Histoire et généalogie de la famille Sartorius


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

History of the

SARTORIUS

family

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

INTRODUCTION

S

artorius. This name with a Latin flavour has always awoken curiosity. What does it mean? How far does it go back in the past? Where does it come from? Who were the people who bore it before us? In an effort to answer these questions and some others, I drafted the following pages.

The first person to dig into this matter was my brother Bertrand in 1980. I carried on. Today we can follow the history of the Sartorius family over a period of almost five hundred years, from the 16th century until to dawn of the 21st century.

In November 1997, I thought I had gathered all the available information. It then seemed to me that time had come to assemble the amount of information that we had collected in a practical form that could be easily accessed, in order to share it with all interested people. I was putting the finishing touches to a first version of the text that you are about to read when a pen friend lady announced to me that she held old documents on the family. As a matter of fact what she sent me two months later shed an peculiar light on the history of the Sartorius over one and a half century, from 1700 until 1850. I had nothing to do but to set again to work!

I then undertook a second version, rectified on some points, increased on many others and enriched with pictures [1]. My father Robert Sartorius had 100 copies of it printed in July 1998 under the title Petite histoire des origines de la famille Sartorius [Little history of the origin of the Sartorius family].

 

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In terms of genealogy, if you wait until you finish to post something, you will never publish anything.

The more I go on, the more I can measure how relevant this piece of advice of an old archivist to an amateur genealogist is [2].

During the summer of 1998, I was convinced that many things had still to be discovered about the Sartorius family. However, for reasons the reader will easily catch by himself, I thought this could only be done slower and slower and with an increasing difficulty.

In August 1998, I made a tour to Germany on the spurs of our ancestors. So I could become impregnated with the places where they had lived and collect some additional material. Above all I had the pleasure to meet the above mentioned pen friend lady, a charming German lady, Mrs Leihener, born Sartorius. This distant relative opened her rich archive for me. Furthermore, a stroke of luck of life has brought her back about twenty kilometres from Friesenhagen where the Sartorius family had lived all over the 18th century. So she led me for a visit of the ruins of the castle of Wildenburg, where our common ancestor Georg Anton Franz Sartorius was born in 1757 and lived. She also led me for a visit the delightful little St Sebastian church in Friesenhagen.

When I was back home, I immediately felt the need to update my work. I integrated the information I had collected in Germany into it. I also introduced some additions gleaned in the course of my readings as well as some corrections. Lastly, the pictures taken by my son Gautier during the trip enabled me to enrich the iconography. This third version was installed by Gautier on the Internet during the autumn of 1999. I have nevertheless continued to gather information through my readings, systematic research on the Internet and some meetings. This led me to a fourth version, completed in 2008, available on the Internet and a few copies of which have been circulated as .pdf files. Finally, the present version, the fifth, benefits of my research at the French National Archive in the naturalization record of Ferdinand Sartorius.

 

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Since I alluded to Internet, one must acknowledge that chance and the web are the fortune of genealogists. The richness of the information available on the Internet defies imagination. The only difficulty is to find it. This is where chance steps into.

This is how I got acquainted in a row with two new German relatives during the autumn of 2000. Both are still more distant from me than Mrs Leihener and both keen on genealogy. In a chronological order, the first one was Dr. Ulrich Liebermeister, a descendant of Franz Anton Sartorius, born in 1711. He enabled me to complement descendants in female lineage of the Sartorius family, among which I discovered some famous people. Thanks to a careful reading, in a language that is not his, of the version of this document available on the Internet, he could also point out to me some mistakes or inaccuracies. The second one is Christian Gödde, a descendant of the two brothers Conrad Schnier and Dietrich Schnier, alias Sartorius, born respectively about 1625 and 1640! For five centuries his family has stayed in the region where the Sartorius come from. His work was most valuable to me as regards the history of the family from the end of the 15th century until the beginning of the 18th century.

More recently, on Easter Sunday 2001, two other relatives, Hartmut and Wilfried Sartorius, wrote to me after having discovered the Internet site. These close relatives - they are second cousins to my father - provided me with some interesting additions about the Sartorius family in the second half of the 19th century. I had the pleasure of getting acquainted with them as well as their two sisters during the summer of 2002.

Lastly the reader will discover by himself through which chaining of chances I discovered the existence of American cousins and then found their track, before having the pleasure of meeting two of them, Mark and Barbara Bjelland, during a trip that they made to Paris in April 2005.

 

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As my writing goes on, the structure of my work does not evolve very much. After a chapter dealing with the origin of the name Sartorius and its expansion throughout the world, five chapters tackling the history of our family follow. The starting point was easy to determine. This is our oldest known, or rather alleged, ancestor. I found convenient to take my great-grand-father Ferdinand Sartorius, who died in 1901, as the ending point. Some day, maybe, I shall undertake to write down the history of the Sartorius family during the 20th century.

Yet the growing volume of the subject led me, for practical reasons, from the fourth version onwards, to break it in two volumes, a first one purely historical (History of the Sartorius family) and a second one purely genealogical (Genealogy of the Sartorius family). Of course this approach leads to some repetitions, but the bulk of it gains in easiness and evolutivity. The fourth version was the subject of an electronic distribution within the family. New findings and access to the naturalization record of my great-grand-father led me to undertake this fifth version that retains the same architecture.

An annex to the historical part reproduces some original documents relating the history of the family. They are mainly vital records with some comments. Some documents written by our ancestors themselves that have survived time, inheritance sharings and wars, can be also found there.

As regards the family genealogy, I endeavoured to make it as complete as possible. Yet I am pretty well aware of its deficiencies. Unfortunately younger generations are difficult to track because they awkwardly tend to multiply and to scatter.

 

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To conclude, I would like to thank all my readers, whether they belong to the family or not. The interest they took in reading my work and the remarks I benefited from some of them have been a great incentive for me to carry on and improve my work.

The five Germans relatives I already mentioned deserve a special mention: Mrs Leihener, Dr. Ulrich Liebermeister, Mr Christian Gödde, Mr Hartmut Sartorius and Mr Wilfried Sartorius. They helped me progress thanks to the archive and information they had access to as well as their knowledge of Germany. I do not want to forget Mark and Barbara Bjelland who gave me a CD containing pictures brought from Germany to the United States by Barbara's grand-father and orally commented by her father. May they all find here a token of my appreciation for their help and kindness.

 

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CHAPTER ONE

 

 

 

THE ORIGIN OF THE NAME

T

en centuries of obscurantism followed the fall of the Roman empire. Then, from the 14th until the 16th century, erudites, Italians first, French and Germans next, honoured again direct study of ancient literature, Hebraic, Greek and Latin. This renewed interest for ancient civilisations was called Renaissance. At that time, study of Greek and Latin developed prodigiously [3]. As a consequence of this renewed interest for dead languages, Latinisation or Hellenization of family names became fashionable. This phenomenon was particularly tangible in Germany during the 15th and 16th centuries. Educated families translated their German surname into Latin or Greek. The Fischer [fisher] became Piscator [4], the Kaufmann or Krämer [merchant] Mercator [5], the Sänger [singer] Cantor [6], the Schwarzerd [black earth] Melanchthon [7] and the Kuhhorn [cow horn] Bucer [8]. People bearing the name Schneider [tailor] or one of its variants Schnieder, Schröder, Schnier or Schrier, seized by this fever, changed their own name into Sartorius, a derived form of sartor which has the same meaning in Latin [9].

As a matter of fact, these Latin translations had been used well before the Renaissance. They go back at least as far as the 14th century. This is the case for the couple Schneider - Sartorius. The name Sartorius appears for the first time in 1381, in Germany, in Eschwege, about twenty kilometres from Kassel. His bearer was a certain Ekkehart Sartorius, a town councillor in Eschwege. Since then the name Sartorius can be followed in this town for about fifty years. So Lotze Sartorius, a bourgeois, could be met there in 1382, then Henrich Sartorius, prior of the Augustinians, between 1443 and 1447 and Johannes Sartorius, vicar of the general of the Augustinians in 1453 [10].

From the middle of the 15th century onward, the name Sartorius spreads all over Germany. In 1455 it can be found in this region of the upper Ruhr valley called Sauerland. Henricus Sartorius, a co-founder of the Cross brotherhood in Meschede [11], bears it. And, in 1459, Nikol Sartorius, from Dittenheim, in Bavaria, is listed among the people registered in Erfurt [12].

This only deals with individuals. This is still the case with most of the Sartorius' who can be met during the 15th and 16th centuries. In 1504, a Johannes Sartorius is a doctor of law in Lüneburg. In 1508, a Conradt Sartorius is the prior of the cloister of Goldbach, Bavaria. Also in 1508, a Zacharias Sartorius is a pastor primarius in Künzelsau. In 1518 a clergyman Sartorius can be found in Oldenburg. Another Sartorius becomes the chaplain of earl Christopher of Oldenburg in 1538. A Dr. Johannes Sartorius, a clergyman in Bremen and then in Osnabrück, is alluded to in 1521. In 1525 a Dietrich Sartorius becomes the first Protestant minister in Oberursel, after having been a priest in Mainz and Frankfurt [13]. A Johannes Sartorius, born about 1500, a philologist and theologian, dies in Amsterdam in 1566 [14]. A Balthasar Sartorius, born in Oschatz in 1534, becomes a professor of theology in Jena, then in Leipzig, before he dies in 1609 [15]. His son Georg, born in Grimma in 1570, dies in 1627 as a pastor in Reinstedt. A Zacharias Sartorius is a pastor in Oberrimpach between 1571 and 1578. An Andreas Sartorius, born in 1562, dies in 1617 in Frankfurt an der Oder where he was a professor. Lastly, in 1568, a Johannes Sartorius is a deacon in Penig, where he dies in 1612 [16].

 

 


Figure 1: emergence of the name Sartorius in Germany from 14th to 17th centuries

 

 

Though this dry enumeration is far from being exhaustive. At least it shows that the name Sartorius could be met throughout Germany. It was frequently borne by Protestant clergymen. This is easily understandable. Of course a prerequisite was to know Latin, before thinking of translating his name into this language. In this respect, clergymen were in a good position. Moreover, Reformation then was a very recent phenomenon. In 1517, Luther had posted his 95 propositions, written in Latin, on the door of the church of Wittenberg's castle [17]. Unlike their Roman Catholic counterparts, Protestant pastors had no longer to remain single. As a consequence they had descendants who could then perpetuate the name of their ancestor under its Latinised form.

All along the 16th century and at the beginning of the 17th century, Schneiders - Sartorius' hesitated between the German and the Latin form of their name. Here again examples could be multiplied. Let us simply mention Paul Schneider or Sartorius, an organist and a composer, born in Nuremberg in 1569 who died in Innsbruck in 1609. This is also the case for Erasmus Schneider or Sartorius, a writer, a musician and a composer, born in Schleswig about 1575 who died in Hamburg in 1637 [18]. And Johann Friedmann Schneider, a professor of philosophy in Halle, born in 1669, still hesitated between both forms [19].

 

 

image_2_E.png

Figure 2: the Sartorius root families in Germany

 

 

From the 17th century onward, the form Sartorius took definitely prevailed for some people. Yet, all these Sartorius' did not have a common origin. Today not less than 12 different Sartorius families, represented by more than 1 350 individuals, can be found in Germany [20]:

w one in Hohenstein and Langenschwalbach, in Hesse, tracked since 1470, a member of which emigrated to Paraguay [21].

w one in Kirchhain, in Upper-Hesse, tracked since 1570, a branch of which was ennobled by the king of Bavaria in 1827 under the name Sartorius von Waltershausen [22].

w one in Darmstadt, tracked since 1575, members of which emigrated to the Netherlands and Mexico [23].

w one in Franconia, tracked since 1583, which emigrated to Switzerland and a member of which settled in New York [24].

w one in Hachenburg, in Rhineland, tracked since 1595 [25].

w one in Franconia-Thuringia, tracked since 1610, members of which emigrated to Paris and America and other members of which founded lines in Vienna, Austria, and Malmö, Sweden [26].

 

 

image_3_E.png

Figure 3: expansion of the Sartorius families in Europe

 

 

w one in Aurich-Oldendorf, in East-Frisia, tracked since 1684. Several of its members emigrated to Illinois and it is still represented today in the United States [27].

w one in Bensheim, halfway between Darmstadt and Mannheim, tracked since the 17th century [28].

w one in Homberg, in Upper-Hesse, tracked since 1687, still represented in Germany, a member of which emigrated in the 19th century to Saint Louis, Missouri, United States [29].

w one in Coburg, tracked since 1739 [30].

w another one in Arnsberg, in Westphalia, tracked since 1757 [31].

w one in Niederlosheim, in Saarland, tracked since 1758, still represented by teachers, engineers, Catholic clergymen and mayors [32].

image_4.png

Figure 4: current distribution of the name Sartorius in Germany [33]

 

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During the 18th century Sartorius' appear in England. They were probably of German origin. Actually, when the Stuart dynasty died out in 1714, the elector of Hanover acceded to the throne of Great-Britain under the name of George I. In his wake a significant number of Germans, mainly artists, moved to England. The composer Händel is the most famous example of this [34]. As a matter of fact, an English family of painters of seascapes and horses of a certain fame, whose name was Sartorius, descended from Jacob Christopher Sartorius, an engraver in Nuremberg from 1674 to 1737 [35]. Among the bearers of the name, there is also an admiral of the Royal Navy, Sir George Rose Sartorius, whose father, a native of Wurttemberg, had entered the service of the East India Company [36].

 

 

thm_francissartoriusgreyhunterwuthownerandterrierinriverland     T02369_8.jpg

Figure 5: paintings by Francis and John Nost Sartorius

 

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During the 17th and 18th centuries, a Sartorius family could be also found in Visé, in the principality of Liège. Father Sartorius is his most known representative. Accused of having slaughtered his mistress, he was condemned to capital sentence after a sensational trial. He died in Liège under horrible torture on 3rd March 1779. A brother of Father Sartorius, Gérard Joseph, led a more exemplary life. A doctor of medicine, he was ennobled by the emperor of Austria under the name of Josef von Sartori [37].

 

 

de_Sartorius_Virginie

Figure 6: painting by Virginie de Sartorius

 

 

This family seems to have died out in the person of a Miss Virginie de Sartorius, born in 1828, flower painter who exhibited in Liège [38]. She was the daughter of Joseph Henri Antoine de Sartorius, bookseller in that city, and likely granddaughter of the above mentioned Josef von Sartori [39].

Let us also mention the existence of a Spanish Sartorius family likely also of German origin. His members bear the title of counts of San Luis and are grandees of Spain. In particular, this family gave Spain Luis Jose Sartorius Tapia, viscount of Priego and count of San Luis (1820-1871), minister and chairman of the Cortes [40]. Today it counts two members who were the talk of the town. The first one is a barrister, Nicolás Sartorius, who became first vice-secretary general, i.e. number 2, of the Spanish communist party, in 1981 [41]. The second one is Isabel Sartorius whose love affairs upset with the prince of Asturias delighted a certain press around 1992 [42].

 

 

Sartorius_Tapia_Luis_Jose.jpg

Figure 7: Luis Jose Sartorius Tapia

 

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I was even surprised to discover the existence of Sartorius in Russia. At the end of 2010, a Mr Albert Sartorius wrote to me in a perfect German that his grand-father, Robert Sartorius, whom he sent me a photo of in a Red Army uniform, was born in 1913 in a colony of Volga Germans called Brunnental. He added that during the German attack in June 1941, Stalin had destroyed these settlements, destroyed their records and banned the settlers, many of whom lost their lives. He directed at me because he had gathered evidence that suggested to him that his great-grand-father, Ferdinand Sartorius, was of French origin [43].

 

 

Robert Sartorius

Figure 8: Robert Sartorius in uniform of the Red Army

 

 

Surprised by that last statement, I dug into the subject. The history of the Volga Germans is known. To develop her states, Empress Catherine II, herself a German princess, let German peasants come, whom she distributed pieces land to, mainly around Saratov, on the Volga. From 1764 to 1767, 30 000 of them, ruined by the Seven Years' War, began the journey from Rhineland, Northern Bavaria, Hesse and Palatinate to Russia. They were 400 000 at the end of the 19th century. The two World wars, in particular World War II, put them in a difficult position between their homeland and their adopted country. From August 1941 on, they were transported in appalling conditions. They had to wait for a decree of the Supreme Soviet of 1964 to be rehabilitated. From the years 1960 onward, some could return to Germany, then the movement accelerated with the fall of the communist regime. That is probably what happened to the family of my correspondent. This is for the main lines [44].

I have not found any trace of Sartorius in Brunnental, founded in 1855 on the left bank of the Volga by settlers from Frank, Kolb, Norka and Walter, villages themselves created in 1767 by Germans from Hesse [45]. In contrast I found some Sartorius as early as 1798 in the village of Nieder-Monjou, founded in 1767 northeast of Saratov. The 1857 census indicates there a Michael Sartorius, 52 years old, his wife, two sons and two grandchildren, and a Dorothea Sartorius, 27 years old, married to Johann Peter Schmidt. This is probably where to look for the family of my correspondent [46]. Actually, it is likely that all the Russian Sartorius' do not belong to one and the same family. The first Sartorius to settle on the banks of the Volga would have been a certain Friedrich Wilhelm, born about 1734. Weaver of Lutheran confession, he is written down on the lists of German settlers in 1766 and in the fifth census of Nieder-Monjou in 1798 that describes him as originating from Palatinate. As for the ancestor of my correspondent, he would have been Johann Friedrich Sartorius, born on 7 August 1736 in Nentershausen, in Hesse-Kassel, great-great-grand-son of Johann Andreas Sartorius, born in Eschwege on 21 January 1628 and pastor in Nentershausen [47].

 

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Lastly, the Sartorius who can be met in the United States [48] and Mexico [49] from the 19th century onward are mainly, if not all, descendants of the above mentioned German families. Among the Canadian Sartorius families, at least one descends from a German soldier in the service of the United Kingdom, who, at the end of the American War of Independence, which he had taken part in, settled in neighbouring Canada, which had remained loyal to the British crown [50]. As for the Polish Sartorius, they certainly are the descendants of German settlers in Pomerania and Silesia [51].

Today, one can also find the name Sartorius in South Africa, Argentina, Ireland and Italy. It likely comes from Germany or the Netherlands in the first case, from Germany or Spain in the second one, and from Germany, through England in the third one. The origin of the Italian Sartorius remains unknown [52].

 

 

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Figure 9: expansion of the name Sartorius outside Europe

 

 

The following table gives an estimate of the number of people bearing the name Sartorius today in the main countries of the world where it can be found.

 

 

Country

Number of people bearing the name

Sartorius

Austria

Belgium

France

Germany

Ireland

Italy

Netherlands

Poland

Spain

Switzerland

United Kingdom

 

South-Africa

 

Argentina

Canada

Mexico

United States

 

10 [53]

10 [54]

161 [55]

1 397 [56]

3 [57]

17 [58]

66 [59]

7 [60]

84 [61]

93 [62]

68 [63]

 

17 [64]

 

79 [65]

10 [66]

44 [67]

502 [68]

 

Figure 10: number of people bearing the name Sartorius throughout the world

 

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And what about France, will you ask? An upper class family in Metz can be found as early as the first half of the 16th century. It was among others represented by Claude Sartorius, dead at the age of 75 in 1588, master in liberal arts and notary, his son Charles, dead in 1625, master alderman, changer and one of the Thirteen, and by his grand-son Charles, lord of Charly and Loyville in part, dead at the age of 77 in 1671, aman of Saint Médard, advisor to the bailyship. The presence of this family in Metz goes back to at a time when the city was still an imperial free city, since it was occupied by French troops only in 1552. It is therefore quite possible that it originated in the Germanic world. The name died out in any case in girls the next century [69].

Except Metz, the oldest mention of the name of Sartorius that I have found dates back to 1754, during the reign of Louis XV. That year, a Sartorius, banker, and his associate, a certain Tourton, teamed with Christophe Jean Baur, a citizen of Geneva, to create a bank. Baur was an influential person and a well-known freemason. He had already established a lending bank, rue Saint Sauveur in Paris. The alliance of these three persons gave birth to an important bank known as Tourton and Baur and headquartered place des Victoires [70].

The name of this first French Sartorius was Henri Charles Chrétien Sartorius. He was born in Eisenach in Saxony, was a Protestant and a banker and received in 1770 great chancery letters granting him the French citizenship [71]. He died at home in Paris, rue du Petit Lion Saint Sauveur, on 16 May 1784 of goutte remontée et de fièvre maligne and was buried in the foreigner's cemetery [72].

At the beginning of the French Revolution, there was also in Paris a Dutch banker whose name was Sartorius. As a country of Roman Catholic tradition, France of the 18th century still was reluctant to handle money. As a consequence, it let the financial jobs to Protestants. Among those, the citizens of Geneva and the Dutch had a well-established reputation. Therefore, it is not impossible that this banker Sartorius actually was a German wrongly considered by Parisians as a Dutchman. By the way, he likely was a son of the person alluded to above.

In 1787, he operated under his own name, Sartorius, banker, rue de Bourbon-Villeneuve, then under the name Sartorius and Co. as early as the following year [73]. He was then involved in the Favras case. To put it in a nutshell, this murky case looks as follows. At the end of 1789, the count of Provence, the future Louis XVIII, conspired. He was likely trying to overthrow his brother Louis XVI and take over the power. To do so he needed money. The cautious earl of Provence used a go-between, Thomas de Mahy, marquis of Favras. Favras spoke to Sartorius and his associate, Mr David, who lent him a significant sum. The information spread out. Favras, a gallant soldier but a naive conspirator, was trapped. Accused of high treason, he was sentenced to death. Some people let him then think that he would be rescued in the last moment as long as he would not talk. This is why Favras, still candid, was hung without having talked. The count of Provence had not made a single gesture in his favour [74].

The bank does not seem to have been affected by this case, since the Affiches, annonces et avis divers ; ou Journal général de France [Posters, advertisements and various notices; or general journal of France] issued in May 1793 the following notice:

A man of 33 years, German by nation, who has served, able to speak French, write, very clever, very skilful, clever at all and with good respondents, would wish to be concierge or gatekeeper in a good house or find any other position in Paris or for travel. Contact the gatekeeper of citizen Sartorius, banker, rue Neuve de l'Egalité, formerly Bourbon-Villeneuve, n° 65 [75].

As a matter of fact, as early as 1791, Sartorius had teamed with a certain Schuchardt and the business became Sartorius, Schuchardt and Co. [76]. In the year V of the Republic of France (1796-1797), the bank moved to rue des Mauvaises Paroles, n° 456. The year after it came back rue Neuve de l'Egalité. Then, from year X (1801-1802) onward, the name Sartorius disappears and it became Schuchardt and Co. [77].

 

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Under the First Empire, a Georg von Sartorius, from Aachen, settled in Paris as an ophthalmologist. He was working there in 1812 [78]. Another German, Carl Friedrich Ferdinand Sartorius, settled as a publisher and bookseller in 1845 in Paris where he died in 1866 [79]. He had begun working in Eisenach and Vienna. He then came to France where he started as an export agent, sending to Germany newspapers with a large circulation such as L'Illustration, L'Image and L'Artiste. Arsène Houssaye used to write articles in this latter paper, which Sartorius was the publisher of from 1848 onward. This Sartorius, who was one of the Germans of Paris best assimilated to the French environment, managed to adapt to the sales techniques used by Parisian booksellers. Sensitive to fashion, he saw the vogue of illustrated books come and specialised in art books. He also embarked on mass publications. At the end of his career, he bet successfully on mass production of cheap books with a large circulation thanks to entirely mechanized techniques. However this did not prevent him from being the friend of men of letters such as Théophile Gautier and Gérard de Nerval [80].

Sartorius can also be met in Strasbourg in the 19th century, after an original route. At the beginning were Johann Tobias Sartorius and Maria Catharina Stadler, a protestant couple of Landau in the Palatinate. They had one son, Johann Daniel, who married in 1708 to Maria Catharina Paebst or Päpstin. They had several children, including Johann Tobias who married in 1738 in Landau to Anna Margareta Britzin. This last couple had many children, including Johann Jacob, born in Landau on 14 December 1740 [81]. Johann Jacob left Germany and settled as a merchant in Nantes, where he francized his first names in Jean Jacques [82].  He worked there for the trade house Wilfelsheim and Anthus, founded by Germans [83]. Nantes was then booming, thanks to the slave trade and the triangular trade between Europe, Africa and America. With 200 armed ships, it was the largest port in Europe in 1785 [84]. Jean Jacques Sartorius perfectly inserted in the Nantes society. He lived in La Fosse [85]. This wharf on the banks of the Loire was enlarged in the middle of the 18th century by ship-owners wanting to find a large site to meet their growing needs. It concentrated the traffic in cotton, exotic woods and tobacco brought from Martinique, Guadeloupe, Santo Domingo and the Americas by the slave ships of Nantes. It also dealt with other colonial luxury products such as cocoa, coffee, and, especially as regards Nantes, sugar, which became fashionable among the nobility and the upper bourgeoisie, before extending to the bourgeoisie as a whole [86].

Jean Jacques Sartorius married Rose Eulalie Piffeteau, daughter of a building contractor [87] and related to merchant families of Nantes. They had at least five children, baptized Catholic, including Nicolas Frédéric in 1782. The act of burial of their first child, stillborn, in the records of the parish of Saint Nicolas of Nantes in October 1781 speaks well of them as spouses [88]. Curiously enough, as both of them were staying separately in Paris in August 1782, he at the hôtel de Londres, rue du Colombier, and she, six and a half months pregnant, at Mr. Seyleer's, pension master, avenue de l'Ecole royale militaire, they passed a marriage contract before a Paris notary that mentions their wedding to be celebrated incessantly. The wealth of the groom was valued at 6 000 pounds and that of the bride at 3 000 [89]. Jean Jacques Sartorius died in Nantes in 1805 [90].

In 1808, during the passage of Napoleon to Nantes, Nicolas Frédéric Sartorius figured, alongside offsprings of the bourgeoisie of Nantes, in the guard of honour set up for the occasion [91]. Seven years later, however, he was found merchant clerk in Strasbourg, where he had just made a child to the daughter of a wagoner, Marie Anne Gries. He married the mother two years later and had six more children from her [92]. He died probably mad at the sanatorium of Dr. Gillet at Grande Malgrange, near Nancy in 1828 [93]. His offspring perpetuated in Strasbourg for nearly a century and his son François Isidore Auguste died in German Strasbourg in 1904 [94]. To escape the German military service, one of his grandchildren, Charles Theodore, born in Strasbourg in 1863, went to France on the eve of his twenty years. However considerer as German on this side of the Vosges, he joined the Foreign Legion. He served with the 2nd Foreign Regiment in Algeria in 1883 and 1884 and Tonkin from 1884 to 1887. He rose rapidly through the ranks since in 1887 he was a sergeant-major. The same year, he was naturalized French and followed the course of the Ecole militaire d'infanterie [Infantry military school]. Appointed second lieutenant in the 1st Foreign Regiment in 1888, he returned to Algeria, before being sent the following year to Tonkin, where he died of cholera October 13, 1890, at the age of 27 [95].

Let us finish with a Sartorius family straddling France and England. Louis Jacques Sartorius, born in Lemberg, in department Moselle, in 1820, was a glass worker. He worked at Cristallerie lyonnaise when he married in 1845 in La Guillotière, near Lyon, Marie Anne Humbrecht, from Alsace. After the birth of a son to Paris in 1848, the couple landed at Folkestone in October 1848 and moved to Birmingham [96] where births followed one another for twenty years. Louis Jacques was acting in his glass blower craft and died there in 1892. His wife died the following year [97]. One son, Charles, who was silver chaser, returned to Paris, where he married in 1884. He left a son, Charles Louis Auguste, born the following year [98], but himself died in 1887 in Birmingham [99]. Louis Edward, younger brother of Charles, also moved to Paris, where he married in 1894, a manufacturer of military caps in the Marais quarter. Widowed the following year, he married again in 1896 with another manufacturer of caps, whom he had four sons from, the eldest of, Charles Louis [100], died for France at the age 21 in a military hospital in December 1918 [101].

 

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However, there is nothing in common between all these Sartorius and our own family as we shall see.

Before turning this page, let us add that there are about 170 people bearing the name Sartorius in France, but that, except more or less fifteen, all belong to our family [102].


 

 

 

 

Figure 11: current distribution of the Sartorius in France


 

 

 

 

Figure 12: distribution of the Sartorius births in France between 1891 and 1990 [103]

 

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CHAPTER TWO

 

 

 

OUR FIRST ANCESTORS

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fter what has just been said, you will not be surprised to learn that our family is of German ascent. Its roots are located some hundred kilometres east of Düsseldorf, in the region of Meschede, a tiny city of Sauerland. Sauerland is this part of Germany formed by the northern edge of the Rhenish Massif, which the Ruhr river flows at the foot of. It looks like a vast plateau cut by deeply embanked valleys, in which tributaries of the Ruhr flow. Meschede stands at the confluence of one of them. Before the Ruhr valley was industrialised in the 19th century, it was an agricultural region.

If we now look back several centuries, the state we now call Germany did not exist. The Holy Roman Empire stood in its place. Originating from the dismemberment of the empire of Charlemagne, the Holy Empire presented itself as a mosaic of territories subject to the sovereignty of an elected emperor, without great own resources and therefore without great power [104]. So, during the 18th century, the Holy Roman Empire was still divided into 1 789 various entities. Sovereign at home, all of them reported directly to the emperor. However only 294 out of them sent representatives to the Empire diet, or Reichstag: 80 ecclesiastical seigneuries, 163 secular seigneuries and 51 free towns [105].

One of these entities was the duchy of Westphalia, which belonged to the archbishop elector of Cologne [106]. In the feudal framework, this duchy was in its turn subdivided into vassal fiefs. Thus the region of Meschede was ruled by a chapter of ladies founded in the 9th century. This chapter counted twenty canonesses and ten priests, subject to Saint Benedict's rule. It only admitted girls from noble families. These young ladies did not pronounce vows and could marry if the opportunity presented. They freely elected their abbess, who was the suzerain [Lehnsherrin] of the properties of the seigneury [Grundherrschaft]. The temporal properties of the chapter of Meschede were huge. The important sums which the canonesses brought in dowries, together with the donations of kings, bishops, counts and pious faithful, contributed to the richness of the chapter. A bailiff [Vogt] relieved the chapter of its secular duties since a standing incompetence kept the clergy from fulfilling certain secular offices. He then looked after the administration of the chapter's properties and protection of its temporal. He also looked after hiring and commanding soldiers that had to be provided to the suzerain. Lastly he carried out the justice of the chapter justice. In practice, the office of Vogt became hereditary in the family of the earls of Arnsberg.

 

 

Rhénanie_1789

Figure 13: political Rhineland in the 18th century

 

 

As early as the 10th century, the chapter of Meschede played an important economic role in the region. Emperor Otto I had given it market rights and custom duties. In the 11th century, the chapter, one of the richest of Westphalia, already owned more than four hundred farms of different sizes, covering 6 500 hectares and whose revenues came from fees payed by the farmers. Moreover the chapter was suzerain of various neighbouring parishes and of the farms which depended on them. In 1310, the decadence of manners led to the replacement of the chapter of women by a community of fifteen canons. At the time of the Reformation, the chapter of Meschede defended the Roman Catholic faith. Once again in decadence in the 17th century, it disappeared, as a temporal power, in the secularization of 1803 [107].

In the 14th century, the archbishop of Cologne, duke of Westphalia and suzerain [Landsherr] of the region, granted freedom to the community of inhabitants of Meschede. This gave it the right to administer itself and a limited right of justice. Then there were 60 households. The city was not fortified, but had gates and had a militia. In 1536, Meschede still had only 90 households and 430 inhabitants [108].

 

 

Westphalie_1789

Figure 14: the duchy of Westphalia

 

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Henricus Sartorius, a co-founder in 1455 of the brotherhood of the Cross [Kreuzbruderschaft] in Meschede, appears in this context. We already met him as one of the oldest people bearing the name [109]. The brotherhood of the Cross was one of those pious associations which developed in the Middle Age. Placed under the patronage of a patron saint, they organized religious ceremonies, including their patronal feast, assured mutual assistance among their members and relieved the poors [110]. Parallel to a public manifestation of the faith, the brotherhood tried to bring a social answer to the misery of the time. In this pre-industrial society, poverty had many faces: it was due to illness, to a high number of children, to the age, to the death of the foster father, and so on. If part of the income of the brotherhood was used to organize religious ceremonies, another would improve the lot of the poor. The brotherhood of the Cross had its vicary in Saint Walburga church of Meschede which guarded a cruciform reliquary in silver containing a piece of the cross of Christ. This Kreuzbruderschaft was opened to any married bourgeois of the city who was to provide half a pound of wax upon his admission and undertake to put the brotherhood in his will so that Godes deynst vermert werde [God's service is increased]. The founding document of the brotherhood of 5 August 1455 lists the income which is granted to it and provides, inter alia, that:

 

 

kreuzbr-urkunde

Figure 15: founding document of the Kreuzbruderschaft in Meschede in 1455 quoting the name of Henricus Sartorius

 

 

Item, a revenue or a pension of four pennies, as they are in use in Meschede, will be paid every year with a view to looking after the little house of Heinrich Sartorius that stands in the cemetery of Meschede's church [domuncula in cemiterio ecclesiae Meschedensis], together four Mark of the same value [111].

However, except the similarity of location, nothing comes to support the assumption that this Henricus Sartorius could be our oldest known ancestor [112].

Things are quite different with Herman Snider who appears at the beginning of the 16th century. Even if we are not in a position to draw the formal filiation for such a distant period, it is however likely. This Herman Snider is mentioned in the recognitions of the chapter of Meschede [Lehns-Akten des Stiftes Meschede] in 1513, when he was vested with the Schemhof in Immenhausen, one of Meschede's hamlets [113]. In German, the name Hof, among other meanings, refers to a farm with its buildings and fields [Bauernhof [114]]. Literally, the Schemhof is Schem's farm. It was one of the four hundred farms that depended on the abbey of Meschede. The tax registers of the representatives to the Diet [Schatzungregister der Landstände] of the duchy of Westphalia for 1536 mention him with the name Hermann Schnider under the heading parish and justice of Meschede, Immenhuißen for one gold florin [115].

 

 

ferme_Westphalie_1

Figure 16: a farm in Westphalia (front and back)

 

 

In these ancient times, agriculture was based on the model of the three-year rotation of crops that lasted until the middle of the 19th century. Rye, barley and oats were cultivated there. Oats which were satisfied with mediocre soils or fallows, made it possible to obtain a manure sufficient for the cultivation of barley. The cattle and pigs were kept in a common herd by a community-appointed shepherd. They were grazing in the fields, which were the subject of joint exploitation from 15 October to 15 April. Cows could graze in the fields as long as they were not sown, in pasture and undergrowth. The pigs grazed in swamps and in the woods and, as soon as harvest was done, in the stubble [116].

The status of Herman Snider was probably comparable to that of farmers one could meet in the great cereal plains of Northern France during the 17th and 18th centuries. There the lords leased their farms and land to ploughmen - farmers - who brought the operating equipment, cattle, plough, tools, etc. Farming freed the lessor from the concerns of direct management. On the other hand, it needed good farmers. As a matter of fact, those had to have a significant amount of cash available. Actually, even before they could think of paying the lease owed to the landlord and before the first harvests, they had to pay for all the expenses of the farm. Those mainly included the wages of domestic staff. Indeed, the farmer's family was not enough to cope with all tasks the farm needed: ploughing, carriage, trade of products, maintenance of buildings and equipment. When summer had come, he still had to hire a temporary workforce for harvests. Since long, these families of farmers formed genuine dynasties linked together through marriages and business. Gradually, they imposed themselves to the lords. So these ones had to acknowledge the family as the lessee, even if they could no more freely choose their farmers [117].

As far as this model is applicable to Northern Germany in the 16th century, it leads one to believe that the successors of Herman Snider to the Schemhof belonged to his family, if not his descendants. Thus, in 1543, it is Thewes [diminutive of Matthäus] Schneider is invested with the Schemhof and imposed for half a gold gulden [118]. The tax registers of 1565 mention him under the name of Thewuß Schneider, pauper [poor]. He could be a son of Herman.

The name Schemhof disappears then. Then we must jump to 1689 to see a Jobst [diminutive of Jodocus] Schneider, said Honerhansen, invested with the Schemhof. Meanwhile, there is a mention that the chapter of Meschede had invested somebody with the Hühnerhans-Hof, the farm of Hühnerhans, in Immenhausen, which the tax registers of the 16th century do not allude to [119]. Thus, in December 1599, a tax register mentions an Adam Honerhans, of Immenhausen, rich enough to pay an annual fee of some hundred litres of oats, four chicken and 11,5 schilling, and, every twelve years, a cow and a lamb [120]. Around 1615, another register describes the parts and charges [Stücke und Lasten] of Henrich Schnieders, said Hühnerhans. In 1669, it was Josten [diminutive of Jodocus] Schneider, said Honerhans, who was vested with the Hühnerhans-Hof. In 1700 this is the turn of a Jobsten [a nickname for Jodocus] Schnieders, said Honerhans, and in 1725 a Johann Schneider, said Hühnerhans. The name of Schneider then disappears among the tenants of the Hühnerhans-Hof in favour of that of Fuchte [121]. On the other hand, the nickname of Hühnerhans remains. Thus in 1743 and 1764 there was a Henrich Fuchte, said Hühnerhans, in 1787 and in 1793 an Anton Fuchte, said Hühnerhans [122], in 1814 an Anton Theodor Fuchte, said Honerhaus  [sic], probably the same as the preceding one, still in 1840 an Adam Fuchte, said Huenerhans [123].

One can therefore risk the hypothesis that all these Schneiders or Schnieders, said Hühnerhans, belonged to the same family as the Sniders invested with the Schemhof in the 16th century. It is possible that the Hühnerhans-Hof is nothing but the Schemhof, which simply changed its name to the nickname of its occupant. Henrich Schnieders, said Hühnerhans, probably born around 1570, could then be a son of Adam Honerhans and a grand-son of Matthäus Snider.

At the beginning of the 17th century, there was also a Hans Schniers, of the Schneiderhof, in Immenhausen. This Schneiderhof name means nothing other than Schneider farm or Sartorius farm. Simple operator or more likely owner, Hans Schniers was therefore at the head of a good-sized property. This Hans Schniers also bore the nickname Hühnerhans. The presumption is strong that this Hühnerhans family is one and the same with a Hünersrohne family that is also met momentarily in Remblinghausen. This would make it possible to explain the curious name of Hühnerhans, which means John of the Chicken, in the following way. Hühnerhans would be the contraction of Hühnerrohren Hans [John Hühnerrohren]. As for this name of Hühnerrohren, it would come from a feudal custom itself [124]. The person who moved into a new house had to pay a tax in kind in the form of chicken [Hühner] known as the Rauchhühner [chicken of smoke]. There was therefore a bailiff of the chickens [Hühnervogt or Hühnerfrohn], charged with collecting this tax [125].

At this stage, there is a need to clarify how surnames were built in Westphalia. The name of the farm mattered and enabled the identification of the family that lived in it. The family initially gave its name to the farm. As said above, the name of the farm of the Schneider family was Schneiderhof. When, through a marriage or an heritage, the farm passed to another family, this one added to its own surname the name of the farm preceded with words such as genannt in German, dictus or modo in Latin that we have translated above by said. A Schneider who inherited the Hühnerhans-Hof then became Schneider, said Hühnerhans. This system disappeared only slowly during the 19th century, as Westphalia passed under Prussian ruling [126].

 

 

Figure 17: Remblinghausen and its surroundings

 

 

In the second half of the 17th century, a farm called Röttgers-Hof, Röttger's farm, stood in Blüggelscheidt, near Meschede. It was held by a family of the same name and belonged to the abbey of Meschede. A member of it, Christian Röttgers, had married Anna Maria Kötter, heiress of the Kötterhof in Immenhausen. It happened that they chose members of the Schneider family as godfathers or godmothers of three of their children: Conrad in 1666, Elisabeth in 1670 and Christian in 1673. Therefore a relation existed certainly between both families Röttger and Schneider. This would explain why, about 1655 or 1660, the Röttgers-Hof went to, and likely was bought by, Philipp Schnier, or Schneider, said Hühnerhans, from Immenhausen [127]. One can imagine that Philipp, born about 1595, was the son of Henrich Schnieders, said Hühnerhans. Now we stand on safer grounds [128], even if it remains difficult to ascertain the relations among the many Sartorius from the region of Meschede in the second half of the 17th century. Actually, a review of Remblinghausen's church books reveals the existence at this time of at least eight Schnieder or Schnier families: four in Blüggelscheidt, one in Löllinghausen, one in Frielinghausen and two in Remblinghausen itself [129].

 

 


Figure 18: the first Sartorius

 

 

This name of Remblinghausen is that of a locality a few kilometres south of Meschede, which appears in 1241 or 1242 with the mention of a certain Sifridus de Remelinchusen. The noble family, which he belonged to, occupied the great farm of Meschede [Mescheder Haupthof] in Remblinghausen and was at the service of the earls of Arnsberg, Vogte of the chapter of Meschede. Actually two thirds of Remblinghausen's farms belonged to the latter. The others belonged to the abbey of Grafschaft or were free noble equestrian properties [freiadlige Rittergüter]. The year 1263 saw the erection of Remblinghausen in parish under the patronage of Saint James the Great. The cantor of the chapter of Meschede enjoyed the right of presentation there. In 1368, Remblinghausen was bought, together with the whole of the county of Arnsberg, by the elector of Cologne. Around 1550, the village had about 470 inhabitants in 70 homes. Today Remblinghausen is a charming little village with houses, some white, others with walls covered with slate, grouped around its church [130].

Philipp Schnier, said Hühnerhans, from Immenhausen, had married a woman, whose first name is the only thing we know about her, Agatha. He had eight children, born between 1625 and 1645, out of which four boys whom we will meet again soon. They are Conrad, born about 1625, Caspar, born about 1628, Dietrich born about 1639 and Peter born about 1640 [131].

 

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The children of Philipp Schnier, said Hühnerhans, experienced war almost uninterruptedly throughout their lives. As for Caspar, who died at the exceptional age of 99 years in 1727, he lived it for the first 85 years of his existence.

Actually, since 1618, Germany was ravaged by the Thirty Years' war. The origin of this conflict was religious. Despite the provisions of the Peace of Augsburg (1555), the Protestant princes continued to secularize Church property. About 1608, they formed an armed league, the Evangelical Union, dominated by the Calvinists. In the other camp, the Jesuits led the Counter-Reformation vigorously. The two great Roman Catholic states, Austria and Bavaria, supported them with all their might. They formed the Holy Catholic League, led by the duke of Bavaria. On 23 May 1618, the Czech Protestant insurgents defenestrated lieutenants of the king of Bohemia, the Habsburg Ferdinand II, in Prague. In doing so, they set fire to the powders. The conflict degenerated rapidly into an inter-German war, between Austria and Bavaria on one side, and the Protestant princes on the other. Its first ten years benefited so well in the Catholic camp that in 1629 Ferdinand II was about to restore imperial authority.

 

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The first operations of the Thirty Years' war took place in Bohemia, the Palatinate and Northern Germany, on the borders with Denmark [132]. They affected little Westphalia more concerned with witchcraft than with war. As a matter of fact, between 1626 and 1631, Germany experienced its biggest witch hunt of all time. The wave reached the Sauerland during in the summer of 1628. The lack of archives makes it impossible to pinpoint the phenomenon. However, at the very least, 650 accused, including three-quarters of women, ended up at the stake. The justice of Remblinghausen thus had to deal with cases of witchcraft.

Apart from cases of relapses, ecclesiastical courts generally had a cautious approach to witchcraft. On the other hand, the secular courts, which were generally seized of the cases of the case were far from showing the same restraint. Many nobles had their own justice, of which they had no account to anyone. No higher authority interfered with these seigniorial courts. Nor did they offer any appeal circuit, even though some defendants managed to escape prosecution through the intermediary of the archbishop of Cologne. The local aldermen and judges were often overwhelmed by academic jurists who, on the pretext of advising them, left them only a role of extras. It was the questioning of witnesses that established the good or bad reputation of the accused. It was therefore of consequence. As for the accused themselves, they were rarely heard. The same was true of their defenders, in the rare cases in which they were granted. The courts knew of only three penalties, imprisonment, torture, which, by the confession it extracted, almost always led to death, and condemnation to death. Witches were usually held as members of a diabolical sect that met on the Sabbath to cast spells. So there were few individual trials. Accomplices were looked for. Torture drew many names. It then led to an avalanche of convictions. Prosecutions only ceased when they threatened the very existence of the local society or in the rare cases where an accused resisted torture. In the Sauerland, the representatives to the Diet, in particular the bailiff [Landdrost] Friedrich von Fürstenberg and his adviser Dr. Heinrich von Schultheiß, from Arnsberg, asked to be more closely associated to the repression.

 

 

Figure 19: execution of witches

 

 

We are still wondering about the causes of this witch hunt. It does not appear that the archbishop elector of Cologne and duke of Westphalia, Ferdinand of Bavaria, was concerned with it. The Thirty Years' war gave him many other concerns. The movement seems mainly due to the zeal of jurists and nobles eager to please the people. In a period of distress, it was looking for a scapegoat. The early 17th century had been marked by poor harvests and frost periods. In Meschede the price of rye had been multiplied by three between 1619 and 1626. It then reached 52 and even 65 schilling a bushel, a price never before seen. After a temporary decline, it returned to 52 schilling a bushel in 1629 and 1630. In addition, epidemics had increased mortality in 1625, 1626 and 1629. To tell the truth, these catastrophes were not yet attributable to the Thirty Years' war which was then played in Northern Germany. Conversely, the epidemic of plague which affected almost all of Germany in 1635 and 1636 and caused a mortality much higher than that of the period from 1625 to 1629 did not provoke a new witch hunt. It is true that in this period of military operations and darkest misery, justice was dormant. The judges had sheltered themselves behind the walls of the great cities. Thus, infamous Dr. Heinrich von Schultheiß, from Arnsberg, the great witch hunter already mentioned, had taken refuge in Cologne [133].

 

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Anxious about the success of the Habsburgs against the Protestant princes and their growing power, Richelieu aroused an enemy. He had first pushed the king of Denmark Christian IV. From 1631, he supported the formidable king of Sweden Gustavus II Adolph. Finally, in 1635, the war became international with the official war of France and Spain. It was not until 1648 and the signing of the treaties of Westphalia that peace returned to Germany. The price of the conflict was very heavy. The warlords in the service of princes fought almost entirely for their own interest. Mercenaries of all nationalities, often poorly paid and poorly supplied, crossed and crossed the country. They committed innumerable depredations and atrocities of all kinds. Many parts of Germany experienced famine, epidemics, looting, violence, massacres and destructions. The Thirty Years' war left a demographic and economic vacuum in Germany. It is estimated that during these thirty years of misfortune the German population decreased from 16 million to 6 million inhabitants only! At the return of peace, the lands were wastelands, whole villages destroyed and abandoned, the transmission of knowledge interrupted. Germany will take two centuries to recover [134].

From 1631, the Sauerland suffered particularly from the second phase of the war. In 1634 landgrave William of Hesse, allied to the Swedes, laid siege to Arnsberg, defended by an Imperial garrison. The Hessian lansquenets reigned the insecurity throughout the whole region and brought the plague. The dreaded Swedish troops operated there in 1636 and 1637. The French troops and those of their Hessian allies spent the winter of 1641 in Westphalia and in the electorate of Cologne, where they lived on the country. In 1646, General Douglas, in the service of Sweden, marched with 14 regiments of cavalry on Arnsberg, which he did not succeed in taking. His reiters requisitioned a number of horses in the region. And in 1648, short before the signing of the treaties of Westphalia, there were still Swedes in the region. The war did not spare either Meschede or its surroundings [135]. The church of Meschede, where the coadjutor of the archbishop of Cologne had managed to give for the first time for a long time the sacrament of confirmation to 200 people on 22 November 1640 [136], was plundered thirteen times, before being destroyed [137]. In 1635, lansquenets plundered Eversberg. The city was crossed by the troops, plundered, ransomed and decimated by the plague [138]. In 1636, Grevenstein had to pay a forced contribution and was struck by the plague brought in by the soldiers [139]. Freienohl had 45 houses in 1563. Its population grew during the next half century. However, in 1652, after the war and the plague epidemic of 1636 and 1637, there were only 38 inhabited and 22 abandoned houses [140]. In 1640, it was Remblinghausen's turn to be ransomed [141].

 

 

Callot_2

Figure 20: Jacques Callot, Plundering and burning of a village

 

 

Yet the inhabitants of Sauerland had not lost hope as this inscription written by a peasant on the house he had just rebuilt evidences:

An awful war, plague, murders and fires

Devastated the whole country.

We were even teared off from ground.

An elder and a child were the only ones to remain.

Yet we looked trustfully to Heaven with faith.

And we trusted in the strength of our fists.

First we ploughed the fields,

Then, after years, this house was rebuilt.

Through our striving, working and looking up,

We removed hunger and misery.

May God protect this house from murders and fires

And keep our little beloved country [142].

Westphalia had still to suffer from the wars of the reign of Louis XIV, notably the war of the League of Augsburg, in which the prince-bishop of Cologne, Joseph Clement of Bavaria, had taken the side of the Sun King, whose subsidies, qualified by a German historian of Verräterlohn [salary of the traitor], allowed him to lead a sumptuous lifestyle. Only then it experienced 45 years of relative peace from 1713 to 1757, from the treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt to the Seven Years' war. The French troops of Broglie and Soubise, the Hessian and Prussian troops, those of the bishop of Münster, crossed the Sauerland, plundered it and demanded heavy contributions of war. The castle of Arnsberg was destroyed. Germany finally lived thirty years of absolute peace from the treaty of Hubertsburg, which put an end to the Seven Years' war until the wars of the French Revolution in 1793 [143].

