There are seven chairs around that dining table.
It is the director of a company, who maintains the discipline.
There's a time bomb hidden in the conference hall.
It is extreme bliss that has Samuel reaching for another cup of tea.
Examples of Expletive in Literature


Example #1: Pride & Prejudice (By Jane Austen)
"It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife."

See, the use of it is was not necessary at the beginning of the sentence, however, it emphasizes the overall impact of this sentence. You can see the expletive words in italics.

Example #2: The Nightingale and the Rose (By Oscar Wilde)
"'Here indeed is the true lover,' said the Nightingale. 'What I sing of, he suffers - what is joy to me, to him is pain. Surely Love is a wonderful thing. It is more precious than emeralds, and dearer than fine opals. Pearls and pomegranates cannot buy it, nor is it set forth in the marketplace. It may not be purchased of the merchants, nor can it be weighed out in the balance for gold.'"

Look in this excerpt where Oscar Wilde has used the expletive word here, and the phrase it is at the beginning of their respective sentences.

Example #3: A Tale of Two Cities (By Charles Dickens)


"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness ... There were a king with a large jaw and a queen with a plain face, on the throne of England ... It was the year of Our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five. Spiritual revelations were conceded to England at that favoured period, as at this."

Dickens recurrently used expletive phrases, it was, and there were, in the introduction of his famous novel A Tale of Two Cities. Though these phrases have no semantic purpose to serve, they allow him to express the importance of the ideas, with emphasis on each one.

Example #4: Jane Eyre (By Charlotte Bronte)
"There was no possibility of taking a walk that day. We had been
wandering, indeed, in the leafless shrubbery an hour in the morning ...

'... It is well I drew the curtain,' thought I; and I wished fervently he might not discover my hiding-place."

Again, in this example, look carefully at the italicized phrase, there was, at the opening of this extract. The use of this phrase draws the readers' attention, to the emphasis and absence of it on other words.

Example #5: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (By S. T. Coleridge)
"There passed a weary time. Each throat
Was parched, and glazed each eye."

In this case, Coleridge uses the expletive word there, to highlight the idea of weary time, and allows readers to focus on it, and the subject follows the verb, rather than preceding the verb.

Example #6: La Belle Dame sans Merci (By John Keats)
"There are four seasons in the mind of man:
He has his lusty Spring, when fancy clear
Takes in all beauty with an easy span..."

Here, the use of the expletive phrase there are, makes readers notice an object—the spring season.

Function of Expletive
An expletive word acts as an operator that allows writers to manipulate their sentences in many ways. We see its usage in novels, poetry, prose, journalism, advertisement, and many other forms of communication. Expletives also serve as filler words through which writers shift other words to different places for emphasis. Hence, they serve a purpose. However, if you use expletives recurrently in a text, they will weaken the quality of the writing. Another purpose in using this construction is to help writers express something in a different way than a straight and simple recitation would do.
Explication is a literary technique in criticism and research, used for a close analysis of an excerpt or text taken from a lengthy piece of work. It originates from the French word, "explication de texte," meaning explanation of a text. It is neither a summary, nor a rewording, nor a paraphrase, but a commentary that reveals the meanings of a literary work. It usually tells about figures of speech, tone, setting, connotations, points of view, themes, contrasts, and anything else that could add to the meaning of a text.



Example #1: The Scarlet Letter (by Nathaniel Hawthorne)
Nathaniel Hawthorne opens his novel, The Scarlet Letter, with a paragraph that depicts a crowd assembled in front of a prison door. The people are waiting for Hester Prynne to show up with her scarlet letter "A." The author describes the crowd as a "throng," suggesting a mob-like and densely packed group. The mood is not pleasant, but somber - displayed by their "sad-colored" garments, hoods, and gray hats.

Another interesting description about the men's hats is that they were "steeple-crowned," which suggests that the people of the town are associated with the church that had punished Hester. The author's description of women as "intermixed" with men, alludes to the people in town lacking individuality. The use of passive voice "was assembled" further implies lack of individuality.

Example #2: Traveling Through the Dark (by William Stafford)
In the opening stanza of his blank verse poem "Traveling through the Dark," William Stafford ponders over the connection between the nature and technology, without giving any judgment. However, inviting the readers to think carefully about what would be the consequences of such a world human beings are creating. This stanza sets tone and setting of the scene. The tone is direct, simple and conversational as it is always in telling a story.

In the first and the second lines, the speaker describes how he comes across a dead deer at night while driving. In the third and fourth lines, the speaker describes setting by telling about the narrow road along with a running river nearby. He suggests how to get rid of its dead body from narrow road by pushing it into the canyon. The poet introduces the metaphor of the journey by comparing the road with life and journey. We also get a lot about the speaker who is not going for the first time on the dark country road.

Example #3: A Tale of Cities (by Charles Dickens)


In his very first paragraph of A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens demonstrates both similarity and contrast existed between the two countries, England and France during the French Revolution. This passage presents an image of chaos and turmoil, which ensue due to a clash between extreme ideas between the two different countries and their people.

The tone of this story is both chaotic and melancholic, presenting a theme of duality. In fact, Dickens has used paradoxes to establish the plot and theme of this novel. The rich were enjoying lives of abundance, while, on the other hand, the poor were suffering from deprivation. In England, there was a lack of security, and in France, the clergymen practiced inhuman activities against the masses. In other words, this passage emphasizes the issue of juxtaposition of these two countries, and sets up the basis for upcoming events in the novel.

Example #4: The Road Not Taken (by Robert Frost)
In the final stanza of his poem The Road Not Taken, Frost talks about his dilemma of coming upon two diverging paths, and not knowing which one to choose. The third line is very important, as it delivers an idea of choosing between the two divergent paths.

The tone in this stanza shifts from regretful to optimistic. The two roads symbolically represent individual choices. The mood is neither depressed nor unhappy, but the poet sighs because he knows what the complexities our life may have for him. Whether he has chosen a right or a wrong path, it has a compelling impact on his life. The phrase "less traveled" suggests the theme of individualism.

Function
Explication not only illuminates a piece of literature, but also serves to remind the readers about its historical setting and formal properties of style and language. It does not give deeper level meanings, but explores an explicit view of a piece of writing. In fact, it brings clarity to certain meanings of a work. It is also very helpful for the students to evaluate the books and articles they read during their academic career.
"Explication" means to explain the work of an item of literature. An explication, or "explicatory" essay is used to explain and interpret a piece of literature such as a poem, a play, a novel, or a short story. It often examines sentences, verses, or passages extracted from longer literary works. Like all other types of essays, however, it also needs a clear thesis around which body parts focus, ending on a conclusion. The text is cited at different places to support the main claim and move the argument forward.



