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The numismatist. 

Colorado Springs, Colo. : American Numismatic Association, 1893- 
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ENTBRBD AT THE FBDERALSBURC, MD. POSTOFnCE AS SECOND CLASS MATTER 


VOL. XXXIII. 


No. 1 


The 

Numismatist 


JANUARY 

1920 



FRANK G. DUFFIELD, EDITOR 


PUBLISHED MONTHLY 

BY 

THE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC ASSOCIATION 

PUBLICATION OFFICEi FEDERALSBURC, MD. 


YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION $1.50 SINGLE COPY 15c. 


gfe 



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Cable Address 
“Chapman, Philadelphia 


Established 1878 


Bell Telephone 

Walnnt 8427 


S.' H. CHAPMAN 


NUMISMATIST 

1128 Spruce St., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 


ANNOUNCES THAT HE WILL SELL AT AUCTION 
THE COLLECTION OF 

UNITED STATES COINS 


Catalogs will be sent to all collectors on my mailing list, 
or free on application. 


Large and Fine Stock of Coins in All Series 
For Sale at Moderate Prices. 


Lists of coins in any series quoted, or coins sent on approval to 
collectors known to me or on receipt of satisfactory reference, or 
against cash, when any specimen not suitable, may be returned and 
money will be refunded. 

Collections purchased or catalogued for sale at auction in legal 
manner by licensed public auctioneer, affording full record and 


I 

J 

I 

I 

I 

l' 


IN 


SILVER AND COPPER 


I 


Of the late GILBERT D. KINGMAN, Esq 
NEW BEDFORD, MASS. 


JANUARY 30th— FRIDAY. 





The Numismatist 


VOL. XXXm. JANUARY. 1920. No. 1 


A TRIAL LIST OF THE COUNTERMARKED MODERN 
COINS OF THE WORLD. 


By F. G. DUFFIELD. 


(CONTINUKD FBO^I L.\ST MONTH.) 


GUATEMALA. 

495. Mexico, Real, Charles and Joanna (1521-56), Cm. a Hon (attributed 
to Guatemala, possibly). 

The small circular countermark of the sun rising over three mountains is 
variously attributed to Guatemala, .Nicaragua and Costa Rica. In this list 
it is placed under Guatemala because that country seems to be the favorite 
with cataloguers. From the date of the original coins it would appear that 
the countermark was used some time after 1836. 

Other coins having this countermark on one side and a small circular 
stamp containing a star, bow. arrow and quiver on the other side, are at- 
tributed to Nicaragua, and also to the confederation of Nicaragua, Hon- 
duras and Salvador about 1850. These coins will be found listed under 
Nicaragua. 



No. 496 — Spanisli- American Irregular .S [teals, 1733, 

Cm. sun over mountains. 

^ 496. Spanish-Amerlcan irregular 8 Reals, 1693, 1725, 1733, 1736, 1742, 
■>- 1745, 1748, 1751, 1753, 1772, Cm. sun over mountains. 

497. Spanish-American irregular 4 Reals, , Cm. sun over mountains. 

498. Spanish-American irregular 2 Reals, , Cm. sun over mountains. 

’^49,9. Peru, 8 Reals, 1832, 1833, 1834, 1836, Cm. sun over mountains. 
^00. Peru, 2 Reals, 1828, 1832, Cm. sun over mountains. 

-''fefil. Peru, 2 Reals, 1828, 1832, Cm. sun over mountains, and also an ad- 

ditional countermark, said to be an assay stamp. 



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No. 501 — Peru, 3 Iteals. 1833, Cm. -sun over 
tains, also Cm. assay stamp. 


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2 THE NUMISMATIST 

502. Spanish-American Real, 1672, Cm. sun over mountains between “R 

G” (Republic of Guatemala). 

503. Guatemala, 4 Reals, 1818, Cm. sun over mountains between “R G.” 

504. Spanish-American irregular 8 Reals, Cm. sun over mountains, and 

also with Costa Rican countermark of 184 6 and “8.” 

505. Guatemala, 1 Centavo, 1871, Cm. “M.” 

506. Peru, Sol, 1864, 1 865, 1866, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1885, 

1887, 1888, 1889, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, Cm. with dies for 
Guatemala Half Real, 1894. 

507. Chile, Peso, 1868, 1875, 1877, 1881, 1883, 1886, 1889, 1894, Cm. 

with dies for Guatemala Half Real, 1894. 



No. 506 — Peru, Sol, 1S94, Cm. witli dies for Guate- 
mala Half Ileal, 1S9-1. 


The statement has been made that the above countermark was used by 
Guatemala in 1894 because of a scarcity of its own silver coins at that time. 
The Sols of Peru and the Pesos of Chile were used for countermarking be- 
cause those countries would not redeem their coins if defaced, which would 
have the effect of keeping them in Guatemala. The half-real stamp is 
said to have been used because it defaced the coin less than if a stamp of a 
larger denomination had been used. 


IRELAND. 


508. England, Shilling, Elizabeth, — ■ — , Cm. “Corke” in an oblong inden- 

tion. 

509. Spain, 8 Maravedi, Charles IV, , Cm. “Cork” in a straight line. 

510. Ireland, Halfpenny, Charles II, , Cm. “K” and a castle. 

511. Ireland, Halfpenny, Charles II, , Cm. a cinquefoil. 

512. Seventeenth Century Token of Randal Lester, Dublin, 1655, Cm. “A 

K.” 

513. Eighteenth Century Farthing Token of Hutton, Dublin, Cm. “S.” 

514. Eighteenth Century Token of Clifton, 1735, Cm. on obverse “L. Wal- 

ton,” and on reverse “1735.” 

515. Eighteenth Century Token of Clifton, 1735, Cm. “L” (attributed to 

Wales) . 

516. Voce Populi Halfpenny Token, 17 60, Cm. “Con McG.” 

517. Voce Populi Halfpenny Token, 1760, struck over another coin. 

518. Ireland. Gun Money Crown of James II, 1691, struck over Gun Money 

Half Crown. 

519. Ireland, Hibernia Halfpenny, 1691, struck over Gun Money large 

Shilling. 

520. Ireland, Hibernia Farthing, 1691, struck over Gun Money small Shil- 

ling. 


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No. 51S — Ireland, Gun Money Crowns struck over Half Crowns, showing' well- 
Ueflned peculiarities. On the first the crown In the center of the Half Crown is 
plainly seen (inverted) after being overstruck. The second shows almost the 
entire head of the king on the Half Crown after being overstruck. On the third 
the face of the king (In an inverted position) forms ttie tlank of the horse after 
being overstruck. 

521. Ireland, Gun Money Halfpenny. 1690, struck over a silver coin of 
Louis XIV of France. (This piece is probably a pattern, as it 
differed in type from the regular issue.) 


ITALY. 

522. -Milan, Testone of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan (1466-76), 

Cm. a crowned “L.” 

523. Cypress (under Venice), Nicosia, Silver Marcello of Agostino Barba- 

rigo. Cm. with five countermarks (not described). 

524. Mantua, Grosso of Charles I, Duke of Mantua (1627-1637), Cm. a 

woman’s head. 

525. Netherlands, Sovereign d’Or, Cm. (in Venice, 1798-1800) with the 

old Gunzburg stamp (not described). 

526. Venice, 2 Lire, 1801, struck over an Austrian coin. 

It is perhaps worthy of note that with the great quantity and variety of 
coins issued in the old Italian States, very few are found with a counter- 
mark, and practically none officially countermarked. In a very recent sale 
catalog there appeared a piece, which is now added to the list, that is very 
unusual. If officially countermarked, as follows: 

527. Roman Republic, Baiocco, 1849, Cm. on obverse and reverse with the 

Pope’s tiara and crossed keys (probably for an addition to the 
Papal series). 


^ LIBERIA. 

528. Republic of Colombia, 8 Reals, 1835, Cm. “Republic of Liberia, 1847’’ 
and head of Liberty. (This countermark is probably from the 
obverse die of a pattern dime of Liberia. 'This stamp is also 
found on a U. S. Cent of 1 834, and probably on other coins.) 


MALTA. 

529. Malta, 4 Tari of Hugo de Loubens Verdalle (about 1590), Cm. with 

3 stamps — a crowned crescent, head of John the Baptist, and a 
crowned fieur-de-lys. 

530. Malta, 2 Tari of Lascaris-Castellar, , Cm. wMth three stamps. 

531. Malta, 4 Tari, 1636, 1637, Cm. with two stamps. 

632. Malta, 4 Tari, 1641, Cm. with three stamps. 

533, Malta, 4 Tari, 1643, Cm. with head of John the Baptist. 

534. Malta, 4 Tari, 1643, Cm. with head of John the Baptist, a crowned 

crescent, and “A. V.’’ in monogram. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


535. Malta, 4 Tari, 1643, Cm. with head of John the Baptist and double- 
headed eagle. 

The 2 and 4 Tari of Lascaris-Castellar are frequently found counter- 
marked with two or more stamps. (See note in Scott’s catalog for explana- 
tion of them.) 

'to be COXTI.VrEI). ) 


GERMAN TOKENS OF THE WAR. 


VVe have received from Mr. O. P. Eklund of Spokane, Wash., about 100 
varieties of the tokens issued and used as currency in Germany during the 
recent war. It is an extremely interesting lot, and we regret that we are 
unable to illustrate all of them. Selections of the more interesting types 
have been made for reproduction in this and a few succeeding issues. The 
collection is remarkable for its condition, practically all the pieces being 
uncirculated. In sending them .Mr. Ekiuncl writes as foilows; 

“These have been selected from about 550 pieces in my collection, and 
would be hard to duplicate in this condition at this time. I sent an unlimit- 
ed order to a foreign dealer nearly two years ago for sets with arms or in- 
teresting legends of this series. They were all issued within the old Ger- 
man Empire, and do not include Austria-Hungary. I have seiected these 
for their interesting arms or inscriptions, also showing all the different 
sizes, shapes, metals and reverses. I returned some of the most interesting 
sets, as the condition was not satisfactory. I will get them later on in un- 
circulated condition. 1 expect another lot of about 500 pieces before next 
spring. In a recent catalogue there are listed sets from 744 localities, about 
2600 varieties, counting denominations, but a great many are private issues 
of no interest and not worth collecting, including the war prisoners’ camps, 
all within the German Empire, and only about half the sets listed are com- 
plete. I estimate that a complete collection of all the different war coins 
and tokens in metal issues from 1914 to 1918 in all the different European 
countries would number about 10,000 varieties.” 

1. Dillingen (Bavaria), 50 pfennigs, 1917. Obv., Arms. Rev. “Stadt 
Dillingen A/D. 50 (old pfennig mark below) 1917.’’ Zinc. (Set consists 
of 5, 10, 50 pfennigs.) 

2. Adelsheim (City), 10 pfennigs, n. d. Obv., a man seated supporting 
a shield of arms. Rev., "Klein-geld-ersatz. 10.’’ Holed in center as is- 
sued. Zinc. 

3. Burg (near Kiel), 50 pfennigs, 1917. Obv., Arms. “Burg A. Fehm.” 

Rev., “Kriegsnotgeld. 1917. 50.” (By a curious error this “50” was 

struck on thin flan intended for the 10 pfennigs. The 50-pfeunig size has 
a smaller "10” on reverse.) (Set, 5, 10, 50 pfennigs.) Zinc. 

4. Crefeld (Rhein Province), 15 pfennigs, 1917. Obv., Bust of a street- 
car conductor. “C. S. B. (Crefelder Strassen Bahn). 1917.” Rev., “Cre- 
felder Strassen Bahn. Kr. Geld (Street Railway War Coin). 15.” Zinc. 

5. Crailsheim (Hohenlohe), 50 pfennigs, 1918. Obv., a view of the city 

during the siege of 1 379-80, showing soldiers before the city wall, shields 
of arms below. Rev., “Kriegsnotgeld (War Necessity Coin). 1918. 50.” 

Octagon. Iron. (Set. 5, 10, 50 pfennigs.) 

6. Uiedenliofen (City), 1 Portion. Obv., “Kriegskuche (Wal- Kitchen) 
der Stadt Diedenhofen.” Rev., “1/1 Portion” (Food). Zinc. (Set, ^ and 
1 Portion.) 

7. Burgsteinfurt (Westphalia), 10 pfennigs, n. d. Obv., Arms of the 
city separate “16 35.” Rev., “Kriegsgeld. 10 Pfennig.” (Struck in 1917, 
dated 1635.) Zinc-nickel. (Set, 10, 25 pfennigs.) 

8. Ansbach, Bread Token, n. d. Obv., “Kriegsf ursorge (War Care), 
Ansbach.” Rev., “Brotmarke (Bread Token). 50 (pfennigs).” Zinc, nick- 
el-plated. 

9. Duren (City, Rhein Province), 10 pfennigs, 1918. Obv., Head of a 
German soldier wearing trench helmet. In field, “S. D.” (Stadt Duren). 
Rev., Name, value, date. Iron. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


11. Dulmen (Westphalia), 3 marks, n. d. Obv., "Kriegsgefangenen- 
Lager (War Prisoners’ Camp), Dulmen. 3.00.” Rev., “3.00,” plain field. 
Zinc, brass plated. (Set, 1, 2, 5, 10, 50 pfennigs. 1, 3, 5 marks.) This is 
the general type of tokens issued at the German war prisoners’ camps. 
About 60 different sets are listed from as many different camps, all of the 
same type — just name and value. 


REVERSE “Z” OF CONNECTICUT CENTS OF 1787. 


By GEO. R. ROSS. 


The motto and punctuation on this reverse consist of a cinquefoil, follow- 
ed by INDE, a colon and three cinquefoils before the seated Liberty, a cinque- 
foil between head and pole, and ET LIB, followed by a colon and a cinque- 
foil. With the exception of one die, Z-1, in combination with Obverse 
49, these dies are only found in combination with Obverse 33. Fifty-two of 
these combinations are known. Hall describes 24 dies, but as he does not 
classify them it is necessary to read all the description to attribute a coin. 

In this classification I have used the position of the hand in relation to 
the motto in the first division, as it is the least easily obliterated, and con- 
fined the subsequent divisions to the upper left portion of the coin. The 
other three quarters are then briefly described. The word “between” means 
above one cinquefoil and below the other, but neecssarily over or under them. 
“Opposite,” that any portion of the leaf is opposite a cinquefoil. 

Group 1. — Hand opposite colon. 14. 

Group 2. — Hand opposite right side of E and space between E and colon. 
17, 21. 

Groups. — Hand opposite E. 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 18, 19, 22, 24. 

Group 4. — Hand opposite space between D and E and upright of E. 3, 4, 6, 
8, 9, 12, 13. 

Group 5. — Hand opposite space between D and E. 11, 16, 20, 23. 

Group 1. — Hand opixwitc colon. 14. 

14. Top leaf opposite space between second and third cinquefoils. 
Distant from and points to left side of third cinquefoil. First 
cinquefoil touches Liberty. Second and last distant from colons. 
Last distant from shield. Second, third and fourth cinquefoils 
spaced equally. 

Group 2. — Hiind oppo.site right .side of E and s|mce between E and colon. 
17, 21. 

Top leaf opposite space between second and third cinquefoil. 21. 

21. Top leaf close to and points to center of third cinquefoil. First 
cinquefoil high. Second and last close to colons. Cinquefoil and 
colon close to shield. Second, third and fourth cinquefoils spaced 
wide and equally. 

Top leaf opposite second cinquefoil. 17. 

17. Top leaf points to left side of third cinquefoil. First cinquefoil 
close to foot, last distant from colon and partly on shield. Colon 
clear of shield. Second and third cinquefoil closer than third 
and fourth. 

Group 3. — Hand opposite E. 1, 2, .5, 7, 10, 15, 18, 19, 22, 24. 

Top leaf opposite space between second and third cinquefoils. 1, 2, 5. 15, 

18, 24. 

* Top leaf points between second and third cinquefoil to border. 15. 


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15. Top leaf distant from third cinquefoii. First cinquefoil high — 
equally distant from I and foot. Second not close to colon. Last 
close to colon and shield. Third and fourth cinquefoils closer 
than second and third. Fourth cinquefoil low. Colon clear of 
shield. 

* Top leaf points to third cinquefoil. 1, 2, 5, 18, 24. 

* * Second, third and fourth cinquefoils equally spaced. 1, 24. 

* * * Leaf close to third cinquefoil. 1. 

1. Top leaf points to right edge of third cinquefoil. First cinquefoil 
close to foot. Second and last close to colons. Last close to 
shield. Colon clear of shield. 

* ♦ ♦ Leaf distant from third cinquefoil. 24. 



Top — Z-l. Scarce. 
Center — Z-3. Karity 1. 
Lower — Z-16. Itarlty I. 


21. Top leaf points to left edge of third cinquefoil. First cinquefoil 
high, close to foot. Second and last distant from colons. Last in 
angle of shield. Lower period of colon on shield. 

* * Second and third cinquefoils closer than third and fourth. 2, 5. 

* * * Cinquefoils very close to colons. 2. 

2. Top leaf points to right edge of third cinquefoil. First cinquefoil 
high, distant from foot. Cinquefoil and colon close to shield. Top 
leaf close to third cinquefoil. Branch straight. 

* * * Cinquefoil distant from colons. 5. 

5. Top leaf points to right edge of third cinquefoil, distant. Top of 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


branch bent to right. First cinquefoil high, distant from foot. 
Colon and cinquefoil very distant from shield. 

* * Third and fourth cinquefoils closer than second and third. 18. 

18. Top leaf distant from and points to left edge of third cinquefoil. 
First cinquefoil close to foot. Last cinquefoil close to colon, 
touches shield. Colon touches shield. 

Top leaf opposite second cinquefoil. 7, 10, 19, 22. 

♦ Top leaf points to border. 7, 22. 

* * Second, third and fourth cinquefoils spaced equally. 7. 

7. First cinquefoil close to foot. Second and last distant from colons. 
Last cinquefoil in angle of shield. Lower period of colon half on 
shield. 

* * Third and fourth cinquefoils closer than second and third. 22. 

22. First cinquefoil high, nearer to foot than to I. Last cinquefoil 
very near upper period of colon. 

* Top leaf points to third cinquefoil. 10, 19. 

* * Cinquefoils spaced equally. 19. 

19. Top leaf points to left edge of third cinquefoil. Last cinquefoil 
close to colon and distant from shield. Last colon low. 

* * Second and third cinquefoils closer than third and fourth. 10. 

10. Top leaf points to left edge of third cinquefoil. First cinquefoil 
close to foot. Second and last distant from colons. Last colon 
leans to right. 

Group 4. — Hand opiH>site .space betw«‘<‘n 1) and E and upright of E. 3, 4, 6, 

8, 9, 12, 13. 

Top leaf opposite space between second and third cinquefoil. 3, 4, 6. 

* Top leaf distant from third cinquefoil. 3, 6. 

• * Cinquefoils spaced equally. 6. 

6. Top leaf points to center of third cinquefoil. First cinquefoil 

very distant from foot. Second and last close to colons. Last 
cinquefoil and colon close to shield. 

* * Second and third cinquefoil closer than third and fourth. 3. 

3. Top leaf points to center of third cinquefoil. First cinquefoil 

high, close to foot. Second and last cintiuefoils close to colons. 
Cinquefoil and colon close to shield. E distant from pole. 

♦ Top leaf close to third cinquefoil. 4. 

4. Top leaf points to center of third cinquefoil. First cinquefoil 

close to foot. Cinquefoils close to colons. Last cinquefoil touches 
shield. Cinquefoils spaced equally. Colon free from shield. 

Top leaf opposite second cinquefoil. 9, 12, 13. 

* Top leaf points to border. 9. 12. 

* * IN spaced wide. Right side of .N high. 9. 

9. First cinquefoil relatively close to I. Second distant from colon. 
Last high, more than half above upper period of colon and close 
to it; touches shield. Cinquefoils very nearly equally spaced. 
Lower period of colon on shield. 


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* * INDE equally spaced on curve line. 12. 

12. First cinquefoil distant from I and foot, nearer foot. Second cin- 
quefoil distant from colon. Last very close to shield and to upper 
period of colon, on line with it. Cinquefoils nearly equally spaced. 
Lower period of colon partly on shield. 

* Top leaf points to third cinquefoil. 13. 

13. Top leaf equally distant from second and third, cinquefoils point 
to left edge of second. First cinquefoil distant from foot. Second 
and last distant from colons. Last close to shield. Second and 
third cinquefoils closer than third and fourth. Colon clear of 
shield. 

Top leaf below second cinquefoil. 8. 

8. Top leaf points to cinquefoil. First cinquefoil high, distant from 
I. Second and last distant from colons. Last touches shield. 
Cinquefoils spaced equally, fourth low. Colon close to shield. 

Group 5. — fiiiiid opposite space between 1> and K. 11, 16, 20. 23. 

Top leaf opposite second cinquefoil. 11, 20, 23. 

* Top leaf points to border. 11. 

11. First cinquefoil distant from foot. Second and last distant from 
colons. Last touches shield. Cinquefoils spaced equally. Colons 
distant from E and B. Last colon close to shield. B distant from 
shield. 

* Top leaf points to third cinquefoil. 20, 23. 

* * Last cinquefoil distant from shield. 20. 

20. Leaf points to center of third cinquefoil. First cinquefoil high, 
distant from foot and very distant from I. Cinquefoils spaced 
equally and wide. 

* ♦ Last cinquefoil close to shield. 23. 

23. First cinquefoil distant from foot and I. First colon leans to left 
and distant from E. Last colon low, touches shield. BT wide. 

Top leaf below second cinquefoil. 16. 

16. Top leaf points to border. First cinquefoil distant from foot. 
Second and last distant from colons. Cinquefoil and colon touch 
shield. Cinquefoils spaced equally. I^ft arm without hand. 


.SONI)ER,IYLLAXI) (DEN.MAHK) MEDAL, 


A medal has recently been struck by the United Sonderjydske Societies 
in Denmark, 1919. The obverse represents symbolically two female figures, 
“Sonderjylland and Denmark,” the latter one carrying a shield with Den- 
mark’s crest, three lions. On the edge is the inscription, ‘ Sonderjylland’s 
Genforening med Danmark Aar 1919.” In the exergue the initial “A” of 
the Royal Mint engraver at Copenhagen, Andreas Hansen, will be found, 
on each side of which is “19 '19” (the year the medal was struck). On 
the reverse a seated lion is found, on each side of which is “Sandhed og 
Ret,” with two hearts above the former and one heart above the latter, 
symbolizing the love for the motto. In the exergue is ”D. S. S. F.” ("De 
Samvirkende Sonderjydske forenlnger”) . The medal is 4 -I mm. in diameter, 
and is struck in silver, bronze and tin, and can be supplied by addressing 
J. deLagerberg, 259 West 92d St., New York City. 

J. del. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


EMBOSSED BUSINESS CARDS. 


By HARRY A. GRAY. 


During the years 1867 to 1876, inclusive, Murdock & Spencer of Cin- 
cinnati and T. N. Hickox & Co. of New York City manufactured a great 
number of the pieces called embossed cards. Hickox seems to have made a 
specialty of the mirror reverses, as shown by a specimen which the writer 
has, which I will describe as follows: In seven lines, the three center ones 
being straight, the rest curved, “T. N. Hickox & Co. ] Manufacturers ; of 
the I Celebrated | Mirror , Business Cards 280 Pearl St., N. Y.” An orna- 
ment below, and a star each side of ".Mirror.” 

There are several distinct types of reverses to these issues, and the ob- 
verses differ in that some are of cardboard and others of metal. After 
looking over about seventy of W. E. Woodward’s old sale catalogues I think 
I have a fairly complete list of these issues, but invite additions from those 
having others. 

The Encased Postage Stamps might be added to these issues, but they 
have been written up before. As far as I know, these issues have never 
been listed except in sale catalogues. 

A few, issued during the Centennial Exposition, bear the dates 1776 and 
1876, but the greater number bear the dates 1867-68, and a few 1869. 
There are eight distinct reverses, as follows: 

Fac-simile of the $20 gold piece of the period, and $10. 

Fac-simile of the obverse of the Silver Dollar of the period. 

Fac-simile of the reverse of the Silver Dollar of the period. 

Fac-simile of the obverse of the Trade Dollar of the period. 

George Washington in a circle of 13 stars. 

View of Congress Hall, Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Shell cards, having both sides of metal and lettered. 

Mirror reverses. 

No. 1 Iteveise, .Size of Gold $20. 

Rockhill & Wilson, Philadelphia, Pa. 1867. 

John F. Wiltsee, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1868. 

Murdock & Spencer, Cincinnati, Ohio (two varieties). 1868. 

Russ & Co., New York. 1868. 

Abe Epstein. New Store, .\urora, Ind. 1868. 

J. H. Smith, Washinton, D. C. 1868. 

Udolpho Wolfe. 1868. 

J. Markriter. 1868. 

New England Hotel, New York. 1868. 

No. 1 Reverse, Rut Size of («ol»l $10. 

John Abel, Philadelphia, Pa. 1868. 

American Tea Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 1868. 

M. Bloom, Iowa City, Iowa. 1868. 

H. Brash, Omaha, Neb. 1868. 

Brown Bros., Pleasantville, Pa. 1868. 

Thos. C. Burns. 1868. 

Cheap John, Crawfordville. Ind. 1868. 

A. J. Clark, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1 868. 

De Land, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1868. 

Dinkelaker, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1868. 

Emporium, 14 Tremont Row. Boston. Mass. 1868. 

Jos. Foster, Jr., & Co., Cincinnati. Ohio. 1868. 

S. R. Freeman, Terre Haute. Ind. 1 868. 

Sam Frank, Holly Springs, Miss. 1868. 

S. L. Griffith, Little Rock. Ark. 1 868. 

Hammett & Cheseldlne, Cincinnati. Ohio. 1868. 

Hartford Live Stock Insurance Co. 1 868. 

T. L. Kingsley, New Haven. Conn. 1868. 

Knight Bros., Washington, D. C. 1868. 

Mansfield’s Cheap Boot and Shoe Store. 186 8. 


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R. S. Morse, New (Jrleans, La. 1868. 

New England Hcrel, New York. 1868. 

J. W. Patterson, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1868. 

O. W. Petted, Philadelphia, Pa. 1868. 

F. Rahter’s Zangari Bitters, Phiiadelphia, Pa. 1868. 

C. A. Richards & Co., 99 Washington St., Boston, Mass. 1868. 

Sellew & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 1868. 

Jos. J. Sayre, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1868. 

S. J. Smith & Son, Madison, Ind. 1868. 

Troxell’s New Bakery, Brooklyn, N. Y. 1868. 

Udolpho Wolfe. 1868. 

B. T. Wright, Emporia. Kans. 1868. 

Same Ty|H*, But Dated 1770 (Centennial Issues). 

» 

Bloombargh & Frank, San Antonio. Tex. 1776. 

L. O. Dunning & Son, Penn Yan, N Y. 1776. 

W. C. Hoag, Straffordsville, Ont. 1776. (The only Canadian.) 

Jos. Lieber. Pittsburgh, Pa. 1776. 

Loomis & Barnett, Dayton, Ohio. 1776. 

W. T. & J. Merserau, New York. 1776. 

No. 2 Beverse, Liberty Siuited. 

John C. Buerkle. 137 Main St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 1867. 

A. Demorest, B’way, New York. 1869. 

W. B. Ellis & Co., Boston, Mass. 1867. 

Hall, Dame & Bullock, Boston, .Mass. 1867. 

John J. Hillman, 24 Sudbury St., Boston, Mass. 1867. 

T. N. Hickcox, New York. 1867. 

T. L. Kingsley, New Haven, Conn. 1868. 

Leavitt & Bevis, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1867, 

Howe Improved Standard Scales, New York. 1876. 

People’s Dispatch, Boston, Mass. 1867. 

Jos. C. Ringwalt, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1868. 

Roge, Hill & Wilson. Philadelphia. Pa. 1867. 

No. 3 B»*verse, Reverse of Silver Dollar of the Period. No Date. 

Temple of Fashion, Oswego, N. Y. No date. 

No, 4 Reverse, Revt*rse of Trade Dollar. 1H76 (Centeunijil) . 

The Improved Howe Scales, Brandon, Vt. 1876. 

No. 3 Reverse, Washington, Thirt<-en Stars. Date. 

R. Alberti. Philadelphia, Pa. 1868. 

Laundry Indigo Blueing Bag, New York. 1868. 

Reed’s, Philadelphia, Pa. 1868. 

No. (t Reverse, Congi-ess Hall, Saratoga Springs, N. Y, 

Washburn’s Patent Ventilator, New York. No date. 

No. 7 Reverse, Both Sides of Metal and Lettered. 

Lent's New York Circus, 14th St., New York. No date. 

Dr. Hopkins’ Electric Hair Restorer, Charlestown, Mass. No date. 

No. S R«‘verse, Mirrors. 

Geo. W. Carnes & Co., Boston, Mass. Mirror. 

Colgate & Co., New York. Mirror. 

Bramhall, Dean & Co., New York. Mirror. 

A. Demorest, New York. Mirror. 


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C. S. Dyer, Cincinnati, Ohio. Mirror. 

Electric Extractor Co., New York. Mirror. 

N. Espenschied, New York. Mirror. 

Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Co. Mirror. 

T. N. Hickcox, New York. Mirror. 

Geo. Parsons & Co., New York. Mirror. 

Mitchell & Rammellsberg, Cincinnati, Ohio. Mirror. 

J. D. Sheldon & Co., New York. Mirror. 

John C. Stockwell, New York. Mirror. (Two varieties). 
World Peace Jubilee, Boston, Mass. Mirror. 

F. S. Pease, Buffalo, N. Y. Mirror. 

Mercantile Fire Insurance Co., New York. Mirror. 


, THE FIRST BANK OF MICHIGAN. 


The history of early banking in the Western States is full of interest. 
The efforts which Wisconsin made to keep banks out of the territory, and 
afterwards the new State, and the first bank act so carefully drawn, are 
examples. Collectors have noticed how difficult it is to get any of the 
private bank bills of early Wisconsin banks. The reason is simple. The 
law compelled the public burning of every note issued. This was done at 
the State Capitol in the presence of two State officials, and a certificate was 
Issued to the effect that the burning had actually taken place. 

W. L. Jenks, director of the First National Exchange Bank of Port Huron, 
has issued a history of the Detroit Bank, so far as the writer knows the first 
“wild cat” bank in the West. In the year 1806 some enterprising Boston 
and Newton promoters decided to open a bank in the Western territory. 
Some Of the number were acquainted with the newly appointed Territorial 
Governor, William Hull. Detroit had been for many years a good fur busi- 
ness point. These men purported to be engaged in peltry trade in the West 
and to have experienced inconvenience because of lack of bank facilities. 
Governor Hull wrote a letter during the spring of the year to Judge A. B. 
Woodward, in wiiich he says: “A very rich and respectable company of 
merchants in Boston have agreed to make an establishment in our Terri- 
tory to carry on the fur trade. They will place a capital of one hundred 
thousand dollars in the business in the first instance. They have petitioned 
our government for a bank. I have ventured to give them such assurances 
that they will immediately make all their arrangements. All the shares are 
now subscribed, excepting one-quarter part, which is left for the people of 
the Territory. That quarter they will take if the people there do not wish 
for it. It is impossible that a company of more wealth, intelligence and 
spirit could have been formed." As a matter of fact, these men brought 
with them "a considerable amount in specie, a safe door, a bar iron for 
use in the construction of a vault in the new bank building.’’ This was 
thirty-six feet square, one and one-half stories high and built of brick. 
It cost about $8000. There never was more than $20,000 invested, and in- 
cluded in this was the cost of the building. Bills of the denomination of 
$2, $5, and $10 were issued. The first of these were dated October 14, 
1806, and signed by A. B. Woodward, President, one of the prominent 
citizens of Detroit and presumably a man of high worth. The bills were 
well engraved and upon a peculiar and very thin but strong paper. Col- 
lectors are familiar with this form of bill. It was used by a number of the 
earlier banks, the Farmers Exchange Bank of Gloucester, R. I., one of the 
string of banks promoted by the same group of people. There was also one 
in New Hampshire, another in Maine, and probably several small banks in 
Massachusetts. The bills were identical, except for the name of the State 
at the end, the names Of the bank and the town. The creation of this bank 
caused a commotion in Congress during the winter of 1806-07. Albert 
Gallatin, then Secretary of the Treasury, notified President Jefferson “That 
the bank must be either a landed or a swindling speculation, and that the 
motives of the officers should be inquired into.” Secretary of State Madison 
was involved in the controversy, which lasted until the 2nd of March, when 
an act cancelling the charter of the bank was passed and signed. After 
five and a half months the Detroit Bank had no legal standing. During that 
time, however, its promoters were able to dispose of more than $1,500,000 


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of its notes, according to the charge of John Gentle, a resident of Detroit 
and a political enemy of Governor Hull. This is the same Hull who was 
courtmartialed afterward. (See his life by his cousin, James Freeman 
Clarke.) A reading of the early history of Detroit covering Governor Hull’s 
management and his surrender of the post to General Brock is well worth 
anyone’s time. It illustrates the close connection between numismatics 
and history. Back of this issue was a nominal capitalization of $400,000, 
of which but 2 per cent, had been paid. Very few of the bills were ever 
redeemed. 

It is probable that most collectors of broken-bank bills have samples of 
the $5 and $10 notes. They are still available at about 30 cents each. They 
are interesting as samples of early bank engraving and printing, and they are 
probably the first notes of their kind issued. It is presumed that a copy 
of Mr. Jenks pamphlet will be sent upon application to those generally in- 
terested in numismatics. Mr. Jenks has written the first chapter of the 
history of banking in Michigan, and it is to be hoped that he will some day 
add to this chapter. 

A. H. YoDia. 

'University of North Dakota. 


AX IXTEKESTIX’G PUBLICATION. 


The proceedings of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Phila- 
delphia for the years 1916, 1917 and 1918 have just been published, for 
a copy of which we are indebted to the Society. It contains the minutes 
of the meetings held during the three years mentioned and other data re- 
lating to the Society, as well as a number of papers read at the different 
meetings. Most of them are on subjects relating to history rather than to 
numismatics. One of the papers, “The Origin of Carpenters Hall, Phila- 
delphia, With Incidents of the Neighborhood,” by Charles J. Cohen, is a 
very interesting one, and cc-*:ains extended reference to the Bank of North 
America and the Bank of tho United States, with illustrations of $1000 and 
£1000 notes of the latter institution from the collection of David E. Dallam. 
There is also an article on "War Medals,” describing and illustrating a 
number of medals issued by Germany during the war. These medals were 
displayed at a meeting of the Society held at the Union I^eague on April 
17, 1919. At that meeting Dr. T. L. Comparette showed a number of these 
medals and tokens of prison-camp coinage, and Harrold E. Gillingham 
showed a collection of American war medals. The report also includes 
brief biographical sketches of Lea Ahlborn, Wm. H. Key, John Flanagan and 
J. Otto Schweizer, the designers of the medals that have been Issued by 
the Society. 

An interesting paper, but one that is only slightly related to numis- 
matics, is "Early American Portrait Painters, Including Local Annals Con- 
nected With a Number of Them,” by Edward Biddle. This contains sketches 
of some early Philadelphia portrait painters, including Charles Willson 
Peale, as well as a brief history of his museum, the tokens of which are well 
known to collectors. 

The Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia was founded in 
1867. The President is Chas. J. Cohen, and the Curator of Numismatics is 
Frederick D. Langenheim. The Society has a collection of over 5000 coins 
and medals, which are on exhibition in Memorial Hall, Falrmount Park. 


CHINA BUYS SILVER DOLLARS. 


A press dispatch from San Francisco on November 24 said that large 
purchases of silver dollars to fill rush orders placed by China were made 
on that date to be forwarded by the Caandian Pacific liner Empress of 
Asia, which sailed from Vancouver, B. C., on November 27. This was said 
to be the first time that silver would be shipped to China in coin instead 
of bullion. It was being done, it was said, because of the haste demanded 
by the Chinese, and also to the fact that the metal was obtained at a 
cheaper price in coin than in bullion. 

T. W. H. Shanahan, Superintendent of the Mint there, said Government 
purchases had been obtained at a new high level of $1.3.5 an ounce. 


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The Numismatist 


Founded 1888 by Dr. George F. Heath 


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EDITORIAL. 


COLLECTORS SHOULD ASSIST THE GOVERX>lENT IN THIS MATTER. 

The position of the Treasury Department in the matter of the possession 
or sale of Confederate or*'other obsolete issues of paper money, as stated in 
the letters of Chief Moran of the Secret Service Division to Mr. George H. 
Blake of the New York Numismatic Club, printed in our issue of last month, 
is even more favorable to collectors and the sale of the notes by dealers to 
bona-fide collectors than the letter of Assistant Secretary of the Treasury 
Lefflngwell, printed in the September issue of The Ni'mismatist. All of 
these letters make it plain that it is not the intention of the Treasury De- 
partment to interfere with the legitimate sale or exchange of single speci- 
mens for collecting purposes either by individuals or by public institutions. 
The Department does, however, express its determination to suppress the 
display of such notes in shop windows and the indiscriminate sale of them 
to anyone who wants to buy them. 


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In its effort to prevent this form of traffic in the notes the Treasury De- 
partment should have, and we believe it will have, the support of all legiti- 
mate collectors and dealers in the country. A number of instances are on 
record where such notes have been used to defraud the ignorant, but we 
have yet to learn of a case where a bona-fide collector was the perpetrator 
of such a fraud. As has been well said, “the safest place for such notes is 
in the hands of collectors,” for once there they seldom find their way into 
other hands that may attempt to use them unlawfully. 

Let us as collectors give our aid to the Treasury Department in suppress- 
ing the public display of such notes when accompanied by an offer to sell, 
and in all other ways to assist in preventing their sale for purposes other 
than private or public collections. I>et us maintain the reputation of col- 
lectors and the high standard of collecting that has characterized numis- 
matics in America for more than half a century. 


8EK YOUR COLLKCT'INCi KltlEXDS PERSON.ILLY. 

In the drive which has just been started by the officers of the American 
Numismatic Association for a greatly increased membership, the result will 
largely depend upon the individual members. Letters have been sent out 
by the officers to former members and to prospects, and these are expected 
to yield substantial results — they have, indeed, already. But to the entire 
present membership there is offered an opportunity to assist the officers, 
and the most effective way to accomplish this is by personal solicitation. 
Perhaps some of your collecting friends are only waiting for an invitation; 
perhaps some only want a little coaxing to make sure they are really want- 
ed. The personal appeal will often bring results when all other methods 
fail. The sale of Liberty bonds and the various drives for the Red Cross 
and welfare organizations during the war would all have fallen far short 
of the goal, notwithstanding the patriotic motive behind them, had not the 
feature of personal appeal been made use of to the limit to coax the dollars 
from the pockets of the people. The newspapers, the posters, the street- 
corner oratory, all gave publicity to the drives, but it was the face-to-face, 
individual appeal that put them all over. 

Try this method on your collecting friends, and see a greater A. N. A. 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 


More Light on Conferlenite XoU^s. 

To the Editor of The Numismatist: 

Re Mr. Zerbe’s notes on Confederate paper money, page 459 of the No- 
vember issue, the notes with the "1000 Dollas” back, while not rare, are 
far scarcer than the counterfeit $50 Davis, Sept. 2, 1861, described in the 
second paragraph. 

These are undoubtedly counterfeits of the period. They come unsigned, 
as well as with signatures engraved and written, in a pale or apple green, 
while the original is a blue or sea green. .Mr. Zerbe evidently did not ex- 
amine his note carefully. I enclose a genuine one and a counterfeit. The 
original is the work of a geometrical lathe, ruling engine, etc., and cannot 
be counterfeited to deceive experienced students of paper money. 

All counterfeit notes deserve a placd" in a Confederate collection. To me 
they are far more interesting than the originals, and are far scarcer. 

Re the $10, 1864, with impressions on back only, the party that took 
them on the eve of their being seized by the Federal authorities surely took 
more than several sheets, as I had quite a few sheets some five or eight 
years ago, and another dealer had more. 


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While on the subject of Confederate notes I wish to state that the $100, 
negroes hoeing cotton, date 1862, with *‘J, Whatman” watermark, does 
not exist on X or Y notes, and with the ‘‘Hodkinson & Co.” watermark does 
not exist on an X or Y note, as both these watermarks are at the end of 
the sheet and can be had only on W or Z notes. 

C. E. Wai.tkbs. 

Philadelphia, Pa., November 16, 1919. 


The James River Bank Notes. 

To the Editor of The Numismatist; 

Discussions on the Virginia colonial notes of the James River Bank issues 
were published in The Nvmis.matist for June, 1918, also August, 1918. 
Mention was made of Scott's Paper Money Catalogue in the discussion. 
Haseltine, in his "Description of Colonial and Continental Paper Money,” 
published as early as 1872, lists both the April 1, 1773, and the September 
1, 1775, issues. This would prove that the earliest cataloguers knew of 
the James River colonial issues. After so long a time this is perhaps just 
a litle more light on these Virginia Issues. 

Wau)0 C. Moore. 

Lewisburg, Ohio, November 24, 1919. 


MEETINGS OF NUMISMATIC SOCIETIES AND CLUBS. 


BRITISH NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

Ordinary Meeting, October 22nd, 1919, Lieut. -Colonel H. W. Morrieson, 
F.S.A., President, in the Chair. 

The President informed the members of the dangerous illness of the Sec- 
retary, Mr. H. B. Earle Fox, and the steps he had taken to ensure the car- 
rying on of the business of the Society. 

Applications for membership were announced from the following gentle- 
men: Messrs. G. C. Brooke, .M.A., uud Edward Francis Young. 

The President read the list of those proposed as officers and members of 
the Council for the coming year, and gave notice that the ballot would take 
place at the ensuing meeting. 

Messrs. Beresford Smith and Edward Shepherd were appointed Auditors 
of the Society's accounts for the year now coming to a close. 

Mr. Dale proposed a vote of thanks to Lieut. -Colonel Morrieson and Mr. 
L. A. Lawrence for their services during the illness of the Secertary, which 
was seconded and carried. 

The President thanked the members on behalf of Mr. Lawrence and 
himself. 

The following presentations were announced, and a vote of thanks to 
the donors was passed; 

“Sterling Decimal Coinage,” Part I, 2nd Edition, by W. L. Craig. 

"The Decimalization of the British and Colonial Currency,” by S. H. 
Hamer. 

“Notes on the Coins believed to have been Struck at Sandsfoot Castle 
and Weymouth in 1643-44,” by Henry Symonds, F.S..\. 

The foregoing were presented by the authors. 

Journal of the Massachusetts Historical Society for April, 1919, by Mr. 
Malcolm Storer. 

Exhibitions in illustration of the paper read: 

By Major W. J. Freer. — Decorations and medals: Great Britain — Victoria 
Cross, Cloak Star, G.C.B., Distinguished Service Order, Order of the British 
Empire, O.B.E. (min.). Distinguished Service Cross (min.). Distinguished 
Service Medal (min.); France — Etoile Noire (min.); Greece — the Order of 
George I (min.); Montenegro — Order of Danilo I, 5th Class (min.); Poland 
— Order of St. Stanislaus badge and star, 2nd Class; Portugal — Order of the 
Tower and Sword, gold, old pattern. Red Cross (min.); Russia — Order of 
St. Anne gold badge and star, 2nd Class, Order of St. George silver and 
bronze crosses. Cross of the Order of Merit; Serbia — Orders of St. Sava and 
White Eagle (min.); Tunis — Order of Nichan Iftakar (rain.). 

By Major Freer for Mr. R. W. Russell. — Order of the Bath, badge and 
star, G.C.B. Badge of the Order of St. .Michael and St. George, C.M.G., 


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Military Cross; Belgium — Cross of a Commandeur of the Order of Leopold, 
Star of the Order of La Couronne, Croix de Guerre; France — Medaille Mlli- 
taire and Croix de Guerre; Greece — Commander’s Star and Badge of the 
Royal Order of the Redeemer; Italy — Badges of the Orders of Savoy and of 
St. Maurice and St. Lazarus; Portugal — two different badges of the Tower 
and Sword; Russia — gold and enamel Cross of the Order of St. George, and 
the Cross of that of St. Vladimir. 

By Major Freer for Mr. Charles Winter: — Miniatures of the following: — 
Royal Red Cross 1st Class, Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Force Cross; 
United States of America — Distinguished Service Medal; Belgium — Order 
of Leopold 11 and Medal of Queen Elizabeth; Egypt — Sultan’s Medal for 
British Forces with Darfur Bar; Greece — Order of George I and M'ilitary 
Cross; Italy- — La Croce de Guerra; Portugal — Red Cross; Serbia — Star of 
the Order of Kara George. 

By Mr. G. R. Francis: — Bronze Medal of the Royal Humane Society 
awarded to Lieut. D. G. Francis, R.N., for saving the life of his observer 
when the seaplane in which he was patrolling the North Sea on January 
13th, 1918, fell 500 feet and sank. There were 22° of frost at the time 
and they were in the water 1 5 minutes. 

Other exhibits were: 

By Mr. W. Sharp Ogden: Bronze medals of Oliver Cromwell, Turenne, 
Napoleon I and Wellington. 

By Mr. H. Garside: Examples of the Australian issue of the bronze pen- 
ny and halfpenny, both dated 1919. This is the first year in which bronze 
money was coined in Australia for general circulation in the Commonwealth. 
The pennies are struck in the Royal Mint, Melbourne, and the half pence in 
the Royal Mint, Sydney, and the coins bear no mint-mark. 

Major Freer thought that rtie members would be interested in an account 
of the numerous orders, decorations and medals awarded to the British 
Forces by His Majesty the King and the Rulers of the Allied States for 
services rendered in the late war. 

He first described the rewards given by the King and then those awarded 
by the Rulers of the United States of America, Belgium, France. Greece. 
Italy, Japan, Montenegro, Poland, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Serbia and 
Tunis. 


ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

November 20, Prof. C. Oman. M.P., President, in the Chair. 

Mr. Percy H. Webb exhibited a triens of Galla Placidia found in Serbia, 
and an unusually fine first brass of Tiberius (type Cohen No. 68), with 
reverse a temple with eight columns. 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence showed an unpublished bronze coin of Carausius. 
Reverse, UBE(RTAS) PERP: Ubertas at altar with snake. 

Prof. Oman showed an unpublished third brass of Constantine I of the 
“Urbs Roma” type, but with obverse legend URBS ROMA BEATA, mint 
R. Q., and an unidentified drachm of the fourth century B. C., obverse head 
of satrap in Persian cap, reverse lion’s head in square. 

Mr. Garside showed a Mexican two reales of Philip V, 1742, with heart- 
shaped perforation, with plain edge, and a dentated ornamentation on ob- 
verse and reverse around it, countermarked for circulation in Martinique 
during the British occupation 1809-1814. 

There was also exhibited a specimen of the medal struck in honour of 
Cardinal Mercier and presented to the Society by the Hommage National 
Committee. 

Mr. Harold Mattingly read a paper on “The Republican Origins of the 
Roman Imperial Coinage.” His main contention was that the Imperial 
coinage was the direct successor not of the Republican mint of Rome, but 
of the coinage of the “Imperator” in the provinces, as issued from about 
83 B. C. onwards. He traced the history of military coinages under the 
Republic, and brought evidence to show that it was not till about the time 
of Sulla that the “Imperator” himself exercised the right of striking coins. 
He then showed how out of this provincial coinage the coinage of the trium- 
virs naturally developed, and, again, from that the coinage of Augustus. 
Augustus chose to found his system on this basis in view of the failure of 
the triumvirs, following in the steps of Julius Caesar, to establish a per- 


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sonal coinage at the Republican mint of Rome. Mr. Grueber, Sir Henry 
Howorth, Mr. Webb and Prof. Oman took part in the discussion which 
followed. 


A.Vnyi’.VKI.XX .VXI) MM1.SM.XTIC SOCIETX' of .mo.ntke.xl. 

The .Antiquarian and Numismatic Society of Montreal held its November 
meeting in the Chateau de Raniezay on Friday, the 21st of the month. 
Among those present were W. D. Lighthall, the President; Ludger Gravel, 
P. O. Tremblay, Victor .Morin, L. A. Renaud, R. W. McLachlan, J. C. A. 
Harriot, Emile V’aillancourt and others. 

R. W. .McLachlan read a paper on ’Money and Medals of the Great War.” 
He commenced his paper by stating that most great wars, and even smaller 
ones, through the neglect of the Governments, caused a disturbance of the 
currency, wiiich consequently proved insuthcient for the needs of the people. 
'I hen private individuals and communities began to issue copper tokens. 
The earliest of these circulated during the struggle between Charles I and 
the Long Parliament, a period of twenty years from 1650 to 1670, and they 
are known as the Seventeenth Century Tokens, of which there were about 
15,000 varieties, issued by tlrms in the larger and smaller towns of Eng- 
land. They are mostly small, insignificant, and of poor workmanship, but 
still contain a great deal of the history of those times. 

The next issue, during tire Napoleonic wars, was what is known as the 
Eighteenth Century Tokens, struck during the decade from 1787 to 1797. 
They were of fine workmanship, some being exceptionally artistic. While 
they were not as numerous as those of the seventeenth century, they were 
issued in much larger quantities. But with the intermission in the hostili- 
ties and the issue of the great “cartwheel” coinage in 1797, they were 
withdrawn from circulation. 

Upon the resumption of hostilities in 1811 and 1812 there was another 
issue in which a number of silver tokens were struck, including the Bank 
of England dollar. They are called the Nineteenth Century Tokens. 

In Canada, there were issued “the Wellingtons” of Lower Canada, the 
Brocks and sloops of Upper Canada, and a number of private tokens of Nova 
Scotia bearing the names of different firms, as the Carritt & Alport, the W. 
A. & S. Black, the Hosterman & Etter, and others. 

During the troubles of 1837 there was another issue consisting mainly 
of the “Un Sou” Tokens and the “Blacksmiths.” In the United States 
there was what is known as the Civil War Tokens. During 1863 some 
5000 varieties appeared. 

Another series of the war coins is what is known as siege pieces or neces- 
sity coins. Many of these were struck by Charles I, such as the Newark, 
the Ormond and the Pontefract coinages. Then during the Spanish occupa- 
tion of Holland there were many of these pieces issued, as well as during 
the Thirty Years War in Germany. 

During the war just ended there was, on account of the shortage of cop- 
per and of nickel, a series of coins struck in iron, in zinc and in aluminum; 
by Governments themselves, by the towns and by Chambers de Commerce. 
There was also issued by these bodies a series of paper currency. These 
took the place of the private issues of previous wars. 

.Medals issued in connection with the great wars are either commemora- 
tive or given as rewards to those who took part in them. Of the first of 
these many were struck from the time of the first making of medals, on al- 
most every victory gained, so that they are innunterable. .An interesting 
series worth mentioning here is the .Admiral Vernon .Medals, of which over 
100 varieties were struck, mainly in Pinchbeck Metal, to commemorate the 
capture of Porto Bello, in Central America, “with six ships only.” in the year 
1739. 

Of the latter, the first to be issued in any quantity was the Dunbar Medal, 
awarded by Cromwell as awards to his soldiers who took part in that great 
victory, and this practice has been continued intermittently until recent 
years, when it has become a regular custom to issue medals to all who 
participated in the war for which it was given. 

In Canada there were issued medals for the War of 1812, which bore 
clasps for the battles of Fort Detroit, Chateauguay and Crysler’s Farm, and 
also for the Northwest Rebellion and the Fenian Raid. 


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Mr. McLachlan showed specimens of the different currency and tokens, 
as well as of the medals. 

Besides these he showed a series of some twenty-five Canadian medals 
bearing in some way or other on the great war. 

A vote of thanks was proposed to Mr. McLachlan, by Ludger Gravel, 
seconded by P. O. Tremblay. 


BOSTON XlMIS.MATir StK’iKTV. 

The Society met with Mr. Wheeler, the President, at the Boston Public 
Library on Friday, December oth, with Messrs. Gray, Comstock, Shefiard- 
son, Morse, Kimball and Storer present. 

The Secretary reported correspondence with .Mr. Wormser on the subject 
of the A. N. Convention being held in Boston in 19 21. 

Some discussion took piace upon the desirability of the Society issuing a 
medal in connection with the Plymouth celebration, and it was voted that 
the chair appoint a committee of five to consider the matter. Messrs. 
Wheeler, Stearns, Storer, Gray and Joy were so appointed, with .Mr. Foster 
Stearns to act as chairmah. 

The Secretary spoke of the magnificent collection of medals of the World 
War formed by Mr. W. M. Welch of Boston, and now on exhibition at the 
Library of Harvard University. It consists of more than 1500 pieces, and 
is especially rich in the fantastic work of K. Goertz. In the name of Mr. 
Welch the Secretary extended to the Society a cordial invitation to insi-ect 
the collection. 

Mr. Welch was elected an active member. 

Before adjourning .Mr. Wheeler showed a half groat of Edward IV, shil- 
ling of 1787, and a very fine farthing of 1825: the Lorraine medal, “You 
■can’t prevent what is going to happen”; some recent Belgium pieces, and a 
beer check of the Cafe Muller, Alsdeld. 

Mr. Gray showed a number of Chinese lottery tickets and checks issued 
by Western banks and used as currency about 18 70. 

Mr. Comstock showed an interesting series of Swiss coins and a number 
of 1794 cents. 

Mr. Kimbail showed the silver medal of Linnaeus “ILLUSTRAT.” the 
medal of Rudeck, the medal of Scott by Southard, and a number of other 
coins. 

Dr. Storer showed a number of Massachusetts Service medals, of which he 
has collected some sixty for the Massachusetts Historical Society, and also 
a dozen or more German naval medals, including the 114 nim. iron medal 
of Von Spee and his sons. 

.Mai.(()i..m Stokkr, Secretary. 


ROCHESTER NU.MISM.\TIC ASSOCIATION. 

The 178th meeting of the Rochester .Numismatic Association was held at 
the Rochester .Municipal Museum on October 21st, 1919, President Dr. Hand- 
ler presiding. Those present were: Dr. Handler, L. G. Amberg, Koeb, Yaw- 
ger, Gillette, Putnam, Burling, Borradaile, Homer, Plumb, W. H. Amberg 
and King. 

Minutes of the last two meetings read and approved. 

Mr. Yawger, the newly-elected Secretary of the A. N. A., told the Associa- 
tion of some of the pleasant features of the recent Convention at Philadel- 
phia, especially the trip to Valley Forge, also of his visit to the New York 
Numismatic Club. .4.11 of our representatives who attended the Convention, 
thirteen of them, pronounced it a great success, and were loud in their 
praises of the entertainment furnished. 

Mr. Yawger read the constitution and by-laws of our Association in ac- 
cordance with .Mr. Woodbury's motion at tile meeting of September 23rd. 
On motion of Mr. King, seconded by Mr. Gillette, the President was author- 
ized to appoint a committee to draft a revision of the constitution and by- 
laws as seemed to them best, and submit such revision for action. The 
President appointed Messrs. Woodbury. Gillette and Yawger as such com- 
mittee. 

Mrs. Abram J. Katz donated to the Association forty-four coins, silver 
and copper, one $2 bill, 15c. and 3c. fractional currency for our collection 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


.It the Museum. Mr. Yawger moved that we accept and acknowledge the 
gift with thanks, and that the pieces be turned over to Curator Putnam. 
Seconded by Mr. Gillette, and carried. 

Mr. Plumb showed a French Croix de Guerre, which will be placed in our 
coilection in the -Municipal Museum. 

On motion, duly seconded, the meeting adjourned. 

Fred B. King, Secretary. 


The 179th meeting of the Rochester Numismatic Association was held at 
the Rochester Municipal Museum on November 18, 1919, President Dr. 
Handler presiding. Those present were: Dr. Handler, Borradaile, Koeb, 
Putnam, Haringx, Plumb, Woodbury, Bauer, Horner, L. G. .\mberg, Yaw- 
ger, W. H. Amberg, Kingston, Bernstein and French. 

Minutes of last meeting read and approved. 

Committee on revision of constitution and by-laws stated it would make 
report at next meeting. 

Moved by Mr. Woodbury, seconded by Mr. Bauer, that we purchase from 
Dr. J. Zimmerman an autograph copy of his book, "The God Juggernaut 
and Hinduism in India." 

Mr. Bauer exhibited a various lot of coins he has bought lately, includ- 
ing a 1796 half dollar, 1797 dollar and others. 

A vote of thanks was extended to Mr. T. V’enn for a copy of the Venn 
Monographs on obsolete U. S. coinages for our library. 

.'leeting adjourned. 

H. H. Yawger. Acting Secretary. 


.\l’.MlS.>IATir SECTION, .M.\RYI..AXI) .ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 

BAL.TI-MOUE, .MI). 

The 14th regular meeting of the Numismatic Section of the Maryland 
-\cademy of Sciences was held at the Academy on November 17, Chairman 
Waldo .Newcomer presiding. Other members present were Dr. Nicholas, 
Messrs. Peach, McColgan and Duffield. 

Minutes of the preceding meeting were read and approved. 

The evening was devoted to exhibits and discussions on “Ancient Coins,” 
the subject assigned. 

Mr. Newcomer showed a gold stater of Macedonia and eight gold aureii 
of early Roman emperors: a decadrachm of Ptolemy III, with bust of Ar- 
sinoe, veiled, 11th year of reign; a Ronian triens with head of Pallas, and 
a number of denarii and bronzes of Roman emperors. 

Mr. McColgan showed several Roman denarii and bronze coins, including 
some Roman colonial issues; also a medal showing the Cologne Cathedral. 

-Mr. Duffield showed several specimens of Roman Consular and Imperial 
denarii and bronzes, and silver and bronze Egyptian coins, and some Greek 
tetradrachms. 

■Meeting adjourned to Monday, December 1. 


The 15th meeting of the Numismatic Section of the Maryland Academy 
of Sciences was held on December 1, Chairman Waldo Newcomer presiding. 
Other members present were Dr. -Nicholas, Messrs. -McColgan, Peach and 
Duffield. 

-Minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

A communication was read from Father Ooghe, stating that his duties at 
Loyola College on our meeting nights prevented his attending the Section 
meetings. 

The committee on the public exhibition of coins and stamps in connec- 
tion with the Philatelic Section, reported that January 10 had been tenta- 
tively agreed on as the date. 

Mr. Newcomer showed a specimen of the Brasher doubloon, issued in 
1787; two Spanish doubloons of 1773 and 1705, and a Portuguese half Joe, 
1754, the latter with Brasher's stamp, “E. B.” He also showed a specimen 
of a gold 8 escudos, dated 1742, having the name “Brasher" in small letters 
on the obverse, believed to have been struck by Brasher, probably about 
the time he issued his New York doubloon. (This piece was described In 
The Numis-matist for April, 1915.) 

Meeting adjourned to December 15. 


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JANUARY, 1!)20. 


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TO RKOUCK THE WEIGHT OF OUR SUBSIDIARY’ SILVER (X)I\S. 

f. . 

A bill was introduced in the House of Representatives on December 8 by 
Congressjnan Platt of the 26th District of New York, to reduce the weight 
of the half dollar, quarter dollar and dime. Mr. Platt is chairman of the 
Committee on Banking and Currency. The bill reads as follows: 

"A Bill for the reduction of the weight of subsidiary coinage. 

“Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled. That Section 2513 of tiie Revised 
Statutes of the United States, as amended, be further amended, so far as it 
relates to the weight of the half dollar, the quarter dollar, and the dime, by 
striking out the words 'twelve grams and one-half of a gram’ and inserting 
in lieu thereof the words ‘one hundred and fifty grains troy,’ so that the 
sentence as amended will read; The weight of the half dollar shall be one 
hundred and fifty grains troy.’ 

“That the recolnage of all half dollars, quarter dollars and dimes, to con- 
form to the above standard of weights, is hereby authorized.” 

The present weight of the half dollar is 192.9 grains, which is the equiv- 
alent of the metric 12*/^ grams, as used in tiie present law. The quarter 
dollar and dime are of the same proportionate weight as the half dollar, 
and Mr. Platt’s bill provides that all three coins shall have the same pro- 
portionate reduction in weight made. 

The reason for the proposed reduction is, of course, the present high 
price of silver. With the silver in our silver dollar worth as much for 
bullion as it is for coin, and the price still advancing, it seems to be only a 
matter of a short time when the amount of silver in our subsidiary coinage 
will also be worth its face value or more as bullion. 

Mr. Platt is quoted as saying that a profit of $5,000,000 would accrue to 
the Government if the change in weight were made, which he thinks is a 
better policy than allowing private companies to melt subsidiary silver coins 
iiito bullion for profit. 

With the first coinage of the half dollar in 1794 the weight was fixed 
at 208 grains, 892.4 fine. In 1837 the weight was reduced to 206 14 grains 
and the fineness increased to 900. In 1853 the weight was reduced to 192 
grains, and in 1873 to 192.9 grains, retainiifg the 900 fineness in both 
cases. 

In view of the condition of the silver market, and as the bill was intro- 
duced by the chairman of the Committee on Banking and Currency, wliicii 
makes it probable that it has the endorsement of the Treasury Department, 
it is more than probable that the bill will become law and that 1919 is the 
last date on the silver coins of the present size. 

Caiiiula Ylay Also Reduce YVeiglit of C-oins. 

A press dispatch from Ottawa on December 10 says that the high price of 
silver may necessitate a reduction of the fineness of the silver in the coins 
of the Dominion. The dispatch states that with bullion prices at the present 
level there is too great a tendency to withdraw coins from circulation and 
melt them for commercial uses. So great has been the demand for silver 
coinage of late that the belief is strong that a considerable quantity of it is 
. being converted into bullion. The Canadian mint has been kept busy to 
meet the demand for silver coinage, and minting is not a profitable business 
. with bar silver so expensive. 

Just what standard may be adopted has not been indicated. The change 
cannot be made, however, before the end of the year, because the Dominion 
could not issue coins of two different standards of fineness in the same year. 

The fact that Canadian silver coins sell at a discount of five cents in New 
York is an additional factor in encouraging the melting process, and it is 
l)e1ieved in Ottawa that a good deal of coin has been exported there. Cana- 
dian coins contain 92^4 per cent, pure silver, while those of the United 
States contain 90 per cent., and some European countries go as low as 80 
per cent. 


“IT IS GOOD CITIZEXSHIU TO BUY' GOVKRX.MENT SE( URITIES.” 


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THE M MISMATIST 



American Numismatic Association 


OrKanlz«*«l 1801, Incorporated Under the Laws of the 
I’nlted .States May 5), 1912. 


OFFICERS 

President, 


Wauh) C. M(m>re, 


I,.ewisburg, Ohio. 


First Vice-President, 

Hfnrv Chapman, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Second Vice-President, 

JfHiN .M. Oi.ivER, Springfield, Mass. 


General Secretary, 

H. H. Yamoer, 

7S Linden St., Rochester, N. Y. 


Treasurer, 

Georoe J. Bauer, 

192 St. Paul St., Rochester, N. 


Librarian, 

H. H. Yawger, 78 Linden St., Rochester, X. Y. 


BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Moritz VVorm.ser, Chairman, 95 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Theo. E. Leon, Preston C. Pond, 

143 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. Chicopee, Mass. 

Fo.ster Lardner, F. N. Boyi.e, 

2fi0 Westminster St., Providence, R. I. 62.S Frick Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

0 

Official Magazine: The Numis.mati.st. 

Frank G. Dukkieu), Editor and Business Manager. 

1811 Mosher St., Baltimore, Md. 


DISTRICT SECRETARIES 

Harry A. Gray, 41 Rockland St., Roxbury, Mass., for New England Shates. 

Run. Kohler, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City, for N. Y. and N. ,1. 

Henry Chapman, 333-335 S. 16th St., Philadelphia, Pa., for Penn., Del., Md., 
Va., W. Va. and D. of C. 

M. Marcu.son, 1611 E. 82d St. X. E., Cleveland, Ohio, for Mich., Ohio, Ind. 
and Ky. 

Fred Michael, 8 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., for 111., Iowa, Mo., Kansas 
and Neb. 

W. G. Curry, Baraboo, Wis., for Wis., Minn., N. Dak. and S. Dak. 

George H. King. Denver National Bank, Denver, Col., for Mont., Idaho, Wyo., 
Utah, Col., Ariz. and N. Mex. 

I. Lelani) Steinman, Room 329, 235 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal., 
for Cal., Nev., Ore. and Wash. 

B. Max .Mehl, P. O. Drawer 976, Fort Worth, Tex., for Southern States. 

John A. W(K)I), 165 Oak Ave., Hamilton, Ont., for Ontario. 

R. L. Reiu, Vancouver, B. C., for Western ('anada. 

H. L. Doane, Truro, Nova Scotia, for Quebec and Eastern Provinces. 

S. H. Hamer, Halifax, Yorkshire, England, for British lies. 


The initiation fee is one dollar. The annual dues are 50 cents yearly. 
Subscription to The Nu.mismatist, $1.-'>0 yearly, payable January 1st yearly. 
Total $3.00 for the first year. For particulars address the General Secre- 
tary, Rochester, N. Y. 


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JANUARY, 1920. 


23 


REPORT OF THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 


Now Mombor.s bo Admlttod January 1, 1020. 

2059 C. S. Gifford, P. O. Box 5274, Boston, Mass. 

2060 Elwood J. Hollinshead, 954 East 43d St., Chicago, 111. 

2061 Gustav H. Emory, 2232 Cathedral Ave., Washington, D. C. 

2062 Dr. Francis O’Neill, 2424 18th Avenue So.. Minneapolis, Minn. 


A|>i>lioations for Moinl>orshl|>. 

The following applications have been received prior to December 20, 1919. 
If no objections are received prior to February 1, 1920, the same will be- 
come members on that date and will be published in the February issue: 


George Unkrich (General), 

230 High Ave., Cleveland, Ohio 

H. P. Willis (U. S. Coins), 

115 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass 

W. Gedney Beatty (Greek Coins), 

247 Central Park, West, New York City 
John B. Green (American Coins), 

51 Edmund Place. Detroit, -Mich 

Gilbert S. Perez (Coins and .Medals), 

Box 60, Lucena, Philippine Islands . . . 
L. D. .\ckerman (U. S. (?oins), 

1 Edmunds Place, Greenwood, Maas. . 

Rochester, N. Y., December 20, 1919. 


M. Marcuson 

F. T. Jones 

F. H. Shumway 

H. H. Yawger 

Moritz Wormser 

Ebenezer Baesley 

Howard R. Newcomb 

Howard C. Laible 

John M. Oliver 

Preston C. Pond 

F. R. Kimball 
J. R. Pierce 

H. H. Yawuek, 

General Secretary. 


A. X. A. CO.M.MITTKE OX OBSOLETE PAPER MOXEV. 


Moritz Wormser, Chairman of the Board of Governors of the A. N. A., 
announces the appointment of the following members as the Committee on 
Obsolete Paper Money, authorized by the recent Philadelphia Convention; 

Chairman, George H. Blake, P. O. Box 859, City Hall Station, New York 
City. 

(Congressman William A. Ashbrook, Seventeenth Ohio District, Washing- 
ton, D. C. (Home address, Johnstown, Ohio.) 

Judge J. P. Hale Jenkins. 508 Swede Street, Norristown, Pa. 

Mr. Wormser also announces the reappointment of H. H. Yawger, 78 
Linden Street, Rochester, .\. Y., as Librarian of the A. .\. A. 


TO MEMBERS OP THE A. X. A, 


The (lues of .A. .V. A. numibers, as well ns subscription to THE Xl'MI.S- 
MATIST, expired December 31, IOIOt It is confidentl.v exptH'ted that idl will 
renew f(»r 1020, and it is strongly urged that you remit !?2 for both, proni|>t- 
ly, to the General Secretary, H. H. Yawger, 78 Linden St.. Rochester, X. Y. 

H(*retofore it has been customary to continue semPng THE .Vl'.MISM.A- 
TIST to all memlters for several months in the new year until they renew. 
This resulted in a l<)ss in case they did not renew. For this year a different 
|K>licy will l»e inaugurated, in order to r<‘duc(* expenses us wi'll as to con- 
serve pa|>er, and <mly a reasonable time will be given for ren(*wals to 1 h* 
mad(‘. The dut*s and suhscription are for a small amount — ^12 — and failure 
to ri*new proiiiptl.v is in most ca.ses due only to neglect. Pl<‘as<‘ attimd to this 
matter while it is fresh in your mind. Keep in g<M)d standing, and keep 
your files of THE XV.MISMATIST complete. 


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OBITUARY. 


LOUIS ii. AMlIKiU;. 

Louis G. Amberg, a member of the American Numismatic Association, die<l 
sudden. y on November 24, 1919, aged 51 years, he was arranging his col- 
lection of shells at the Rochester Municipal .Museum, when he was stricken 
with paralysis, and died two hours later, without recovering consciousness. 

-Mr. .\mberg was born in Rochester, and while a boy he began to collect 
coins, and later became an ardent student of philology, archaeology and 
numismatics. From his early youth he had made a study of languages, 
acquiring a wide knowledge of Sanskrit and other ancient languages, be- 
sides being able to converse in eight modern languages. He had made eight 
trips across the Atlantic to pursue his favorite studies and add to his col- 
lection of coins and articles bearing on archaeology. 

He became a member of the A. .\. A. in 1912, and was a charter member 
of the Rochester Numismatic Association. He was President of the latiei- 
in the year 1915, and was always present at the meetings. Although he 
was not well at the time, he attended the Convention of the American Nu- 
mismatic Association in Philadelphia in October last. He had an attack 
of influenza in February of 1919, from which he never fully recovered. 

The loss of this honored member will be most deeply felt by the Rochester 
Numismatic Association. He is survived by a widow and four daughters. 


At a special meeting of the Rochester .Numismatic Association, lield at 
the Rochester Municipal .Museum on November 25, the following resolutions 
were adopted: 

Whereas it has pleased Almighty God, the Ruler of the Universe, to take 
from us our esteemed brotner and worthy Past President, Louis G. .\mberg; 
and 

Whereas we, the members of the Rochester Numismatic .Association, as- 
sembled in special meeting this 25th day of November, 1919, feeling the 
great loss of his ever constant attendance and counsel, do mourn the los.s 
of our friend and brother; therefore be it 

Resolved, That we, the members of the Rochester Numismatic .Associa- 
tion, attend the funeral in a body; and be it further 

Resolved, 1 hat a page be set aside in our journal to inscribe this memo- 
rial; and be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of this memorial be properly engrossed and sent 
to the family. 

ROCHESTER NUMISMATIC ASSOCI ATIO.N. 


THO.MAS WILSON. 

Thomas Wilson, for several years an active member of the American 
Numismatic Association, and since 1909 an Honorary .Member, died at his 
home in Montreal, Canada, on December 11, 1919, aged 9 4 years. 


HAIA’AnOR ('OIXS IMPORTED. 


A press dispatch of November 12 from New York City says that one mil- 
lion dollars’ worth of silver coins has been purchased from the Salvadorean 
Bank by an American company and is being shipped from San Salvador to 
the United States, according to a dispatch received from the Central Amer- 
ican republic. 

New A’ork bankers with Central and South American Connections report- 
ed that they knew nothing of the purchase, but that with silver coin at a 
premium here it was entirely probable that the shipment was being made as 
a purely commercial transaction. 

It would be profitable, they said, to import silver from nearby points, the 
cost of transportation being more than made up by the increased value of 
the coin as metal. Bankers expressed the opinion that a shipment from San 
Salvador probably would be made to New Orleans and thence to New A’ork 
by rail. 


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SO>IK SU(;(iKSTIO\S FOR THK A. A. 


In a lecent letter from Mr. John H. Snow of St. Louis, Mo., he makes 
several suggestions looking to a larger Association and a greater interest 
in numismatics, as well as making the Association of more practical benefit 
to its members. His suggestions are not all new, but they are all good, and 
are worthy of consideration, especially at this time, when efforts are being 
made to greatly increase the membership. Mr. Snow’s letter, in part, is as 
follows: 

“I have just been reading the last number of The Numismatist — that is, 
the last number that has reached me, i. e., the Convention number — and 
two or three things have occurred to me which might tend toward the boost- 
ing of genuine interest in the A. N. A., and further, the drawing more 
closely together of Its members. 

“No. 1. The first suggestion is an idea that entails more work for Mr. 
Yawger, our General Secretary, and yourself, which no doubt you will both 
hail with joy, viz., the publishing and issuing to each member of a small 
booklet or pamphlet containing the name, correct street or business ad- 
dress of eacii active member, and his or her specialty in collecting. The 
reason for this is that a large percentage of us have from time to time a 
number of duplicates, etc., which, I judge, most of us would rather trade 
to some other member for something they may have which we lack, than 
to hoard them or sell to some chance acquaintance or junk shop, assuming 
that said duplicates are not numerous nor valuable for auction sales. A 
list such as I have indicated would be valuable in any case, because it w’ould 
show who would be apt to be interested in any particular pieces. 

“If necessary, a nominal charge might be made for such list. Personally, 
I would be glad to pay a small amount for it. 1 know this information is 
contained in Tm: Nu.mismatist at the time of application for membership, 
but a great many, like myself, haven’t the back numbers to any great ex- 
tent, nor is such information indexed nor in concise form, such as would be 
a list similar to the one I have indicated. I believe such a list would 
presently cause the several members to begin writing to each other all over 
the country, and If so, interest in the Association would be greatly stim- 
ulated. 

"No. 2. How would it work out if two or three good pieces were put up 
to be awarded to the member or members each year, at the Convention, who 
had secured the largest number of new members diu’ing the year. Such 
prizes ought to be worth striving for, and could be acquired by the Board 
of Governors or a committee in any one of various ways, i. e., by donation 
of some of our more fortunate brothers, or by purchase through a fund 
which might be established by popular subscription. If each active member 
would give an average of, say, only oO cents, the resulting fund would 
purchase two or three very desirable pieces indeed. If interest was once 
aroused in this manner, 1 believe the results would be very gratifying. No 
doubt both of these suggestions have been made before, but have either of 
them ever been put through? 

“No. 3. Our dealer members who have lists of numbers of collectors 
who do not belong to the A. N. A. could possibly do a good deal to boost 
the membership; not that I would advocate the prying into their records or 
business secrets, but they might suggest to some of us who are already 
members, others who are not, but who are in our various cities or nearby 
places who we may not know, and it would then be up to the recipient of 
the suggestion to go out and dig up a new member. I do not think that 
would in any way harm the dealer or expose his secrets. 

"No. 4. More local societies ought to be organized and their meetings 
announced in The Numismatist. For instance, what is the matter with the 
St. Louis branch? They are supposed to have a branch society and to hold 
regular meetings: in fact, I have received an invitation to attend, because 
I use a St. Louis address (though I am there not more than 10 days a 
year). Why don’t they send in the records of their meetings? If I were 
there all the time I would do it myself. Surely they must have something 
to say. 

“Again, there are in Denver, Col., eleven men whom I know personally 
who are all collectors, accumulators, or, in the case of two small dealers 
(who both have private collections), and out of this bunch a society could 


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be organized, I believe, with a regular attendance at meetings of six or 
seven of them. I am not e.'cpecting you to get out and do all this organiz- 
ing youiself — just merely putting down some of my tnoughts on paper, 
that's all — but if you keep hammering in editorials or short jabs in The 
Nu.mis.matist, and the rest of us will let out a yell or two once in a while, 
we will see things pick up." 

As -Mr. Snow is a compaiatiiely new member of the .Association, he may 
not be familiar with what nas oeen done in the past along the lines he 
suggests. 

-No. 1. .Membership lists have been published in the past, both in The 
NfMi.siiATi.sT and in pampiilet form, and a new list is perhaps one of the 
Association’s greatest needs. 1 he last one was printed about three years 
ago, and was a gift to the Association by the Springfield Coin Club, and 
was much appreciated. As a matter of fact, a new list should be printed 
each year, or every two years at least, lor with additions of new' members, 
lapses and resignations, and changes of address, such a list ceases to be 
reliable or of much value after one or two years old. The collecting spec- 
ialty of the members has never been a feature of such lists, but its value 
will be seen and appreciated by all active collectors. 

No. 2. If we discard the objection raised by some that the offering of 
prizes for the greatest number of new members proposed is not in keeping 
with the dignity of the .Association, such a plan might be put into effect 
again. Through the generosity of .^ir. Win. F. Dunham of Chicago, several 
United States gold coins have been offered as prizes in drives for new 
members within the past few years. Mr. Snow's suggestion of valuable 
coins as prizes, to be officially awarded at the annual conventions, is en- 
tirely new, and is perhaps worth a trial. 

No. 3. The suggestion that deaiers assist in getting new members by 
furnishing names of prospects to present members living in their respective 
neighborhoods, is, of course, a matter for the dealers themselves to deter- 
mine. Dealers are in a position to furnish much information along this 
line. Some of them have proposed a number of new members in the past. 
We believe all of them could do a litle more than they have done without 
any resulting loss of business. The names and addresses of new members 
brought into the Association through the activity of collector members are 
given to all dea ers as prospective customers, and a little more reciprocity 
on the part of dealers will add to the growth of the .Association and interest 
in numismatics. 

No. 4. More local societies could undoubtedly be formed with a little 
effort by the members. Frequently all that is necessary is for someone to 
take the initiative and issue a call for a meeting for the purpose. St. 
Louis has, as .Mr. Snow states, a local society, a branch of the .A. N. .A. A 
request was made to it a few years ago to send reports of its meetings for 
publication in The Ni^mis.mati.st, but without response. Denver has the 
material in men and collections for an active local society. Perhaps the 
appointment of a special committee in the .A. N. .A. on the organization of 
branch or local societies could accomplish something. 


XirKEL t'OIX.AGE IX S( AXDIX.AA I.\. 


The Danish mintmaster, .Mr. I. Nielsen, one of the delegates at the recent 
Coin Congress held at Christiania, .Norway (to which reference was given 
on page 4 96 in the December issue of The Ni mis.matist ) , writes that it will 
probably be some time before the introduction of nickel coinage in Scandi- 
navia will take place, although the delegates in every respect were united 
on the necessity for it. Even if the law is accepted, it will have to be 
sanctioned by the Governments, the documents thereafter signed by the 
delegates, etc. 

In regard to the scarcity of subsidiary coinage, this will be remedied by 
the striking of ten and twenty-five ore coins in nickel. These new nickel 
coins will be somewhat larger in size than those of the same denomination 
in circulation at present, and will also have a new design varying in the 
three different countries, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The one and 
two-kronor coins will contain less silver alloy. 

J. del. 


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THE CAREER OF STAXDISH RARRYi 


In its column of events of local interest that took place 7 5 years ago, 
the Baltimore Xeies of November 27 has the following, under the date of 
November 27, 1844, recording the death of Col. Standish Barry, whose 
name is familiar to all numismatists as having issued a silver threepence 
in 1790, for Baltimore Town, one of the little prizes in the coinages of 
colonial America: 

“At meeting field, staff and company officers Fifth Regiment. Volunteer 
Infantry, Col. Nathaniel Hickman presiding, announcement made of death 
of former commander. Col. Standisn Barry, after long illness, at his home, 
Herkimer county. New York, November 6, aged 81 years 2 days. Born here, 
he served in Maryland line during latter part Revolution. During Whisky 
Insurrection, 1794, he served as commander Independent Blues and was 
complimented by General Washington. During War of 1812, as major Fifth 
Regiment, he participated in battles of Bladensburg and North Point and 
had horses shot under him, and after war commanded Fifth Regiment. Was 
strict tactician. Upward 6 feet tall, martial and commanding in appear- 
ance, straight as an arrow, eye keen as eagle’s, he was every inch a soldier. 
His last public office was Sheriff of city and county, 3 years. Gen. George 
H. Steuart, who long served under him and succeeded him in command of 
Fifth Regiment, eulogized him. Honor and uprightness were his through 
every phase of fortune: was alw'ays alive to wants of others; was fast 
friend to deserving.” 

The history of Col. Barry’s little silver coin and the reason for its issue 
have long been matters of speculation with collectors. Little has been pub- 
lished that throws very much light on the issue, and anything relating to 
him personally or to his career is worthy of a place in a numismatic journal. 
From the above, as well as from some other bits of information that have 
appeared in print, it will be seen that Col. Barry was a soldier in the Revo- 
lution and in later wars, and that his love for a military life clung to him 
in times of peace. The date of his threepence is July 4, 1790, at which time 
he was about 27 years old. Issued probably by himself as a silversmith, 
and dated on an anniversary of the independence of his country, we see 
his patriotic spirit reflected in his little coin. 


COXGRESSMAX A.SHBROOK’S CDLLEt TIOX OF COIXS STOLEX. 


The collection of coins of Congressman Ashbrook of Johnstown, Ohio, 
an Honorary Member of the American Numismatic Association, was stolen 
early Tuesday morning, December 16, when “yeggs” opened the vault of 
the Citizens’ Bank of Johnstown and took most of its contents. The value 
of the collection is estimated to be between $15,000 and $20,000, and con- 
sisted of almost complete sets of $1, $2.50, $3. $5. and many $10 gold 
pieces, with a large number of silver and copper coins. The “yeggs” also 
took $8000 in cash and $2000 in l.ibertv t-tonds. as weil as a fiuantity of 
silverware belonging to the Congressman. Entrance to the vault was made 
with the use of acetylene torches, the flames from which destroyed a con- 
siderable amount of currency. 

When the news of the robbery reached Dr. J. M. Henderson of Columbus, 
Ohio, vfho is a personal friend of Congressman Ashbrook. he immediately 
wired all the coin dealers and officials of the A. N. A. in the East to be on 
the lookout for the thieves, w’ho were reported as having taken an easterly 
direction from Johnstown. Through these dealers and officials the police 
and banks in the large cities w'ere notified. All members of the A. N. A. 
are requested to aid in the detection of the “yeggs” and the recovery of the 
coins and other stolen goods. 

The Citizens’ Bank of Johnstown is owned by Congressman .-Xshbrook. 


The President of the French Industrial Commission to the United States, 
the French ironmaster and head of the Creusot Iron Works, .Mr. Charles 
Eugene Schneider, w'as awarded the gold medal of the .American Mining 
and Mettallurgical Institute while here. 

J. del. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


American Numismatic 
Society 

New York 

BROADWAY BETUTIEN 155TH 
& 166TH STS. 

Org«nize<l 1858. Incorporated 1865. 

PRESENT EXHIBITION: 

Coins and Medals Commemorating 
Treaties of Peace, 
and German Satirical Medals. 

All collectors and students are cordially invited to make use of the 
extensive Library of the Society, and every facility will be offered to numis- 
matists in exajiiining and studying the large collection of coins and medals 
that may not be on exhibition. 

Open to the Public daily, 10 A. M. to 5 P. M. Sundays, 1 to 5 P. M. 

COUNCIL 

Wn.LiAM B. Osgood Field John Reilly, Jr. 
Harrold E. Gillingham Elliott Smith 
Archer M. Huntington W. Gilman Thompson 
Edward T. Newell John I. Waterbury 

Stephen H. P. Pell Wh.liam H. Woodin 

OFFICERS 
President 

Edward T. Newell 
Governors 

Archer M. Huntington 
Edward T. Nhtwell 
John Reully, Jr. 

Treasurer: 

John Reh.ly, Jr. 

Assistant to Curator: 

Arthur C. Wyman 

MEMBERSHIP. 

The annual dues of Fellows (limited to one hundred and fifty) are 
Fifteen Dollars, and those of Associates are Five Dollars, which are payable 
in advance, and cover subscription to the Society’s organ, the American 
Journal of Numismatics. One Hundred and Fifty Dollars entitles one to Life 
Fellowship, and Fifty Dollars to Associate Life Membership, and secures 
exemption from further dues. 

Applications for Membership should be sent to the Secretary, at the 
above address. 

Regular meetings are held on the second Saturday, or such other day as 
the Council may designate, in the months of January, April and November. 

Meetings for the reading of papers, discussion of numismatic subjects 
and exhibition of coins and medals, are held on the evenings of the first 
Thursday of each month except June, July, August, September and October. 

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 

Published Annually By The Society. Subscription Five Dollars. 


Henry Russell Drownf. 
William B. Osgood Field 

Secretary: 

Sydney P. Noe 
Curator: 

Howland Wood 


W. Gedney Beatty 
Bauman L. Bei.den 
F. C. C. Boyd 
Henry Russei.i. Drowne 
Robert James Eidt.itz 



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AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


At a meeting of the American Numismatic Society held on December 4, 
1919, the following address was delivered by Mr. Maurits Schulman, the 
well-known numismatist of Amsterdam, Holland, wlio has been spending 
several weeks in the United States: 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen — It is not my purpose to give you 
an account of all the medals and coins issued during the rate war. I want 
to give you, as far as possible, an idea of general conditions, of the strain 
and hardships under which Europe, and more especially Holland, suffered, 
and to combine my talk here and there witn numismatical events. 

None of us will ever forget those ill-fated but grand days of August, 1914, 
when Europe was set on fire by that terrible war, which everybody expected, 
and yet was brought upon us as an awful, unexpected calamity. It meant 
the end of peaceful, prosperous times and the beginning of an unknown 
new era. The assassination of the heir-presumptive of Austria at Serajevo 
hastened the outburst of the terrible clash between the Central Powers of 
Europe and the Entente and was called the struggle for right over might. 
Let us hope that this will be made true! 

The artist Goetz in Munich, well known by his satirical medals, has pro- 
vided us with a medal on the assassination at Serajevo, called “Die Funke 
des Weltbrandes,” or, “The Sparks of the World’s Fire.’’ 

In Europe most people thought that a war like this one, with its dreadful 
machinery, spreading death and terror all over the countries, could not last 
longer than from three to six months; but there was one man, Lord Kitch- 
ener, who openly declared that this struggle would go on from six to seven 
years. Had it not been for the splendid work of your country, his predic- 
tion would have been very near to the truth. Kitchener’s cry for every able 
man to enlist was ridiculed in Germany. They called it Kitchener’s dream, 
and a medal shows us Kitchener sleeping and dreaming. Out of his mouth 
step long lines of soldiers. 

It is strange that the Germans would make the same blunder again when 
your country entered the war. They thought it impossible that troops and 
ammunition could be shipped plentifully for a distance of over 3000 miles, 
and an extremely rare medal shows us the skyscrapers of New York, and in 
the harbor a monstrous ship loaded with guns, ammunition and provisions 
of all kinds. 

Few countries struck medals commemorating the mobilization days, but 
such pieces exist, as a few were made in France, Germany, Holland and 
Switzerland. During the first weeks of August people were panic-stricken. 
They ran to the banks to change their bills into gold and silver, to cash 
their deposits, to sell their bonds and stocks. Thanks to government 
measures in all countries, closing of stock exchanges, moratoria, etc., a lot 
of misery was averted. 

On account of the scarcity of small change, which in our country w’as 
hoarded by the people, who did not trust paper money, large and small 
cities, big concerns and stores, were allowed to issue emergency paper 
money valuable for one month only. During these months our Government 
took care of an emission of paper money of small denominations, one guld- 
en and 2^ gulden (our lowest bill previously had been 10 gulden or $4), 
and the mint supplied us with quantities of smaller change. Most of the 
emergency paper money (except the paper money issued by the cities of 
Amsterdam and Rotterdam, which was made current for one year) was re- 
deemed. For collectors of paper money it is valuable to know that these 
issues of August, 1914, not only in Holland, but also in Belgium, France, 
Germany and Austria, are now all very rare, and that outside of the few 
collectors who possess these bills, hardly a one can be had. When I once 
wrote to a little town in Holland, asking if some sets of its paper money 
issue could be had, the Mayor wrote me that all the bills were redeemed 
and destroyed, but that if we wished, he was willing to have us printed 
new ones (at a fabulous price), which offer we declined. I am glad to tell 
you that till now I have not met with a single reprint of Dutch emergency 
paper money. 

Among the Germans a considerable amount of new-printed emergency 
paper money has been thrown on the market. 


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The war went on. Antwerp was bombarded and taken; over 300,000 
Belgian refugees crossed the Dutch frontier within a couple of days. Al- 
most 40,000 Belgian soldiers and 4000 British marines were at the same 
time interned in our country, and all these people were going to stay with 
us for over four years. 

In January, 1915, 1 made my first very pleasant business trip to this 
country, and I should like to tell you of a very Interesting numismatic 
examination 1 had to undergo when the British naval ofllcers boarded our 
ship at the Downes, near Dover. When my turn came I presented my pa- 
pers, and a captain of the British navy asked me, “.\re you a numismatist?” 

■‘Yes, sir,” I replied. 

‘‘Do you know of some big naval battle fought here, on this spot?” 

“Yes, sir.” And I told him that in 1639 our Admiral Tromp invited the 
Spanish Admiral Oquendo, then lying safe with his fieet in the harbor of 
Dover, under protection of the English guns, to come out in the open sea. 
The Spanish Admiral replied that he could not come and fight, lacking am- 
munition. Our Admiral, anxious to meet the enemy, sent him a large sup- 
ply of his own ammunition. Oquendo, having no longer any excuse to dodge 
the battle, had to come out, and was thoroughly beaten and captured. 

The next questions were the names of the directors of the coin cabinets 
in London and The Hague, and the names of the most important books 
dealing with English and Holland medals. All these questions answered to 
his entire satisfaction, I was allowed to go on. This was my first and last 
numismatic examination. I had the good luck to meet, every time I sailed 
to and from the States, the same captain, and we became very good friends. 

The war going on, numerous medals were issued in Germany to raise the 
spirit of the people. Long series of medals wMth the portraits of victorious 
German generals, with the names of the battles they won, were issued. 
One of these medals can boast two issues — before and after the battle of 
the Marne. It is the medal of the famous General Von Kluck, with and with- 
out the inscription “Nach Paris.” 

A long series of satirical medals was made, and it is remarkable that 
whenever anything was published in the other countries against Germany, 
it was followed up by a satirical medal in Germany. German Kultur was 
followed by the satirical medal Kulturbraeger, bearers of culture, showing 
all the Allies' crowned heads and Presidents. The charge of mutilating 
prisoners of war was succeeded by a medal showing Allied troops bearing 
on their guns the head and arms of a German soldier. This last medal, 
however, was seized by the German Government, and only a few copies 
escaped. One is now in the collection of this Society. 

On Italy’s joining the Allies numerous medals were issued. One show's 
us General Cadorna carrying an umbrella, an allusion to his daily note, 
“Further movements hampered by the weather.” A later satirical medal, 
published in Austria, calls King Victor Emanuel, “Victor Eventually.” 

In Holland we laughed at the German bread and butter, milk, meat and 
other cards issued by the German Government, which entitled each person 
to only a very small quantity every day. In our little country we lived, as 
our proverb says, “As the Lord in France.'' Prices were not much higher; 
everything could be had. 

When the submarine war was aflnounced things began to look somew’hat 
different. Our ships were held up in English and United States ports, not, 
as I heard once, because our sailors didn’t dare to sail, but. first, because 
the captains had to get an exact knowledge of the free navigation passages; 
secondly, because bunker coal was not furnished, and also because the Eng- 
lish Government wanted a general agreement or basis for the shipping of 
supplies to our country. The heavy toll our seamen and ships paid to the 
mines and submarines must be enough proof of the daring of the Holland 
captains. 

Besides the coins struck or cast in the different countries, in Belgium 
and in .N'orthern France, occupied by the Central Powers, a very interesting 
lot of emergency paper money from very low denominations up to 100 
francs, provided for the entire lack of cash. All these notes issued in 
1914 and 191o now are very rare, and in uncirculated condition nearly im- 
possible to get. The issues after 1915, with some exceptions, are not so 
rare. 


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The war went on more cruelly than before. The Lusitania was torpedoed, 
and the now famous Lusitania medal was issued. First, and now very 
rare, came the one with the wrong date. May 5th, and then the other, giving 
the exact date. May 7th. The error of the date, the medallist explained, 
was due to the fact that the German papers first gave the date of the sink- 
ing of the Lusitania as the 5th of .May, and later he found out the error 
and rectified it. There was some difficulty in getting medals out of Germany, 
but in corresponding we always wrote about the medal as “Geschaft uber 
alles,” or 'Business first,” as it reads on the medal, and they went right 
through. The Tubantia, one of our finest liners to the West Indies and 
Brazil, shared the fate of the Lusitania. In the lifeboats which were washed 
ashore, fragments of German torpedoes were found. The German Govern- 
ment denied that a German submarine had made this attack, but they re- 
fused to show to our Government the log books of the submarines then 
operating in the North Sea. This question, 1 hear, will soon be settled by 
the present German Government. As an answer to the charge of having 
torpedoed the Tubantia, a satirical German medal shows us Death sinking 
the Tubantia, with the inscription in German, ‘‘England saluting neutral 
countries.” Somewhat later the Amstelstroom, one of our big freignters, 
was sunk by a submarine. The ship owners have made a beautiful medal 
on this event, showing the Emperor as Lohengrin, and the sinking of the 
ship. This rare and beautiful medal also is in your Society’s collection. 

Early in 1917 our Government took over the control of all the flour, 
grain and corn in our country. It supplied the cities for the bakeries. The 
people received their first bread cards, entitling them to four ounces of 
bread daily for each person, the working people receiving a double ration. 
But soon other measures had to be taken. The detaining of our ships in 
foreign ports, so that for six months not a single ship with foodstuff or raw 
material entered our harbors, made it necessary that all articles, hotter, 
cheese, meat, milk, rice, coffee, tea, oil, leather, shoes, clothing, tobacco, 
etc., should come under Government control. This control meant that with 
most of these things only very small quantities could be had — just enough 
to keep us from starvation. Of course, for wealthy people there always 
were means to buy secretly, but for the bulk of our population it meant 
hardship and misery. The hunger manifestations, the different riots and 
ransacking of stores and ships, tell you a better tale than I could here. 

I remember a siege coin, a square gold ducat, struck in 1574, when 
Middleburg was besieged in the eighty years’ war of Holland against Spain. 
A citizen of that town engraved on this ducat, “We had nothing left; we 
were eating dogs, cats, horses and rats; our bread was like leather, our 
coffee made from leaves and straw, etc.” One hardly believes that in the 
twentieth century we were near to the same experience. Our bread was not 
like leather, but like gray clay. The entire supply of flour for private use 
had run out; what was left was for the army. Butchering was forbidden 
for nearly six months. Horses were used from time to time. The only cat- 
tle butchered was for the army. Our secret police found many a place 
where dogs and cats were butchered. Tea and coffee were delicacies not 
seen by many of our people for over two years. Those who had not made 
some provision could hardly get adequate supplies. For nearly two years 
our Government distributed tea and coffee only four times, and then only 
one-half an ounce for each person, and not for children under six years old. 
Tea and coffee sold secretly at prices of five and six dollars a pound. 

But the greatest strain on the whole of Europe was the lack of coal and 
oil. In all countries, even in England and Germany, with their vast coal 
fields, there was a heavy shortage. There were no means of transportation. 
Peat and wood were but insufficient means of producing some comfort in the 
houses. Wooden pavements in France were broken up by the poor. 

Then America entered the war. Soldiers as well as civilians looked 
more cheerful, trusting the end would be nearer. But at first, and nobody 
thought of it, it meant more hardships for the whole European world. Our 
ships and those of other neutral countries were taken over by the English 
and -\merican Governments. 

Goetz has made a very Interesting satirical medal showing Uncle Sam 
carrying off under his arms a Dutch vessel. 

No ships were left for transportation of materials and foodstuffs to neutral 
countries. Before other ships could be sent out, agreements had to be 


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made that such ships would not be compelled to charter for foreign Gov- 
ernments. It was at this time that our rations were cut down to two ounces 
of bread (if it could be called bread) a day for each person, half an ounce 
of cheese for two days, 2 pounds of potatoes, etc. Many people blamed our 
Government for not having taken matters in hand earlier, contending that 
many of these hardships could have been avoided. Certainly our Govern- 
ment could have done better, but it was one of the most serious tasks ever 
put on the shoulders of a government. And in every country I heard of the 
same criticisms. In England, in France, in Switzerland — everywhere, the 
people blamed the government for their hardships. 

Few people outside of our country and only those in our country, who 
looked further into these questions, knew that for every ton of coal or for 
every piece of raw material we received, either from Germany or from Eng- 
land, we had to hand over a part of our dairy products, of our cattle, or of 
other things. No agreement with Germany could be made without the con- 
sent of England, and this consent in many instances meant a supply of 
foodstuffs to England against nothing in exchange. 

The last winter, for private use only, one ton of coal was distributed for 
our homes. Petroleum had run out entirely. The gas plants only supplied 
gas a couple of hours a day. Automobiles were things of the past, but 
electric cars were still running. Gas burning was allowed at night from 
half past 6 until 10 o’clock. Those without electric lights in their homes 
were in that winter without light from 4 till 6.30 and after 10 o’clock. 
Electric lights were only to be used till midnight. Trains were cut down to 
only a few daily. All night trains were suspended, and during all this time 
over half a million of foreigners, refugees of all nations, got a share of the 
few provisions which were left to us. 

I wonder whether people knowing these facts would blame our Govern- 
ment for not having entered the war. To thousands of people in the world 
starving from hunger, our people sent parts of the few things they had, and 
not the worst parts. It meant somewhat less for us in the near future, but 
it meant salvation to a lot of others. And what would have become of those 
half million of refugees if war was brought on our country also. 

History later will show that our Government had a more tremendous 
task to keep us out of the war than she would have had by entering the 
fighting lines. But if anybody had violated our neutrality, we were ready 
to defend our country. 

In Belgium the situation was not much better than in our country. The 
Germans had ransacked the houses for copper and bronze. Every piece of 
copper and bronze on the front doors, in the halls, in the rooms, was taken 
away. Even the copper railing along the staircases were removed. All 
telephones were taken out of the offices and houses, and not by competent 
laborers. In some of the houses I have seen, whole sections of the walls 
were torn to pieces in removing copper or telephones. 

Prices of foodstuffs outside the distributions were enormous, but still in 
some instances the people in Belgium, and certainly the lower classes, were 
better off than the Hollanders, thanks to the splendid work of the American 
Belgium Relief Committee. But the better-situated people had a much 
harder time luan we in Holland. One of my friends told me that in Ant- 
werp. where he went a couple of times a week to a restaurant to have some- 
thing like a decent dinner, he had to pay about 300 francs, or from $50 to 
$60. When I visited Belgium, in February of this year, it was so complete- 
ly cleaned out, that in one of the largest hotels writing material was not 
available, linen was missing entirely, and at that time I paid for a rather 
poor dinner about $8, and only one knife, one fork and one spoon were 
allowed you at your meal. The trains in Belgium were miserable: not a 
single glass window was left; all the covers were removed from the scats. 
They looked like stables. 

The money then current in Belgium was the paper money issued by the 
Belgian and French Governments, by the banks of Antwerp and Brussels, 
and for small change the iron 5, 10, 25 and 50 centimes issued by the Ger- 
man Government. Very few Belgian nickel coins were seen. 

The Germans at one time tried to corner all our nickel money. For one 
nickel 5 cent.s, 10 and 15 cents was paid. But I think that owing to the 
small quantity of pure nickel in our coins, they never tried it again. 

In Germany thousands of cities and plants resorted to an emission of 


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emergency paper and zinc money, some with very good designs. Some of 
the paper money recorded tales of hardships. Next to this paper money and 
zinc money, the prison camps for soldiers and officers issued coins, as did 
also the mines where prisoners of war were working. For several cities 
zinc tokens for the poor were issued, entitling them to a free meal or to 
bread and soup. 

Few of the German and Austrian medals tell us of all these hardships, 
but from what I heard and from the people I have seen, they must have 
passed some very miserable years. 

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, during war times and famine, 
medals were made giving us the prices for which foodstuffs were sold. It 
was a good idea of the medallist Goetz to follow this example, and his medal 
gives us a lot of German prices during the war. This medal, which is in 
the collection of the American Numismatic Society, is a very attractive one. 

The people who suffered the least were the farmers — the country people. 
A satirical German medal contrasts a farmer’s dinner with a citizen’s din- 
ner, and it is funny to look at the big difference in the meals. As it was 
in Germany, so it was in Holland, in Belgium — all over Europe. The farm- 
ers had a very easy task to grow rich. They lived as before. They didn’t 
care for bread and butter cards or for distribution restrictions. But I think 
that the heavy taxes now to be paid will have taught them that there has 
been a thing iikd war. 

During the last two years, when almost nothing was imported by neutrals, 
prices went higher and higher. Gold and silver bullion reached a high 
mark in our country, still higher than the high silver rate of today. Our 
Government, fearing the melting of all siKer currency, put a maximum price 
on silver bullion, above which price sales were not permitted, and provided 
the manufacturers of silverware with a certain amount of silver bullion 
every month at the standard price. Heavy fines and imprisonment were put 
on melting current coin. The high price of gold bullion was due to the fact 
that Germany bought large supplies of grain and foodstuffs from Turkey 
and the Ukraine, which had to be paid for in gold. German agents and 
smugglers in the neutral countries bought gold coin at ridiculous prices. 
One day for $20 pieces, $34 was paid: for sovereigns, $8 and more. Our 
10-guilder piece was valued at from 18 to 20 guilders. 

Then the Armistice was signed. The price of gold and silver rapidly fell, 
and I suppose there was as much lost by speculators as they had gained 
before. The long expected end came at last. The Armistice was signed; 
preliminaries of peace were taken up. Germany’s hope that Wilson’s peace 
terms would enable her to start commerce and prosperity at once died 
away. The fourteen points of President Wilson were interpreted in an 
entirely different way by the Allies. Germany’s satirical spirit was ready to 
point this out in her medal called ‘Wilson’s Fourteen Points.” and it shows 
President Wilson and a rat trap on the reverse, the rats being Germany 
and Austria. 

Then revolution broke out over Europe, more especially in Germany and 
Austria. Germany seemed to be doomed by the Bolshevists, and if that 
revolution had succeeded I fear that the neighboring countries would have 
shared the same fate. The little uprising we had was soon controlled by 
our Government. 

Several satirical medals tell us of these days. A striking one shows the 
bust of a man, shouting at the top of his lungs, with his hair on fire. On 
the reverse, all the crowned heads are leaving the earth. On another one, 
Kurt Eisner, the President of the Bavarian Communist Republic, is called 
Kurt Eisner the First. He is seated on a Hon and pulling down two pillars. 
Constitution and Royalty. 

Certainly people in Germany must have grown crazy, when for several 
months they allowed in Brunswick as President a shoemaker, a lame, dis- 
figured man, and at the head of justice a washwoman from one of the large 
restaurants. 

A lot of satirical medals, all published during the armistice, give us an 
exact accotmt of the state of affairs in Germany after the armistice was 
signed. 

All over the world we are now facing that other war between labor and 
capital. Let us hope that the leaders controlling the laborers, will put 


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enough common sense in the heads of these people so that these questions 
may be settled in a peaceful way, to the benefit of the whole world. 

Revolution after war is not a new thing, as shown by medals and the 
history of the French revolution. 

Thanks to your country, the war did not last seven years, as was pre- 
dicted by Lord Kitchener. Let us hope that your big men also will find a 
way to keep the world free from destruction and anarchy. The war has 
already brought enough misery. 

Just a few remarks on a much nicer part of the war — the work of peace. 
The splendid exhibition in this building of medals of previous peace treaties 
would lead us to expect a large line of medals which would celebrate peace 
after the world’s war. A few were published while the war was going on. 
First, peace offering of Montenegro, King Nicholas with the dove of peace 
in his hand: the peace with Rumania, called by the Germans the oil peace; 
with the Ukraine, called the bread peace; with Greater Russia, called the 
necessity peace, and the peace 'of Brest-Litovsk. On that medal the Ger- 
man General Hoffmann sits in his automobile, talking to Trotzky and 
Lenine. 

The armistice and the peace have given us already several medals, and 
more are to come. I hope the medallists will not follow the new style of 
peace medal made by a Holland artist. Van der Hoef, which medal you can 
see here. It is an entirely new style, very Interesting, but I do not approve 
of it. 1 hope I have not taxed your patience too much in giving you such 
a long tale of the war. 


AMERK'AX JOURNAL OK XU.MISMATK’S, VOLU.ME LII, 


Volume LII (for 1918) of the Journal of Numismatics, the annual pub- 
lication of the .\merican Numismatic Society. New York, was issued in No- 
vember last. The publication committee is composed of John Reiily, Jr., 
chairman; Howiand Wood, Samuel P. Avery and W. B. Osgood Field. The 
contents are: “.•Ves Signatum,” with 8 plates, by T. Louis Comparette; "U. 
S. Postage Stamps as Necessity War Money,” with 2 plates, by Henry 
Russell Drowne; “Tarsos Under Alexander,” with 8 plates, and “The .Alex- 
andrine Coinage of Sinope,” with 2 plates, both by E. T. .Newell. 


DISTINGUISHED SERVICE .MEDALS GIVEN IN .NAVY. 


President Wilson has awarded the Distinguished Service .Medal to 114 
officers and enlisted men of the .Navy and .Marine Corps for exceptionally 
meritorious service during the war. The list made public by the Navy De- 
partment includes 112 officers of the regular .Navy, 11 in the Reserve, 13 
in the Marine Corps and four in the United States Coast Guard, while 15 
enlisted men. including three in the Marine Corps, received the decoration. 

These are the first awards of the Distinguished Service .Medal authorized 
by a special act of Congress approved last February 4 as a decoration to be 
conferred upon persons in the .Naval service who during the war have per- 
formed “exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of 
great responsibility.” Members of the Marine Corps received similar deco- 
rations while serving with the -American Expeditionary Forces. 


MISS BOOTH ItECEIVES DISTINGUISHED SERVICE .MEDAL. 


.Miss Evangeline C. Booth, commander-in-chlef of the Salvation -Army in 
America, has received the Distinguished Service Medal. It was presented 
to her at New York on October 19 by Maj.-Gen. David C. Shanks, com- 
manding the embarkation port at Hoboken, acting as the personal repre- 
sentative of President Wilson and Secretary Baker. .Miss Booth’s citation, 
made public by the War Department, said; 

“For exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service as commander 
of the Salvation Army in the United States. She has been tireless in her 
devotion to her manifold duties. The contribution of the Salvation -Army 
toward winning the war is conspicuous and the results obtained were due 
in marked degree to the great executive ability of its commander.” 


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35 


REGARDING CHANGE OP ADDRESS. 


We want to impress upon our readers the necessity for promptiy notify- 
ing the business manager of a change of address. We frequently receive 
notice of a change with the statement that the magazine has not been re- 
ceived for three, four or six months, as the case may be, and asking us to 
send the missing numbers. In many such cases we feel that the change of 
address, of which we did not receive notice, is the only reason the magazine 
has failed to reach them. 

We want every subscriber to have the twelve issues he has paid for, and 
we will furnish missing numbers when the fault lies with this office. But 
we cannot furnish them gratic when the subscriber has neglected to send 
us notice of a change of address. In notifying us. always give the old as 
well as the new address. 

All matters relating in any way to The Numis.mati.st (except payment of 
subscriptions by A. N. A. members) should be sent to the editor and busi- 
ness manager at his office in Baltimore, Md., and not to the publication 
office at Federalsburg. Md. This will save time as well as inconvenience. 


COINAGE FOR NOVEMBER, 1919. 


Following is the number of pieces of the different denominations coined 
at the mints of the United Stated during November, 1919, as officially re- 
ported by the Bureau of the Mint, Washington. D. C.: 

Silver — Quarter Dollars, 2,692,000: Dimes, 9,560,000. 

Nickel — Five Cents, 13,349,000. 

Bronze — One Cent, 46,121,000. 

Coinage other than United States: 

Venezuela — Silver, 2,400,000. 

Siam — Bronze, 6,625,000. 


BAD COINS DETECTED BY ELECTRIC CURKENTS. 


By virtually turning suspected coins into generator armatures, a mint 
official at Calcutta, India, is able to detect at least 90 per cent, of the bad 
money among the pieces put through his machine, including honest coins 
containing splits or air bubbles. The coins are simply dropped into a hopper 
and rolled on edge down an incline, passing through a strong magnetic field. 
The rotating disks develop eddy currents whose strength is proportioned to 
the purity of the metal. The descent of the coins is so retarded by the 
reaction of the currents that the genuine drop into one pocket and the 
spurious into another, farther on . — Popular Mechanics. 


A STORY OF A $30 NOTE. 


A humorous incident occurred at the Baltimore Subtreasury several days 
ago when a man called with part of a $20 bill and asked that the note be 
redeemed at its full value. He was told to leave the portion of the note, 
the officials in charge believing that the holder of the other part would also 
turn up. Sure enough, he arrived a few days later, whereupon both were 
asked to call at a given time. It then developed that there had been a fight 
over the note, which each player claimed to have won in a game they had 
played. It required some ingenuity to determine the actual owner, but he 
was found and received the money. 


GOLD SHIPPED — SCRAP IRON RECEIVED. 


A box containing $^25,000 in gold coin shipped by the Anglo and London 
Paris National Bank *of San Francisco on the liner Korea Maru was found 
to contain scrap iron and metal washers when opened by the consignee in 
Hongkong, according to cable advices received by the bank and steamship 
company a few days ago. The bank, acting as agent for a New York firm, 
packed two boxes, each containing $25,000 in gold, and the correctness of 
the shipment was certified to by three trusted employes. Both boxes were 
put in the strongroom of the steamship, but only one of them arrived at its 
destination with gold in it, it is claimed. 


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MISCELLANEOUS NUMISMATIC NOTES. 


A collection of coins, representing a life’s work of collecting, was taken 
by burglars from the home of G. R. Benson of Milwaukee during the cele- 
bration of Armistice Day on November 11 last. 


It is reported from Budapest that 100,000,000 crowns, contained in 21 
cases buried deep in the cellar of Count Michael Karolyi’s palace, have been 
discovered and confiscated by the police. Searches by the Communists 
when they were in power failed to reveal the treasure, although the house 
was ransacked several times. 


John Newkirk, whose home is said to be in St. Louis, has been arrested 
in Baltimore and held for court on the charge of making counterfeit silver 
dollars. He is said to have admitted the charge when arrested. 


A bronze medal has been issued by the Gibbons Guild and Day Nursery 
of Baltimore, to be awarded to workers in the recent drive to raise |50,000 
for that institution. The medal has on the obverse a profile portrait of 
Cardinal Gibbons, with his name above it. The reverse has a view of the 
Baltimore Cathedral, with an inscription giving the dates of the Cardinal’s 
elevation through the various grades of the priesthood. 