 

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When peace returned, about 1655, Philipp Schneider, or Schnier, said Hühnerhans, and his wife Agatha settled in Blüggelscheidt. It was there that Philipp died on 10 June 1670. Around 1660, he had ceded the Röttgers-Hof to his son Conrad. The name Röttgers-Hof then disappeared, replaced by that of Coershof, itself derived from Cordes, Cohers or Coers, diminutives of Conrad [144]. It was a large estate. The Schatzregister der Landstände [tax register of the representatives to the Diet] for 1685 states:

Blüggelscheidt (first class) Cortz: 2 Thaler, out of which wife 1 Thaler, old mother-in-law 1 Thaler, servant Voll... [unreadable] 1 Thaler, a young groom 9 groschen, servant 4 groschen, a cow 2 groschen, the shepherd of the village 2 Thaler.

Conrad Schnier and his wife Margarethe had eight children [145]. The church books of Blüggelscheidt only mention the baptisms of four of them, Johanna Elisabeth in 1652, Anna Maria in 1658, Johann Georg in 1661 and Jodokus Henrich in 1671 [146].

It was their oldest son Johann Schnier, said Coers, born about 1655, who inherited the Coershof at the death of his father in 1678. He died unfortunately two years later. He left no children from his marriage with Maria Catharina Lohmann, said Frisse. The Coershof then passed to his brother Christian, born about 1656 and died in 1713 [147]. From his marriage with Maria Elisabeth Steilmann, the latter left a numerous posterity followed in the region of Meschede until today. The offspring of Conrad Schnier also remained in female lines in the region of Meschede, where it continued to devote itself to agriculture until well into the 20th century [148].

 

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Johann Caspar Schnieder, alias Sartorius, the second son of Philipp Schneider, or Schnier, said Hühnerhans, is undoubtly the one who attained the most beautiful position [149]. He seems to be the first to have regularly carried the Latin form of the name. He appears for the first time under the name of Caspar Schnieders or Schneiders as godfather in 1652, year when the church books of Remblinghausen begin [150]. The latter often mention him for the next twenty years, usually with the title of scabinus judicii Remblinghusani [magistrate of the justice of Remblinghausen]. An act of 1661 calls him telonarius, that is to say a tax collector. In 1686, he was still deputy judge and tax collector. His situation of fortune explains the frequent recourse to him as godfather [151]. He thus appears repeatedly as godfather in several of the Schnieder or Schnier families in Blüggelscheidt, Frielinghausen, Löllinghausen and Remblinghausen.

 

 

receveur_Westphalie

Figure 21: a tax collector in the 17th century [152]

 

 

Caspar Sartorius had made a beautiful marriage by marrying Margarethe Fredebölling, said Lamberts. She was probably the daughter or grand-daughter of a notary Lambertus Fredebölling who had transferred his office from Reiste to Remblinghausen between 1613 and 1618 [153]. This Lambertus Fredebölling passed on to his descendants the surname Lambertus, Lamberti or Lamberts. He had also given his name to a family estate, the Lambertshof or Lambertsgut, in Remblinghausen [154]. We have seen that the German name Hof designates a farm. As for the term Gut, it refers, among other meanings, to an estate [155]. In the context of the 17th century, together with a proper name, they presumably both designate a large agricultural domain. The Lambertshof is therefore nothing but Lambert's farm, the Lambertsgut Lambert's estate. It was this medium-sized estate (secundae classis) that Margarethe Fredebölling brought her husband. The Lambertshof was destroyed by a bomb in 1945 [156]. The Schatzregister der Landstände [tax register of the representatives to the Diet] for the year 1685 gives an idea of the importance of the Lambertshof:

Remblinghausen       (only 1 1st class estate)

Lambertus               2 Thaler, his wife 1 Thaler - his brother works as a servant

                               1 Thaler, his wife works as a servant 18 groschen - they have a servant who receives no wages [157]

We do not know who the brother mentioned in this text is. Peter Schneider worked at the Lambertshof as servant [158], but the fourth brother, Dietrich Schneider, after having worked at the Schultenhof, in Immenhausen, joined them at the Lambertshof in 1675 [159], before he likely inherited his father's farm [160]. Dietrich died on 2 December 1691. In 1669, he had married Gertrud Schulte, from Immenhausen [161]. They had several children, Anna Margarethe in 1670 [162], Anton about 1670 [163], Johann Wilhelm, whom we shall come back to, on 8 December 1675 [164], maybe a Johann [165], Christian in 1679 [166], Johann Friedrich in 1683 and Anna Clara in 1685 [167].

According to an old genealogy, Johann Caspar Sartorius, alias Schnieder, owner of the Lambertsgut in Remblinghausen, led the funeral of his brother Conrad Sartorius, alias Conrad Schnier, from the Coershof in Blüggelscheidt, when he died on 8 June 1678.

 

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Thirty-nine years later, the Schatzregister of 1717 tells us:

Remblinghausen (village): the alderman of justice Lambertus Sartorius, who lives in a shack [ein Kötter], older than 88 years. 1 Reichsthaler 24 groschen, out of which Tönnis [a nickname for Anton] 1 Reichsthaler 18 groschen - his wife 27 groschen - half a servant 18 groschen, 1 cow-girl 4 groschen.

By becoming the owner of the Lambertsgut, which he adopted the name of, Johann Caspar Sartorius had acceded to the land wealth [168]. It may therefore seem astonishing that in 32 years' time he had passed from a large farm to a hovel. The explanation could be as follows. Many farms then had a sort of annex, called Unterhof [lower farm] in German and colonat in Latin. It was generally inhabited by a Hofesjunger [young man of the farm] in German or colonus [farmer, peasant, share-cropper] in Latin. Attached to the estate, this one was to help the work on the farm. It often happened that the colonus was the farmer's son. When the father became old, he transferred the main farm [Haupthof] to his son and settled in the colonat or Altenteil [old man's part]. He then lived on the rent he received in exchange for the abandonment of the main farm. It must be understood, therefore, that in 1717 the 89 year old Johann Caspar was still the owner of the Lambertshof, but was no longer able to do any work there [169]. He was helped by his nephew Anton, son of Dietrich.

 

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Widowed in 1694, Johann Caspar Sartorius remarried on 7 September 1695 with Johanna Elisabeth von Stockhausen. Baptized in Calle in 1650, she was the daughter of Johann Ludwig von und zu Stockhausen and Anna Johanna von Westphalen. She was widow in first marriage of Peter Falkenstein, of Bonn, and in second of Johann Jodokus Molitor. She died on 21 February 1716 [170].

The church books tell us of the death of Johann Caspar Sartorius on 28 March 1727. They point out that he then was 99 years old, exceptional age for the time. Without children of his two unions [171], Johann Caspar had drafted his will on 8 June 1718 and added a codicil to it on 2 March 1719 [172]. This testament shows that Caspar Sartorius enjoyed a movable asset of approximately 3 000 Thaler. It appears above all that he played a role as a local banker, lending money to communities as well as to individuals, to modest people as well as to notables and that his field of intervention extended as far as Arnsberg [173].

 

 

remblingh

Figure 22: Remblinghausen

 

 

By his will, Johann Caspar devoted most of his fortune to the creation of a vicariate [Blutsvikarie]. He appointed as collator of this ecclesiastical benefit his cousin, that is to say his relative, Wilhelm Sartorius, intendant at Wildenburg and his descendants, and if they were to die out, his cousin Anton Sartorius and the descendants of the latter, and, if these were also to die out, the then owner of the Lambertsgut. The will stipulated that the cousins were his nephews by his brother (nepotes ex fratre [174]). The vicariate was actually created on 19 September 1733, at the request of Wilhelm Sartorius, by Johann Andreas von Francken-Siersdorff, vicar general of the diocese of Cologne. It had 1 749 Thaler in bonds. The beneficiary was required to celebrate mass on Sundays and feast days plus three times a week to meiner und meiner Angehörigen Seelen Heil (for the salvation of my soul and those of mines). However, he was under no obligation to assist the parish priest in his ministry [175].

Dietrich seems to have been the favourite brother of Caspar, whose example he followed in adopting the name Sartorius [176]. Of the children of Dietrich, it is finally Anton, born in 1690, who inherited the Lambertshof [177]. He had married Anna Sabine Gertrud Rüthing, said Müller. She was born in Remblinghausen on 10 April 1685. She died of dropsy on 21 February 1743. Anton had preceded her in the tomb on 25 April 1733. From their marriage came five children, Anna Elisabeth, on 21 March 1710, married on 4 June 1737 to Johann Jodokus Horbach, from Horbach, Maria Margarethe, married on 26 January 1734 to Johann Ludwig Heinemann, said Schulte, Johann Caspar, born on 30 May 1716, Maria Elisabeth, born on 28 March 1721, and Anna Clara, born on 1 October 1724 [178].

 

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However fragmentary, this information is sufficient to indicate that the first Sartorius lived in ease. The fact that they are identified as land owners proves in itself a certain level of wealth. The duties of judge and tax collector of Johann Caspar also attest a privileged status in the little society of Remblinghausen. As for the alliance with Johanna Elisabeth von Stockhausen, it was certainly flattering. The particle von and the presence a few kilometres west of Meschede of a locality called Stockhausen indicate that Johanna Elisabeth belonged to the local nobility [179].

 

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CHAPTER THREE

 

 

A CASTLE IN GERMANY

W

ith Johann Wilhelm, or simply Wilhelm, Sartorius, son of Dietrich Schneider, we are at a turning point in the history of the Sartorius family. Wilhelm Sartorius took a route which removed him away from Remblinghausen and the rural world. It is not known whether it was by vocation or more simply because his brother Anton had inherited the Lambertsgut and that no property returned to him from the inheritance of his uncle Caspar. It is true that in return he had inherited the considerable sum of 1 000 Thaler [180]. In any case, in 1701, he entered the service of the earls of Hatzfeldt-Schönstein as receiver [Rentmeister] of their castle of Wildenburg [181], where he succeeded Joh. Thomas Joesten [182].

Let us first consider the seigneury of Wildenburg and the house of Hatzfeldt. Mentioned as early as 1239, the seigneury of Wildenburg held its importance of its strategic position close to the Hileweg [iron road]. Already mentioned in 1048, it linked the Siegerland, the region of Siegen, rich in ore, to the great commercial metropolis that was Cologne. Wildenburg was a reichsunmittelbare Herrschaft, an immediate Empire, seigneury that is to say that it reported directly to the emperor. The nobiles domini de Wildenberg enjoyed the rights of high and low justice, hunting, fishing, Bannwein, Leibzinsen, Rauchhühner, Futterhafer and Mai- und Herbstbede on pigs and lambs. They enjoyed the chore. They collected the Turkish tax, the territorial tax and fines. They appointed to the parish church. They exercised control over weights and measures. They also had exceptional imperial rights, such as the right to beat money, and custom privileges. In 1396, emperor Venceslas confirmed to Johann zu Wildenburg a customs privilege of 1384 to raise and collect two old groschen on each horse passing by the castle with car, cart or other load. The Iron road was therefore a major source of income. Wildenburg, which also had lead and silver mines, was a fine seigneury [183].

As for the house of Hatzfeldt, it is known since the 12th century. It takes its name from the seigneury of Hatzfeld an der Eder, 25 kilometres from Marburg, where the ruins of the eponymous castle still stand up. In 1371, Johann von Hatzfeldt married Jutta, sister and heiress of Johann IV zu Wildenburg. When the latter died in 1418, a violent private war opposed his nephew Gotthard the Rude von Hatzfeldt to his neighbour earl Gerhard von Sayn. In fact, Wildenburg was of a strategic character for the house von Sayn, because the Iron road connected its possessions of the Westerwald, south-west of Siegen, to those it had in the upper Berg country, west of Wildenburg. Finally Gotthard the Rude came into possession of his inheritance in 1420. Since then, the names of Wildenburg and Hatzfeldt have remained linked [184].

The feudal castle of Wildenburg stands up on a rocky outcrop of the Berg country, amidst pine forests stretching as far as the eye can see. In fact, these were another important source of income for the seigneury. Only a few sections of the walls and a dungeon remain today of this castle [185]. The Hatzfeldt family still lives nearby, in the castle of Crottorf, whose current design dates back to the end of the 16th century [186].

 

 

Wildenburg_seign

Figure 23: the seigneury of Wildenburg

 

 

Wilhelm Sartorius remained in the service of the Hatzfeldts until 1709. His good and loyal service earned him the following certificate when he left office:

We hereby inform anyone that Mr Johann Wilhelm Sartorius has remained in our service from Saint Martin's day [11th November] of the year 1701 until Easter of the year 1709 as receiver et the castle of Wildenburg. However his resignation now compels us to attest that, during all the time he served as receiver, he handed over his accounts and vouchers each year for seven and a half years; that he faithfully produced the registers used and the correspondences he had with him; and more generally that he behaved in all to my satisfaction and to that of mine. In witness whereof I hereby give him final and general discharge and receipt of his management and administration as receiver by a document signed by my own hand and marked with my seal of baroness. So done in Wildenburg on 26 March 1709.

[signed:] Maria Barbara, widow baroness of Hatzfeldt, born baroness of Fürstenberg [187].

[signed:] For certification Johan Eberhard Höynck, administrator and collector of the bishop of Cologne in Bilstein has under signed [188].

 

 

Hatzfeldt_armes

Figure 24: the arms of the house of Hatzfeldt in Friesenhagen's church

 

 

The resignation of Wilhelm Sartorius seems to be due to his willingness to undertake law studies. The minutes of the municipal council of Schmallenberg of 25 May 1747 indicate: In the year 1711, on 3 November ..., at Mr Wilhelm Sartorius, formerly a law student [juris candidatus]. He probably studied in Cologne, where registration registers for the period are missing. In 1714, he returned to the service of the Hatzfeldts. He remained there until 1724. He first served the baroness of Hatzfeldt, died in 1722, then his son. He served as intendant [Amtmann] but also as judge [Richter]. His appointment as a judge in Wildenburg is clearly a consequence of this belated study of the law [189].

The baroness of Hatzfeldt did not live in her castle of Wildenburg, but that of Schönstein [190]. The latter was in the eponymous seigneury, which she held in fief from the elector of Cologne. This Exklave, to use the German term, of the bishopric of Cologne was situated to the south of the seigneury of Wildenburg, which it was separated from by the river Sieg [191]. Every week, a car left Wildenburg with a letter of Wilhelm Sartorius to his lord. Before burning in 1945, the archives of the princes of Hatzfeldt in Trachenberg, Silesia [192], kept some wads of letters from Wilhelm Sartorius addressed to the baroness and then to her son. They dated from the years 1705 to 1709 and 1714 to 1724. They contained the news of Wildenburg, the demands of the baroness' subjects, reports on buildings, projects, legal opinions and various counsels. Wilhelm Sartorius also related how he dealt with the train of house, cattle, game and provisions. In his correspondence, Wilhelm Sartorius used a seal with two crossed arrows pointing upward and crowned, and a helmeted hunter holding an arrow in each hand [193].

 

 

Siegel

Figure 25: the seal of Franz Anton Sartorius

 

 

The task was not simple. Most of the rights due to the lord were payable in kind. Thus in 1627 the farm of Oberbach, which belonged to the lord of Wildenburg, owed four horses, a carriage and a cart and, in time of war, two additional horses. The census was six muids of rye, six measures [Mesten] of wheat, two muids of barley, six measures of buckwheat, eight muids and ten measures of oats, two sheeps, two pigs, two geese, seven hens, one hundred eggs and three oxen. In May and autumn, the farmer owed a tax called Beede in the amount of three Thaler, a cart of bales of straw and a roast lamb. The tip [Weinkauf] was four albus and two pounds of hemp. The redemption of chore [Dienstgeld] was six Thaler. New Year's gift [Neujahr] was three florins. Every three years, the farmer owed a three-year old ox. The Vorfuhr for six years was six Thaler. The Empire and Turks tax [Reichs- und Türkensteuer] was due only in case of aggression of the latter. One can imagine the difficulty in measuring and counting all this, in transporting it and in reaping it. Once chosen, the animals received the mark of the administrator and were taken to the castle in the autumn [194]. Let us add that beer was brewed in the castle of Wildenburg itself [195].

As for the estates of the Hatzfeldts, they were immense. Even in the 1950's, they owned almost all of the land and farms in the country of Wildenburg. They held 10 000 hectares, while the municipality of Friesenhagen, the largest one in the circle of Altenkirchen, covers only 5 138 hectares. They still own 95 % of the 3 449 hectares of forest in the municipality. At all times, the lords of Wildenburg and their successors Hatzfeldt had endeavoured to acquire, often by constraint, the farms of the region. The territorial ordinances [Landrechtsordnungen] of 1592 and 1607 had, moreover, given them a right of pre-emption at the same as they had abolished the old right of withdrawal [jus rectatus], derived from the Germanic law, in favour of the parents of a seller [196].

 

 

Wildenburg_1

Figure 26: the castle of Wildenburg around 1830

 

 

The letters of Wilhelm Sartorius mentioned several times his resignation in 1709. They contained, however, few personal notations. However, on 15 March 1720, he thanked the baroness for a gift she made to Maria Bärbgen, apparently one of her goddesses. One of his children was sick. Moreover, for more than a year, his wife had always had sick children, but she hoped especially that no one would die. In a letter of 27 May 1720, Wilhelm still thanked the baroness for a florin she had sent to Bärbgen. He himself probably received several presents from the baroness. Indeed, in a letter of 20 May 1720, he is seen wieder der gnädigen Frau die Hände küssen [once again kiss the hands of the gracious lady] and promise to fulfil by prayers. He also asked her to grant him one or more days off to go to Schmallenberg. On 28 June 1720, he solicited permission to bring his children for one or three days. He obtained it, as he expressed his thanks on 22 July. He then had the five elders with him [197].

 

 

Schmallenberg

Figure 27: Schmallenberg in 1686

 

 

To understand this demand you have to go back in the past. A little before 1711 Wilhelm Sartorius married Anna Margarethe Johanvars [198], from Schmallenberg, a charming little town in the Sauerland [199]. She had been probably born there in 1685. She was the daughter of the local judge of the elector of Cologne, Everhard Johanvars, and Anna Maria Quincken [200]. As a receiver, Wilhelm Sartorius enjoyed being housed in the lower castle of Wildenburg, the arx inferior in Latin, the Unterburg in German [201]. This one, which included a chapel, was of more recent construction and in a better condition than the Oberburg, whose construction dated back to 1230 and was already disused in the middle of the 18th century. The Hatzfeldts, for their part, had long lived in the castle of Schönstein [202]. Indeed, isolated in the middle of the woods, far from everything, Wildenburg was definitely not a comfortable residence, especially in the bad season [203]. This is why Anna Margarethe probably stayed in Schmallenberg. In fact, it was there that their children were baptized, from the second to the seventh. In this respect Wilhelm wrote the baroness on 11 April 1716 that he had left a messenger with a horse in Schmallenberg so that he could hasten to Wildenburg without delay. His wife was in fact very ill after giving birth to a boy and a girl. The eighth child of Wilhelm Sartorius and Anna Margarethe Johanvars was the first to be born in Wildenburg and to be baptized in Friesenhagen, the parish which the castle depended on [204].

 

 

Figure 28: the castle of Wildenburg in autumn

 

 

We shall return to the eldest of these eight children, a boy named Franz Anton. The four other sons all entered the orders. The second son, Caspar Franz, born in Schmallenberg around 1714, appears in 1722 and 1723 among the pupils of the gymnasium laurentianium of Arnsberg [205]. He became probably lord abbot of Glindfeld, an abbey that was a branch of the Augustinian order of the Brethern of the Cross, in the bailiwick of Fredeburg, in the region of Schmallenberg [206].

The birth of the third son, Heinrich Wilhelm, in 1716, is evoked in his father's letter to baroness of Hatzfeldt referred to above. On 1 April 1740, he was appointed the vicar of St. Alexis, at the chapter of St. Görres, in Volksmünde [207], near Cologne, by the resignation of Jos. von Schultenius. Yet he was still only a sub-deacon. He was ordained priest on 24 September 1740. In 1762, his brother Franz Anton conferred on him the investiture of the family benefice in Remblinghausen, liberated by the death of his younger brother Everhard Sartorius. He died on 30 July 1791 [208].

 

 

Figure 29: the abbey of Glindfeld

 

 

We have just pronounced the name of Everhard Sartorius. Born in Schmallenberg on 6 May 1718, the latter was ordained priest on 12 March 1740 and then appointed on 23 September 1741 to the family benefice in Remblinghausen [209], freed by the promotion of Wilhelm Theodor Stratmann to the position of parish priest in the same place [210]. Everhard renounced the family vicariate on 3 December 1746 in favour of his brother Franz Philipp [211] and died before 4th January 1762.

 

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The most prominent of these four ecclesiastics is certainly Franz Philipp Sartorius. Born in Schmallenberg on 19 August 1723, he was ordained a sub-deacon on 25 February 1747. He was then called patrocinius, that is, his maintenance was assured by his share of paternal inheritance. He received the priestly ordination on 4 April 1747. In a report of visit of 16 January 1746, the vicar general of the diocese of Cologne noted that he had been dispensed from seminary. He added that his mother was a widow and in the service of the baroness of Hatzfeldt-Wildenburg and, perhaps most interesting that he had the expectation of a benefit from the latter. In fact, minutes of 17 April 1760 found that Franz Philipp was vicar of the Holy Cross of Wissen [212]. This vicariate was founded on 4 November 1480 [213].

In 1764, Franz Philipp became vicar of St. Catherine and St. Agatha in Schönstein [214]. This other vicariate of Wissen had been founded on 26 March 1417 by a squire, Friedrich von Bracht. To this end he had bought an estate in the Siegenthal, which was partly was in the territory of Hövel, belonging to the seigneury of Wildenburg, and partly on the territory of Blickhauserhöhe, belonging to the seigneury of Schönstein and in the last instance to the electorate of Cologne. Under the terms of the founding act, the beneficiary of this prebend had to be a true priest or have such an age that he could become soon the year of his appointment. He was to reside permanently in Schönstein and to celebrate mass at the altar which the vicarship was attached to every day or at least four times a week, at his convenience. In addition, on Fridays of the Four Times, he was to celebrate an annual service for Friedrich von Bracht, his parents and his descendants, as well as for all the donators. He was also to celebrate a mass for the deceased. All the legacies made at the altar and all the royalties owed to it had to be remitted immediately and in full to the rector of the chapel. The properties of the vicarship enjoyed ecclesiastical immunity and were exempt of charges. The nomination of the beneficiary belonged to the parish priest of the church of Wissen, after agreement of the owner of the castle of Schönstein. Subsequently, the vicariate received several properties. In June 1417, Friedrich von Bracht himself gave it a house near the chapel, probably to house the beneficiary. The latter found a permanent residence with the donation of the farm of Warthe, in 1432. The vicariate was still endowed in 1435 by Sigward von Seibach of half of the farm of Glatteneichen that he had inherited from his father, and in 1445 by Engelbert von Isengarten from half the farm of Mühlenberg an der Nister [215].

In 1786, Franz Philip Sartorius was appointed as managing priest in Wissen by the death of Ger. Jos. Held, but he took a substitute, professed at the abbey of Marienthal [216].

 

 

Figure 30: the castle of Schönstein

 

 

The year 1788 was dry until the autumn. The cereals had matured well. The harvest and haymaking had been good. The barns and granaries were full. On 17 September 1788 at 11 o'clock in the morning, the wife of Anton Girtum cooked bread in his bakery, when the pile of wood used to feed the oven caught fire. The fire spread rapidly to the neighbouring houses. Unfortunately a violent wind blew, there was only a small fire pump left and, because of the dryness, water was lacking. The fire spread rapidly from top to bottom of the main street. The narrowness of the other streets did not help. The fire extended to the whole village, reached the church, its bell-tower, whose five magnificent bells melted, the adjacent chapel of the Holy Cross, the hospital and the school. At five o'clock in the evening, everything was nothing but incandescent debris and smoking ashes. Only one end of the Bogenstraße had been spared, where the buildings were spaced and close to the Sieg, which had facilitated relief. At the peril of his life, the parish priest Arnoldi had saved the monstrance, the Blessed Sacrament and the sacred objects. On the following Sunday, after mass, the Blessed Sacrament was conducted in procession to the chapel of the castle of Schönstein. In the case, Franz Philipp Sartorius lost a barn. On the other hand, the house he inhabited was one of the nine spared by fire. After the fire, as the parish priest Arnoldi wrote to his superiors,

only a few have saved a bit of their belongings. All the others run foodless and helpless like a wandering herd without knowing where to go. In a word, it is such a cry of pain that one cannot refrain from weeping. May God, who has inflicted them this wound, heal them in His grace, and incite many Christian hearts to pour according to their means the oil of beneficence upon the wounds of the unfortunate [217].

A report of 22 September 1789 granted Franz Philip Sartorius the permission to celebrate mass in the chapel of the castle of Schönstein. In 1799, he resigned his benefit in Schönstein. In a document in Latin, he is curiously called receptor, that is to say receiver, in Schönstein. He died in Wissen on 7 January 1806, at the age of 83 [218].

 

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As indicated in his father's letter of 11 April 1716, Heinrich Wilhelm had a twin sister, Maria Barbara. She married in Friesenhagen on 29 August 1736 Georg Anton Langenfeld, from Wildberg. This mining inspector [Berginspektor [219]], mining manager [Bergverwalter [220]] or manager of Willbergen's salt works [sodinarum Willbergensium administrator [221]] was born about 1713. He died in Odenspiel in 1783. His wife had died in Odenspiel on 12 July 1777.

The family was supplemented by three daughters, whom little is known of. Anna Dorothea, born about 1720, married in Friesenhagen on 4 February 1742 Franz Ernst Dahl, from Hamm, later lawyer in Denklingen [222]. Maria Wilhelmine, born in Friesenhagen on 27 March 1727, died in Wissen on 18 February 1807, having probably directed the household of his brother Franz Philipp. Finally, Clara Elisabeth appears only once, as godmother of one of her nieces, in 1758, before she died in Friesenhagen on 15 January 1768.

Wilhelm Sartorius died in Wildenburg [223]. He was buried in Friesenhagen on 7 November 1741, in ecclesia parochial [e] in cornu prope statua [224]. His wife was still alive in 1746, when she was mentioned in the acts of the Sartorius vicariate.

Wilhelm Sartorius had inherited the property of his in-laws in Schmallenberg. The tax registry of the representatives to the diet for 1717 for Schmallenberg tells us:

Mr Joh [ann] Wilhelm Sartorius, in Wildenburg and not living here [in Schmallenberg]: 1 Reichsthaler, out of which the wife 18 groschen, 1 horse, groom serving with wages 6 Thaler 18 groschen - 2 maids, each with wages, 2 Reichsthaler 8 groschen - 1 cowgirl with wages 1 Reichsthaler 2 groschen.

When Wilhelm died, the house he held from his mother-in-law Quincken passed to his son Franz Anton. On 30 June 1742, it was the subject of a contract between the latter and the neighbour Johann Mönnig, said Brühl, bourgeois of Schmallenberg [225].

 

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Franz Anton Sartorius, eldest son of Wilhelm, succeeded his father as administrator in Wildenburg in the service of the earls of Hatzfeldt-Schönstein. He was baptized in Meschede on 30 November 1711. His godfather was his uncle Anton, the owner of the Lambertshof. His godmother was his grandmother Anna Maria Quincken. He certainly made a beautiful marriage in marrying in Friesenhagen on 27 April 1745 Maria Regina Weller, who was born in Siegen on 12 March 1718. She was the daughter of Jakob Weller, chancellor of the prince of Nassau and advisor to the imperial administration of the country, and of Juliane Magdalene Becker [226]. Their marriage certificate is the oldest first hand document we hold about the Sartorius family:

 

 

Wildenburg

Figure 31: the ruins of Wildenburg seen by Otto Ritgen in 1945

 

 

27 Aprilis [1745] praenobilis d [omi]nus Ambtmanns in Wildeburg F [ran]z Sartorius petitis hic dimissoralibus copulatus est in Frisenhagen virgo praenobilis Maria Regina Wellerin praenobilis et clarissimi d [omi]ni Jacobi Weller olim serenissimi principis consiliarii et d [omi]na Juliana Magdalena Beckerin legitima filia Sigenensis [227].

Four children were born in Wildenburg from this marriage. All of them were baptized in Friesenhagen.

Of the eldest, Maria Anna Theresia, born on 8 February 1746, little is known. Her godmothers were the praenobilis et gratiosa domina Therese Philippine von Hatzfeldt-Schönstein and her paternal grandmother, Anna Margaretha Johanvars [228]. In 1788, she appeared as godmother of the fourth son of her brother Georg Anton Franz. She was then living in Bonn [229]. According to the somewhat casual formula of her brother around 1816, she still lived there in welchem Nonnenkloster [in some convent of nuns [230]].

Johanna Franziska Charlotte, born on 25 June 1747 [231], made an even more discreet passage in history, since her fate is unknown [232]. She only shines with the brilliance of her godfather and godmother, Franz Karl Ferdinand von Hatzfeldt and Franziska Charlotte von Hatzfeldt [233].

Anna Maria was born on 1 July 1749 [234]. On 21 October 1772, she married in the chapel of the castle of Wildenburg the mayor Franz Anton Becker [235]. He was born in 1739 in Grevenstein, in the circle of Arnsberg [236]. This man seems to have drawn all the misfortunes upon him. During the festivities of his marriage, which lasted for eight days, a fire destroyed his great farm. The partner he had in a windmill left with the box. He also had a forge in Lieser an der Mosel, where he was mining iron ore. It was perhaps the profits of the latter which enabled him to maintain a situation of fortune damaged by unsuccessful experiments on spinning trades on perpetual movement. In 1780, the bankruptcy of the banker Hartlieb still experienced his fortune. In 1783, through his brother Ferdinand, he bought for 2 150 Thaler the estate called Die Nachtigall [The Nightingale] in Neuhaus, near Paderborn, which he sold in 1796. He subsequently became inspector of the iron works in Altenbeken. The prince bishop of Paderborn would have awarded him a sword of honour. He died probably in 1797 in Bonn. His widow, Anna Maria, a good Roman Catholic, seems to have led an itinerant life. In 1803, she was met in Lippsringe, near Paderborn. Later she moved with her daughter Sabine to her son Matthias, physician in Delbrück [237]. She died on 21 October 1836 in Bonn [238], where she had probably followed Sabine, who had been the director of a handicraft school since 1808 there [239].

The last, Maria Charlotte Franziska Josepha, born on 12 October 1751, was named after her godmother, the gratiosa domina Charlotte von Hatzfeldt-Schönstein, born baroness von Bettendorf [240]. She also made a fine marriage by marrying in Friesenhagen on 5 February 1775 Josef von Stockhausen [241]. The latter lived in Olpe, where he was born on 27 July 1736. He was a judge of the prince elector of Cologne for the offices of Olpe, Drolshagen and Wenden [242]. He is also qualified in Latin of consiliarius aulicus [aulic counsellor [243]]. Since the 16th century, the term of aulic counsellor, in German Hofrat, was used to designate any high-ranking official of the administration or the government [244]. Josef von Stockhausen belonged to the Stockhausen family, from Stockhausen bei Meschede, which the second wife of Caspar Sartorius already stemmed from. The Stockhausens held the office of judge in Olpe without interruption from 1592 until 1813 [245]. Just after World War II, the domain of origin still belonged to the honorary Regierungspräsident [246] Max von Stockhausen. Josef von Stockhausen died in Olpe on 3 October 1815. Charlotte Sartorius died on 6 June 1833 in Menden, in the circle of Iserlohn, at her daughter's Charlotte, who had married Heinrich Amecke. The latter was successively judge of the elector of Cologne for the seigneury of Sümmern, commissioner of the territorial customs of the grand-duchy of Hesse and finally, in 1818, treasurer of the kingdom of Prussia for the circle of Arnsberg [247].

Maria Regina Weller died of puerperal fever on 19 January 1754 [248] by giving birth to a child who only lived until 14 February 1756 [249]. Franz Anton remarried on 2 May 1755 in Cologne. His second wife was a widow of this town, Maria Theresia Lünenschloß [250]. She stemmed from an excellent family since her father, Abraham Lünenschloß, had been counsellor and secretary for war to the Palatine elector [251]. It was the Reverend Dom Heiliger, canon of St Cunibert of Cologne, who celebrated their union [252].

From this second marriage, Franz Anton had four more children, all born in Wildenburg and baptized in Friesenhagen. The elder was a boy, Georg Anton Franz, whom we shall return in detail to in detail. He was followed by two sisters. The first one, Maria Clara Elisabeth, known as Lisette [253], was born on 3 February 1758 [254] and died on 8 May 1815 [255]. On 11 September 1779, she married Franz Theodor Wilhelm Pape, from a family of excellent bourgeoisie [256]. It was his uncle Philipp who celebrated the marriage. The husband was a doctor of law, judge in Eversberg, Gograf in Fredeburg and mayor of Hirschberg [257]. He was born on 28 September 1743 in Hirschberg, where he died on 23 April 1816 [258]. The second, Wilhelmina, born on 28 August 1762 [259], was godmother of two of her nephews in 1786 and 1790 [260]. She married late in 1807 a Belgian in the service of the Napoleonic empire, Mr Lejeune, a justice of the peace in Bonn [261]. In 1802 her brother Georg Anton Franz acknowledged that he still owed her 810 Reichsthaler on the succession of their father. He committed himself to pay her interests at 5 % per annum and to reimburse the capital on the basis of 100 Reichsthaler per year [262].

 

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It is probable that none of the Sartorius children received the sacrament of confirmation. The explanation of this oddity needs to return to the past. In the middle of the 16th century, when the Reformation reached Wildenburg, the three branches of Hatzfeldt-Wildenburg-Crottorf, Hatzfeldt-Wildenburg-Weisweiler and Hatzfeldt-Wildenburg-Merten shared alternately the sovereignty over the seigneury. Some remained Roman Catholic, others became Protestant. On 10 March 1598, they concluded an agreement of succession [Erbvereinigung] according to which the principle cujus regio, ejus religio laid down by the peace of Augsburg in 1555 would apply to it [263]. This meant that the two Roman Catholic and Lutheran religions would enjoy equal rights in the seigneury of Wildenburg. At a given moment the religious affiliation of his subjects was determined by that of the lord of the moment. The disputes between the Hatzfeldt cousins continued nonetheless. In 1622, Sebastian von Hatzfeldt, born Catholic but early fatherless, had been brought up by his mother in the Reformed religion, before returning to the Catholic religion largely enough by interest, proposed that, failing an agreement on a religion, a pastor and a priest would share the income of the parish. This gave him an opportunity for him to make this royal answer to his Protestant cousins who objected to him that then almost all inhabitants of Wildenburg had been baptized and brought up in the Lutheran religion:

Should it be allowed to settle the custom that their subjects give them orders, for thus they would be our lords and we not theirs [so wären sie unsere und wir nicht ihre Herren [264]]?

The inhabitants of Friesenhagen were thus tossed, up to five times for the oldest, between Catholicism and Lutheranism at the whim of the alternation of their lords.

Sebastian von Hatzfeldt continued his efforts to recatholicise. In 1628, he ordered his subjects to go to mass, under pain of a fine, and divided the goods of the parish in two parts, but the Catholic priest died the following year. Sebastian von Hatzfeldt died in turn, in 1631 [265], but his son Hermann took the torch again. Like his two brothers Melchior, general in the service of the Emperor, and Franz, bishop of Würzburg, he had chosen the Catholic camp in the Thirty Years' war [266]. He undertook to resettle the Catholic faith definitely in his domains with the help of Franciscan monks from Limburg, in Thuringia, who settled in Friesenhagen in 1637. They claimed, however, that they depended solely on their superior and not on the archbishop of Cologne. For their part, the Hatzfeldts alleged that in the time of the Reformation they had the right to nominate the parish priest of Friesenhagen and that before that the parish had never depended on the archbishops of Cologne, but only on the chapter of Sts. Cassius and Florentius in Bonn that received the tithe and had the right of presentation there. Nevertheless they all agreed to say that Friesenhagen was nullius diocesis [did not belong to any diocese]. They defended this position successfully for nearly two centuries. The archbishop of Cologne could not therefore officiate in Friesenhagen. Thus in 1700, when Sebastian von Hatzfeldt-Gleichen, then in Trier, learned that Monsignore de La Margelle, coadjutor of the archbishop of Cologne, returning from Olpe, wished to stop over at his cousin the countess of Hatzfeldt-Wildenburg-Weisweiler, he ordered the church of Friesenhagen to be closed and its keys to be brought to the castle of Crottorf and he forbade the Franciscans to receive him. As a result, the children of the seigneury of Wildenburg were not confirmed. Nor was the church consecrated when it was first rebuilt in 1740 because it threated ruin, and the again in 1751 after a fire [267].

 

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In 1772, the Sartorius heirs, from Wildenburg in the county of Hatzfeldt, Franz Anton and his brothers sold the goods they owned in Schmallenberg from the Quinckens for about 1 100 Thaler to bourgeois of Schmallenberg [268].

 

 

Friesenhagen

Figure 32: the nave of the church of Friesenhagen

 

 

Widower since 1771 [269], Franz Anton died piously in the castle of Wildenburg on 17 December 1780, around 7 p.m., equipped with all the sacraments of the dying. On 19 December, his body was worn with solemn ceremonies in the parish church of Friesenhagen. He was buried in the nave, on the Gospel side, in front of the siege of the administrators [270]. One of his last acts had been to godfather his grand-son Anton Florenz Theodor Pape in Hirschberg on 8 July [271].

 

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Georg Anton Franz, the only son of Franz Anton Sartorius, was born in the castle of Wildenburg on 19 January 1757. He was baptized the same day by the parish priest of Friesenhagen. His certificate of baptism is the second oldest first hand document we possess about the Sartorius family:

19. jan [uarii] natus & eodem mane baptizatus est Georgius Anton [ius] Franciscus Sartorius filius legitimus Praenobilium D [omini] Francisci Antonii Sartorius satrapae in Wild [enburgi] inferiori & Theresia conjugum ex Wild [enburg]. Levantes potuis levans erat praenob [ilis] D [ominus] Georgius Antonius Langenfeld sodinarum Willbergensium administrator [272].

On the death of his father, Georg Anton Franz succeeded him as administrator and receiver [Amtmann und Rentmeister] of the Empire seigneury of Wildenburg. His commission, in the archives of Trachenberg, was dated 1 August 1781. His father's accountability revealed a credit balance of 5 928 Reichsthaler, 6 Silbergroschen, in front of which there appeared 3 657 Reichsthaler of late taxes, which the seigneury abandoned, without counting 14 muids and 9 measures 1/3 of rye and 4 muids and 2 measures of barley still available. The heirs of Franz Anton Sartorius, his son and successor in the office, Georg Anton Franz, and his sons-in-law Pape, von Stockhausen and Becker settled his succession by an act of 21 October 1781 [273].

 

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Georg Anton Franz Sartorius took office at a moment of tension between the lord of Wildenburg and the Franciscans, who assured the pastoral ministry.

Since 1766, the lord of Wildenburg was Franz Ludwig von Hatzfeldt [274]. He was a typical representative, for better or for worse, of enlightened absolutism as it was encountered in the small German principalities. An officer in the service of the electors of Cologne and Mainz, he rarely resided in his estates, but he could count on the zeal of his local representative, administrator Very de Limonet in Crottorf, treasurer Krahe and Georg Anton Franz Sartorius in Wildenburg. Concerned about the economic development of the country and its enhancement, he was also concerned to ensure the education of his subjects and the salvation of their souls through school and religious education. In his eyes, the school and the church were two domains of the same nature under his authority. Teachers and catechists were therefore in his exclusive service.

Tensions increased until the end of the century between the lord and his officers, on one side, the Franciscans in residence at Friesenhagen and their provincial in Limburg, on the other. Franz Ludwig von Hatzfeldt was no more ready than his predecessor to let the provincial chapter send anyone as parish priest to Friesenhagen. He claimed a decisive influence on the choice of this one. He did not hesitate, however, to criticize his competence and was reported by his administrators how he performed his office. Moreover, in the eyes of the officers of the count, no priest possessed the qualities required by the office. At the castle, the priest was never so much praised as when he left his post.

Moreover, count Franz Ludwig did not accept the rapid changes imposed by the provincial of the Franciscans in the name of the rule of his order. The count gave him afterthoughts when he always appointed the superior of the brethren in Friesenhagen as the secular priest, thus binding in the same person the care of the temporal and the spiritual. In a letter to the provincial and the fathers, he plainly recalled that his ancestors had called only two fathers for the pastoral needs in the country; that he was not unaware that his ancestors had indeed permitted, if not offered, the province of Limburg to found an establishment in Friesenhagen; but in his eyes it did not possess any title of existence.

The conflict even reached peaks of pettiness. For example, fathers of the residence were denied additional firewood allocations in emergency situations on the basis that the regular allotment was sufficient for two fathers [275].

 

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In 1784, Georg Anton Franz wanted to marry a young girl from the neighbouring town of Kirchen, Wilhelmine Capito. She was of a well-off and highly regarded family [276]. Most of the Capitos occupied administrative positions or exercised responsibilities in mines or ironworks [277]. The father of the girl, Johann Daniel, was receiver and mayor [Schultheiß or Schultze [278]] of the parish of Kirchen. Everything was perfect, except for one detail. The fiancée belonged to the Evangelical, that is to say Lutheran, confession. As for it, the Sartorius family faithfully adhered to the Roman Catholic faith. Thus in 1767 Franz Anton was prefect of the brotherhood of the Seraphim in the parish of Römershagen, near Wildenburg. Georg Anton Franz therefore certainly faced a serious problem of conscience. One of his distant descendants, Otto Ritgen, imagines that his two ecclesiastical uncles who were still alive, Heinrich Wilhelm and Franz Philipp, put pressure on him to get him to give up his project. His sisters and brothers-in-law Becker, von Stockhausen and Pape, all from strict Roman Catholic families, will join the concert [279]. And still maybe they were unaware that the fiancée was descending in straight line from the famous Strasbourg reformator Wolfgang Köpfel, said Capito. The latter had actively contributed to the installation of the ideas of Luther in Alsace [280]! Otto Ritgen certainly relied on his own experience. As a matter of fact, the German Roman Catholic Church had always taken a hard line against the danger of mixed marriages for its long-term survival. To enter into a mixed marriage involved the fiancés in a whole series of trials and subjected them to the pressure of the families and that of the allies. The parish priest formulated specific threats and announced sanctions [281].

In any case Georg Anton Franz stood firm. As a matter of fact the couple were married twice. It was first united on 24 May 1784 in Kirchen at 2 p.m., in the house of Johann Daniel Capito, according to the Evangelical rite. The certificate established on this occasion is the third original material we have:

Mondtags am 24ten Maÿ, nachmittags zwischen 2 und 3 Uhr, wurde Herr Franz Anton Sartorius [sic for Georg Anton Franz], gräflich hatzfeldtischer Amtmann zu Wildenburg, mit des hiesigen Herrn Schulzen Johann Daniel Capito älteren Jungfrau Tochter Maria Wilhelmine Friederike Capitoin zu Kirchen in des Vaters Hause, nach beygebrachter obrigkeitlicher Erlaubniß, ohne vorhergangene Proclamation, von mir ehelich zusammen getraut, und bey diesem Anlaße eine Rede gehalten [282].

A second marriage according to the Roman Catholic rite took place on 9 June in Friesenhagen. More than a mark of ecumenism, we must rather see in this double ceremony the will of the two camps not to give up anything of its prerogatives [283]. Once the wedding was celebrated, nothing was done. The battle of baptism had still to be fought. The two Catholic and Protestant communities spoke of it in terms of victories or defeats. This reflects the importance of the stake for them and their anguish in the face of their sustainability [284]. All the children born from the marriage of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius and Wilhelmine Capito were baptized in the Roman Catholic religion. The marriage conventions stipulated however that boys would be brought up in the Roman Catholic religion, like their father, and girls in the Evangelical religion, like their mother [285].

The first six children of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius were born in Wildenburg and were baptized in Friesenhagen. The first two boys, Anton Wilhelm, born in March 1785 [286], and Johann Daniel, born in July 1786 [287], hardly ever lived. Both died in November 1786 [288]. A daughter, Maria Theresia Christina, born in 1788 [289], died at the age of 16 in 1804 [290]. We shall find again the three boys who reached adulthood. They are Joseph Anton Hermann, born on 28 September 1787 [291], Adolph Ludwig, born on 26 July 1790 [292], and Ferdinand Joseph, born on 11 January 1792.

The certificate of baptism of Ferdinand Joseph is the fourth original material we have:

11. jan [uarii] baptizatus est Ferdinandus Josephus Praenobilis D [omini] Georgÿ Antonÿ Sartorius satrapae in arce Wildenburg et praenobilis D [omi]nae satrapissae Wilhelminae conjug [um] filius legitimus, levantibus Josepho de Stockhausen, consiliario aulico et judice in Olpe, et Elizabeth Quantalin, uxore mercatoris Danielis Quantal in Neuenkirchen [293].

Ecumenism before the letter? Or practical necessity in a region at the junction of the very Catholic archdioceses of Cologne and Trier, on the one hand, and the very Protestant grand-duchy of Hesse and duchy of Nassau, on the other [294]? We do not know exactly. However the baptisms of the children of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius and Wilhelmine Capito give the opportunity to see that Catholics and Protestants agreed to dating. Anton Wilhelm had the Catholic Wilhelm Anton Lünenschloβ, satrapa in Düren as godfather and the Protestant Dorothea Capito as godmother [295]. The second one, Johann Daniel, held his biblical first name from his maternal grand-father, the Protestant Johann Daniel Capito, praetor of Kirchen, but his godmother was his aunt Wilhelmina Sartorius [296]. As for Ferdinand Joseph, he had as godfather the very Catholic Josef von Stockhausen, but for godmother Elisabeth Quantal, wife of the merchant Daniel Quantal, from Neunkirchen [297], from a family related to the Capitos [298].

 

 

 

Figure 33: the Sartorius in Wildenburg

 

 

The administrator of the Hatzfeldts was not locked up in the walls of the old fortress. He also had his moments of relaxation. A newspaper of 27 August 1785 announces the arrival on the preceding 20 August to the waters of Bad Ems of about thirty other curists, including Georg Anton Franz and his elder half-sister Maria Anna Theresia in the following terms: Herr Amtmann Sartorius, aus Wildenburg, and Mademoiselle Sartorius, aus Wildenburg [Mister Administrator Sartorius, from Wildenburg and Mademoiselle Sartorius, from Wildenburg [299].

In 1791, Georg Anton Franz Sartorius, suspected of having diverted cut wood, was suspended from his office. Perhaps it was wrong. He was in any case soon reinstalled. In 1800, he resigned of his own accord. On 11 October 1800, he recovered the security of 3 000 Reichsthaler [300] which his father-in-law had deposed for him. The leave certificate granted to him on 21 October 1800 describes him as an experienced administrator [ein in cameraliis sehr erfahrener Mann [301]]. This is what we learned from the archives of Trachenberg. Georg Anton Franz and his wife had already moved to Kirchen since 18 March 1798 [302]. Kirchen is a small town built on the steep slope of the south bank of the Sieg river [303]. In 1810, on the main street [Hauptstraβe], there was a house called Sartorius Erbe [Sartorius heritage]. It was one of those stone houses which, in Kirchen in the 18th and 19th centuries, testified the importance of the families who lived therein. It was demolished in the 1980's to make way for a supermarket and a parking lot [304]. In Kirchen, Georg Anton Franz asserted the properties of his father-in-law Johann Daniel Capito, who died fifteen months earlier. During his lifetime the latter operated mines [Berge] and forges [Hütten] and also took care of agriculture [305]. Thus in a late certificate Georg Anton Franz is referred to as Oekonom [306]. Rather than the meaning of economist, this term indeed appears to have in German that of agronomist [307].

The resignation of Georg Anton Franz as administrator was perhaps a consequence of the French Revolution. Since 1792, France was at war with its neighbours. As early as 1793, its armies had penetrated into Germany. In 1794, the Republic annexed de facto all the left bank of the Rhine, which it made four departments of. In 1797 the treaty of Campo Formio officialised this conquest [308]. The war had probably not spared the region of Kirchen. It was thus that in three months of time in 1796 Altenkirchen, 20 kilometres south-west of Kirchen, was the scene of two battles. On 4 June, Kléber defeated the Austrians there. On 16 September, the latter, under the direction of the archduke Charles, took their revenge by defeating Jourdan, who had to retake the Rhine [309].

In 1794, Georg Anton Franz had already secured the archives of the castle of Kalkum, an estate of the Hatzfeldts near Düsseldorf, on the right bank of the Rhine, in Wildenburg. With the conflict approaching, in September 1795, all the archives of Wildenburg had to be evacuated to Elminghausen bei Meinerzhagen, about twenty kilometres north of Friesenhagen. The volume was considerable. Indeed, in addition to the archives of the ancient seigneury of Wildenburg, the old fortress had, since an agreement concluded in 1491, housed the archives of all the branches of the Hatzfeldt family. These included the description of the frontiers of the seigneury of Wildenburg, the rights it enjoyed, and the imperial and other privileges granted to it [310].

The Revolution provoked a general upheaval of the millennial institutions of the Holy Roman Empire. It led in particular to the disappearance of more than 1 000 immediate seigneuries of the Empire and the suppression of the privileges of the nobility [311]. The seigneury of the Hatzfeldts suffered this cataclysm. The functions of administrator and judge then lost all significance, hence all interest. Finally, the old seigneury of Wildenburg disappeared in 1806 in favour of the grand-duchy of Berg, before forming, from 1808, a canton of the department of the Sieg [312].

The truth of the matter is that, over the years, the castle of Wildenburg had lost control over the Iron road. Traffic had gradually taken other paths. In addition, the house of Hatzfeldt was divided in several branches. The seigneury of Wildenburg had been divided. The interest of the Hatzfeldts had moved to Crottorf and to the Silesian possessions of the family. The old fortress was hardly used and degraded. In 1836, the administration of the estates of the Hatzfeldts in Crottorf demolished the fore-castle of Wildenburg at auction. That is why there is only now a large 20 meter high slated tower, the Bergfried, a building which houses the administration of forests, and some sections of wall [313].