Difference Between an Explicatory Essay and a Critical Essay
A critical essay is also a literary type of essay. It discusses only the piece's literary merits and demerits, by comparing it with other literary pieces. An explicatory essay, on the other hand, discusses the full structure of the literary piece.

Examples of Explicatory Essay in Literature


Example #1: A Poetry of Proximity (By Solmaz Sharif)
"Language, of course, is constantly being redefined, not just by demagogues, but by people who employ it. Language is we realized. Each word has passed mouth by mouth over the centuries, changed by intonation and accent, changed by wit and utility. Those before us decided that a certain thing—an amaranth, a colander—needs naming. Naming, as Emerson argues, is a poet's undertaking. It is not happenstance that the poet's job is the job of language itself—to reach beyond the impossible chasm of two minds, of multiple times, and make known the inner things. And language, like the other democratic things—freedom of assembly, habeas corpus—is among first casualties of war. The maiming and obliteration of language preempts and attempts to excuse the maiming and obliteration of bodies. Poets, as the caretakers of language, if by no other contested purpose of poetry—to humanize, to emote, to demand a 'total reaction' as Muriel Rukeyser puts it—are called upon to respond, to defend their medium."

This is the best example of an explication of poetry. Solmaz Sharif has given a review of the what is proximity in poetry and how proximity of poetry helps poets to humanize feelings.

Example #2: The Well Wrought Urn (by Cleanth Brooks)
"T. S. Eliot, for example, says that 'this line ["Beauty is truth," etc.] strikes me as a serious blemish on a beautiful poem; and the reason must be either that I fail to understand it, or that it is a statement which is untrue.' But even for persons who feel that they do understand it, the line may still constitute a blemish. Middleton Murry, who, after a discussion of Keats's other poems and his letters, feels that he knows what Keats meant by 'beauty' and what he meant by 'truth,' and that Keats used them in senses which allowed them to be properly bracketed together, still, is forced to conclude: 'My own opinion concerning the value of these two lines in the context of the poem itself is not very different from Mr. T. S. Eliot's.' The troubling assertion is apparently an intrusion upon the poem-does not grow out of it-is not dramatically accommodated to it."

This is another example of explication of Ode to Urn by John Keats. Cleanth Brooks has reviewed the poem and the role of Urn it along with Eliot's thought about Keats' poetry.

Example #3: Metaphysical Poets (by T. S. Eliot)


"Not only is it extremely difficult to define metaphysical poetry, but difficult to decide what poets practise it and in which of their verses. The poetry of Donne (to whom Marvell and Bishop King are sometimes nearer than any of the other authors) is late Elizabethan, its feeling often very close to that of Chapman. The 'courtly' poetry is derivative from Jonson, who borrowed liberally from the Latin; it expires in the next century with the sentiment and witticism of Prior. There is finally the devotional verse of Herbert, Vaughan, and Crashaw (echoed long after by Christina Rossetti and Francis Thompson); Crashaw, sometimes more profound and less sectarian than the others, has a quality which returns through the Elizabethan period to the early Italians. It is difficult to find any precise use of metaphor, simile, or other conceit, which is common to all the poets and at the same time important enough as an element of style to isolate these poets as a group. Donne, and often Cowley, employ a device which is sometimes considered characteristically 'metaphysical'; the elaboration (contrasted with the condensation) of a figure of speech to the farthest stage to which ingenuity can carry it."

This is an example of Eliot's explication of poetry by metaphysical poets such as Herbert, Vaughan, and Crashaw. He has explicated several of their poems in his essay.

Example #4: Pride and Prejudice (by Jane Austen)
"Mr. Bingley was good-looking and gentlemanlike; he had a pleasant countenance, and easy, unaffected manners. ... he was discovered to be proud, to be above his company, and above being pleased; and not all his large estate in Derbyshire could then save him from having a most forbidding, disagreeable countenance, and being unworthy to be compared with his friend."

Mr. Bingley, the romantic interest of Jane, and his friend, Mr. Darcey, are described in this excerpt through direct characterization. She has admired Mr. Bingley for his pleasant countenance, comparing him to Mr. Darcy.

Example #5: The Canterbury Tales (by Geoffrey Chaucer)
"He yaf nat of that text a pulled hen,
That seith that hunters ben nat hooly men,
Ne that a monk, whan he is recchelees...
His heed was balled, that shoon as any glas,
And eek his face, as he hadde been enoynt.
His eyen stepe, and rollynge in his heed,
That stemed as a forneys of a leed;
His bootes souple, his hors in greet estaat."

Through monk's portrait, his physical and social life, readers see a satire of the religious figures that should live a proper monastic life of hard work and deprivation. This is the achievement of the description of Chaucer that he has described a character through direct characterization.

Function of an Explicatory Essay
An explicatory essay does not directly point out merits and demerits of a poem or a short story. Rather, it discusses the text and its structure. The merits of the work emerge out of its explicatory analysis. Readers fully understand the deficiencies or demerits if there are any, but a critic only discusses the structure and what is presents within the text in a critical essay.
Exposition is a literary device used to introduce background information about events, settings, characters, or other elements of a work to the audience or readers. The word comes from the Latin language, and its literal meaning is "a showing forth." Exposition is crucial to any story, for without it nothing makes sense.



There are many ways to present an exposition, including monologues, dialogues, in-universe media (newspapers, letters, reports, journals, etc.), a protagonist's thoughts, or a narrator's explanation of past events. It is one of the four rhetorical modes of communication - the other three being narration, description, and argumentation.

Examples of Exposition in Literature
Exposition in Movies
Example #1: Star Wars (By George Lucas)
There are countless examples of exposition in many great movies and one of them, which comes across particularly well, is from Star Wars. The exposition in this movie is the opening title sequence, which gives information about the past events to the audience. The crawling text on the screen at the beginning of each movie in the series gives the audience every piece of information they need to understand the upcoming events in the film. The opening lines usually begin like this:

"A long time ago in a galaxy far away, far away..."

Exposition in Literature


Example #2: The Three Little Bears (By Robert Southey)
An exposition is typically positioned at the beginning of a novel, movie, or other literary work, because the author wants the audience to be fully aware of the characters in the story. The famous children's story entitled The Three Little Bears applies this technique of exposition.

"Once upon a time, there were three bears. There was a Daddy Bear, who was very big, a Mama Bear, who was middle-sized, and a Baby Bear, who was very small. They all lived together in a little cottage in the middle of the woods. Their favorite breakfast was porridge. One morning, after they made their porridge, Daddy Bear said, 'Let's go for walk in the woods until it cools.' Mama Bear and Baby Bear liked the idea, so off they went. While they were away, a little girl named Goldilocks came walking through the forest and smelled the porridge..."

With the help of a single passage, the author of the story has given us an overview of the bear family, their residence, and information that sets the story in motion.

