Schorl: Mineral information, data and localities.
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About SchorlHide

Bluish-black to black, sometimes brownish-black, rarely greenish-black.
Vitreous, Resinous
Specific Gravity:
3.18 - 3.22
Crystal System:
The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "Schorl" was in use prior to the year 1400 (AD) because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony, Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). This village had a nearby tin mine where, in addition to cassiterite, a lot of black tourmaline was found. First mentioned by Ulrich Rülein von Calw 1505. The first relatively detailed description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504-1565) in 1562 under the title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". Up to about 1600, additional names used in the German language were "Schurel", "Schörle", and "Schurl". From the 18th century on, the name "Schörl" was mainly used in the German-speaking area. In English, the names "shorl" and "shirl" were used in the 18th century for schorl. In the 19th century the names "common schorl", "schörl", "schorl" and "iron tourmaline" were used in the Anglo-Saxon area (Ertl, 2006).
Dimorph of:
The most common member of the Tourmaline Group.
Elbaite-Schorl Series, Dravite-Schorl Series.
Forms also a series with fluor-schorl, which occurs in F-rich environments.

Visit for gemological information about Schorl.

Classification of SchorlHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
K : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings, with insular complex anions
Dana 7th ed.:

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
3 : Six-Membered Rings with borate groups

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates

Physical Properties of SchorlHide

Vitreous, Resinous
Translucent, Opaque
Bluish-black to black, sometimes brownish-black, rarely greenish-black.
Greyish-white to bluish-white.
Very poor on {1120}, {1011}
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
3.18 - 3.22 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.244 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of SchorlHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.660 - 1.672 nε = 1.635 - 1.650
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.025
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
O= yellow brown
E= pale yellow, pale brown
may be slightly biaxial under strain

Chemical Properties of SchorlHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of SchorlHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.98(5) Å, c = 7.15(3) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.447
Unit Cell V:
1,581.21 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Prismatic to acicular
Rarely on {1010} and {4041}

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0001229SchorlFoit F F (1989) Crystal chemistry of alkali-deficient schorl and tourmaline structural relationships American Mineralogist 74 422-4311989Jack Creek deposit, near Basin, Montana, USA0293
0002238SchorlBloodaxe E S, Hughes J M, Dyar M D, Grew E S, Guidotti C V (1999) Linking structure and chemistry in the schorl-dravite series Sample 108749 American Mineralogist 84 922-9281999Madagascar0293
0002241SchorlBloodaxe E S, Hughes J M, Dyar M D, Grew E S, Guidotti C V (1999) Linking structure and chemistry in the schorl-dravite series Sample HP2-1 American Mineralogist 84 922-9281999Harney Peak Granite, Custer County, South Dakota, USA0293
0002914SchorlCamara F, Ottolini L, Hawthorne F C (2000) Crystal chemistry of three tourmalines by SREF, EMPA and SIMS American Mineralogist 87 1437-14422000Alto Lighona pegmatite field, Zambezia, Mozambique0293
0003957SchorlBosi F, Andreozzi G B, Federico M, Graziani G, Lucchesi S (2005) Crystal chemistry of the elbaite-schorl series American Mineralogist 90 1784-17922005Cruziero pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil0293
0003958SchorlBosi F, Andreozzi G B, Federico M, Graziani G, Lucchesi S (2005) Crystal chemistry of the elbaite-schorl series American Mineralogist 90 1784-17922005Cruziero pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil0293
0003959SchorlBosi F, Andreozzi G B, Federico M, Graziani G, Lucchesi S (2005) Crystal chemistry of the elbaite-schorl series American Mineralogist 90 1784-17922005Cruziero pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil0293
0005111SchorlFortier S, Donnay G (1975) Schorl refinement showing composition dependence of the tourmaline structure The Canadian Mineralogist 13 173-1771975Andreasberg, Harz, Lower Saxony, Germany0293
0007047SchorlBosi F, Lucchesi S (2004) Crystal chemistry of the schorl-dravite series European Journal of Mineralogy 16 335-3442004Bovey Tracy, Devonshire, England0293
0007050SchorlBosi F, Lucchesi S (2004) Crystal chemistry of the schorl-dravite series European Journal of Mineralogy 16 335-3442004Cruziero, Minas Gerais, Brazil0293
0007051SchorlBosi F, Lucchesi S (2004) Crystal chemistry of the schorl-dravite series European Journal of Mineralogy 16 335-3442004Cruziero, Minas Gerais, Brazil0293
0007056SchorlBosi F, Lucchesi S (2004) Crystal chemistry of the schorl-dravite series European Journal of Mineralogy 16 335-3442004Lake Baikal, Siberia0293
0018784SchorlGrice J D, Ercit T S (1993) Ordering of Fe and Mg in the tourmaline crystal structure: The correct formula Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 165 245-2661993Silver Crater, Hastings Co., Ontario, Canada0293
0018786SchorlGrice J D, Ercit T S (1993) Ordering of Fe and Mg in the tourmaline crystal structure: The correct formula Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 165 245-2661993Cross Lake, Manitoba, Canada0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
In granites and granitic pegmatites, high temperature hydrothermal veins, metamorphic rocks.