 

 

Wildenburg_2

Figure 34: the castle of Wildenburg in 1998

 

 

Georg Anton Franz Sartorius and Wilhelmine Capito had two more children born in Kirchen, on 12 March 1800 Carolina Sophia Walburgia [314], died at birth, and on 31 October 1802 Ludwig Philipp Gerlach [315].

 

 

Sartorius_Erbe

Figure 35: the Sartorius' house in Kirchen in 1920

 

 

On a sad and rainy day in November 1813, they saw Russian troops arrive in valley of the Sieg in pursuit of the French armies defeated after the battle of Leipzig. They were Cossacks mounted on small horses. It was not until mid-December that they moved westward, to the great relief of the inhabitants of the region, tired of all their requisitions and looting [316].

Georg Anton Franz Sartorius died in Kirchen on 23 February 1819. He was buried on 27 [317] at the new cemetery of the church of Kirchen [318].

 

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With Georg Anton Franz the history of the Sartorius, administrators of the earls of Hatzfeldt-Schönstein, comes to an end. However, before beginning a new chapter in the history of the family, let us pause for a moment on these three characters. What could be their social situation in the 18th century?

Originally, the Sartorius were land owners. Remember the Lambertshof or the Coershof. They were rich enough to figure prominently in tax registers and play, like Caspar, the role of local banker. Subsequently, they became seigneurial officers in the service of the earls of Hatzfeldt-Schönstein.

The function of Wilhelm, Franz Anton and Georg Anton Franz Sartorius is sometimes defined as that of administrator [Amtmann or Amtsverwalter], receiver [Rentmeister], even judge [Richter]. What was the real importance of these functions in Wildenburg three centuries ago?

Let us first recall that Germany of the 18th century was a juxtaposition of 1 789 sovereign states [319]. Among them, a good thousand, not represented on the diet, belonged to the immediate nobility of the Empire under the direct suzerainty of the emperor [320]. The latter included the Empire seigneury [Reichsherrschaft] of Wildenburg [321]. All these territories were subject to a feudal regime. With few exceptions, the German peasant lived in various states of dependence. He had rights more or less real on his land and on his house. He was subject to more or less extensive limitations of his ability to dispose of his person. He belonged to one or more land masters [Grundherr]. He also belonged to a judicial lord [Gerichtsherr], sometimes different from the Grundherr, who possessed the rights of low, medium and, sometimes even high justice. He still owed tithes and chores to the Church, parish priest or a monastery, who could also be his Grundherr or Gerichtsherr [322]. In the particular case, the earls of Hatzfeldt-Schönstein were both Grundherren and Gerichtsherren of the seigneury of Wildenburg [323].

Obviously the situation of the seigneurial officers in the Holy Roman German Empire had to present differences, but also similarities with that of their French counterparts of the same period. Due to lack of documentation, we shall therefore reason by analogy with France of the 17th and 18th centuries. For the collection of their taxes, French lords called upon tax collectors. For the exercise of justice, they had recourse to lieutenants of justice and fiscal prosecutors. Besides, they generally chose the ones and the others among the farmers of their estates. These farmers and receivers thus acquired in the long run a considerable economic power. This gave them an obvious social preponderance vis-a-vis the other villagers. Moreover, they had become the irreplaceable interlocutors of the lord. In fact the importance of the sums at stake required good farmers [324].

Like their French counterparts, but in a system, let us remember, remained feudal, the Empire lords relied on administrators. The administrator of Wildenburg was thus the highest local representative of the house of Hatzfeldt. He also was the senior administrator of the forests and chaired the court of aldermen sitting at Friesenhagen [325]. The Sartorius therefore represented their lord in all things in his estates of Wildenburg, as we have seen. They administered the estate and forests. This is clear from the letters of Wilhelm. This is revealed by the case of woodcuts, which Georg Anton Franz was mingled with. They were receivers. They were managing money. Georg Anton Franz had to obtain a security of 3 000 Thaler from his father-in-law. Finally, they did justice in the name of their lord. Let us not forget the law study of Wilhelm.

The certificates of baptism, marriage and death, all in Latin, the language of the Roman Catholic Church, uniformly use the Latin term satrapa [satrap] to describe the function of the Sartorius. On the smaller scale of a small German principality, they had to exercise the same power as the Persian satraps of Antiquity [326].

 

 

Cologne_évêché

Figure 36: political Rhineland in the 18th century

 

 

In France of Modern times, the families of farmers were few in number and had for a long time formed genuine dynasties, closely united by occupations, interests and marriages. The games of love and chance had no place in this family strategy [327]. We find this trait in the case of the Sartorius. Their allies, the godfathers and godmothers of their children, are all in the same circle. In this way, we find Anton Wilhelm Lünenschloß, satrapa in Düren [328], Johannes Nepomuk Pfeifer, satrapa in Crottorf, another castle of the Hatzfeldt-Schönstein [329], Simon Joseph de Troux, satrapa in Schönstein, another seigneury of the Hatzfeldt-Schönstein, Lady Germana Wurm, wife of the satrapa of Freusberg [330]. There is also an Anton Müller, saltuarius primarius in Grobach, in the county of Hachenburg, as witness [331]. This is probably what was then called a gruyer in France. This royal or seigneurial officer controlled the administration of the waters and forests and judged in the first instance the offences relating to them [332]. As for the godfather of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius, his uncle Josef von Stockhausen, a princely advisor and judge in Olpe, he was certainly a man of influence. On the other hand, his godmother, Elisabeth Quantal, was the wife of a merchant from Neunkirchen [333]. One encounters besides in the entourage of the Sartorius a category of people that was hardly found in France at the time, that which would be called today industrialists. For example, we meet Georg Anton Langenfeld, the godfather of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius, administrator of the welders of Willbergen [334], or Franz Anton Becker, the husband of Anna Maria Sartorius and ironmaster [335].

 

 

Wildenburg_2

Figure 37: the ruins of the castle of Wildenburg in 1998

 

 

On occasion, the earls of Hatzfeldt-Schönstein did not refuse being godparents to the Sartorius. This is the case of Franz Karl Ferdinand von Hatzfeldt-Schönstein, godfather in 1747 of Johanna Franziska Charlotte Sartorius, daughter of Franz Anton. It is also that of Charlotte von Hatzfeldt-Schönstein, born baroness von Bettendorf, godmother in 1747 of the same Johanna Franziska Charlotte [336] and again in 1751 of her younger sister Maria Charlotte Franziska Josepha [337].

In the church books in Latin of Friesenhagen, the Sartorius are entitled to superb appellations: praenobilis [very important], clarissimus [very illustrious], consultissimus [very wise], strenuus [active]. Franz Anton Sartorius is thus called praenobilis ac strenuus [338], or even praenobilis ac clarissimus ac consultissimus [339]. As for Georg Anton Franz Sartorius, he is called praenobilis ac clarissimus dominus. As to Georg Anton Franz Sartorius, he is called praenobilis ac clarissimus dominus. It is true that the earl of Hatzfeldt-Schönstein is described as illustrissimus [340]. Wives are not left behind, who are described as praenobilis domina, like Wilhelmine Capito [341].

To get an idea of the importance of these qualifiers, let us take a look at the baptismal registers of Friesenhagen. On the pages of the church books where they are, seven baptism certificates precede or follow that of Georg Anton Franz and twelve precede or follow that of Ferdinand Joseph. On these nineteen certificates are only the names and surnames of the parents, the godfather and the godmother of the child, without any other qualification or indication of profession. A fortiori, no other praenobilis ac clarissimus, consultissimus or strenuus than the Sartorius and their relatives. The fact that it is different for them from the common people of Friesenhagen testifies clearly to the rank they enjoyed in local society.

As a matter of fact, Germans have always loved titles. The Frenchman Jules Laforgue, who left a diary of his stay at the imperial court in Berlin in the 1880's, was ironic on this subject [342]:

The love of titles is one of the character most known of the German character in France. We know especially the wohlgeborene (well born) and the hochwohlgeborene (superior well born) whose names are still prefixed on the envelopes of letters. [...] The title that one does not omit it on any occasion and one loses no opportunity to envelop himself, even the most insignificant [343].

 

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CHAPTER FOUR

 

 

 

THE FIRST STEPS INTO TEXTILE

W

e stopped on 27 January 1819 at the cemetery of Kirchen for the funeral of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius. The deceased left a widow and four sons. We shall no longer speak of the eldest son, Joseph Anton Hermann. We only know that he became inspector of forests [Forstinspektor] in Biedenkopf, in the grand-duchy of Hesse [344]. He retired, at his request and in recognition of his long years of faithful service, on 3 October 1848 [345]. He died on 1 December 1854 in Gladenbach bei Gießen [346], leaving a descent [347].

In 1807, Georg Anton Franz placed his second son Adolph in apprenticeship in the house Friedrich August and Christian Jung in Elberfeld [348]. The choice of this enterprise owed nothing to chance. The Jung family was originally from Kirchen and related to the Capitos. The father of Friedrich August, Johann Christian Jung, had married a second cousin of Wilhelmine Capito [349]. He was a draper, merchant, alderman and juror in Kirchen. His three sons also launched into the textile industry. Friedrich August had cotton mills in Elberfeld and Kirchen itself, where, together with his brothers Lorenz and Christian, he owned the Jungenthal factory, which six hundred people manually produced a thousand pounds of cotton yam per day in 1822 [350].

Georg Anton Franz, who had probably received legal training, established with his own hand the draft contract of apprenticeship of his son. We quote it almost entirely. We shall thus see how the future businessmen were formed at a time when our present grandes écoles did not exist and where the university formed only high level intellectuals.

 

Apprenticeship contract

between the undersigned, Messrs F [riedrich] A [ugust] & Chr [istian] Jung in Elberfeld and Mr administrator Sartorius in Kirchen on the following items:

We, from the first part, commit ourselves towards Mr administrator Sartorius to take his son Adolph as an apprentice in our business under the following conditions:

1/ From today on the person concerned shall serve for four consecutive years as an apprentice and, at the end of those years, for two more years as an employee or clerk in our business against a wage corresponding to his merits.

2/ At the end of this period or at a later date, the person concerned may not, without our agreement, leave us to create his own business or to associate himself with someone, whatever the conditions, if this could harm us, before having served for a year in another country, which we are ready to help him for.

3/ In all circumstances, he must comply rigorously and carefully with our instructions, both in his work as an apprentice in our business and in the whole of his behaviour. Under this condition, we:

4/ Want on our part it to be understood that he will continually devote all his attention to the conduct of affairs, that he will work with unfailing fidelity and continuous application, that he will accomplish all the tasks entrusted to him in accordance with our instructions, in short that he will work in the interests of the business and for his good; that insofar as it depends on him, he will avoid causing damage. [We want it to be understood] on the other part that, in the perspective of his future way of life, he will behave as one might expect and demand of a well-bred young man, that is to say in all circumstances irreproachably. To this end, on our part we shall ensure:

 

 

Figure 38: Elberfeld around 1810

 

 

5/ Carefully, during all the time he will be with us and in our business, to do everything to make him a wise merchant and above all an honest man; also:

6/ During these four years of apprenticeship and in the insurance where we are that the above conditions will be satisfied, to defray him friendly of the housing, the food and also the expenses of learning.

7/ In addition to agreeing to Adolph an annual advance of 60 to 70 florins to make his indispensable purchases during his apprenticeship years, provided however that he does not do so without our            agreement, and:

8/ Then the other part will reimburse us for their amount if, by any chance or other motive on one side or the other, Adolph did not stay with us the agreed time and could not therefore be reimbursed by the means of his subsequent services as clerk.

9/ Mr administrator Sartorius commits himself to reimburse us all the damages which will be or could be caused by his son; in this clause we think of nothing but a punishable and irresponsible error which, by great imprudence, infidelity or negligence, would cause prejudice to the smooth running of the business, should it occur.

For confirmation of these contractual conditions, under which the full and reciprocal performance of this apprenticeship contract is valid, the signatures of both parties, including that of Mr administrator Sartorius, must be considered as commitment for his son [351].

Adolph Sartorius finally spent fifteen years in the house Fr. A. & Chr. Jung [352].

 

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The town of Elberfeld, where Adolph Sartorius settled, has no existence of its own for more than 80 years. In 1930 it merged with four neighbouring towns, the most important of which, after itself, was Barmen. All five cities were enclosed in the valley of a tributary of the Rhine, the Wupper. They gave rise to the enormous current agglomeration of Wuppertal. Before the French Revolution, Barmen and Elberfeld were part of the duchy of Berg, one of the many principalities which swarmed in the Holy Empire. Located on the right bank of the Rhine, the duchy of Berg stretched from Bonn to Düsseldorf, its capital. It encompassed the northern edge of the Rhenish Massif. At the time of its greatest expansion, it had 880 000 inhabitants for an area of 17 300 square kilometres. It was the cradle of the Ruhr industry [353].

Rhineland had a long industrial tradition. From the 15th century, on all the meadows on the banks of the Wupper, clothes were bleached, which were then sold throughout Germany. The development of the present Wuppertal began in April 1527 when duke Johann III of Berg granted the exclusive privilege of weaving and bleaching cloth [Garnnahrungprivileg] for 861 golden florins to the inhabitants of Elberfeld and those of Barmen. The one that came from electoral Hesse, even from Silesia, had indeed a brown colour, little appreciated by customers. Once bleached, it gained in value. The subjects of the duke of Berg soon preferred this lucrative work to the cultivation of an ungrateful soil. After being sorted out according to their quality, clothes were several times boiled, washed and washed with potash, before being spread on threads to bleach. Under the effect of the limestone water of the Wupper, which they were watered from, sun, wind and rain, they reached in one quarter a brilliant white. It was the starting point of the textile industry in the valley of the Wupper [354]. A survey of 1773 already counted 100 linen bleaching workshops and 5 500 looms around Barmen and Elberfeld [355]. At the beginning of the 19th century, Rhineland was one of the few regions in Europe with industrial development comparable to that of England. It owed it first to the Rhine, which offered it the outlet of Holland and its ports. It owed it also to rich countryside, where labour was abundant. It owed it to a demography which, from 1816 to 1855, brought the German population from 23 million to 35 million inhabitants. Finally it owed it to French Revolution, which conformed the advance which it enjoyed over the rest of Germany [356].

 

 

 

 


Figure 39: the cradle of the Sartorius family

 

 

 

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We have seen above that revolutionary France had annexed all the left bank of the Rhine. Napoléon had gone still farther. In 1806, under the guise of organizing a Confederation of the Rhine, he transformed the territories of the right bank into vassal states. For the sake of the cause, Berg, Bavarian possession, was united to Cleves, a Prussian possession. The Emperor gave the whole to his brother-in-law Murat, who took the title of grand-duke of Berg. When the latter became king of Naples in 1809, it was a very young son of Louis Bonaparte who succeeded him. This scarcely masked a de facto annexion by France [357].

The whole held until 1813. Twenty years of French occupation upset the Rhine countries. It brought them war, conscription and taxes. It also brought them social progress. It unified the country by suppressing a hundred small ecclesiastical or secular states. It abolished feudalism and chores. It abolished corporations and family monopolies. It introduced the code Napoléon. Finally, the urban bourgeoisie and the wealthy peasantry were the main beneficiaries of the confiscation of noble lands and Church estates.

In the Ruhr basin, industry was stimulated. Then almost exclusively industrial cities were born or grew. This was the case of Barmen, Elberfeld, Remscheid, and Solingen. At the beginning of the 19th century this region already had a density of more than 300 inhabitants per square kilometre. Ironworks developed. The textile industry rebounded. It remained the emblematic industry of the valley of the Wupper. Of course clothes were made there. There were also mechanical industries, oriented towards the manufacture of machines for the textile industry. As for the chemical industries, they were devoted to artificial colours. The silk fabrics in Krefeld, cotton and wool in Barmen and Elberfeld, linen in Cologne, Aachen and Mönchengladbach, cloths a bit everywhere met the English challenge.

However, the situation of the vassal kingdoms of the Napoleonic empire was far from enviable. Contrary to appearances, the annexation had excluded them from the French community. The industry of the right bank of the Rhine found itself struck by the fundamental law of the Empire in commercial matters. The latter prohibited muslins, white or painted cotton cloths, cotton yarns, cotton blankets, spinned cottons for wicks, whatever their origin. It was a disaster for the grand-duchy of Berg. The Continental blockade, set up by Napoléon from 1806 to economically asphyxiate England, further aggravated the situation. During the great economic crisis of 1810-1812, Beugnot, in charge of the administration of the grand-duchy, sent alarming reports on Berg and the manufactures of Elberfeld [358].

The end of the Napoleonic adventure weighed heavily on the region. An imperial decree of 11 June 1811 raised four regiments of infantry, a regiment of cavalry and a battalion of artillery in the grand-duchy of Berg. These units quickly fell on the battlefields of Spain. Barely recompensed, they disappeared again in November 1812 in the icy plains of Russia. The importance of conscription had made it necessary to replace men by women in factories. The people rejected it to the point that the French authorities came to imprison several hundred parents of refractory to put pressure on their sons. At the beginning of 1813, a new rising of men provoked an uprising. The serious economic crisis that the grand-duchy was crossing and the introduction of the tobacco and salt board had to do with it. Most of the insurgents were unemployed textile workers. They became masters of Ronsdorf and Solingen. Troops sent from Elberfeld shot 17 rioters and re-established order. The merchant and manufacturing bourgeoisie had not moved. Throughout the year 1813, in its great majority, it remained loyal to the French and Berg authorities [359].

On 3 November 1813, Elberfeld saw Jérôme Bonaparte, king of Westphalia, who was fleeing his kingdom, escorted by the cuirassiers of his guard and some French cavalry, pass by. Remains of the retreating Great Army followed him shortly after. On 9 November 1813, the first Cossacks of major-general Rusefowisch arrived in pursuit. The Russians encamped for two days on the Ochsenkamp. On 13 November, State councillor Gruner took over the grand-duchy of Berg in the name of the allied powers.

At the beginning of 1814, Elberfeld and Barmen had to endure the presence of Swedish and Prussian troops on their way to France. No fewer than 65 generals, 770 staff officers, 7 776 junior officers, 7 370 non-commissioned officers and 109 360 soldiers of the united armies, accompanied by 30 977 horses, quartered there during the year 1814. In all, between 1813 and 1816, 300 000 men of all nations and 100 000 horses passed through Elberfeld and Barmen, with their procession of requisitions and forced contributions. As a result, the inhabitants of Barmen had to bear a cost of 881 173,58 francs, excluding direct taxes, distributed almost equally in war taxes, forced borrowings and expenditures on the municipality [360].

 

 

Figure 40: soldier of the Prussian Landwehr

 

 

The Sartorius had not been left out of these events since in 1814, Ferdinand had joined the Landwehr in Usingen [361]. It was created in the kingdom of Prussia by Scharnhorst on 17 May 1813. It included all men from 17 to 40 able to serve and who did not already belong to regular units or free corps. Each region had to provide a quota proportional to its population. The units were distinguished by the colour of the collar, green for Westphalia. However, the military value of the Landwehr was inadequate, as its equipment was miserable. The armaments consisted mainly of pikes and axes, and many soldiers had no shoes [362].

 

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In 1815, the Congress of Vienna assigned the grand-duchy of Berg, along with other Rhine territories, to Prussia. The inhabitants of Barmen then became Prussians [363]. Nothing, however, was more different from Prussia proper, that of Berlin and Königsberg, Protestant and militarist, than that Rhineland, Catholic and industrial, which occupied a particular place in 19th century Germany.

To tell the truth, the state of mind in Rhineland was violently anti-Prussian. This, of course, was due to religious motives. This was also due to diametrically opposed lifestyles. In the eyes of the Rhinelanders, full of joy of living, the Prussians were only rigid and disciplined puppets. The social structure of Rhineland was different from that of Prussia. The bourgeoisie was more powerful and active than anywhere else in Germany. It had, therefore, seen with disquietude the Congress of Vienna decide the annexation of the Rhine countries to Prussia. It feared for its interests and dreaded the absolutism of the king of Prussia Frederick-William III. It, who had taken advantage of the French market, had the feeling that it was going to pay the price of its annexion by Prussia. So it used its predominance to the Rhine diet to frustrate all initiatives of Berlin that were aimed at replacing the legislation of French type with legislation based on civil inequality. The Paris revolution of 1830 provoked a new outbreak of liberalism. This was particularly the case in Aachen and Elberfeld, the only two cities in Prussian Rhineland not to have the status of a fortress. Elberfeld was moreover the only city of more than 30 000 inhabitants to have no garrison. The valley of the Wupper knew moreover of new risings in the spring of 1849. The liberalism of the Rhenans nevertheless remained very cautious. As for Prussia, it wanted at all costs to avoid recurring at home what had happened in Belgium in 1830. The Catholic Belgians had indeed risen up against their masters, the Protestant Dutch, and had snatched from them independence.

Gradually, however, economic integration was realized. New trade routes were established between Rhineland and the rest of the kingdom of Prussia. The economic recovery following the collapse of the Empire and the return of peace was extremely rapid. Thus a geographical dictionary of 1817 presents Elberfeld, which already had 40 000 inhabitants, as an extremely interesting city in terms of industry. There seemed to be almost everything there. Cotton and silk were spooled. Silk and cotton headdresses, mixed thread and cotton or pure cotton cloths were made there. Linen was bleached and printed. Wool was worked there. Passementeries, ribbons, paper mills, cutlery etc. were produced there. As for its neighbour Barmen, it had specialized in ribbon and laces [364].

 

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While Adolph Sartorius worked for Fr. A. & Chr. Jung, his younger brother Ferdinand had become master dyer at Hösterey & Gauhé in Wupperfeld [365]. Once the Napoleonic adventure and its succession of wars ended, peace returned, but the economic situation slowed to improve. Europe was financially exsanguous, devastated and impoverished. The industrial development which had begun before 1789 had been slowed down. Britain, whose products were better and cheaper, took advantage of it to flood the continental market from 1814. The masses who had fled the countryside to look for places of work too scarce in big cities like Barmen and Elberfeld suffered very much. Both cities experienced a serious economic depression until 1818. In addition, from the end of the summer of 1816 until the 1817 harvest, like all of Europe, they were struck by the worst famine of the 19th century. All the year 1816 was cold and humid. Cereals, fruits and vegetables did not ripen. The price of bread reached levels never seen before. Epidemics of scarlet fever and measles afflicted weakened organisms [366]. Yet it was in this context, in 1816, that the two brothers Sartorius decided to create their own business, a Turkish red dying shop. Its seat was in Lange, near Wupperfeld [367].

At the beginning of the 19th century, the site was still rustic. The Wupper wandered nonchalantly between two rows of hills. The walker who had reached the summit of one of them on a beautiful summer morning saw the village of Barmen in the distance near the river, clenched around its church. In front of Barmen, fields occupied the whole bottom of the valley. On the hillside, within a span of a voice, a shepherd, lazily lying in the grass, watched his flock absent-mindedly. Alone, in front of the walker, on the right bank of the Wupper, a large two-storey white building detonated in this rural landscape. In front of it, over the whole extent of the meadow which separated it from the river, on long rows of parallel barriers, dried pieces of cloth. It was the dyeing of the Sartorius brothers [368]. The city still had only 1 600 houses, 221 factories, mills and shops and 575 stables and barns [369].

 

 

Figure 41: Barmen around 1810

 

 

The term Turkish red or Adrianople red refers to a dyeing process now abandoned. Of great complexity, it gave a red of unequalled depth and then constituted a major commercial secret. Producing Turkish red was complex. It consisted of about twenty stages spread out over several weeks. It was particularly infectious. After marinating in clay, the cotton fibre, previously rubbed with a mixture of castor oil, cow dung and cow blood, was then dyed with alizarin and placed in an oven. It was then necessary to render the colours more vivid with soap and soda. The finished product was resistant to washing, sunlight, acids and salts. The handkerchief with an Arab rider is a beautiful illustration of the 1870's [370].

For a long time andrinople was imported from Turkey and the Middle-East by Vienna, Marseille and Venice. The secret came to Europe by Greeks from Thessaly at the end of the 18th century. It was a Saxon who had lived in Turkey for a long time and delivered it to a dyer from Elberfeld for the few gold louis he needed to complete his return journey to his native land. The technique of andrinople was brought to such a degree of perfection that, very quickly, the products of the valley of the Wupper conquered Europe and penetrated even the Turkish market. In 1809 there were 150 dyers of andrinople in Elberfeld, Barmen and the surrounding area. The continental blockade bore them a blow before they left again [371].

 

 

andrinople

Figure 42: a Turkish red handkerchief representing emperor Frederick II

 

 

The beginnings of the two Sartorius brothers were difficult. When their father died in 1819, their share of inheritance was barely enough to meet the necessary investments. Moreover, if Ferdinand devoted all his time to this new business. Adolph, who had kept his position as a clerk in the Jung house, could only attend to it outside working hours and on Sundays. Despite all sorts of adversities, disasters and bankruptcies, the two brothers were convinced that there was a future.

In 1821, Adolph left the Jung house to enter Johann Friedrich Wolff, operator of a Turkey red thread firm in Elberfeld, as an agent and desk manager [Prokuratträger und Vorsteher des Comptoirs]. Johann Friedrich Wolff had his own dyers but also dyed a lot of thread at subcontractors'. In agreement with his new boss, Adolph was able to devote more time to his own business. In this period of nascent capitalism, the profits were considerable. If we interpret correctly the figures given by Adolph, the 1821 financial year would have resulted in a profit of 13 500 Thaler, whereas he and Ferdinand had contributed only 3 794 and 7 150 Thaler respectively. They were then able to make the necessary investments to expand their business. In addition, the new situation of Adolph brought him in touch with manufacturers on the left bank of the Rhine in Rheydt, Gladbach, Kaldenkirchen, etc., who placed important and profitable orders on him [372].

By an act of 30 April 1825, Adolph and Ferdinand Sartorius purchased from the heirs of Ambrosius Brand a piece of land in Barmen, on which they rapidly erected a double house and several buildings, including a tread bleaching unit and a dye work [373].

The business of the Sartorius brothers prospered. At the end of 1830, the capital account of Adolph Ludwig amounted to 39 953,20 Thaler and that of Ferdinand Joseph one to 35 113,09 Thaler. In 14 years the elder would have multiplied his initial investment by 10, an annual increase of 18 %, and the cadet his by 5, an annual increase of 12 % [374]!

 

 

andrinople

Figure 43: a Turkish red fabric in Barmen

 

 

Germany then industrialized rapidly. In 1830, four-fifths of the Germans still lived in the country, seventy years later, in 1900, only a fifth. At the same time, the German population had almost tripled. By and large, over the same period, the population of cities had risen from 4 or 5 million to nearly 50 million, ten times more [375].

 

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Early in 1819, Ferdinand Joseph lived in a Barmen district called in der Bridden. One month after the death of his father, on 25 March 1819, he married a girl from Elberfeld, Anna Gertrud Heidkamp [376]. Her family ties were located in Ratingen, near the outskirts of Düsseldorf [377]. The German bourgeois woman then led a life without fantasy. The three K's were her rule of conduct: Kinder, Kirche, Küche, children, church, kitchen. The married woman was spouse and mother. She had no other pretensions. It was in her home that she had to find the fulfilment of her being, the one prescribed by morality, religion, what will be said of it. It was there and there alone that she could, and should, find happiness. Her confessor, when she was a Roman Catholic, only confirmed her in these good dispositions. Out of this there was no salvation in the hereafter [378].

 

 

Unterbarmen

Figure 44: Unterbarmen in 1836

 

 

Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius and Anna Gertrud Heidkamp settled in a district of Barmen called Scheurer Rotte. From their union eight children were born, Adolph in 1819 [379], Ferdinandine in 1820 [380], Robert in 1822 [381], Richard in 1823 [382], Oswald in 1825 [383], Emma in 1826 [384], Dieter Emil about 1828 [385] and Maria Lisetta in 1835 [386]. In 1843 they married Ferdinandine to a boy from the region of Mönchengladbach, Johann Peter Drissen, installed as a trader in Liège [387]. In 1844, Adolph married a first cousin of the latter, Rosalie Drissen [388]. The boys probably did higher education because on 15 November 1847 Emil enrolled in the law school of the university of Heidelberg [389].

At the silver jubilee of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius and Anna Gertrud Heidkamp, their children offered them China cups bearing in golden letters the inscription Den lieben Eltern zur Feier der silbernen Hochzeit den 25. März 1844 [To our dear parents for their silver jubilee, 25 March 1844 [390]].

 

 

image 032

Figure 45: one of the cups presented to Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius and Anna Gertrud Heidkamp by their children for their silver jubilee (face)

 

 

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Figure 46: one of the cups presented to Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius and Anna Gertrud Heidkamp by their children for their silver jubilee (profile)

 

 

Adolph Ludwig married a few years after his younger brother Ferdinand Joseph. On 2 September 1823 he joined Julie Bargmann, from Elberfeld. The marriage was celebrated on 15 April 1824 by the Lutheran pastor Döring. The fiancée, like her parents, belonged to the Reformed religion. The wedding took place in the house of the parents Bargmann [391].

At that time, the Prussian administration tackled health problems with considerable means. The fight against major epidemics had decisive success after the last major outbreak of cholera, in the early 1830's. The quality of studies and that of medical research went hand in hand with care. The eradication of smallpox, a disease that wreaked havoc among children, was a priority [392]. It is thus that the documents relating to the vaccination of all of the children of Adolph and Julie Sartorius are still in family papers, such as the following:

 

 

N° 2003 of the vaccination list

The parents of the child Moritz, son of the merchant A. L. Sartorius, born in the district of Unterbarmen on 11 May 1834, are invited, if they wish to have him vaccinated free of charge, to bring him on Friday, 27 June at 2 p.m., at this town hall to have him vaccinated with smallpox vaccine by doctors present around this time.

At the same time, it should be noted that those who, by negligence or by opposition, do not vaccinate their children at the prescribed dates will sooner or later bear all the responsibility and the consequences described in the order of the highly laudable royal government of 10 May 1830 (notice sheet year 1830, section 33, page 257).

Barmen on 20 June 1834

The mayor

Wilckhaus

(This sheet is to be shown when vaccinating.)

 

 

The parents complied with this request since this other certificate is also to be found in family papers [393]:

 

 

N° 2003 of the vaccination list

Government circle of Düsseldorf, Barmen city hall

Smallpox vaccination certificate

I, the undersigned, certify that on 27 August 1834 Moritz Satorius  [sic], born on 11 May 1834, son of Mr Adolph Satorius  [resic], living in Barmen, was vaccinated by me with a good vaccine from Joh. Fried. Avenz and that at the inspection on 4 September 1834 I recognized the six subsequent marks as good.

2004 Barmen                                                                Elberfeld, 4 September 1834

registered under n°

of the vaccination list                                                                                L. Mund

This certificate must be carefully preserved.

 

 

 

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After the death of her husband, Wilhelmine Capito had sold the property he owned in Kirchen, including the Sartorius Erbe [394]. On 19 July 1819, she moved to her son Ferdinand Joseph in Barmen. In 1828, she moved to go to her other son Adolph to Elberfeld [395]. Wilhelmine Capito died of dropsy in Barmen on 31 December 1833 [396], between 4 and 5 p.m. She died in a house she owned in undivided co-ownership with her two sons at the Haspel bridge [Haspeler Brücke] in Unterbarmen [397], on the edge of Elberfeld, separated by the Wupper [398]. She was buried on the morning of 3 January in the Lutheran cemetery of Unterbarmen, Ronsdorfer Chaussée [399].

 

 

Unterbarmerfriedhof

Figure 47: the cemetery of Unterbarmen

 

 

 

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We have no direct information on the way of life of the Sartorius family at that time. On the other hand, we have numerous studies devoted to the offspring of a family of spinners of Barmen who accessed to the celebrity. The latter also left an abundant literary and epistolary production. We can thus give a good idea of the way of this circle of the textile bourgeoisie of Barmen in the 1840's. This interesting young man was called Friedrich Engels. His name is of course inextricably linked to that of Karl Marx. Obviously it is necessary to distinguish between Engels' judgments. One cannot, however, reject his testimony as a whole.

Friedrich Engels was born in Barmen on 28 November 1820. His father, who was also called Friedrich, belonged to a very ancient family of manufacturers. If he had not been a Calvinist, one might have imagined that little Friedrich had been a playmate of his contemporary Adolph Sartorius, the eldest son of Ferdinand Joseph. The two families could not in any case not know each other. Engels' father was the very type of the rich Renish bourgeois. He owned spinning mills in Barmen and Manchester, England, where he had joined the Ermen brothers. Politically, Friedrich Engels father was conservative, even reactionary [400]. In this era of emerging capitalism, an austere life and a sense of saving were part of the economic and social imperatives. For these manufacturers, therefore, they constituted the moral virtues par excellence. The reading of the Letters from the valley of the Wupper of Engels makes it possible to reconstruct the behaviour of this manufacturing bourgeoisie of Rhineland. Even if the objectivity of this correspondence remains questionable, it contains details that cannot be invented:

No idea about culture. Whoever knows how to play whist and billiards, to talk about politics and skilfully turn a compliment, is considered to be a cultivated man in Barmen and Elberfeld. It is a terrible life that these people lead and yet they find pleasure in it. By day, they plunge into the numbers of their accounts, and that with a fury, with an interest that one could hardly imagine. In the evening, at a certain hour, all go into society. They play cards, talk politics and smoke, to go home on the stroke of nine. So it is every day, without change and woe to anyone who wants to act otherwise. He can be sure of the most terrible disgrace. The young men are properly trained at this school by their fathers. They promise to become exactly like them. Their subjects of conversation are fairly uniform. Those of Barmen speak mainly of horses, those of Elberfeld of dogs. When the conversation rises, they go over the local beauties or talk about business. That is all. Once in half a century, they also speak of literature, in which they count the names of Paul de Kock, Marryat, Tromlitz, Nestroy and others. In politics, they are very good Prussians, because they are under Prussian rule, a priori opposed to all liberalism, all as long as it pleases His Majesty to leave them the code Napoleon. For at the same time all patriotism would disappear with it. No one knows the literary aspect of the Young Germany movement. It passes for a secret society, much like demagogy, under the presidency of Messrs Heine, Gutzkow and Mundt [401].

The only distraction that Engels' father allowed himself was music. It is easy to imagine what these chamber music concerts were to be in the family house, the father playing the flageolet and the cello himself.

Barmen, a city without intellectual pretensions, possessed only a municipal college, which was perhaps frequented by the Sartorius sons. Friedrich Engels in any case remained there until the age of 14 years. He remembered it not too badly, when he spoke of it in his Letters from the valley of the Wupper. It was a small college poorly endowed financially, with masters without great means and without brilliance. Despite everything, everyone, director ahead, was doing everything he could. There was in particular a very conscientious initiator of modern French, Dr. Philipp Schifflin, author of Instructions for teaching French in three lessons. At the age of 14, Friedrich had to leave the college of Barmen college for the high school of Elberfeld, which belonged to the Lutheran community of the city. He was recalled by his father on 15 September 1837 and began working as a sales clerk in the family business of Barmen. The milieu, which young Engels lived in, brought him into contact with a social reality, the workers of factories. He will therefore speak of it with full knowledge of the facts. On the other hand, this reality remained unknown to his partner Karl Marx, who had a background of lawyers and civil servants. In the workshop, Friedrich Engels Jr. reports,

The master usually reads the Bible and sometimes sounds with his companions a hymn; the essential remaining however the condemnation of the next [...].

 

 

Wuppertal

Figure 48: Wuppertal today

 

 

Young Engels was horrified the day he discovered the living conditions of the workers in what he would call the dark satanic mill of his father [402].

Three out of five people, he wrote, die of phthisis, and all this comes from alcoholism. In truth, it would not be so terrible if the proprietors did not carry on the march of their factories in such a senseless manner. [...] But there is a terrible misery in the lower classes of the valley of the Wupper, especially among factory workers. Syphilis and tuberculosis are experiencing an incredible extension. In Elberfeld alone, out of 2 500 school-aged children,, 1 200 are taken away from teaching and grow up in factories only so that the manufacturer does not have to pay an adult twice the wages he gives to a child who takes his place. But the wealthy manufacturers have an accommodating consciousness and letting a child die more or one less leads no pietistic soul to hell, especially if, every Sunday, it goes twice to the church [403].

In the bleacheries of this period, boys, from the eight years, and young girls worked from seven or seven thirty in the morning to ten or eleven in the evening [404]. And after work,

Every night we hear the joyful companions who go by the streets and sing their songs. But it is the most vulgar licentious songs that ever came to lips inflamed by alcohol. We never hear one of those popular songs that are known throughout the rest of Germany and which we can be proud of. All taverns are full, especially on Saturday and Sunday. In the evening at eleven o'clock, when they close, the drunks spring up, and the most part store their wine in the gutters [405].

In 1876, Engels evoked again those workmen who sought escape in drunkenness. Despite the half century passed, he saw again the whole bands of drunks who

Starting at 9 p.m. [walked away] staggering in the whole width of the street and uttering discordant cries from tavern to tavern to finally fail at home.

About 1845, communism spread rapidly among the workers of Elberfeld and the valley of the Wupper. The police chief of Barmen himself was suspected of being a communist. With this experience, Friedrich Engels refused to continue working with his father. Business, horse-trading he used to say, disgusted him. He wanted to be a writer and devote himself to the cause of a new world order. A convinced communist, he believed in the future of communism [406]. And in 1863, Barmen and Elberfeld sent delegations to Leipzig to the founding congress of the Allgemeines Deutsches Arbeiterverein [General union of German workers] under the impetus of the socialist Lassalle [407]. The latter came in person in the valley of the Wupper in September 1863 to launch an campaign of agitation in Rhineland. On the 20, in the great hall of the Sanssouci restaurant, he pronounced in front of 2 000 to 3 000 people his famous Rheinische Rede [Rhine speech], soon to be called Barmer Rede [Barmen speech [408]].

 

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The two brothers Adolph and Ferdinand Sartorius did not follow the example of Engels. They fit perfectly into the system. In 1831, Adolph left his position with Johann Friedrich Wolff's. His brother and he then united their efforts with those of a brother-in-law of Adolph, Wilhelm Keller [409], who until then had operated under the trade name Wilhelm Keller & Comp. The three men created the Keller & Sartorius company, specializing in the dyeing of Turkish red thread [410]. Its head office was in Elberfeld and it began its activity on 1 August 1831 [411]. On this occasion, the three partners sent their customers and suppliers a letter informing them of these changes. This missive ended with this very modern concern of the customer:

We ask you to transfer the trust you have shown so far in our business relations with the new firm. We shall earnestly strive to always deserve it [412].

Once again, the beginnings were difficult. Competition was keen and ecology was not the dominant concern of the time according to the testimony of Engel:

The narrow river [the Wupper] rolls its purple waters, sometimes fast and sometimes slow, between smoking factories and meadows covered with ribbons. Its bright red colour is not due to a bloody battle [...] but only and only to the numerous Turkish red dyeings [413].

 

 

Barmen

Figure 49: Barmen in 1870

 

 

The colours set badly. Risky sales led the trio, who wiped considerable losses, to bankruptcy. Yet, even modest, the results could be considered satisfactory. The confidence inspired by the firm grew, while its reputation stood as well in Elberfeld as in the distance. The partners, whose reputation was quite honourable, faced no lawsuit. Generally considered, they did not lack credit [414].

We follow this company Keller & Sartorius for about ten years. It appears in 1833 as a Türkischrothgarnfärberei u. Handlung [Turkish red dyeing and trading] in the Offizielles Adress-Buch für Rheinland-Westphalen [415], in 1837 in the section négociants [traders] of Elberfeld in the Almanach du commerce [416], in 1838 again as Türkischrothgarnfärberei u. Handlung in Haspel and Unterbarmen in the Offizielles Adress-Buch für Rheinland-Westphalen [417], in 1842 in the section teinturiers [dyers] of Elberfeld and, finally, from 1843 to 1846, in the section teinturiers of Düsseldorf of the Annuaire général du commerce [418]. We then lose track of it.

In fact, the Sartorius brothers  seem to have regained their independence in the early 1840's. Qualified merchant in Barmen in 1839 [419], Adolph Sartorius founded his own firm, A. Sartorius & Comp., in 1841 in Düsseldorf [420]. This business, described as Türkischroth-Garn-Färberei u. Handlung, was installed Hofgartenstraβe, 179, in the district of Pempelfort [421]. In 1851 Adolph exhibited his Turkish red thread at the London industrial exhibition [422]. In 1852, it was at the Provinzial-Gewerbe-Austellung für Rheinland und Westphalen [Professional exhibition for Rhineland and Westphalia] in Düsseldorf itself [423]. In 1862, he associated his sons Otto and Moritz with his business [424]. Finally, in 1865, he was one of the three manufacturers of Turkish red in Düsseldorf. He then employed 80 workers and produced 6 000 pounds of thread per week [425]. The business continued to grow, since in 1874 it had 106 people [426].

For his part, Ferdinand was described as a dyer in Barmen in 1839 [427] and as owner of a dyeing factory [Färbereiinhaber] in Barmen in 1844 [428]. He appears under his own name in the Annuaire général du commerce [General directory of commerce] in 1842, 1843 and 1845 under the two entries coton rouge dit de Turquie [red cotton so called Turkish] and teinturier [dyer] of Elberfeld, in that of 1846 under the sole rubric négociant [merchant] of Elberfeld, in that of 1849 under the two entries négociant in Barmen and coton rouge dit de Turquie in Elberfeld, in those of 1850, 1851 and 1853 under the single heading coton rouge dit de Turquie of Elberfeld and those of 1852, 1854 and 1855 under the sole entry négociant of Barmen [429].

At one point, the two brothers decided to dissolve the community that existed between them. Ferdinand then became the sole owner of the land where the thread bleaching factory and a double house were erected [430].

Ferdinand Sartorius was a man of progress. Thus in 1844 he counted among the founding shareholders of the Schwarzbachthaler Wegebau-Gesellschaft. The object of this company with a capital of 12 800 Thaler, which he held four shares out of a total of 512, was to build and maintain a connecting road from Wupperfeld to the road from Dusseldorf to Schwelm via the Schwarzbach valley. Ferdinand found himself in good company as amongst the 62 shareholders, one can notice, among others, the Hösterey et Gauhé company and Gottfried Hösterey, who had welcomed him at the beginning, or Friedrich von Eynern and his son, also Friedrich, who practiced the wholesale trade of indigo [431].

In 1845 Ferdinand Sartorius again participated in the creation of the Gas-Beleuchtungs-Gesellschaft zu Barmen [Company for gas lightening of Barmen]. This company produced gas from coal to power the 332 lamp posts planned through the city. The 90 000 Thaler capital of this public limited company were divided between the city of Barmen (20 000 Thaler) and some forty private shareholders who held 350 shares of 200 Thaler each [432]. The gas plant, located on the site of the present Wartburgstraβe entered service less than three years later, on 24 January 1848 [433]. Among the shareholders of the Gas-Beleuchtungs-Gesellschaft zu Barmen were the cream of the employers of Barmen, among whom August Engels [434], uncle of the famous Friedrich Engels, the sidekick of Marx, and shareholder of the family firm Caspar Engels und Söhne, from Barmen [435]. One could also meet various members of the Barmer erste Gesellschaft Concordia 1801, club founded in 1801 by twenty five merchants of Barmen to promote the evenings in a pleasant atmosphere [436]. In the end, the society of Barmen was perhaps less uneducated than Engels claimed. According to a specialized magazine in 1868,

The Concordia society is the focal point of all cultivated people. Richly endowed, it puts its honour to be the protector and promoter of the arts and sciences. In summer, in the salons of this company is held an exhibition of paintings of the Barmer Kunstverein [Barmen arts union]. In winter, the elegant rooms are used for musical events or conferences of famous scholars. Scientific conferences are organized by a "Comité für wissenschaftliche Vorlesungen" [Commitee for scientific conferences [437]].

The previous year, Ferdinand had also participated in the creation of a theatre in Elberfeld, the Theaterverein in Elberfeld. Again, he found himself in the company of 75 notables from Barmen, but also from Elberfeld. Among them were the industrialists Friedrich August Jung, Christian Jung and Johann Friedrich Wolff, who had guided the beginnings of Adolph in the textile, or the mother-in-law of the latter, Mrs. widow Bargmann. The financing requirement was 40 000 Thaler, of which 28 000 were contributed in the form of 280 shares of 100 Thaler each, which Ferdinand Sartorius held two of [438]. The theatre opened with the comedy The glass of water by Eugène Scribe [439].

 

 

Théâtre_action

Figure 50: the theatre of Elberfeld

 

 

Théâtre_Elberfeld

Figure 51: share of the theatre of Elberfeld

 

 

Ferdinand devoted himself to his affairs until he retired to Kleve [440]. That is where his daughter Emma lived. She had married a royal notary, Joseph Hopmann, whom she had twelve children of [441]. It was in Barmen however that Ferdinand died on 4 December 1854 [442]. He died at half past three in the afternoon at the house of his son Adolph, whom he spent a few days with. His son and his daughter-in-law had surrounded him in his last moments, during which he received the last sacraments [443]. His wife followed him to the tomb eight years later [444]. Remaining an orphan, their daughter Maria Lisetta made a beautiful marriage in 1864. She married Richard Friedrich Houben [445], the son of a notary in Düren, and, by his mother, a descendant of a papermaking family [446].

 

 

ffig23

Figure 52: Joseph and Emma Hopmann

 

 

In 1857, the land in Barmen was the source of a lawsuit between Anna Gertrud Heidkamp and her children, on the one hand, and the town of Barmen, on the other, claiming that they had to pay 364 Reichsthaler and 24 groschen for the cost of paving the adjacent streets, dating back to 1817! On 27 January 1859, the case came before the court of appeal of Cologne, which gave reason to the Sartorius by virtue of a thirty-year prescription. The town of Barmen went to cassation, which confirmed the judgement. Finally, on 5 June 1860, the Senate of Rhineland upheld the court of cassation's ruling [447].

The youngest of the Sartorius brothers, Ludwig Philipp Gerlach Sartorius, followed the path traced by his elders. Like them, he became a Turkish red dyer in Barmen [448]. Later he specialized in the dyeing of silk [449]. To tell the truth, the industry of the Wupper valley showed great adaptability in the choice of its raw material. The first half of the 18th century had seen the domination of flax. Cotton supplanted it definitively at the turn of the century, before beginning its decline in the 1820's. Silk then became more and more important, before reaching its apogee in the middle of the 19th century [450]. Ludwig died at the age of 46 on 1 October 1848. His wife Maria Catharina Nolte or Nolden had died on 20 January 1845 [451]. They let five children, whom the eldest was not more than ten years old [452].

 

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Ferdinand Sartorius lived the right half of a large and beautiful double house at the Haspeler Brücke. His son Adolph and his family occupied the left half of it.

 

 

Haspel-Haeuser

Figure 53: bourgeois houses in Unterbarmen

 

 

Adolph Sartorius, the eldest son of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius, remained in Barmen. There he owned a factory of ribbons and passementerie, one of the specialties of Elberfeld [453]. His marriage to Rosalie Drissen was soon followed by the birth of four children, Anna on 14 February 1845 [454], Ferdinand on 10 April 1846 [455], Adolph on 28 July 1847 [456] and Rosalie on 19 August 1848 [457].

In the years 1846 and 1847, the valley of the Wupper experienced a severe economic crisis, mass poverty and a dizzying rise in food prices, which led to famine. In the first half of 1847, the five soup kitchens in Elberfeld served up to 4 000 rations a day. Almost 40% of the population lived on social assistance [458].

The repercussions of the Paris revolution of 1848 soon reached Germany. The German revolution, however, had its own character. To the political and social demands, it added, and it is its originality, national aspirations. As early as May 1848, a Pan-German national assembly met in Frankfurt am Main. It tried to achieve German unity. It was, however, soon divided between the supporters of a great Germany with Austria (Groβdeutsche) and supporters of a small Germany without Austria (Kleindeutsche). The latter prevailed. In March 1849 they offered the hereditary imperial crown to the king of Prussia Frederick-William IV. Austria recalled its deputies. As for the king of Prussia, he refused a crown picked up in the street. The minds began to ferment. At the beginning of May 1849, popular uprisings broke out through Germany [459], in the Palatinate and in the grand-duchy of Baden in particular.

 

 

Maerz1848_berlin

Figure 54: the revolution of 1848 in Germany

 

 

In Rhineland, Elberfeld, about which we have seen the importance that the workers' movement had taken there, was one of the centres of insurrection. Far from Pan-German political concerns, workers and house weavers wanted higher wages and better living conditions. In March 1848 the workers of the neighbouring city of Solingen had destroyed, and set fire to, the biggest undertaking in the country of Berg, Hasenclever, Burlage & Co. On 18 March, in Elberfeld, a demonstration degenerated. The workers invaded a factory and destroyed machines. The arrival of the soldiers prevented more damage. A year later, the decision of the Prussian government to mobilize the Landwehr finished heating up the heads. On 9 May 1849, the workers of Solingen joined those of Elberfeld. The insurgents plundered the arsenals and built barricades. They attacked the troops and stormed the prison from which they released their comrades arrested in the wake of the events of the preceding year. On 11 May, they set up a security committee to support the movement and to ensure coordination between the revolutionary Commune of Elberfeld and the Solingen insurgents. However, on 16 May, the movement collapsed under military pressure. The state of siege reigned in the circles of Hagen, Iserlohn, Elberfeld and Solingen. The Prussian army crushed the uprising in the blood. The insurgents fled or hid themselves. Some were arrested. The trial in 1850 of 26 Solingen insurgents ended with 11 heavy sentences [460].