Example #3: Othello (By William Shakespeare)
All of Shakespeare's writings contain excellent exposition examples. Take Othello, Romeo and Juliet, Henry V, and Richard III, and you will see how exceptionally well he used the art of expository writing. Here, two examples from Othello have been taken to elaborate the point.

The opening scene in Act I of Othello shows a fierce argument between Roderigo and Iago, which helps build the interest of the audience. The audience realizes that Iago is persistently trying to convince Roderigo to be his accomplice in destroying Othello. The exposition in this scene plays the following roles:

It explicates Iago's treacherous, spiteful, and scheming nature.
The main conflict of the play is revealed here. It revolves around Iago's concealed bitterness towards his boss Othello who, in Iago's opinion, is overlooking him for promotion.
It ascertains two basic themes of the play: racism, and that appearance is not always the same as reality.
At the end of Act 1, the play gives the audience a few facts about Othello, including:

He is a very respectable man.
He had run away with Desdemona, Brabantio's daughter.
He is a great general who is sought by Venice to defend it in the war against the Turks.
As is evident from the examples given above, exposition always gives us an insight into the characters' personalities, and adds flavor to the tragedy and drama we see towards the end of the play.

Function of Exposition


The importance of exposition in literature, as well as in our practical lives, cannot be ignored. Examining the types of writing we come across in our daily lives shows us that almost all of them are incomplete without exposition.

The fiction books, articles, and magazines that people read in their everyday lives essentially rely on exposition to connect the readers to the main story by giving them the background information. In most cases, a narrative or script loses its essence if not accompanied by an exposition. Not only is it important for bringing clarity to a script, but it is also vital to enhance its literary value. The true essence of a book usually lies in how the reader is introduced to the characters in it and, if done correctly, the reader automatically starts relating to them.

Moreover, exposition is widely used for academic purposes in schools, colleges, and universities. Generally, students are asked to submit research reports and pass exams to establish their progress. The exposition here is keeping the academia updated on what you have learned so far. Also, employees are asked very often to put together business reports and memorandums to update their employers about their progress.
Expose means to uncover or lay something bare, or to discover something in a way that others know what it is. Expository is derived from exposition, which is a noun of 'expose.' An expository essay is a genre of writing which tends to explain, illustrate, clarify, or explicate something in a way that it becomes clear for readers. Therefore, it could be an investigation, evaluation, or even argumentation about an idea for clarification.



Types of Expository Essay
Expository essay is further divided into five major categories.

Descriptive Essay: A descriptive essay describes something, some place, some experience, or some situation through sensory information.
Process Essay: A process essay explains or shows a process of making or doing something.
Comparison Essay: A comparison essay makes comparison and contrasts between two things.
Cause/Effect Essay: A cause and effect essay finds out the cause of something and then its effects on something else.
Problem/Solution Essay: A problem/solution essay presents a problem and its solution for readers.
Difference Between an Expository Essay and an Argumentative Essay


As is clear, an expository essay is an exposition, explanation, investigation, or illustration for the purpose of clarification, therefore, its tone is often kept neutral. However, in an argumentative essay, a clear position about something is taken before the argument is presented. There is no issue of objectivity or neutrality.

Examples of Expository Essay in Literature
Example #1: How Chinese Mothers are Superior (by Amy Chua)
"I'm using the term 'Chinese mother' loosely. I know some Korean, Indian, Jamaican, Irish and Ghanaian parents who qualify too. Conversely, I know some mothers of Chinese heritage, almost always born in the West, who are not Chinese mothers, by choice or otherwise. I'm also using the term 'Western parents' loosely. Western parents come in all varieties. All the same, even when Western parents think they're being strict, they usually don't come close to being Chinese mothers. For example, my Western friends who consider themselves strict make their children practice their instruments 30 minutes every day. An hour at most. For a Chinese mother, the first hour is the easy part. It's hours two and three that get tough."

This is an excerpt from a comparison/contrast essay by Amy Chua, which explains how mothers are different in different cultures. This paragraph compares mothers from Chinese, Iranian, Jamaican, and Irish contexts.

Example #2: Learning to Read (by Malcolm X)
"It was because of my letters that I happened to stumble upon starting to acquire some kind of a homemade education.

I became increasingly frustrated at not being able to express what I wanted to convey in letters that I wrote, especially those to Mr. Elijah Muhammad. In the street, I had been the most articulate hustler out there. I had commanded attention when I said something. But now, trying to write simple English, I not only wasn't articulate, I wasn't even functional. How would I sound writing in slang, the way I would say it, something such as, 'Look, daddy, let me pull your coat about a cat, Elijah Muhammad — '

Many who today hear me somewhere in person, or on television, or those who read something I've said, will think I went to school far beyond the eighth grade. This impression is due entirely to my prison studies."

This passage has been taken from a process essay. In this essay, Malcolm X tells the process of his learning. In this paragraph, he gives full detail how he learns letters.

Example #3: Summer Ritual (by Ray Bradbury)


"About seven o'clock you could hear the chairs scraping from the tables, someone experimenting with a yellow-toothed piano, if you stood outside the dining-room window and listened. Matches being struck, the first dishes bubbling in the suds and tinkling on the wall racks, somewhere, faintly, a phonograph playing. And then as the evening changed the hour, at house after house on the twilight streets, under the immense oaks and elms, on shady porches, people would begin to appear, like those figures who tell good or bad weather in rain-or-shine clocks.

Uncle Bert, perhaps Grandfather, then Father, and some of the cousins; the men all coming out first into the syrupy evening, blowing smoke, leaving the wSWomen's voices behind in the cooling-warm kitchen to set their universe aright. Then the first male voices under the porch brim, the feet up, the boys fringed on the worn steps or wooden rails where sometime during the evening something, a boy or a geranium pot, would fall off."

This is an example of a passage from a descriptive essay. It has full description which tells us about sounds and colors; a type of sensory information.

Functions of an Expository Essay
The function of an expository essay is to clarify and expose things, ideas, persons, and places through description, process, comparison/contrast, or through problem solution. The objective of this type of essay is to make readers aware of things given in the essay. It proves full and detailed information in a way that readers become knowledgeable about the topic.
The term "extended metaphor" refers to a comparison between two unlike things that continues throughout a series of sentences in a paragraph, or lines in a poem. It is often comprised of more than one sentence, and sometimes consists of a full paragraph.



Extended Metaphor Examples in Prose
Example #1: Seize the Night (By Dean Koontz)
"Bobby Holloway says my imagination is a three-hundred-ring circus. Currently I was in ring two hundred and ninety-nine, with elephants dancing and clowns cart wheeling and tigers leaping through rings of fire. The time had come to step back, leave the main tent, go buy some popcorn and a Coke, bliss out, cool down."

(Dean Koontz, Seize the Night. Bantam, 1999)

Here, it can be seen that the "circus" has been compared to the author's "imagination."