New paper currency recently issued in Java by the Javasche Bank was 
so admired by the Chinese and natives when first issued that it was hoard- 
ed. The notes were printed by an American company and include 2Vx- 
guilder and 1 -guilder denominations. They were intended to relieve the 
present scarcity of silver coins. 


The non-fighting section of the British forces are clamoring for their war 
medals, but Winston Churchill, in Parliament, said it would take three or 
four years to provide medals for the men who actually did the fighting in 
the war. The men who did not do the fighting, he said, could wait a little; 
there was no urgency about it. 


OBSOLETE BANK NOTE BEDEE.MED. 


The redemption a few weeks ago of a $1 note issued in 1864 by the Min- 
neapolis Bank of Minneapolis, Minn., was of sufficient local Interest to re- 
ceive a column notice in the Minneapolis Journal of November 9 last, with 
illustrations of both sides of the note and of the building now occupied by 
the First National Bank, the successor of the Minneapolis Bank. We are 
indebted to W. H. Barnes of that city for a copy of the account. 

The note came from the First and Security State Bank of Zuinbrota, 
Minn., where it had been left for collection, and was promptly redeemed, 
and will be kept as a souvenir of the pioneer banking days of Minneapolis. 
The Bank of .Minneapolis was organized in 1864 as the successor of the 
private bank of Messrs. Sidle & Wolford. It became a national bank in 
1865. 


VICTORY >rEDALS TO BE DISTRIBl TED. 


The Victory medal, intended for presentation to each of the 4,500.000 
participants in the late war, are about ready for distribution. 

The obverse has a standing female figure symbolic of Victory, holding a 
sword in her right hand and wearing a buckler on her left arm. The de- 
sign is by J. B. Fraser. 

The reverse has in the center a United States shield having the letters 
“U. S.” in the field. Upon the shield is a fasces. Above. “The Great War 
for Civilization.’’ On each side of the shield and fasces are the names of the 
countries participating in the war, viz., France, Italy, Serbia, Japan, Mon- 
tenegro. Russia. Chile, Great Britain, Belgium, Brazil, Portugal, Rumania, 
China. 

The medal is struck in bronze and is about 114 inches in diameter. 


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37 


NEW FINNISH COINS. 


That the “Reds,” during their power in Finland, issued paper currency in 
considerable quantity is well known, but that they also struck coins is less 
known. Nevertheless, they found time to strike one coin during the waning 
of their existence. This, however, did not have much time or chance to 
circulate. It is a 5 penni piece, struck in copper, a trifle larger in size than 
the Swedish 1 ore. 

The obverse shows three trumpets, the mouthpieces of which are lack- 
ing, behind which a flag is hoisted on a staff. The flag has no emblems, 
therefore it probably means a plain red one, surrounded by the inscription 
“Kansan tyo Kansan Yalta” — “The people’s work, the people’s power.” At 
the bottom the year “1918” appears between the words “Suomie” and 
“Finland.” 

The reverse shows the flgure “5” between two small heraldic roses, under 
which, near the edge, is the word “Pennia.” This coin is extremely rare. 
Its value among collectors at the present time is said to be more than 200 
per cent, over face value. A. few specimens have appeared in Sweden. 

Up to the present time the new Finnish Republic has struck only two 
subsidiary coins in bronze, namely, a 5 and 10 penni, of about the same 
size as the Swedish 1 and 2 ore in copper. Both these coins have on the 
obverse Finland’s armed lion, and on the reverse, which resembles the 
“Reds’ ” coin, the denomination, and 10 pennia. 

J. del. 


THE ORIGIN OF THE NAME “PIN MONEY." 


Edward H. Greenway, in his writings “The Golden Age,” a society story 
of San Francisco, in connection with a tale of his youth in Baltimore dur- 
ing the Civil War, gives the origin of “pin money” to that city. He writes; 

“It was the preserves of the South that produced that common term ‘pin 
money.’ After the war everyone was trying to present as respectable an 
appearance as possible. As the Southern women, even of the best families, 
were wonderful cooks, they would send preserves and other home-cooked 
products to the annual fairs to sell. The principal product of these fashion- 
able women was a variety of small mixed pickles, called pin pickles.’ From 
this delicate manner of high-born ladies raising a little expense money came 
the phrase ‘pin money.’ Pitiful Indeed were some of the little ways in which 
families impoverished by war played the eternal game of Pretend.” 

Commenting on the above, Mr. Farran Zerbe of San Francisco says: 
“This may answer for the origin of the phrase, but some will argue that the 
iron skewers of Sparta was the first “pin money.” 

In his “Dictionary of Numismatic Names,” Mr. A. R. Frey gives the fol- 
lowing as the origin of the term: “In the fourteenth century, long after the 
invention of pins, the makers were allowed to sell them only on certain 
days. It was then that the women gathered there to buy them. When pins 
became cheap and common, they spent their allowances on other fancies, 
but the expression “pin money” remained. 


.MRS. “TO.M THl’MR" DEAD. 


The death of .Mrs. Tom Thumb, later the Countess .Magri, is worthy of 
note in these pages, because it is of interest to collectors of medals and 
tokens relating to the drama, amusements, etc. The little lady died on 
November 2i> last at the age of 77 years, in the city of her birth — .Middle- 
town, -Mass. A description of some of the Tom Thumb tokens, with illus- 
trations, was printed in the March, 1919, issue of The Numisvi.vtist. 

She was one of the best-known Lilliputians in the world. Her stage 
name was Lavinia Warren, which she adopted when she went on the stage 
at the age of 16. Her family name was Bump, and she was christened 
Lavinia Mercy Bump. She came of old colonial stock, one of her ancestors 
having been a voyager on the Mayflower. She was received by President 
and Mrs. Lincoln at the White House, and had met every President since 
that time. 


“IT IH GOOD CITIZENSHII* TO RUY GOVERNMENT SECURITIES.” 


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JESTING WITH COIN'S AND CL'KKEXCW. 


Green Persimmons. 

J. \V. Simmons presented a check payable to a Mr. Green at the City 
National Bank, of Selma, Ala., and indorsed the check “Green per Sim- 
mons.” Tlie cashier told him it would be O. K. as soon as frost fell. — 
Luke McLuke. 


Hut Who Got the Dozen Rolls? 

Old Gentleman (in street car): "Has any one here dropped a roll of bills 
with a rubber elastic around them?” 

“Yes, I have!” cried a dozen at once. 

Old Gentleman (calmly): “Well, I’ve just picked up the elastic.” — 
Widow. 


The Mjtthemutics of Tlirift. 

Pat — “This is the foist time inny of these corporations hev done inny- 
thlng to binneflt the workingman.” 

Mike — “How is that, Pat?” 

Pat — “It is this sivln-clnt fare. I hev bin walkin’ to and from work, and 
savin’ tin cints, and now I kin save fourteen cints.” — Exchange. 


Oh, .About Pour Hits! 

The silver in a dollar is worth 126 cents, but if the dollar is worth only 
40 cents nowadays, what is the 11.26 worth of silver worth? — Louisville 
Courier-Journal. 


Hig League Stuff. 

“Lend me article X, old man.” 

“Sorry, Joe, but the best I can let you have is article V.” 

"Ratified without reservations! Slip me the V.” — Buffalo Express. 


Huy Something Else With Tluvie Cents? Wliaddaya Mean? 

They say that a German mark is now worth only three cents in our 
money, but if we had three cents we believe we’d put it in something be- 
sides a German mark. — Wilmington News. 


We’ll Tell the Wide World It’s Weary. 

“Money is circulating very fast,” remarked the economist. 

“Yes,’’ replied the ordinary person; “by the time a dollar bill gets 
around to me it is so tired it can’t do anything like the work it used to.” 
— Washington Star. 


P.ASSING OP THE H.A’PEXNY. 


A plague upon the ha’penny! Who wants it nowadays? The ha’penny 
fare is gone; the ha’penny paper almost gone. A few fares still call for a 
supplementary ha’penny, but not for the stacks that are unloaded on us in 
bus, tram and shopman’s “change.” We want a coin controller to rid us of 
them and supply our daily need of pennies, of which there is a famine in 
some districts. Which is not to be wondered at, when we learn that slot 
meters absorb 50,000,000 a month . — London Chronicle. 


MEXICO PROHIHITS E.XPORT OP COINS. 


We are informed by Mr. L. A. Cardwell of Las Cruces, N. M., that the 
Mexican Government is attempting to restrict the exportation of coined 
money from that country, and that it is reported that all persons are 
searched at the El Paso International Bridge as a result. Mr. Cardwell 
also states that he learns that a new $2 gold piece has been issued in 
Mexico during the past few months. 


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39 



A WORD ABOUT “QUALITY” AND 
SUCCESS. 

The QUALITY of any commodity, whether it be 
merchandise or service, can best be measured by the 
universal success it enjoys. 

The Success of my “Quality Auction Sales,” about 
which I have been tooting considerably these past sixteen 
years or more, can certainly be measured by the generous 
patronage they enjoy. 

What those who sell a commodity may say about it 
matters little. It’s what those who buy and use think 
and say about it that matters much. And the number of 
such buyers means a great deal as to whether or not the 
commodity or service is all that it’s seller claims for it. 

Think this over, please! 

At my Sale of November 19th, nearly three hundred 
collectors sent in their bids, and up to this writing more 
than three hundred collectors have already purchased 
Price Lists of the Sale. 

I don’t know what other markets receive, but I do 
know that this is not a record with me but the usual oc- 
eurrance at aJl my Sales. 

Of course, “there is a reason”— Extensive advertis- 
ing — Conducting the coin business not in the ruts of 
thirty years ago, but along modem business methods. 
Ample capital and financial responsibility to insure sat- 
isfaction, safety, and pleasant returns to you of all the 
transactions you may place with me. 


Write me whenever you want to buy or sell 



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THE NUMISMATIST 


THE JANUARY ELDER SALE OF COINS 

Will include Half Dollars of 1796 and 1797; a very inter- 
esting? lot of American and Foreign Medals and Tokens; 
Part II of the Wendell Collection; a New England Col- 
lection of Coins and Medals; two Rare Wass, Moliter & 

Co. $10 Gold Pieces; Ancient Gold Coins; Continental Pa- 
per Money; Colonial Coins and Tokens, the property of a 
veteran Massachusetts Collector, and otlier interesting 
consignments. Probably a sale of two sessions. Watch <► 

t for the catalogue. 

- 

Wonderful Imported Indestructible Pearl Necklaces, 
good length, just received from Japan, said to equal the 
$50 strings on Fifth Avenue, price only $12.50. 

THE ELDER COIN & CURIO COMPANY, 

■ 

Tlionuis li. Elder, Manager, 

■ 

21 West 35th Street, New York City. 

• 


TO MEMBERS OF THE A. N. A. 

The dues of A. N. A. members — 50 cents — 
and subscriptions to THE NUMISMATIST — 
$1.50 — for 1920 should be paid at the earliest 
opportunity. Both are payable to the Gen- 
eral Secretary. Please send your check or 
money order for $2 promptly to H. H. Yaw- 
ger, General Secretary, 78 Linden Street, 
Rochester, N. Y. 


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lomoE 


lOEio^aoaoE 


lOBOE 


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WAYTE RAYMOND 

489 Park Avenue, 

(Anderson Galleries) 

New York City. 

Dealer in rare coins of all countries. New Price List 
of Foreign Silver and Copper Coins just out; one of the 
largest price lists of coins in stock ever issued in this 
country. Sent free on request. 

Collections catalogued for sale at auction or purchased 
outright. All of my important sales are held in the audi- 
torium of the Anderson Galleries, the finest auction room 
in America. 


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301 


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COIN NOTICE 

What are your wants? 
I can supply them. 

Collections 
Bought Outright 
For Cash or Sold at 
Public Auction. 

Reference, First Na- 
tional Bank, Boston, 
Mass. 

William Hesslein 

BOSTON, MASS. 


U. S. FIXED PRICE LIST No. 3 

Mailed on request. 


MONEY LOANED on Coins :uid 
Stamps. Entire Collections 
Purchased. 


Ben G. Green’s 
Reference and Check Book. 

Complete list of all coins issued by 
the U. S. Mint and branches, with their 
principal varieties, the private issues 
of gold, fractional currency and en- 
cased postage stamps. Book is pocket 
size and printed on writing paper, 
ruled for checking the pieces in a col- 
lection, their condition, date of acqui- 
sition, price paid and from whom 
bought. The number of pieces of ev- 
ery denomination coined each year at 
the various mints Is also given, mak- 
ing it an invaluable guide to the coi- 
lector of mint marks and as to tlie 
rarity of any coin. Blank space Is 
provided for additions of dates of 
future Issues and other memoranda. 
120 pages. Price. Cloth, $1.00. Flex- 
ible Leather, $1.50. Interleaved, Gilt 
Edges. $2.00. 

Panama-Pacific Half Dollar $1.50 

Illinois Centennial Half Dollar .. 1.25 

FRED MICHAEL 

8 South Dearborn St., Chicago, III 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


AT AUCTION 

The R. G. Snow Collection of American Colo- 
nial, United States and Foreign Coins, 
Medals and Tokens. Rarities in all series. 
Fine Cents, etc. 

A truly interesting? Kale, and eindainly another 
Mehl QUALITY SALP], 

Fine C'ataloKiie.s in pre|>uratiun. Sent free to all on 
iny list and to other buyers who write for it. 

B. MAX MEHL 

Numismatist, 

Mehl Building, Fort Worth, Texas. 


WANTED. 

Merchants’ Trade Cards and Hacien- 
da Tokens from Mexico, Soutli and 
Central America, and West India. Must 
he Hue or better. Will pay cash. 

0. P. EKLUND, 

071 1 PittNhurK St.. Spokane. WaNh. 


THE BOOKFELLOWS. 

-All I iiteriintloiial .\HMOoiatlon of 
ItenderN mill Writers. 

We have something of joy for every 
lover of good books. Membership one 
dollar per annu,m. Let us tell you 
about it. 

Kl.Oli A W AHKKN SEYMOLH. C lerk. 
.'.'it:o Kliiihiirk Are., Chicago. III. 


German Lusitania Medal. 

Historical souvenir of 
event leading to down- 
fall of German Empire; 
an everlasting proof of 
Huns' damnable duplic- 
ity; metal dIe-cast cop- 
ies, oxidized copper fin- 
ish, sent for 50c.; three 
for $1; $3 per dozen. 

Circular free. 

C. M. M.AHOOD. WARREN, P.A. 


Broken Bank Bills Wanted. 

I am assembling numismatic exhib- 
its of broken bank bills for several 
I)ublic libraries and historical societies, 
tlend anything you have on approval. 
Member A. N. A.. B. N. S.. B. P. S. 
Iteference, any Boston bank. 

H. D. .ALLEN, 

Confederate Money Historian, 

21 AA'lnter Street, Rostoo, MaiiB. 

Acme 

Transparent Envelopes 

Set of 23 Pockets to hold all regular 
Issues U. S. Fractional Cy., $1.00. 

Hollar bill size, per doz., $1.60, post- 
paid. Send dime for samples and list. 
Manufactured bv 
C. N. HINCKLEY, 

•17.VI Dover Street, Chicago, III. 


KIAIRALL’S AD. 

I have just bought 160 cents, many 
In fine condition, from 1793 to 1857. 
What do you want? 

Sheet of Omalia City, Neb., $1, $2, $3, 
$.5 bills, crisp, black and red, dated 
185.5. 50c. each. 

New list No. 6. over 1100 lots, sent 
free. Premium list of prices paid for 
coins, sta.mps, 10c. 

K. R. K I AIR ALL. Room 124. IK Trcmont 
Kt„ Kimball lllilg., lloMton, Maan, 



A. N. A. — Have you renewed for 1920? 


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JANUARY, 1920. 


43 


VENN’S 

MONOGRAPHS 


I am still working- on my 


200th 


A series of four treatises under 
one cover, embracing United States 
?3 Gold Pieces, Large United States 
Cents, United States Half Cents, and 
Bronze Two-Cent Pieces. 

The only monographs on United 
States coins giving their values in 
the different states of preservation 
as based on average coin auction rec- 
ords. 

Price, $1.50, Postpaid. 


PUBLISHED by 

R. THOMAS, 

Numismatist. 

119 North Dearborn Street, 


PUBLIC AUCTION 
SALE, 

Therefore, the event is post- 
poned to the last days of Janu- 
ary or early in February. 

Best Holiday wishes for 
1919-20 and the entire New 
Year through, to every reader 
of this periodical, and all oth- 
ers who love the Science of Nu- 
niisinatics. 

LYMAN H. LOW. 


CHICAGO, ILL. 


The book may be secured from the 
publisher direct, or through any coin 
dealer or bookseller who handles 
numismatic literature. 


Emergency Circulating Notes 
of the Philippines. 

.Authorized by an Act of the Philip- 
pine Lej?lslature in 1917. The Insular 
Government issued these notes from 
the Phlllpnine Nat’l Bank. Secured 
from a U. S. Army Officer, and the only 
ones in sight. A REAL piece of WAR 
MONEY. Finely printed by the Gov- 
ernment Bureau of Printing at Manila. 
"TEN CENTAVOS" only. 75c. per pair, 
tOc. each, with typewritten history. 

Here's another good item of paper 
money; Bigelow, Morse & Co. shin- 
plasters. issued 1862. Marlborough. 
Ma.sw. Set of 4 pieces, 5c.. 10c.. 25c. and 
50c. (Rare as a set.) Set, 75c. 

If interested in Paper Money, write 
me. Am a collector and dealer. 

JOHN EDWIN MORSE, 

Hadley. MaHHnetanaetta. 


New Rochelle, N. Y. 
December 20, 1919. 


ANOTHER NEW ONE! 

.New Die of tlie New type Mexican 


50-centavo silver with figures 
0.720 above eagle. Mint condi- 
tion. postpaid $ .75 

New Design, Mexican 10c. sliver. 

,1919 10 

New Design, Mexican 20c. silver, 

1919 iO 

New Design, Mexican 50c. silver, 

1918 75 

New Design, Mexican 50c. silver. 

1919 70 

New Design. Mexican peso, silver. 

1918 1.25 

New Design, Mexican peso, silver, 

1919 1.00 

Complete set. new design, Mexican 

10. 20. 50 ctv. and 1 peso, silver, 

1919 2.00 

GOLD. 

peso Mexican, 1918 2.25 


I NEED SOME 

1802 U. S. Half Dimes. 

Will pay cash if you have any. Send 
description and price at once to 


REVOLITKLN All! I'lECES. 


i’arral peso. 1913 l.SO 

Muera Huerta peso. 19M 3.50 

Zapata peso, 1914 2.5(T 

/npata 2 pesos (larget, 1915 3.00 

Z.apata 2 pesos (small), 1915 5.00 

.\i-my of tile North peso, 1915 .... 1.75 


HARRY KELSO, Arma, Eans. 
A. N. A. 

Are you taking part in the 
drive for new mem^rs? 


Tlie al)Ove and otlter interesting 
items on approval against reference or 
cash deposit. Also, CHINESE paper 
money. 

L. A. CARDWELL, 

\mh Cruoew, \ew Mexico. 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


44 


THE NUMISMATIST 




WANT TO PURCHASE 

Entire Collections of Coins, U. S. or Foreign. 
Will pay liberal prices and remit spot cash. 

Xo Collection too small nor too large for 
my consideration. Can now make ])nr- 
chases iij) to $’Jo, 0 (i 0 . 0 (). 

Correspondence invited and cheerfully and promptly 

attended to. 

9 

B. MAX MEHL 

Numismatist. 

Mehl Building, Fort Worth, Texas. 


I 

'r 

T 

T 

y 

X 

f 

y 

y 

y 

y 

y 

y 

I 

I 

y 

y 

y 

y 

y 

y 

y 

; 

i 




Fractional Currency 

JiiNt HccfIvciI. 

A choice crisp, 
uncirculated lot. 
Including all is- 
sues. 

' Red RackH and 
Auto Signatnren. 

Prices on appli- 
cation. 

Thou sands of 
Coins In stock of 
every country and 
period. Send us 
your want list. 

The iVunilNnintlo Ruide in Its 12th 
Edition, having 250 illustrations, quotes 
our buying and selling prices, and Is 
sent postpaid on receipt of 15c. 

Arnold Numismatic Co. p^^’idencelRri: 



CONFEDERATE BILLS. 

Eight different, 50c. to $100, V. F., lot 
for .55 cents. Ancient coin, V. G., 20 
cents. 

Fixed price-list No. 5 of U. S. and 
foreign Gold, Silver and Copper Coins 
sent on re<iuest. 

You will find It to your advantage 
to write me, wliether you wish to buy 
or sell. 

NORMAN SHI LTZ, King City, Mo. 


K. A. PERKINS, 

BONAPARTE, IOWA, 

Collector of 

Coins and Prehistoric 
Relics. 


WANTED 

1913 LIBERTY HEAD 
NICKEL 

In Proof condition, if possible. 
Will pay .$600 cash for one. 

SAMUEL W. BROWN, 

North Tonawanda, N. Y. 


STAMP AND COIN 
EXCHANGE 

78 Nassau Street, New York City. 
Price list free. Premium Catalog 10c. 
Coin Collections Purchased for Cash, 
liarge Silver Catalog .50c; Copper 

A. N. A. 

Have you renewed for 1920? 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



The Numismatist 

VOL. XXXllI. F'EBKUARY, 101^0. No. L2 


A TRIAL LIST OF THE COUNTERMARKED MODERN 

COINS OF THE WORLD. 


By F. G. DUFFIELD. 


(continued ekom last month.) 


MEXICO. 

During the reign of Ferdinand VII ( 1808-21 ) a number of the pieces of 
8 Reals, known as “Sand Dollars,” from the fact that they were cast instead 
of struck from dies, were countermarked for use in Mexico or elsewhere. 
This was the period when revolutionists were active, and conditions in the 
country were no doubt responsible for most of these stamps. The pieces 
aie listed here in as satisfactory a manner as the nature of the counter- 
marks and the varied and often incomplete catalogue descriptions will per- 
mit. 

536. Mexico, Sand Dollar, 1812, Cm. ‘T’ with arms of Peru and "L V S.” 

637. Mexico, 8 Reals, , Cm. "L V S’’ and “L C M.” 

538. .Mexico, 8 Reals, Chihuahua. Cm. "L C .M.” 

539. Mexico, 8 Reals, Chihuahua, 1821, struck over an earlier peso and 

Cm. "L C M.” 

540. Mexico, 8 Reals, Zacatecas, Provisional, 1812, Cm. “L V C" and 

“7%” (for 7% Reals?). 

541. Mexico, Sand Dollar, 1809, 1810, Cm. “.M V A j 1811.” 

542. Mexico, 8 Reals, 1799, Cm. with bust of Ferdinand VII, and also Cm. 

“M V A 1 1811.” 

543. Mexico, 8 Reals, Chihuahua. 1818, struck over an earlier peso and 

Cm. “M V A I 1812.” 

544. Mexico, 8 Reals, Ferdinand VII, , struck over a peso of Charles 

IV and Cm. ”M V A | 1812.” 

545 Mexico, 8 Reals, Zacatecas, 1811, Cm. “V L M P.” 

I have a memorandum taken from a foreign catalogue that the stamps 
*‘.M V A” and "V L .M P” are for “Municipa V^alladolid” or “Valladolid .Mu- 
nicipa.” I also have a memorandum from a similar source that these pieces 
were countermarked for use in England, 1797-1813. 

546. Mexico, Sand Dollar, — — , Cm. a sword and a human head. 

547. Mexico, Sand Dollar, 1812, Cm. a small bust and the letter “1.” 

The above are also said to have been stamped for use in England. 

5 4 8. .Mexico, Sand Dollar, Chihuahua, 1811, Cm. twice on obverse (not 
described ). 

549. Mexico, Sand Dollar, Chihuahua, 1812, Cm. “T” and a crowned apple 

(?) between two pillars. 

550. Mexico, Sand Dollar, Chihuahua, 1813, Cm. “T” and an unknown 

character. 

551. Mexico. Sand Dollar, Chihuahua, 1813, Cm. “T” for Tortola. 

It is probable that the above six pieces have the same coumermark, but 
are differently described by the cataloguers. 

552. Mexico, 8 Reals. Chihuahua, 1815, struck over another coin and Cm. 

several tiroes. 


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46 


THE NUMISMATIST 


553. Spaiiish-.-Vn.erican 8 Reals, Sand Dollar, 1812, Cm. “J C M,” also one 

incuse and one small Cm., similar to those on t..e v'ar^^as dollars. 

554. Mexico, 8 Reals, 180U, Cm. “J M L." 

555. Mexico, 2 Reals, Zacatecas, 1811, Cm. “.J M L ] S. K. d.” 

556. Mexico, 2 Reals, Zacatecas, 1811, Cm. “J M L ! S. .M.” 

557. -Mexico, 2 Reals, Zacatecas, 1811, t m. a round stamp with arrow and 

flag and "J .M L.” 

558. -Mexico, 8 Reals, Zacatecas, 1811, Cm. “J L M,” flag on staff; above, 

“A,” below "X P. -M.” -\ second Cm., "UlIL*” in an oblong 

depression. 

659. Mexico, 8 Reals, Zacatecas, 1811, Cm. “J M L | VE” and flag. 

560. Mexico, 8 Reals, Zacatecas, 1811, Cm. “LlX.A. | RES*” in two lines 

in an oblong indent with border of pellets. (This piece is at- 
tributed to San Felipe de Linares, in the State of Nueva Leon. 

The following pieces, either the original coins or after being counter- 
marked, relate to Morelos or the Central Junta. 

561. Mexico. Silver 8 Reals of Morelos, 1812, struck over a peso of Ferdi- 

nand VH. 

562. Mexico, S.;nd Dollar, 1810, Cm. with the stamp of the Central Junta, 

and afterwards Cm. twice with the monogram of .Moielos be- 
tween two stars, and a third Cm., smaller, of a monogram. 

663. Mexico, Sand Dollar, 1811, Cm. with the stamp of the Central Junta 
and the monogram of Morelos. 

564. -Mexico, 8 Reals, Ferdinand VII, , Cm. with the st.rmp of the 

( entral Junta. 

565. -Mexico, 2 Reals, , Cm. with the stamp of the Central Junta. 

566. -Mexico, Copper 8 Reals of -Morelos, 1812, Cm. with monogram of 

-Morelos. This particular piece (the original coin) was describee’ 
as unpublished. The obverse had the bow, arrow and “SUD” 
and the inscription ‘‘Moneda Provi.” The reverse had the in 
sciiption “Fabrica en Huatia” and the denomination and date. 

567. Mexico, (iopper 8 Reals of Morelos, 1812, 1813, Cm. with monogram 

of Morelos. 

568. Mexico, Silver 8 Reals of Morelos (cast), 1813, with inscription 

“Prov. D. Oaxaca,” Cm. with monogram of Morelos. 

669. Mexico, 8 Reals (cast, in gold), 1813, Cm. with monogram of More- 

los. 

670. Mexico, Copper 8 Reals of Morelos, 1813, ‘‘T C” variety. Cm. with 

figure “2.” 

671. Mexico, Copper 8 Reals of .Morelos, 1814, Cm. with monogram of 

Morelos. 

572. -Mexico, 8 Reals, 1800, 1807, 1811 (Zacatecas), 1812 (Durango), 
Cm. with monogram of Morelos. 


573. Mexico, 8 Reals (cast), 1812, Provisional, for Oaxaca, Cm. ‘Tol” 

crowned; a second Cm., “D.” 

574. Mexico, 8 Reals (cast), 1812, Provisional, for Oaxaca, Cm. “Mo” 

(similar to the mint mark for Mexico). 

575. Mexico, S Reals (cast), 1812, Provisional, for Oaxaca, Cm. “R.” 




No. 577. 


No. 576. 


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FEBRUARY, 1920. 


47 


The following two pieces are said to have been countermarked during the 
revolution led by the Curate Hidalgo in 1810. 

576. Mexico, oblong portion (about one-half) of 8 Reals, 1794, Cm. “4 R. I 
MON. PnOV. I UI I HIDALGO | Mo.” within a circle, all incuse. 
5 77. Silver-gilt oval medal ot devotion of Our Lady of St. John of Los La- 
gos, Cm. as preceding. (It is very unusual to tind a medal coun- 
termarked for use as a coin. ) 

578. -Mexico, oblong cob 8 Reals, , with two countermarks, one in 

Turkish characters. 

57 9. Mexico, Irregular 8 Reals, 165 6, Cm. a wheel with eight spokes. (This 
is probably a foreign countermark.) 

580. Mexico, cob 2 Reals, , Cm. “T R A” in monogram within wreath. 

581. -Mexico, portion (%) of Half Real, , Cm. “M C” in oblong. 

582. Mexico, 2 Reals of (Jhas. Ill, , Cm. ‘‘G \V” in square. 

583. Mexico, 2 Reals, 1780, Cm. “F 12 M” in oval. 

584. Mexico, 2 Reals, 1783, Cm. “J M.” 

585. Mexico, 2 Reals, 1783, Cm. “I M” in script. 

586. Mexico, Real, 1803, Cm. “A S R” in monogram. 

587. -Mexico, 8 Reals, 1806, Cm. “I:R” in square with notched edges. 

588. Mexico, Real of Ferdinand VII, , Cm. ”R R R”, each letter in an 

oval. 

589. Mexico, 8 Reals, Chihuahua, 1816, with two courrtermarks (not de- 

scribed). 

590. Mexico, 2 Reals, Zacatecas, 1831, Cm. "CUENCA.” 

591. Mexico, 2 Reals of the Republic, , Cm. an eye. 

592. Mexico, Real of Ferdinand VII, , Cm. “J. M — D S” (attributed 

to Oaxaca). 

593. -Mexico, portion (%) of Half Real, 1850, Cm. “SAT” in nronogratn 

attributed to Santa Ana de Tamaulipas). 

594. Mexico, portion ( ) of Real, , Cm. “SAT” in monogram. 

595. Mexico, portion ( % ) of Half Real, , Cm. “COSCOMO | TEPEC.” 

596. Mexico, 8 Reals, Zacatecas, 1862, Cm. resembling the sun. 

597. Mexico, round section, 18 mm., cut from center of 8 Reals, Cm. on 

one side with Spanish arms, and on other side “MORALES Ho. 
10 I JUNIO.” (This countermark, or a very similar one, is found 
also on a U. S. Half Dime.) 

589. Mexico, copper (4 Real of Jalisco, 1829, Cm. “J A." and “V.” 

599. Mexico, brass V4 Real, 1831, Cm. “J .M” (the Initials of a moneyer 

which appear on silver coins). 

600. 5Iexico, copper V4 Real of Jalisco, 1833, Cm. “P.” 

601. Mexico, copper ^ Real of Jalisco, 1834, Cm. “H 8.” 

602. -Mexico, copper V4 Real, 1834, Cm. “D T” in oblong indent. 

603. Mexico, copper ^ Real, 1835, Cm. “ALVA | R.\DO” in two lines. 

604. Mexico, copper Real of the Republic ( 1829-36), Cm. with dies for 

% Real, 1842. (Octavos w'ere also struck from the dies used 
for this countermark.) 

605. France, 20 Centimes of Napoleon III (1852-70 ), Cm. large “.MM” on 

obverse and reverse. (Attributed to Mexico.) 

606. Mexico, copper M Real of Durango, 1860, Cm. “G” and Cm. “D K” 

in monogram. 



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48 


THE NUMISMATIST 


607. Mexico, copper 14 Real of Sonora, 1861, Cm. “J. G. DERBY.” 

608. Mexico, brass V4 Real of Zacatecas, 1863, Cm. "I G R.” 

609. Mexico, copper ^ Real of Durango, 1872, Cm. ”R." 

610. Mexico, brass % Real of Zacatecas, , Cm. “VALDES.” 

611. -Mexico, brass % Real of Zacatecas, , Cm. “Z.” 

612. -Mexico, brass % Real of Zacatecas, , Cm. “A. G. CUERVO.” 

613. Mexico, brass Vs Real of Zacatecas, , Cm. “ZAR.” 

614. Mexico, brass % Real of Zacatecas, , Cm. “ZA” within a circle 

of pellets (for Zamora). 

615. -Mexico, copper V4 Real of Jalisco, , Cm. “EL C.YMBIO.” 

616. Mexico, copper Vs Real of Jalisco, , Cm. “EL CAMBIO.” 

617. Mexico, brass V4 Real of Zacatecas, , Cm. “EL CAMBIO.” 

618. Mexico, brass % Real of Zacatecas, , Cm. "EL CAMBIO.” 

619. Mexico, Vi Real, 1845, Guadalaxara mint, struck over a copper coin. 

620. Mexico, Real, 1846, Guadalaxara mint, struck over a copper coin. 

621. Mexico, 2 Reals, , Guadalaxara mint, the reverse die struck on 

an octavo. 

622. England, Halfpenny, 1749, Cm. an arrow and tomahawk in oval twice 

on obverse and reverse. (Attributed to Mexico.) 

623. Obverse of Chihuahua coin with Indian, bow and arrow, struck ove.' 

a Canadian Un Sou token. 

624. Spain, Real, , Cm. Mexican eagle in oval. 

625. Spain, 2 Reals, , Cm. Mexican eagle in oval. 

626. Spain, Real, , Cm. Mexican eagle in circle. 

627. Spain, 2 Reals, , Cm. Mexican eagle in circle. 

628. Mexico, Camichines, copper Quartilla of Lazaro J. Gallardo, 1857, 

Cm. an eagle. 

629. Mexico, Camichines, copper Octavo of S. A. Del Potrero, Cm. a dog. 

630. Mexico, 2 Reals, Zacatecas, 1812, Cm. Mexican eagle: below it, 

“NORTE.” (This piece is said to be an issue of Tamaulipas 
during the uprising of Antonio Canales ( 1836) and the formation 
of that State as a separate division under the title of Estado de 
Norte.) 


.MOZA.MBigUE. 

Coins are found with a countermark consisting of the letters “P. M.” 
(for Provincia Mozambique) with a crown above, all within a circle, and 
are attributed to Mozambique. 

631. Maria Theresa Crown, 1780, Cm. "P. M.” crowned. 

632. Mexico, 8 Reals of Zacatecas, 1871, Cm. “P. M.” crowned. 

633. India, Rupee, 1862, 1880, 1882, 1884, 1891, 1892, Cm. “P. M.” 

crowned. 

^TO BE COIVTINUED. ) 


CREATING A PERMANENT INTEREST IN NUMISMATICS. 


By THEODORE J. VEN.N. 


(.V paper read before the Chicago Coin Club on Wednesday, December 3.) 


To my Eellow-.Members of the Chicago Coin Club: 

Having been informed by Mr. Leon that I, with several others, had been 
chosen to inflict a short paper or address upon your honorable body, and 
being ever swayed by the urge of numismatics, I shall, with your kind in- 
dulgence. do my best to comply. 

What shall be the theme? I can think of none better adapted to the 
occasion than that whicli is, or at least should be, foremost in the thoughts 
of every true numismatist: “How can we evoke greater interest in numis- 
matics? How can we gain accessions to our ranks?” 

We frequently have heard it said that all men are natural-born collectors, 
although some succeed only in collecting a peck of trouble for themselves. 
I beg to differ with this statement, especially in so far as it may be sup- 
posed to have any bearing on the numismatist or philatelist. 


Digitized by Go 'gle 


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FEBRUARY, 1920. 


49 


Coin and stamp collectors differ primarily from the poet in that they are 
made, not born. The germ may be inherent, but it has to be fanned into 
activity. 

-My observation has been that the majority of collectors either have been 
so from early manhood or else have taken it up as a diversion after the 
more active portion of their life had been spent. In other words, few 
numismatists are made between the ages of 25 and 50. Consequently, our 
main efforts must be directed toward the younger generation and those who 
iiave passed the meridian. The intervening years appear to be a period of 
hibernation so far as creating much enthusiasm In numismatics is concern- 
ed. There are exceptions, of couise, but these merely prove the rule. 

My experience has been that we either should begin with the youth, when 
all the chances favor the creation of a true numismatist, or else we shall 
have to rely upon arousing enthusiasm in those who have reached the more 
advanced years, in which event we shall find that, although many will look 
upon numismatics as a field for diversion, others will be largely moved by a 
spirit of commercialism. 

I know that many will diagree with me. Some hold that the middle-aged 
are the best collectors. So they are, but mainly only when the interest has 
been instilled in younger days. I have expended my efforts on the young, 
the middle-aged and the old, and have found youth most responsive. 

Some say age makes no difference; the germ is always there. This may be 
so, but I have found numerous cases in which I was unable to produce a 
sulliclent physical shock to dislodge it and send it into the circulation. 
Others have told me there was always a latent fire, but in some instances 
I have never been able to get a bellows powerful enough to raise even a 
spark from the embers. 

How, then, shall we proceed? The answer is, “Let us not relax our ef- 
forts to create enthusiasm in numismatics at any age, but let us multiply our 
efforts on the younger ages, where the opportunities are brightest and the 
results most enduring. 

VVe know that there are at least thirty stamp collectors to every numis- 
matist. At least, I have been so informed by people who are in a position to 
know. How does this happen? The reason is not far to seek. 

The habit of collecting stamps is formed at an early age, mostly during 
the early school years. In the beginning the stamps cost nothing. The boys 
secure them from letters in their parents’ homes or from friends. They 
naturally secure duplicates, and these in turn are traded off to other boys 
forming collections, until they finally reach the stage where the trading 
process comes to a halt. But in the meantime sufficient interest has been 
aroused to create a desire to secure the specimens they lack, and to get them 
they naturally invoke the aid of the stamp dealers. And in many instances 
the interest continues to old age. I here want to emphasize the fact that 
the start costs nothing, and as a rule boys at this age have comparatively 
little money to spend. But they become good buyers later on. 

But how is the boy of school age going to get his start in the numismatic 
field? Nowhere unless the numismatist comes to his aid, and thereby also 
helps his own cause. 

There are thousands of foreign coins which in quantities cost but a few 
cents each, and very good specimens of many of our obsolete issues can be 
secured at but a trifle over face value. I refer particularly to the nickel 
3-cent and the bronze 2-cent pieces and the half dimes. Why could not the 
great excess of these pieces be employed to do missionary work among boys 
in ttie making of future numismatists, instead of being sent in bunches from 
one auction to another, and each time resold, no doubt, with a loss to the 
owner? I naturally refer to the common dates in ordinary condition. 

While it might be impossible to secure united effort in any endeavor of 
this kind, why cannot every true numismatist appoint himself a committee of 
one to give some of the boys of his acquaintance a few of these coins at 
various intervals and thus help to set the ball in motion. I have frequent iy 
given away coins of the various minor varieties — coins costing but a few 
cents each — and have found that these obsolete pieces always create more 
or less interest on the part of the recipient, and they usually are preserved, 
not spent or given away, and in some cases they have formed the nucleus 
of small collections. 

There are other ways in which the individual collector can help the cause 


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50 


THE NUMISMATIST 


without going to any extraordinary expense. When giving a tip, for in- 
.■stance, why not give it in an old dime or half dime? Where the obligation 
is greater, why not one of the early half dollars? You can secure them at 
a shade over face value in ordinary condition and they could be doing good 
missionary work instead of lying idle in the dealers’ vaults. An additional 
tax on yourself of about 10 cents would do the work and in most cases the 
coin would be kept as a pocket-piece, being frequently exhibited, and thus 
doing missionary woi'k. 

During the holiday season, at birthdays, and on other occasions we fre- 
quently feel called upon to make presentations. In many instances a $1 or 
a $3 gold piece would admirably fill the bill. All of the commemorative 
pieces are nicely adapted to this purpose, and, due to their oddity, would 
often be more appreciated than something costing the donor considerably 
more money. In the meantime, it would also be doing numismatics a good 
turn. 

Anything that has hitherto not been seen always creates more or less in- 
terest. Hence the general popularity of all obsolete coins. A case in point 
and I shall not longer tax your patience: 

A short time ago 1 received a few California gold quarter dollars from the 
East, and my daughter stood near me while I examined the coins. Siie look- 
ed at one of them closely, admired it, made some remarks about its small- 
ness, then handed it back to me, and I put the coins away and thought the 
incident closed. To my surprise she came to me a few days ago and said: 
“Daddy, if you are going to give me anything for my birthday, I wish you 
would get me one of those cute little gold quarters you showed me the otlier 
day.’’ 

Needless to say, the order for the gold piece is now on its way. 


GERMAN TOKENS OF THE WAR. 


The descriptions below and the illustrations on the opposite page form the 
second installment of the series of tokens issued in Germany during the late 
war. The first installment appeared last month. Selections have been made 
from a large number of the tokens submitted by Mr. O. P. Eklund of Spo- 
kane, Wash., for the purpose of showing the great variety of types of cur- 
rency of small denominations used in the different cities throughout the 
Empire during the years of the war. Other installments will follow in 
March and April. 

No. 1 — Frankfurt-on-the-.Main, 10 pfennigs, 1917. Obv., Arms. Re'.., 
“Stadt Frankfurt .\/M. 10 Pfennig. 1917.’’ Zinc. 

No. 2 — Heil-Bronn (city, Wurttemburg ) , 50 pfennigs, 1917. Obv., Female 
figure standing separates date, “19 18.’’ Rev., “Kriegsgeld. Heil-Bronn. 
50.’’ Octagonal. Unplated iron. 

No. 3 — Kisslegg (city, in Allgaeu), 50 pfennigs, 1919. Obv., A soldier 
w'earing a trench helmet, holding a hand grenade, leaning on a shield with 
arms. “Kriegsnotmunze. 1918.’’ Rev., “Kisslegg in Allgaeu. 50 P.’’ in 
cartouche. Zinc. 

No. 4 — Friedrichsliafen (Wurttemburg), 10 pfennigs, 1918. Obv., Arms. 
Rev., “10 Pfg. Friedrichsliafen. 1918.’’ Iron. A very attractive piece. 

No. 5--Fulda (Hesse Cassel), 50 pfennigs, 1917. Obv., A knight in ar- 
mor above two shields. “Stadt F'ulda. 1917.’’ Rev., “Kleingeldersatz- 
marke. 50.’’ Octagonal. Zinc. (Set, 10. 50 Pfgs.) 

No. 0 — Grunhain (Saxony), 10 pfennigs, n. d. Obv., .Vrins of the city. 
"Die Stadt Grunhain." Rev., “lO” in double circle. Struck on thick card- 
hoard, resembling guttapercha. (Set, 10, 50 Pfgs., same size. The only set 
of this type listed.) 

No. 7 — Hall (city. Wurttemburg), 10 pfennigs, 1918. Obv., An open 
hand, on which is the Iron Cross. “Kgl. Wurtt. Oberamtsstadt (Capital 
City). Hall.’’ Rev., "Kleingeld Ersatzmarke’’ separated by “10 Pf.” which 
separates the date, “19 18.’’ Iron. 

No. 8 — Kaiserslautern (city, Rheinpfalz), 50 pfennigs. 1917. Obv., Arms 
(a fish), “Kaiserslautern. 1917.’’ Rev., “50. Kriegsgeld.” Zinc. (Set, 
5. 10. 50 Pfgs.) 

No. 9 — Iserlohn (city, Westphalia), 50 pfennigs. 1917. Obv., Arms. 
“Kiiegsgeld. Stadt Iserlohn.’’ Rev., “50 Pfennig. 1917.’’ Zinc-nickel. 
(Set, 5, 10, 50 Pfgs.) 


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Xo. 12 — Itzehoer (city, Holstein), 50 pfennigs, n. d. Obv., '‘Kleingeld- 
ersatzmarke Itzehoer Kreditbank” (Small coin substitute, credit bank). 
•■ 50 ." Holed in center, as issued. Rev., incuse of obverse. Struck on thin 
iron, plated. (Set, 5, 10, 50 Pfgs.) 




By M. SUKE.NSE.V. 


Iron is scarce in Germany, and the government is now coining aluminum. 
Fifty million marks worth of aluminum 50 pfennig pieces have been made. 


A dangerous 10 kroner note is at present circulating in Denmark. The 
bills are well executed, and several of them have been received in banks. 
T.iey all bear the same serial number S074 1 22E and the date 1917. Secret 
Sei'vice officials think it is a Bolshevist product, turned out by a gang of 
Russian counterfeiters, located in Stockholm, Sweden. It is claimed that 
this gang is turning out spurious notes of several countries, including the 
United States. 


An amusing incident is related in a Danish newspaper, illustrating the 
confusing conditions in calculating values, caused by the great drop of the 
German mark. man from Denmark was visiting in Slesvig. One day he 
was refreshing himself with a stein of beer in a cafe, ami upon paying for 
same tendered a German mark. Small change was scarce, but finally the 
cashier dug up from the bottom of his till a Danish 25 ore piece, which was 
given the customer in change. The man went across the street to get a shave 
in a barber shop. Here he tendered the Danish 25 ore piece in payment for 
services received and was not little surprised to get a German mark back 
in change. When these little transactions had been settled to the satisfac- 
tion of all concerned, the man still had the same amount of money in his 
pocket. 


The hoarded Russian silver is being smuggled out of the country when- 
ever possible. Not long ago a boat from the north coast arrived in Vardo, 
Norway, having on board 15 sacks of Russian silver, worth 6 million rubles. 


A new variety of .Mexican silver, design 191 S, has been noticed. Date 
1919, figures 0.720 above the eagle. 


.NEW DEXO.MIX.ATIONS OF C'OIX.S IKfJED. 


Bills for the addition of a two-cent and a 15-cent piece to our coinage have 
been introduced in Congress by Representative Daniei F. Minahan, of .New 
Jersey. 

The need for coins of these denominations has been emphasized by the 
workings of the revenue law, which imposes taxes of one and two cents on a 
large variety of small commodities, such as the output of the soda fountain, 
the candy store and the box-oRice of the low-priced motion picture theatre. 

The dispensers of all these commodities are confronted continually with 
the difficulty of making change. This problem would be simplified by the 
resumption of the coining of the two-cent bronze coin, which was begun in 
IStJl and ended in 1873. 

It would also be a great convenience if a 15-cent coin were added to our 
present currency, to fill the gap between the dime and the (iiiarter. 

.A great scarcity of small coins has been caused throughout the country — 
even in parts of it where formerly the ‘'two-bit" pi»‘ce used to be the lowest 
unit of monetary value — by the collection of the tax on small luxuri<‘s. At 
times it has seemed that the traditional "red cent" was going out of circu- 
lation by reason of the rapid converging of our lowest unit of value into the 
stream flowing toward the Treasury. 

We need a lot of small coins — millions of (hen; and in turning out the 
supply the mint would he doing a good turn to the country if it added a two- 
cent and a 15-cent piece to the denomiimtions now iii circulation but always 
threatening to go out of it. — -V' lc York .Vnit nn'l /Ir/J-' v.v, Decemlier 19, 1919. 


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HOLLA Xl)-liELGIUM SOCIETY, FRIENDS OK THE MEDALLION. 


In the “National Bruxellois” of December 8, 1919, the following article 
appears, of which I give a free translation; 


“Les Amis do la Modaille” — “Friends of the Medallion.” 


The Belgian Section of the Holland-Belgian Society, Friends of the Me- 
dallic Art, reunited in a general meeting on Sunday at 11 o’clock. This 
session, the first held since the declaration of war, took place at the Palais 
des Academies. Besides the director of the Royal Museum, a number of 
medallists and assistants were present, among whom w'ere Mrs. Jenny 
Lorrain and Messrs. Wiener, Samuel, DeVreese, Dubois, Losseau, Bonnetain, 
Michaux, Beaudoux and Debremacker, as well as M. Mazorolles, director of 
the Numismatic Society of Paris, delegrate from France. 

•Mr. Laloir, assistant secretary, introduced as President, in place of Mr. 
Alphonse Dewit, deceased, Mr. Victor Tourneur, director of the Royal Mu- 
seum at Brussels. This nomination was unanimously accepted with accla- 
mation. Mr. Tourneur expressed his thanks and then delivered an address, 
greeting the engravers, Messrs. Bonnetain and Debremacker, who rendered 
personal services in the war, and gave homage to the King and Queen of 
Belgium, and caused applause for the French delegate, Mr. .Mazerolles, who, 
in turn, expressed the esteem of France for Belgium and wished the Society 
the success it merits. 

Mr. Tourneur paid his respects to the memory of those who had passed 
away. He traced the biography of his late predecessor in the office of Pres- 
ident, Mr. Dewit, who was not only a critic, but a great patron of medallic 
art as well. He announced that all enemy members had been expelled. 

This decision created unpleasant feeling toward the Holland Section. Mr. 
rcurneur also proposed that the Belgian Section should be independent in 
the future. This announcement, however, need not, as a result, alienate 
from the Society the sympathy enjoyed by it among certain numismatists 
of the Outre-Moerdyck. The meeting concurred in this opinion. 

The Society agreed to prepare seven historical medals. The first, symbo- 
lizing Belgium's neutrality and the violation of her territory, has already 
been executed by Mr. Mauguoy, whose turn had arrived, according to tradi- 
tion, to design a medal for the Society. The other subjects to be treated 
were presented to all the medal engravers, and the best designs will be 
selected after being discussed. The subjects are; 

First — The resistance of Liege and the retreat of the Fourth Division. 

Second — The destruction of Namur and the debarkation at Ostend of the 
troops of the fortifications of Namur. 

Third — The siege of Antwerp and the general retreat of the army. 

Fourth — The defense of the Yser and the martyrdom of Ypres. 

Fifth — The civil resistance and deportation of the laboring class. 

Sixth — The Liberty offensive and the return of the King to Belgium. 

The >Lk1ji1s of the Society. 

The Society has issued three medals, two of which were brought out before 
the war. One is that mentioned above, by Mr. Manguoy. The second, 
dedicated to Jan Van Ruysbroeck, is the work of Mr. De Cuyper of Antwerp. 
The third comes from the Dutch Section, and is entitled “The Girl.” Is is 
the work of .Mr. J. C. Wienecke. 

After examining the different medals the Society decided to meet in Janu- 
ary for a discussion of its new status. 

J. DF.LA(ii;KIlKUC. 


COIN.AGE FOR DEtTlMBER, 1»19. 


Following is the number of pieces of the different denominations coined 
at the mints of the United States during December, 1919, as officially report- 
ed by the Bureau of the Mint, Washington, D. C.; 

Silver — Half Dollars. 1.50,000; Quai'ter Dollars, 5,164,000; Dimes, 
13,000,000. 

Nickel — Five Cents, 13,585,000. 

Bronze — One Cent, 67,511,000. 


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The Numismatist 


Founded 1888 by Dr. George F. Heath 


OFFICIAL MAGAZINE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC ASSOCIATION 


Publication Office: Federalsburg, Md. 


Frank G. Duffield, Editor and Business Mgr., 1811 Mosher St., Baltimore, Md. 


An Illustrated Monthly, devoted to Coins, Medals and Paper Money. 

All Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor not later than the 10th of 
each month to insure publication in the next issue. 

The Numismatist will be published promptly on the 1st of each month. 

Yearly Subscription, United States, $1.50; Foreign, $1.75. Trial Sub- 
scription, First Six Months, 75c. 

Entered at the Post Office, Federalsburg, Md., as second-class matter 
(under the Act of March 3, 1879). 


ADVERTISING RATES. 

For One Issue, Cash with copy. Yearly, payable quarterly in advance. 
To insure prompt insertion of advertisement copy must be in by the 20th of 
the month. The Numismatist will not guarantee the appearance of the “ad” 
in current issue if copy is received later than this date. 



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EDITORIAL. 


PROMOTING NUMISM.'.TK’S. 

Sometl ing brs happened within recent months to popularize numismatics. 
Just what has caused it is not easy to determine. In a broad sense it has 
been due to the war. 

The publicity yiven in the daily press to the hi.gb price of silver, the ex- 
port of our silver dollars, our new issues of paper money, the disappearance 
of gold from circulation, the immense quantity of cents coined in the United 
States, tlie depreciation of European cuirency, the medals struck on account 
of the war, and the decorations awarded — are all responsible for discussions 
of numismatic subjects by the non-collector. But the one thing more than 
all others that has aroused an interest in mediums of exchange of the world 
is the great number of coins, tokens and paper money brought home from 
Europe by the members of the .\merican Expeditionary Forces. These have 
stimulated an interest in all kinds of currency, and while a few years ago 
it was an uncommon thing to find in the daily press or magazines any 


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serious reference to our subject, it is now almost impossible to pick up a 
paper that does not contain mention of some branch of it. 

Some of the more recent instances bear the ear-marks of having been 
promoted by our numismatists. 7'he New York Evening Post Magazine of 
Saturday, December 13, has nearly a full page devoted to “War Moneys of 
Necessity,” which gave a description, with several illustrations, of many of 
the token issues of the war. It closed with the following: 


“.Mr. Schulmann recently addressed the American Numismatic Society, 
which was organized as far back as 1858, and possesses in its museum, at 
156th Street and Broadway, the best public collection of coins that the 
United States can boast. He was also entertained by New York members of 
the principal national group — to wit, the American Numismatic Association. 
Founded some nineteen years ago and later Incorporated under national law, 
the association will doubtless enroll 1,000 members altogether at the close 
of its current drive for additional names. Many of the most distinguished 
“amateur” numismatists in the nation belong to the ranks of this group, 
which has branches in Boston, Springfield, Rochester, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, 
Chicago and San Francisco. Not a few of its fine private collections are com- 
parable with the splendid exhibit wherein the association’s vice-president, 
Henry Chapman, of Philadelphia, includes a classic series — from the coin 
with “Caesar’s superscription” to the numismatic triumphs of Syracuse. But 
so numerous are the lovers of the minting art that the metropolis harbors, 
furthermore, the New York Numismatic Club — fourscore enthusiasts or 
more who dine each month at an excellent inn and wax most wondrous 
warm over their discussions. It was this body, indeed, which lately sent to 
Ring Emmanuel a medal struck from English, French and American gold to 
commemorate the triple memories of November 11 as the birthday of the 
King, the first anniversary of the armistice and the tenth anniversary of 
the club.” 

The Chicago Tribune of December 14 published an article entitled “Got a 
?3 Gold Piece’/ It Seems Valuable If of the Right Date,” and on December 
23 the Tribune had another article entitled “Gold Dollar Is Scarce — Worth 
Twice Its Face.” The writer of these articles evidently got his information 
from reliable sources. 

A little out of the ordinary is a numismatic story in the October Red Book. 
This is, of course, fiction, and the collector-reader will not need to be remind- 
ed of that fact during a perusal of the story. It is entitled “The Thirtieth 
Piece of Silver,” and it will provide an hour’s entertainment for any collector. 

The New York Evening Post Magazine of December 27 had an article en- 
titled “Irish Bond Issues, Old and New,” which contained an illustration of 
the “Republic of Ireland” $20 bond of the 1866 issue, w'ith a history of the 
events leading up to the issue of these and smaller denomination bonds, 
with an introduction referring to the bonds of the “Republic” now' being 
floated. 

These few instances w'ill suggest to A. N. A. members all over the United 
States a means w'hereby the press of the country may be made the medium 
for the dissemination of accurate and reliable information on our subject. 


AX HOXOIt WORTHILY BESTOWED. 

The many friends of Mr. Howland Wood, the Curator of the American 
Numismatic Society, New York City, will be pleased to learn that he has 
been awarded the Huntington Medal by the Society of w'hich he is the 
Curator for his services to numismatics. 

The Archer Milton Huntington Medal was founded about eleven years ago 
by the gentleman whose name it bears, and an award of the medal in silver 
i.s made from time to time by the Society in recognition of literary or other 


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services to the science of numismatics. Mr. Wood was selected as the recipi- 
ent of the medal at this time, and the award was made at the annual meet- 
ing of the Society held last month. 

Mr. Wood is also a member of the American Numismatic Association, and 
for fifteen years has been one of the most prominent figures in the numis- 
matic world, both at home and abroad, and during that time he has made 
frequent contributions to numismatic literature that have become standard 
works of reference. 

The Ni'.mi.smati.st extends its congratulations to .Mr. Wood for having re- 
ceived this well-deserved honor. 


OUH I’riil.H'ATIO.V DATE. 

The appearance of the January number of The Numism.vti.st promptly on 
the first of the month was probably as welcome to our readers as it was 
satisfactory to those responsible for its publication. Every effort will be 
made to repeat this performance monthly in the future. 

Notwithstanding notice was given in the December issue of the dates 
for the closing of the forms in order to accomplish this, considerable copy, 
both for the reading and advertising pages, reached us too late to be u~ed 
in the January issue. We regret this, and we again call the attention of 
our correspondents and advertisers to the dates for the closing of the forms. 
Reading matter pages will close on the I5th of the month, and the adver- 
tising forms on the 20th of the month. 

When all interested have these dates firmly fixed in their minds and an 
effort is made to have the copy in on time, everything will move smoothly 
and the magazine will appear as nearly on the first of the month as the un- 
settled condition of the business worid and the Postoffice Department will 
permit. 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 


A Xevv(?) IHOit Out. 

To the Editor of The Nl'mi.smatist; 

I recently actiuired a nearly tine 1806 United States cent differing from 
the many others 1 have seen, and do not find mention of a similar one in 
Doughty, Scott or McGirk. .\11 1806 cents heretofore under my observation 
were good “fat.” portly dates, notably the 0 and 6. viz., a round base with a 
curved short top, ball or dot on end, and clear of bust of Liberty. 

This ISOf), like 6 on 1806 quarter dollar, has a longer, slightly curved 
stem tapering to a point (no ball or dot), touches base of bust of Liberty, 
and besides, more closely resembling the 6 in 1806 quarter dollar, also 
identical with 1806 "pointed 6” in half eagles, half dollars and half cents. 

I would ask examination by others as to this new variety, i. e., “pointed 
6” 1 806 cent. 

B. H. Coi.i.iNS, 

Washington, D. C., January 1 4, 1 920. N. A. No. 76. 


Who Can Give Tnl'ornnition on Thi.s Medal? 

To the Editor of The Nimismatist: 

I have for a number of years had in my possession a medal that none of 
our local coin experts seem able to locate. Description: .\ naked bust 
somewhat resembling an old Roman disfigured by “mutton-chop" whiskers. 
On the lower edge of the bust in fine letters, "C. G. Quilfeldt” and “J. 
Leebreton.” 

On the reverse, three circles. Outer circle, in very fine letters, “Entered 
according to Act of Congress in the year 1861 by D. E. Hale in the Clerk’s 


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Ollice of the District Court for the Southern District of New York.” In 
larger letters, same circle, “All Hale to the Stars and Stripes. One Flag, 
One Country, One Constitution, One Destiny.” Second circle: “April 19, 
1776, Liberty. April 19, 1861, Union.” Third circle contains 34 stars 
enclosing a shield draped with ribbon bearing “E Pluribus Unum.” 

The medal is 2 % inches in diameter, silver-plated, and has proof surface. 
The whole is encased in a velvet-lined case with front and back hinged 
covers. 

Thanking you for any information you may give me, I remain, 

F. H. Davis. 

Davenport, Iowa, January 8, 1920. 


MEETINGS OF NUMISMATIC SOCIETIES AND CLUBS. 


KOVAL XUMISM.ATIC SOt'IETY. 

December 18. Sir Henry H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., Vice-President, in 
the Chair. 

Mr. Garside exhibited a set of the nickel coinage of Jamaica for 1918 
with the mint-mark C for the Ottawa Mint, the first issue of these coins not 
struck at the Royal Mint in London. 

Mr. G. F. Hill read a paper entitled “The Mint of Crosraguel Abbey,” 
written by Dr. George Macdonald, who was unable to be present. 

Recent excavations at Crosraguel (“Crossregal”) Abbey, a Cluniac foun- 
dation in Ayrshire, founded in 1244, and endowed by the Scottish kings with 
extraordinary privileges, resulted in the discovery in a latrine-drain of a 
large number of small objects, some of a miscellaneous nature, others evi- 
dently the remains of a local mint; large quantities of small tags of brass, 
needles, portions of thin sheets, etc., as well as objects and pieces of copper 
and lead, together with 197 coins of billon, bronze or copper and brass. 
The coins are (A) contemporary imitations of pennies of James III and IV, 
and farthings of James IV, including 20 which are combinations of the ob- 
verse of one type with the reverse of another: (B) 51 copper pennies bear- 
ing a cross on one side and a regal orb on the other, and the inscriptions 
“Jacobus Dei Gra. Rex” and “Crux Pellit omne crimen” variously abbrevi- 
ated; (C) 88 copper or brass farthings, of types not hitherto known, in- 
scribed "Moneta Pauperum.” The imitations of class (A) are the “black 
money” known from record. The pennies of class (B) are almost exclusive- 
ly found in Scotland, though they have hitherto been attributed to one or 
other James of Aragon. They were clearly minted at Crosraguel, the types 
having a punning significance. They and the farthings are the only known 
instance in Great Britain of an Abbey coinage, such as is very frequent on 
the Continent, e. g., at Cluny. The inscription “Moneta Pauperum” shows 
that the coins were intended to provide small change for the especial benefit 
of the poor, like the Seventeenth Century Tokens. The mint was probably 
suppressed by James IV. In the discussion that followed, Mr. C. R. Peers, 
Mr. Lawrence, Mr. Grueber, Miss Farquhar, Colonel Morrieson and Sir 
Henry Howorth took part. 


NEW YORK XUMISALATIC CLUB. 

•Minutes of meeting of New York Numismatic Club held 
Friday evening, December 12. 1919, President Frey pre- 
siding, and the following members present: Messrs. Beatty, 
Beesley, Belden, Blake, Dr. Burke, Frey, Kohler, Newell, 
Proskey, Smith, Swanson, Valentine, Wood and Wormser. 

Owing to the illness of Secretary Boyd, George H. Blake 
was asked to serve. 

Minutes of meeting of November 14th were read and 
approved. 

Reports from committees were as follows: 

Paper Money Committee and Medallic Art Committees, progress. 
Membership Committee presented for ballot the name of Mr. Festees 
Morgan, who was unanimously elected. 

The chairman of the Executive Committee reported on the general good 
and prosperous condition of the Club, and saw an enlarged field of useful- 



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ncas for the coming >ear. The election of officers for the year 1920 being 
in order, upon motion, the Secretary was Instructed to cast one ballot for 
the names presented by the Nominating Committee at the November meet- 
ing. This having been done, the President duly declared the following 
elected to serve the coming year: 

President — Dr. D. W. Valentine. 

Vice-President — J. .M. Swanson. 

Secretary-Treasurer — F. C. C. Boyd. 

Executive Committee — Moritz Wormser, J. M. Swanson, Elliott Smith, F. 

C. C. Boyd. 

.Membership Committee — B. L. Belden, George H. Blake, Thos. L. Elder, 
Dudley Butler, Davis Proskey. 

Publication Committee — A. R. Frey, Howland Wood, Elliott Smith. 

.Medalllc Art Committee — J. M. Swanson, J. Sanford Saltus, E. Beesley, 
A. E. Davidson, .1. deLagerberg. 

The retiring President then escorted the new president. Dr. Valentine, to 
the chair. He made a short speech concerning projected plans for the Club 
for next year. 

The next in order were the following exhibits, which were described by 
their owners; 

Mr. Newell, Ancient Greek Coins. 

Dr. Burke, Ancient Greek Coins. 

Mr. Beesley, Ancient Greek Coins. 

Mr. Smith. Regimental emblems of Austrian Regiments. 

It was voted to continue at our January meeting the study of “Greek Cop- 
per Coins." 

Gkokoe H. Blake, Acting Secretary. 


A regular meeting of the -New York Numismatic Club was held on F'riday 
evening, January 9th, Dr. D. VV. Valentine presiding, the following membeis 
present; .Messrs. Beesley, Beatty, Boyd, Burke, Butler, Elder, Frey, Kohler, 
Proskey, Smith, Swanson. Wood and Wormser. 

.Minutes of last meeting read and approved. 

Executive Committee announced as the subject for the February meeting, 
“Contemporary Lincoln Medals.” 

The next order of business was the exhibition of “Greek Copper Coins, ’ 
the continued subject of the last meeting. 

Mr. Smith exhibited some large bronzes of Ptolemy VI and VII, head of 
Zeus, reverse, eagle on thunderbolt. 

Dr. Burke: Large portrait copper coins, Hieron on obverse, reverse Viga, 
in superb condition. Also two smaller portraits of same king. Selection of 
copper Greek coins from Campania and all the southern States of Italy un- 
der Greek influence. Coppers from Africa, Carthagenia and Cyerna. coins 
from all the Greek islands and from Greece proper. Some rare specimens 
from the northern portion of the Black Sea dating as early as 350 B. C. 
Ali of Dr. Burke’s exhibits were in the finest state of preservation. 

D. Proskey: Small portion of Mr. Proskey’s collection of ancient Greek 
coins including Ptolemaic Egyptian series, selected mainly for types, 433 
pieces. 

.Mr. Beesley exhibited 16 pieces in very fine condition from his collection 
of Greek coins. 

Mr. Wood exhibited a medal issued by the city of Detroit in memory of 
one who died in the cause of humanity. 

E. Smith: Medal given by State of Pennsylvania to the members of the 
National Guard who saw service on the Mexican border. 

Dr. Valentine: First issue flfty-cent fractional currency, inverted reverse. 
Dr. Valentine stated that this is the first one that he has heard of. 

.vlr. Wormser: Saxony-Poland (1733), Frederick .Augustus, Butterfly Thal- 
er of 32 gros on his death; 1910 gold 10-kr., Norway: Transylvania, Stephen 
Bneskar, 10 ducats, 1605; Transylvania, Sigismund Rakoszy, 10 ducats, 
1607. 

Dr. Valentine, Mr. Proskey, Dr. Burke and Mr. Wormser gave very inter- 
esting talks on their exhibits. 

The Membership Committee reported the name of Mr. Hans Deering, 17 


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Battery Place, New York City, for membership, which will come up for ac- 
ticn at the next meeting. 

Meeting adjourned at 10 P. M. 

F. C. C. Boyd, Secretary. 


ROCHESTER Xl’MISM.ATIC ASSOCIATION. 

The 180th meeting of the Rochester Numismatic Association was held at 
the Rochester Municipal Museum, December 2nd, 1919, at 8 o'clock P. M., 
V'ice-President Woodbury presiding. .Mepibers present; Messrs. Woodbury, 
Horner, Putnam, King, Amberg, Loizeau, Borradaile, Bernstein, Yawger and 
Koeb. 

Minutes of the last regular meeting read and approved. 

The Committee on Revision of Constitution and By-Laws reported prog- 
ress, and asked for further time, whicn was granted. 

Mr. Koeb submitted proof of the Dr. Handler presidential medal, which 
promises to be one of the best produced by him. On motion of .Mr. Yawger, 
seconded by Mr. Amberg, the proof was accepted. 

Mr. Yawger, as Secretary of the A. N. A., told us of the effort which the 
A. N. A. is making to increase its membership the coming year, and urged 
our Association to renewed work in their behalf. 

Through tne good offices of Mr. Amberg we were presented a copy of 
‘ Copper Tokens of the Bank of Montreal,” by the author. Dr. Eugene G. 
Courteau, St. Jaques, Quebec. A vote of thanks was extended Dr. Courteau 
for the book, and it was placed in the library at the .Municipal Museum. 

Nominations for officers fcr 1920 was then declared in order. 

On motion of Mr. Amberg, seconded by Mr. Putnam, Mr. John C. Wood- 
bury was nominated for President. 

On motion of Mr. Yawger, seconded by .Mr. Putnam, Mr. George Gillette 
was nominated for Vice-President. 

On motion of Mr. Koeb, seconded by Mr. King, .Mr. W. H. Amberg was 
nominated for Vice-President. 

On motion of .Mr. Yawger, seconded by Mr. King, Mr. C. T. Borradaile was 
nominated for Treasurer. 

On motion of Mr. Woodbury, seconded by Mr. King, Mr. E. D. Putnam 
was nominated for Secretary. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

Fkf.i) B. Ki.Mi, Secretary. 


The 181st meeting of the Rochester Numismatic Association was held at 
the Rochester .Municipal Museum, December 16th, 1919, at 8 P. M., Dr. 
Handler presiding. Those present were: .Messrs. Handler, Putnam, Homer, 
Loizeau, French, Hicks. Yawger. .\mberg. King and Borradaile. 

.Minutes of the last meeting read and approved. 

A motion was made, seconded and duly carried that we proceed to the 
election of officers for the coming year. 

Mr. Amberg expressed a desire to withdraw his name as a candidate for 
Vice-President. Dr. French withdrew the name of Mr. George Gillette as 
candidate for the same office. 

On motion of Mr. Yawger, seconded by Dr. French and duly carried, .Mr. 
Amberg’s desire was not granted. 

The Secretary was authorized to cast one ballot for: 

John C. Woodbury for President. 

W. H. Amberg for Vice-President. 

C. T. Borradaile for Treasurer. 

E. D. Putnam for Secretary. 

The ballot was cast and they were declared duly elected. 

It was moved, seconded and duly carried that we hold our Annual Dinner 
at the Hotel Rochester on .January 20th. 

Dr. Handler appointed Dr. French, Messrs. Yawger and King as the Din- 
ner Committee. 

On motion duly seconded the meeting adjourned. 

Fred B. King, Secretary. 


The 182nd meeting of the Rochester Numismatic .\ssociation was held at 
the Rochester Municipal Museum, Tuesday evening, January 6, 1920. In the 


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absence of the President, the meeting was called to order by W. H. Amberg, 
Vice-President. Those present were: Messrs. Piuinb, Bauer, King, Horner, 
Merritt, Yawger, Gillette, Koeb, Borradaile, Loizeau, Raymond, Dr. Handler, 
Putnam, Haringx, Dr. French and Amberg. 

Minutes of last meeting read and approved. 

A communication was read from F. L. Crandall, 34 North Clinton street, 
stating that he wished to resign, owing to personal reasons. Moved by .Mr. 

awger, seconded by Dr. Handler, that Mr. Crandall’s resignation be accept- 
ed. Carried. 

The report of F. B. King on the memorial on the death of D. G. Amberg 
was received. Mr. King exhibited an engrossed copy of the memorial, bound 
in leather, for the approval of tne members. It was much admired and met 
the approval of the entire assembly. 

A vote of thanks was extended to the Secretary for framing the three 
pictures of Greek and Roman coins now hung in the Numismatic Room. 

Mr. George .1. Bauer, Chairman of the Committee on Victory .Medais, re- 
ported progress, and asked the continuation of the committee. On motion 
of Mr. Putnam, seconded by Mr. Yawger, this report was accepted. The 
committee was continued. 

Mr. Yawger moved that a vote of thanks be given to Mr. King for his 
work as Secretary the past year and a $5 gold piece be appropriated from 
the treasury for the work of his stenographer. Carried. 

The medals of the President for the year 1919, Dr. Handler, were ex- 
hibited, three in number, for the inspection and approval of the Association. 
It seemed to be the general opinion that the medal was a good one, but the 
color not exactly what was reciuired. After considerable informal discus- 
sion instruction was given by the Association that the golden color, such as 
is on the Merritt medal, should be used for the medal of 1919, and the 
usual number ordered finished and delivered. 

Dr. French, Chairman of the .\nnual Bantiuet Committee, reported on 
several menus from the Hotel Rochester, and recommended one in partic- 
ular, which, after some discussion, was, on motion of Mr. .Merritt, seconded 
by Dr. French, approved, and instruction given that the chairman order the 
same from the Hotel Rochester. On motion by .Mr. Bauer, seconded by Dr. 
French, the dinner tickets were limited to the sum of $3.00 each, all ex- 
pense beyond that amount to be appropriated by the Association. Carried. 

The banciuet is to be held at the Hotel Rochester, 7 P. M., Tuesday even- 
ing, January 20th. 

As no further business appeared, the meeting adjourned. 

E. D. PiT.\A.M, Secretary. 


P.AC'IFIC COAST M'.MISMATIC SOCIETY OF SAX FR.AXCISCO. 

The fifty-second regular monthly meeting, held November 25th at the 
usual place, was one of the Society’s most enjoyable and successful as- 
semblages. A letter to members announcing an extraordinary exhibition of 
coins relating to the war and an auction of donated specimens for the seal 
and die fund had a good attendance response. Present — .Members: -Messrs. 
Haight, Hill, Brandon, Zerbe, Twitchell, Landecker, Sherow, Chariot, Haag- 
ensen. Gill, Turrill, Healy, Goldsmith, Seebohm and Thomas. Visitors: 
Messrs. Knox of the U. S. Sub-Treasury, E. S. Rosenblatt, Birkenfeld, 
Wheeler and Hogg of San Francisco, and E. V. Sutcliffe of Sacramento. 

George H. Blake, Jersey City, N. J., and E. V. Sutcliffe, Sacramento, 
Cal., were proposed for membership. 

Diteratuie reported received: The current issues of The Nu.mismatist and 
the Xumismatic Monthly, and a copy of Mr. Venn’s monograph on U. S. coins 
from R. V. Thomas of Chicago. 

To give time to the special program of the evening other regular business 
was deferred. 

The day, November 25th, having made a new record price for silver — 
$ 1 , 371 ,^ in New York, $1.36 paid at the San Francisco mint, and private 
sales reported at $1.40 — silver and its uncertain future place in coinage 
was a subject of discussion led by Mr. Zerbe. Associated with this subject 
was an exhibition of about seventy varieties of Bryan Money, political tok- 
ens of the “free silver” campaigns. Mr. Zerbe stated that his catalogue of 
Bryan Money, describing every variety of which he knew, probably near 150, 


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was nearing completion for publication, and he asked all collectors here and 
elsewhere to favor him with information regarding anything associated 
locally with their production and sale and with a description of any uncom- 
mon pieces. Mr. Hill showed two new varieties which during the evening 
were annexed to the Zerbe Collection. 

The exhibit of special Interest was a collection of about 1500 varieties of 
coins associated with the war. France and Belgium were represented with 

about 100 pieces from 36 cities and 5 prison camps; Germany and Austria- 

Hungary, about 1200 pieces from 317 cities, including 38 private issues and 
86 prison camp and food tokens from 17 cities. Other specimens were of 
German East Africa and German occupation of Finland and Russia. Mate- 
rials included iron, zinc, zinc faced with copper, nickel and brass, aluminum, 
copper, brass, alpacca, tin-plate, pressed pulp and cardboard. While round 
predominated, there were many uncommon shapes, including octagonal, 
square, oblong, triangle and some with scolloped and irregular edges, and 
many with holes as purposely made. 

Other exhibits included United States paper money by Messrs. Gill and 
Knox: revolutionary and necessity coins of .Mexico by Mr. Hill; Oriental 

coins by Mr. Rosenblatt; Far Eastern coins by Mr. Sutcliffe, who left Af- 

ghanistan in January of this year, and San Francisco tokens by Mr. Turrill. 

All present were liberal in contributing to the success of the auction for 
the seal and die fund. -Mr. Turrill starred as auctioneer, and was assisted 
by Zerbe and Thomas. There were 30 described lots, and the ordinary 
specimens produced a medley of 25 prize packages. Some packages con- 
tained prizes; others had their value in the mirth they produced. A notable 
lot sold after spirited bidding was a 5-peso gold of Oaxaca, 1915, donated 
by Mr. Chariot. The sale produced near $50. 

W. H. Thomas, Assistant Secretary. 


CHICAGO CX)IN CLUB. 

The tenth monthly meeting of the Chicago Coin Club was held at the 
Hotel Sherman, Chicago, Wednesday, December 3. The following members 
were present: Miss Naerup, Mrs. Ripstra, .Messrs. Boyer, Geo. Brown, S. W. 
Brown, Carey, Davis, ' Gunderson, Hotter, Johnston, Lawless, Leon, Kelly, 
Rackus, Ripstra, Van der Berghen and Wilson. Mrs. Leon and Mrs. Boyer 
were present as visitors. 

The meeting was called to order by Vice-President Boyer. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The Treasurer’s report was read and placed on file. 

Ten new members were elected to membership. These were all secured 
by Mr. Leon. They were Frank A. Johnston, G. W. Tracey, D. A. French, 
Frank Hansen, Virgil Brand and Roger Graham of Chicago; H. O. Granberg, 
Oshkosh, Wis. : Samuel W. Brown, North Tonawanda, N. Y.; J. G. Gunder- 
son, Aneta, X. D., and E. D. Bushnell, New York. 

The following officers were elected for the coming year; 

President, A. S. Boyer. 

Vice-President, Alexander Rackus. 

Secretary-Treasurer, R. E. Davis. ' 

The Secretary read a paper written by Theodore J. Venn, entitled “On 
Creating a Permanent Interest in Numismatics.’’ This paper led to consid- 
erable discussion of ways to interest young collectors in coins, and to strive 
to bring them into the Club. 

The Librarian announced that Mr. Venn had presented to the Club a copy 
of his recent work on “Three-Dollar Gold Pieces.” 

The exhibits were as follows; 

By Mr. Rackus: The largest silver coins of a number of Russian issues, 
including those from the reigns of Catherine I, Catherine II, Paul I, Alex- 
ander I, Nicholas I, Alexander III, and Nicholas II, also the largest copper 
issues of Peter the Great, Alexander I, Nicholas I, and Catherine II. 

By Mr. Lawless: .Medal of Pope Clement XI, and one-third thaler of John 
Casimir of Poland. 

By Mr. Hoffer; Rosa Americana penny, 1 722; Massachusetts half cent, 
1787, and Virginia cent, 1773. 

, By Mr. George Brown: Republic of China issues of 10, 20, 50 and 100 
cash for Sze Chuen Province, and sets of prison camp issues from Fried- 


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berg, Ahlen, Weilberg, Hagen, Dulnien, Bielschowitz, Ulm and Bismarck 
Hutte in Germany, and from Deutsch Gabel in Austria. These issues were 
struck in zinc and were in all denominations from one pfennig to fifty marks. 

By .Mr. Wilson: Crowns of Christian IIII of Norway, William III of Eng- 
land, and Louis XVI of France. 

By Mr. Boyer: Two $50 slugs. 

By Mr. S. W. Brown: Proof nickel of 1913, of the old type. Proof nickels 
are not supposed to have been struck during that year. 

By Mr. Leon: An interesting exhibit of paper money, among which were 
notes from the Drovers’ Bank of Leavenworth, Kahsas Territory: note for 
$1.25 from the Exchange Bank of Edwards County, drawn on the State of 
Illinois: Augusta, Ga., Savings Bank note for 25 cents, and State of Texas 
Treasury warrant. 

R. E. Davis, Secretary. 


AXTIQU.ARIA.V AND XU.MISMATIC SOCIETY OF .MOXTHE.AL. 

The annual meeting of the .Antiquarian and Numismatic Society of Mon- 
treal was held on December 19th, 1919, at the Chateau de Ramezay, W. D. 
Lighthall, President, in the chair. 

The annual report showed a number of most interesting accessions to the 
museum. 

The Treasurer reported that there was an improvement of the finances 
of the Society, which had run very low during the war. 

Among the exhibits of the evening was an old priced auction catalogue, 
dated 1S23, nearly a hundred years ago, in which the prices of U. S. Colo- 
nials were much cheaper than those of today. Some of the English coins 
brought even higher prices than they can be had for at the present time. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: President, W. D. Lighthail: 
Vice-Presidents, Ludger Gravel, E. Z. Massicotte, Victor Morin, R. W. Mc- 
Lachlan, C. A. Harwood, S. M. Baylis: Treasurer, George Durnford; Re- 
cording Secretary, Allan Phillips: Corresponding Secretary, Pemberton 

Smith: Curator, P. O. Tremblay: Librarian, M. de La Bruifere: Council. G. 
N. Moncel. L. A. Renaud, J. C. Heriot, S. W. Ewing, George S. Wilson, R. 
Neilson, Dr. A. P. Chagnon, O. M. H. Lapalice. 


XU.MISMATIC SECTION, .MARYI..AXI) AC.ADE.MY OF StTEXCES, 

BALTIMORE, .MD. 

The 16th regular meeting of the Numismatic Section of the Maryland 
Academy of Science was held at the Academy on December 15, Chairman 
Waldo Newcomer presiding. Others present were Dr. Nicholas, Dr. Plum- 
mer, Dr. Phillips, Messrs. Peach, Hilken, Lee, Schilling, McColgan and Duf- 
lleld. Mr. Henry B. Vocke was present as a guest. 

Minutes of the preceding meeting read and approved. 

.Mr. Henry B. Vocke was elected a member of the Section. 

Mr. Milken read a numismatic news item from the Zurcher Zcitung (Zu- 
rich, Switzerland) regarding the transfer of a part of the Paris Mint to 
Castel-Sarrasin in the early days of the recent war, as follows: 

“Changes in mint towns during war or when war threatened have occurred 
from ancient times. During the .Middle Ages and later centuries the Gov- 
ernments of France frequently were forced to make such changes when 
foreign or civil wars prevailed. This occurred also at beginning of the 
World War. When the Government, on September 2, 1914, moved from 
Paris to Bordeaux, the transfer of part of the Paris mint Was ordered. The 
place selected for a provisional mint was Castel Sarrasin, in the southwestern 
Department of Tarn et Caronne, on the Marseilles-Bordeaux Railway. This 
mint was placed at a metalurgic establishment, and worked from September 
21 until November 24, coining 200,000 two-franc and 20,000 one-franc 
pieces. The only difference between them and the Paris coins is the letter 
‘C’ (Castel Sarrasin) under the laurel-wreath on the reverse. These two 
and one franc pieces, in particular the latter, are now rare. For pieces in 
perfect condition more than thirty times the face value has been paid.’’ 

A report was received from the committee on the proposed public exhibit 
of coins and stamps to be held at the Academy on January 15, and the Sec- 
retary was asked to notify all members of the Section and request them to 
take part in the exhibit. 


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Mr. Vocke showed a Continental note for $1, Jan. 14, 1779, that was re- 
cently found in an old Chippendale desk belonging to the Nicholson estate. 
The note was found in a card case made of parchment. Mr. Vocke also 
showed a peace medal of the Crimean War. 

A most interesting paper was read by Chairman Newcomer giving the de- 
tails of the theft of a part of his collection of coins about six years ago. 
The paper dealt with the conditions surrounding the collection and his hon e 
at the time of the theft, the discovery a number of days later that the theft 
had been committed, the following up of several clues which proved to be 
false, but which were, nevertheless, highly interesting, and which included 
some remarkable coincidences, ending with a clue that finally led to locating 
many of the coins and the detection and arrest of the thief, followed by the 
recovery of many of the most valuable pieces. 

A vote of thanks was given .Mr. Newcomer for his paper. 

Meeting adjourned to .Monday, January 5. 


The seventeenth regular meeting of the Numismatic Section of the Mary- 
land Academy of Sciences was held at the Academy on January 5. Those 
present were Dr. Nicholas, Dr. Plummer, Messrs. Hooper, Schilling, Peach. 
-McColgan and Duffleld. 

In the absence of Chairman Newcomer, Mr. Hooper presided. 

Minutes of the preceding meeting were read and approved. 

Letters were read from members Hooper and Dawkins stating the class 
of coins they would be able to show at the coming public exhibition of coins 
to be held at the Academy on January 15. 

.Vn invitation was received from the Philatelic Section of the Academy to 
meet with them at their next regular meeting, January 9. On motion the 
invitation was accepted. 

On motion it was decided that the names of the owners of coins be omit- 
ted in the exhibit, following which there was a general discussion of details 
connected with the exhibit. 

-Mr. McColgan presented to the Section a small collection of ancient and 
modern coins, to form a nucleus for the collection of the Society which will 
shortly be arranged at the Academy. A vote of thanks for the donation was 
given .Mr. .McColgan. 

Meeting adjourned to January 19. 


SI’HIXGFIKI.I) COIN CLUB. 

The 79th meeting of the Springfield Coin Club was held in the Chamber 
of Commerce rooms, December 10th, 1919. .Meeting opened by Vice-Pres- 
ident Stone at 8.15. Members present: Messrs. Brandoin, Converse, Emery, 
A. VV. Morris, G. M. .Morris, .\iorse, Oliver, Shean and Stone. Visitors: 
Messrs. F. H. Shumway of Mattapan, Mass., and W. F. E. Roelafson of Bos- 
ton, .Mass. 

.Minutes of the last meeting read and approved. 

Treasurer’s report read and placed on file. 

The name of F. H. Shumway was proposed for membership, and Mr. 
Joseph Brandoin was elected a member of the club. 

The dues to the A. N. A. for the years 1918, 1919 and 1920 were ordered 
paid. 

.Mr. Stone presented to the club a Massachusetts Library Club Badge. A 
vote of thanks was given the donor. 

The club ordered the Treasurer to subscribe for The Numismatist and 
Mehl’a Monthly. 

Two members were dropped for non-payment of dues. 

A nominating committee was appointed from the chair to provide a prop- 
er board of officers for the year 1920. The committee appointed was Messrs. 
Oliver, Frazier, Prevost and Pond, with Mr. Oliver as chairman. 

A paper on “The Decimalization of the British and Colonial Currency,” 
by Samuel Henry Hamer, was read by Mr. Stone. The paper was donated 
to the club by the author. A vote of thanks was given Mr. Stone, and the 
Secretary was authorized to write Mr. Hamer, thanking him for his copy. 

An auction followed the meeting. 

W. C. Emery, Secretary. 


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The 80th meeting of the Springfield Coin Club was held in the Chamber 
01 Commerce rooms, January l4th, 1920. Meeting called to order by Vice- 
President Stone at 8.30 with tiie following members present: .Messrs. Beau- 
doin, Drowae, Emery, Prevost, Oliver, Morse, G. .Si. Morris, Pond and Stone. 

Minutes of the last meeting read and approved. The Treasurer being ab- 
sent, no report was read. 

The application of Mr. F. H. Shumway was voted on, and he was elected 
a member. 

The annual report of the Secretary was read. The Treasurer’s report 
showed an increase of $10 over the previous year. 

The nominating committee, which was appointed by Vice-President Stone, 
reported as follows: For President, W. C. Stone; for Vice-President, J. E. 
Morse; for Secretary, W. C. Emery; for Treasurer, A. \V. Morris. 

.Mr. Geo. M. Morris was instructed to cast one vote for the above-named. 
This being done they were eiected. 

President Stone then appointed the following committees: Auction, J. \\ . 
Pievost and E. D. Curtis. Membership, C. M. Frazer and G. W. .Morris. 
Entertainment, Preston C. Pond and A. M. .Morris. Publicity, \V. C. Emery 
and J. M. Oliver. Librarian, J. M. Oliver. Curator, C. A. Frazer. 

Piesident Stone then announced that the next meeting, which will be held 
February 11th, will be a Lincoln meeting. 

Auction followed; sales, $15. 

There being no further business, meeting adjourned at 10.30. 

W. C. Emkby, Secretary. 


1*IXCHBKCK METAL. 


In the report of the meeting of the Antiquarian and Numismatic Society 
of .Montreal in last month’s issue mention was made of the fact that many 
of the Admiral Vernon medals were struck in Pinchbeck metal. .Mr. R. W. 
Mclachlan of that city has since furnished us with the following description 
of this metal, how it received its name, and the general application of the 
term : 

“In compliance with your request for something regarding Pinchbeck, I 
have noted the following, from an old manuscript dating about the beginning 
of the eighteenth century: 

“ ‘Xtopher Pinchbeck has a curious secret, a new invented metal, wch so 
closely resembles gold (as not to be distinguished by ye most experienced 
eye) in color, smell and ductibillty. Ye secret is communicated to his son.’ 

“Christopher Pinchbeck arrived on business in London, England, as a 
jeweler and watchmaker, towards the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
Froui this metal he manufactured large quantities of cheap ‘gold’ watches 
and jewelry, which were sold all over England and the colonies. 

“.Many of the Vernon medals and those issued on the capture of Louis- 
bourg, as well as commemorative of other events, were struck from this 
metal. He also manufactured a musical clock which, as was claimed, was 
capable of playing almost any tune better than by hand. This he sold to 
the King of France for £1500 ($7 500). 

“This metal became so notorious that it was called after his name. About 
1775 the word was incorporated in Johnson’s Dictionary, meaning anything 
sham or not genuine, as well as the name of the metal. 

“According to the Encyclopedia Britanica, Pinchbeck metal is made up of 
10 parts zinc to 19 of copper. 

“The name ‘Pinchbeck’ was of French origin, written ‘pince bee.’ It was 
a nickname given probably on account of the shape of the mouth, which 
means compressed or pinched beak.” 


NEW DIES FOR VICTORY MEDAL PROBARI.E. 


Inadvertent omission of Cuba from the list of countries carried on the 
ofTicial Victory Medal as aiding in the success of the allied arms has been 
called to the attention of the War Department, and it is reported that Major- 
General Frank McIntyre, acting Chief of Staff, has ordered an immediate in- 
quiry. It was intimated that steps would be taken to rectify the error, even 
though this forced a remodeling of the medal. War Department officials 
said Cuba assisted the general cause in proportion to her size as much as any 
other nation. 


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PHICE.S AT MEHL’S SALE, XOVE.MBER 19, 1919. 


Following are the prices realized on 
Mehl, Fort Worth, Tex., on November 


Half 

Dollar, 

1846. 

Proof. . . 

$17.50 

Half 

Dollar, 

1848. 

Proof . . . 

18.00 

Half 

Dollar, 

1849. 

Proof. . . 

10.50 

Half 

Dollar, 

1852. 

Proof. . . 

71.00 

Half 

Dollar, 

1854. 

Proof. . . 

12.50 

Half 

Dollar, 

1858. 

Proof. . . 

31.25 

Half 

Dollar, 

1842. 

Proof. . . 

7.50 

Half 

Dollar, 

1848. 

Proof. . . 

9.00 

Half 

Dollar, 

1854. 

Proof. . . 

5.25 

Quarter Dollar, 1842. Proof 

11.75 


Quarter Dollar, 1843. Proof. 10.00 


Quarter Dollar, 1848. Proof. 9.40 

Dime, 1842. Proof 11.25 

Dime, 1843. Proof 10.25 

Dime, 1847. Proof 10.50 


Large U. S. Cent, 1842. Proof 18.75 
Large U. S. Cent, 1843. Proof 29.25 
Large U. S. Cent, 1846. Proof 34.50 
Large U. S. Cent, 1848. Proof 15.75 
Large U. S. Cent, 1849. Proof 17.75 
Large U. S. Cent, 1854. Proof 10.50 


Half Cent, 1842. Proof 82.25 

Half Cent, 1843. Proof 63.00 

Half Cent, 1846. Proof 62.00 

Half Cent, 1847. Proof 47.75 

Half Cent. 1 848. Proof 53.50 

Dollar, 1795. Uncirculated. . 15.75 

Dollar, 1850. Proof 13.25 

Pattern Dollar, 1863. Proof. 37.50 
Pattern Dollar, 1864. Proof. 37.50 
Pattern Dollar, 1872. Proof. 31.00 


Half Dollar, 1795, with three 


leaves under wings 115.00 

Half Dollar, 1796, 15 stars .. 1 75.00 
Half Dollar, 1796, 16 stars.. 74.00 


Quarter Dollar, 1853, without 

rays and arrows. Good... 8.25 

Twenty Cents, 1 877. Proof.. 5.75 

Twenty Cents. 1878. Proof.. 5.25 

Half Cent, 1851, large plan- 

chet. Very fine 12.60 

Gold. England, 1877, Victo- 
ria five pounds 31.75 


some of the lots at the sale of B. Max 
19, 1919: 

George IV, 1824, 10 thaler. 


for Brunswick and Lune- 

berg i . 9.65 

Norway and Sweden, 1563, 

Mark of Eric XIV 5.75 

Canada Northwest Token, 1820 21.75 
Jewish Shekel. Very fine. . . 46.50 

Half Eagle, 1795 18.50 

Gold Dollar, 1880. Ex. fine. . 6.25 

McKinley Gold Dollar, 1903. 

Proof 5.00 

Silver Dollar, 1836. Proof.. 16.50 
Pattern Cent, 1859. Proof. . 7.60 

Pattern Half Eagle, 1804. Un- 
circulated 50.00 

Large U. S. Cent, 1793. Fair 8.00 
Flying Eagle Cent, 1856. Pf. . 10.00 

$5.00 Gold, 1796. Fine 28.00 

$5.00 Gold, 1795. Very fine. 20.50 
Quarter Eagle, 1807. V. good 10.00 
Complete set of Panama-Pa- 


cific Commemorative Coins. 205.00 


say. Uncirculated 30.50 

$20.00 Gold, 1853, U. S. As- 
$10.00 Gold, Clark, Gluber & 

Co., 1860 44.00 

$10.00 Gold, Clark, Gluber & 

Co., 1861 21.50 

$5.00, A. Bechtler, 134-G, 21 

carats . 15.25 

England, Henry VI (restored) 

1470-1471 15.00 

Confederate States Cent, 1861. 

Uncirculated 10.50 

Mormon $5.00 Gold, 1860. 

Uncirculated 85.00 

$5.00 Gold. 1800. Fine 8.65 

$5.00 Gold, 1803. Very fine. 8.50 

$5.00 Gold, 1841. Unc 9.25 

$5.00 Gold, 1853. Unc 11.25 

$5.00 Gold, 1840. Unc 14.75 

Pattern Dollar, 1878. Proof. 9.00 

Jackson Cent, T..ow 6. V. fine. 5.25 


UNITED STATES ('GIN AGE FOR THE CALENDAR YEAR 1919, 

Following is the number of pieces of the different denomiiiations coined 
at the mints of the United States for the calendar year 1919, as otficially 
reported by the Bureau of the Mint, Washington, D. C.: 

No gold coined. 

Silver — Half Dollars, 3,679,000; Quarter Dollars, 15,104,000; Dimes, 

54.529.000. 

Nickel — Five Cents, 76,395,000. 

Bronze — One Cent, 588,935,000. 

Coinage executed for other Governments: 

Philippine Islands, 9,440,000; Siam, 10,000,000; Salvador, 3,000.000; 
Nicaragua, 850,000; Venezuela, 3,200,000; Peru, 20,750,000; Peru (coin 
planchets prepared), 354,195; Argentina (coin planchets prepared), 

52.675.000. 



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American Numismatic Association 


Organized 1891, Incorporated Under the Laws of the 
United States May 0, 1912. 


OFFICERS 
President, 

Waldo C. Moore, 

Lewisburg, Ohio. 

First Vice-President, Second Vice-President, 

Henry Chapman, Philadelphia, Pa. John M. Oliver, Springfield, Mass. 

General Secretary, Treasurer, 

H. H. Yawger, George J. Bauer, 

78 Linden St., Rochester, N. Y. 192 St. Paul St., Rochester, N. Y. 

Librarian. 

H. H. Yawger, 78 Linden St., Rochester, N. Y. 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Moritz Wor.mser, Chairman, 95 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Theo. E. Leon, Preston C. Pond, 

143 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. Chicopee, Mass. 

Foster Laedner, F. N. Boyle, 

260 Westminster St., Providence, R. I. 628 Frick Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Official Magazine: The Numismatist. 

Frank G. Duffield, Editor and Business Manager. 

1811 Mosher St., Baltimore, Md. 

DISTRICT SECRETARIES 

Harry A. Gray, 41 Rockland St., Roxbury, Mass., for New England States. 
Run. Kohler, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City, for N. Y. and N. J. 

Henry Chapman, 333-335 S. 16th St., Philadelphia, Pa., for Penn., Del., Md., 
Va., W. Va. and D. of C. 

M. Marct'son, 1611 E. 82d St. N. E., Cleveland, Ohio, for Mich., Ohio, Ind. 
and Ky. 

Fred Michael, 8 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., for 111., Iowa, Mo., Kansas 
and Neb. 

W. G. Curry, Baraboo, Wis., for Wis., Minn., N. Dak. and S. Dak. 

George H. Kiml Denver National Bank, Denver, Col., for Mont., Idaho, Wyo., 
Utah, Col., Ariz. and N. Mex. 

I. Leland Steinman, Room 329, 235 -Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal., 
for Cal., Nev., Ore. and Wash. 

B. Max .Mehl, P. O. Drawer 976, Fort Worth. Tex., for Southern States. 
John A. Wood, 165 Oak Ave., Hamilton, Ont., for Ontario. 

R. L. Reid, Vancouver, B. C., for Western Canada. 

H. L. Doane, Truro, Nova Scotia, for Quebec and Eastern Provinces. 

S. H. Hamer, Halifax, Yorkshire, England, for British lies. 

The initiation fee is one dollar. The annual dues are 50 cents yearly. 
Subscription to The Nujii.smatist, $1.50 yearly, payable January 1st yearly. 
Total $3.00 for the first year. For part'culars address the General Secre- 
tary, Rochester, N. Y. 



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REPORT OF THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 


New Meinber.s to be Admitted Febtuary 1, 1920. 

2063 George Unkrich, 230 High Ave., Cleveland, Ohio. 

2064 H., P. Willis, 115 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 

2065 W. Gedney Beatty, 247 Central Park, West, New York City. 
20 66 John B. Green, 51 Edmund Place, Detroit, .Mich. 

2067 Gilbert S. Perez, Box 60, Lucena, Philippine Islands. 

2069 L. D. Ackerman, 1 Edmunds Place, Greenwood, Mass. 

Application for Membership. 


The following applications have been received prior to January 20, 1920. 
K no objections are received prior to March 1, 1920, the same will become 
members on that date and will be published in the March issue: 

APPI.ICAXT PHOPOSED BY 


Gust Eastland (U. S. Coins and Foreign), 
Cambridge, 111 

G. W. Sherwood, 

Pennsboro, W. Va 

J. Cleveland Capen (U. S. Copper Cents), 

Bloomfield, Conn 

Flank H. Johnston (Gold and Silver Coins) 
Chicago, 111 

H. S. Ashcroft (Large Cents), 

Philipsburg, Pa 

L. B. -Morris (General), 

Detroit, Mich 

J. B. Knapke (American Coins), 

Lewisburg, Ohio 


Rochester, X. Y., January 20. 1920. 


Peter Wislander 

C. R. Olson 

Waldo C. Moore 

E. Vernon .Moore 

George E. k'rankiin 

Robert C. Beers 

T. E. Leon 

M. P. Carey 

Chas. E. .McGirk 

H. D. Rumberger 

M. J. Cnristiansen 

H. H. Yawger 

Waldo C. -Moore 
E. Vernon Moore 

H. H. Yawgeb, 

General Secretary. 


TO -ME.>IUKH8 OF THE A. X. 


The dues of -\. X. A. members, as well as subscription to THE XUMIS* 
M-VTI.ST, expired December 31, 1919. It is confidently expt'cted that all will 
renew for 1920, and it is .strongly ui^e<l that you remit .$2 for both, prompt- 
ly, to tile General Secretary, H. H. Yawger, 78 Linden St., Roehe.ster, X. Y. 

Heretofore it has been cu.stomary to continue sending THE XUMISM.A- 
TIST to all meinlM'rs for several months in the new year until they renew. 
Tills resulted in a loss in ca.se they did not renew. For this year a different 
policy will be inaugurated, in order to r*“duce exiH*nses as well as to con- 
s«*rve pa|K*r, and only a reasonable time will be given for renewals to lie 
m.ide. The dues and subscription are for a small amount — $2 — and failure 
to renew jiromptly is in most cases due only to neglert, Plea.s«> attend to this 
inuttei- wliile it is fis'sh in your mind. Keep in g<wKl standing, and keep 
youi- tiles of THE -XI -MIS>I-\T1ST complete. 


PAPER FARTHIXGS IX USE IX LOXDOX. 


Paper “notes” representing five-shilling pieces and half-crowns have been 
talked about in London, and the former — if not the latter — are said to be 
stored in the archives of the Treasury ready for issue if deemed necessary. 

Paper or cardboard farthings have, however, already made their appear- 
ance in the London suburbs. They are in the form of brown millboard, of 
the same size as a penny piece, and in the center is printed "Voucher Rep- 
resenting l-4d. Change,” with the name and address of the tradesman is- 
suing them around the edge. 

They are issued by a firm of bakers to meet the shortage and “nuisance” 
of proper bronze farthings, but it would not be surprising to see the custom 
taken up by other tradesmen. 


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THE A. X. A. DlUVK FOH MEMKERS. 


Tn the local drives which have been held in recent years for the Red Cross, 
Liberty Bond sales, etc., some of the committees in charge have appointed 
Generals, who in turn appoint four or more Captains, each of whom obtains 
a number of workers to solicit the public for support of their project, what- 
ever it may be. 

In the case of the A. N. A. drive, however, this is not a practical idea, for 
the reason that our members are located from Maine to California; but if 
each member will appoint himself General, Captain and Worker, all in one, 
and then go out and HUSTLE, we feel sure that wonderful results could be 
accomplished. 

The membership drive can be made a great success if each and every 
member will adopt the slogan “Just One New .Member” and GET him, going 
right after him NOW. 

At the Pniladeiphia Convention it was reported that eighty-one members 
had been dropped for non-payment of dues in 191!). The Secretary came 
home and sent out a letter to each of these eighty-one people, some of whom 
responded with payment of their dues; a second and a third letter each 
brought further results. President Waldo C. .Moore and Mr. M. Wormser, 
Chairman of the Board of Governors, also wrote to these delinquent mem- 
bers, and today, out of the eighty-one above referred to, thirty-live have 
paid their dues and been reinstated, no reply has been received from twenty- 
eight, twelve of the letters were returned, present address being unknown, 
four were dropped, and two died. 

By the way: If all the A. N. A. members reading this who have not paid 
their 1920 dues would take care of this matter at once, it would be of the 
greatest assistance to the General Secretary and save a lot of unnecessary 
work and postage in sending out reminders of unpaid dues. May we not 
have your co-operation? 

And let’s all get together and every member bring in another member 
in 1920. 

H. H. Yawgf;r, 

General Secretary. 


NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIOXS DISCONTINUED. 


In the December issue of Me.hVs y utnismatic Monthly the editor, B. Max 
Mehl, announces that its publication will be discontinued with the current 
issue, for the time being at least. The great amount of time necessary for 
its successfui publication and difficulty in obtaining the quality of print 
paper are the reasons given for its suspension. The magazine has just com- 
pleted its tenth volume. It has enjoyed a large circulation, and its suspen- 
sion will be regretted by all its readers. For a number of years Mr. Mehl 
has been one of America’s leading numismatic dealers, and while his maga- 
zine has been a part of his numismatic business, it has not been a “house 
organ” as the term is generally used. Mr. Mehl will continue his numis- 
matic business, and the suspension of the magazine will give him more time 
to devote to it. 

In a letter to Thk Ni^mismatist, under date of January 3, Mr. L. A. Card- 
well of Las Cruces, N. M., publisher of the Borderland Collector, writes as 
follows; "I am discontinuing the Borderland Collector with the next issue. 
I find it impossible to devote the necessary time to the publication and do 
justice to my other business.” .Mr. Cardwell has been publishing his maga- 
zine only a short time, and while devoted mainly to philately, it has con- 
tained many interesting articles on numismatics, particularly Mexican coins 
and paper money. 


MEXICO TKIE.S PAPER MONEY .AGAIN. 


Paper money is in circulation in Mexico for the first time since 1916, 
according to press reports from Mexico City in January. This was made 
possible by a decree issued by President Carranza, authorizing the Monetary 
Commission to issue certificates of 1 peso and r>0 centavos, the amounts to 
be issued being limited to deposits of Mexican gold made with the Commis- 
sion. This measure was designed to relieve the shortage of change due to 
the hoarding of small coins on account of their high silver content. 


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OBITUARY. 


THO->IAS WILSON. 

The subject of this notice, who died in Montreal on the 11th of December. 
1919, was born in the same place on the 7tn of December, 1821. He had 
therefore just completed his ninety-Hfth year. He was the youngest of four 
brothers who settled as general merchants in four different villages on the 
Ottawa River, two on the Quebec side and two on the Ontario side. Having 
survived his three brothers for many years seems to prove that a hobby, 
especially that of coin collecting, is conducive to longevity. 

His father was of Scottish origin, having come from Edinburgh to Canada 
shortly before the birth of Thomas. When he was about seven years of age 
his father removed to Greenville, Quebec, to take up a country store. Leav- 
ing this in charge of his eldest son, in 1848 he moved to Cumberland, On- 
tario, then later on to Buchingham, Quebec, and was succeeded by a son in 
each place. 

In 1858 Thomas started business for himself in Clarence, Ontario. In 
1860 he married Miss Pridham, daughter of Alexander Pridham, of Green- 
ville, Quebec, and at the age of forty-six he became a collector of Canadian 
coins, and although starting so late in life, he was a most ardent and keen 
collector. Shortly after taking up collecting he called upon me, at that 
tune a salesman in a wholesale dry goods warehouse, and, after making 
his purchases, he came up to look over my collection. On every occasion 
when he came to Montreal he never failed to wind up the day by spending 
the evening with me, talking coins, and to see if I had made any new ac- 
quisitions since his last visit, and if he did not possess a specimen he noted 
i( and never rested contented until he had obtained one for himself, his 
object being to complete his Canadian series, if possible. So nearly did he 
arrive at his goal that there were only ten or twelve wanting of the known 
Canadians, and most of these unobtanable or unique. 

He was elected an Honorary .Member of the American Numismatic Asso- 
ciation after the Montreal convention in 1909, when, as those who at- 
tended that convention will well remember, he, with Mr. Boucher, botn 
well over eighty, as veteran collectors, keen to secure any new specimen 
for their collections, were photographed as supporters and most prominent 
members of the convention. 

In 1886, he retired from business in favor of his eldest son, and had 
lived in Montreal ever since. 

About three or four years ago, believing that he could sell his collection 
to better advantage than his executor, he sold out to Mr. W. W. C. Wilson, 
but his interest did not cease then, for he asked an old fn*end to secure him 
a set of “habitant” pennies of 1837, which he considered the truest of the 
Canadian coinage in existence, and exhibited his keen pleasure in this pos- 
session. 

R. W. McLacht..\n. 


LETTER OF API*RE('IAT10X. 


To the Fellows; 

Through The NrviisMATi.sT I desire to acknowledge with sincere apprecia- 
tion the many Holiday Greetings received from many kind friends. 

Every hope is that the future will be full of prosperity, health and happi- 
ness for every member of the A. N. A. and every reader of The Xr.viisMATisT. 

-May Opportunity not only knock at the door of every member during the 
year 1920, but may she rattle at every window and yell down every chimney. 
1 am sure this is the sincere wish of every officer of the .Association. 

And with all this wishing let each and every member not only irish for, 
but work for a Better and Bigger Association, both in interest and member- 
ship. 

Wai.do C. Mooue. 

President A. N. A. 

Lewlsburg, Ohio, New Year’s, 1920. 


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American Numismatic 
Society 

New York 

UROADWAY BETWEEN looTH 
& 166TH STS. 

Organized 1858. Incorporated 1865. 


PRESENT EXHIBITION: 

Coins and Medals Commemorating 
Treiities of Peace, 
and German Satirical Medals. 

All collectors and students are cordially invited to make use of the 
extensive Library of the Society, and every facility will be offered to numis- 
matists In examining and studying the large collection of coins and medals 
that may not be on exhibition. 

Open to the Public daily, 10 A. M. to 5 P. M. Sundays, 1 to 5 P. M, 


W. Gedxey Beatty 
Baujian L. Bei.den 
F. C. C. BoYn 
Henry Russei.i. Drowne 
Rohert James Ernr.iTZ 


He.nrv Russei i. Urowne 
AV ii.r.iAM B. Osgood Fiei d 

Secretary: 

Sydney P. Noe 
Curator: 

Howi.and Wood 


COUNCIL 

Wn.UAM B. Osgood Fiei.d 
Harroi.d E. Giu.i.nciiam 
Archer M. Huntington 
Edward T. Newei.l 
Stephen H. P. Pell 

OFFICERS 


John Reilly, Jr. 
Elliott Sjiitii 
W. Gilman Tiiomp.son 
John I. Waterrury 
William H. Woodin 


President 
Edward T. Newell 
Governors 

Archer M. Huntington 
IhiwARD T. Newell 
John Reilly, J”. 

Treasurer: 

John Reilly, Jr. 
Assistant to Curator: 
Arthur C. Wyman 


MEMBERSHIP. 

The annual dues of Fellows (limited to one hundred and fifty) are 
Fifteen Dollars, and those of Associates are Five Dollars, which are payable 
in advance, and cover subscription to the Society’s organ, the American 
Journal of Kumixmntirs. One Hundred and Fifty Dollars entitles one to Life 
Fellowship, and Fifty Dollars to Associate Life Membership, and secures 
exemption from further dues. 

Applications for Membership should be sent to the Secretary, at tha 
above address. 

Regulai' meetings are held on the second Saturday, or such other day as 
the Council may designate, in the months of January, April and November. 

Meetings for the reading of papers, discussion of numismatic subjects 
and exhibition of coins and medals, are held on the evenings of the first 
Thursday of each month except June, July. August, September and October. 

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 

Puui.isHED Annually By The Society. Subscription B^ive Dou.ars. 


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AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


The sixty-second annual meeting of the American Numismatic Society was 
held at the Museum of the Society on January 10th, 1920. In the absence 
of President Newell, Mr. John Reilly, one of the Governors, presided. The 
meeting was called to order at 3.04 P. M. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The President’s address, written previous to his departure for Europe, 
was read by Mr. Reilly. 

President Newell’s Address. 

The year that has just elapsed may well be spoken of as the ‘‘.Medal" year 
of our Society. Due to this country’s ever-increasing interest in medallic 
art and to the many important historical events which have marked the year 
1919, our Society has never before been so active in this great field of nu- 
mismatics. Medals to commemorate the Peace Treaty of Versailles, the 
celebration of our National Day — the Fourth of July — by the most important 
nations of the world, the visit of the Prince of Wales to the United States, 
the Dedication of the Joan of Arc Park, have all been published by the 
Society. In addition, the J. Sanford Saltus Award Medal was finally com- 
pleted and presented to its first recipient, Mr. Frazer, for his achievement 
in the field of Medallic Art. Nearly all the foremost medallists in America 
have now, one after the other, been called upon to assist in making our 
series of medals the finest that has ever been issued by any society in our 
country, and we may justly be proud of it. It appears to me, from several 
points of view, that this activity is one of the most important that can be 
undertaken by our Society. Continued progress in this particular field can- 
no’ fail to increase still further the slowly awakening interest in the Art of 
the Medal in America, and therefore to encourage artists to make this one 
of their principal instead of one of their minor forms of expression. It is 
unquestionably true that of late years, possibly due to the war, possibly to 
other factors, medallic art both here and abroad has fallen below the stand- 
aid that might have been expected. Now, with the quickening to art that 
in the past has so often followed a great war, with the changed conditions 
and new outlooks that have been brought about by what may or may not 
have been an unmitigated evil, medallic art ought certainly to blossom 
forth afresh, and it should be our Society’s proudest boast that it was one 
of the first to encourage as well as to take advantage of such a revival. 
There fortunately remain a number of foremost artists in our country whose 
talents could profitably be employed by the Society, this coming year, to 
increase still further the value of our medallic series. Thus we may expect 
not only to retain the interest of the many lovers of this form of art who 
have recently joined our Society principally because of the fine medals be- 
ing published by it, but also tj secure further members who will soon come 
to see that otherwise they are missing a unique opportunity in not becom- 
ing one of us. It would indeed be lacking in gratitude of the most ele- 
mentary nature if we did not here state that the remarkable medallic 
achievement of 1919 is very largely due to the initiative and to the untiring 
generosity of our great friend .Mr. J. Sanford Saltus, who in many cases 
made it possible for us to enter upon the striking of a medal. 