One of the barricades erected by the insurgents of Elberfeld was at Haspeler Brücke, near the house of the Sartorius. Anxious about the turn of events, Rosalie Drissen, who was three months pregnant, took refuge with her four children at her parents' home in Rheydt, which had remained calm. Adolph remained in Barmen to protect his affairs [461]. This was not a mere style clause. Louis Lekebusch, son of Ludwig Lekebusch, co-owner of the Turkish red dye works Schöler & Lekebusch in Elberfeld, who was then 14, reported years later:

The events of the year 1849 made a profound impression on my childish soul. Barricades were built in Elberfeld and the populace plundered the house of the mayor [Oberbürgermeister] von Carnap and destroyed the furniture and equipment. I was present when the rioters took the prison by assault and violently broke the gate of the old reformed church to sound the tocsin. I also saw the soldiers arriving from Düsseldorf and, as we lived near the town hall in the Burgstraße, I watched from our window the fighting around the barricades of the Schwannenstraße, which captain von Uttenhoven died unfortunately on and I could hear the clatter of cannon balls behind. My mother fled with us the children to relatives in Barmen and I shall never forget how we had to step over the barricades of the Haspeler Brücke [462].

 

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When calm returned, births succeeded one another at the Sartorius. They were successively those of Emma Elisabeth, who did not live, in 1849 [463], Helene in 1851 [464], Elisa in 1856 [465], Maria in 1860 [466] and Carl in 1862 [467].

During meals, the Sartorius children had to be silent, obey and eat of everything that happened on the table. They attended the schools of Elberfeld [468]. This is why Ferdinand is to be found at the Elberfeld high school during the school year 1861-1862 [469]. Later on, Anna was boarded at the Calvarienberg [Calvary], near Altenahr [470]. Adolph was absolutely anxious that, when they returned at 5 p.m., his children should seat round the great table and do their homework. It was, moreover, the hour to which he was returning from his factory. The children recognized his arrival at the cracking of his boots on the stair.

Although living in Barmen, the family used to go to church in Saint Lawrence [Laurentiuskirche] in Elberfeld. It was then the only church where one could make his first communion and confirmation. The feast of Saint Lawrence, on 10 August, gave rise to a fine procession. Barmen also had its processions.

According to the testimony of Rosalie, her brothers, her sisters and she had a beautiful youth. Their parents procured them many joys. There were many walks, large and small, in the garden and outside. Once, their father even offered them a punch [Bowle] at Einsil's, in the garden of Elberfeld, which brought them joy [471]. The girls had many friends, whom they often organized great festivals [groβe Visitten] with. Once, Rosalie Drissen had even sent for an organ, to the sound of which these young ladies danced and amused themselves a great deal. On free afternoons, the Sartorius misses were permitted to go for a walk in the Blueberries wood [Waldbeerenbusch], where they picked up cranberries [Preiselbeere]. During the summer evenings, they went to drink milk at Hamerschmidt's, in the Christ wood [Christbusch [472]]. However, even when they had an invitation, they had to come back for their piano lesson.

 

 

Laurentiuskirche

Figure 55: Saint Lawrence church in Elberfeld

 

 

Later, the Sartorius children went regularly to see their grand-parents Drissen, who had retired to Honnef, a small spa town on the banks of the Rhine, some 20 kilometres south of Bonn. In spring, several of the children spent a holiday there. First they took the steamer in Düsseldorf. They then went the Rhine upstream for about sixty kilometres. Their good grandmother came to fetch them from the landing place of the steamer in Königswinter, opposite Bonn. She gave them fruits from her garden which she had brought with her [473]. Her grand-children did not hesitate to plunder her large and beautiful garden, filled with fruit trees. They spent a lot of good time on this beautiful estate [474].

Despite years and deaths, the Sartorius family remained united. Thus Adolph Sartorius and his uncle Adolph Ludwig continued to look after the children orphaned by their uncle and brother Ludwig. They were named Julie, Hugo, Heinrich, Maria and Ottilie. Their tutor was one of their maternal uncles, a Mr Nolden. Since 1848, Adolph Ludwig had a claim of 500 Thaler over his brother Ludwig [475]. In 1860, with compound interest, it amounted to 813,17 Thaler. After the advice of his sons and his nephew Adolph, Adolph Ludwig decided to give it to the children of Ludwig. He gave 125 Thaler to Julie [476], who was already married to a Mr Johann Müller, owner in Borgentreich [477]. He gave the same sum to Hugo [478], who was going to be 23 years old [479], 150 Thaler to Heinrich and the remainder, 413,17 Thaler, to the last two daughters Maria and Ottilie. The corresponding sums were paid in part to the beneficiaries and partly invested. For the last two daughters, they were fully invested in commercial paper [480].

 

 

image 031

Figure 56: 1848 Christmas gift of E. Sartorius [481]

 

 

 

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In 1862, Adolph Sartorius joined the merchant Sigismund Störtländer to create the Störtländer & Sartorius company, based in Barmen [482]. Less than two years later he was struck in the prime of life by a disease of the liver and vesicle [483] which carried him off in three weeks [484]. He had taken the waters twice in Carlsbad, which had relieved him [485].

 

 

Figure 57: Carlsbad in the 1850's

 

In the morning one drinks from 3 to 6 glasses and one uses with great success as well the baths of mineral water as of steam as the baths of mud, that one takes to the swamp of Franzensbader [486].

 

 

Figure 58: the Sartorius in Barmen

 

 

After having received the sacraments of the Church several times, he died on 3 February 1864 at midnight, at the age of 44 [487]. He was remembered as a right man who had a sense of duty and acted Christianly in all circumstances of life. His marriage with Rosalie Drissen had been so happy and his death so sudden that his death announcement resumed the famous verse of the epistle of Saint Paul to the Romans:

How the Lord's decisions are incomprehensible and how impenetrable his ways are [488].

Adolph Sartorius was buried in the Barmen cemetery. On his way to Elberfeld in 1903, his son Carl could still retreat to his father's grave. He deposited tulips and daffodils there [489].

His uncle Adolph Ludwig hardly survived him, who died in Düsseldorf on 3 March 1866 [490].

 

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Rosalie Drissen found herself a widow with eight children, the eldest being 18 and the youngest a year and a half. She gave her daughter Rosalie a boarding school in Münstereifel, where she received a general education and a housework, learned the piano and learned manual work. The lively air of Münstereifel had quickly restored the weakened forces of Rosalie, who thus had the opportunity of going frequently to one of her cousins Sartorius, a priest in the Eifel, who lived with his mother and sisters [491]. After a year, she left the boarding school with tears. Anna also went to a boarding school in Aachen, to prepare an exam for teaching aptitude. As for Helene, she was placed in another establishment, the Calvarienberg, where Anna had already passed [492].

By the death of her husband, Rosalie Drissen became co-owner of the Störtländer & Sartorius business. The partners agreed to keep the company but Rosalie had no right to represent it or sign for it and she had to take his share of the assets and liabilities [493].

In November 1865, Rosalie Drissen moved from Barmen to Boppard, on the Rhine bank, near Koblenz [494]. She made pleasant relationships there. In September 1866, her daughter Elisa, aged ten, died of typhoid fever. She was a gifted little girl who promised a lot.

 

 

Boppard

Figure 59: Boppard

 

 

In November 1867, the golden wedding of the grandparents Drissen gave rise to great rejoicing which united the whole family [495]. For the occasion, Anna and Helene had left their boarding schools. Rosalie and they arrived the day before at Königswinter, where the grandparents' carriage came and took them. Peter Drissen, despite his 85 years, and his wife were still alert. On the day of the feast, Carl, then five years old, had to open fire by reciting a poem:

I am the youngest of the troops of your grandchildren and I extend my best wishes to the couple who celebrates their jubilee, etc.

At lunch, the most beautiful and biggest apples and pears from the garden adorned the table. Under his plate, everyone found a picture of the grandparents. There were diversions of entertainment. Episodes of the grandparent's life were performed. In the evening, the young generation drew fireworks. Rosalie Drissen, her sister, Mrs Compes, and Miss Friedericke Beines, accompanying lady of their mother, had organized everything perfectly.

 

 

Sartorius_Brüder

Figure 60: Ferdinand, Adolph and Carl Sartorius

 

 

When the party was over, Anna and Helene returned to their respective boarding schools. Later they became teachers. Rosalie stayed with her mother and the last two children, Maria and Carl, in Boppard. Ferdinand and Adolph, who had been trained in business, left for France and then England [496]. We shall find Ferdinand and Carl again in the following chapters. As for Adolph, he later left for the United States [497], before returning to Hamburg as a commissioner in tissues [498]. One might have expected the sons of Adolph Sartorius to resume their father's sequel in the Störtländer & Sartorius business. This was not the case. Was business bad? Was the crisis triggered by the American Civil War (1861-1865) interrupting the supply of cotton, its main raw material, to the Wupper Valley, play a role? Was Störtländer a difficult partner? Did he abuse the situation [499]? This, combined with the fact that the mother and the daughters had to work, suggests that the family certainly experienced a reversal of fortune at the death of the father. This impression is reinforced by this reflection of Carl come to meditate over the grave of this father whom he had hardly known:

I spent half an hour at the grave and thought of everything that happened because of Daddy's untimely death [500],

And by this sentence of the death image of Rosalie Drissen:

What sustained her in the multiple blows of destiny was her unshakeable and never faltering trust in God [501].

 

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The life of Rosalie Drissen and her daughters in Boppard was quite social. Her daughter Rosalie had many friends. She participated in a circle of some fifteen girls. Each week, these young ladies organized excursions, they mounted a choir, they danced at the casino. They played plays at 50 pfennig the entrance, the profit of which went to the poor. For all that, Rosalie Drissen, accomplished mistress of house, did not neglect the care of the household to her daughter. Rosalie had to learn how to sew, mend, iron, clean and cook. On this last point, she completed her education with an internship at the hotel Laacher Hof in Cologne. During her stay in this city, she lived with her uncle Compes, near the cloister of the Holy Apostles [Apostelnkloster [502]].

In 1870, war broke out with France. It was rumoured that the French were approaching. The Sartorius family took refuge in Holland, with relatives. However, the turn of events allowed her to return quickly to Boppard. It lived near the railway station. It then saw the trains of French prisoners that stopped there. Once, a group of prisoners rushed to the Sartorius by asking for coffee with sugar. The French officers, imprisoned on parole, joined the good society of Boppard. The German heroes returning to their homeland also passed by Boppard station. They were regaled brought back to their trains with flowers and crowns. The winter of 1870-1871 was so cold that the clothes of Rosalie froze once when she brought coffee to the soldiers [503].

In 1875, the Drissen grands-parents died within a few months of each other [504]. It was then that Rosalie Drissen and her three daughters Anna, Rosalie and Helene, opened a boarding school in Bonn [505], Endenicher Allee, 7 [506], to provide general musical and domestic training for girls [507]. Probably Rosalie Drissen and her daughters were obliged to work to earn a living confirming that they were in a difficult material situation, perhaps aggravated by the death of their parents and grandparents.

 

 

Drissen_Rosalie

Figure 61: Rosalie Drissen about 1875

 

 

Maria, who was then only fifteen years old, was still pursuing her studies. She also attended the conservatory in Cologne. Later she was a precious help to her mother. Life at the boarding school was intense and the spirit was excellent. Anna, Helene and Maria were in charge of general education, which often called on outside professors. The two Rosalies, mother and daughter, assured the stewardship. Young boarders trained for this purpose regularly assisted them. Rosalie Drissen wanted the food to be good, to the satisfaction of all. Boarders were entitled to many distractions. They were on excursions. They went to the concert. They went to see a good play. Conversely, performances were given, which well-known ladies were invited to. The rejoicings were sometimes held in the very house of the Sartorius, notably for the feast of the saint patron of the pupils and for Shrove Tuesday. The number of boarders variated between twelve and twenty. The affair lasted eighteen years, until 1893 [508].

Rosalie Drissen and her daughters then settled in Koblenz where they stayed for several years. Rosalie unfortunately suffered from rheumatism. She moved to Honnef, where her parents had lived. The mild climate helped her recover. Her daughters took turns with her.

In 1893 Maria left the maternal home. She accepted a place as preceptor, first at admiral Houman's in Brussels and then in a French family in Saint-Méry, near Melun. It was in this latter city that she died of typhoid in 1899, far from her family. Her last words were sursum corda [509]. A month before her death, she had again come to rest in Honnef. She was very gifted and profoundly religious. Her death was a great loss for her sisters. Her mother suffered greatly.

 

 

Bad_Honnef_1900

Figure 62: Bad Honnef around 1900

 

 

Anna also was preceptor in France. Rosalie was a lady's companion in families where the mother was lacking. She also played the organ in two convents where she also performed needlework. Helene looked after her mother's home and looked after her. She also taught private lessons. In 1902, the three sisters duly celebrated their mother's 80th birthday [510]. In 1903, Rosalie Drissen and her daughter Rosalie were visited by their son and brother Carl, passing through the region. He found them in good shape. He left them a portrait of his son Erich, who was then five years old. This gift gave them great pleasure [511].

Until the end of her life, Rosalie Drissen remained sane and her health remained satisfactory. She was still willing to do housework. She wrote letters. She played the piano and composed accompaniments for religious songs. In the last six years of her life, her were walking her in her pretty Heidelberg car [Heidelbergerwagen], which gave her much joy. She died after a short illness three weeks before her eighty-eighth birthday at 4 p.m. [512], on 17 January 1910 in Honnef [513]. Anna and Rosalie were with her. Helene and Carl, then in the distance, did not arrive until after her death.

 

 

Sartorius_soeurs

Figure 63: Anna, Rosalie, Helene and Maria Sartorius

 

 

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We shall find the trace of Carl again, but from that time the three sisters lived together [514]. Their nephews, the children of Carl, knew them as the Honnefer Tanten [the aunts of Honnef [515]]. The end of their lives was marked by trials. They suffered the effects of old age, the trials of the disease and the consequences of World War I [516]. In Germany, as in France, war, a source of inflation, penalized mainly small savers and retirees. The phenomenon, however, became even more widespread across the Rhine. The Allies lifted the blockade only in March 1919. Then came the war levies and reparations, the occupation of the Ruhr and the passive resistance, internal disorders and uprisings, conflicts on the eastern frontiers, the countless strikes that punctuated these events and the physical exhaustion of the workers [517]. It is probable that the modest fortune and the feeble resources of the Sartorius melted in the turmoil. In February 1919, they had to abandon their home. They then settled with the sisters of the convent St. Elisa and St. Philomene [Elise-Philomenenstift] in Honnef [518]. Anna died soon after, in April 1919 [519], of a disease of the lever and the vesicle. She was buried in Honnef in the Linzerstraβe cemetery, where the three sisters had bought a concession for them [520].

 

 

Figure 64: the Elise-Philomenenstift

 

 

Bad Honnef still knew the jolts of the crises which agitated the Weimar Republic. In 1923, separatists, who wanted to found a Rhenish Republic, came from Koblenz, occupied the city and devastated, among others, the casino (Kursaal). The population organized an armed militia. In November 1923, the two camps clashed near the Aegidienberg, in what opponents of the separatists called a battle and which they took glory of. There were several deaths among the separatists, before the French occupying forces intervened the next day and took away the latter by force [521].

 

 

Bad_Honnef

Figure 65: Bad Honnef seen from the Drachenfels

 

 

A long life had led the Sartorius sisters from bourgeois ease to the threshold of misery. They had forgotten themselves to devote themselves to others. Without bitterness and strengthened by her faith, Rosalie wrote in 1920:

So Helene and I go slowly toward death. Here we can well prepare ourselves at the convent. Our dear sisters and our good rector assist us faithfully. As our God has well disposed [522].

Rosalie died in Honnef on 25 March 1930 and Helene on 13 August 1932 [523].

 

a


 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

 

 

A PRUSSIAN IN FRANCE

At

 the death of his father, the oldest son of Adolph Sartorius, Ferdinand, was only 18 years old. He was destined to work as a merchant. In 1867 or 1868, he left for France and England [524]. Whether it was then or latter, he was likely to stay in Manchester [525]. Thanks to importation of Indian cotton, Manchester had developed considerably since the beginning of the 18th century. It had become the largest textile centre in the world [526]. It has also been seen with regard to Engels that links existed between the industrialists of Barmen and Manchester [527]. It is therefore quite natural that Ferdinand Sartorius should have stayed there. In fact, throughout the first half of the 19th century, the sons of families of good social standing of Germany went to their schools of commerce or industry with friends or correspondents in England [528]. The German presence was also considerable: in 1800, 9 of the 12 foreign firms established in Manchester were held by Germans. They were 97 out of 100 in 1840 and still 153 out of 420 in 1870. And by the end of the 19th century, there were 10 000 Germans there [529]. The fine flower of this community met every evening at the Schiller Anstalt [Schiller Institute], in Oxford Street. This institute was founded in 1859 to offer the German community a place of meeting and cultural comfort place for those who were homesick. By the mid-1860s, it had 300 members, a library of 4 000 books, a bowling alley, a billiard room, a gymnasium, a well-stocked reading room, and an extraordinarily rich program of events, concerts, lectures, shows, etc. [530].

Be that as it may, it is certain that in 1869, Ferdinand Sartorius settled in Paris and worked for a trading house. The war between France and Prussia broke out the following year. Ferdinand had been reformed from the Prussian army for myopia in September 1869. He therefore did not have to take part. His situation as a German in France was nonetheless untenable. His trading house sent him to Belgium and the Netherlands. He remained in both countries throughout the conflict, both for his business and for his pleasure [531]. In the Netherlands, he certainly visited his cousins Drissen and Prinzen who were settled there and probably found his mother and sisters who had taken refuge there at the outbreak of hostilities [532]. He would then have founded a textile business in that country, but would not have agreed with the aboriginals and left them [533]. In any case, peace returned in 1871, he settled in Roubaix, that he did not leave anymore [534].

 

 

Figure 66: Manchester from Kersal Moor by William Wild, 1857

 

 

Roubaix and its neighbour Tourcoing were undergoing a tremendous development. Yet they were only simple villages at the beginning of the century. Thanks to an accelerated industrialization, they established themselves around 1875 as the French wool metropolis, the Manchester du Nord [Manchester of the Nord department], the largest wool centre in the world. Faithful to their tradition, industrialists had constantly sought to improve the techniques they used. The invention which assured here the triumph of wool on cotton was that of the mechanical combing machine introduced in Tourcoing in 1847 and in Roubaix in 1851. The growth of Roubaix is the most striking. Its population rose from 8 300 in 1800 to 124 661 in 1901. The value of its production rose from 4 million francs in 1801 to 800 million francs in 1890. In 1861, between combing, spinning and weaving, a little less than 5 000 tons of wool were treated there. In 1908, there were 19 000 tons. On the eve of World War I, Roubaix accounted for nearly 60 % of the French production of woollen fabrics. In 1913, Roubaix, Tourcoing and their near suburbs, Croix, Wattrelos, Halluin, etc., gave work to 20 000 workers in 87 spinning mills and 23 000 people in 93 weavings. Another 20 000 were working at home. And we do not talk about combing, finishing factories, carpet factories, and so on. Yet the great economic crises which marked the century, especially that of 1885, had eliminated the weakest competitors. But, besides the disappeared, the great textile families stood still stronger than before. In Roubaix, the number of woollen mills fell from 71 to 38 between 1860 and 1900. At the same time, textile exports increased from 9 000 to 40 000 tons [535].

Ferdinand Sartorius was a négociant [merchant] or négociant en tissus [cloth merchant [536]]. As the wool business developed, the Roubaix industrialists had felt the need to specialize. Upstream of the chain were traders who bought raw wool on international markets, such as Australia, South Africa or Argentina, and merely combed it or had it combed by others. Then came the spinners an, d the weavers. Downstream, finally, a few specialized merchants intervened, who were in charge of selling the fabrics, the articles de Roubaix in France and abroad [537]. In the last third of the 19th century, certain commissioning houses played a large part in the flow of the Roubaix clothes. It was to this latter category that Ferdinand Sartorius belonged, beside the Bossut father and son, the Daguin-Bulteau, the Lestienne brothers and the Voreux [538].

By an deed of 29 August 1878, Ferdinand Sartorius joined a young inhabitant of Roubaix, Oscar Leburque, to create for a period of nine years the Sartorius and Leburque joint-stock company with a capital of 40 000 francs, located in Roubaix, 45 rue du Pays [539]. The object was the purchase and sale of clothes of all kinds [540]. At the time of the subscription for the poor of Roubaix, opened by the Journal de Roubaix for the winter of 1879-1880, MM. Sartorius and Leburque jointly gave 50 francs [541]. However, less than four years later, on 16 December, 1882, Ferdinand Sartorius demanded the dissolution of the company, which Mr. Leburque was appointed sole liquidator of [542]. The truth of the matter is that the latter was mainly concerned with travel and geography, to the point of becoming in 1886 board member of the Société géographique de Lille (Geographical Society of Lille [543]). Ferdinand Sartorius then created his own business, rue Pauvrée, in 1883 [544].

 

 

kusine

Figure 67: a factory in the department of Nord about 1870

 

 

One can only wonder about the reasons that led Ferdinand Sartorius to settle in France and especially to return after the war of 1870. The latter remained violently Germanophobic. It was inclined to see in any subject of the Kaiser a potential spy. During his visit to the ministry of War in 1886 and 1887, general Boulanger also commissioned an inventory of all foreigners residing in France. In the event of mobilization it was planned to arrest all persons on this list, known as the carnet A [A notebook], and to intern them as prisoners of war or to expel them [545]. To tell the truth, we tend to forget that France at the turn of the century was already illustrated by its large number of foreign residents. These rose from 741 000 in 1872 to 1 116 000 in 1911. At the same time, the number of naturalizations increased from 15 300 to 252 000 per year. The Germans' share, which was 17 % of all foreigners in 1861, fell naturally after the war of 1870 and then stabilized at 8 %. Indeed, cooperation between the two countries had not only resumed but had even considerably increased. Their economic and financial relations became closer and more extensive at the very moment when the two governments were vicious [546].

 

a

 

While in Roubaix for nearly ten years, Ferdinand Sartorius made the acquaintance at the Conférence de Saint Vincent de Paul of a young orphan girl from Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, on the outskirts of Brussels, Emma Blanpain [547]. Through the intermediary of friends from Brussels, the Marthas, one of whom was a notary and the other a doctor, the presentations were made. The celebration of the marriage took place in Saint-Josse-ten-Noode on 7 February 1880 [548]. Curious marriage, because everything separated the spouses: age of course - he was 33 years old, she 19 - but the social situation too. He was the offspring of a good bourgeois family. She came from a very modest background of small workers who become building contractors. This is perhaps enough to explain why Emma Blanpain was freshly received in her in-laws [549]. Rosalie Drissen had nevertheless made the journey from Bonn to Brussels to attend the marriage [550].

 

 

Sartorius_Blanpain

Figure 68: Ferdinand Sartorius and Emma Blanpain

 

 

After a honeymoon in Nice [551], Ferdinand and Emma Sartorius settled in Roubaix, first 39 rue d'Inkermann, then place du Trichon and finally 34 rue Pauvrée. It was in one or the other of these three houses that their ten children were born, Fernand in 1880, Pierre in 1881, Emile in 1883, Marie in 1885, Hélène in 1887, Adolphe in 1888, Henri in 1889, Louise in 1893, Jean in 1895 and Rose Anne. Pierre died young, in 1895 [552].

 

 

Figure 69: Roubaix, place du Trichon

 

 

In any case, Ferdinand Sartorius seems to have slipped into the mould with solid and diversified structures of the aristocracy of the businessmen of the Nord, naturally and essentially paternal or paternalistic, as one might wish. Their taste for order, their sense of authority, family and business, but also the simplicity that they brought in human relations, everything in them commanded this attitude. This industrial aristocracy always remained faithful to a broad and cordial hospitality, in which the child was king [553]. In fact, these industrial families of the Nord constituted a remarkably homogeneous environment. They were numerous and closely linked by marriages. On the level of faith, they adhered to a fervent Catholicism. In politics, they were conservative. In a secular and republican France, these orientations constituted the foundation of a true particularism and a cement of unity [554].

 

 

Figure 70: house of the Sartorius family rue d'Inkermann

 

a

 

At the end of 1893, after twenty-four years of residence in France Ferdinand Sartorius was well established. He possessed 150 000 francs, earned 30 000 francs a year and enjoyed public consideration. He asked for his naturalization, to benefit from the advantages it entailed. Behind this stereotyped formula, it must be seen that his wife, who was Belgian, and his children, all born in France, had no reason to want to settle in Germany one day. In addition, for boys, the question of military service would quickly arise.

The affair was not, however, self-evident. Ferdinand filed his application with the prefecture of the department of Nord in December 1893. The investigation lasted more than a year. It saw two opposing points of view confronting each other, that of the prefect of the department of Nord and that of the ministry of justice. On 26 April 1894, the prefecture recognized that Ferdinand seemed to have lost any spirit of return to his country, but slipped about his political opinion this perfidious remark in a profoundly secular and republican France: He is believed to be reactionary. The reasoned opinion signed by the deputy secretary general of the prefecture concluded clearly:

The prefect of the department of the Nord is of the opinion that the request of Mr. Sartorius should be rejected.

At the beginning of June 1894, an official of the ministry of justice summarized the opinion of the prefect to the attention of his superiors:

The applicant is of Prussian origin and reactionary. His whole family lives in Germany. Unfavourable opinion of the prefect [555].

The recent French law of 26 June 1889 on naturalization laid down the procedure for acquiring French nationality for children born in France of foreign parents born abroad, as was the case for the Sartorius children. It provided that young foreigners born in France and who, at the time of their majority would be domiciled in France, would be French, unless they declined French nationality in the year preceding their majority. The law of 1889 was conceived in the wake of the defeat of 1871 and the loss of Alsace-Lorraine. In a spirit of revenge against Germany, it relaxed the conditions of naturalization laid down by the previous law of 1851, in order to increase the number of Frenchmen and therefore soldiers. It also sought to put an end to the resentment of French youth towards young foreigners residing in France who escaped military service, for a period of three years at the time [556].

The apostille of the higher hierarchical level of the ministry of justice is clearly in this perspective of a France which went through a demographic crisis which placed it in a position of weakness against Germany, especially in the military field:

What is the basis of the Prefect for issuing his notice of rejection? The applicant has 8 children, 5 boys, all born in France, whom it would be interesting to render irreversibly French.

On 4 June, the decision-making authority stated:

Ask the prefect to state the reasons for his contrary opinion: he is [Ferdinand Sartorius] believed to be reactionary, the report says. This formula is vague and insufficient.

The prefect of the department of the Nord replied on 29 June, 1894:

It follows from the inquiry into which I have proceeded, that the Sieur Pierre Ferdinand Sartorius, a German subject who solicits naturalization, has never shown hostility towards the government of the Republic. But he is believed to be reactionary because of his relations. Moreover, on account of his nationality, he inspires no confidence; It is not known what he did during the campaign of  1870-1871.

The official of the ministry of justice who was reviewing the case raised this comment in the margin of this reply:

The Prefect of the department of the Nord persists in his unfavourable opinion for the very vague reasons stated here. [Ferdinand Sartorius] was reformed for myopia in September 1869. Produces certificates which it results from that during the war of 1870, he was sent by his trading house to Belgium. Favourable information on conduct and morality. Proposal for a subsequent naturalization, to ensure the quality of French to the eight minor children.

On 5 January, 1895, his superior supported:

24 years of residence. No reproachable fact in a certain way. Negative criminal record. Assumptions that are not based on anything. Same proposition.

The minister of justice apostilled the report of an approved the same day [557]. Ferdinand Sartorius was therefore naturalized French by decree of the president of the Republic of 25 February, 1895 [558]. The Dreyfus affair, which was still a matter of espionage in favour of Germany, had nevertheless begun four months earlier [559].

 

a

 

Ferdinand was traveling abroad for his business. He often went to London, as the following anecdote testifies:

A cloth tradesman of rue Pauvrée, Mr Sartorius, was a victim of a swindler on Saturday [1 December 1900] who took out a sum of 20 francs from him by the following means:

The swindler presented himself to Mr Sartorius, saying his name was Constant Becquet, that he was a trading clerk in London and that he had met with Mr Sartorius, a few years ago in that city. When this presentation was finished, the individual said that he had been stolen his purse containing 12 pounds sterling, 2 checks, one of 325 francs and the other of 525. Touched with pity for this unfortunate man who appeared to be on the paved without a penny, Mr Sartorius gave him 20 francs which his visitor had asked him.

But as his allegations were found to be false, Mr Sartorius filed a complaint with Mr. Grimaldi, the police commissioner of the 5th district, who put his agents in search of the crook [560].

In December 1891, Ferdinand Sartorius undertook a great business trip through Switzerland and Italy to Sicily. The German of the end of the 19th century had inherited from his Germanic ancestors the vagabond mood. And then, it was necessary to move well to do business. There was not in Germany, as in France, a Paris where everything was treated. It was necessary to go from Düsseldorf to Cologne, from Stuttgart to Bremen, from Munich to Berlin, to prospect, to negotiate, to control, when it would have been only to keep in touch and see what was happening elsewhere. The German businessman was always on his way between two cities. Everywhere in the world you met Germans, great travellers before the Lord. But they could be found before all in Italy. At all times, they had crossed the Alps, emperor Henri IV to go to Canossa, but also Frederick II to settle there definitively, Dürer or Goethe to seek inspiration there. All were attracted by the glory of the sun, the sweetness of life, the chianti, juicy fruits, the ancient vestiges, the painting of the Renaissance [561].

Fortunately, some of the letters that Ferdinand wrote to his wife reached us. They reveal a rich personality [562].

One can see at first that Ferdinand managed French with ease. He had, besides, the gift of languages, and spoke four or five of them [563]. No sooner had he arrived in Italy, than he could write:

I have already made considerable progress in Italian during these few days. I understand what they say and as I learn my little book in hand continuously, I shall speak well or fairly well when I return compared to the short time [I would have spent in Italy].

He had travelled extensively. References to Paris, Nice, Brussels or England are numerous in his pen. He was very talkative and chatted with all his neighbours. On the train between Basel and Lucerne, he spoke thus with the foreman of a Belgian glass factory. Between Milan and Rome he spoke with a patriotic Milanese, magnificent of pictorial words and parables, speaking of Italy, his country.

Curious about everything, he faithfully reported to his wife his conversations, his impressions, the landscapes traversed, the atmosphere of the cities. He describes his itinerary from Basel to Lucerne, from Lucerne to Milan via the Gotthard tunnel, from Milan to Rome and from there to Naples and then by boat to Sicily. Historical reminiscences are frequent in his letters. He recalls the story of William Tell story when he skirts the lake of Lucerne. The visit to the Colosseum inspired him with considerations on the influence of the excess of wealth, the abuse of pleasures and the games of circus on the decadence of Rome [564]. Like any good German, he had to explore Italy, the Baedeker in his hand, conscientiously, methodically, in a way that we, French, would judge a little ridiculous [565]. He visited everything, in Milan the Duomo and the Campo Santo, in Rome the Vatican, churches in great number, the Forum and the Pantheon and in Naples the ruins of Pompei.

An attentive observator of the crowds he met, he described them concisely, but always very clearly. Few toilets, some female figures but few very Italian types still here, he wrote in Milan. Type of men not very pronounced, too English [sic], types of women null, too brunette women from Brussels, he declares, probably with a touch of irony in the direction of his wife, about the crowd that frequented the gardens of the Pincio in Rome. What beauty in the sap of this people, what decadence in the populace of the city, he said of Naples. But the picturesqueness awaited him in Sicily, at a stop on the road: I made a famous lunch amidst people who looked like half-brigands without much beard, and to continue: it is a false people, suspicious, deceiving everybody but sober and living by little [566].

Passionate about music, Ferdinand Sartorius organized concerts with his children on Sundays, each playing a different instrument [567]. In Italy, he did not miss an opportunity to go to the opera. In Milan,

 

 

 

Figure 71: the trip of Ferdinand Sartorius in Italy

 

 

They gave Carmen. They sang quite well and played very well. The people are born musicians here. Endless curtain calls, 3 to 4 times.

In Palermo, he will listen

In the evening William Tell at the Opera, with Maurel de Paris, famous baritone, and especially Tamagno, the first living tenor and who for the 1st time in my life satisfied me. He is simply stunning of voice, strength, art and appearance. He is a giant almost [568].

The conclusion drawn by Ferdinand Sartorius of this trip must not have been very different from that which of a Frenchman, a connoisseur of Germany, lends to our neighbours:

[In the end] one is only at home, between oneself. It is not chauvinism; it is a predilection for physical, social and moral comfort, as organized by the German bourgeoisie [569].

This is not jumping to conclusions. Ferdinand Sartorius faithfully recorded the remarks inspired by the material conditions of his journey. The cuisine of the restaurants is excellent and very cheap in Milan. The hotel is simple, southern, i.e. fresh, no English-style lobby in Rome. In Palermo, the hotel de France, run by a gentleman from Cologne, is very good. Ah! As soon as you meet between Germans, between Rhenans moreover...

 

 

  tamagno1

Figure 72: Maurel and Tamagno

 

 

Ferdinand Sartorius was probably not insensitive to feminine charm. In any case, he makes this amusing remark in Milan:

I would get the first prize of bald here. So I think I would hardly attract the look of the fair sex and I would mourn my vanity if I still had to do it or if I was single.

Besides, he seemed little inclined to metaphysical speculation. His visit to the catacombs of the Capuchin convent in Palermo inspired him only with this reflection:

I saw an enormous convent cellar where there are 800 fully dry and skeletal deads, all dressed up watching you. The impression is very interesting but did not leave to me the horror that some find there. It takes one year to fully dry up a dead in specially ventilated vaults; then there is no more smell, everything is dry. This is death. One thinks on leaving that it is very simple to die [570].

 

 

Palerme

Figure 73: the Friars catacombs in Palermo

 

 

Nevertheless, the main objective of his trip remained business. He alludes to it. In Milan, for example, he had seen all his customers and caused new things to do for this country. In Palermo he had met his agent, a certain Mr Becker, a German if one judges by his name [571].

Ferdinand Sartorius had inserted himself without apparent difficulty in the midst of the patronage of the Nord and his business was proceeding well. Nevertheless, the Sartorius were reminded of their foreign origin. Worse still, they came from the enemy country par excellence, Prussia. At the college of Roubaix, Adolphe and Henri were pursued by their comrades to the cries of dirty Prussians. Emma Blanpain, in particular, suffered greatly [572].

 

 

famille_Sartorius

Figure 74: Emma Blanpain and her children in 1900 [573]

 

 

Ferdinand Sartorius died of heart disease in Roubaix on 2 December 1901, at the age of 55, after being bedridden a year [574]. His death consecrated the separation of the German and French branches of the family. A quarrel between Rosalie Drissen and Emma Blanpain was not for nothing. The two women argued about a pension that Ferdinand, as a good son, was serving his mother, but that Emma refused to continue paying to her mother-in-law [575].

 

 

 

Figure 75: the children of Ferdinand Sartorius

 

 

It must be said in the discharge of Emma Blanpain that the disappearance of his husband placed his family in a difficult situation. At 41 years old, she found herself a widow with nine children, the oldest of whom was just 21  years old. The latter, Fernand, took courage in matters. While completing his military service in Lille, he assured the direction of the family business which assured the daily bread [576]. On 25 February 1903 a new company was created, Veuve Ferdinand Sartorius et fils, with a capital of 250 000 gold francs, the object of which was the commissioning of cloth [577]. After Fernand's marriage, Emma Blanpain continued to live at 34 rue Pauvrée with her eight other children, assisted by a cook, Marie Rogui, and a maid, Marie Bury, both Belgians [578].

 

 

Sartorius_frères

Figure 76: Jean, Henri, Adolphe and Emile Sartorius in 1919

 

a

 

Rather than a long speech, we shall conclude this chapter on a table to build a bridge through the 20th century.

 

 

 

Figure 77: the descendants of Adolphe Sartorius

 

 

Sartorius_réunion

Figure 78: Sartorius family gathering in the department of Nord in October 1984

 

 

 

Figure 79: map of Roubaix showing the Sartorius facilities (center)


 

 

CHAPTER SIX

 

 

 

GERMAN ... AND AMERICAN RELATIVES

I

n corresponding in the course of 1997 with some sixty Germans bearing the name of Sartorius, I had one day I had the surprise and the joy of falling on an authentic cousin, Hans Sartorius. This one had an excellent memory. The link between us, however, was not easy to establish. I had only sent him the list of my direct ascendants to Franz Anton Sartorius. But the names of Barmen and Wilhelmine Capito, mentioned in my letter, had struck him. Wilhelmine Capito, who the attentive reader was careful not to forget that she was the wife of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius, born in 1757, happened to be his great-great-grandmother. Similarly, Hans Sartorius recalled that beside Ferdinand Joseph, our direct ancestor, this couple had another son, Ludwig Philipp Gerlach, his own great-grandfather.

We have seen that Ludwig Philipp Gerlach Sartorius had five children. They do not seem to have remained very united. In any case Hans Sartorius did not know that his grandfather, Hugo Sartorius, had brothers and sisters [579]. Just do we know that the elder sister, Julie, had married a certain Johann Müller, a farmer [Gutspächter] in Borgentreich, who in 1859 demanded the licensing of real estate in Barmen undivided with her brothers and her sister valued at 7 685 Thaler [580].

This Hugo Sartorius, born in Barmen in 1837, seems to have been a curious personage. The date of his death is unknown. But there is more curiosity. In Germany, a Concordat country, official documents mention the religion of persons. It is therefore certain that at his birth Hugo Sartorius was baptized in the Roman Catholic religion in the Sankt Antonius church of Barmen. But his marriage certificate in Cologne in 1883 with Hubertine Randenrath indicates that he was a Protestant. His grandson Hans Sartorius remembers having heard his father say that his own father was a Protestant, but that he would have returned to the Roman Catholic religion before he died. Hans Sartorius notes, however, that at the time the Roman Catholic Church proscribed mixed marriages between Roman Catholics and Protestants. Moreover, Hugo's in-laws, the Randenraths, were of very strict Catholicism. In any case, Hugo Sartorius and Hubertine Randenrath had five children, a son Max, two boys who died as infants and two girls, whom Hans Sartorius never met.

Max Sartorius, son of Hugo and Hubertine Randenrath, was born in Cologne in 1884 and was baptized in the Roman Catholic religion. He became a bank clerk. He died in Cologne in 1934. From his marriage with Margarete Fuchs, he had a son, Hans.

Hans Sartorius was born in 1915 in Essen. He was a professor and school principal in Cologne, before becoming head of the school administration in Mülheim an der Ruhr, near Essen. In 1943, he married Maria Rödder, of whom he had a daughter and two sons. Only the eldest of the two boys, Bernhard, born in 1949, is married. The two sons of the latter, Mathias and Thomas, born respectively in 1981 and 1984, are the last bearers of the name in this branch [581]. Hans Sartorius died on 21 September 2009 [582].

 

 

 

Figure 80: the German branches of the Sartorius family

 

a

 

It was at the end of 1997 that I experienced my biggest surprise, but also my greatest satisfaction. I had continued during the course of the year to write systematically to bearers of the name Sartorius in Germany. The response rate was very low. Yet, One day in December, I received a letter from a correspondent unknown to me, Mrs Marion Leihener. This lady explained to me that she had just received the letter I had written to her father, a Mr Sartorius, who had died three years before! But, she continued, he had been very interested in the history of the Sartorius family and she had inherited all his papers. Among these, there were many certificates of baptism and marriage. There was also a Familienbuch [family book], which she told me nothing more of. There was even a certificate of 1709. In any case, it seemed to her that we were relatives. She ended by promising me to copy me within a few weeks what might interest me. This lad scrupulously kept her word. Two months later, I received about sixty sheets of photocopies of documents. In August 1998, I had the pleasure of meeting this charming lady, fond of art history and Greco-Roman archaeology. She showed me the ruins of Wildenburg, Friesenhagen and the castle of the Hatzfeldts in Crottorf. She also showed me the Familienbuch held by her ancestor Adolph Ludwig held, a thick notebook with green leather cover marked in gold letters A. Sartorius. He wrote notes on his ancestors, his children and his affairs. A pocket attached to the back contains some original documents about the Sartorius family. I have made extensive use of it in the preceding pages. I shall therefore content myself here with completing the history of the branch of Adolph Ludwig Sartorius, the eldest of the three brothers Sartorius, dyers in Barmen.

 

 

Sarto_Leihener

Figure 81: French-German meeting in Friesenhagen in August 1998 [583]

 

 

It should be remembered that Adolph Sartorius had married a Lutheran, Julie Bargmann. Their five children, Clara, born on 22 January 1825, Adelheid, born on 21 June 1826, Alex, born on 25 June 1829, Otto, born on 13 July 1831, and Moritz, born on 12 May 1834 [584] became Lutherans in turn, as well as their descendants [585]. However of fact, mixed godfathering seemed to be well accepted. Alex, who died of measles at ten months, had his maternal on his mother's side, the Protestant Wilhelm Keller, as godfather and his paternal, the Roman Catholic Anna Gertrud Heidkamp, as godmother.

Adolph Sartorius lost his wife in singular circumstances. On 15 September 1861, they and their grand-daughter Julie Martinengo, daughter of Clara, had begun a journey of pleasure, which was to take them to the Upper Rhine, the Palatinate, Heidelberg, etc. On 17 September, they took the train from Remagen to Mainz, where they stopped at the Rheinischer Hof hotel, at the widow Hänlein's. On the night of 17 to 18 September a pain that Julie Bargmann had been dragging on for a long time awoke with great violence. She had suffered periodically for years. She was then obliged to lay down for longer or shorter periods. All means, spa treatments, uval treatments, etc., had not brought about any lasting improvement. So the family was not worried. It had already succeeded so often in controlling the disease, failing to manage to cure it definitively! The family doctor, Dr. Wittmann, from Düsseldorf, was summoned. A nurse was hired and all arrangements required by the treatment were taken. Yet the disease redoubled its violence. Julie Bargmann died on 7 October at 4 p.m. She had not been aware of the proximity of her end. In Mainz, her corpse was placed in a double sealed coffin of zinc and wood. On 10 October, Adolph Sartorius brought his wife's coffin back by train from Mainz to Düsseldorf. His daughter and son-in-law accompanied him. The funeral took place in the cemetery of Düsseldorf cemetery on the 11 [586].

In 1862 Adolph Ludwig associated his two sons, Otto and Moritz to his business, the A. Sartorius & Co. firm in Düsseldorf [587], that was dedicated to the dyeing of cotton thread in Turkish red, in pink and scarlet. In 1880, the firm employed 100 workers and sold in Europe, in Asia and in America, so to speak throughout the world for the time [588]. The business of the company was probably reoriented because on 5 December 1895, Moritz joined a Mr Varenkamp, a lawyer in Düsseldorf, to found the firm A. Sartorius & Co GmbH with a capital of 1 200 000 Mark, whose object was the valuation and disposition of land that was in undivided ownership among the members, and the purchase and sale of other land for the same purpose [589]. Moritz occupied a prominent position in Düsseldorf. In 1861 and 1862, under 30 years of age, he was already a member of the Markt-Comité of the wool market [Wollmarkt] of Düsseldorf. He served as a deputy judge at the commercial court [Gewerbegericht] of Düsseldorf at least from 1870 to 1883 [590]. Finally, he sat on the municipal committee [Stadtausschuβ] of Düsseldorf from its creation on 1 July 1888 to 1893. This committee was composed of notables and presided over by the mayor [591]. Moritz had married in 1865 a Miss Friederike Schlieper [592], of an important family of industrials of Elberfeld [593]. He lost his wife in 1903 [594]. He died on 20 November 1912. By will he bequeathed 30 000 Mark in 3,5% Prussian loans to the city of Düsseldorf for the creation of a foundation, the Moritz und Frieda Sartorius-Stiftung. One half of the interests went to holiday camps and the other to support needy schoolchildren [595].

Otto, the elder brother of Moritz, had preceded him as deputy judge at the commercial court of Düsseldorf from 1865 to 1870 [596]. He died in 1889. From his wife, Bertha Post, he had six children, Alexander, Otto, Wilhelm, Hedwig [597] and two daughters, Helene Maria and Anna, whom we only know of the birth dates, 1867 et 1870 [598]. We shall quickly evoke Alexander, Wilhelm and Hedwig before returning to Otto.

Alexander, said Alex, was educated at the municipal college of Düsseldorf [städtisches Realgymnasium mit Gymnasialklassen zu Düsseldorf], which he left in 1884. He became a trader in Düsseldorf [599]. In 1899 he was appointed member of the executive board of the Verein zur Wahrung des Interessen der Färberei- und Drückerei-Industrie von Rheinland und Westfalen [Union for the defence of the interests of the dyeing and printing industry of Rhineland and Westphalia [600]]. In 1896 he moved the centre of his activities by taking a stake in the Mühlenthaler Spinnerei und Weberei AG [Mühlenthal spinning and weaving Co.] in Dieringhausen [601]. This company, which had only 53 workers in 1887, employed 520 workers in 1914 [602]. In 1923, Alex still played a role in this company as evidenced in the document below. This voucher, signed by his own hand, was a parallel currency issued by it to facilitate the life of its workers in the context of hyperinflation which Germany then knew [603].

 

 

Figure 82: 100 000 Mark voucher issued by the Mühlenthaler Spinnerei & Weberei signed by Alex Sartorius

 

 

From Wilhelm I only knew that he had moved to Nuremberg [604]. Now, in October 2014, my cousin Chantal Sartorius informs me that she had just received a letter from a German lawyer in charge of seeking the heirs of a certain Hermann Sartorius, who died in Nuremberg in 2012, without leaving any known heirs [605]. The lawyer attached to its letter a table showing that this Hermann was the grand-son of the above-mentioned Wilhelm Sartorius [606]. Wilhelm had probably broken with his family because he made a curious marriage. In 1910 he married in Strasbourg, then German, a 26-year-old Lorraine, Katharina Burri, daughter of a farmer in Bettborn, Moselle [607]. It was in fact a regularization because she had given birth in March 1908 to a son, Wilhelm Hans Hermann [608]. I forwarded the file to Mrs Leihener as closer relative of this Wilhelm than me, but I do not know the result she gave it.

Hedwig, married a lawyer, Dr. Carl Varenkamp, probably the partner of his uncle Moritz, who left her widow in 1908 with four children [609]. Subsequently, she moved to Basel, Switzerland [610].

Otto Sartorius, second of the name, born in 1872 [611], died in Dieringhausen in 1944 [612]. He left the textile industry by taking a stake in a foundry, the Carl Kind & Co., in Bielstein, near Dieringhausen [613]. This company had been founded in 1888 [614] by Carl Kind from two old ironworks he had bought [615]. These forges used water from the Wiehl, a tributary of the Agger, as a source of energy for making stoves, shovels and knives. With the help of his eldest son, Walter, as commercial manager, Carl Kind successfully turned to the production of tooling for mines, numerous in the country of Berg. It is the premature death of Walter, which, in January 1910, brought Otto Sartorius into the company, both as shareholder and commercial director. Faced with the growing need for quality steels for the manufacture of machinery and tooling, the company grew rapidly. Under the leadership of Carl Kind junior, who died during World War I, it began major technical investments. In the 1920's, it pursued them under the technical direction of another son, Paul Kind, who also became a shareholder [616]. Today Kind GmbH & Co KG, in Wiehl-Bielstein, specializes in special steels [Edelstahlwerk [617]]. If a representative of the Kind family still held the technical direction in the 1980's [618], it seems that the son of Otto Sartorius became the main, if not the only, shareholder [619].

From his marriage to Emmy Wollenweber [620], Otto Sartorius had four sons. The eldest, Willi, fell during World War I in 1918. Another, Hans-Gert, fell in Russia during World War II in 1944. A third, Rolf-Guido, left for the United States and his family never heard of him anymore [621].

 

 

Sartorius_Otto_Emmy

Figure 83: Otto Sartorius and his wife, née Emmy Wollenweber

 

 

The life of Otto Sartorius was one of the most bourgeois. He lived in a large house in the middle of a park in Dieringhausen and had a chauffeur driven car. His brother Alex lived in a house on the other side of the street [622].

The last son of Otto, also named Otto [623], born in 1909 and died in 1994 [624], took over the paternal steelworks [625]. He was particularly passionate about the origins of the family. It is thanks to his research carried out in the spring and summer of 1939 and then after the war that we know today the history of the Sartorius administrators. At the end of the war, in August 1945, chance, fortune of genealogists, put him in contact with a Mr Ritgen, husband of a distant descendant of Franz Anton Sartorius [626]. While Otto Sartorius had focused his research on Wildenburg, Otto Ritgen carried out his in the region of Meschede. In addition he had been able to consult information about the Sartorius in the archives of the Hatzfeldt family in Trachenberg, Silesia, before they burned in 1945 [627].

 

 

 

Figure 84: Willi, Rolf-Guido und Otto Sartorius in front of the house of their parents in Dieringhausen

 

 

 

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It was thanks to an original combination of circumstances that I became acquainted with other German cousins.

On Easter 2001, two German brothers discussed the search engines they used on Internet. The cadet told the eldest that he was using Google, which had not yet the dominant position it has acquired, for its speed. He offered him a demonstration and asked him what to look for. Genealogy Sartorius, replied his brother, passionate genealogist. They fell very quickly on the version then available on Internet of this work. After recognizing the names of some of his ancestors, the elder felt his heart stop to beat. He knew he had just found Ferdinand aus Roubaix [Ferdinand from Roubaix].

The names of the two brothers are Wilfried and Hartmut Sartorius. They are the grandchildren of Carl Sartorius, the youngest brother of Ferdinand, who was only was two years old at the death of his father and had stayed in Germany with his mother and sisters. His children and grandchildren, however, had retained the memory of an uncle who had gone to France, even though they had lost track of him. Contact is now renewed and we know the destiny of Carl [632].

 

 

Figure 85: the SS La Bretagne

 

 

After studying at the royal college of Bonn [633], Carl Sartorius stayed at his brother Ferdinand's house in Roubaix in 1883 [634]. In 1885 and 1886 he worked in Würzburg. Twice in 1886 and 1887, he tried to emigrate to the United States. A first time, he left from Bonn at the end of 1886 [635]. The second time, he left Le Havre on the SS Bretagne and arrived at New York on 31st January 1887 [636]. He also stayed in Norway [637]. He finally returned to Germany where he settled as a trader in Gera, Thuringia. In 1892, he married the daughter of a merchant, Clara Bachof [638]. From this marriage a daughter was born, Gertrud, in 1894 [639], and a son, Erich, in 1898 [640]. Carl Sartorius died in Gera in 1926 [641] and his widow in 1941 [642].