Synonyms of SchorlHide

Other Language Names for SchorlHide

Simplified Chinese:铁电气石

Varieties of SchorlHide

Magnesium-bearing SchorlA magnesium-bearing schorl; i.e. a Fe-dominant member of the dravite-schorl series.

Relationship of Schorl to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Alumino-oxy-rossmanite◻Al3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
BosiiteNaFe3+3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Celleriite◻(Mn2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
DutrowiteNa(Fe2+2.5Ti0.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-liddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-schorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-tsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-uviteCaMg3(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Foitite(◻,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m
LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
LucchesiiteCaFe2+3 Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Luinaite-(OH)Na(Fe2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Mon. m : Bm
Magnesio-foitite(◻,Na)(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Magnesio-lucchesiiteCaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
MaruyamaiteK(MgAl2)(Al5Mg)(BO3)3(Si6O18)(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-chromium-draviteNa(Cr)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-foitite◻(Fe2+Al2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Oxy-schorlNa(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
PovondraiteNaFe3+3(Mg2Fe3+4)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
PrincivalleiteNa(Mn2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Rossmanite◻(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
TsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Unnamed (Pb-analogue of Fluor-liddicoatite)(Pb,Na)(Li,Al)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F,OH)
UviteCaMg3(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Vanadio-oxy-chromium-draviteNa(V)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
Vanadio-oxy-draviteNaV3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
799 photos of Schorl associated with AquamarineBe3Al2Si6O18
744 photos of Schorl associated with QuartzSiO2
446 photos of Schorl associated with AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
392 photos of Schorl associated with MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
279 photos of Schorl associated with Feldspar Group
265 photos of Schorl associated with Smoky QuartzSiO2
180 photos of Schorl associated with FluoriteCaF2
165 photos of Schorl associated with BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
150 photos of Schorl associated with CleavelanditeNa(AlSi3O8)
149 photos of Schorl associated with MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.CK.Fluor-schorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.BosiiteNaFe3+3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.Celleriite◻(Mn2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.Alumino-oxy-rossmanite◻Al3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Foitite(◻,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05PovondraiteNaFe3+3(Mg2Fe3+4)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Magnesio-foitite(◻,Na)(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Rossmanite◻(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05TsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Luinaite-(OH)Na(Fe2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Mon. m : Bm
9.CK.05Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-schorlNa(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-liddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-chromium-draviteNa(Cr)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-tsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Vanadio-oxy-chromium-draviteNa(V)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-uviteCaMg3(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Vanadio-oxy-draviteNaV3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.10Abenakiite-(Ce)Na26Ce6(Si6O18)(PO4)6(CO3)6(SO2)OTrig. 3 : R3
9.CK.15ScawtiteCa7(Si3O9)2CO3 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
9.CK.20Steenstrupine-(Ce)Na14Mn2+2Fe3+2Ce6Zr(Si6O18)2(PO4)6(PO3OH)(OH)2 · 2H2OTrig.
9.CK.20Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide◻,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.5.3SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
17.5.4OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.5ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.10DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.12HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.13BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.14OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2OOrth.
17.5.15KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.16HarkeriteCa48Mg16[AlSi4O15(OH)]4(BO3)16(CO3)16 · 2(H2O,HCl)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.5.17SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5Trig. 3 : P31
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)(Na,Ca)3(Y,Ce)12Si6B2O27F14Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2Trig. 3 : P3
17.5.25Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
17.5.27DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.28 FerridraviteNaFe3+3(Mg2Fe3+4)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
17.5.30Fluor-uvite-Uvite Series
17.5.32TienshaniteKNa3Na6Ca2Ba6Mn6(Ti4+,Nb)6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11Hex. 6/m : P6/m
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2ClxOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V,Ti)4B2Si8O27(O,OH)2ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.37Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
17.5.46FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OHTric. 1 : P1
17.5.48HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.49Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Ba,Pb,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28(F,Cl)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al◻2(B4Si4O22) (OH)2Mon.