The advance recorded in our collections during the year just past will be 
described in detail by our curator. Let me merely state that this advance, 
appropriately enough, is more important in the medallic series. Many rare 
and most interesting specimens connected with the events of the Great War 
have been secured, and these will go far to increase the great scientific and 
historical importance of our collections. It has, indeed, of late, Ijeen our 
policy to secure wherever and whenever possible, and while there is yet 
time, those numismatic records which are bound to be of exceptional value 
to future students and historians of the great epoch represented by tlie 
years 1911 to 1919. In addition, through the great kindness of Mrs. 
Zabriskie, the famous and unusually fine and complete collection of Polish 
coins and medals brought together by our former President, the late Andrew 
C. Zabriskie, lias been placed with us on loan. Not only is this iierhaps the 
most notable of our loan collections, but it comes at a particularly oppor- 
tune time, when the recent resurrection of Poland has created widespread 
interest and satisfaction. On behalf of the Society 1 would like to extend 


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our warm thanks to Mrs. Zabriskie for her generosity and her interest in 
our Society in entrusting this fine collection to our care, where it can be 
available to students, seen by the curious, and enjoyed by our members. 
Its presence here is a fitting tribute to the memory of our former President 
Mr. Zabriskie, a fact whicn we all greatly appreciate. 

The remarkable advance in the size of our membersnip which made 1918 
such a memorable year has continued in a most encouraging way tfiiough- 
out 1919. Never before have so many persons, of their own initiative and 
with no solicitation on our part, signified their desire of becoming members. 
This is particularly gratifying, as it shows both what a very little adver- 
tising has accomplished and that the merits of our Society and the ad- 
vantages it offers its members are becoming recognized to an ever-increas- 
ing e.\tent. Our membersnip list has been further added to this past year 
by a little quiet work and a system of “follow-up" letters inaugurated by 
our Secretary. It had been our hopes this Autumn to start anotiier organ- 
ized campaign for new members — such a one as we had found so successful 
in 1918 — but several things prevented us from attempting such an under- 
taking at this time. In the first place, funds were absolutely lacking to 
secure such clerical assistance as a drive of this nature demands. Even if 
we had had the funds it would have been difficult at this time to nave 
secured a competent assistant. Furthermore, it was a most unfortunate 
coincidence tnat our Secretary, Mr. Noe, who had so very ably conducted 
the last drive, was prevented from taking on any further activities, because 
his department was crippled by the continued illness throughout the Sum- 
mer and Fall of his stenographer. All his time was necessarily devoted to 
routine work. It may be added that the handling of the unusual activities 
in the medallic line also fell entirely upon his devoted shoulders. Mr. Noe 
certainly deserves the sincere thanks of our Society for tne able and en- 
tirely unselfish way he has “carried on” under these undeserved difficulties. 
On my own part I desire to extend to him my thanks and a hope that we 
can find a way to sustain him better this coming year. Now I am very 
pleased to be able to announce that the services of a thoroughly trained 
and able assistant have recently been secured, which fact gives us every 
reason to expect that this department will not be crippled to the same ex- 
tent in 1920 as it was in 1919. All the same it is evident that there is a 
really desperate need in this quarter for more funds, if only to enable us 
to call in, from time to time, a second assistant when routine work or some 
special activity threatens to swamp our absurdly undermanned staff. 

And this brings me, once more, to the crux of the whole situation, to 
the one great and continual sorrow that persistently dogs the footsteps of 
our Society- — the need for a larger permanent endowment fund. While 
this Question has been to the fore for a number of years, it has now grown 
absolutely acute, owing to the great advance in costs, the necessity of in- 
creasing wages, the need of increasing salaries, and the ever-widening field 
of our activities. Everything has grown but our income. While we may to 
a certain extent console ourselves by the reflection that in this respect we 
have plenty of good company throughout the world, it will not assist us 
materially in bettering our condition, a condition that is imminently threat- 
ening to become worse rather than better. Considerable temporary allevia- 
tion has lately been given us by the generosity of some of our members. 
While we grasp at this as the drowning man does at the proverbial straw 
and are immensely grateful for this very timely assistance, the rest of us 
should face the situation in a more practical way. I may say that it has 
been the subject of many serious discussions by the Board of Governors and 
the Council of this Society. As a result, at their behest, 1 have recently had 
the pleasure of appointing a Finance Committee in whose ability and devo- 
tion to the work in hand I have the very greatest confidence. We may eag- 
erly await the outcome of their deliberations, knowing that such proposals 
as they will make can only be for the very best interest of the Society. For 
the present, then, I must reluctantly leave this knotty problem, but with 
tile piea tliat the Society as a whole, when the time comes, will back up 
to the fullest extent of their power the plans and recommendations proposed 
by the committee, while on behalf of the staff I can assure the members of 
this committee tliat they can count on our doing our utmost to assist them 
in solving the problem and in carrying out such activities as they may 
propose. 


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Gentlemen, I am deeply regretful that I cannot be with you tliij after- 
noon in person, but you may rest assured that my thoughts are certainiy 
hcre in spite of some thousands of miles of a very wet Atlantic between us. 
I am hoping that a few months will see me back again, having accomplished 
several projects for the good of the Society that have been largeiy instru- 
mental in calling me away. 

It was moved and carried that the address be printed as usual, and that 
the suggestion regarding a vote of thanks to Mrs. Zabriskie be recorded on 
the files and sent to her. 

The Treasurer, Mr. Reilly, submitted the report of the Central Union 
Trust Company, commenting thereon. This report shows a deficit of about 
11500, toward which $600 has already been contributed. The need for ad- 
ditional funds was urged. 


Secretary’.s Re|K>rt. 

Our Society may well congratulate itself upon the continued growth in 
our membership during the past year, and upon the attendance throughout 
the year. Last year we reported 12,865 visitors. For this year our record 
shows that 11,283 have entered our doors, although there has been no ex- 
hioition to equal the Insignia Exhibit of last year. 

Our Associate .Members at the beginning of the year numbered 322, as 
against 145 for the preceding year. Our Associate Members now number 
4 06, despite the loss of several by death and the transferral of five to the 
list of Fellows. This is the more encouraging because no campaign has 
been carried on this year. .Many of our new members have joined because 
of their interest in the medals issued by our Society. 

The publication of these medals has taken about one-half of your Secre- 
tary’s time. The Committee’s report will tell further of them. 

'I'he effectiveness of our work during the year has been greatly hampered 
by sickness in the clerical force and by the changes which have taken place. 

The death of the following members has been reported: 

Charles M. Roberts, Associate .Member, April 8, 1918. 

Charles M. Schott, Jr., Associate Member, May 6, 1918. 

George VVhitefield Betts, Associate Member, January 16. 1915. 

William Boeruni Wetmore, Life Fellow, .May 20, 1878. 

Harry F. Williams, Associate Member, April 13, 1915. 

George Edward Ide, Associate Member, .May 6, 1918. 

Woodbury G. Langdon, Life Fellow, April 17, 1885. 

Charles P. Huntington, Life Fellow, January 15, 1906. 

William R. Weeks, Life Fellow, May 16, 1882. 

Henry Clay Frick, Life Fellow, .March 18, 1901. 

Constant A. Andrews, Associate Member, July 1, 1918. 

SVD.NEY P. Noe, Secretary. 

Report of the Curator. 

During the past year about a third of the Curator’s time was devoted to 
the coins and medals, the rest of the time being devoted to the work of 
the Society, including correspondence, the Journal and visitors, visitors alone 
taking up one seventh of the time. During two-thirds of the year the Cura- 
tor had an assistant who waited on many of the visitors, performed much 
of the routine wmrk, besides helping very greatly in arranging and classify- 
ing the coins. It it had not been for the aid given by the assistant, very 
little time could have been given the coins and medals. 

The work of rearranging the coins in the new cabinets is now virtually 
complete, and decided progress has been made in classifying the Oriental 
coins. Of all the series of coins the Society possesses, this is our most im- 
portant subdivision. 

Throughout the year valuable service has been given to collectors, manu- 
facturers, writers and publishers on various phases of our activities. We 
have supplied numerous photographs, casts, etc., of coins and medals, and 
especially our war medals and decorations. A large number of publishers 
have come to us for information and photographs, as we were the only 
place that could give them the requisite data. In fact, one writer made 
our building his home, so to speak, for a number of weeks, drawing on onr 


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mass of material for a large series of articles concerning war decorations. 
We have also been of service to the Government in this matter. 

Our exhibitions have been varied, but perhaps not as extensive as in other 
years, as the main exhibit was the display of medals relating to Peace 
Treaties that has been on display during the whole year and has only re- 
cently been withdrawn. The different exhibitions have been as follows: 

Federal Reserve Bank Notes belonging to Mr. George H. Blake. 

Central American and West Indian Coins. 

The medals presented to the Society by .Mr. Samuel P. Avery. 

Medals relating to Theodore Roosevelt. 

Red Cross Loan Exhibit. 

Modern War Decorations. 

German Satirical Medals. 

Badges ghen by towns and cities to their returning soldiers. 

The Polish coins and medals of the late Andrew C. Zabriskie. 

The modern coinage of Latin America. 

Besides these exhibitions in our own building, we have placed on display 
a large collection of Lincoln and Washington medals at the New York His- 
torical Society, historical and modern artistic medals at the Century Club, 
and our .4imy and Navy Insignia exhibit was shown by the Bailey, Banks 
and Biddle Company before we placed it in the National Museum at Wash- 
ington. 

Some of the more notable accessions of the year have been as follows; A 
collection of over 800 coins and medals, chiefly American political medals, 
given by Mr. William P. Beaver; over 160 medals and coins from .Mr. 
Samuel P. Avery, and several hundred medals and decorations from Mr. J. 
Sanford Saltus. 

During the year the additions to the cabinet has been as follows; 

3,174 coins and tokens. 

1,168 medals and decorations. 

160 pieces of paper money. 

20 counterfeits of ancient coins. 

2 7 glass weights. 

21 casts of gems. 

.Making a total of 4,570 pieces. The donors during the year number 120, 
and are as follows: 


Edward D. Adams 

George C. Arnold 

Samuel P. Avery 

Edwin Swift Balch 

William P. Beaver 

Herbert Berkowitz 

Miss Corinne C. Belden 

George H. Blake 

Harry Mc.Neill Bland 

F. C. C. Boyd 

-Agnes Baldwin Brett 

Maj. George M. Brett 

Mrs. Bryson Burroughs 

Dudley Butler 

Mrs. M. L. Casey 

Frederick H. Cheeswrlght 

T. Louis Comparette 

Antonio Corvese 

John C. Costello 

Leonard Crunelle 

Charles .A. A. Deerlng 

Henry Russell Drowne 

Lieut. Henry Russell Drowne, Jr. 

Frank G. Duffleld 

Mrs. Fanny J. Edgerton 

Reginald M. Embree 

Dr. Hermann Escher 

Walter L. Fink 

<’litirles Finkler 


George C. Meyer 
J. M. -Miller 
William G. -Moller 
Mrs. Myrtle de .Montis 
Edward T. Newell 
Allan G. Newman 
Sydney P. Noe 

■Miss Gertrude Paul, Jr. ' 

Mrs. Nelson P. Pehrson 

Stephen H. P. Pell 

Samuel Popper 

David Proskey 

Louis F. Ragot 

Wayte Raymond 

Mis. John Reilly 

L. Adolphe Renaud 

John Robinson 

Guiseppi Ros 

Maurice Rosenheim 

Andr6 Salles 

J. Sanford Saltus 

Charles M. Schmall 

Moritz Schulman 

William .Arnold Shanklln 

Otto Spengler 

Foster Stearns 

Mrs. Algernon Sydney Sullivan 
Cornelius J. Sullivan 
George H. Sullivan 


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John Flanagan 
James E. Fraser 
Laura Gardin Fraser 
A. R. Frey 

Herbert h riendenwald 
Harrold E. Gillingham 
Miss -Mary M. Greenwood 
Mrs. N. J. Hamburger 
William O. Hart 
Fred Hartman 

Estate of William Tod Helmuth 

Edward D. Hicks 

-Mrs. F. W. Hiddinga 

Archer .M. Huntington 

Daniel Hurley 

Charles P. Jones 

Jeno Jusko 

Fred Joy 

Robert P. King 

Henry H. Kitson 

Rudolph Kohler 

J. deLagerberg 

May Lennon 

A. A. Leve 

Alfred F. Lichtenstein 
Noi‘vin R. Lindheim, Jr. 

Frank I. Liveright 
Charles E. Loud 
Mrs. William B. McElrdy 
R. VV. McLachlan 
George R. .Marvin 
Pierre Mali 
F. P. Merritt 


.\mbrose Swasey 
Thomas W. Voetter 
Howland Wood 
L. E. Woodhouse 
Russell W. Woodward 
Col. Robert E. Wyllie 
Arthur C. Wyman 
Fiornce L. Younglove 
Cleanthis Zonaris 
American Car & Foundry Co. 
.\merican Cross of Honor 
The Bailey, Banks & Biddle Com- 
pany 

Bastian Brothers Company 

Children of the American Revolution 

City of New Orleans 

City of Paterson 

Josepn K. Davison’s Sons 

Ferracute Machine Co. 

Graduate Council Union College 
Joan of Arc Statue Committee 
Medallic Art Company 
National War Gardens Commission 
North Carolina Society, Colonial 
Dames of America 
The Robbins Company 
Swift & Company 
United States War Department 
Veteran Association, First Corps Ca- 
dets, Boston 

Western Reserve Historical Society 
The Whitehead & Hoag Company 
Zentralbibliothek, Zurich 


Howlaxp Wood, Curator. 

Librarian’s Rop(»rt. 

Your Librarian is very happy to report a very successful year for the 
Library. The accessions of the past year make it very nearly able to meet 
any demand which numismatic workers may make on it. Tu s is largely 
due to the splendid support given it by our members. • In additnm to the 
important gifts of books of which I shall speak, several of our members 
have sent us cheques with which to take advantage of the present low rate 
of exchange. This has enabled us to obtain almost double what we should 
have been able to secure in former times. 

The gift of the twenty-volume set of Mionnet’s works by Mr. Edward D. 
Adams is one of the most important additions made in many years. We 
have long felt the need of this rare and valuable set, and we warmly ap- 
preciate Mr. Adams’ generosity. From Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan we received 
tairty-two volumes, among which there are several of the highest import- 
ance. From Mr. George R. Marvin, the son of the former Editor of the 
American Journal of Numismatics, we received a set of the American Journal 
of Archaeology from 1897 to date. 

Some of the titles purchased were reported at the April and November 
meetings of the past year. Their number is greatly in excess of former 
years. Many of them were purchased to meet the expressed needs of our 
members. Almost every section of the Library has beneiitted — the greatest 
growth is probably in the French portion. The accessions total 258 bound 
volumes and 138 pamphlets and catalogues. 

A list of the donors follows; 


Edward D. Adams 

American Historical .Association 

Samuel P. Avery 

Wm. P. Beaver 

Bauman L. Belden 

Louis Ciani 


Miss McCoy 

Geo. R. Marvin 

.Miss -Margaret C. Meagher 

Merriam Company 

.Arthur Miller 

J. Pierpont Morgan 


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J. de Lageiberg 
Thos. L. Elder 
Feuardent Freres 
Albert R. F'rey 
H. A. Gary 
C. E. Reiser 
Rudolph Kohler 
Library of Congress 


Edward T. Newell 
j. Sanford Saltus 
J. Schulman 
Smithsonian Institution 
R. Tiionias 
U. 3. Government 
Howland Wood 


Respectfully submitted, 

Svu.NEY P. Noe, Librarian. 

KfIKJrt of t!u* Committee on Ancient Coin-s. 

The Ancient Coins Committee takes pleasure in reporting that the card 
■catalogue of Gieek co.ns is nearing completion, and that about 50 sale 
catalogues altogether Late now been cut and mounted, and the majority of 
tnese nave been uied. This brings the work nearly up to date as regards 
available illustrated catalogues. 

Among accessions to the Greek and Roman coins are the following: 

From -Mr. Samuel P. Avery, gold staters of Alexander the Great and 
Lysimachus, a gold stater of Cyrene, and four Greek silver coins. 

Fiom .Mr. W. P. Beaver we received a number of Greek and Roman coins, 
including a rare didrachm of Alexander the Great, attributed by Mr. Newell 
to the mint of Tarsos. 

Quite a number of coins have been acquired for the Society through Mr. 
Noe’s interest in the Metapontum series, he himself being the donor of a 
flue early stater of the Incuse c.ass, while Mr. Wyman has donated a stater 
on which is the head of Apollo with the Greek letters Al'O.V on the trunca- 
tion of the neck. Also several Metapontines, early incuse types, have been 
acquired by purchase. 

Three Roman coin molds from Egypt were presented by Mr. Newell. 
These are the tools of ancient counterfeiters used in producing cast coins 
from impressions in clay taken from struck originals — all of the Alexandria 
mint (cf. Numismatic Chronicle, 1905, p. 342). 

Miss Mary M. Greenwood has donated thirty-four Bactrian coins, five of 
which were silver. 

The Durkee and Greenwood collections of Parthian, Bactrian, Indo-Par- 
thian, Sassanian, etc., pieces, have now been classified and arranged. 

The cataloguing of the J. Pierpont Morgan collection of Greek and Ro- 
man coins is well under way, and it is hoped that the catalogue will be ready 
for publication at the end of the year. 

President Newell’s visit to Europe will undoubtedly bring us in touch 
with the leaders in the numismatic world across the seas, and we are antici- 
pating all the news and new information that he will bring us with great 
pleasure. A small fund has been collected for Mr. Newell to expend for the 
Society on Greek coins. 

W. Gedn'ey Beatty, Chairman. 

Mrs. A(iNE.s BAi.nwix Brett. 

Proe. Caroi.ine M. Gai.t. 

Syd-ney P. Noe. 

Report of the Committee on Decorations, Insignia and War Medals. 

-Mr. Belden, in the absence of the Chairman, Mr. Saltus, reported that they 
had no formal report to make at this time. “Although he is so far away,” 
Mr. Belden said, “we may be very sure that our Chairman has not forgotten 
us. He recently sent a very beautiful set of the decorations of the Legion 
of Honor for our collection, as well as other recent decorations and medals. 
It is of interest to note that Mr. Saltus has recently been made an officer 
of the I^egion of Honor.” A large proportion of the medals issued in con- 
nection with the late war have been secured and placed on exhibition. The 
most interesting of the additions in the province of this Committee is a 
British Peninsula Medal with twelve bars. Only one medal was ever issued 
with more than twelve bars; those having twelve bars are exceedingly rare 
and valuable. Mr. Newell and Mr. Saltus each contributed one-quarter of 


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the coat of this medal, and we are hoping that two other generous members 
will come forward with the remaining two quarters. 

KeiHjrt of the Committee on Foreign Coins. 

It has been the custom of this Committee for a number of years to enu- 
merate tire \arious issues of European necessity coins which were struck dur- 
ing the great war. This practice will be discontinued hereafter, as books, 
pamphlets, and catalogues are beginning to appear on this subject, and 
these, in consequence, cover this special held more thoroughly than an an- 
nual summary permits. 

Now that free communication has been re-established with the Central 
Empires, it is especially interesting to note tl.e large variety of the seini- 
olficial coinage issued in base metai, in ail manner of large and small com- 
munities of Germany, as well as the issues of paper money, in order to re- 
lieve the money stringency of war time. Some or tiiese issues are ve.y at- 
tractive and elaborate, and in many cases imitate numismatic historic pro- 
totypes. We estimate that the number of varieties runs not into hundreds, 
but into thousands. 

The titles of the works which have thus far been published are herewith 
given: 

1. Das Deutsche N’otgeld, 1916-1919, by Dr. Arnold Keller. Part 1 
t Paper money). Published by A. E. Cahn, Frankfort-a-M. 

2. La Guerre Europeenne. Five illustrated catalogues issued in Janu- 
ary, 1917, March, 1918, January and December, 1919, by the firm of J. 
Schulman. in Amsterdam. This important series describes about 5000 coins, 
medals, paper money, decorations, and badges. 

3. Catalogue des .Monnaies de la Guerre, 1914-1919. Issued by Louis 
Ciani, of Pans, and comprising 852 items. 

It lias been a further custom of your Committee briefly to refer to auc- 
tion sales held during the past year. In our own country there have been 
the usual number of routine auction sales, but practically no Important 
foreign material has here come upon the market, and the general complaint 
among dealers has been the scarcity of supplies for an increasing demand. 

In England, Glendinning & Company have held frequent miscellaneous 
auction sales, among them several on the favorite British subject of war 
medals. Thus the collection of military and naval medals, decorations, 
etc., originally formed by Brigadier-General G. LI. Palmer, came under the 
hammer in June. A special collection of coins of Charles I (name of own- 
er, “a member of the British Numismatic Society,” not stated), represent- 
ing a detailed study of the issues and mints of this monarch, was thus dis- 
persed in May; and likewise in January a fair-sized collection of English 
coins belonging to “A member of the Royal Numismatic Society” was sold. 
Sotheby’s, in July, sold at auction the very wonderful collection of British 
naval medals formed by Admiral The Marquess of .Milford Haven (formerly 
Prince liouis of Battenburg), which abounded in rarities too numerous to 
Itemize (about 200 items). Indicating that popular taste may run in the 
same channels in the late enemy countries as well, your committee received 
copies of an auction catalogue held in August in Frankfort-on-the-Main by 
Sally Rosenberg, containing among sundry items another collection of naval 
medals of all countries, belonging to Professor Dr. Helferich-Eisenach (with 
about 650 items). This was the first German catalogue which came to our 
attention since the conclusion of hostilities; and reports have been received, 
confirming that during the period of the war a number of large collections 
were disposed of by auction in Germany, with prices running very high (ac- 
cording to German sources). This, however, may not be significant when 
the high rate of exchange in our favor which prevails today is taken into 
consideration. A further auction sale was held by A. Reichmann & Co. in 
December, covering a special collection of the coins of Osnabruck, the prop- 
erty of Dr. H. in B. 

The follow’ing are the new issues for the year 1919, and such of 1918 as 
have not been previously recorded: 

Australia. — The question of coining money in the Royal Mint, Melbourne, 
is being considered by the Australian Government. In the past it has been 
impracticable to manufacture these coins in Australia because the machinery 
at the disposal of the mint officials was unsuitable for dealing with an alloy 
so hard as bronze. They have therefore been made in London, Birmingham 


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aad Calcutta. Lately, however, additional machinery has been erected in 
the Melbourne mint, and it is now probable that all the bronze currency re- 
quired in Australia will be coined there. 

Itrazil. — A new silver denomination of 400 Reis has been adddd to the 
regular series of 500, 1000, and 2000 Reis. 

Jiritisli Honduras. — The current coins are copper-nickel five cents and 
bionze cents, both dated 1916, and each bearing the mint mark H, i. e., 
Heaton, of Birmingham, England. In the future these coins will be struck 
in Canada, at the Ottawa branch of the Royal Mint. 

t'uiiada. — In March, Sir Thomas White introduced a bill in the Parlia- 
ment at Ottawa providing for the issue of a new one-cent piece much smailer 
than the present coin of that denomination. Later the Canadian .Minister 
of Finance gave notice of a resolution providing for the weight and fineness 
ol the new coin. The weight of the present coin is 87 14 grains; and the 
weight of the new coin will be 50 grains. The present coin weighs 80 to 
tne pound, while the new coin will weigh 140 to the pound. It will approx- 
imate the American bronze cent, which weighs 4 8 grains. The old one-cent 
piece will continue in force, and the new one will be issued by proclamation. 
It is not intended to withdraw the present one-cent piece from circulation, 
but as it becomes worn it will be redeemed. It is reported that the new 
coins are now being struck. 

t'liiim. — Discontinuance of the use of sycee silver, the establishment of a 
uniform dollar currency, with subsidiary silver and copper coins, the open- 
ing of a mint at Shanghai for the free coinage of dollars, and the placing of 
other mints under efficient control in order to secure uniformity of stand- 
aids, are recommended in a note presented by the British Minister to the 
Chinese Government in December last. The note refers to the disadvan- 
taues resuRing fiom depreciation of the subsidiary coinage and the discredit- 
ed status of Chinese banknotes. 

It is understood that the Chinese Government is sympathetic to the pro- 
posal and considers the moment favorable for replacing the sycee by a 
uniform dollar, and that a scheme will be announced early in the .New Year 
under which a central Government mint with the necessary foreign assist- 
ance will be established at Shanghai for the free coinage of silver. 

IH’nntiii'k.— — It is estimated that iron coins of the value of twelve million 
kroner have been Issued. The Director of the Mint states that no more will 
be struck, as there is a sufficient supply of copper and silver on hand for 
making subsidiary coins. 

The Danish Government is also contemplating the issue of a two-kroner 
piece to commemorate the reunion of Schleswig with Denmark. 

KJOPt- — In our last report reference was made to the issue of the coins 
of 20 piastres with English inscriptions. To tlie.se should now be added a 
nickel coin of five milliemes, struck A. H. 133.1, i. e., 1916-’17, under the 
Sultan Hussein Kamil. The inscriptions are in English and Arabic. 

France. — The high price of silver has resulted in the hoarding of silver 
coins, causing a great scarcity in France, and it is reported that the French 
Ministry of Finance has just authorized an issue of 10,000,000 francs worth 
of nickel coins. 


Geriimny. — It is not generally known that the German Empire issued a 
one-plennig coin m 1917, struck in aluminum. The design is the same as 
its copper predecessor. 

Owing to the complete cessation of communication, your Committee had 
not been able to report on any issues of silver coins after the year 191.5 
Tne practice of issuing commemorative series of the higher silver values 
seems to have continued even during the stress of the late war years. Thus 

a three-mark piece to commemorate the 
jubilee of the reign of Grand Duke Ernest Ludwig. 

Italy.— The International Nickel Company of New York has been making 
regular shipments of nickel discs to Italy since last May. It is reported 
that these are to be used by the Italian Government for the manufacture of 
a new com of either 20 or 25 centesinii. 

Mexico.— On November 13. 1918 a decree was issued authorizing a new 
issue of pesos and half pesos, or 60 centavos. The designs are similar to 
tne preceding coins, but the sizes have been reduced. Both coins have a 
plain edge with incuse lettering, “Independencia v Libertad.’” A silver 


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piece of 20 centavos of the same type was struck in 1919, and bears that 
date. It is of the size of the United States copper cent. 

President Carranza evidently contemplates a still further reduction in 
the size of the silver coins to prevent their disappearance as a result of the 
high price of this metal. A decree was signed on October 29, 1919, at 
Queretaro, providing for a peso containing twelve grammes of silver, and a 
proportionate reduction for the 50 and 20 centavo pieces. 

In October last a shipment of steel was made from the United States to 
Mexico for the manufacture of dies by the Mexican Mint. Heretofore British 
and German steel has been exclusively used for this purpose. The dies are 
to be employed for a new issue of ten-centavo copper coins which the Gov- 
ernment is to issue in an effort to relieve the shortage of currency. 

Newfoundland. — In our report for 1917 it was mentioned that the silver 
coinage of this country was struck at Ottawa. Ihe latter mint is now aisc 
making the copper coins for Newfoundland, it being impossible to get a 
supply of this metal in England. 

Norway. — See Scandinavia. 

i’olaiKi. — Iron corns of tne value of 5, 10 and 25 fenigow was struck in 
Stuttgart, Germany for use in Poland in 1917. 

Harry A. McBride, U. S. Consul at Warsaw, reports on October 29, 1919, 
as follows: "No definite monetary laws have been enacted in the new State 
of Poland. There are several projects now under consideration. Polish 
marks are irr circulation in all parts of Poland except what was formerly 
Austrian territory, (Galicia), where -Austrian crowns are still used. The 
Polish Government is endeavoring to evolve a satisfactory scheme for unify- 
ing the currency of the country." 

Portugal. — The coin of four centavos mentioned in our last report is 
struck in nickel. It has a female head on one side, and the inscription on 
the reverse: "Republica Portuguesa. 4 Centavos. 1917.” 

.Salvador. — Two decrees were enacted and published September 12, 1919, 
one establishing a gold standard for Salvador and the other fixing the ex- 
change at two Colombo for one dollar gold and also making a United States 
gold coin legal tender generally, and the United States bank bills legal 
tender in payments to banks. 

Scandinavia. — New gold coins of five, ten, and twenty crowns are being 
struck for Sweden. 

At the Coin Congress held November, 1919, at Christiana, Norway, the 
delegates united to prepare between the northern countries a law regarding 
new subsidiary coinage, as well as the introduction of a nickel coinage. 

Switzcrlaml. — During the year ending December 31, 1917, Switzerland 
executed nickel coinage (10 and 5 centimes) of the face value of 90,000 
francs, and brass coinage (10 and 5 centimes) of the face value of 55,000 
francs, the latter to be withdrawn as soon as sufficient nickel and copper 
will again be available. The brass coins, however, were also struck in 
1918. (See Report of this Committee for 1917). 

All of which is submitted. 

Ai.iikkt R. Fkey, Chairman. 

Mobitz Wormser. 

Dudley Butler. 

W.M. F. Beller. 

Report of the Huntington -Medal Coinmlttee. 

It is the pleasure of your Committee on the Award of the Huntington 
Medal, for recognition of literary or other services to the science of numis- 
matics, to present this distinction to one of our old and trusted friends and 
Fellows, who by his continued industry, well-proved erudition, and tactful, 
modest service, has played, and still is playing, a very large part in making 
our Society the important center and producing museum in the entire world. 
His noteworthy writings, covering a wide fieid, have often appeared in the 
American Journal of y umismaiirs, The Nu.mism.\tist, and elsewhere. A few 
titles may be mentioned, such as The Coinage of the West Indies. The Cana- 
dian Blacksmith Tokens, Paper Money Issued by the Sutlers in the Civil 
War, The Coinage of Tibet, The Toughrah as Found on Coins, and many 
others. 

We therefore honor ourselves when we honor Howland Wood by award- 


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ing him the Huntington Medal, and we wish him everlasting power and 
success in his chosen field. 

John Reillv, Jr., Chairman. 

Rei>ort of the Foreign MeduLs Committee. 

Medallic art, as in the case of literature and the arts of painting and 
sculpture, has been so influenced by the war as almost completely to over- 
shadow other themes of illustration during the past year. Activity in for- 
eign medal design and production, however, has continued to increase, not- 
ably in France, Belgium, Holland and Switzerland. The output of the Hotel 
des Monnaies in Paris, never completely suspended during the war, has 
been very active during the past year, and numerous art medals have been 
produced by many well-known French medallists, such as Blondat, Desvig- 
nes, Legastelois, Lordonnois, Morion, Yencesse, and others. An interest- 
ing plaquette by Blondat, represents a soldier prisoner, seated, writing a 
letter to his home. It is a very artistic work. Morion contributes an ex- 
ceedingly graphic design of a tank in action with an avenging angel grasp- 
ing a sword guiding it from above. 

One of the most dramatic medals of the war period is that of Madame 
Croce Lancelot, entitled "The Work of the Barbarians.” Alone in a vast 
wilderness of shellholes is a stricken mother, clasping her nursing infant 
to her arms, and standing by a simple wooden cross upon which hangs the 
soldier’s cap of the father. 

A very dignified work is the portrait medal of Cardinal Mercier by that 
most successful designer, J. P. Legastelois. Upon the reverse is a portrayal 
of Christ crucified above an angry Belgian lion. 

F. Gilbault has designed a striking head of Clenienceau in his familiar 
slouch hat, and Prudhomme has produced another Clenienceau medal. A 
plaque presented to President Wilson by the City of Paris, in commemoration 
of his visits there, represents an heroic female figure, typifying the city, 
w'liich partially obscures the facade of the Louvre seen in the background. 
On October 31st, 1919, a delegation from the Ligue Maritime Francais pre- 
sented a gold medal to the President of the Navy League of the United 
States, which was designed by Manger. The obverse represents a likeness 
of Louis XIV, and the reverse depicts an allegorical figure of France in a 
sea chariot drawn by Neptune’s horses, and it bears the legend “Splendor 
Lei Xavalis.” 

It is gratifying to note that in Brussels the "Holland-Belgian Society of 
Friends of the Medallion” has resumed its long-suspended meetings by a 
noteworthy gathering at which Be Vreese, Dubois, Bonnetain, Wiener and 
other distinguished leaders in the medallic art were present. Mr. Victor 
Tourneur, Director of the Royal .Museum of Brussels, was elected Presi- 
dent, and a program calling for the competitive designing of seven medals 
was announced. The first award, typifying the violation of Belgian territo- 
ry, has already been made to Mr. Manguoy. The other subjects announced 
are: 

1. The resistance of Lidge. 

2. The destruction of Namur. 

3. The Siege of Antwerp. 

4. The defense of the Yser and martyrdom of Ypres. 

5. Civil resistance and deportation. 

6. Return of King Albert to Belgium. 

Two other medals have already been issued by this Society during the 
year; one dedicated to Van Ruysbroeck; the other, from the Dutch section, 
is by J. C. VVienecke, and is entitled “The Girl.” 

An excellent plaquette by Boorgaard, entitled “Ye Shall Not Pass,” rep- 
resents the Belgian lion protecting the fiag and defending the passage of 
the Y^ser. Above, in an oval insert, is a portrait of King Albert, while in 
the distance a flyer is seen destroying a Zeppelin. 

In Holland, Van der Hoef has introduced a new type of design in cast 
medals of high relief, drawn in almost cubist fashion. One of these repre- 
sents a sort of caravel with a lone figure upon the poop. On the reverse is 
a kneeling figure, scarcely recognizable as a woman, throwing roses into 
tne sea as an offering to those who were drowned in service. 

A Danish medal by Fritz Heinberger, dedicated to “Peace,” represents the 


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Angel of Peace kneeling at the tomb of dead soldiers. A medal of the 
Netherlands deals with the uprising against the Belgian anne.xation of por- 
tions of the provinces of Limbourg and Zeelande, and another, bearing an 
Hebraic inscription, is dedicated to the victims of the pogroms. 

A Swiss plaquette published by the prolific Huguenin and called "La 
I'dix,’ represents a nude female figure surmounting a globe and holding an 
olive branch. 

Sweden has shown continued activity in the production of art medals. 
Among other notable examples of the year are a medal celebrating tue 
250th anniversary of the Swedish Riksbank, and another the 250th anni- 
versary of the Lund University, the latter by the medal engraver, Sveii 
Kuile. The Charles XII Jubilee medal, issued by the Swedish Numismatic 
Society, has already been illustrated in Tmk Numis-matist during the past 
year. The philanthropist and banker, C. W. Burmeister, of Stockholm, do- 
nated 3.000 crowns to that institution, the interest to be used for payment 
lor the production of a yearly medal. 

Canada has struggled bravely on with its productions in the .Medallic 
Art and a number of cheap war medals have been struck by towns and 
counties for their returning soldiers. However, these efforts show a spirit 
which should not be discouraged. A small peace medal also has been struck 
by Binks, of .Montreal, which represents a female figure, standing by the 
sea with a palm branch and a shield, bearing the date 1919. The usual sun 
with bayonet rays (in this case not the “14 points!’’) is seen in the back- 
ground, and presents the common difficulty in such designs of guessing 
wnether the sun is rising or setting! Let us hope that Peace at least may 
“get a rise’’ out of it! 

The German medals of the year continue to deal in sarcastic vein wil.li 
events relative to the war. Many of these have been presented in the 
special exhibition of the Society, and all of them, excepting perhaps those 
which are portraits of war heroes, afford an astounding exhibition of “Kul- 
tur,’’ which for grossness, beastiality and loathsomeness can have no coun- 
terpart, even in the Middle Ages. One of them, for example, called “Wil- 
son’s Mouse-Trap,’’ represents a trap with a piece of pork, the trap having 
14 points. Upon the reverse is an outlandish figure of Wilson with a laurel 
wreath upon his brow', sailing home lying in a small skiff, and bearing the 
inscription “With soul at rest, he sails for home, June 27, 1919.” 

Another medal represents Bolshevism. The complex design portrays a 
group of Bolshevists protected by a wall having the “14 points,” while a 
second group are dancing under a liberty pole, and a third are being ha- 
rangued by an agitator in an automobile. An eagle’s beak closed by a pad- 
lock appears, and a Frenchman and Englishman are seated on its claw. On 
the reverse is a symbolic head of Bolshevism surrounded by serpents and 
naming bombs. 

A large (90 mm.) and very grossly designed medal shows a number of 
pi one starving figures, representing the Central Powers, lying beneath the 
spikes of the seawall of England. On the reverse appears a grotesque 
Uncle Sam in the role of the “Good Samaritan,’’ presenting a huge bill of 
co.sts for food to a prostrate, wounded and starving figure of the German 
“Michael,” while hard by stands a mule laden with bursting sacks of grain. 

■\nd there are many other of these Hunnish medals of like design. Whol- 
1} apart from the merit of the feelings w'hich they seek to express, it is 
painful to see the medallic art so prostituted and degraded by grossness ot 
design and coarseness of execution. 

This being an era of peace medals, Italy naturally is not behind, and the 
sculptor, E. Fare, has designed a medal showing a female figure of Justice, 
holding a scales and displaying her strength of character by standing, bare- 
foot, on two writhing snakes! The medal is dedicated to King Victor 
Emanuel and bears an excellent portrait of him on the obverse. 

The Saint Peter’s medal of 1910 is by G. Romagnoli, dedicated to Pope 
Bcnedictus XV, now in the fifth year of his pontificate. It represents on the 
one side the Redeemer extending his arms over a soldier returning to his 
wife and children; upon the other, over the wounded and dead. 

From Uruguay conies a medal issued for an exhibition of South Amer- 
ican agriculture and industries. 

It has always been a source of w'onderment that the Japanese who do 
such admirable work in metals, as for example in the design of sword-hilts, 
have not yet seriously taken ui) the medallic art to the extent of producing 


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mure than a very few examples. An interesting bronze medal, however 
(oi) mm.), has lately been issued by the mint in Tokio. The medal is de- 
signed by 1 Sato, and is dedicated to “Peace.” It represents the flags of 
the five principal Allies, the Japanese banner being in the center. The flags 
are contained within a wreath formed by a palm and oak branch very 
delicately executed. The marginal lettering, which is quite picturesque, 
forms the inscription “In Commemoration of the Peace Conference, Octo- 
ber 20, 1918.” Upon the reverse is pictured a draped figure of “Peace’ 
rather crudely drawn with long arms and short legs. Several doves of peace, 
presumably to make peace more certain, are flying about, one of them be- 
ing a first-class fan-failed pigeon! In the background are represented the 
Plaza and Palace of Versailles. This reverse design, quite inferior to tne 
obverse, and unfortunately copied after occidental methods, is much less 
fortunate than the obverse. Tne reverse is by F. Jida. 

Although perhaps not wholly germain to a report by the Foreign Medals 
Committee, nevertheless opportunity should be taken to mention the most 
successful exhibition of foreign and American medals, which was held dur- 
ing the spring of 1919 in the Art Gallery of the Century Club. Much of 
the credit of this exhibition, which excited so much interest and favor that 
it was prolonged for a fortnight beyond the date originally contemplated, 
was due to the courtesy of the American Numismatic Society in loaning a 
number of valuable specimens, and to the untiring services given by .Mr. 
Wood and Mr. Noe in the arrangement of the collection. It was a work re- 
quiring much skill and thought. It was generally agreed that the display 
constituted the most original and noteworthy art exhibition ever held at 
the Century Club and many valuable foreign medals, both old and new, be- 
longing to members of the Club, were for the first tithe shown in public. 

It has been diflicult within the limits of this article to do full justice to a 
year which has been most prolific and encouraging in the production and 
style of foreign medals, and it has only been possible to refer briefly to a 
few of the most important ones, several of which already have been de- 
scribed and pictured by Mr. deLagerberg in The Nusus.m.vtist. 

W. Gh.man Thompso.n, Chairman. 

J. dbLaokruekc:. 

Oriental Coin Committee. 

The activities of the Oriental Coin Committee have been rather staff 
work than committee work. Considerable more classifying has been done 
on the Mohammedan coins than was done during the previous year, and the 
end of the preliminary arrangement is in sight, but the more careful classi- 
fying is yet ahead. 

No exhibition of strictly Oriental coins has been made during the past 
year, as more topical subjects have demanded precedence. 

Publications on Oriental numismatics, both here and abroad, have been 
inconspicuous, as in most other fields. 

Our accessions during the year in this Held have more than held their 
own w'ith other classes of coins, although no especially important pieces 
have been added to the cabinet. 

One of the members of the Committee, .Mr. Justin E. Abbott, has de- 
posited with us on loan several thousands of Indian copper coins collected 
by him while in India. 

In May, .Mr. Guiseppi Ros, of Shanghai, paid us a tw'o days’ visit, which 
was most enjoyable, and we gleaned a mass of first-hand information con- 
cerning modern Chinese coins. 

This Committee has recommended that w'e print the very complete cata- 
logue of the Imperial struck coins of China, with numerous plates, which 
has recently been offered to us by (Mr. Guiseppi Ros) the author of the 
best list of the Republican issues of China. 

So far the Publication Committee is without funds for this purpose, but 
it is earnestly hoped that enough can be raised so that we can make the 
most of this opportunity to furnish an excellent work that is very much 
needed. 

Howi.a.ni) Wood, Chairman. 

Dk. James B. NTes. 

John Reii.i.y, Jr. 

JrsTi.x E. Ahhott. 


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RoIH)!! of the United States Coin Committee. 

Your Committee on American Coins begs to submit the following report 
for the year 1919: 

The end of the great war finfis the interest of collectors of American coins 
stimulated to a considerable degree. The collecting of the eariy Colonial 
and Continental issues also has been given a new impetus, the demand for 
fine specimens exceeding the supply. The American gold coins also have 
greatly interested the collectors, and many inquiries as to the rare pieces, 
as well as the smaller and commoner issues, have been made. 

No great collections have been offered on the selling market during the 
past year, but a number of sales of medium importance have been held. 
Few noted rarities were offered, and seemingly there was no remarkable 
find of noted rarities, although one member of your Committee was shown a 
John Parsons & Company |10 piece, which he did not succeed in obtaining. 

Apparently the war did not affect the coin collecting unfavorably, but it 
should be here noted that the cost of coins for collectors has not nearly 
kept pace with the cost of other things, such as clothing and food. It is a 
little puzzling to know why some coins did not double in price since 1914, 
in view of money conditions. Yet coins for collectors did advance some- 
what in price. No new issues have been minted, nor have we heard of any 
new pattern designs for American coins. 

There is, however, one matter, the subject of new and beautiful souvenir 
an l memorial Issues of coins, which your Committee mentioned in our last 
year's report. We feel that these special coins should be issued whenever 
feasible to commemorate any great event, such as a great exposition, or in 
honor of a particularly great American who has died. 

It is on this account the sense of your Committee on American Coins 
that nothing better could be done at this time than to urge upon the Society 
the necessity of supplying the people with beautiful and artistic coins, not 
only the regular issues, but special issues, and the occasional issuance of 
memorial coins, the latter helping to keep alive patriotism throughout the 
nation. 

It is the opinion of your Committee on American coins that one of these 
memorial coins should soon be issued bearing the portrait and in the honor 
of that great statesman who has so recently left our midst, the Honorable 
Theodore Roosevelt. This coin could be of almost any denomination up to 
a dollar, or a gold dollar. In view of the sterling character of this eminent 
American, at whose tomb kings and princes have but recently seen fit to 
bow, and whose last acts, those influenced by this great war, have so added 
to his stature as an American, we can think of no more fitting or timely 
subject for an American coin. There are a number of eminent American 
sculptors who could model a splendid portrait for such a coin. 

To this recommendation your Committee further adds the request that a 
copy of our report be forwarded to His Excellency, Woodrow Wilson, Pres- 
ident of the United States. 

We remain. Yours respectfully, 

Thomas L. Elder, Chairman. 
Wayte Raymo.nu. 

E. H. Adams. 

Report of Committee on Publications. 

The work of your Publication Committee is mostly evident in the appear- 
ance of Volume 5 2, which was mailed to members and subscribers in No- 
vember. The publication of this volume was made possible wholly through 
the generosity of our loyal President. We therefore owe him our deep 
gratitude and appreciation for tliis large contribution. The volume, as a 
vvhoie, is one of our most important numbers, and will be very widely 
studied throughout the numismatic and archaeological worlds. The early 
appearance of this issue is due to the ceaseless activity of the editor, Mr. 
Wood. 

On account of soaring costs of paper and printing, the number of pages 
■of Volume 52 is but three-fourths that of the average issue; but the quality 
of the contents is fully up to our liighest ideals, and the heliotype plates 
the best possible that can be produced. 

Volume 53 is assured tlirougli two gifts. We are well advanced in the 


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preparation of this issue. The principal article, a masterly treatise on the 
early cents of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Vermont, by Messrs. Miller 
and Ryder, will be of great value and interest to students and collectors of 
these early ‘■Americans.” 

Our h’ar Eastern department offers us a wonderful catalogue of the struck 
coins of Imperial China, a very valuable work in a virgin field, and greatly 
needed. 

This is an opportunity to do our duty in a department where we are 
prominent in material and workers. Unfortunately, no funds are available, 
but we should be dodging our obligations if we do not use every effort to 
finance this great work. 

John Rkii.i.y, Jr., Chairman. 

Kcpoit of the C'oiiiiiiittee on the l*iil>liratioii of Medals. 

Four medals have been published by tiie American Numismatic Society 
during the past year. 

The first of these was the medal to Commemorate the Dedication of Joan 
of Arc Park. The cost of the design and of the dies was borne by .Mr. J. 
Sanford Saltus. The medal was designed by Miss Anna V. Hyatt. 

The second medal to be issued was our Peace .Medal. This was published 
when the Treaty was signed at Versailles. The design was by Mr. Chester 
Beach, one of our members, and his design was adjudged the best of the 
fifteen submitted in competition. With this medal an exception to our rule 
was made by our Council in that non-members were permitted to purchase 
the bronze copies. These were offered for sale throughout the country, and 
it is gratifying to report that the sales to date total 107 in silver and just 
a little short of 300 in bronze. 

Our Independence Day Medal was unfortunate in that it was eclipsed by 
our Peace Medal which was published at about the same time. This medal 
Was restricted to our members, and as the subscription was a limited one, 

this is one of the rarest of the medals ever issued by our Society. It was 

designed by .Mr. Allen G. Newman. 

We owe our fourth medal, Commemoratin ? the \Msit of the Prince of 
Wales, to the generosity of Mr. Saltus. Not only has he presented to the 

Society a sum to cover the cost of the design and of the dies, but to this 

was added the coi y in gold which was presented to the Prince of Wales on 
board the battleship Renown. The subscription has been extended to March 
1st by action of the Council. The privilege of subscribing for this medal 
has been granted to the Pilgrims of the United States. To Mr. Saltus, too, 
we owe the funds which provided the means for presenting the gold mem- 
bership medal to Queen Elizabeth of the Belgians during her visit. 

In .\pril there was the presentation for the first time of the J. Sanford 
Saltus .\ward .Medal, the recipient being Mr. James Earle Fraser. This 
medal, and the fund which made it possible, was given by Mr. Saltus a num- 
ber of years ago. The design was made by Mr. A. A. Weinmann during the 
year 191S, and the first copies were cast. Since that time, owing to the 
fact that the best results are not obtained by casting, .Mr. Saltus has directed 
that dies be prepared at his expense. Castings of the full size of the artist’s 
model have been prepared and have been exhibited at the Century Club, 
the National Arts Club, and are to be exhibited at the exhibition of the 
Aichiteclural League. The artist's galvanos are at present on exhibition 
at the .National .Academy of Design, and everywhere this medal has received 
high praise and the warm commendation which it so richly deserves. 

Submitted on behalf of the Committee. 

Report of the Finance Coniinittee. 

.Mr. Gillingham reported informally in be'’alf of the Finance Committee 
that they were considering ways and means of making up the deficit for the 
cuirent year. Unless the Society can find some way for increasing its in- 
come, we shall be under the necessity of I'educing our efforts. In the dis- 
cussion which followed this report, various plans were suggested, the chief 
of which were raising dues, increasing membership on the present basis, 
increasing the number of Fellows from one hundred fifty to two hundred. 
Increasing the payments which entitle to membership for life and sending 


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a letter to members calling attention lo our deceit and asking for aid. 

Under new business, Mr. Drowne spoke of the need of better attendance 
on the part of our members at the evening meetings. Various methods for 
attracting the public to these meetings were discussed. 

The election of members of the Council being next in order, the names 
of Messrs. Archer M. Huntinton, W. Gedney Beatty and W. H. VVoodin were 
Placed in nomination, and on motion the nominations were closed On a 
further motion the Secretary was instructed to cast a ballot electing the 
nominees. Carried. 

Adjournment was then moved and the motion carried. 

Sydney P. Noe, 


a rv 


SWEDISH NUMISMATIC SOCIETY MEDAL. 


The Swedish Numismatic Society’s Anniversary Medal, 1919, is struck in 
memory and honor of the diplomat and numismatist. Count f^rl Snoilsky 
who was the foremost contemporary Swedish poet and one of the eighteen 



members of “The Swedish Academy.’’ The medal is designed by S. Kulle, 
is struck in silver and bronze, from the fund donated for this purpose, by 
the philanthropist, Mr. C. W. Burmester of Stockholm. 

J. del. 


FOREIGN MED.\L ISSUES .\ND AWARDS. 


By a decree issued at Paris on December 21, President Poincare awarded 
the French Medal of Gratitude to .Mrs. W. Whitney Warren of Boston and 
several other Americans. The medal was also awarded to .Mine. Jusserand, 
wife of the Ambassador to the United States. 


On October 31, at Washington, D. C., a delegation representing the Ligue 
Martime Francaise presented a gold medal to the President of the Navy 
League of the United States. The medal is a splendid work of art, designed 
by Mauger. The obverse is a deep relief of Louis XIV, which is said to be 
the best production in a numismatic way ever done of the founder of the 
French Navy. The inscription reads: "Ludovicus Magnus Rex Christiansis.’’ 
The reverse depicts France in a sea chariot drawn by Neptune’s horses. At 
the top is the legend, “Splendor Rei Navalis,’’ and in the center of the medal 
is inscribed “La Ligue Martiine Francaise a I’Americaine Navy League. 
1919.’’ 


President Nicholas Murray Butler of Columbia University, New York, re- 
ceived in December from L. Poincare, vice-rector of the University of Paris, 
a bronze medal coinmeniorating the achieven:ents of the lO.OOh Columbia 
men in war service. 

The King of Belgium has decorated Mrs. William T. HiUlrup witli the 
Queen Elizabeth Medal, and the Queen of Belgium has decorated .Mrs. 
William Brown Meloney. editor of many magazines, with the Order of 
Queen Elizabeth. .Mrs. Meloney has also received the .Medaille de ( lia.leroi 
in recognition of her services for Belgian children. 


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MISCELI.AXEOUS XIMISMATIU NOTES. 


It is reported that Great Britain will issue Hve-shilling notes. The present 
high price of silver is responsible for their introduction. At present the 
ten-sliilling note is the lowest denomination in paper. 


While searching for an illicit still in Portland, Me., recently. United 
States Revenue Service officials are said to have discovered two glass fruit 
jars containing between $1200 and $2000 worth of gold coins. 


The e.xport of silver bullion specie has been prohibited in England. Silver 
bullion is very scarce in England, domestic consumption having increased 
greatly in the last few months. Another reason advanced by metal dealers 
in the United States is that tne present high price of silver in England might 
tempt holders to melt coin into bullion for e.xport. Such an operation, it 
was said, would be profitable with the high price of the metal now prevailing 
in London. 


A chest of Roman coins, buried in the face of invasion every hundred 
years since 500 A. D., is now providing comforts for the refugees around 
the little French village of Charmes, in the Aisne district. The chest, con- 
taining the wealth of an ancient Roman nobleman, was dug up recently near 
the ruins of the chateau of .Major Titus Leroux of Charmes, head of one of 
the oldest families of France. It is the last heirloom of the aged officer and 
his wife, and they have willingly cast it into the Red Cross fund to aid the 
people of their district. 


The merchants who live in the districts around the Caspian Sea complain 
that ships refuse to accept paper rubles in payment of charges for freight, 
although they circulate throughout the Caucasus. Persian coins are de- 
manded, thereby increasing the amount paid for freight by several hundred 
per cent. The merchants have asked the Government to intervene in their 
behalf. 


Frederick Law Olmsted has received a medal from the American Society 
of Landscape .Architects in recognition of his services in city planning. .Mr. 
Olmsted was recently re-elected president of the society. 


A press dispatch from Clarksburg, W. Va., states that early in January a 
counterfeiting den in the Glen Elk section was raided by Federal officers. 
Two men were arrested and a complete outfit for printing spurious $5 and 
$1 bills was confiscated. 


,ST. G.VUnEXS DOUBLE EAGLE SELI.S FOR $1100. 


A letter from Mr. Frank Hein, a St. Louis collector, states that he has 
recently purchased from .Mr. Henry Chapman of Philadelphia a beautiful 
specimen of the first issue of the St. Gaudens double eagle for $1100. This 
is the record price paid for one of these specimens. 

It is said that of the first issue of the St. Gaudens $20 only sixteen pieces 
were struck — thirteen on the double-eagle module and three on the eagle 
module. The three specimens of the eagle module and one of the double- 
eagle module are in the Mint Cabinet at Philadelphia, and the remaining 
twelve pieces are in the hands of collectors and others. 


U.SIX<; LEATHER .MOXEV FOR SHOE SOliES. 


A practical but novel use for money is reported from .Mattighofen, Aus- 
tria. Residents of that community, in the Tyrol, are said to be using leath- 
er money as soles for paper shoes. Fractional metal currency disappeared 
some time ago and the municipality authorized a big leather factory to 
stamp out little round 10-heller pieces from scrap leather. This served the 
local business requirements until the people found it cheaper to use the 
leather money as soling for their shoes than to buy the leather soles. 


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ANOTHER ORSOLETE RANK NOTE REDEEMED, 


In the clays of wildcat banking sometimes the holder of a crisp new bank 
note would seek out the issuing institution to coliect on the note, only to hud 
that the bank had disappeared. 

in some States banks used to lend specie among themselves to have on 
hand when the examiner called. After being inspected a hank would send 
the money on to its neighbor for a prosperous showing. 

An echo from those adventurous days came to light recently when a 
customer of the Hanover National Bank of -New York City found among his 
possessions a dollar bill issued by the Railroad Bank of Decatur, Illinois. 

The note bears the picture of a railroad train drawn by one of the old 
wood-burning locomotives with the big wide smokestack of early days. 

The Railroad Bank enjoyed or suffered a brief existence, expiring without 
assets in 1859 or early in 1860, leaving many profanely sincere mourners. 

Upon being notified of the discovery of the note, although not in any sense 
liable for it, the Millikin National Bank of Decatur sent a perfectly good 
dollar to the Hanover in exchange for the bill. 

After the failure of the Railroad Bank, people who fe'.t the need of a de- 
pendable bank persuaded James Millikin to start one in Decatur. 

Millikin was a young farmer and stock man, recently arrived from Penn- 
sylvania with good references and $75,000 in cash. He didn't fancy being 
a banker but. once launched into the business, he kept at it until his death 
in 1909 . — Bank \otcs. 


A NEW LIMT OF UNITED STATES STORE (’ARDS. 


A new list of “United States Store Cards’’ has just been compiled by Edgar 
H. Adams and published by Mr. Adams and Wayte Raymond of New York 
City, for a copy of which Tuk Numi.s.m atist is indebted to the author. The 
sub-title of the work is “A List of Merchants’ Advertising Checks, Restau- 
rant Checks and Kindred Pieces Issued from 17 89 up to Recent Years, In- 
cluding many of the Tokens Which Passed as Money and Known as the Hard 
Times Tokens.” 

The list is arranged alphabetically by States and cities, the issues and 
varieties being given numbers. It does not include the tokens issued during 
the Civil VV’ar, which, the author states in his introduction, will form the 
suoject of another list to be published later. 

The work contains 75 pages. It is the first really comprehensive work of 
tilt kind published in book form, and it will be found a very useful list for 
collectors of these pieces, of which there are a great number. 


WAGE.S STILL l*AID IN VIRGIN GOLD. 


With about 30 ounces of virgin gold in their possession a French-Cana- 
dian, bis wife and two small children, who appeared in a Toronto store, 
excited the suspicion of a detective. It turned out that the Frenchman and 
his wife had been employed in the northwest Ontario gold country, the wife 
as a cook, and it was her earnings in gold dust that the pair were disposing 
of for currency. The gold dust was in a couple of shaving-soap tins and an 
old tobacco pouch, and at $20 an ounce was worth about $600, The bargain 
for the purchase and sale of the dust was completed in the detective head- 
quarters . — Ottawa Citizen. 


NO BRITISH GOIiD COINS STRUCK DURING 1918-101». 


Replying to a question asked in the British House of Commons recently, 
tile Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Right Honorable Austin Chamberlain, 
said that no gold coins had been struck at the mint since October, 1917. 


A report from Kansas City, Mo., is to the effect that Louis M. Osterweiss 
of New Haven, Conn., was recently found guilty on a charge of conspiracy to 
piint and circulate fraudulent Treasury certificates. The notes are said to 
have been printed in the printing office of the Disciplinary Barracks, Fort 
Leavenworth, Kans. 


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ANOTHER “WORD” ABOUT QUALITY 
AND SUCCESS. 

Here are a few of the “Reasons” of my success. 

The following' letters were all received by me unsolicited, and are 
"samples" of hundreds of similar letters in my files. 


Baltimore, Md., December 24, 1919. 

My dear Mr. Mehl: 

I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 19th 
inst. enclosing * ♦ ♦ an accounting of my pieces and check 

for $1,135.08. 

I am very much {ilca.scd with the handling; of this whole mat- 
ter and thank you for your attention. 

-May I take this opportunity of reciprocating your very good 
wishes for the New Year, which I hope will be a very prosperous 
one for you. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) WALDO NEWCOMER. 


Greensburg, Pa., January 9, 1920. 

.My dear Mr. Mehl; 

I have been so busy during the Holiday Season that I did not 
have the opportunity to write you and thank you for your atten- 
tion to my bids at your last Sale. I am more than pleased with 
the different lots from the Sale. The condition of all were fine. 
I have told my friends that never before had 1 seen such a fine 
lot of proof coins. ♦ * * *_ 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) J. HOWARD PATTON. 


Schenectady, N. Y., January 7, 1920. 

Dear Mr. Mehl; 

I thank you for your letter of the 19th ult. enclosing check for 
the amount realized on the coins sold for me at your last Sale. 

I congratulate y'ou on the efficient manner in which the work 
was done, and I am highly pleased with the results obtained. 

Very truly yours. 

(Signed) C. F. COOK. 


Whether wishing to buy or sell, I offer you a 
Numismatic Service of PROVEN worth. 


WRITE ME. 


0 


D.MAX MEHL 

NUMISMATIST 



Largest Numismatic K.-ftablisluncnt in the Vnited .States. 


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FEBRUARY. 1920. 


89 


Mcknight — wendell — guthrie 

COIN SALE. 

By The Elder Coin & Curio Company, on Thursday, 
Friday and Saturday, February 12th, 13th and 14th, next 
— about 2250 Lots — 3 Sessions. 

Our first sale of the season. Rare U. S. AND FOREIGN SILVER 
AND COPPER COINS. Fine Ancient Gold and Silver: Dramatic 
Medals and Tokens; a Long Series of U. S. Silver Coins from Dollar 
to Half Dime, including many of the early issues; Rare Quarter 
Eagles of 1797, 1825, 1829, etc.; U. S. Halt Dollars. 1796, 1797; 
Proof Gobrecht Dollar; $3.00 piece of 1873; Rare Lafayette, Indian 
Peace, Political and Other Medals, including rare series of 1840-65: 
Choice and Rare Foreign Crowns; New Hampshire Continental Pa- 
per Money; Choice War Medals, Peninsular, Waterloo, Fenian and 
others; Rare Half Cents, Including uncirculated 1794, etc.; Choice 
U. S. Cents, with all dates, many uncirculated: Choice Bungtown 
Collection: Rare Plate Money; Choice Foreign Copper Coins, etc., 
etc. Don’t Miss This Sale. Catalogues now in Press. 

Consignments Solicited for Auction in New York. 

THE ELDER COIN & CURIO COMPANY, 

Tlinmas L. Elder, Manager, 

21 West 35th Street, New York City. 


COIN NOTICE 

What are your wants? 
I can supply them. 

Collections 
Bought Outright 
For Cash or Sold at 
Public Auction. 

Reference, First Na- 
tional Bank, Boston, 
Mass. 

William Hesslein 

BOSTON, MASS. 


U. S. FIXED PRICE LIST No. 3 

Mailed on request. 


MONEY LO.ANED on Coins and 
Stamps. Entire Collections 
Purchased. 


Ben G. Green's 
Reference and Check Book. 

Complete list of all coins issued by 
the U. S. Mint and branches, with their 
principal varieties, the private Issues 
of gold, fractional currency and en- 
cased postage stamps. Book Is pocket 
size and printed on writing paper, 
ruled for checking the pieces In a col- 
lection, their condition, date of acqui- 
sition, price paid and from whom 
bought. The number of pieces of ev- 
ery denomination coined each year at 
the various mints Is also given, mak- 
ing it an invaluable guide to the col- 
lector of mint marks and as to the 
rarity of any coin. Blank space Is 
provided for additions of dates of 
future issues and other memoranda. 
120 pages. Price. Cloth. Jl.OO. Flex- 
ible Leather. $1.50. Interleaved. Gilt 
Edges. $2.00. 

Panama-Pacific Half Dollar $1.50 

Illinois Centennial Half Dollar .. 1.25 

FRED MICHAEL 

8 South Dearborn SL, Chicago, 111 


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WAYTE RAYMOND 

489 Park Avenue, 

(Anderson Galleries) 

New York City. 

Dealer in rare coins of all countries. New Price List 
of Foreign Silver and Copper Coins just out; one of the 
largest price lists of coins in stock ever issued in this 
country. Sent free on request. 

Collections catalogued for sale at auction or purchased 
outright. All of niy important sales are held in the audi- 
torium of the Anderson Galleries, the finest auction room 
in America. 




•(•) — CO- 


WAR 

PAPER MONEY 

OF 

GERMANY, 

FRANCE, 

BELGIUM. 

What are your wants? 

I have liberal stock. 

C. E. WALTERS, 


WANTED 

1913 LIBERTY HEAD 
NICKEL 

In Proof condition, if possible. 
Will iKiy $000 cash for one. 

SAMUEL W. BROWN, 

North Tonawanda, N. Y. 

FOR SALE AND WANTED. 
Paper Money of All Kinds. 

( ’orroN|ioii<leiice 


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JOHN EDWIN MORSE, 


IMO \. r>8th St., Philadelphia, Pa. I Hadley, 


Massachusetts. 


Origiaal from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 





FEBRUARY, 1920. 


91 


I QUITE A FEW COLLECTORS I 

A <?• 

A . 

X are gcttinii: tlio habit of sending me their duplicates and 
X otlier selections for sale for s])ot cash. They realize that 

X with the extensive market T en.iov I can afford to pav lib- X 

T Y 

Y eral nrices for all classes of coins. X 

Y X 
I '.vill huv yonr dipilicates or yonr entire collection for X 

immediate spot cash — and pay yon more than they’ll net 

yon at any market, whether at auction or otherwise. 

AVhether the amount is $2b.00 or .$‘25,000.00 the cash is ij* 

here readv for von. 

WRITE ME. 

B. MAX MEHL I 

Numismatist, 

Mehl Building, Fort Worth, Texas. k 




TO MEMBERS OF THE A. N. A. 

The dues of A. N. A. members — 50 cents — 
and subscriptions to THE NUMISMATIST — 
$1.50 — for 1920 should be paid at the earliest 
opportunity. Both are payable to the Gen- 
eral Secretary. Please send your check or 
money order for $2 promptly to H. H. Yaw- 
ger, General Secretary, 78 Linden Street, 
Rochester, N. Y. 



Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 





92 


THE NUMISMATIST 


Fractional Currency 



Tlie X iiiiil.snintlo 


JiiHt Received. 

A choice crisp, 
uncirculated 1 o t. 
Including all is- 
sues. 

Reil UnckH nnd 
Auto SlKiinlure,«. 

Prices on appli- 
cation. 

Thou sands of 
Coins in stock of 
every country and 
period. Send us 
your want list, 
tiiilde In its 12th 


Tiditlon, liavinR 250 illustrations, quotes 
our hu.vInK ami .selling prices, and is 
sent postpaid on receii)t of 15c. 

Arnold NmnlsmaticCn. i^":VdeII""iI"i‘: 


WANTED. 

ST. OAPOKNS noi Ill-K K.VGI.E 
WITH \ 

VERY HIGH Ul HR EOGE. 

Will pay special price. 

FRANK HEIN, 


2240 St. GouIm Ave., 


St. LouIh, Mo. 


FOR SALE. 

A very rare set of the Uncurrent 
Bank Bills of the Mississippi Union 
Bank of Jackson. Tills set is probablv 
unique. *10, *20, *50, *100, *500, *1000. 

JOHN M. OLIVER, 

30 Rochelle St., Sprlnicfleld, Mrhs. 


THE BOOKFELLOWS. 

.\n Internntloiial .AsHOelntlon of 
Readern nnd Writera. 

We have sometliing of joy for every 
lover of good books. Membership one 
dollar per annu.m. Let us tell you 
about it. 

FLOR.A AVARREN SEYAIOIR, Clerk, 
5.A20 Kliiihnrk .Ave., Chicago, III. 


I WILL BUY, FOR CASH, 

Knglisli Trade Tokens, Elgliteentli and 
Mneteentli Century, rare or cliolce. 

0. P. EKLUND, 

D7I1 Pittsburg St., Spokane, AVaah. 


the new 

TWO PESO MEXir.AN GOLD 

is arriving on this side of tlie border 
verv slowly. Orders will be filled as 
rap'idlv as possible in order received. 
By registered mail *2.00. or on approv- 
al. Parties unknown to me will please 
senil reference. 

L. A. C.XHDWEIjLi, La.s ('ruces, X. M. 

SELLING OUT. 

Coin Works — ^Bills— Medals. 

Write wants. 

A. Atlas Leve, Syracuse, N. Y, 

STAMP AND COIN 
EXCHANGE 

78 Nassau Street, New York City. 
Price list free. Premium Catalog 10c. 
Coin Collections Purchased for Cash. 

Large Sliver Catalog 50e; Copper 92.00. 


Acme 

Transparent Envelopes 

Set of 23 Pockets to hold all regular 
issues U. S. Fractional Cy., *1.00. 

Dollar bill size, per doz., *1.60, post- 
paid. Send dime for samples and list. 
Manufactured by 
C. N. HINCKLEY, 

4750 Dover Street, Chicago, III. 


IF YOU BUY, SELL OR EXCH.4NGE 
COINS, 

Let me know at once. I liave a special 
proposition for you. Send for a copy 
of my new list No. 5. It's free. Su- 
perior coin.s at unbeard-of-prices its 
feature. 

HARRY KELSO, .ARMA, KANSAS. 


KIMRAI.I/S AD. 

1 have just bought 160 cents, many 
in fine condition, from 1793 to IBS'?. 
What do you want? 

Sheet of Omaha City, Neb., *1, *2, *3. 
*5 bills, crisp, black and red, dated 
1855. 50c. each. 

New list No. 6, over 1100 lots, sent 
free. Premium list of prices paid for 
coins, stamps, 10c. 

F, R. KIMR.ALli, Room 124, 18 Tremont 
8t., Kimball HIdg., Ronton, Mann. 


CONFEDERATE BILLS. 

Eight different, 50c. to *100, V. F„ lot 
for 55 cents. Ancient coin, V. G„ 20 
cents. 

Fixed price-list No. 5 of U. S. and 
foreign Gold. Silver and Copper Coins 
sent on request. 

You will find it to your advantage 
to write me, whether you wish to buy 
or sell. ' 

NORMAN SHULTZ, King City, Mo. 


German Lusitania Medal. 

Historical souvenir of 
event leading to down- 
fall of German Empire; 
an everlasting proof of 
Huns’ damnable duplic- 
ity: metal die-cast cop- 
ies, oxidized copper fin- 
isli, sent for 50c.; three 
for *1; *3 per dozen. 

— Circular free. 

M. AIAHOOD, W'ARREN, PA. 



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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 







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THE NUMISMATIST 


666. Liege, Bishopric, Rixdaler of Gerard de Groesbeeck, 1567, 1569, 1571, 

Cm. as above. 

667. Lubeck, Thaler, 1568, Cm. as above. 

668. Nuremburg, Florin d'Or, 1524, Cm. as above. 

669. Overyssel, Thaler, 156.3, Cm. as above. 

670. Overyssel, 1-5 Ecu of Philip II, 1566, 1567, Cm. as above. 

671. Overyssel, 1-10 Thaler, 1571, Cm. as above. 

672. Saxe-VVeimar, Thaler of John William, 15 67, Cm. as above. 

673. Spain, Real of Ferdinand and Isabella (1474-1516), Cm. as above. 

674. Stable (Abbey), Thaler of Christian Count de Manderscheidt, 1570, 

Cm. as above. 

675. Thoren (in Brabant) (Abbey), Ecu of Marguerite IV de Brederode, 

1569, 1570, Cm. as above. 

67 6. Thoren (in Brabant) (Abbey), Hall Ecu of Marguerite IV de Bre- 
derode, 1569, Cm. as above. 

677. Utrecht, Ecu, 1570, Cm. as above. 

678. Utrecht, Half Ecu, 1568, Cm. as above. 



No. 6S(. No. (ifil. 

The following coins were countermarked with the arms of Zealand at the 
same time and for the same purpose as the preceding; 

679. Brabant, Half Ecu, 1567, Cm. arms of Zealand. 

680. Gelderland, Half Ecu, 1563, 1564, Cm. arms of Zealand. 

681. Zealandia, 1-5 Ecu, 1573, Cm. arms of Zealand. 

682. Holland, Half Ecu, 1573, Cm. arms of Zealand. 

683. Brabant, Daalder, 1573, struck at Maestricht, Cm. arms of Zealand. 

During the 17th century there were many coins in circulation in the dif- 
ferent provinces of the Netherlands that were below the legal requirements 
as to weight and fineness. In 1693 those coins which met the legal re- 
quirements were countermarked and continued in circulation. For Holland 
tire coins were countermarked “HOL”; for Utrecht, "UTR’'; for Friesland, 
the arms of Friesland; for Groningen, “G. O.” (for Groningen and Omme- 
landen), and for the States-General, a bundle of arrows. 

Holltiiid. 

Campen, 28 Sous. 1681, 1 682, 1683, 1 685, 1686, Cm. “HOL.” 
Deventer, 28 Sous, 1 684, Cm. “HOL.” 

Friesland. 28 Sous, 1665, 1683, 1690, 1 692, Cm. ‘HOL.’’ 

Groningen. 28 Sous, 1675, 1676, 1684, 1685. 1692, Cm. “HOL.” 
.Vymwegen, 28 Sous, 1686, 1 690, Cm. “HOL.” 

Overyssel, 28 Sous, 1685, 1686, Cm. “HOL.” 

West Friesland, 28 Sous, 1 686, Cm. “HOL” (described as a coun- 
terfeit ) . 

Utrecht. 

691. Groningen and Ommelanden, 28 Sous. 1 675, Cm. “UTR.” 

692. Groningen, 28 Sous, 1677, Cm. “UTR.’’ 

69 3. -N’.vni wegen, 2 8 Sous, 168 6, Cm. “UTR.” 


684. 

685. 

686 . 

687. 

688 . 

689. 

690. 



Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



MARCH, 1920. 


95 


Friesland. 

694. Zwolle. 28 Sous, 1684, Cm. arms of Friesland. 

Gruiiingeii. 

695. Campen, 28 Sous, 1686, Cm. “G. O.” 

696. Groningen, 28 Sous. 1681, 1692, Cm. “G. O." 

States-Cieneral. 

697. Campen, 28 Sous, 1685, Cm. bundle of arrows. 

698. Deventer, 28 Sous, 1664, 1684, Cm. bundle of arrows. 

699. Gelderlaiid, 28 Sous, 1682, Cm. bundle of arrows. 

700. Groningen, 28 Sous, 1681, 1692, Cm. bundle of arrows. 

701. Nymwegen, 28 Sous, 1690, Cm. bundle of arrows. 

702. Overyssel, 28 Sous, 1675, Cm. bundle of arrows. 

703. Utrecht, 28 Sous, 1679, 1680, Cm. bundle of arrows. 

704. Zwolle, 28 Sous, 1680, Cm. bundle of arrows. 

It is quite probable that the following were also countermarked at the 
same time and for the same purpose: 

705. Deventer, 28 Sous. , Cm. an “L.” 

706. Groningen. 28 Sous, 1692, Cm. a large “L” within a circle. 

The above are said to have been countermarked by the city of Leeuwarden, 
in Friesland. 

707. Friesland, 28 Sous, 1690, Cm. arms of Overyssel. (This aiso prob- 

ably belongs in the same class.) 

Attributed to the Netherlands are a number of coins countermarked with 
a fleur-de-lys in a beaded oval, said to have been so stamped in 1 672-74, 
upon the invasion of Louis XIV of France. 

708. Friesland, Sou, , Cm. a fleur-de-lys. 

709. Burgundy, Sou, , Cm. a fleur-de-lys. 

710. Gelderland, 8 Sous, 1618, Cm. a fleur-de-lys. 

711. Groningen, 8 Sous, 1627, Cm. a fleur-de-lys. 

712. Overyssel, 2 Sous, 1616, 1618, Cm. a fleur-de-lys. 

713. France, base coin, 1592, Cm. a fleur-de-lys. 

714. Lot of 10 base coins of Holland, Cm. 3' fleur-de-lys. (These were at- 

tributed to Guadeloupe, but probably belong to this series.) 

Certain Spanish-American coins are said to have been countermarked 
about 1652 with the Golden Fleece for use in the -Netherlands. A number of 
the coins with this stamp are dated later than 1652. 

715. iSpanlsh-Amerlcan 8 Reals, Philip II ( 1556-59), Cm. Golden Fleece. 

716. Spanish-American irregular Peseta, Philip III (1593-1621 ), Cm. Gold- 

en Fleece. 

717. Spanish-American irregular Peso, Philip III, Cm. Golden Fleece. 

718. Mexico, irregular Peso, 1656, Cm. Golden Fleece. 

719. Bolivia, irregular Peso, 1 660, Cm. Golden Fleece. 

720. Nicaragua, 8 Reals, 1662, Cm. Golden Fleece. 

721. Mexico, irregular Peso, 1671, Cm. Golden Fleece. 


722. England, Noble, Henry VI, Cm. with arms of the city of Harlem, those 

of the Province of Holland, and the date, “1572.” 

723. Holland, Gros Tournois of William III ( 1305-1337 ), Cm. a star with 

seven rays (attributed to Campen). 

724. Patagon (50 Stuivers) of Philip IV, 1632, struck at Antwerp, Cm. an 

eagle. (Said to have been countermarked by the city of De- 
venter when besieged by the Bishop of Munster and by tlie 
French in 1672.) 


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the Xl’MISMATIST 


725. England, Rose Noble, Edward VI, Cm. arms of Deventer. 

726. Zealand. Noble d’Or, 15S3, Cm. arms of the city of Groningen. 

727. Lille, Obsidional 5 Sols, 1708. Cm. with diamond-shaped shield with 

flag; above, “M. L.”; below, flying bird. 

728. Spain, Cob 8 Reals, , Cm. “VIGOS 1702” in cartouche. (This 

piece was attributed to Holland.) 

729. Tournay, 2 Petards, 1709 (copper siege piece), struck over a Double 

Liard of Rhetel, 1613. 

730. Tournay, 2 Petards, 1709, struck over a Liard of Maximilian Henry 

of Liege. 

731. Tournay, 2 Petards, 1 709, struck over a Double Doit of Zealand. 

732. Tournay, Church Token, Cm. wMth three dates. 

733. Arnheim, Half Sou of Philip II, Cm. arms of Utrecht. 

734. Utrecht, Doit, 1675, 1676, 1684, Cm. arms of Utrecht. 

735. Flanders, Ecu, Philip, 1558, Cm. crowned "Y’’ (for Ypres). 

736. Holland, Half Real d’Or of Charles (juint. Cm. crowned “Y” (for 

Ypres). 

737. Nymwegen, 2 Sous, 1620, Cm. an eagle. 

738. Nymwegen, Sou, 1581, 1582, 1583, Cm. small arms of Nymwegen. 

739. Zealand, .Noble, 1583, Cm. arms of Groningen. 

(to bk continued.) 


GERMAN TOKENS OF THE WAR. 


The pieces illustrated and described here constitute the third lot in the 
series of tokens issued in Germany during tne recent war, specimens for 
illustrating wnich were furnished by .Mr. O. P. Eklund of Spokane, Wash. 
The concluding lot will be published next month. 

The four pieces first described below and illustrated herewith are tokens 
of Laufen (district), and comprise four of a series of six tokens which Mr. 
Eklund considers the most interesting of the entire German series. Three 
of them are undated, but were issued in 1917. The other three are dated 
1918 and 1919. The description of the two not illustrated is as follows; 
Obv., Arms (a barrel); surrounding, "Notgeld des Rupertiwinkels.” Rev., 
Value (5 and 10 pfgs ) “Bezirksamt. Laufen.” Zinc, nickel-plated. 

1. Laufen (district), 50 Pfgs., n. d. Obv., St. Rupert seated; at his feet 
a barrel (arms); in field, a cloud, above whicn The Trinity (three heads in 
one). Below, “Notgeld des Rupertiwinkels.” Rev.. ‘ Wir Mussen Hammer 
Oder .Ymbos Sein” (“We Must Be Hammer or Anvil,” or, in other words, 
“We Must Hammer or Be Hammered”). ”50. Bezirksamt. Laufen.” Zinc, 
nickel-plated. 

2. Laufen (district), 50 Pfgs., 1919. Obv., St. Rupert standing. “Deutsch- 
land in Not” (“Germany in Distress”). Rev., Arms (city gate, with tow- 
er), separate date, ”19 19.’’ “Einigkeit Gebot. Laufen.” “50” above arms. 
Zinc. 

3. Laufen (district), one mark, 1918. Obv., St. Rupert seated. “Ru- 
pertiwinkel.” Exergue, ”1918.” Rev., ‘Bezirksamt (District) Laufen. Eine 
Not -Mark” (“One .Necessity Mark”). Zinc. Unusual denomination. 

4. Laufen (district). 25 Pfgs., 1918. Obv., St. Rupert standing. ”Ru- 
pertiwinkel” (“Rupert Square”). Rev., a barrel between two spears of 
barley, which separate date. ”19 IS.” Below, “Laufen.” Zinc. 

5. Ludenscheid ( We.stphalia ) , 50 Pfgs., 1918. Obv.. Arms, a hand with 
hand grenade, separate date. “19 IS.” .-Xbove. "Stadt Ludenscheid.” Rev., 
“Kriegsgeld. 50 Pfennig.” .Milled edge. Iron. A very pretty token. 

6. .Mainz (.Mayence), Bread token, n. d. Obv.. .Arms. “Stadt Mainz.” 
Rev., “Brotmarke. 50 Gr. .Nur fur Wirtschaften Gultig” (“Bread Token 
Legal Only for Housekeepers”). Square. Zinc, nickel-plated. .Another va- 
riety has "Kreis” (county or district) in place of “Stadt" on obverse. 

7. Offenbach (Hesse Cassel). 50 Pfgs., 1917. Obv.. Arms of the citv 

(an oak tree). Rev., “Offenbach am .Main" ton the .Main). ".'.O. 1917 ” 

Zinc. (Set. 1 Pfg. (copper plated), 5, 10. 50 Pfgs.) 

8. Nurnberg (city ), Bread token. 1 91 4. Obv.. Arms. “.Nurnberg 1914” 
Rev., “1 Ko.” (Kilogram). “Kriegsbrot." Zinc. There is another variety 
similar. Obv., .Arms separate date. “19 14.” Below. “Kriegs Brotmarke” 
Rev., "1,” for 1 kilogram. 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 






MARCH, 1920 


First Uow — Laufen, aO I’fKs. Laufen. 50 PfKS. 
t^econd Itow— Laufen, 1 Mark. Laufen, 25 I’ftrs. 

Tl'.ird Uow — Ludensclieid, 50 I’ftrs. Mainz, Bread Token. 
Fourtli Uow — ( )ffenl)acii. 50 I’fKs. Nurnl)ei K. Bread Token 
Fiftii Uow — itaurei, 50 PfRS. Marl)aeii, 50 I’f^cs. 

Sixtii itow — Oldeniunx, Mark. Muliieim, 15 Pfffs. 

t^eventii Uow — Neui)urK. 10 PfKs. Pillau. 50 PfK.s. 


Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


9. Raurel (Westphalia), oO Pfgs., 1917. Obv., A horse rampant (arms 

of Westphalia). "Kriegs Geld .\mt Raurel." Rev., ‘1917. 50 Pfennig.” 

Square. Zinc. Unusual shape. 

10. Marbach (corporation), 50 Pfgs., 1918. Obv., Bust of Schiller. In 

field, ‘‘Schiller." Rev., “Anitskorperschaft Marbach. 1918. 50 Pf." Iron. 

11. Oldenburg (city), .Mark, 1917. Obv., \ boar attacked by timber 

wolves in a forest. Rev., "Handelskammer (Chamber of Commerce) Old- 
enburg. 1917. Gut fur .Mark.” Zinc. 

12. .Muhlheim (Rheinland), 15 Pfgs., 1918. Obv., Anns of the city 

separate date, “19 IS." “Mollem op de Ruhren" ( Muhllieiin on the 
Rheine.” Rev., “Strassenbahn Kahrgeld (Street Railway Fare ) . 15." Oval. 

Zinc. 

13. Neuburg (city), Bavaria, 10 Pfgs., 1918. Obv., .Arms separate date, 
“19 18." Below, “Neuburg.” Rev., “Kriegsgeld. 10 Pfennig.” Irre.gular 
shape. Zinc. 

14. Pillau (city). East Prussia, 50 Pfgs., 1917. Obv., Arms, a crowned 

fish. “Stadt Pillau.” Rev., “Kriegsgeld, 1917. 50 Pfennig." Zinc-nickel. 


THE EVACUATION OF BOSTON MEDAL. 


Perhaps it is not generally known among collectors that the gold medal 
given by Congress to Washington in honor of the evacuation of Boston by 
the British in 1776 is, and has been for several years, owned by the city of 
Boston and is deposited in the Public Library. Perhaps even less known 
are the circumstances under which the city became the owner and the liis- 
tory of tile medal in general. 

In the Bullelin of the Library for the quarter October-December, 1919, 
for a copy of which we are indebted to Mr. Horace L, Wheeler of the 
Library, a history of the medal, with illustration, is given, prepared by 
Mr. Lindsay Swift, editor of the Library publications, and is reprinted be- 
low with the permission of the Library Thustees, and to whom we are in- 
debted for the loan of the illustration: 

THE W.\SHIXGTt)X MEI).\L. 

For many years it has been known that this Library possessed the valu- 
able Washington Medal, struck in honor of the Evacuation of Boston by 
the British forces on March 17, 17 76, and the only gold medal given by 
Congress to General George Washington, but the iniblic has had little in- 
formation about it, and few persons have ever seen it. Henceforth, on the 
twenty-second of each February (or on the twenty-third also, if Washing- 
ton's Birthday falls on a Sunday) this medal will be displayed in the ex- 
hibition room of the Fine Arts Ilepaitment of the Central Library. 

This medal, here reproduced in its actual size, was designed in Paris by 
Pierre Simon Benjamin Duvivier. The arrangements were made with the 
artist at the re(|uest of the Continental Congress by .John .Adams and two 
associates. 

On the obverse of the medal apjtears a bust of Washington in profile, 
surrounded on the inner rim by the legend, in Latin; Georgio Washington 
Svpremo Dvce Exercitsvm Adsertori Libertatis Comitia .Americana (The 
Ameiican C.ongress to George Washington Commander-in-chief of its .Ar- 
mies, Protector of Liberty). The reverse shows Washington and four aids, 
all mounted and viewing from Dnrchestei- Heights (Soutli Boston) the town 
of Boston and tlie reti-eating British vessels. In the immediate foreground 
are two cannon with cannon shot, and between the fignri's and tlie harbor is 
a fortified part of the Heights with troops deidoying on the level below. 
On the inner rim at the top arc tlie words; Hostibus Prinio Fugatis, and be- 
low the design, in horizontal lines; 

Bostonium Recuperat um 
XVII .Martii 
.MDCCLXXVI, 

The following account of the medal itself and the purchase of it is re- 
planted from the “Celebration of the Centennial .Anniver.sary of the Evacu- 


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Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



Generated for Leonard Augsburger (Washington University in St. Louis) on 2016-01-07 20:42 GMT / http://hdi.handle.ne t/2027/njp.32101054823966 
Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://wvw.hathitrust. 0 rg/access_use#pd-g 00 gle 


MARCH, 1920 


99 


7. 

V. 


•j. 

5 



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THK NUMISMATIST 


ation of Boston by the British Army, March 17th, 1776 (Boston, 1876, pp. 
25-28) : 

■■'the gold medal commemorative of the Evacuation of Boston became 
the property of George Steptoe Washington, the son of Samuel Washington, 
who was the General's elder brother. I'he next owner of tne medal was Dr. 
Samuel Walter Washington, eldest son of George Steptoe Washington. On 
tlie decease of the doctor at Hasewood, Virginia, in 1831, his widow became 
possessed of the relic. She gave it to her only son, George Eafayette Wash- 
ington, who had married the daughter of her brother, the Rev. Dr. John 
B. Ciemson, of Claymont, Delaware. On the decease of George Lafayette 
Washington, the medal became the property of his widow, Mrs. Ann Bull 
Washington, from whom with proper certlncates and vouchers, by the gen- 
erous co-operation of fifty citizens of Boston, it has been secured to the 
permanent ownership of this city, with which it is so gratefully identified, 
and has been deposited in the Public Library. 

“Thus it appears that tne medal has been transmitted through the de- 
scendants, in successive generations, of General Washington’s elder brotlier. 
They have fully appreciated its intrinsic and symbolic value, and have 
anxiously taken caie for its safety under the risks and perils which have 
attended its preservation. It is, itself, a most beautiful and perfect spec- 
imen of workmanship of the die and mint, and is without a blemish or any 
perceptible wear of its sharp outlines. During our Civil War its then owner, 
George Lafayette Washington, was residing eleven miles from Harper’s Fer- 
ry, on the main route to Winchester, where tne belligerents held alternate 
possession. I he medal, in its original case of green seal-skin, lined with 
velvet, was enveloped in cotton, and, deposited in a box, was buried in the 
dry cellar of a venerable mansion wnere Geenral Washington usually spent 
many months of the genial portion of the year. The original case, which 
fell into decay by this exposure, accompanies the medal in its present re- 
pository. 

“The successive owners of this precious heirloom nave often been so- 
licited to part with it by private importunity, or for public institutions, but 
have always declined to do so, having in view that if ever it passed out of 
their hands it should be to find its resting-place in the City of Boston. The 
losses to which its owners were subjected during the late war [Civil War], 
concurring with the interest of the occasion of tne centennial day which it 
commemorated, combined to induce the measures which have had such a 
felicitous effect. 

“A member of the Washington family residing in Texas, being aware of 
the willingness of his kinswoman in Delaware to part with the medal on the 
conditions just referred to, addressed a letter, on the 6th of last December, 
to his honor. Mayor Cobb, making proposals to bring about the intended 
object. 

“As the Mayor did not judge it expedient to propose any olTicial action to 
the city government, he consulted with the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop on the 
subject, who immediately prepared a subscription paper, which he. with the 
hearty co-operation of the Mayor and of ex-Mayor the Hon. Otis Norcross, 
succeeded in having filled to the necessary amount. 

"While this measure was in progress the Rev. Dr. Ciemson, the uncle of 
the late George Lafayette Washington, and the father of his widow, Mrs. 
Ann Bull Washington, not being aware of the facts just stated, on February 
22, 1876, addressed a letter to the Hon. John C. Park, of this city, opening 
a direct communication between the owner of the medal and those who 
were interested in its transfer. In this letter Dr. Ciemson writes: ‘I might 
state that the medal was verbally purchased by Governor Andrew, of your 
State, and on this honored day [the birthday of Washington] was to have 
been presented to your citizens. But his premature death prevented the 
consummation.’ 

“This medal was the only gold medal given by Congress to General Wash- 
ington. Between the date of .March 25, 1776, when this gift was bestowed 
by a resolve of Congress, and the year 1786, by votes of the same body, a 
series of ten more gold medals was struck at the Paris mint commemora- 
tive of the great events and the great men of the War of the Revolution. 
The French Government presented a set of these in silver, including also 
one in the same metal of that which had been given to him in gold, to Gen- 
eral Washington. It is as.serted that they were prepared substantially un- 


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MARCH, 1920. 


101 


der the direction of Lafayette. This series oJ eleven, known as the “Wash- 
ington Medals,” on the decease of the childless General, were disposed of 
with other similar treasures, under the direction of his administrator. Judge 
Bushrod Washington, among the heirs-at-law. They afterwards came into 
the posssession of the Hon. Daniel Webster, and, soon after his decease, 
into the hands of his friend, the Hon. Peter Harvey, of Boston. This gen- 
tleman. in April, 187 4, most generously bestowed them upon the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, in whose cabinet they are now gratefully treas- 
ured. Tnus all the “Washington Medals” are now in the City of Boston. 

PrcKx-eilings of the City Council Relative t<» the Wa.sbingtoii Medal. 

At a meeting of the Board of Aldermen, March 20, 1876, the following 
communication was received: 

Executive Department, March 20, 1876. 

To the Honorable the City Council: 

Gentlemen — It affords me much pleasure to inform you that the gold 
Medal presented to General George Washington by the American Congress 
in 177 6, commemorative of the evacuation of Boston by the British troops, 
was recently purchased of the Wasnington family by a few of our citizens, 
to be given by them to the City of Boston and preserved in the Boston Pub- 
lic Library. This most valuable relic, so peculiarly interesting to Boston 
as commemorating the most important event in her history, has been placed 
in m>' hands, and by me transferred to the Trustees of the Public Library, 
in whose custody it is to remain, in accordance with the wishes of the do- 
nors. A copy of the subscription list, witn the preamble stating the object 
of the subscription, is enclosed herewith. 

SAMUEL C. COBB, Mayor. 

[COPY.] 

The large gold medal presented to Washington, by Congress, for his ser- 
vices in expelling the British forces from Boston on the 17th of March, 
17 76, having remained in the Washington family for a hundred years, is 
now, owing to the circumstances of its immediate owner, privately offered 
for sale. The undersigned, feeling deeply that sucii memorial should be 
among the most cherished treasures of our city, and should certainly go 
nowhere else, hereby agree to be responsible to an amount not exceeding 
one hundred dollars each, for the purchase of the Medal, to be presented to 
the City of Boston, and preserved fore\er in the Boston Public Library. 
(The list of subscribers here follows.) 

December, 1875." 


Mr. Wheeler writes that the whereabouts of this medal are not generally 
known, and that until recently Colonel Wyllie, who has charge of the Gov- 
ernment decorations, did not know its location. It is described in Thomas 
Wyatt’s Memoirs (of American heroes), 1848, and illustrated. Some years 
ago small reproductions of it were distributed to Boston school children. 

Dr. Malcolm Storer of the .Massachusetts Historical Society writes as fol- 
lows regarding restrikes of the medal: “It may interest you to know that 
the Cercle France-Amerique, a society at Harvard, the purpose of which is 
to foster relations between France and the United States, offers annually to 
Harvard students, for the best essay upon a subject contributing to such 
close relations, the Washington Evacuation of Boston .Medal struck from the 
dies in Paris, differing from the original only in having incused on the edge 
the metal in which it is struck and the mint mark of Paris, like all the re- 
strikes of the Paris mint. We have a copy in bronze at the .Massachusetts 
Historical Society, the gift of the Cercle.” 

The medal measures between 68 and 69 mm., and is 2 11-16 mm. thick. 
It w'eighs 7 oz. 18 dwt. 9 grains 


HOOVER PRESENTED WITH “(TVIUAX HERO" >IEI>.\L. 

Declaring that the achievements of Herbert Hoover in fighting starvation 
and misery among European peoples had "established a prestige for the 
American name abroad whicli none of the failures or mistakes of diplomacy 
can obscure,” Charles E. Hughes presented the Civic Forum .Medal of 
Honor to Mr. Hoover in New York City on January IS. 


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THE NL\MIS:JA113T 


WILL THE UNITED STATES SUBSTITUTE WHITE 

metal for silver coins? 


In transmitting the following, by tinancial writer Edward F. Adams in 
the Han Francisco Chronicle for January ij, 1920, Farran Zerbe writes: 

“Since there is not anything to govern the price of silver excepting supply 
and demand, and that silver producers are talking $1.50 and more per ounce 
in the near future, I do not reason that the content of our silver coins could 
now be recomposed with any assurance that it would long endure within 
bullion value unless made so low in Hneness as to be classed ‘base.’ In 
pielerence to that or tne introduction of paper suostitutes, and since our 
coins below the dollar are only tokens for money, would it not be better to 
adopt a base metal for our subsidiary coinage? I doubt if we wTll ever 
again coin a silver dollar for circulation, and would not be surprised to 
know that our Treasury Department is now considering a durable and prac- 
tical Cheap white metal for our coins now made in silver. 

"To tamper with present standards for continuing a silver coinage is to 
invite the trouble we have had in our coinage for tne Philippines, and what 
Mexico and the Orient have experienced and so long have been forced to 
practice — silver coins a commodity rather than money. 

■ The San Francisco Mint has paid as high as $1.:?6 per ounce for silver 
in recent- days, the highest Government purciiiase price record, and local sales 
for commercial purposes are reported as high as $1.40. 

‘ \Nhen it became more pro.itable to use silver dollars than to purchase 
bullion, silver dollars, so long as obtainable, left San Francisco by the million 
during the late weeks of 1919 (for export across the Pacific) with an ex- 
pected average price, delivered, of $1.07 per dollar and the promised profit 
of $55,000 per million pieces after the payment of transportation and in- 
surance. 

“Except on demand in exchange for Silver Certificates, no siiver dollars 
are now obtainable at the Treasury, and Silver t ertificates have been 
withdiawn from circulation.’’ 

.Mr. Adams’ article in the Chronicle is as foiiows: 

“There are beginning to be some who fear that we shali lose our silver 
coins and be compelled to use paper for small change as we did for some 
years during and after our Civil W ar, basing their belief on the apparently 
insatiable demand for silver in India and China. The course of Oriental 
exchanges indicates that as conditions now are the Orient can take every 
dollar of our silver currency unless we prohibit export, or the diminishing 
value of the gold dollar in the Orient checks imports from those countries 
and produces a trade b.ilance in our favor. It must be remembered that in 
all silver standard countries gold is a commodity just as silver is here. The 
real money in most of them is silver, and contracts are made in terms of 
silver and debts are paid witii the same metal. 

“And there is not silver enough. In the greater part of Europe silver 
iias long ceased to circulate as money. There is doulitless a great deal of 
it there, but it is hoarded and hidden. Production, especially in Mexico, 
has fallen off. although it steadily increased in this country during the war 
as a by-product of the extraction of other metals. Production from that 
source fell off after the armistice, and while mining silver for itself is rap- 
idly increasing under the stimulus of present prices, tne figures are not yet 
available. Immense ciuantities are used in the arts. India is a very large 
expoiter of commodities, and demands pay in silver. W’hen that silver 
re.aches India and is distributed among the people, all that can possibly be 
saved is made uUo silver ornaments or hoarded. In China yearly settle- 
ments are made at the Cliinese new year, now approaching, and the custom 
is to pay, not in checks on a bank, as we settle, but by the payment of 
balances in actual silver. That makes a seasonal demand in China, which 
is now on. In India the demand is active at all times, varying mainly wTth 
the crops. In years when the exportable crops are abundant the demand 
for silver correspondingly increases. During and since the war prices have 
risen in tlie Orient, as elsewhere, which again makes a great increase in 
the demand for silver, since a given ciuantity of jute or lea calls for more 


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silver than formerly. Finally, to make matters still worse. Congress agreed 
to help out Great Britain by selling her $350,000,000 in silver dollars at 
about a dollar an ounce for the silver content, of wdilch up to December 1, 
$260,121,554 had been melted. This was a necessary war measure, because 
at that time India had w'hat was a necessity to Great Britain, and Great 
Britain had not the silver. Nor was there, or is there now, in existence any 
other great store of silver, except that in the United States Treasury. The 
law is still on the statute books, but whether the delivery of silver under 
that law' and price is to continue until the credit is exhausted, I do not 
know’. 

■'The foregoing seems to adetiuately explain why the price of silver in 
terms of gold has risen, even though gold production has decreased much 
more than that of silver. In this country this year we shall produce very 
little more than will be consumed in the arts, for the market for jewelry 
was never before so strong. The American Treasury continues to be the 
only available source on which to draw. The Bank of France has consider- 
able silver, about $55,000,000 at latest statement; but silver coin is legal 
tender in France, and France wants more silver instead of less. The Bank 
of England statements never mention silver, which it scorns to consider as 
money, and probably has very little. There is nowhere, except from pro- 
ducing mines and the United States Treasury, that silver can be got in 
quantities, and it is supposed that silver mining companies are holding all 
they can for higher prices. 

“It is that situation which is causing the fear that w'e may lose our silver 
money entirely. In the East very few silver dollars circulate, as tne public 
prefers small bills. Here we still prefer the silver dollar; but it would not 
be surprising to see small bills — if they can be got. for there is a scarcity — 
gradually take their place. If w'e begin to get dollar bills instead of silver 
dollars we may know that our silver is following our gold. The drain of 
silver from the Treasury continues, and the question is how long it will 
hold out. On December 1 the Treasury had $54,360,094 ‘free’ silver dol- 
lars. Those the Treasury will exchange on demand for other forma of cur- 
rency, although it does not need to. Silver dollars, being standard money, 
are not ‘redeemable’ by law'. In addition, there w'ere outstanding silver cer- 
tificates to the amount of $157,676,273, and whoever has a silver certificate 
can get a silver dollar for it. Of the outstanding silver certificates on that 
date $121,869,917 were in $1 and $2 bills and are presumably mostly in 
the pockets of the people except as the wise keep them w’hen they get them 
and hoard them, for they, as well as the silver dollar, are w’orth more than 
their face value in gold. The increasing scarcity of smail bills in the East 
indicates that hoarding has begun. The published statements of the national 
and reserve banks no longer show' the amount of silver certificates he’d. 

“We have, therefore, or recently had, outstanding silver certificates 
$157,676,273, plus $54,360,094 ‘free’ silver dollars in the Treasury, a total 
of $212,036,367. To this is to be added the silver dollars in the pockets 
of the people, apparently mostly on this Coast. Every one of these dollars 
is worth more than its face for export, and if the demand keeps up they w'ill 
apparently all go within the coming year, unless the mining companies let 
go, which they probably w'ill not. In addition to the silver dollars, there 
are outstanding $246,540,741 in^ subsidiary coin, but when silver goes alrove 
$1.38 per ounce — and it has been quoted once at $I.37V2 — they also w'ill Ire 
w’orth more for melting than for money. The demand mav let up or tlie 
mining companies may supply the market. I do not know what w’ill happen, 
but some people are getting scared, and Representative McFadden of Penn- 
sylvania has introduced a bill for reducing the silver content of both dollars 
and subsidiary coin.” 


JUGO-SUAVIA rritKEXtW MEASURES. 


A dispatch from Belgrade says that the Government has promulgated :i 
decree providing for the immediate issuance by the National Bank of the 
Kingdom of the Serbians, Croatians. and Slovenes of notes acceptable either 
as dinars or crow'ns at the rate of 1 to 4, the value in dinars and in crown.s 
to be printed on each note. The current dinar notes issued by t'lie National 
Bank of Serbia and crown notes issued by the .Xustro-Hungarian Bank will 
be gradually withdrawn from circulation. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


The Numismatist 


Founded 1888 by Dr, George F. Heath 
OFFICIAL MAGAZINE AMEIIICAN NUMISMATIC ASSOCIATION 


Publication OlHce: Federalsburg, Md. 


Fbaxk G. Duffield, Editor and Business Mgr., 1811 Mosher St., Baltimore, Md. 


An Illustrated Monthly, devoted to Coins, Medals and Paper Money. 

All Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor not later than the 10th ol 
each month to insure publication in the next issue. 

The Numismatist will be published promptly on the 1st of each month. 

Yearly Subscription, United States, $1.50; Foreign, $1.75. Trial Sub- 
scription, First Six Months, 75c. 

Entered at the Post Office, Federaisburg, Md., as second-class matter 
(under the Act of March 3, 1879). 


ADVERTI.SING HATES, 

For One Issue, Cash with copy. Yearly, payable quarterly in advance. 
To insure prompt insertion of advertisement copy must be in by the 20th of 
tlie month. The Numis.matist will not guarantee the appearance of the “ad” 
in current issue if copy is received later than this date. 



1 Month 

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EDITORIAL. 


COINS WERE NEVER CHE.XPER. 

In the report of the United States Coin Committee of the American Nu- 
mismatic Society, at the annual meeting in January, the statement is made 
that while the price of coins did advance slightly during the war, the ad- 
vance was not at all in keeping with the increase in the cost of clothing and 
food. Those who have been buying coins for several years past will cor- 
roborate this statement. It does seem that with a doubling of prices for 
almost every other commodity within the past three or four years the price 
of coins should also have advanced sharply; but it has remained almost 
stationary. The advance in price of the necessities and luxuries of life is 
attributed to the increased costs under which they are produced. This, of 
course, cannot be applied to coins. And really there is no good reason why 
a rare coin should cost more today than it did ten years ago. except that 
there are more collectors today, and therefore more competition for it than 


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at that time. The number of pieces has been neither increased nor decreased 
by the war. The average line of coins has taken on a fairly standard selling 
price during the years they have been on the market, and the buyer of today 
perhaps feels justified in refusing to pay more than that price. 

But with our dollar today buying only fifty cents’ worth according to the 
standards of five years ago, the fact remains that with but a slight increase 
in the price of coins, they are cheaper today than they have been at any 
time within the past ten years, and almost anything in the w'ay of a numis- 
matic specimen at prevailing prices is a good Investment, with the usual 
pleasure and enjoyment thrown in. 

The wise collector will not need to be urged to buy now to the extent of 
his ability. 


THE (10IXAGE FOR 1919. 

A glance at the table of coinage by the different mints for last year will 
show that “1919” will be known as a “common date” for all denomina- 
tions struck at each of the three mints. The rarest coin, evidently, is the 
half dollar of the Philadelphia mint. But as nearly a million of these coins 
were struck, there is little chance of it becoming even scarce. Of the other 
denominations, those struck at the San Francisco and Denver mints are far 
less plentiful than of the Philadelphia Mint, but even so, there will be 
enough to meet the needs of collectors, as well as for other mortals. 


LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 


Information Wantecl on a Jenny Lind Medal. 

To the Editor of The Numism.\ti,st: 

I would like to inquire whether any of your readers know of the exist- 
ence of a medal of Jenny Lind which has on the reverse a quotation from 
Milton; “Such a sacred and homefelt delight, such so far certainly bliss, I 
never heard till now.” 

The medal is probably struck only in tin. I have tried to trace it from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, across the Baltic and North seas, but in vain. 

J. ueLagebberg. 

259 West 9 2d St., New York City. 


00>LMEXTS FRO.M EXGLAXD OX COUXTER.MARKEI) (X)IXS. 


In renewing his subscription to The Numismati.st, .Mr. Lionel L. Fletcher 
of Catefham Valley, Surrey, England, usually makes it an occasion for ex- 
pressing his appreciation of the magazine and for discussing some numis- 
matic subject. His letters are always full of interest, and we sometimes 
share them with our readers. His renewal for 1920 is just at hand, and 
contains some comments on the series of papers on Countermarked Coins 
now being printed, which are given below; 

“I thought that when writing I would take the opportunity of making a 
few random remarks. I have been very interested to see your list of the 
Countermarked Modern Coins of the World. I have not time now to write 
a set letter, but only to mention a few small points which I notice in a 
hurried glance through your articles. On page 279, in the description of 
a piece which happens to be in my collection, viz.. No. 284, the name of the 
issuer is misprinted ‘Querend,’ whereas it should read ‘Ourend.’ No. 272 
on the same page reads ‘Lochwinnock,’ and this is the correct spelling of 
the place of issue. The tokens of Clifton, 1735, described on page 2. Nos. 
514 and 515, are both colliery tokens belonging to Clifton, in Cumberland, 
England, and not to Wales. I notice that among the large series of Seven- 
teenth Century Tokens which were in use over here, the only two English 
ones mentioned are Nos, 320 and 321, and that these are, as you suggest. 


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D.L., J.P., F.S.A.: H. A. Parsons; W. L. Pocock ; The Rev. E. Rogers, M.A.; 
Edward Shepherd; \V. Beresford Smith; H. W. Taffs; F. Toplis. 

E.xhibitions were as follows: 

By Mr. F. Warren, of Winchester: An Irish penny of John, struck in Dub- 
lin and bearing a curious portrait. 

By Mr. Raymond Carlyon-Britton : Half-groat of Henry VIII, second issue 
of London; groat with the same mint-mark on both sides; halfpenny with 
mint-mark sunburst on the obverse only; James I sixpence, mint-mark cin- 
quefoil on both sides (16)15. 

By Mr. L. A. Law'rence: Charles I, Tower half-groat, mint-mark, obverse, 
crown; reverse, crown over bell; James II, silver penny, 1 687, the 7 stamp- 
ed over an 8. 

By Mr. W. Sharp Ogden: Charles I, Brlot’s crown with a blundered initial 
on the reverse, R for B; Charles I, Oxford half-crown, 1643, with a blunder- 
ed Declaration, PPOT; Charles I, Briot's shilling, mint-mark prostrate an- 
chor: Charles I, Tower sixpence, mint-mark rose; a passe counter of Charles 
I and his Queen; a memorial badge of Charles I: a curious bronze statuette 
of Charles I in armour on horseback, of contemporary work. 

By Mr. H. W. Taffs: A marriage medal of the Princess Louise and the 
Marquis of Lome, 21st .March, 1871, by J. S. Wyon. 

By Miss Helen Farquhar: A bronze medal on the late Peace, issued by 
the Birmingham mint. 

By Mr. W. J. Andrew: A small group in ormolu and bronze of St. George 
and the Dragon, said to have been designed by B. Pistrucci. 

Major P. W. P. Carlyon-Britton, F.S.A., read a paper on the remrrkable 
penny of the first issue of Henry II, generally known as the Tealby type, 
which he exhibited. The peculiarity was the final S in the obverse legend, 
of which very few examples were known. .Mr. L. A. Lawrence had one 
which he attributes to London, and there was another in the British Mu- 
seum of an indecipherable mint from the Lark Hill find. Each of these 
three differed from the others in type, thus showing that this S was -tot an 
accidental introduction. .Major Carlyon-Britton believed that it stood for 
the initial letter of Secundus, to distinguish Henry IPs coins from those of 
Henry I. It was unnecessary for it to be used on the short-cross type which 
succeeded in 1180, because the coins were of an entirely different design. 

Mr. Grant R. Francis read a paper on the sixpences issued from the Tow- 
er in the reign of Charles I, being the fourth chapter of his monograph 
"The Silver Coins of the Tower Mint of Charles I.” Numerous rare varie- 
ties and some very interesting examples of “mules” were commented upon 
with the author’s accustomed care and knowledge of this difficult series. 

The influence of Nicholas Briot’s designs on the coins with the mint- 
marks anchor and triangle and subsequent issues, which has been observed 
and illustrated in previous chapters, was again apparent in the sixpenny 
denominations, as also was the probability of the use of Aberystwith dies 
at the Tower. 

Some very interesting exhibits of rare sixpences were brought in illus- 
tration of Mr. Francis’ subject by the President, by Miss Helen Farquhar, 
and by .Mr. Raymond Carlyon-Britton; and with those exhibited by the 
author they probably formed the most complete series of coins of this de- 
nomination ever shown on a single occasion. 

Note . — At a special meeting of the Council, held on December 15th, 
Mr. Frederick A. Walters, F.S.A., President, in the chair, Lieut. -Colonel 
Morrieson tendered his resignation as temporary secretary, and Mr. W. J. 
Andrew, F.S.A.. was unanimously reappointed to his old office. 


ROVAIi XUMIS.>LATIC SOCIETY. 

January 15th, Prof. C. Oman, M.P., President, and later Sir Henry H. 
Howorth, K.C.I.E., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Mr. W. H. Woodward was elected a Fellow of the Society. 

Mr. L. G. P. Messenger exhibited the 20 and 10-cent pieces, silver, 1919, 
of the Straits Settlements and the one cent, 1919, bronze, square with 
rounded corners, struck at the Bombay Mint, and an Australian penny tok- 
en, a mule between an Irish Wellington penny and a Tasmanian token. 
Obverse, Bust r., WELLINGTON & ERIN GO BRAGH. Reverse, Britannia 
seated 1. AUSTRALIA. 