In 1920, their daughter Gertrud Sartorius married a professor named Schenk [643]. She died in Weimar in 1980 [644]. She had a son and two daughters, Waltraud Schneider and Hannelore Schenk, both living in Stuttgart. Born in 1923 [645] and 1925 [646], they are now the last owners of the oral memory of the family. Their brother Jürgen, born in 1929 [647], was a pastor in the former East Germany. He died in 2001 [648].

 

 

Sartorius_Freiburg

Figure 86: meeting with the children of Erich Sartorius in Gundelfingen in August 2002 [649]

 

 

As for Erich Sartorius, he was mobilized during World War I and fought on the front of Verdun [650]. Becoming an engineer [Diplomingenieur], he moved to Brandenburg, 55 kilometres west of Berlin [651], where he worked at the design office of the aircraft manufacturer Arado [652]. A widower without children from a first marriage [653], he remarried in the spring of 1940 with a Roman Catholic girl from Ottersweier, in the country of Baden, Klara Berberich [654]. From this second marriage, he had three children, Ortrud in 1940, Wilfried in 1942 and Gerhild in 1944 [655]. The Red Army then advanced towards Berlin which it completed to encircle on 23 April 1945 [656]. The family then fled to the neighbouring Mecklenburg [657], still held by the Wehrmacht [658]. It took refuge in the small village of Ganzlin. A few days after the armistice, on 19 May, Erich Sartorius was found killed by a bullet on the way from Twietfort to Ganzlin. The circumstances of his death remain unknown [659]. His wife, who was five months pregnant, gave birth to a son, Hartmut, in September 1945. She then sought to return to Ottersweier to resume her teaching profession. Since 1946, the family has been living in the south of the country of Baden and, since 1961, in Freiburg in Breisgau [660], a university town where it moved when the children began higher education [661].

 

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A little earlier in this chapter, we let Rolf-Guido Sartorius emigrate to the United States. Speaking of her uncle, Mrs Leihener told me that her family had lost touch with him. She was all the more sad that her father, who had only had daughters, had let her promise to send the family papers, including the precious Familienbuch, to his brother Rolf-Guido, the last bearer of the name in this branch [667].

I then began to trace him. The sending of some fifty letters to American Sartorius proved totally unsuccessful. The messages I put on genealogical forums on Internet remained answerless. However, the analysis of the United States social security file available on Internet allowed me to obtain a copy of Rolf-Guido's record and that of his wife's. According to these documents, he was born in 1904, arrived in the United States before 1 December 1936 and settled down in Montclair, a suburb of Newark, New Jersey. He was married to Jean Clare Hecht, born in West Hoboken, New Jersey, in 1905. Rolf-Guido died in Montclair in January 1975 and his wife in October 1985 [668].

I was stuck at this stage for two years when I was surprised one morning to find an e-mail from an American named Mark Bjelland, who told me that he had married a granddaughter of Rolf-Guido Sartorius [669]. In the spring of 2005, a new surprise: I received an e-mail from Barbara Sartorius, the wife of Mark Bjelland, telling me that her husband, who was on sabbatical leave, she and their children spent the school year in Wales, that they would spend a few days in Paris and that they wished to meet me on this occasion. So they came to dinner at home and brought me on this occasion a CD containing family pictures commented orally, and it is not the less interesting, by the father of Barbara himself [670].

A certain mystery seems to have always reigned in the family on the causes of the emigration of Rolf-Guido, especially since the contact was lost between him and his German family. At that time, the means of communication were not what they are today. The international telephone was stammering and Internet did not exist. Then came six years of war, which cut off the United States from Germany. Rolf-Guido returned only once or twice to Germany [671]. However, I now reconstruct his course fairly well.

At the end of the 1920's, Rolf-Guido pursued post-graduate studies at the university of Stuttgart. He was then a member of one of these student corporations well-anchored in German culture, the Corps Teutonia and was still participating in one of its gatherings in 1933 [672].

 

 

Teutonia

Figure 87: 73rd anniversary of the Corps Teutonia in 1927 [673]

 

 

In a Germany plagued with inflation and disorder [674], Rolf-Guido soon showed an American tropism. In January 1928, he embarked in Hamburg on the SS Albert Ballin which brought him to New York on 13 January [675].

 

 

albert-ballin-04

Figure 88: the SS Albert Ballin

 

 

He made a second journey from Bremen to New York, in April 1929 on the SS München [676]. His final settlement in the United States seems to be at that moment. Although still of German nationality, he was already settled in East Orange, New Jersey, in 1931, the year, when he travelled to Germany and returned on the SS Bremen in July [677].

 

 

Muenchen

Figure 89: the SS München

 

 

He made another trip to Europe at the end of 1933 [678], which he returned of in January 1934, still aboard the Bremen [679].

 

 

SS_Bremen_1929

Figure 90: the SS Bremen

 

 

Whatever the reasons for the departure of Rolf-Guido, he did not at all appear to be a poor emigrant in the United States, even if we do not know exactly what he did there. He is seen playing tennis or sunbathing on a beach. In 1937, he already owned a Dodge and lived in a residential suburb of New Jersey [680]. In 1935, he entered a middle class family by marrying Jean Hecht [681], daughter of Dr. Maximilian Hecht [682]. In the summer of 1936, he made his honeymoon in Germany, presenting his wife to his family [683]. They both returned aboard the Bremen and landed in New York on 15 July 1936 [684].

 

 

Sartorius_Hecht

Figure 91: Rolf-Guido and his wife on honeymoon trip in Germany [685]

 

 

Rolf-Guido made two further trips to Europe after the war, one in September 1947 and the other with his wife and their son in August 1955, which he returned from first class by Rotterdam on the Westerdam [686].

Rolf-Guido had only one son, Rolf Edward, born in Montclair [687] on 25 August 1939 [688]. In September 1956, the latter made a cruise in Europe on the M/V Hellenic Sailor [689]. He attended the Montclair high school and the University of Pennsylvania. At the age 25, he obtained a Ph.D. in philosophy from Princeton University, as a Woodrow Wilson Fellow. In Princeton, he devoted himself to what would be the centre of interest of his life, the philosophy of law, political philosophy and applied ethics. He taught these subjects and wrote abundantly on them [690]. He is the author of Individual conduct and social norms (2009 [691]). He taught at the Wayne state university from 1964 to 1966, Case Western from 1966 to 1969 and the University of Minnesota from 1969 to 1984. He retired as emeritus professor of philosophy [692]. In 1960, he married Catherine McCormick, of whom he had a son, Rolf Harold, and a daughter, Barbara, born in Princeton in 1964 [693]. Once retired, he and his wife settled first in Lutsen, Minnesota, and then in Hilton Head, South Carolina. They were active members of the Superior national golf course. Rolf became an amateur radio. He also seriously collected stamps and built models of ships and trains. He died of lung cancer in Hilton Head on 15 June 2014 [694].

 

 

 

Figure 92: Rolf E. Sartorius

 

 

Rolf Harold, the last male representative of this branch, lives in Reston, on the outskirts of Washington D.C. [695]. From his marriage with Patricia Hanscom, he has a daughter, Caroline [696]. They also adopted a son, Rolf Jacob [697]. Both direct Social Impact, a company of about one hundred people they created around 1996 and made $ 22 million in sales in 2013. Their initial idea was that international aid programs are too often imposed rather than integrated into the culture of the host country. Social impact therefore provides major international aid funding, such as US Aid, the World Bank or the United Nations [698], consultancy and training services in project planning, management of non-governmental organizations and management [699]. Rolf has an M.A. in international public administration from the Humphrey institute of public affairs at the University of Minnesota. Patricia, a long-time employee with the U.S. Department of State, has a master's degree in public policy from the JFK school of government at Harvard University [700].

 

 

Figure 93: Pat and Rolf Sartorius

 

 

Barbara, for her part, spent part of her youth in Cuernavaca, Mexico, before returning to Minnesota. Graduated in art, ancient history and theology, she travelled to Italy to see the frescoes of Fra Angelico. She has also taught ice skating to children from around the word in Canada [701]. She lives today in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where she is chaplain at the Pine Rest Christian hospital [702]. She has two children of her marriage with Mark Bjelland, my correspondent [703], an environmental engineering consultant from 1988 to 1994, professor of geography at the Gustavus Adolphus College in Saint Peter, Minnesota, from 1998 to 2013 and then at the Calvin college, Grand Rapids, since 2013 [704]. He is particularly interested in studying the links between environmental degradation, economic distress and social injustice [705].

 

 

Sartorius_Barbara

Figure 94: Barbara and Mark Bjelland and their children

 

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Before closing this chapter, let us give a brief overview of the descendants of Philipp Schnier, said Hühnerhans, to whom we know about 25 000 descendants [706]. His two sons Conrad and Dietrich have just over 20 000 and 7 400 respectively [707].

It is curious, if not simplified, to compare the social evolution of these two branches over four centuries. The descendants of Conrad largely remained in the region of Meschede and bound to the land until far into the 20th century. Probably driven by misery, a number of them participated in the great movement of emigration of the Germans towards the United States in the 19th century. Thus today there are more than 5 800 Americans among the descendants of Conrad [708].

It should be remembered that, for his part, Dietrich had in particular two sons, Anton and Johann Wilhelm. The descendants of Anton, the eldest, heir of the Lambertshof, have generally known a fate comparable to that of their cousins, descendants of Conrad. There are about 3 000 of them, including 1 400 Americans. Among the singular courses, are a granddaughter of Dietrich Schnier who married a Volmer from Mosebolle. Their offsprings are followed in the region of Remblinghausen until the 1860's. One of their descendants, Wilhelm Volmer, settled in Aachen and his posterity is found around Essen until the 1960's [709]. However, one of his grandsons, Johann Josef Volmer, left for Punta Arenas, in the extreme south of Chile, where he owned a general store. His offsprings are found today in Chile itself, in Argentina and even in California [710].

For his part, Johann Wilhelm, the youngest son of Dietrich, has about 1 700 descendants. As we have seen, the sons of Georg Anton Franz embarked on the industrial adventure at the beginning of the 19th century and their descendants remained in this universe [711]. The branches of his half-sisters, daughters of Franz Anton Sartorius and his first wife, Maria Regina Weller, are not lacking interest either. Their representatives largely remained in Germany, where they turned resolutely towards intellectual professions and held positions sometimes high in the administration or higher education.

On the whole, the descendants of Anna Maria Sartorius and Franz Anton Becker followed academic careers. Among the men, there are many doctors and university professors. As for the women, several married persons of a certain notoriety. Thus, in, 1836, Ferdinande Becker married the philosopher Adolph Trendelenburg, a professor at the university of Berlin and an associate member of the French Academy of moral and political sciences [712]. Among their descendants or spouses of their descendants, are no less than eighteen personalities who are entitled to an article in the Deutsche Biographie, the Österreiches biographisches Lexikon or in Wikipedia: Justus Roth (1818-1890), professor of geology [713], Friedrich Adler (1827-1908), architect and archaeologist [714], Adolf Michaelis (1835-1910), archaeologist [715], Hermann von Stahl (1843-1909), mathematician, disciple of Weierstrass [716], the Professor Doktor Friedrich Trendelenburg (1844-1924), a distinguished surgeon, at the time when Berlin was regarded as the world centre of medical science and its teaching and who left his name to a position, a symptom, an operation and a sign [717], Eduard Buchner (1860-1917), Nobel laureate prize in chemistry in 1907 [718], Karl Sartorius (1865-1945), a lawyer, with no known attachment to our family [719], Hans Schreuer (1866-1931), jurist [720], Otto Michaelis (1875-1949), protestant theologian [721], Wilhelm Trendelenburg (1877-1946), physiologist [722], Ernst Trendelenburg (1882-1945), secretary of State [723], Paul Trendelenburg (1884-1931), professor of pharmacology and toxicology [724], Ferdinand Trendelenburg (1896-1973), director of the central research laboratory of Siemens [725], Wolfgang Trillhaas (1903-1995), Protestant theologian [726], Max Wendl (1904-1984), painter and author of stain windows [727], Hedwig von Restorff (1906-1962), psychologist and paediatrician [728], Rudolf Mors (1920-1988), director and composer [729], and Ullrich Trendelenburg (1922-2006), pharmacologist [730].

The branch stemming from Charlotte Sartorius and Josef von Stockhausen was distinguished in judicial and administrative functions in the service of the elector of Cologne, then of the king of Prussia and lastly of the successive Reiche [731]. This was particularly the case with one of their grandsons, Ludwig Holle (1855-1909), minister of the cults of Prussia [732], and with his son Alexander Holle (1898-1978), general of the Luftwaffe [733].

One can safely attribute to Caspar Sartorius the fact that the offsprings of his nephew Johann Wilhelm has definitely moved away from the land. By occupying judicial and fiscal offices, Caspar had risen above the mass of the inhabitants of Remblinghausen and had reached other horizons. His nephews Anton and Wilhelm, sons of his brother Dietrich, benefited fully from this ascent. This was even more so for the latter. His position as a cadet deprived him of the legacy of the Lambertshof. He therefore entered the service of the Hatzfeldts, thus definitely cutting the link with the rural world of Remblinghausen.

 

 

 

Figure 95: map of Germany

 

 

 

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ANNEXES

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

1- Will of Johann Caspar Sartorius (17 June 1718) and its codicil (2 March 1719) [cf. note 172].

2- Marriage certificate of Franz Anton Sartorius and Maria Regina Weller. The marriage was celebrated in Friesenhagen [cf. note 227]. The certificate was recorded on 27 April 1745 on the books of Sankt Marien church of Siegen, the parish of the bride. This is the oldest original document we possess about the Sartorius family. It is still in Latin, whereas in France, since the ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts taken by Francis I in 1539, French was used in all public documents [734]. The text can be found on page 52 and the translation at note 227.

3- Baptism certificate of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius in Friesenhagen on 19 January 1757 (2nd certificate from the top of the page) [cf. note 272]. The text can be found on page 56 and the translation at note 227.

4- Lutheran marriage certificate of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius and Wilhelmine Capito in Kirchen on 24 May 1784 (1st certificate under the date 1784) [cf. note 282]. The text can be found on page 57 and the translation at note 282. Unlike the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church kept its books in the common language, German in the particular case.

5- Baptism certificate of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius in Friesenhagen on 11 January 1792 (bottom of the column on the left and top of the column on the right) [cf. note 293]. One finds the text on page 58 and the translation at note 293. France has been in revolution for two and a half years but Germany still uses Latin.

6- Apprenticeship contract of Adolph Ludwig Sartorius in the house F. A. and Chr. Jung in Elberfeld drawn up by Georg Anton Franz Sartorius on 10 February 1807 (3 pages) [cf. note 351]. The translation of this text can be found page 67.

7- Extract from a handwritten genealogy of the Sartorius family established by Georg Anton Franz Sartorius between 1816 and 1819 [cf. note 198]. The first lines read: Mein Grossvater Wilhelm Sartorius, Beamter in Willdenburg. Grossmutter Theresie Joanvars von Attendorn [My grandfather Wilhelm Sartorius, administrator in Wildenburg. Grandmother Theresie Johanvars, from Attendorn].

8- Death certificate of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius in Kirchen (Sieg) on 23 February 1819 (last certificate at the bottom of the page) [cf. note 317]. It is always in Latin. The book which it is drawn from is in fact a mere list of burials. The deceased is indicated only as Antonius Sartorius. It will be noticed that, curiously, his birth date (+ 19.1.1757) was added afterward above his name, which makes it possible to confirm the identity of the person in spite of the summary character of the certificate. Vital records as we know them in France penetrated slowly during the 19th century in a Germany still divided into 39 sovereign states [735].

9- Marriage certificate of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius and Anna Gertrud Heidkamp in Barmen on 25 March 1819 (2 pages) [cf. note 307]. The signature of the spouses (Ferd. Joseph Sartorius and Gertrud Heydkamp) and among the witnesses the signature of Adolph Sartorius, brother of the groom, will be noted at the end. Twenty years of French occupation of the left bank of the Rhine (1793-1813) and seven years of occupation of the grand-duchy of Berg (1806-1813) had penetrated the Napoleonic code and the vital records à la française in this part of Germany [736]. The act, both in its pre-printed parts and its manuscript parts, is in Gothic script. It was not until July 1941 that Hitler made it officially disappear in favour of our Latin script [737].

10- Birth certificate of Adolph Sartorius in Barmen on 23 December 1819 [cf. note 379]. Note the signature of his father (Ferd. J. Sartorius).

11- Extract from the diary of Wilhelmine Capito  [cf. note 290]. It reads in the first two lines: 1798 den 18 März bin ich von Wildenburg nach Kirchen gezogen [On 18 March 1798, I moved from Wildenburg to Kirchen]. Under the year 1819, it also reads: 1819 den 24 Febr. ist mein Mann gestorben [On 24 February, my husband died] and further: 1819 den 19 Juli bin bey meinem Sohn Ferdinand in Barmen eingezogen [On 19 July 1819, I moved to my son Ferdinand's house in Barmen].

12- Circular announcing the creation of the firm Keller & Sartorius [cf. note 410]. The translation is as follows:

 

 

Elberfeld, 1 August 1831

Sir

We have the honour to announce to you the creation of an enterprise of Turkish red thread under the name of the firm

                                                                                          Keller & Sartorius

The dye works operated so far in Barmen by Adolph and Ferdinand Sartorius under the name of these latter will belong from now to the new firm. Its liquidation will however be ensured under the responsibility of the current firm by both participants.

Wilhelm Keller, until now associate of Wilhelm Keller & Comp., informs you by a special circular of the dissolution of this business and we ask you to transfer the confidence you have shown us so far in our business to the new firm. We shall strive hard to always deserve it.

Receive the assurance of our highest consideration.

                                                                                          Keller & Sartorius

Signature of Wilhelm Keller        Keller & Sartorius

       "        "    Adolph Sartorius

       "        "    Ferdinand Sartorius

 

 

 

13- Death certificate of Wilhelmine Capito, widow of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius, in Barmen on 31 December 1833 [cf. note 396].

14- Marriage certificate of Adolph Sartorius and Rosalie Drissen in Rheydt (today Mönchengladbach) on 22 May 1844 (2 pages) [cf. note 388]. One can notice the signatures of the spouses (A. Sartorius and R. Drissen), their fathers (Ferd. Sartorius and Pet. Drissen), their mothers (Frau [Mrs] Sartorius and Frau [Mrs] Drissen) and among the witnesses Robert Sartorius, brother of the groom (R. Sartorius).

15- Birth certificate of Ferdinand Sartorius in Barmen on 10 April 1846 [note 455]. Note the signature of his father (Adolph Anton Sartorius).

16- Death certificate of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius in Barmen on 5 December 1854 [cf. note 440]. The deceased is wrongly reported as being born in Kirchen. His father, Georg Anton Franz, is called there Oekonom.

17- Death certificate of Anna Gertrud Heidkamp, widow of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius, in Kleve on 21 October 1862 [cf. note 444]. The death is declared by his son-in-law Joseph Hopmann, royal notary in Kleve, who signs (Hopmann).

18- Mortuary image of Anna Gertrud Heidkamp.

19- Death certificate of Adolph Sartorius (registered as Anton Adolph Sartorius) in Barmen on 5 February 1864 [cf. note 487]. Note the signature of his brother Oswald (Oswald Sartorius).

20- Mortuary image of Adolph Sartorius, died in Barmen on 3 February 1864 [cf. note 487].

21- Mortuary image of Emma Hopmann, born Sartorius, died in Kerpen on 25 February 1893 [cf. note 441]. Small trade at the scale of a continent: that of pious images. It will be noted that the image of Christ comes from 25 rue Saint Sulpice in Paris.

22- Marriage certificate of Ferdinand Sartorius and Emma Blanpain in Saint-Josse-ten-Noode on 7 February 1880 [cf. note 536]. Belgium had been successively Burgundian (1369-1477), Austrian (1477-1517), Spanish (1517-1713), Austrian (1713-1794), French (1794-1814), then Dutch (1814-1830), before being independent. Here too, as in Rhineland, the twenty years of French occupation had left the Napoleonic code and vital records à la française [738].

23- Extract from the letters written in Italy by Ferdinand Sartorius in December 1891 [cf. note 562]. It reads in the first lines: Milan, 9 déc [em]bre 1891. Ma chère Emma, Je suis arrivé hier soir 8 heures, ayant manqué le train à Bâle ; j'ai voyagé avec Mr Guggenheim et sa belle-sœur de Suisse ... [Milan, 9 December 1891. My dear Emma, I arrived last night at 8 o'clock, having missed the train in Basle; I travelled with Mr Guggenheim and his sister-in-law from Switzerland...].

24- Mortuary image of Maria Sartorius, died in Melun on 11 September 1899 [cf. note 494].

25- Death certificate of Ferdinand Sartorius in Roubaix on 2 December 1901 [cf. note 574]. At that time, the German empire is still only a confederation of sovereign states. The deceased is therefore said to have been born in Prussia, since the latter had annexed Rhineland since the congress of Vienna in 1815 [739].

26- Death certificate of Rosalie Drissen, widow of Adolph Sartorius, in Honnef on 18 January 1910 [cf. note 513].

27- Mortuary image of Rosalie Drissen, died in Honnef on 17 January 1910 [cf. note 501].

28- Mortuary image of Anna Sartorius, who died in Honnef am Rhein on 15 April 1919. Ferdinand Sartorius and his sisters had been separated for nearly 40 years. World War I was not over for 6 months. Links still existed between the German and French branches of the family. This image in the possession of one of the granddaughters of Ferdinand Sartorius is a proof of this.

 

a


Annex 1

 

Will of Johann Caspar Sartorius [740]

 

 

 

In the name of the most Holy Trinity, amen!

I, Caspar Sartorius, alderman of the prince elector in Remblinghausen and testator, make it known and acknowledge here that I have long understood that every man, according to the law of nature, must leave Earth by temporal death and enter into eternity, so that I may not be surprised when the unknown hour of my death comes, I would first protect all mine from the disputes and errors that would follow from my death about my possessions and my temporal possessions, of which God Almighty blessed and gave me and ordained. Therefore, since, God be praised, I am in good condition and sound reason, I have established, ordered and laid down the dispositions of my will or my last wills, I establish, make, order and dispose in all things without constrained and pressure-free in the best way, with force, as it is written hereafter.

First, when the very strong God in his unshakable will call me from this earth to eternity, I recommend my soul by humbly praying that through gracious merits and bitter sufferings and the death of Jesus Christ our saviour, my God and judge, will in his infinite mercy, receive and accept my soul in grace and give it to enjoy the infinite joy of God, through the intercession of the glorious Virgin Mary, mother of God, my holy patroness Saint Gertrude and Saint Mathilde and all the saints of God.

Secondly, my corpse must be deposited in the vault of my ancestors, in all humility and contemplation, according to Catholic and parish usage, and at the funeral some holy masses are to be celebrated for the consolation of my poor soul.

Then, in the third place, I command and I want to be paid immediately after my death thirty-two Thaler on my property by my executors or heirs to the Capuchin fathers in Rüthen, the Franciscans in Attendorn, the Minorites in Brilon, and the Dominicans in Soest together, and each convent of the fathers must, for the eight Thaler received, immediately say the Holy Mass in good and due form for the consolation of my poor soul.

In fourth, I bequeath to my niece Anna Margaretha Hanses in Einhauß 200, in letters two hundred, Reichsthaler of my certified claims to Siedlinghausen or Gellinghausen.

In fifth, I bequeath to my nieces Wrede ten Reichsthaler.

In sixth, I bequeath to my old maid Anna Maria ten Reichsthaler.

In seventh, I bequeath to my maid Brigitte also ten Reichsthaler.

In eighth, I bequeath to the children of my blessed sister in Belecke the remaining thirty Reichsthaler, whom they or the owners of their property are indebted of to me with all the remaining pensions and Christina, the granddaughter of my blessed sister Margarethe must have half of it and the rest must be shared the heads and the people.

In ninth, I bequeath to the child of my blessed half-sister called Donner in Remblinghausen jointly and severally twenty Reichsthaler, and this legacy above may be filled with bonds.

In eleventh [741], to promote the glory of God with the money and goods that I saved, I give and bequeath for the foundation of a family vicariate [Bluths Vicarey] the following obligations and the remaining capital, but the remaining pensions, such as those that will become payable in the current year of my death, are due to my inheritance:

1. to the whole community of Bödefeld                                           230 Rthlr.

2. at the widow Knipschild                                                             40 Rthlr.

3. at the bourgmestre Becker                                                          20 Rthlr.

4. to those who owe tithing in Niedersfeld                                      250 Rthlr.

5. at the syndic of Drasenbeck                                                      145 Rthlr.

6. at the syndic of Wulstern                                                            74 Rthlr.

7. at the house of Baldeborn                                                         300 Rthlr.

8. at Hermans in Mosebolle                                                            30 Rthlr.

9. Schäfers Johan in Enkhausen                                                      20 Rthlr.

10. Göckeler in Ramsbeck>                                                              30 Rthlr.

11. Herr von Cloedt in Remblinghaußen                                          20 Rthlr.

12. the heirs of Bergmeisters in Meschede                                       60 Rthlr.

13. Albert Pöttgen in Meschede                                                      50 Rthlr.

14. Brillman in Meschede                                                               20 Rthlr.

15. Dreigscherer in Meschede                                                        30 Rthlr.

16. Ferdinand Hirenstein and his ecclesiastical son                        110 Rthlr.

17. his brother-in-law in Warstein                                                   20 Rthlr.

18. Herr Doctor Weise in Arnsberg                                               200 Rthlr.

19. at the judge Winter or his heirs in Siedlinghausen                     100 Rthlr.

so that a secular vicar of my kinship derives and has as salary the annual pension due on the above specified capital of 1 449, I write one thousand four hundred and forty-nine, Reichsthaler with the obligations specified above. And I bequeath to the church of Remblinghausen a pension of 200, I write two hundred, Reichsthaler, on the capital indicated for the ornament, light, wine and hosts above and on which will also be paid the sacristan.

Then I bequeath to the school of Remblinghausen the remaining hundred Reichsthaler of the above obligations, so that the schoolmaster of the moment recites daily and in perpetuity with the pupils five Our Father and five Hail Marys for the salvation of my soul and that of mine in honour of the five wounds of Christ, in exchange for what the schoolmaster of the moment must have monthly 9 Mariengroschen on the interests of these hundred Reichsthaler and the rest of all quarters must be divided between the pupils, so that they may remember praying the Lord God for me.

Now, as regards the foundation of the vicariate, it is my last will and order that the following points and clauses are respected:

1.mo After my death, my nephew Wilhelm or his eldest son, if his father is dead, must be the patron and collator of the vicariate founded by me, and also confer it upon a relative of mine.

2.do In case of extinction of this line, the right to appoint this vicariate and to confer it shall be vested in the descendants of my nephew Anton.

3.tio When this vicariate is vacant and none of my parents claim it, then, it must be served by an alien ad Interim usque dum [until].>

4.to But if all my kinship was to be extinguished, I would and I command that the right of patronage should fall to and remain with the possessor of the moment of the farm which I now possess and named Lamberts Gut, to confer this vicariate according to his opinion.

5.to The vicar of the moment must be obliged, as I also oblige him here, to say the for the salvation of my soul and that of mine for the greater glory of God, namely the Tuesday of St. Anthony of Padua, St. Ann and St. Joseph, on Thursday of the Blessed Sacrament, Saturday of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which masses may be said otherwise, if the vicar is absent because of the need for his affairs.

Then, in order that this capital be used for the foundation and that the vicariate be established in perpetuity, I, founder and testator, ask the priest of Remblinghausen as long as the vicar of the moment is not in any way obliged to any pastoral service and that my nephew Wilhelm, future patron, takes care of this mine intention, on the occasion of which, I hope that the parish will provide this vicar with the house of the old vicariate or another dwelling.

Then, as the establishment of the inheritance is an essential element and basis of a will or last will, as regards everything that will remain of my estate after the payment of the bequests specified above and the costs as is due, as and where it will be required, with the utmost confidence, I lay, order and approve, for the whole of my inheritance, that the two sons of my blessed brother Johann Wilhelm and Johann Anton, these two accept with gratitude to liquidate my succession and to faithfully an carefully carry out what relates to it and to distribute it peacefully in equal shares, yet in such a way that Johan Tönnes [Anton] has my property in Remblinghausen and Suttrop, and that in return, Johann Wilhelm really has a thousand Reichsthaler, and also to do and execute it with exactness, but in case both would argue about it, that the share of the one who will be in his fault will be shared among the poor.

All this, as it is written above, is my final, favourite and last will of Caspar Sartorius, which is to be thus executed after my death.

On the other hand, that my heirs and legatees think during their life of my soul and, although it does not have the stability of an elegant and solemn testament, I want however that it remains like a codicil or gift to the article of death or as another last will, as it may be called, according to the law and the statutes of the country, and that it has valid power and force, and that my earlier testamentary dispositions and other documents are annulled therein. That anyone who contradicts something in my last wills or goes against them will be driven out forever, against which neither civil law nor canon law can protect. For its confirmation and full affirmation, I, testator, have undersigned with my own hand and drawn my usual seal.

Thus done in Remblinghausen on 8 June 1718

 

 

(L.S.)                                                                   Casparus Sartorius manu ppr

 

 

We let know herewith that today, on the date indicated below and in presence of the witnesses specially begged and called for this purpose and of me, notary public, pontifical and imperial jury, appeared the very noble Caspar Sartorius, alderman of justice of the prince elector, still in full health and sound reason, and transmitted and delivered the present instrument in my notarial hands, explaining that his last wishes were entirely contained therein, which he wished them to be executed after his death, and by asking to sign and confirm by signing with his own hand and printing his usual seal, to accept his explanations and to establish the usual act in witness of the truth, what, as requested, we together notary and witnesses, requested and called, cannot refuse, but that on the contrary we have communicated by the virtue of the signatures and printed seals. On behalf of those who cannot write I notary have signed on these required provisions and affixed my seal below beside their cross.

Thus done in Remblinghausen 1718, on 8 June.

 

 

(L.S.)                                Antonius Hencke

(L.S.)                                Johannes Wilhelmus [Sartorius] as a witness

Hermannus Theodorus Willmer as a witness

(L.S.)                                Reinhard Dolle as a witness

As Joannes Schröder of Hirtzberg, Johann Everhard Mackel of Meschede, and Johann Jobst Hencke of Remblinghaußen cannot write and each of them drew a cross on this will, I notary required to write on their behalf and sign with my seal, so did I voluntarily.

                            Gerlacus Stoll with his own hand at the request of the witnesses

 

X Signature of Johann Everhard Macke

X Signature of Johann Jobsten Hencken

X Signature of Johannes Schröder

 

(L.S.)        In witness whereof and of the truth of the will, I, Gerlacus Stoll, notary public of the Holy Apostolic See and the imperial Authorities, specially required for this purpose, have written and signed and confirmed by a not-notarial practical sign with my own hand.

On 27 February 1728 this copy was collated verbatim from the original testament of the judge and alderman of the prince elector of the justice of Remblinghausen and found compliant.

In witness whereof, and upon request, Joan Herman Frantzen, electoral clerk, subscribed with his own hand.

In his codicil of 2 March 1719, Caspar Sartorius indicates that it was brought to his knowledge that the obligation to say the first mass on Sundays and feast days and three masses during the week on certain days would be too heavy and that the vicar should only be obliged, besides the first masses, to celebrate two masses for the salvation of his soul that of his parents in the days he prefers.

For this, he must make a quest at all other masses for himself and his parents, by which he must maintain the rent of the capital of 100 Reichsthaler destined for the school in the will.


 

 

 

 

Annex 2

 

Marriage certificate of Franz Anton Sartorius and Maria Regina Weller

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 3

 

Baptism certificate of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 4

 

Marriage certificate of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius and Wilhelmine Capito

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 5

 

Baptism certificate of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 6

 

Apprenticeship contract of Adolph Ludwig Sartorius at F. A. et Chr. Jung

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 7

 

Genealogy of the Sartorius family set up by Georg Anton Franz Sartorius

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 8

 

Death certificate of Georg Anton Franz Sartorius

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 9

 

Marriage certificate of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius et d’Anna Gertrud Heidkamp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 10

 

Birth certificate of Adolph Sartorius

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 11

 

Extract of the diary of Wilhelmine Capito

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 12

 

Circular announcing the creation of the firm Keller & Sartorius

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 13

 

Death certificate of Wilhelmine Sartorius, née Capito

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 14

 

Marriage certificate of Adolph Sartorius and Rosalie Drissen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 15

 

Birth certificate of Ferdinand Sartorius

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 16

 

Death certificate of Ferdinand Joseph Sartorius

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 17

 

Death certificate of Anna Gertrud Sartorius, née Heidkamp

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 18

 


Death picture of Anna Gertrud Heidkamp

 

 

 

 

 

annexe_17

 

 

 

 

Annex 19

 

Death certificate of Adolph Sartorius

 

 

annexe_17

 

 

 

 

Annex 20

 

Death picture of Adolph Sartorius

 

 

annexe_17

 

 

 

 

Annex 21

 

Death picture of Emma Hopmann, née Sartorius

 

 

annexe_17

 

 

 

 

Annex 22

 

Marriage certificate of Ferdinand Sartorius and Emma Blanpain

 

 

annexe_17

 

 

 

 

Annex 23

 

Extract from the letters written from Italy by Ferdinand Sartorius in December 1891

 

 

annexe_17

 

 

 

 

Annex 24

 

Death picture of Maria Sartorius

 

 

annexe_17

 

 

 

 

Annex 25

 

Death certificate of Ferdinand Sartorius

 

 

annexe_17

 

 

 

 

Annex 26

 

Death certificate of Rosalie Sartorius, née Drissen

 

 

annexe_17

 

 

 

 

Annex 27

 

Death picture of Rosalie Sartorius, née Drissen

 

 

annexe_17

 

 

 

 

Annex 28

 

Death picture of Anna Sartorius

 

 

annexe_17

 




 

 

SOURCES

 

 

 

Public archives

 

1/ France

 

Archives nationales, BB/11/2924, files 14932X93, F/18/1770 and MC/ET/LXV/458, 30 August 1782.

Archives départementales de la Loire-Atlantique, church books of the parish of Saint Nicolas of Nantes, 1781, 1782, 1784, 1785 and 1787

Archives départementales de la Meurthe-et-Moselle, 5 Mi 272/R2

Archives départementales du Nord, 1 Mi EC 512 R 015, 1 Mi EC 512 R 018, 1 Mi EC 512 R 021, 1 Mi EC 512 R 024, 1 Mi EC 512 R 028, 1 Mi EC 512 R 030, 1 Mi EC 512 R 032, 1 Mi EC 512 R 061, 1 Mi EC 512 R 063 and 1 Mi EC 512 R 072 (vital records of Roubaix, births, 1880, 1881, 1883, 1885, 1887, 1888, 1889, 1893, 1895 and 1897)

Archives départementales du Nord, 1 Mi EC 512 R 058 (vital records of Roubaix, marriages, 1875)

Archives départementales du Nord, 1 Mi EC 512 R 102 (vital records of Roubaix, deaths, 1895)

Archives départementales du Bas-Rhin, vital records of Strasbourg and 4E 482/587

Archives de Paris, DC6 17, f° 212 r°

Archives de Paris, V4E 714, V4E 3148, V4E 3671, V4E 3784, V4E 6971, V4E 7039, V4E 8161, V4E 8166, V4E 8173, V4E 8178, V4E 8184, V4E 8194, V4E 8209, V4E 8227 and V4E 10348

Archives de Paris, 5 Mi 1 1124

Archives départementales de la Seine-et-Marne, 6E 306/105

Archives départementales de l'Yonne, 5Mi 669/3

Archives municipales de Nantes, registres de la paroisse Saint Nicolas, 1E328

Vital records of Melun

Vital records of Roubaix

Service historique de la Défense, 5 Ye 53360

 

2/ Germany

 

Sächsiches Staatsarchiv Leipzig

Landesarchiv Nordrhein-Westfalen, Münster, Herzogtum Westfalen, Landesarchiv, n° 943

Landeshauptarchiv Coblence, church books of the Catholic parish of Friesenhagen

NRWPSAR, church books of the parish of Saint Cunibert of Cologne

EKiHN, church books of Lauterbach

EKiR, Evangelische Archivstelle Boppard, KB 196/1, KB 238/1 and KB 238/5

EC de Bad Honnef am Rhein

Vital records of Barmen, Wuppertal

Vital records of Kleve

Vital records of Eitorf

Vital records of Gera

Vital records of Ottersweier

AM Ratingen, church books of the Catholic parish

Catholic parish of Sankt Marien of Siegen, church books

 

3/ Belgium

 

AGR, church books of Tervuren and Watermael-Boitsfort

AGR, 17676/0_0224 (vital records of Liège, births, 1828), 17916/0_0601 (vital records of Liège, marriages, 1834), and 18167/0_0005 (vital records of Liège, deaths, 1864)

Vital records of Brussels

Vital records of Saint-Gilles

Vital records of Saint-Josse-ten-Noode

Vital records of Tervuren

 

4/ United States

 

Archives of the Social Security Administration, Baltimore, Maryland, files 140-07-2523 and 155-36-0569

National Archive, Washington D.C., New York Passenger and crew lists of vessels arriving at New York, New York, 1887-1957, microfilm T 715, rolls 4201, 4486, 5006, 5440, 5831, 7495, 8627 and 8744

 

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Graves (Algernon), F.S.A., The Royal Academy of Arts, a complete dictionary on contributors and their works from its foundation in 1796 to 1904, volume VII, Henry Graves & Co., Ltd., London, and George Bell and Sons, London

 

Haberkern and Wallach, Hilfswörterbuch für Historiker, volume 1, Tübingen 1987

Handbuch der Gesellschaften mit beschränkter Haftung im deutschen Reiche, mit einer Eingabe: das Reichs-Gesetzbetr. die Gesellschaften m. b. H vom 20. April 1892, ein Hand- und Nachschlagebuch für Bankiers, Kaufleute, Industrielle, Kapitalisten, etc., A. Schumann's Verlag, Leipzig, 1898

Hefner (Otto Titan von), Stammbuch der blühenden und abgestorbenen Adels in Deutschland herausgegeben von einigen deutschen Adelleuten, volume III, Georg Joseph Manz, Regensburg, 1865

Heinsius (Maria), Wibrandis Rosenblatt (1504-1564): Die bewährte Pfarrersfrau in Das unüberwindliche Wort, Frauen der Reformation, Chr. Kaiser Verlag, Munich 1951

Hillairet (Jacques), Dictionnaire historique des rues de Paris, 7th edition, Les Editions de Minuit, 1963

Hunt (Tristram), Engels, le gentleman révolutionnaire, translated from English by Marie-Blanche and Damien-Guillaume Audollent, Flammarion, 2009

 

Jeanblanc (Helga), Des Allemands dans l'industrie et le commerce du livre à Paris (1811-1870), CNRS Editions and Thierry Bouchard, Losne, 1986

 

Knapp (Johann F.), Geschichte, Statistik und Topographie der Städte Elberfeld und Barmen im Wupperthale; mit Bezugnahme auf die Stadt Solingen und einige Städte des Kreises Lennep, Wilh. Langwiesche, Iserlohn and Barmen, 1835

Kortenkamp (Gottfried), Caspar Sartorius und die Stiftung der "Sartorianische Vikarie" in Remblinghausen, Wittlich, 1991

 

Lamarche (Alfred), Les alliances Van der Heyden a Hauzeur-Lesoinne 1818 et 1831, Le Parchemin, collection XXX, 1980

Langewiesche (Wilhelm), in connection with G. Siebel, G. Goutelle, G. K. Hötte and G. Röls, Elberfeld und Barmen, Beschreibung und Geschichte dieser Doppelstadt nebst besonderer Darstellung ihrer Industrie, einem Ueberblick der Bergischen Landesgeschichte, Barmen, 1863

Lauber (Josef), Stammreihen sauerländischer Familien, Die Höfe im Kirchspiel Remblinghausen und ihre Besitzer im Laufe der Jahrhunderte, volume III, part 2, Kirchspiel Remblinghausen, first edition in 1977 at the author's in Fredeburg, new edition with many additions and improvements by Klaus-Jürgen Lauber, Eslohe-Reiste, 2001

Léonard (Emile G.), Histoire générale du protestantisme, 2ème édition revue, first volume, La Réformation, Presses universitaires de France, 1980

Le livre des Sartorius du monde entier<, Halbert’s Family Heritage, s.l.n.d. [Numa Corporation, Bath, Ohio, United States? 1996 ?]

Lüthy (Herbert), La Banque protestante en France de la révocation de l'Edit de Nantes à la Révolution, volume II, De la banque aux finances, Paris, 1961

 

Mérode (Cléo de), Le ballet de ma vie, Pierre Horay, 1985

Miquel (Pierre), La Grande Guerre, Fayard, 1983

Moriceau (Jean-Marc), Les fermiers de l'Ile-de-France XVe-XVIIIe siècle, Fayard, 1994

Morris (Charles), The handy dictionary of biography, Henry T. Coates, Philadelphia, 1901

Müller-Westphal (Lothar), Wappen und Genealogien Dürener Familien, Hausmarken, Wappen, Notarzeichen und biografischen Daten von 7 000 Personen aus acht Jahrhunderten, Düren 1989

 

Nouveau dictionnaire historique ; ou histoire abrégée de tous les hommes qui se sont fait un nom par des talens, des vertus, des forfaits, des erreurs &c depuis le commencement du monde jusqu'à nos jours et dans laquelle on expose avec impartialité ce que les écrivains les plus judicieux ont pensé sur le caractère, les mœurs & les ouvrages des hommes célèbres dans tous les genres : avec des tables chronologiques pour réduire en corps d'histoire les articles répandus dans ce dictionnaire, par une Société de gens de lettres, fifth edition, reviewed corrected and increased by two volumes, Caen chez G. Le Roy, imprimeur du Roi, ancien Hôtel de la Monnoie, Grand rue Notre-Dame, 1783

 

Österreichisches biographisches Lexikon 1815-1950, volume 11, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienne, 1999

Official catalogue of the Great Exhibition of the works of industry of all nations 1851, corrected edition, Spicers Brothers, wholesale stationers; W. Cloves & Sons, printers, London, 1851

 

Pape-Spieckermann (Anton), Genealogie und Geschichte der Familie Pape im südlichen Westfalen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart, shaped up by Robert J. Sasse, May 2005 (available at http://www.rjsasse.de/)

Peters (H. F.), Jenny la Rouge, Madame Karl Marx, née baronne von Westphalen, translated from German by Léa Marcou, Mercure de France, 1986

Pierrard (Pierre), Histoire du Nord, Flandre, Artois, Hainaut, Picardie, Hachette, 1978

Poirier (abbé J. F.), Metz, documents généalogiques, armée, noblesse, magistrature, haute bourgeoisie, d'après les registres des paroisses, 1561-1792, Lamulle et Poisson, libraires-éditeurs, Paris, 1899

Pouchain (Pierre), Les maîtres du Nord du XIXe siècle à nos jours, Perrin, 1998

 

Ritgen (Otto), Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, text written by Otto Ritgen and shaped up in 1988 by his daughter Ursula, a copy of which is in the historical museum of Arnsberg and the pages of which concerning the families Sartorius, Johanvars, Quincken, von Stockhausen and Weller were kindly communicated to me by Mr Wolfgang Kißmer (http://menden-info.gmxhome.de/)

Roth (François), La Guerre de 70, Fayard, 1990

Rovan (Joseph), Histoire de l'Allemagne des origines à nos jours, edition reviewed and increased by the author, Editions du Seuil, 1998

 

Schiller (Friedrich von), Histoire de la guerre de Trente Ans, French translation by Adolphe Regnier, XVII-527 p., Hachette, 1881

Schonlau (Bernd), Bad Iburg, Weg und Gestalt einer historischen Stadt, issued by the Heimatbund Osnabrücker Land, 1984

Shirer (William L.), Le Troisième Reich des origines à la chute, Le Livre de Poche, 1968, volume 2

Sonderland (B. P.), Die Geschichte von Barmen im Wupperthale nach der Zeitfolge der merkwürdigen Ereignisse, welche sich in Barmen von den früheren Zeiten bis zum Jahre 1821 eingetragen haben, Heinrich Büchler, Elberfeld, 1821

Städtisches Realgymnasium mit Gymnasialklassen zu Düsseldorf, Festschrift zur fünfzigjährigen Gedenkfeier der am 28. Mai 1838 erfolgten Begründung des Realgymnasiums, gedrückt bei L. Voß & Cie, königlichen Hofbuchdrucken, Düsseldorf, 1888

Stein (Britta), Der Scheidungprozeß Hatzfeldt (1846-1851), Lit Verlag, Münster, 1999

Stern (Fritz), L'or et le fer, Bismarck, Bleichröder et la construction de l'empire allemand, Fayard, 1990

Striethorst (Theodor), Archiv für Rechtsfälle die zur Entscheidungen des königlichen Ober-tribunals gelangt sind, new follow-up, fourth year, first volume, J. Guttentag, Berlin, 1861

St Sebastianus Wildenburger Land, brochure available in the church of Friesenhagen

 

Thomas (Edward A.), Comprehensive dictionary of biography containing succinct accounts of the most eminent persons in all ages, countries, and professions, Porter & Coates, Philadelphia [1883]

Toepke (Gustav), Die Matrikel der Universität Heidelberg, sixth part, von 1846 bis 1870 fortgesetzt und herausgegeben mit Unterstützung des grossherzoglich badischen Ministeriums der Justiz, des Kultus und Unterrichts von Paul Hintzelmann, nebst einem Anhang enthaltend: I. Vorschriften über Immatriculation 1805-1868, II. Verzeichnis der Rectoren und Protectoren 1669-1870, Carl Winter's Universitätsbuchhandlung, Heidelberg, 1907

Trenaud (Louis) (sous la direction de), Histoire d'une métropole, Lille - Roubaix - Tourcoing, Edouard Privat, Toulouse, 1977

Tulard (Jean), Le Grand Empire, Albin Michel, 1982

Tulard (Jean) (under the direction of), Dictionnaire Napoléon, new increased edition, Fayard, 1995

Tulard (Jean) (under the direction of), Dictionnaire du Second Empire, Fayard, 1995

Tulard (Jean), Fayard (Jean-François) and Fierro (Alfred), Histoire et dictionnaire de la Révolution française 1789-1799, Robert Laffont, 1987

 

Vandevoir (Willy), avocat à la Cour d'appel de Liège, L'affaire Sartorius, un procès criminel au XVIIIème siècle, Jean Vromans imprimeur, Bruxelles, 1941

Voß (Dr. Willi), Die Bevölkerung des kurkölnischen Sauerlandes im Jahre 1543 (Schatzungregister 1543), bearbeitet und mit einer Einleitung versehen von Wilhelm Voss, abgeschrieben von S. Tillmann 05/2005 (available at http://www.heimatbund-finnentrop.de/historie.htm)

Voß (Dr. Willi), Fretter und seine alten Höfer, 1940 (available at http://www.heimatbund-finnentrop.de/historie.htm)

Voß (Dr. Willi), Hof- und Familiengeschichte Funke, eine sauerländische Hof- und Sippengeschichte, Münster, 1944, shaped up by S. Tillmann, May 2005 (available at http://www.heimatbund-finnentrop.de/historie.htm)

Vovelle (Michel), La chute de la monarchie 1787-1792, tome I de la Nouvelle histoire de la France contemporaine, Editions du Seuil, 1972

 

Wahrig (Gerhard), Deutsches Wörterbuch mit einem Lexikon der deutschen Sprachlehre, Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag, Gütersloh/Munich, 1986/1992

Waldeyer (Dr. August), Programm des königlichen Gymnasiums zu Bonn, Schuljahr 1876-77, Universitäts-Buchdrückerei von Carl Georgi, Bonn, 1877

Weffert (Herbert), Auswanderer aus Stadt und Kreis Bonn von 1814 bis 1914, Veröffentlichung des Stadtarchivs Bonn, Ludwig Röhrscheid, Bonn, 1977

Weyden (Ernst), Das Siegthal, ein Führer von der Mündung bis zur Quelle des Flusses und durch seine Seitenthäler zugleich Handbuch für Reisende auf der Deutz-Siegener Eisenbahn, topographisch-historische Skizzen nebst statistischen und naturgeschichtlichen Andeutungen, T. Habichr, Bonn, 1865

Wientzek (Dr. Horst), 600 Jahre Stadt Plettenberg, 1994

 

Zeldin (Theodore), Histoire des passions françaises, tome 2, Orgueil et intelligence, Editions du Seuil, 1980

 

Articles

 

 

Aus der Geschichte der Bergischen Stahl-Industrie, in Stahl und Eisen, 18 December 1924, pp. 28 and 29

 

Berger (Eric), Une branche de la famille Doucet à Wansin, in Le Parchemin, n° 296, March-April 1995, p. 85

 

Decker (Rainer), Die Hexenverfolgungen im Herzogtum Westfalen, in Westfälische Zeitschrift, n° 131 and 132, 1981 and 1982, pp. 339 to 386 (available at http://members.aol.com/Deckerpaderborn/)

 

Englebert (Georges), Une famille anversoise émigrée en Autriche : les Wouwermans, in Le Parchemin, n° 301, January-February 1996, p. 39

 

Florkin (professeur Marcel), de l'Université de Liège, Episodes de la médecine liégeoise, Josef von Sartori, in Revue médicale de Liège, volume VI, year 1951, pp. 455 to 465

 

Gingerich (Owen) et Westman (Robert S.), The Wittich connection, Conflict and priority in late sixteenth-century cosmology, in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society held at Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledge, volume 78, part 7, 1988, p. 10

 

Heyken (Hinrich), Von Bleichern, Färbern und Fabrikanten zu Richtern und Schauspielern - zur Entwicklung des Elberfelder Ostens (lecture delivered in the framework of the Bergisches Geschichtsverein at the Concordia am Werth on 6th April 2006, texte revised in February 2012, available at http://www.stadtgeschichte-wuppertal.de, 7 November 2015)