Other InformationHide

Pyroelectric and piezoelectric.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Schorl in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for SchorlHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Rülein von Calw, U. (1505) Ein wolgeordnetz: unnd nuczlicho büchlin wie man bergwerck suchen und erfinden sol von allerlay mettal die denn die sieben planeten generieren und würcken yeglicher nach seiner natur ....-Augsburg, printed by Erhart Ratdolt (first description as "schorlein" or "schörlein", occurring in placers together with gold or tin ore in Saxony)
Mathesius, J. (1562) Sarepta oder Bergpostill sampt der Joachimßthalischen kurtzen Chroniken.- Nürnberg, Johann vom Berg and Ulrich Newber, 233 p. (description)
Linné, C. (1748) Systema Naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species, redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata.- Lipsiæ, Godofr. Kiesewetteri, p. 181. [description of the crystals, first drawing of a schorl crystal]
Wiegleb, J.C. (1785) Crells Chemische Annalen: 246-253. [first quantitative chemical analysis of schorl, material from Burkhardsgrün near Zschorlau, Saxony]
Klaproth, M.H. (1810) Chemische Untersuchung des gemeinen Schörls. Beiträge zur Chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper: 5: 144-149. [quantitative chemical analysis]
Barsanov, G.P., Yakovleva, M.E. (1965) Tourmalines of schorl composition. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Mineralogicheshkii Muzei, Moscow: 16: 3-44.
Neiva, A.M.R. (1974) Geochemistry of tourmaline (schorlite) from granites, aplites and pegmatites from northern Portugal. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 38: 1307-1317.
Fortier, S., Donnay, G. (1975) Schorl refinement showing composition dependence of the tourmaline structure. The Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 173-177.
Povondra, P. (1981) The crystal chemistry of tourmalines of the schorl-dravite series. Acta Univ. Carol., Geol. 3: 223-264.
Leavens, P.B., Rheingold, A.L., Dietrich, R.V. (1988) Crystal structure of a uvite-schorl tourmaline. V.M. Goldschmidt conference; program and abstracts: 56.
Foit, F.F., Jr. (1989): Crystal chemistry of alkali-deficient schorl and tourmaline structural relationships. American Mineralogist, 74, 422-431.
Aurisicchio, C., Ottolini, L., Pezzotta, F. (1999): Electron- and ion-microprobe analyses, and genetic interferences of tourmalines of the foitite-schorl solid solution, Elba Island (Italy). European Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 217-225.
Bloodaxe, E.S., Hughes, J.M., Dyar, M.D., Grew, E.S., Guidotti, C.V. (1999): Linking structure and chemistry in the schorl-dravite series. American Mineralogist, 84, 922-928.
Ertl, A., Pertlik, F., Bernhardt, H.-J. (2001): Ein hell-blauer Olenit-Schörl-Dravit Mischkristall von Ebersdorf, Niederösterreich: Strukturanalyse und Chemie. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft: 146: 75-77.
Grew, E.S., Anovitz, L.M. (1996): BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).
Ondrus, P., Vrana, S., Maslan, M. (2002): Chemical composition and crystal structure refinement of schorl from the Lundazi pegmatite field, Zambia. Vestnik Ceskeho Geologickeho Ustavu: 77: 23-28.
Bosi, F., Lucchesi, S. (2004): Crystal chemistry of the schorl-dravite series. European Journal of Mineralogy, 16, 335-344.
Ertl, A. (2006): Über die Etymologie und die Typlokalitäten des Minerals Schörl [About the etymology and the type-localities of schorl] Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft, 152, 7–16 (in German with English abstract). [Abs. in Mineral. Abs., 06M/3855].
Bosi, F., Andreozzi, G. B., Hålenius, U., Skogby, H. (2015): Experimental evidence for partial Fe2+ disorder at the Y and Z sites of tourmaline: a combined EMP, SREF, MS, IR and OAS study of schorl. Mineral. Mag. 79, 515-528. [neglects publications contradicting the presence of any negligible Fe2+ on the Z site.]
Bačík, P. (2015): Cation ordering at octahedral sites in schorl-dravite series tourmalines. The Canadian Mineralogist, 53, 571-590.
Ertl, A., Kolitsch, U., Dyar, M.D., Meyer, H.-P., Rossman, G.R., Henry, D.J., Prem, M., Ludwig, T., Nasdala, L., Lengauer, C.L., Tillmanns, E. and Niedermayr, G. (2016): Fluor-schorl, a new member of the tourmaline supergroup, and new data on schorl from the cotype localities. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 163-177.

Internet Links for SchorlHide

Localities for SchorlHide

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