Rev. E. Rogers exhibited two tetradrachms, both with type head of Her- 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


akles and Zeus Aetophoros and having the same symbols (anchor and feed- 
ing horse) and monograms. One is of Alexander the Great, the other of 
Seleucus I. These two pieces are of Eastern fabric, and probably belong 
farther East than Inihoof has suggested. He also showed two Seleucid stat- 
ers with Apollo and Zeus reverses. The Apollo stater had been previously 
known and attributed by Dr. Macdonald to Antiochus II; the new stater with 
Zeus reverse now confirms this attribution. A silver tetradrachm with tne 
same portrait, apparently unique, was also shown. A tetradrachm of Dio- 
dotos of Bactria was shown for comparison. 

Mr. John Pinches exhibited specimens of Air Force decorations struck by 
his firm from designs by Mr. E. Carter Preston. These were the Distin- 
guished Flying Cross, a silver cross with purple and white ribbon, R A F in 
monogram surrounded by wreath w'ith crown above and wings on right and 
left. Reverse, G R I 1918 (cursive) in monogram; and the Air Force 
Cross, obverse. Mercury on eagle r. holding wreath in right hand and cadu- 
ceus in left hand. Crown above G. R. 1. V. on extremities of cross. Re- 
verse as preceding. Crimson and white ribbon. 

Fine selections of the coins of .\ugustus in illustration of the paper were 
shown by the President, -Mr. Percy H. Webb, .Mr. Sydenham and Mr. H. P. 
Hall. 

The Rev. E. A. Sydenham read a paper on the “Coinages of Augustus,” 
which was intended as a sequel to Mr. Mattingly’s “Republican Origins of 
the Imperial Coins” read at the November meeting. The reader began by 
giving a chronological summary of the various series and groups of coins 
under Augustus. There were seven species of mints — (a) the Senatorial 
Mint of Rome; (b) Military .Mints; (c) Mints in Senatorial Provinces; (d) 
.Mints in Imperial Provinces; (e) Autonomous .Mints (issuing bronze only); 
(f) tne Imperatorial Mint; (g) the Imperial Mint. After brief notes oh the 
Senatorial Mint (B. C. 43-36), the military coinage of Octavius in Gaul and 
Italy (41-39 B. C.), incidentally attributing the S C coins to camp mints of 
Northern Italy, Mr. Sydenham proceeded to discuss the Asiatic coinages (B. 
C. 28-15) and the Imperatorial Mint (B. C. 21-15). Besides coins generally 
attributed to .Asiatic mints the reader proposed to give the undated silver 
and gold with CAESAR DIVI F to Asia rather than Rome, and he criticised 
Laffranchi’s attribution of certain coins to Phrygia and Gabrici’s to Athens. 
The CA bronze coins he attributed to Asia, reading the CA as Commune 
Asiae. 

The coins attributed to the “Imperatorial” .Mint are very distinctive in 
style and were probably issued under direct control of .\ugustus. These 
coins had been attributed by Grueber to Rome, and by Laffranchi to Spain. 
Mr. Sydenham gave cogent arguments against these views and added reasons 
for considering them a distinct Imperatorial issue. 

A theory on which a good deal of the argument turned is that in B. C. 28 
Augustus made a formal surrender of his triumviral office and the extraor- 
dinary powers pertaining to it. 

Included in the powers was probably the right of coinage. The surrender 
of this right was merely an act of policy which Augustus did not regard as 
permanently binding. But he held to it to this extent that for five or six 
years he issued no coins of any sort on his own authority, and even down to 
the end of his reign he issued no coins in Rome. After an experimental 
coinage through P. Carisius in Spain (B. C. 24-22) he inaugurated his 
“Imperatorial” mint, but confined its operations to the provinces. Finally 
he fixed the Imperial mint at Lugdunum (B. C. 14). 

In the discussion which followed Mr. Hill, Mr. Webb, Mr. Mattingly and 
Sir Henry Howorth took part. Mr. Hill said that the interpretation of CA 
as Commune .\slae was not absolutely certain, and pointed out the strong 
resemblance of the CA bronze to the late Imperial coins of Antioch. He 
was also struck by the "Gaulish” style of the horse on the S C coins. Mr. 
Webb said that he had always put the CA coins down to .Antioch. Mr. .Mat- 
tingly discussed several points relating to the constitutional rights under 
which Augustus coined. 


P.ACIFIC CO.AST NOIISMATIC SOCIETY. 

The 53rd regular monthly meeting was held at the Assembly Room, 235 
Montgomery street, San Francisco, December 30th, President Zerbe presid- 
ing. Present: Members Haigh, Hill, Zerbe, Twitchell, Sherow, Haagensen, 


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Mohr, Turrill, Brandon and Thomas; visitors, Messrs. Rosenblatt and Clax- 
ton. 

Messrs. George H. Blake, Jersey City, X. J., and E. W. Sutcliffe, Sacra- 
mento, were elected to membership. 

Letters from Secretary Steinman, who continues his stay in the East, 
with proposals for membership were read. On the recommendation of Mr. 
Steinman, Victor David Brenner, the noted sculptor-medallist. New York 
City, was nominated for honorary membership, and .Messrs. Frank J. I..ive- 
right, X'ewark, N. J., and Wayte Raymond, New York City, were proposed 
for active menubership. • 

Report of the success of the auction at previous meeting for the special 
seal fund was made by .Mr. Zerbe, acting treasurer. On motion of .Mr. Tur- 
rill the payment for the original drawing for seal, which had been destroyed 
by accident, was approved. 

Selected mint-condition sets of the San Francisco .Mint 1919 silver series 
were distributed at face value. Numismatic doings of the month, with clip- 
pings of references in the local press, were topics of discussion. 

Fred. J. Claxton, Berkeley, who was present as a visitor, exhibited what 
was explained as an emergency military note of Canada and believed to be 
associated with the war of 1812-14. This note, size ,4 by 5 V 2 inches, is 
dated from Isle Aux Noix, March 7, 1814, of the dehomination of one dol- 
lar, and imprinted “For the Convenience of Change.” Mr. Claxton also 
showed varieties of the British florin, Victoria, gothic type. 

An exhibit by Victor E. S. Rosenblatt was a bronze medal issued by .Mr. 
and -Mrs. J. B. Schroeder, having portraits of Augusta and Livia on obverse, 
and with reverse inscription “Roman Revival by the Olympic Club, April 
XVII-XXIl MDCCCLXXXXIIl San Francisco, Cal.” 

An exhibit by .Mr. Turrill was one of the original and primitive Mexican 
fibre bags in which came to San Francisco from Mexico gold coin in settle- 
ment of Catholic Church claims celebrated as the’ “Pious Fund” and one 
of the early cases to be adjudicated by the Hague Tribunal. 

A Drake map medal, white metal, 73mm., on which what is now the 
state of California is named New Albion, was shown by Mr. Zerbe. This 
led to extended remarks by Mr. Turrill relating to the explorations of 
Drake, the acceptance of his charts and maps by some, and that they were 
ignored by the Spaniards. 

An interesting exhibit by Mr. Hill was a crude cast irregular silver in- 
got, eight reals, with cross, 1611, and the Mexico mint mark; reverse blank. 
Mr. Hill also showed a .Mexican revolutionary coin the type of which was 
new to the members — .70 cents in silver, with date, 1915, within a central 
sun device. 

Other exhibits included recent additions to collections, mostly specimens 
relating to the war, and a novelty case, by .Mr. Twitchell, made from early 
European crowns. 

W. H. Thom.vs, Assistant Secretary. 


The 54th regular monthly meeting was held at the Assembly Room, 235 
Montgomery street, San Francisco, January 27th, with Vice-President Tur- 
rill in the chair and President Zerbe acting as secretary. Present: Mem- 
bers Turrill, Mohr, Chariot, Sherow, Twichell and Zerbe; visitor, E. S. Ros- 
enblatt. 

Following the reading of communications and granting of orders for ap- 
proved bills there was a general discussion regarding the past, present and 
probable future values of foreign moneys. The discussion was prompted by 
the day having registered a new low record for foreign exchange in this 
country. The continued high price and export demand for silver and that 
San Francisco has become the silver market of the world were topics of 
comment. 

Victor David Brenner, New York, was elected to honorary membership, 
and Frank J. Liveright, Newark. N. J.. and Wayte Raymond. .New York, 
were elected to active membership. letter from Secretary Steinman in- 
dicated his expected early return from his trip to the East. His nomina- 
tions of Howland Wood and A. R. Frey for honorary membership were reg- 
istered with favorable comment. 

A simple method of making impressions of coins and medals, more sat- 
isfactory than the usual “rubbings,” was demonstrated by Mr. Zerbe. Mr. 


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Turiill, who is an expert commercial photographer, said he believed care- 
fully-made impressions by this method would be sufliciently good for pho- 
tographic reproduction for illustrating purposes. 

Exliibits included San Francisco trade tokens by Mr. Mohr; Adams & Co., 
San Francisco (aibout 1855 ), 25-cent cardboard money, by Mr. Zerbe: and 
Mr. Turrill showed an exceptionally fine photograph he had made of an old 
financial document. 

F.\kr.\.\ ZEiiUE, Acting Secretary. 


AXTK^L AKI.W AND NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF MONTREAL. 

The Antiquarian and Numismatic Society of Montreal held its January 
meeting on Friday, the 16th, at the home of R. W. McLachlan, 310 Lans- 
downe Avenue, Westmount, at whicn .Mr. McLachlan exhibited 156 acces- 
sions to his Canadian numismatic collection during the year 1919. Of 
these, 96 were from the Province of Quebec, 23 Ontario, 1 Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick 4, .Manitoba 3, Saskatchewan 1, Alberta 2, British Columbia 
1, Dominion 24, and Newfoundland 1. The subjects were: Coins 7, war 
medals 23, historical 2, exhibition 3, educational 12, athletic 7, -Masonic 9, 
issued by societies 8, religious 61, checks and private cards 24. Places of 
Mintage: Canada 92, United States 6, France 58. Of these, 50 were secured 
when he purchased the collection of St. Ann de Beaupr6 medals, which had 
belonged to the estate of F. R. E. Campeau. 

Among the more notable of these accessions may be mentioned the 
placquet issued by the Toronto Exposition Association for the year 1918, 
which bears the portrait of Baron Shaughnessy and that of Sir Charles 
Fitzpatrick, as well as medals for the University of New Brunswick, and 
for King's College, Windsor, Nova Scotia. 

He also read a paper, “Shipping on Canadian Numismatics,” which de- 
scribed different forms of vessels appearing on Canadian coins and medals, 
from the primitive dugout to the large ocean steamship. 

These are divided into heads according to the means of propulsion. He 
also gave a list of Canadian coins and medals in his collection which bear 
these different forms of vessels. 


CHIC.AGO tX)IN OLUR. 

The eleventh monthly meeting of the Chicago Coin Club was held at the 
Hotel Sherman, Chicago, January 7, 1920. Those present were Miss Xaerup, 
Mrs. Ripstra, Messrs. Boyer, Brand, Brown, Davis, Dunham, Hoffer, Jonas, 
Josephson, Kelley, Lawless, Leon, Dr. Luttenberger, Rackus, Ripstra, owan- 
strom and Van der Berghen. The meeting was called to order by President 
Boyer. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The Treasurer’s report was read and placed on file. 

The Entertainment Committee reported on a plan for a dinner before the 
February meeting. 

Applications for membership were received from Mrs. A. S. Boyer; M. 
Sorensen, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and Walter H. .McDonald, Washington, D. C. 

A communication from President Waldo C. Moore of the American Nu- 
mismatic .Association was read regarding a committee on arrangements for 
the Convention. A card conveying holiday greetings from B. Max Mehl was 
also read. 

Mr. Brand read a humorous article in verse entitled “The Quarrel of the 
Coins,” in which the characters were an Indian-head cent of 1909, an 1883 
nickel without cents, an 1802 half dime, an 1804 dollar, and the villian, 
who was a coin collector. This was greatly appreciated by the club, and 
wishes were expressed for more of the same sort of entertainment. 

The exhibits were as follows: 

By Mr. Ripstra: Large medal struck by the Society of Holland and Bel- 
gian Friends of the Medal. 

By Dr. Luttenberger: $2.50 gold piece, 1906, proof. 

By Mr. Lawless: A number of large copper cents. 

By .Mr. Hoffer: .Mark Newby halfpenny, and a Washington cent, 1791, 
large eagle. 

By Mr. Davis: -A number of fine examples of Rosa .Americana pieces, and 
several examples of Wood’s coinage for Ireland. 


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By Mr. Dunham; Turkish gold piece. 124 years old, sent him by his son, 
Lieut. C. F. Dunnam, from Constantinople. 

By Mr. Rackus; A collection of ancient Chinese money, showing various 
types of razor, key and fork money. 

By -Mr. Kelley: Several Canadian tokens, among which were the Success 
Token, B. 895, and B. 509; a complete set of notes from the Bank of tne 
Old Dominion, and a Philippine emergency circulating note for 10 centavos. 

By Mr. Swanstrom: A quadruple thaler commemorating the death of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus; a Swedish necessity piece of Erick XIV; a large block of 
tea money from Mongolia, weighing about six pounds; a silver ingot of 
about six ounces, used for circulation in China, and a gold noble of Edward 
the Black Prince. 

By Mr. Jonas: Half mark, silver. Imperial, 1918, and 50-pfennig piece, 
1919, struck in aluminum by the German Republic. 

By Mr. Brown: Carolina halfpenny, Immunis Columbia cent; 2 sous, 
France, 1793; one ore, Gustavus Adolphus, two types; two baiocco pieces of 
the Roman Republic; 6 groszy, struck at Zamosc during the siege by the 
Russians in 1813; 3 denga of Wallachia-.Moldavia, 1771; 10 phuli, struck 
at Tiflis for Georgia, and a Crimean piece struck during the occupation of 
the Turks. 

By Mr. Leon: Large Roman aes; copper pattern of Clark Gruber & Co. 
$20; twopenny token. Lesslie & Sons; broad crown of I.«opold and Claudia, 
Austria; four large Washington medals; medals of Xapoleoh, McClellan, 
Stonewall Jackson, Travelling Moon, an Indian Chief, and Johnson and 
Lockyer. 

R. E. Davis, Secretary. 


Xl MIS.MATir .SEtTIDN', MARVLAXD ACADK.MV OF SCIENCES, 

BALTl.MOHE, MI). 

The eighteenth meeting of the Numismatic Section of the Maryland Acad- 
emy of Sciences was held at the Academy on February 2. Chairman New- 
comer presiding. Others present were Dr. Nicholas, Dr. Plummer, .Messrs. 
McColgan, Schilling and Duffield. Dr. L. W. Knight was present as a guest. 

Minutes of the preceding meeting weie read and approved. 

Dr. L. W. Knight was proposed for membership in the Section and duly 
elected. 

It was decided that the Secretary notify all members that at the next 
meeting propositions would be voted on to change the time of meeting from 
twice a month to once a month —the third Monday — and the hour of meet- 
ing from 8 to 8.30 o'clock. 

The subject selected for the next meeting was "Medieval Coins." 


IIO.STON XV.MISMATIC SOCIETY. 

The Society, after dinner at the St. Botolph Club on January 2 4th, held 
its annual meeting witn .Mr. Wheeler, the President, in the chair, and the 
following members pi;esent: .Messrs. F. Stearns, Gray. Shumway. Shepard- 
son, Joy, Tilden, Comstock, Kimball, Morse, C. L. Stearns and Storer. 

The Treasurer's report sliowed a comfortable balance on hand, and the 
following officers were elected; President, .Mr. H. L. Wheeler: Vice-Pres- 
ident and Curator, .Mr. Foster Stearns; Treasurer. Mr. Fred Joy; Secretary, 
Dr. Malcolm Storer. 

The matter of the Society issuing a medal in connection witli tlie 
Plymouth Celebi-ation was further discussed, and Mr. .loy and Dr. Storer 
showed a large number of specimens of the best medallic work of Reed & 
Barton, the Gorliam Company, tlie Robbins Company and Whiteiiead Ai Hoe.g 
to assist the committee in charge to decide iiiion a maker of tlie medal. 

Dr. .M. Storer read a paper upon "The .Naval .Numismatic History of the 
World War," in which he had arranged the naval medals issued in tlie last 
five years chronologically, and illtisfrated his paper by many medals and 
photographs from his collection. 

Mr. Joy showed an extra line silver-center cent. 

Mr. Wheeler showed the .Xlherl and Elizabeth medal, lb 18. by .Maquoy. 
and the German Red Cross ( Ci’own I’rincess Cecillei .Medal. 

Mr. Comstock allowed a Portuguese nioidore of 1k78. a proof Kngli-h 


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dollar of 1804, tlie Muera Huerta piece, and a number of Belgian and Dutch 
war pieces. 

-Mr. Morse showed the British India Medal of 190 3 with Punjab clasp. 

.Mr. Gray showed the Washington Valley Forge Medal in silver and cop- 
per, and tiie Washington Funeral Medal in silver. 

Mr. Tilden showed a fine 1 797 dime and an uncirculated 1801 half dime, 
an extremely tine Rutter card, an 18.53 half dime without arrows, O mint, 
and a large collection of Confederate envelopes and many rare store cards. 

Dr. Storer showed the Hopedale Service Medal in gold. 

.Mai.coi.m Stoker, Secretary. 


HOCHK.STEH XL .MIS.M.ATIC ASSOCIATION. 

The 183rd meeting of the Rochester Numismatic Association was held at 

183rd meeting of the Rochester Numismatic Association was held at 
the Rochester .Municipal Museum, Tuesday evening, hebruary 2, 1920. In 
tile absence of the President (now in taliiornia), and of the Vice-President, 
W. H. Amberg, confined to his home by illness, the meeting was called to 
order by the Secretary. He asked consent of the meeting to call to the 
chair our former President, H. H. Yawger, which was agreed to. Members 
present were; Messrs. Bauer, Hicks, Plumb, Koeb, Haringx, Horner, Bor- 
radaile, Yawger, Loizeau, Putnam, Merritt and h rench. 

Under the head of new business Mr. Haringx raised the question as to 
what method or methods could be adopted to increase the interest and mem- 
bership of the Association. Tuis led the Secretary to respond along the line 
of his remarks at the annual banquet. He stated that being encouraged by 
the interest taken in his former remarks, he had prepared the following: 

“Believing from the many inquiries received and interest shown by the 
general public, that it is largely interested in the subject of numismatics, 
be it 

“Resolved, That this Association request from some newspaper of this 
city the privilege of contributing one column eacii week of numismatic news. 

“Resolved, That in this endeavor there is no intention of exploiting indi- 
viduals, but rather the diffusion of knowledge for the benefit of the public. 
The Association feels, as do many other societies and associations since the 
World War, they should extend their activities to the community at large 
rather than, as heretofore, con lining them to tiieir own limited circle.” 

This had the approval of the members and on motion of Mr. Haringx, 
seconded by i.Mr. Kolb, was adopted unanimously. 

The Secretary then announced that one of our dailies had consented to 
furnish space of one column each week for numismatic news, same to be 
furnished by this Association. He also stated he would type, supervise and 
arrange such copy for the paper, provided the members would pledge them- 
selves to furnish enough material to enable him to have three weeks’ supply 
on hand at all times. It was his idea to have some such heading as “Nu- 
mismatic Notes. Furnished by the Rochester Numismatic Association, Muni- 
cipal Museum. Meetings every first and third Tuesday. Visitors weicome,” 
and in this way call attention to the existence of a numismatic organization 
where all who were interested were welcome. 

On motion of Mr. Bauer, seconded by Dr. French, it was voted to pledge 
the .Association to this course of action and to start its activities at once. 

We had with us our former President, Fred Merritt, now of Philadelphia. 
.Mr. Merritt was in receipt of congratulations from the members for the 
neatness of his catalogue and remarkable character of his sale held in this 
city, January 30-31. The general opinion was he had made a great success 
of his enterprise. 

Dr. French exhibited an 1846 cent, “point of hair over center of 8,” 
which, with the one sold by Mr. Merritt, were the only two he had ever 
seen. The one exhibited by Dr. French was examined by all members with 
much interest. 

The Treasurer called attention to the fact that the President's Medal was 
now ready for delivery, and requested the members to obtain them as soon 
as possible. 

-No further business appearing, the meeting adjourned. 

E. D. Pi'T.NA.M, Secretary. 


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SKVE.NTH ANNUAL DINNEK OF THE KOCHKSTEK NUMISMATIC 

ASSOCIATION. 


The seventh annual dinner of the Rochester Numismatic Association was 
held at tne Hotel Rochester, Tuesday evening, January 20th. In spite of 
the inclement weather a fairly representative crowd was present, comprising 
the following: Dr. Geo. P. Irencn and wife, Mr. and .Mrs. F. B. King, F. E. 
Merritt, Pniiadelphia, Pa.; Mr. and .\lrs. L. J. Woolsey, A. H. Plumb, Mr. 
and Mrs. Darling; Dr. McKee, LocKpoit, N. \.; Mr. and .Mrs. G. J. Bauer, 
Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Yawger, Dr. S. Handler, Mr. and .^lrs. J. A. Koeb, Mr. 
and Mrs. E. D. Putnam, Air. and Mrs. i'. Borradaile, Mr. A. E Loizeau, 
Mr. and Mrs. Geo. A. Gillette, Mr. Geo. Haringx, Mr. P. C. Wild. 

Telegrams of regret were received from Moritz Wormser of New York and 
several others. 


Owing to the congested condition of tne railroads, due to the storms, we 
were advised by people from Detroit, Philadelphia and several other points 
that parties already on tne w'ay, or expecting to come, would find it impos- 
sible to be with us. 

It had been decided this year to make the banquet a purely informal one, 
inasmuch as tne formal speaker of previous years. Dr, Zimmerman, could 
not be with us, he being in Florida for the winter. The decorations were 
simple, but effective, ueing potted plants in tne center of the round tables 
in tne large oanquet-room ot the hotel. 

As in foimer years. Dr. French was made toastmaster, and after an 
elaborate meal, such as the Hotel Rochester always furnishes on such 
occasions, he proceeded, in a good-natured way, to torture his victims pre- 
paratory to calling on them for speeches. Eacn member of tne organization 
was asked to say something during the evening, and all responded. Par- 
ticular mention should be made of the speecn of Geo. J. Bauer upon the 
collecting of ancient coins, stating, in substance, that no amateur or beginner 
should feel afraid of undertaking this class of work; that he personally 
believed it w'as much easier to make a collection of foreign coins than the 
innumerable varieties of the American coins, there being so many it was 
almost impossible to keep track of them. He therefore recommended to 
the beginner. Do not hesitate to start a foreign coin collection; you will find 
it much easier than it sounds. 

The newly-elected Secretary of the A. N. A., Mr. H. H. Yawger. in a few 
well-chosen remarks, called attention to the fact that the A. N. A. was out 
this year to double its membership, and requested the members of the local 
organization to use their utmost efforts to further this object. It was in- 
timated that several new members would be obtained at pnce as a result of 
Mr. Yawger’s remarks. 

Mr. F. B. King, upon being called for, stated that he thought the medal 
of this year with the bust of ex-President Dr. Handler thereon, was as fine 
a one, if not the finest in the collection of the organization. He especially 
admired the color, which reverts to that used in our earlier days of striking 
medals. It was conceded by all that the medal was very youthful in ap- 
pearance, although it did not flatter the doctor, he being noted for his good 
looks. 

The newly-elected Secretary, .Mr. Putnam, took for his subject the ques- 
tion, “What are you going to do now?” stating that the Association had 
permanent quarters, the second or third best numismatic collection in the 
United States, elegantly housed, and it was now the question as to what 
their next work was to be. He suggested that in his opinion it w-as now to 
educate the community in a numismatic way. Several public lectures should 
be given upon foreign and domestic coins, and if possible, a column of nu- 
mismatic news be printed in the daily newspapers. The world war has 
taught us that small associations must get out and do their “bit” for the 
community instead of selfishly confining tneir efforts to their own little cir- 
cle. ^ Numismatists should recognize this as well as other associations. The 
recommendation seemed to be heartily approved, and it was decided that 
at the next meeting arrangements should be made to further these recom- 
mendations. 

Mr. Koeb, the designer and engraver of the presidential medal, in a few 
well-chosen words, spoke about the Handler Medal, and said that with the 
unanimous approval of all the members present lie intended to eliminate 


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all wrinkles from the faces of the future engravings. It seemed to be the 
general idea also that he should throw the"' full-face design in the discard 
along with the wrinkles and thereby make us all look young and beautiful. 

After the other members had spoken along the lines of the work during 
the past year, the hour being late, the Association disbanded, all agreeing 
that this banquet, though informal in its nature, had been one of the most 
enjoyable ones that had ever been held. 

E. D. PvT.NAM, Secretary. 


"ILLIS QUORUM MERUEKE L.ARORES” IX SWEUEX. 


In recognition of various services rendered the country there appear 
various Royal medals in Sweden. Among tnose awarded to ladies, the 
medal “Litteris et Artibus” has been frequently presented to quite a num- 
ber. However, the medal "Hlis Quorum .vleruere Labores ’ is principally 
“the one” which has the character of a special mark of distinction for ladies 
in this country. 

This medal was instituted in 1785 by King Gustaf III, and has been 
awarded since his reign, by all later rulers, for meritorious services. For 
a long time it was especially foreigners who received it, as a reward for 
life-saving. In the year 1832 it was struck with the device “For heroic 
action” in Swedish, and in this form was more usual than in its original, 
which however, was preserved from its foundation and has gradually adopt- 
ed the character of a reward for long and prominent services in the field 
of learning. 

l"he medal, as a rule, was only struck in the fifth dimension (Swedish 
scale), exceptionally and rarely in the twelfth. In 1881 it appeared in the 
eighteenth, and in this form is the most unique distinction in existence to 
be awarded for peaceful actions, and far more rare than either the Royal 
decorations of the Grand Commandeur Cross of the Order of Seraphim or 
Vasa. 

In that size, (the eighteenth) Hlis Quorum was awarded fourteen times. 
On June 1 8th, 1918, it was held by only three living men in Sweden, viz., 
the Governors of State, A. Svedelins and T. Nordstrom, and the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, General Director A. Lagerheim. The late jurist. Dr. D. A. 
Cavalli, possessed also the same degree. In this size, however, it has never 
been awarded to any ladies. Five ladies have had the distinction conferred 
on them to possess the medal in its twelfth size, but even this is considered 
a rarity. 

In 1883, at the 30-year jubilee as Government coin and medal engraver 
in Sweden, .Mrs. Lea Ahlborn was awarded the medal in recognition of the 
artistic genius and skill by which she brought the Swedish medallic art of 
design and engraving to its former mark. (This probably refers to the 
days of J. C. Hedlinger. ) iShe was the first woman in Sweden on whom 
this highest mark of distinction was bestowed. Twenty-four years passed 
before the medal in this size was again awarded. In the meantime only 
five men had received it, of whom the former Minister of the Foreign De- 
partment, Mr. K. A. Walleiiterg, was one, who obtained it fifteen years 
after Mrs. Lea Ahlborn. 

In 1907, at the golden wedding of King Oscar II and Queen Sofia, the 
medal, in its twelfth dimension, was presented to .Mrs. (Professor) Anna H. 
Retzius. In 190S-10 the distinction was conferred on Mrs. A. Wallenberg 
and Mrs. Oscar Montelius for philanthropy, and to the lady-in-waiting on 
Queen Sofia, Miss Mari Louise of Segerstroiv. 

For the first time in its eighth size (also in this form very rare) it was 
awarded in 1 866 to .Mrs. Katolina Dumrath of the Royal Swedish Opera. 
From that time it was not awarded until 1879 and then in its fifth size. 
Since, it has been awarded in 1894. 1904, 190.5, 1 907, 191 1. In 1912 
Mrs. Emma Zorn received it. In 1!>13 there were three awards. In 1914, 
five, in its eighth size; in 1915, four recipients: in 1916, five, and in 1917, 
three. 

In its fifth dimension — always in gold — Hlis Quorum is somewhat often- 
er awarded to ladies, although even in this form it is not at all common. 

Among the seventy-four ladies to whom it has been awarded since 1 866, 
five hold it in its twelfth size, 31 in its eighth, and 38 in its fifth size. 
Among men, besides those fourteen mentioned awarded the eighteenth size. 


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there are 13 with the twelfth, and 59 witn the eighth, and 52 with the fifth 
size. All told, 138 men, among whom about 20 are foreigners. 

From the above it appears that this distinction has not been awarded to 
twice as many men as women — a proof of its rarity, and thereby additional 
value of its possession — particularly when its distribution over a period of 
fifty years is considered, and when compared with the distribution of other 
decorations. J. dkL. 


COIXAGE.S OF THE DIFFEHEXT U. ,S. MIXTS FOR 1019, 


The following table shows the number of pieces of each denomination 
coined at the different mints of the United States, including the coinages 
fvji foreign countries, for the calendar year 1919, furnished by Mr. A. J. 
Jansen of Atlanta, Ga., and which was compiled from reports from the 
superintendents of the different mints. 


Denomination. Philadelphia. Denver. San Francisco. Total. 


Half Dollars' 962,000 

Quarter Dollars .... 11,324,000 

Dimes 35,740,000 

Nickels 60,868,000 

Cents 392,021,000 


Total 500,915,000 

Philippine Islands: 

Fifty Centavos 

Twenty Centavos 

Ten Centavos 

Five Centavos 

One Centavos 

Total 


1.165.000 

1.944.000 

9.939.000 

8.006.000 

57,154,000 


78,208,000 


1.552.000 

1.836.000 

8.850.000 

7.521.000 

139,760,000 


159,519,000 


1 , 200,000 

850,000 

1.630.000 

1 . 220.000 

4,540,000 


3,679,000 

15.104.000 

54.529.000 

76.395.000 

588,935,000 


739,1 82,000 


9,440,000 


Siam 10,000,000 

Salvador 3,000,000 

Nicaragua 850,000 

Venezuela 3,200,000 

Peru 20,750,000 

Peru: 

Blanks Prepared... 354,195 
Argentina: 

Blanks Prepared... 52,675,000 


10 , 000,000 

3,000,000 

850,000 

3,200,000 

20,750,000 


354,195 

52,675,000 


Grand Total . 


838,911,195 


CX)XGHE.SSMAX ASHJIROOK’S COINS NOT YET RECOVERED. 


No trace has yet been found of the coins of Congressman Ashbrook, 
which were stolen from his bank in Johnstown, Ohio, on the night of De- 
cember 15-16. Collectors are urged to report to Mr. Ashbrook and to the 
local police authorities if any coins likely to be a part of the stolen collec- 
tion are offered them. The following is a description of the collection 
stolen: 

One set of cents, fine and uncirculated, valued at $500. 

Another set of cents, good to fine, valued at $100. 

Set of 2-cent pieces and 3-cent pieces, uncirculated and proof. 

Forty-nine $3 gold pieces, mostly proofs. 

Five California coins. 

Gold proof sets of 1882-3-4-5 ($20, $10, $5, $3, $1). 

One hundred and fifty-seven Quarter Eagles, no duplicates. (In addition 
to this set of Quarter Eagles there were some duplicates.) 

One hundred and eighty-seven gold dollars. 

Some foreign gold and a number of miscellaneous coins. 

The burglars overlooked two boxes of coins containing Mr. Ashbrook’s 
collection of gold $5, $10 and $20 pieces. 


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American Numismatic Association 


Organized 1891, Incori’oraied Under tlie Laws of the 
United States May 9, 1912. 


OFFICERS 
President, 
Wai.po C. Moore, 
Lewisburg, Ohio. 


First Vice-President, 

Henrv Chapman, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Second Vice-President, 

John M. Oi.iver, Springfield, Mass. 


General Secretary, 

H. H. Yawger, 

78 Linden St., Rochester, N. Y. 


Treasurer, 

George J. Bauer, 

192 St. Paul St., Rochester, N. Y. 


Librarian, 

H. H. Yawger, 78 Linden St., Rochester, N. Y. 


BOARD OF GOVERNORS 


Moritz WoRMsm, Chairman, 95 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Theo. E. Leon, Preston C. Pond, 

143 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. Chicopee, Mass. 

Foster Lardner, F. N. Boyle, 

320 Westminster St., Providence, R. I. 628 Frick Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Official Magazine: The Numismatist. 

Frank G. Duffieij), Editor and Business Manager. 
1811 Mosher St., Baltimore, Md. 


DISTRICT SECRETARIES 

H. vrry a. Gray, 41 Rockland St., Roxbury, Mass., for New England States. 
Rud; Kohi.er, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City, for N. Y. and N. J. 

Henry Chapman, 333-335 S. 16th St., Philadelphia, Pa., for Penn., Del., Md., 

Va., W. Va. and D. of C. 

M. Marcuson, 1611 E. 82d St. N. E., Cleveland, Ohio, for Mich., Ohio, Ind. 
and Ky. 

Fred Muhael, 8 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., for 111., Iowa, Mo., Kansas 
and Neb. 

W. G. Cl RRY, Baraboo, Wis., for Wis., Minn., N. Dak. and S. Dak. 

George H. King, Denver National Bank, Denver, Col., for Mont., Idaho, Wyo., 
Utah, Col., Ariz. and N. Mex. 

I. Lei. AND Stein.man, Room 329, 235 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal., 

for Cal., Nev., Ore. and Wash. 

B. Max .Veiil, P. O. Drawer 97 6, Fort Worth, Tex., for Southern States. 
Joii.N A. W(K)D, 165 Oak Ave., Hamilton, Ont., for Ontario. 

R. L. Reid. Vancouver. B. C., for Western Canada. 

H. L. Doane, Truro. Nova Scotia, for Quebec and Eastern Provinces. 

S. H. Ha.mer, Halifax, Yorkshire, England, for British lies. 


The initiation fee is one dollar. The annual dues are 50 cents yearly. 
Subscription to The Numismatist, $1.50 yearly, payable January 1st yearly. 
Total $3.00 for the first year. For particulars address the General Secre- 
tary, Rochester, N. Y. 


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REPORT OF THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 


Xcw Menilx'rs to bo AdiiiitbHl .March 1, 1030. 

2070. Gust Eastland, Cambridge, 111. 

2071. G. W. Sherwood, Pennsboro, W. Va. 

2072. J. Cleveland Capen, Kloomheld, Conn. 

2073. Frank H. Johnston, 306 W. Madison St., Chicago, 111. 

207 4. H. S. Ashcroft, Philipsburg, Pa. 

207 5. L. B. Morris, 316 Seebaldt Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

2076. J. B. Knape, Lewisburg, Ohio. 

Application for Mcinbership. 

The following applications ha\e been received prior to February 20, 1920. 
If no objections are received prior to April 1, 1920. the same will become 
members on that date and will be published in the .\pril issue: 


APPI.K'ANT 


PROPOSED BV 


H. E. Wilson (General), 

R. F. D. # 1, Weston, W. Va. .. 
Frank B. Gaul (Coins and Medals), 
21 Central Ave., Washington, Pa. 
Arthur C. Wyman (Roman Silver), 
311 W. 24th St.. New York. N. Y. 
W. F. Roberts (General), 

539 Parker St., Verona, Pa 

W. P. McNary (General), 

Bannock, Ohio 


Rochester, X. Y., February 20, 1920. 


Isaiah Rudy 

H. H. Yawger 

Geo. L. Hayes 

H. H. Yawger 

Howland Wood 

Rud Kohler 

E. L. Frazier 

H. H. Yawger 

W. C. Moore 
E. V. Moore 

H. H. Yawof.b, 

General Secretary. 


THE A, N. A. CHICAGO COXVEXTIOX H.ATE. 


The date of the Chicago Convention of the American Numismatic Asso- 
ciation for 19 20 will probably be during the week beginning August 23. 
The Chicago Coin Club has announced its preference for that week, and the 
matter is now being considered by the Board of Governors of the A. N. A. 
If agreed to by them, the official announcement will probably be made in 
next month’s issue by them. 

The hotels of Chicago are taxed to their capacity the greater part of the 
year, and the date mentioned above is the only week within the period pre- 
ferred by A. N. A. members for a convention, for which reservations can be 
made. 

Following the official announcement of the date, the convention commit- 
tees will be appointed by President Moore. 


Since the above was written and put in type, word has been received 
from Chairman Wormser of the Board of Governors, that the Board has 
officially approved of the date August 23 to 26. 


REMEMBER YOl'R OBLIG.ATIOX TO THE A. X. A. 


It should not be necessary so often to remind members of the A. N. A. 
that the Association dues and subscription to The Nc.mis.mat.st are payable 
in advance each year. Each individual member should make it a point to 
see that his obligation to the Association is paid promptly, so that the ex- 
penses of collection are reduced to a minimum. The cost — $2 a year — is 
very small for membership privilege and the magazine of a live numismatic 
association, and its work and the size of the magazine are based largely 
upon the number of paid-in-full members during the first three months of 
the year. If you are among those who have not yet paid for 1920, your 
first act after reading this should be to send your check for $2 to H. H. 
Yawger, General Secretary, 78 Linden Street, Rochester, N. Y. 


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OBITUARY. 


MK8, AI>ELE /ELLXER WOKMSEH. 

The many friends of Mr. Moritz Wormser, Chairman of the Board of 
Governors of the American Numismatic Association, will deeply sympathize 
with him in his bereavement upon the death of his wife, .Adele Zellner 
Wormser, which occurred at their home, Woodmere, Long Island, on Feb- 
ruary 4, 1920, of pneumonia, following influenza, after an illness of ten 
days. She was 39 years of age. 

Mrs. Wormser’s maiden name was Adele Zellner, and she was born in 
Philadelphia, where she resided until her marriage, January 1, 1 90 6. Be- 
sides her husband, she is survived by three children — Samuel Z., Charles 
M. and Carolyn, aged, respectively, 13, 8 and 4 years. Since their mar- 
riage they had resided in New York City, Lakeville, Conn.; .Montclair, N. 
J., and since 1913 at Woodmere, L. I. 

In addition to her religious work and her activities in the musical world, 
through both of which she had won a commanding place in her community, 
and for which, with her devotion to her children and her other estimable 
qualities, she was much admired and loved, she was intensely interested 
in the numismatic work of .Mr. Wormser, and was delighted to help enter- 
tain his coin-collecting friends at their home. She was frequently present 
at the meetings of the American Numismatic Society with Mr. Wormser, as 
well as at the meetings and dinners of the New York Numismatic Club. 
At the meeting of the Society early in January, at which Mr. Wormser 
was to have made an address, but which was adjourned on account of the 
severity of the weather, she was one of the few present, and her death 
occurred before the time of the postponed meeting. 

The funeral took place on February 6 at 10 A. M. 


HEXKY C. MILLER. 

Through the firm of Goodbody & Co., brokers. New York City, with which 
he had been connected for a number of years, we learn of the death of 
Henry C. Miller on February 6, of heart trouble, following influenza, with 
which he was attacked on January 30. His death occurred at the hospital, 
to which he was removed on February 1. He has been a member of the 
American Numismatic Association since about 1902. 

Mr. -Miller was among New York City's prominent collectors, the colonial 
coins of America appealing to him strongly. Recently he, in conjunction 
with Mr. Hilyer Ryder, had completed a classified list of the Massachusetts, 
Connecticut and Vermont cents, which, it is said, will be published in the 
near fiitufe. 


MAKE lf>20 A MEMORABLE YEAR FOR THE A. N. A. 


To the Fellows of the A. N. A.: 

Let’s make this year — 1920 — a memorable one in the history of the A. N. 
A. Let’s forge ahead. Let’s push the wheelbarrow. Don’t let the Associa- 
tion and yon stand still. As Shakespeare is wont to say, "1 do beg you good- 
will in this case.” Let each fellow will to do his part in the push for a 
bigger and better A. N. A. 

Think well of the Association and yourself. You are very important to 
you and to the A. N. A. Believe in your own ability to dig and make real 
dents — to do big things. Have faith in yourself and demand much of your- 
self for the growth and betterment of the Association as well as you. 

We must think big thoughts and back them up with big deeds. We can 
if we will. Lincoln said, ‘‘When an occasion is piled high with difficulty we 
must lise to the occasion. 

Again, I repeat, let’s make this leap year, 1920, a memorable one in the 
history of the American Numismatic Association. 

Yours fraternally, 

Waldo C. Moore, 

President A. N. A. 

Lewlsburg, Ohio, February 12, 1920. 


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THE A. X. A. MEMIIERSHIP DRIVE. 


The following is a copy of a letter sent to each District Secretary of the 
A. N. A. by President Waldo C. Moore, as part of the propaganda to greatly 
increase the A. X. A. membership during 1920. While sent only to the Dis- 
trict Secretaries, each member should also consider it addressed to him per- 
sonally: 

Lewi&burg, Ohio, January 29, 1920. 

Fellow : 

The officers of the A. N’. A. are trying to put over the 1000 membership 
stunt this year of 1920, of w’hich fact you are perhaps aware. 

It is up to the District Secretaries to hustle this proposition along in 
their respective districts. Can we count on your district rolling up a large 
percentage of this much-needed increase in membership? 

Let’s make the A. X'. A. 1000 strong in 1920. 

Yours for a harvest, 

W.M.no C. Mookf:, 

President A. N. A. 

During January the officers of the A. Xh A. sent out a large number of 
printed letters of invitation to collectors to become members of the .Asso- 
ciation. These had coupons attached, to be returned to any of the officers. 


THE ASSAY f'0>I>lISSI0X FOR 1020. 


As has been the custom for a number of years, the American Numismatic 
Association was again recognized in the appointment of the Assay Commis- 
sion for 1920, Honorary Member W. A. Ashbrook of Ohio and Ex-President 
Dr. J. M. Henderson of Columbus, Ohio, being appointed members, with 
Representative Ashbrook as chairman of the body. The Commission was in 
session at the Philadelphia Mint on February 12 and 13. 

The members of the Commission present were: Representative William 
A. -Ashbrook, Johnstown, Ohio; Hon. J. Edward Barry, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Hon. George H. Dern, Salt Lake City, Utah; .Mrs. Kellogg Fairbanks, Chi- 
cago, 111.; .Mr. Louis Fischer, Washington, D. C.; Dr. J. .M. Henderson, Colum- 
bus, Ohio; Dr. A. R. Johnson, Reeseville, S. C.; .Mrs. B. B. Mumford, Rich- 
mond, Va.; Mr. Joseph H. O’Neil, Boston, Mass.; Representative John M. 
Rose. Pennsylvania; Mr. Harry Scheeline, Reno. Nev.; .Mr. Samuel W. Tray- 
lor, Allentown, Pa.; Mr. R. A. Underwood, Plainview, Tex.; Mr. Garland E. 
Vaughan, Lynchburg, Va.; Representative Albert H. Vestal. Indiana; the 
Comptroller of the Currency, and the Assayer, U. S. Assay Office, New York, 
the latter two being ex-officio members. Those appointed but not present 
were: Mr. John Stewart Bryan, Richmond, Va.; Col. Richard Burgess, El 
Paso, Tex.; Senator Arthur Capper, Kansas; Hon. T. V. Gregory, Emlenton, 
Pa.; Mr. Sedgwick Kistler, Lock Haven. Pa.; Mr. Till Taylor, Pendleton, 
Ore.; Mr. N. B. Wescott, Onley, Va.; Hon. Charles E. Wright, Montpelier, 
Idaho; the Judge of the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsyl- 
vania, ex-officio member. 

Over 380,000 silver coins of 1919 from the mints at Philadelphia, San 
Francisco and Denver, including those coined at the San Francisco Mint for 
the Philippine Islands, had been reserved for the Commission from which to 
make its tests as to weight and fineness. No gold was coined in 1919. Dr. 
Henderson served as a member of the Committee on Weighing. 

A departure from the usual custom was made this year in the appoint- 
ment of two lady members of the Commission — .Mrs. Mumford of Richmond, 
Va., who has been prominent in the equal suffrage movement, and Mrs. 
Fairbanks of Chicago, 111., who was active in the sale of Liberty Bonds. 

The Committee on Resolutions strOngly recommended that the salary of 
most of the employes of the mint be increased, as they are receiving only 
the same pay as they have for many years past. It is said that Mr. Eckfeldt, 
the chief assayer, has been employed at the mint for nearly 38 years, and Is 
now receiving the same salary as when appointed to the position. 

The annual Assay Medal, one of which is given to each member of the 
Commission, for this year is struck in bronze with the names of members 


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the numismatist 


incused on the edge. This is a new feature of tlie medal. The obverse 
bears the head of President Wilson in profile. The reverse has a seated 
figure of Liberty (or Victory), a sword pointing downward in her right 
hand, and an olive branch pointing upward in her left hand. At the right, 
“Victory.” At the left. “Peace.” Below, “11(20.” Inscription around edge, 
“Mint of the United States. Annual Assay.” The medal is struck in high 
relief. 


THE PILHKIM TERCEXTENARY MEDAL. 


In the November, 1919, issue of The Nu.mis.m atist we described the medal 
issued by Messrs. Reed & Barton of Taunton, .Mass., to commemorate the 
300th anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. We are 




The IMlgrlm Tercentenary Medal. 


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Indebted to Mr. J. deLagerberg of New York City for a photograph of the 
medal, furnished by courtesy of Messrs. Reed & Barton, which is repro- 
duced herewith. 

As stated in our November issue, the medal has not yet been accepted as 
the official one by the Massachusetts Tercentenary Commission having in 
charge the celebration the coming winter, but it is said to have in excellent 
chance of being made the official medallic issue for the occasion. The 

medal was designed by Mr. George L. Turner, who is in <the employ of Mr. 
W. B. H. Dowse, Governor of the Mayflower Society, at the works of Messrs. 
Reed & Barton. It is being issued in silver and bronze, and some copies in 
gold have also been struck. 

We have only the photograph on which to base an opinion of its merits, 
but judging from this, the medal deserves to be classed among the note- 
worthy productions of medallic art Issued during 1919. 


Xl'.MIS.MATlCl NOTES. 


There are many oddities among the vast amount of war money and tokens 
issued by cities, municipalities and communities in Germany. Of such may 
be mentioned the tokens bearing the reading in Danish, issued by the city 
of Flensburg, and just as promptly prohibited by the Germans. The latest 
“freak” of that kind which has come to my notice is a 50-pfennig note, 
issued by the Commune of Broager, Slesvig. The back of this note bears an 
imprint of the German eagle, and the reading is also in German, while the 
front shows an illustration of Broager church with the Danish flag waving 
from the top of a flagstaff. Below this is a stanza of a Danish song: “Der 
er et yndigt Land” (There is a beautiful country). The Germans have just 
as promptly prohibited this note. A dealer in Copenhagen secured a large 
supply of this note before it was suppressed, and it is eagerly sough by curio 
hunters as a souvenir of the war. 


The Scandinavian 2-kroner piece contains 15 grams of silver. With the 
present price of silver this piece has a bullion value of 3 kroner, 15 ore. 
It will readily be seen that there is a great temptation to melt down the 
coins. Though it is unlawful, it is thought that this is done extensively, 
and accounts for the great scarcity of silver in circulation. 


A press dispatch from Coblenz states that the American soldiers on the 
Rhine are paid in German money at the rate of 100 marks for a dollar. 
Thus, a private receives 1,000 marks a month, which is considerably more 
than many German officials receive. When the Americans first came to the 
Rhine they received only 18 marks for a dollar. 

M. SOEEXSEN. 


CX>1XAGE FOR JANUARY, 1920. 


Following is the number of pieces of the different denominations coined 
at the mints of the United States during January, 1920, as officially reported 
by the Bureau o.f the Mint, Washington, D. C.: 

Silver — Half Dollars, 1,020,000; Quarter Dollars, 4,884,000; Dimes, 
12,603,000. 

Nickel — Five Cents, 10,740,000. 

Bronze^ — ^One Cent, 50,590,000. 

Coinage executed for the Philippine Islands: Bronze, 2,500,000. 

Coinage executed for the Government of Nicaragua: Nickel, 150,000; 
Bronze, 700,000. 


BUENOS AIRES M.YY HAVE 12-CEXT.AVO COIN. 


The City Council of Buenos Aires, which permitted the city's tramw’ay 
companies to increase fares from 10 to 12 centavos, now is confronted by 
the lack in the city of copper centavos with which to make change. These 
coins virtually disappeared years ago, because they became worth more 
than their face value. The Mayor has petitioned the National Government 
to coin a 12-centavo piece, which, it is indicated, the authorities will do. 


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American Numismatic 
Society 

Xew York 

BROADWAY BETWEEN 153TH 
& 156TH STS. 

Organize<I 1858. Incorporated 1865. 


PRESENT EXHIBITION: 

The .Andrew C. Zabrlskie Collection ol 
Polish Coin.s and Aledals, 
and German Satirical Medals. 

All collectors and students are cordially invited to make use of the 
extensive Library of the Society, and every facility will be offered to numis- 
matists in examining and studying the large collection of coins and medals 
that may not be on exhibition. 

Open to the Public daily (except Monday), 10 A. M. to 5 P. M. Sun- 
days, 1 to 5 P. M. 


W. Gedxey Beatty 
Bauman L. Bei.den 
F. C. C. Boyd 
Henry Russei i, Drowne 
Roiiert James Eiduitz 


Henry Rus.sei i. Urowne 
Wiu.iam B. Osgood I’iei d 

Secretary: 

Sydney P. Noe 
Curator: 

Howland Wood 


COUNCIL 

Wii.LiAM B. Osgood Field 
Harhold E. Gili.inghasi 
Archer M. Huntington 
Edward T. Newell 
Stephen H. P. Pell 

OFFICERS 


John Reilly, Jr. 
Ei.i.iott Smith 
W. Gilman Thompson 
John I. Waterhury 
William H. Woodin 


President 

Edward T. Newell 
Governors 

Archer M. Huntington 
Edward T. Newell 
John Reilly, Jr. 

Treasurer: 

John Reilly, Jr. 
Assistant to Curator: 
Arthur C. Wyman 


MEMBERSHIP. 

The annual dues of Fellows (limited to one luindred and fifty) are 
Fifteen Dollars, and those of Associates me Five Dollars, which are payable 
In advance, and cover subscription to the Society’s organ, the Amrrirnn 
Journal of yumia^natics. One Hundred and Fifty Dollars entitles one to Life 
Fellowship, and Fifty Dollars to Associate I.ife Membership, and secures 
exemption from further dues. 

Applications for Membership should be sent to the Secretary, at the 
above address. 

Regular meetings are held on the second Saturday, or such other day as 
the Council may designate, in the months of January. .April and November. 

Meetings for the reading of papers, discussion of numismatic subjects 
and exhibition of coins and medals, are held on the evenings of the first 
Thursday of each month except June. July, August, September and October. 

THE AMERICAX JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 

Published Annually By The Society. Subscription Five Dollars. 


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DECISION' OF THE TREASl'RY DEPARTMENT. 


Under date of January 6, 1920, the Secretary of the Treasury issued the 
following decision prohibiting photographing of “obligations or other securi- 
ties of the United States”: 

To all whom it may concern: 

Section 150, United States Penal Code, provides: 

"* ♦ * whoever shall print, photograph, or in any other manner, make 

or execute, or cause to be printed, photographed, made or executed, or shall 
aid in printing, photographing, making, or executing any engraving, photo- 
graph, print or impression in the likeness of any such ‘obligation or other 
security of the United States,’ or any part thereof * ♦ * except under 

the authority of the Secretary of the Treasury or some other proper officer 
of the United States, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned for 
not more than fifteen years or both.” 

Section 14 7 defines the words “obligation or other security of the United 
States” as follows: 

“The words obligation or other security of the United States’ shall be 
held to mean all bonds, certificates of indebtedness, national-bank currency, 
coupons. United States notes. Treasury notes, gold certificates, silver cer- 
tificates, fractional notes, certificates of deposit, bills, checks, or drafts for 
money, drawn by or upon authorized officers of the United States, stamps 
and other representatives of value, of whatever denomination, which have 
been or may be issued under any act of Congress.” 

Pursuant to the above, the following regulations are hereby promulgat- 
ed, effective at once: 

No person shall take or cause to be taken any photograph of any char- 
acter in or of any division, section, room, vault or other place where any 
“obligation or other security of the United States” is produced, counted, 
printed, distributed, packed, inspected, or handled in any other manner; 
nor photograph or cause to be photographed any machine, appliance, de- 
vice. apparatus, or other enuipment used in any way in connection with the 
production, printing, counting, destruction, packing. Inspecting, or handling 
in any otiier way of such “obligations or other securities of the United 
States.” 

Cabtkb Gi.ass, 
Secretary of the Treasury. 


DISCS FOR ITAEIAN COINS MADE IN NEW YORK. 


Italian coins have been made in this country for the past six months and 
no one has yet raised the cry of “counterfeit,” nor is any one liable to, as 
the Italian Government itself has ordered their manufacture here by the 
International Nickel Company, 43 Exchange Place. That is, the nickel discs 
are made in this country and shipped to Italy all ready to go to the mint 
and be stamped with the royal imprint and the twenty-five centesimi de- 
nomination. 

The International .Nickel Company has been making regular shipments 
of these discs since May of last year, and imiuiries have recently been re- 
ceived from other European countries about pure nickel coinage, due to 
the sudden disappearance of small silver coins from foreign circulation, and 
it is possible that this country will soon be coining money for other nations 
besides Italy. 

The discs supplied by the International Nickel Company are somewhat 
larger than the American nickel and are pure, unalloyed nickel, whereas 
the familiar “jitney” is practically all plebeian copper. The value of pure 
nickel for coinage is becoming rapidly more recognized all over the world. 
Of the many metals used as medium of exchange at various times nickel, 
uncombined with other metals, has proved that it stands up the best under 
all tests and conditions. 

•Nickel is hard to meit and difficult to cast, two factors that offer insu- 
perable obstacles to co\mterfeiting by the blanking and stamping process. 
It wears better than either silver or coins of copper and nickel alloys, and 
holds its luster after many years of circulation. 

Aluminum was tried for coins in 1905 in Nigeria. Uritish East .Africa, 


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and Uganda, but replaced in 1910 by nickel-bronze coins. Cupro-nickel, an 
alloy of 75 per cent, copper and 25 per cent, nickel was first tried by the 
United States and Belgium, and later by Germany and other countries, and 
has been found to stand wear and resist oxidization. This is practically 
the composition of the well known "jitney.” 

Pure nickel is more expensive, but wears better. Switzerland has used 
it for 30 years, and coins of that age of the unalloyed- nickel show but 
small deterioration. Italy had 13,250^,000 pure nickel 25-centesimi pieces 
in circulation in 1912, but withdrew them to try out nickel-copper com- 
binations, which proved so easy of imitation by energetic counterfeiters 
that pure nickel was again authorized for 25-centesimi coins, and the order 
for the metal discs placed in this country. 

France now coins many of her 5. 10 and 25-centimes pieces from pure 
nickel, and there has been some talk of replacing the silver six-pence, 
shilling and half crown of England with nickel mintage. Silver, besides 
losing weight in circulation, is now getting impractical for money, as it 
has grown to be worth more than its face value. 

Eighty per cent, of the world’s supply of nickel is mined in Ontario, 
Canada. Other deposits are found in the French Island Colony of New 
Caledonia in the Pacific. 

According to A. S. Creighton, manager of the special sales department of 
the International Nickel Company, the nickel exports from this country to 
Europe are but a fraction of what tt.ey were before the war. Except for 
the nickel discs sent to Italy, no other European nation gets American 
nickel for monetary purposes, though it would not be surprising, in view of 
the silver situation, if England and France called on America for nickel 
supplies. 

Another metal that might have a use if changes 5n coinage continues, is 
monel metal, a natural alloy of nickel and copper, which is mined in Canada 
and is non-corrodible and strong as steel. Technically it contains about 6 
per cent, nickel, 28 per cent, copper and 5 per cent, of other elements. It is 
really a separate metal in itself and not an alloy, as the alloying or mixing 
is done in the ore deposit by Mother Nature herself. Despite its great in- 
dustrial value for castings, ball bearings, bolts, nuts, valves, etc., it is thought 
it could be adapted to coinage because of its lustre and wearing qualities. 
— New York Globe. 


MISSOURI PHKSEXTS MEDALS TO THREE SETS OK VETER.AXS. 


Three types of medals to be given by the St.ate of Missouri for military 
service are now ready for distribution by the .\djutant-General at Jefferson 
City. The medals are, respectively, for soldiers, sailors and marines who 
served in the war with Germany, for members of the National Guard who 
served on the Mexican border in 1916, and for Missouri volunteers who 
served in the war with Spain. 

The medal awarded for service in the world war bears the Missouri coat- 
of-arms. with the words, “War With Germany” above, and the date, 1917- 
1919, below. On the reverse side a wreath in the center encloses the 
words “For Service,” and the inscription: “State of Missouri. * * * 

United States Forces.” The ribbon is of red. white and blue, which are the 
national and State colors, as well as those of P'rance and U'reat Britain. 

For the militiamen who served on the border, the medal will bear the 
State coat-of-arms, with the words, “Mexican Border Service” above, and 
the date, 1916, below. In the center of the reverse side is the .Mexican coat- 
of-arms, with the words, “.National Guard .Missouri” above, and “For Ser- 
vice * ♦ * The State of Missouri,” below. The riibbon is red, white, 

blue and green, including the national. Stale and Mexican colors. 

The medal for Missouri volunteers who served in the war with Spain 
bears the State coat-of-arms, with the words. “War With Spain” above, and 
the date, 1898, below. On the reverse side is a laurel wreath enclosing 
the words, “The State of .Missouri for Service,” with “National Guard Mis- 
souri” above and “U. S. Volunteers” below. 

All the medals are of standard Government bronze of the same kind as 
that used in Distinguished Service Medals. 


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HL.MOKOl'S l*AI‘EK MOXEV IX GEUMAXY. 


Reference has been made in former issues of Thk Numismatist to some 
of the satirical and other noteworthy issues of paper money issued in Ger- 
many during the w'ar. 



B>To20885 


Abov'e is shown an issue of 10 pfennigs of Bielefeld, with a turnip in the 
form of a human face. It is presumed that tne diet of the designer of the 
note, as well as perhaps the community of Bielefeld, had been confined al- 
most entirely to tuinips at the tin.e of the issue of tne notes. They are 
printed in green, black and red. 

An issue of 50 pfennigs of the same city, printed in black and red, has a 
variety of the turnip, with the face differently executed. 


MEXICAX ‘ IXEAL.SIFICAHLE'’ PARER .MOXEV DESTROYED, 


The -Ministry of Finance and Public Credit of .Mexico has published a 
statement showing that during the period from July 10 to October 13, 1919, 
inclusive, a total of ?50,375,130 pesos in • infaleincable” paper money had 
been received and destroyed, which, added to the amount destroyed previous 
to July 10, 1919, makes a total of $397,119,29 8 pesos which have been re- 
tired from circulation. 

The total issue of this money amounted to $515,000,000 pesos, so that 
there is still outstanding the sum of $117,880,702 pesos. The method 
adopted by the Government for recalling this money was the requirement 
that it should be used in the payment of duties in equal amounts with 
metallic currency. 

The value of one peso “infalsificable” paper is today $0.0765 centavos 
Mexican metallic currency, and a great pait of the balance outstanding is 
said to be in the hands of speculators. 


t'OlXS FOL'Xi) IX ,\x OLD DE.SK. 


The following dispatch from Cumberland, .Md., January 31, was printed in 
the Baltimoic American. It would be interesting to have a col.ector's de- 
scription of the find: 

“Delving around in a medley of anitque furniture of many and various 
periods and designs, browsing among the cobwebs of centuries past, dis- 
turbing the dust of days gone and forgotten, C. Lloyd S. Schonter, a dealer 
in furniture, yesterday accidentally ran across a secret compartment in a 
much-battered and dilapidated Jacobean writing table and to his great sur- 
prise and astonishment on opening it, glimpsed a heap of glittering mass of 
gold, silver, copper and what-not coins, glittering despite the fact that ages 
had passed since they had felt the touch of human hands. -And money it 
was to be sure, a regular Captain Kidd treasure. 

“There before one’s very eyes were Spanish doubloons and pieces of eight. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


the smell of them recalling days of the Spanish Main and Israel Flint; 
English guineas and sovereigns, French Louis d’or of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, Italian crowns and llorins, tarnished Dutch guldens, moldy Chinese 
yens of dynasties which held sway before that founded by Ming. 

“Early America was not forgotten, being represented by revolutionary 
coins, coins minted during the French and Indian War, musty bank notes 
which probably spent the majority of their life in the tavern until hoarded 
away in the old desk. The collection found, Mr. Schonter considers very 
valuable, both intrinsically and sentimentally. Mr. Schonter secured the 
desk among a carload of furniture shipped here from Washington, and the 
desk has been stored away here for many months." 


.MISCEIiL.WEOUS Xl’.MIS.MATIC NEWS. 


Thefts of gold bullion from the Denver Mint aggregating more than 
$50,000 are said to have been admitted by one of the assayers when arrest- 
ed. The bullion was recovered from a cach6 under the sidewalk at his 
home. 


The crisis in the monetary situation in Mexico has reached the point 
where many factories tnroughout the country are being obliged to close be- 
cause of the lack of small currency with which to pay the men. The short- 
age is being felt not only in the capital, but also in the interior. Already 
several of the mines in Durango have ceased work, and will not resume 
operations until conditions become normal. 


The gold medal of the .National Institute of .-^rts and Letters, New York 
City, offered this year for music, was awarded to Charles .Martin Tornov 
Loeffler of Medford, .Mass., musician and composer, at its annual meeting 
and dinner in the University Club. 


Fifty per cent, more coins were struck at the San Francisco Mint in 1910 
than in any other year since coinage began in San Francisco, according to 
T. W. H. Shanahan, Superintendent of the .Mint. The year 1919 saw 
168,959,000 coins "made in San Francisco," whereas the highest previous 
>ear was 1918, when 110,8:18,000 coins were made. 


William Le Roy Emmet, a pioneer in developing the principle of electric 
propulsion for ships and designer of the Curtis steam turbine, has been 
awarded the Edison Medal for 1919 "for meritorious achievement in elec- 
trical science, electrical engineering, or the electrical arts.” 


I)ESI<;\ FOR .NEW YORK’S WAR MEDAL ACCEI’TED. 


The design of the medal to be presented by the State of New York to 
hundreds of thousands of .New York State men who entered the service of 
the United States during the World War has been accepted by the commit- 
tee composed of Governor Smitli, Adjt.-Gen. Kerry, and William A. Saxton 
of the War Records Bureau. The medal was designed by Captain Charles 
J. Dieges, formerly of the 102d Engineers, 27th Division. 

The face presents the figure of a soldier. Behind nim is a figure reprt'- 
senting Liberty, Humanity, and Democracy draped in an American flag, and 
in the background the navy is represented by a fleet of vessels. The re- 
ver.se shows the seal of the State in the upper centre, relieved by a wreath 
of laurel and oak. The names of the countries in which United States sol- 
diers fought are superimposed on the entwined wreaths. 


SWEDISH .MINT RESU.MES COIN.XtfE OF GOLD. 


The mint in Sweden has commenced to strike five-kroner pieces in gold 
to the amount of half a million kroner. No new gold coins have been 
struck in Sweden since 1!H»2. .1 dkL. 


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127 


FOKKIGX MKDAL ISSUES AXI> AWARDS. 


At Paris, France, recently, nineteen secretaries of the United States 
Young Women's Christian Association were awarded bronze medals by the 
French Government for work in munition factories during the war. Two 
secretaries were awarded silver medals. 


Mrs. Othelia Myhrman has been awarded a gold medal with Royal Crown 
of the eighth dimension by the Swedish Government for her services among 
the Swedes in Chicago during a period of 30 years. She is the only person 
in the United States who has the medal. 


Mrs. Charles B. .Alexander of Xew York has been awarded and received 
the Medal of Reconnaissance Xationale, the French Government conferring 
the medal by special decree J. peL. 


CHARGED WITH MEETIXG EXGLLSH SOVEREIGXS, 


A press dispatch from London on January 22 says that six persons, in- 
cluding Harry Lewis, a barrister, and Shure and Chamberlain, diamond 
merchants, are on trial charged with melting gold coin following their arrest, 
under a provision of the Defense of the Realm act. Testimony tended to 
show' that no less than 110,000 sovereigns in gold were withdrawn from 
the Bank of England during the year by the accused men. The total w’eight 
of the metal was eighteen hundredweight. Lawyers for the Crown asserted 
the defendants had organized a remarkable system for obtaining coins 
which were melted dow’n and the gold sold. During December alone, it 
was charged, they disposed of bar gold worth 9,400 pounds sterling, w'hlle 
during the month they succeeded in getting 26,000 sovereigns from the 
bank. 


UXITEI) STATES DOLLARS AT I’RE>UUM IX TRIMDAD. 


Consul Henry D. Baker, in Commerce Reports, says that since .August 29 
last, w’hen American dollars w’ere at a premium of 7 ^ per cent, premium 
as compared with Trinidad dollars, the premium has steadily increased, 
and to-day the cost of exchange on drafts making payment to New York is 
1914 per cent., while any American checks or drafts can now be sold locally 
at 17 14 per cent, premium. American paper money, which until a very few 
months ago always had considerable circulation in Trinidad and other 
British West Indies on a parity with local paper currency, has now disap- 
peared from general circulation, but can be obtained at the banks at rates 
which fluctuate, but are at present about 10 per cent, of the value of local 
currency in premium charged. 


HARRISOX PRE.SIDEXTIAL TOKEXS IHSRI.AVED, 


The Lrivisbury (Ohio) Lvnder of February 12 contained an account of a 
reception and entertainment tendered the Delta Alpha Sundav-school class 
of the Methodist Church by President of the A. N. A. Waldo C. .Moore and 
■Mrs. Moore at their home on February 9. One of the features of the en- 
tertainment, which was a celebration of the 147th anniversary of the birth 
of President William Henry Harrison, the first of Ohio's sons to occupy 
the Presidential chair, was a display by Piesident Moore of a number of 
the political tokens of the Harrison campaign, as well as a number of draw- 
ings and newspaper clippings of that memorable time. 


.MKXKO MELT.S I P ,SIL\ ER KR.\<''nOXAL t'OIXS. 

The high price of silver has affected one of the leading producers of 
tliat metal. All the small coins of Mexico liave gone into the metal pot, 
and Mexico linds it necessary to emit 2."). 000, 000 pesos in fractional paper 
currency. Fifteen million of the emission will he in the sliape of .'vO- 
centavo notes and ten millions in bills of one peso cxchangeal)le for gold 
at par. This new paper money is to be fiscalized by the Confederation of 
-Mexican Chaml)ers ot Commerce. 


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A ‘‘CLEAN-CUT TRANSACTION‘S 


Claims for satisfactory results, ability, etc., are easier made 
than substantiated. 

Here is an incident — just occured — that is well worth the 
thought and consideration of every collector who may consider 
selling his collection — now or later. 

The McKinley Memorial Association, with which the 
Governor and other most prominent men of Ohio are con- 
nected, decided to sell the remainder of the McKinley .Me- 
morial gold dollars, (amounting to approximately $30,000. 
retail value). Negotiations between the Association and 
myself were entered into by wire and within less than 
twenty-four hours I purchased the entire lot for spot cash. 


THE TRESIDEXT’S LETTER 

“Youngstown, Ohio, Jan. 28, 1020. 

“.Mr. B. Max .Mehl, 

“Melil Building, 

“Fort Worth, Texas. 

“My Hear Mr. Mehl: 

“I have received from Mr. C. 1*. Wilson, Ihvsident of 
The Niles Tru.st Coiiij)an.v, shitement in regard to the Mc- 
Kinley gold dollars and cre<lit to our account of the pay- 
ment of the draft. THIS IS .L CI.EA.\-CUT TR.AXS.\0- 
TIOX. 

“There was a lot of juggling going on between two oth- 
er partic-s, and for that reason 1 was very glad lnd«t*d tliat 
you securtMl the coins. 

“You now have all tli«*se gold coins with the exception 
of about twenty-five, which I liave kept out for my own 
l>ersonal use next Christmas. 

“Very truly yours, 

“(Signed) J. G. BUTTLER, JR., 

“I*rcsident.” 


Write me whenever YOU decide to sell your collection. Wheth- 
er it amounts to Thirty Dollars or Thirty Thousand Dollars, you 
are assured of the same “Clean-Cut Transaction.” 


Sd.max mehlJ 

NUMISMATIST 



Large.st Nuinismatic K.-ilablishment in tlie Tnitecl .States. 


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129 


r- ♦ — — 

n 

THE NEXT ELDER COIN SALE 

Will be held on SATURDAY, MARt'H lilth, and will consist of over 
900 lots, in large variety, including Rare U. S. Gold Coins: Quar- 
ter Eagles of 1825, 1829, 1831, 1832, 1833; Half Eagles of 1798, 
1807, 1830; Rare Gold Dollars and $3.00 pieces; a proof Stella, 
or $4.00 gold coin; Choice and Rare Foreign Silver Dollars; a Very 
Fine Collection of Encased Postage Stamps: a group of Fine Jack- 
son or Hard Times Tokens: a collection of Sutler’s Tokens, and the 
o final portion of the E. J. Wendell Theatrical Collection. In this ** 
long day's sale of over 900 lots almost any collector should be able 
to find items of special interest to himself. In our last catalogue 
we announced our next would be a Weapon and Curio Sale, but 
due to consignments coming suddenly upon us we were obliged to 
^ put the Coin and Medal Sale first. 

THE ELDER COIN & CURIO COMPANY, 

Thomas L. Elder, Manager, 

21 West 35th Street, New York City. 

♦ .4 


COIN NOTICE 

What are your wants? 
I can supply them. 

Collections 
Bought Outright 
For Cash or Sold at 
Public Auction. 

Reference, First Na- 
tional Bank, Boston, 
Mass. 

William Hesslein 

BOSTON, MASS. 


U. S. FIXED PRICE LIST No. 3 

l^lailed on request. 


MONEY I.OANED on Coins and 
Stamps. Entire Collections 
Purchased. 


Ben G. Green’s 
Reference and Check Book. 

Complete list of all coins Issued by 
the C. S. Mint and branches, with their 
principal varieties, the private issues 
of gold, fractional currency and en- 
cased postage stamps. Book Is pocket 
size and printed on writing paper, 
ruled for checking the pieces In a col- 
lection, their condition, date of acqui- 
sition. price paid and from whom 
bought. The number of pieces of ev- 
ery denomination coined each year at 
the various mints is also given, mak- 
ing it an inyaluable guide to the col- 
lector of mint marks and as to the 
rarity of any coin. Blank space is 
provided for additions of dates of 
future Issues and other memoranda. 
120 pages. Price, Cloth. $1.00. Flex- 
ible Leather, $1.50. Interleaved, Gilt 
lodges. $2.00. 

Panama-Pacific Half Dollar $1.50 

Illinol.s Centennial Half Dollar .. 1.25 

FRED MICHAEL 

8 South Dearborn St., Chicago, 111, 


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o I ioaoc=— iOEao= 30 caoi ~~^ocaoE 

WAYTE RAYMOND 



489 Park Avenue, 
(Anderson Galleries) 
New York City. 


D 


o 


n Dealer in rare coins of all countries. Collections cata- 

n loij^ued for sale at auction or purchased outright. Price 
list sent on request. 


I 


O Just published — “United States Store Cards” by Ed- 
D gar H. Adams. A list of merchants’ store cards and ad- 
vertising tokens from 1789 to recent years, arranged by 
States and exclusive of tlie Civil War period. 75 pages, 
paper cover. Postpaid $2.10. 


D 


o 













TO MEMBERS OF THE A. N. A. 


The dues of A. N. A. members — 50 cents — 
and subscriptions to THE NUMISMATIST — 
$1.50 — for 1920 should be paid at the earliest 
opportunity. Both are payable to the Gen- 
eral Secretary. Please send your check or 
money order for $2 promptly to H. H. Yaw- 
ger, General Secretary. 78 Linden Street, 
Rochester, N. Y. 


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131 


Fractional Currency 



The Numismatic 


Just Received. 

A choice crisp, 
uncirculated lot. 
Including all Is- 
sues. 

Red Racks and 
Auto Signatures. 

Prices on appli- 
cation. 

Thou sands of 
Coins In stock of 
every country and 
period. Send us 
your want list. 
Guide In Its 12th 


Edition, having 2.50 illustrations, quotes 
our buying and selling prices, and is 
sent postpaid on receipt of 15c. 

Arnold Nmnlsmatic Co. p^viden"" ilri! 


WANTED 

1913 LIBERTY HEAD 
NICKEL 


THE BOOKFELLOWS. 

.\n Inteniatioual Association of 
Readers aud Writers. 

We have sometliing of joy for every 
lov’er of good books. Membership one 
dollar per annu,m. l.et us tell you 
about it. 

KI-OR A WARREIV SEYMOUR, Clerk. 
.13::0 KImbnrk Ave., Chicago, III. 


WANTED. 

To buy a few small collections of 
broken bank and miscellaneous paper 
money. No Confederate or colonial 
wanted. Give compreliensl ve descrip- 
tion in first letter. Address 
“G. C. I...” Care of 
THE M MISMATIST, 
l.SI I Mosher St., HnItImore, Md. 


PLEASE NOTE. 


T want rare or cliolce foreign copper 
and nickel coins, tokens or patterns. 
Spot cash. No trade. 


In Proof condition, if possible. 
Will jmy $600 cash for one. 

SAMUEL W. BROWN, 

North Tonawanda, N, Y. 


FOR SALE AND WANTED. 

Paper Money of All Kinds. 

Corres|ioudeuce Solicited. 

Having recentlv “taken on’’ a won- 
derful Collection of Civil War Enve- 
lopes (over 1900 varieties). I am offer- 
ing the general run of them for sale at 
6 for 25c, 25 for tl. no two alike. Also 
have them In sets of States, .Army and 
Navv Officers, Cities, War Views, etc. 
HOW MANY? 

JOHN EDWIN MORSE, 
Hadley, Massachusetts. 


Are You Doing Your Share 


In the 


0. P. EKLUND, 

0711 Plttshiirg St., Spokane, ash. 


KIMIIAI.I.'S .\l). 

A set of Specimens C. S. Currency 
vlth wide margins, crisp and new, 
iome with lied Backs and -Autograph 
signatures; 20 fronts and backs, 40 
lieces, $35.00. 

My List No. 6 Is out. Send for It. 
)ver 1000 lots. 

1833 Cent, uncirculated. $10.00. 

K. R. KIMilAI.I., Room 11!4, IK Tremont 
St., KImhnII llldg,, ItoMton, MaHH. 


Acme 

Transparent Envelopes 

Set of 23 I’ockets to hold all regular 
Issues U. S. Fractional Cy., $1.00. 

Dollar bill size, per doz., $1.60, post- 
paid. Send dime for samples and list. 
Manufactured bv 
C. X. HINCKLEY, 

47Hn Dover Street, Chicago, III. 


CONFEDERATE BILLS. 

Eight dllTerent, 50c. to $100, V. F., lot 
for 55 cents. .Ancient coin, V. G.. 20 
cents. 

Fixed price-list No, 5 of U. S. and 
foreign Gold, Silver and Copper Coins 
sent on request. 

A'ou will find It to your advantage 
to write me. whether you wish to buy 
or sell. 

NORMAN SHl’l.TZ, King City. Mo. 


Drive for New Members 
of the A. N. A.? 

Give the Officers Your Support. 


ASSOCIATED COLI.ECTORS 
SOCIETY. 

Membership now reduceil to one dol- 
lar per annum. Iloosevelt medal or 
membership pin free to new members. 
'I'lils is your ^■llance to get in the coin 
woild. .loin NiiW. I’articulars free. 

I’VI I, SI AIMEHS. Seerclnr.v, 
KoelicNter, ’I’evas. 


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Book Bargains., 


Cio.shy’s Early Coins of America. 

All I'lates $1S.00 

Crosljy s Early Coins of America. 

Fine 10.00 

Prime. Coin.s, Meilais. Seal.s, 1861. :!.0U 

Eoubat. U.8. Mertals, 2 vols. Earire 17.50 
Eow'.s Hard Time.s I’okens. Pare. 8. .50 
Dickeson'.s Manuai. Pare. I860... 5.50 

Madden. Coins of tlie Jews. 1881. 6.50 

Heatli’s Ancient & Modern Coin- 

ase 6.00 

Bank of Nortli .America. Fine.... 3.00 
ticott's 1801 Paper Money Cat.... 1.25 

Bank of New Vork. Fine 2.50 

Chemical Bank, N. Y.. Williams, 

A. L. .'1 3.00 

Newlin. Early Halt Dimes 3.00 

A. J. of N. Pare First Vol 3.50 

Funds and Tlielr L’ses. Scarce. . . 1.25 

Breton’s Coins and Tokens, 1894.. 3.00 

Breton’s Coins and Tokens, 1912.. 1.00 

Eincoln Medals, 50c up to ... 25.00 


A. ATLAS liEVE, SVHAlTSE, X, Y. 


I)K.\ I.ICItS. — On or before March 16 
send for a copy of my special auction 
list. .Selected coins sold to the highest 
bidder. Catalogues out March 15. Let 
me send you a copy. Also ask for a 
copy of my regular list No. 5. Your 
wants in single i are coins retiuested. 
If you have anything special in coins, 
let me have it. 1 buy all kinds of old 
coins for cash. H.\RHY E. KELSO, 
.\rnia, Kiiiihum. 


( HIXESE PAPEK MONEY 

of the Ming d.vnasty. 1368 to 1644 A. 
D.; value of one stn’ng Chinese cash; 
on lieavy old brown paper, about 9x13 
inches. Pare and very curious. Only 
a few at $2.00 

T\YO PE.SO .MEXIUAX GOLD 

,7 pretty little piece at $2.00 

NEW SIZE -MEXICAN SILVER 

The comnlete set of new size pieces, 
10. 20 and 50 centavos and 1 peso. 

at $2.00 

C.\N OFFEP many other interesting 
things. Should be glad to have your 
want list. New things are sent to my 
legular approval custo.mers as receiv- 
ed. (let on this list. Please send ref- 
erence. 

L. A. CARDWELL, 

Las Ouces, X. M. 

STAMP AND COIN 
EXCHANGE 

78 Nassau Street, New York City. 
Price list free. Premium Catalog 10c. 
Coin Collections Purchased for Cash. 

Large Sliver Catalog 30e; Copper 92.00. 


STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MAN.YGE.MENT, ETt'., 

Petiuired by the -Act of Congress of .August 24, 1912, of The Numismatist, pub- 
lislied monthl.v at Federalsburg, Md.. for October 1, 1919. 

State of Maryland, City of Baltimore: ss. 

Before me, a Notary Public in and for the State and City aforesaid, per- 
sonally appeared F. G. Duffleld, who. having been duly sworn according to law, 
deposes and says that he is the Business Manager of 'The Numismatist, and that 
tile following is, to the best of ills knowledge and belief, a true statement of the 
ownership, management, etc., of the aforesaid publication for the date shown in 
tlie above caption, required by the .-Act of August 24, 1912. 

1. Tliat tlie names and addresses of tlie publisher, editor, managing editor, 
and business manager are; 

Publislier, American Numismatic Association, Federalsburg. Md. 

Editor, F. G. Dutlield, 1811 Mosher St,, Baltimore, Md. 

Managing Editor. None. 

Business Manager, F. G. Duflleld, 1811 Mosher St., Baltimore, Md. 

2. Tliat the owner is: A.merican Numismatic Association. 

President, Waldo C. Moore, I.ewisburg, Ohio. 

First Vice-President, Henr.v Cliapman. Philadelphia. I’a. 

Second Vice-I’resident, Jolin M. Oliver, Springfield, Mass. 

General Secretary, H. H. Yawger, Kochester, N. Y. 

Treasurer, George J. Bauer, Rochester, N. Y. 

Librarian. H. H. Yavv.ger, Rochester, N. Y. 

Board of Governors: Moritz Wormser, Chairman. New York. N. Y.; Tlieo. E. 
l.eon, Cliicago. 111.; Foster Lardner, Providence. R. I.: Preston C. Pond, Chicopee, 
Mass.; F. N. Boyle, Pittsburgh. Pa. 

3. That tile known bondliolders. mortgagees, and otlier securit.v holders 
•owning or liolding 1 per cent, or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, 
or other securities are: None. 

4. That the two iiaragraphs next above, giving the names of the owners, 
stockholders, and security stockholders, if any. contain not only the list of 
stockholders and security holders as they appear upon the books of the com- 
pany. but also. In cases where the stockholder or secui'ity holder appears upon 
the books of the company as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the 
name of tlie person or corporation for whom sucli trustee is acting, is given; 
also that the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant’s full 
knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and conditions under which the 
stockliolders and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the 
company as trustee, hold stock and securities in a capacity other tlian that of 
a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no reason to believe that any other 
person, association, or corporation has any interest direct or Indirect in the said 
bonds, or other securities than as so stated bv him. 

F. (i. DFFFIELD. Business Manager. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 28th day of January, 1920. 

(Seal) E. K. EDAVARDS. 

(My co.mmission expires May 1st, 1920.) 


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The Numismatist 


VOL. XXXlll. APRIL, 1020. No. 4 

A TRIAL LIST OF THE COUNTERMARKED MODERN 

COINS OF THE WORLD. 


By F. G. DUFFIELD. 


(CONTINUED FBOII LAST MONTH.) 


XEW SOUTH W.\LES. 

Frey’s “Dictionary of Numismatic Names’’ contains the following on the 
Holey Dollar: 

“Holey Dollar, also called Ring Dollar. In the year 1813 Governor Mac- 
quaire of New South Wales procured some £10,000 worth of Spanish Dollars, 
from the centers of which he had circular discs cut. Around the edges of 
the perforation, which is milled, the words “NDW SOUTH WADES, 1813” 
were stamped, and on the reverse “FIVE SHILLINGS, 1813.” This coin re- 
ceived the name of the Holey Dollar. The circular central piece was known 
as a Dump. It was countermarked with a crown and the value, “FIF- 
TEEN PENCE.” The Holey Dollar was current until 1829.” 

740. Spanish 8 Reals, , from the center of which a circular piece has 

been cut, and Cm. around the hole, on obverse “NEW’ SOUTH 
WALES 1813,” and on the reverse “FIVE SHILLINGS.” 

741. Mexico, 8 Reals, 1794', same as preceding, except that it does not 

mention any countermark on reverse. 

742. The circular central portion of Spanish 8 Reals, Cm. on one side 

with a crown in center and “NEW SOUTH W’ALES 1813” around 
it, and on the other side “FIFTEEN PENCE” in two straight 
lines. 


NICARAGUA. 


A countermark consisting of the letters “NR” so joined that it can also 
be read “MR” is occassionally found. 


743. Lima, 8 Reals, 1765, Cm. “NR.” 

744. Austria, Thaler, , Cm. “NR.” 

745. Guatemala, 8 Reals, , Cm. “NR.” 

746. Spain, 8 Reals, 1776, Cm. “NR.” 


Two of the above four pieces w'ere attributed to Montserrat in the sale 
catalog of a foreign dealer. One was listed in the Fonrobert catalog among 
the coins of Nicaragua. The fourth was in an American sale catalog and 
attributed to Nicaragua. The stamp, which is large and bold, is similar to 
the mint mark, sometimes in monogram, found on coins often attributed to 
Nicaragua. The belief is gaining ground that this attribution is an error, 
and that the letters “N R” stand for Nuevo Reino de Granada, and that 
they constituted the mint mark for coins issued at the Bogota mint. The 
date of the above countermark is said to be about 1820-1825. 


In a single catalog the following countermarks were listed, all upon 
nickel centavos of Nicaragua of 1878: “B. A.” “E. B.” “F. M.” “F. S.” 
“G. S.” and “B. A.” “L.” “L” and “S. L.” “R. D.” “S” and “C. S.” 
“T. S.’ A circle. Three circles. Ornamental “V.” Circle with notched 
border enclosing a star. 

The following pieces are sometimes attributed to Nicaragua, and also to 
the confederation of Salvador, Nicaragua and Honduras, formed about 1851: 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


747. Peru, Lima, Peso, 1828, 1834, Cm. sun and mountains, and star, 

bow, arrow and quiver. 

748. Peru, Cuzco, 8 Reals, 1831, Cm. sun and mountains, and star, bow, 

arrow and quiver. 

749. Peru, Peso, 1832, 1833, 1833, Cm. sun and mountains, and star, bow, 

arrow and quiver. 



No. 749. 


750. 'Bolivia, Potosi, Peso, 1834, 1840, Cm. sun and mountains, and star, 

bow, arrow and quiver. 

751. North Peru, 8 Reais, 1837, Cm. sun and mountains, and star, bow, 

arrow and quiver. 

752. Confederation Peru-Bolivia, 8 Reals, Cuzco, Cm. sun and mountains, 

and star, bow, arrow and quiver. 

753. Bolivia, 8 Sueldos, 1838, Cm. only with the star, bow, arrow and 

quiver. 


P.AR.AGU.AY, 

Occasionaliy coins are found bearing a countermark of a sitting lion, 
pole and Liberty cap in rays between the date “18 68,” said to have been 
so stamped by Francisco Solano Lopez in the war between Brazil, Argen- 
tina and Uruguay. 

754. New Granada, 8 Reals, 1839, Cm. as above. 

755. Guatemala, 2 Reals, 1864, Cm. as above. 

756. Peru, Lima, 2 Reals, 1828, Cm. as above. 

This countermark is also sometimes found on United States large cents. 


PERU. 

757. Peru, Doubloon, 1745, Cm. “J. E.” 

758. Peru, Half Doubloon, Philip V, , Cm. ‘‘I. R.” 

759. Peru, Quarter Doubloon, Philip V, , Cm. “D. H.” 

760. Peru, Lima, 2 Reals, 1796, Cm. ”.M — 4” and a pomegranate in loz- 

enge-shaped depression (for Bogota, 4 Reals (?). 

761. Peru, Lima, 8 Reals, 1811, Cm. “NOR” in monogram. 

762. Peru, 8 Reals, pillar type, , struck over copper 2 Reals of Car- 

thagena, 1813. 

763. Peru, 8 Reals, 1822, 1823, Cm. a crown, below it the date, ‘‘1824.” 

The countermark just mentioned, a crown and the date “1824,” is said 
to have been used by the Royalists under General Canterac before the 
people of Peru finally achieved their independence from Spain. The orig- 
inal coins are the first issue of 8 Reals of the Republic. 

764. Peru, 8 Reals, 1822, Cm. a crown, and below it the date, “1824,” 

and subsequently Cm. with a round stamp bearing a star, bow% 
arrow and quiver on obverse and the sun over three mountains 
on reverse. 


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An extremely interesting coin, because first countermarked by the Royal- 
ists in Peru in 1824 and several years later countermarked for use in 
Central America. 

765. Peru, 8 Reals, 1834, Cm. a round stamp with 4-pointed ornament 
composed of 4 loops. 



No. 763. 


766. Peru, 8 Reals, 1835, Cm. a star. 

767. Peru, 2 Centavos, 1863, Cm. “T. C.” 

(to be continued.) 


ENVELOPED STA.MPS — GERMAN WAR MONEY. 


Among the money novelties occasioned by the war that have been coming 
to me from Germany I find in a lot just received the first evidences to come 
to my attention of “official” use of postage stamps enclosed in imprinted 
envelopes for change purposes. The envelopes are Imprinted to show is- 
suer and value, and are in a class with the necessity money, stamps in 
printed envelopes, paid out as change by firms and individuals in some of 
our Eastern cities during the Civil War, and which are now of numismatic 
record by the good paper on the subject prepared by Mr. Henry Russell 
Drowne and published in the current volume of the American Journal of 
Numismatics. 

The German enveloped stamp specimens before me are for 10 and 60 
pfennig, issued by the town of Alfeld. Uncancelled postage stamps of like 
value are enclosed in apparently specially made envelopes, 1 3/16 by 1 15/16 
Inches, open end, with flap ungummed, made of transparent durable white 
fabric not unlike thin drafting linen, but probably paper, with differing 
“roughed” surface as is found on “linen finish” and other fancy writing 
papers, and to which the gummed stamp will not readily stick. The en- 
velopes, printed in bronze blue ink, have the denomination and “Pfg.” in 
bold characters op the front, on the reverse “Magistrat Alfeld” in two 
lines. 

These, being by a local government, have a more “official” status than 
those relating to our early months in the Civil War. 

Another odd German specimen recently received is a local issue, "Gut 
fur 10 Pg.” printed on ticket board, 1 by 1 % inches, with coarse perfo- 
rated edges, suggesting that they were issued in sheets like our first issue 
of Postage Currency. 

My request to Berlin for a quantity of 1-pfennig notes received the re- 
ply “No more to be had; they now cost more to print than their nominal 
value if used for money.” 

Of the now issued German Reichs coins by correspondent writes: "5 and 
10 pfennig are made in iron, 1 and 25 in aluminum. 2 pfennig no longer 
issued.” He encloses the new type 50 pfennig in aluminum, but makes no 
mention of it. I have yet to see a Reichs 25 pfennig piece bearing a recent 
date, and question if my Informant did not mean “50” when he wrote 
“25.” 

Farban Zebbe. 

San Francisco, Cal., February 28, 1920. 


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THE CLARK, GRUBER & CO. PRIVATE COINAGE. 


By GEO. H. KING. 


It may be that the readers of The Ni'.mis.matist, and espes'a’.ly those who 
are interested in collecting United States gold, will te intere'ted in a short 
story concerning the Clark, Gruber & Co. coins, with the accompanying 
illustrations of the building in which they were coined and tl e presses from 
wiiich they were stiuck. 

The photograph of the building is from an old picture of the structure 
as it appeared at the time of occupancy by Clark, Gruber & Co., with 'their 
business sign displayed thereon. The same building is standing today with 
but little change in its exterior appearance. The interior has been remod- 
eled to meet the requirements of the present tenant. It is now in the 
center of the wholesale produce and commission district, and far from the 
financial section of the city of Denver. The presses are a part of the ex- 
hibits in the Colorado State Historical Society. 



The Bank and Mint of Clark. Ornher & Co., Denver, Col. 


The names of Austin M. and .Milton E. Clark, brothers, and E. H. Gruber, 
who composed the firm, are spoken of today as symbolic of honesty and 
full worth, as were their gold coins made in the early days of Colorado. 

The Clark brothers came from Ripley, Ohio, and Gruber from Hagers- 
town, Maryland. They met in iLeavenworth, Kansas, in 185 8, and entered 
the banking business there, in the course of which they became acquainted 
with the Denver country through the gold dust and nuggets received from 
that section. Very soon they conceived the plan of establishing a bank at 
Denver, also a mint where the gold dust could be converted into coin. In 
this way, as they estimated, the cost of transportation across the plains 
would be eliminated. 

Late in I 860 a branch bank was established in Central City, the opera- 
tion of which was the same as the one in Denver, except for the coining 
department. This branch issued demand notes of $5 denomination, which 
were payable in the coinage of the Denver mint. 

In the long series of events which go to make up the early history of 
Denver there is perhaps no more interesting episode than the establishing 


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of the first mint in this “neck of the woods,” the story of its operations up 
to the time of its absorption by the Government, and the impetus it gave to 
a movement which finally resulted in the erection of the present magnificent 
“money factory.” 

Revealing as it does the difficulties under which trading was effected in 
those pioneer days, the story furnishes a few sidelights on “life as she was 
lived” on the fringe of civilization and provides an adequate idea of the con- 
trast existing between past and present. 

The comparatively few pioneers who came to the Pike’s Peak region 
in 1858 brought little money with them, and had need of little: but the 
gold discoveries in the spring of the following year brought a sudden and 
what developed into a more or less steady influx of seekers after wealth, 
and introduced the use of gold dust and small nuggets into the transaction 
of business. This practice was a nuisance in small dealings. The use of 
small scales with troy weights was the only manner of counting this gold- 



Tlie Presses upon which the Clark, Gruber & Co. Coins were struck. 

dust money. Nuggets and retorts were rubbed on a stone resembling a 
whetstone, and the color compared with the rubbings from test pieces of 
known fineness, and their value was in this way determined. 

In the more extensive transactions the weighing of gold could be accom- 
plished with sufficient exactness to guarantee comparative fairness to both 
sides, but in minor dealings, to wit, the purchase of a drink of whisky, or 
a snack of food, the weighing process was not only a nuisance, but gener- 
ally resulted in the “gypping” of the customer. 

Much of the placer or fine flour gold contained quantities of black sand 
or magnetic iron, but this could be easily cleaned by the use of the magnet. 

This state of affairs called for the services of men who would make a 
special business of buying crude gold at its value as ascertained by reason- 
ably accurate methods and paying for it in definite money of some kind. It 
resulted, in July, 1860, in the establishment of the Clark, Gruber & Co. 
mint and bank, Denver’s first great financial institution. 

The new project crystallized at Leavenworth when the firm, which had 


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been buying gold from the Pike’s Peak leglon and paying the express com- 
panies enormous sums for its transportation across the plains under heavy 
guard, decided it could operate at a much greater profit by establishing it- 
self in the heart of the gold country. 

The company bought property at Sixteenth and Blake streets, put up 
what at that time was one of the most ornate buildings in the city, and 
brought equipment in the shape of dies and presses all the way from Boston. 
All supplies and manufactured articles came by ox or mule team from 
Missouri River points under Heavy guard from Indian attacks. 

The first coins minted in the new institution were $10 and $20 pieces of 
pure gold. They were equal in weight to the coins of the same denomina- 
tion issued by the only Government mint then in operation — at Philadel- 
phia — but of greater value because of the fact that they contained no alloy. 

During the first year of its operation the mint turned out only coins of 
the denominations mentioned above, but the following year the output of 
the “money factory’’ included $2.50 and $5 denominations, alloyed accord- 
ing to Government standards, by reason of the discovery tnat the pure gold 
coins were abrading too much on account of their softness. 

In a period of less than two years the new mint put into circulation ap- 
proximately $3,000,000 of its product, which was gladly accepted at par 
everywhere in Colorado. With the increased output of the mines and placer 
claims, the enterprise promised to outrival the Government’s own mint, 
and then arose discussion as to the propriety of the coinage of money by 
a private firm. In the summer of 1S61 the first territorial convention of 
the Republican party was held at Golden, Colo., and among its resolutions 
was one declaring for the necessity of a Government mint in Denver. Clark, 
Gruber & Co., conscious of some technical impropriety in their mintage, 
heartily indorsed the movement and became, in fact, chiefly instrumental 
in bringing it to a favorable conclusion. 

In the autumn of the same year the Secretaiy of the Treasury urged upon 
the President that the existing coinage laws he so amended as to prohibit 
private coinage, and that a branch Go\ernment mint be established in 
Denver, and that authority be given for the purchase of the property of 
Clark, Gruber & Co., and its conversion to Government use. A bill was 
introduced in Congress embodying the Secretary’s suggestions regarding 
the establishing of a branch mint in Denver, and it became a law in April, 
1862. It was the intent of this law to continue the Clark, Gruber & Co. 
mint as a coining institution, but the “circumstances and influences’’ grow- 
ing out of the astounding silver production of the Comstock Lode in Nevada 
resulted in legislation establishing the mint at Carson City and depriving 
the Denver institution of the authority to coin money. However, “he 
laughs best who laughs last,” and Denver today has a magnificent mint. 

After its purchase by the Government the old plant was used as a finan- 
cial building, being an assay office for the purchase of bullion and a depos- 
itory for public funds. The accounts of the Government disbursing officers 
in this part of the country were kept there until a national bank was or- 
ganized and became a Government depository. 

The officer was designated as “Assayer in Charge,” and coincident with 
this handler of the money metals was one by the name of Herman Silver. 

Naturally, there are a number of Colorado collectors who are interested 
in their collection of Clark, Gruber & Co. coins, and often these now rare 
coins find their way rightfully into the possession of the Colorado Histor- 
ical Society. 


NEW TRADE DOLLAR FOR RED SEA COMMERCE. 


United States Consul .\ddison E. Southard at Aden, Arabia, in Commerce 
Reports of January 15, 1920, says that an Italian decree of May 31, 1918 
provides for the coinage hy the Royal Mint at Rome of a silver trade dollar 
to be known as the dollar of Italy. This coin is primarily for use in the 
Italian colony of Eritrea, where it is meant to replace the well-known Aus- 
trian Maria ’Theresa dollar or thaler: but the possibility that it will replace 
the Austrian trade dollar throughout the Red Sea district was undoubteilly 
an important consideration in providing for the coining of this new dollai. 
The first consignment of the Italian thaler, amounting to probably 1,000,000. 
have recently been put into circulation in Eritrea. 


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TYPES OF ROMAN REPUBLICAN DENARII. 

By ARTHUR C. WYMAN. 


During my recent trip abroad I secured a few specimens of Roman Re- 
publican denarii to add to my collection of this series. Perhaps the read- 
ers of Thk Ni'.mis.m.xti.st may be interested in some of these. 

Among my acquisitions was a denarius of Caius Piso Frugi, a member 
of the Calpurnia Gens, who was a moneyer at the Roman mint about 64 
B. C. and issued a large number of these pieces, bearing on the obverse a 
ringleted head of .\pollo and on the reverse a naked man riding a running 
horse. This type, by the way, was the same as used by the moneyer.'s 

father, Lucius Piso Frugi, who had been a mint official twenty-four years 

previous. Usually the head is facing to the right, as on No. 1 illustrated, 
but the coin I secured in Paris is of the much less common variety with 
the head to the left. My piece (No. 2) is also in unusually tine condition, 
showing clearly the remarkably high relief characteristic of this issue. The 
British Museum Catalogue of Roman Republican Coins calls attention to 
the fact that after this time the types of denarii are no longer in high re- 
lief, a return to the practice of earlier days no doubt induced by added 

ease of handling and by lessened loss from attrition. 




The matter of duplicates is always a problem for coin collectors. The 
ne.xt two pieces illustrate one of the ways in which this problem presents 
itself to collectors of Roman denarii. These two (Nos. 3 and 4) are the 
obverses of coins issued during the term at the Roman mint of Lucius 
Furius Brocchus, about 55 B. C. A glance at the illustration shows that 
the type is the same in both; a head of Ceres wearing a wreath of corn; 
before the head, a grain of barley; behind, an ear of wheat. But though 
the type be the same, yet certainly the wide variance in the size of the head 
makes it hardly possible to describe these pieces as duplicates. Similar 
differences occur in many of the issues of the Roman mint, and one is con- 
stantly confronted by the question as to what he will discard as a duplicate 
and what he will retain. For myself, I have answered the question in re- 
gard to these particular pieces by placing both in my cabinet. No. 3 is 
also interesting because it has (on the neck) the small crescent shaped 
test mark so frequently met with on denarii. 

The next piece illustrated of which the obverse (No. 5) and the re- 
verse (No. 6) are shown is one of the most interesting in the series. For 
some time previous to its appearance it had been customary for the official 
under whose authority an issue took place to use as a reverse type some 
design which related to his family’s or his own history. The Encyclopaedia 
Britannica says: “Perhaps the most graphic allusion to a contemporary 
event to be found on any coin” is that on this piece, by which Marcus Junius 
Brutus commemorated that event in his own life for which he is now most 
generally known — the assassination of Julius Caesar. A Roman historian 
of the second century A. D. has written (Dio Cassius; xlvii, 25): “These 


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were the exploits of Brutus: besides, he struck coins on which were repre- 
sented a ‘pileus’ (liberty cap) and two daggers, to show by this design and 
also by the inscription that he had in concert with Cassius given liberty to 
his country.” The inscription is EID MAR, an abbreviation of Eidibus 
Martiis (Ides of March), the day on which Caesar was murdered. 

The obverse of this piece is also interesting, for it bears the head of 
Brutus and is an early example among Romans of the practice, later to be- 
come common, of placing the portrait of a living person on a coin. 

According to the authorities, this coin was struck in the East about 43-42 
B. C. It was probably used by Brutus to pay the troops in his army, and 
bears on the obverse, in addition to BRVT for Brutus, the name of L. Plae- 
torius Cestianus, who held some office under him, possibly that of quaestor. 
Not only is this piece of great historical interest, and therefore much in 
demand, but also it is one of the rarities of the Roman Republican silver 
coinage, and I consider myself exceptionally fortunate in securing a speci- 
men, even though not in the finest condition. 


GERMAN TOKENS OF THE WAR. 


The descriptions below and the illustrations on the opposite page form 
the fourth and final installment of the series of tokens issued in Germany 
during the recent war, the specimens being from the collection cf Mr. O. P. 
Eklund of Spokane. Wash. The three former installments were published 
in January. February and .March. 

No. 1 — Siegen (city, Westphalia), 50 pfennigs. 1918. Obv., Arms, ‘‘Stadt 
Siegen.” Rev., “Kriegsgeld 1918. 50 Pfennig.” Milled edge. Plated iron. 

(Set, 5, 10 (plain edge), 50 Pfgs. ) 

No. 2 — Saulgau (city, Wurtemburg), 10 Pfennigs, 1918. Obv., Arms 
(lion rampant supporting a column); below, "lO P.” Rev., “10 Pf. Stadt 
Saulgau. 1918,” between branches. Hexagon. Iron. The only piece of 
this shape in collection. 

No. 3 — Tremessen (city, Posen). 5 pfennigs, n. d. Obv., Arms (St. Adal- 
bert standing), “Stadt Tremessen” below. Rev., “Kleingeldersatzmarke. 
5” (the figure within a circle). Zinc. (Set. 5. 10, 50 Pfgs.) 

iNo. 4 — St. Avoid (city, Lorraine). 25 pfennigs. 1917. Obv., “Geldersatz 
der Stadt St. .\vold, Kriegsjahr 1917.” (.Money substitute, tbe city of St. 
Avoid, War year 1917.) ”25 Pfennig” within a circle of pellets. Rev., 

“Einzulssen bis spatestens 2 monate nach friedenschluss bei der Stadtkasse 
St. Avoid.” (Redeemed not later than 2 months after peace conclusif)ns, 
by the city treasury of St. Avoid.) Octagon. Holed as issued. 

No. 5 — rWaldkirchen (city, Bavaria), 50 pfennigs, n. d. Private token. 
Obv., “Franz Danzer, Bankgeschaft, Waldkirchen. 50.” Rev , “Kleingeld- 
ersatz. 50 Pfennig." Arms of the city (a pine tree and a church, refer- 
ring to the name of the city i. e . ‘ Forest Church,” a small circle below 
with “F 1)” in monogram. (Set, 10, 15, 50 Pfgs.) This is the only piivate 
token in the collection. Zinc. 

No. 6 — Stettin (city, Pomerania). 5 pfennigs. 1917. Obv., Arms (grif- 
fen's head, crowned), "Stadt Stettin. 1917.” Rev., “Ersatzgeld. 5 Pf. Gul- 
tig bis ende 1919.” (Legal until end of 1919.) Octagonal. Zlne. (Set, 
5, 10 Pfgs.) 

No. 7 — Wansen (city, Silesia), 10 pfennigs, n. d. Obv., a human head 
facing. “Stadt Sparkasse (savings bank), Wansen. Rathaus” (city hall). 
Rev., ”10 Pfennig. Sparmarke” (savings token). Zinc. 

No. 8 — Stralsund (Pomerania), 100 pfennigs, 1917. (Jbv., Arms of the 
city. “Stadt Stralsund. 1917.” Rev., “Kriegsgeld.” “100” (the figures 
within a circle of pellets). Zinc. (Set, 5. 10, 5(). 100 Pfgs.) 

No. 9 — Schneidemuhl (city, Posen), 50 pfennigs, 1916. Arms (running 
stag), “Magistrat Schneidemuhl.” Rev., “Kleingeldersatzmarke. 1916. 
50” (the figures within a circle of pellets). Zinc, gilded. (Set. 2 pf. 
(round), 10 Pf. (octagon), 50 Pf . ) 

No. 10 — Schmolln, S. A. (city), 50 pfennigs. 1918. Obv., Arms. .Madon- 
na and child seated on a throne. “Stadtrat Schmolln. 1918.” Rev., 
“Kleingeldersatz. 50. Gultig bis 1 jahr nach friedenschlus.s” (Legal until 
1 year after peace conclusions). Zinc. (Set, 5, 10, 50 Pfgs.) 


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THE OAXACA COINAGE OF 1915. 


By M. SORENSON. 


[In Thk NrMis.MATi.si for October, 1916, there was described by Mr. 
Farran Zerbe, as well as illustrated, a number of coins issued in 1915 by 
the State of Oaxaca, .Mexico. The publication of this article gave to col- 
lectors generally the first information that such a series of coins had been 
issued, and the information was confined principally to the coins themselves. 
Since that time only a few of the coins have reached this country, and they 
have been eagerly sought by collectors. Since 1916 many facts connected 
with the issue have come to light, which are given in the following interest- 
ing paper by Mr. Sorenson, together with much valuable history connected 
with the coins. — Editor’s Note.) 


Although this coinage belongs to a recent date, it is quite probable that 
many of the younger collectors — and some of the older ones, too — are not 
familiar with it. .\nd for this reason it may not be out of place to give a 
few facts about this singular and very interesting series, issued by one of 
the federated States of Mexico during the recent revolution there. The coins 
of Oaxaca have been styled “revolutionary,” but might better be termed 
necessity or emergency money, as they were issued by the legal State gov- 
ernment, and in that respect quite different in nature from the money issued 
by Villa or any of the other revolutionary leaders. 

For a year or so after this money had been issued, I noticed a few pieces 
offered now and then at auction sales, but have seen none listed of late. 
This leads me to think that what few pieces were brought to tliis country 
have been secured by collectors. And so the collectors who were rot active 
w'hile these coins were on the market now stand a slim chance of securing 
any of these highly prized souvenirs of the last revolutions in .Mexico. 



Olnerse and iever.se t.vpes of tlie ohlong coiiper coins. 

The coinage of Oaxaca shows a determination on the part of the people 
of that State to maintain their neutrality in spite of all odds. In order to 
more fully understand the step this State took in issuing its own money 
at a time when the test of .Mexico was in a state of chaos, it will be neces- 
sary to enumerate a little history and some of the events which led the 
people of the State of Oaxaca to take the stand they did. 

Oaxaca is one of the southernmost States of .Mexico, lying on the Pacific 
coast. It is very mountainous, but the valleys form some of the richest 
paits of .Mexico. When Cortez had conquered .Mexico he requested the 
King of Spain to make him Marquis of Oaxaca as a reward for his services. 
And to this day the seal of the State of Oaxaca contains the coat-of-arms 
of Cortez, derived from Spain and the Moors, one of its principal designs 
being the bow and arrow, known to collectors from the Morelos coins of 
1812 and 1813, whicii were issued in Oaxaca. The seal was adopted dur- 
ing the short time of Cortez’s power in Mexico. 

Though Oaxaca is one of the federated States of .Mexico, it has retained 
greater power of self-government and more local freedom than any of the 
other States. The population is almost pure Indian, ruled by the tribal 
councils, and, excepting in the cities, the native Indian language is spoken. 
The city of Oaxaca has a population of about 50.000. It is situated in a 
very ricli vallev. surrounded by steep mountains. Two of the greatest men 
in the history of Mexico, Juarez and Diaz, were Oaxaca Indians. 

During the late revolution in Mexico the State of Oaxaca refused to side 
with any of the fighting factions, the people maintaining their right to carry 
on their government according to their old laws. This step was what got 
them into trouble. When Carranza succeeded in obtaining control of af- 
fairs in -Mexico he sent a military force to conquer Oaxaca. .\nd on Novem- 
ber 14th, 1914, this force entered the city of Oaxaca and took possession 


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of it. The people offered no resistance, and not a shot was fired. The 
military leader, Jimenez Figueroa, ordered the State Legislature and ex- 
ecutive officials to convene at the State palace. Here he ordered them to 
appoint him and his officers to all offices and then to resign. This the lib- 
erty-loving Oaxacans refused to do, and the military leaders ordered them 
shot. All the Oaxacans rushed to the aid of their countrymen. A chief 
escaped. He collected all the men in his tribe, and, after a stubborn battle, 
the entire Carranza force was wiped out. The general and a few of his 
officers escaped and succeeded in getting nearly 200 miles away, but were 
caught by the Oaxacans and brought back to the city of Oaxaca, where they 
were tied to trees and their throats cut. Thus ended the first expedition 
sent out by Carranza to conquer Oaxaca. And the legal government of the 
State was at once reinstated. 

All silver having disappeared, money in circulation in Oaxaca, as else- 
where in Mexico, consisted of notes issued by the Carranza faction. Villa 
and by certain States. The Legislature of Oaxaca now authorized an issue 
of money in the form of metallic coins and paper, guaranteed by the State. 
This bill provided for the emission of $2,000,000 in paper money, the free 
coinage of gold, silver and copper, though the peso was to be much smaller 
than the old national peso. 



Different types of the reverses of tlie copper coins. 


Like other important mining towns in Mexico, the city of Oaxaca had 
in former years had a mint in operation. The building and machinery was 
still there, but had not been used for 25 years or more. As a consequence, 
much of the machinery had rusted away and was practically useless. But 
the State government set to work with determination and erected a coining 
press, worked by a sweep or beam opei’ated by two men. The State had 
then endured two years of revolution; the mines were worked by primitive 
means tq obtain metals: the refineries were shut down for want of chem- 
icals. There were no means at hand to separate the metals. Gold and 
silver always comes mixed from the mines of Oaxaca, and copper contains 
some gold and silver. 

Coins were struck from such metals as could be secured — from the mines, 
from silverware, jewelry, household utensils and from scraps. The first 
dies were cut by an American Jew, John Decoe, who later died of typhus. 
The first coins struck were 1 and 3 centavo pieces. These were rectangular 
and did not prove satisfactory, so they were recalled and the metal used 
for other issues. The 1-centavo piece was 7x19 mm.; the 3-centavo piece 
was a little larger. They bore the inscription: ESTADO L. Y. S. DE OAXA- 
CA, and PROVISIONAL UN CENTAVO and TRES CENTAVOS. 

The following issues consisted of round coins. As time went on, and 
metal became scarcer, the coins got smaller and thinner, and it is fairly 
easy to determine whether a coin belongs to an early or late issue. The 
workmanship was quite crude at first, but became better later on. All the 
coins of the higher denominations are milled; some have a chain-like mill- 
ing, while others, and especially the bi-metallic, show regular milling. Not 


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in all cases were the dies placed in the same relative position in the press, 
and coins are found with obverse and reverse tete-beche. As noted above, 
the coins vary greatly in size. A 2-peso piece in my possession measures 
only 33 mm.; a 1-peso piece 26 mm., and a 50-centavo piece 22 mm. And 
these coins are very thin. But, considering everything — the primitive coin- 
ing press, the scarcity of metals and other materials, the lack of experience 
and skilled help — it must be admitted that the coins of Oaxaca are re- 
markably well executed. 