 

Janssens (Jacques), L'abbé Sartorius était-il coupable ? in Le Miroir de l'Histoire, n° 295, November 1976, pp. 71 to 78

 

Klüsener (Edgar), Die langsame Rückkehr der Deutschen nach Manchester, 2005, (available at http://www.muzikquest.de/reportagen/deutsche_in_manchester.html)

 

Lemke (Heinrich), Ein Besuch der direkten deutschen Ansiedlung in Mexiko, in Deutsche Kolonialzeitung, n° 8, 1901, pp. 73 and 74

 

Philippe (Joseph), conservateur des musées Curtius et d'Ansembourg, Une famille de médecins du pays de Liège : les Sartorius, in Revue médicale de Liège, volume VII, n° 24, 15 december 1952, pp. 803 to 815

Philippe (Joseph), conservateur des musées d'archéologie et des arts décoratifs de Liège, Une remarquable famille de médecins du pays de Liège : les Sartorius, in Si Liège m'était conté..., 10th year, n° 34, spring 1970, pp. 15 to 23

 

Säger (P. Palmatius), OFM, Die Residenz der Thüring. Franziskanerprov zu Friesenhagen, pp. 266 and 267, in Franziskanische Studien, volumes 52-53 (1970), Dietrich-Coelde Verlag

Sartorius (Pastor i. R. Otto), Sartorius Familienforschungen, in Ekkehard, review of the Deutschen genealogischen Abende [German genealogical evenings], 10th year, n° 3, 4, 5 and 6, 11th year, n° 1, 2 and 6, and 12th year, n° 1, 2 and 3, 1936

Studnitz (Gilbert von), The German nobility, in Der Blumenbaum, vol. 9, n° 4, April-June 1992 (available at http://worldroots.com/brigitte/royal/germannobility.htm)

 

Watanabe (Hisashi), Die Wuppertaler Unternehmer in den dreissigen Jahren des 19. Jahrhunderts: eine Analysis des Adreßbuches von 1833 unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Verhältnisses zwischn Baumwolle und Seide, in Hokudai economic papers, n° 3, 1972, pp. 125 to 160

 

Presse

 

Affiches, annonces et avis divers ; ou journal général de France, n° 127, 7 May 1793, and n° 128, 8 May 1793

Archives commerciales de la France, 5th year, n° 72, 8 September 1878, and 30th year, n° 21, 14 March 1903

 

Cooks County News Herald, 8 February 2014

 

L'Express, 13 February 1981

 

Färber-Zeitung, Zeitschrift für Färberei, Zeugdruck und den gesammten Farbenverbrauch, year 1899

 

Gazette médicale de Paris, n° 6, 12 January 1833

 

Journal de Roubaix, 24 December 1879, 16 December 1882, 3 December 1900 and 4 March 1921

 

Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger, 21 April 2006

 

Le Jacquard, journal de l'industrie lainière, 1882 and 30th year, n° 6, 30 March 1903

Le Monde, 18 September 1981, 11 June 1982, 1 November 1982, 9 November 1982 and 30 December 1983

 

Paris Match, 5 March 1992

Point de Vue-Images du Monde

 

Revue du Nord, n° 39 (1957) and n° 51 (1969)

 

Signale für die musikalische Welt, Leipzig, n° 27, 8 May 1868

 

The Washington Post, 22 July 2013

 

Vorwärts, Magazin für Kaufleute, Illustrierte Mittheilungen, Abhandlungen und Schilderungen aus dem Gesammtgebiete der Handelsthätigkeit, unter Mitwirkung von Dr. Ed. Amthor, Direktor der Handelschule und kaufm. Hochschule in Gera, Ritter, u.s.w., new series, first volume, Wilhelm Nübling, Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1865

 

Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, 26 September and 31 octobre 2009

 

Private archives

 

Archives of Mrs Mark Bjelland, née Barbara Sartorius:

·        CD of Rolf E. Sartorius

Archives of Mrs Guy Dagnas, née Huguette Sartorius:

·        travel book of Ferdinand Sartorius

·        miscellaneous letters

·        extract of the decree of naturalization of Pierre Ferdinand Sartorius issued by the town hall of Roubaix

Archives of Mrs Etienne Delloye, née Colette Sartorius:

·        extract of the decree of naturalization of Pierre Ferdinand Sartorius issued by the town hall of Roubaix

·        note on Emma Blanpain

Archives of Mrs Marion Leihener, née Sartorius:

·        extracts of the church books of Friesenhagen

·        correspondence Otto Ritgen-Otto Sartorius

·        handwritten note by Otto Sartorius

·        certificate of 29 March 1709 by the baroness of Hatzfeldt

·        genealogy of the Sartorius family established by Georg Anton Franz Sartorius

·        private agreement of 22 July 1802

·        family book held by Wilhelmine Capito

·        family book held by Adolph Ludwig Sartorius

·        draft contract of apprenticeship of 10 February 1807

·        circular of 1 August 1831 announcing the creation of the firm Keller & Sartorius

·        letter of 18 February 1848 from Ludwig Philipp Gerlach Sartorius to Adolph Ludwig Sartorius

·        undated handwritten note by Moritz Sartorius

·        genealogical table drawn up by Otto Sartorius

·        handwritten genealogy of the Sartorius family established by Otto Sartorius

Archives of Mrs Marcel Nollet, née Madeleine Wibaux:

·        memento of Frau Wittwe Notar Joseph Hopmann geb. Sartorius

·        memento of Maria Sartorius

Archives of Mr Paul Sartorius:

·        memento of Adolph Sartorius

·        letter of Mrs Fernand Sartorius

Archives of Mr Robert Sartorius :

·        speech delivered by Jean Sartorius at the silver wedding of his brother Fernand in 1934

Archives of Mr Wilfried Sartorius :

·        Lebenslauf von Rosalie Sartorius [Biography of Rosalie Sartorius]

·       Reisetagebuch von Carl Hermann Sartorius [Travel journal of Carl Hermann Sartorius]

·       obituary of Erich Sartorius

 

Correspondence and interviews

 

Correspondence with the Bistum Archiv Trier, Mr Mark Bjelland, Mrs Gerhild Danner, née Sartorius, Helga Dette, Mr LeRoy Ferguson, retired pastor Hans Fritzsche, Messrs Christian Gödde, Julian Isphording, Martin Kipping, Mrs Marion Leihener, née Sartorius, Ortrud Meier, née Sartorius, Mr Albert Sartorius, Mrs Beate Sartorius, widowed Brigitte Sartorius, Mr Edwin Sartorius, Dr. Fen Sartorius, Messrs Hans Sartorius, Hartmut Sartorius, Joel Sartorius, Joseph (Joe) Sartorius, Juan Jacobo Sartorius, Jürgen Sartorius, Rolf E. Sartorius, Wilfried Sartorius, Willy Sartorius, Gerd Schlang, Mrs Judith S. Seixas, Dr. Ulrich Liebermeister and Mrs Debbie Varenhorst

Interviews with Mr and Mrs Mark Bjelland, Mrs Louis Gripoix, née Louise Sartorius, and Messrs Antoine Ménard, Wilfried Sartorius and Etienne Wibaux

 

Internet and minitel

 

Chapter 1

 

forum http://genforum.genealogy.com/sartorius/messages/9.html

forum sauerland-l@genealogy.net

forum de.sci.genealogie

forum soc.genealogy.german

https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Martin Bucer, Georg Cantor, Moritz Cantor, Kurköln, Philipp Melanchton, Gerhard Mercator, Edwin Piscator, Pommern, Vest Recklinghausen, Schlesien, Herzogtum Westfalen and Wolgadeutschen

https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. Martin Bucer, Georg Cantor, Moritz Benedikt Cantor, cens (droit seigneurial), cimetière Saint-Louis de Paris, Arsène Houssaye, justice seigneuriale, Philippe Mélanchton, Gérard Mercator, Nantes, Quai de la Fosse, Angelo de Sorr, Tonkin and Expédition du Tonkin)

http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte & Geschichtliches, Kernstadt Meschede Geschichte, Kreuzbrüder

http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/

https://www.familysearch.org/, batch number C 017619, C 018453, C 972354, C 972355, C 972356, I 065063, M 972356, M 972357, and M 972358, England, births and christenings, 1538-1975, et England and Wales census, 1881 and 1891 (English and Alsatian Sartorius)

http://www.verwandt.de/karten/ (distribution of surnames in Germany)

http://www.verwandt.at/karten/ (distribution of surnames in Austria)

http://www.miparentela.com/mapas/detalles/sartorius.html (distribution of surnames in Spain)

http://www.familleunie.fr/cartes/detaille/sartorius.html (distribution of surnames in France)

http://www.verwant.nl/kaarten/detail/sartorius.html (distribution of surnames in the Netherlands)

http://www.moikrewni.pl/ (distribution of surnames in Poland)

http://www.verwandt.ch/karten/ (distribution of surnames in Switzerland)

http://www.miparentela.com/mapas-ar/detalles/sartorius.html (distribution of surnames in Argentina)

http://www.jewish-history.com/civilwar/sartorius.html (Jewish Sartorius family)

http://www.msje.org/html/anshe_chesed.html (Jewish Sartorius family)

http://www.memoiredeshommes.sga.defense.gouv.fr (French-English Sartorius family)

http://gw.geneanet.org/palamede2004 (French-English Sartorius family)

https://en.wikipedia.org/, art. Francis Sartorius, Francis Sartorius Jr., George Sartorius, John Sartorius, John Francis Sartorius and John Nott Sartorius)

http://www.pdavis.nl/ShowBiog.php?id=452 (admiral sir George Rose Sartorius)

http://www.painting.place.com/ (Virginie de Sartorius)

http://www.xtec.es/~jrovira6/bio/sartoriu.htm (Luis José Sartorius Tapia, earl of San Luis)

http://www.apellidochacon.es/ (Luis José Sartorius Tapia, earl of San Luis)

http://es.wikipedia.org/ (Luis José Sartorius and Nicolás Sartorius)

http://www.geocities.com/Paris/metro/7120/list.html (Isabel Sartorius)

http://www.ciudadfutura.com/cotilleo/isabels.htm (Isabel Sartorius)

http://www.ahsgr.org/ (Volga Germans)

http://www.bouldernet.com/frank/ (Volga Germans)

http://www.brunnental.us/brunnental/index.html (Volga Germans)

http://ewddesign.com/walter/ (Volga Germans)

http://wolgadeutsche.net/ (Volga Germans)

http://volga.niedermonjou.org:8000/index.html (Volga German Sartorius)

http://rovinggenealogist.blogspot.fr/2011/09/by-any-other-name-sartoriusshrider.html (Canadian Sartorius)

http://www.dastelefonbuch.de/ (German telephone directory)

http://www.herold.at/telefonbuch/ (Austrian telephone directory)

http://www.infobel.com/fr/belgium/people.aspx (Belgian telephone directory)

http://www.infobel.com/es/spain/ (Spanish telephone directory)

http://www.pagesjaunes.fr/pagesblanches/ (French telephone directory)

http://www.detelefoongids.nl/ (Dutch telephone directory)

http://www.192.com/people/directory-enquiries/ (British telephone directory)

http://tel.search.ch/index.fr.html (Swiss telephone directory)

http://phonebook.yellowpages.co.za/ (South-African telephone directory)

http://www.canada411.ca/ (Canadian telephone directory)

http://www.abctelfonos.com/ (Mexican telephone directory).

http://www.whitepages.com/ (U.S. telephone directory)

http://gw.geneanet.org/peyrot (Tourton family)

http://minutier.free.fr/rpr/200cim.html (foreigner cemetery in Paris)

http://www.louverture.ch/material/SKLAVEREI/angola.html (slave trade)

http://www.lizeray.com/arbregen/index.htm#TOC (Ferdinand Sartorius, publisher in Paris)

http://gw.geneanet.org/metier (Sartorius of Strasbourg)

http://jarvillehier.free.fr/ (sanatorium of the Grande Malgrange)

http://www.geneanet.org/ (Sartorius of Moselle)

http://www.geopatronyme.com/ (distribution of family names in France)

http://www.familleunie.fr/cartes/detaille/sartorius.html(distribution of family names in France)

Chapter 2

http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschichtliches, Kernstadt Meschede, Geschichte des Stiftes Meschede, Die Kreisstadt früher und heute and Die Entwicklung der Hennetalsperre, Kriegsende, Bombentrichter in Meschede and Die Stunde null

http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschichtliches, Geschichtliches aus den Stadtteilen, Freienohl, Die landwirtschaftlichen Verhältnisse, Der Dreiβigjährige Krieg und Remblinghausen

http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschichtliches, Das Justiz- und Gerichtswesen, die Hexenverfolgung and Justizwesen und Hexenverfolgung

https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Hexenverfolgung im Herzogtum Westfalen, Landtag (Herzogtum Westfalen), Rauchhuhn, Remblinghausen, Rittergut, Schöffe, Stift Meschede and Taler

http://nrw-geschichte.de/geschichte/nrwhist.htm (Westphalia)

http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj96.htm (saint Josse)

http://www.heiligenlexikon.de/BiographienJ/Jodokus_Jobst.htm (saint Josse)

http://www.plettenberg-lexikon.de/ (formation of names in -inghausen)

http://www.schaeferhoff.de.vu/ (formation of names inn -inghausen)

http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/DEU-SAUERLAND/2000-07/0962660807 (formation of names in -inghausen)

http://www.sauerland-remblinghausen.de/ (Remblinghausen)

http://www.meschede.de/stadtinfo/geschichte/F002-Freienohl-kurkoelnisch.php (Thirty years' war)

http://www.ammermann.de/eversber.htm Thirty years' war)

http://www.ammermann.de/freienoh.htm (Thirty years' war)

http://www.ammermann.de/grevenst.htm (Thirty years' war)

http://www.ammermann.de/meschede.htm(Thirty years' war)

http://www.ammermann.de/rembling.htm (Thirty years' war)

http://www.genealogie-sauerland.de/ (church books of Remblinghausen)

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~schnake/pictures.htm (illustrations on Westphalia)

http://www.netaxs.com/~graf/graf/graf_nobility.html (German nobility)

http://www.rjsasse.de/ (genealogical site of Robert J. Sasse)

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/9286/genealogie/index.html (family von Stockhausen)

http://www.meschede.de/stadtinfo/geschichte/Wn06-stockhausen.php (family von Stockhausen)

https://www.familysearch.org/, batch number M 942741 and M 942751 (church books of Remblinghausen)

Chapter 3

http://fg74.s6.domainkunden.de/wissen/content/archiv/, Steuer, Abgaben und Gebühren (Wissen and Schönstein)

http://argewe.lima-city.de/, Familienbuch Hamm/Sieg 1670-1870, and Hermann Mockenhaupt, Friesenhagen im Wildenburger Land, eine Gemeinde stellt sich vor, Das Kirchspiel Friesenhagen im Wildenburger Land, Melanie Kappenstein, Die Entwicklung der Hatzfeldt'schen Besitzungen im Raum Friesenhagen nach Ende des 1. Weltkrieges and Über den Westerwald, Der Westerwald und seine Orte, Friesenhagen

http://home.t-online.de/home/Sebastianus.Friesenhagen/kloster.htm (Friesenhagen)

https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Attendorn, Augustinerinnenkloster Glindfeld, Barmen, Bede, Franz Ludwig von Hatzfeldt, Freiherren von Fürstenberg, Friedrich-Engels-Allee, Friedrich Engels (Fabrikant), Gograf, Groβherzogtum Berg, Hatzfeldt (Adelsgeschlecht), Heinrich von Schultheiβ, Kurpfalz, Max von Stockhausen, Mediatisierung, Reichstürkenhilfe, Rheinbundakte, Schultheiß, Siegen, Vikar, Vorburg, Wehrmeisterei, Wildenburger Land, Wibrandis Rosenblatt, Wolfgang Capito et Żmigród, as well as the articles dedicated to various members of the house of Hatzfeldt

https://www.familysearch.org/, passim (house of Hatzfeldt)

https://www.familysearch.org/, batch number M 942691, C 942701 and M 942701 (church books of Ratingen), M 968863 (church books of Saint Cunibert of Cologne), M 986489 (vital records of Bonn), C 988291, J 988292, K 988292 and M 988293 (church books of Derendorf)

http://www.ww-person.com/(house of Hatzfeldt)

http://www.waldmannshofen.de/geschichtlicher_ueberblick.htm (Franz, Melchior and Hermann von Hatzfeldt)

http://www.zmigrod.com.pl/asp/de_start.asp?typ=14&menu=59&strona=1 (palace of Trachenberg)

http://www.bbkl.de/ (Ferdinand Lasalle and Lünenschloβ family)

http://www.angelfire.com/realm/gotha/gotha/furstenberg.html (house of Fürstenberg)

http://www.isphording.info/ (genealogy of the Johanvars family and related families)

http://www.plettenberg-lexikon.de/genealogie/schledo1.htm (genealogy of the house of Plettenberg)

http://www.heinzjonas.de/genealogie.htm (genealogy of the earls of Arnsberg)

http://www.kirchen-sieg.de/, Turistik und Freizeit, Sehenswürdigkeiten, Wildenburg and Haus und Kloster Marienthal

https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. château fort, gruyer, Jules Laforgue and Wolfgang Capiton

http://www.laurentianum-arnsberg.de/ (Laurentianum of Arnsberg)

http://www.abtei-marienstatt.de/ (abbey of Marienstatt)

http://nrw-geschichte.de/geschichte/nrwhist.htm (principality of Nassau-Siegen)

http://www.chez.com/chazelle/aoeaasc.htm (Lünenschloß family)

http://www.metelen.de/geschichte/gogericht.htm (Gograf)

http://www.emstek.de/ (Gograf)

http://www.nithart.com/schulthe.htm (Schulte)

http://www.asn-ibk.ac.at/bildung/faecher/geschichte/maike/frauen/ren21.htm, (Wibrandis Rosenblatt)

http://web.uscx.net/thanko/cow/bucer.htm, (Capito)

http://www.bible.org/docs/history/schaff/vol7/schaf165.htm, (Capito)

http://www.netbible.com/docs/history/schaff/vol7/schaf149.htm, (Capito)

http://www.knight.org/advent/cathen/03025d.htm, (Capito)

http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/c/a/p/John-M-Capito-jr/tree1.html (Capito family)

http://de.wiktionary.org/ (Ökonom)

http://www.ich-geh-wandern.de/burg-wildenburg-wildenburger-land (Wildenburg)

http://www.wehrmeister.de/wehrmeis/index.html (Wehrmeister)

Chapter 4

https://www.familysearch.org/, batch number C 959492 et M 959493 (Evangelical parish of Echterdingen), I 067671 (vital records of Liège), J 968311 (Catholic parish of Korschenbroich), M 943846 (vital records of Rheydt) and M 968138 (vital records of Kleve)

http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/, WorldConnect, ovenbird (Sartorius)

http://www.deutsche-biographie.de/ (Jung family and Heinrich August Schoeller)

http://barmen-200-jahre.de/index.php/home/item/96-wuppermann (Friedrich August Jung)

http://www.wolfgang-mondorf.de/barmen.html (Barmen)

https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. August Engels, August von Witzleben, Bad Honnef, Bredde (Barmen), Frederick Marryat, Gerhard Compes, Karl Gutzkow, Georg Herwegh, Johann Nestroy, Karl Immermann, Karlsbad, Katholisches Krankenhaus im Siebengebirge, Heinrich Laube, Mönchengladbach, Oberbarmen, Paul de Kock, Scheuren (Wuppertal), Türkisch Rotgarn, Unterbarmer Friedhof and Wuppertal

https://en.wikipedia.org/, art. Charles Paul de Kock, Frederick Marryat and Johann Nestroy

https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. Paul de Kock

http://www.zeitlebenszeiten.de/ (Hösterey & Gauhé)

http://www.kultura-extra.de/kunst/portrait/tuerkisch.html (Turkish red)

http://gw.geneanet.org/fpirlot (Drissen family)

http://www.findagrave.com/ (Drissen family)

http://gw.geneanet.org/edriessen (Drissen family)

http://www.bbkl.de/, Karl August Döring and Ferdinand Lasalle

http://members.aol.com/tombeee/1848.html (German revolution of 1848)

http://www.solingen.de/ (German revolution of 1848)

http://www.barmen2009.de/index.php/component/k2/item/118-lekebusch (German revolution of 1848)

http://www.gesellschaft-concordia-barmen.de/ (Barmer erste Gesellschaft Concordia 1801)

http://www.ursulinenkongregation.de/ (Calvarienberg in Altenahr)

http://www.stadtnetz-wuppertal.de/ (map of Wuppertal)

http://www.woydt.be/ (Gerhard Compes)

http://lb.wikipedia.org/, art. Aline de Saint-Hubert

http://laml.lu/ (Sartorius boarding school in Bonn)

Chapter 5

http://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Karl Baedeker.

https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. Catacombes capucines de Palerme, Exposition universelle de 1867, Francesco Tamagno and Victor Maurel)

http://www.immigration.interieur.gouv.fr/ (French law of 1889 on naturalization)

http://www.archives-judiciaires.justice.gouv.fr/ (French law of 1889 on naturalization)

http://gw.geneanet.org/jeanpaes (Blanpain family).

http://www.neptis.be/nuke1/ (Martha family)

http://gw.geneanet.org/ypeeters (Martha family)

http://fr.italopera.com/page.php?ID=181 (Tamagno)

http://www.operaitaliana.com/autori/interprete.asp?ID=313 (Tamagno)

http://opera.stanford.edu/performers/Tamagno.html (Tamagno)

http://members.tripod.com/~Motomom/index-3.html (catacombs of the Capuchins of Palermo)

http://www.histoirederoubaix.com/ (collège de Roubaix)

Chapter 6

https://www.familysearch.org/, batch number C 988014, C 988099, C 988106 and M 988145 (vital records of Düsseldorf), United States census, 1870, 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930 and 1940, United States social security death index and United States public records

https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. République de Weimar

https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Adolf Michaelis, Albert Ballin, Alexander Holle, Arado Flugzeugwerke, Carl Sartorius, Deutschamerikaner, Deutsche Überseewanderung, Dieringhausen, Eduard Buchner, Ernst Trendelenburg, Ferdinand Trendelenburg, Friedrich Adler, Friedrich Trendelenburg, Geschichte der Deutschen in den Vereinigten Staaten, Gustav Holle, Hermann von Stahl, Justus Roth, Max Wendl, Otto Michaelis, Paul Trendelenburg, Restorff (Adelsgeschlecht), Restorff-Effekt, Rudolf Mors, Ullrich Georg Trendelenburg, Wilhelm Trendelenburg and Wolfgang Trillhaas

http://www.wiehl.de/tourismus/geschichte/wirtschaftliche-entwicklung/ (Kind & Co.)

http://www.bsv-bielstein.de/fileadmin/pdf/verein/dr-kind-arena/lebenslauf-dr-kind.pdf (curriculum vitae of Dr. Karl Kind)

http://www.kind-co.de/de/impressum.html (Kind & Co.)

http://www.volksbund.de/ (German miltary died during both World wars)

http://www.eurotransport.de/ (Klaus Leihener)

http://www.ancestry.com/, New York passenger lists 1820-1957

https://en.wikipedia.org/, art. Jacob Sartorius, SS La Bretagne, SS Albert Ballin and SS Bremen (1929)

http://www.luftarchiv.de/, rubrique Motorflugzeugbau (Arado)

http://www.eichhorn.ws/html/body_arado_ar_234_blitz.htm (Arado)

http://www.airandspace.si.edu/ (Arado)

http://www.warbirdsresourcegroup.org/LRG/ (Arado)

http://www.stadtplan.net/brd/mecklenburg_vorpommern/mecklenburg_vorpommern_bl/home.html (Ganzlin, Twietfort)

http://69.1911encyclopedia.org/W/WE/WEST_HOBOKEN.htm (West Hoboken)

http://www.teutonia-stuttgart.de/ (Corps Teutonia)

http://www.socialimpact.com/index.html (Rolf H. Sartorius)

https://barbarabjelland.wordpress.com/about/ (Barbara Bjelland)

https://www.facebook.com/, Barbara Bjelland.

http://www.calvin.edu/academic/geology/faculty/bjelland/ (Mark Bjelland)

http://www.gac.edu/ (college Gustavus Adolphus)

http://www.westphalia-emigration.de/ (German emigration to the United States)

http://www.gencircles.com/users/pczerner/1 (Vollmer family)

http://www.ezl.com/~danm/genealog/christop/d67.htm (Vollmer family)

http://www.patbrit.com/eng/PAStJ/mar/PAStJmarT.html (Vollmer family)

http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/t/trendelenburg_f_a.shtml (Adolph Trendelenburg)

http://www.britannica.com/ (Eduard Buchner and Adolph Trendelenburg)

http://www.deutsche-biographie.de/ (Friedrich Adler, Eduard Buchner, Adolf Michaelis, Justus Roth, Carl Sartorius, Hans Schreuer, Hermann von Stahl, Ernst Trendelenburg, Ferdinand Trendelenburg, Friedrich Trendelenburg, Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg, Paul Trendelenburg, Ullrich Trendelenburg, Wilhelm Tredelenburg, Wolfgang Trillhaas and Max Wendl)

http://www.historiadelamedicina.org/ (Friedrich Trendelenburg)

http://www.whonamedit.com/ (Friedrich Trendelenburg)

http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/1907/buchner-bio.html (Eduard Buchner)

http://histoirechimie.free.fr/Lien/BUCHER.htm (Eduard Buchner)

http://www.kirchenlexikon.de/ (Otto Michaelis and Wolfgang Trilhaas)

Annexes

https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Standesamt

https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. Belgique

 

a


 

 

 

 

INDEX OF LOCATIONS

 

Austria

 

Innsbruck: capital of the province of Tyrol, 500 km west-south-west of Vienna, on the Inn.

 

Belgium

 

Liège: capital of the province of Liège, 100 km east-south-east of Brussels.

 

Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, in Flemish Sint-Jost-ten-Node: town of Belgium, Brussels capital, 2 km north-east of Brussels.

 

Visé: town of the province of Liège, district of Liège, 15 km north-north-east of Liège, on the Meuse.

 

Chile

 

Punta Arenas : capital of the XIIth region (Magallanes and Antarctica Chilena), 2 500 km south of Santiago, on the Pacific ocean. Until the opening of the Panama canal, in 1914, Punta Arenas was the main port for navigation between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The ships were preparing for the difficult crossing of the Cape Horn.

 

Czech republic

 

Carlsbad: see Karlovy Vary.

 

Karlovy Vary, in German Carlsbad: capital of the region of Karlovy Vary, 150 km west of Prague, on the foot of the Krusné Hory, on the confluence of the Ohře and the Teplá. The waters of this great spa founded by emperor Charles IV are mainly used against the disorders of the digestive system.

 

France

 

Bettborn: town of the department of Moselle, district of Sarrebourg-Château-Salins, canton of Sarrebourg, 8 km north of Sarrebourg.

 

Croix: town of the department of Nord, district of Lille, canton of Roubaix ouest, 5 km north-east de Lille. Suburb of Lille on the road from Lille to Roubaix and Tourcoing.

 

Guillotière (La) : former town of the department of Rhône, reunited in 1852 to that of Lyon, on the left bank of the Rhône.

 

Halluin: town of the department du Nord, district of Lille, canton of Tourcoing nord, 20 km north-north-east of Lille and 2 km north-west of Tourcoing, on the Belgian border.

Havre (Le): capital of a district of the department of Seine-Maritime, 100 km west-north-west of Rouen. Port on the Channel.

 

Lille: capital of the department of Nord, 200 km north-north-east of Paris.

 

Marseille: capital of the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, 750 km south-south-east of Paris.

Meung-sur-Loire : capital of a canton of the department of Loiret, district of Orléans, 12 km south-west of Orléans, on the right bank of the Loire.

 

Nancy: capital of the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, 281 km east of Paris.

Nantes: capital of the department of Loire-Atlantique, 342 km south-west of Paris, on the Loire.

Nice: capital of the department of Alpes-Maritimes, 800 km east-south-east of Paris, on the Mediterranean sea.

 

Roubaix: capital of a canton of the department of Nord, district of Lille, 10 km north-east of Lille.

 

Saint-Méry : town of the department of Seine-et-Marne, district of Melun, canton of Mormant, 5 km south-west of Mormant.

 

Tourcoing: capital of a canton of the department of Nord, district of Lille, 12 km north-east of Lille.

 

Verdun: capital of a district of the department of Meuse, 50 km north-north-east of Bar-le-Duc, on the Meuse.

 

Wattrelos: town of the department of Nord, district of Lille, canton of Roubaix, 12 km north-east of Lille, on the Belgian border.

 

Germany

 

Aachen: town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Cologne, 80 km west-south-west of Cologne, on the border of Germany with Belgium and the Netherlands.

Albringhausen bei Attendorn: locality of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, town of Attendorn, 4 km west of Attendorn.

Altenahr: town of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, circle of Ahrweiler, district of Coblence, 10 km south-west of Ahrweiler, in the Eifel.

Altenbeken: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, circle de Paderborn, district of Detmold, 15 km south of Detmold.

Altenkirchen (Westerwald) : capital of a circle of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, district of Coblence, 50 km north-north-east of Coblence.

Arnsberg: capital of a district of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, 120 km east-north-east of Düsseldorf.

Attendorn: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, circle of Olpe, district of Arnsberg, 35 km south-west of Arnsberg.

Aurich-Oldendorf: town of the Land of Lower Saxony, circle of Weser-Ems, 200 km north-west of Hanover.

 

Bad Ems: town of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, capital of the Rhein-Lahn-Kreis, 70 km north-west of Mainz.

Bad Fredeburg: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1975 to that of Schmallenberg, 4 km north of Schmallenberg.

Bad Honnef: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, capital of the Rhein-Sieg-Kreis, district of Cologne, 50 km south-south-east of Cologne, on the right bank of the Rhine.

Bad Lippsringe: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Detmold, 8 km north-north-east of Paderborn.

Bad Münstereifel: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Cologne, circle of Euskirchen, 9 km south-south-west of Euskirchen.

Bad Schwalbach, formerly Langenschwalbach: town of the Land of Hesse, capital of the Rhein-Taunus-Kreis, district of Darmstadt, 70 km north-west of Darmstadt.

Baldeborn:: hamlet of Remblinghausen, 1,5 km north-east of the town.

Barmen: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, now part of the agglomeration of Wuppertal.

Bensheim: town of the Land of Hesse, circle of the Bergstraße, district of Darmstadt, 25 km south of Darmstadt.

Bernburg (Saale): town of the Land of Saxony-Anhalt, capital of the Salzlandkreis, 38 km north-north-west of Halle.

Bestwig: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, Hochsauerlandkreis, 20 km east-south-east of Arnsberg.

Biedenkopf: town of the Land of Hesse, district of Gieβen, circle of Marburg-Biedenkopf, 22 km north-west of Marburg.

Bielstein: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1969 to that of Wiehl, 5 km north-west of Wiehl.

Bilstein: hamlet of the town of Lennestadt.

Blüggelscheidt: hamlet of Remblinghausen, 3 km east-north-east of Remblinghausen.

Bödefeld: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1975 to that of Schmallenberg, 15 km north-north-east of Schmallenberg. In 1844 the town of Bödefeld-Land, built with the hamlets of Brabecke, Altenfeld, Gellinghausen, Westernbödefeld, Osterwald, Valme, Rimberg and Sonderhof, was detached of it.

Bonn : town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Cologne, 30 km south-south-east of Cologne, on the left bank of the Rhine.

Boppard: town of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, district of Koblenz, Rhein-Hunsrück Kreis, 15 km south of Koblenz, on the left bank of the Rhine.

Borgentreich: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Detmold, circle of Höxter, 30 km south-south-west of Höxter.

Brandenburg, in German Brandenburg an der Havel: town of the Land of Brandenburg, 60 km west-south-west of Berlin, on the Havel.

Bremen: free Hanseatic city, 400 km west-north-west of Berlin.

 

Calle: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1975 to that of Meschede, 5 km west-south-west of Meschede.

Coburg: town of the Land of Bavaria, district of Upper Franconia [Oberfranken], 55 km north-west of Bayreuth.

Cologne, in German Köln: capital of a district of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, 30 km south-south-east of Düsseldorf, on the left bank of the Rhine.

Crottorf: hamlet of the town of Friesenhagen, 2 km west-north-west of Friesenhagen.

 

Darmstadt: capital of a district of the Land of Hesse, 30 km south of Frankfurt am Main.

Delbrück: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Detmold, circle of Paderborn, 15 km north-west of Paderborn.

Denkligen: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1969 to that of Reichshof.

Dieringhausen: hamlet of the town of Gummersbach, 12 km south-south-west of Gummersbach, on the Agger.

Dittenheim: town of the Land of Bavaria, district of Middle Franconia [Mittelfranken], circle of Weiβenburg-Gunzenhausen, 60 km south-south-west of Nuremberg.

Drasenbeck: hamlet of Remblinghausen, 2 km south-east of Remblinghausen.

Drolshagen: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, circle of Olpe, 5 km east of Olpe.

Düren: town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Cologne, 34 km south-west of Cologne.

Düsseldorf: capital of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, on the right bank of the Rhine.

 

Eisenach: town and capital of a circle of the Land of Thuringia, 50 km west of Erfurt.

Eitorf: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Cologne, Rhein-Sieg-Kreis, 40 km south-east of Cologne, on the Sieg.

Elberfeld: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, now part of the agglomeration of Wuppertal.

Elminghausenn>: hamlet of Meinerzhagen, 5 km east of Meinerzhagen.

Eschwege: town of the Land of Hesse, district of Kassel, circle of Werra-Meißner, 20 km south-east of Kassel, sur la Werra. Former residence of the landgraves of Hesse-Rotenburg. Ruins of a Benedictine abbey of the 10th century.

Essen: town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Düsseldorf, 35 km north-east of Düsseldorf.

Eversberg: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1975 to that of Meschede, 2 km north-east of Meschede.

 

Falkenstein/Harz: town of the Land of Saxony-Anhalt, circle of Harz, 25 km south-east of Halberstadt.

Finnentrop: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, circle of Olpe, 25 km north-north-east of Olpe.

Frankfurt am Main: capital of the Land of Hesse, on the Main.

Frankfurt an der Oder: town and capital of a district of the Land of Brandenburg, 150 km east-south-east of Berlin, on the left bank of the Oder, on the Polish border.

Fredeburg: see Bad Fredeburg.

Freienohl: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1975 to that of Meschede, 8 km west of Meschede.

Freiburg in Breisgau: town and capital of a district of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, 200 km south-west of Stuttgart.

Frielinghausen: hamlet of Remblinghausen, 4 km south-east of Remblinghausen.

Friesenhagen: town of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, district of Altenkirchen (Westerwald), circle of Kirchen, 10 km north-north-east of Altenkirchen.

 

Ganzlin: town of the Land de Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, circle of Ludwiglust, 30 km south of Schwerin.

Gera: town and capital of a district of the Land of Thuringia, 80 km east of Erfurt.

Gladbach (Mönchengladbach): town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, kernel of the conurbation of Mönchengladbach, which took the latter name in 1888 to distinguish itself from Bergisch Gladbach.

Gladenbach: town of the Land of Hesse, district of Gieβen an der Lahn, circle of Marburg-Biedenkopf, 18 km north of Gießen an der Lahn.

Glindfeld: hamlet of Medebach, 4 km west-north-west of Medebach.

Goldbach: town of the Land of Bavaria, district of Lower Franconia [Niederfranken], circle of Aschaffenburg, 57 km west-north-west of Würzburg.

Grafschaft: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1975 to that of Schmallenberg, 3 km south-east of Schmallenberg.

Grevenstein: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1975 to that of Meschede, 15 km south-west of Meschede.

Grimma: town of the Land of Saxony, capital of the circle of Muldental, district of Leipzig, 50 km south-east of Leipzig.

Grobach: village of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, close to Hachenburg.

Groβefehn: town of the Land of Lower Saxony, circle of Aurich, 10 km south-south-east of Aurich.

Gummersbach : town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, circle of Cologne, Oberbergischer Kreis, 39 km east of Cologne.

Gundelfingen (Breisgau): town of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, district of Freiburg in Breisgau, Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald-Kreis, 6 km north of Freiburg in Breisgau.

 

Hachenburg: town of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, district of Altenkirchen (Westerwald), circle of Westerwald, 20 km south-east of Altenkirchen.

Hagen: town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, 70 km west of Arnsberg.

Hamburg: free Hanseatic city, 300 km north-west of Berlin.

Hamm (Sieg) : town of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, district of Koblenz, circle of Westerwald, 15 km north-north-east of Altenkirchen (Westerwald), on the left bank of the Sieg.

Hatzfeld an der Eder: town of the Land of Hesse, district of Kassel, circle of Waldeck-Frankenberg, 80 km south-west of Kassel.

Heidelberg: town and capital of circle of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, district of Karlsruhe, 60 km north-north-east of Karlsruhe.

Hirschberg (Warstein): former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1975 to that of Warstein, 10 km west-south-west of Warstein.

Hohenstein: town of the Land of Hesse, district of Darmstadt, Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis, 60 km north-north-west of Darmstadt.

Homberg (Ohm): town of the Land of Hesse, district of Gießen an der Lahn, circle of Vogelsberg, 90 km north-east of Gießen an der Lahn.

Horbach: hamlet of Remblinghausen, 2 km west-south-west of Remblinghausen.

Hövels: town of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, district of Altenkirchen (Westerwald), circle of Westerwald, 25 km north-east of Altenkirchen.

 

Immenhausen: hamlet of Meschede, 6 km south-west of the centre of Meschede, on the west bank of the Hennesee, narrow and elongated barrier lake.

Iserlohn: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, Märkischer Kreis, 24 km west-south-west of Arnsberg.

 

Jena: town of the Land of Thuringia, capital of a district, 40 km east-south-east of Erfurt.

 

Kaldenkirchen: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, merged with four other towns in 1970 to create the new town of Nettetal.

Kalkum: one of the oldest quarters of Düsseldorf, north-east of the city. Formerly an estate of the family of Hatzfeldt, the Kalkumer Wasserschloss belongs now to the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia.

Kassel: town of the Land of Hesse, capital of a district, 250 km north-east of Frankfurt am Main.

Kirchen (Sieg): town of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, district of Koblenz, circle of Altenkirchen (Westerwald), 21 km north-east of Altenkirchen, on the Sieg.

Kirchhain : town of the Land de Hesse, district of Gießen an der Lahn, circle of Marburg-Biedenkopf, 50 km north-east of Gießen an der Lahn.

Koblenz: town of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, capital of a district, 60 km north-west of Mainz, on the Rhine.

Königswinter: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Cologne, Rhein-Sieg-Kreis, 40 km south-south-east of Cologne, on the right bank of the Rhine.

Krefeld : town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Düsseldorf, 30 km north-west of Düsseldorf, on the left bank of the Rhine.

Künzelsau : town of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, capital of the circle of Hohenlohe, district of Stuttgart, 60 km north-west of Stuttgart.

 

Landau in der Pfalz: town and capital of a circle of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, 30 km south of Mainz.

Langenschwalbach, see Bad Schwalbach.

Leipzig: town and capital of a district of the Land of Saxony, 120 km north-west of Dresden.

Lennestadt: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, circle of Olpe, 25 km north-east of Olpe.

Lieser: town of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, district of Trier, circle of Bernkastel-Wittlich, 30 km north-east of Trier, on the Mosel.

Limburg in Thuringia: probably Limburg, locality of the Land of Bavaria, town of Ansbach, district of Middle Franconia.

Lippspringe: see Bad Lippspringe.

Löllinghausen: hamlet of Remblinghausen, 2 km north-east of Remblinghausen.

Losheim am See: town of Saarland, circle of Merzig-Wadern, 25 km north-west of Saarbrücken.

Lüneburg: town and capital of circle of the Land of Lower Saxony, 150 km north-north-east of Hanover.

 

Mannheim: town and capital of a circle of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, district of Karlsruhe, 70 km north-north-east of Karlsruhe, on the right bank of the Rhine.

Marburg: town of the Land of Hesse, capital of the circle of Marburg-Biedenkopf, district of Gießen an der Lahn, 40 km north-north-east of Gießen an der Lahn.

Mainz: town and capital of a circle of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, 100 km south-east of Koblenz, on the right bank of the Rhine, facing the confluence of the Rhine and the Main.

Medebach: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, Hochsauerlandkreis, 48 km south-east of Arnsberg.

Meinerzhagen: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, circle of Altena, 20 km south-south-west of Arnsberg.

Menden (Sauerland): town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, Märkischer Kreis, 30 km west-north-west of Arnsberg.

Meschede: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, Hochsauerlandkreis, 16 km south-east of Arnsberg, on the Ruhr.

Mönchengladbach: town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Düsseldorf, 23 km west-south-west of Düsseldorf, in the Cologne basin.

Mosebolle: hamlet of Remblinghausen, 6 km east of Remblinghausen.

Mülheim an der Ruhr: town and capital of circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Düsseldorf, 30 km north-east of Düsseldorf, on the Ruhr.

Munich, in German München: capital of the Land of Bavaria, 600 km south-south-west of Berlin, on the Isar.

Münster: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, capital of a district, 120 km north-east of Düsseldorf.

Münstereifel: see Bad Münstereifel.

 

Nentershausen: town of the Land of Hesse, district of Cassel, circle of Hersfeld-Rotenburg, 30 km south-east of Kassel.

Nettetal: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Düsseldorf, circle of Viersen, 10 km north-west of Viersen, on the border with the Netherlands, facing Venlo, created in 1970 by the reunion of several towns, among which Kaldenkirchen.

Neunkirchen: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, circle of Siegen-Wittgenstein, 10 km south-south-west of Siegen.

Niederlosheim: hamlet of Losheim am See, 3 km south-east of Losheim am See.

Nörvenich: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Cologne, circle of Düren, 10 km west of Düren.

Nuremberg, in German Nürnberg: town and capital of a circle of the Land of Bavaria, district of Middle Franconia [Mittelfranken], 35 km east-north-east of Ansbach.

 

Oberrimpach is either Oberrimbach, hamlet of the town of Creclingen, Land of Baden-Württemberg, district of Stuttgart, Main-Tauber-Kreis, 75 km north of Stuttgart, or Oberrimbach, hamlet of the town of Obertaufkirchen, district of Upper Bavaria, circle of Mühldorf am Inn, 20 km west-north-west of Mühlbach am Inn, or Oberrimbach, hamlet of the town of Burghaslach, Land of Bavaria, district of Middle Franconia [Mittelfranken], circle of Neustadt an der Aisch-Bad Windsheim, 15 km north of Neustadt an der Aisch.

Oberursel: town of the Land of Hesse, district of Darmstadt, Hochtaunuskreis, 30 km north of Darmstadt.

Odenspiel: hamlet of Reichshof, 5 km north-east of Denklingen.

Ohrdruf: town of the Land of Thuringia, circle of Gotha, 15 km south of Gotha.

Oldenburg: town and capital of a circle of the Land of Lower Saxony, 100 km north-west of Hanover.

Olpe: town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, 43 km south-south-west of Arnsberg.

Oschatz: town of the Land of Saxony, district of Leipzig, circle of Torgau-Oschatz, 60 km east-south-east of Leipzig.

Osnabrück: town and capital of a circle of the Land of Lower Saxony, 114 km west of Hanover, at the boundary of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia.

Ottersweier: town of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, district of Karlsruhe, circle of Rastatt, 20 km south-south-west of Rastatt.

 

Paderborn: town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Detmold, 26 km south-south-west of Detmold.

Penig: town of the Land of Saxony, district of Chemnitz, circle of Mittweida, 17 km west of Chemnitz.

Putzbrunn: town of the Land of Bavaria, district of Upper Bavaria [Oberbayern], circle of Munich, 10 km south of Munich.

 

Ramsbeck: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1975 to that of Bestwig.

Ratingen: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Düsseldorf, circle of Mettmann, 12 km north-west of Mettmann.

Recklinghausen: town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Münster, 60 km south-west of Münster.

Reichshof: town of Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Cologne, Oberbergischer Kreis, 12 km south-south-east of Gummersbach. The seat of the town is in the locality of Denklingen

Reinstedt: former town of the Land of Saxony-Anhalt, reunited in 2002 to that of Falkenstein/Harz.

Reiste: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1975 to that of Eslohe, 7 km east of Eslohe.

Remagen : town of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, circle of Ahrweiler, 12 km east-north-east of Ahrweiler, on the left bank of the Rhine.

Remblinghausen: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1975 to that of Meschede, 6 km south of Meschede.

Remscheid: town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Düsseldorf, 60 km east-south-east of Düsseldorf.

Rheydt: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1975 to that of Mönchengladbach, 2 km south of Mönchengladbach.

Römershagen: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1969 to that of Wenden, 5 km south-west of Wenden.

Rönkhausen: hamlet of Finnentrop, 5 km north of Finnentrop.

Ronsdorf: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, merged in 1929 with four others to give birth to the agglomeration of Wuppertal.

 

Schleswig: town of the Land of Schleswig-Holstein, circle of Schleswig-Flensburg, 40 km north-west of Kiel.

Schmallenberg: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, Hochsauerlandkreis, district of Arnsberg, 30 km south-east of Arnsberg.

Schönstein: hamlet of Wissen, 2 km south-east of Wissen.

Schwelm: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis, 60 km east-south-east of Düsseldorf.

Siedlinghausen: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1976 to that of Winterberg, 7 km north-north-west of Winterberg.

Siegen: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, circle of Siegen-Wittgenstein, 60 km south of Arnsberg, on the Sieg.

Siegenthal: hamlet of Hövels, 3 km west-south-west of Hövels.

Solingen : town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Düsseldorf, 30 km east-south-east of Düsseldorf.

Stockhausen: hamlet of Meschede, 4 km west of Meschede, on the Ruhr.

Struthütten: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, reunited in 1969 to that of Neunkirchen, 3 km west of Neunkirchen, on the Heller.

Stuttgart: capital of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, 600 km south-west of Berlin.

Sümmern: former town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, Märkischer Kreis, split in 1975 between that of Iserlohn and that of Menden, 50 km west-north-west of Arnsberg.

Trier: capital of a district of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, 100 km south-west of Koblenz, on the Mosel.

Twietfort: hamlet of Ganzlin, 3 km north-east of Ganzlin, on the Plauer See.

Usingen: town of the Land of Hesse, district of Darmstadt, Hochtaunuskreis, 35 km north of Frankfurt am Main.

 

Warstein: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, circle of Soest, 20 km south-west of Soest.

Weimar: town and capital of a circle of the Land of Thuringia, 30 km east of Erfurt.

Wenden: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, circle of Olpe, 10 km south-south-west of Olpe.

Wiehl: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Cologne, Oberbergischer Kreis, 6 km south of Gummersbach.

Wildberg: hamlet of Reichshof, 8 km east-north-east of Denklingen.

Wildenburg: hamlet of Friesenhagen, 2 km north of Friesenhagen.

Winterberg: town of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Arnsberg, Hochsauerlandkreis, 15 km south-east of Meschede.

Wissen: town and capital of a circle of the Land of Rhineland-Palatinate, district of Westerwald, 20 km north-east of Altenkirchen (Westerwald), on the right bank of the Sieg.

Wittenberg: town and capital of a circle of the Land of Saxony-Anhalt, 80 km south-east of Magdeburg, on the Elbe.

Wulstern: hamlet of Remblinghausen, 3 km south-west of Remblinghausen.

Wupperfeld: quarter of Oberbarmen, itself quarter of Wuppertal.

Wuppertal: town and capital of a circle of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, district of Düsseldorf, 50 km east-north-east of Düsseldorf.

Würzburg : town of the Land of Bavaria, capital of the district of Lower Franconia [Niederfranken], 250 km north-west of Munich.

 

Italy

 

Canossa: town of the province of Reggio Emilia, region of Emilia-Romagna, 20 km south-west of Reggio Emilia.

 

Milan, in Italian Milano: capital of the region of Lombardy, 500 km north-north-west of Rome, in the centre of the Po valley.

 

Naples, in Italian Napoli: capital of the province of Naples and of the region of Campania, 200 km south-east of Rome, on the Thyrrenian sea.

 

Palermo: capital of the province of Palermo and of the region of Sicily, 500 km south of Rome.

 

Venice, in Italian Venezia: capital of the province of Venice and of the region of Veneto, 500 km north of Rome.

 

Netherlands

 

Rotterdam: town of Southern Holland, 80 km south-south-west of Amsterdam. Very important port on the North Sea.

 

Poland

 

Trachenberg: see Żmigród.

 

Żmigród, in German Trachenberg: town of Poland, province of Lower Silesia, 40 km north-north-west of Wrocław (in German Breslau). The town was German until 1945 (Silesia).

 

Russia

 

Bobrovka, formerly Nieder-Monjou: colony of Volga Germans, in the oblast of Saratov, 42 km of Saratov and 13 km of the Volga, on its left bank.

Brunnental: see Kriwojar.

 

Frank: colony of Volga Germans, in the oblast of Saratov, on the Medveditsa river.

 

Kaliningrad, in German Königsberg: capital of the oblast of Kaliningrad, enclaved between Poland and Lithuania, on the Pregolia (in German Pregel). The port is separated from the Baltic Sea by a peninsula. The town was German until 1945 (Eastern Prussia).

Königsberg: voir Kaliningrad.

Kriwojar, formerly Brunnental: colony of Volga Germans, in the oblast of Samara, on the left bank of the Volga.

 

Nieder-Monjou: see Bobrovka.

Norka: colony of Volga Germans, in the oblast of Saratov, 65 km south-west of Saratov, on the right bank of the Volga.

 

Walter: colony of Volga Germans, in the oblast of Saratov, 110 km west of Saratov, on the right bank of the Volga.

 

United Kingdom

 

Manchester: town of England, Greater Manchester county, 300 km north-north-west of London.

 

Sweden

 

Malmö: capital of the province of Scania, 500 km south-west of Stockholm, on the Baltic Sea, facing Copenhagen (Denmark), which it is now on connected to by a bridge.