Example #2: The Yiddish Policeman's Union (By Michael Chabon)
"It never takes longer than a few minutes, when they get together, for everyone to revert to the state of nature, like a party marooned by a shipwreck. That's what a family is. Also the storm at sea, the ship, and the unknown shore. And the hats and the whiskey stills that you make out of bamboo and coconuts. And the fire that you light to keep away the beasts."

(Michael Chabon, The Yiddish Policeman's Union. Harper, 2007)

In the excerpt quoted above, the writer has compared "family" with a "shipwreck."

Example #3: Life on the Mississippi (By Mark Twain)


"One day [Mr. Bixby] turned on me suddenly with this settler —
'What is the shape of Walnut Bend?'"

"He might as well have asked me my grandmother's opinion of protoplasm. I reflected respectfully, and then said I didn't know it had any particular shape. My gun powdery chief went off with a bang, of course, and then went on loading and firing until he was out of adjectives."

"I had learned long ago that he only carried just so many rounds of ammunition, and was sure to subside into a very placable and even remorseful old smooth-bore as soon as they were all gone."

(Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi. Webster, 1883)

Here, it can be seen that the writer makes use of metaphors like "gun powdery," "firing," and "ammunition" to describe the "anger" of Mr. Bixby.

Example #4: As You Like It (By William Shakespeare)
"All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts."

Shakespeare has remarkably compared "earth" to a "stage" in the excerpt mentioned above.

Example #5: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
"But soft! What light through yonder window breaks?
It is the East, and Juliet is the sun!
Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon,
Who is already sick and pale with grief."

Here again, Shakespeare has made use of extended metaphor by comparing "Juliet" with the "sun."

Example of Extended Metaphor in Poetry


Example #6: Hope is the Thing with Feathers (By Emily Dickenson)
"Hope is the thing with feathers
That perches in the soul,
And sings the tune - without the words,
And never stops at all,

"And sweetest in the gale is heard;
And sore must be the storm
That could abash the little bird
That kept so many warm.

"I've heard it in the chilliest land,
And on the strangest sea;
Yet, never, in extremity,
It asked a crumb of me."

In the poem given above, Emily Dickinson has remarkably made use of the tool of extended metaphor by comparing "hope" with the "little bird."

Example of Extended Metaphor in Hip-Hop
"But if you was LeBron James then I'd be Dwyane Wade
We both graduated at the same time from the same grade
He was at the head of the class, on TV with celebrity acts,
But that champion ring was one thing you never could grasp,
I was slightly rated lower had to fight to gain exposure
and that might've made me slower
but now I have taken over
And I'm down in Miami's Heat,
living my boyhood dreams
And for you to do what I've done,
you'd have to join MY team!"

(By Iron Solomon)

In the extract quoted above, Iron Solomon makes a comparison between "LeBron James" and "Dwyane Wade."

Short Examples of Extended Metaphor
Life is like eating a grapefruit. First, one breaks its skin; then one takes a few bites to get used to its taste, and finally one starts enjoying its flavor.
The dark is an unknown and scary black blanket, a place of nightmares. It is a deep hole where light cannot reach, and where horror resides.
Their heart is icy, blood frosty, its ventricles rich with icicles; and their words have turned into ice cubes that can chill iced tea.
Life is a book, lying on a tabletop, its pages outspread like a thousand wings of a bird.
I elegantly bloom in July,
Clad in a delicate silk,
I am a fringed lily.
Poetry is melody to mind,
It flows and rhymes,
It comforts and triggers the thought.
The world is a stage,
where everyone is a player,
and then the curtain falls.
The human brain is a computer. It has programs that allow thinking, acting, and making decisions.
He is a bright star, shining all the time, and helping and guiding everyone.
Maria's eyes are fireflies, sparkling, speaking, and expressing many things.
They are pointing guns at the people, who are bullets of their desires.
You are an eagle,
Soaring higher than the seagull.
The café is a forest,
Where wild animals scramble for food.
Painting is an untamed animal,
That a painter is free to show his/her feelings.
My room is a dreamland,
With fluffy pillows its clouds
And Chirping birds its angels.
Extended Metaphor Examples in Literature
Example #1: The Road Not Taken (By Robert Frost)
"Two roads diverged in a yellow wood ...
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference."

In this poem, Frost compares life experiences and journeys to roads that a person travels. By using extended metaphor, he explicates that a harder path gives greater rewards in life.

Example #2: Mother to Son (By Langston Hughes)
"Well, son, I'll tell you:
Life for me ain't been no crystal stair ...

I'se still climbin',
And life for me ain't been no crystal stair."

Hughes makes a comparison between life and a crystal stair throughout this poem. A mother in the poem is detailing her struggles and experiences by explaining her staircase is tainted by "splinters" and is "bare." Despite this, she keeps "climbing," which further heightens the staircase metaphor, as a vehicle to get better or higher. Her struggles give inspiration as well as advice to her son.

Example #3: Habitation (By Margaret Atwood)
"Marriage is not
a house or even a tent

"it is before that, and colder: ...

"this far
we are learning to make fire."

Atwood has used extended metaphor of a habitation to explain marriage. She believes marriage is not a stable shelter, like a "house or even a tent." She rather describes it as an unstable "edge" of the forest or desert. The poem is a description of a couple "learning to make fire," while trying to survive "painfully." This extended metaphor implies that, though marriage is tough, it makes a person learn new things.

Functions of Extended Metaphor
Extended metaphor provides the writer with an opportunity to make a larger comparison between two things or notions. The device of extended metaphor is usually employed in prose and poetry to project a specific impression regarding things or notions in the reader's mind. Further, the tool serves to project the comparison intensely in the reader's mind, than is the case when simple metaphors or similes are used.
External conflict is a struggle that takes place between the main character and some outside force. Therefore, it is outside the body of the protagonist. Usually, it occurs when the protagonist struggles against the antagonist, a character that opposes the protagonist in the main body of the story. Other types of external conflict could also arise due to some other factors such as the forces of nature, and society in which the protagonist lives.



Types of External Conflict
There are different types of external conflict found in stories. The most common are:

Character vs. Character
This type of conflict occurs when a character struggles against other characters in the story, for instance in the Harry Potter series. Harry engages in a battle against Lord Voldemort.

Character vs. Society
This external conflict occurs when the main character stands up to support his beliefs and struggles against the social forces, for instance Sophocles' "Antigone."

Character vs. Nature


In this type of external conflict, the protagonist struggles against the forces of nature, or an external environment. For instance, in the short story To Build a Fire, Jack London tells a story of an anonymous narrator and his dog, traveling through the wilderness of Yukon Trail.