The coins were struck in the following denominations; 1, 3, 5, 10 and 
20 centavos in copper: oO centavos, 1 and 2 pesos in silver; .5, 10 and 20 
pesos in silver-gold, and a 60-peso piece in pure gold. Excepting the last- 
named piece, which bears the date 1916, the entire coinage is dated 1915. 
.More than a hundred different die varieties have been found. Some of the 
2-peso pieces have the value given as “2 pesos,” while others have it ‘ dos 
pesos.” This denomination shows the greatest number of varieties; one 
has the balance scales, sw'ord and scroll, liberty cap and rays. It is also 
found bi-metallic and very small. One variety of the 20-centavo pieces 
has the same obverse designs as a 20-peso gold piece. 

The general design of all the coins of Oaxaca is about the same for all 
denominations. On the obverse, a bust of Benito Jaurez .to left, the in- 
scription ESTADO L. Y S. DE OAXACA, and the date 1915. .Most of the 
coins have on the reverse a wreath of oak and laurel, the inscription .MO- 
NEDA PROVISIONAL, and the value in pesos or centavos. 



Obverse and reverse of the five, ten and twenl.v pesos In gold. 

Here I quote from notes on this subject furnished by the late .Mr. H. F. 
Williams: 

“In 1915 the State of Oaxaca declared itself free and sovereign, and at 
the mint in Oaxaca City struck a number of copper, silver and base gold 
coins. A number of the sets of silver and copper coins were brought to 
the United States in 1916 by an American, who had been located in Oaxaca. 
He disposed of some of these sets to a dealer here, who sold them for $50 
a set. He also went to San Francisco and disposed of some there. Of the 
gold coins he brought with him five 20-peso pieces, ten 10-peso and about 
twelve 5-peso pieces. A New York banker received from a Mexican cor- 
respondent a set of the 1915 Oaxaca issues, but I am not certain if tne set 
contained the three gold denominations. I have not heard of any others 
of the Oaxaca 1915 issues having been brought to this country. When 
Carranza’s forces recaptured Oaxaca City, March 3, 1916, they confiscated, 
and sent to Mexico City to be melted dowm, all of the Oaxaca issues they 
could lay their hands on. From a Catholic Apostolic missionary, named 
Chavrand I have learned that this is so, and, moreover, that the troops 
destroyed the dies of the coins and burned all of the archives of the pro- 
visional government of Jose Ines Davilo, who was the Governor. Father 
Chavrand had for years been located at Oaxaca, and was there on March 
3, 1916. 


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"I believe that these issues, especially the gold denominations, will be 
very rare. A foreign deaier has paid $75 for a set of the three gold coi^K^ 

and he told n.e that be expected to sell them at a large advance. 

“The American who came up from Oaxaca had heard that a die lor a $50 
peso piece had been cut, from which one piece had been struck m higi 

grade gold and retained by the mint master. Father Chavrand, wno w'ds 

an intimate friend of Teofllo Monroy, the mint master, and of his son, 
-Miguel, who was the engraver, states that he never heard of tuis die or 
coin. It is now believed that the 60-peso piece of 1916, was the coin that 
he had heard an account of. 

“These 60-peso pieces were the only coins struck in Oaxaca in 1916. 
Only 21 were struck, as the supply of gold gave out. The English and 
h'rench Consuls at Oaxaca each seciu-ed one. So did a German merchant 
of Oaxaca. All paid at least $150 for their specimens. One was sold to 
an American mining engineer in Mexico City for $400 by Mr. Gustave Belion, 
a resident of Oaxaca, who was a friend of .Monroy and of Father Chavrand, 
with whom he came to New York. He brought two of these coins with 
him, and these were secured by .Mr. Howland Wood, curator of the .Amer- 
ican -Numismatic Society, one of w'hich was for the Society and the other 
for me. Father Chavrand wrote me a letter in French, a part of which, 
translated, reads as follows: ‘Mr. Belion is holding one, which he is keeping 
as a souvenir of the ephemerai Republic of Oaxaca. Of the other 14 pieces 
I know only this: They have been hidden away as treasure (i. e., in safe 
keeping) in the ground by certain rich Indians of the State of Oaxaca.’ 

The obverse of this coin shows the head of Benito Pablo Juarez, a full- 
blooded Indian, who was once President of Mexico, and a native of Oaxaca. 
The legend Is ESTADO L. Y S. DE OAXACA 60 PESOS ORO. The reverse 
has a balance scales in front of a sword and a scroll, inscribed LEY. Above 
is a liberty cap in front of glory rays. The legend is REPUBLIC.A .MEX- 
ICANA and 902.7 T. .M. 1916 appears on the lower border. The coin 

contains $30 worth of almost pure gold, and is the largest and intrinsically 
most valuable gold coin of Spanish America ever struck to circulate as 
money.’’ 

Paper currency was issued in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 pesos, 
and, like the stamps of Oaxaca, they were printed on all odds and ends of 
paper that could be secured. But as all the money, metal or paper, \vas 
contraband, very little of it got out of the country. All that was captured 
was destroyed. 


FR.\(rriOXAL COINS. 


There is a bill before Congress, introduced by Congresman Vestal of Indi- 
ana, to establish a 2^-cent coin, popularized by the device of calling it a 
“Roosevelt piece,” which calls for comment. The bill as it stands is so 
Ignorantly draw’ii that it omits to enact the amount of copper metal in such 
a coin. As legislation it is not worth taking seriously. But its manifesta- 
tion of a dangerous tendency is another matter. 

There is much to be said for a 2-cent coin. This is the price of the dally 
newspapers, the cost of a transfer on the trolley lines of many cities — a 
sum bearing the same useful relation to the cent that the English penny 
does to the halfpenny or the French 10-centime piece to the sou. But a 
piece of 2 Vi cents is a needless attempt to find a relation to the 5-cent 
piece not sought, or needed, by the copper coins of other countries in their 
relation to nickel or silver coins. 

This extra half cent is not something negligible, as this Congressman 
supposes. The existence of the coin in itself would tend to raise cost of 
minor services, where a 2-cent coin would be useful, by a tax of 25 per cent, 
more upon a spending public already overtaxed, and too prone to minor ex- 
travagances mounting in the aggregate to hundreds of millions of dollars. 

Our people suffer from a false and contemptible shame about small econ- 
omies. We have far too many men who wMll permit themselves to he cheated 
of trifling sums; who fear their conscience less than the shoeblack or the 
hatboy who calls them a “tightw'ad,” a “piker” or a “cheap skate.” Guess- 
ing at the esoteric meaning of the last term, we have all too many skates, 
and’they are all too cheap . — Wall Street Journal. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


A HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR AS SHOWN BY 

MEDALS.* 


By MALCOLM STOKER, M. D. 


It has occurred to me that it might be worth while to arrange in chrono- 
logical form the medals bearing upon the naval aspect of the World War 
that have been issued by various countries. They present an interesting 
and fairly deSnite history of what has taken place. It is of some signifi- 
cance, in view of the very inconspicuous part played by the Imperial Ger- 
man Navy, aside from its submarine activity, in the great war, that of the 
150 medals of which 1 have notes that relate to naval exploits more than 
100 should have been of German or Austrian origin. The explanation, of 
course, is that the German Government early recognized the potent value of 
medals as a means of fanning the flame of patriotism, and w'hlle many of 
their medals were merely a matter of private speculation, it is quite evident 
that the issue of many others was at least quite favorably regarded by the 
Government. Many of the so-called ‘’Geden*Kthalers” with KS.M and the 
fineness incused upon the edge were evidently official, as were, presumably, 
the “Fame Series,’’ which commemorated every German victory by sea or 
land. Each victory was numbered, and by the end of the second year of 
the war the serial number was somewhere in the hundreds. I am not sure 
how long their issue was kept up. They certainly commemorate some en- 
gagements that might well be regarded as only skirmishes. The type of 
this **FHm© S©ri©s** av&s* 

1 . — Obv., GOTT SEGNETE UNSERE TAPFEREN HEERE. Fame flying 
to left. Rev., Indication of the victory for which the medal was struck. 
In upper left corner, the serial number. 15mm. Silver. 

As these sold for some ten cents they must have found a ready market. 

Another quite extensive series is that of the Austrian Red Gross War _ 
Relief Bureau, by W. Hejda, the type of which is as follows — 

2. — Obv., Indication of subject. Rev., In circle of dots, ROTES | KREUZ. 
KRIEGS. I HILFSBURO. , KRIEGS FURSORGE. AMT 1914-1916. Sign 
of artist. Reverse is divided into lines. 44mm. Iron. This medal will 
hereafter be referred to as the “Austrian Red Cross medal.’’ A variant of 
it is as follows; 

3. — Obv.. Indication of subject. Rev., ROTES KREVZ , KRIEGSHILFS- 

BVRO i KRIEG9FURS0RGEA.MT. In centre a cross with square cartouche 
on which K. K. B. On arms of cross, 1914 1915 1916 1917. 90mm. Iron. 

Still another series will be referred to as the Hornlein Medal, the de- 
scription of which is as follows: 

4. — Obv., Standing on spray of laurel to left, an eagle with spread wings. 

Waves indicated below. Signed F. H(ornleln). Rev., Indication of event. 
On edge K. S. il. 999. 30mm. Arg. 

Before beginning a chronological description of the medals I will give a 
number having general reference to naval affairs, but w'ithout definite dates. 

.\u.strian Flottenverein. 

5. — Obv.. Upon an undulating field, representing waves, the shield of the 

“Oesterr. Flottenverein.’’ Signed WALLENER. Rev., OSTERREICH: 
FLOTTEN I VEREIN 1 ORSTGRUPPE 1 OSTRAU I KARWINER | REVIER 
WELT ' KRIEG 1 1914 | 1916. 90mm. Iron. Schulman Cat., LXXIII, 734. 

Austrian Navy. 

6. — Obv.. VNSERE KRIEGSMARINE. Two sailors watching horizon. 
One holds a telescope and the other a cable. Rev., ROTES KREVZ etc. 
(I..arge Austrian Red Cross Medal.) 90mm. Iron. Schulman, LXXXIII, 
763. 

7. — Badge of Grand Admiral A. Haus Regiment (Austro-Hungarian). 

Badge in form of shield. GR. ADMIRAL A. HAUS. Bust in medallion to 
left. Below. 1914-1916. 39x26mm. Zinc. Schulman, 73, 793. 


•A paper read before the Boston Numls.matic Society, January 24, 1920. 


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Each Austrian regiment had its distinctive badge, which was generally a 
very crude affair. I include this one, as the regiment is named after an 
admiral. Otherwise it has nothing to do with naval history. A similar 
badge is: 

8. — COASTGUARD KDO. FREIHERR VON WUCHERER. Badge after 
design by Alex. Pock. .K.U.K. ; KUSTEN3CHUTZ KDO FML. FREIH. 
VON. ! WUCHERER. Two soldiers on coast of -Adriatic with a sailor seat- 
ed beside them. 36x22mm. Copper. Schulman, 73, SOI. 

Medals relating to submarine activity in general will be described as un- 
der date of February 15, 1915, the time when full submarine activity was 
declared. 

Coming now to the chronological series of medals we find that the Ger- 
mans had a victory to commemorate on the very first day of actual military 
operations. 


1014, .August 2. Boinbardnieiit of Libau. 

il. — “Fame” Series, No. 1.— Obv., GOTT etc. Rev., 1 BESCHIESSUNG [ 
DES KRIEGSHAFENS ' VON LIBAU DURCH DIE KRBUZER | AUGS- 
BURG UND MAGDEBURG 1 D. 2. AUG. 1914. 15mm. Silver. 

Tw'o days later comes the 

1014, .August 4. Hoinbiirdnu-nt of Phillppeville and Bone (.Algeria). 

10. — “Fame” Series, No. 3. — Obv., GOTT etc. Rev., 3 ! BESCHIESSUNG 
VON PHILIPPEVILLE [ UND , BONE | DURCH DIE KREUZER | GOBEN 

UND ; BRESLAU j D. 4 AUG. 1914. 15mm. Silver. 

Little damage was done. These tw'o cruisers, it w'ill be remembered, 
subsequently successfully eluded the British fleet and made their escape to 
Constantinople, where they were taken over by the Turks under the names 
of “Sultan Yawuz Selim” and “Midellu,” respectively. Later they did con- 
siderable offensive w’ork in the Dardanelles and the Black Sea. 

In the action off Heligoland, August 28th, the British, under Admiral 
Beatty inflicted a very considerable damage upon the Germans, sinking 
the Koln, Mainz and Ariadne without losing a major ship themselves, and 
from this time on the German High Sea Fleet avoided actual contact with 
the British except in the fight of .January 24, 1915, when they lost the 
Blucher at the Battle of Jutland. The action off Heligoland is commemo- 
rated by the following medal, designed by Admiral Prince Louis of Batten- 
berg (Lord Milford Haven): 

1014, .August 28. .Action (XT Heligoland. 

11. — Obv., Two oblongs of rope united. In the upper one, 28 AUG 19 14 
over a sinking ship, with under the ship “MAINZ” SINKING. In the lower 
oval, 24 JAN 1915 over a sinking ship with below “BLUCHER” SINKING. 
At sides, in oval panels, views of LION and .ARETHUSA. These panels 
rest on upright flagstaffs on which are Union Jacks; on lower part of staffs 
labels on which BEATTY and TYRWITT. Signed SPINK & SON 1910. 
Reverse; 

VICE ADMIRAL 
SIR DAVID BEATTY 
COMMANDING 

1914 1915 

HELIGOLAND BIGHT DOGGER BANK 

28 AUGUST 22 JANUARY 


H. M. SHIPS E.NGAGED 

BATTLE CRUISERS 

LION (FLAG) 

TIGER 

PRINCESS ROYAL 
NEW ZEALAND (R. FL.AG) 
INDOMITABLE 


LION (FLAG) 

QUEEN MARY 
PRINCESS ROYAL 
NEW ZEALAND 
INVINCIBLE (R. FLAG) 


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LIGHT CRUISERS 


SOUTHAMPTON (FLAG), FAL- 
MOUTH 

BIRMINGHAM, LIVERPOOL 
NOTTINGHAM, ARETHUSA 
LOWESTOFT, FEARLESS 


SOUTHAMPTON (FLAG), ARE 
THUSA (FLAG) 
BIRMINGHAM, AURORA 
NOTTINGHAM, UNDAUNTED 
LOWESTOFT 


DESTROYERS 

33 35 


ENEMY SHIPS DESTROYED 


LIGHT CRUISERS BATTLE CRUISERS 

MAINZ, COLN BLUCHER 

DESTROYER 

V. 187 

4 5mm. White metal. 

Next comes the successful torpedoing of the three armored cruisers 
Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue while on patrol duty off the Dutch coast by 
von Weddigen of the U 9 wMth a crew of 20 men. Von Weddigen was just 
returning to his base from a 1200-mile cruise off the Snetlands when he 
met the British cruisers. As a result of this disaster orders were issued 
that British ships should thereafter not attempt to rescue comrades in 
trouble for fear of themselves being torpedoed. Von Weddigen naturally 
became a national hero. 


1014, September 22. Hook of Holland. 

12. — “Fame” Series, No. 34. — Obv., GOTT, etc. Rev., 34 DURCH | 

UNTERSEEBOOT 9 BEI HOEK VAN HOLLAND | 2 ENGL. PANZER 
KRBUZ. I VERNICHTET | D. 22 SEPT. | 1914. 15mm. Arg. Schulnian, 

LXV, 754. 

13 . — Obv.. KAPITAN LEUTNANT OTTO WEDDIGEN. Bust facing. Sign- 
ed ZIEGLER. Rev., The .\boukir sinking. Two other ships in rear. In 
field to right, 22. SEPT. 1914. Ex., . DIE .VERNICHTUNG .DER .ENG- 
LISCHEN. I .PANZERKREUZER. ABOUKIR. .HOGUE .CRESSY .DURCH. 
i .U .9. Signed GRU.NTHAL. One edge, SILBER 990, incused. 3 4mm. 
Arg. Gedenkthaler. 105mm. Iron. 

13a. — Obv., KAPITANLEUTNANT OTTO WEDDIGEN. Naval bust to 
left. All in laurel border. Signed Fr. Eue, incused. Rev., ZU.M GEDACHT- 
NIS UNSERES 1 SEEHELDEN. Three cruisers being torpedoed by subma- 
rine. Ex., 1914-1915. On edge. SILBER 990, Incuse. 33mm. Arg. 

14. — Hornlein Series. — Obv., Eagle on branch, etc. Rev., U 9 VER- 
NTCHTET AM 22 SEPT. 1914 3 ENGL. KREUZER ABUKIR, HOGUE U. 
CRESSY. 30mm. Arg. Division into lines on reverse not indicated. 
Schulnian, LXV, 757. 

15. — Obv., Three English cruisers, one of which is being torpedoed. Ex., 
DIE HELDENTHAT DES U. 9. 1914. Uniface. 85mm. Iron. 

1914, October 31. Bombard ment of Sebastojiol 

by the Turkish cruisers, formerly the Goben and Breslau. It will be noted 
that this is chronicled as a “German” victory. 

16. — “Fame” Series, No. 4 3. — Obv., GOTT. etc. Rev., 4 3 I BESCHIESS. 

I VON ! SEWASTOPOL | U. ODESSA DURCH D. TURK | FLOTTE 31. 
OKT. 1914. 15mm. Arg. 

1914, November 1. .Yction Off Chile. 

Admiral von Spee with a cruiser squadron consisting of the Gneisenau. 
Scharnhorst, Nurnberg, Leipzig, Dresden and Prince Eitel Friedrich met, 
off Coronel (Chile), an English squadron under Admiral Cradock, consist- 


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ing of the Good Hope (flag), .Monmouth, Glasgow and Otranto, and won a 
notable victory, sinking the Good Hope and Monmouth. Apparently the 
victory was due to superior gunnery. The British c aimed that with the 
land as a background it was impossible to see the German ships. Cradock 
went down with his wife. 

17. — “Fame” Series, N’o. 44. — Obv., GOTT, etc. Rev., 4 4 j AN DER ■ 
CHIL. KUSTE I VERN. DEUTSCHE | KRIEGSSCHIFFE EIN ENGL. | GES- 
CHWADER I 1. NOV. 1914. 15mm. Arg. Schulman, LXV, 900. 

18. — Obv.. VIZE ADMIRAL GRAF VON SPEE. Bust slightly to right. 
Signed ZIEGLER GRUNTHAL, incused. Rev., SEESCHLACHT. BEL SAN- 
TA. -MARIi\. AM. I. NOVEMBER. 1914. In circle, view cf combat. On 
edge, SILBER 990, incused. 105mm. Iron. Bronze. 34mm. Arg. Ge- 
denkthaler. 



•No. 18. 


19. — Obv.. MAXIMILIAN. GRAF. VON. SPEE. VIZEADMIRAL. Bust 
one-fourth to right. Rev., SEESCHLACHT. BEL SANTA. MARIA 1. NOV. 
Eagle erect on dolphin, dividing 19 14. Ex., K. G(oetz). 65x47mm. Bronze. 
Schulman LXV, 736. 

The Battle off Corone) is also referred to on 23a. 

From September 7th to November 7th Tsingtau was besieged by a com- 
bined force of .lapanese and British. Early in the operations the Triumph 
(Br.) was so badly damaged that she was forced to withdraw, and on Oc- 
tober 17th the Takachiho (Jap.) was sunk by the submarine U 90. Before 
surrendering the town the Germans sank five of their gunboats, a destroy- 
er and a mine layer. 

1914, XoveniiMT 7th. laiss of Tsingtau. 

20. — “Fame" Series, No. 47. — Obv., GOTT, etc. Rev., HBLDENM. [ 

VERTEIDIG. I VON TSINGTAU | GEG. JAPANER U. I ENGLA.NDER | 27. 
AUG. : 7. NOV. 1914. 15mm. Arg. Schulman. LXV, 984. 

21. — Hornlein Series. — Obv., Eagle, etc. Rev., DEN | TAPFERE.N ] MAN- 
NEN 1 VON TSINGTAU | 1914 in circle of laurel. 39mm. Arg. 

22. — Obv., EINSTEHE FUR PFLIOHTER FULLUNG BIS ZUM AUSSER- 

STEN. Warrior erect in midst of fallen comrades defending standard. 
Signed LAUER NURNBERG. Rev., In oak wreath. DEUTSCHER HELD- 
EN i UNSTERBLICHER i RUHM TSINGTAU 1914. 33mm. Arg. 

.4d. Meyer-Waldcck, Gov»‘rnor of Tsingtau. 

23. — Obv., Head of .Meyer-Waldeck turned to right, within field, and un- 
der head MEYER-WALDECK ' GOUVER | NEUR VON TSINGTAU 1914. 
Rev., AUSHARRE IN PFLICHTERFULLUNG , BIS | ZUM AUSSERSTEN. 
A warrior erect on rock surrounded by six tigers’ heads. 107mm. Iron. 
By R. Leibkuchler. 

Tsingtau is referred to also upon the following medal; 

23a. — Obv.. Horseman to left. By Carl Reschke. Rev., On laurels, LUT- 

TICH CORONEL. . . .FALKL.AND IN. . . .SKAG ERAK. TSINGTAU. . . . 

LOWCEN.... In centre 1914-1915. 96mm. Iron. 

(to be continued.) 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


THE AMERK’AX ( All & FOUNDRY CO. MEDAD. 


A very artistic medal has been issued by the American Car & Foundry 
Co. for presentation to its employees for their faithful service during the 
late war. Accompanying each medal is a card containing the following: 

“American Car & Foundry Co., 165 Broadway, New York. 

‘ The enclosed honor medal is awarded as an evidence of the appreciation 
by this Company of the work by you on its munition contracts, and as a 
lasting testimonial of the service rendered by you as an industrial soldier 
in the winning of the great war. 

“William H. Woodin, President.” 



The medal is reproduced here, and further description is unnecessary. 
The illustration is slightly reduced. It is 2 inches in diameter. It is 
struck in bronze, and bears the name “Gorham Co.” on the edge (incuse). 
We are indebted to Mr. .1. deLagerberg of New York City for a specimen 
for the purpose of illustrating. 


-MEDAL CO.M.ME.M ORATING THE INDEPENDENCE OF LITHUANIA. 


The Lithuanian Numismatic and Historical Society of Chicago has re- 
cently issued a splendidly e.xecuted medal to commemorate the Declaration 
of Independence of Lithuania. Mr. A. M. Rackus of Chicago, a member 
of the .\merican .Numismatic Association, the American Numismatic Society, 
and the Chicago Coin Club, to whom we are indebted for a specimen for 
illustrating, as welt as for the following description of the medal, is the 
Curator of the Lithuanian Numismatic and Historical Society. 

The design of the medal is from a model by Albert L. Van der Berghen, 
one of the best-known American sculptors of Belgian descent. One copy 
only of the medal has been struck in gold, which is to be presented to the 
President of the Lithuanian Republic, and 2500 copies in bronze have been 
struck, to be offered to the public. 

On the obverse is shown the bust of H. E. Antanas Smetona, the first 
President of the Lithuanian Republic, which is said by those who know him 
personally to be a splendid likeness. In the wreath to the left are branches 
of the evergreen “ruta” plant, which has medicinal properties, is very frag- 
rant, and is a Lithuanian national flower. It symbolizes patience, endur- 
ance and hope. To the right are branches of oak, symbolical of will pow- 
er, unity, strength, etc. Acorns mean embryos of national life. The acorn 
stems are for the sons of Lithuania who under America’s flag and the flags 
of the Allies have fought and died on the battlefields for the sake of justice 
and humanity. The thorns that entwine the wreath mean the difficulties 
that the young republic has to overcome, the hardships that the first Pres- 
ident has to endure. The inscription is “P1RM.\SAI LIETUVOS PREZI- 


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DENTAS, ANTANAS SMETONA” (The First Lithuania’s President, Antanas 
Smetona). 1919 is the year of his inauguration. 



On the reverse the figure represents Lithuania having just escaped from 
the cave of darkness, where she was confined by tyranical czars and kaisers. 
The crushed serpent symbolizes the enemies. The skull means death, with 
which the Lithuania nation was constantly threatened by Germany, Poland 
and Russia. The broken chains mean an end to political slavery for the 
Lithuanian people. In the stone of the altar there is a roughly chiseled 
horseman with uplifted sword, bearing a shield charged with a patriarchal 
cross, the coat-of-arms of Lithuania. On the shield held by the standing 
figure is the Latin inscription. “BENIGXO Nv’.MINE DIE XVI .\IE.\S. FEBR. 
A. D. .MCMXIX LITYANIA STATVIT SE ESSE LIBERAM COADV.XATAM 
ME.MINI SVBDITAM" (By the Will of Providence, on the 16th day of the 
Month of February, A. D. 1919, Lithuania Proclaimed Itself as Free, United 
and Independent). 'I he stream that is seen in the distance means that just 
as no power on earth could dam a stream, so no one will be able to sup- 
press the national aspirations of the Lithuanian people. The rising sun 
is the liberty that will shine upon the horizon of the Lithuanian Republic 
for the happiness of its inhabitants. 


.MEDAL CO.M>IEM()HATI.\G FIRST TRAXSATLAXTIC AEROPLAXE 

FLIGHT. 




A medal has recently been issued by the Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor 
Corporation, New York City, commemorating the first transatlantic aero- 
plane flight. May 31, 1919, which is illustrated here from a photograph re- 
ceived through -Mr. J. deLagerberg, -New York City. The illustration is 
reduced. The medal measures 3(4 inches in diamete a It was designed by 
Julio Kilenyi. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


MISS EDITH H. GILLINGHAM DEtXIRATED. 


Mention has been made at times in these pages of the award of the Me- 
daille de la Reconnaissance Francaise for services in France during the re- 
cent war. It is illustrated here from a photograph furnished by Mr. Har- 
rold E. Gillingham of Germantown. Philadelphia, Pa., a member of the 
American Numismatic Association and American Numismatic Society, whose 
daughter, Miss Edith Harrold Gillingham, has been awarded one of the 
medals. The decoration comes from the President of France with the cita- 
tion, “For prolonged and constant devotion as a volunteer war worker.” 
Miss Gillingham has also been recommended for the Medallle des Epidemics. 



The medal was designed by F. Desbois, and the illustration is exact size. 
The ribbon is white watered silk edged with blue, and has a red stripe near 
each edge. It is struck in silver, and is awarded only to civilians for work 
during the late war. 


SURGERY FOR ( URHEXt'V. 


Operative treatment by surgery has been rather popular during recent 
years with practitioners interested in dealing illegitimately witn the cur- 
rency. 

The appearance in large number of $1 bills “raised” to an apparent de- 
nomination of $20 is typical, the best specimens of this kind having figures 
neatly inlaid. If one asks where the money-doctors get the nice figures 
the answer is that they cut them out of internal revenue stamps. 

Counterfeits of any kind are so infrequently seen nowadays that even 
bank tellers do not look closely at the cash they handle. If paper money 
has an elderly and worn appearance it is particularly likely to pass without 
scrutiny. Manifestly it has been long in circulation, and this in itself 
seems a sufficient guarantee. 

It is, therefore, the business of the counterfeiter to make his notes look 
old and worn. He has several methods, but the best is to place between 
two of them some wet tea leaves in a fold of tissue paper, using a hook to 
hold all tightly together. A most desirable discoloration is thereby ob- 
tained, and. with crumpling and repeated wettings, the money soon ac- 
quires the appearance of age. 


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Surgical operations are performed most commonly on gold coins, usually 
double eagles. Not very long ago in Philadelphia an ingenious female per- 
son made a hignly prohtabie business of gouging out the insides of $20 
pieces. With a tiny dri.l, driven by steampower, she boied a hole from 
one edge, e.xtracted $15 wortn or so of metal, filled the cavity with lead 
and neatly plugged tne opening with gold. Just like that. Easy money. 

She might have gone on with this remunerative industry indefinitely but 
for the fact that the treated coins were unduly light, lead being only about 
half as heavy as gold. She was sent to jail — a fate which likewise befell 
two Chinamen in Chicago who adopted the more artistic and difficult pro- 
cess of slicing each goldpiece in two edgewise, digging out the interior, 
filling the shell with lead and soldering on a thin rim of gold, the coin 
being finally “rereeded” in a machine to give it the requisite corrugations 
around the edge. 

A number of years ago a clever Yankee hit upon the notion of gutting 
gold coins and nll.ng them with platinum, which gave them about the 
requisite weight. Platinum at that time w'as worth only half as much as 
gold. But at the present time, when its market price is five times that 
of the yellow metal, the industrious money-surgeon does not find this ex- 
pedient available. 

Bright people, these money doctors. The nickels with a big “V” on 
them had hardly made their appearance (as will be remembered) before 
they were found in circulation wealing the guise of $5 gold pieces. It was 
a simple matter of electro-plating, requiring no apparatus other than a 
small tank of cyanide and a few feet of copper wire, with a plug in the wall 
to tap the electric-light current. But the Treasury dropped that big “V” 
like a hot potato. 

The same sort of modest equipment has been used to bestow an attrac- 
tive gold-plat. ng upon base-metal imitations of gold coins, but with a mod- 
ification of the process whereby the requisite yellow stuff was chemically 
abstracted from a goldpiece at one end of a wire and deposited upon the 
counterfeit at the other end. — Exchange. 


the llOCHESTEK VUMISMATIE ASSOCIATION 1019 MEDAL. 


The Anniversary Medal for 1919 of the Rochester Numismatic Associa- 
tion is shown below. In keeping with the Association’s custom, the por- 
trait of the president for the year. Dr. Sigmund Handler, appears on the 
obverse with appropriate inscription. 




The reverse is the same as on previous medals Issued by the Association. 
The dies were cut by Mr. Joseph Koeb, a member of the Association, and 
the medals were struck by the firm of Bastian Bros. Co. of Rochester, mak- 
ing it a strictly local product, as has been the custom of the Association 
since its organization. 


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The Numismatist 


Founded 1888 by Dr. George F. Heath 


OFFICIAL .MAGAZINE AMFKICAN NUMISMATIC ASSOCIATION 


rublication Odlce: Federalsburg, Md. 


Frank G. Dukkieu.d, Editor and Business Mgr., 1811 Mosher St., Baltimore, Md. 


An Illustrated Monthly, devoted to Coins, Medals and Paper Money. 

All Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor not later than the 10th of 
each month to insure publication in the next issue. 

The Numismatist will be published promptly on the 1st of each month. 

Yearly Subscription, United States, $1.50; Foreign, $1.75. Trial Sub- 
scription, First Six Months, 75c. 

Entered at the Post Office, Federalsburg, Md., as second-class matter 
(under the Act of March 3, 1879). 


ADVERTISING RATES. 

For One Issue, Cash with copy. Yearly, payable quarterly in advance. 
To insure prompt insertion of adveitisement copy must be in by the 20th of 
the mouth. The .NTm is.m atist will not guarantee tlie appearance of the “ad” 
in current issue if copy is received later than this date. 



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EDITORIAL. 


.AN EXCEPTIONALLY GOOD ISSUE. 

The fact that this issue of The Numis.m.xtist is an exceptionally good one 
will probably be impressed on the minds of our readers by even a hasty 
examination of its contents. But we would like to direct their attention 
to its many good features. 

The first installment of a series of papers by Dr. .Malcolm Storer on the 
medals bearing on the naval aspect of the World War that have been issued 
by the various countries. 

A paper on the history of Denver's first mint, by Geo. H. King, in which 
Clark, Gruber & Co. struck their private issues of gold coins. 

A paper by Mr. forenson, in which he gives the history of the coins 
struck by Oaxaca -as an independent Mexican State in 1915. 

A paper by .Arthur C. Wyman, describing some issues of the Roman Re- 
publican denarii which he acquired during a recent visit to Europe. 


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A description by Farran Zerbe of some recently acquired German war 
money in the form of enveloped stamps. 

The closing installment of Mr. Eklund’s description of interesting Ger- 
man War Tokens in his collection. 

Another installment of the article on the Countermarked Modern Coins 
of the World. 

Descriptions and illustrations of four recent productions of medallic art 
in the United States, as well as one foreign decoration. 

In addition to the above there are many smaller items of numismatic 
news from all over the world, and the news of the numismatic societies 
and clubs. 

Several other equally interesting and important contributions have been 
received, but lack of space prevents their use this month. It has been a 
great month for our contributors, and it will be a good month for our 
readers. 


A phase of the work and interest of our contributors that is much ap- 
preciated is the numerous news clippings that have been sent in recently. 
A number of them are of a financial rather than a numismatic nature. The 
finances of the world have been in a turmoil for the past five years, and in 
the next year or two the world’s currency will be largely reshaped. In 
what form much of it will appear it is too early to even guess. Several of 
these financial items will be published from time to time. The financial 
history of the world today is its numismatic history tomorrow, and it should 
be placed on record in a numismatic publication. Its importance may not 
be appreciated by some of our present-day collectors, who regard it only 
as news of the world of the present. But in the years to come, when a 
new generation of collectors has come to the front, many questions will 
arise to perplex the collector, and their solution will be easy if circum- 
stances and conditions surrounding the money issues of and following the 
war are to be found in numismatic publications of the time. 


SAFEGUAIM) YOUR COINS SENT BY MAIL. 

The disappearance in the mails, or the failure to be delivered, of a num- 
ber of valuable coins sent from Rochester to Philadelphia a few weeks 
ago, as told on another page of this issue, brings again to the attention 
of collectors and dealers the need of adopting some method by which such 
losses can be prevented, or the number of them reduced to a minimum. 
We are without information as to the details of this particular case, and 
will refer to the subject only in a general way. 

A few years ago an instance was reported in these pages in which a pack- 
age containing a number of rare United States coins was lost in the mails, 
or at least failed to reach its destination. The package was registered, 
and upon claim being made the shipper was told that only the face value 
of the coins would be allowed, which was only a fraction of their numis- 
matic value. 

Registration and insurance have been and still are the principal safe- 
guards used in sending coins through the mails, and with such precautions 
the losses are comparatively few. But occasionally packages of coins do 
miss connections, and when they do the loss is often considerable. 

A suggestion is offered here that might be worth a trial. In sending 
coins by mail there should be nothing on the wrapper to indicate what its 
contents are. Most of the envelopes or wrappers used by dealers, as well 


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as many collectors, have their name and address as well as the word “Nu- 
msiniatist” printed on them. This is almost equivalent to telling those 
who handle the letters or packages that they contain valuable coins. The 
stationery used for this purpose is usually the same as that for ordinary 
correspondence. To have separate stationery printed for use in mailing 
coins would in the end cost but little or no more. This should have only 
the name and address of the sender, the word “Numismatist” or anything 
else of like import being omitted. , 

Registered mail can usually be traced to the party responsible for its 
disappearance, but the loss to the sender remains, just the same, under the 
ruling of the Postoffice Department cited above. 

Sending valuable coins by ordinary mail is such an unwise proceeding 
that it is hardly necessary to caution our readers against it. 


MEETINGS OF NUMISMATIC SOCIETIES AND CLUBS. 


BRITISH NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

Ordinary Meeting, January 21st, 1920, Mr. F. A. Walters, F.S.A., Pres- 
ident, in the Chair. 

The Director, Major P. W. P. Carlyon-Britton, read the following letter 
to the meeting: 

St. James’s Palace, January 2nd, 1920. 

Dear Sir — I have had the honor of submitting to the Prince of Wales your 
letter of the 20th ult., asking that His Royal Highness would accept the 
position of Member of the British Numismatic Society, and am desired, in 
reply, to inform you that the Prince will have much pleasure in complying 
with your request. Yours faithfully, 

Siu.XEY Gm;viu.E, Comptroller. 

.Major P. Carlyon-Britton. 

Upon the resolution from the Chair. His Royal Highness was unanimously 
elected a Royal Member, and the honour conferred upon the Society was 
most loyally appreciated by the Members present. 

The President reported that the Council had unanimously elected Lieut. - 
Colonel Morrleson a Vice-President to fill the vacancy caused by Mr. An- 
drew’s resignation of that office on his appointment as Honorary Secretary. 

Lieut. -Colonel L. C. Taylor was elected a .Member. 

The President read the following letter, and exhibited the medal to which 
it refers: 

The American Numismatic Society, New York, December 31, 1919. 

To the President of the British Numismatic Society. 

Dear Sir — On behalf of Mr. J. Sanford Saltus, Honorary Councillor for 
Life of the American 'Numismatic Society, and Vice-President 6f the British 
Numismatic Society, I have the honor to transmit as a gift to your Society 
a copy in brass of the medal presented to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales dur- 
ing his recent visit to New York. Mr. Saltus provided the funds which made 
it possible for our Society to present the Gold Medal, and he made it a stip- 
ulation when the gift was tendered that a single copy in a metal not used 
for any other specimens should be struck for presentation to the British 
Numismatic Society. 

It gives me great pleasure to be Instrumental in transmitting this gift, 
and with assurances of my cordial regard, I beg that you will believe me 

Very respectfully yours, 

Sydney P. Noe, 

Secretary. 

The beauty of the medal and the excellence of the portrait were the sub- 
ject of general comment, preceding a vote of thanks expressiiig the Society’s 
appreciation of the kind thought on the part of both the .\merican Society 
and .Mr. Saltus, and so cordially conveyed by Mr. Noe, that had prompted 
the gift. 

Exhibits w’ere as follows: 


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By Mr. E. H. Wheeler: iPenny of Edward the Confessor of the York Mint. 
Obverse, type V according to Major Carlyon-Britton’s classification, but 
with sceptre replaced by a crozier. Referse, type VI, annulet in one 
quarter. 

By Mr. F. VV. Yeates: Contemporary forgery of the Tower shilling of 
Charles I, mint-mark harp, with the large plume over the shield on the 
reverse. 

By Mr. VV. L. Pocock: A fine example of the Nelson medal for the Victory 
of the Nile. 

'By Mr. Henry Garside; The fifteen-rupee piece in gold, dated 1918, coined 
at the Bombay mint for generai circulation in British India. 

Mr. Alfred Anscombe, F. R. Hist. S., read his paper on the earliest Eng- 
lish coin. His treatise dealt with the coin and its prototype; with the 
Latin inscription on both, and with the aate of the prototype. The runic 
inscriptions on the coin were discussed and identified with the man’s name 
and the foik-name. Mr. Anscombe dated the coin about A. D. 460, and 
believed it to have been copied from a triumphai medal of Honorius, which 
he gave reasons for assigning to A. D. 421. The coin, he contended, was 
struck to commemorate the victory that the Alemannic Prince Scan, Duke 
of Cair Benet, or Winchester, won over the Saxon invaders of Britain in 
the sixteenth year after that in which the comet of A. D. 443 was seen — 
namely in A. D. 459. Scan was the official chief of ten provincial kings in 
Southern Britain. In the “Merlin” he w’as called “Duke Escam.” In the 
“Morte D’Arthur” he was called “Duke Eustace.” In Wolfram von Es- 
chenbach, circa 1210, he appeared with the title of “Lander” and was called 
“Schianatu,” Wolfram said he was slain by Orilus, lord of Cumberland. 
“Lander” was a misrendering of “Guletic,” the Early VV’elch for “dux” and 
“comes.” “Schianatu” was a Brythonic representation of a West-Saxon 
Sceanutta. This postulated Alemannic Scanutto, and that name appeared 
in the Augsburg “Liber Vitae” of the eighth century. 

The scribal errors in the blundered Latin inscription on the coin were 
explained, and the folk-name was identified with the Amothingas of “Wid- 
sith.” Their homeland lay near Shrewsbury, and that town is called “Caer 
Amwythig,” in Welch, to this day. 



NEW YORK XIMISMATIC CLI R. 

A regular meeting of the New York Numismatic Club 
was held Friday evening, February 13th, at the New 
Grand Hotel, Dr. D. W. Valentine presiding. The follow- 
ing members were present; Messrs. Beasley, Boyd, Blake, 
Butler, deLagerberg, Elder, Frey, Hesslein, Kohler, Pros- 
key, Smith, Swanson. Valentine, Wood and Wyman. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and 
approved. 

Paper Money Committee — Mr. Blake reported progress. 

-Membership Committee reported favorably on the ap- 
plication of Mr. Hans Deering, 17 Battery Place, New York City. Mr. Deer- 
ing was elected unanimously. 

Executive Committee reported the subject for the next meeting: “VV’ash- 
ington Medals Issued Prior to 1860,” and a general discussion to institute 
a new policy for the running of the Club. 

The subject for the evening was “Lincoln Medals,” and the exhibitors 
were as follows: Messrs. Proskey, Boyd, Smith and Elder. 

-Mr. Wyman gave an interesting talk on his recent trip to Europe. 

The Secretary was requested to send a letter of condolence to our mem- 
ber, Mr. Moritz Wormser, upon the recent loss of his wife, and a letter of 
condolence to the sister of -Mr. Henry C. Miller, our member, who died re- 
cently. 

Meeting adjourned at 10.45. 

F. C. C. Boyd, Secretary. 


A regular meeting of the New York Numismatic Club was held Friday 
evening, March 12th, Dr. D. VV’. Valentine presiding. The following mem- 
bers were present: .VIessrs. Beesley, Boyd. Blake, Belden, Elder, Frey, Koh- 


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ler, Low, Lipper, Proskey, Smith, Swanson, V'alentine, Wood and Woriiiser. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

Subject for the meeting: “Washington Medals Issued Prior to 1850.’’ 

Mr. Low e.xhibited a Washington Confederatio tent, and also a set of 
rare half cents from 1840 to 1849 inclusive, also 1 796 with pole, and 1797. 

Mr. Elliott Smith: A 25c. solid-disk Fessenden. 

Dr. D. W. Valentine: 1881 $3 gold piece. 

Mr. D. Proskey: Washington Cent, small and large eagle, proof, and Geor- 
gius Triumpho proof. 

■Mr. Moritz Womser’s exhibit will be published in the next issue of Thk 
Nu.mismatist. 

A general discussion relative to the new policies in conducting the meet- 
ings were discussed very thoroughly, and the propositions put forward by 
the Executi\e Committee were accepted with the exception of one. The 
same will be printed in the year book. 

The subject for the next meeting will be “The Coins and Medals of Hol- 
land.’’ 

'1 he Membership Committee reported the name of Mr. Dan Fellows Platt, 
Englewood, X. J. 

Meeting adjourned at 11:15. 

F. C. C. Boyd, Secretary. 


ItOCHE.STER XI '.MIS.MATU' ASSUCIATIOX. 

The 18 4th meeting of the Rochester Numismatic Association was held at 
the Rochester .wunicipal .Museum, i uesuay evening, February 17, 1920. In 
the absence of the Piesident and Vice-President, at tiie request of the 
members tnrougn the Secietary, our forn.er President, F. E. .Merritt, was 
called upon to preside. Members present were: iMessrs. Burling, Horner, 
Plumb, Boiradaile, t\oeb, Nientimp, Merritt, Putnam, Simmonds and Sun- 
day. 

Minutes of previous meeting were read and approved. 

In a \ejy gracious letter to the officers and members of the Association, 
Dr. D. A. Young of Buffalo tendered his resignation, saying: ‘If I were able 
to attend more often I wouid not think of withdrawing from so pleasant 
and prohtable a society,” .Moved by Mr. Horner, seconded by Mr. Plumb, 
that the resignation be accepted and an invitation extended the Doctor to 
attend when able. 

Two Bryan satirical medals purchased at the second .Merritt sale were 
delivered to the Curator of the Museum to be placed in the Rochester Nu- 
mismatic Association’s collection. 

.Mr. Plumb reported that he had called on our former President, Dr. 
Handler, who had been very ill, and found him much improved, but that 
he would be confined to the house for some time yet. 

Reports from several other members w'ho were sick, including our Vice- 
President, were received, all favorable, but indicating the reason for our 
light attendance recently. 

A very great amount of interest was taken by the entire membership in 
the outcome of the sale of the collection of our late member, L. G. Am- 
berg, under the auspices of .Mr. F. E. Merritt. February 13 and 14. .Mr. 
Merritt, who was with us, on being questioned, gave many interesting de- 
tails of the sale, stating that in his opinion it had been very satisfactory 
to the heirs and that the collection had been very widely scattered. 

No fuither business appearing, meeting adjourned. 

E. D. PiTNA.M, Secretary. 


The 185th meeting of the Rochester .Numismatic Association was held 
at the Rochester .Municipal Museum, Tuesday evening, .March 2, 1920. In 
the absence of the President and Vice-President, at tie request of the 
members through the Secretary, our former President, F. E. Merritt, was 
called upon to preside. Members piesent were: Messrs. Burling, Maunovry, 
Wolff, Y’awger, Putnam, Koeb, Amberg, Horner. Plumb. Haringx, Merritt, 
Borradaile and Sunday. 

.Minutes of previous meeting read and approved. 

The acceptance of H. R. Darling. Eastman Kodak Co., of the invitation 
of the .Association to become a member was received, and on motion of the 
members Mr. Darling was accepted. 


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The report of the Treasurer showed that the sale of the yearly medal 
had not been as encouraging thus far by the members as in former years, 
and an urgent appeal was made to all to take at least one of the medals. 
Undoubtedly a large part of this lack of interest was due to the fact that 
so many of our members had been sick or absent from the meetings. 

On motion of Mr. Yawger, seconded by .Mr. Borradaile, it was moved that 
the bill for maKiug the medal be paid. 

At this juncture W. H. Amberg, our Vice-President, who had been sick 
with pneumonia and unable to attend, appeared and took the chair at the 
request of former President Merritt. 

A warm letter of congratulation and a liberal donation toward the ex- 
pense of our annual banquet was made by our President, Mr. Woodbury, 
now in California for the winter. 

An exhibit of American half cents, some of them exceedingly rare, was 
made by .Mr. Sunday, which awakened considerable interest. Mr. Sunday, 
in an informal talk, also interested mertrbers by his reminiscences regard- 
ing his life in the army, both in the Philippines and in France, from which 
he had recently returned. 

No new business appearing, the meeting adjourned. 

E. D. PL'TXAst, Secretary. 


XU.>llS.>t.\TIC .SKCTIOX, M.\HVIi.\.M) .\CAI)E.MV OF SCIEXCE.S, 

B.AI/il.MOHE, .Mil. 

The regular meeting of tne Numismatic Section of the .Maryland Academy 
of Sciences was held at the Academy on .Monday, February 16, at S P. M. 
There were present: -Messrs. Waldo Newcomer, C. Lat. Wilhelm, H. Kei.gh- 
ley Peach, Edward .McC'olgan and Henry V'ocke. The meeting was called to 
order by the Chairman and declared to be in order and competent to trans- 
act business. 

On motion duly made, seconded and carried, it was resolved to open the 
meetings in future at 8.30 P. M. 

On motion duly made, seconded and carried, it was resolved to suspend 
the meetings on the first -Monday in each month, and to meet only on the 
third Monday of each month, and to hold the meetings in the Assembly 
Hall. 

On motion duly made, seconded and carried, it was resolved that -Mr. 
Edward McColgan be recommended for appointment as Curator of Coins. 

Mr. -Newcomer invited the Section to hold its next meeting at his home 
and view his coin collection, or at least some portions of it. On motion 
duly made, seconded and carried, this invitation was gratefully accepted. 

No further business being presented the meeting was adjourned. 

Fk.vncis C. Nichol.as, Secretary pro tern. 


AXTiyU-ARlAX AXI) Xl'MISMATK' SOCIETY OF -MO.VTREAL. 

The -Antiquarian and Numismatic Society of Montreal held its February 
meeting at the home of the President, .Mr. W. D. Lighthall, on Friday, the 
20th. There were present: Messrs. W. D. Lighthall, Emile Vaillancourt, 
J. C. -A. Heriot, W. Birch, J. Harvey, R. W. McLachlan and a number of 
others. 

Among the exhibit was the German military .Medal of Von Bissing, which 
was captured by Mr. LighthalTs son at the taking of Jerusalem; a copy of 
“Hochelaga Uepicta,” and by R. W. McLachlan, six “Victory Loan’’ .Medals, 
whose reverses show that they were awarded in the Upper, Lower and Mid- 
dle Schools, 1st and 2nd prizes each; also a miniature of the British Gen- 
eral Service Medal, and a medal struck in .Montreal for the town of Lunen- 
berg. Mass. 

Mr. Heriot read a paper on the old manor houses of Canada, illustrated 
by lantern slides, and Mr. Birch read a paper on St. Helen’s Island. 


CHINESE MI.VT TO HE EST.ABLISHED IX SHANGHAI. 


Commerce Reports states that it is understood by the Chinese Press that 
the Government has decided to establish the head mint of China at Shang- 
hai, under the control of the Currency Commission, which h^s appointed 
a committee to purchase the ground and make the necessary arrangements. 


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American Numismatic Association 


Organized 1891, IncoiTJorated Under the Laws of the 
United States May 9, 1912. 


OFFICERS 
President, 
Waldo C. Moobe, 
Lewisburg, Ohio. 


First Vice-President, 

Henry Chapman, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Second Vice-President, 

John M. Oi.iver, Springfield, Mass. 


General Secretary, 

H. H. Yawger, 

78 Linden St., Rochester, N. Y. 


Treasurer, 

George J. Bauer, 

192 St. Paul St., Rochester, N. Y. 


Librarian, 

H. H. Yawger, 78 Linden St., Rochester, .\. Y. 


BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Moritz Wormser, Chairman, 95 Fifth Avenue, .New York City. 


TiiEO. E. Leon, 

143 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 
Foster Labdner, 

320 Westminster St., Providence, R. I. 


PRE.STON C. Pond, 
Chicopee, Mass. 

F. N. Boyle, 

628 Frick Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Official Magazine: The Numis.mati.st. 

Frank G. Duffield, Editor and Business Manager. 
1811 Mosher St., Baltimore, Md. 


DISTRICT SECRETARIES 

Harry A. Gray, 41 Rockland St., Roxbury, Mass., for New England States. 
Rud. Kohler, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City, for N. Y. and N. J. 

Henry Ch.apman, 333-335 S. 16th St., Philadelphia, Pa., for Penn., Del., Md., 
Va., W. Va. and D. of C. 

M. Marc'Uson, 1611 E. 82d St. N. E., Cleveland, Ohio, for Mich., Ohio, Ind. 
and Ky. 

Fred Michael, 8 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., for 111., Iowa, Mo., Kansas 
and Neb. 

A. H. Yoder, University, North Dakota, for Wis., Minn., N. Dak. and S. Dak. 
George H. King, Denver National Bank, Denver, Col., for Mont., Idaho, Wyo., 

Utah, Col., Ariz. and N. Mex. 

I. Leland Steinman, Room 329, 235 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal., 
for Cal., Nev., Ore. and Wash. 

B. Max Mehl, P. O. Drawer 976, Fort Worth, Tex., for Southern States. 
John A. Wood, 165 Oak Ave., Hamilton, Ont., for Ontario. 

R. L. Reid, Vancouver, B. C., for Western Canada. 

H. L. Doane, Truro. Nova Scotia, for Quebec and Eastern Provinces. 

S. H. Ha.mer, Halifax, Yorkshire, England, for British lies. 


The initiation fee is one dollar. The annual dues are 50 cents yearly. 
Subscription to The Nu.mismatist, $1.50 yearly, payable January 1st yearly. 
Total $3.00 for the first year. For part'culars address the General Secre- 
tary, Rochester, N. Y. 


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AMERICAN NUMISMATIC ASSOCIATION. 

REPORT OF THE GEXER.AL SECRETARY. 

»w .Mombers to bt* .Adiiiittod April 1, 1U20. 

2077. H. E. Wilson, R. F. D. #1. Weston, W. Va. 

2078. Frank B. Gaul, 21 Central Ave., Washington, Pa. 

2079. Arthur C. Wyman, 311 W. 24th St., New York, N. Y. 

2080. W. F. Roberts, 539 Parker St., Verona, Pa. 

2081. W. P. McNary, Bannock, Ohio. 

•Ypplioation for Membership. 

The following applications have been received prior to March 20, 1920. 
If no objections are received prior to May 1, 19 20, the same will become 


members on that date and will be puj.isaed in the May issue; 

APPLICANT PROPOSED BY 

2082 Moigan H. Stafford (Colonial and U. S. Coins), F. H. Shumway 

3a 3 Cabot at., i\ewtonv ale, .viass H. H. Yawger 

2083 Geo. D. Beason (General), W. C. Moore 

317 T St., N. E., Wasnington, if. C E. V. Moore 

2084 Floyd E. Huntley (General), Geo. H. King 

P. O. Bo.x 36, Denver, Colo H. H. Yawger 

2085 O. L. Cramer (American), Jas. A. Walker 

550 E. Queen St., Chambersburg, Pa H. H. Yawger 

2086 W. A. Bodendoerfer (General), H. H. Yawger 

1 Catherine St., .Muskegon, .\iich F. E. Merritt 

2087 Fred T. Carlson (American), Frank Swanstrom 

De Kalb, 111 H. H. Yawger 

2088 Harry F. Rahr (General), Rud Kohler 

535 45th St., Brooklyn, N. Y H. H. Yawger 

2089 John A. .Maimgren (Swedish Coins and .Medals), H. H. Yawger 

615 W. 7th St., Jamestown, X. Y John Winnberg 

2090 D. X. Crichton (.American), H. H. Yawger 

Geraldine, Mont F. E. Merritt 

2091 D. Thos. Rees (Greek, Roman and American). Rud Kohler 

City Bank Bldg , .New Orleans, La H. H. Yawger 

2092 Carl A. Johnson (General), H. H. Yawger 

Box 295, Moorhead, Minn L. H. Lamb 

2093 J. F. Anderson (General), J. deLagerberg 

3136 Front St., San Diego, Cal H. H. Yawger 


t'haiige of .Yddress. 

J. deLagerberg, from Sboreham, L. I , to 259 West 92d St., New York City. 

H. H. Yawger, 

General Secretary. 


TO A, X. A. MEMBERS. 

The muiling list of THE XUMIS>I.ATIST will be revised during 
.April, and all .A. X. .A. members who liave not renewed by .April 15 
w’ill be taken from the list. .A few have not done so yet, and it Is 
hoped that this final notice will liave the desired effect. Send your 
dues and subscription — .<62.00 for both — to H. H. Yawger, General 
Secretary, 78 Linden St., Rochester, X. Y. 


Rochester, N. Y., March 20, 1920. 



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THE NUMISMATIST 


FOR ONE THOUSAND MEMRERS PLUS. 


To the A. X. A. Fellows: 

The officers of the A. N. A. are trying to arouse and sustain interest in 
a campaign for a Bigger and Better Association. It seems difficult to stir 
most of our members to a realization that the situation for 1920 is serious- 
ly in need of attention, and that much effective work must be and can be 
done this Leap Year. It is up to every fellow to assume some responsibility 
if such a campaign is to accomplisn flattering results. 

I sometimes fear too many of those who should be deeply concerned and 
solicitous of the Association's future seem too busy to give thought to the 
matter. It is to be hoped there will be many who, by interesting them- 
selves, may sufficiently assist and encourage the officers and those in A. 
N. A. places of leadership and responsibility to insure their best efforts in 
the campaign. 

Every member of the Association, I feel sure, realizes the importance of 
such a campaign drive and that the work cannot be carried on successfully 
without an earnest endeavor on the part of the entire membership. For 
the good of numismatics, let us all become devoted A. N. A. miss’‘ jaaries. 
Be campaigning bees. Begin at once: do not wait for tomorrow'':; sun. Re- 
member that today is your opportunity: tomorrow is some oth_r fellow’s. 


“We must make the dreams that we dream come true, 
In this practical world of act: 

Not drag with the drones, but train with the few 
That turn their dreams into fact.’’ 


Yours for 1000 plus. 


Lewisburg, Ohio, March 4, 1920. 


Waldo C. Moore, 

President A. N. A. 


OFFICIAL ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE DATE OF THE ANNUAL 
CONVENTION OF THE A. N. A, 


To the Members of the American Numismatic Association: 

In accordance with action taken at the last annual Convention of the 
American Numismatic Association, held in Philadelphia on October 7th, 
1919, and the recommendation received from the Chairman of the Conven- 
tion Committee, it is hereby announced that the annual convention of the 
American Numismatic Association will be held in Chicago, 111., from August 
23rd to August 26th, 1920. 

Details of the Convention program will be announced from time to time 
in The Nimisviatist, as usual. 

We feel confident that this early announcement will enable all our mem- 
bers to make their vacation plans accordingly, and to help us in our work 
for a greater and better A. N. A. by attending the Convention: and we 
believe that the date selected is most suitable for a summer vacation. 

We hope that every good and loyal member of the A. N. A. will by that 
time have secured at least one new recruit to our cause in the shape of a 
new member, and bring them along to our Convention. 

Moritz Wormser. 

Chairman Board of Governors. 

New York, N. Y., March 13, 1920. 


A. N. A. CHICAGO CONVENTION CO>IMITTEE.S. 


President Waldo C. Moore of the A. N. A. announces the appointment of 
the following committees for the Chicago Convention, August 23 to 26, 
next: 

Committee on Local Arrangements, Entertainment and Program — T. E. 
Leon, chairman: W. F. Dunham, J. H. Ripstra, R. E. Davis, Alden Boyer, 
M. P. Carey. 

Committee to Obtain Papers to Be Read at the Convention — Howland 
Wood, chairman; D. L. Angell, John H. Snow, A. H. Yoder, Farran Zerbe, 
Moritz Wormser. 


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Committee to Conduct Election of OfBcers — Judson Brenner, chairman; 
J. P. Hale Jenkins, Fred Joy, Preston C. Pond, C. N. Hinckley. 

Committee on Proxies — H. H. Yavvger, chairman; J. T. Kelly, B. H. Sax- 
ton, W. G. Curry, J. M. Oliver. 

Committee to See That Nominations Are Made — Dr. J. M. Henderson, 
chairman; Dr. Geo. P. French, Charles Marcus, W. C. Piper, Fred E. Merritt. 


OBITUARY. 


C’HAHLES H, SHIXKLE. 

The death of Charles H. Shinkle of Pittsburgh, Pa., is announced in one 
of the Pittsburgh papers in the folio wing; 

Charles H. Shinkle, aged 69, of 810 South Negley avenue, president of 
the -Myers & Shinkle Company, died Tuesday. He was a member of the 
Belieheld Presbyterian Cnurch and the Pittsburgh Athletic Ciub. He leaves 
two sons, Charles and James Benney Shinkle; tw’o daughters, Mrs. Adelaide 
Wallace Smith and Miss Ann Shinkle, and three grandchildren, all of Pitts- 
burgh. 

In sending the above clipping, Mr. A. C. Gies of Pittsburgh writes as 
follows: “It is with sincere sorrow I write you these few lines. Mr. Shinkle 
was sick only a few days, and died on February 16. He was an ex-Pres- 
ident of the Western Pennsylvania .Numismatic Society. He was a tine fel- 
low, and his death is a great loss to his family and friends.” 

-Mr. Shinkle became a member of the .American Numismatic .\ssociatlon 
in October, 1905. He served as Second Vice-President of the .Association 
during 1914 and 1915. 

Writing of the death of .Mr. Shinkle, Mr. Farran Zerbe, of San Fran- 
cisco, says: .Mr. Shinkle was one of my long-time and valued numismatic 
friends. -As senior partner and president of the .Myers & Shinkle Com- 
pany, one of the oldest firms in Pittsburgh, Pa., associated with the print- 
ing and stationery trade, he was held in high esteem by the business, social 
and educational institutions of his city. -An affable gentleman, and partic- 
ularly so when he could have a sociable hour with a visiting numismatist. 
He wMll be remembered numismatically for his published compilation at 
different times of ‘‘U. S. Coin Values and Lists,” carefully prepared from 
auction sale records. He specialized in type varieties of the minor series 
of United States coins, and probably had the most complete collection of 
pattern one cent pieces. 


JOSEPH A. JOHR. 

Joseph A. Johr, a member of the American Numismatic Association, 
died at his home in Meadow, Va., on February 16, of pneumonia, after an 
illness of five days. The funeral took place in Richmond, being conducted 
by Rev. W. V. Smith, and the .Masonic Lodge of which he had been a mem- 
ber for over 35 years. He was in his 7Sth year. 

Mr. Johr is survived by his widow, Mrs. Mary Hubei Johr, and six chil- 
dren — Mrs. W. R. Robins and .Mrs. H. .A. VV'oodcock of Richmond; J. H. 
Johr of Sacramento, Cal.; Mrs. R. N. W’indell of Norfolk; and Blanche 
Hubei Johr and John .Milton Johr of Meadow. 

Mr. Johr became a member of the .American Numismatic Association in 
February 1908, and continued his membership to the time of his death. 
Writing of her father’s death. Miss Blanche Hubei Johr says: “Mr. Johr 
had been a coin collector since his early youth, and took great interest in 
Thk NrxiisiiATisT and the A. N. A., of which he had been a member for 
years. He possessed a rare collection of old coins.” 


PRISON .SENTENCE FOR COIN >IELTERS. 


Six months' imprisonment was the sentence imposed on the six men 
mentioned in last month’s issue as on trial in London charged with melt- 
ing up gold coin. It was brought out in the trial that the accused with- 
drew from the Bank of England last year gold weighing eighteen hundred- 
weight. In December alone, it was charged, they disposed of bar gold worth 
£9400. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 



American Numismatic 
Society 

New York 

BROADWAY BETWEEN 155TH 
& 156TH STS. 

Organized 1858. Incorporated 1865. 


PRESENT EXHIBITION: 

The Andrew C. Zabriskie Collection of 
Polish Coins and Medals, 
and German Satirical Medals. 

All collectors and students are cordially invited to make use of the 
extensive Library of the Society, and every facility will be offered to numis- 
matists in examining and studying the large collection of coins and medals 
that may not be on exhibition. 

Open to the Public daily (except Monday), 10 A. M. to 5 P. M. Sun- 
days, 1 to 5 P. M. 


W. Gedney Beatty 
Bauman L. Belden 
F. C. C. Boyd 
Henry Russei.i. Drowne 
Roiiert James Eiduitz 


Henry Russell Drowne 
W iLi-iAM B. Osgood Fiei,d 

Secretary: 

Sydney P. Noe 
Curator: 

Howland Wood 


COUNCIL 

William B. Osgood Field 
Harroi.d E. Gii.lixguam 
Archer M. Huntington 
Edward T. Newei.l 
Stephen H. P. Pei.l 

OFFICERS 


John Reilly, Jr. 
Elliott Smith 
W. Gilman Thompson 
John I. W.\terbury 
William H. Woodin 


President 

Edward T. Newell 
Governors 

Archer M. Huntington 
Edward T. Neweix 
John Reully, Jr. 

Treasurer: 

John Reilly, Jr. 
Assistant to Curator: 
Arthur C. Wyman 


MEMBERSHIP. 

The annual dues of Fellows (limited to one hundred and fifty) are 
Fifteen Dollars, and those of Associates are Five Dollars, which are payable 
in advance, and cover subscription to the Society’s organ, the American 
Journal of Numismatics. One Hundred and Fifty Dollars entitles one to Life 
Fellowship, and Fifty Dollars to Associate Life Membership, and secures 
exemption from further dues. 

Applications for Membership should be sent to the Secretary, at the 
above address. 

Regular meetings are held on the second Saturday, or such other day as 
the Council may designate, in the months of January, April and November. 

Meetings for the reading of papers, discussion of numismatic subjects 
and exhibition of coins and medals, are held on the evenings of the first 
Thursday of each month except June, July, August, September and October. 

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 

Published Annually By The Society. Subscription Five Dollars. 


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THE SILVER MYSTERY OF CHINA. 


Silver, silver, who’s got the silver? It’s the new International game. All 
the world’s playing it. 

Every nation grabs all the silver in sight and hides it so no other nation 
can find it. Then each coaxes silver from the others. The nation that gives 
up most is the goat. The real fun is to tease the goat. 

Just now China is doing most of the hiding. India is the other best little 
hider. All the nations are doing some hiding — all, but the poor old U. S. 
A., which, at this moment, is the goat. 

The work of the goat is to dig more silver — and the U. S. A. is busy 
digging. But the more she digs the more is taken away, and because she 
doesn’t dig fast enough the price of silver sails higher than the cost of liv- 
ing. There is plenty of the metal if she digs deep enough and all the world 
knows it and teases for more. 

In her frantic effort to play her part in the international game the U. S. 
A. breaks up silver dollars and ships them to China. Other nations are 
desperately engaged in putting what little they have left of the white metal 
out of sight. Some have withdrawn silver from circulation, while others 
are melting down household articles and objects of art containing the pre- 
cious metal. Even Japan, with her reputed war prosperity, is so denuded 
of silver and other metal that her smallest pieces of money consist of paper 
ten-sen bills. 

What does China do with the silver when she gets it? That’s what ev- 
erybody wants to know, and if anyone knows he doesn’t tell. That adds to 
the mystery of the game. Even foreign merchants, who have spent half a 
lifetime in China, are unable to give a satisfactory answer. 

“It evaporates,’’ is the mystic explanation of C. D. Komaroff, for twenty- 
five years engaged in business in the Orient. “Every ship entering Shang- 
hai from San Francisco brings in silver, perhaps 5,000,000 aunces or 10,- 
000,000 ounces. There is scarcity of silver in circulation and 'exchange is 
high. But the coming of the ship with silver does not affect exchange and 
twenty-four hours after arrival the silver has disappeared. It has evapo- 
rated.” 

Komaroff is a merchant of China. He speaks the language and knows 
the people. He is iFar Eastern manager for Gaston, Williams & Wlgmore 
of New York. If anyone outside of a Chinaman should know what China 
does with the world’s silver it would be Komaroff. His laconic explanation 
of the mystery eloquently confirms the mystery. It “evaporates.” 

“Within the last eighteen months nearly 200,000,000 ounces of silver 
have entered the port of Shanghai,” asserted Komaroff, who has been in 
San Francisco a few days en route to New York and London. “But none 
of it remained in Shanghai. It has not gone into circulation; it has not 
helped the exchange situation; it has simply ‘evaporated.’ All of it has 
gone into the interior — to Tsin Tsin, Hankow, Harbin and other points, 
not to enter into common use, but to be hoarded, hidden away, lost from 
sight. To hoard silver is part of the Asiatic temperament. It cannot be 
explained. 

“Notwithstanding the flow dt silver through Shanghai, the shortage of 
the metal has become so acute that the Foreign Bankers’ Association of 
Shanghai in alarm has joined with the Chinese Bankers’ Association to 
mint coin of their own. It must be understood that every bank issues its 
own notes, which must be protected by silver reserve. Because of silver 
scarcity most of the banks are unprepared to redeem their currency and 
unable to afford their customers all of the services called for. It is pro- 
posed to obtain a concession from the Chinese government to permit the 
Shanghai banks to mint a sufficient percentage of incoming silver to give 
ample protection for currency outstanding. It is planned to coin suffi- 
cient republican dollars to help in financing all parts of the country. This 
will give Shanghai enough silver for legitimate demands, help to check 
hoarding and ease the money market. It also is calculated to be a factor 
in stablllzng exchange. When I left Shanghai the plan was well advanced 
and, if government sanction be obtained, it will be put into effect within a 
few months.” 

This will not mean, asserted Komaroff, that the Chinese absorption of 
silver will suddenly cease. With the Impending development of the country 
silver will be required in steadily increasing quantities for circulation 


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THE XUMISMATIST 


purposes, while the hoarding propensity that has grown with centuries 
may not be shaken off for centuries to come. 

In the meantime silver is becoming scarcer in the United States. — John 
H. Geerie in San Francisco Chronicie. 


COIXS DISAPUEAH IX THE MAILS. 


The following letter has been received from Fred E. Merritt under date 
of March 9, 1920: 

“The marked lots in this catalog were sent through the mail to Phila- 
delphia on February 6, and never were received. Tne postofflce inspector 
thinks now they have been stolen.” 

The coins referred to were specimens in the Louis G. Amberg collection, 
sold by Mr. Merritt in Rochester, P'ebruary 12-13, 1920. They were as 
follows: No. 107— New York Cent, 1787; 110 — U. S. A. Bar Cent; 120 — 
Florida 1-24 real; 121 — Rhode Island medallet; 237 — Half dollar, 1796; 
238 — Half dollar, 1797; 365 — Quarter dollar, 1796; 443 — Dime, 1798; 
680, 581, 582 — Cents, 1793; 604 — Cent, 1799; 617 — Cent, 1804; 626 — 
Cent, 1809; 731 — Half cent, 1793; 735 — .Half cent, 1797; 916 — Cent, 1794; 
931 — Cent, 1 804; 957— Cent, 1793; 969— Cent, 1804; 1054, 1056, 1056, 
1057, 1058, 1059, 1060 — Massachusetts shillings, 1652; 1061, 1062 — Rosa 
Americana twopence; 1063, 1064, 1065 — Vermont cents; 1068 — Connecticut 
cent; 1072 — Massachusetts cent; 1075 — New Jersey cent; 1078, 1079 — New 
York cents; 1080 — Voce Populi, 1760; 1081 — Pitt token; 1083 — Nova Con- 
stellatio cent: 1084 — New Yorke token. 

Dealers and collectors are requested to be on the lookout for any of these 
pieces, and to notify Mr. Merritt, 1205 Widener Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa., 
if any of them are offered for sale. 


MONEYLESS NATIONS. 


There was a time when all the currency of France became valueless and 
was practically thrown away. It was made of paper, like that of Germany 
at the present time, with the result that the mark has declined almost to 
the vanishing point. The French paper money in the revolutionary period. 
125 years ago, was nominally secured by public lands, but the supposed 
safeguard proved to be wortnless. Within si-x years after the French re- 
sorted to a paper currency a gold coin worth twenty-four francs brought 
7200 francs In paper. The government resorted to much legislation and 
many financial devices to prop up the paper currency, but in vain. Efforts 
failed to compel producers to sell commodities at fixed prices in paper. If 
pushed hard producers stopped their operations. One of the troubles with 
the paper currency was counterfeits, some of which poured in from ad- 
jacent countries. At last the French Government gave up the fight to 
bolster up the billons of paper francs and allowed prices to take their own 
course, free from mandates. Slowly the nation recuperated. Real money 
reappeared and the France of today is proof that a country may lose all its 
currency and yet, without great delay, be restored to financial health. 

The reparative process was based on industry, order and thrift. France 
is today the most saving country and 57 per cent, of its almost universal 
savings class are women. Germany’s paper currency seems to be near the 
scrap heap. But this is not necessarily a hopeless catastrophe. The Ger- 
mans are industrious and have been disposed to be orderly. Their future 
rests largely with themselves. — St. Louis (iJobc-l)cmocrat . 


Nl'MISMATirs EXTKAOItl INAKY. 


The following appeared recently in the Montreal (Canada) Daily Star: 

.\ii Old Penny. 

"1 have in my possession an old penny marked ‘1 Skilling Danske, K. .\I., 
1771.’ Is it of any value? EDITH.” 

“Answer — Value $15 to $20 if in good condition. P. M. Wickham.” 

Edith should realize on her prize before the price drops. 


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U. S. SECRET SERVICE CHIEF MOFFITT DEAR. 


Harry H. Moffitt, chief of the United States Secret Service in San Fran- 
cisco, died in a hospital at Oakland, Cal., on March 3. He entered the 
Secret Service 24 years ago, and for 15 years he had been at the head of 
the San Francisco bureau, and had an international reputation as a Secret 
Service operative. 

Writing to The of the work of Mr. Moffitt in bringing to 

justice some well-known counterfeiters, Mr. Farran Zerbe of San Francisco 
says: “Moffitt has to his credit the capture of H. Russell Wilkins, w’ho con- 
fessed he had made and passed about $100,000 in bogus currency. He also 
led to conviction the makers of what is said to have been the most dan- 
gerous United States counterfeit coin, $5 gold pieces, Indian head type, of 
different dates, the makers of which had their ‘mint’ on a houseboat on 
San Francisco Bay. Those bogus coins contained between $2 and $3 in gold, 
were in numerous circulation when detected in San Francisco during the 
P.-P. I. E., and were so difficult to distinguish that for a time many trades- 
men in that vicinity refused to accept any of the type. Chief Moffitt, while 
a terror to those who would tamper with Uncle Sam’s money, was liberal in 
interpreting the law as it might be applied to specimens in the hands of 
numismatic collectors and dealers.’’ 


VAXISHIXG VALUES. 


The thing we call a copper 
Is in numismatics proper. 

But it sure has come a cropper 
In the shop; 

And the nickel’s sway is broken 
As a monetary token. 

And in fact the dime is spoken 
Of as slop. 

So in course of time the holler 
That is put up by the dollar 
Will sink far below the collar 
That it wears: 

And asylums we contact with 

Will be filled full, for a fact, with — 

Or in other words be cracked with — 

Millionaires. 

— Maurice Morris in New York Sun. 


JEWISH RELIEF COM>m’TEE MEDAL. 


A bronze medal has been issued by the American Jewish Relief Commit- 
tee, Xew York City, in recognition of the services rendered by non-Jews 
in the efforts of the committee to help Jewish war victims in Eastern 
Europe. 

The obverse shows a standing female figure beside a globe upon a pedes- 
tal, with her arms about a kneeling female and two standing children, a 
palm branch below. The reverse has a wreath, within which is the follow- 
ing inscription: “American Jewish Relief Committee for Suffereps From the 
War. When Suffering Humanity Called, You Responded Noblv. 1914- 
1918.” 


AMBRICAX .MOXEV tlRCULATE.S IX XORTHERX MEXICO, 


The circulation of American currency in the north of Mexico and along 
the coast is considered detrimental to the interests of the country by high 
Government officials since, as a result. Mexican fractional currency is slow- 
ly disappearing. In many parts of the country, especially near Tampico, 
.\merican bills and silver money circulate freely, and even the Government 
is obliged to accept it in payment of taxes, stamps, etc. 


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NICKEL VS. SILVER FOR CANADIAN COINS. 


In last month’s issue we printed an article from the San Franrisro Chron- 
icle by Edward F. Adams, with comments by Fairan Zerbe, on the possi- 
bility of the United States substituting a white metal for silver in our sub- 
sidiary coinage. The following, from the Toronto Saturday Sight of recent 
date, shows that Canada is confronted with even a mere serious problem 
in her silver coins and is urging the use of nickel Instead of silver In the 
coinage: 

"Why a silver coinage? And the answer is, let us get rid of it for some- 
thing better and cheaper. Silver coins, at least in our day, were never 
meant to be more than a token, a promise to pay. a system of small change, 
all with a real value far below the face value. Like everything else, the 
war has changed all that, and we now find ourselves with a silver coinage 
that is in great danger of going out of existence by reason of the fact that 
it is getting too costly to further utilize silver as ‘money,’ being more valu- 
able as silver bullion. 

"What are we going to do about it? How are we going to prevent peo- 
ple from taking our silver pieces over into the United States, and selling 
them at a profit? With silver around $1.44 per ounce, and it is likely to go 
there any day. one may take Canadian silver coins to the United States, 
and there exchange them for American paper money, which, in turn, can 
be brought back into Canada and sold at a profit of say eight to ten per 
cent, or more, according to the rate of exchange. Under these circum- 
stances it is obvious that our present silver coins are bound to disappear. 
There are various ways of mending the situation; put more base metal in 
our silver coins, issue paper currency, as was done extensively in both Can- 
ada and the United States in the old days, or produce coins of metals other 
than silver. 

“Prof. Stephen Leacock suggested some time since to the Canadian Gov- 
ernment that nickel might be substituted, he pointing out the senseless 
waste of having a fractional currency In a precious metal, when our own 
‘home-grown’ nickel would answer every purpose. Nickel is clean, smooth, 
hard, and does not tarnish, and could be purchased at a figure that would 
save the Canadian Government a great many millions a year in comparison 
with silver. As the professor pointed out, silver is used for coins only for 
historic reasons. Once upon a time silver was the standard of value. Af- 
terward is shared that honor jointly with gold, but later on. when the price 
of silver depreciated, it became merely a token in most fountries other 
than the Orient, where it is still a standard of value along with gold. 

“Our silver coins, as a pure matter of Governmental economy, should be 
called in and a new coinage of nickel substituted, if. indeed, it is not al- 
ready too late to recover any large proportion of what was in circulation 
a year ago, for as sure as this old earth Is spinning around, our coinage is 
being fast depleted for reasons enumerated above, and it will cost the Gov- 
ernment a pretty penny if It continues to dally with the subject.” 


COINS FOR FRENCH POSSESSIONS MADE IN' U. S. 


T. W. H. Shanahan, superintendent of the branch United States Mint, 
today received instructions from Washington to make 29.000.000 pieces of 
small coins for the French Government, to increase the circulation of coin 
in its Chinese possessions. A smaller percentage of silver than usual is be- 
ing used in the new silver coins to remove the temptation to hide or melt 
them because of the existing high price of the bullion value of silver. In 
the American 10-cent piece, nine parts of silver are used to one part of 
copper. In the new silver coins for the French government there will be 
four parts of silver to six parts of copper. 

Mr. Shanahan has been ordered to coin 1.5,000,000 1-cent copper pieces, 
10.000.000 10-cent silver pieces and 4.000,000 20-cent silver pieces. 

It will take the mint two months to fill this order, the employees having 
been put back on an eight-hour basis. 

Heretofore the local mint has only made coins for one country in the 
Orient, and that is the United States possession of the Philippines . — San 
Francisco Bulletin, March 4. 1920. 


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THE WELCH COLLECTION OF 31EOALS OX VIEW. 


Probably the largest collection of war medals in existence has been lent 
to Harvard University by the owner, Mr. William Marriot Welcn of 60 State 
street, Boston, .Mass, the collection is now on exhibition in the Treasure 
Room of the Widener Library. 

Though the British Museum and the Smithsonian Institution have several 
hundred medals, they do not approach in numbers anywhere near the 1500 
that Mr. Welch has carefully collected during the past four years. Other 
private collections exist, and doubtless each government has kept a series 
of its own medals, but a member of the firm of J. Schulman, a large coin 
and medal house, said on the occasion of a recent visit to Boston that Mr. 
Welch’s collection was without doubt the largest as yet made. The chances 
for future collectors are less rosy, because in many cases the dies from 
which the medals were made have been destroyed. 

Such a collection is most interesting in that, when properly interpreted, 
it furnishes a complete history of the great events of the war, as well as of 
the spirit of the various nations engaged. .No great battle or movement 
has passed without its commemorative medal . — Boston Herald. 


OH! BILL. 


Oh, dollar bill, oh, dollar bill. 

You look so strange to me 
I cannot help but think you’re ill 
With some strange malady. 

You once were strong and healthy like. 

You’d do a lot of things. 

But now I guess you're on a strike. 

Or else you’ve taken wings. 

You certainly are not the same 
You were in days gone by, 

I guess it’s not you that's to blame. 

But prices that are high. 

I’ll sure be glad to see you change 
Back to your former size. 

Where you will be within my range, 

.Not ‘two bits” in disguise. 

— The Ohio Banker. 


WHO HAS .VXY WINSTON COUNTY (AL.V.) CUKRENtY? 


A writer in a recent issue of the Literary Digest calls attention to the 
fact that during the Civil War, Winston County. .Alabama, seceded from 
that State and formed an independent government, which issued currency. 
The letter is as follows: 

”By a search of the records you will find that Winston County, Alabama, 
a section of the State at that time entirely remote from railway or water 
transportation and almost a wilderness, being sparsely settled, seceded from 
the State of Alabama and declared its independence, and organized a form 
of government and issued currency.” 

Have any of our readers specimens of the currency issued by Winston 
County as an independent government? 


HE SHOULD HAVE OBTAINED INFORMATION FIRST. 

-A press dispatch from .Nashville, Tenn., of February 2.5 says: 

“A large bronze medal bearing on one side the legend State of Louisiana 
to Major General Zachary Taylor,” and on the other enumerating Taylor’s 
Mexican war victories, has been found here by workmen tearing down an 
old building, used forty years ago by the United States District Court. The 
fact that the medal was encased in the remains of a plush box convinced 
John Trotwood Moore, State Librarian, that the memento was of real his- 
torical value. He purchased it from the workmen for $10, and today wrote 
the archivist of Louisiana for information.” 


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XEW UOUXTEHFEIT OF !)!20 FEDERAL RESERVE XOTE. 

The Secret Service Division of the Treasury Department has Issued a 
circular describing a new counterfeit $20 note. The description is as 
follows: 

‘On the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; check letter ‘C; plate 
number 40: W. G. McAdoo, Secretary of the Treasury; John Burke. Treas- 
urer of the United States: portrait of Cleveland. This counterfeit is print- 
ed on two pieces of paper, of good quality, between which silk threads have 
been distributed. The face of the bill is a photograph. The figures of 
the Treasury number are made by hand, and are well executed. The back 
of the bill is printed from an etched plate. This is a dangerous counter- 
feit, and care should be exercised in handling bills of this description.” 


XEW Ct)IX IS.SIES IN ME.VICO AXD CHINA. 

Mr. L. A. Cardwell of Las Cruces, N. .M., writes to The Nu.mis.\i.\tist as 
follows: 

‘ It may be of interest to you to know that new 10 and 20 centavo copper 
coins have been issued in Mexico. Also, that tiie Governor-General, Tong 
Chai Yao, of Yuen Nan Province of China, has issued $5 and $10 gold coins 
without the consent of the central Chinese Government. The coins bear 
the likeness of the Governor-General and the value in Chinese characters. 
The coins are said to be in general use all over the Yuen Nan Province and 
that the Peking Government is making an attempt to suppress the coins, 
without, however, making perceptible headway.” 

URGES COINING OF TWO-CENT PIECE. 

The sentiment in favor of the Theodore Roosevelt two-cent coin seems to 
be growing rapidly. Since Senator George P. .McLean of Connecticut, 
chairman of the Committee on Banking and Currency, reported a bill pro- 
viding for such a coin a number of well-known business men have given 
it their endorsement. 

The depreciation in the purchasing power of money has worked a com- 
plete change in the relative positions of the small coins of the country. The 
dime is now about the equivalent of the old nickel, the nickel is worth only 
two cents and a half, except for car fare in New York; the old cent, only 
half a cent . — Xcw York SU7i. 

COINAGE FOR FERRUARY, 1030. 

Following is the number of pieces of the different denominations coined 
at the mints of the United States during February, 1920, as officially re- 
ported by the Bureau of the Mint. Washington, D. C.: 

Silver — Half Dollars, 1,278,000; Quarter Dollars, 3,232,000; Dimes, 
8,250,000. 

Nickel — Five Cents, 11,888,000. 

Bronze — One Cent, 40,712,000. 

Coinage executed for Salvador: Nickel, 3,492,000. 

W.ASHIXGTOX COINS AXD TOKENS OX EXHIBITION. 

A collection of coins, tokens, medals, stamps, pictures, engravings, etc., 
relating to Washington formed an interesting exhibit on February 23 at a 
Washington Party held in the I. O. O. F. hall at Lewisburg, Ohio, by the 
Friendly Class of the M. E. Church Sunday-school of that city. The ex- 
hibit was formed under the direction of Mr. Waldo C. Moore, President of 
the A. N. A., and many of the specimens were from his personal collection. 

BANKS DISt'OUXT CANADA’S SILVER. 


A dispatch from Minneapolis on March 5 said that Canadian silver was 
being discounted at Minneapolis banks for the first time in many years. A 
20 per cent, discount on all silver money from the Dominion was ordered 
by the Minneapolis Clearing House. 



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171 


GREAT BRITAIN' TO HAVE NICKEL COINS. 


It is reported in press dispatches from London that Great Britain will 
inaugurate a series of nicVel coins to take the place of the small denom- 
ination silver coins and the bronze coins. It is understood that the Mond 
Nickel Co., the largest metal concern in England, has contracted with the 
Government to supply the Royal Mint with the necessary nickel. This step 
is made necessary by the rising price of silver and by a desire to do away 
with the cumbersome bronze coins. 


DR. L.ANGMl'IR GETS NICHOLA.S MEDi^L. 


The William H. Nichols Gold Medal for 1919 for the best original paper 
printed in the publications of the American Chemical Society was con- 
ferred recently upon Dr. Irving Langmuir, a noted physical chemist con- 
nected with the General Electric Company of Schenectady, N. Y., for his 
paper entitled “The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules.” 
The presentation was made by Dr. Nichols, the donor. 


FRANCE TO END .MONETARY CONVENTION PACT. 

France gave notice on February 23 last at a meeting of representatives 
of member nations of the Latin Monetary Union that from December 23 
next she will not consider valid the monetary convention of December 23, 
1865. By this pact France, Italy, Belgium and Switzerland agreed to the 
use of the same coinage so that their metal money might be mutually in- 
terchangeable. The reason given in the notice was that French silver coins 
are no longer current in the other countries concerned. 


BILL TO REDUCE FINENESS OF BRITISH COINS. 


bill introduced in the British House of Commons on February 12 by 
J. .Austen Chamberlain, Chancellor of the Excnequer, proposes to reduce 
silver coins from 925 to 500 fine, according to a memorandum issued to- 
day. It is said that with silver at 88 pence, the Intrinsic value of a one- 
shilling piece of 500 fine would still be considerably more than the intrin- 
sic value of a one-shilling piece of 9 25 fine in July, 1914. 


TH.AT .NEW CANADIAN CENT. 


For more than a year press reports have come from Canada at intervals 
that the new Canadian cent was about to be issued, but the coin has failed 
to materialize. The latest report coir.es from Ottawa, on January 20, which 
says; “Provision is being made for the minting of a new Canadian cent. 
It will approximate the American cent in size.” This report is similar to 
those that have preceded it. Whether or not it is more reliable remains 
to be seen. 


.M.ASO.NIC .MEDAL TO PEARY'S WIDOW. 


Kane Lodge No. 454, F. & A. M., New York City, has decided to pre- 
sent to Rear-.Admiral Peary’s widow the gold medal the lodge had intend- 
ed to present to the discoverer of the North Pole at the meeting of the 
lodge on .March 30, the 100th anniversary of the birth of Elisha Kent Kane, 
the early .American Arctic explorer. 


MEXICO TO HAVE A NEW COPPER COIN. 


In order to help relieve the shortage of change in Mexico, the Government 
is about to mint 20-centavo copper pieces in limited quantities according 
to press reports from Mexico. This fractional money can be exchanged for 
gold at any time. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


GET OUT your Catalogue of my Sale of 
March 10th and compare prices realized 


with those of ANY other market. 


And when you decide to sell your collection 
or any part of it, ask me for my terms. 

Of course, Fd just as soon buy your entire 
collection or duplicates for spot cash. 

In either instance, my lifelong numismatic 
experience, financial responsibility in- 
suring you against loss of any kind, is at 
your command. Take advantage of it. 


MEHlS 

NUMISMATIST 


FORT WORTH ^ EXA.S 

Largest Nurnls.matic Establishment in the United States. 


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173 


^ — — 

UNUSUAL SALE OF A PRIVATE 
COLLECTOR. 

Includes about 200 U. S. and Foreign Gold Coins, with Multiple 
Ducat coins of Transylvania: Large Gold Coins of Venice and Per- ! 
sia; Rare U. S. Half Eagles, Quarter Eagles, etc.; 500 Oriental Coins 
in Gold. Silver and Copper; Rare Japanese Gold and Silver, with the 
Large Oban; Choice Uncirculated Early U. S. Cents and Half Cents; 

Very Choice Ancient Greek Gold and Silver Coins, Roman Silver: 

Rare Early Proof Gold and Silver in the ’40s and ’50s: about 600 
Foreign Crowns and much Silver of smaller sizes. 

This is our best sale in years. Watch for the Catalogue. A 
special Plate Catalogue with around 18 plates for $4.00, prepaid. 

The plates are actual photographs of the coins, showing finest detail. ^ 

Sale Dates, Friday and Saturday, April 30th and 
May 1st, at 1:30 P. M. 

' 

Be sure and get a catalogue of this splendid sale. 

THE ELDER COIN & CURIO COMPANY, 

21 West 35th Street, New York City. 


Note. — I have secured the Henry C. Miller Collection, and shall 
offer it in the last week in May. More about this Sale later. 



COIN NOTICE 

What are your wants? 
I can supply them. 


U. S. FIXED PRICE LIST No. 3 

Mailed on request. 


MONEY LOANED on Coins and 
Stjunp.s. Entire Collections 
Purchased. 


Collections 
Bought Outright 
For Cash or Sold at 
Public Auction. 

Reference, First Na- 
tional Bank, Boston, 
Mass. 

William Hesslein 

BOSTON, MASS. 


Ben G. Green's 
Reference and Check Book. 

Complete list of all coins Issued by 
the U. S. Mint and branches, with their 
principal varieties, the private Issues 
of gold, fractional currency and en- 
cased postage stamps. Book Is pocket 
size and printed on writing paper, 
ruled for cliecking the pieces in a col- 
lection. ttieir condition, date of acQul- 
sltlon, price paid and from whom 
bought. The number of pieces of ev- 
ery denomination coined eacti year at 
the various mints is also given, mak- 
ing it an Invaluable guide to the col- 
lector of mint marks and as to the 
rarity of any coin. Blank .space Is 
provided for additions of dates of 
future issues and otlier me.moranda. 
120 pages. Price. Cloth. $1.00. Flex- 
ible Leather. $1.50. Interleaved, Gilt 
Edges. $2.00. 

Panama-Pacific Half Dollar $1.50 

Illinois Centennial Half Dollar .. 1.25 

FRED MICHAEL 

8 South Dearborn St., Chicago, IIL 


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30BOE 


aoi 


aOBOE 


o 

D 

o 


n 

o 


WAYTE RAYMOND 

489 Park Avenue, 

(Anderson Galleries) 

New York City. 

Dealer in rare coins of all countries. Collections cata- 
logued for sale at auction or purchased outright. Price 
list sent on request. 

Just published — “United States Store Cards” by Ed- 
gar H. Adams. A list of merchants’ store cards and ad- 
vertising tokens from 1789 to recent years, arranged by 
States and exclusive of the Civil War period. 75 pages, 
paper cover. Postpaid $2.10. 

— i #M— .r> i if> i 


O 

D 

0 


D 

o 


REVOLUTIONARY ISSUES. 

Collection of 10 pieces Oaxaca Revo- 
lutionary coins, including the rare 3- 
centavo rectangular copper in practi- 
cally uncirculated condition; also fine 
uncirculated specimens of both the 
thick and tliin 2-peso silver pieces. Full 
description to those interested or sent 
on approval against deposit or refer- 
ence. Price $20.00 

CARllUSCO PKSO. one of the crudest 
and scarcest itevolutionary issues . $fi.n0 

NEW ISSUES. 

TWO PK.SO MEXlC.AN GOI.D. a very 

prettv little piece. 1919 $2.00 

NKW .SIZK MIOXIC XN SILVER. Com- 
plete set of 10. 20. ,^0 centavos and 1 

peso silver, 1919. The set $2.00 

TWO WO H.ALF PESOS MEXICAV 

GOT. I), 191,9 $2.25 

MEXICXN 10 .AXI) 20 CENT.WOS 
COPPERS have just been issued, and 
will be sent out at tlie lowest possible 
price to my regular approval list, as 
soon as they appear on this side. Bet- 
ter get on this list. Send reference. 

NOT SUCH A NEW ISSUE. 

MIXG DYNASTY CHINESE PAPER 
MONEY, A. D. 1368 to 1644; Value one 
string of copper cash; on heavy oid 
brown paper. Ver.v curious $2.00 

L. A. CARDWELL, 


I WILL SELL 


To the highest bidder before May 1st 
the following pieces of U. S. Gold 
and Silver: 


1871 Gold Dollar. Brilliant Proof. V. 

Rare. 

1876 Cal. '4 Dollar. Oct., 13 stars, 6 

stars to left, 7 stars to right. 
Proof. Rare. 

1831 Quarter Eagle. Gold. Brilliant 
Proof. Extremely rare. 

1845 Quarter Eagle. I'nc. Rare. 

1872 Quarter Eagle. Very Fine. Was 

Proof. Itare. Only 3030 pieces 

coined. 

1877 Quarter Eagle. S. Mint. Very 
fine. 

1795 Ten Dollars. Gold. V. Rare. Some 
call It Very Fine, but I call it 
Fine. 

1836 Half Dollar, • Milled Edge. Fine. 
V. Rare. 

1858 Dime. Proof. Rare. 

Mail me your best offer, and I’ll 
guarantee the coins to be satisfac- 
tory or your money refunded. 


FRANK T. SAVAGE, 

436 Melville St., Rochester .N.Y. 


La.s Cnicos, Now Mexico. 


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175 


My next event will inaugurate the 

THIRD HUNDREDTH OF PUBLIC SALES 
OF COINS AND MEDALS 

I have held since 1884. 

It will be one of imiusual importance and interest, off- 
ering a WASHINGTON-CONFEDERATIO, Seven of the 
RAREST HALF CENTS, and many other gems, all of 
which will be aiipropriately portrayed in the catalogue. 
It will probably take place early in the month of May. 

To those who so kindly communicated their congratula- 
tions on my 200th Sale — and they were pleasingly numer- 
ous — I take this occasion to extend my most sincere thanks 
and acknowledgment, assuring them of deep appreciation 
for such remembrance. 

LYMAN H. LOW, 

28 Clinton Place.. New Rochelle, N. Y. 

March 19, 1920. 


SILVER COINS 
OF THE U. S. 

All Series in Uncirculated and Proof 
Condition. 

Send me your want list. 
Collections Purcha.sed for Cash. 

G. L. TILDEN, 

405 Main St., Worcester, Mass. 


COINS, 

l’. S. (loltl. Sliver anil Copper Colna, 

Anelent mill Modern Foreign Coins. 

1. S. FraetlonnI Currency, llrokeu 
■lank anil Confeilerate Bills. 

I have sold my interest in all other 
lines of business end will Itereafter de- 
vote my entire time to my coin busi- 
ness. wlilcli lias increased rapidly of 
late. 

I want at least a share of your pat- 
ronage, and will prove to you that I 
can please ,vou. and perhaps save you 
some money. 

First, I would appreciate your want 

NORMAN SHULTZ, 

KING CITY, MO. 


TO MEMBERS OF THE A. N. A. 

Tlie dues of A. X. A. members — 50 cents— and subscription to 
THE NUMISMATIST- $1.50— for 1920 should he paid at the 
earliest opportunity. Both are payable to the General Secre- 
tary. Please send your elieck or money order for $2 jiromptly 
to 11. II. Yawger, General Secretary, 78 Linden Street, Rochest- 
er, N. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


Fractional Currency 

JiiNt Iteccired, 

A choice crisp, 
uncirculated 1 o t. 
Including all Is- 
sues. 

lied Bnckn nnd 
Auto Slfciintiirex. 

Prices on appli- 
cation. 

Thou sands of 
Coins In stock of 
every country and 
period. Send us 
your want list. 

The Nunil.Huifillo Guide In its 13th 
Edition, having 350 illustrations, quotes 
our buying and selling prices, and Is 
sent postpaid on receipt of 15c. 

Arnold Nomismatic Cn, g 

STAMP AND COIN 
EXCHANGE 

78 Nassau Street, New York City. 
Price list free. Premium Catalog 10c. 
Coin Coilections Purchased for Cash. 
l..arge Silver CiitaluK 50e; Copiier ilCl.OO. 


WAR MEDALS. 

Collector wants those of any countrv, 
any war. 

Want just now (British): 

Ceiitml .itrieii, 1H1I4-1SIIS. 

Must niid Central .\frlea. 
Khedives Sf>iidnn, J!)10. 

.VNliaiiti, 11100. 

C. S. GIFFORD, Box 5274, Boston, 4. 


KIMBALL’S AD. 

A set of Specimens U. S. Currency 
with wide margins, crisp and new, 
some with Ite<l Backs and Autograi)h 
Signatures; 30 fronts and hacks, 40 
pieces, $35.00. 

My 1. 1st Xo. 6 is out. Send for it. 
Over 1000 lots. 

K. It, K I >1 ll.\ 1 , 1 ,, Itooni 124, 18 Trenioiit 
St., Klnihall Hldg., IIONtou, Maa.s. 


WAR PAPER MONEY 

OF GER.MAN TOWNS. 

Fine execution. Unused. Sold by 

L. HUMMEL, 

Munich, Siiatcnbrewery’, Bavaria. 


FOR SALE AND WANTED. 
Paper Money of All Kinds. 

Correspondence Solicited. 

JOHN EDWIN MORSE, 

Hnc1le>’t MaMMachuHettM. 


A Few Good Coin Books Left. 

A Fine U. S. Note Collection for Sale. 
Also a Confed. & B. B. Collection. 


W V.XTEn — Bare U. S. Postage Stamps. 

A. ATLAS LEVE, 

P. I). Ilox 4!l.">, Syracuae, Y. 


AS;.SO(TATEU t'OLLECTORS 
SOCIETY. 

Does more for coin dealers than any 
other Society of its kind. A fine silver 
membership Pin free with each mem- 
lier at only a dollar a year for dues. 
Particulars free. 

I* A I I, Sr UMEKS, Secretary, 
UuelieNter. Tesna. 


OLD COINS BOUGHT. 

(.'nail palil and iironipt and efilclent 
Kervioe giinrnuteed. 

Ask us before you sell your coins. 
We also have a fine line of coins for 
.salt- and e.xchange. 

HARRY KELSO, Arma, Kans. 

Acme 

Transparent Envelopes 

Set of 23 Pockets to hold all regular 
Issues U. S. Fractional Cy., $1.00. 

Dollar bill size, per doz., $1.60, post- 
paid. Send dime for samples and list. 
Manufactured by 
C. N. HINCKLEY, 

47,'itl Dover Street, Chicago, HI. 


Are You Doing Your Share 


In the 


Drive for New Members 


of the A. N. A.? 


Give the Officers Your Support. 



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The Numismatist 


VOL. XXXllI. MAY, 1020. No. S 


A TRIAL LIST OF THE COUNTERMARKED MODERN 

COINS OF THE WORLD. 


By F. G. DUFFIELD. 


(continued from last month.) 


PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

768. Peso, , Cm. “MANILA” in radiated wreath. 

769. Peru, Sol, , Cm. arms of Spain crowned and “MANILA 1828.” 

770. Peru, Sol, , Cm. “MANILA 1828.” 

771. Mexico. Peso. , Cm., “MANILA 1828.” 

772. Peru, Sol, 1826, 1827, Cm. “.MANILA 1828.” 

Though the descriptions of the above countermarks differ or are some- 
times incomplete in sale catalogs, they refer to a single countermarked is- 
sue. As a rule, these coins are in poor or fair condition, and portions of the 
countermark do not show. The following piece is of the same issue, but 
also has a second countermark (for Cuba). 

773. Peru, Sol, , Cm. “MANILA 1828,” and also Cm. with a crowned 

“YII.” 

774. Mexico, Peso, Charles III, , Cm. “.M L” in monogram (attributed 

to Manila). 


POLAND. 

Danzig was besieged by Stephen Bathori, King of Poland, in 1577, which 
is said to have been responsible for the following countermarked issue: 

775. England, Rose Noble, Edward IV, , Cm. with the arms of Danzig. 

776. Kremnitz, Ducat, 154 3, Cm. with Danzig stamp. 

777. Breslau, Ducat, 1559, Cm. with Danzig stamp. 

Coins bearing a countermark of the letters “S A” in monogram, a crown 
above, separating the date, “15 64,” are said to have been so stamped by 
Sigismund Augustus during the war between Poland and Russia. 

778. Half Thaler, Chas. V, , Cm. as above. 

779. Half Thaler, Philip II, , Cm. as above. 

780. Naples and Sicily, Testone, Philip II, , Cm. as above. 

781. Poland, Riga, Schilling, Sigismund III (1587-1632), Cm. “H B” in 

monogram. 

782. Poland, Solidus, John Casimir (1648-68), Cm. a hand. 

783. Bavaria, Groschen, Maximilian Emanuel, 1695, Cm. with a Lithuanian 

horseman. 

78 4. Poland, 10 Groszy, 1840, Cm. with the Poland eagle in an eight-cor- 
nered field. 


PORTUGAL. 

785. Portugal, Tostao (100 Reis). Manuel I ( 1 495-1521 ), probably struck 
for Guinea, Cm. a Gothic “T.” 


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By the law of February 1, 1643, the coins of Portugal were counter- 
marked to increase their value 20 per cent. 


786. Half Tostao of Philip, , Cm. “60.” 

787. Half Tostao of Sebastian (1557-1578), Cm. “60.” 

788. Real of John III (1521-1557), Cm. “80.” 

789. Two Vintens (40 Reis) of Philip, Cm. “80.” 

790. Real of John III, Cm. “100.” 

791. Four Vintens (80 Reis) of Philip, Cm. “100.” 

792. Tostao of Emanuel ( 1495-1521), Cm. “120.” 

793. Tostao of John HI, Cm. “120.” 

794. Tostao of Sebastian, Cm. “120.” 

795. Tostao of Philip, Cm. “120.” 

796. Tostao of Philip III, Cm. “120.” 

797. Tostao of Philip II-III, Cm. “200.” 



No. 797. No. 7SC. No. 794. 

By the law of 1663 coins of Portugal were countermarked to Increase 
their value 25 per cent. 




798. Two Vintens of John HI, Cm. crowned “50.” 

799. Two Vintens of John IV, Cm. crowned “50.” 

800. Two Vintens of Philip, Cm. crowned “50.” 

801. Half Tostao of Philip, Cm. crowned “60.” 

802. Half Tostao of Sebastian, Cm. crowned “100.” 

803. Four Vintens of John IV, Cm. crowned “100.” 

804. Half Tostao of John IV, Cm. crowned “100.” 

805. Tostao of Philip, Cm. crowned “200.” 

806. Two Tostaos of John IV. Cm. crowned “250.” 

807. Half Cruzado of John IV, Cm. crowned “250.” 

808. Half Cruzado of Alphonso VI, Cm. crowned “250.” 

809. Cruzado of John IV, Cm. crowned “500.” 

810. Cruzado of Alphonso VI, 1666, Cm. crowned “500.” 

811. Gold Four Cruzados of .\lphonso VI, 1666, Cm. crowned “4” and al- 

so with crowned “4400.” 


Coins of dollar size of Spain or Spanish .America bearing a countermark 
of the crowned arms of Portugal are said to have been so stamped to make 
them current in Portugal for 870 Reis during the reign of Michael (Usurp- 
er), 1828-1833, or shortly after his expulsion from Lisbon in the latter year. 


812. Spain, Peso, 1798, 1816, 1 818, 1819, 1821, 1823, Cm. crowned arms 

of Portugal. 

813. Bolivia, 8 Reals, 1803, 1807, Cm. crowned arms of Portugal. 

814. Mexico. 8 Reals, 1809, 1811, 1817, 181 8, 1819, 1 820, 1821, Cm. 

crowned arms of Portugal. 

815. Brazil, 960 Reis, 1 820, Cm. crowned arms of Portugal. 

816. Portugal. Copper 40 Reis, 1847, Cm. “G. C. P.” (for “Governo Civil 

do Porto”). 


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RUSSIA. 

During the war between Sweden and Poland, 1648-63, coins of other 
countries were countermarked by Alexis Michaelovitch, Grand Duke of Mos- 
cow, to increase their commercial value from 50 Kopeks to about 64 Ko- 
peks. The countermark represents the Grand Duke counted on a horse, 
within a circle of pellets, in a circular depression considerably larger than 
the device: above it the date, ‘‘1655,” in an oblong depression; all in relief. 



No. 822. 


817. Saxony, Thaler, Augustus, 1579, Cm. as above. 

818. Brabant, Patagon, 1622, 1623, 1627, Cm. as above. 

819. Poland, Thaler, Wladlslaus IV, 1642, Cm. as above. 

820. Saxony, Thaler, John George, 1646, Cm. as above. 

821. Kremnitz, Thaler, Ferdinand III, 1650, Cm. as above. 

822. Gelderland, Ecu, , Cm. as above. 

823. Tournay, Patagon, Albert and Isabella, , Cm. as above. 


The following are all on coins of Russia: 


824. 5 Kopecks, 1727, Cm. with a double eagle. (Said to have been so 

stamped under Ivan, 1740-41.) 

825. Quarter Ruble, 1797, Cm. double eagle and ‘‘1795.” 

826. Silver 10 Kopecks, 1798, Cm. double eagle and ‘‘1795.” 

827. Silver 5 Kopecks, 1835, Cm. twice with standing lion in square field. 

828. Quarter Ruble, 1705, Cm. with small stamp (not described). 

829. One Kopeck, 1756, Cm. three times with a human face. 

830. One-third Thaler, Elizabeth, 1761 (struck during the Prussian occu- 

pation, 1759-62), Cm. “G” in an oval. 

831. Copper coin of Peter the Great, , Cm. “G.” 

832. Ruble, 1705, struck over a Waldeck Thaler. 

833. Ruble, Elizabeth. 1742, struck over an older Russlal Ruble. 

834. Copper Five Kopecks, 1763, 1764, 1765, 1766, 1788, 1791, 1794, 

struck over copper 10 Kopecks. 

835. One Kopeck, 1795, struck over a Kopeck of 1772. 

836. Quarter Kopeck of Anna (1730-40) struck over a Kopeck of the pre- 

ceding reign. 


S.ALVADOR. 


837. 

838. 

839. 

840. 

841. 


Salvador, 

Salvador, 

Salvador, 

Salvador, 

Salvador, 


Necessity 2 Reals. 1828, Cm. small stamp (not described). 
Provisional 2 Reals, 1832, 1833, 1 834, Cm. a leaf or fiower. 
Provisional 2 Reals, 1833, Cm. ‘‘S A” in monogram. 
Provisional 2 Reals, 1834, Cm. a notched or serrated line. 
Provisional Real, , struck over an older coin. 


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842. South Peru, 8 Reals, 1837, Cm. a mountain in a square; beiow it, 

“1839.” 

843. South Peru, 2 Reals, 1837, Cm. a mountain in a square; below it, 

“1839.” 

844. Guatemala, Proclamation 2 Reals, 1837, Cm. a mountain in a square; 

below it, “1839.” 


A countermark that is found on a variety of small silver coins of other 
countries is attributed to Salvador of the period of 1839-40. Two of the 
coins are dated later than that. The countermark consists of a round de- 
vice with a pyramid in a small shield, two cornucopias and a liberty cap 
and pole above it, two flags draped at tbe sides, the ends of the flags cross- 
ed at the bottom of the shield. There are at least three varieties of this 
countermark, differing only in slight details. 



No. 864. 


F 



1 - 







No. 851. 



No. 860. 


845. Spanish-American irregular Real, , Cm. as above. 

846. Spanish-American Real, 1742, 1793, 1799, Cm. as above. 

84 7. Lima, 2 Reals, 1753, Cm. as above. 

848. Mexico, 2 Reals, 1754, 1789, 1790, 1819, Cm. as above. 

849. Potosi, Real, 1773, Cm. as above. 

850. Potosi, 2 Reals, 1773, Cm. as above. 

851. Spain, Real, 1774, Cm. as above. 

852. Guatemala, Proclamation Real, 1789, Cm. as above. 

853. Spanish-American 2 Reals, 1792, Cm. as above. 

854. Peru, 2 Reals, 1801, Cm. as above. 

855. Mexico, Sombrette 4 Reals, 1812, Cm. as above. 

856. England, Sixpence, 1817, 1819, 1834, Cm. as above. 

857. England, Shilling, 1817, 1824, 1826, Cm. as above. 

858. Spain, 2 Reals, 1817, Cm. as above. 

859. Bogota, Real, 1838, Cm. as above. 

860. New Granada, 2 Reals, 1844, Cm. as above. 

861. Guatemala, Proclamation Real, , Cm. as above. 

862. England, Shilling, 1817, Cm. as above, also Cm. on reverse with two 

crossed branches of laurei. 

Siiver coins of all denominations Guatemala issued under Carrera are 
found countermarked with an “R” within a circie of peliets in a round de- 
pression, and are said to have been so stamped by General Barrios as Pres- 
ident of Salvador during the war between that country and Guatemala in 
in 1862. The letter “R” is sai dto signify “Revision.” 

863. Guatemala, Peso, 1859, Cm. as above. 

864. Guatemala, 4 Reals, 1860, 1861, Cm. as above. 

865. Guatemala, 2 Reals, 1860, 1861, 1862, Cm. as above. 

866. Guatemala, Real, 1860, 1861, 1862, Cm. as above. 

867. Guatemala, Half Real, 1862, Cm. as above. 

868. France, Half Franc, 1867, Cm. on obverse, “1 R” and on reverse “1 — 

R” and “R S” in monogram. (Attributed to Salvador.) 

(to be continued.) 


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U. S. POSTAGE STAMPS AS NECESSITY WAR MONEY. 


By HENRY RUSSELL DROWNE. 


(Reprinted, by permission, from Volume RII (191S) of tlie .\merican Journal of 

Numi.smatlcs.) 


In the early part of the Civil War tiie prospect of a long struggle be- 
tween the North and South caused tne people of the Nortn to hoard their 
money. Gold, silver and copper money in circulation to the extent of many 
millions of dollars, disappeared in a comparatively short time as if by magic. 
In consequence people and tradesmen found themselves without the means 
of carrying on the smallest money transactions without great trouble and 
inconvenience. This was in part due to the desire of tiie timid to save 
something of actual value from the threatened wreck of the Union, and to 
the foresight of the avaricious to hoard wnat might soon command a large 
premium.! Trade actually suffered for want of small change and even 
stage, street car and milk tickets were temporarily pressed into service. 
This resulted in the voluminous issue of the well known “shinplasters”2 
and “copperheads, ”3 but there was an intervening period before tne en- 
gravers, lithographers and die sinkers found occupation, when on account 
of the immediate necessity and for want of a better medium, postage 
stamps, of the issue of 1861, were used as a substitute for small change. 4 
It was only natural that in the early days of the great emergency atten- 
tion was directed to this only remaining issue of the Government tnat rep- 
resented money, and people unhesitatingly accepted even this flimsy sub- 
stitute as a circulating medium. Unfortunately postage stamps were not 
adapted to stand the wear and tear of barter and trade and it was soon 
apparent that they would stick to anything else, just as readily as they 
would to a letter. (Extract from an old song) 

■■ The till I keep liore In my pocket so safe. 

I HkIU up my kerosene lamps; 

At daylight I put up m>' shutters so tight. 

Then go in to count up my STAMPiS.” 