 

Switzerland

 

Basel: capital of the canton of Basel, 80 km north of Bern, on the Rhine, on the border with France and Germany.

 

Lucerne, in German Luzern: capital of the canton of Lucerne, 80 km east-north-east of Bern, on the Lake Lucerne (in German Vierwaldstättersee).

United States

 

East Orange: town of New Jersey, county of Essex, 100 km north-east of Trenton, 5 km from the Hudson and the city of New York.

 

Hilton Head Island : town of South Carolina, county of Beaufort, 200 km south of Columbia and 100 km south-west of Charleston, on an island in the Atlantic ocean.

Hoboken: town of New Jersey, county of Hudson, 100 km north-east of Trenton, on the right bank of the Hudson, facing Manhattan.

 

Montclair: town of New Jersey, county of Essex, 100 km north-east of Trenton and 8 km of the Hudson and the city of New York.

 

New York: city of the state of New York, county of King, 220 km south of Albany, on the Atlantic ocean.

 

Philadelphia : town of Pennsylvania, county of Philadelphia, 20 km south-west of Harrisburg.

Princeton: town of New Jersey, county of Mercer, 20 km south-west of Trenton.

 

Saint Louis, Missouri: town of Missouri, county of Saint Louis, 180 km east of Jefferson City, on the Mississipi.

Saint Peter : town of Minnesota, county of Nicollet, 100 km south-west of Saint Paul.

 

West Hoboken, town of New Jersey, 10 km north-west of Jersey City, on the right bank of the Hudson, facing Manhattan.

 

 

a



 

 

 

 



NOTES

 

 

 

 

The abbreviations used in the notes are the following:

AD                  Archives départementales (France)

AGR:               Archives générales du royaume (Belgium)

AM:                 Archives municipales (France)

AN:                 Archives nationales (France)

EC:                  vital records

EKiHN:            Zentralarchiv der evangelischen Kirche in Hessen und Nassau

EKiR:              Archiv der evangelischen Kirche im Rheinland

NRWPSAR:     Nordrhein-westfälisches Personenstandarchiv Rheinland

SHD:               Service historique de la Défense (France)

s.l.n.d.:            without location and date

 



 

[1] : Etienne Wibaux, son of Louise Sartorius and grandson of Ferdinand Sartorius and Emma Blanpain, kept an album of family photos, unfortunately without legends. I do not know what happened to this album when he died in 1993, but my brother Bertrand, who had had it in his hands, had the pictures reproduced. These are copies that have been used here.

[2] : Docteur Henri de Frémont, Généalogies de familles bourbonnaises, first volume, Région sud, at the author's in Courbevoie, 1990, p. 7.

[3] : Jean Carpentier and François Lebrun (ed.), Histoire de l'Europe, preface by René Rémond, Editions du Seuil, 1990, edition updated in 1992, p. 217.

[4] : As the humanist and theologian Johann Fischer, alias Piscator (Strasbourg 1546 - Herborn 1625) and the German theatre director and producer Erwin Piscator (Greifenstein 1893 - Starnberg 1966) (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, Librairie Larousse, 1960, art. Piscator, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Erwin Piscator, 7 September 2016).

[5] : As the famous Flemish mathematician and geographer Gerhard Kremer, alias Gerard Mercator (Rupelmonde 1512 - Duisburg 1594) and the German mathematician Nikolaus Kaufmann, alias Mercator (Wismar, Holstein, about 1620 - Paris 1687) (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Mercator, https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. Gérard Mercator, 27 December 2015, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Gerhard Mercator, 27 December 2015).

[6] : As the German mathematicians Moritz Cantor (Mannheim 1829 - Heidelberg 1920) and Georg Cantor (Saint-Petersburg 1845 - Halle 1918) (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Cantor, https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. Georg Cantor and Moritz Benedikt Cantor, 27 December 2015, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Georg Cantor and Moritz Cantor, 27 December 2015).

[7] As the famous German reformator Philipp Schwarzerd, alias Melanchthon (Bretten 1497 - Wittenberg 1560) (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Melanchthon, https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. Philippe Mélanchton, 28 December 2015, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Philipp Melanchton, 28 December 2015).

[8] : As the famous Alsatian reformer Martin Kuhhorn, said Bucer (Sélestat 1491 - Cambridge 1551) (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Bucer, https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. Martin Bucer, 28 December 2015, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Martin Bucer, 28 December 2015).

[9] : As an anecdotal note, among the contemporary German Sartorius families there is one that was originally called Sutorius [from the Latin sutor, shoemaker, then a Latinisation of the German Schuhmacher], but whose name has been distorted in Sartorius in the marriage certificate of Karl Theodor Sartorius in Büderich on 10 October 1841 and has continued in that form (letter of 17 March 1998 from Mr Karl Heinz Sartorius and http://gw.geneanet.org/edriessen, 13 December 2012).

[10] : Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, Sartorius Familienforschungen, special reprint of Ekkehard, review of the Deutschen genealogischen Abende [German genealogical evenings], 10th year, n° 3, 4, 5 and 6, 11th year, n° 1, 2 and 6, and 12th year, n° 1, 2 and 3, 1936, p. 3.

        For the location of the places mentioned in the body of the text, cf. the index of place names.

[11] : Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit., p. 3, and http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte & Geschichtliches, Kernstadt Meschede Geschichte, Kreuzbrüder, 14 December 2012.

[12] : Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit., p. 3.

      Registered, in German immatrikuliert, means enrolled at the university (Gerhard Wahrig, Deutsches Wörterbuch mit einem Lexikon der deutschen Sprachlehre, Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag, Gütersloh/Munich, 1986/1992, art. immatrikulieren).

[13] : Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit., p. 3.

[14] Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, by Rochus Liliencron, Franz X. von Wegele, Anton Bettelheim and Fritz Gerlich, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig, 1876-1910, vol. 30 (1890), art. Sartorius: Johann S., pp. 387 and 388.

[15] : Ibid., vol. 30, art. Sartorius: Balthasar S., pp. 379 et 380, and Owen Gingerich et Robert S. Westman, The Wittich connection, Conflict and priority in late sixteenth-century cosmology, in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society held at Philadelphia for promoting useful knowledge, vol. 78, part 7, 1988, p. 10.

[16] : Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit., p. 3.

[17] : Henry Bogdan, Histoire de l'Allemagne de la Germanie à nos jours, Perrin, 1999 and 2003, p. 173, and Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Luther and Réforme.

[18] : Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, vol. 30, art. Sartorius:Erasmus S., p. 382, and art. Sartorius: Paul S., p. 390, Al. Choron and F. Fayolle, Dictionnaire historique des musiciens artistes et amateurs, morts ou vivans, Valade imprimeur-libraire, Paris, November 1811, volume II, pp. 270 and 271, and François-Joseph Fétis, Biographie universelle des musiciens et bibliographie générale de la musique, Firmin-Didot, Paris, 1866-1868, volume 7, pp. 402 to 404.

[19] : Nouveau dictionnaire historique ; ou histoire abrégée de tous les hommes qui se sont fait un nom par des talens, des vertus, des forfaits, des erreurs &c depuis le commencement du monde jusqu'à nos jours et dans laquelle on expose avec impartialité ce que les écrivains les plus judicieux ont pensé sur le caractère, les mœurs & les ouvrages des hommes célèbres dans tous les genres : avec des tables chronologiques pour réduire en corps d'histoire les articles répandus dans ce dictionnaire, par une Société de gens de lettres, cinquième édition, revue, corrigée & augmentée de deux volumes, à Caen chez G. Le Roy, imprimeur du Roi, ancien Hôtel de la Monnoie, Grand rue Notre-Dame, 1783, tome VII, p. 615, art. Sartorius, et tome VIII, p. 17, art. Schneider.

[20] : Le livre des Sartorius du monde entier, Halbert's Family Heritage, s.l.n.d. [Numa Corporation, Bath, Ohio, United States? 1996?], p. 5.2.

[21] : Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit., pp. 24 to 31.

[22] : Ibid., pp. 17 to 20, and Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, vol. 30, art. Sartorius: Johann Georg S., pp. 389 and 390, art. Sartorius: Georg S., pp. 390 to 394, and art. Sartorius: Wolfgang Freiherr S. v. Waltershausen, pp. 394 to 396.

[23] : Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit., pp. 8 to 14, and Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, vol. 30, art. Sartorius: Christian S., pp. 380 and 381.

       This family is still represented in Mexico, notably by Willy Sartorius, who descends at the 5th generation of Carl Christian Wilhelm Sartorius, who arrived in Mexico in the 1830's, and who lives in Monterrey (e-mail of 5 November 2007 from Mr. Willy Sartorius and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Christian Sartorius, 3 April 2010).

[24] : Ibid., pp. 15 to 17.

[25] : Ibid., pp. 20 to 24, typewritten genealogy without indication of origin (letter of 1 February 1998 from Mrs Marion Leihener and letter of 5 June 1997 from Mr Jürgen Sartorius).

[26] : Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit.

[27] : https://www.familysearch.org/, 7 January 2013, http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/, 29 December 2015, and e-mail of 3 February 2001 from Mrs Debbie Varenhorst.

[28] : Letter of 27 May 1997 from Mr Edwin Sartorius.

[29] : e-mail of 26 July 1999 and 18 August 1999 from Mr Joseph (Joe) Sartorius.

[30] : Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit., pp. 32 to 34, and typewritten genealogy without indication of origin (letter of 1 February 1998 from Mrs Marion Leihener) that gives many details.

[31] : Letter of 24 May 1997 from Mrs Beate Sartorius.

[32] : e-mail of 12 February 2012 from Mrs Helga Dette.

      This enumeration does not include a Sartorius family, originally from Alsace-Lorraine, that emigrated to Pennsylvania, United States, around 1772 and whose members had their name changed into Saddoris (https://www.familysearch.org/, 7 January 2013, and http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/, 29 December 2015). Nor does it take into account the family which was originally called Sutorius (cf. note 9). Finally, it does not include a German Jewish family named Sartorius, native of Fürth, 10 kilometres west of Nuremberg. One of its members, Abraham, settled around 1800 in Germersheim, 10 kilometres south-west of Speyer, on the left bank of the Rhine. Rare were then the Jews who used a surname. They were content to attach to their first name the mentions bar or ben [son of] followed by the first name of their father. Some were distinguished by a nickname. It must also be remembered that since 1797 France had annexed the whole of the left bank of the Rhine, which it had made four departments of. The imperial decree of 20 July 1808 obliged the Jews of the French empire to declare their names at the town hall of their place of residence. They could keep the name they wore or choose another one. In this case, they could neither choose it in the Old Testament nor take a name of locality. Most of them took for surname their first name or their nickname. Abraham chose the one of Sartorius, which was that of Jakob Sartorius, the royal notary of Germersheim, who belonged to the Sartorius family of Darmstadt (cf. note 23). The descendants of Abraham emigrated to the United States in the 1845's (letters of 24 August 1999 from Dr Fen Sartorius and 6 September 1999 from Mrs Judith S. Seixas, e-mails of 17 September and 23 September 1999 from Mr Joel Sartorius, http://www.jewish-history.com/civilwar/sartorius.html, 7 January 2013, and http://www.msje.org/html/anshe_chesed.html, 26 September 1999 [link expired on 9 March 2003], as well as Jean Tulard (under the direction of), Dictionnaire Napoléon, nouvelle édition augmentée, Fayard 1995, art. Juifs, pp. 986 to 990).

[33] : With the exception of Berlin, there is a peak in Saarland (40 in Sankt Wendel) and a high concentration along the Rhine valley (http://www.verwandt.de/karten/, 10 January 2013).

[34] : Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. George Ier et Händel ou Haendel, and François Bluche (under the direction of), Dictionnaire du Grand Siècle, Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1990, art. Haendel, p. 704.

[35] : English painters Sartorius were active in the second half of the 18th century. The two most remarkable were Francis Sartorius and his son John Nost. The first one, Francis, said the Older, born in London in 1734, was a painter of sports and horses. He exhibited sport subjects at the Society of Artists and the Royal Academy from 1773 to 1791. The success of his works in England at the end of the 18th century can be explained by the excellent quality of his portraits as well as the interest that has always been shown in this country to all that relates to sport and especially to horses. He is the author of A black horse with two dogs exhibited at the Tate Gallery in London. He died in London on 5 March 1804. John Nost, born about 1755, was also a painter of horses and sports. He is the author of the series of The earl of Darlington fox-hunting with the Raby Pack also exhibited at the Tate Gallery. There are also some of his works at the Fine Arts museum in San Francisco. He died about 1828. Reproductions of their paintings can be found on Internet, including at http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ArtistWorks?cgroupid=999999961&artistid=476&page=1, 12 January 2013, http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ArtistWorks?cgroupid=999999961&artistid=477&page=1, 12 January 2013, and http://artcyclopedia.com/artists/sartorius_john_nost.html, 13 January 2013 (many sources, including Michael Bryan, Dictionary of painters and engravers, from the revival of the art under Cimabue, and the alleged discovery of engraving by Finiguerra to the present time, with the ciphers, monograms and marks, used by each engrave: by Michael Bryan, a new edition revised, enlarged and continued to the present time, comprising above one thousand additional memoirs, and large accessions to the lists of pictures and engravings; also new plates of ciphers and monograms by George Stanley, H. G. Bohn, London, 1849, p. 701, sir Walter Gilbey, bart., Animal painters of England from the year 1650, a brief history of their lives and works illustrated with thirty-one specimens of their paintings, and portraits; chiefly from wood engraving by F. Babbage, volume II, Vinton & Co., London, 1900, pp. 124 to 147, Algernon Graves, F.S.A., The Royal Academy of Arts, a complete dictionary on contributors and their works from its foundation in 1796 to 1904, volume VII, Henry Graves & Co., Ltd., London, et George Bell and Sons, London, pp. 27 to 29, Dictionary of national biography, index and epitome, p. 1158, and https://en.wikipedia.org/, art. Sartorius family, 17 January 2013).

[36] : Sir George Rose Sartorius (1790-1885) took part at the age of 16 at the battle of Trafalgar (many sources, including Thompson Cooper, FSA, Men of the Time, A biographical dictionary of contemporaries Containing notices of eminent characters of Both sexes, ninth edition revised and updated, George Routledge and Sons, London, 1875, pp. 883 and 884, Edward A. Thomas, Comprehensive dictionary of biography Containing brief accounts of the most eminent persons in all ages, countries, and profession, Porter & Coates, Philadelphia [1883], p. 470, Charles Morris, The handy dictionary of biography, Henry T. Coates, Philadelphia, 1901, p. 478, Dictionary of national biography, index and epitome, edited by Sydney Lee, second edition, Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1906, p. 1158, Oxford dictionary of national biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, art. Sartorius, Sir George Rose and http://www.pdavis.nl/ShowBiog.php?id=452, 18 January 2013, and https://en.wikipedia.org/, art. George Sartorius, 18 January 2013).

[37] : Willy Vandevoir, avocat à la cour d'appel de Liège, L'affaire Sartorius, un procès criminel au XVIIIème siècle, Jean Vromans imprimeur, Bruxelles, 1941, professeur Marcel Florkin, de l'Université de Liège, Episodes de la médecine liégeoise, Josef von Sartori, in Revue médicale de Liège, volume VI, year 1951, pp. 455 to 465, Joseph Philippe, conservateur des musées Curtius et d'Ansembourg, Une famille de médecins du pays de Liège : les Sartorius, in Revue médicale de Liège, volume VII, n° 24, 15 December 1952, pp. 803 to 815, Joseph Philippe, conservateur des musées d'archéologie et des arts décoratifs de Liège, Une remarquable famille de médecins du pays de Liège : les Sartorius, in Si Liège m'était conté ..., 10th year, n° 34, spring 1970, pp. 15 to 23, and Jacques Janssens, L'abbé Sartorius était-il coupable ? in Le Miroir de l'Histoire, n° 295, November 1976, pp. 71 to 78.

[38] : Joseph Philippe, conservateur des musées Curtius et d'Ansembourg, Une famille de médecins du pays de Liège : les Sartorius, in Revue médicale de Liège, volume VII, n° 24, 15 December 1952, pp. 803 to 815, and Joseph Philippe, conservateur des musées d'archéologie et des arts décoratifs de Liège, Une remarquable famille de médecins du pays de Liège : les Sartorius, in Si Liège m'était conté ..., 10th year, n° 34, spring 1970, pp. 15 to 23. Xavier Heuschling, La noblesse artiste et lettrée, tableau historique, C. Muquardt, Bruxelles, and Aug. Aubry, Paris, 1863, p. 150, makes curiously her descend from of family of the Prussian nobility.

[39] : State archives of Belgium, 17676/0_0224, f° 404, 17916/0_0601, f° 725 et 726, and 18167/0_0005, f° 47.

[40] : Diccionario universal de historia y geografia [...] Obra dada a luz en España por une sociedad de literaros distinguidos y refundeda y augmentada considerablemente para su publicacion en Mexico con noticias historicas, geograficas, estadisticas y biograficas sobre las Americas en general y specialmente sobre la Republica mexicana por los sers. D. Lucas Alamas, D. Jose Maria Andrade, D. Jose Maria Baseca [...], volume VI, Imp. de F. Escalante y Co and Libreria de Andrade, Mexico, 1855, pp. 851 and 852.

        The origins of this family remain controversial. According to http://www.xtec.es/~jrovira6/bio/sartoriu.htm, 29 January 2013, Jose Luis Sartorius would be born in Seville in a humble family of Polish origin. This origin seems doubtful, even if, in neighbouring Lithuania, the termination ius is often found in patronyms. This Polish origin is also mentioned in a cross-section of Point de Vue-Images du Monde. https://es.wikipedia.org/, art. Luis Jose Sartorius, 29 January 2013, also gives this Polish origin.

        LeRoy Ferguson (e-mail of 4 February 2001) gives a German origin to this family. According to him, quoting the words of a Spanish genealogist, Charles V would have brought to Spain many Germans who would have settled in the province of Jaen. Among them were Schneiders who, under the influence of the old Spanish sartorio, transformed their name into Sartorius.

        According to Alexandro Sartorius Darder (message of 28 September 2001 on http://genforum.genealogy.com/sartorius/messages/9.html [link expired, 12 March 2003] and Juan Jacobo Sartorius (e-mail of 24 February 2003), the Spanish Sartorius would descend from Andreas Wilhelm Schneider or Sartorius who emigrated from Germany to Cadix in 1799, for reasons that remain unclear. He was from Marburg. He was a descendant of the Sartorius of Darmstadt and a cousin of the Sartorius who emigrated to Mexico. http://www.apellidochacon.es/, 29 January 2013, would rather confirm this thesis, since it gives as father to Jose Luis Sartorius a certain Andrés Sartorius y Frier, a German soldier emigrated to Spain.

         Lastly, according to another version, actually the most likely, given by the Diccionario ..., p. 851, Jose Luis Sartorius Tapia would be the son of the baron of Rosseneg, a general in the service of the emperor of Austria passed in Spain because of the events that occured in Germany at the end of the 18th century, where he contracted a marriage with doña Joaquina de Tapia Sanchez, of the distinguished family of the marquises of Castellon.

[41] : L'Express, 7 to 13 February 1981, p. 93, Le Monde, 18 September 1981, 11 June 1982, 1 November 1982, 9 November 1982 and 30 December 1983, and https://es.wikipedia.org/, art. Nicolás Sartorius and Partido Comunista de España, 2 February 2013.

[42] : Paris Match, 5 March 1992, pp. 92 to 96, http://www.geocities.com/Paris/metro/7120/list.html, 25 November 2000 [link expired, 12 March 2003], http://www.ciudadfutura.com/cotilleo/isabels.htm, 5 April 1999 [link expired, 12th March 2003] and many references on https://www.google.fr/ at the request Isabel Sartorius, 2 February 2013.

[43] : e-mail of Mr Albert Sartorius, 20 December 2010.

[44] : https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Geschichte der Russlanddeutschen, 5 February 2013, and art. Wolgadeutsche, 5 February 2013, and http://wolgadeutsche.net/, 5 February 2013.

[47] : e-mails of Mr Albert Sartorius, 23 September 2011, 16 October 2012 and 22 October 2012.

[48] : At the request country: United States, birthplace: Germany, the site https://www.familysearch.org/ gives 275 answers (9 February 2013). I identified a dozen German Sartorius who emigrated to the United States, especially in the Sartorius families of Kirchhain, Franconia, Franconia-Thuringia and Homberg (cf. notes 22, 24, 26 and 27). Among the American Sartorius whose origin is not established, there are several whose German ancestry is hardy in doubt, such as this August Sartorius, who married at the Madison Street German Presbyterian Church of New York on 12 December 1885 a Miss Helene Endlich, typically German name (https://www.familysearch.org/, batch number M 585284, 9 February 2013).

[49] : Carl Christian Wilhelm Sartorius, of the Sartorius family from Darmstadt (cf. note 23), a professor in Wetzlar, was involved in the popular movements of 1819 in Germany. Therefore put under surveillance, he went to and operated mines in Mirador (state of Veracruz) in Mexico and founded a line there (Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, vol. 30 (1890), pp. 380 and 381, Heinrich Lemke, Ein Besuch der direkten deutschen Ansiedlung in Mexiko, in Deutsche Kolonialzeitung, n° 8, 1901, pp. 78 and 79, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Christian Sartorius, 30 January 2013).

[50] : Betty Dobson, of Halifax (Nova Scotia, Canada), cites the case of her ancestor Valentine Sartorius, who served in the 60th Regiment - Royal Americans, which his brother Ludovic was a drummer in. The regiment arrived in the United States in 1777 and was demobilized in Halifax on 17 July 1784. Valentine Sartorius then married the daughter of a sergeant of the 60th and had issue in the county of Guysborough (http://rovinggenealogist.blogspot.fr/2011/09/by-any-other-name-sartoriusshrider.html, 9 February 2013).

[51] : Pomerania was an area of German colonization from the 12th century and Silesia from the 13th century. They remained under German rule until 1945 (https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Ostsiedlung, Pommern and Schlesien, 10 February 2013).

[52] : Le livre des Sartorius du monde entier.

[53] : http://www.verwandt.de/karten/absolut/sartorius.html, 13 January 2013, which states that there are 524 entries under the name Sartorius in the German telephone directories and that they are distributed in 148 circles and cities.

       The German telephone directory gives 365 names (http://www.dastelefonbuch.de/, 15 February 2013).

[54] : http://www.verwandt.at/karten/detail/sartorius.html, 13 January 2013.

      The Austrian telephone directory gives 12 names (http://www.herold.at/telefonbuch/, 15 February 2013).

[55] : L'annuaire des familles, généalogies Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Société des Annuaires, 1995, p. 1245.

      The Belgian telephone directory gives 7 names (http://www.infobel.com/fr/belgium/people.aspx, 14 February 2013).

[56] : http://www.familleunie.fr/cartes/detaille/sartorius.html, 10 January 2013.

      The French telephone directory gives 85 names (http://www.pagesjaunes.fr/pagesblanches/, 14 February 2013).

[57] : Le livre des Sartorius du monde entier.

[58] : Le livre des Sartorius du monde entier.

[59] : http://www.verwant.nl/kaarten/detail/sartorius.html, 10 January 2013.

      The Dutch telephone directory gives 26 names (http://www.detelefoongids.nl/, 16 February 2013).

[61] : http://www.miparentela.com/mapas/detalles/sartorius.html, 10 January 2013.

      The Spanish telephone directory gives 42 names (http://www.infobel.com/es/spain/, 15 February 2013).

[62] : http://www.verwandt.ch/karten/absolut/sartorius.html, 10 January 2013.

      The Swiss telephone directory gives 40 names (http://tel.search.ch/index.fr.html, 15 February 2013).

[63] : Le livre des Sartorius du monde entier.

      The British telephone directory gives 166 names (http://www.192.com/people/directory-enquiries/, 15 February 2013).

[64] : Le livre des Sartorius du monde entier.

      The South-African telephone directory only gives 2 names (http://phonebook.yellowpages.co.za/, 15 February 2013).

[66] : http://www.canada411.ca/, 30 December 2015).

[67] : http://www.abctelfonos.com/, 30 December 2015.

[68] : Le livre des Sartorius du monde entier.

       The American telephone directory gives about 150 names (households) (http://www.whitepages.com/, 15 February 2013).

[69] : Abbé J. F. Poirier, Metz, documents généalogiques, armée, noblesse, magistrature, haute bourgeoisie, d'après les registres des paroisses, 1561-1792, Lamulle et Poisson, libraires-éditeurs, Paris, 1899, pp. 19, 85, 143, 176, 239; 240, 376, 484, 577, and 578.

         Since the end of the 12th century, Metz was governed by a Supreme Council made up of a master alderman and twelve jurors, hence their name of Thirteen. The Thirteen were the body of justice of the city. Created at the same time, the amans were notaries who kept records in registers of contracts concluded by a handshake, hence their name à mains [by hand], aman. There was an aman per parish of the city of Metz, including that of Saint Médard. Originally elected, the office of aman became venal from 1422 (document dodger0.chez-alice.fr/Dodger/METZ.doc on the Internet, 23 February 2010).

[70] : Giacomo Casanova, Mémoires, text presented and annotated by Robert Abirached, La Pléiade, Gallimard, 1959, p. 142, note 1, and Le Livre de Poche publishing, 1967, volume V, p. 173, note 4.

       The Tourtons were Protestants originating from Ardèche, who settled in Lyon and then took refuge in Geneva at the time of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Claude Tourton, a confectioner, sent his son Jean-Claude to apprenticeship in Frankfurt at the age of fourteen. The latter established himself as a banker in Paris as early as 1685, perhaps even before. In 1703, he joined his cousin Louis Guiguer. As early as 1707, the house Tourton and Guiguer was one of the four or five major Parisian banks, even though it had fewer than ten clerks. It had a branch in London. In 1715, Jean-Claude Tourton and Louis Guiguer handed over their bank to their first clerk and nephew Isaac Thellusson, while remaining sleeping partners. In 1748, Tourton and Baur created with Paris de Montmartel the Société pour le commerce de la traite des nègres à la côte d'Angola et de là aux îles de Saint-Domingue [Society for the trading of Negroes on the coast of Angola and thence to the islands of Santo Domingo]. The house name Tourton and Baur survived more than ten years after the death of Baur on 15 September 1770. After two years without contract, Louis Tourton signed on 24 October 1772 a new company script for six years with his former partner Charles Henri Chrétien Sartorius. The Tourton house survived the French revolution and was still active under the First Empire. The name was then used by Tourton and Ravel (Dictionnaire des arrêts ou jurisprudence universelle des parlements de France, sixth volume, Paris, 1727, pp. 573 to 610, Gustave Bord, La Franc-maçonnerie en France des origines à 1815, first volume, Les ouvriers de l'idée révolutionnaire (1688-1771), Nouvelle librairie nationale, Paris, 1909, pp. 177 and 178, Herbert Lüthy, La Banque protestante en France de la révocation de l'Edit de Nantes à la Révolution, volume II, De la banque aux finances, Paris, 1961, pp. 160 to 179, Jean Tulard, Dictionnaire Napoléon, art. bourgeoisie, pp. 279 to 288, and crises économiques, pp. 552 to 560, http://www.louverture.ch/material/SKLAVEREI/angola.html, 11 March 2013, and http://gw.geneanet.org/peyrot, 11 March 2013.

         Rue Saint Sauveur corresponded to the present portion of rue de Bellechasse between rue de Grenelle and rue de Varenne (Jacques Hillairet, Dictionnaire historique des rues de Paris, 7th edition, Les Editions de Minuit, 1963, art. Bellechasse (rue de), volume 1, p. 171.

[71] :Herbert Lüthy, op. cit., p. 166, and Archives de Paris, DC6 17, f° 212 r°.

[72] : Archives de Paris, 5 Mi 1 1124, 16 May 1784.

      Although he had naturalized French, it was his Protestant status that brought him to be buried in the cemetery of foreigners in the presence of the chaplain of the Swedish embassy, who probably took care of the Lutheran community of Paris. An article in the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) recognized non-Catholic foreigners the right to be buried in a cemetery. Since 1762, the cemetery of foreigners, or Saint Louis cemetery, was located rue de la Granges aux Belles, in the 10th arrondissement. (Jacques Hillairet, Les deux cents cimetières du vieux Paris, Les Editions de Minuit, 1958, https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. cimetière Saint-Louis de Paris, 3 March 2016, and http://minutier.free.fr/rpr/200cim.html, 3 March 2016).

        Rue du Petit Lion Saint Sauveur is the name born until 1868 by the portion of the present rue Tiquetonne between the rues Saint Denis and Montorgueil, in the 2nd arrondissement (Jacques Hillairet, Dictionnaire historique ..., art. Aboukir (rue d'), volume I, p. 64).

[73] : Almanach royal, years MDCCLXXXVII, p. 486, MDCCLXXXVIII, p. 488; MDCCLXXXIX, p. 654, and MDCCXC, p. 464.

       Rue de Bourbon-Villeneuve corresponded to the portion of the present rue d'Aboukir between rue des Petits Carreaux and rue Saint Denis, in the 2nd arrondissement (Jacques Hillairet, op. cit., art. Aboukir (rue d'), volume I, p. 64).

[74] : Jean Tulard, Dictionnaire Napoléon, art. Louis XVIII, pp. 1087 to 1090, Michel Vovelle, La chute de la monarchie 1787-1792, volume I of the Nouvelle histoire de la France contemporaine, Editions du Seuil, 1972, p. 146, Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Favras and Louis XVIII, and Paul et Pierrette Girault de Coursac, Provence et Artois, les deux frères de Louis XVI, François-Xavier de Guibert éditeur. These latter authors give Schaumel, not David, as associate of Sartorius. As for Michel Bruguière, La Première Restauration et son budget, Librairie Droz, Genève-Paris, 1969, p. 50, he gives Chauvel for associate of Sartorius.

[75] : Affiches, annonces et avis divers ; ou journal général de France, n° 127, 7 May 1793, p. 1958, and n° 128, 8 May 1793, p.  974.

[76] : Almanach royal, MDCCLXCI, p. 431, and MDCCXCII, p. 546, and Almanach national, 1793, p. 449.

[77] : Almanach national, 1793, p. 449, year V, p. 361, year VI, p. 399, and year VII, p. 409, and Almanach national de France, eighth year, p. 427, ninth year, p. 535, and tenth year, p. 604.

       Rue des Mauvaises Paroles connected rue des Lavandières Sainte Opportune to rue des Bourdonnais. It was absorbed by rue de Rivoli during its construction (Jacques Hillairet, op. cit., volume II, art. Lavandières-Sainte-Opportune (rue des), pp. 25 and 26).

[78] Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit. p. 5. He could well be the same as Georges de Sartorius, son of Gérard Joseph Sartorius, of Visé, born in Gratz (Austria) in 1787, and received doctor of medicine by the faculty of Paris on 11 August 1812 (Joseph Philippe, article cited in Revue médicale de Liège, volume VII, n° 24, 15 December 1952, pp. 803 to 815).

[79] Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit., p. 5.

    Carl Friedrich Ferdinand Sartorius belonged to the Sartorius family of Franconia-Thuringia followed since the very beginning of the 17th century (cf. note 26). He was born in Eisenach around 1818 and died in his house, 27 rue de Seine, Paris, 6th arrondissement, on 8 May 1866. He married around 1859 Joséphine Charlotte Goetschy, born in Paris on 5 July 1823, baptized in la Madeleine on 7 July 1823, died in Paris, 6th arrondissement, on 13 June 1873, from a family of printers from Alsace. The witnesses at the death of Ferdinand Sartorius were his brothers-in-law Jean Antoine Lévesque, councillor at the Imperial court of Paris, knight of the Légion d'honneur, 60 years old, living rue Blanche, n° 69, and Joseph Meykiechel, music composer, 41 years old, living rue Olivier, n° 4. The witnesses at the death of his wife were Joseph Meykiechel, musician artist, 48 years old, living rue Richer, n° 43, and Ludovic Sclafer, without occupation, 50 years old, living rue de Seine, n° 27. Various documents dated November and December 1866 indicate that Ferdinand Sartorius had been authorized to work concurrently for several years with Mr Jean Pierre Roret, a patented bookseller from 23 July 1828. On 24 December 1866, Joséphine Charlotte Goetschy obtained a patent of bookseller in Paris, replacing the sieur Mr Roret, who had resigned, and was replaced on 31 October 1875 by the sieur Ludovic Sclafer. A report to His Excellency the Minister of Interior dated 21 December 1866 by the prefect of police in charge of the Directorate General for Public Security, sets out the background to the award of this patent: The resignation of the holder, Mr Roret, was actually given in favour of the husband of the postulant. But, being a foreigner, he could not benefit from this transfer until he had been naturalized French. By the time the ten years of residence were about to be fulfilled and this favour would be granted to him, he died. It appears then to be right to transfer the resignation which had been made in his favour on the head of his widow, who, moreover, presents all the necessary guarantees in regard to aptitude and morality. A certificate of capacity was issued to her: We undersigned Hachette, patented bookseller and editor, 77, boulevard Saint-Germain, in Paris, Dentu, patented bookseller and editor, galerie d'Orléans, Palais Royal in Paris, Michel Lévy bros., patented booksellers and editors, 2 bis, rue Vivienne in Paris, Frédéric Henry, patented bookseller and editor, 12, galerie d'Orléans, Palais Royal in Paris, certify that Mrs widow Sartorius, née Goetschy, residing 27, rue de Seine, in Paris, possesses the required qualifications to carry on the book and publishing business and to take over the business of his husband, Mr Ferdinand Sartorius, bookseller and publisher, who died in Paris on 8 May 1866 (Archives de Paris, V4E 714, certificate 1152, et V4E 3148, certificate 1262, and Archives nationales, F/18/1770, patents of printers-booksellers in Paris, file of Mrs Goetschy Joséphine Charlotte, widow Sartorius). Ferdinand Sartorius and Joséphine Charlotte Goetschy published, among others, the works of their brother-in-law and brother Joseph Goetschy, printer, then professor of music and writer (http://www.lizeray.com/arbregen/index.htm#TOC, 15 November 2005 [link expired, 21 March 2013], and https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. Angelo de Sorr [pseudonym of Ludovic Sclafer] and Nicolas Roret, 21 March 2013).

[80] Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, Mémoires de la vie littéraire, full text prepared and annotated by Robert Ricatte, professor at the university of Paris VII, volume II, 1866-1886, Robert Laffont, 1989, p. 499, note 1, Helga Jeanblanc, Des Allemands dans l'industrie et le commerce du livre à Paris (1811-1870), CNRS Editions, pp. 73 to 77, 208, 209, 253 and 254, and Deux lettres inédites de Gérard de Nerval à Ferdinand Sartorius, Thierry Bouchard, Losne, 1986.

        Arsène Houssaye is the pseudonym of Arsène Housset (1815-1896), a French poet, novelist and essayist. The publication at the age of 20 of two sentimental novels brought him to be introduced by Théophile Gautier to Nerval, Banville, Champfleury and Murger. From 1843 to 1849, Houssaye directed L'Artiste, a newspaper founded in 1831 and one of the most important artistic and literary magazines of the so-called Monarchy of July (1830-1848). From 1849 to 1856, he was administrator of the Comédie française. Appointed inspector of the provincial museums in 1857, he found L'Artiste again in 1860. That same year, he took the direction of the Revue du XIXe siècle (Jean Tulard (ed.), Dictionnaire du Second Empire, Fayard, 1995, art. Houssaye (Arsène), p. 627).

[81] : https://www.familysearch.org/, batch number C 972354, 26 September 1714, C 972355, 13 August 1739, C 972356, 14 December 1740, 27 April 1742, 15 December 1743, 4 March 1745, 19 January 1747, 23 April 1748 and 24 September 1750, M 972356, 7 January 1738, M 972357, 14 October 1708, and M 972358, 22 November 1735 and 29 May 1770.

        The names Papstin and Britzin given to the wives are German feminizations of the name Papst or Paebst, for the first, and Britz, for the second. Indeed, the suffix -in is the feminine mark in German (cf. Bäcker/Bäckerin [baker male/female] or Lehrer/Lehrerin [teacher male/female]).

[82] : AD Loire-Atlantique, church books of the parish of Saint Nicolas of Nantes, 1782, f° 35, 1785, f° 54, and 1787, f° 206.

[83] : AN, MC/ET/LXV/468, 30 August 1782.

      The death of Jean Jacques Sartorius in 1805 will be declared by Mr Nicolas Frédéric Wilfelsheim, a merchant, aged sixty, and Mr Jean Anthus, a merchant clerk, twenty-three years of age, both residing in the aforesaid street [rue Jean Jacques Rousseau in Nantes] (AM Nantes, 1E 328, 53).

      The Wilfelsheim were probably from Stuttgart (Mélanges d'histoire économique et sociale en hommage au professeur Antony Babel à l'occasion de son soixante-quinzième anniversaire, first volume, 1963, p. 42). In 1787 and 1792, J. H. Wilfelsheim and Fr. Wilfelsheim were respectively consul and vice-consul of His Majesty the Emperor at Nantes (Almanach royal, année M. DCC. LXXXVII, p. 272).

[84] : https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. commerce triangulaire, Nantes and Quai de la Fosse , 10 April 2013.

[85] : AD Loire-Atlantique, church book of the parish of Saint Nicolas of Nantes, 1782, f° 53, 1785, f° 54, and 1787, f° 206.

[86] : https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. Quai de la Fosse , 10 April 2013.

[87] : AN, MC/ET/LXV/468, 30 August 1782.

[88] : AD Loire Atlantique, church books of the parish of Saint Nicolas of Nantes, 1781, f° 231, 1782, f° 103, 1784, f° 67, 1785, f° 53, et 1787, f° 208.

[89] : AN, MC/ET/LXV/468, 30th August 1782.

      Rose Elisabeth Piffeteau will give birth to her son Nicolas Frédéric Jacques the following 12 November (AD Loire Atlantique, church books of the parish of Saint Nicolas of Nantes, 1782, f° 103).

      Rue du Colombier is the present rue du Vieux-Colombier, in the 6th arrondissement and the avenue de l'Ecole royale militaire the present avenue de La Motte-Picquet in, the 7th arrondissement (Jacques Hillairet, op. cit., art. La Motte-Picquet (avenue de),  volume II, p. 18, and art. Vieux-Colombier (rue du), volume II, p. 642).

      6 000 et 3 000 pounds correspond respectively to 36 000 and 18 000 euros of 2016.

[90] : AM Nantes, 1E 328, f° 53.

[91] : J.-C. Renoul, Passage à Nantes de S. M. l'Empereur Napoléon Ier (9, 10 et 11 août 1808), Nantes, imprimerie de Mme Vve Mellinet, 1859, passim and mainly p. 17.

[92] : AD Bas-Rhin, vital records, Strasbourg, births, 1815, certificate 1514, 1818, certificate 46, 1819, certificate 144, 1821, certificate 771, 1823, certificate 210, 1824, certificate 1615, and 1827, certificate 150, marriages, 1817, certificate 135, and deaths, 1821, certificate 332.

[93] : AD Meurthe-et-Moselle, 5 Mi 272/R2, f° 112.

      In 1821, Mr Gillet, a former director of the asylum of Maréville, bought the Grande Malgrange, a dependency of the old Malgrange castle built by Boffrand for Stanislas Leszczynski, to establish a nursing home for both sexes suffering from insanity (http://jarvillehier.free.fr/, 10 April 2013. See also the brochure Traitement des maladies mentales dirigé par M. Gillet, propriétaire de l'établissement, au château de la Malgrange, près Nancy (Meurthe), without date [after 1838], and the advertisement in the Gazette médicale de Paris, n° 6, 12 January 1833, suggesting that Mr Gillet's establishment accommodated cases of syphilitic dementia.

[94] : AD Bas-Rhin, vital records, Strasbourg, births, 1838, certificates 1173 and 1248, 1839, certificate 109, and 1840, certificate 1176, and 4E 382/443, certificate 2390.

       On the descendants of Nicolas Frédéric Sartorius, see also http://gw.geneanet.org/metier, 14 April 2013.

[95] : SHD, 5 Ye 53360.

      Tonkin is the Northern part of present-day Vietnam, around Hanoi. Under the various governments of Jules Ferry, from 1881 to 1885, until 1891, France engaged in a difficult war of conquest against China (https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. Tonkin and Expédition du Tonkin, 2 June 2015).

[97] : https://www.familysearch.org/, batch number C 017619, C 018453 and I 065063, England, births and christenings, 1538-1975, and England and Wales census, 1881 and 1891.

[98] : Archives of Paris, V4E 6971, certificate n° 4209, and V4E 7039, certificate n° 48.

[100] : Archives of Paris, V4E 8161, certificate n° 389, V4E 8178, certificate n° 139, V4E 8184, certificate n° 97, V4E 8194, certificate n° 942, V4E 8209, certificate n° 143, and V4E 8227, certificate n° 92.

[102] : Le livre des Sartorius du monde entier and http://www.familleunie.fr/cartes/detaille/sartorius.html, 29 April 2013. The French Sartorius' who do not belong to our family meet mainly in the department of the Moselle. They are probably of German origin as clearly indicated by the site 3617 GENLOR for several bearers of the name in Moselle in the 18th and 19th centuries.

[103] : The map of 1891-1915 clearly shows the existence alongside our family (8 births in the department of the Nord) of Sartorius families in the department of the Moselle (3 births) and one or more in Alsace (respectively 4 and 5 births in the departments of the Bas-Rhin and the Haut-Rhin). The two births in Pas-de-Calais and Ille-et-Vilaine were made by members of our family who had taken refuge in these departments at the beginning of World War I.

       The 1916-1940 map marks the dispersion of these different strains. If our family remains largely present in the department of the Nord, it also sees occasional births in the department of the Ardennes (Guy Sartorius at his maternal grands-parents' in July 1927) or in Brittany, again because of World War I and World War II (including Jacques Sartorius, born in Paramé in 1918 and Philippe Sartorius in Saint-Brieuc in 1940). Isolated births in Eure, Tarn and Yvelines remain unexplained.

        Between 1941 and 1965, the trend continues. There are still a large number of births in the cradles of the different Sartorius families (departments of the Bas-Rhin, the Moselle and the Nord). Our family continues to spread geographically (departments of the Haute-Marne, the Isère, the Oise, the Seine-Saint-Denis, the Vaucluse and the Yvelines). The two births in the departments of the Bouches-du-Rhône and Val-d'Oise remain unexplained.

       Finally, from 1966 to 1990, it is more and more difficult to follow the movements. The department of Nord stays ahead far and away, with more than 40% of all births. Those occurring in the departments of Isère, Pas-de-Calais, Savoie, Somme, Vaucluse and Yvelines belong to our family, those of the department of Loiret probably also. The birth in the department of Indre-et-Loire remains unexplained. As to the families of the departments of Moselle and Bas-Rhin, they keep growing slowly (maps drawn from http://www.geopatronyme.com/, 29 April 2013, and http://www.geneanet.org/, 29 April 2013).

[104] : Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Sauerland and Saint Empire romain germanique.

[105] : Joseph Rovan, Histoire de l'Allemagne des origines à nos jours, edited and augmented by the author, Editions du Seuil, 1998, p. 16, and Jean Tulard, Dictionnaire Napoléon, art. Saint Empire romain germanique, pp. 1503 to 1506.

[106] : Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Westphalie, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Herzogtum Westfalen, 1 January 2016.

[107] : http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschichtliches, Kernstadt Meschede, Geschichte des Stiftes Meschede, 18 May 2013, and Die Kreisstadt früher und heute, 18 May 2013, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Stift Meschede, 7 May 2013. Cf. also Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. avoué and vidame.

        Otto I The Great (912-973) was king of Germany from 936 until 973, then German emperor from 962 to 973. He restored order in the Empire and ensured its expansion in Central and Eastern Europe. His coronation by pope John XII in 962 founded the Holy Roman Empire (Henry Bogdan, op. cit., pp. 64 to 72, and Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Otton Ier le Grand).

       The French Revolution and the external wars which it entailed overturned the political map of Germany in favour of the great powers (Baden, Bavaria, Prussia, Württemberg, etc.). This upheaval took place to the detriment to the ecclesiastical states, mainly the great bishoprics of Cologne, Trier and Mainz. On 25 February 1803, the imperial diet in Ratisbon ratified the new order imposed by France. Thus were secularized or mediatized 122 states, 3 electorates, 20 bishoprics, 44 abbeys, 45 free cities and all the Empire villages. Three millions Germans changed their sovereign (Jean Tulard, Dictionnaire Napoléon, art. Saint Empire romain germanique, pp. 1503 to 1506).

[108] : http://www.ammermann.de/meschede.htm, 14 March 2003 [link, expired, 8 November 2004]. http://www.meschede.de/stadtinfo/geschichte/r08-rembl-wirtschaft.php, 23 May 2006 [link expired, 29 May 2013], gives almost 70 households in 1536 and 470 habitants about 1550.

       The electorate of Cologne consisted of three parts: on the one hand the Erzstift [literally archichapter], which extended mainly on the left bank of the Rhine into a narrow strip cut by other possessions, from Rheinberg in the north to Andernach in the south; on the other hand, the Vest Recklinghausen, an enclave on the right bank of the Rhine; finally the duchy of Westphalia with Arnsberg as capital. The cathedral chapter of Cologne, which elected the archbishop-elector, was common to the three regions. Imperial city, Cologne had retained its independence and escaped the authority of the prince (François Bluche, op. cit., art. électorats ecclésiastiques, p. 529, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Kurköln, 29 May 2013, Herzogtum Westfalen, 29 May 2013, and Vest Recklinghausen, 29 May 2013. Cf. also Figure 13: political Rhineland in the 18th century and Figure 36: political Rhineland in the 18th century, drawn from http://nrw-geschichte.de/geschichte/nrwhist.htm, 29 May 2013).

[109] : Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit., p. 3.

[110] : Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. confrérie.

[111] : Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 201, written by Otto Ritgen and put together in 1988 by his daughter Ursula, a copy of which is in the historical museum of Arnsberg and whose pages concerning the Sartorius, Johanvars, Quincken and Weller families were kindly communicated to me by Mr Wolfgang Kißmer (http://menden-info.gmxhome.de, 1 June 2013). See also http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschichtliches, Die Kreuzbrüder, 1 June 2013.

        Oberregierungsrat [literally senior government advisor, a high ranking German civil servant] Otto Ritgen (1882-1956) had married a great-grand-daughter of a Miss Sartorius (cf. pp. 54 and 124 and Genealogy of the Sartorius family). This explains why, as a fanatic of genealogy, he resumed the work begun by his mother, Franziska Ritgen, born Cosack, in 1910, and was interested in the Sartorius family (Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, Introduction, p. 1).

[112] : Retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit., p. 3. According to Otto Ritgen (letter of 16 August 1946 to Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener)), it is doubtful whether he is related to us.

        At the end of World war II, Otto Ritgen (see note 111) had entered in contact with Otto Sartorius, father of Mrs Leihener. The archives of the latter contain a correspondence between the two men which runs from 14 August 1945 to 31 August 1947 and continued until at least 1953.

[113] : e-mail from Christian Gödde of 14 November 2000.

        Recognition was the act by which a lord recognized someone as a vassal or a vassal someone as a lord. The recognition was accompanied by the enumeration, or act which described the content of the fief. Every new vassal was to renew the recognition and the enumeration. A similar obligation was incumbent upon the censitaries for all the lands which they held directly from a lord and whom they owed a census to, royalty in kind or in money (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. aveu and cens, and https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. cens (droit seigneurial), 2 January 2016).

        Immenhausen (Meschede) is a hamlet of the city of Meschede, 6 kilometres south-west of the centre of Meschede, on the western bank of the Hennesee, narrow and elongated barrier lake. In the past, the village of Immenhausen was at the bottom of the valley, on the eastern bank of the Henne. The expansion of the Henne dam between 1950 and 1953 led to the displacement of part of the inhabitants of Immenhausen, Enkhausen and Mielinghausen (Hubert Henneke, on the sauerland-l@genealogy.net forum, 12 November 2005, and http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschichtliches, Entwicklung der Hennetalsperre, 6 June 2013).

[114] : Gerhard Wahrig, op. cit., art. Hof.

[115] : e-mail from Christian Gödde of 14 November 2000, who simply calls them Schatzungregister. It is Otto Ritgen who calls them Schatzregister der Landstände in his note Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius [Contribution to the ancient history of the Sartorius family]. The latter document seems to date from 1946 and is a little earlier than Unsere Ahnen, which it had to constitute a first drafting of. A copy of the hand of Otto Sartorius, father of Mrs Leihener, is in in the archives of the latter.

        Inflation had so much spoiled the return on property taxes during the Middle Ages that the lords had to resort more and more frequently to exceptional taxes. The raising of the latter was always difficult, especially in the duchy of Westphalia where it was subject to the consent of the Landstände and the promise that they were indeed of a temporary nature. They nevertheless took on a quasi-permanent character which necessitated the establishment of tax registers, the Schatzungregister dating back to 1535 for the first. The tax was based on the size of the property, as well as on its income and the burdens on it (Die Bevölkerung des kurkölnischen Sauerlandes im Jahre 1543 (Schatzungregister 1543), bearbeitet und mit einer Einleitung versehen von Wilhelm Voss, abgeschrieben von S. Tillmann 05/2005, available on http://www.heimatbund-finnentrop.de/historie.htm, 6 June 2013, p. 15, and Anton Pape-Sieckermann, Genealogie und Geschichte der Familie Pape im südlichen Westfalen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart, established by Robert J. Sasse, May 2005, available on http://www.rjsasse.de/, 6 June 2013, heading Literatur, pp. 73 and 74).

       Schemme is the name of a family that meets in the Sauerland, in particular in Remblinghausen (https://www.familysearch.org/ batch number C 942741, M 942741, C 942751, M 942751, M 942752, passim).

       Diet, in German Tag, is the name given since the early Middle Ages to the assemblies that the Holy Roman German Empire had. There was an Empire diet or Reichstag. There were also regional diets, the Landtage. The Landstände were the representatives of the territories of the Empire to the Landtage (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. diète, Joseph Rovan, op. cit., pp. 343, 376, 442 and 443, and Gerhard Wahrig, op. cit., art. Landstände and Landtag).