Examples of External Conflict in Literature


Example #1: Romeo and Juliet (By William Shakespeare)
One classic example of character vs. society external conflict occurs in Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet. The two major characters fall in love, despite their belonging to the feuding families, which do not want them to be together. They constantly struggle and strive to get together throughout the play, as they are under the pressure of society, which wants them to hate each other. Thus, it is a struggle between individuals and society that eventually causes their tragic deaths.

Example #2: The Old Man and The Sea (by Earnest Hemingway)
A major external conflict is between the old man, Santiago, and the fish, a marlin. There is fighting back and forth, and a tug of war between them, that lasts for several days, with neither giving up. Santiago's struggle is also against nature - to catch a giant fish, and the sharks - which attack his precious marlin.

The old man tries to catch the marlin, though it fights back pretty hard. The old man struggles against the views of his villagers too, as they think he has run out of his luck and wasted eighty four days without catching a fish. Nevertheless, he is still determined to not give up. We can clearly see his dilemma of catching the marlin, and his conflict with the fish, when he says, "Fish, I love you and respect you very much. But I will kill you dead before this day ends."

Example #3: Heart of Darkness (by Joseph Conrad)
Marlowe takes an adventure to the Congo Bay in Africa, and feels surrounded by imperialistic forces there. Conflicts of both character vs. nature, and character vs. society, exist here. In fact, Marlowe comes to a place where people are mentally crazy, and kill each other just to follow their nonsense rituals. In this place, even average people become savages.

Marlowe also sees a civilized man, Kurtz, who due to his prolonged stay over there, starts behaving like the local savages. Though Marlowe could not stand a lie, and does not forgive others for this fault when he meets Kurtz's fiancée, he tells her a lie about her fiancé's last words. Being a protagonist, Marlowe faces numerous external conflicts.

Example #4: Macbeth (by William Shakespeare)
Macbeth faces character vs. society conflict. Initially, he struggles with his internal conflict, which allows his ambition to turn him into a violent person, pushing him to kill the king to dethrone him. However, during all these circumstances, he encounters several external conflicts. Following the murder of the king, the people stand up against him, and he has to engage himself in fight with them. These external conflicts occur between Macbeth and other characters.

Function of External Conflict
Stories told in novels, plays, short stories, and other similar formats, revolve around the conflict. External conflict gives a sense of excitement and immediacy to the story, making it worth reading. It defines uniqueness of a character and reveals his intentions, giving the audience an understanding of his motivation behind the dialogue and action. In addition, it tells the reason of a character's motivation in life that otherwise may appear foolish on the surface. It also makes possible for the readers to build up sympathy and profound connection with the character to eventually learn something and transform their lives through this learning.
Eye rhyme is a poetic device in which two words are spelled similarly but pronounced differently. It also called a visual rhyme or a sight rhyme. For example, the pair "rough and bough look similar and should rhyme keeping in mind the visual aspect, but when they are spoken, they are not similar. So, the eye rhyme is a visual phenomenon on the page, and they are appealing to the sense of sight and not to the sense of hearing. Eye Rhyme plays a significant role in enhancing the poem's musical quality.



Examples of Eye Rhyme from Literature
Example #1
Sonnet 18 by William Shakespeare

"Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date."

The writer is comparing his beloved with lovely summer days. To him, summer is the season of disappointments. This extract highlights the use of eye rhyme in the second line as the last word of the starting line links directly to the ending word of line four. By using Eye Rhyme, the writer has created a rhythm using "date" and "temperate" which give soothing effects to the poem.

Example #2
Tis The Last Rose of Summer by Thomas Moore

"...Left blooming alone;
All her lovely companions
...Are faded and gone;
No flower of her kindred,
...No rosebud is nigh,
To reflect back her blushes,
...Or give sigh for sigh!"

This poem is about summer that is fading away with a single rose blooming, while other roses are gone. The poet talks about the departure of summer in a very sad tone. However, the final words of the second and fourth contain Eye Rhymes. The words, "alone", "gone" do not rhyme and are spelled almost the same except the first letters.

Example #3


Sonnet 19 by William Shakespeare

"Devouring time, blunt thou the lion's paws,
And make the earth devour her own sweet brood;
Pluck the keen teeth from the fierce tiger's jaws,
And burn the long-lived phoenix in her blood."

The poem talks about the time and its normal effects on nature. In this extract, the writer talks about the destructive nature of time that allows it to perform destructive acts. However, the ending words of this extract fall in the category of Eye Rhyme. The words such as, "blood" and "brood" are not similar in pronunciation but they look identical to the eyes. Thus, their usage allows the writers to create a flow in the poem that makes it more vibrant and musical.

Example #4
The Tyger by William Blake

"Tyger Tyger, burning bright,
In the forests of the night;
What immortal hand or eye,
Could frame thy fearful symmetry?"

The poet describes the fearsome features of the tiger and wonders why a beautiful creature can also be a deadly creature. The words 'eye' and 'symmetry' are eye rhymes as they look similar to the sight but are pronounced differently.

Example #5
Ode to the West Wind By Percy Bysshe Shelley

Scatter, as from an unextinguish'd hearth
Ashes and sparks, my words among mankind!
Be through my lips to unawaken'd earth

The trumpet of a prophecy! O Wind,
If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?

This lyric poem is a beautiful description of the wind, and it's effect on the earth, atmosphere, and ocean. The final stanza of the poem is an example of Eye Rhyme, as 'Wind' and 'behind' look same but are pronounced differently.

Eye Rhyme Meaning and Function


Eye rhyme is a treat for the audience. It provides them an opportunity to enjoy their reading by seeing it. The presence of repetitive patterns enables them to memorize the text at a fast pace. It also gives writers a chance to fill their texts with pleasant words that look good to the eyes. It acts as a mnemonic device which not only provides musical quality for the text but also soothes the process of memorization. However, in literature, it is a convenient device that provides poets a tool to insert delightful words in the texts and make their expressions enjoyable in reading and seeing.
The word fable is derived from the Latin word fibula, which means "a story," and a derivative of the word fari, which means "to speak." Fable is a literary device that can be defined as a concise and brief story intended to provide a moral lesson at the end.



In literature, it is described as a didactic lesson given through some sort of animal story. In prose and verse, a fable is described through plants, animals, forces, of nature, and inanimate objects by giving them human attributes wherein they demonstrate a moral lesson at the end.

Features of a Fable
A fable is intended to provide a moral story.
Fables often use animals as the main characters. They are presented with anthropomorphic characteristics, such as the ability to speak and to reason.
Fables personify the animal characters.
Examples of Fable in Literature


Example #1: The Fox and the Crow (By Aesop's Fables)
"A crow was sitting on a branch of a tree with a piece of cheese in her beak when a fox observed her and set his wits to work to discover some way of getting the cheese. Coming and standing under the tree he looked up and said, 'What a noble bird I see above me! Her beauty is without equal...' Down came the cheese, of course, and the Fox, snatching it up, said, 'You have a voice, madam, I see: what you want is wits.'"