E. H.A.RRIGAN. 

The writer well remembers his father telling of the difficulties encoun- 
tered, during the winter of 1861-1862, in trying to pay six cents car fare in 
a Broadway stage on a cold stormy night with postage stamps. He described 
the trouble arising when change had to be made and how when the driver 
tried to pass the change through the little hole, high up in the front of the 
stage, where you pulled a bell to attract his attention, the stamps would 
stick to his wet woolen gloves and were hard to pick off; and you occa- 
sionally had to make him put his hand back a second time to get them. 
Sometimes, also, they fell and were lost in the straw on the floor of the 


iLarge amounts of silver coin were exported to Canada and South America, 
and a premium of from 10 to 12 per cent, was offered for small amounts by busi- 
ness men who desired it for convenience in making change. 

2 Promlssory notes of small value, generally from one cent to one dollar. 
Issued by merchants. Institutions and corporations, redeemable in goods or In 
stated amounts at tlteir place of business. The term ‘•shinplaster" originated In 
the days of the War of the Revolution when tiie Continental currency had be- 
come almost worthless. 

SMetal tokens issued to take the place of cents during the Civil War, 1861- 
1865. Many bear the Indian head copied from the small United States cent, patri- 
otic and other designs were also used in great variety. They were made princi- 
pally in 1862 and their use was prohibited In 1863. Tile term ‘•copperhead" ap- 
plied particularly in the early days of the Civil War to Northern sympathizers 
with the Confederates. — disloyal persons. 

4The Postmaster General in tils report of December. 1862, says. "In tbe first 
quarter of 'the current year, ending September 20th, the number of stamps issued 
to postmasters was one hundred and four million dollars; there were calls for 
about two hundred millions, which would liave been nearl.v sufficient to meet the 
usual demands for the year. This extraordinary demand arose from the tempo- 
rary use of these sta.mps as a currency for the public in lieu of tiie smaller de- 
nominations of specie, and ceased with tiie introduction of the so-called 'postal 
currency.’ ’’ 


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stage, and when wet you had to hold them carefully until they dried, be- 
fore you could put them in your pocket book. This was an exasperating 
method, but was the best substitute then in sight. The stamps used for 
money became quickly soiled and defaced, and for their better protection, 
as well as for convenience of assembling them in stated amounts, little en- 
velopes to hold them were made. 

Unfortunately, this method adopted in a hurry to help people out of their 
difficulties did not prove an entire success, for the stamps could and would 
stick to themselves as well as to anything else, so their career covered only 
a brief period of time. They had their day, passed away quickly and have 
now been long forgotten. 

The custom of using envelopes for stamps seems to have been confined 
almost entirely to our large cities, and after several years of careful search 
the writer has so far located them in New York City, Albany, Brooklyn 
and Jersey City, but he has been informed that some few were made and 
used in Philadelphia. 

The denominations found by the writer are as follows: 10, 13, 15, 20, 
25, 30, 50 and 75 cents. Those for 25 cents are by far the most common, 
about half as many are for 50 cents, and a quarter for 10 and 75 cents, 
and the 13 cent in only one instance. 

Denominations were frequently altered on the envelopes with pen and 
ink, 5 as shown on the illustrations, and several issues have the space left 
blank so that the value of the contents could be filled in. The writer has 
so far been able to list ninety separate issues of different designs which 
can he summed up briefly as, patriotic 15, stationers 29, theatres 7, busi- 
ness, etc., 25, nameless 16 and home made 1. The following is a list of 
the different imprints found on these envelopes: 


BUSINESS FIRMS, ETC. 

H. Armstrong, Hosiery, Laces, &c 140 Sixth Ave., New York 

Joseph Bryan, Clothing 214 Fulton St., Brooklyn. 

G. C. Brown, Segar Store 669 Broadway, New York 

P. D. Braisted, Jr., Billiard Hall 14-16 Fourth Ave., New York 

Chas. T. Chlckhaus, Segars & Tobacco 176 Broadway, New York 

Crook & Duff, Bar, Lunch & Dining Room 39-40 Park Row, New York 

Mad. A. Doubet, Importer, &c 697 & 951 Broadway, New York 

Francis Duffy, Oyster & Dining Saloon 239-241 Eighth Ave., New York 

Fox’s, Old Bowery Theatre New York 

German Opera 485 Broadway, New York 

Gould’s Dining Rooms 35 Nassau St., New York 

Harlem & N. Y. Nav. Co Sylvan Shore and Sylvan Grove 

James, Hatter 525 Broadway, New York 

Lansingh’s, Gents Furnishing Store Albany, New York 

Hy. Maillards, Confectionery, &c 621 Broadway, New York 

Mercantile Dining Room — B. Letson 256 Broadway, New York 

Miller & Grant, Importers, Laces, &c 703 Broadway, New York 

National Express Company 74 Broadway, New York 

New Bowery Theatre — J. W. Llngard [2 types] New York 

N. Y. Consolidated Stage Co New York 

Niblos Garden — Win. Wheatley (Edwin Forrest) New York 

Niblos Garden — Wm. Wheatley (Ravel Troup) New York 

Nixon’s Cremorne Garden — Palace of Music, &c. . .14 St. & 6 Ave., New York 

Chris. O'Neills, Liquor Store Hudson Ave., Brooklyn 

Oyster Bay House 553 Broadway. New York 

Pettit & Crook’s, Dining Rooms 136 Water St., New York 

Capt. Tom Reeves, Billiard Saloon 214 Broadway, New York 

Thomas Richardson Agt., Chop, Steak & Oyster House, 

66 Maiden Lane, New York 

Taylor’s Hotel Exchange Place, Jersey City 

The Oyster House 604 Broadway, New York 

James Wiley, Wines, Liquors & Segars 307 Broadway, New York 

Mr. Thomas Cunningham in an article published on page 7 5 of the 
Avu'rican Journal of Xumismatirs for 1893, states “the New York Central 


STlie most unu.sual example of thus is one changed from 7.5 to 90 cents. 


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Envelopes for Holding U. S. Postage Stamps Used as Currency During the Civil War. 


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183 



GOULD'S DINING ROOMS, 

35 Street, 

?pponHe Po(!t Offlet. ^ ~ NEW TORK. 


U. S. POSTAGE 
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Railroad utiuzed postage stamps by enclosing various amounts in small en- 
velopes wnicii were used as cnange.” 'I’he writer has never met with any 
of these, but without doubt this statement is correct. 

STATIONERS, PRINTERS, ETC. 


Bergen & Tripp 114 Nassau St., New York 

Berlin & Jones 134 William St., New York 

John -M. Burnet 51 William St., New, York 

Clarry & Reilley 12-14 Spruce St., New York 

B. P. Corlies & Macy 33 Nassau St., New York 

Cutter 'Tower & Co 128 Nassau St., New York 

T. R. Dawiey* [3 types] Reade & Centre Sts., New York 

Embree 130 Grand St., .New York 

Aruthur, Gregory & Co [2 types] 39 .Nassau St., New York 

Hamilton Jchnston 545 Broadway, New York 

C. O. Jones 76 Cedar St., New York 

Kaiser & Waters (by Dawley)* 104 Fulton St., New' York 

Leach (J. Leach) [8 types] 86 Nassau St., New York 

D. W. Lee [2 types] 82 Nassau St., New York 

.Macoy & Herw'ig 112-114 Broadway, .New York 

Frank McElroy 113 Nassau St., New York 

W. H. Murphy (by D. Murphy’s Son) 372 PearT St., New York 

Wm. Murphy (name on back) 438 Canal St., New York 

S. Raynor 118 William St., New York 

Wm. Robins [2 types] 51 Ann St., New York 

R. Scovel (Reuben Scovel) [2 types] 26 .Nassau St., New York 

H. Smith [3 types] 137 William St., New York 

Sonneborn [2 types] 130 Nassau St., New' York 

Dion Thomas 142 Nassau St., New' York 

R. D. Thompson 104 Fulton St., New York 


It seems useless to attempt to enumerate or describe those that bear no 
names whatsoever, as their general character is similar to the others. Some 
of the envelopes have denominations on both back and face, the majority 
are marked U. S. or United States Postage Stamps, but in some cases only 
the name Postage Stamps, P. O. Stamps, United States Stamps or U. S. 
Stamps is used, and a few' bear only the denomination. There are also 
some that have peculiar titles, as for example: 

“Uncle Sam’s Change” on Chris. O’Neill and Pettit & Crook 

“Legal Currency” on Harlem & N. Y. Nav. Co. 

“U. S. Official Documents” on Hamilton Johnston 

“Government Currency” cn Reuben Scovel 


The greatest variety and the largest quantity appear to ha\e been issued 
(twenty-five varieties having been listed and on one set alone we find the 
denominations 10, 15. 20, 25, 30, 50 and 75 cents) by the stationer J. 
Leach of 86 .Nassau St., New' York City, w'here this business is still con- 
ducted. 

Patriotic, designs w'ith flags, eagles, shields, etc., were numerous. The 
portrait of Washington appears to have been the only one used, and has 
been found in onlv one instance (by Hamilton Johnston). They were va- 
riously printed w'ith black, blue, red and green ink on w'hite, amber, lemon, 
pink, orange, violet, blue, pale green, buff, maniia and brown paper; but 
for all this red. white and blue, that is red and blue ink on white paper, 
seems to have been the most popular combination. There was no elaborate 
work employed in their manufacture, wood cuts and electrotypes seem to 
have been generolly employed, although the majority were only type set 
and all show evidences of having been hastily made and printed. When 
assembled, however, there is a marked variety and they make a novel and 
attractive collection. 

The metallic “Encased Postage Stamp”o has been enthusiastically collect- 


fll'nii'sph 1'niteh St'MPs postage slamn.s framed m a e'vc'i'sr c'se. the front 
protected tiy a s1>eet of mica, and the metal hack embossed with advertisements. 
-All have In small letters “Pat. Ang. 12. lSfi2 .T. OapU," ."nd were issued In .Inly 
and .Aiio-ast, 1R62 .®ee the excellent article h-'- ''^r. Ben O. Green of Chicago, on 
page 299 of The Numismatist for September, 1912. 


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€d for many years, but these envelope containers, which preceded even 
these, seem to nave escaped attention, and have now almost entirely dis- 
appeared. In Newport, R. 1., on July 4, 1862, notes were issued by William 
Newton & Co.,t for 5 and 10 cents, each note having stamps pasted there- 
on — thus for e.xample the hve cent note in possession of the writer has two 
one-cent and one tnree-cent stamps, and the ten cent note has three three- 
cent and one one-cent stamps. Designs were also made for similar 25 and 
50 cent notes, hut none were ever issued. In only one or two instances 
were any notes of tills singular character, combining a printed bill with the 
value pasted on in United States postage stamps, known to have been is- 
sued. 

It is quite evident that the necessity which caused the use of postage 
stamps as a substitute for money, resulted in the issue of the United 
States Fractional Currency and the caption under which it first appeared, 
"POSTAGE CURRENCY ’S with facsimiles of the five and ten cent stamps 
then in use made in similar perforated sheets, is significant of this, and 
shows that the Government fully appreciated tne services stamps had ren- 
dered temporarily as a natural currency. » ’ 

it may be of interest to call attention to the fact that in the present 
war with Germany postage stamps are being used in France as a substitute 
for small change encased in transparent paper sealed with a paster on the 
back bearing the name of the firm that issued them, as for example, “Au 
Bon March6, Paris.” The Russian government also resorted to stamps on 
account of the lack of small change, and reissued the stamps commemorat- 
ing the third centenary of the founding of the house of Romanoff, on thick 
paper with an inscription on the back stating that they were exchangeable 
for silver. Madagascar put into circulation the regular postage stamps 
mounted on thick cardboard with printing on the back, as a substitute for 
small change. 

This very interesting issue now first particularly described and enumer- 
ated is really a connecting link in the history of the Civil War money of 
the United States. The story told by these humble bits of paper is soon 
done. It has been well said, that as regards the substitute for money, in 
Itself of little value, there can exist no motive to record other than the 
truth. 

The writer desires to express his thanks to Messrs. Hiram E. Deats, 
Charles L. Moreau, Howland Wood and F. C. C. Boyd for valuable assist- 
ance and co-operation in his search for this material. 


7See article on page 350 of The Numismatist for July, 1913. 

80n July 17, 1S63, an act was passed which authorized the issue of “postage 
and other stamps of the United States;” which were receivable in exchange for 
United States notes, and In payment of all dues to the United .States, in sums of 
not less than five dollars. Under this law, notes of tlfe denominations of 5. 10, 
25 and 50 cents were Issued. These notes were Issued in .\ugust, 1862, and con- 
tinued in use until they were replaced by the fractional currency authorized by 
the act of March 3, 1863. The total issue amounted to $368,724,079.45. The pre- 
vious act (of 1862) prohibited private corporations, banking associations and In- 
dividuals from Issuing or circulating notes for fractions of a dollar, and Imposed 
a penalty, upon conviction, etc. 

OFrom the use of postage stamps as money in 1861-1862. bank-notes, green- 
backs fractional currency and any other paper money has since been freriuently 
alluded to as stamps. 


THE POUND STERLING. 


The suggested debasement of our silver coinage is a reminder that at one 
time the sovereign was worth exactly a Tower pound of silver; hence the 
term ‘‘pound sterling.” That was in the time of William I, but progressive 
debasement of the sovereign by successive monarchs ultimately so lowered 
the silver value of the coin that ultimately it required 3.3 sovereign to pur- 
chase a Troy pound of silver, and the difference between a Tower pound and 
a Troy pound is only a fraction of an ounce. 

Originally, too, 240 silver pennies were the equivalent of a pound, and 
that explains the “pennyweight,” which is the 240th of a Troy pound. We 
still keep the terms “pound sterling,” and “pennyweight.” but the sovereign 
is no longer worth a pound of silver, and the pennyweight has no connec- 
tion with the weight of a penny . — London Chronicle. 


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JACOB PERKINS, DIE-CUTTER, ENGRAVER. 


Jacob Perkins of Newburyport, Mass., is best known to collectors for 
having cut the dies for and issued two mortuary medals that were worn in 
funeral processions in memory of Washington a few weeks after his death. 
Both of these medals bear the Inscription, “He Is in Glory, the World in 
Tears.” Mr. Perkins’ name is so closely linked with these medals that it 
is seldom one of them is offered in a sale without being accompanied by a 
statement of its origin and purpose as mentioned above. 

Mr. Perkins is also known in a general way as having patented and 
placed on the market a design for bank notes wnich he claimed it was im- 
possible to counterfeit. Notes from his plates when offered in sales are 
usually accompanied by the information “From Perkins’ Plates.” 

Although Mr. Perkins possessed considerable skill as a die cutter, com- 
paratively few other issues are credited to him. In addition to the two 
medals of Washington mentioned above, he cut the dies for and issued the 
Victor Sine Clade medal, but his name is not so closely associated with 
this piece, and there have been some doubts as to whether it was one of 
his productions. 

He also cut the dies for what is called a “pattern U. S. dollar,” referred 
to below, and also the dies for some of the Massachusetts cents of 1787 
and 1788. 

Believing that something more of Mr. Perkins’ career and personality 
than has been recorded in a numismatic magazine would be of interest to 
collectors, .Mr. Harry A. Gray of Boston has gathered from various sources 
the following information for our readers, and has furnished specimens of 
the two medals for Illustration. 

(From the Perkins Family Geneology, Part III. by Sergeant Jacob Perkins. 1889.) 

Jacob Perkins was an eminent mechanic, and no man has done more 
than he to give to our country its well-deserved reputation for useful me- 
chanical inventions. His father had noticed in the boy a decided genius 
for mechanics, and apprenticed him when only 13 years of age to a Mr. 
Davis, a goldsmith of Newburyport, who died after Jacob had served him 
only three years, thereby depriving him of the benefit of his instruction, as 
well as dissolving the contract of apprenticeship. He did not, however, 
desert the family of his deceased master, but supported them by his labor 
during the four succeeding years. 

The busine.3s of an artisan in that trade at that time consisted largely in 
the manufacture of gold beads, silver knee and shoe buckles, etc. In this 
work he had introduced such improvements that the cost of these fashion- 
able articles was greatly reduced. 

He became skilled as a maker of &ies for the striking of coin, and re- 
ceived orders from the Government for making the dies used in striking 
the copper coin Issued at that time, an attempt in which others had signal- 
ly failed. Some of his dies are now to be seen in .Newburyport. 

At the age of 21 he invented a machine for making nails, by which the 
cutting off the iron and the heading of the nail was done instantly by a 
single operation, thus doing away with the tedious labor of the human 
hand. The nails in common use in this country at the present time are 
manufactured by his process. He was defrauded of the benefit of his in- 
vention by the dishonesty of his partners in business. 

In 1809 he brought out his “Patent Stereotype Steel Plate” for the pre- 
vention of counterfeits of bank bills and other paper securities, an inven- 
tion which has completely revolutionized the method of engraving these 
plates. His invention secured the sanction of the State authorities, and all 
banks in Ma.ssachusetts were obliged by law to use his plates. As a result, 
the bills of these banks were seldom counterfeited. Other States were not 
slow to avail themselves of the great protection his plates afforded, and 
their use has now become universal in every civilized country upon all 
bank notes and other evidences of indebtedness. 

He left his native town in 1816 for Philadelphia, where he resided a few 
years, and then sailed for Liverpool, England, on the ship “Telegraph.” 
While on the voyage his active mind knew no rest. Continued experiments 
in sounding resulted in his inventing a new and improved Instrument for 
finding the depth of the sea. This Instrument he called a bathometer. It 


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is said to be “as true in a 10-knot breeze as in a calm, indicating every 
fathom the instrument is under the surface of the sea.” He also insti- 
tuted experiments by which he proved the compressibility of water. 

From Liverpool he went to London, where he invented a new steam gun, 
capable of discharging ”1200 balls a minute.” This last Instrument he 
exhibited in the presence of the Duke of Wellington and other military 
officers. One of these steam batteries he constructed for the French Gov- 
ernment. 



From Currier’s "History of Newburyport.’' 
JACOB PERKINS. 

Among his other inventions was a “steam rocket engine,” also a “pro- 
peller for steam vessels” to take the place of paddle-wheels, and many 
others which we cannot here mention, but which if collected would make 
an interesting volume. He was known in England as the “American In- 
ventor.” 


(From “History of Newburyport, Mass., 1764-1909," by Jolm J. Currier.) 
Jacob Perkins, son of Matthew and Jane (Dole) i’erkins, was born in 
Newburyport, July 9, 1776. When only twelve years of age he was ap- 


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prenticed to a goldsmith and learned the art of making gold beads and 
plating shoe buckles. Before the adoption of the Federal Constitution, in 
17 88, he was employed to make the dies for the copper coin issued by the 
State of Massachusetts. (The old-fashioned copper cent, with an Indian 
on one side and an eagle on the other, was made from dies cut by Mr. 
Perkins.) 

November 11, 1790, he married Hannah Greeleaf, Rev. John Murray of- 
ficiating, and two years later invented and patented machines for cutting 
and lettering the edge of coin and also for detecting counterfeit money, 
as stated in the following communication published in the Essex Journal 
and New Hampshire Packet, July 18, 1792: 

“Several newspapers of the past and present week have prematurely 
mentioned Mr. Perkins of this town being sent for to Philadelphia, for the 
purpose of superintending the coinage there. Mr. Perkins’ abilities in 
that line are fully adequate to such an appointment, as the specimens he 
has exhibited in that line amply testify. Instead of the former method of 
performing the business, he has invented a new machine, which cuts the 
metal into such circular pieces as are wanted, and gives the impression at 
the same time — its motion is accelerated by a balance-wheel, and more than 
one-third of the time and labor thereby saved. He has also constructed 
another machine, of his own invention, for milling or lettering the edge, by 
which a boy can mill sixty each minute. Were it found necessary, he could 
apply steam to perform all the most laborious part of the business. But 
what is of more importance, and will be found to be of more public utility 
than all the foregoing, is a check, which he has invented, for discovering 
counterfeits — this is so contrived as that one-eighth of a minute is suffi- 
cient to determine, without the possibility of a mistake, wh^iher a piece 
of money is genuine or not, and any town or merchant can be supplied at a 
small expense with said checks, and then rest assured that an imposition 
will be absolutely impossible.” 

In 1799 a new method of detecting counterfeit bank notes was announc- 
ed in the newspapers of the day (Newburyport Herald and County Ga- 
zette, .May 14, 1799), as follows; 

"JACOB PERKINS 

Having invented an effectual check for detecting counterfeit Bank Paper, 
which has received the sanction of several banks, and the approbation of 
the undersigned eminent artistis of Philadelphia, and having obtained a pat- 
ent securing to him, and to his assigns, the exclusive right of the inven- 
tion, hereby otters to his fellow-citizens the privilege of using it upon terms 
to be agreed on between him and any person disposed to avail themselves ot 
a guard against counterfeits. 

“The undersigned having examined Jacob Perkins' new invented method 
to detect counterfeit Bank Paper, do approve of the plan; it being impos- 
sible to engrave or sink two plates perfectly alike, without the original die 
or hub, the counterfeiter would find it impossible to make an impression 
which would perfectly gage with the check from the original die. 

■ Robert Scott, Engraver & Die Sinker. 

“James Smither, Engraver. 

“James Akin, Engraver.” 

The invention for preventing the counterfeiting of bank bills consisted 
of a simple device for printing on the face of the bill, in fine type, many 
times repeated, the amount for which it was issued, and on the back of 
the bill letters and figures grotesquely arranged, as shown in the half-tone 
prints on pages 364 and 366, reproduced from an unfinished and unsigned 
bank bill now in the possession of the .American Antiquarian Society, Wor- 
cester, Mass. 

In 1804 -Mr. Perkins discovered a process by which steel plates could be 
hardened without injury to the engraved surface. large number of these 
plates were made and sold to banking associations in New England, as 
stated in the following advertisement: (Newburyport Herald, .March 8, 
1805): , 

“STEREOTYPE PLATES FOR BANKS. 

“The Patentee of the Stereotype Plates for the impression of Bank Bills 


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informs the Public that he has constantly on hand ready made plates (the 
name of the Bank and Town excepted), and will be happy to supply Banks 
on the shortest notice. His terms are reasonable and uniform, the plates 
well executed, and he has the autnority of many eminent artists, as well as 
the sanction of experience, to say that bills impiessed from these plates 
cannot be counterfeited. No attempts of the kind have ever yet been made, 
tho’ it has been adopted and is now used by sixteen Banks in New England. 

“Encouraged by the success of his principle, and the increasing demand 
for his plates, he has at a great expense improved his former invention by 
adding beauty to security. He has formed a steel plate of sixty-four dies, 
impressed by the same dies now used for copper-plates, neatly htted and 
keyed together in a strong iron frame. The name of the Bank and Town 
and the denomination of the Bill are removed and submitted at pleasure. 
The standing part of the plates are elegantly engraved by .Mr. James Akin. 
When completed there will be from six to seven hundred days work in the 
plate, and being well hardened, it will, without injury, print more paper 
than will be used in the United States. It is now nearly finished, and any 
orders addressed to him at Newburyport will be punctually honored. 

“Jacob Perkins.’’ 



From Currier’s "History of Newburyport.’" 
A BANK NOTE FROM PERKINS’ PRATES. 


In a small pamphlet of eight pages, published in January, 1806, now in 
the Boston Public Library, Mr. Perkins described his invention as a case- 
hardened steel plate, with steel dies, one inch thick, keyed together in a 
strong iron frame and firmly screwed to a metal plate one inch in thick- 
ness. The plate is made in separate parts in order that it may serve to 
print bills of any denomination. The title page of this pamphlet reads as 
follows: “The Permanent Stereotype Steel Plate, With Observations on Its 
Importance and an Explanation of Its Construction and Uses. C. Stebbins, 
Printer, 1806.” 

In 1808 these plates were used in a series of copy books, published for 
the use of school children, with a title as follows; “Perkins Fairman’s 
Running Hand, Stereographic Copies. Patent Steel Plates.” Gideon Fair- 
man, who was associated with Jacob Perkins in tbe publication of these 
copy books, was an engraver in Newburyport at that date. In 1810 he 


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removed to Philadelphia, and the next year was a member of the firm of 
Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co.” 

The firm of Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co., engravers, was established 
in Philadelphia by George Murray, John Draper and Gideon Fairman, pre- 
vious to the declaration of war with Great Britain in 1812. Charles Top- 
pan of Newburyport was employed in 1814 to assist the firm in engraving 
copper plates to be used in printing bank bills, and in 1816 .Mr. Perkins 
was Induced to remove to that city. 

Accompanied by Gideon Fairman of Philadelphia and Charles Toppan of 
Newburyport, Mr. Perkins went to London in 1819 to introduce his stereo- 
type plates, but was unable to induce the directors of the Bank of England 
to pay the sum asked for printing bills by this method. 

Although somewhat disheartened, he decided to remain in London and 
establish himself in business there. The next year, in company with Charles 
Heath and Gideon Fairman, he engraved and sold a large number of steel 
book plates, and subsequently supplied the Bank of Ireland with stereo- 
type plates on which its bank notes were printed. 

In 1822 "Jacob Perkins’ Patent Hardened Steel Plates” were gener'illy 
used for the illustrations of books and the reproduction of pictures and por- 
traits. During the next two or three years his brother, Abraham Perkins, 
printed from these patent plates, in Newburyport, bills for most of the 
banks in Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts. On May 20, 18 25, 
the editor of the Daily Herald, referring to this fact, reminded its readers.' 
somewhat facetiously, that, notwithstanding the cry of hard times, "there 
is more money made in Newburyport than in any other town in the Com- 
monwealth.” 

Postage stamps were first issued in England in May, 1840. Sir Rowland 
Hill, Postmaster-General at that date, describing the engraving and printing 
of these stamps, states that the work was done substantially as follows: 

"The Queen’s head was first engraved by hand on a single matrix, the 
effigy being encompassed with lines too fine for any hand, or even any but 
the most delicate machinery to engrave. The matrix being subsequently 
hardened was employed to produce impressions on a soft steel roller of 
sufficient circumference to receive twelve; and this being hardened, in turn, 
was used under very heavy pressure to produce and repeat its counterpart 
on a steel plate, to such an extent that this, when used in printing, pro- 
duced at each impression two hundred and forty stands: all this being of 
course done, as machinists will at once perceive, according to the process 
invented by the late Mr. Perkins.” 

Jacob Perkins died July 30, 1849, at the residence of his son, in Re- 
gent Square, London. 


(From American Journal of Numismatics, Volume XXVII, Page 25.) 

Jacob Perkins, An Early New England Die Cutter. 

Most of the early engravers of the dies from which American coins and 
medals of the last century were struck, of whom there were but few, were 
self-educated men, without the advantages of training under skilled in- 
structors, and in most cases without even the opportunity of studying the 
achievements of masters whose work had preceded them. This fact gives 
a special Interest not merely to the results of their labors, but to their 
personal history. John Hull, who is supposed to have cut the dies for the 
early New England and Pine Tree money, was probably the first to prac- 
tice the art in the American colonies, .^nd the romantic story of the as- 
tonishing profits he is reputed to have made, a part of which, as Haw- 
thorne’s mythologic tale has informed us, he invested in a dowry for his 
daughter on her marriage, though its absurdity was long ago shown. Is 
still rehearsed to admiring schoolboys as veracious history; Higley, whose 
Granby coppers with their mighty axe and the dear at gaze, brought him 
many a mug of flip, if tradition tells the truth. Paul Revere, who suggest- 
ed some of the patterns for Massachusetts coins, and the various engravers 
of the Innumerable dies of Connecticut, New Jersey and the other colonial 
coppers: Chalmers, Standish Barry, if indeed they personally cut the dies 
for the pieces attributed to them; Abel Buel, and others, who need not be 
named, are Instances to point. Most of these issues could be properly 
classed among necessity pieces, and doubtless many interesting items of 


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■various difflculties which attended their production and the means by which 
they were surmounted might be brougnt to light from the records of the 
past by a curious investigator, which would add an interesting chapter to 
the early history of American numismatics. 

One of the most ingenious of this group of workmen, and one of the 
earliest to attempt to engrave medallic dies, was Jacob Perkins, whose 
medal of Washington, bearing an urn and the inscription, “He Is in Glory, 
the World in Tears,’’ is well known to collectors. He was born in New- 
buryport. Mass., July 9, 1766. His father was a tailor, and carried on his 
business in that quaint old town on the banks of the Merrimac, which at 
that time was a prosperous municipality and the home of many distinguished 
men. On its principal street stands the church wliere Whitfield lies 
buried, the well-known friend of the Wesleys and the Countess of Hunting- 
don, and to whose fervid sermons on his journeys through the colonies 
Franklin occasionally listened. Jacob’s father had a numerous family, and 
brought them up in much of the strictness which characterized the period; 
but Jacob was somewhat disposed to resent the rigor of the parental rule, 
and it is related that on one occasion having been sent to his chamber for 
some trifling misdemeanor, his father repaired thither shortly after, de- 
termined to apply the rod of correction, but was astonished to find only an 
empty room; the boy had discovered some balls of the “listing’’ torn from 
his father’s woolens, and, extemporizing a rope, had made his escape. 
Whether this ability of taking care of himself led to the immediate result 
of his leaving home, history does not relate, but soon after, at the age of 
fifteen, w’e find him at work as a goldsmith, and assuming a large share of 
the responsibility of the business. 

At the age of twenty-one he is said to have made his first attempt at 
putting dies for striking coins. A letter from Mr. Matthew A. Stickney, in 
the Journal for September, 1868, (p 36), says that he “executed beautifully 
a silver pattern for the first coinage of United States dollars,” an impres- 
sion of which, obtained from a nephew of Mr. Perkins, is in the Stickney 
cabinet, who esteems it as among the choicest pieces in his possession, and 
who remarks that it was rejected because it bore the medallion head of 
Washington. 

On the 11th of February, 1800, a Masonic procession was held in which 
the Grand Lodge, Samuel Dunn, Grand Master, and 1600 Brethren partici- 
pated, many of them wearing a Medal struck for the occasion from dies cut 
by Jacob Perkins. The obverse has a bust of Washington to left, in uniform, 
and surrounded by a wreath of laurel. It bears the legend, “He Is in 
Glory, the World In Tears,” which was suggested by the Hon. Dudley A. 
Tyng, who was at one time collector of the Port of Newburyport. The re- 
verse has an inscription in four concentric lines and a skull and cross- 
bones at the bottom. 



Eleven days later a civic procession marched through the streets of the 
same city, and another medal, having the same obverse, but a different re- 
verse, with an urn, etc., the dies of which were also cut by Perkins, was 
worn. These medals were struck in a three-story wooden building which 
stood for many years in .Market Place, Newburyport, and perhaps is still 
there; it was just below the Ocean Bank. 


The “pattern silver dollar” referred to in the above extract can hardly 


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be classed as a pattern coin. An “impression from the die” would be a 
better designation, for it appears that Mr. Perkins cut only one die — the 
obverse. Only one of these impressions is known, which was offered in the 
sale of the Stickney collection by Mr. Henry Chapman in 1907, where it was 
described as follows; 

“(1793) Dollar. Bust of Washington in military costume facing left, 
on a plain field surrounded by concentric bands of various designs; in the 
outer one at the top in incused letters is the word ‘Washington.’ Struck 
on a thin silver planchet, the reverse being the same design as obverse in- 
cused. Silver. Extremely fine and perfect. Size 26. Unique and unpub- 
lished, unknown to everyone — not even in Baker’s ‘.Medallic Portraits of 
Washington, 1885.’ It is wrapped in a piece of old paper and inscribed in 
Mr. Stickney’s handwriting — $10 Pattern dollar, 1793, by Jacob Perkins of 
Newburyport, given me by his nephew — very rare.’ ’’ 


(From the American Journal of Xuml.ismatics, Volume VIJ, Page 77.) 

Appleton’s List of Washington Medals. 

LIV. George Washington; bust of Washington, facing the left, within a 
wreath of olive. Rev., “He Is in Glory, The World in Tears.” In exergue, 
“Born Feb. 11, 1732. Ob. Dec. 14, 1799. AE. 68; an altar inscribed 
“Victor Sine Clade,” and decorated with evergreen: on top stands a fu- 
neral urn, against wnich a boy leans weeping; at the left of the altar stands 
Minerva leaning on a shield, with tne eagle of the United States; on the 
altar and at the right is a group of various implements of peace and war, 
as compasses, swords, flag, trumpet, pennon, guns, anchor, cannon, balls, 
&c.: Tin. Size 36. 


(American Journal of Numismatics, Volume XXIV, Page -1.) 

A Washington Masonic. 

The .Massachusetts -Mercury of Boston, February 11, 1800, has the fol- 
lowing: 

“A National and Masonic medal, on one side of which is a bust of Wash- 
ington, pronounced by judges an excellent likeness, and on the reverse an 
urn, on the pedestal of which is this motto, “Victor Sine Clade,” with em- 
blems -Masonic, national, and fanciful, has been received from Newbury- 
port, and is for sale by E. Moulton, -No. 11, and D. Tyler, No. 15 Cornhill; 
T. Pons, opposite Faust’s Statue, Newburry Street: S. Sumner, No. 1 S. 
Turrell, and at the Bunch of Grapes, State Street; R. Evans, Hanover Street; 
and P. Revere, jun.. Fore-street.” 

This is No. LIV in Appleton’s List of Washington Medals. (See the 
Journal, Vol. V’ll, p. 77). It has not been considered heretofore as being 
Masonic, but from this contemporary notice, which is the nature of an 
advertisement, it would seem that it was so intended by its maker, and as 
it was “received from Newburyport,” it was doubtless the work of Jacob 
Perkins. 


(.Xmerlcan Journal of Numismatics. Volume XXX, Page IIS.) 

Jacob Perkins. 

The following item, taken from “J. Russell’s Gazette” (Boston), Janu- 
ary 6, 1800, has some interest for medal collectors. In connection with 
another extract, published in the Journal of Numismatics (XXIV, 21) for 
July, 1889, it shows conclusively that the Washington Medal there men- 
tioned was the work of Jacob Perkins, which hitherto has been a matter 
of surmise only. 

“.Mr. Jacob Perkins, of Newburyport, has designed and executed a very 
beautiful Medal of Gen. Washington. On one side is an excellent likeness 
of that illustrious personage; and on the reverse, a memoranda of the most 
remarkable periods of his life. They are struck in gold, silver, or white 
metal, and may be purchased of Mr. Perkins, or at the Bookstore in New- 
buryport, and of Mr. Eben Moulton, goldsmith, in this town.” 


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The item given by our correspondent is interesting as confirming state- 
ments made in Vol. XXVII, p. 27, of the Journal, which has probably es- 
caped his notice. — Eds. 



The Victor Sine Clade Medal, by Perkins. 


The “Victor Sine Clade’’ medal is illustrated here from a specimen in the 
collection of Mr. Gray, who writes as follows concerning it: 

“There seems to be a doubt as to who cut the dies for this medal, Jacob 
Perkins or Nicholas Pearce. Baker seems to think it was Pearce. But one 
of the enclosed extracts from the A. J. of V. holds a different opinion. It 
is struck in pewter or tin or lead, and Baker says it is such a soft metal 
that a decent specimen is extremely rare. Mine is a fine specimen, and it 
contains one feature which neither Appleton nor Baker mentions, viz.: 
Above the head on the obverse is an oval composed of sixteen stars in a 
glory of rays. It is very faint, but nevertheless it is there, and no matter 
who cut the dies it is worthy of notice. In Currier’s “History of New 
buryport’’ there is proof enough to satisfy me that Perkins cut the dies 
for this medal. In one of the extracts from the A. J. of V. this medal is 
described as coming from Newburyport. Currier’s History, under the head- 
ing “Authors, Artists and Engravers,” makes no mention whate\er of Pearce, 
therefore the conciusion is that he was not a Newburyport man.” 


Crosby’s work on the Colonial Coins of America contains the following 
Information regarding the dies for the Massachusetts cents and half cents 
of 1787 and 1788 : 

“Most of the dies for this mint were made by Joseph Callender, whose 
place of business was in 17 89 at ‘Half-square, State street,’ nearly where 
Brazier’s building now stands. ♦ • ♦ 

“As it appears in the report of the mint master, the cost of his dies was 
so great (.£1 4s. each) that another engraver was employed as soon as one 
could be found, who was to receive but one per cent, of the coin struck 
from his dies. This probably was Jacob Perkins of Newburyport, to whom 
the mint accounts show that payments were made at different times. 

“It appears to us certain that a clue by which the dies cut by these en- 
gravers can be distinguished exists in the letter S upon the reverse dies. 
In all those of 1787 and in six of those of 1788 this letter is broad and 
open, while in seven of the cents and both of the half cents of 1788 it is 
narrow, and the points so connected with the curves as to resemble the fig- 
ure 8. 

“Callender’s bill specifies three dies repaired and thirty-nine new dies. 


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Curiously enough, the dies with the open S and the obverses found with 
them, according to the tables, number thirty-eight. 

“The three sums paid to Jacob Perkins amount to but £3 18s. lOd., while 
Callender’s bill was for £48 12s., from which it would appear that his work 
must have exceeded that of Perkins.” 


PAPER MONEY OF SLAVIC COUNTRIES. 

By M. SORENSEN. 


While the countries of V.'estern Europe are making rapid strides toward 
rehabilitation, the Slavic countries — with Russia in the lead — are still in 
more or less of a state of chaos. Tne best proof of this is the circulating 
medium current in those countries. While Russia is still issuing currency in 
unlimited volumes without any apparent security, the other countries, though 
wholly on a paper basis, have made fair attempts at stabilizing their cur- 
rency. . 

Much has already been written about the Russian war currency; much 
more may be written before all has been told about it. 

So far as is known, none of the Slavic countries have attempted to issue 
metal tokens during or after the war. Notning but paper has been issued. 
This article has been the easiest procured and the easiest turned out. Rus- 
sia is fairly wallowing in paper currency. Every factional or military 
leader has been issuing currency, and along with such emissions were is- 
sued orders to all concerned that the notes had to be received as legal cur- 
rency in payment for whatever the soldiers wanted to buy. A very simple 
and effective way, indeed! 

A story is told of a Russian general who became very much offended at 
being tendered some iiotas of his own make in change on a bill of higher 
denomination, saying that he had had the money printed to pay it out, but 
not to have it returned. But as he was of an accommodating disposition, 
he would be willing to take in change American or English money. Very 
accommodating for a Russian general! He might not have felt inclined to 
pay at all. 

In a lot of war currency recently received from Europe I find many in- 
teresting specimens. There are notes issued by the old regime in Russia; 
there are notes issued by the Bolshevists, using the same plates, showing 
the Russian double eagle with crown and all. On later issues the eagle 
has been deprived of its crown, but it is the same eagle. There are Ger- 
man occupation notes, issued at Kowna. According to a legend on this 
note, the “Deutches Reich" guarantees this note. How much this guaran- 
tee is worth is left for anyone to guess at. On the back the note also con- 
tains a warning to the effect that whoever alters or counterfeits the note 
is liable to imprisonment for a term of eight years. The note has been ex- 
tensively counterfeited, but, as fate would have it, the Hun is not there to 
enforce his penalty with a glad hand. 

The Russian notes are from many different sources, and utter disregard 
has been shown concerning uniformity in size and execution. Here I have 
a .5-rouble note, large and vulgar in the extreme, no doubt issued by some 
Bolshevist general too modest to sign his name to it. The next note is 
supposed to be good for the sum of 40 roubles. The size of this note is 
only 2x3 inches, and it sports two bold signatures. But in spite of this 
fact it is branded a counterfeit. 

Since the Baltic provinces — the once Scandinavian possessions — have suc- 
ceeded in throwing off the grip of the Russian bear and have formed inde- 
pendent republics, they, too, have added to the great volume of paper cir- 
culating as money in those parts. Of the three new republics — Esthonia, 
Letvia and Lithuania — the first named seems to be the most progressive. 
At least it is responsible for several issues of paper. The system employed 
by these states is not original, but is the Finnish of markka and pennia. 

Some of these new issues are printed in very attractive designs, as, for 
instance, a 3-mark note of Esthonia, green, with inscription in four lan- 
guages — Esthonian, Russian, German and Swedish. Quite cosmopolitan! 


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The fact that the Esthonians are an agricultural people is plainly pro- 
claimed througn tne designs on several of tne notes. A very pretty 10-mark 
note, one of me latest issued, has for obverse a pastoral scene, wnile the 
reverse design, two cornucopias, pouring out gold coins, plainly says: "We 
will win gold from our soil.” A warrior riding a spirited steed is prob- 
ably meant to symooiize the courage and quickness with which tne Estho- 
nians tiirew oft tne Russian yoke and have since opposed the invading 
Huns. A 5-mark note of another issue has for obverse an illustration of a 
farmer plowing, while on the reverse is shown a plowed held with long, 
straight furrows. 

All this nicely printed paper forms interesting souvenirs, and that is 
about its greatest vaiue at the present time, as the Estnonian mark, if quot- 
ed at all, is worth something like 2 or 3 cents. 

Czecho-Slovakia — or Bohemia — is probably the only country in Europe 
which did not increase its stock of paper money during the last year, ac- 
cording to the ‘Czecho-Slovak Review.” Of the money circulating in the 
country as a legacy of the Austrian regime about one-third has been defi- 
nitely retired, and a good deal was hidden by Slovak peasants. 

The old money never looked like real money. It was too flamboyant, 
too picture-postal-cardy, with too-prettified heads on it, and too dramatic 
tints. One thing that made the Austrian currency peculiarly unsuitable for 
the new republic was the fact that it was an actual sign and symbol of the 
rag-tag monarchy that Austria-'Hungary was. Ten languages appear on 
the face of the old currency — ten peoples dragged together and called a 
unit, whether they liked it or not, sharing little besides a common currency 
and varying degrees of oppression. 

Ever since gaining its independence the new republic of Czecho-Slovakia 
has showed a tendency to stability, and as a consequence its currency was 
quoted higher than tlie Austrian currency. This at first hampered things 
in the new republic, because Austrian money was constantly being smug- 
gled into the country. The Minister of Finance in the new republic, Rasin, 
a doer of many c.ever and sound deeds, saved his country from a crisis by 
decreeing that all paper in the country on a certain day and hour should 
be taken to the banks and have a stamp affixed to it, thereby legalizing it 
as currency of the country. All the money in circulation, even to small 
amounts, was paper, so a little affair like a postage stamp could be affixed 
to it with ease. 

The performance was splendidly organized. People received certain in- 
structions and a certain number. On the day set each appeared at his par- 
ticular hour at a certain bank with all the money he possessed, except the 
1-kronen and 2-kronen bills. A stamp was affixed to each bill. If one had 
but a small amount of money it was all returned. If it was a large sum half 
of it was retained as a temporary loan to the government, to be returned 
later, with interest. There was nothing to be gained in withholding any 
of one’s money, for if it was not stamped it was no longer valid. 

The first paper money issued by the republic of Czecho-Slovakia is in de- 
nominations from 1 to 5000 kronen. This issue appeared in the latter 
part of 1919, and was on sale in banks in this country in localities where 
Czechs dwell. The notes are in very attractive designs and very artistic. 
It is the first money printed in the Czech language in modern times. 

Xo definite monetary laws have been enacted in the new States of Poland. 
There are several projects now under consideration. In the former Aus- 
trian territory of Galicia, Austrian currency is still used. 

Hitherto the monetary circulation of Poland has consisted of five differ- 
ent kinds of currency — German marks, Austrian kronen, Russian roubles, 
Polish marks Issued during the German occupation, and Lithuania roubles 
issued by the Germans during the occupation of Lithuania. Such a state of 
affair is naturally a bar to business. The Polish government has long been 
considering plans to reform the monetary system. At the beginning of 
this year (1920) the Polish "zloty,” equivalent to the French franc, is to 
be put into circulation. At the same time all the different currencies now 
in circulation will be withdrawn by means of an obligatory loan; that is to 
say, kronen, marks, and roubles presented up to a certain date will be ex- 
changed at a definite rate to the extent of 30 per cent, in Polish “zloty,” 
and the remaining 70 per cent, in bonds of the Polish State. 

During the German occupation iron coins in denominations of 5, 10, and 
25 “fenigow” were struck in Stuttgart, Germany, in 1917, for use in Poland. 


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A HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR AS SHOWN BY 

MEDALS. 


By MALCOLM STOKER, M. D. 


(CONTINUED mOM LAST MONTH.) 


The exploits of the Emden and her gallant commander Muller in her 
cruise of devastation in the South Seas have led to many medals. I date 
them from the day that witnessed her destruction off the Keeling Islands 
by the Australian cruiser Sydney. 

1014, November 9. The Emden. 

24. — ‘'Pame’’ Series No. 45. Obv., GOTT, etc. Rev., RUHMR. | TATIG- 

KEIT I DES KREUZERS | EMDEN | (CAPT. MULLER) | 2. AUG. 9. NOV. 
1914. 15mm. Arg. Schulman, LXV, 901. 

25. — Hornlein Series. Obv., Eagle, etc. Rev., In circle of laurel, S. M. 

S. I EMDEN I 1914. 33mm. Arg. Schulman. LXV, 798. 

26. — Obv., FREGATTENKAPITAN VON MULLER. Bust facing. Sign- 
ed LAUER NURNBERG. Rev., In border of oak and laurel from which 
hangs an Iron Cross, view of cruiser to right. On tablet below, DER 
DEUTSCHE STOLZ 1 DER FEINDE SCHREOK | S. M. S. EMDEN | 1914. 
33mm. Arg. On edge, SILBER 990 incused. 

27. — Obv., FREG. KAPITA EN V. MULLER. In circle, bust to left. Rev., 
-f DER FLIEGENDE -f- | HOLLAENDER 1914. In circle, a cruiser, be- 
low which EMDEN. 18mm. Arg. In imitation of a denier of Charle- 
magne. 



No. 28. 


28. — Obv., FREGATTENKAPITAN VO.N MULLER. | Z. S. (Zur See). 
Bust to left. Signed ZIEGLER. Rev., EI.NE. NEUE. STARKERE. EMDEN 
WIRD ERSTEHEN \V. I. R. Cruiser to right. Above, EMDEN. Below, 
shield of the city of Emden, dividing 19 14, incused. Signed GRUNTHAL. 
On edge, 990 SILVER. 105mm. Iron. Bronze. 34mm. Arg. 

29. — Obv., NAVIGARE NECESSE EST 1 VIVERE NON NECESSE [ KAP- 

ITAN V. MULLER. Bust to left. By M&W (Meyer & Wllhelmj). Rev., 
View of E.MDEN to left. Ex., KRBUZER “E.MDEN” UNTERGANG .A.II. 
NOV 1914. 33mm. Arg. On edge, 950 SILBER incused. 

30. — Obv., On bow of EMDEN is seated a nude man holding eagle. Rev., 
Z. E. AN. S. M. RVHMREICHES. SCHIFF. EMlDEN. 1914. In oak wreath, 
the Iron Cross. Below, A. D(aumiller). 37mm. Arg. 

31. — Obv., KARL V. MULLER. FREGATTENKAPITAN engraved. Bust 
to left. By Lotte Benter. Rev., Sun over “EMDEN.” 108mm. Bronze. 
Cast. Modelled from life at Noordwijk. Schulman, LXXIII, 725. 

32. — Obv., Bust of Muller by B. H. Meyer. Rev., Emden. Description 
wanting. 34mm. Arg. 

33. — Obv., Bust of Muller by B. H. Meyer. Rev., Emden. Description 
wanting. 24mm. Arg. 

Dollars saved from the wreck of the Emden were distributed as medallic 
souvenirs, suitably mounted, to the crew of the Sydney by the people of 
Australia. 


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Here also would come the medals of von Mucke, commander of the 
Emden’s consort, the Ayesha, a schooner of 123 tons. 

34. — Obv., KAPITANLEUTNANT VON MUCKE. Bust V4 to left. Sign- 
ed L. OHR. LAUER NURNBERG. Rev., KIELING-JXSELN 9. NOVEMBER 
1914: HODEIDA 3. FEBRUAR 1915. Three-masted topsail schooner to 
right. Below, ZU EHREN EUCH UNO EUCH ZUM RUHM [ HABT IHR 
GEHALTEN DEUTSCHE 1 TREU. DER WELT GEZEICHT WAS | HELD- 
ENTU.M. IHR MANNEN [ VON DER EMDENII! 1 Iron Cross between lau- 
rels. 33mm. Arg. On edge, SILBER 990, incused. 

Von Mucke’s subsequent romantic escape and return to Constantinople 
nnd Berlin across Arabia is referred to on the following medal, which I 
place here although of later date: , 

35. — Obv., Bust to left. In field to left, VON , MUCKE. By F. Eue. 

Rev., German officers on camels crossing desert. Ex. KAPITANLEUTNANT 
V. MUCKE 1 IN DER WUSTE | 1915. 109mm. Iron. 34mm. Arg. Ge- 

denkthaler. 

After destroying Cradock’s fleet Admiral von Spee, with the Scharnhorst, 
Gneisenau, Nurnberg, Dresden and Leipzig, was trapped at the Falkland 
Islands by Ad. Sturdee with the Canopus, Kent, Glasgow, Bristol, Macedonia, 
Inflexible (flag). Invincible and Carnaven. Although hopelessly outclass- 
ed, both as regards range and speed, von Spee fought his ships like a pala- 
din of old, he and his two sons going down with them. Von Spee stands 
out conspicuously in the annals of the German navy as a gallant gentleman, 
to meet wnom was an honor to any enemy. Sturdee, after the good old 
way of the navy, destroyed all of the German squadron except the Dres- 
den, which escaped only to meet her fate a few months later. 

1914, December 8. .Action Off Falkland Islands. 

36. — ‘Hornlein Series. Obv., Eagle, etc. Rev., DEM EHREN j VOL- 
LEN GEDENKEN | S. M. SCHIFFE | SCHARNHORST. 1 GNEISENAU, | 
LEIPZIG I NURNBERG | 8. DEZ. 1914 in circle of laurel. On edge, K. S. 
M. 999, Incused. 33mm. Arg. 

37. — Obv., VICEADMIRAL GRAF VON SPEE. Bust to right. Signed 
L CHR LAUER .NURNBERG. Rev., EHR UND RUHN ZIERET DEUTS- 
CHES HELDENTU.M. A laurel-decked Latin cross crowned with imperial 
crown. On face of cross an upright anchor wreathed with laurel. .At sides, 
8. DEZ. 1914. On edge, SILBER 990, incused. 33mm. .Arg. 



No. 38. 


38. — Obv., HEI.NRICH ..MAXI-MILIAN OTTO. Busts of von Spee and his 
two sons facing. Below, GRAFEN VON SPEE between laurels , .AUF DER 
S SCHARNHORST DER V.ATER ADMIRAL | V.NTER SEINE.M KO.MMANDO 
EIN GESCHWARER | -KLEIN AN DER ZAHL- DER AELTERE SOHN 
AUF DER GNEISENAU LEVTNANT OTTO ALS SOLCHER AUF DER 
NVERNBERG STAND I BEI DEN FALKLANDSINSELF AVF HOHER SEE 
I LIEGEN DEVTSCHE HELDE.N LIEGEN ! DREI GRAFEN SPEE. All in 
border of laurel. Signed K. Goetz. 102mm. Bronze. 45mm. Arg. 


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39. — Obv., VICE ADMIRAL GRAF VON SPEE. Bust facing, head to 
right. By Loewenthai. Rev., Nude Grief kneeling on rock, laurel crown- 
ed, covering eyes with hand so as not to see the sinking Scharnhorst, above 
which is a waning moon. 93mm. Iron. 50mm. Arg. 

40. — Obv., DREI HELDEN ZUR SEE. Busts of von Spee and his two 
sons facing. Ex., ADMIRAL GRAF v. SPEE | GRAF OTTO | GRAF HEIN- 
RICH. Signed Frz EUE. Rev., Clouded sun over vacant sea. Three sea 
gulls fly aimlessly about. Ex., 8. 12. 1914. Signed VERL. BALL BERLIN 
incused. 112mm. Iron. 

This reverse is, to my mind, far the most beautiful of any of the German 
war medals. 

41. — Obv., Von Spee, by Mayer. 40mm. Description wanting. 

42. — Obv., Von Spee, by Mayer. 24mm. Description wanting. 

The action off the Falkland Islands is referred to on No. 23. The bom- 
bardment of Hartlepool and Scarborough by a light German squadron prob- 
abiy did more than enough in the way of stirring English anger to com- 
pensate for any material loss suffered. The conflicting views of the glory 
(?) of the performance is shown by the following medals: 

1014, December 16. Bombardment of Scarborough. 

43. — ■‘•Fame” Series, No. 57. Obv., GOTT, etc. Rev., 57 ' BESCHIESS. ( 

VON I SCARBOROUGH u. HARTLEPOOL DURCH DEUTSCHE | SCHIF- 
FE 1 16. DEZ. 1914. 15mm. Arg. 

44. — Obv., View of bombardment. Below, BOMBARDMENT OF | SCAR- 
BOROUGH. Rev., A GERMAN CRI.ME SCARBOROUGH | & NONCOM- 
BATTANTS | BOMBARDED i BY THE GERMAN FLEET 1 DEC. 16. 1914. 
Medallion with arms of town. 19mm. Bronze. Copper. 



No. 45. 


45. — Obv., Bombardment of two by three ships. In panels at sides, 

views of Scarborough. On escutcheon in centre, seal of town, and on rib- 
bon below, SCARBOROUGH STILL UNDISMAYED. Rev., BOMBARD- 
MENT I OF I SCARBOROUGH | & | NON COMBATTANTS | BY THE | GER- 
MAN FLEET I *DEC, I6th* 1 1914. 30mm. Arg. 

Under 1915 I give first a number of medals without definite dates. 

Abuse of Neutral Flag. 

46. — Obv., An open boat under sail to right, the mast upheld by Grey. 
Behind him. Death in the uniform of an. English admiral extending to the 
breeze the flags of the U. S. and Holland. On boat, EDWARD GREY in- 
cused. Ex,, 1915. Rev., On raised border entwined with rope HONI . 
SOIT . QUI . MAL . Y . PENSE. In field, MIT I NEUTRALEN | -FLAG- 
GEN- I HOHEITSGEBIETEND STELLT SICH ZUR WEHR 1 DER-EDLE 
BRITTE-DER | WEIT MEER BEHERRSCHER I NACH SEE RAEUBER 
SITTE j. Spray of laurel. Sikned K G(oetz). 57mm. AE. 

American Tainted Neutrality. 

47. — Obv., .WOODROW .WILSON. I LIBERTY. NEVTRALITY. HVMAN- 
ITY. Laurel-crowned bust facing, dividing 1914 1915. Rev., AMERIKA’S 


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NEVTR.\LES. HANDELN. Uncle Sam seated to left on pile of cannon 
balls, leaning against cannon, with submarine in left hand and bag mark- 
ed 100 000 in right hand. 56mm. Bronze. By K. Goetz. 




No. 47. 


Karl Franz Joseph d’Flste, .Austrian Crownprince. 

4 8. — Obv., ERZH. KARL-FRA.XZ. JOSEF. Bust to left, by A. HARTIG. 
Rev., OESTERR. PLOTTENVEREIN. KRIEGSFVRSORGE-1 91 4-1 9 1 5. View 
of “Tegettoff.” 60mm. Bronze. 

49. — Obv., ERZ'HERZOG THRONFOLGER CARL FRANZ JOSEF. Naval 
bust to right, by WEINBERGER. Rev., A cruiser and a submarine and 
two aeroplanes, one of which is in flames. Above, MC.MXV. 50mm. Iron. 

50. — Obv., ERZHERZOG THRONF. Bust to right with kepi. Below, CARL 
F. J. d’ESTE. By WEINBERGER 1915. Rev., VIEL FELND EHR’ GOTT 
-MIT UNS .MCMXV. Armed warrior standing on pedestal with shield with 
arms of .\ustiia, Hungary and Turkey. 65x43mm. Bronze. Iron. 

Karl Stefan, Admiral (.Archduke). 

51. — Obv., CAROLUS STEPHANUS. Bust in admiral’s uniform to left. 
By G. HERM.A.X.N. Rev., Charity erect offering palm and laurel wreath to 
veteran who is accompanied by wife and child. Ex., MILITIBUS LAESIS 
VDUIS ."^ATISQUE RELICTIS. 66mm. Bronze. 

UH5, Janiiar.v 20. Raid on Rnglisli Coast by Zepjjeliiis. 

52. — “Fame” Series, No. 62. — Obv., GOTT, etc. Rev., 62 | DEUTSCHE] 
M.ARINE LUFTSCHIFFE BOMBARDIBRE 1 BEFEST. ENGL, j KUS- 
TEXPLATZE | I. D. NACHT | 19-20 JAN. 1915. 

While it reciuires a stretch of imagination to regard "airships” as ships 
in f’o naval sense. I give this medal on account of the wording of the in- 
scription. 

1015, January 24. .Action in North Sea — "Dogger Bank.” 

The engagement of Beatty (Lion-flag) with von Hipper (Seydlitz-flag) , 
resulting in the sinking of the armored cruiser Blucher, was commemorat- 
ed only by the medal described under .August 28, 1914. Though both 
sides claimed the victory, it was evidently with considerable mental reser- 
vations. The German loss was certainly not what it should have been, con- 
sidering the overwhelming odds against her. 

(to he COXTlNfEI). ) 


SWEDISH TOWN TO STRIKE ITS OWN COINS. 


A proposition has been presented before the .Allthing at Island, Sweden, 
for the striking of its own coins. The proposition is the result of the 
present low foreign exchange of the Danish crown. — (Free trans. by J. deL.). 


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The Numismatist 


Founded 1888 by Dr. George F. Heath 


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Publication Ollice: Fe<leraislmrg, Md. 


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EDITORIAL. 


MOKE SOI VEMK COINS. 

There are now pendin.g In Congress three separate bills providing for the 
issue of souvenir half dollars. One is for a half dollar in commemoration of 
the 300th anniversary of the Landing of the Pilgrims: the other two are for 
coins of the same denomination commemorating the 100th anniversary of the 
admission of the f tates of Maine and Alabama into the Union. 

The provisicns ; f the bills are similar to those of the bill authorizing the 
coinage of the Illinois Centennial half dollar in lUlS’. They are to be of the 
same weight, lim ness and legal-tender quality a.’, the current half dollars, 
and the United States Government will not be put to any expense for mak- 
ing the dies or other preparations for their coinage. The designs are to be 
fixed by the Director of the Mint, with the approval of the Secretary of the 
Treasury. The hearings before the Committee on Coinage, Weights and 


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Measures indicate that the bills will be favorably reported. A favorable re- 
port has already been made on the bill for the coin for .Maine. 

Provided the bills become laws, the distribution of the coins will be left in 
the hands of the Director of the Mint. If the precedent established in the 
cases of the .McKinley souvenir gold dollar and the Illinois Centenniai half 
dollar are followed, the entire issue wilt be turned over to the authorities of 
the States interested, or to the promoters of the celebrations held to com- 
memorate the historic events. If this plan is foilowed, it is fair to presume 
that they will be disposed of at double or treble their face value, with the 
result tnat none of them will pass into general circulation. If there was a 
probability that the entire coinage would reach general circulation, serious 
objections might be offered to the passage of the bills. 

The 300th anniversary of the Landing of the Pilgrims is an event of na- 
tional interest and worthy of commemoration by the issue of coins as pro- 
posed. The 100th anniversary of the admission of a State to the Union is 
an occasion of less interest, but as the pace was set by Illinois, the logical 
conclusion is that .Missouri will follow next year with a request for a similar 
issue. Then we will have no more “1 OOth-annlversary-of-admission-to-the 
Union” souvenir coins until 1836. 

Collectors will approve of the proposed issues of commemorative coins. 
They offer some relief from the monotony of a line of half dollars that oth- 
erwise differ only in date or mint mark. They will absorb a small part of 
the issues at the rather stiff price that will probably be charged for them. 
And it is collectors and dealers that keep vitality in a souvenir coin issue. 
A number of patriotic non-collectors will be expected to take the remainder 
and to pay the price without a murmur. They will probably be delivered 
wrapped in tissue paper and enclosed in a cardboard box. The majority 
will be taken home, laid away in a desk drawer, and in a short time forgot- 
ten. 

But what of the other 1 10,000,000 or more people of the United States, 
most of whom are patriotic non-collectors, who will never see one of the 
coins, much less possess one, and whose knowledge of such issues is con- 
fined to the Columbian half dollar, which man.v think was the only souvenir 
coin ever issued by the United States? True, there will not be enough coins 
to go around, and most of the people will be disappointed. 

Souvenir postage stamps are placed on sale at face value. Why cannot 
we occasionally have a souvenir coin at face value? Why must a commemo- 
rative coin always be a “commercial” coin? 


.MK. DROWXK’S I’.AUKK OX XKCESSITY W.\l{ .MOXEY, 

Reprinted in this issue is an article by .Mr. Henry Russell Drowne on “U. 
S. Postage Stamps As Necessity War Money.” which appeared originally’’ in 
the last issue of the .twcr/cnn Journal of Xumismntics. It is reprinted here 
mainly because of its merits, but also in order that it may have as wide a 
circulation as possible, in the hope that if any varieties exist that may have 
escaped the author’s notice, they will be brought to liis attention by fellow 
collectors. The article is the culmination of ten years of effort on the part 
of Mr. Drowne to iearn of ail the existing varieties of envelopes used as con- 
tainers for stamps used as currency in the early years of the Civil War. and 
it is the only article treating entirely on this subject that has ever appeared 
in print. 


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MEETINGS OF NUMISMATIC SOCIETIES AND CLUBS. 


mUTISH NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

Ordinary meeting, February 18th, 1920, Mr. F. A. Walters, F.S.A., Pres- 
ident, in the chair. 

The President reported that Captain Marno was unable to read his paper 
on tile Coinage of Edwaid III that evening as notified, and it had therefore 
been postponed. 

Mrs. W. J. Andrew was nominated for membership. 

Presentation to the library: By Mr. Lionel .M. Hewlett: “Anglo-Gallic 
Coins.” 

ji-xnibits were as follows: 

By Mr. H. A. Parsons, in illustration of bis paper: Edward the Confes- 
sor. penny of his last type; a variety of the same, with obverse similar in 
detail to the first issue of William I, except that Edward’s bust is to the 
right. Harold II, penny, to show the aboence of the shoulders and the un- 
broken legend surrounding the head. William 1, penny of his first issue. 

By Mr. L. A. Lawrence: A series of eighteen denarii of the Emperors 
Claudius, Septimus Severus, Caracalla, Leta, and Carausius. re.ating to 
Britain. 

Henry III, a penny of the long-cross type and Durham mint. Mr. Law- 
rence explained that the moneyer was new to our lists, and must have held 
office later than A. D. 1 260, probably coining between Roger, whose coins 
appeared in the Brussels hoard, and Robert, who issued coins at Durham 
of the long-cross series in the early years of Edward I. 

By -Mr. F. A. Walters, President: A collection of the coins of Edward III 
intended to illustrate Captain .Marno’s paper. 

By Mr. J. O. Manton: Some Edwardian coins with the like object. A 
Danish imitation of a penny of Aethelred II. 

By Miss Helen Farciunar: A collection of portraits of the seventeenth, 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries adapted for wearing as ornaments in 
the form of pendants or rings. A “Vigo” five-guinea piece. Miss Farquhar 
read some interesting notes on her exhibits. 

Mr. H. A. Parsons read a paper on the prototype of the initial coinage 
of William I. After touching on the interest and importance of the study 
of evolution in the designs of our money, he proved — by the exhibition of 
a new variety of Edward the Confessor’s last coinage, of which the obverse, 
except that the head was to the right, was practically identical with the 
Conqueror’s first issue — that the design of William’s first money was taken 
directly from that issue, and not from the intermediate coinage of Harold 
II, as had been usually assumed. The very striking diffej-ences between 
the pennies of Harold and of his successor were shown, and the general 
conclusion was that, not only historically but also in numismatics. William’s 
intention to ignore Harold’s accession was manifest. 

■Mr. Raymond Carlyon-Britton contributed a paper on the halfpennies 
and farthings of Henry VIII, in which he demurred to the theory, recently 
raised, that for sixty years prior to the Act of 1.523 our halfpennies and 
farthings were struck from the same dies, and were only differentiated by 
the diameter and weight of the flans. This theory was based upon what 
he believed was a wrong construction of the wording of the Act; 

“Whereas the farthings and halfpennies were struck with one coin, so 
that the common people many times took the farthings for halfpennies, it 
was ordained that the farthings to be made, from that time, should have 
on one side a portcullis, and on the other a rose with a cross. Ruding. 1. 
p. 302.” 

The context, providing as it does for the change in the design, and not 
in the method of manufacture, of the farthine. proved, he urged, that the 
expression “with one coin” did not refer to the dies, as suggested, but 
rreant struck with one design or pattern, and ' e instanced the farthing of 
Henry VII. in Colonel Morrieson’s collection, which was from a smaller die 
than that of the contemporary halfpenny, as direct evidence that the the- 
ory failed. 


ROYAli \UMT,SM.\Tir SOUIETY. 

February 19. Prof. C. Oman, LL.D., M.P., President, in the chair. 


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Dr. G. H. Abbott and Messrs. A. C. Montagu and J. Rochelle Thomas 
were elected Fellows of the Society. 

Mr. Fredk. A. Harrison exhibited a centenary medal of Milan Cathedral 
with portrait of John Gonzaga, and a Chinese rupee issued for the province 
of Sse-Chuan and Tibet. 

The Rev. Edgar Rogers exhibited some fine Seleuced coins, including tet- 
radrachms of Seleucus I, and a drachm or half-drachm of Antiochus I, and 
a selection of silver coins of Alexander Bala from Phoenician mints. Tyre 
(years 150, 146, 145), Sidon (149, 148), and .Berytos (149). 

Mr. Percy H. Webb exhibited a portion of a find of late Roman coins 
from Egypt. The And covered the period 298-313, Domitius Domitianus- 
Maximinus Daza, and was said to have comprised nearly two bushels of 
coins. The coins which Mr. Webb had been able to examine belonged to 
the last five years of the period and were of three rulers only, Galerius 
Maximlan, Galeria Valeria and Daza. The bulk of the coins were of the 
Alexandria mint, although Antioch, Cyzicus and Nicoinedia were also rep- 
resented. The find presented a number of interesting features and afforded 
an interesting opportunity of testing Mr. Maurice’s work, which it support- 
ed in every detail. 

Mr. G. C. Brooke read a paper by Mr. R. C. Lockett on the "Coinage of 
Offa.’’ The date of the earliest pennies of Offa was certainly before 790-1 
A. D., the date of Jaenberht’s death. It was probably late in the reign, as 
a large number of Offa’s moneyers also struck coins for Coenwulf. The 
most reasonable suggestion for the date of the beginning of the Mercian 
coinage was after the Battle of Otford, in 774, but it might be as late as the 
Council of Chelsea, 786. The mint was probably Canterbury, as seven of his 
moneyers struck coins for Coenwulf and three of these worked for Ead- 
berht, Cuthred and Baldred. Coins bearing the name Eadberht were prob- 
ably to be attributed to Eadberht Bishop of London, 772-787. Another 
penny with the name hitherto not read satisfactorily should probably be 
attributed to Higberht, Bishop of Lichfield, who was made Archbishop in 
787. Cynethrith’s coinage was evidently struck in Offa’s life time, either 
as a complimentary issue or in a period of regency during Offa’s absence. 
A classification of the pennies of Offa was proposed, based on their affinity 
to the coinage of .laenberht and Aethilheard. In the discussion which fol- 
lowed, Mr. H. A. Grueber, Mr. G. F. Hill, Mr. H. A. Parsons and Sir H. 
Howorth, spoke. 


March 18, Prof. C. Oman, M. P., LL.D., President, in the chair. 

Mr. Ernest H. Wheeler was elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The President exhibited seven tetradrachms of Antiochus the Great, illus- 
trating his portrait at different periods of the reign. 

Col. the Hon. Milo G. Talbot exhibited a silver qulnarius of Galba, re- 
verse CONCORDIA AVG. 

Mr. G. C. Haines exhibited a 20 nummi piece of Anastasius I, a variety 
of B. M. Cht. No. 49. 

Mr. Henry Garside showed the gold fifteen-rupee piece of 1918 struck at 
Bombay for circulation in British India. 

Mr. Leopold Messenger showed specimens of the 1919 nickel coinage for 
India, 8 annas (round), 4 annas (octagonal with scalloped edges), and 2 an- 
nas (square with rounded corners). 

-Mr. G. F. Hill showed a clever forgery of a silver penny of Eadwald, king 
of East Anglia, reverse, Wihtred (Ruding IV, 2). 

Mr. Frederick A. Walters showed a second brass of Lucius Verus, ob- 
verse IMP. CAES. L. AUREL. VERUS, bare head r.; reverse, Salus seated 
to 1. feeding serpent. TR. POT II COS II (no S. C.), and a small medallion 
of M. Aurelius, obverse head 1., M. ANTONINUS ARM. PARTH etc., re- 
verse, Fortuna seated (no S. C.) PM TRP XXII IMP III COS III. 

Mr. L. A. Lawrence read a further note on the Ampthill find of early 
Henry II pennies, in which he gave readings of many coins not previously 
deciphered. Most of the types were represented in the hoard, and among 
the rare coins was one of a new Canterbury moneyer named RAULF. 

Mr. G. F. Hill gave an account of his investigation of a story that a spec- 
imen of the gold mancus of Offa had been found near Orwell, in Cam- 
bridgeshire, forty years ago. If the coin was really a specimen of the Arab 
dinar copied by Offa, he had been unable to trace it, but was able to show 


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that it was not the specimen now in the British Museum. The latter could 
now be deflnitely stated to be the specimen acquired in Rome by the Due 
de Blacas, and had been in the possession of the Longperier family, from 
whom it was acquired in 1906, and again brought to light by a Paris Arm, 
form whom it was acquired by Mr. Carlyon-Britton. 


BO.STOX NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

The Society met on March 19th in Mr. Wheeler’s room at the Boston 
Public Library. Mr. Wheeler was in the chair and the following members 
were present: Messrs. Shumway, Kimball, Comstock, Joy, Gray, Stafford, 
Wheeler and Storer. 

Mr. Gray showed a series of 8 Washington medals in silver, including the 
California medal, very rare in that metal. He also showed the Manly 
medal in bronze. 

Mr. Siiumway showed a very fine and excessively rare Bar cent in silver, 
and a tine one in copper for comparison. 

Mr. Comstock showed 17 cents from 1810 to 1867 in unusually fine con- 
dition; an uncirculated shilling of 1887 with crowned shield in garter and 
an 8-sueldo piece of Bolivia of 1832. 

Dr. Storer showed the medal of L. Agassiz, 90mm, by Landry, and the 
following medal of John and J. Q. Adams: Obv., STRUCK FROM THE OLD 
COPPER OF THE BELFRY. Two heads to left. Below, 1827-1911. Sign- 
ed on neck, Theo. A. R. Kitson, incused. Rev., THE FIRST CHURCH OF 
QUINCY MASSACHUSE-rTS. FOUNDED 1639. View of church. 100mm. 
Copper. 

He also showed the rare Brigham token. Low 72, in fine condition; sev- 
eral Bryan pieces; a facsimile of the 1733 Rosa Americana; Robinson’s Non 
Dependens Status; several rare Bolens; the Washington Memorial Essay 
Competition Medal, recently founded by the Boston Sunday Advertiser. He 
also asked whether any member had ever heard of the following, which he 
had recently acquired for the Massachusetts Historical Society: Obv., 

ULYSSES o GRANT | 1869 between sprays of laurel. In circle of rope an 
Impression of the reverse of a half dime, upon which is struck BOLEN | DIE 
on raised hub | SINKER. Rev., SCHUYLER COLFAX. Otherwise as ob- 
verse. but in field in raised letters O | K above and below the HALF | DIME 
which on the obverse has been erased. 25mm. Tin. 

Malcolm Storer, Secretary. 


THE NEW YORK NUMISMATIC CLUB, 

A regular meeting of the New York Numismatic Club was held on Friday 
evening, April 9th, 1920, at the New Grand Hotel, President Valentine pre- 
siding. Members present: Dr. Valentine, Dr. Burke, Messrs. Beatty, Blake, 
Butler, Boyd, Davison, Elder, Frey, Kohler, Proskey, Pulls, Reilly, Smith, 
Swanson, Wood, Wormser, Wyman, and Belden, and, by Invitation, Mr. 
Westervelt. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The President announced the subject of the meeting, “Coins and Medals of 
Holland,” and also invited the members to exhibit such new acquisitions in 
other lines as they might consider of Interest. 

The Executive Committee reported the following recommendations: 

That the striking of the President Frey Medal be authorized. 

That the subject for the next meeting be: “Your selection of Swedish 
Coins and Medals,” and that a notice be sent to the Swedish newspapers. 

It was moved and carried that the report of the Executive Committee be 
accepted and the recommendations adopted. 

The Membership Committee reported favorably the name of Mr. Dan Fel- 
lows Platt, of Englewood, N. J., and Mr. Platt was unanimously elected a 
member of the Club. 

The nomination for membership of Mr. Leonidas Westervelt, proposed 
by Mr. Smith and seconded by Mr. Elder, was received, and referred to the 
Membership Committee. 

Mr. Boyd stated that he had been requested by Chicago representatives of 
the A. N. A. to convey to the members of the Club a cordial invitation to 
attend the Convention in Chicago in August next. 


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It was moved and carried that notices of the Club meetings be sent to the 
editor of the Evening Post. 

It was moved and carried that a 1-16 page advertisement of the Club meet- 
ings be put in The Numismatist for one year. 

It was moven and carried that Mr. Frey be Invited to read a paper on an 
event in Swedish history at the May meeting. 

The exhibits were as follows: 

By Mr. Frey: A complete set of the copper siege pieces of Deventer in 
practically uncirculated condition. These were found during some excava- 
tions in that town a few years ago. The set comprised the 1, 2, and 4 
sols, struck during the siege of 1578. 

By Dr. Valentine: A few copper and silver coins of modern Holland, also 
a few copper coins of Dutch Colonies — 1 of Surabuya and 1 in silver of Cura- 
cao. Gold dollars. Philadelphia mint, 1863 and 1866. 

iBy Mr. Wormser: Holland, 8 gold pieces from Louis Napoleon to Queen 
Wilhelmina; 1 guilder of Dutch Indies, 1802; ducaton of West India for 
East India Company. Several new acquisitions. 

By Mr. J. Guttag: Set of copper, silver and gold pieces of revolutionary 
coinage of Oaxaca; medal on first President of Lithuania; two pieces of 
Bryan money; Colombia, 10 pesos, gold, 1919. 

By Mr. Blake: Rare and unusual denominations of state bank notes, con- 
sisting of the following: $1.25, $1.50, $1.75, $2.50, $3.00, $4.00, $6.00, 
$7.00, $8.00, $9.00, $15.00, $26.00. 

By Mr. Proskey: Silver coins of Holland under the kings: William I, 5, 
10, 25 cents, 1, 3 guilders, 1818-40, also proofs of 10 and 25 cents, 
1818, and broad guilder, 1837; William II, 10 and 25 cents, proofs, 1849, 
1. 2% guilders, 1845-9, also the 1841 2% guilders with “Van Der Kel- 
len” in full under bust, and a proof pattern 10 cents, 1843, with Gothic 
“W“ under beribboned crown; William III, 5, 10, 25 cents, %, 1, 2% 
guilders, 1849-71, all proof but last; Wilhelmina, 5 cents to 2% guilders, 
1892-1916, the three types of portrait. Total, 38 pieces. 

As a recent acquisition Mr. Proskey showed the very rare medal in silver 
illustrating the bombardment of Fort Sumter, April 12 and 13, 1861, with 
reverse, “To Maj. Robert Anderson, U. S. A., from the Citizens of New York 
City, as a Slight Tribute to His Patriotism.’’ 70mm. diameter. 

On motion adjourned. 

Bauman L. Belden, Secretary. 


OHIOAGO COIN CLUB. 


The eleventh monthly meeting of the Chicago Coin Club was held at the 
Bamboo Inn, W’ednesday, February 4. Those present were: Mr. and Mrs. 
Boyer, Mr. and Mrs. Ripstra, Mr. and Mrs. Josephson, Mr. and Mrs. Leon, 
Mr. and Mrs. Davis, Miss Naerup, Messrs. Baumann, Carey, Dunham, Kel- 
ley, Lawless, Michael and Van der Berghen. In place of the usual order of 
business, dinner was served. 

After the dinner Mrs. A. S. Boyer, Mrs. T. E. Leon, Mrs. L. Josephson of 
Chicago: M. Sorensen of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and Walter H. McDonald of 
Washington, D. C., were elected to membership. An application for mem- 
bership was received from Jean Maunovry of Akron, Ohio. 

Mr. Dunham presented to those present copies of the Chicago Coin Club 
Bulletin, which he had written and mimeographed for the occasion. 

The following exhibits were shown: 

By Mr. Leon: A copper proof set of the recent Australian Issues, and a 
number of Mint medals, among which were Peace medals of Jefferson and 
Tyler, Presidential medals of Grant and Lincoln, and medals commemorat- 
ing victories of Perry, Decatur, McDonald, Gaines and others. 

By Mr. Lawless: A number of fine colonial coppers, among which were 
several from Vermont, Nova Constellatlos of 17 83 and 1785, and a Mott 
token. 

By Mr. Davis: Spanish dollar, and fractional parts cut from one; Pine 
Tree shilling, Annapolis shilling, and Massachusetts cents and half cents. 

By Mr. Kelley: 25 and 50-cent notes issued by Potter Palmer; set of 
State of Alabama notes, 6 cents to $50, and a one-cent scrip note issued by 
Waldo C. Moore of the People’s Banking Co., Lewisburg, Ohio. 


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By Mr. Rlpstra: A very beautiful medal of the first Lithuanian President, 
Antanas Smetona. This medal was designed by our fellow member, Mr. A. 
L. Van der Berghen, who was too modest to exhibit his work. The medal 
was struck for the Associated Lithuanian Societies, of which our V'ice-Pres- 
ident, Mr. Alexander Backus, is Secretary. 

R. E. Davis, Secretary. 


The twelfth meeting of the Chicago Coin Club was held at the Hotel Sher- 
man, Chicago, Wednesday, March 3. Those present were: Mrs. Boyer, Miss 
Naerup, Messrs. Becker, Boyer, Brown, Carey, Davis, Luttau, Hotter, Jonas, 
Josepnson, Kelley, Lawless, Leon, Backus, Von der Berghen and Wilson. 
Mrs. Guttau of New York was present as a visitor. The meeting was called 
to order by the president. 

The minutes of tne previous meeting were read and approved. 

Messrs. Jean Maunovry of Akron, Ohio; Rudolph Thomas of Chicago, and 
N. J. Guttau of New York were elected to membership. 

Mr. Leon announced that the Board of Governors of the A. N. A. had 
chosen the last week in August as the time for the Convention. 

Mr. Backus, in behalf of the Numismatic Society of Lithuania, presented 
the Club with ten copies of tne medal struck in honor of Antanas Smetona, 
President of Lithuania. He gave an interesting account of the history of 
the medal, only 3000 of which were struck, most of them going to Lithua- 
nia. The ten copies presented to the Club were to be sold for the benefit of 
the Club. Several were sold and the rest turned over to the Curator to be 
disposed of later. 

The Secretary read the second number of the Coin Club Bulletin, which 
was written by Mr. Dunham. It contained a list of the half eagles, their 
varieties, and auction records. 

Mr. Leon announced the death of two old Chicago collectors, J. B. Holmes 
and Chas. Gunther. The recent deaths of C. H. Shinkle of Pittsburgh and 
Mrs. Wormser of New York City were also mentioned. 

The Secretary stated that the Reward of Merit prizes would be awarded 
at the April meeting. 

The exhibits were as follows: 

By Mr. Brown: A number of pieces of modern Chinese coinages, includ- 
ing ten-cash pieces of Kiang See, Ho Nan, Hu Nan and Foo Kien, and sev- 
eral issues from Kwang Tung. 

By Mr. Boyer: Half daler Swedish plate money of Adolph Frederick, dat- 


ed 1759. 

By Mr. Becker: $5 gold pieces of 1809, 1810 and 1818. 

By Mr. Davis: Two types of Talbot Allum & Lee tokens, and copies of the 
Carolina elephant cent and the Confederatio cent. 

By Mr. Wilson: A number of counterstamped Portuguese copper coins. 

By Mr. Josephson: A beautiful Belgian medal, commemorating the brav- 
ery of the Belgian army during the war. 

By Mr. Leon: A large number of English silver and copper corns. The 
copper series began with a farthing of Charles 1 and was continuous to the 
present king. It contained also a number of tokens of the reign of George 
III. Among the silver pieces were coins of Edward the Confessor, Edward 
III, Mary, and James I. 

By Mr. Guttau: Some fine examples of ancient Chinese bridge money, and 
a rather complete collection of the issues of Oaxaca in silver and base met- 
als. These last coins were remarkable for the various sizes given to the 

same denomination. ^ ^ 

R. E. Davis, Secretary. 


PACIFIC COAST XL'>II8>L\TIC SOCIETY, 

The 55th regular monthly meeting was held at the .Assembly Room, 235 
Montgomery St., San Francisco, February 24th, with President Zerbe in 
the chair. Members present: Messrs. Haagensen, Hill, Turrlll, Landecker, 
Gill, Twltchell, Mohr, Brandon, Zerbe and Steinman. Guest present: Mr. E. 
S. Rosenblatt. 

Minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

Upon request of the Society, the Secretary described his Eastern trip, 
dwelling briefly on his attendance at the A. N. A. Convention, visit to the 


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U. S. Mint; Illustrated lecture at S. H. Chapman’s home; the dealers whom 
he met; the auction sale at Elder’s; the Liveright collection, Imhoff col- 
lection, Wormser collection, and the other collections of note which their 
owners gave up their time to show him. Among his other experiences was 
a visit to Victor D. Brenner’s studio, attended a lecture given by Mr. Schul- 
man at the American Numismatic Society, and was a guest at a New York 
.Numismatic Club meeting on the invitation of Mr. Moritz Wormser. The 
Secretary then presented the Society with a plaque which was given to him 
for the Society by Victor D. Brenner, its designer. The gift was very much 
admired, and the Society accepted the offer of Mr. Turrill to photograph 
same. It was unanimously carried that tne Secretary write a letter to Mr. 
Brenner thanking their newly elected member for his valuable and unusual 
gift. 

It was also unanimously carried that the Secretary be instructed to 
write a letter of thanks to T. E. Leon of Chicago for a steel engraving of 
San Francisco as that city appeared in the early ’60s, which he presented 
to the P. C. N. S. 

Upon motion, unanimously carried, the Secretary was instructed to ex- 
press to its fellow-member Moritz Wormser its sincere sympathy for the 
loss of his wife. 

Messrs. Howland Wood, New York, and A. R. Frey, New York, were 
elected to Honorary Membership. 

Herbert R. Pyle was elected to membership. 

Mr. Zerbe stated that .Mr. Blake had paid his dues with a 50c. and 10c. 
shinplaster, and that he Intended to auction these notes off. After spirited 
bidding they brought $1.50. 

The Secretary informed the members that the payment of dues in U. S. 
Government shinplasters would be acceptable. 

All further business was dispensed with in order for the members to dis- 
play their exhibits. 

Mr. Haagensen showed a $2^^ Dubosq & Co. California Pioneer coin in 
copper. 

.Mr. Hill exhibited Chinese sycee and Bryan money. 

-Mr. Gill displayed a copy of a San Luis Obispo, Cal., clearing-house cer- 
tificate and small Mexican gold coins. 

•Mr. Rosenblatt showed some toy money. 

Mr. Zerbe’s exhibit consisted of a piece of rag-money, $2 denomination, 
printed at .Mesilla, Arizona Territory (now in New Mexico). This note was 
printed in August, 1862, when the Federal troops known as the California 
Column reached .Mesilla and this section came under Federal rule. 

Mr. Steinman showed a 1799 cent in fine condition for this coin, also 
a $4 (Stella) U. S. gold coin. 

Mr. Leon of Chicago through a loan to Mr. Steinman, a California Mines 
pattern piece made in base metal, gold plated. 

I. Lelaxd Steinm.w, Secretary-Treasurer. 


cmC.AGO COIN CLUB. 

The fourteenth meeting of the Chicagd Uoin Club was held at the Hotel 
Sherman, Chicago, Wednesday, April 7. Those present were: Mrs. Boyer, 
-Miss Naerup, Messrs. Boyer, Brand, Baumann, Brown, Carey, Davis, Dun- 
ham, Jonas, Kelley, Michael, Lawless. Leon, Rackue, and Wilson. 

The meeting was called to order by the President. The minutes of the 
previous meeting were read and approved. The Treasurer’s report was 
read and placed on file. 

.Mr. Carey, as chairman of the committee on the “Reward of Merit” prizes, 
made his report. These prizes were a gold proof set of 1908, and were 
awarded on the basis of attendance, exhibits, papers, and new members se- 
cured. The first prize, the $20 piece, went to Mr. Leon; the second prize, 
the $10 piece, was won by Mr. Lawless, while Mr. Davis and Mr. Brown 
were tied for third and fourth places. Each winner spoke briefly, thank- 
ing the Club and the donor, and Mr. Boyer, in behalf of the Club, thanked 
the donor for the prizes and the spirit which prompted the gift to the Club. 

The Secretary read a paper prepared by Mr. Wilson on “The Romance of 
Numismatics.” This ^as followed by No. 3 of the Chicago Coin Club Bul- 
letin, which contained a list of the varieties and auction records of the $3 


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gold pieces. There were also some verses written to a number of the' Club 
members. The Bulletin was the work of Mr. Dunham. 

A burlesque auction followed, Mr. Carey acting as auctioneer. The cat- 
alog stated that all coins were uncirculated, and included such rarities as 
1796 half cent, 1793 cent with straw'berry leaves, 1802 half dime, 1804 
dollar, 1822 $5 gold piece, and others. 

The exhibits were as follows: 

By Mr. Boyer: $50 California slug with lettered edge. 

By Mr. Brand: 5 francs, Napoleon I, 1807, struck in gold. 

By Mr. Brown: A very beautiful set of French pattern pieces of 25 cen- 
time denomination, 1913 and 1914. 

By Mr. Carey: Very line bronze coin of Nero. 

By Mr. Davis: Ten pieces of Irish Gun Money, consisting of sixpence, 
shillings, half crowns and crowns. 

By -Mr. Jonas: Brunswick-Luneburg thaler, 1768; Tuscany, Livarno crown, 
1684, and a piece of cob money, 17 68. 

By Mr. Leon: Two 1793 chain cents, one the “America” and the other the 
“Ameri.” variety. Both were in very fine condition, the last especially fine. 

By Mr. Backus: One ducat klippe of Nuremberg. 

By Mr. Michael: 1793 half cent, uncirculated; $2.50 gold, D mint, 1840; 
one and five peso pieces in gold of Cuba, and a number of very fine second 
bronzes of Nero, Augustus, and Trajan. 

R. E. Davis, Secretary. 


ROCHESTER NUMISMATIC ASSOCIATION. 

The 186th meeting of the Rochester Numismatic Association was held at 
the Rochester Municipal Museum, Tuesday evening, March 16, 1920. In 
the absence of the President, \V. H. Amberg, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Members present: Messrs. Kaufman, Wolff, Horner, Yaw’ger, Gillette, Plumb, 
Amberg, Nientimp, Putnam, Bauer, Loizeau, Haringx, Savage, Sunday and 
(Borradaile. 

Minutes of previous meeting read and approved. 

A communication from Jos. A. Koeb informed the Association that Bas- 
tian Brothers Company had returned the annual medal dies, the reverse of 
.which had a piece broken out. As it is understood that Bastian Brothers 
.Company w'ere not responsible, this meant that a reverse die would have to 
.be made before the' next medal was struck. After some informal discus- 
sion of the matter it was moved by Mr. Putnam, seconded by Mr. Yawger, 
.that the communication be laid on the table. The matter will be taken up 
later. 

Mr. Yawger, through the kindness of Geo. H. King of Denver, Colo., wms 
able to supply a number of members with proof sets of the Denver Mint 
.1920 series. Mr. King has been doing this for several years, and his kind- 
.ness has been greatly appreciated by the members accumulating these sets. 

Mr. Savage exhibited a very interesting gold collection, some of the spec- 
imens being as follows: 1876 California *4 dollar, proof; 1871 gold dollar, 
.proof; 1831 quarter eagle, proof, a gem; 1845 quarter eagle, uncirculated; 
,1872 quarter eagle, uncirculated; 1877 quarter eagle, very fine, “S” mint; 
,1858 dime, proof, a gem; 1836 milled edge half dollar, very fine. 

, Mr. Gillette exhibited a number of German and French war medals re- 
cently secured in a New York sale and as yet extremely rare in this country, 
•the French medals being mostly bronze and especially fine. 

After informal discussion of general Interest to the Association, no fur- 
,ther business appearing, the meeting adjourned. 

E. D. Putnam, Secretary. 


ROCHESTER NUMISMATIC .USSOCI.VTION. 

The 187th meeting of the Rochester Numismatic .Association was held at 
the Rochester Municipal Museum, Tuesday evening, April 6, 1920. In the 
absence of the Presidenl. Ex-President Dr. Handier presided. Members 
present were: Messrs. Hicks. Putnam. Borradaile, Gillette, Plumb. Horner, 
Handler, Hendrigx, Loizeau, Sunday, Nientimp, Wolff, .Amberg and Simmons. 

Minutes of previous meeting read and approved. 

There being no business, the meeting dissolved itself into a social even- 
ing of visiting and exhibition of coins by the several members. 


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Mr. Wolff exhibited a lot of Greek and Roman coins recently purchased . 
by him. 

Mr. Gillette had on exhibition a number of half-cents. 

Mr. Hendrigx displayed a large miscellaneous collection for the benefit 
of the members. 

Among other matters informally discussed was that of a membership 
campaign, which all seemed to think was desirable, and tentative plans were 
arranged for its discussion at the next meeting. 

Nothing further of Importance appearing the fxieeting adjourned. 

E. D. Putnam, Secretary. 


AXTigUARIAX AXD XUMIS.MATIC SOCIETY OF MOXTRE.\L. 

The Antiquarian and Numismatic Society of Montreal held its monthly 
meeting at the Chateau de Kamezay on Friday, March 19th, at which there 
were present: Messrs. W. D. Lighthall, the President, in the chair; P. O. 
Tremblay, L. A. Renaud, J. C. A. Henot, Victor Morin, R. W. McLachlan 
and several others. 

Mr. O'Leary read a paper on the old buildings of St. Paul’s street, Mon- 
treal. 

R. W. McLachlan exhibited some ten or twelve coins of Leopold the Hog- 
mouth. These show the portrait of the Emperor with his lower jaw pro- 
truding more or less exaggerated, which gave him the “sobriquet.” These 
coins consisted of a double crown, two crowns, a fifteen, two six, a three 
and one kreuzer pieces of Tyrol; a six kreuzer of Austria, and a five stuber 
of Cologne. 


XUMIS.MATIC SECTIOX, M.AKYLAXD .ACADEMY OF SCnE.XCES, 

B.ALTI.MOKE, MD. 

The 20th meeting of the Numismatic Section of the .Maryland Academy of 
Sciences was held, by invitation, at the home of Chairman Waldo Newcomer, 
105 West Monument Street, on March 15, with Mr. Newcomer presiding. 
Other members present were Dr. Nicholas, Judge Dawkins, Dr. Plummer, 
Messrs. Hilken, McColgan, Peach, Vocke, Schilling, Wilhelm, Lee, Hooper 
and DuflBeld. 

Minutes of the two preceding meetings were read and approved. 

The acting Secretary announced that the next regular meeting, April 19, 
would be the annual meeting, the Section having been organized on .April 
22, 1919. 

Mr. Peach announced the sudden death earlier in the day of Dr. L. W. 
Knight, who had become a member of the Section at the last meeting. On 
motion, a resolution was adopted deploring the death of Dr. Knight, and 
the Secretary was instructed to notify the family of the action of the Sec- 
tion and express our sympathy in their bereavement. 

Mr. McColgan announced that he had provided a cabinet for the Section’s 
numismatic collection, and that donations of coins and medals from mem- 
bers and friends would be gladly received. 

i The remainder of the evening was devoted to an examination of some 
parts of the host’s collection, a number of specimens having been placed on 
•a large table in the library for convenience. Requests were made by the 
■members to be shown other specimens, all of which were cheerfully com- 
plied with. The private gold and pattern pieces shown were numerous, as 
•well as many of the rarities in the regular series of U. S. coins. 

( After a very enjoyable numismatic feast, Mr. Newcomer invited all to 
■the dining-room, where a buffet luncheon was served. 

I A vote of thanks was tendered the host for the pleasure he had afforded 
the members during the evening. 


U. S. DOLL.AR LEGAL TENDER IX BOLIVIA. 


The Bolivian Congress has passed a law making the LTnited States gold 
dollar legal tender in Bolivia, and the executive has fixed the rate of ex- 
change at 2.57 bolivianos to the dollar. This action was taken for the pur- 
pose of aiding the banks that are using .American gold as their metal re- 
serve in the place of English pound sterling. The fixed rate of exchange will 
have no effect upon commercial transactions. 


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American Numismatic Association 


Organized 1801, Incorporated Under the Laws of the 
United States May 9, 1012. 


OFFICERS 
President, 
Waldo C. Moore, 
Lewisburg, Ohio. 


First Vice-President. 

Henry Chapman, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Second Vice-President, 

John M. Oliver, Springfield, Mass. 


General Secretary, 

H. H. Yawger, 

78 Linden St., Rochester, N. Y. 


Treasurer, 

George J. Bauer, 

192 St. Paul St., Rochester, N. Y. 


Librarian. 

H. H. Yawger, 78 Linden St., Rochester, N. Y. 


BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Moritz Wormser, Chairman, 95 Fifth Avenue. New York City. 

Theo. E. Leon, Preston C. Pond, 

143 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. Chicopee, Mass. 

Foster Lardner, F. N. Boyle, 

320 Westminster St., Providence, R. I. 628 Frick Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Official Magazine: The Numismatist. 

Frank G. Dufkield, Editor and Business Manager. 
1811 Mosher St., Baltimore, Md. 


DISTRICT SECRETARIES 

Harry A. Gray, 41 Rockland St., Roxbury, Mass., for New England States. 
Rud. Kohlfji, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City, for N. Y. and N. J. 

Henry Chapman, 333-335 S. 16th St., Philadelphia, Pa., for Penn., Del., Md., 
Va., W. Va. and D. of C. 

M. Marcuson, 1611 E. S2d St. N. E., Cleveland, Ohio, for Mich., Ohio, Ind. 
and Ky. 

Fred Michael, 8 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., for 111., Iowa, Mo., Kansas 
and Neb. 

A. H. Yoder, University, North Dakota, for Wis., Minn., N. Dak. and S. Dak. 
George H. King, Denver National Bank, Denver, Col., for Mont., Idaho, Wyo., 

Utah, Col., Ariz. and N. Mex. 

I. Leland Steinman, Room 329, 235 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal., 
for Cal., Nev., Ore. and Wash. 

B. Max Mehi., P. O. Drawer 97 6, Fort Worth, Tex., for Southern States. 
John A. Wood, 165 Oak Ave., Hamilton, Ont., for Ontario. 

R. L. Reid, V'^ancouver, B. C., for Western Canada. 

H. L. Doane, Truro, Nova Scotia, for Quebec and Eastern Provinces. 

S. H. Hamer, Halifax, Yorkshire, England, for British lies. 


The initiation fee is one dollar. The annual dues are 50 cents yearly. 
Subscription to The Numlsmatlst, $1.50 yearly, payable January 1st yearly. 
Total $3.00 for the first year. For particulars address the General Secre- 
tary, Rochester, N. Y. 


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AMERICAN NUMISMATIC ASSOCIATION. 

REPORT OF THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 


Now Memlwrs to be Admitted May 1, 1920. 

2082 Morgan H. Stafford, 343 Cabot St., Newtonville, Mass. 

2083 Geo. D. Season, 317 T St. N. E., Washington, D. C. 

2084 Floyd E. Huntley, P. O. Box 36, Denver, Colo. 

2085 O. L. Cramer, 550 E. Queen St., Chambersburg, Pa. 

2086 W. A. Bodendoerfer, 1 Catherine St., Muskegon, Mich. 

2087 Fred T. Carlson, De Kalb, 111. 

2088 Harry F. Rahr, 535 45th St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

2089 John A. Malmgren, 615' W. 7th St., Jamestown, N. Y. 

2090 D. A. Crichton, Geraldine, Mont. 

2091 D. Thos. Rees, City Bank Bldg., New Orleans, La. 

2092 Carl A. Johnson, Box 295, Moorhead, Minn. 

2093 J. F. Anderson, 3136 Front St., San Diego, Cal. 


Applications for Membership. 


The following applications have been received prior to April 20, 1920. 
If no objections are received prior to June 1, 1920, the same will become 
members on tnat date and will be published in the June issue; 

APPLICANT I’BOPOSED .»T 


2094 Henry E. Miller (General), Norman E. Shultz 

Emmetsburg, Iowa E. J, Higgins 

2095 H. Howell (U. S. and British), Farran Zerbe 

5428 South Park Ave., Chicago, 111 1. L. Steinman 

2096 W. H. Williams (General), J. F. Trowbridge 

804 South St., Piqua, Ohio H. H. Yawger 

2097 Wm. Lioyd (American), D. Thos. Rees 

606 Royal St., New Orleans, La H. H. Yawger 

2098 M. E. Hamberger (American), B. H. Collins 

1927 14th St. N. W., Washington, D. C H. H. Yawger 

2099 John Banas (General), Norman E. Shultz 

10529 Bensley Ave., Chicago, 111 H. H. Yawger 

2100 James .Minotto (General), J. Guttag 

111 W. Washington St., Chicago, 111 M. Wormser 

2101 Chas. H. Thul (Paper Money), Waldo C. Moore 

2631 Hemlock St., Cincinnati, Ohio H. H. Yawger 

2102 Jos. Z. Todd (U. S. and General), Farran Zerbe 

St. Mark Hotel, Oakland, Cal I. L. Steinman 

2103 John D. Nichols (U. S.), Norman E. Shultz 

Canton, Mo Homer Shultz 

2103 Dr. R. A. Brown (General), J. Guttag 

7 So. Howard St., Akron, Ohio M. Wormser 

2105 Robert Robertson (Swedish, Japanese and Chinese), J. deLagerberg 
140 33rd St., Brooklyn, N. Y W. R. Wernstrom 


H. H. Yawqeb, 

General Secretary. 


Rochester, N. Y., April 20, 1920. 


M.AKE HOTEL RESERVATIONS EARLY, 


Mr. Theo. E. Leon, chairman of the A. N. A. Committee on Arrangements 
and Program for the Chicago Convention, writes to The Numismatist urging 
that members who expect to attend should make their hotel reservations 
early, as there are ten conventions scheduled to meet in Chicago during the 
week of August 23. The A. N. A. Convention date is August 23 to 26. 
Mr. Leon has received the following letter from Mr. Hutchins, Assistant 
Manager of the Hotel Sherman: 

“Owing to the crowded condition of hotels all over the country, which 
condition will probably exist during the month of August, when your con- 
vention meets at the Hotel Sherman, we wish to suggest that your mem- 
bers make their reservations for rooms as far in advance as possible, in 
order that we may be able to see that they are nicely cared for.” 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


A PERSONAL APPEAL, 


To Each Member of the A. N. A.: 

The Get-One Campaign is now a reality. It is here. How enthusiastic 
are you about the 1000 goal? If^you are really enthusiastic your imagina- 
tion will work overtime and your friendliness will bubble over; also, you 
shall be strong in determination, which is the big thing that’s necessary to 
put across the desired A. N. A. membership drive and growth. 

It means merely that YOU — a live, progressive, ambitious, loyal member . 
of a live, progressive, loyal institution — should hereby agree with yourself 
at once (not tomorrow or some other day) to obtain at least one new mem- 
ber for the A. X. A. before the 1920 Get-One Campaign marks time. 

What’s the Big Noise? The Booster Campaign is on. The inspiration 
started at Philadelphia. Somebody will get the jump on you if you don’t 
hurry up and get busy. Lots of time for you to land your candidate if 
you start now. Look up Webster on that word “now.” 

The A. N. A. officers would have you be a real live wire. Boost. Get 
the habit. Now for your lift toward the membership increase. 

Yours fraternally, 

Waldo C. Moore, 

President A. N. A. 

Lewisburg, Ohio, April 7, 1920. 


’TO OUR FELLOW MEMBERS OF THE A. N. A. 


Stop a moment and give a thought to the A. N. A.! 

Our Convention date has been set, and your officers hope that you w'ill 
plan to be there without fail. Make it your business as weli as your pieasure 
to attend this year’s Convention in Chicago, to bring with you all the numis- 
matic enthusiasm you can muster up, and let us go to this Convention A 
THOUSAND Strong, when we say this we have, of course, no illusion 
that our Convention attendance will reach one thousand, but we do hope 
that all of you will give our Secretary the opportunity to read, when he 
submits his annual report, that our membership has reached the THOU- 
SAND MARK. 

This year your officers are giving a great amount of thought and time to 
A. N. A. matters, and are bending every effort to increase the membership, 
the standard and the influence of our Association. Spread our propaganda 
yourself, and beat the big drum on our Numismatic Band Wagon. 

It is up to you to uphold us in our work, as we cannot do it alone, and 
in your own community you must help us by enlisting new members in our 
ranks, spreading interest in numismatics among new collectors and keeping 
our subject alive. 

As you have been told from time to time, your officers are making efforts 
to gain new members by circularizing “prospects.” Many dealers have been 
broad-minded enough to see the value of our Association and have helped 
us by offering to send out the circulars we have been distributing. We ap- 
peal to those dealers from whom we have not yet heard, that they will write 
us how many circulars they can use so that we will distribute an increasing 
number and thereby let the aims and benefits of our Association be known 
and gain new recruits to our membership. We also urge every collector 
who reads this to write us for some of these circulars if he can use them 
among his friends, or give us names to whom we may send them. 

We also want to suggest to our members that if they can secure new sub- 
scribers to The Numismatist and new advertisers, they will help along our 
work, as The Numismatist is OUR OWN publication, and we have every 
reason to be proud of it. 

\ our officers will be glad to receive suggestions on any matters concern- 
ing the welfare of the A. N. A. which you may wish to take up with us. 

Remember that your officers are working for you, but that we need your 
active and hearty co-operation. 

Help us boost, and don’t knock. 

Fraternally yours, for thf spread of numismatics, 

Moritz Wormser, 

Chairman, Board of Governors. 

April 15, 1920. 


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215 


OBITUARY. 


LOUIS W. KNIGHT, M. D. 

Dr. L#ouis W. Knight, one of the few remaining physicians of the old 
school in Maryland and a devoted numismatist, died on March 15 of bron- 
chial pneumonia at his home, 414 North Greene street. He was 75 years old. 

Eleven years ago Dr. Knight presented to Loyola College a rare and val- 
uable collection of Papal medals. He was a student at Loyola at one time, 
and it waa his desire to augment the fine collection that his alma mater 
possesses that prompted him to make the donation. Dr. Knight spent more 
than 30 years in the work of collecting the medals, and some of them came 
from secluded corners of Europe. A room in the college was especially fit- 
ted up for the reception of the gift. Together with the coins and rare med- 
als which the college already had in its possesaion at the time, its collection 
was claimed to be probably equal to any in the country. 

Born in Baltimore, Dr. Knight attended the public schools and Loyola 
College, and later was graduated from the Medical School of the Univer- 
sity of Maryland. Even in his advanced years, he practiced his profession 
until about 10 days before his last illness developed. 

Dr. Knight was connected with several of the medical associations in the 
State and was also a member of Doric Lodge of Masons. He never mar- 
ried, and his sole survivors are three sisters. 

Dr. Knight w^as for a number of years a member of the .American Numis- 
matic Association, and also a member of the Numismatic Section of the 
Maryland Academy of Sciences. 


THE CAREER OF THE LATE HENRY C. .>nLLER. 


The following extracts appeared in the Williams College Alumni Review 
on the death of Mr. Henry C. Miller, a member of the A. N. A., whose death 
was recorded in our March issue: 

Henry C. .Miller was born in Philadelphia, May 19, 1844, the son of 
George H. and Emma M. Miller. He was prepared for college by Samuel 
M. Cleveland (Williams 1858). He entered the class of 1868 in its fresh- 
man year and, after remaining in college the first two terms, he returned 
to Phiiadelphia and prepared himself for admission to the class of 1867, 
which he entered in junior year after passing a brilliant examination. He 
stood high in scholarship and at graduation was awarded the aesthetic ora- 
tion. Mr. Miller was a member of the Kappa -A.lpha Fraternity. He was 
unmarried and is survived by a sister. Mr. .Miller became an authority on 
the early coinages of Connecticut, Vermont and Massachusetts. A book 
written by him on this subject is now being published by the .American Nu- 
mismatic Society. — Written by J. How^ell .Jones (1868). 

The death of Henry C. Miller on February 5, 1920, recalls the intense 
personality of a man who, a number of years ago. exerted a marvelous in- 
fluence on a growing generation in matters educational. Mr. Miller was 
born in Philadelphia, and w'as a graduate of Williams College of the class of 
1867, in which were his intimates, the late Hamilton Mabie and Francis 
Lynde Stetson. After a few years of interesting research in the mining fields 
of the Rockies, he devoted himself to education, teaching first in the Tren- 
ton Normal School and in 187 6 was principal of the Hasbrouck Institute in 
Jersey City. The phenomenal growth of that institution was due not only 
to Mr. Miller’s careful financial management but particularly to a certain fac- 
ulty he possessed of interesting boys both from his experience in the West, 
the life he put into the facts of history, and his inventiveness in varying the 
dull routine of formal study. Mr. Miller in 1881 sold his interest in the 
Hasbrouck Institute and became the principal of the Dwight School in New 
York where he had as patrons some of the most prominent familie.s. Many 
of Mr. Miller’s pupils will recall the sincerity of his character, and the in- 
terest he always inspired in the subjects he taught. 

Mr. Miller left the profession of teaching nearly twenty-five years ago 
and became an operator in the financial markets where he amassed a for- 
tune. His versatility showed Itself in successful financial operations, in lit- 
erature, history, and especially in his avocation — numismatics. He was a 
member of the English and American Numismatic Societies. — Written by 
Mr. Wade, associated with Mr. Miller in school work. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


BACK VOLUMES AND XOmERS OF THE NUMISMATIST FOB SALE. 

We receive so many inquiries from time to time as to which back vol- 
umes and numbers of The Ni’.mismatist can be obtained that a list of them 
is given below, with prices per volume and number. All prices previously 
quoted are canceled. The price includes postage. 

Considering that some of these issues are many years old, the price 
quoted is very low, and has been made so in order to reduce the quantity 
on hand as much as possible. All the volumes have interesting articles, 
many of them written by the leading numismatists of the times, and in ad- 
dition they are valuable as works of reference. 

1888 to 180:i — None on hand. 

1894 — Several complete volumes, 12 issues. Per volume, $1.50. Per copy, 
20c. 

180.'5 — Several volumes except September. Per volume, $1.35. Per copy, 
20c. 

1896 — Several complete volumes, 10 issues (none issued in October and 

November). Per vjlume, $1.50. Complete volumes only will 
be sold. 

1897 — A few complete volumes, 8 issues (several double numbers issued 

during the year). Per volume, $2. Complete volumes only will 
be sold. 

1898 — A few complete volumes, 12 issues. Per volume, $2. Complete 

volumes only will be sold. 

1899 — A very few complete volumes, 12 issues. Per volume, $2. Com- 

plete volumes only will be sold. 

1900 — A very few of January, May, June, July, August, September and De- 

cember. Per copy, 20 cents. 

1901 — A few of February, March, May, June, July, August, September, Oc- 

tober and December. Per copy, 20 cents. 

1902 — One copy each of April, May, September, October. Per copy, 26 

cents. 

1903 — One copy of August. Price, 25 cents. 

1904 — A very few copies of February, .March and June. Per copy, 25 cents. 

1905 — One copy of May, and a few of July and August. Per copy, 25 cents. 

1906 — Several copies of May, July, September, October and November. Per 

copy, 20 cents. 

1907 — Copies of September and October-November. Per copy, 20 cents. 

1908 — Several volumes except September. October and November a double 

number. Per volume (except September), $1.50. Per copy, 20c. 

1909 — Several complete volumes. Eleven issues. September and October 

a double number. Per volume, $1.50. Per copy, 20c. 

1910 — A few complete volumes. Nine issues. None issued in May, August 

and October. Per volume, $1.50. Per copy, 20c. 

1911 — Several complete volumes except January. Per volume (except Jan- 

uary), $2. Per copy, 25c. 

1912 — Copies of January, May, June, July, August, September, October, No- 

vember, December. Per copy, 25c. 

1913 — A few copies of January, April, .May, June, August, September, Oc- 

tober, November, December. Per copy, 25c. 

1914 — A few copies of April, June, July, September, October, December. 

Per copy, 25c. 

1915 — Several complete volumes, except August. Per volume (except Au- 

gust), $2. Per copy, 20c. 

1916 — Several complete volumes. Per volume. $2. Per copy, 20c. 

1917 — Several complete volumes. Per volume, $2. Per copy, 20c. 

1918 — Several complete volumes. Per volume, $2. Per copy, 20c. 

1910 — Several complete volumes. Per volume, $2. Per copy, 20c. 

All orders must be accompanied by cash and addressed to T)ie Nlmism.a- 
T!ST, 1811 Mosher Street, Baltimore, Md. 


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AN ETCHED MEDAL OF SWISS ORIGIN. 



Illustrated here is a medal issued by the city of Murten, Switzerland, for 
presentation to her soldiers who participated in the late war. The medal 
is from the establishment of Huguenin Freres of Le Lode, Switzerland, 
who state that the various cities in Switzerland issued medals for presen- 
tation to the soldiers who participated in the late war, the reverses of the 
medals showing an armory or other public building in the various cities 
from which the soldiers came. The reverses differ from the ordinary medal 
in that they are etched Instead of being Impressed with a die, and present 
a very pleasing appearance. We are Indebted to Mr. J. deLagerberg of 
New York City for a specimen for illustrating. 


FIFTY PFENNIG OF GERMANY, 1919. 

Illustrated here is a specimen of the 50-pfennig of Germany, dated 1919, 
referred to in last month’s issue by Mr. Farran Zerbe, and to whom we are 
Indebted for a specimen. The familiar arms of the old German Empire hav^ 
given way to a sheaf of wheat on the obverse, across which is the inscription, 
‘‘Gich Regen Bringt Gegen” (To Work Will Bring Blessing). 