       Each of the three parties of the electorate of Cologne (cf. note 108) kept separate assemblies. Since the Erblandesvereinigung [Union of hereditary territories] of 1463, the assemblies of each of the three parts of the electorate regulated annually the imposition, the charges of the country and the free gift they granted to their sovereign, the archbishop of Cologne. The diet of the duchy of Westphalia, which was assembled mostly in Arnsberg, was composed of two states: the barons of the country [Ritter] and the deputies of the cities (https://de.wikipedia.org/ art. Landtag (Herzogtum Westfalen), 6 June 2013, and François Bluche, op. cit., art. électorats ecclésiastiques, p. 529).

       It is obviously impossible to give an equivalent of the golden florin [Goldgulden] of the 16th century. Wilhelm Voss, Hof- und Familiengeschichte Funke, eine sauerländische Hof- und Sippengeschichte, Münster, 1944, abgeschrieben von S. Tillmann, May 2005, available on http://www.heimatbund-finnentrop.de/historie.htm, 6 June 2013, p. 41, however, indicates that in 1535 the florin was worth 18 shillings and the bushel [Scheffel, about 44 litters] of barley cost 10 shilling, but in 1563 the florin was worth 29 shilling and the bushel was still at 10 shilling. Die Bevölkerung des kurkölnischen Sauerlandes im Jahre 1543 (Schatzungregister 1543), p. 101, indicates that a bushel of rye or barley was worth about a quarter of a florin. Let us add that Thewes Schneider (see below) was one of the three imposed of Immenhausen, the other two being taxed respectively for 2 and 1 florin and that the whole parish of Meschede was imposed for 66 florin (ibid., pp. 15 and 21).

[116] : http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschichtliches, Geschichtliches aus der Stadtteilen, Freienohl, die landwirtschaftlichen Verhältnisse, 18 June 2013.

[117] : Pierre Goubert, La vie quotidienne des paysans français au XVIIe siècle, Hachette, 1982, pp. 53, 54 and 154, and Jean-Marc Moriceau, Les fermiers de l'Ile-de-France XVe-XVIIIe siècle, Fayard, 1994, pp. 51 to 58.

[118] : Die Bevölkerung des kurkölnischen Sauerlandes im Jahre 1543 (Schatzungregister 1543), p. 101.

[119] : Otto Ritgen, Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 200 v°, and e-mail of 14 November 2000 from Christian Gödde.

       Saint Josse (or Jodoc, Jodocus, Jodokus, Joos, Jobst, Joost, Jost, Jouven, Judganoc, Judgeonoc, Judoc, Judocus), a name meaning warrior in Celtic, is celebrated on 13 December. He lived in the 7th century and was the son of Juthaël, king of the Brittons, and of Prizel and the brother of Saint Judicaël. He became a priest in the service of the earl of Ponthieu and then founded a hermitage in Boulogne-sur-Mer which later became the abbey of Saint-Josse-sur-Mer. His worship spread widely from the 9th century to Germany, especially in the abbeys of Prüm and St. Maximin of Trier. He is invoked for good harvest, in situations of distress, against shipwrecks, storms, fires, blight, fever, plague and diseases. He is also the patron of pilgrims, sailors, bakers, blind people, incurables hospices and domestic animals (http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj96.htm, 18 June 2013, and http://www.heiligenlexikon.de/BiographienJ/Jodokus_Jobst.htm, 18 June 2013).

[120] : Landesarchiv Nordrhein-Westfalen, Münster, Herzogtum Westfalen, Landesarchiv, n° 943, f° 9 r° (kindly provided by Christian Gödde, 11 May 2011).

[121] : Otto Ritgen, Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 200 v°, and e-mail of 14 November 2000 from Christian Gödde.

        Tenancier must be taken in its feudal sense of person, noble or not, to whom a lord conceded a land, called tenure, which the latter retained the property of, to grant only its use, in principle as a precarious one. In practice the tenures became hereditary and more or less assimilated to a property (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. tenancier and tenure).

[122] : Otto Ritgen, Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 200 v°, and handwritten note by Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener).

[123] : https://www.familysearch.org/, batch number M 942742, 26 November 1840, and M 942751, 27 February 1821.

[124] : Otto Ritgen, Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 200 v°, and handwritten note by Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener).

[125] : Letter of 31 August 1947 from Otto Ritgen to Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener).

        On this tax due on the basis of a hen per household and which the aldermen were exempt of, see Dr. Johann Georg Krünitz, Oekonomische Encyclopädie oder allgemeines System der Staats-, Stadt-, Haus- und Landwirtschaft in alphabetischer Ordnung, 26th volume, from Huh to Hur, Joachim Pauli, bookseller, Berlin, 1782, art. Huhn, pp. 265 to 272, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Rauchhuhn, 24 June 2013.

[126] : e-mail of 26 November 2000 from Christian Gödde.

       The reality could be even more complex as evidenced by this report of the remarks of an archivist: After many errors, he found the parish which a Mrs X, née Redeker (the name Redeker is widely spread), came from. Her father was also really called Redeker, but he had two brothers called Voßmer and Niemöller. On the other hand, the father of the three brothers was called Harmsiepen and married in the Redeker family. Thus he was no longer called Harmsiepen but Redeker. But his brothers married a Voßmer and a Niemöller and thus ceased to be Redekers. Another adds: It was not uncommon for the name of the farm to be stronger than the real surname of the owner and even that of the farmer. This means that the name of the farm that was used to designate the family could be transmitted as well to the son-in-law, if not the stepson, of its owner and the transmission of names without relationship was common in peasant circles (Anton Pape-Spieckermann, op. cit. p. 62).

[127] : Josef Lauber, Stammreihen sauerländischer Familien, Die Höfe im Kirchspiel Remblinghausen und ihre Besitzer im Laufe der Jahrhunderte, volume III, part 2, Kirchspiel Remblinghausen, first edition in 1977 at the author in Fredeburg, new edition with many additions and improvements by Klaus-Jürgen Lauber, Eslohe-Reiste, 2001, pp. 25 and 26, and e-mail of 14 November 2000 from Christian Gödde.

[128] : e-mail of 14 November 2000 from Christian Gödde.

[129] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius.

       The origin of the names in -inghausen, so numerous in this part of the Sauerland, remains difficult to determine. For P. D. Frommann (Geschichte der Stadt Plettenberg, 1927), the names in -ing are of Frankish origin, as are those in -scheid. The suffix -ing indicates kinship, Karling for that of Charles, for example, whence our Merovingians and Carolingians. As a result, the Sauerland was colonized and inhabited by the Franks. On the other hand, Dr. Horst Wientzek (600 Jahre Stadt Plettenberg, 1994) seeks the origin of the names ending with -inghausen in the Saxon occupation. Here a little historical reminder is necessary. Until the 8th century B.C., between Lippe and Sieg inhabited the Sicambri (Bend your head, proud Sicambre, burn what you adored, adore what you burnt, St Rémi reportedly said to Clovis at his baptism). In 12 B.C., Tiberius managed to fix 40 000 Sicambri between the Rhine and the Meuse. The Marses and the Bructers then rushed into the region depopulated by this emigration,. In the first centuries of our era, the Angrivarians, later called Engres, extended their territory to the Sauerland. The Ampsivarians who were related to them, then probably settled between the Lenne and the Volme. From the middle of the 3rd century all these people were included under the name of Franks. The reinforcement by the Romans of the line of the Rhine between 100 and 350 A.D., forced the Franks to sedenterisation, plowing and exploitation of the soil (P. D. Frommann, Beiträge zur Geschichte Plettenbergs, 1927, pp. 4 and 6, http://www.plettenberg-lexikon.de/, art. Köbbinghausen, 18 July 2013, and http://www.schaeferhoff.de.vu/, 2 June 2006) [outdated link, 18 July 2013].

        For Tobias A. Kemper, holding the Saxon thesis, the names in XY-inghausen are found in the territories colonized in the early Middle Ages by the Saxons, whom Charlemagne had succeeded, not without difficulty, in fixing. As a general rule, they can be explained as the establishment of the people of XY. The -ing indicates the belonging to a group and the -hausen the establishment. For the particular case of Remblinghausen, behind the syllab Rem(b) must be a Germanic or Saxon person name. These names are mainly found in the Sauerland: Nichtinghausen, Frielinghausen, etc. (http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/DEU-SAUERLAND/2000-07/0962660807, 18 July 2013).

[130] : Josef Lauber, op. cit., volume III, part 2, p. 148, https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Remblinghausen, 22 July 2013, http://www.sauerland-remblinghausen.de/, 22 July 2013, and http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschichtliches, Geschichtliches aus den Stadtteilen, Remblinghausen, 22 July 2013.

        Consisting of nineteen hamlets or isolated farms, Remblinghausen in 1851 had 1 400 inhabitants, including 53 peasants (http://www.sauerland-remblinghausen.de/, 22 July 2013, and http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschichtliches, Geschichtliches aus den Stadtteilen, Remblinghausen, 22 July 2013).

         A equestrian property, in German Rittergut, in Latin praedium nobilium or praedium equestrium, was originally a piece of land [Landgut], whose owner owed a certain number of services, originally personal (ban) and then in money (https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Rittergut, 22 July 2013).

        The right of presentation was that by which a physical or legal person had the right to present a priest to the office of parish priest. This person was generally the founder of the parish in the early Middle Ages: bishop, abbot, chapter or even lay lord, or his heir.

        In the Sauerland and the country of Berg, a little more to the south-west, the roofs are generally of slate, material abundant in these foothills of the Rhine massif. Full coverage of the walls of the houses with slate is also common (local visit on 11 and 12 August 1998). It is probably a protection against the harshness of the climate, especially in winter.

[131] : Joseph Lauber, op. cit., volume III, part 2, pp. 26 and 27.

        In fact, Philipp Schnier seems to have married twice, for his son Caspar's will alludes to the half-sister Donner (Gottfried Kortenkamp, Caspar Sartorius und die Stiftung der "Sartorianischen Vikarie in Remblinghausen", Wittlich, 1981 (Archiv des Vereinsfür Geschichte und Altertumskunde Westfalens, Abt. Paderborn e. V., Signatur: Cod 385)). In fact, there is a large gap between Conrad and Caspar, respectively born in 1625 and 1628, on the one hand, and their cadets born from 1639, on the other. I will therefore gladly follow http://www.ancestry.de/, KOTTHOFF_HSK_GER, 26 July 2013, according to whom the two eldest are of the first marriage and the youngests of the second.

[132] : Pierre Ayçoberry and Marc Ferro (under the direction of), with the collaboration of Jean-Claude Ailleret, Pierre Ayçoberry, Nicole Belmont, Gérard Criqui, Georges Delmas, René Descombes, F.-G. Dreyfus, Marc Ferro, Etienne François, Marie-Claire Hoock, Etienne Juillard, Marie-José Patrix, Frédéric Rapp, André Stentz, Alfred Wahl and Klaus Wenger, Une Histoire du Rhin, Editions Ramsay, Paris, 1981, pp. 140 to 142 and 146, François Bluche and al., op. cit., art. Autriche (La maison d’), p. 141, Autrichienne (La monarchie), p. 142, Bavière (Electorat de), p. 175, Blanche (La Montagne), p. 203, Guerre de Trente Ans, pp. 688 to 691, et Gustave II Adolphe, p. 698, Henry Bogdan, op. cit., pp. 193 to 202, Jean Carpentier et François Lebrun, op. cit., pp. 236 to 240, Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Trente Ans (Guerre de), Joseph Rovan, op. cit., pp. 340 to 357 and 367, and Friedrich von Schiller, Histoire de la guerre de Trente Ans, French translation by Adolphe Regnier, Hachette, 1881, pp. 135 sq.

[133] : Rainer Decker, Die Hexenverfolgungen im Herzogtum Westfalen, in Westfälische Zeitschrift, Nos 131 and 132, 1981 and 1982, pp. 339 to 386, Die Hexen und ihre Henker, Verlag Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau, 1994, Die große Hexenverfolgung im Amt Fredeburg um 1630, in Schmallenberger Sauerland Almanach, pp. 96 to 98, Die große Hexenverfolgung im Sauerland während des Dreißigjährigen Krieges, in Dreißigjähriger Krieg im Herzogtum Westfalen, pp. 65 to 68, and Der Hexen-Richter Dr. Heinrich von Schultheiß (ca. 1580-1646) aus Scharmede, in 750 Jahre Stadt Salzkotten, volume 2, Paderborn, 1996, pp. 1045 to 1060, http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschichtliches, Das Justiz- und Gerichtswesen, die Hexenverfolgung, Justizwesen und Hexenverfolgung, 29 July 2013, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Heinrich von Schultheiβ and Hexenverfolgung im Herzogtum Westfalen, 28 July 2013.

[134] : Pierre Ayçoberry, Marc Ferro and al., op. cit., pp. 140 to 142 and 146, François Bluche and al., op. cit., art. Autriche (La maison d'), p. 141, Autrichienne (La monarchie), p. 142, Bavière (Electorat de), p. 175, Guerre de Trente Ans, pp. 688 to 691, and Gustave II Adolphe, p. 698, Henry Bogdan, op. cit., pp. 202 to 208, 213 and 214, Jean Carpentier and François Lebrun, op. cit., pp. 236 to 240, Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Trente Ans (Guerre de), Joseph Rovan, op. cit., pp. 346 to 357 and 367, and Dr. Willi Voß, Fretter und seine alten Höfe, p. 13.

[135] : Friedrich von Schiller, op. cit., passim, and http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschichtliches, Geschichtliches aus den Stadtteilen, Freienohl, Der Dreiβigjährige Krieg, 31 July 2013.

         An inscription on the ruins of the castle of Arnsberg mentions that the imperial troops used it as a base of operation [Stützpunkt] during the Thirty Years' war (local visit on 12 August 1998). It is also known that two notables of the region, Ludwig von Stockhausen and Friedrich von Fürstenberg, were kidnapped by Hessian troops in Meschede in 1637 ((http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/9286/genealogie/index.html, 17 October 1999 [link expired, 19 March 2003]). This was precisely the year when landgravine Amelia of Hesse had allied herself with the Swedes (Friedrich von Schiller, op. cit.).

[137] : http://www.ammermann.de/meschede.htm, 19 March 2003 [link expired, 12 November 2004], and http://www.meschede.de/stadtinfo/geschichte/b035-kreuzbruderschaft.php, 5 June 2006 [link expired, 31 July 2013].

[138] : http://www.ammermann.de/eversber.htm, 19 March 2003 [link expired, 12 November 2004].

[139] : http://www.ammermann.de/grevenst.htm, 19 March 2003 [link expired, 12 November 2004].

[140] : http://www.ammermann.de/freienoh.htm, 19 March 2003 [link expired, 12 November 2004].

[141] : http://www.ammermann.de/rembling.htm, 19 March 2003 [link expired, 12 November 2004].

[142] : http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschitliches, Geschitliches aus den Stadtteilen, Freienohl, Der dreiβigjährige Krieg, 5 August 2013.

[143] : Pierre Ayçoberry, Marc Ferro and al., op. cit., pp. 150 and 151, François Bluche and al., op. cit., art. Guerre de la Ligue d'Augsbourg, pp. 687 and 688, and réunions, pp. 1330 to 1332, Henry Bogdan, op. cit., pp. 218 to 225, 231 and 251, Joseph Rovan, op. cit., pp. 406 and 407, and Dr. Willi Voß, Fretter und seine alte Höfe, pp. 13, 14 and 29.

[144] : Josef Lauber, op. cit., volume III, part 2, pp. 25 and 26.

[145] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius, and Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 203.

[146] : Letter of 31 August 1947 from Otto Ritgen to Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener).

        Whatever Otto Ritgen says, it does not appear that Blüggelscheidt had church books distinct from those of Remblinghausen, which begin in 1651, with a lacuna for 1735 (http://www.genealogie-sauerland.de/, 25 August 2013, section Kirchenbücher).

[147] : Ibid. and e-mail of 14 November 2000 from Christian Gödde.

[148] : See volume 2, Genealogy of the Sartorius family.

[149] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius.

[150] : Letter of 31 August 1947 from Otto Ritgen to Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener).

[151] : Ibid. These titles are confirmed by the e-mail of 14 November 2000 from Christian Gödde. http://www.meschede.de/stadtinfo/geschichte/r065-rembl-pfarrkirche.php, 8 January 2006 [link expired, 27 August 2013], specifies that he was a kurkölnischer Schöffe, that is to say that he exercised justice in the name of the archbishop-elector of Cologne.

        The Gerichstschöffen were for the most peasants appointed by the lord and took the oath. Their task was to assist the Schulte and later the judge [Richter], in the annual justice (https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. ehrenamtlicher Richter, 27 August 2013).

[152] : The collector receives taxes in kind, cheese, eggs, chickens, sheep, etc. (illustration from http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~schnake/pictures.htm, 2 September 2013).

[153] : Josef Lauber, op. cit., volume III, part 2, p. 177, and Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius and Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 201.

[154] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius.

[155] : Gerhard Wahrig, op. cit., art. Gut and Hof.

       Lambertsgut and Lambertshof probably cover similar realties. Lambertsgut puts however probably more emphasis on the estate aspect and Lambertshof on the buildings aspect.

[156] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius et Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 200.

        In their advance in the Ruhr in 1945, the Allies destroyed Meschede at 80 % during two air attacks on 19 and 28 February 1945. Other smaller attacks followed on 9, 10, 19 and 21 March. The Americans entered Meschede on 8 April and marched on the 9 on Remblinghausen, where they encountered a German resistance. The ensuing artillery struggle damaged all the houses and buildings, including the church and the school, and totally destroyed 23 of them (http://www.meschede.de/, Geschichte und Geschitliches, Kernstadt Meschede, Kriegsende, Bombentrichter in Meschede and Die Stunde Null, 3 August 2013). It is probably in these last events that the Lambertshof was destroyed.

[157] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius and Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 203.

        The Thaler or Reichsthaler [Empire thaler] was a silver coin. When it was replaced by the Mark in 1871-1873, the Thaler was a piece of 18,519 grams of silver. The groschen was a division of the Thaler (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. groschen and Thaler, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Taler, 22 September 2016; which gives slightly different values). On the basis of the current price of silver (about 180 €/kg), the Thaler would be worth about 30 euros of 2016. Regarding the indemnity paid by France at the treaty of Frankfurt, Fritz Stern, in his book L'or et le fer, Bismarck, Bleichröder et la construction de l'empire allemand, Fayard, 1990, pp. 200 and 202, gives the equivalences of 1 Thaler for 3 gold francs and 1 Thaler for 3,75 gold francs. The Thaler of 1871 would then be worth between 18 and 22 euros of 2016, on the basis of a fairly well-verified parity of 6 euros of 2016 for 1 gold franc. In any case, we remain in the same orders of magnitude. The same author indicates (ibid., p. 339) that the average annual per capita income in Germany then was 116 Thaler.

[158] : e-mail of 14 November 2000 from Christian Gödde.

[159] : Letter of 31 August 1947 from Otto Ritgen to Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener).

[160] : Otto Ritgen, Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 200 v°.

[161] : Ibid. and e-mail of 14 November 2000 from Christian Gödde.

[162] : Handwritten note by Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener).

[163] : e-mail of 14 November 2000 from Christian Gödde. The handwritten note by Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener) makes him born in 1690, which seems very belated.

[164] : Handwritten note by Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener).

        According to the article by retired pastor Otto Sartorius, op. cit., p. 34, Johann Wilhelm Sartorius was born in Remblinghausen in 1684. He is, however, a son of Christian Sartorius and Elisabeth Steilmann (cf. note 166). The confusion stems from the fact that both Dietrich Schneider and Christian Sartorius had sons named Johann Wilhelm, respectively born on 8 December 1675 and in 1684. Given the lacunar and imprecise character of the sources, caution should be exercised. The copy of the death certificate of Johann Wilhelm Sartorius (church books of Friesenhagen, 7 November 1741) in the archives of Mrs Marion Leihener gives no indication of age and even less filiation. It does not therefore make it possible to decide. However, if one accepts the filiation Dietrich Schneider - Johann Wilhelm Sartorius, the date of 1675 is necessary for the birth of the latter. If, moreover, we note that the Johann Wilhelm who interests us was already in the service of the earls of Hatzfeldt in 1701 (cf. chapter 3), a date of birth of 1675 is better than 1684.

[165] : Handwritten note by Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener).

[166] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius, and letter of 31 August 1947 from Otto Ritgen to Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener).

[167] : Handwritten note by Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener).

[168] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius, and Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, pp. 201 and 203.

[169] : Letter of 2 June 1946 from Otto Ritgen to Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener).

[170] : Letter of 31 August 1947 from Otto Ritgen to Otto Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener), Josef Lauber, op. cit., volume III, part 2, pp. 165, 177 and 178, for whom she died on 21 February 1726, and e-mail of 14 November 2000 from Christian Gödde.

        According to Christian Gödde (e-mail of 14 November 2000), it would not be Johanna Elisabeth von Stockhausen, but her older sister Maria Elisabeth, born in Calle on 20 October 1647, who would have married Joh. Jodokus Molitor.

        In German, the nobility is generally indicated by the particle von [of], sometimes abbreviated to v., although some noble families do not. In northern and eastern Germany, there are however a large number of commoner families whose name includes the von preposition, which simply serves to indicate the city or region which they originate from. Some noble families use the particle von und zu [from and at] to indicate that they are not only from such places but are still in possession of them (Gilbert von Studnitz, The German nobility, in Der Blumenbaum, publication of the Sacramento German Genealogy society, vol. 9, n° 4, April-June 1992, available at http://www.netaxs.com/~graf/graf/graf_nobility.html, 28 September 2013).

        The name of Stockhausen appeared in 997 when, at the request of his aunt, the countess Gerberge, emperor Otto III gave the large farm of Stockhausen [curtis major in Latin, Haupthof or Schultenhof in German) to the abbey of Meschede. This farm was already the centre of a network of 18 to 20 sub-farms [Unterhöfe]. The occupants of the farm, invested by the abbey of Meschede, took the name of von Stockhausen, established themselves gradually in a situation of semi-nobility and married in the small nobility, so that in the 1730's, the Stockhausen estate was inscribed in the register of chivalry.

        The von Stockhausen family, which will form other alliances with the Sartorius family, is mentioned for the first time in 1449. Its summary genealogy is as follows:

        I/ Arnold II Schulte zu Stockhausen, born about 1420, owner of estates in Calle and Stockhausen, died in Calle in 1474. He married about 1451 Katharina von Lehnhausen, said Grevenstein, of whom:

        II/ Arnold III, said Nolken (Arnoldekinus), Schulte zu Stockhausen, born about 1450, died in 1520. He married around 1485 .... von Calle zu Rüthen, of whom:

        III/ Jobst Schulte zu Stockhausen, born about 1490, died in 1539 or 1540. He married around 1520 Bela (Sibylla) von Langenole, born about 1500, of whom:

        IV/ Ludwig I von Stockhausen, born about 1530, died in 1596. He married around 1555 Elisabeth von Plettenberg, of whom:

        V/ Ludwig II von Stockhausen, grandfather of the wife of Johann Caspar Sartorius, was born in Stockhausen around 1565 and died after 1633. He was first mentioned on 25 February 1585 as secretary [Schreiber] of Caspar von Fürstenberg, bailiff of Bilstein. On 1 January 1591, he was appointed collector general and was sworn on 30 January. From 20 August 1591 to 28 August 1598, he was a judge in Olpe, Drolshagen and Wenden. On 20 August 1596, he agreed with his sisters to take over alone the Schultenhof, a farm that came from their parents. On 11 March 1597, he obtained a discharge for all the burdens of inheritance which weighed on his farm. On 23 April 1598, he applied for the vacant seat of judge of the chapter of Meschede and obtained it on 29 April and on 10 May 1602 he made plans to rebuild the farm and surround it with ditches. On 17 December 1604, he was attacked on his farm by an armed band of Dutchmen, several of whom were killed. On 8 July 1605, he was appointed judge of Calle and Remblinghausen. On 19 October and 13 December 1609, he was appointed administrator [Amtsverwalter] in Bilstein as the representative of Friedrich von Fürstenberg. On 25 January 1626, he was renewed at the Schultenhof in Stockhausen. He is mentioned for the last time during the sale of a sub-farm [Unterhof] in Olpe. He married first on 19 November 1595 Elisabeth von Fürstenberg and second on 23 May 1599 in Stockhausen Elisabeth von Hanxleden, born in Mülheim about 1583, who died after 1609. From the second marriage:

        VI/ Ludwig III von Stockhausen, father of the wife of Johann Caspar Sartorius, was born in Stockhausen on 5 November 1600 and died in Stockhausen on 8 January 1672. In 1619, he was a student in Cologne. In 1627, he took possession of the properties of his parents-in-law in Calle, but Anton Sachte, of Remblinghausen, complained that he had illegally seized a piece of land and refused to pay 12 Thaler for a lease. Between 1633 and 1636, he was invested as tax collector and judge of the Schultenhof in Stockhausen as successor of his father. On 16 August 1636, he sold a sub-farm [Unterhof] in Olpe. In the spring of 1637, Friedrich von Fürstenberg and he were abducted by Hessian troops and taken to Lippstadt. They were released a few days later at the prayer of the bailiff of Fürstenberg. The ravages committed on his estates by Swedish and Hessian troops, murders, plunders and burnings, together with the disappearance of the workforce, obliged him to sell some of it. The status of the estate was disastrous. Many fields were no longer due to lack of manpower and were returning to the wild. The ditches were filled and the briars grew everywhere. Both the prince-elector and the chapter of Meschede nevertheless demanded the payment of taxes. In 1641, Ludwig III resigned himself to sell, without the agreement of the chapter, two sub-farms the Erlenkotten in Frenkhausen and the Winken Gut in Westenfeld. In 1644 he still sold the Köllers Gut in Olpe bei Meschede to colonel Albrecht von Loehn. This resulted in trials with the chapter of Meschede. In 1641 and again in 1648, he was renewed at the Schultenhof and, under the name of his wife, at the Berghof in Remblinghausen, with all the material, as heir to his father-in-law. In 1659, he sold his property in Calle. He had married in Calle around 1633 Anna Johanna von Westphalen, born about 1615, who died in Remblinghausen on 12 March 1681 and had brought him important estates in Remblinghausen.

         VII/ Timon Dietrich von Stockhausen, brother of the wife of Johann Caspar Sartorius, born in Stockhausen around 1637, who died in Remblinghausen on 13 May 1711, is mentioned for the first time on 5 August 1670 as judge of Calle and Remblinghausen. In 1674, he was appointed as one of the four Grundherren [landlords] in the area of Remblinghausen as owner of the Berghof. In 1677, he asked for the investiture of the Schultenhof in Stockhausen. His mother objected because he had not yet compensated his sisters since the death of their father. On 16 July 1677, his mother and his other brothers and sisters renounced all their rights over the Schultenhof and the 18 farms which depended on it, in order to retire to Remblinghausen on an estate which she had inherited from her family. In 1678, the Schultenhof was sold to a cousin, the tax collector Friedrich von Stockhausen, from Paderborn. The family moved to Remblinghausen. On 2 September 1677, Timon Dietrich requested the investiture of the Berghof in Remblinghausen, what was refused by the counsel [Anwalt] of the abbey of Grafschaft. On 27 September 1677, after payment of 90 Thaler, Timon Dietrich von Stockhausen was appointed secretary [Sekretär] of the horse regiment [Leibregiment] of the prince of Münster and Paderborn. He married Anna Maria von Kamen, born in Rüthen on 15 January 1651, died in Remblinghausen on 2 January 1716.

        (Sources Deutsches Geschlechterbuch DGB 238 (1922), pp. 122 to 125, Anton Pape-Spieckermann, Genealogie und Geschichte der Familie Pape im südlichen Westfalen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart, set up by Robert J. Sasse in May 2005 (available on Internet at http://www.rjsasse.de/, 28 September 2013), p. 222, Josef Lauber, op. cit., volume III, part 2, pp. 163 to 168, message from Friedrich Otto on the sauerland-l@genealogy.net forum, 24 October 2005, http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/9286/genealogie/index.html, 17 October 1999 [link expired, 22 March 2003], http://www.rjsasse.de/, 28 September 2013, and http://www.meschede.de/stadtinfo/geschichte/Wn06-stockhausen.php, 1 February 2009 [link expired, 28 September 2013]).

[171] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius, and Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, pp. 201 and 202.

[172] : Gottfried Kortenkamp, Caspar Sartorius und die Stiftung der "Sartorianische Vikarie" in Remblinghausen, Wittlich, 1991 (Archiv des Vereins für Geschichte und Altertumskunde Westfalens, Abt. Paderborn e. V., Signatur: Cod385), p. 2.

        The will of Caspar Sartorius, the text of which is in annex 1, is in the archives of the general vicariate of the archdiocese of Paderborn, volume 313 blue, f° 123-126 and f° 127 for the codicil of 2 March 1719 (Gottfried Kortenkamp, op. cit., p. 13).

[173] : Gottfried Kortenkamp, op. cit., pp. 17 and 18.

        If the estimate we have attempted is correct (cf. note 157), 3 000 Thaler would amount to 60 000 euros of 2016.

[174] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius, and Unsere Ahnen, tome II, Sauerländer Familien, pp. 201 and 202.

         A vicariate was an ecclesiastical benefit created by a founder. The latter, by notarial deed or by will, endowed the vicariate, in such a way that it provided income and enabled the life-course of an ecclesiastic. The founder also designated for the future the collator, that is to say the person who would appoint to this benefit. The vicariate founded by Caspar Sartorius is described as Blutsvikarie [literally blood vicariate] because the collation was left in the Sartorius family (e-mail of 27 September 2000 from Dr. Ulrich Liebermeister). Vicariates also existed in France under the Ancient Regime. Dr. Henri de Frémont, op. cit., volume 2, p. 215, quotes the case of the vicariate of Notre Dame du Rosaire and Saint Joseph in Gannat (Allier). It was created in 1530 by Antoine Derangheon, a priest, who stipulated that the designation of the beneficiary would be proposed to the parish priest of Sainte Croix of Gannat by this of the descendants of his brothers who would be his nearest relative.

[175] : Gottfried Kortenkamp, op. cit., pp. 2 and 17 to 22.

        If the estimate we have attempted is correct (cf. note 157), 1 749 Thaler would be amount to 35 000 euros of 2016.

[176] : Otto Ritgen, Unsere Ahnen, tome II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 200.

[177] : Handwritten note of Otto Sartorius (archive of Mrs Marion Leihener).

[178] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius, and https://www.familysearch.org/, batch number M 942741, 4 June 1737, according to which the wife of Joannes Jodocus Horbach would be named Maria Elisabeth. The younger sister of Anna Maria, Maria Elisabeth, born in 1721, seems however too young for having married in 1737.

[179] : On the von Stockhausen family, see chapter 3 and note 170.

[180] : Gottfried Kortenkamp, op. cit., p. 19.

        If the estimate we have attempted is correct (cf. note 157), 1 000 Thaler would represent to 20 000 euros of 2016.

[181] : Certificate of the baroness of Hatzfeldt of 29 March 1709 (copy of this document in the archives of Mrs Marion Leihener. The original of it could be found in 1941 in the archives of the Hatzfeldt family in the castle of Crottorf).

[182] : Otto Ritgen, Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 171.

[183] : Jens Friedhoff, Die Familie von Hatzfeldt, Adelige Wohnkultur und Lebensführung zwischen Renaissance und Barock, Grupello Verlag, Düsseldorf, 2004, pp. 159, 167, 168 et 207, brochure St Sebastianus Wildenburger Land, p. 20, and Friesenhagen im Wildenburger Land, eine Gemeinde stellt sich vor, available at http://www2.genealogy.net/vereine/ArGeWe/wewa2/f-orte/friesenhagen/geschichte-friesenhagen.htm, 24 October 2013).

        The feudal world distinguished between high, middle and lower justice. High justice, or blood justice, exercised by the great lords, the immunists and, after the communal movement, by certain municipalities, included full civil and criminal jurisdiction. Lower justice, called from the 14th century middle justice, exercised by small lords or certain communes, dealt only with causes of minor importance where the death penalty did not intervene. The symbol of high justice was the presence of gallows on the land of the one who was invested. From the 14th century the expression lower justice only applied to petty offenses (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. justice, and https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. justice seigneuriale, 4 February 2016).

       We did not find the French equivalents of Bannwein [literally ban wine], probably a tax on wine, and Leibzinsen [literally body tax]. On the Rauchhühner tax, cf. p. 27. The Futterhafer is probably a tax on forage (Hafer designates oats). The Bede or Beede was a tax which the land lord collected in all the German-speaking space since the 12th century under the title of the public justice and which was voted by the Landstände. It was based on real estates. It was collected in May (Maibede) and Autumn (Herbstbede) (E. Kasper, Im Schatten der Vergangenheit, in Wissener Heimatbuch, Chronik des Amtes Wissen (Sieg), Sieg-Post Druckerei, 1951, http://fg74.s6.domainkunden.de/wissen/content/archiv/, Steuer, Abgaben und Gebühren, 17 March 2005 [link expired, 4 November 2006], and https://de.wikipedia.org/, 24 October 2013, art. Bede). The Turkish tax (Türkensteuer) recalls that the Holy Empire lived for a very long time under Turkish threat. It was collected in case of attack of the Turks to finance the imperial troops (ibid., art. Reichstürkenhilfe, 24 October 2013).

[184] : Jens Friedhoff, op. cit., pp. 31 to 38, 160, 161, 171 and 578, brochure St Sebastianus Wildenburger Land, p. 20, and Friesenhagen im Wildenburger Land, eine Gemeinde stellt sich vor.

        It is not our intention to give a genealogy of the house of Hatzfeld [old spelling] or Hatzfeldt [modern spelling], but simply to situate it in importance in German society.

        At the end of the 16th century, Sebastian von Hatzfeldt swung long between Catholicism and Protestantism, and the seigneurie of Wildenburg with him. Three of his sons illustrated themselves. The first, Franz, became bishop of Würzburg and duke of Eastern Francony in 1631 and, by accumulation, bishop of Bamberg in 1634. Melchior distinguished himself as general in the service of the Emperor in the Thirty Years' war, after the death of Wallenstein. As a reward for his services, he received the county of Gleichen, in Thuringia, and the seigneurie of Trachenberg, in Silesia. The last, Hermann, also served the Emperor as colonel, aulic counselor, chamberlain, etc. It was he who continued this branch of the family which died in 1794. The seigneurie of Trachenberg then passed to the branch of Hatzfeldt-Werther, which possessed the seigneuries of Wildenburg and Schönstein and which received the title of prince in 1803 and that of duke in 1900. It was in the service of the latter that our ancestors were (cf. the rest of the chapter). This is why, before World War II, there were letters from Wilhelm Sartorius in Silesia (Sources: Jens Friedhoff, op. cit., pp. 96 to 114, 197, 578 and 579, brochure St Sebastianus Wildenburger Land, p. 22, https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Hatzfeldt (Adelsgeschlecht), 29 November 2013, https://www.familysearch.org/, 9 November 2013, http://wwperson.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/ww-person.html, 9 November 2013, http://www.waldmannshofen.de/geschichtlicher_ueberblick.htm, 9 November 2013, and Friedrich von Schiller, op. cit., passim.

        In the 19th century, the house of Hatzfeldt gave to the German Empire a diplomat, Paul, count of Hatzfeldt-Wildenburg (1831-1901). His parents, two distant cousins, had separated in 1833 after years of frightful quarrels. His mother, born countess Sophie von Hatzfeldt-Trachenberg (1805-1881), had caused scandal. She had taken a young Jew, Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864) as a lawyer in the lawsuit against her husband (1846-1851). The latter gained fame thanks to the enthusiasm he placed to defend his client, whom he became the friend and then the lover of. He then threw himself into politics, where he immediately placed himself at the forefront of radical and socialist democracy (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Lassalle, Britta Stein, Der Scheidungprozeß Hatzfeldt (1846-1851), Lit Verlag, Münster, 1999, Fritz Stern, op. cit., pp. 314 to 322, brochure St Sebastianus Wildenburger Land, pp. 23 and 24, and http://www.bbkl.de/, art. Lassalle, Ferdinand, 5 February 2015).

       As a diplomatic advisor to Bismarck, Paul von Hatzfeldt illustrated himself particularly by his debts and the marital problems resulting from his marriage to a 17-year-old American, Helene Moulton. He became however ambassador of Germany to Madrid in 1874 and then to Constantinople in 1879. He was appointed secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 1882. He ended his career as ambassador to London, the most important post of German diplomacy, from 1885 (Fritz Stern, op. cit., pp. 280, 303 and 314 to 322).

        Another member of the family, the beautiful Elisabeth von Hatzfeldt, wife of prince Carolath, drew the wrath of Bismarck by the passion she inspired in his son Herbert. She divorced in 1881, persuaded that the latter was going to marry her. The chancellor then submitted his son to scenes of sobs and tears, threatening to commit suicide or disinherit him. Herbert was afraid of falling into disgrace and being ruined if he married a divorcee. He became so lamentably involved in this affair that Elisabeth ended by breaking with contempt (ibid., pp. 329 and 330).

        The rank of the Hatzfeldt family will also be appreciated when it is known that the sisters of Elisabeth had married respectively baron Walter von Loe and count Alexander von Schleinitz, two nearests of empress Augusta, widow of William I (ibid., p. 330).

        One will also profitably consult the numerous articles that https://de.wikipedia.org/, 9 November 2013, devotes to members of the house of Hatzfeldt.

[185] : Visit on site on 11 August 1998 and Friesenhagen im Wildenburger Land, eine Gemeinde stellt sich vor.

[186] : Brochure St Sebastianus Wildenburger Land, pp. 20 to 22.

        The castle of Crottorf is also located in the municipality of Friesenhagen. On the history of its construction, cf. Jens Friedhoff, op. cit., pp. 395 to 452.

[187] : Certificate of 29 March 1709 from baroness von Hatzfeldt.

        This baroness von Hatzfeldt was born Maria Barbara von Fürstenberg. She was the daughter of Friedrich von Fürstenberg zu Bilstein and Anna Katharina von der Leyen zu Gondorf. She was born on 4 December 1655 and died on 16 June 1722. She was the widow of Melchior Friedrich von Hatzfeldt, lord of Wildenburg, Schönstein and Werther [Herr zu Wildenburg, Schönstein und Werther], whom she married on 10 May 1671. The latter was the son of Johann Adrian, baron von Hatzfeldt, lord of Wildenburg, Schönstein and Werther, and Anna von Staffel. He was born on 13 November 1638 and died on 4 June 1694 (Jens Friedhoff, op. cit., pp. 83 and 84, https://www.familysearch.org/, 22 November 2013, and http://wwperson.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/ww-person.html, 22 November 2013.

        The name of this family comes from the Fürstenberg (mountain of the prince), an eminence of 279 meters above sea level on the edge of the Sauerland, on the border of the county of Arnsberg and the duchy of Westphalia, hence of a strategic importance during the Middle Ages. Its name came from the fact that the duke of Westphalia was the prince-elector of Cologne (cf. note 108). A castle, whose first squire was a certain Hermann von Fürstenberg, is mentioned in 1295. This family of barons de Fürstenberg, still represented today, seems to come from the family von Binolen, native of the Hönnetal. It gave several masters of Livonia [Landmeister Livland] of the Teutonic order. It also gave the last prince bishop of Paderborn and Hildesheim in the person of Franz Egon von Fürstenberg (1737-1835) (https://de.wikipedia.org/, 22 November 2013, art. Freiherren von Fürstenberg, and Sylvain Gouguenheim, Les chevaliers teutoniques, Taillandier, 2007, p. 634). It does not seem to have any connection with another family von Fürstenberg, one of the most illustrious of the German aristocracy, which takes its name from the seigneurie of the same name near Donaueschingen in the country of Baden, that it had acquired since 1070 and where it reigned 1806 (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Fürstenberg, and http://www.angelfire.com/realm/gotha/gotha/furstenberg.html, 22 November 2013).

[188] : Otto Ritgen, Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 202.

        This book gives as a source a document preserved in the archives of the Hatzfeldt in the tower of Wildenburg. The last address is not in the copy in the archives of Mrs Marion Leihener.

[189] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius, and Unsere Ahnen, volume II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 203.

        On the baroness von Hatzfeldt, cf. note 187. His son was Wilhelm Franz Johann Adolf, baron von Hatzfeldt-Wildenburg, lord of Wildenburg, Schönstein, Werther and Merten, born on 20 October 1683, died on 18 February 1733, who married Sophie Therese Philippine, baroness von Loe, born on 26 December 1682, died in Cologne on 30 March 1759 (Jens Friedhoff, op. cit., pp. 84 and 85, https://www.familysearch.org/, 23 November 2013, and http://wwperson.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/ww-person.html, 23 November 2013).

[190] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius.

        According to Jens Friedhoff, op. cit., pp. 256 and 368, the baroness of Hatzfeldt, born Fürstenberg, who had received the fore-castle of Wildenburg (cf. note 201) as a dowry, lived there until 1719. She was probably sick and bought a house in Cologne, where she died three years later.

[191] : The castle and seigneurie of Schönstein entered the Hatzfeldt family as a lease in 1585, then from 1589 as an hereditary fief held from the prince-elector of Cologne. They rewarded the loyalty of Hermann of Hatzfeldt to the cause of Ernst of Bavaria, appointed archbishop of Cologne after Gerhard Truchseß, who had converted to Protestantism and tried for seven years to keep the temporal of the electorate in fighting (Jens Friedhoff, op. cit., pp. 78, 79, 172, 173, 178, 208 and 580, P. Stephan Steifen, Durch 2 000 Jahre, Engelbert Demmer, Schloß Schönstein, and E. Kasper Im Schatten der Vergangenheit, in Wissener Heimatbuch, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Amt Schönstein (Wissen), 29 November 2013, and art. Hatzfeldt (Adelsgeschlecht), 29 November 2013). Cf. also Figure 23: the seigneury of Wildenburg, taken from http://nrw-geschichte.de/geschichte/nrwhist.htm, 29 November 2013.

[192] : Germanised from the 11th century, Silesia became Prussian after the three divisions of Poland (1772, 1793, 1795), and then German from 1871 and remained until 1945. It is now Polish (Grand Larousse encyclopédique en dix volumes, art. Silésie, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Schlesien, 29 November 2013).

        Trachenberg is the German name of the present polish city of Żmigród on the Barycz river (Bartsch in German), 44 kilometres north-northwest of Wrocław (Breslau in German) (https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Żmigród, 29 November 2013).

        It was in 1830 that the Hatzfeldts grouped their Silesian archives in the medieval tower of the castle of Trachenberg. The archives of Schönstein, probably containing the letters of the Sartorius to their lords, had been there since 1829 (Jens Friedhoff, op. cit., pp. 24 to 27 and 72).

        The Soviets burned the castle of Trachenberg in January 1945. Only the dungeon [Schutzturm], which contained some of the most important private archives in Silesia, remained. Contrary to the assertion of Otto Ritgen, they seem to have been largely preserved and to be found today in the State archives of Wrocław (Jens Friedhoff, op. cit., p. 27, and http://www.zmigrod.com.pl/asp/de_start.asp?typ=14&menu=59&strona=1, 29 November 2013).

        On the origin of ownership of the seigneurie of Trachenberg in the house of Hatzfeldt, cf. note 184.

[193] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius, and Unsere Ahnen, tome II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 203.

[194] : For some, the tip [Weinkauf] was due to the renewal of the lease (P. Stephan Steifen, Im Schatten der Vergangenheit, and http://fg74.s6.domainkunden.de/wissen/content/archiv/, Steuer, Abgaben und Gebühren, 17 March 2005 [link expired, 4 November 2006]. For others, the Weinkauf, or denarius Dei [God's penny] was a small tax levied in the Middle Ages on the conclusion of contracts (Haberkern and Wallach, op. cit., p. 661, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Weinkauf, 21 December 2013).

       The albus, from Latin albus, white, or Weißpfennig [white penny] was a coin that enabled to buy a quarter of a liter of wine.

        The redemption of the duty [Dienstgeld] corresponded to the redemption in cash of the corvée, normally due in kind in the form of works carried out gratuitously for the benefit of the lord. Originally, the New Year's gift [Neujahr] was a gracious donation made to the owner of the farm but eventually became a general rule.

        On the Beede and the Türkensteuer, cf. note 183.

        (Source http://fg74.s6.domainkunden.de/wissen/content/archiv/, Steuer, Abgaben und Gebühren and Im Schatten der Vergangenheit, 17 March 2005 [link expired, 4 November 2006]).

        The Meste of the free city of Frankfurt on Main measured 14,341 litres (https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Alte Maße und Gewichte (Hessen), 21 December 2013).

[195] : Jens Friedhoff, op. cit., p. 253.

[196] : Hermann Mockenhaupt, Friesenhagen im Wildenburger Land, eine Gemeinde stellt sich vor, and Melanie Kappenstein, Die Entwicklung der Hatzfeldt'schen Besitzungen im Raum Friesenhagen nach Ende des 1. Weltkrieges, available at http://argewe.lima-city.de/index-d.htm, Über den Westerwald, Der Westerwald und seine Orte, Friesenhagen, 6 February 2016.

[197] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius, and Unsere Ahnen, tome II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 203.

[198] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius. A handwritten genealogy of the Sartorius family established by Georg Anton Franz Sartorius (archives of Mrs Marion Leihener) calls her Theresia. However, on 2 June 1946, Otto Ritgen answered Otto Sartorius, who made him this remark: "Theresia" Johanvars ist bestimmt falsch ["Theresia" Johanvars is certainly false] (archive of Mrs Marion Leihener). Dr. Ulrich Liebermeister, meanwhile, calls her Anna Maria on the basis of the work of a distant relative, Adolf Michaelis (letter of 30 August 2000).

[199] : Visit of the site on 12 August 1998.

[200] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius.

        The summary genealogy of the Johanvars family is as follows:

        I- Johann Vaer, married Gertruydt ....., of whom:

        II- Peter Joanvars, mayor of Attendorn in 1521, father of:

        III- Jürgen Joanvars bought a forge from his father-in-law in 1535. He married Anna Gertman, of whom:

        IV- Peter Joanvars, of Albringhausen bei Attendorn, born about 1571 or 1574, married Anna ....., of whom:

        V-  Eberhard Clemens Johanvars, mayor of Attendorn from 1601 to 1630, alderman of justice in 1638, married Helena Halfwinner, of whom:

        VI- Franz Johanvars, born about 1610, notary, in Attendorn, head of the municipal administration and mayor of Attendorn, who died after 1673, married Anna Hoberg, of whom:

        VII- Everhard Johanvars, baptized in Attendorn on 12 April 1641, a student in Paderborn and Marburg, a judge of the prince-elector of Cologne in Attendorn, and then in Schmallenberg, notary of the prince-elector of Cologne in Schmallenberg, died in Schmallenberg between 1721 and 1724. He married Anna Maria Quincken.

        The summary genealogy of the Quincken family is as follows:

        I- Petrus Quincken, notary in Schmallenberg, father of:

        II- Eberhard Quincken, judge in Schmallenberg between 1602 and 1635, father of:

        III- Rötger Quincken, quoted as a judge in Schmallenberg in 1636, died before 1676, married Katharina Belckmans, who died after 1674, of whom:

        IV- Anna Maria Quincken, who married Eberhard Johanvars.

        (Sources: letter of 30 August 2000 from Dr. Ulrich Liebermeister, e-mail of 23 June 2001 from Julian Isphording, http://www.isphording.info/, 17 January 2014, and e-mails of 28 June 2006 and 7 July 2006 from Wilfried Sartorius).

        Let us note in passing that Helena Halfwinner, the wife of Eberhard Clemens Johanvars, was the granddaughter of Wilhelm Schnellenberg, bastard of the noble house von Schnellenberg. This filiation makes it possible to link the Sartorius to the earls of Arnsberg, the dukes of Limburg and finally to Charlemagne (e-mail of 23 June 2001 from Julian Isphording, http://www.plettenberg-lexikon.de/genealogie/schledo1.htm, 17 January 2014, and http://www.heinzjonas.de/genealogie.htm, 17 January 2014).

        At 35 kilometres south-west of Arnsberg, Attendorn, a city of the Hanseatic League, enjoyed its glory during the Middle Ages. Its cathedral (Sauerländer Dom) and its old town hall (Altes Rathaus) still bear witness to its past richness (Michelin, guide vert Allemagne, 1995, p. 277, https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Attendorn, 17 January 2014, and site visit on 12 August 1998).

[201] : Otto Ritgen, Zur alteren Geschichte der Familie Sartorius, and http://www.kirchen-sieg.de/, Turistik und Freizeit, Sehenswürdigkeiten, Wildenburg, 30 January 2014.

         In a feudal castle, the lower yard was the space between the exterior fortified enclosure and the castle motte, situated more or less in its centre and which it was separated from by a ditch. In the event of an attack, the lower yard could accommodate the external population who took refuge there (https://fr.wikipedia.org/, art. château fort, 30 January 2014, and https://de.wikipedia.org/, art. Vorburg, 30 January 2014).

         In the strange assembly of buildings that the castle of Wildenburg was (cf. Figure 26, p. 44), one could distinguish the upper castle (Oberschloß or Oberburg) and the lower castle (Unterburg, that Jens Friedhoff, op. cit., also calls Vorderschloß [fore-castle]). It would seem that, in the complex organization of relations between the three branches of the house of Hatzfeldt which shared the rights over the seigneurie of Wildenburg (cf. p. 104 and note 263), the use of the Oberschloß was given to the branch of Hatzfeldt-Weisweiler, while that of the Vorderschloß was given to the branch of Hatzfeldt-Merten-Schönstein (Jens Friedhoff, op. cit., pp. 55, 57, 80, 256, 502 and 503). This, coupled with the fact that the patronage of the Sartorius children by members of the house of Hatzfeldt is found only in the branch of Merten-Schönstein, suggests that the Sartorius satraps were only in the service of the latter.

[202] : Otto Ritgen, Unsere Ahnen, tome II, Sauerländer Familien, p. 201.