Aesop is probably the most notable author of famous examples of fable. Aesopian fables put emphasis on the social communications of human beings, and hence the morals he draws deal with realities of life. In this excerpt, Aesop gives a moral lesson that flatterers must not be trusted.

Example #2: Animal Farm (By George Orwell)
"Now, comrades, what is the nature of this life of ours? Let us face it: our lives are miserable, laborious, and short. We are born, we are given just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies ... and the very instant that our usefulness has come to an end ... No animal in England knows the meaning of happiness or leisure after he is a year old. No animal in England is free. The life of an animal is misery and slavery ..."

Here, old Major is speaking to other animals. It is presented as the story of the development and emergence of Soviet communism, through an animal fable. He advises the animals to struggle against the humans, telling them that rebellion is the only feasible way out of their miserable situation.

Example #3: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (By S.T. Coleridge)


First Voice
"But tell me, tell me! speak again,
Thy soft response renewing —
What makes that ship drive on so fast?
What is the ocean doing?"

Second Voice
"Still as a slave before his lord,
The ocean hath no blast...
Up to the moon is cast —...
See! see! (I cried) she tacks no more...

"Without a breeze, without a tide,
She steadies with upright keel!"

The voices in this poem explain the moving ship without waves and wind. There is a supernatural force at work. This literary piece is one of the well-written fable examples that teach about penance, redemption, and sin. The killing of a bird symbolizes the original sin.

Example #4: Gulliver's Travels (By Jonathan Swift)
"I attempted to rise, but was not able to stir: for, as I happened to lie on my back, I found my arms and legs were strongly fastened on each side to the ground; and my hair, which was long and thick, tied down in the same manner ... In a little time I felt something alive moving on my left leg, which advancing gently forward over my breast, came almost up to my chin..."

Gulliver's Travels is a mixture of political allegory, moral fable, mock utopia, and social anatomy. In this excerpt, Captain Gulliver reaches an unknown place among strange creatures who speak a strange language. This is a type of modern fable intended to satirize political vices.

Function of Fable
The purpose of writing fables is to convey a moral lesson and message. Fables also give readers a chance to laugh at the follies of human beings, and they can be employed for the objective of satire and criticism. They are very helpful in teaching children good lessons based on examples. However, in literature, fables are used for didactic purposes at a much broader level.
A fairy tale is a children's story in a magical setting about imaginary characters that include fairies, dwarfs, witches, angels, trolls, and talking animals. It is also known as a folklore genre written in the form of short stories. Writers skillfully blend elements of magic and reality in these stories to incite a feeling of surprise and wonder among the audiences. They are always different from traditional stories. Although these types of stories are written mostly from a child's perspective, they unfold universal ideas. In this sense, it makes seriousness a bit light in intensity. Also, the use of powerful imagery grabs readers' attention and connects them with the story.



Etymologically, a phrase of two words 'fairy and tale' means it is a type of story which intends to excite the readers' interest by presenting impossibilities as possibilities.

Examples from Literature
Example #1
The Elves and the Shoemaker by Brothers Grimm

Written by Brothers Grimm, "The Elves and the Shoemaker" is a good example of a fairy tale. It was first published in 1806. The story is about two magical elves and a poor shoemaker who lived in a small house with his wife. The shoemaker hardly manages to make both ends meet. One day, he went to his shop and was surprised to see a pair of readymade shoes on the table. He sells that pair and earns a handsome amount. Then every morning, he finds pairs of readymade shoes in his shop. The family soon becomes rich. One day, the shoemaker and his wife hide in the shop to find out who was making shoes for them. Finally, they see the elves and decide to make clothes for them to return their kindness. The shoemaker's wife made hats, coats, trousers, and shirts for them. The elves are very happy to find new clothes for them. They put them on, dance, and leave the place. The characters of elves and their act of kindness make it an excellent example of a fairy tale.

Example #2
Cinderella by Brothers Grimm

Brothers Grimm's 'Cinderella' is another example of a good fairy tale. It was first published in 1697. Cinderella was living a prosperous life until her mother died, and her father remarried a cruel lady. Her stepmother makes her servant in her own house and forces her to do chores. One day, a special invitation arrived from the king's castle, and every eligible maiden is invited to a fancy dress ball. Cinderella also desires to attend the ball, but her stepmother and stepsisters stop her. At that moment, a fairy appears and grants Cinderella's wish to attend the ball. Dressed in a beautiful gown, she arrives at the ball and becomes the center of attraction. The prince dances with her, but at the stroke of midnight, Cinderella rushes back and in haste, leaving her magical glass slippers. The king searches the entire kingdom and finally reached Cinderella. She marries the prince, and they lived happily ever after. The characters and setting of the story make it a good fairy tale which highlights the role of fate and chance. Also, the arrival of the fairy makes readers believe that miracles can happen anywhere or anytime in life.

Example #3


Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs by Brothers Grim

Another classic fairy tale, 'Snow White' by Brothers Grim. Snow White becomes the victim of the hatred of her stepmother. She was famous as "the fairest women in the town." However, Snow White was becoming prettier, and the queen could not tolerate. She orders a huntsman to kill Snow White and bring her heart as proof of her death. Instead, he kills a wild animal and presents its heart as proof. To verify, the queen asks the magical talking mirror, who informs her that Snow White is alive. The queen decided to kill her and disguises herself as an old lady. She gives her a poisonous apple, and after that, Snow White goes into the death-like state. When the dwarfs find her dead, they decided to put her in a glass coffin in the woods so that everyone can see her sparkling beauty. On a hunting mission, a prince happened to pass by her glass coffin and see her. He lifts the curse with true loves kiss and asks her to marry him to which she agreed. The evil queen dies when she sees her marrying the prince. The happy ending, the appearance of the dwarfs, and the magical atmosphere make it one of the best fairy tales.

Example #4
Beauty and the Beast by Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve

"Beauty and the Beast" is another beautiful fairy tale written by a French novelist, Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve and was later rewritten by Jeanne-Marie Le Prince de Beaumont. The story is about a merchant and his three daughters. It happens that the merchant goes on a journey and ask his daughters what he should bring for them. The elder two daughters ask for jewelry, but the youngest daughter, Belle, wishes to have a rose. On his way back home, he picks a rose from a beautiful garden, but a Beast appears and stops him. The Beast informs the merchant about death as the penalty for stealing the flower. However, Belle finds the merchant and agrees to be imprisoned to set her father free. Belle later falls in love with the Beast and breaks his curse. He transforms into a handsome prince, and they live happily ever after. The setting, characters, and situation make this story a classic example of a fairy tale.