The reverse is not so severely plain as that of the former Imperial minor 
issues, but is of a type similar to many of the tokens of cities of Germany 
during the war. The piece is struck in aluminum. 


CHANGES IN A. N. A. CONVENTION COMMITTEES. 


On account of his absence in Europe the coming summer, Mr. Howland 
Wood has notified President Moore that he will be unable to serve as chair- 
man of the Convention Committee to Obtain Papers to Be Read at the Con- 
vention. President Moore has appointed Mr. Moritz Wormser as chairman. 
Mr. Wood will continue as a member of the committee. 

On account of illness, Mr. Charles N. Hinckley of Chicago has resigned 
as a member of the Committee to Conduct Election of Officers. Mr. Carl 
Wurtzbach of Lee, Mass., has been appointed to fill the vacancy. 


CIRCULATION OF FRENCH COINS RESTRICTED. 


Advice from Paris is to the effect that delegates from the leading Euro- 
pean powers, after a long discussion regarding the monetary situation on the 
continent, has decided to prohibit the circulation of French silver coins in 
Switzerland and the circulation of Swiss silver in France. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


American Numismatic 
Society 

New York 

IIKOADWAY BET\\^EN 155TH 
& 150TH STS. 

Organized 1858. Incorporated 1865. 

PRESENT EXHIBITION: 

The Andrew C. Zabriskle Collection of 
Polish Coins and Medals, 
and German Satirical Medals. 

All collectors and students are cordially invited to naake use of the 
extensive Library of the Society, and every facility will be offered to numis- 
matists in examining and studying the large collection of coins and medals 
that may not be on exhibition. 

Open to the Public daily (except Monday), 10 A. M. to 5 P. M. Sun- 
days, 1 to 5 P. M. 


W. Gedney Beatty 
Bauman L. Bei.den 
F. C. C. Boyd 
Henry Russei i. Drowne 
Rohert James Eidlitz 


OFFICERS 

President 
Edward T. Newell 
Governors 

Archer M. Huntington 
Edward T. Neweix 
John Reilly, Jr. 

Treasurer: 

John Reilly, Jr. 

Assistant to Curator: 

Arthur C. Wyman 

MEMBERSHIP. 

The annual dues of Fellows (limited to one hundred and fifty) are 
Fifteen Dollars, and those of Associates are Five Dollars, which are payable 
In advance, and cover subscription to the Society’s organ, the American 
Journal of Numismatics. One Hundred and Fifty Dollars entitles one to Life 
Fellowship, and Fifty Dollars to Associate Life Membership, and secures 
exemption from further dues. 

Applications for Membership should be sent to the Secretary, at the 
above address. 

Regular meetings are held on the second Saturday, or such other day ae 
the Council may designate, in the months of January, April and November. 

Meetings for the reading of papers, discussion of numismatic subjects 
and exhibition of coins and medals, are held on the evenings of the first 
Thursday of each month except June, July, August, September and October. 

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 

Published Annually By The Society. Subscription Five Dollars. 


Henry Russeil Drowne 
William B. Osgood Field 

Secretary: 

Sydney P. Noe 
Curator: 

Howland Wood 


COUNCIL 

William B. O.sgood Field John Reilly, Jr. 
Harrold E. Gillingham Elliott Smith 
Archer M. Huntington W. Gilman Thompson 
Edward T. Neweix John I. Waterbuby 

Stephen H. P. Pell William H. Woodin 




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PRICES UEALIZEI) AT LOW’S 200th SALE. 


Following are the prices realized on some of the lots at the 200th Sale 
of Lyman H. Low, New Rochelle, N. Y., on February 28, 1920: 


Military and Naval Medals: 

11. Mexico, Oaxaca. Betts 10, but in silver $ 5.50 

17. England (1816). For Algiers. Fine 16.50 

18. Do., 1839, First Afghan War. Ghuznee. Good 20.00 

19. Do., 1842, Second Afghan War. Cabul. Good 21.00 

21. Do., 1845. Sutlej War. Moodkee. Fine 13.00 

24. Do., 1854. Crimean War. Alma, Balaklava, Inkermann, Se- 
bastopol. Good 15.00 

36. Do., 1866. Fenian Raid. Canada. Fine 19.00 

44. Do., 1880. Cape of Good Hope. Basutoland. V. F 23.00 

46. Do., 1885. Northwest Canada. Saskatchewan. Fine 18.00 

49. Do., 1896. Rhodesia. V. F 14.00 

51. Do., 1897. Khedive’s Soudan. The Atbara, Khartoum. V. F. 22.00 

58. Do., 1902-04. East Africa. Somaliland. V. F 13.00 

60. Do., 1904-04. Tibet. Gyantse. Fine 11.00 

82. Syria. St. Jean d’Acre. 1840. Conferred on British officers. 

Fine 5.50 

89. England. 1902. Edward VII. Coronation Medal. Fine.... 6.25 

134. U. S. Cent, 1856. Flying eagle. Fine 8.25 

148. Half Dollar, 1861, O mint. Nearly fine 5.15 

215. Quarter Dollar, 1825 over ’23. Ex. Fine 2.10 

276. Colonial. (1694) Elephant. Rev., London. Good 3.00 

301. Pattern Trade Dollar, 1873. A. & W., Obv. 1322., Rev. 1328. 3.00 

378. England. Penny. Cnut, 1016-35. V. G 2.50 

379. Do., do. Edw. the Confessor, 1042-66. Norwich Penny. Unc. 3.10 

380. Do., do. Wm. I, 1066-87. P-A-X-S Penny. Fine 2.25 

431. Confederatio Cent, 1785. (Copy by Bolen. J Fine 5.00 

432. Georgfe Clinton Cent, 1787. (Copy by Bolen.) V. F 4.75 

433. New York Cent. (Copy by Bolen.) Fine 4.i0 

434. Bar Cent. (Copy by ^len.) 6.00 

435. Non Depen-dens Status. (Copy.) Silver. Proof 3.25 

439. Half Dollar, 1918, Lincoln. (Illinois Commemorative). Unc. 1.85 


COUNTERFEIT OF ANOTHER FEDERAL RESERVE NOTE. 


The Secret Service Division of the Treasury Department has Issued a 
circular describing another counterfeit $20 Federal Reserve note. This is 
on the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, series of 1914, check letter “B,” 
face plate No. 68; W. G. McAdoo, Secretary of the Treasury; John Burke, 
Treasurer of the United States; portrait of Cleveland. The description of 
the counterfeit is as follows: 

“This counterfeit is apparently printed from photo-mechanical plates, on 
a single piece of good quality paper. No silk threads or imitation of them 
appear in the paper. The portrait of Cleveland is rough, and merges into 
the background. The words and figures ‘Series of 1914,’ immediately un- 
der the seal, are crudely cut by hand, as is the plate number 68. The color 
of the seal is green instead of blue. The figures in the Treasury number 
G3216126A, are larger and more widely separated than the genuine. The 
back of the specimen before me is light green having the appearance of 
being faded.’’ 


NORWAY TO USE Nlf^KEL FOR COIN.\GE, 


The Norwegian Minister of State, Mr. Knudsen. informs the Storting, in 
Norway, that on account of the active fluctuations in the price of silver and 
its high price it will be too expensive to strike subsidiary coins in silver. 
In the future the 10. 25 and 5() ore will be struck in nickel. In exchange 
of one and two kronen pieces the people will have to be satisfied with 
currency bills. Eventually kronen will also be struck in nickel. — (Free 
trans. by J. deL.). 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


EXCISE PROPOSED OX GOLiD FOR ARTS. 


Representative McFadden, of Pennsylvania, has introduced a bill in Con- 
gress providing that on and after May 1, 1920, an excise of fifty cents a pen- 
nyweight be collected on the sale of all articles containing gold or gold used 
for other than money purposes to create a fund from which the gold pro- 
ducer is to receive $10 for every newly produced ounce. The purpose of 
the bill, introduced at the request of the American Bankers’ Association, is 
to maintain the domestic production of gold In sufficient volume to satisfy 
all manufacturing requirements. 

“Since this transaction is confined to the production and sale of gold as a 
commodity only and without reference to its monetary use,’’ Mr. McFadden 
said, “it cannot in any way influence the monetary status of the metal. By 
this means the jewelers and other consumers of gold will be able to obtain 
all of the gold that they require at the usual monetary price of $20.67 an 
ounce. The excise is to be collected only upon the manufactured article as 
sold and not upon the bullion, which insures a free gold market in the Unit- 
ed States. 

"The enactment of this law under present conditions, where the gold con- 
sumed in trades is in excess of that produced from the mines, will not only 
be without cost to the government, but will create a balance in favor of it. 
The premium to be paid to the gold producer Is not a subsidy, because the 
government has been and is now subsidizing the consumers of gold manu- 
factures and the arts.’’ 


FOREIGN MEDAL ISSUES AND .AW.\RDS. 

The Emperor of Japan has conferred a medal of the Order of the Rising 
Sun on Lieutenant-Colonel William L. Redles of the United States Marine 
Corps. 


Colonel Thomas D. Landon, principal of the Bordentown Military Insti- 
tute, has received through the Adjutant-General’s office at Washington a 
citation from the President of France conferring upon him the decoration 
of Officer of the Black Star. The certificate is accompanied by a hand- 
some medal. 


The King of Sweden has conferred on the Chairman in the Social-Direc- 
tory, General Director G. H. Elmquist of Sweden, the Medal lllis Quorum 
Meruere Labores, eighth dimension (Swedish scale), to be worn with a 
golden chain around the neck, for mo,st important services rendered in va- 
rious positions held in the State. (See The Numis.matist, March, 1920, 
pages 114-11.5.) 

J. del. 


CIRfT’LATIOX OF P.liPER MONEY IN MEXICO. 


Commercial Attache E. F. Feely, Mexico City, states in Commerce Re- 
ports that the committee appointed by the Confederation of Chambers of 
Commerce of Mexico to supervise the issuance of the new’ paper money 
through the Comision Monetaria reports that the amount of money issued 
up to March 6 was $902, .500. The weekly issue Is about 171,500 pesos. 
Practically all of it is in circulation in the Federal District, and, notwith- 
standing the fact that the mint is working overtime on the coinage of gold 
coins of small denominations and on copper coins, the shortage of circulat- 
ing mediums is still acute. 


SLE.SVIG-DEXMARK REUNION MEDAI>.S. 


Several medals have been struck in Denmark commemorating the reunion 
of Slesvig with Denmark. One that has won considerable faiA'or w’as design- 
ed by the young professor, Utzon Frank. It is struck in silver, and is a 
beautiful and dignified token of one of the greatest moments in the history 
of Denmark. M. S. 


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CUTS USED I\ THE XU.MIS.MATIST l-'OK SALE. 


During its career of over 32 years one of the leading features of Tuk 
Numismatist has been the number of its illustrations. These have included 
a great variety of coins, tokens, medals and paper money, as well aa many 
auxiliary items. The total number can only be estimated, but it is believed 
to be between 15,000 and 20,000. It has become necessary to make some 
disposition of these cuts, and many of them are now offered for sale. 

Most of the cuts used since 1909 are what are known as half-tone illus- 
trations — made direct from photographs of the specimens. These are cop- 
per-plated and are very durable, and all are mounted on wooden blocks. 

Most of those used before 1909 are known as zinc etchings, made from 
pen-and-ink drawings, and are intended to illustrate types of coins or 
medals rather than actual specimens. 

The cost of copper-plated half-tone illustrations has advanced greatly 
within the past year, and the price of new cuts now averages about $10 
per page for The Nu.mismatist — about double the price up to a year ago. 
In offering these half-tone cuts for sale the price has been fixed at about 
half the original price, or one-fourth of the present price for new work. 
This price is for cuts used before April, 1919. For cuts used prior to that 
time the price will be $2.50 per page of 7 inches, plus 10 cents for each 
cut for blocking. This measurement applies to the depth of the cut; the 
width is not considered. For instance, if 10 cuts are wanted and their 
combined depth measurer 15 inches, the price will be $5, plus 10 cents 
for each of the 10 cuts, or a total of $6. Where only two or three small 
cuts are wanted, price will be quoted on application. 

The cuts used in iilustrating the series of Confederate Paper Money ar- 
ticles are not for sale. 

In ordering, it will be necessary to give page, month and year of Thk 
Numismatist in which the iilustration was used. 

Prices for cuts used after Aprii 1, 1919, wili be $5 for each page of 7 
Inches, plus 20 cents each for blocking. 

Prices for the zinc etchings used prior to 1909 will be quoted on .appli- 
cation. 

All orders should be sent to The Numismatist, 1811 Mosher Street, Bal- 
timore, Md. 


MISCELL.AXEOUS XU.MISMATIC NOTES. 


One of the features in New York City’s campaign for raising funds to 
build the Marne Memorial Statue in France was a monster wheel about 25 
feet in diameter in imitation or the reverse of the U. S. cent. Curiously 
enough, it was the type of the Indian head cent reverse and not that of the 
Lincoln cent. 


The official organ of Poland, Monitor Polski, has published a decree of 
the Diet of January 15 establishing the Polish mark as the legal tender in 
all territories of the Republic. 


The Saltus Medal for Merit, presented by J. Sanford Saltus for a work 
of art, either in painting or sculpture, eligibility for the award not affected 
by the nationality, age or sex of the artist, or any other condition than the 
merit of the work of art, has been awarded by the National Academy of 
Design to Anna Vaughn Hyatt for her ‘ Joan of Arc.” 


WHAT DO YOU MAKE OP’ THIS'.' 


The following want advertisement is credited to The Gleaner, Frederick- 
ton, N. B.: 


WANTED — A single young man will 
marry any woman over IS or under ;in. 
for one cent, dated .Apply Pat 

O'Brien. Dong's Hotel. — H71. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


the collections of 

MR. PAUL G. KROSCHELL, 
DR. D. GATES BENNETT 


AND 


MR. R. L. SMITH 

Will constitute the 

QUALITY SALE 

To be held by MEHL in May. 

Fine American and Foreign Gold and Sil- 
ver, Canadian Coins and Tokens, etc. 

AN UNUSUALLY “USUAL” MEHL 

QUALITY SALE. 

Fine catalof?s, of course, are free to collectors. 
Write for your co])y if you are not on my list. 



Largest Numis.matlc Establishment in the United States. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


MAY, 1920. 


225 



WAYTE RAYMOND 

489 Park Avenue, 

(Anderson Galleries) 

New York City. 

Dealer in rare coins of all countries. Collections cata- 
logued for sale at auction or purchased outright. Price 
list sent on request. 

Just published — “United States Store Cards” by Ed- 
gar H. Adams. A list of merchants’ store cards and ad- 
vertising tokens from 1789 to recent years, arranged by 
States and exclusive of the Civil War period. 75 pages, 
paper cover. Postpaid $2.10. 




(*>- 






Two Hundred and First Public Sale of Coins 
and Medals, during- the month of May, at 
the Park Avenue Hotel, New York City. 

The important collection formed by the late 

Edw. P. Steers, Prest. of the Fourteenth Ward Bank, 

New York City. 

PART ONE — Colonial and U. S. Mint series, in Gold, 
Silver and Copper. Contains 1802 Half Dime, the very 
rare Half i'ents and liberal portions of other Fine and 
Rare Specimens. PART TWO will form 203rd sale. 

TWO HUNDRED AND SECOND Sale, probably in the month of 
June. The Cabinet of American Coins and Medals assembled by the 
late Jesse W. Potts of Albany, X. Y. Founded by his father in the 
early days of collecting. Many rarities and choice examples in Gold. 
Silver and Copper. Further particulars later. 


Apl. 20th, 1920. 


LYMAN H. LOW. 


28 Clinton Place, X'ew Rochelle, N. Y. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


Fractional Currency 

JuHt Received. 

A choice crisp, 
uncirculated 1 o t. 
Including all Is- 
sues. 

Red RackH and 
Auto SlgnatureM. 

Prices on appli- 
cation. 

Thou sands of 
Coins in stock of 
every country and 
period. Send us 
your want list. 
The niumlamatie Guide in its 12th 
Edition, having 2-50 illustrations, quotes 
our buying and selling prices, and Is 
sent postpaid on receipt of 15c. 

Arnold NmnlsmaiicCo. p;rAtnce!R."i‘: 


Historical Medals of the Kings of 
Franc*, numbered No. 1 to 60. One 
nurnber missing (No. 11). All struck 
in Proof and ALL O. K. as to condi- 
tion, Head of KInff on Obv. History 
on Rev. No. 69 reads on Rev., Roi 1795 
Adonneaux Francals. La Constitution 
1844 Leur .\rendu Pour Toujours La 
Religion La Paix Le Bonheur 1815. In- 
scription In 8 lines. About the size of 
U. S. Half Dollar. Edge milled. A 
nice thing for a museum. Same will 
be sold as a lot. 68 pieces for $25. A 
Set sold for $.50 each at Bangs & Co. 
In New York in .Yprll 12-13, 1883. No. 
895 . page 36. 

F» R. KIMH.-%L,I,. Room 124, IS Tremont 
St., Kimball Bldg., Boaton, Munh. 


ANOTHER NEW ONE, 

Mexican 20 centavos. Copper. 1920, 

just out 25c. 

Silver coinage now suspended In 
Mexico, values in the new Issues are 
bound to lump. Let me have vour 
want list. Both rare and common 
Items on approval. Send reference. 
List FREE. 

Ij. a, CARDWEL/Ij, Las Ouces, N.M. 


FOR SALE. 

Two Mormon Gold Coins ($5 denom- 
ination), 1849, 1850. Price on applica- 
tion. Nice specimens. 

SHEPARD BOOK COMPANY, 
408 S. State SL, 

Salt I^ake City, Utah. 

Regular Meetlngn, 

GRAND HOTEL, 

Broadway & 31st St. 
second Friday each 
month at 6.30 P. M. 

Memebrs of the A. 
N. A. visiting New 
York are cordially 
invited. 


WAR PAPER MONEY 

OF GERMAN TOWNS. 

Pine execution. Unused. Sold by 

L. HUMMEL, 

Munich, Spatenhrewery, Bavaria. 


Coins of Japan. Munro. Rare. 

New $12.00 

Crosby’s Early Coins of America. 

Rare 25.00 

Scott’s Paper Monev Cat. 1894. 

Scarce 1.25 

Other rare coin works for sale cheap. 
AM SELLING OLT. 

Rare Stamps Bought and Sold. Want- 
ed — Encased Postage Sta.mps. 

A. Atlas Leve, Syracuse, N. Y. 


WAR MEDALS. 

Collector wants those of any country, 
any war. 

Want just now (British); 

Central .Urlca, 1S94-1S08. 

East and Central .Vfriea. 
KliedlveM .Soudan, 1010. 

AHhantl. 1000. 

C. S. GIFFORD, Box .5274, Boston, 4. 

Acme 

Transparent Envelopes 

Set of 23 Pockets to hold all regular 
Issues U. S. Fractional Cy.. $1.00. 

Dollar bill size, per doz., $1.60, post- 
paid. Send dime for samples and list. 
Manufactured by 

C. N. HINCKLEY, 

47H6 Dover Street, Chicago, III. 


Old Trade Dollars Wanted. 

Worn, mutilated, and any condition. 
Highest prices paid — 75c. to $2 each. 
Also want to buy gold dollars of every 
date In gem condition. 

HARRY KELSO, Anna, Kans. 


WANTED— FOR CASH. 

U. S. ColuH of All Perloda. 

Colonial to present date; also Paper 
Money and Patterns. 

Foreign Copper, Gold and Silver, 
good to proof condition. 

Write me before selling, as I am sure 
it will be to your adv'antage. 

NORMAN SHULTZ, King City, Mo. 

FOR SALE AND WANTED. 
Paper Money of All Kinds. 

Correspondence Solicited. 

JOHN EDWIN MORSE, 

Hadley, Maanaehuaetta. 

STAMP AND COIN 
EXCHANGE 

78 Nassau Street, New York City. 
Price list free. Premium Catalog 10c. 
Coin Collections Purchased for Cash. 

Large Silver Catalog 50c; Copper $13.00. 




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The Numismatist 


VOL. XXXIII. JUNE 1920. No. 6 


A TRIAL LIST OF THE COUNTERMARKED MODERN 

COINS OF THE WORLD. 


By F. G. DUFFIELD. 


(continued from last month.) 


8tK)TLAND. 

In 1578, under the reign of James VI (1567-1625), coins issued under the 
reign of Mary I (1542-67 ) and under his own reign were countermarked 
with a crowned thistle and reissued at an increased valuation of 10 per cent. 

869. Silver Ryal (Cruickston type), Mary and Henry, 1565, 1566, 1567, 

Cm. a crowned thistle. 

870. Silver Ryal (Cruickston type), Mary, second widowhood, 1567, Cm. 

a crowned thistle. 

871. Silver Ryal (Sword type), James VI, 1567, 1569, 1570, 1571, Cm. a 

crowned thistle. 

872. Two-third Ryal, Mary and Henry, 1565, Cm. a crowned thistle. 

873. Two-third Ryal, Mary, second widowhood, 1567, Cm. a crowned this- 

tle. 

874. Two-third Ryal, James VI, 1570, 1571, Cm. a crowned thistle. 

875. One-third Ryal, Mary and Henry, 1565, Cm. a crowned thistle. 

876. One-third Ryal, Mary, second widowhood, 1567, Cm. a crowned this- 

tle. 

877. Testoon, Mary, 1555, 1556, 1557, Cm. a crowned thistle. 

878. Testoon, Francis and Mary, 1558, 1559, 1560, Cm. a crowned thistle. 

879. Testoon, Mary, alone, 1561, Cm. a crowned thistle. 

880. Silver Ryal, Mary and Henry, 1566, Cm. a crowned thistle, and a sec- 

ond Cm., a monogram. 

881. Lion or Hardhead, Francis and Mary, 1559, Cm. a heart and a star. 


SIERRA LEONE. 

882. Sierra Leone, 50 Cents, 1791, Cm. “T. S.” 

883. Sierra Leone, 50 Cents, 1791, Cm. a small stamp (not described, but 

probably the same as preceding.) 

884. Portion (one-fourth) of Spanish 8 Reals, Cm. crowned “W. R.” 


SPAIN. 

885. Spain, Double Ducat of Ferdinand and Isabella, Cm. with small arms 

of Barcelona. 

886. Spain. Double Ducat of Philip IV, 1629, 1632, Cm. with small arms of 

Barcelona. 

The above are said to have been countermarked under Philip IV. 


887. Spain, 4 MaravedI of Philip III, 1599, 1603, Cm. “VIII” crowned. 

888. Spain, 8 Maravedi of Philip III, 1604, Cm. “XII” and “8.” 



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THE NUMISMATIST 


S89. 

890. 

891. 

892. 

893. 


894. 

895. 

896. 

897. 

898. 

899. 


Spain, 8 Maravedi, , Cm. “1642.” 

Spain, 8 Maravedi, , Cm. a monogram and “1652.” 

Spain, 8 Maravedi, 1618, Cm. “1652” and “8.” 

Spain, 8 Maravedi, 1621, Cm. “8.” 

Spain, 8 Maravedi, , Cm. “PHILIPPUS” (monogram), “REX” 

(monogram) and “1659.” 


No. 893. 

Spain, 8 Maravedi, , Cm. “XII. C” and “636” beneath a crown. 

Spain, 8 Maravedi, 1623, Cm. “VIII MD” and “1641” under a crown. 
Spain, 8 Maravedi, 1624, Cm. “1642” and “XII.” 

Spain, 8 Maravedi, 1624, 1626, Cm. “XII.” 

Spain, 8 Maravedi, 1628, Cm. “REX” (monogram) crowned. 

Spain, 8 Maravedi, , Cm. “* VIII *” with the Segovia mint mark 

above, five times on one side, and Cm. “1655’ five times on the 
other side. 





No. 899. 

The above piece is quite remarkable for the number of countermarks up- 
on it — ten. These stamps have obliterated almost every trace of the design 
of the original coin and materially altered its shape. It has been submitted 
by Mr. O. P. Eklund of Spokane, Wash. This and other coins listed above 
will give a fairly good idea of the manner in which many of the copper coins 
of Philip IV were countermarked. 

900. Spain, 4 Maravedi, , Cm. “1642 . R . 6” on one side and “♦ 4 *” 

on the other side. 

901. Spain, 4 Maravedi, , Cm. “MD.” 

902. Spain, 4 Maravedi, , Cm. “1652.” 

903. Spain, Vich, Menut of Philip II ( 1556-1598), Cm. an eagle. 

904. Spain, Necessity Real of Philip ^635), struck over a copper coin of 

Sebastian. 

905. Spain, Gerona, Insurrection, 1640-43, 5 Reals, struck over an older 

coin. 

906. Spain, early copper coin for Ivica, Cm. “1 — A” within wreath. 

907. Spain, Double Denier, 1708, 1709, struck over an Ardlte of Louis 

XIV for Barcelona. 

908. Spain, 2 Reals, 1785, Cm. “SIV % B” in cross-shape depression. 

909. Spain, 8 Reals, Cm. crude bust of Ferdinand VII, “T” and Spanish 

pillars. 

910. Spain, 10 Reals ( Peso), 1821, Cm. fleur-de-lys within a shield. 


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911. Spain, Majorca, Duro, 1821, Cm. on both sides with a 12-pointed star. 

912. Spain, 2 Reals, 1827, Cm. “20c.” 


SWEDEN. 

913. Sweden, 5 Ore, Charles XI, 1690, Cm. "XII” in a circle with two or- 

naments at top and two at bottom. 

914. Sweden, 5 Ore, Charles XI, 1693, Cm. of Chas. II. 

915. Sweden, 1-12 Riksdaler, , Cm. a rose on stem. 

916. Silver coin, size of 25 cents. Cm. “XII” in a circle. 

917. Sweden, 5 Ore, Charles XII, 1699, 1712, Cm. “XII” within a crowned 

double C. 

918. Sweden, 1-48 Riksdaler, 1691, Cm. a crown. 

Although the descriptions of the countermark on the above pieces are 
differently described, they probably refer to the same stamp. 

919. Sweden, 3 Dalers (1 Riksdaler) of Adolph Frederick, 1770, Cm. “A 

F” (Adolph Frederick) under the bust. 

920. Sweden, Skilling, 1802, struck over a 2-ore piece. 

921. Sweden, Skilling, , struck over English Penny of 1797. 

922. Sweden, plate money, 2 Dalers, 1717, Cm. with Gothic lion in shield, 

dated 1718, in addition to the five regular stamps, probably add- 
ed after the king’s death. 

(TO BE CONTINUED.) 


THE ORIGIN OF TOUCH-PIECES. 


The healing touch attributed to many kings of both English and French 
ancestral lines, according to James Fraser in “The Golden Bough; the 
Magic Art,” dates back to the time of the magicians from whom kings in 
general were evolved and who retained some magical functions for a certain 
length of time. 

The first king to whom suffering superstitious humanity thronged for 
surcease from pain was Clovis of France, in the misty days of Christianity, 
who by the laying on of hands cured those who were afflicted with the 
king’s evil. 

English authorities say Edward the Confessor was the first king upon 
whom was bestowed the God-given power of healing by the laying on of 
hands; and furthermore that this gift was used by sovereigns of England 
for many centuries. Some authorities cite that it extended to Queen Anne’s 
time; others put it later. 

Among the thousands who came to Queen Anne to be cured was Dr. John- 
son, who received at this time a small gold piece called the touching piece. 
The practice of presenting the person touched by the king with a small 
piece of silver or gold originated with Henry VII, but was discontinued later 
because of the many deceptions practiced by people who had the “itching 
palm.” Dr. Johnson’s coin was decorated with a relief of St. George and 
the Dragon on the reverse and a ship on the obverse. The legend on one 
side is “Soli deo gloria,” and on the other, “Anne, by Grace of God, of 
Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Queen.” 


GERMANY COINING ZINC AND ALUmNUM. 


In February the German Government minted 1,168,251 iron 5-pfennlg 
pieces, 2,166,457 zinc 10-pfennig pieces and 3,605,137 aluminum 50-pfen- 
nlg pieces. Noting the tendency among European nations to curtail the use 
of silver for coinage, the London firm of Samuel Mortagu & Company re- 
marks that “another sign of the trend of events as to subsidiary coinage 
has been the issue of one-shilling notes in British West Africa. The West 
African Currency Board reported that the practice of hoardin.g and melting 
down silver currency was rife in the colonies under its control. ” — Veto York 
Evening Post. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


CANADIAN SILVER COINS NOW 800 FINE. 


While the United States and some of the European countries have been 
discussing the advisability of reducing the finenesa of their silver coins, 
Canada has taken such a step, and by an act of the Canadian House of Com- 
mons, passed on March 16, 1920, has reduced the fineness of the Dominion’s 
silver coins from 925 to 800. We are indebted to Mr. R. W. McLachlan of 
Montreal for the following Orders in Council and a copy of the act autho- 
rizing the reduction: 

AT THE GOVERN.MENT HOUSE AT OTTAWA. 

Tuesday, the 25th day of November, 1919. 

Present: His Excellency The Governor-General in Council. 

Whereas the Minister of Finance, under date of 22nd November, 1919, re- 
ports as follows: 

The Canadian dollar weighs 360 grains. The standard of Canadian 
silver coinage is 925 fine, and, as a result, the Canadian dollar contains 333 
grains of fine silver. A like proportion applies to every Canadian silver 
coin. It will be seen that one ounce of fine silver will make $1.44 in cur- 
jency. Fine silver is now costing the mint $1.41881 per ounce. The pres- 
ent minting cost is approximately 6.82 cents per ounce, and as a result the 
cost of producing one ounce of silver currency is $1,487. To continue silver 
coinage at the present standard of fineness means at this price a loss per 
ounce of 4.7 cents. This loss would be serious in view of the fact that the 
silver coinage by the Mint for the last six months amounts to 1,584,919 
ounces. The price paid this year by the mint for fine silver previous to the 
last purchase averaged $1.1013 an ounce. The supply purchased at this 
price will be exhausted probably before the end of the calendar year. 

An emergency has arisen on account of the unprecedented increase in the 
price of silver. If the present standard of fineness is maintained, not only 
will the country’s coinage operations be conducted at a direct loss but the 
country’s currency must inevitably disappear, as coins will no doubt be 
melted and used for commercial purposes. The unprecedented demand on 
the mint for silver coinage indicates that the change of Canadian silver 
currency into bullion has already taken place to some extent. 

At the present rate of exchange the American dealer in silver can obtain 
Canadian silver currency at a rate of 95 on the dollar. 

The actual cost to the mint of producing this dollar at the new price is 
$1.03155, while the intrinsic value of silver which can be thus purchased 
for 95, in American currency amounts to 98.425. As an indication of the 
increase in demand for silver coinage the output of the Mint for past years 
compares as follown: 


1914 $ 734,002 

1915 206,000 

1916 1,302.000 

1917 1,862,200 

1918 2,402,000 

1919, till November 22 2,734,044 


Silver coinage has never been regarded as anything else but a token. In 
other words, the silver dollar never was intended to carry with it anything 
like the bullion value that the token called for. For example, in 1906, when 
the present standard of 925 fine obtained, the intrinsic value of the dollar 
was but 50 cents, so that a very substantial profit resulted to the country 
from its coinage operations. The standard of fineness varies in different 
countries. Silver coins of United States are 900 fine, and are, therefore, all 
of a lower standard than those obtaining in Canada. Coins of a standard 
of 800 fine have been made for Hong Kong, Ceylon and the Straits Settle- 
ments, and these coins have proved to be entirely satisfactory. As a matter 
of fact, the Mint advises that the coin of the lower fineness is harder and 
will wear longer than the coins of the higher standard. 

This matter has only today been called to the attention of the Minister of 
Finance and ought to have been dealt with by an Act at the last session of 
Parliament. 


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23S, 


Therefore, in view of the emergency now existing. His Excellency the- 
Governor-General in Council, on the recommendation of the Minister of Fi- 
nance, is pleased to authorize and doth hereby authorize the adoption of a 
standard at 800 line for Canadian silver coinage, appropriate legislation ta 
be introduced at the next session of Parliament for the purpose of Anally 
dealing with the question. 

Rodolphe Bouuneau, 

Clerk of the Privy Council. 


AT THE GOVERNMENT HOUSE AT OTTAWA. 


Thursday, the 29th day of January, 1920. 

Present: His Excellency The Governor^eneral in Council. 

Whereas by Order in Council of 25th November, 1919, (P. C. 2373) au- 
thority was granted for the adoption of a standard at 800 Ane for Canada, 
silver coinage, legislative approval of such standard to be obtained at the 
next session of Parliament; and 

Whereas the Minister of Finance reports that the present remedy allow- 
ance weight per piece on Canadian silver coins is as follows, — 


Denomination of coin. 
Silver — 

One dollar 

Fifty cent 

Twenty-Ave cent . . 
Ten cent 


Remedy allowance 
weight per piece. 

Grains. 

1.50 

1.00 

.60 

2.50 


(This remedy is on a group of one dollar’s worth, ten pieces.) 


Five cent 3.00 

(This remedy is on a group of one dollar’s worth, twenty pieces.) 

and that the Deputy Master of the Royal Mint, Ottawa, states that it is now 
desirable to change the remedy allowance weight per piece on certain of the 
Canadian silver coins. 

Therefore, His Excellency the Governor-General in Council, in view of 
the change in standard, is pleased, on the recommendation of the Minister 
of Finance, to authorize the following remedy allowance weight per piece 
on Canadian silver coins and the same is hereby authorized accordingly, viz.: 


Denomination of coin. 

Silver — 

One dollar piece 

Fifty cent piece 

Twenty-Ave cent piece 

Ten cent ($1. worth, 10 pieces) 
Five cent ($1. worth, 20 pieces) 


Remedy allowance per piece. 

Grains. 

1.50- 

1.50 

1.00 

3.00 

3.5A 


The above remedy allowance to be included in the legislation dealing with 
Canadian silver coins to be introduced at the next session of Parliament as 
set out in the said Order in Council of 25th November, 1919. 

Rodolphe Boldneau, 

Clerk of the Privy Council. 

The act passed by the House of Commons on March 16, 1920, enacts the 
provisions set forth in the preceding Order in Council. Section 3 reads as 
follows: 

“The silver coins of a millesimal Aneness of nine hundred and twent-Ave 
heretofore struck by authority of the Crown shall continue to be current 
and a legal tender, and the silver coins of a millesimal Aneness of eight 
hundred struck since the Arst day of January, one thousand nine hundred 
and twenty, under the authority of the order of the Governor in Council 
dated the twenty-Afth day of November, one thousand nine hundred and 
nineteen, (P. C. No. 2373) and the order of the Governor in Council dated 
the twenty-ninth day of January, one thousand nine hundred and twenty, 
(P. C. No. 198) shall be current and a legal tender.” 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


Writing to The Numismatist regarding the above legislation, Mr. McLach- 
lan says: 

“In November, 1919, an Order in Council was passed reducing the stand- 
ard of the Canadian coinage, on account of the high cost of silver, from 925 
to 800 fine, and a bill was introduced in Parliament to that effect. On writ- 
ing to a member asking that such legislation be opposed, I was informed 
that the bill had already been passed. -My reason for opposing the reduc- 
tion of the standard is that it will accentuate the difference in exchange, 
and that save under the reign of the spendthrift Henry VIII, and restored 
by his thrifty daughter Elizabeth, the standard of the British coinage has 
remained unchanged, even during the vicissitudes of Charles I and the 
great scarcity of silver in the reign of George III.” 


POLAND — MONEY AND EXCHANGE. 


The following, relating to monetary conditions in Poland during the early 
part of 1920 is selected from the writings of Kenneth L. Roberts, “Poland 
for Patriotism,” in The Saturday Evening Post tor April, 17, 1920. (F. Z.) 

The Polish monetary unit is the Polish mark. The bulk of Poland, hav- 
ing been a part of Russia, used to use the Russian ruble, another part used 
the Austrian crown, and the third part used the German mark. When the 
Germans swept across the country and occupied it during the war they 
flooded it with a new species of currency — the Polish mark. This is a gaudy 
bit of poster work, flamboyantly printed in red and white and bearing large 
white eagles. The Germans printed it in carload lots on any old kind of 
paper. There is plenty of it; but since Poland is not an overcleanly country 
just at present it is in a revolting state of filth and raggedness. They print- 
ed it day and night, and whenever they purchased supplies or did not re- 
sort to ordinary stealing they paid with this imitation or almost money. 
The Poles have therefore had this unit of exchange wished on them, so to 
speak. There is a chance that some day Germany may back up the enor- 
mous amount of money which she printed in Poland; but it would be im- 
possible to get a Pole to bet a Polish nickel on it. I doubt, too, whether 
any German would consider it a good speculation. 

Supposedly, the Polish mark and the German mark are worth the same 
amount of money, so that in normal times one Polish mark would be worth 
twenty-four cents in .\merican money. Early in January one American 
dollar would purchase 120 Polish marks, so that each mark was worth less 
than one cent. The rate of exchange wasn’t stationary at 120 for a dollar 
by any means. During one of the days when I was in Warsaw it hit 150 
and then recovered somewhat. But since I changed my dollars at 120, I 
shall call that the rate. A person can get himself into a frightful mess by 
changing money back and forth from the currency of one Central Euro- 
pean country to that of another. I experimented in Berlin. Late in De- 
cember I went to a Berlin bank with ten dollars clutched tightly in my 
hand. At the foreign-exchange window I exchanged the ten dollars for 4 75 
German marks. I walked round the corner to another bank and traded the 
475 German marks for 950 Polish marks. I went to a third bank and 
changed the Polish marks back into German marks, receiving 370 German 
marks for them. At a fourth bank I exchanged the German marks for 
American dollars, and received $7.15 for them. Thus I had lost over 
twenty-five per cent, by changing my money on one day, when the rate of 
exchange was supposed to be stationary. If I had changed my money into 
German marks, then into Polish marks, then into Austrian crowns, and then 
reversed the process, allowing a few days to elapse between each process 
step, I would probably have ended by owing money to the bank. 

There is a young American diplomat in Warsaw who arrived there early 
last November, when the Polish- mark could be obtained at the Warsaw 
banks at the rate of thirty-eight for an .\merlcan dollar. This made the 
mark worth about two and two-thirds cents. The young American diplomat 
had brought a large bale of American money with him, and he was terribly 
excited to think that he could get thirty-eight whole marks with just one 
little American dollar. So he exchanged his entire roll into Polish marks 
at the rate of thirty-eight for one. Only two months later one dollar would 
buy 120 marks. Consequently the money of the young American diplomat 
was w'orth only one-third of what it w'as worth when he originally changed 


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235 


it. Whenever he wanted to get one mark’s worth of anything he had to 
spend three marks for it. From this one can get an inkling of the involved 
money situation in Poland. With a little exercise of the imagination one 
can also get a vague idea of the feelings of a Pole whose income used to 
be 10,000 marks, or about $2500. Last January the value of a 10,000- 
mark income had fallen to about eighty-five dollars. A 10,000-mark in- 
come in the old days used to be a pretty snappy nest egg. 

Today a man who tries to exist on It suffers severely. 

As the money depreciates, the costs of all things rise. The shopkeepers 
try to keep pace with the falling money values; but as a rule they can’t 
work fast enough. For example, an American woman in Warsaw bought a 
beautiful moleskin coat in November for 5500 marks. At the time when 
she bought it, 5500 marks represented $150 to her. Moleskin coats, I am 
told, cost at least $700 in America. At any rate, she paid 5600 marks, or 
$150, for it. In January she bought another. In that time the price had 
risen to 14,000 marks — nearly triple — but 14,000 marks in January repre- 
sented less than $120. The furrier had tried to keep pace with the falling 
exchange but hadn’t been able to do it. 


MED.AL OX AXXIVERSARY OF REFORMATION AT ZURICH. 


The illustration here is of a medal recently issued to commemorate the 
400th anniversary of the Reformation at Zurich, Switzerland. It was de- 
signed by Hans Frey, the well-known Swiss medallist. The Latin inscrip- 
tion on the reverse may be best translated as ‘ Zurich has but one Zwingli.” 



Copies of the medal may be ordered from Dr. Hermann Escher, secre- 
tary of the Zwingli Verein, Zentralbibliothek, Zurich, Switzerland. The 
price in silver is 16 francs, and in bronze 5 francs. 


ICELAND TO ISSUE ITS OWN MONEY. 


The federal law between Denmark and Iceland, creating Iceland a feder- 
ated State with Denmark, and which went into effect December 1, 1918, con- 
tains a paragraph reading thus: 

“As long as the Scandinavian Currency Union exists the arrangement of 
the monetary system remains the same as before for both States. Should 
Iceland wish to open its own mint, the question as to acknowledgement of 
such coins as legal tender in Sweden and Norway has to be decided by ne- 
gotiations with these countries.” 

A recent press dispatch from Iceland brings the news that a bill has been 
introduced in the Icelandic Altlng, proposing a national coinage. The reason 
given is that the Danish krone is quoted low at the present time. 

A newspaper correspondent has asked Professor Birch in Copenhagen his 
opinion about such a move by Iceland. His answer was that he was not 
familiar with the trade balance of Iceland, but he knew that Iceland had 
issued 15,000,000 kroner in currency with a gold reserve of only 700,000 
kroner. This covers only 5 per cent, of the paper issue, while the paper 
currency of Denmark is secured by a 50 per cent, gold reserve. According 
to this, Iceland would be the loser in starting its own coinage, but perhaps 
the young nation is anxious to try its wings. M. S. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


A NAVAL HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR AS SHOWN 

BY MEDALS. 


By MALCOLM STOKER, M. D. 


(CONTINUED FROM LAST MONTH.) 


1915, February 18. Submaiiue Campaign Begun. 

53. — “Fame” Series, No. 63. — Obv., GOTT etc. Rev., 63 1 BEGINN | DES 

I DBUTSCHEN [ UNTERSEEBOOT 1 KRIEGE6 1 18. FEBR. 1915. 15mm. 

Silver. j 

Submarine warfare is referred to on a number of medals which for want 
of a more definite date I give here. 

54. — Obv., A boat full of refugees, with swimmers trying to climb aboard. 
Ex., DIE TORPEDIERTEN. Rev., Blank. 86x53mm. Iron. By L. G(ies). 

55. — 'Obv., A sea monster launching torpedoes. Below, VNTERSEE. By 
W HEJD.\. Rev., ROTES KREUZ. . . . (Austrian Red Cross medal.) 40mm. 
Iron. 

1915. Submarine Sailors. 

56. — Obv., Two sailors on deck of submarine watching horizon. In field 
to left, GAXGL (perpendicularly). Below, 1915. Rev., Surrounded by 
four dolphins, a large U, below which, BOOTMANNER. 80mm. Cast 
Bronze. Schulman, LXXV, 242. 

Pirle. I am not sure whether this is naval or not. 

57. — Obv., KAPITANL FIRLE. Bust to right. Rev., DAVID U. | GO- 
LIATH. David with sling. At his feet, Goliath prostrate, with sword and 
shield. 78mm. Iron. Schulman, LXXV, 204. 

Friedensburg, Lieut. Walter. He was the first marine aviator to destroy 
a submarine from aeroplane. 

58. — Obv., OBERLEUTNA.NT ZUR SEE WALTER. FRIEDENSBURG. 

Naval bust to left in high relief. Rev., Eagle (Germany) attacking shark 
(Great Britain). In field, 1914-1915. 93mm. Bronze. Schulman, LXXV, 

205. 

Steinbrinck, Lieut. Otto. 

59. — Obv., OBERLEVTNA.NT. ZVR. SEE. ' OTTO. STEINBRINCK. Bust 
to left by Obermaier. Rev., DER. BRITTEN. BEHERRSCHVNG. DES. 
WELTMEERES. WIRD. AN. DEVTSCHEM. GEISTE. ZERSCHELLEN. Nude 
man standing on torpedo hurling a trident. 99mm. Bronze. Schulman, 
LXXV, 216. 

Sir Winston Churchill, 

60. — Obv., HURRA. GERMANIA | BRITANNIA RULES THE WAVES. 
In circle of dots, Hercules attacking a sea monster. Signed WE in mono- 
gram (W. Eberbach). Rev., SIR WINSTON. CHURCHILL DBM SEEGE- 
WALTIGEN (engraved). Below, engraved, a submarine. Border of waves. 
83mm. Iron. Schulman, LXVH, 883. 

Periere, de la. In command of U 35. 

61 . — Obv., KAPITANLBUTNANT V ARNAULD DE LA PERIERE. Bust 

in uniform to left. Rev., VERSE.NKT IN 3/4 JAHREN 126 FEINDLICHE 
SCHIFFE MIT 270000 TONNEN WERTH 450 MILLIONEN MARK *. In 
laurel wreath, “U” 35. 33mm. Arg. Iron. 

A'on Tirpitz. 

62. — Obv., GROSSADMIRAL VON TIRPITZ. Bust facing. By M&W 


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(Meyer & Wilhelmj). Rev., AUF EUCH 1ST VERLASS. Submarine torpe- 
doing cruiser. Ex., 1914 1915. On edge, SIEBER 950, incused. 55mm. 
Arg. 

63. — Obv., In border of laurel, GR06SADMIRAL cross VON cross TIR- 
PITZ. In circle, naval bust to left resting of crossed oak and laurel. Rev., 
ENGLAND’S VERGELTING I ZUM 18. FBBR. 1915. Zeppelin over English 
coast. Submarine in foreground. All in border of laurel. 33mm. Arg. 

64. — Obv., ALFRED. VON. TIRPITZ. GROSSADMIRAL. Bust to left. 
Rev., OOTT. STRAFE ENGLA.N’D. 18. FEBRUAR. 1915. Neptune seated 
on turret of submarine, shaking flst at sinking merchantmen. Ex., K. 
GOETZ. 80mm. Ae. 


No. 64. 

65. — Obv., GROSSADMIRAL VON TIRPITZ. Bust to left. Rev., GOTT 
STRAFE ENGLAND. Neptune, standing waist hign in Channel, blows de- 
fiance to England on conch. To right, a submarine and English coast. In 
field to right, 18 | FEBRUAR | 1915. On edge, SILBER 990, inc. 50mm. 
Arg. 33mm. Arg. 

66. — Obv., GROSSADMIRAL VON TIRPITZ. Bust facing. By M&W 
ST (.Meyer & Wilhelmj, Stuttgart). Rev., IM KAMPF UM LIE FREIHEIT 
DER MEERE 1914 [ 1915. Germany standing on prow of vessel with fig- 
urehead of Prussian eagle, hurling a trident. 53mm. .■Vrg. Imitation 
bronze. 33mm. -■Vrg. Imitation bronze. 

67. — Obv., EIN TODTESPIFEIL IM HERZEN ENGLANDS 1ST JEDES 
DEUTSCHES SCHIFF. HERWEGH. Bust facing, dividing V. TIRPITZ and 
GROSS I ADMIRAL. Rev., PAROLE. SCHIFF VERSENKEN. .MEXSCHEN 
RETTEN. Liner sinking, torpedoed by submarine; crew taking refuge in 
boat. 113mm. Iron. Bronze. 33mm. Arg. 

68. — Obv., Bust of Von Tirpitz by .M&W. Rev., SEESPERRE GEG. ENG- 
LAND. Submarine torpedoing cruiser. 33mm. Arg. 

I am not certain of this one as the reverse is that of a medal of Weddigen 
which I have in my collection (No. 75). 

69. — Obv., GROSSADMIRAL V. TIRPITZ. Bust to left. Signed L. CHR. 
LAUER NURNBERG. Rev., Lightning attacking cliff (Heligoland?) de- 
fended by three eagles. Ex., WATERKANT! On edge, SILBER 9 90, in- 
cused. 32mm. Arg. 

\'on Trapp an«l Von Lercli. 

70. — Obv., DEN HELiDEN DER. ADRIA. VON TRAPP VON LERCH. 
Neptune on sea. At his feet, two river gods w'ith on their heads the U 12 
and U 15. Rev., ROTES KREVZ etc. Austrian Red Cross Series. 45mm. 
Iron. 




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THE NUMISMATIST 


I give here the medals of Weddigen of the U 9, without date, many of 
which were struck after his death in 1915. 

Weddigen, 

71. — Hornlein Series. — Obv., Eagle, etc. Rev., DEM [ HELDEX 1 WED- 
DIGEN 1 1914-1915. All in script. Border of laurel. On edge, K. S. M. 
999, incused. 30mm. Silver. Schulman, LXV, 756. 

72. — Obv., KAPITANLBUTNANT OTTO WEDDIGEN. Bust slightly to 
left. Signed L. CHR. LAUER NURNBERG. Rev., DE.M ANDENKEN DES 
HELDENMiUTIGEN FUHRERS. A submarine within field above an Iron 
Cross resting on laurel spray. Ex., S. -M. U.NTERSEBBOOTE | U 9 UND U 
29. On edge, SILBER 990, incused. 33mm. Arg. Schulman, LXV, 758. 



No. 72. 


73. — Obv., Bust facing, head to left. In field, OTTO ' WEDDIGEN 1 
KOMMAN I DANT j AUF “U 29.” By A. Lowenthal. Rev., EWIG. UN- 
VERGBSSEN. BLEIBE ] KUHNER | WIRING , DEINE | . TODES FART. 
Armed Viking standing on sinking ship waving his arms at the stormy 
petrels. 115mm. Iron. Schulman, LXV, 759. 

74. — Obv., OTTO WEDDIGEN KOMMANDANT D. UNTERSEEBOOTES 
“U. 9.” Bust facing by MfeW (Meyer & Wilhelmj). Rev., Transport tor- 
pedoed by submarine. Below, on band, SEESPERRE GEG. ENGLAND. 
33mm. Arg. Schulman, LXV, 761. 



No. 74. 


75 . — Obv., KAPITANLEUTNA-N’T V. WEDDIGFN. U 9-U 29. Bust facing 

by B. H. M(ayer). In field to right, 1914-16. Rev., Transport torpedoed 
by submarine. 60mm. Arg. 34mm. .\rg. Schulman, LXV, 760. 

76. — Obv., OTTO WEDDIGE.N. Naval bust to left by H. Bendorff. Rev., 
Nude man with hands raised and a laurel wreathed g’.aive in left hand, sink- 
ing into sea with setting sun. 106mm. Iron. Schulman, LXV, 754. 

While speaking of the submarine warfare I may well give here the fol- 
lowing medal, which brings in von Tirpitz. the father of the submarine 
campaign: 

Tirpitz. 

77. — Obv., CIR CEN SES 1919. William II. his hands tied behind him. 
follows chariot drawn by mules, in which is Clemenceau beating a drum. 


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Lloyd George standing as judge, and Wilson seated and studying tablet 
with the 14 points. Ex., MVNDVS. VVLT. DECIPI ERGO. DECIPIATVR. 
Rev., The rest of the cortege. One can make out Hindenburg, Mackensen, 
Ludendorff, Bethman-Hollweg, TIRPITZ. They are guarded by French and 
Scotch soldiers. Behind them, a column, the German eagle vomiting and 
holding a paper inscribed ARTIK227/230 of the Treaty of Peace. 100/65 
mm. Bronze. By Goetz. Schulman, LXXV, 270. 

(TO BE CONTINUED.) 


NEW ISSUES OP MINOR tX)INS OP EUROPE. 


Three new issues of minor coins of Europe not before illustrated in these 
pages are as follows: 

1. A 10-centesimi of Italy, dated 1919. The obverse has the portrait of 
King Victor Emanuel, with inscription. The reverse has a bee gathering 
honey from the petals of a flower, “C. 10” at right. Mint mark ”R.” Sign- 
ed by R. Brozz. (Specimen furnished by .Messrs. Guttag Bros., New York 
City.) The design on the reverse is quite unusual for a coin, and an in- 
terpretation of it would be interesting. 



No. 1. 


2. A 5-pennia of Finland, issued by the “Reds,” dated 1918. The ob- 
verse shows three trumpets, the mouthpieces of which are lacking, behind 
which a flag is hoisted on a staff. The flag has no emblems, therefore it 
probably means a plain red one, surrounded by the inscription “Kansan Tyo, 
Kansan Yalta” — “The people’s work, the peop’e’s power.” At the bottom 
the year “1918” appears between the words “Suomi” and “Finland.” The 
reverse shows the figure “5” between two small roses, under which, near 
the edge, is the word “Pennia.” (Specimen furnished by Mr. J. deLager- 
berg. New York City.) 



No. 2. No. 3. 


3. A 5-pennla of the Finnish Republic, dated 1918. The obverse has 
the crowned Finnish lion on a field of nine rosettes, which separates the 
date, “19 18.” The reverse is Identical with the piece of the “Reds” men- 
tioned above. (Specimen furnished by Me,ssrs. Guttag Bros., New York 
City.) 


GERMANY PLANS PORCELAIN MONEY. 


A press dispatch from Dresden says that if experiments now being con- 
ducted at the royal porcelain factory at Meissen are successful, Germany 
may soon witness two and five mark coins made of porcelain in general 
circulation. The experiments, which were carried on at the behest of the 
Ministry of Finance, promise to be feasible, as the composition is not only 
light and compact, but hygienic, because the coins would be washable the 
same as cups and saucers. The proposed coins are also said to be noiseless 
and difficult to counterfeit because of the technical apparatus required for 
their minting. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


THE CHAPLAINS’ MEDAL. 

By FERRISS POWELL MERRITT. 

Member American Numismatic Society. 

A commemorative medal is to be given by the Protestant churches which 
united in war work tnrougn the Ueneral War-Time Commission of the 
Churcnes to all their chaplains in the American Army and Navy who served 
in the war. The Chaplains’ medal is the work of Mrs. Laura Gardin Fraser 
of New York, one of the best known of American medalists. 

Ihe task which was given to Mrs. Fraser was to produce a design which 
would express the spirit of the men who served as chapiains and which 
should represent both brancnes of the service. That the sculptor has 
achieved a notable success and produced a medal of rare distinction and 
beauty is the judgment of competent artists and critics. 

Mrs. Fraser has chosen in the design for tne Chaplains’ Medal to repre- 
sent an Army chaplain in the act of supreme service, ministering at the 
risk of his own life to a wounded man. To those familiar with experiences 
at the front, the danger of the situation will be at once apparent. In the 
center of the design the gas mask is seen, ready for immediate adjustment. 
Indeed, the suggestion is that the chaplain has, perhaps, momentarily re- 
moved it, the better to succor the wounded man. Each detail of the chap- 
lain’s equipment has been carefully scrutinized and pronounced correct by 
more than one who served at the front. Strength and sympathy are ex- 
pressed in the finely modeled figure of the chaplain. The figure of the 
wounded man represents one of the men who served the big guns and were 
frequently stripped to the waist when in action. This choice of a subject 
appealed to the sculptor for its artistic possibilities. The very strength of 
the splendidly modeled back seems by contrast to emphasize the helpless- 
ness of the wounded gunner. 



The Chaplains’ Medal. 


The fine record of the men who served as chaplains in the Navy, many 
of them constantly passing back and forth through the submarine danger 
zone, ministering to the crews of the naval vessels and the soldiers on the 
transports, is recalled by the representation of the battleship on the reverse 
of the medal. The design of this side, with the cross as the central feature, 
is dignified and strong. If the thought occurs that not all of the chaplains 
were privileged to serve as the chaplain represented on the obverse of the 
medal, the answer is that the design expresss the kind of service for which 
every man who entered the chaplaincy was ready and eager. 

The striking of these medals is the realization of a suggestion made soon 
after the armistice in the executive committee of the General War-Time 
Commission of the Churches. The committee approved the proposal and 
made it one of the tasks committed to the General Committee on Army and 
Navy Chaplains when the War-Time Commission dissolved. It is hoped 
the medals will have a permanent value for those who receive them. They 


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are the gift of the churches which worked in closest fellowship during the 
war in carrying out their common tasks through the War-Time Commission. 
The medals are intended to convey in tangible form a message of grateful 
appreciation from the churches to their chaplain sons who were ready to 
give up life itself, if necessary. In the service of their fellows in the Army 
and Navy. The churches are proud indeed of the splendid record the chap- 
lains made. 

A word of gratitude should be said for the interest taken by the sculptor 
in her task. Mrs. Fraser brought to it an understanding sympathy without 
which so satisfying a result could never have been obtained. 

The medals are to be struck in bronze by the Gorham Company of New 
York. The sub-committee on the medal of the General Committee on Army 
and Navy Chaplains was composed of Rev. E. B. Bagby, Rev. W. Stuart 
Cramer, Prof. John R. Hawkins, Rev. Forest J. Prettyman, Rev. E. O. Wat- 
son and Rev. Gaylord S. White. 


.MISCELLANEOUS XU.M1S.>L\TIC NOTES. 


In the arrest of two ment in New York City on .\pril 8 with $25,000 
worth of counterfeit $10 Federal Reserve notes in their possession. Secret 
Service officials believe they have the important counterfeiting band that 
has been responsible for the appearance of many spurious notes throughout 
the country. It is reported that one of the men has confessed that the 
spurious notes were made in Montreal and brought to this country for 
flotation. 


The Council of the National Institute of Social Sciences has conferred 
medals upon Dr. .Mexis Carrel and Dr. Harry Pratt Judson. medal 
awarded Dr. William T. Grenfell for his services among the people of Lab- 
rador will be sent to him, as the famous rescuer of the starving Eskimos 
was unable to attend. The medal awarded to Dr. Carrel was in recognition 
of his aid to advances in surgery. Dr. Judson, President of Chicago Uni- 
versity, was honored because of advances in higher educational work and 
for services to the United States and Great Britain during the war. Bronze 
medals were awarded Prof. Henry W. Farnam of Yale, Miss Ann Goodrich, 
Prof. Ernest P. Bicknell, Homer L. Ferguson, Franklin K. Lane, Miss El- 
eanor McMain and .Alfred T. White. 


The discovery of large quantities of currency bearing forged stamps has 
virtually paralyzed retail business in Vienna, merchants refusing to take 
certain money unless guaranteed against loss. Bankers are trying to find 
some solution of the problem. 


An act passed by the Canadian House of Commons on March 20, 1920, 
provides that the yearly amount allowed for salaries, expenses, mainte- 
nance, etc., of the Ottawa Branch of the Royal Mint shall be increased from 
$110,000 to $200,000. 


The San Francisco Mint has recently executed a coinage on the order of 
the Government of France for French Indo-China consisting of 10 and 20 
centimes silver, reported to be 40 per cent, silver and 60 per cent, copper, 
and 1 centime bronze with hole in center. F. Z. 


It is reported that postoffices in some rural sections of Germany are now 
giving a shoe nail in change in lieu of one pfennig. The shoe nail certainly 
has a greater value at this time. F. Z. 


P.APER MONEY ON BEER BOTTLES. 


Speaking of cheap money, an Austrian brewery has discovered a new and 
novel method of economizing on labels for its bottles. Austrian one-crown 
m tes have a cash value of 7 % Swiss centimes, and the name “Krone” on 
the notes is also the name of this particularly brewery. Now the brewery 
simply pastes notes on its bottles instead of buying labels which cost 10 
centimes each. 


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The Numismatist 


Founded 1888 by Dr. George F. Heath 
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EDITORIAL. 


(X)INS THAT LIVE IN DARKNESS. 

The letter from Mr. A. H. Yoder of University, N. D., one of the Dis- 
trict Secretaries of the A. N. A., published elsewhere in this issue, will 
furnish food for thought among our members, and also remind them that 
the work along numismatic lines that he suggests has been a subject before 
A. N. A. conventions, but on which no action has been taken that has 
brought appreciable results. 

It is quite probable that the conditions he mentions as existing in his 
district and in some adjoining States are not peculiar to that section, but 
exist in other States as well, namely, that some of the universities, libraries 
and museums have collections of coins or paper money that have never been 
placed on exhibition, but are packed away in boxes, mainly because no one 
connected with the institutions has sufficient knowledge of coins to intelli- 
gently attribute them for display purposes, or else has no interest in the 
subject. Perhaps some of these collections have been bequeathed to the In- 


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stitutions by someone who has devoted a good portion of his lifetime to 
acquiring them, and it could not have been his intention in so disposing of 
them to have them laid away in a closet or storeroom and never see the light 
of day. 

An illuminating exception to this policy is found in the case of the Joseph 
C. Mitchelson collection, which was bequeathed to the Connecticut State 
Library. In this case a fireproof vault was built in which to house the col- 
lection, with splendid facilities for displaying them. Other instances are 
known where libraries have important collections intelligently arranged for 
the inspection of the public, with competent curators in charge of them. 
These exceptions are bright spots in the almost universal darkness prevail- 
ing among the universities and other public or semi-public institutions of 
the country. 

This condition of affairs offers an opportunity for members of the A. X. 
A. living in cities where such conditions exist to try and remedy them. An 
offer to assist in attributing and labelling the collection, provided it is 
placed on view, would no doubt be appreciated and accepted, and every pub- 
lic display of coins helps materially in arousing an interest in the subject 
and adds to the number of collectors. 


UNITED ST.\TES PORTRAIT COINS. 

The passage by the Senate of the bill authorizing the coinage of a 
Roosevelt two-cent piece, with probable favorable action by the House short- 
ly, brings us a step nearer to a realization of what collectors have long 
hoped for — United States coins with portraits of some of its most illustrious 
men take the place of the head or figure of a female typifying Liberty. 

Most of the souvenir coins issued since 1892 have had upon them por- 
traits of worthy Americans or of those of foreign birth whose services to 
this country entitled them to such distinction. In 1909 was issued the first 
coin for general circulation bearing the image of an illustrious American — 
the humble cent with the portrait of the great Lincoln. 

With the issue of the Roosevelt coin enough precedents will have been 
established to warrant the placing of the effigy of noted deceased Americans 
on all denominations of our coins when the time arrives for changes in the 
designs. The suggestion has often been made that our coins should bear 
the portraits of our living Presidents. From the collector’s viewpoint alone, 
this w’ould be desirable; but so many objections to that plan could and 
would be urged against it that the passage of a bill with that object in view 
would hardly be among the possibilities. 

The coins of any country bearing images of its rulers are always in great- 
er demand with collectors than those bearing only the royal arms or other 
devices. A portrait on a coin gives it an individuality and interest that is 
sometimes entirely lacking without it. 

A full series of United States portrait coins would stimulate collecting in 
this country more than any other one thing. 


COINAGE OF GOLD RESUMED. 

The coinage of gold was resumed at the United States Mint during April 
— the first coinage of the yellow metal since September, 1916, except tbe 
McKinley souvenir gold dollars. The amount coined was 15,000 pieces of 
the double eagle. Whether gold coinage is to be resumed on the same scale as 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


before the war, or whether it Is to be only temporary, the future mint re- 
ports will disclose. On April 30, Director of the Mint Baker informed Con- 
gress that the stock of gold coin in the Treasury had been depleted to such 
an extent that immediate resumption of gold coinage had become impera- 
tive, and asked for an immediate appropriation of 1800,000 so the Phila- 
delphia Mint could operate twenty-four hours a day instead of eight. 


THE STATUS OF OBSOLETE PAPER MONEY. 

On another page of this issue will be found the report of the committee' 
authorized by the Philadelphia Convention of the A. N. A., and subsequent- 
ly appointed by Chairman Wormser of the Board of Governors, to take up 
with the Secret Service Division of the Treasury Department the matter of 
the seizure of obsolete bank and Confederate notes and to establish a basis 
on which the legitimate traffic in and collecting of these notes might be en- 
gaged in. The report and the correspondence accompanying it, in brief, is 
to the effect that the legitimate collecting of these issues will not be in- 
terfered with, but their indiscriminate sale to unknown parties by our deal- 
ers will not be tolerated by the Secret Service Department. The American 
Numismatic Association assumes something in the nature of a supervision 
over the sale of such notes in filing with the Secret Service Division a list 
of reputable dealers in this country, who will be permitted to sell such 
notes to legitimate collectors without interference. 

We believe the understanding reached will be satisfactory to both dealers 
and collectors. Tampering with and counterfeiting our paper money has 
increased to such an extent in recent months that it has become necessary 
for the Government officials to enforce more rigidly than ever the laws 
enacted for the protection of our paper money. To the avowed intention 
of these officials to suppress unrestricted traffic in obsolete notes there will 
not, we feel sure, be any dissent among the members of the A. X. A. 

Not only will there be universal satisfaction among our members, but 
they will always be ready to co-operate with the Government officials in 
bringing to justice those who counterfeit or in any way tamper with coins 
or paper money, or in preventing such issues being placed or kept in circu- 
lation. 


SEND YOUR “COPV" IN EARLY. 

It appears that some of our correspondents and contributors have over- 
looked the announcement in the December issue that all copy for rcadim? 
matter |>ag:cs miLst reach the c<litor hy the loth 'of the month to guarantee 
insertion in the following month's issue. It is only by holding closely to 
this rule that the magazine can be issued promptly on the first of the month. 
This applies mainly to the copy for the proceedings of the numismatic socie- 
ties and clubs and to the shorter items of numismatic news. The more 
lengthy contributions should reach us earlier in the month that space may 
be arranged for. 


PRICE OF THIS ISSUE, FIFTY CENTS. 

■\s this i.ssue of The NuiiiLsniatist contains a list of incnil>ers of the .Amer- 
ican Nunii.smatic AssocUition, a list valuable for many purposes, the price of 
it has lHH»n ftxc«d at Fifty Cents when purchasc<l as a single copy, or in quan- 
tities. 


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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 


WTiat Is tlie True I>ate of the Sonier.s Island Hog Money? 

To the Editor of The Numismatist: 

In connection with your series of articles on counterstamped coins I am 
sending you an Irish halfpenny of Charles II, which is counterstamped 
with a hog similar to that appearing on the Somers Island (Bermuda) 
coinfi. The hog on the counterstamped coin appears so like that of Ber- 
muda as to make me believe that it is a trial piece struck before lettering. 



This would lead to the belief that the Somers Island coins were not 
struck until near the end of the seventeenth century. Conforming to this 
is the fact that the gun money was made in brass or copper, and that the 
twelve pence and six pence pieces were struck for Bermuda following the 
example of the gun money of James II. And the fact that this trial piece 
was struck on an Irish halfpenny seems to prove that the Somers Island 
pieces were struck in Dublin after the collapse of James II’s efforts to re- 
gain the throne which he had abdicated. 

I purchased this coin about 4 0 years ago in a lot that belonged to an 
old collector, who probably had it in his collection for 40 years. 

R. W. McLacheax. 

Montreal, Canada. 


MK. MERRITT RECOVERS STOLEN tX)INS. 


Under date of April 17, Mr. Fred E. Merritt writes to The Numismatist 
as follows 

“I am pleased to inform you that I have found the stolen coins mention- 
ed in the April issue, and that the thief has been arrested. All of the 
coins were recovered but one, and it is remarkable that I sohuld get them 
back in perfect condition. The following account of the arrest is from 
the Philadelphia Ledger of April 12:” 

‘‘Alexander H. King, 208 North 57th Street, a parcel-post clerk at the 
22nd and Market Sts. postal station, was held in $1000 bail yesterday, 
charged with having stolen goods in his possession, valued at $892.35. 
Fred E. Merritt, of the Widener Building, mailed, on approval forty-one 
rare coins to Henry Chapman, 333 South Sixteenth Street. When the lat- 
ter failed to receive the package of coins, postal Inspectors Investigated, 
and arrested King in a pawn shop in West Philadelphia, where, it is said, 
he attempted to sell the coins.” 


COINAGE FOR APRIL, 1920. 


Following is the number of pieces of the different denominations coined 
at the mints of the United States during April, 1920 as officially reported 
by the Bureau of the Mint, Washington, D. C.: 

Gold — Double Eagles, 15,000. 

Silver — Half Dollars, 872,000; Quarter Dollars, 2,956,000; Dimes, 
8,500,000. 

Bronze — One Cent, 2,399,000. 

Coinage other than United States: 

Cuba — Silver, 4,940,000; nickel, 6,100,000. 

Indo-China — Silver, 5,735.000; bronze. 2,400,000. 


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MEETINGS OF NUMISMATIC SOCIETIES AND CLUBS. 


BRITISH NU>nSMATIC SOCIETY. 

Ordinary Meeting, March 17th, 1920, Mr. F. A. Walters, F.S.A., Presi- 
dent, in the chair. 

Mrs. W. J. Andrew was elected, and Miss Farquhar, Dr. Harold R. Cross, 
and the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, were nominated for member- 
ship. 

The President explained that, in view of Colonel Leslie’s paper, the 
Council had invited the ladies, resident in London, who had earned the 
Military Medal in the Great War to be present that evening. He was 
gratified to see that the meeting was honoured by a representative attend- 
ance of at least a third of their number, some of whom were wearing not 
only British decorations, but also crosses and medals awarded by the French 
and Belgian governments. Members would join him in offering them their 
patriotic congratulations. 

Regret was unanimously expressed at the total lack of art in the de- 
sign of the Bronze Star for 1914-15. 

Exhibitions were as follows: 

By Mr. Grant R. Francis: Charles 1. The largest and the smallest silver 
coins ever struck in England, namely, the Oxford twenty-shilling piece and 
the halfpenny of the Tower mint. The former, he remarked, was illustra- 
tive of both the papers for that evening, because it served as the first British 
war medal, a specimen of it having been presented by Charles I to each of 
his colonels. 

pair of dies of the “square box’^’ form for the Tower half-crown of 
Charles I, with mint-mark sun on the obverse, which had been ploughed up 
on the field of Marston Moor between the years 1819 and 1825, and now be- 
longed to Mr. R. Cromwell Warner. Mr. Francis, however, called attention 
to the facts that the spelling “FRANCE" in the king’s title differed from 
any known legend on the coins, and that as the battle of Marston Moor was 
fought on July 2nd, 1644, and the sun mint-mark was not introduced until 
the following year, the discovery would seem to bear no relation to the 
battle. 

A consecutive series of silver half-groats, pennies and halfpennies of the 
Tower issues of Charles I’s reign, illustrative of his paper. 

By Lieut. -Colonel Morrieson and Mr. R. Carlyon-Brltton: Similar series 
of the half-groats and pennies. 

By Major V. J. E. Ryan: Henry VIII. Sovereign of the second issue with 
mint-mark lys over sun burst. 

Edward VI. The gold crown w'ith mint-mark arrow and crowned shield 
between H R, also crowned, mentioned in Kenyon, p. 107. Gold half- 
crown, similar, but the letters at the sides of the shield and rose uncrowned. 

Charles I. Silver crown with mint-mark harp, from the obverse die num- 
bered 21 by Mr. Francis, but with reverse bearing the plume over the shield 
and the limbs of the cross showing beneath. Shrewsbury halfcrowns, C. 8 
and F. 4 of Colonel Morrieson’s arrangement. 

“War Medals Which Have Been Awarded to Women” was the title of a 
paper read by Lieut. -Colonel J. H. Leslie. Prior to the late war, medals 
had been awarded to hospital nurses only in various military expeditions: 
South Africa, 1879; Egypt, 1882; Suakin, 1885; The Nile, 1884-5; Ashanti,, 
1896-1 900; China, 1900; South Africa, 1899-1902; and Nyasaland, 1915. 
But with the Great War new conditions arose owing to the thousands of 
women who, in addition to the hospital staffs, volunteered for employment 
in the field in one capacity or another. It was therefore decreed that the 
■“Military Medal,” which had been instituted by Royal Warrant, dated March 
25th, 1916, should be awarded to women “for bravery and devotion under 
fire.” One hundred and twenty-six of such awards were made, covering the 
whole period of the war. Women were qualified, exactly as men, to receive 
the Bronze Star, 1914; the Bronze Star, 1914-15; the British War Medal, 
1914-19; and the Victory Medal. Many, also, were awarded foreign decora- 
tions, both military and civil. 

At the close of the proceedings Colonel Leslie presented his audience 
with copies of Part I of the “Historical Roll, illustrated with portraits of 


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the Women of the British Empire to whom the Military Medal has been 
awarded,” which he is compiling. 

Mr. Grant R. Francis contributed the closing chapter of “Silver Coins of 
the Tower Mint of Charles I,” which described the half groats, pennies and 
halfpennies of that issue, their sequence and their dies. The monograph is 
now completed, and upon its merits Mr. Francis has earned the unqualified 
gfratitude of every student of Carolean Numismatics. 


ROYAL XUMIS^IATIC SOCTETY. 

April 15, Mr. Percy H. Webb, MJB.E., Treasurer, in the chair. Com- 
mander H. N. Watson, R. N., was elected a Fellow of the Society. 

Mr. Henry Garslde exhibited specimens of nickel 20-cent and bronze 10 
and 1-cent pieces of 1908 A. D. of Sultan Ali Bin Hamud of Zanzibar. 

Mr. Harold Mattingly exhibited a series of billon coins of Claudius Goth- 
icus, lent by Mr. F. W. Lincoln, to illustrate the five mints of Rome, Ticinum, 
Biscia, Cyzicus and Antioch. 

Mr. Percy H. Webb showed a second brass of Claudius Gothicus, obverse, 
IMP C. CLAVHIVS AVG; reverse, MARS ULTOR. Mars advancing to r. 

Mr. L. G. P. Messenger exhibited a cobtorniate, obverse. Bust r. DIVO 
TRAJANO AVGVSTO; reverse, plain. 

Mr. G. F. Hill gave an account of a find of Anglo-Saxon coins at Chester 
in 1914. The bulk of the find has been recovered through the efforts of 
Prof. Robert Newstead, F.R.S., who had presented to the British Museum 
all the specimens required to fill gaps there. About 120 coins had been 
seen by Mr. Hill, covering the reign of Eadgar, Eadweard II and Aethelred 
II. A large number of mints was represented, and among the more re- 
markable coins was a penny of Eadweard II of Guildford, a mint not pre- 
viously known earlier than the reign of Aethelred II, and a Lincoln penny 
of Eadweard II with the title “Rex Angliae” instead of the usual “Rex An- 
^lorum.” The find afforded confirmation of the usual classification of the 
small-cross type as the last of Eadgar and the first of Aethelred, it being 
the only type present of Eadgar or Eadweard II. 

Mr. Harold Mattingly read a paper on the “Mints of Claudius Gothicus,” 
in which he gave an account of Markl’s distribution of the coins of this Em- 
peror to the five mints of Rome, Ticinum, Siscia, Cyzicus and Antioch. He 
supported the attribution of the T coins of Ticinum rather than Tarraco, 
but would assign Markl’s Serdica group to Cyzicus, as they could not be 
separated in style from the coins definitely of this mint. In conclusion, 
Mr. Mattingly pointed out that the reforms of Diocletian had been largely 
anticipated by his predecessors, to whose work full credit had not yet been 
given. 


PACIFIC COAST NU>lIS.>fATIC SOCIETY. 

The 56th regular monthly meeting was held at the Assembly-room, 235 
Montgomery St., San Francisco, March 30th, with President Zerbe in the 
chair. Members present; -Messrs. Haagensen, Gill, Haigh, Mohr, Twitchell, 
Turrill, Todd, Zerbe, Seebohm and Steinman. Guests present: R. S. Am- 
men, J. H. Snow and E. S. Rosenblatt. 

Minutes of the previous meeting read and approved. 

Mr. Zerbe, the speaker for the evening, gave a very interesting talk on 
the new bills before Congress relating to the change in our coinage. 
Through the kindness of our fellow m'^mber. Congressman Julius Kahn, 
Mr. Zerbe was enabled to secure copies of many of these new bills. 

Upon motion duly carried, Mr. Zerbe received the thanks of the Society 
lor the time given to preparation of his talk and the able and Interesting 
way it was presented. 

Communications were received from Henry R. Drowne, H. H. Yawger, J. 

C. Woodbury, Colonel W. B. Beals, Victor D. Brenner and Howland Wood. 
The Secretary stated that he had written letters to Mr. T. E. Leon, Victor 

D. Brenner, Howland Wood, A. R. Frey, Moritz Wormser, J. C. Woodbury 
and Col. W. B. Beals. 

Messrs. J. H. Snow, E. S. Rosenblatt and Col. W. B. Beals were elected 
active members. 

Upon motion of Mr. Steinman, duly carried, it was decided that the Chair 


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appoint a committee to interview the librarians in the Bay cities and Uni- 
versities with a view to having The Numismatist place on file and subscrip- 
tion entered for those institutions, and the Secretary was instructed to 
write to the business manager of The Numismatist, asking him to send 
cample copies of the magazine to the librarians in advance of the call of 
the committee. 

Mr. R. S. Ammen, our visitor, a mining engineer, gave an interesting lec- 
ture on gold mining, supplementing it with specimens and a five-franc 
French coin brought to California in 1849. Upon motion duly carried, Mr. 
Ammen received the thanks of the Society for his interesting talk. 

Further business was dispensed with to enable the members to display 
their exhibits. 

Mr. Rosenblatt displayed a set of nut dishes in the bottom of each of 
which dish w'as inlaid a large modern coin the size of a dollar. 

Mr. Mohr’s exhibit consisted of the new coins issued by the German gov- 
ernment, and a medal, together with a diploma, given to the German citi- 
zens who gave gold to their country. 

Mr. Gill showed some old cancelled bank checks of large denominations. 

Mr. Snow exhibited eighteen German and Austrian crowns and double 
crowns of various Bishoprics, principally from a well-known European col- 
lector. Among the most notable coins were a Klippe double crow'n, 1593, 
of Salzburg; a double crown, Sede Vacante, of Eichstadt: the Swan crown 
of Charles I of Brunswick^Lunneburg, a mining crown or thaler showing 
a sw'an swimming in a lake and a view of the White Swan Mine in the dis- 
tance; a Sede Vacante crown of Paderborn (Bishopric), 1719; a crown of 
Clemens Wenzil, Prince of Poland, for Treves, 1771; a crown of Christo- 
pher, Count of Migazzi, for Vienna (Bishopric), 1771; a thaler of Franz 
Heinrich of Schlick, 1779; a doubloon of New Grenada, 1840, and a gold 
commemorative 100-krone of Hungary, 1907. 

I. Leland Steinman, Secretary-Treasurer. 


The 57th regular meeting of the Paciflc Coast Numismatic Society was 
held in the Assembly Room, 235 .Montgomery St., San Francisco. April 
27th, with President Zerbe in the chair. Members present: Messrs. Snow', 
Mohr, Twichell, Haagensen, Hill, Gill, Rosenblatt, Landecker, Thomas, 
Brandon, Goldsmith, Zerbe and Steinman. Guests present: Edward Flie- 
der, Edw"ard Thayer and R. S. Ammen. 

-Minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

Communications to and from Mr. H. H. Yaw'ger, Secretary of the A. N. 
A., were read. 

The Library Committee made a report. 

The Secretary reported that he had written to all the librarians in the 
Bay cities a personal letter, a copy of which he then read. .Mr. Turrill, one 
of the members on the Library Committee, not being present, the President 
stated that he would discharge the committee after hearing from him. 

Upon motion it was unanimously decided that the Society endorse the 
proposals of the S. F. War Memorial Committee as announced in the press, 
and that its members collectively and individually pledge their support for 
funds. The Secretary was instructed to write a letter to that body an- 
nouncing the P. C. N. S. endorsement and to incorporate in it that it was 
given with the hope that the Art section of the proposed Memorial would 
contain a fitting recognition of Numismatics. 

Mr. Edward Flleder, Edward Thayer, J. Milnor Brown and Adolf W. 
Lawson, Jr., were elected to active membership. 

The topic of the evening, “Mexico,” was then taken up, and a very in- 
teresting discourse on that country was given by Mr. Zerbe, who supple- 
mented it with a large showing of paper money and coins of Mexican origin. 

Mr. Ammen also delivered an instructive talk on "Barter and Trade 
Among the Esquimaux,” showing fish-hooks of various sizes, which the 
Esquimaux used as money. 

The Secretary stated that among the exhibits shown at the last meeting 
he failed to note were an old pair of bullion scales which Mr. Turrill had 
shown, also an old Russian rouble brought across the plains in 1849 by a 
Pioneer, the property of Mr. Ammen. 

Mr. Rosenblatt contributed a small package of cocoa beans similar to 
those used as money in the interior of Mexico. These w'ere auctioned and 
brought $1 for the Society’s treasury. 


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Mr. Zerbe also donated to the Society some 1-mark German notes, which 
were also sold for the benefit of the treasury. 

Further business was dispensed with in order for the members to dis- 
play their exhibits. 

Mr. Hill showed a large and interesting selection of Mexican pesos. 

Mr. Gill exhibited a fine selection of Mexican gold, also a number of 
California Clearing-house certificates. 

Mr. Haagensen: A collection of U. S. silver in extremely fine condition. 
Mr. Mohr; A collection of Swiss coins. 

.Mr. Thomas: A general collection of early Denmark and Sweden. 

Mr. Flieder: A collection of U. S. $1 and $3 gold coins. 

I. Lelaxd Steixmax, Secretary-Treasurer. 


ROCHESTER NUMIS.MATIC ASSOCIATION, 

The 188th meeting of the Rochester Numismatic Association was held at 
the Rochester Municipal Museum, Tuesday evening, April 20, 1920. In the 
absence of the President, Vice-President W. H. Amberg occupied the chair. 
Members present were: Messrs. Bauer, Hendrigx, Plumb, Horner, Nientimp, 
Woolf, Yawger, Borradaile, Darling, Amberg, Sunday, Savage, Gillette, 
Starr, Dr. French and Putnam. 

Minutes of previous meeting read and approved. 

Through the courtesy of Ex-President H. H. Yawger, three medals were 
presented to the Association from Mr. Frank Hein, St. Louis, Mo., and the 
thanks of the Association were extended to .Mr. Hein for his gift. 

It was stated (and a newspaper article read by the Secretary) that the 
package of coins sent by our member, Mr. Merritt, through the postofllce to 
Philadelphia, which had been stolen, had been recovered and the thief ar- 
rested. The members took great interest in this announcement and were 
exceedingly glad to hear the news, as the amount was quite large and the 
matter rather a serious one to Mr. Merritt. 

No further business appearing before the meeting, the presiding officer 
announced that Dr. French had kindiy prepared a paper which he would 
read at this meeting. The title of the paper was “The Science of Numis- 
matics or Coinage," and was an exceedingly valuable article and heartily 
enjoyed by all members present. A vote of thanks was, on motion, of Mr. 
Gillette, seconded by Mr. Bauer, tendered to Dr. French for his kindness in 
preparing and reading this paper. 

We w’ere very happy to have with us at this meeting, Mr. H. R. Darling, 
a member who, although he had joined the society two years ago, had been 
unable to appear previously on account of business cares. He was welcomed 
and introduced to all, and spent a very enjoyable evening with us. 

An auction sale of 105 odd medals followed, auctioned by Mr. George J. 
Bauer. The prices were rather low, but satisfactory in the main. 

No further business appearing, the meeting adjourned. 

E. D. PuTx.AM, Secretary. 


The 189th meeting of the Rochester Numismatic Association was held at 
the Rochester Municipal Museum, Tuesday evening. May 4, 1920, President 
J. C. Woodbury in the chair. Members present; Messrs. Horner, Bauer, 
Handler, Amberg, Gillette, King, Putnam, Woodbury, Hendrigx, Savage, 
Borradaile, Koeb, Plumb, Yawger and Woolf. 

As a prleiminary to opening the meeting, our President, Mr. Woodbury, 
who had been wintering in California, presented the members with a box 
of cigars that we all might smoke up and enjoy a social evening. Mr. 
Woodbury was greeted very warmly by members on all sides, and we are 
exceedingly glad to have him with us again. 

Minutes of previous meeting read and approved. 

No old business appearing, or reports of committees, under the head of 
new business Mr. Bauer suggested that as soon as convenient, if agreeable 
to the members, we have prepared a number of lantern slides of notable 
coins in the Association’s collection and inaugurate a series of lectures for 
the benefit of the public along numismatic lines. He felt that the time had 
come when the Association should do its part in the educational work of 
the community. Discussion from several of the other members along the 
same line was favorable to the plan, simply a matter of when it should be 


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carried out and what provisions should be made to accomplish the result. 
Mr. Hendrigx, on the same line of discussion, stated that the philatelic 
societies had lantern slides which they loaned to the different local organ- 
izations, and asked whether there was a possibility that some of the larger 
numismatic associations have the same material, thus saving us the work 
of preparing our own slides. It seemed to be the general opinion, howev- 
er, that the numismatic societies had no material of this nature, and from 
the information obtained of our member, Mr. Wolff, who was present and 
an expert along this line, the opinion seemed to be the cost of having our 
own would not be excessive. Mr. King then moved, seconded by Mr. Am- 
berg, that a committee on publicity and lectures be appointed by the Pres- 
ident. Carried. The President then appointed Messrs. Bauer, Wolff, French 
and Putnam as such committee. 

The Secretary reported that articles on numismatics sufficient for a month 
or six weeks had been submitted to him, and the publication of a column 
each week in a city paper would be established within a few weeks, same 
to be acknowledged as furnished by Rochester Numismatic Association. 

No further business, the meeting adjourned. 

E. D. Putnam, Secretary. 


ANTIQUARIAN AND NUMISMATIC StKTETY OF MONTREAL. 

At the monthly meeting of this Society, held at the Chateau de Ramezay 
on the 16th of March, there were present: Victor Morin, Vice-President, in 
the chair; P. O. Tremblay, L. A. Renaud, J. C. A. Heriot, R. Allen Phillips, 
R. W. McLachlan, and several others. 

A committee was appointed to supervise the demolition of the old build- 
ings, to make way for a new extension to the Court House, so as to secure 
anything worth while from an historical point of view for the Chateau de 
Ramezay. 

Mr. L. A. Renaud showed a medal awarded “'For bravery in the field” 
during the great war. 

R. W. McLachlan exhibited ten fobs struck for the soldiers during the 
great war. One of these bears an Inscription “Valcartier,” which was the 
first camp at which the soldiers were trained. 

Five or six bear different designs of the maple leaf, and one the Cote of 
Arms, in which are nine quarters, each showing those of one of nine prov- 
inces, and one bearing a dreadnaught. 


CHICAGO COIN CLUB. 

The fifteenth meeting of the Chicago Coin Club was held at the Hotel 
Sherman, Chicago, Wednesday, May 5. Those present were: Mrs. Boyer, 
Miss Naerup, Mrs. Ripstra, .Messrs. Boyer, Brenner, Brown, Davis, Dunham, 
Jonas, Josephson, Kelley, Dr. Klinck, Lawless, Leon, Dr. Luttenberger, 
Rackus, Ripstra, Van der Berghen and Wilson. 

The meeting was called to order by the President. The minutes of the 
previous meeting were read and approved. The report of the Treasurer 
was read and placed on file. 

Dr. J. M. Klinck, of Chicago, was elected to membership. 

Mr. Dunham presented a motion to appoint a committee to take up the 
publication of a regular monthly Bulletin. After a brief discussion the mat- 
ter was laid on the table until the next meeting. 

Mr. Boyer showed a copy of MehVs Numisrnatic Monthly for June, 1910, 
which contained an account of a meeting of the Chicago Numismatic So- 
ciety which was held on May 5, 1910. There were five members present 
who were present at the meeting which was held exactly ten years ago. This 
magazine contained an interesting article concerning the origin of the 
Higley coppers, which had been prepared by Mr. Joseph Mitchelson. This 
article was read by Mr. Brown. 

A general discussion of the program of entertainment for the A. N. A. 
Convention followed. A tentative program was agreed upon. 

The exhibits were as follows: 

By Mr. Lawless: A number of very fine large copper cents. 

By Mr. Leon: A Federal Reserve note with a $2 face and a $1 back, and 
20 pesos in gold of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico. 


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By Mr. Boyer: Check for $6, signed by Robert Fulton, and twenty $2% 
gold pieces. 

By Mr. Davis: Sliver coins of England from the reigns of Henry III, 
Edward I, Edward II, Edward IV, and Edward VI, and a copy of the Hig- 
ley copper three-cent piece. 

By Mr. Brown: Six coins Issued by various factions during the Mexican 
Revolution, some leather money from Austria, a collection of Indian dump 
money, and a few coins from Java. 

By Mr. Jonas: Several Washington coins. Including the cents with the 
double head, the large and small eagle, the grate, the ship, and the Liberty 
and Security penny. 

By Mr. Wilson: Two-kroner commemorative pieces of Norway, dated 
1905, and a Mexican dollar, half dollar, and quarter dollar cut in fllagree. 

By Mr. Josephson: Gold mohur of the East India Co., dated 1841; half 
mohur of Bengal, and a very beautiful French War Medal. 

By Dr. Luttenberger: Two large silver pieces from Bengal with native 
inscriptions. 

iBy Mr. Rackus: 25 and 50-cent notes issued by Potter Palmer in 1862, 
$1 note of the City of Omaha, Issued in 1857, and brass ring money from 
the Ivory Coast, 

R. E. Davis, Secretary. 


NU.MISMATIC SECTION, MARYLAND ACADEMY OF SCIENCE.S, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

The 21st regular meeting of the Numismatic Section of the -Maryland 
Academy of Sciences was held at the Academy on April 19, Vice-Chairman 
Duffleld presiding. Other members present were Dr. Nicholas, .Messrs. Mc- 
Colgan, Peach and Wilhelm. 

-Minutes of the preceding meeting were read and approved. 

As this was the Annual Meeting of the Section, the Acting Secretary read 
a report on membership, also a financial statement, which was accepted 
and placed on 'file. 

Mr. -McColgan moved that the present officers be elected for the coming 
year. Mr. Duffleld announced that it would be impossible for him to con- 
tinue to serve as Secretary for another year, and Dr. Edward Plummer was 
nominated for that office. The following were then elected: Chairman, 
Waldo Newcomer; Vice-Chairman, F. G. Duffleld; Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. 
Edward Plummer. 

Mr. McColgan, the Curator of Coins of the Academy, invited the members 
to inspect the new cabinet and the Section’s collection of coins which was 
being installed. All were pleased wMth both the cabinet and the collection, 
the greater part of which were donated by Mr. McColgan. 

Mr. Wilhelm announced that the Philatelic Section of the -\cademy was 
arranging for a public exhibit of stamps in the fall, and hoped the Numis- 
matic Section would take part in it. 

Dr. Nicholas moved that the Vice-Chairman be authorized to arrange a 
program for each future meeting of the Numismatic Section. Carried. 

On motion the meeting adjourned. 


BOSTON NUMI8M.\TIC SOCIETY. 

The Society met with the President, Mr. Wheeler, at the Boston Public 
Library on Friday, May 14th, at 4.30. Present: Messrs. Shumway, Morse, 
Tilden, Stafford, Comstock, Gray, Storer and, by invitation, Dr. H. L. Perry. 

On motion of Mr. Comstock, Dr. H. L. Perry was elected an active mem- 
ber. 

Mr. Wheeler showed a medal in silver by de Moraes Silva Ramos, dated 
1849, struck upon the death of Charles Albert of Sardinia; a gold medal of 
Italy, 1842, upon the marriage of Victor Emanuel; a bronze medal of 1903 
of ^n Pitman with bust on obverse, and on reverse, “In Token of the Af- 
fectionate Esteem of the Shorthand Writers of America. A Memorial of 
Fifty Years Well Spent.” Mr. Wheeler also showed a recent one-kopeck 
paper note. 

Mr. .Morse showed a very skilfully made quarter dollar with two reverses. 
The milling was particularly well done. He also showed a medal of Ra- 
phael, by Cerbara, 1827. 


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Mr. Gray showed a number of Washington pieces, including both varie- 
ties of the Grate Cent, the Voltaire medal in tin (only one copy known to 
Baker), and a bright red Wright and Bale card. 

Mr. Tilden showed a set of 42 essay notes of fractional currency, printed 
on paper captured from the Confederacy. 

Mr. Shumway showed a Bryan piece with 16 TO 1 — NIT running up and 
dow'n at sides. 

Dr. Storer showed a Bryan piece 7% inches in diameter of iron bronzed, 
with on one side SOUND MONEY and on the other a U. S. eagle displayed; 
the medal of the San Francisco Vigilantes: the Wells-iFargo medal, and 
the very rare Bryan slug, 16 TO 1, Issued by the Gorham Co. 

Mr. Comstock showed a fine denaro of Genoa, C. 1285, and a number of 
$1 Canadian store cards and several fine early English shillings. 

Malcolm Stobeb, Secretary. 


BELGIAN SOCIETY, FRIENDS OF THE MEDALLION. 

In “LTndependence Beige” of March 22, the following article appears, 
of which I give a free translation; 

Les .\mls dc la Modaille d’.Art (Friends of the Me<lallion). 

The first general meeting of the Society Les Amis de la Medaille d’Art 
was held Sunday at 11 o’clock, presided over by Mr. Victor Tourneur, as- 
sisted by Messrs. Edouard Lalloire and G. Verhas. After the approval of 
the minutes of the last meeting the president declared that the Holland- 
Belgian Society, Friends of the Medallic Art, had ceased to exist, its dis- 
solution having been completed. The separation between Holland and Bel- 
gium is therefore an accomplished fact. 

There followed a discussion of the new statutes, which w'ere adopted 
unanimously. In accordance with this ruling, the request of the Germans, 
recently excluded from the Society, for reinstatement will be the subject of 
a preliminary investigation, although according to the spirit of the by-laws 
they can no longer be admitted. As regards the Dutch who belonged to 
the former Holland-Belgian Society, they will be readmitted without for- 
mality if they express their desire. 

In conformity with these by-laws the meeting proceeded to the election 
of its executive committee, which will be composed as follows: Mr. Victor 
Tourneur, president; Major Wiener, vice-president; G. Verhas, secretary; 
L. Lalloire, treasurer; A. Michaux, Comptroller; G. Devreese, Ch. Camuel. 
A. Bonnetain, artistic advisers. 

Some details were given regarding the medals of the “exercises,” 1914- 
1920 and 1921. Some are completed and others in process of execution or 
projected. Among the latter are medals to be dedicated to the King and 
the Queen, to the Resistance, and to the work of the Colonials — a series 
of representations of victories. 

Mr. Tourneur delivered a very interesting talk on the medals of the 
reign of Louis XIV, a work of admirable completeness, prepared from 1686 
by the Royal .\cademy of Inscriptions. This scholar, who has preserved 
our “Calmet” of Numismatics, discussed these works from the view'point 
of composition, effigy and allegory — from the esthetic and the historic point 
of view. He spoke especially of the pieces commemorating the principal 
deeds of the w^ars of the great king, and spoke in detail of the works in- 
spired by the Belgian campaigns. Mr. Tourneur mentioned also several 
satirical medals struck by the enemies of the King of France, which com- 
bine beauty and humor. 

In conclusion, there was presented to the assembly an entire series of 
new works by our artistis celebrating recent events. 

J. deLaoerheko. 


COPPER-NICKEL COINS FOR SCANDINA\T.\N COUNTRIES. 


The 22d of March an amendment was left to the Coin Convention recent- 
ly held between the Scandinavian countries, at which time subsidiary cop- 
per-nickel coins were proposed to be struck of the denominations of 10, 25 
and 50 ore. — (Free trans. by J. deL.) 


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PRICES AT MEHL'S SALE OF MARCH 10. 


Following aie the prices lealized on some of the lots in the sale of the 
R. G. Snow Collection by B. Max Mehl, Fort Worth, Texas, on March 10, 
1920: 


$50.00 Gold, 1851, first issue. Strictly fine $200.00 

$20.00 Gold, 1907, Roman letters. Uncirculated 35.00 

$10.00 Gold, 1799, so-called small star variety. Very hne 21.50 

$4.00 Gold, 1879. Perfect, brilliant proof 90.50 

$3.00 Gold, 1869. Practically uncirculated 7.00 

$2.50 Gold, 1915, Panama-Pacinc Exposition. Uncirculated 5.50 

$1.00 Gold, 1870. Uncirculated 5.75 

$1.00 Gold, 1880. Proof 7.35 

$1.00 Gold, 1916, .McKinley Memorial. Uncirculated 3.60 

$1.00 Gold, 1917, McKinley Memorial. Uncirculated 3.40 

$1.00 Silver, 1795, type of 1794. Very good 5.00 

$1.00 Silver, 1836, flying eagle, 26 stars. Very fine 20.00 

Half Dollar, 1794, wide date. Very good 4.10 

Large Cent, 1793, chain, AMERICA. Very good 7.50 

Large Cent, 1793, wreath, Crosby 9-G. Fine 9.00 

Large Cent, 1793, wreath, Crosby 9-H. Strictly fine 11.75 

Large Cent, 1793, lettered edge, Crosby 11-G. Uncirculated 35.00 

Large Cent, 1794, Hays 56. Practically uncirculated 11.25 

Large Cent, 1796, liberty cap. Gilbert A. Fine 23.00 

Large Cent, 1797, close date. Extremely fine 7.25 

Large Cent, 1799, perfect date. Very good 20.50 

Large Cent, 1803, small 3, large fraction. Uncirculated 10.75 

Large Cent, 1810 over 9. Uncirculated 13.75 

Large Cent, 1812, small date. Uncirculated 10.50 

Large Cent, 1825, inner circle, large stars and letters. Uncirculated 15.00 

Large Cent, 1826, inner circle on obverse. Practically uncirculated 5.85 

Flying eagle Cent, 1856. Proof 10.25 

Flying eagle Cent, 1858, rev. oak wreath with ornamental shield. 

Proof 7.60 

Pine Tree Shilling, 1652, Crosby 1, Plate 2. Extremely fine 11.50 

Oak Tree Sixpence, 1652. Very fine 14.50 

Massachusetts Half Cent, 1787. Crosby 4-C. Extremely fine 3.25 

New Jersey Cent, 1787. M. 60-P. About fine 2.00 

Washington Cent, 1789, large military bust to left. Strictly fine.. 10.50 

Washington Penny, (1791). Uncirculated 6.50 

Washington Cent, 1791, military bust of Washington to left. Unc. . 7.00 

Immunis Columbia Cent, 1787. Extremely fine 15.00 

Continental Dollar, 1776. Extremely fine 16.00 

Swedish Copper Plate Money, Two-Daler piece, 1747 Fredk. I. V. F. 14.75 

Ancient bronze coin, Syracuse, B. C. 343-317. Ver yflne 7.35 

Numismatic Book, Early Coins of America, Crosby, 1875. Cloth, 

perfect 19.25 

Numismatic Book, Hard Times Tokens, Low’. Half leather. V. fine 8.75 
Historia Numorum, A Manual of Greek Numismatics, Barclay V. 

Head, second edition. Cloth, perfectly new condition 7.50 

Pattern Silver Dollar, 1878. Proof 10.50 

$1,000.00 Note, Bank of Louisiana, New Orleans, 1862. Very fine. 8.00 

Foreign Silver, Sicily, 1793, 30 Tari. Fine 8.40 

Dime, 1804. Good to very good 16.00 


PRICE OF WIVES INCREASE 100 PER CENT. 


High prices for the necessities of life has at last reached Central Africa, 
according to Lord Dewar, who has recently returned to London from that 
region. In giving an account of his travels there he said the increased 
cost of living in the district he visited was reflected in the higher price for 
wives paid by the natives. Whereas a fine, 16 hands high w’ife cost four 
spearheads in pre-war days, she now costs eight spearheads. Lord Dewar 
said, and in the cattle districts the price of a wife at present is eight cows 
instead of four. 


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American Numismatic Association 


Organized 1801, Incorporated Under the Laws of the 
United States May 9, 1912. 


OFFICERS 
President, 
Waldo C. Moore, 
Lewisburg, Ohio. 


First Vice-President, Second Vice-President, 

Henry Chapman, Philadelphia, Pa. John M. Oliver, Springfield, Mass. 

General Secretary, Treasurer, 

H. H. Yawger, George J. Bauer, 

78 Linden St., Rochester, N. Y. 192 St. Paul St., Rochester, N. Y. 

Librarian, 

H. H. Yawger, 78 Linden St., Rochester, N. Y. 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

Moritz Worm.ser, Chairman, 95 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Theo. E. Leon, Preston C. Pond, 

143 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. Chicopee, Mass. 

FO.STER Lardner, F. N. Boyle, 

320 Westminster St., Providence, R. I. 628 Frick Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Official Magazine:’ The Numismatist. 

Frank G. Duffield, Editor and Business Manager. 

1811 Mosher St., Baltimore, Md. 


DISTRICT SECRETARIES 

Harry A. Gray, 41 Rockland St., Roxbury, Mass., for New England States. 
Rud. Kohler, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York City, for N. Y. and N. J. 

Henry Chapman, 333-335 S. I6th St., Philadelphia, Pa., for Penn., Del., Md., 
Va., W. Va. and D. of C. 

M. Marcuson, 1611 E. 82d St. N. E., Cleveland, Ohio, for Mich., Ohio, Ind. 
and Ky. 

Fred Michael, 8 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., for 111., Iowa, Mo., Kansas 
and Neb. 

A. H. Yoder, University, North Dakota, for Wis., Minn., N. Dak. and S. Dak. 
George H. King, Denver National Bank, Denver, Col., for Mont., Idaho, Wyo., 

Utah, Col., Ariz. and N. Mex. 

I. Leland Steinman, Room 329, 235 Montgomery St., San Francisco, Cal., 
for Cal., Nev., Ore. and Wash. 

B. Max Mehl, P. O. Drawer 9 76, Fort Worth, Tex., for Southern States. 
John A. Wood, 165 Oak Ave., Hamilton, Ont., for Ontario. 

R. L. Reid, Vancouver, B. C., for Western Canada. 

H. L. Doane, Truro, Nova Scotia, for Quebec and Eastern Provinces. 

S. H. Hamer, Halifax, Yorkshire, England, for British lies. 

The initiation fee is one dollar. The annual dues are 50 cents yearly. 
Subscription to The Numism.xtist, ?1.50 yearly, payable January 1st yearly. 
Total $3.00 for the first year. For particulars address the General Secre- 
tary, Rochester, N. Y. 



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AMERICAN NUMISMATIC ASSOCIATION. 


REPORT OF THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 


New Members to be Admitted June 1, 1920. 

2094 Henry E. Miller, Enimetsburg, Iowa. 

2095 H. Howell, 5428 South Park Ave., Chicago, 111. 

2096 W. H. Williams, 804 South St., Plqua, Ohio. 

2097 iWm. Lloyd, 606 Royal St., New Orleans, La. 

2098 M. E. Hamberger, 1927 14th St. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

2099 John Banas, 10529 Bensley Ave., Chicago, 111. 

2100 James Minotto, 111 W. Washington St., Chicago, 111. 

2101 Chas. H. Thul, 2631 Hemlock St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

2102 Jos. Z. Todd, St. Marks Hotel, Orkland, Cal. 

2103 John D. Nichols, Canton, Mo. 

2104 Dr. R. A. Brown, 7 South Howard St., Akron, Ohio. 

2105 Robert Robertson, 140 33rd St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Applications for Meinbership. 

The following applications have been received prior to May 20, 1920. 
If no objections are received prior to July 1, 1920, the same will become 
members on that date and will be published in the July issue. 

APPLICANT PBOPOSED ST 


2106 W. C. Lenzi (General). Henry Chapman 

P. O. Box 557, Norristown, Pa S. H. Chapman 

2107 Henry Hazotte (U. S. and Foreign), B. Weille 

Paducah, Ky H. H. Yawger 

2108 A. G. Fuhr (General), E. E. Wright 

3308 Magazine St., New Orleans, La H. H. Yawger 

2109 E. W. Harr (General), W. C. Moore 

Nora Springs, Iowa H. H. Yawger 

2110 Octave Pelletier (General), E. G. Courteau 

Ste. Anne de Beaupre, Can H. H. Yawger 

2111 Robert O. Bryan (General), C. G. Whitby 

Chetopa, Kan W. F. Huntley 

2112 Edward Fielder (Coin Dealer, General), Farran Zerbe 

1118 First Ave., Seattle, Wash J. H. Snow 

2113 Robert S. Goldberg (Rare Coins), Harry Hatry 

272 W. 90th St., New York. N. Y Frank I. Liveright 

2114 Raymond Fellows (Autographs and Coins), W. B. Gould 

162 Exchange St., Bangor, .Me H. H. Yawger 

2115 D. O. Wederbrook (Confederate Money and U. S. Coins), W. C. Moore 

6519 Crest Ave., St. Louis, Mo H. H. Yawger 

2116 Leonidas Wefitervelt (General), J. deLagerberg 

7 West 50th St.. New York, N. Y M. Wormser 


Change in .Address. 


J. deLagerberg from 259 West 92nd St., New 
L. I., N. Y., Box 4 2. 

Rochester, N. Y., April 20, 1920. 


York, N. Y., to Shoreham, 

H. H. Yawgek, 

General Secretary. 




MAKE .AN EXHIBIT .AT THE .A. N. .A. CHIC.AGO CONA’ENTION. 


The Committee on Local Arrangements for the Chicago Convention of the 
A. N. A., T. E. Leon, chairman, 143 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, desires to 
Impress upon members who expect to attend the convention that all exhibits 
of coins, etc., should be installed in the Art Institute (where the convention 
will be held) on Saturday, August 21. The committee expects to have one 
of the best displays of coins that has ever been made in connection with an 
A. N. A. convention, and hopes all visiting members will reach Chicago in, 

time to install their coins on Saturday, as the following day — Sunday 

will give greater opportunity to interest and instruct the general public than 
the other days of the Convention. 


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It is possible for members of the A. N. A. to bring together at this con- 
vention one of the greatest displays of coins, etc., that has ever been placed 
on exhibition, and all visitors, as well as the Chicago members, are invited 
to take part in it. The Association’s showcases will accommodate a great 
number of coins, and there will be room for everybody to show selections. 
They will be carefully guarded day and night, and will be perfectly safe. 
But remember, please, to have them installed in time for the public exhibit 
on Sunday, August 22. 


CHICAGO, THE CONVENTION CITY. 


Fellow A. N. A. Members: 

Chicago, the Master-City of the Middle West, is to entertain the American 
Numismatic Association at its eighteenth convention, August 23-26. While 
Chicago is not the largest city in America, its influence is felt in every por- 
tion of the globe inhabited by collectors and other folks. 

Chicago, be it remembered, was the pioneer in the construction of the 
lofty steel-frame business buildings now so common and known as “sky- 
scrapers,” The Field Museum, one of Chicago’s many attractions, has a 
large and admirable collection. 

It is the ambition of every member to visit Chicago. To him who has 
seen the city once there is a desire to repeat the experience and to view 
wonders which were missed on the initial pilgrimage. There is a welcome 
for every member of the A. N. A., as well as every reader of The Numis- 
matist. 

“On to Chicago!” is the slogan. We all hope to meet you all on this 
our eighteenth occasion. 

Yours fraternally, 

Waldo C. Moore, 

President A. N. A. 

Lewlsburg, Ohio. May 20, 1920. 


C.\LE FOR NOMINATION OF OFFICERS. 


In accordance with Article IV, Section 2, of our By-Laws, reading as 
follows: 

“ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

■‘At least sixty days prior to a convention the Chairman of the Board of 
Governors shall issue a call in the Official Paper for nominations for offi- 
cers. Nominations for any office may be made by any member or by a 
branch society. Such nominations shall be sent to the General Secretary, 
who shall immediately upon receipt of same notify the member so nominat- 
ed; and those who have not declined shall be considered as having accept- 
ed the nominations. A committee of three shall be appointed by the Pres- 
ident whose duty it will be to see that nominations for officers shall be 
made.” 

I herewith beg to notify all members of the .-Vmerican Numismatic Asso- 
ciation that nominations for officers to be elected at the Chicago Convention 
are now in order; and all such nominations should be forwarded to the 
General Secretary, Mr. H. H. Yawger, 78 Linden Street, Rochester, N. Y., 
without delay. 

.Moritz Wormser, 
Chairman, Board of Governors. 

New York, May 12, 1920. 


BILL FOR 7 .AND « CENT COINS INTRODUCED. 


On April 16 Senator Frelinghuysen of New Jersey introduced a bill in 
the Senate providing for the coinage of 7 and 8 cent pieces to provide con- 
venient coins for street-car fares and sales requiring petty war taxes. 

Speaking of the bill. Senator Freylinghusen is quoted as saying: “While 
a few years ago the nickel was probably the most used coin, today it is 
rarely circulated alone. It is a continual bother to carry or make change 
in pennies, particularly for the 7 and 8 cent street-car fares, which are 
now virtually universal, and my bill proposes the coinage of 7 and 8 cent 
pieces to obviate these troublesome delays.” 


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MAKE HOTEL RESERVATIONS NOW. 


The Committee on Local Arrangements for the Chicago Convention de- 
sires to impress upon members of the A. X. A. the necessity for immedi- 
ately making hotel reservations for the Convention, August 23 to 26 next. 
Nine other conventions are scheduled to meet in Chicago during that week, 
and unless our members promptly make arrangements for accommodations, 
it may be impossible to secure them later, particularly at the Hotel Sher- 
man, corner of Randolph and Clark streets, which has been selected as 
headquarters for the A. N. A. The rates per day at the Hotel Sherman are 
as follows: 


One Person. 

Room without bath $2.50 to $3.00 

Room with private bath 3.50 to 6.00 

Two Persons. 

Room without bath 4.00 

Room with private bath 5.00 to 10.00 

Two Connecting Rooms with Bath. 

Two persons 6.50 to 10.00 

Three persons 8.00 to 12.00 

Four persons 9.00 to 16.00 


REPORT OP CO.MMITTEE ON OBSOLETE PAPER .MONEY. 


To the Members of the American Numismatic Association; 

On behalf of the committee appointed by the American Numismatic .As- 
sociation at its last convention for the purpose of inquiring into the seizures 
of paper money by the Secret Service and for the promotion of a better un- 
derstanding between that Service and the dealers and collectors of paper 
money, as its chairman, I take pleasure in reporting through The Numis- 
M.VTi.sT, that, after several conferences, we have made what we consider a 
very satisfactory arrangement, and one which we are sure will receive the 
support of all reputable dealers and collectors. 

At the present time the criminal practice of raising notes is so flagrant 
and common that the Secret Service cannot be criticized in their efforts to 
stop, at the source, the indiscriminate sale of broken, bank and Confederate 
notes which are used for such unlawful purposes. 

The Secret Service does not propose to disturb the honest collector in the 
pursuit of his hobby. Nor does it intend to interfere with the reputable 
dealer so long as that dealer does not exposes his notes for indiscriminate 
sale to persons unknown to him. 

In brief, the arrangement entered into with .Mr. W. H. Moran, Chief of 
the Secret Service, concerning dealers, is that this committee is permitted 
to place on file with him the names of such dealers as it can vouch for. In 
return, the Secret Service men operating in the districts where these deal- 
ers are located with be instructed not to molest such dealers in the lawful 
conduct of their business. 