Functions of Fairy Tale


A fairy tale functions as a tool for the writers to express their thoughts freely through animal and other imaginary characters. Its major purpose is to entertain, pass on culture, thoughts, and convey different moral ideas to the young generation. It provides the audience with an opportunity to become light-hearted and enjoy something different. Also, fairy tales stories help children learn moral values, as they are a convenient device to boost a child's imagination and cultural literacy. Writers skillfully feature certain situations to make their audiences feel happy and light-hearted over happy endings of such stories.
A fallacy is an erroneous argument dependent upon an unsound or illogical contention. There are many fallacy examples that we can find in everyday conversations.
Types of Fallacy
Here are a few well-known types of fallacy you might experience when making an argument:

Appeal to Ignorance
Appeal to ignorance happens when one individual utilizes another individual's lack of information on a specific subject as proof that his or her own particular argument is right.

Appeal to Authority
This sort of error is also known as "Argumentum Verecundia" (argument from modesty). Instead of concentrating on the benefits of an argument, the arguer will attempt to append their argument to an individual of power or authority, in an effort to give trustworthiness to their argument.

Appeal to Popular Opinion
This sort of appeal is when somebody asserts that a thought or conviction is correct, since it is the thing that the general population accepts.

Association Fallacy
Sometimes called "guilt by affiliation," this happens when somebody connects a particular thought or issue to something or somebody negative, so as to infer blame on another individual.

Attacking the Person
Also regarded as "argumentum ad hominem" (argument against the man), this is a common fallacy used during debates, where an individual substitutes a rebuttal with a personal insult.

Begging the Question
The conclusion of a contention is accepted as a statement of the inquiry itself.

Circular Argument
This fallacy is also known as "circulus in probando." This error is committed when an argument takes its evidence from an element inside the argument itself, instead of from an outside source.

Relationship Implies Causation
Also called "cum hoc ergo propter hoc," this fallacy is a deception in which the individual making the contention joins two occasions that happen consecutively, and accepts that one created or caused the other.

False Dilemma/Dichotomy
Sometimes called "bifurcation," this sort of error happens when somebody presents their argument in such a way that there are just two conceivable alternatives left.

Illogical Conclusion
This is a fallacy wherein somebody attests a conclusion that does not follow from the suggestions or facts.

Slippery Slope
This error happens when one contends that an exceptionally minor movement will unavoidably prompt great and frequently ludicrous conclusions.

Syllogism Fallacy
This fallacy may also be used to form incorrect conclusions that are odd. Syllogism fallacy is a false argument, as it implies an incorrect conclusion.

Examples of Fallacy in Literature


To understand the different types of fallacy better, let's review the following examples of fallacy:

Example #1: Appeal to Ignorance
"You can't demonstrate that there aren't Martians living in caves on the surface of Mars, so it is sensible for me to accept there are."

Example #2: Appeal to Authority
"Well, Isaac Newton trusted in Alchemy, do you suppose you know more than Isaac Newton?"

Example #3: Appeal Popular Opinion


"Lots of people purchased this collection, so it must be great."

Example #4: Association Fallacy
"Hitler was a veggie lover, so I don't trust vegans."

Example #5: Attacking the Person
"Don't listen to Eddie's contentions on teaching, he's a simpleton."

Example #6: Begging the Question
"If the neighbor didn't take my daily paper, who did?" (This accepts that the daily paper was really stolen).

Example #7: Circular Argument
"I accept that Frosted Flakes are incredible, since it says so on the box."

Example #8: Relationship Implies Causation
"I saw a jaybird, and ten minutes later I crashed my car. Jaybirds are really bad luck."

Example #9: False Dilemma/Dichotomy
"If you don't vote for this applicant, you must be a Communist."

Example #10: Illogical Conclusion
"All Dubliners are from Ireland. Ronan is not a Dubliner, so clearly he is not Irish."

Example #11: Slippery Slope
"If we permit gay individuals to get married, what's next? Permitting people to marry their dogs?"

Example #12: Syllogism Fallacy
"All crows are black, and the bird in my cage is black. So, the bird in my cage is a crow."

Function of Fallacy
Literary critics find the weaknesses of literary pieces by searching for fallacies within them. Because of this, there is a tendency for critics to distort the intentions of the writer.
Falling action occurs right after the climax, when the main problem of the story resolves. It is one of the elements of the plot of the story, the other elements being exposition, rising action, climax, and resolution. Falling action wraps up the narrative, resolves its loose ends, and leads toward the closure.



Examples of Falling Action in Literature
Example #1: Star Wars (by George Lucas)
Falling action in Star Wars occurs after the rebels and Luke Skywalker discover a vulnerable section in the Death Star. It is up to Luke Skywalker to destroy the space ship following several failed attempts. Darth Vader virtually hits Luke's ship; however, Han Solo saves his ship by shooting at Vader. Then, Luke uses The Force and destroys the Death Star against all odds, saving the rebels. Yet the story does not end here. The audience then sees the return of Han and Luke to the rebels, who receive congratulations for their heroic efforts. Then the falling action takes place, when these two characters win rewards and medals from Princess Leia for saving the day.

Example #2: The Necklace (by Guy de Maupassant)
In Maupassant's story, The Necklace, the rising action happens when Mathilda Loisel and her husband get invited to a fancy ball. She then borrows a beautiful necklace from Madame Forestier, her friend. The story reaches its climax when Mathilda sees herself in full glory and realizes that she is not having it anymore. The falling action takes place when this couple is forced to live a poor life to pay the debt of the fake necklace they borrowed earlier.

Example #3: The Cask of Amontillado (by Edgar Allan Poe)


Another good example is in the famous story of Poe, The Cask of Amontillado. Following his wicked plan, Montresor invites Fortunato to his vault to taste the rare flavor of Amontillado, a type of wine. He makes a plan to keep Fortunato inebriated, ensuring that his glass remains full. When Fortunato starts coughing, Montresor asks him if he wants to go back, but intoxicated Fortunato insists on tasting more.

The climax of the story occurs when Montresor chains him and buries him alive in a brick wall. Then the falling action follows this climax, where Fortunato regains consciousness and struggles to get free of chains to call for help. Before sealing the wall, Montresor throws a torch to see if Fortunato is alive to end the story.

Example #4: The Fault in Our Stars (by John Green)
Another example of falling action is from The Fault in Our Stars, a novel by John Green. The story revolves around two teenage lovers, Hazel Grace Lancaster and Augustus Waters, who are cancer patients. The rising action takes place, when they start liking each other, and the climax occurs with their tour to Amsterdam, where they express their feelings and consequently their love blossoms.

Nevertheless, their whirling romance comes to a halt, because Augustus' health worsens, and he sees very few chances of his survival. The falling action follows with their return to Indianapolis, where Hazel decides to be with him to take good care of him. But, deep down she is aware of this reality that he has not much time to live. Augustus, on the other hand, remembers that he had planned to would write Hazel's eulogy, but the situation reverses instead.

Example #5: Romeo and Juliet (by William Shakespeare)
The falling action of Romeo and Juliet begins following rising action and climax, which is reached when the lovers are killed. Then the parents and Prince discover the bodies of two lovers, and they agree to put aside their animosity in the best interest of peace.

Function of Falling Action


Audiences expect a low ebb after every great tide in order to give themselves a feeling of relief. This happens with falling action of the story or the play. In fact, it is the desire of the audiences to see the fruits of the labor of a hero or protagonist that satisfies them. If this does not happen, the audience stays unsatisfied, and the story seems incomplete. Thus, falling action serves as a rewarding element in a story or movie. In addition, it is like a road from climax to resolution, and if the road is vacant, the story may end abruptly.
Fantasy is a form of literary genre in which a plot cannot occur in the real world. Its plot usually involves witchcraft or magic, taking place on an undiscovered planet of an unknown world. Its overall theme and setting involve a combination of technology, architecture, and language, which sometimes resemble European medieval ages. The most interesting thing about fantasies is that their plot involves witches, sorcerers, mythical and animal creatures talking like humans, and other things that never happen in real life.



Types of Fantasy
Modern Folktales
Modern folktales are types of fantasy that narrators tell in a traditional tale accompanying some typical elements, such as strong conflict, little description of characters, fast-moving plot with a quick resolution, and sometimes magical elements and vague settings. However, these tales are popular, as authors throughout history have written them. Hans Christian Andersen has written several fairy tales of this category including:

The Nightingale
The Emperor's New Clothes
Thumbelina
The Ugly Duckling
Animal Fantasy
Animal fantasy tells tales about animals, behaving like human beings, speaking, experiencing emotions, and having the ability to reason. Nevertheless, animals in animal fantasies retain their various animal characteristics too. Often, such fantasies have simple plots, and constitute literary symbolism by presenting symbolic expression of human counterparts. Popular examples of animal fantasy include:

The Wind in the Willows, by Kenneth Grahame
Charlotte's Web, by E. B. White
The Tale of Peter Rabbit, by Beatrix Potter
Toy Fantasy


In toy fantasy stories, narrators bring their beloved toys to life, and transform them into animated beings that can live, talk, think, breathe, love, and behave like human beings. You would see modern toy fantasies in picture book format. Examples include:

Winnie the Pooh, by A. A. Milne
The Adventures of Pinocchio, by Carlo Collodi
Magical Fantasy
In a magical fantasy, you see a character having magical powers, or a strange magical object becomes the subject of the narrative. Such fantasies include

Charlie and Chocolate Factory, by Roald Dahl
Sylvester and the Magic Pebble, by William Steig
Alternative Worlds & Enchanted Journeys
In these fantasies, you see leading character undertaking a journey to an alternative world, or a fantasy world. Though realistic tales also employ journeys, you would only see magical things happen in fantasy journeys. Examples include:

Alice Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, by K. Rowling
Gulliver's Travels, by Jonathan Swift
Quest or Heroic Fantasy (High Fantasy)
These fantasies involve adventures with a search, quest, and motif. While this quest could be a pursuit for a higher purpose, like justice and love, or for getting a reward like hidden treasure, or a magical power; the conflict of heroic fantasies focuses on struggle between evil and good. The protagonist struggles with internal weakness and temptations, such as you may observe in these stories:

The Lord of the Rings trilogy / Hobbit, by J. R. R. Tolkien
The Hero and the Crown, by Robin McKinley
The Book of Three, by Lloyd Alexander.
Mystery and Supernatural Fantasy
One of the most common forms of supernatural fantasy is known as a "ghost story." Ghosts could be either helpful protectors, or fearsome adversaries. However, in a mystery, the solution is always a supernatural one, or through supernatural assistance such as witchcraft. Its best example is:

The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, by Washington Irving
Science Fiction
Science fiction is a type of imaginative literature. It provides a mental picture of something that may happen on realistic scientific principles and facts. This fiction might portray, for instance, a world where young people are living on Mars. Hence, it is known as "futuristic fiction." It dramatizes the wonders of technology, and resembles heroic fantasy where magic is substituted with technology. You can find this type of imaginative fiction in these stories:

Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley
Rocket Ship Galileo, by Robert Heinlein
The White Mountains, by John Christopher
Cyberpunk is a sub-genre of science fiction.

Function of Fantasy


We all like fantasy stories, and grow up reading and listening to fantasies. These tales serve to fuel our imaginations, and satisfy our longings for adventure. Thus, fantasy directly relates to our deepest desires and dreams. That is why they are important for increasing power of imagination in growing minds, especially in children. In addition, exposing our minds to lots of romance and magic, the seeking for ideal heroes and beauty queens, adventure, and even deception, captures the attention and imagination of every age group. Also, fantasy has a distinguished writing style, with freedom of expression - the reason that authors can experiment and employ elements of narrative to strengthen their tales.
A farce is a literary genre and type of comedy that makes use of highly exaggerated and funny situations aimed at entertaining the audience. Farce is also a subcategory of dramatic comedy, which is different from other forms of comedy as it only aims at making the audience laugh. It uses elements like physical humor, deliberate absurdity, bawdy jokes, and drunkenness just to make people laugh. We often see one‑dimensional characters in ludicrous situations in farces.



Examples of Farce in Literature
Example #1: The Importance of Being Earnest (By Oscar Wilde)
Oscar Wilde's novel, The Importance of Being Earnest, is one of the best verbal farces. Just like a typical farce that contains basic elements, such as mockery of the upper class, disgraceful physical humor, absurdity, and mistaken identities, this novel also demonstrates these features of a farce. The most absurd thing in tale is the fact that Miss Prism commits a blunder by leaving her manuscript in the pram, and puts her child into her handbag.

Example #2: The Taming of the Shrew (By William Shakespeare)
In Shakespeare's play, The Taming of the Shrew, the farcical elements are manifested in terms of characters, plot, and particularly the writing style. The play contains stereotype characters that are typically farcical in nature, such as Katherine is an excellent instance of the farcical character. Although Katherina (Kate) is a stereotype and a boisterous shrew, Shakespeare portrays her as an individual needing sympathy, because Bianca is the favorite child of her father, Baptista.

Realizing that Baptista prefers her sister, Bianca, Kate says:

"What, will you not suffer me? Nay, now I see
She is your treasure, she must have a husband,
I must dance barefoot on her wedding day ..."

As far as the plot is concerned, Shakespeare develops the plot to look like a situational comedy. Though the subplot is romantic, both the main plot and the subplot move around an idea of the favoring father, whom his daughter and her lover outwit. In terms of the writing style, Shakespeare has used three basic comical techniques to produce humorous effects, such as Kate's statements, and her husband's replies, which demons