Accompanying this report is correspondence between Mr. Moran and this 
Committee. 

George H. Bl.vke, Chairman ; 

Wm A. A.siibrook, 

J. P. Hale Jenkins. 

May 8, 1920. 

(Copy.) 

Jersey City, N. J., April 24th, 1920. 

Mr. W. H. Moran, Chief, 

U. S. Secret Service, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir — Recalling my recent visit to your office as one of a committee 
from the American Numismatic Association, and the New York Numismatic 
Club, in behalf of the collectors and dealers in obsolete issues of State 
bank notes. Confederates notes, and other paper money, my understanding 
is that if this committee will file with you a list of those dealers whom we 
consider entirely reliable and can vouch for, you will instruct your various 


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offices not to molest these dealers in their lawful trafficking in such notes 
so long as there is no suspicion of wrongdoing. 

In accordance with this understanding, such list has been prepared and 
is herewith submitted. 

This list is probably not entirely complete, and we would ask the privi- 
lege of adding to it In case we hnd any names have been omitted. 

In the opinion of this committee, this arrangement will place the matter 
in a very satisfactory shape, and will enable reputable dealers and collectors 
to pursue their business and pleasure w’ithout fear of interference so long 
as no wrongdoing takes place. 

The thanks and gratitude of all those Interested in the paper-money 
branch of numismatics is hereby tendered you, together with the assurance 
that all reputable numismatists will be glad to aid you, as far as possible, 
in preserving the purity of our currency. 

May I ask you to confirm my understanding, as above, and also the re- 
ceipt of the enclosed list of names. 

Yours truly, 

1 Enclosure. Geokue H. Blake. 

(Copy.) 

TREASURY DEPARTMENT 

Office of the Secretary, 

Wasihngton, WHM/eg 

April 26, 1920. 

George H. Blake, Esq., 

12 Highland Ave., 

Jersey City, New Jersey. 

Dear Sir — I have your letter of April 24, referring to the understanding 
we arrived at regarding the handling of broken bank bills by legitimate 
••ollectors and dealers whom the American Numismatic Association request 
shall not be disturbed in the legitimate transfer of these worthless instru- 
ments, and submitting a list of those whom the Association has licensed. 

In reply I beg to advise you that the Agents of this Service, in the Dis- 
tricts covered by the addresses you give, will be instructed not to molest 
the persons named in your list in the handling of the broken bank and 
Confederate States’ currency so long as these instruments are not placed on 
exhibition for indiscriminate sale. 

Respectfully, 

(sg) W. H. Moran, Chief. 


XOnSMATIC COLLECTIONS IN LIUKARIES AND UNIVERSITIES. 


A line of work that might be engaged in by all the District Secretaries of 
the A. N. A., with a probable Increase of interest in the subject by the 
public, is suggested in the following letter from Mr. A. H. Yoder of Uni- 
versity, N. D., who was recently appointed District Secretary of the A. N. A. 
for Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota. Mr. Yoder is 
Director of the Extension Division of the' University of North Dakota, and 
is in touch with other universities in his district and adjoining States. 

To the Editor of The Numismatist: 

As you know, I have been made the District Secretary for this group of 
States. On this account I wish to do something for the improvement of 
numismatics in my district. While on a trip East, I had an opportunity to 
visit Minneapolis. I called upon the Curator of the Museum of the Minne- 
sota State Historical Society and had a long talk with him about the 
numismatic material which they have. I found it not on display, but shut 
away in a storeroom. It is quite likely it never has been displayed. I also 
visited the University of Chicago, the University of Michigan, and University 
of Wisconsin. Wisconsin has a display of bills and coins with which I am 
quite familiar. The only change there was is the greater emphasis given 
to the Wisconsin broken-bank bills. I think this was due to a talk I had 
with Curator Brown last July. In the other three institutions there was 
material, but no exhibit. Chicago has a good-size trunk filled with coins 
and envelopes. There is no numismatist interested in the exhibit. A woman 
in the library is doing this at odd times. She knows a very little about 


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classification. At Michigan I found a listed selection of over 7000 coins, 
no old bank bills included. When I urged her to collect these and add i.o 
the exhibit, she said that Michigan did not feel very proud of her record 
of those early days. I tried to show her that pride or no pride, the early 
history of Michigan had a historical value which she could not afford to 
overlook. 

Before going on with Minnesota I wish to make this suggestion. Evi- 
dently, there is a lack of interest in numismatic material among the cura- 
tors. It is possible this apathy is due to the fact that experience has shown 
that people are not Interested in money. They want to see a chip of wood 
on wnich is a dark red spot of blood which dripped from the sword of the 
man who ran it through some notorious character. My first question then 
is this: Small we make an effort through The Numismatist to create great- 
er interest and public exhibitions of money? If so, how shall we go about 
it? It doesn’t pertain to the Northern district any more than it does to the 
other districts, I suspect. 

Going back to the Minnesota exhibit, I was very much pleased to find 
that some wise man has collected many of the early bank bills of Minne- 
sota Territory and State. It is likely that this is not complete. However, 
Mr. Babcock, in charge, was very willing to make an effort to complete 
this part of his collection. He has some duplicates, and I think that is 
true of the other exhibits mentioned above. I would like to propose that 
The Numismatist help these curators to exchange material. 

I did not find any of the Civil War trade tokens or store cards in the 
Minnesota collection, and the curator had never heard of such a thing. I 
showed him some tokens and got his interest in the subject. It is my pur- 
pose to get a report on each of the public collections of numismatic mate- 
rial. There are three in Wisconsin and but one in Minnesota, so far as I 
know, one in North Dakota, and South Dakota has not yet invested. 

1 am willing to write a letter to the different universities about the mat- 
ter of numismatic material, but I am not sure but that it should come from 
the President of the Association, the Secretary, or the Editor of The Numi.s- 
MATisT. This letter is to give you the facts and to ask your advice. Per- 
sonally, I should like to see the large educational institutions give some 
prominence to our subject, and I believe that if we would help them to 
arouse an interest in the public prints and help them in planning a way of 
displaying their exhibits, etc., we could see within the next five years 
very creditable collections exhibited in most of the States. 

A. H. Yodek. 

University, N. D., April 14. 


.\ LETTEK FROM A. N. A. “No. 2.” 


General Secretary Yawger of the A. N. A. has received the following let- 
ter from Mr. Charles T. Tatman of Worcester, Mass., who enjoys the dis- 
tinction of being one of the founders of the A. N. A.: 

April 30, 1920. 

Mr. H. H. Yawger, 

78 Linden Street, Rochester, N. Y. 

My dear Mr. Yawger — I have your letter of April 27, and am gratified 
that you should have observed that I am entitled to be known as Member 
No. 2, which, as you say, gives me the distinction of being the oldest living 
member of the American Numismatic Association. 

I take considerable pride in the knowledge that this Association was or- 
ganized through the joint efforts of Dr. George F. Heath, of Monroe, Mich., 
and myself. Dr. Heath and I corresponded for some time relative to the 
foundation of such a society, and he advocated its establishment, using the 
medium of his little monthly publication called The Numismatist, and I in 
the columns of a magazine published in New York under the style of “Plain 
Talk,” a numismatic department of which I regularly conducted for a long 
time. 

I believe that Mr. William G. Jerrems, Jr., of Chicago, was the first Pres- 
ident and I was the first Secretary. I had earnestly desired that Dr. Heath 
be elected President, but he declined that honor, and, I think, suggested 
Mr. Jerrems. 

Although I am given the distinguished honor of being considered the 


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oldest living member, I wish to state in my own behalf that I am still under 
fifty years of age. I am a busy practicing lawyer, and have no time which 
I can reasonably devote to my coins. I keep my collection, how'ever, and 
am as rabid as ever if the subject of coins is ever brought to my attention. 
Once in a great while 1 add something to my collection, but, having no 
leisure, the subject of numismatics has (I hope temporarily) given way to 
other matters. 

I will try to get a member for the Association, in accordance with your 
request, but am pretty much out of the running, so far as numismatic 
activities are concerned. 

With kind regards and best wishes for the continued success of the As- 
sociation, I am 

Very sincerely yours, 

Charles T. Tatmax. 


OBITUARY. 

OSCAR A. EXGSTROM. 

Oscar A. Engstrom, a member of the American Numismatic Association, 
died at his home, 61 North Elmwood Ave., Buffalo, on March 30, 1920, of 
paralysis, after a long illness. 

Mr. Engstrom was born in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1863. He came to the 
United States when he was 14 years old, and settled in Smethport, Pa., 
where he later engaged in the grocery business, which he conducted for 
several years. His first wife died in 1913, by whom he had five children. 
In 1916 he married Miss Nellie L. Jewell of Buffalo, N. Y., who survives 
him. In that year he retired from business and moved to Buffalo, where 
he had since lived. 

Mr. Engstrom had been a collector for 35 years. His collection of 
Swedish coins is believed to be one of the most complete in the United 
States, and contains a number of specimens of the Swedish plate money. 
In addition to coins he was a collector of medals, books and stamps. He 
ow'iied one of the oldest Swedish Bibles, printed in 1540. 

He was a man of exemplary habits, a member of the Swedish Lutheran 
Church and of McKean Lodge of Masons. Those who had the privilege of 
knowing him intimately referred to him as “a prince of a man.” 

He suffered a slight stroke of paralysis in June of last year, and a sec- 
ond stroke the last week in September, just before which he had contem- 
plated attending the Philadelphia Convention of the A. N. A., and from 
that time was confined to his bed until his death. The funeral took place 
on April 2d. 

Mr. Engstrom joined the American Numismatic Association in June, 
1912, and his membership has been continuous since that time. He at- 
tended the conventions in Springfield, Mass., in 1914, and at Rochester, 
N. Y., in 1917, being accompanied’by his w’ife at the latter, and made many 
friends, all of whom will learn of his death with deep regret. 


JUNIUS R. TEMPLE. 

Junius B. Temple, a member of the American Numismatic Association, 
died at his home, 12 Elmwood avenue. North .\dams. Mass., on April 23, 
1920, after an illness of about 18 months. 

Mr. Temple was a native of North Adams and one of its best-known resi- 
dents, and for a number of years was paymaster at the Arnold Print Works, 
where he had been employed for 33 years. He was a member of the Con- 
gregational Church and was active in its affairs. He was affiliated with a 
number of fraternal organizations, being a member of Greylock Lodge, A. 
F. and A. M.; past high priest of Royal Arch chapter, R. M.; past com- 
mander of St. Paul Commandery, K. T.; a member of the Eastern Star; of 
Melha Temple of Springfield, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, and of the Massa- 
chusetts Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution. Always inter- 
ested in historical research, having continued this work even during his 
recent illness, he was an active member of Fort Massachusetts Historical 
Society of North Adams. 

He is survived by a widow, Mrs. Della M. Temple: one brother. Commis- 
sioner of Public Works Jackson L. Temple, and three sisters, the Misses 
Eliza, Myra and Mabel Temple, all of North Adams. 


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Mr. Temple joined the American Numismatic Association in July, 1907, 
and his membership had been continuous. He was interested chiefly in 
United States coins and Continental and Colonial paper money, of which he 
had a large collection. 


EUGENE B. STE\ ENS. 

Although the death of Mr. E. B. Stevens of Parsons, Kans., occurred oa 
October 14, 1919, it has just been reported to the General Secretary. 

Mr. Stevens had been a continuous member of the American .Numismatic 
Association for many years, and his death removes another of the gradually 
diminishing number, now quite small, who kept the numismatic fires burn- 
ing in the Association before it became a fixture in American organizations. 
He was A. X. A. No. 82. 

Mr. Stevens was 61 years of age at the time of his death, and is survived 
by a widow, Mrs. Mary B. Stevens. He was president of the First National 
Bank of Parsons, Kans., in which institution he entered as an office boy. 
He had been an enthusiastic collector of coins all his life, and as he had 
been more or less of an invalid for a number of years, numismatics appealed 
to him strongly. His collection consists mainly of United States issues, and 
includes quite an extensive line of gold coins. 


G. P. E. WIL.H.1RM, M. D. 

Dr. G. F. E. Wiiharm, a member of the American Numismatic Association 
and President of the Western Pennsylvania Numismatic Society, died at 
his home, 119 Oakdene Avenue, Grafton Heights, Pittsburgh, on May 12, 
following a week’s illness of pneumonia. 

In writing to The Numis.matist of his death, Mr. A. C. Gies of Pittsburgh 
says: “It is with very deep sorrow that I have to inform you of the death 
of our colleague and friend. Dr. G. F. E. Wiiharm, who died of pneumonia 
on May 12. He was President of our Western Pennsylvania Numismatic 
Society, and was a very enthusiastic collector. He was a fine fellow and a 
sociable companion. We all feel deeply the great loss caused by his death.. 
Enclosed is a copy of the resolutions passed by our Society and forwarded 
to his family.” 

“At a special meeting of the Western Pennsylvania Numismatic Society 
called to order at 347 Union Arcade at 7.30 P. M. to take action on the 
death of our late associate and President, Dr. G. F. E. Wiiharm, the fol- 
lowing resolutions were unanimously adopted: 

“Whereas the members of the Society have just been informed of the 
death of one of its esteemed members and fellow-workers. Dr. G. F. E. Wii- 
harm: and 

“Whereas each of the members of the Society feel deeply the loss of our 
esteemed fellow-member and wish to express to the surviving members of 
his family our sincere sympathy over their sudden bereavement: now be it, 
and it is hereby 

“Resolved, That the members of the Society hereby tender their sincere 
sympathy to the surviving members of the family: and further 

“Resolved, That any aid that may be given to the members of his family 
is hereby extended: now be it further 

“Resolved, That this resolution be spread upon the minutes of the So- 
ciety, and that the Secretary forward a copy to the Society publication,. 
The Numismatist, and a copy to the surviving members of the family. 

“F. N. Boyle, Vice-President. 

“A. C. Gies, Secretary.” 

Dr. Wiiharm was born in Pitsburgh on March 20, 1853, and lived in that 
city practically all his life. He was active in civic, charitable and social 
affairs, and during the World War served as president of the Grafton 
Heights Branch of the American Red Gross. He had been practicing surg- 
ery for the last 4 0 years at 1343 Penn avenue, and gained a wide reputa- 
tion as the manufacturer of a medicinal preparation. For a number of 
years he was a member of the Washington Infantry, serving as a lieutenant, 
and at the time of his death he was an honorary member of that organiza- 
tion. He was a member of Grace Reformed Ghurch, and was president of 
the Grafton Heights Board of Trade. He was also a member of Pittsburgh 


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Council, Independent Order of Americans. His wife died 18 months ago. 

He is survived by six sons — Charles F., Wilfred, Emil, Elmer, Arthur 
and Howard; eight grandchildren; three brothers — Fred P., William F. 
and August F.; and one sister, Mrs. J. Fred Burhler, all of Pittsburgh. 

Dr. Wilharm had been a member of the American Numismatic Associa- 
tion for many years, being No. 151. 


PACIFIC CO.AST NUMISMATIC SOCIETY SEAL. 


For use In Its literature and as a reverse design for medals which it hopes 
to produce, the Pacific Coast Numismatic Society adopted a design for a 
seal at its meeting .August 26, 1919, from a sketch and ideas presented by 
Farran Zerbe, a cut of which is shown herewith. 



The setting sun is suggestive of the Pacific, the great ocean that takes 
one from “Westward Ho!” to the Far East and whose waters and moisture 
wash the shore and nourish the great fields and forests of the motherlands. 
Oregon and California territories, from which have been carved the Pacific 
Coast States. In the foreground, mining at left and forestry at right, is 
depicted the two gifts of Mother Earth found by the pioneer and the foun- 
dation on which has been built and evolved the great Western coast coun- 
try. Within a double-line circle surrounding this central device, PACIFIC 
COAST NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. ORG. SAN FRANCISCO. 1915. The So- 
ciety aims to extend its infiuence to eight Western states, which are named, 
commencing at bottom reading from right to left and divided by a five 
pointed star — CALIFORNIA OREGON ARIZONA UTAH NEVAD.A. -MON- 
TAN.Y IDAHO WASHINGTON each in line with and within a double-line 
bordered octagon. 

The seal is obtagonal, typical of the Pioneer gold coins of the Pacific 
Coast. The sun’s eight major rays are representative of the Society’s 
original eight members who met and formed the organization June 24, 
1915. 

Considering eight states, eight stars, eight original members’ major rays, 
and eight sides. Secretary Steinman has commented “Some piece of eight!” 
which is quote apropos numismatically, since the “piece of eight” was the 
coin mostly brought, sought and used by the Pioneers. 


BRITISH COMMISSION REPORTS AGAINST DECIM.AL COIN.YGB. 


A press report from London, dated April 22, says that by a majority the 
Royal Commission which has been inquiring into the question has decided 
against the adoption of the decimal system of coinage by that country. 

“In our opinion,” the majority of the Commissioners say, “a large part, 
including the least instructed portion of the community, reckons its income 
in terms of shillings and pence, and we are satisfied it is idle to expect that 
the public would accept the disturbance created by the interference of 
their habits and the basis of their established notions of value by a change 
for which they have expresed no desire and which will not benefit them ex- 
cept in so far as they keep accounts.” 

An alteration of the established system, it is pointed out, could not be 
made as an experiment. 



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• LIST OF MEMBERS 

OF THE AMERICAN NUMISMATIC ASSOCIATION. 


ARKANSAS. 

1497 L. Langfelder, Fort Smith. 

CALIFORNIA. 

2093 J. F. Anderson, 3136 Front Street, San Diego. 

904 J. M. Brown, South Pasadena. 

1904 Basil Brandon, 70 Diamond Street, San Francisco. 

2009 M. E. Duncan, 15 Collier Street, San Francisco. 

696 Fred R. Fancher, Redondo Beach. 

2048 Hugo B. Goldsmith, 240 Powell Street, San Francisco. 

1847 Jos. L. Haigh, 1220 West 8th Street, Oakland. 

1947 Adolf Haagenson, 543 Crofton Avenue, Oakland. 

1367 John L. Hitchcock, 1010 Powell Street, San Francisco. 

2032 Anton Mohr, 822 Alvarado Street, San Francisco. 

1872 H. A. McGee, 620 East 1st Street, Long Beach. 

1519 A. C. Nygren, 3221 I6th Street, San Francisco. 

1834 Henry B. Phillips, 16 California Street, San Francisco. 

1570 I. Leland Steinman, 235 Montgomery Street, San Francisco. 

2013 John H. Snow, 245 Arcadia Street, Pasadena. 

672 Alfreds. Twichell, 1601 Everett Street, Alameda. 

2102 Jos. Z. Todd, St. Mark’s Hotel, Oakland. 

1923 H. F. Volmer, 1115 L. A. Trust & Savings Building, Los Angeles. 
69 Jacob Weigel, 1461 North Fair Oaks Avenue, Pasadena. 

197 Farran Zerbe, 650 Bush Street, San Francisco. 

COLORADO. 

261 C. W. Cowell, 821 West 8th Avenue, Denver. 

1896 'Dr. H. A. Davis, 3421 Colfax A., Denver. 

1976 G. R. Haun, Box 689, Denver. 

2084 Floyd E. Huntley, Box 36, Denver. 

891 Geo. H. King, Denver National Bank, Denver. 

392 H. O. Mann, 224 Coronado Building, Denver. 

1399 R. M. McClure, Box 580, Trinidad. 

1695 Godfrey Schirmer, 1350 Franklin Street, Denver. 

CONNECTICT'T. 

970 J. E. Alden, 169 Albert Street, Torrington. 

840 H. W. Beckwith, M. D., 107 Main Street, Seymour. 

1115 A. H. Brewer, 57 Broad Street, Norwich. 

1684 Ebenezer Beesley, Richards Avenue, Norw'alk. 

1942 James Bailey, 71 Robbins Street, Waterbury. 

2072 J. C. Capen, Bloomfield. 

1806 Geo. E. Franklin, 187 Main Street, Hartford. 

119 Valdemar T. Hammer, Branford. 

1917 Leonard Kusterer, 126 Summit Street, Bridgeport. 

278 Charles D. Perry, Scotland. 

1550 S. S. Sherwood, Box 574, Bethel. 

1781 Dr. Willard N. Simmons, Tolland. 

2012 Dr. Fred Smith, Chester. 

DELAWARE. 

974 Harvey L. Garretson, Richardson Park. 

DISTRICT OF COLITMBIA. 

2083 Geo. D. Reason, 317 T Street, N. E. 


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344 John H. Clapp, 1509 16th Street N. W. 

76 B. H. Collins, 1705 H Street, N. \V. 

1581 Chas. H. Deetz, 2504 CllKbourne Place, N. W. 

2061 G. H. Emery, 2232 Cathedral Avenue. 

1802 Frederic E. Hodge, 136 Bryant Street, N. W. 

2098 M. E. Hamburger, 1927 14th Street, N. W. 

90 W. E. H. Merritt, 1403 H Street, N. W. 

1109 Frederick G. McKean, 1220 New Hampshire Avenue. 

1560 George H. Russell, 3538 Warder Street, N. W. 

FLORIDA. 

1675 George E. Simpson, 2816 North Jefferson Street, Tampa. 

GEORGIA. 

1107 S. Guthinan, 860 Mulberry Street, Macon. 

1510 A. J. Jansen, Southern Moline Plow Co., Atlanta. 

ILLINOIS. 

1886 Geo. F. Brown, 408 City Hall, Chicago. 

1945 F. W. Becker, 4152 North Moody Avenue, Chicago. 

1989 Ma.x A. Berg, 707 Judson Avenue, Evanston. 

1992 A. S. Boyer, 201 East Chestnut Street, Chicago. 

2099 John Banas, 10529 Bensley Avenue, Chicago. 

382 Michael P. Carey, 6310 South Campbell Avenue, Chicago. 

2087 Fred T. Carlson, De Kalb. 

361 William F. Dunham, 724 South Oakley Avenue, Chicago. 

1911 Henry F. Donovan, 729 South Wesley Avenue, Oak Park. 

95 I. Excell, 5112 Dorchester Avenue, Chicago. 

2070 Gust Eastland, Cambridge. 

1662 Louis E. H. Flinker, 2457 North Mozart Street, Chicago. 

1776 Chas. M. Hinckley, 4756 Dover Street, Chicago. 

2060 E. J. Hollinshead, 954 East 43rd Street, Chicago. 

2095 H. Howell, 5428 South Park Avenue, Chicago. 

1743 Ernest Jonas, 4083 North Mobile Avenue, Chicago. 

1894 L. Josephson, 109 North Dearborn Street, Chicago. 

2073 F. H. Johnston, 306 West Madison Street, Chicago. 

955 J. T. Kelly, 14 South 20th Street, Maywood. 

1304 Sigmund Krausz, 5847 Michigan Avenue, Chicago. 

1880 Fred H. Knoop, 7334 Pingree Street, Chicago. 

603 T. E. Leon, 143 .North Dearborn Street, Chicago. 

937 F. J. Loer, 3011 Washington Boulevard, Chicago. 

956 J. A. Lewis, 531 North Troy Street, Chicago. 

1887 Elmer Lawless, 3141 West 22nd Street, Chicago. 

1912 Jno. G. M. Luttenberger. M. D., 404 Tacoma Building, Chicago. 
1889 A. F. Madlener, 205 First National Bank Building, Chicago. 

645 Fred Michael, 8 South Dearborn Street, Chicago. 

1692 C. E. Morrill, Elburn. 

2100 James .Minotto, 111 West Washington Street, Chicago. 

1998 Emil Olson, 13 South Halstead Street, Chicago. 

264 A. W. Reeves, 10457 Bensley Avenue, Chicago. 

939 J. H. Ripetra, 2126 Gladys Avenue, Chicago. 

1864 L. Townsend Reckard, 4036 North Paulina Street, Chicago. 

753 W. M. Travis, Fairbury. 

1628 F. Elmo Simpson, 5328 West Warner Avenue, Chicago. 

1698 Frank Swanstrom, De Kalb. 

1865 Daniel J. Sullivan, 3014 Flournay Street, Chicago. 

1960 H. A. Sternburg, Dundee. 

2025 Charles H. Spencer, 6140 Klmbark Avenue, Chicago. 

1718 Theodore J. Venn, 2034 Lane Court, Chicago. 

95 8 H. T. Wilson, 535 North Sawyer Avenue, Chicago. 

1720 George B. Ward, 1725 Hinman .\venue, Evanston. 

1801 Peter Wislander, R. #1, Cambridge. 

1985 Samuel W'ilson, 118 East 21st Street, Chicago. 


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INDIANA. 

1179 R. V. Browinski, P. O. Box 65, Anderson. 

1562 Joseph A. Faust, 72 South Broadway, Peru. 

472 James F. Hood, Box 105, Marion. 

317 01 Reinheimer, 528 S. Meridian Street, Winchester. 

8 Charles W. Stutesman, Peru. 

881 J. C. Stephens, 1702 Soutn Main Street, Elkhart. 

1139 James Trythall, 221 East Butler Street, Fort Wayne. 

IOWA. 

307 Chas. E. Briggs, Lisbon. 

1561 A. H. Duncan, Humboldt. 

1597 Thos. H. Davis, 2120 East 11th Street, Davenport. 

1369 Bert A. Gillham, Rockford. 

1754 Charles Markus, 1613 West 12th Street, Davenport. 

2094 Henry E. Miller, Emmetsburg. 

1544 K. A. Perkins, Bonaparte. 

1547 W. M. Rosen, City State Bank, Ogden. 

921 iB. H. Saxton, Box 1014, Sioux City. 

1772 L. E. Stevens, United Cattle Loan & Live Stock Co., Des Moines. 
1970 M. Sorensen, 405 E Avenue West, Cedar Rapids. 

2000 Donald W. Tuttle, 1114 State Street, Osage. 

710 John V. Yegge, De Witt. 

KANSAS. 

834 F. J. Holthaus, Box 567, Seneca. 

1542 Dr. W. 1. Mitchell, 3210 East First Street, Wichita. 

1796 J. S. Maxwell, Box 1, Pittsburg. 

687 W. P. Pierce, Salina. 

1965 J. W. Shaw, Box 168, Louisville. 

LOUISIANA. 

1750 Geo. M. Agurs, 1224 Oakland Street, Shreveport. 

1489 S. Goette, Donaldsville. 

2097 \Vm. Lloyd, 606 Royal Street, New Orleans. 

1977 Joseph Martin, Box 339, Lafayette. 

1373 James B. Pelletier, 300 Royal Street, New Orleans. 

2091 D. Thos. Rees, City Bank Building, New Orleans. 

1571 E. E. Wright, Box 2, New Orleans. 

MAINE. 

1677 Walter B. Gould, 292 Hammond Street, Bangor. 

2051 Edward S. Everett, 5 Bramhall Street, Portland. 

MARYLAND. 

1903 O. H. Bruce, Westernport. 

324 Frank G. Duffleld, 1811 Mosher Street, Baltimore. 

1972 Joseph H. Hooper, Ruxton, Baltimore County. 

619 Otto B. Lowry, R. F. D. #1, Sharpsburg. 

1506 Rev. Edward P. McAdams, 31 Augusta Avenue, Baltimore. 

1824 Waldo Newcomer, National Exchange Bank, Baltimore. 

1662 Dr. Edward Plummer, 539 North Fulton Avenue, Baltimore. 
1646 H. Keighly-Peach, 807 North Eutaw Street, Baltimore. 

689 D. A. Williams, 4507 Maine Avenue, Forest Park, Baltimore. 

M.ISSACHUSETTS. 

862 G. P. Adams, 264 Front Street, Worcester. 

1860 H. D. Allen, 21 Winter Street, Boston. 


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2069 L. D. Ackerman, 1 Edmunds Place, Greenwood. 

980 Geo. E. Baldwin, Box 324, Middleboro. 

1638 N. P. Bugbee, 318 Main Street, Springfield. 

543 N. E. Converse, 82 Franklin Street, Worcester. 

1583 Wm. O. Comstock, 54 Dudley Street, Brookline. 

1711 D. C. Cottreal, 136 Alderman Street, Springfield. 

1432 E. D. Curtis, 27 Thorndyke Street, Springfield. 

17 46 A. W. Converse, 26 Walnut Street, Palmer. 

788 Luman S. Drowne, 229 Elm Street, Northhampton. 

2022 Shelly W. Denton, 24 Denton Road, Wellesley. 

1658 W. C. Emery, 10 Quincy Street, Springfield. 

1569 Frank A. Farnham, 591 South Station, Boston. 

1418 W. S. Fuller, 158 Franklin Street, Westfield. 

1964 Reinhold Faelton, 30 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 

1355 Harry A. Gray, 41 Rockland Street, Roxbury. 

2027 George M. Gifford, 198 Main Street, Fairhaven. 

2059 C. S. Gifford, Box 5274, Boston. 

249 George T. Hart, 24 Arlington Street, Lynn. 

786 William Hesslein, Box 17 65, Boston. 

1028 Fred Joy, 95 Milk Street, Boston. 

1832 F. R. Kimball, 18 Tremont Street, Boston. 

244 Geo. A. Lamed, P. O. Box 294, Oxford. 

1986 J. F. Le Blanc, 94 Fairmount Street, Dorchester. 

10 John E. Morse, 12 Middle Street, Hadley. 

21 Herbert E. Morey, 36 Portland Street, Boston. 

1643 W. Harold Manning, North Billerica. 

1809 M. S. Meigs, Weymouth. 

33 E. S. Norris, Sharon. 

1294 John .M. Oliver, 30 Rochelle Street, Springfield. 

1991 Mrs. Margaret Oliver, 30 Rochelle Street. Springfield. 
1178 John W. Prevost, 963 Summer Avenue, Springfield. 

1495 Preston C. Pond, Chicopee. 

640 John Robinson, 18 Summer Street, Salem. 

305 Elmer S. Sears, Swansea. 

1110 Dr. Malcolm Storer, 302 Beacon Street, Boston. 

1182 George L. Snow, 13 Ashley Street, Westfield. 

1198 Frank H. Shumway, 66 Wellington Hill Street, Mattapan. 
1765 E. E. Shepardson, 152 Lowell Street, Somerville. 

2082 .Morgan H. Stafford, 343 Cabot Street, Newtonville. 

34 W. C. Stone, 21 Princeton Street, Springfield. 

2 Charles T. Tatman, 900 Slater Building, Worcester. 

14 George L. Tilden, 405 Main Street, Worcester. 

24 Erwin G. Ward, 397 Pleasant Street, South Weymouth. 

65 Carl Wurtzbach, Lee. 

520 C. H. Windmiller, 5 Benefit Street, Worcester. 

560 Dr. Joseph E. Waitt, 66 Huntington Avenue, Boston. 

1383 Herbert R. Wolcott, 26 Irvington Street, Springfield. 

1826 Horace L. Wheeler, Public Library, Boston. 

1966 Geo. W. Wardner, 2nd, 4 Upland Road, Wellesley. 

2064 H. P. Willis, 115 Devonshire Street, Boston. 

1640 C. E. W. Welcome, Box 435, Westfield. 

MICHIGAN. 

370 Herbert Bowen, 33 Forest Avenue West, Detroit. 

1137 P'. A. Baldwin, 234 College Avenue S. E., Grand Rapids. 

2028 W. L. Bruce, 33 First Street. Wyandotte. 

2086 Wm. A. Bodendoerfer, 1 Catherine Street, Muskegon. 

1732 W. E. Chapman, Cheboygan. 

2066 John B. Green, 51 Edmund Place. Detroit. 

1019 John W. Haarer, 207 W. St. Joseph Street, Lansing. 

1501 E. A. Hoare, Dime Savings Bank. Detroit. 

1725 A. C. Hutchinson, 800 Philips Avenue. Detroit. 

910 Howard C. Laible, 318 Dix Avenue, Detroit. 

780 Charles Marriott, care Park Hotel, Sault Ste Marie. 

1731 Meyer Mansbach, 109 Owen Avenue, Detroit. 


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2075 L. B. Morris, R. F. D. # 7 , Mason. 

92 Howard R. Newcomb, 59 Burlingame Avenue, Detroit. 

72 J. M. Potichke, 523 15th Street, Detroit. 

86 Mrs. Marvin Preston, Suite 309-311, Addison Hotel, Detroit. 
1081 George F. Titus, 66 Longfellow Avenue, Detroit. 

1951 Otto E. Voelker, 36 Arndt Street, Detroit. 

MINNESOTA. 

2040 W. H. Barnes, 218 Iron Exchange, Minneapolis. 

2024 Gideon Carlstrom, 320-21 Avenue W., Duluth. 

2092 Carl A. Johnson, Box 295, Moorhead. 

1878 N. S. Knutson, R. #3, Waseca. 

2062 Dr. Francis O’Neill, 2424 18th Avenue South, Minneapolis. 

MISSOURI. 

1852 Mrs. Ora E. Armentrout, 504 Union Street S. S., Hannibal. 
2029 W. T. Ballagh, Nevada. 

2046 Geo. E. Bates, 323 West Armour Boulevard, Kansas City. 
1938 B. H. Berkshire, 31st & S. W. Boulevard, Kansas City. 

2039 J. L. Colstadt, Granger. 

1863 Dr. E. Lee Dorset!, University Club Building, St. Louis. 

133 F. E. Ellis, 30 Elm Place, Webster Groves. 

1877 Hilda A. Hein, 2240 St. Louis Avenue, St. Louis. 

1971 Fred J. Hein, 2240 St. Louis Avenue, St. Louis. 

3 W. G. Jerrems, Jr., 925 Walnut Street, Kansas City. 

473 Burdette G. Johnson, 115 North 11th Street, St. Louis. 

223 E. W. Leonard, 2 W'estport Avenue, Kansas City. 

1401 I. Lieberman, Independence. 

2103 John D. Nichols, Canton. 

1957 Norman Shultz, King City. 

1748 John ^1. Wulflng, 3448 Longfellow Boulevard, St. Louis. 

MONTANA, 

2090 D. A. Crichton, Geraldine. 

1944 F. S. Lusk, Missoula. 

NEBRASK.\. 

1108 L. T. Brodstone, Superior. ’ ' 

1857 Capt. J. H. Comfort, 315 South 15th Street, Omaha. 

2041 C. O. Herz. 455 South Virginia Street, Reno. 

2045 C. A. Mathis, Greenwood. 

942 N. C. Nielsen, Cairo. 

1632 A. G. Parker, Maxwell. 

2052 Lee Richmond, 503 N. Minden Avenue, Minden. 

1’774 C. W. Utter, Laurel. 

NEVADA. 

2041 C. O. Herz, 455 South Virginia Street, Reno. 

1816 Frank Higgison, Box 214, Virginia City. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

1353 F. B. Clough, 12 Lyndon Street, Concord. 

1946 Geo. R. Kimball, Haverhill. 

1315 C. Eastman Robinson, East Concord. 

100 David W. Whittier, Raymond. 

1846 T. W. D. Worthen, 1 South Street, Concord. 

NEW JERSEY. 

925 G. H. Blake, 12 Highland Avenue, Jersey City. 


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1234 B. L. Belden, 1 Hamilton Avenue, Cranford. 

1969 John M. Connor, Jr., Metuchen. 

15 Hiram E. Deals, Flemington. 

77 Dr. Wm. S. Disbrow, 151 Orchard Street, Newark. 

1655 Walter W. Garrabrant, 169 Walnut Street, Newark. 
1721 H. C. Hines, P. O. Box 66, Newark. 

844 C. H. Imhoff, Hopewell. 

1425 F. I. Liverlght, Box 198, Newark. 

1186 F. Wayland Potter, 563 Bailey Street, Camden. 

1589 E. B. Parke, 185 Park Avenue, Paterson. 

1099 Frank H. Stewart, Woodbury. 

1579 Jonathan M. Swanson, 919 South 18th Street, Newark. 
1618 Herbert F. Soverel, 210 Market Street, Newark. 

2055 W. S. Townsend, 538 Penn Street, Camden. 

617 Nehemiah Vreeland, 22 Prince Street, Paterson. 

1484 Dr. D. W. Valentine, 110 Engle Street, Englewood. 

1804 Albert W. Vail, 244a Summer Avenue, Newark. 

1704 W. B. Williams, 50 North 7th Street, Newark. 

NEW MEXICO. 

994 D. C. Recanzone, Hurley. 

NEW YORK. 

432 W. H. Amberg, 919 Granite Building, Rochester. 

785 E. H. Adams, Box 320, Oyster Bay. 

360 W. F. Beller, 51 East 123d Street, New York. 

748 Martin Burke, M. D., 147 Lexington Avenue, New York. 
808 S. W. Brown, 261 Goundry Street, North Tonawanda. 
1459 Geo. J. Bauer, 192 St. Paul Street, Rochester. 

1742 A. S. Bostwick, 10 Upton Park, Rochester. 

1793 C. T. Borradaile, 157 Rosedale Terrace, Rochester. 

1933 I. Bernstein, 75 Front Street, Rochester. 

2066 W. Gedney Beatty, 247 Central Park, New York. 

661 Claude R. Collier, 159 Conklin Avenue, Binghamton. 
1204 James A. Clark, 111 Highland Avenue, Middletown. 

758 Irving F. Clark, 29 Elm Street, Gloversville. 

1625 C. F. Clarke, LeRoy. 

1644 Charles Cota, Plerrepont. 

2011 James E. Christie, 292 South Broadway, Nyack. 

861 W. H. De Shon, 321 Catharine Street, Utica. 

1133 Benj. C. Dake, R. R. #2, Greenfield Center. 

1797 H. P. Dickinson, 11 John Street, New York. 

675 Robert Earl, Herkimer. 

821 Commodore W. C. Eaton, U. S. N., Hamilton. 

1691 Robert J. Eidlitz, 995 .Madison Avenue, New York. 

1676 W. B. Osgood Field, 645 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

1457 Dr. George P. French, 15 Clifton Street, Rochester. 

2034 Mrs. Mary A. French, 15 Clifton Street, Rochester. 

856 Julius G. Guttag, 52 Wall Street, New York. 

1475 L. C. Gehrlng, 375 Vernon Avenue, Brooklyn. 

1914 Geo. A. Gillette. 1016 Wilder Building, Rochester. 

310 E. Hallenbeck, 751 State Street. Schenectady. 

1624 C. A. Harold, 344 Tremont Street, Rochester. 

1687 Dr. Sigmund Handler. 53 Vasser Street, Rochester. 

1803 E. R. Hubbell, Box 145, Norwich. 

1868 John W. Horner, 112 Comfort Street, Rochester. 

1230 Mrs. Emil F. Johnson, 96 .Malden Lane, New York. 

960 Rud Kohler, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

1125 F. T. Kieffer, 1200 North State Street, Syracuse. 

1203 D. R. Kennedy, 60 West 67th Street, New’ York. 

1621 Jos. A. Koeb, 170 Linden Street. Rochester. 

1693 Fred B. King, Calumet Street, Rochester. 

51 Lyman H. Low, New Rochelle. 

1014 A. J. deLagerberg, Box 42, Shoreham, L. I. 


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269 


1879 A. E. Loizeau, 131 State Street, Rochester. 

1984 F. H. Mayer, 45 Montclair Avenue, Buffalo. 

2089 John A. Malmgren, 615 West 7th Street, Jamestown. 

940 Edward T. Newell, care of .American Numismatic Society, Broadway 
at 156th Street, New York. 

1936 George Neintimp, 513 Norton St., Rochester. 

643 Rev. William H. Owen, Jr., 324 South 3rd Avenue, Mt. Vernon. 

1415 I. A. Olmstead, Railroad Avenue and 7th Street, Elmira. 

1884 Robert M. Osborne, Box 28 Pratt Station, Brooklyn. 

1321 A. H. Plumb, 24 Rowley Street, Rochester. 

1462 Wni. R. Powell, 542 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

1919 E. D. Putnam, .Municipal Museum, Rochester. 

396 Wayte Raymond, 489 Park Avenue, New York. 

1127 A. Flag Robson, Penn Yan. 

1238 Hillyer Ryder, Carmel. 

1953 Elbert H. Reidpath, 902 Mutual Life Building, Buffalo. 

2088 Harry F. Rahr, 535 45th Street, Brooklyn. 

2105 Robert Robertson, 140 33rd Street, Brooklyn. 

1274 John Reilly, Jr., Broadway at 156th Street, New York. 

595 Elliott Smith, 26th Street and East River, New York. 

1867 F. R. Simmonds, 324 East Avenue, Rochester. 

1921 Frank T. Savage, 436 Melville Street, Rochester. 

1994 C. F. Starr, 64 Rowley Street, Rochester. 

1277 W. C. Voege, 48 .Myrtle Avenue, Brooklyn. 

93 Howland Wood, care The American Numismatic Society, Broadway 
at 156th Street, New York. 

944 W. H. Woodin, 165 Broadway, New York. 

1531 Moritz Wormser, 95 Fifth Avenue, .New York. 

1554 L. J. Woolsey, 33 Vick Park A, Rochester. 

1993 .Mrs. L. J. Woolsey, 33 Vick Park A, Rochester. 

1920 J. C. Woodbury, 311 Powers Building, Rochester. 

1967 A. N. Wolff, 62 Cumberland Street, Rochester. 

2042 Ernest R. Wernstrom, 516 Third .\ venue. New York. 

2079 .Arthur C. Wyman, 311 West 24th Street, New York. 

732 Harry H. Yawger, 78 Linden Street, Rochester. 

1990 Mrs. Addie De S. Yawger, 7 8 Linden Street, Rochester. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

1113 A. B. Andrew^s, 239 Fayetteville Street, Raleigh. 

1587 Chas. C. Cheek, Sanford. 

NORTH D.YKOT.Y. 

402 John H. Kelley, Grafton. 

2037 Albert H. Yoder, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks. 

32 Luther B. Tuthill, South Creek. 

OHIO. 

378 H. E. Buck, 125 North Liberty Street, Delaware. 

949 Geo. J. Bott, 1081 Hunter Avenue. Columbus. 

1449 Judson Brenner, P. O. Box 384, Youngstown. 

2068 H. A. Brand. 1303 Union Trust Building. Cincinnati. 

2104 Dr. R. A. Brown, 7 South Howard Street, .\kron. 

1630 -\aron Du Bois, 71 East State Street, Columbus. 

393 A. B. Eberhard, 239 Broad Street. Elyria. 

724 Henry Clay Ezekiel, 318 First National Bank Building, Cincinnati. 
2033 James M. Foos, Wapakaneta. 

2058 Ozias Fritz, Lewdsburg. 

533 Dr. J. M. Henderson, 511 Citizens Bank Building, Columbus. 

1245 Mrs. J. M. Henderson, 1711 Oak Street. Columbus. 

1882 F. T. Joers, 242 Superior Avenue N. E.. Cleveland. 

1958 Otto Kersteiner, 13 West Thompkins Street, Columbus. 

2076 J. B. Knapke, Lewisburg. 


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874 Geo. S. Lockwood, 13302 Forest Hill Avenue, Cleveland. 
232 M. Marcuson, 1611 East 82nd Street N. E., Cleveland. 
637 Waldo C. Moore, Lewisburg. 

1130 J. H. Mitchener, Washington Court House. 

1546 E. Vernon Moore, Lewisburg. 

1866 Jean Maunovry, Akron. 

2081 W. P. McNary, Bannock. 

2044 S. Pombsky, 746 East 91st Street, Cleveland. 

2047 William D. Preston, 10528 Wilbur Avenue, Cleveland. 
2007 C. H. Rembold, care of Times-Star Co., Cincinnati. 

835 George J. Schwartz, Wooster. 

1500 W. H. Schwarz, 523 Elm Street, Cincinnati. 

1688 F. A. Scott, 5701 Carnegie Avenue, Cleveland. 

445 J. F. Trowbridge, 535 West High Street, Piqua. 

2101 Chas. H. Thul, 2631 Hemlock Street, Cincinnati. 

2063 Geo. Unkrich, 230 High Avenue, Cleveland. 

2017 Frank Wooster, 288 Ludlow Avenue, Clifton, Cincinnati. 
2096 W. H. Williams, 804 South Street, Piqua. 

OREGON. 


1851 Frederic S. Dunn, 1410 Alder Street, Eugene. 

1007 H. L. Torrence, 430 Simpson Street, Portland. 

PEXN8YLV.\NIA. 

650 W. W. Anspach, Milton. 

207 4 H. S. Ashcroft, 204 Second Street, Philipsburg. 

908 George Burton, 1617 East Berks Street, Philadelphia. 

464 J. A. Beck, 3346 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh. 

1402 R. D. Book, Sewickley. 

1566 C. S. Bement, 3907 Spruce Street, Philadelphia. 

1653 S. H. Benson, Palmyra. 

1875 J. B. Boss, 266 South 11th Street, Philadelphia. 

1952 F. N. Boyle, Union Arcade, Pittsburgh. 

1981 B. W. Beers, 129 Main Street, Bath. 

17 S. H. Chapman, 1128 Spruce Street, Philadelphia. 

18 Henry Chapman, 333 South 16th Street, Philadelphia. 

1520 Dr. J. Harold Cornell, 1725 North 16th Street, Philadelphia. 
1664 W. H. Cramer, 142 Carver Street, Pittsburgh. 

1905 Ray L. Caldwell, 653 South Queen Street, Lancaster. 

2083 O. L. Cramer, 550 East Queen Street, Chambersburg. 

590 David S. English, 1208 Arch Street, Philadelphia. 

469 E. L. Frazier, 570 North Avenue, Verona. 

287 A. C. Gies, 6260 Frankstown Avenue, Pittsburgh. 

1073 Joseph H. Geis, 1222 West Hilton Street, Philadelphia. 

1873 Harrold E. Gillingham, 432 West Price Street, Philadelphia. 
1949 Howard D. Gibbs, 7104 Upland Street, Homewood. 

2043 Henry F. Geyer, Foot of Morris Street, Philadelphia. 

2078 Frank B. Gaul, 21 Central Avenue, Washington. 

2030 W. A. Gaede, 199 S. Dithridge Street, Pittsburgh. 

1297 John J. Hetherington, Box 196, West Chester. 

1783 Geo. L. Hayes, 308 Ridge Avenue, Washington. 

1983 Arthur E. Hevner, Box 372, Renova. 

1112 J. P. Hale Jenkins, 508 Swede Street, Norristown. 

S43 Robt. P. King, Scott Building, Erie. 

1707 G. Kraft, 14 00 Middle Street, Sharpsburg. 

184 Jno. M. Lindsay, 716 Lamar Avenue, Wilkinsburg. 

2049 P. W. Locker, Lock #1, Monongahela River, Pittsburgh. 

102 Geo. F. Marlier, 753 Millvale Avenue, Pittsburgh. 

1342 Dr. Chas. E. McGirk, Philipsburg. 

1460 Fred E. Merritt, Wldener Building, Philadelphia. 

1959 George J. Metzler, 1346 East Haines Street, Philadelphia. 

1982 Rev. J. J. Joyce Moore, 256 South 8th Street, Philadelphia. 
2054 Nelson S. Moore, Narberth. 

■'217 B. F. Payne, Box 88, Stewartstown. 


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1608 Adam Pietz, 908 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 

2050 William C. Piper, 401 North Rebecca Street, Pittsburgh. 

752 H. D. Rumberger, Box 358, Scranton. 

1639 Geo. R. Ross, Lebanon. 

2080 W. F. Roberts, 539 Parker Street, Verona. 

1200 George A. Steele, Willow Grove. 

733 William A. Wiley, 660 West Chestnut Street, Lancaster. 

1151 J. A. Walker, Fannettsburg. 

1479 Joseph E. Walton, 1033 Sansom Street, Philadelphia. 

1817 C. E. Walters, 1540 North 58th Street, Philadelphia. 

2056 Carl L. Wahlquist, 1520 Ritner Street, Philadelphia. 

846 P. M. Wolsieffer, 21 South 17th Street, Philadelphia. 

RHODE ISIa\XD. 

67 Geo. C. Arnold, Arnold Building, Providence. 

1548 Henry A. Greene, 11 Weybosset Street, Providence. 

1701' Foster Lardner, 260 Westminster Street, Providence. 

1269 Edwin P. Robinson, 12 High Street, Newport. 

1901 Charles W. Tupper, 585 Plainfield Street, Providence. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

1906 Washington A. Clarke, 1003 Elmwood Avenue, Columbia. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

i27 Arthur W. Westhorpe, Box 175, Yankton. 

TENNESSEE. 

506 W. B. Speer, 101 East 7th Street, Chattanooga. 

1973 O. P. Stovall, 109 East Lafayette Street, Jackson. 

TEXAS. 

572 Edward W. Heusinger, Box 1056, San Antonio. 

522 B. Max Mehl, Box 976, Fort Worth. 

1254 Mrs. B. Max Mehl, 1124 South Henderson Street, Fort Worth. 
1980 C. H. Ohr, Honey Grove. 

UTAH. 

247 D. A. Callahan, 164 South Main Street, Salt Lake City. 

VIRGINIA. 

1025 Chas. D. Higley, 728 West 38th Street, Norfolk. 

1825 Chas. F. Young, Box 165, Vienna, Fairfax County. 

WASHINGTON. 

1961 O. P. Eklund, 0711 Pittsburg Street, Spokane. 

1141 Frank Liesner, 410 West Main Street, Centralla. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

932 E. C. Bayha, 136 15th Street, Wheeling. 

1074 W. E. Butcher, 326 14 .Julianna Street. Parkersburg. 

460 Rev. Theo. Roser, 159 Key Avenue, Elm Grove. 

2071 G. W. Sherwood, Pennsboro. 

2077 H. E. IVilson, R. F. D. #1, Weston. 


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WISCONSIN. 


1557 D. L. Angell, 561 Belleview Place, Milwaukee. 

996 W. G. Curry, Baraboo. 

584 H. O. Granberg, 1004 Michigan Street, Oshkosh. 

4 David Harlowe, 3002 Mt. Vernon Avenue, Milwaukee. 

1502 Hon. A. W. Kopp, Plattsville. 

1043 Henry Rollman, Chilton. 

CANADA. 

294 Martin Anderson, Bo.x 465, Greenwood, B. C. 

1129 Rev. Albert Aubert, Laval University, Quebec. 

1344 Geo. Argent, 174 Sanford .\venue, Hamilton, Ont. 

313 Chas. E. Belanger, 34 4th .\venue, Montreal. 

621 A. B. Baird, 247 Colony Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

1219 W. L. Bond, 160 St. James Street, Montreal. 

1665 Geo. A. Bouteiller, 185 Ouellette .\venue, Windsor. 

2015 R. .M. Bateman, M. D., 361 Danforth Avenue, Toronto. 

174 Dr. Eugene G. Courteau, St. Jacques, Quebec. 

1871 Edward Carleton, 865 Main Street E., Hamilton, Ont. 

376 H. L. Doane, Truro, Nova Scotia. 

1175 Fr. J. Donat, C. S. C., College de St. Laurent, near Montreal. 

945 Ludger Gravel, 26 Place Jacques Cartier, Montreal. 

120 Basil G. Hamilton, Invermere, East B. C. 

243 Samuel S. Heal, 22 Larch Street, Toronto, Ont. 

285 Thomas Hedley, 162 Herkimer Street, Hamilton, Ont. 

1176 Charles Haycroft, Muirkirk, R. #3, Ontario. 

2018 Dr. A. J. Hunter, Teulon, Manitoba. 

1676 Wm. A. D. Lees, Box U, Camrose, Alberta. 

43 J. D. B. F. Mackenzie, Chatham, N. B. 

857 Henri Melancon, 119 Daly Avenue, Ottawa, Ont. 

368 John McBean, South Lancaster, Ontario. 

948 R. W. McLachlan, 310 Lansdowme Avenue, Westmount, Montreal. 
1229 Victor Morin, 97 St. James Street, Montreal. 

1252 Louis Masson, 775 St. Hubert Street, Montreal. 

1194 Thos. O’Leary, Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal. 

934 Geo. W. Parent, 51 Roslyn Avenue, Westmount, Montreal. 

2057 J. A. M. Patrick, Yorkton, Sask. 

155 R. L. Reid, 525 Seymour Street, Vancouver, B. C. 

2016 A. E. Rankin, 164 Stanley Avenue, Hamilton, Ont. 

1161 L. A. Renaud, 53 Irene Street, Montreal. 

112 P. O. Tremblay, 489 St. Antoine Street, Montreal. 

1135 W. B. Tennant, 65 William Street, St. Johns, N. B. 

855 E. J. Vickery, Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. 

1899 Robert W. Thorn, Box 750, Collingwood, Ont. 

559 D. A. Woods. 556 Gladstone Avenue, Toronto. 

791 John A. Wood, 165 Oak Avenue, Hamilton, Ont. 

S FOREIGN. 

31 A. H. Baldwin, Duncannon Street. Charing Cross. London, England. 
671 S. H. Hamer, Claremont Road, Halifax, Yorks, England. 

1559 Y. Koga, Imperial Mint, Osaka, Japan. 

1767 -\ntonio Lopez. Villasante, Puerta Del Sol 15, Madrid, Spain. 

1528 Arthur Pierce, Apartado 14, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. 

2067 Gilbert S. Perez, Box 60. Lucena, Philippine Islands. 

1749 J. Schulman. Kelzersgracht 448, Amsterdam, Holland. 

2106 C. F. Seltman, 24 Fulbrooke Road. Cambridge, England. 

81 Thomas W. Voetter, care of American Consulate, Antofagasta, Chile. 


The above list of Members of the American Numismatic Association is 
made up from the books of the General Secretary, revised to May 18. 1920. 

Any errors or changes of address noted should be reported promptly to 
the General Secretary, H. H. Yawger, 78 Linden St., Rochester, N. Y. 


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COST OP MEMBERSHIP LIST DONATED. 


An increase in size of this issue of The Numismatist has been made neces- 
sary in publishing the foregoing list of members of the American Numis- 
matic Association, and the Increased cost has been met by a cash donation 
from two members of the Association — Mr. Frank Hein of St. Louis, Mo., 
and his daughter, Miss Hilda Hein. Both are enthusiastic members and 
collectors. 



MR. FRANK HEIN OF ST. LOUIS, MO.. AND HIS DAUGHTER. 
MISS HILD.A HEIN. 


FOREIGN MEDAL ISSUES AND AWARDS. 


The French Government has bestowed the decoration of the Medal of 
French Gratitude, first class, upon Mrs. Matthew T. Scott of Washington, 
D. C., and Bloomington, 111., awarded for the aid she and her associates of 
the Daughters of the American Revolution gave in the support of 4 000 
orphans of the late war. 


The widely known geographer, Mr. William Morris Davis of Philadel- 
phia, will receive the “Vega Medal,” the highest decoration of the Swedish 
Anthropological and Geographical Society. The announcement of the award 
was made at Stockholm, April 25th. 


At the last meeting of Tourist Society in Sweden (which at present holds 
90,000 members) the Society’s medal was awarded to their agent in the 
United States, Wm. Nils Nilsson of Minneapolis, Minn., representative in 
the United States since 1893, in recognition of his activity in the Society’s 
affairs. 

J. deL. 


MEXICXI’S LARGE COPPER COINS. 


Specimens of 10-centavo and 20-centavo pieces of Mexico struck in cop- 
per or bronze have been received from L. A. Cardwell of Las Cruces, N. M. 
The 10 centavos is dated 1919 and is the size of a United States half dollar. 
The 20 centavos is dated 1920 and is somewhat larger. The type of the 
coin remains unchanged from the copper 1 and 5 centavos of recent issues. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 



American Numismatic 
Society 

New York 

lUtOADWAY BET\VEEN 15STH 
& 150TH STS. 

OrgaiiiztHl 1858. Incorporated 1865. 


PRESENT EXHIBITION: 

The Andrew C. Zabrlskie Collection of 
Polish Coins and Medals, 
and German Satirical Medals. 


All collectors and students are cordially Invited to make use of the 
extensive Library of the Society, and every facility will be offered to numis- 
matists in examining and studying the large collection of coins and medals 
that may not be on exhibition. 

Open to the Public daily (except Monday), 10 A. M. to 5 P. M. Sun- 
days, 1 to 5 P. M. 


W. Gedney Beatty 
Bauman L. Bei.den 
F. C. C. Boyd 
Henry Russei.i. Drowne 
Rohert James Eidutz 


Henry Russell Urowne 
William B. Osgood Firld 

Secretary: 

Sydney P. Noe 
Curator: 

Homxand Wood 


COUNCIL 

Wii.LiAM B. Osgood Field 
Harroi.i) E. Gili.ingiiam 
Archer M. Huntington 
Edward T. Newell 
Stephen H. P. Pell 

OFFICERS 


John Reilly, Jr. 
Elliott Smith 
W. Gilman Thompson 
John I. Waterbury 
William H. Woodin 


President 
Edward T. Newell 
Governors 

Archer M. Huntington 
Edward T. Nemt:ll 
John Reilly, Jr. 

Treasurer: 

John Reilly, Jr. 
Assistant to Curator: 
Arthur C. Wyman 


MEMBERSHIP. 

The annual dues of Fellows (limited to one hundred and fifty) are 
Fifteen Dollars, and those of Associates are Five Dollars, which are payable 
in advance, and cover subscription to the Society’s organ, the American 
Journal of Numismatics. One Hundred and Fifty Dollars entitles one to Life 
Fellowship, and Fifty Dollars to Associate Life Membership, and secures 
exemption from further dues. 

Applications for Membership should be sent to the Secretary, at the 
above address. 

Regular meetings are held on the second Saturday, or such other day as 
the Council may designate, in the months of January, April and November. 

Meetings for the reading of papers, discussion of numismatic subjects 
and exhibition of coins and medals, are held on the evenings of the first 
Thursday of each month except June, July, August, September and October. 

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 

Published Annually By The Society. Subscription Five Doi.j.ABe. 


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AMERICAN NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


A regular meeting of the American Numismatic Society was called to or- 
der at 3.05 P. M. on Saturday, April 10th, 1920, Mr. John Reilly, Jr., Chair- 
man of the Board of Governors, being in the chair. 

On motion the reading of the minutes of the Annual Meeting was dis- 
pensed with. 

The Chairman reported for the Council as follows: 

Council has held three regular monthly meetings since the Annual Meet- 
ing. 

They have elected fifteen Associate Members and three Fellows from the 
Associates. Also two Fellows and six Associates have resigned and one 
Associate has been dropped from our rolls for non-payment of dues. 

A committee on finances made a careful study of the state of our pocket- 
book and recommended a budget based on income from dues and permanent 
funds. The Governors found this too small to cover our pressing needs by 
about six thousand dollars a year. It was therefore decided to write tO’ 
our members, appealing for funds to cover this necessity for a period of five 
years. So far some one hundred and fifty letters have been sent out and 
others will follow. We are pleased to report receipts or pledges of four 
thousand and ten dollars, the majority of which is for this year. Our 
deficiencies are due to increased costs, to some extent, but the real trouble 
is our prosperity. What we have labored and hoped for has come to pass. 
We are recognized by a constantly increasing circle as a museum that can 
really serve, so today we are offered MORE than we can handle. But we 
MUST attend to the most important items, and that means a little aid from 
time to time. Otherwise the world would leave us behind. 

Our new form of Notes and Monographs will bring additional interest to 
our work, and we expect it to prove a step forward in numismatic publica- 
tions. 

The increased activities have brought additional burdens on all. and if 
we are to continue such success we must all keep up our team work. 
Council and Governors have worked sixteen and a half hours in formal 
sessions since the annual meeting — and much more time to solendid •>d- 
vantage has been expended by individuals out of hours 

Secretary’s Report. 

It is gratifying to report, as Secretary, that despite the pressure of the 
times the growth in our membership has kept pace with the loss through 
death or resignation. 

Since the annual report was presented most of our time has been occupied 
with our campaign to raise funds for the expenses of the present year. The 
Increase of costs in every department has made this absolutely indispen- 
sable. As this campaign is still in operation, a report giving fuller details 
will be presented later. 

We are anticipating the return of our President from his travels in Italy 
and Greece. His letters indicate that he has formed many interesting asso- 
ciations, which promise to be of great value to us. In like manner, the re- 
turn of Mr. Wyman to his duties in the Museum brought a considerable de- 
gree of inspiration to the rest of us because of the experiences which he was 
able to recount. Mr. Wood is planning to sail for London on the 24th of 
this month, and with his return in the fall we shall look forward to having 
stimulation through what he will be able to tell us. 

The subscription for the Prince of Wales Medal closed on March 1st. It 
was one of the most successful ever handled by the Society. One hundred 
and forty-five copies in silver and 225 in bronze were struck. Comments 
on the design and on the success of the portrait have been very gratifying. 

SvnxEY P. Noe, Secretary. 

The Treasurer laid before the Society the report of the Central Union 
Trust Company, and commented briefiy on some of the items in that state- 
ment. 

RojKirt of the Curator. 

The accessions since the Annual Meeting have been very few in com- 
parison with the same period in other years. 


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The number of pieces added to the cabinet are as follows; 

234 Coins and tokens. 

59 .Medals and decorations. 

22 Pieces of paper money. 

4 9 Counterfeits. 

364 total. 

From 33 donors as follows: 

Etienne Bourgey. 

Win. A. Braun. 

Mrs. Agnes Baldwin Brett. 

Henry Russell Drowne. 

Robert James Eidlitz. 

Albert R. Frey. 

Hon. William H. Hall. 

Fritz Holm. 

Ludwig Hummel. 

Otto John. 

Albert M. Kohn. 

A. L. Lichtenstein. 

Frank I. Liveright. 

The .Mayor of Detroit. 

Charles G. Mowatt. 

Edward T. Newell. 

Sydney P. Noe. 

A. M. Rackus. 

Howi..\.\d Wood, Curator. 

Librarian's Report. 

Since the report at the Annual Meeting our Library has received a num- 
ber of very important accessions. -Many of these are comprised in a lot of 
books which arrived from Europe, and include several titles which complete 
our sets and make them more valuable, .\mong these should be mentioned 
Conbrouse’s “Monnaies Nationales de France,” Ramus, “Catalogue of the 
Royal Danish Cabinet,” a set of the “Berliner Blatter,” 1863 to 1873, Bru- 
net “Les Ordres de Chevalerie au Japan,” and other treatises by Chau- 
boulllet, Nessel, Makrisi, and a set of Koehne’s “Numlsmatische Zeit- 
schrift.” 

From Paris we obtained a valuable manuscript set, in five volumes, by 
Drouin recording his notes on the Mohammedan coinage, and from Amster- 
dam there comes a valuable treatise on Portuguese decorations, as well as 
a work describing the medals of Brazil. We also received a copy of the 
work on Anglo-Gallic Coins by L. M. Hewlett, which has just been published. 

Among the gifts should be mentioned “L’Hellenisme primitif de la Mace- 
doine,” which comes from Mr. J. M. Svoronos; a copy of his recently pub- 
lished United States Store Cards, presented by Mr. Edgar H. Adams, and a 
copy of the very valuable catalogue of “British Naval Medals,” by the Mar- 
quess of Milford Haven (only twenty-five copies printed for sale), a gift 
from Mr. J. Sanford Saltus. 

Your Librarian desires to take this opportunity of assuring our members 
that he will be only too glad to aid them in securing any special volumes 
which they may wish. With the present rate of exchange, it is most de- 
sirable that orders for any books published abroad be sent now. 

Sydxey P. Noe, Librarian. 
Under New Business, 

the following changes to the By-Laws were proposed: 

CHAPTER III. 

Article 4. Change to read as follows: 

Any Fellow, in good standing, may become a Fellow for Life by paying 


John Reilly, Jr. 

Andr6 Salles. 

J. Sanford Saltus. 

Charles .M. Schmall. 

Henry D. Sleeper. 

Theron R. Strong. 

W. Gilman Thompson. 

Mrs. Henry W. Watrous. 

Howland Wood. 

Arthur C. Wyman. 

American Field Service. 

Conn. George Junior Republic Asso- 
ciation. 

Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. 
Lithuanian Numismatic and Histori- 
cal Society. 

The Whitehead & Hoag Co. 


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the sum of two hundred and fifty dollars, and thereafter be relieved from 
further dues. 

Article 6. Change to read as follows: 

Any Associate Member, in good standing, may become a Life Associate 
Member by paying the sum of one hundred dollars, and thereafter be re- 
lieved from further dues. 

Article 8. Change to read as follows: 

Fellows shall be entitled, upon qualifying, to receive a fellowship cer- 
tificate signed by the President and bearing the seal of the Society attest- 
ed by the Secretary. 

All members shall be entitled to the bronze or silver membership medal 
at cost. 


CHAPTER IV. 

Article 7. Change to read: 

Any person who has contributed Five Thousand Dollars to the funds or 
collections of the Society shall be entitled “Benefactor of the Society.” 

Article 8. Change to read: 

Any person who has contributed Five Hundred Dollars to the funds or 
collections of the Society shall be entitled “Patron of the Society.” 

CHAPTER V. 

Drop the last sentence which reads: 

Such duplicates or material shall be exhibited at a regular meeting of 
the Society, to which the attention of members shall be called. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Article 1. Add to the Standing Committees: 

“Committee on Nominations.” 

Upon motion the meeting adjourned. 

Syu.ney P. Noe, Secretary. 


THE IK)UBLE SESTERTIUS OF TR.\JAX DECIUS. 


By MRS. A. BALDWIN BRETT. 


The large bronze coin of Trajan Decius, 249-251 A. D., shown herewith 
belongs to the Pierpont Morgan collection. This large piece should properly 
be called a senatorial medallion, for it bears the letters S. C. — sen-atus con- 
sulto, the mark of the senatorial issuing authority. The majority of 
the known examples show signs of having been in circulation. But, on the 
other hand, it is far too heavy to be regarded as a sestertius, the highest 
denomination known in the copper and brass issues. The present example 
weighs 656 grains ( 42.55 grams), or about double that of the sestertius of 
Trajan Decius’ period. Hence it is usually described as a double sestertius. 

In a recent article in the Xtimismatic Chronicle (The Roman Monetary 
System, yumismatic Chronicle, 1919, p. 138) the Rev. E. A. Sydenham 
draws a different conclusion as to the denomination of the coin. He starts 
with the average weight of the sestertius under Trajan Decius as about 310 
grains — an average borne out by recorded weights in the American Numis- 
matic Society’s collection — and he then states that the so-called double 
sestertius, of the type here figured, weighs, a fine specimen, about 488 
grains, which he takes as the average or normal weight. If 488 grains were 
the true average or normal weight, we should be obliged to regard the coin 
in question as equal to a sestertius and a half. 

However, the Morgan example and the majority of specimens examined 
seems to prove that 488 grains is far too low an estimate of the average or 
normal weight. The following examples will establish this point: 


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FELICITAS SAECULI, Reverse Type. 


Grains. 

Cat. Martinelli et Nervegna, No. 2715 650 

Cat. Egger, XXXII, No. 1266 654 

Cat. Egger, XXXII, No. 1267 573 

Cat. Egger, XLV, No. 1212 566 

Cat. Egger, XLV, No. 1213 518 

Cat. Hirsch, XXIV, No. 2199 595 

Cat. Hirsch, XXIV, .No. 2200 667 

Cat. Hirsch, XXIX, No. 1240 609 

Cat. Hirsch, XXIX, No. 1241 634 

Cat. Hirsch, XXX, No. 1195 624 

Cat. Hirsch, XXX, No. 1196 606 

Cat. Hirsch, XXX, No. 1197 756 

Cat. Hirsch, XXXIII, No. 1431 552 

Cat. Hirsch, XXXIV, .No. 1423 613 

Specimen in the Olcott Collection, Columbia University. . . . 580 

Cat. Zschiesche und KOder, No. 1504 617 


Grams. 

42.55 
42.37 

36.50 
36.67 

33.55 

38.55 
43 . 25 

39.50 
41.10 
40.40 
39.30 

49.00 
35.80 
39.75 

37.50 

40.00 


Total, 16 specimens, ten of which weigh over 600 grains: five over 550 
grains, three of which five coins weigh over 570. The estimate of 488 
grains as the supposed normal weight of the large coin of Trajan Decius 
is admittedly too low, in view of the above data, as Mr. Sydenham has kind- 
ly written since his article. 

But do we need to discard the theory that the pieces are 1 ^ rather than 
2 sestertii? In the first place, Mr. Sydenham’s analysis of the whole mone- 
tary system reveals the fact that a 1 14 sestertius would fit into the system, 
restoring a 4-to-l ratio between the bronze and base silver. This is a very- 
weighty argument. And, as Mr. Sydenham writes in a letter, supposing 
630 grains to be the normal weight of the large coins, then the new 1% 
sestertii pieces may have been struck not on the actual weight standard 
prevailing under Decius, i. e., 310 grains to the sestertius, but on the old 
weight standard of the sestertius of the First and Second Centuries A. D., 
i. e., 421 grains. However, this is a very shaky premise to adopt, that new 
sestertii of the traditional or old theoretical weight standard could be put 
into circulation at the same time that sestertii of the ordinary weight were 
issued. 

The normal weight of the sestertius of the earlier period was about 421 
grains. Specimens in the American Numismatic Society Collection and the 
Pierpont Morgan Collection give the following table of weights: 


Sestertii. 

Augustus 

Tiberius 

Nero Drusus 

Nero 

Galba 

Trajan 

Hadrian 

Antoninus Pius 

Marcus Aurelius 

Gordianus Pius 

Severus Alexander 

Philip Senior 

Philip Junior 

Trajan Decius 


Grains. Grams. 

421 27.25 

404 26.20 

451 29.24 

429 27.90 

423 27.37 

424 27.50 

411 26.62 

417 27.02 

395 25.54 

344 22.30 

344 22.30 

341 22.08 

310 20.08 

311 20.20 


The table illustrates how all of the sestertii of later date than Antoninus 
Pius show a decided decrease in weight. Are we justified, then, in assum- 
ing that while ordinary sestertii were being struck by Decius at an average 
weight of 310 grains, the exceptional issue, the new denomination, would 
be issued at a standard based on the original standard of one hundred years 
ago? It hardly seems so. 

But the argument that a 1 % piece has a reason for being, as Mr. Sy- 
denham so ingeniously explained in his article, is still potent. The point 
about the radiate head on the new piece having been suggested by its re- 
lation to the “Antoninianus,” where the head is always radiate, is a strong 



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one. The laureate head only is found on sestertii. Still, the radiate head 
may have been selected to differentiate tne new issue, whether it be a 1 
or a 2 sestertii piece. 

Now, there do exist some specimens of the Felicitas Saeculi type of a con- 
siderably lower weight than the average which we have found. One, name- 
ly, in the Hii-sch Cat. XXXIV, No. 1424, weighs only 448 grains (28.96 
grams). This example has a flan too small for the type and it seems justi- 
fiable to regard it as an exceptional, lighter weight sepclmen. Another 
light-weignt specimen in the list above. Cat. Egger, XLV, No. 1213, weight 
518 grains, has a smaller flan than the coin preceding it in this catalogue. 
No. 1212, as the diameter is only 35mm. in contrast to No. 1212, which 
measures 36mm. We certainly cannot regard the light-weight specimen as 
equal to 1 % sestertii, and the heavy weight coins as equal to 2 sestertii, 
for the practical difficulties of distinction would be too great. 

The only other alternative is to accept the wide variation in weight as of 
no real significance. Mr. Sydenham writes that he has seen a fine specimen 
weighing 446.75 grains. But from the recorded weights here assembled, 
it is natural to conclude that the norm was around 600 grains, and there- 
fore that we have here a real double sestertius. The light-weight specimens, 
unless found on a full-size flan, should then be disregarded as exceptional, 
and in the minority. However, a much larger number of coins must be 
weighed before a final conclusion is reached. It may be noted in this con- 
nection that there is a record in the Catalogue of a well-known astronomer 
(Sotheby, 1906, No. 633) of a specimen weighing 910 grains. If this is 
not an error for 610 grains, it furnishes more food for conjecture. 

'Finally, it may be added that there exists also the Victoria type in the 
coinage of Decius of large module. Both types were probably in the nature 
of special issues of the donative class, i. e., used as gifts to soldiers: the 
Felicitas type being an allusion to his accession, and the Victoria to his 
military successes. No emperor after Jlecius tried the experiment of issu- 
ing coins of this large denomination. 


A ROM.W GOLD BAR FRO.M EGY1»T. 


By MRS. A. BALDWIN BRETT. 


This remarkable gold bar from the Pierpont Morgan collection belongs- 
to the same class as the gold bars found in 1887 in Southeastern Transyl- 
vania from the Roman mint of Sirmium, in Pannonia, a town located on 
the Save, a branch of the Danube, (Numistnaticische Zeitschrift, 1888, PI 
II-IV.) 

This bar was discovered at Aboukir, in Egypt, during the winter of 1901- 
1902 in company with other bars and gold coins. (G. F. Hill, Proceedings 
of the Society of Antiquaries, Vol. XX, p. 90.) One account has it that 18 
bars were found, out of which 14 were melted down, and three at least 
kept for sale. Another account states that of 14 bars found, 11 were melt- 
ed. The accounts seem to agree on the point that three bars escaped the 
melting pot. Two of these are now in the British Museum. One was said 
to be still in Egypt, and that is the very bar we have before us, for Dr. 
Dressel, who saw all three, describes it accurately. The Pierpont Morgan 
bar has its counterpart in the British Museum example, and it is due to the 
complete preservation of the lower stamp on the London piece that we are 
able to restore the reading on the present bar. 

The bar is a flat piece shaped like our sticks of sealing-wax. It is 18cm. 
(7^ inches) long x 16mm. (% inch) wide. The wieght is 5320 grains, 
or 344.75 grams. This would be equal to about 215 gold dollars. 

The bar was cast in a mould of which the sides and ends were sloped so 
that the metal bar could be easily lifted out. The stamps were impressed 
when the metal had cooled, as is shown by the flattening produced on the 
lower side. 

The long rectangular stamp is impressed over a partially obliterated 
stamp. This original stamp was the mark of the proiator or assayer at the 
mint, whose name in this case was ANTIVS (only the S is visible on our 
bar.) The assayer’s guarantee reads (AXTrV)S (PRO)BAVIT — Antlus 
probavit, "Antius assayed” (the bar). Above this is the stamp of the 

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A Roman Gold Bar 
from Egypt. 



The Double Sestertiu.s 
of Trajan Deeius. 


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signator, A. C. VE. P. P. SIG. which has been restored, A(uliis) C(aecilius) 
Ve(stinus) p(rae)p(ositus) slg(navit), “Aulus Caecilius Vestinus, the 
praepositu^, passed” (the piece). The praepositus is an official mint title 
known to us from Ammianus Marcellinus, XXII, xl, 9, who mentions a cer- 
tain l>racontius praepositus monetae at Alexandria in 362 A. D. 

The other stamp contains the name JJermu in Greek and Latin. “Hermu” 
might be the genitive of Hermes, a common personal name. But it 
has been cleverly suggested that the name is rather a place designation, 
and refers to the mint where the bars were made. It may, then, stand for 
Hermupolia and refer to the town of that name in Lower Egypt. 

The date of this bar is probably the same as that of the bars found in 
Hungary belonging to the Sirmium mint, namely, the second half of the 
fourth century A. D. 

Bara of this class are of varying, not uniform, weight. The metal is of 
high standard, about 980/1000 pure gold, the remainder being silver. 
They were made to serve as a medium of exchange in large payments. 
Private individuals probably presented the bullion at the mint for refining 
and warranting, and received, in return for a consideration, their gold in 
the shape of bars stamped with an official mark of guarantee. Fines, we 
know, were made legally payable not only in coin, but in gold and silver 
weight. (A. J. Evans, Numismatic Chronicle, 1915, p. 488). It was doubt- 
less in order to facilitate such payments and for use in large transactions 
that gold bullion was converted into bars of the type here shown. 

It has been suggested that these bars are to be compared with the fiat 
gold oval-shaped pieces of Japan, the so-called O-ban and Ko-ban coins. 
But these Japanese pieces are true coins; for they bear the governmental 
stamp, the Kiri crest, and occur in varying denominations running down 
to smaller sizes of fixed weight. The characters painted upon them show 
not only the names of the mint-officials, but also the denomination of the 
pieces. Doubtless the Japanese coins, especially the larger denominations, 
had not the wide circulation of ordinary coins, but they possessed a definite 
currency value. 


THE COINAGE OP POLAND BEFORE 1500. 


By A. R. FREY. 


The earliest commerce of Poland was conducted by the use of pelts or 
skins, a custom which the inhabitants copied from the Russians. The 
heads of squirrels and the scalps of the marmot and other animals were 
most frequently used. 

Metallic currency was introduced in the eleventh century. At that time 
the possession of Silesia was a field of contention between Poland and Bo- 
hemia, and the small silver coins resembling denarii or esterlings were dis- 
tributed over these three countries, and they are exceedingly difficult to 
distinguish and classify. 

Under Boleslas II, King of Poland (1058-1079), several varieties of well- 
executed silver coins were issued. The specimens that have come down to 
us usually have on the obverse a head with the name BOEZELAVS, and 
on the reverse the figure of a horseman carrying a banner, or a knight in 
combat with a dragon. 

Ladislaus II (1139-1148) struck the denarius type which usually bears 
the figure of the King standing with a sword in his hand. The reverse 
shows an eagle. 

In the year 1163 Silesia became independent of Poland, but this loss 
was offset by the previous acquisition in 1130 of a portion of Pomerania, 
whose ruler. Prince Wratislav, was compelled to acknowledge the Polish 
sovereign. Bracteates now begin to appear, some of them of very fine 
workmanship. 

Under Miesko III, King of Greater Poland (1173-1202), the privilege of 
striking coins was granted to private individuals, probably in many in- 
stances for a monetary consideration. Jewish merchants acquired this 
privilege from the government and employed die-cutters and engravers of 
their own nationality to execute the designs. The consequence is that 
coins occur with a Hebrew inscription on one side, and the figures of 
horsemen, Hons, etc., on the reverse. The name of the ruler is occasionally 
found written .V1E6ICO, and it is also converted into Hebrew letters. 


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Similarly, Arabic inscriptions are occasionally found, and the usually 
accepted explanation lor tuis script is that it faciiitated trade. It must be 
remembereu that Oriental niercnants frequently attended the periodical 
fairs held in many of the cities ot Russia, Poland, and other parts of East- 
ern Europe, and even carried tbeir wares as far north as the Baltic Sea. 

Contemporary with Miesko was Casimir II, wno ruled as Duke of Poland 
from 111 i to 1194. He issued bracteates, the usual type of wiiich bore 
the figure of a crowned bust portrait, and the inscription DVX. CAZIMIR. 
Under Cadislaus HI (1202-12U7) the bracteates either represent the Duke 
in a kneeling position, as if praying, or his figure appears under an arch or 
gateway and in tne act ot holding up a banner. Boleslas V (1227-1279) 
has an inscription DVX. BOL on his corns, and an ecclesiastic clad in bish- 
op's robes. 

'ihe Archbishopric of Gnesen in Posen was granted the right of coinage 
by the King of Poland in 1284. Tne authorities availed themselves of this 
privilege and struck bracteates w'ith a bust of St. Adalbert. In fact, the 
rulers of Poland prior to the accession of the dynasty of the Jageilones 
conferred the privilege of minting on a number of principalities. Among 
the notewortny ones were Slupce, in Posen, to which the right was granted 
in 1314, and Franstadt, also in Posen, which received the same right in 
the latter part of the fourteentn century. It must not be supposed, how- 
ever, that the striking of coins was resorted to by all of the smaller states, 
bisnoprics, etc. In fact, while we know from contemporary official records 
that they had the power to do it, no coins of some of them have been found 
to the present day; hence it is a safe conclusion that they did not avail 
themeslves of the grant. 

During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries two new denominations 
appeared in Poland. The first of these was the Grosz, similar in style and 
fabric to the Gros of Western Europe. It was introduced by Wenceslaus 
II, who was originally King of Bohemia, but who also became King of Po- 
land in 1300 and ruled until 1305. The Bohemian types of these coins 
with the Inscription GROSSI. PRAGENSES. circulated extensively in Poland. 

Under Casimir HI, called ‘The Great,” (1333-1370) a new coin was 
struck called the Kwartnik. It was of base silver and represented the 
one-fourth of the Grosz. 

In 1386 the dynasty of the Jageilones came to the throne of Poland, and 
reigned uninterruptedly until 157 2. Their power extended to Bohemia in 
1471, and to Hungary in 1490. They deserve credit for introducing a large 
number of reforms in the coinage, chief among them being an elevation of 
the style and design. 

In 1454 the cities of Danzig, Elbing, Konigsberg, and Thorn, left the 
Teutonic Order and came under Polish rule. They promptly began to strike 
coins of various denominations. Danzig issued Schlllinge which have on 
one side the crowned Polish eagle and on the reverse the arms of the city. 
These were struck up to about the year 1525, and the specimens that have 
come down to us exhibit many minor variations in lettering, etc. 

Elbing issued Schillinge and uniface Pfennige; Konigsberg received privi- 
leges of minting from King Casimir IV, but made little use of them; and 
Thorn struck Schillinge with the crossed arms of the House of Jagellow. 
In addition to these it must be remembered that the mints of Cracow and 
Lemberg, in Poland, and many minor ones throughout Posen, w'ere in full 
operation at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and the Polish coinage 
w'as vastly improved. 

-Now begins the reign of Sigismund I (1506-1549), under whom the first 
crown-size pieces were struck, and the early and mediaeval coinage prop- 
erly ends here. 


Mr. Noe outlined the plan for future meetings as follows: 

Our program this evening institutes a new procedure, and I have been 
asked briefly to describe the plan which you have seen carried out. This 
is done not only that its possibilities may become apparent to the members 
present, but in order that we may have it appear in The Ncmi.sm.vtist. 

For a long time it has been found very difficult to discover speakers who 
were willing to take up an entire evening in presenting material of a numis- 
matic nature. Most of our members are very busy, and the task of pre- 


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paring a careful paper was heavier than they were willing to assume. The 
suggestion which we are now trying to put into practice is one which has 
been tried elsewhere with success, and as it eliminates some of the difficul- 
ties which attended our former scheme, it will provide successful results, 
we hope. 

The first principle in the new plan is to instill an element of “newsyness” 
or “up-to-dateness” into our meetings. This will probably cause a smile to 
those who are thinking of Greek or Roman problems. What is hieant, how- 
ever, is not that the subject need be modern, as that that which is presented 
regarding it should embody the most recent information. 

The second element is diversifying the Interest. Mention has been made 
of the difficulty in finding anyone to prepare a paper which would occupy 
an entire evening. It is felt, however, that there are many members and 
friends from nearby Institutions of learning who would submit an account 
of work they were doing in their own special field, summarizing results not 
yet completed, recording discoveries ultimately to be published in a finished 
form, and opening for discussion and such aid as the other members present 
might afford, questions which have proved a bar to progress. By this 
means the members would be given an incentive towards spreading before 
the Society results of their study or collecting, and through discussion a 
means for developing interest in their field would be offered. 

A brief w'ord as to the means to be employed. Members having material 
which they would be willing to present are requested to let the Secretary 
know of such material, giving a brief synopsis or outline, or, better still, 
the paper itself, if that is possible. 

The advantages will be apparent. Instead of having a single subject of 
Interest to a limited number, we may expect a variety of topics, some of 
which should appeal to any of our members. As time goes on, we may hope 
to make each meeting something that none of our members can afford to 
miss. The treatment described above will permit the reviewing of im- 
portant books which have just been published, and allow the recording of 
the interesting facts and bits of news regarding our members or numis- 
matists elsewhere. With our stereopticon, the only limitation with respect 
to the material to be presented rests with the speaker. 

It is distinctly to be understood that the Staff desires to be relieved from 
participating as much as possible. The papers are to be limited to ten 
minutes each, with five minutes of discussion, and not more than four will 
be presented in an evening. This will enable us to start the meetings 
promptly and give opportunity for social intercourse both before and after 
the presentation of the papers. We hope that attendance will be stimulated 
and that interest will be Increased. This depends, however, upon our 
members themselves. May we not count upon your aid? 


SOXDERJYLLANDS (DENMARK) MEDAL. 



We illustrate here the medal struck In 1919 by the United Sender jydske 
Societies in Denmark. This medal was fully described in our January, 
1920, issue. 


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THE INSCRIPTION ON A JENNY LIND MEDAL. 


Mr. J. deLagerberg of New York City writes that in response to his in- 
quiry in our March issue regarding a Jenny Lind medal, he has been enabled 
to see a specimen through the courtesy of Mr. C. N. Hinkley of Chicago. 
The inscription on the medal as quoted in the March issue, Mr. deLagerberg 
says, was incorrect. The lines are from Milton’s poem “Comus,” and 
should read as follows: 

“But such a sacred and home-felt delight. 

Such sober certainty of waking bliss, 

I never heard till now.’’ 

Mr. deLagerberg also states that there is now being prepared in New 
York City a pamphlet describing and illustrating all known varieties of 
Jenny Lind medals, which is to be published shortly. 


THE IVAR .AFZELIUS PLAQUE. 



A plaque of considerable merit, by Erik Llndberg, the Swedish engraver, 
was Issued in 1918 to commemorate the work and services of Ivar Afzelius, 
who was born in 1848, and was Speaker in the first Chamber in the Riks- 
dag. He is one of the eighteen members of the Swedish Academy, honor- 
ary member and late president of the Academie Royal des Belles-Lef tres, 
D’Histoire et des Antlquites, Knight of the Order of Seraphim, president of 
the Grangesberg-Oxelosund R. R. Co., etc. Copies of the medal in bronze, 
which are quite rare, can be obtained bv addressing Mr. J. deLagerberg, 
259 West 92d St., New York City. 


COINAGE FOR >IARCH, 1920. 


Following is the number of pieces of the different denominations coined 
at the mints of the United States during March, 1920, as officially reported 
by the Bureau of the Mint, Washington, D. C.: 

Silver — Half Dollars, 1,294,000: Quarter Dollars, 1,940,000: Dimes, 

8,750,000. 

Bronze — One Cent, 11,131,000. 

Coinage other than United States: 

Cuba — Silver, 325,000; Nickel, 5,000,000. 

Indo-China — Silver, 8,265,000. 


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ROOSEVELT TWO-CENT COIN A PROBABILITY. 


Of the numerous bills introduced in Congress in recent months affecting 
the coinage of the United States, the act authorizing the coinage of a Roose- 
velt two-cent piece is the only one so far (except those authorizing souvenir 
half dollars) that has good prospects of becoming a law. The bill author- 
izing the Roosevelt coin was passed by the Senate on May 3 last and sent to 
the House, where it was referred to the Committee on Coinage, Weights 
and Measures. The bill reads as follows: 

AN ACT 

To authorize the coinage of a Roosevelt 2-cent coin. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled. That there shall be coined at the 
several mints of the United States, 2-cent pieces, of an alloy composed of 95 
per centum of copper and 5 per centum of tin and zinc, in such proportions 
as shall be determined by the Director of the Mint, and of such size and 
weight as may be necessary to distinguish it from the 1-cent pieces of sim- 
ilar composition: and upon the 2-cent pieces, the coinage of which is here- 
by authorized, there shall be the following devices and legends: Upon one 
side there shall be the medallion of Theodore Roosevelt, with the dates of 
his birth and death, and with an inscription of the words, “In God We 
Trust,” and upon the reverse shall be an inscription, “E Pluribus Unum,” 
and an inscription, “United States of America,” and a designation of the 
value of the coin. 


RE8U.MPTION OP GOLD COINAGE. 


T. W. H. Shanahan, superintendent of the U. S. Mint at San Francisco, 
stated on April 22 that he has received word from Director of the Mint 
Raymond T. Baker at Washington to resume coinage of gold eagles and 
double-eagles. He said: 

“These will be the first gold coins executed at San Francisco mint since 
1916. Five-dollar gold pieces are not included in this coinage. There 
must be certain quantities of gold certificate, bars and gold coins, specified 
by act of Congress as two-thirds of the amount in bars and one-third on 
gold coins, for redemption of paper currency known commonly as ‘gold 
notes.’ I think that it is for the purpose of bringing the gold coinage up to 
the required amount that this new order for coinage here has been issued. 
Although there are very few gold notes in circulation, I think that there 
must be a large amount in the banks.” F. Z. 

San Francisco, May 1, 1920. 


THE NEW C.VNADIAN CENT, 


So many rumors have been circulated regarding the issue of the small 
Canadian cent that we hardly knew what to believe about it, but the follow- 
ing, cut from a report of the proceedings of the Parliament at Ottawa, 
would appear to fix the end of this year as the probable date of its first ap- 
pearance: 

“In answer to a question by J. J. Denis, of Joliette, the Government 
stated that it would put into circulation the new one-cent coin as soon as 
coinage dies had been prepared. These dies are now in course of prepara- 
tion, and it is expected that the new coins will be in circulation before the 
end of 1920. The same design will be used on the coins as has been in use 
since Confederation.” 

During the same session a motion to strike the minor coinage in nickel 
was, on the suggestion of the Government, withdrawn. 

R. W. McLACHr.A.\. 


THEORETIC.VLLY' SPEAKING. 


“What about your 1835 half-dollar?” 

“The expert says it is worth 50 cents, but I don’t think he really knows 
anything about coins.” 

“No, he’s too sanguine .” — Louisville Courier-Journal. 


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And I Repeat, that 

“AFTER ALL, 

A GREAT DEAL DEPENDS ON WHAT 

‘THEY SAY.’ ” 

The following: letters were received unsolicited, and 
are only samples of the general results of my Numismatic 
Service : 

Fort Lauderdale, April 16tli, 1020. 

Dear Mr. Mehl: — 

Am in receipt of your valued favor enrIONing cheek to 
cover sale of March 10th last, and wisli to say that you 
have handliHl the deal very satisfactorily. I believe your 
Numismatic facilities are equal to the very best in this 
country, if not sui)erlor. 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) K. G. SNOW. 

Detroit, >Uchigan, April 26th, 1020. 

Mr. B. Max Mehl, Fort Worth, Texas. 

Dear Sir: 

I have received your check in settlement of my consign- 
ment in your March 10th Sale, and ^viU say tliat I am ex- 
cecHlingly well pleased. I did not knmv your terms when 
sending you the coins, but I And, as usual, that one may 
de|*end on you for real honest ser^ce for selling or buying 
his coins. Tliank yon. 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) A. A. BERUBE. 


Whether you are buyer or seller, I KNOW that I can 
serve you to your entire satisfaction and profit. Let me 
SHOW YOU. 


D.MAX MEHL 

NUMISMATIST 




ForcrwonTH i 



TEXAS 


Largest Numis.niatlc Establishment in the United States. 


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PHONES 

HANOVER 3130 TO 3136 INCLUSIVE 
PRIVATE WIRES 



CABLE ADDRESS 
GUTTABRO. NEW YORK 

CODES 

A. B. A. 

BENTLEY’S 

LIEBER’S 

(S LETTER AND <0 LETTER) 
MARCONI’S WIRELESS 
PETERSON’S 

(3 LETTER AND 5 LETTER) 
WESTERN UNION 
(5 LETTER) 




WE WILL PAY 

$45.00 per 100 for Isabella quarters any amount. 

WE WANT 

$1.00 gold pieces (except 1916-17 McKinley). 

$2^8 gold pieces (previous to is.3.5). 

$3 gold pieces. 

$4 gold pieces. 

$5 gold pieces (previous to 1833). 

$10 gold pieces (previous to 1805). 

$20 gold pieces (Roman numbers). 

$.50 gold pieces. 

Pioneer and Territorial gold. 

NO AMOUNT TOO SMALL OR TOO LARGE TO BUY OR SELL. 

Old style 92 %h alnnys on hand. 

Selling New 2 pesos Mexican Gold, $1.75. 

Selling uncirculated to proof Austrian and^ Jlungarlan one 
Kronen silver pieces 1014-1915 at $1.00 apiece. 

MAKE OFFERINGS ANY AMOUNT. 

WE ARE QUANTITY DEALERS. 

GUTTAG BROS. 


52 Wall Street, 


New York, N. Y. 




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AN IMPORTANT JULY SALE OF COINS. 

The Davis and Miller Sales did not exhaust the numismatic treats 
we have in store for our bidders. Our next sale, to be held around 
July 10th, with coins belonging to two estates and two private in- 
dividuals, will have some gems of the first class. Among these we 
may mention; A Complete set of U. S. Cents, with choice 1794s and 
early dates; A Complete set of U. S. Half Cents, Including a 1796; 
Valuable and Very Rare U. 8. Hitlf Eagles, including Extremely Fine 
examples of 1818, 1821, 1827, 1831 and 1832; Fine Foreign Gold 
Coins; Choice Foreign Silver Coins; A Unique Proof Set of 1841; 
A Collection of New York Store Cards classified to Adams’ new 
work; Rare Swe<lish and Other Coins; Rare Silver I>ollars. It will 
be one of the best recent sales. 

A Plate Catalogue with the finest coins illustrated by photograph 
negatives, $3.00. With priced list after the sale, $4.50. Don’t 
Miss This Sale. Attend it on your vacation. Get a catalogue. Be 
up to date. 

THE ELDER COIN & CURIO COMPANY, 

21 West 35th Street, New York City. 


N. Y. COIN & STAMP CO. 


REMOVED TO 


912 SIXTH AVENUE 

Between 51st and 52d Streets, New York. 


WE KEEP COINS OF ALL SORTS. 
BUT FREE CATALOGUES OF NO SORT, 


Original from 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 



JXJME, 1920. 


289 


loiaoE 


aoBOi 


lOBOl 


WAYTE RAYMOND 

489 Park Avenue, 

(Anderson Galleries) 

New York City. 

Dealer in rare coins of all countries. Collections cata- 
logued for sale at auction or purchased outright. Price 
list sent on request. 

Just published — “United States Store Cards” by Ed- 
gar H. Adams. A list of merchants’ store cards and ad- 
vertising tokens from 1789 to recent years, arranged by 
States and exclusive of the Civil War period. 75 pages, 
paper cover. Postpaid $2.10. 


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COIN NOTICE 

What are your wants? 
I can supply them. 

Collections 
Bought Outright 
For Cash or Sold at 
Public Auction. “ 

Reference, First Na- 
tional Bank, Boston, 
Mass. 

William Hesslein 

BOSTON, MASS. 

Digitized by Goc'gle 


U. S. FIXED PRICE LIST No. 3 

Mailed on request. 


MONEY LOANED on Coins and 
Stamps. Entire Collections 
Purchased. 


Ben G. Green’s 
Reference and Check Book. 

Complete list of all coins issued by 
the U. S. Mint and branches, with their 
principal varieties, the private Issues 
of gold, fractional currency and en- 
cased postage stamps. Book Is pocket 
size and printed on writing paper, 
ruled for checking the pieces in a col- 
lection, their condition, date of acQul- 
Bltion, iJTlce paid and from whom 
bought. The number of pieces of ev- 
ery denomination coined each year at 
the various mints is also given, mak- 
ing It an Invaluable guide to the col- 
lector of mint marks and as to the 
rarity of any coin. Blank space Is 
provided for additions of dates of 
Issues and other me.moranda. 
120 pages. Price, Cloth, >1.00. Flex- 
Leather. *1.50. Interleaved. Gilt 
Edges, $2.00. 

Panama-Pacinc Half Dollar .. ..$1.50 

Illinois Centennial Half Dollar" 1.25 

FRED MICHAEL 

8 Sonth Dearborn St., Chicago, Hl 

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290 


THE NUMISMATIST 


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CONSIGNMENTS 


have been coming in for my next sale, so that it will climb up 
to a fifteen-hundred-lot Sale. Not simply just 1500 lots of 
coins, but 1500 lots of GOOD, interesting numismatic material. 
Fine United States Gold with many rarities; Silver, with dol- 
lars of 1839 and all the rare 50’s; half dollars, with two of 
1796; Washington half disme; Ancient Jewish Shekel; several 
$50.00 gold pieces; three four-dollar gold coins. A fine and 
large collection of Canadian coins and tokens; rare medals, etc. 

This is one of those really real “QUALITY Sales.” 

You'll miss one of the finest sales of the season if you don’t get 
the catalogue, which is free to serious collectors. 

Price Lists, showing amounts realized for each lot in the sale, 
furnished after the sale at only Fifty Cents, cash with orders. 


B. MAX MEHL, 


Mehl Building, 


Fort Worth, Texas. 




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IS YOUR FILE OF THE NUMISMATIST 

COMPLETE? 


If not, look through the list of back numbers we can furnish, 
published in the May, 1920, issue, and see if we can complete it 
for you. A complete file — since 1894 at least — should be owned 
by every collector and member of the A. N. A. Address 

THE NUMISMATIST, 1811 Mosher St., Baltimore, Md. 


TVir^\X7 best time you will 

KJ VV ever have to place the new 
Mextcan coins in your col- 
lection. The 1920 gold 2-peso piece, 
now ready> postpaid, $2.00. Get on 
my approval list. What are your 
wants? 

L. A. CARDWELL, 

Las Cruces, N. M. 


WANTED— FOR CASH. 

V. S. Coins of All Periods. 

Colonial to present date; also Paper 
Money and Patterns. 

Foreign Copper, Gold and Silver, 
good to proof condition. 

Write me before selling, as I am sure 
it will be to your advantage. 

NORMAN SHULTZ, King City, Mo. 


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JUNE. 1920. 


291 


Fractional Currency 

JuHt Received. 

A choice crisp, 
uncirculated 1 o t, 
including all Is- 
sues. 

Red Backs and 
Auto SlarnaturcH. 

Prices on appli- 
cation. 

Thou sands of 
Coins In stock of 
every country and 
period. Send us 
your want list. 

The Numiamntio Guide in Its 12th 
Edition, having 250 Illustrations, quotes 
our buying and selling prices, and is 
sent postpaid on receipt of 15c. 

Arnold UnmlsinaticCo. p"videScclRr* 



LEON FULDAUER, 

NumiHuiutlMt, 

AMSTERDAM, 
KONINGINNEWEG 189. 

Large Stock of Coins and Medals, 
Catalogues on application. 
Send your want list. 


Send Me Your Want List. 
Collections Purchased 
for Cash. 

G. L. TILDEN, 

405 Main St., Worcester, Mass. 


FOR BEGINNERS. 

Selling catalog of about 160 of the 
more common copper and nickel coins 
from 60 countries sent free on request. 

STANDARD COIN CO., 

Dept. N., 

6.110 S, Campbell Ave.. Cblengo, III, 


WANTED. 

U. S. GOI.D DOI.I..VRS, 

any dates and conditions. Will pay 
cash for any quantity. Common dates 
and rare ones wanted. How many 
have you? Also need some |3 gold 
pieces. 

HARRY KELSO, Anna, Kans. 


Digitized by 


Google 


New Coins at Attractive Prices. 
MEXICO. — 10 centavo. 15c.; 20 cen- 
tavo, 20c.; 50 centavo. 45c.; peso, 95c.; 
2^4 peso, $2.40; 2 peso, $1.85; Carranza 
bills, dlf., 10c. each; Villa bills, set, 
6 dlf., 20c.; Villa bill, 50 peso. 25c.; 
100 peso, Revalldado, 60c.; 10 peso, 

Ejercito, 10c.; 20 peso, Ejerclto, 10c.; 
Sonora, 1 peso, 10c.; Mexico. 50 peso, 
Gobierno Prov., 50c.; Mexico, 20 peso, 
Goblerno Prov., 10c.; Chihuahua. 2 pe- 
so. 15c.: State Sinaloa, 10 peso, 50c.; 1 
peso, 20c.; 50 cen., 15c. 

Muerta Huerta peso, V. G., $2.50. 
Villa Dollar, Army of the North, 
$1.45. 

Parral, $1.75. 

Russian Bills, each 5c.; 2 var., 10c. 
Send for List No. 5. You cannot lose 
more than Ic. for postcard, and may 
make vou dollars. 

NORMAN SHULTZ, King City, Mo. 



Regular Meetiugs, 

GRAND HOTEL, 

Broadway & 31st St. 
Second Friday each 
month at 6.30 P. M. 

Memebrs of the A. 
N. A. visiting New 
York are cordially 
invited. 


WAR MEDALS. 

Collector wants those of any country, 
any war. 

Want just now (British): 

Central Africa. 1SD4-1808, 

Eaut anal Central .\frlea. 
Kheallven Snuflan, 1010. 

.\Hbantl, 1000. 

C. S. GIFFORD, Box 6274, Boston, 4. 


KIMBALL’S AD. 


Common Half Cent, but red, un- 
circulated. 1851 32c. 

Different dates of Half Dollars, 
very good to fine, dates pre- 
vious to 1836, each 65c. 


F. R. KIMB.\I,L. Room 124, 18 Tremont 
St.. Kimball Blalg., Boston. MaNH. 

FOR SALE AND WANTED. 
Paper Money of All Kinds. 

Correspondence Solicited. 

JOHN EDWIN MORSE, 

Haalley, Mannaehnaetta. 


Acme 

Transparent Envelopes 

Set of 23 Pockets to hold all regular 
Issues U. S. Fractional Cy., $1.00. 

Dollar bill size, per doz., $1.60, post- 
paid. Send dime for samples and list. 
Manufactured by 

C. N. HINCKLEY, 

47.16 Dover .Street. Chicago, III. 


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PRINCETON UNIVERSITY 




292 


THE NUMISMATIST 


Rare Numismatic Books. 


CroMby'ii Early CoinH of America. 

Karc Wock; Perfect condition. 

All plates. Fine autograph let- 

of S. S. Crosby inserted $25.00 

Another edition of above Book. 

cloth 13.50 

Madden’s Jewish Coinage. 1S64. 

Hare 12.00 

Madden’s Coins of tlie Jews. 2d. 

Kd 9.00 

Low s Hard Times Tokens. -ts 

new 9.00 

Ormsby’s Bank ,\.ote Engraving. 

V'ery Rare 8.00 

Loubnt’s U. S. Medals. Plates. 

Two Vols 17.50 

Mass. Currency. Felt. 1839. Hare 4.00 
Mumismatic Manual. Dickeson. 

1860 7.00 

It. ». Postage Stamps. Tiffany. 

Rare 3.50 

Roman Coins. Gr. Brit. Acker- 
man. Rare 4.00 

Mass. Currency. Davis. Vol. II. 

1901. Ills 4.00 

Rank of North America. 1882. 

Ills 3.50 


FINE collections FOR SALE, 

Rare U. S. note collection, many 
Rarities. Fine Confederate and B. B. 
collection. Very fine collection of Lin- 
coln medals. Inquiries from serious 
buyers Invited. 

A. Atlas Leve, Syracuse, N. Y. 


SOME WORTH-WHILE OFFERS. 


U. S. Gold $50 (Slug), Califor- 
nia. 1851, with lettering 
around edge. In very good 

condition ’ $225.00 

Another, dated 1852 (small date) 

very good 200.00 

Conf. $500 bill, crisp and fine... 1.00 
Set of 4 bills Omaha City. Ne- 
braska, The Western Exch'ge 
Fire & Marine Insurance Co., 

$1, $2, $3 and $5, all In un- 
severed sheet, crisp and new. 

Rare set. Price 4.00 


I have all the U. S. Cents, including 
the scarce dates, 1793, 1799, 1804. etc., 
also 1856 eagle cent. etc. 1836 Dol- 
lars. very line, etc., etc. 

If you collect coins, postage stamps, 
old pistols. Indian stone or bead relics, 
or any kind of curios, write me for 
lists. I have one of the largest stocks 
In U. S. to select from. 

N. E. C.4RTER, Elkhorn, Win. 

STAMP AND COIN 
EXCHANGE 

78 Nassau Street, New York City. 
Price list free. Premium Catalog 10c. 
Coin Collections Purchased for Cash. 

I.wrge Silver Catalog 50ci Copper $2.00. 


STATE.MENT OP THE OWNEK8HIP, MANAGEMENT, ETC., 

Required by the Act of Congress of August 24, 1912, of The Numismatist, pub- 
lished monthly at Federalsburg, Md.. for April 1. 1920. 

State of Maryland, City of Baltimore: ss. ... 

Before me, a Notary Public in and for the State and City aforesaid, per- 
sonally appeared F. G. Duffleld, who, having been duly sworn according to law, 
deposes and says that he Is the Business Manager of The Numismatist, and that 
the following Is. to the best of his knowledge and belief, a true statement of the 
ownership, management, etc., of the aforesaid publication for the date shown in 
the above caption, required by the Act of August 24, 1912. 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor, 
and business manager are: 

Publisher, American Numismatic Association, Federalsburg. Md. 

Editor, F. G. Duffleld, 1811 Mosher St., Baltimore, Md. 

Managing Editor, None. 

Business Manager. F. G. Duffleld, 1811 Mosher St., Baltimore. Md. 

2. That the owner Is: American Numismatic Association. 

President, Waldo C. Moore. Lewisburg, Ohio. 

First Vice-President, Henry Chapman, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Second Vice-President, John M. Oliver, Springfield, Mass. 

General Secretary, H. H. Yawger, Rochester, N. Y. 

Treasurer. George J. Bauer. Rochester, N. Y. 

Librarian, H. H. Yawger, Rochester, N. Y. 

Board of Governors: Moritz Wormser, Chairman, New York, N. Y.; Theo. E. 
Leon. (Chicago, 111.; Foster Lardner. Providence, R. I.: Preston C. Pond, Chicopee, 
Mass.: F. N. Boyle, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other securit.v holders 
owning or holding 1 per cent, or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, 
or other securities are: None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the owners, 
stockholders, and security stockholders, if any. contain not only the list of 
stockholders and security holders as they appear upon the books of the com- 
pany, but also, in cases where the stockholder or security holder appears upon 
the books of the company as trustee or In any other fiduciary relation, the 
name of the person or corporation for whom such trustee is acting. Is given; 
also that the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant’s full 
knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and conditions under which the 
stockholders and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the 
company as trustee, hold stock and securities In a capacity other than that of 
a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no reason to believe that any other 
person, association, or corporation has any interest direct or Indirect In the said 
bonds, or other securities than as so stated by him. 

F. G. DUFFIELD. Business Manager. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 3d day of May, 1920. 

(Seal) E. K. EDWARDS. 

(My commission expires May 1st. 1922.) 


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The Numismatist 


VOL. xxx:ill. JULY, 1920. No. 7 


A TRIAL LIST OF THE COUNTERMARKED MODERN 

COINS OF THE WORLD. 


By F. G. DUFFIELD. 


(CONTINIED FKO.M LAST MONTH.) 


HWITZERL.WD. 


A number of French silver coins of crown size are found countermarked 
for use in Switzerland. The stamp has the arms on the canton in a shield- 
shaped depression on one side of the coin, and on the other side the stamp 
denoting the value in a similar depression. 

923. France, Ecu, 1714, 1726, 1728, 1760, 1765, 1768, 1771, 1780, 1781, 

1784, 1785, 1786, 1788, 1790, 1791, 1792, Cm. with arms of 
iBerne and “40 BZ.” 

924. France, 6 Livres, 1793, Cm. with arms of Berne and "40 BZ.” 

925. France, Ecu, Louis XV, , Cm. with arms of Vaud and “39 BZ.” 



No. 92.3. 

The illustration-^ siiow the obverse of this countermark on tiie obverse of an 
Kcu of Louis XVI. 17S1. and tlie reverse of tiie countermark on tile reverse of 
an Ecu of 1792 under ti e “Keign of the Law.'' 

Regarding the above countermarks Hazlitt (“Coinage of the European 
Continent,” pp. 349-350) says: “The financial exigencies of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries had the effect of reducing the stock of old silver 
currency and checking the output of new, and the countermarked ecus of 
Louis XVI for some of the cantons demonstrate the course taken to meet 
the dilemma. These pieces, of which an enormous number were at that 
time in the country, were found in many instances of deficient weight, and 
the cantons stamped, to pass current for 39 or 40 Batzen, only such as 
were found to bear the test of the scales. They have become very uncom- 
mon, plentiful as they must have at the outset been.” 

The countermarking was authorized by a decree dated July 2, 1816. 

926. Zug, Thaler, Cm. “C R I” in monogram. 


TRAXSX AAL. 

927. Transvaal, Gold Pond, 1898, Cm. “99” under the bust. 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


UNITED STATES OF COLOMBIA, 

928. Cundinamarca, 8 Reals, struck at Bogota, 1820, 1821, Cm. a pome- 

granate. 

929. Cundinamarca, Real, 1833, struck at Bogota, Cm. a pomegranate. 

930. Worn copper coins, , Cm. a pomegranate. 

931. Cundinamarca, 8 Reals, struck at Bogota, 1821, Cm. a script “M.” 

932. Cundinamarca, 2 Reals, struck at Bogota, 1821, Cm. a script “M.” 

933. New Granada, 2 Reals, 1819, struck over an old Spanish 2 Reals. 

934. New Granada, 2 Reals, 1849, Cm. an undetermined oval stamp. 

935. Republic of Colombia, Real, Cm. ‘ R.” 

936. Republic of Colombia, Real, 1832, Cm. ‘‘B." 

937. Popayan, under Granada Confederation, Vz Real, , Cm. script 

“Zu.” 

938. Carthagena Necessity Copper 2 Reals. 1813, struck over another coin. 

939. Carthagena Necessity Copper % Real, 1811, struck over a Spanish 

copper coin of Philip II. 

94 0. Worn Real (undetermined), , Cm. ‘‘A A” in oval with border of 

pellets on one side, and Cm. “B” on other side. 

941. Worn 2 Reals (undetermined). , Cm. "A A” in oval with border 

of pellets. 

942. Worn 4 Reals (undetermined), , on one side Cm. “A A” in oval 

with border of pellets and “M” and “F.” and on other side Cm. 
“N” in border of pellets. 

943. Worn 4 Reals (undetermined), , on one side Cm. “A A” in 

oval with border of pellets and on other side Cm. "M” in a 
square with line and dotted border and "W h E.” 

The above four pieces are attributed to the United States of Colombia in 
the Fonrobert and Ulex catalogs. 


I UUGUAY. 

94 4. Spanish-American Real, 1783, Cm. a small horse. (This counter- 
mark is attributed to Uruguay solely because the attitude of the 
hor.se in the countermark is the same as the one in the arms of 
Uruguay on that country's coins.) 


VENEZUELA. 

94.J. Caracas, copper ^ Real, 1813, struck over another copper coin. 

94 6. Caracas, copper V4 Real, 1816, 1817, Cm. with an undetermined 
stamp. 

947. Caracas, 2 Reals, ISIS, struck over a Spanish Peseta of .Joseph Na- 
poleon. 

94 8. Caracas, 2 Reals, , clipped to octagon shape and doubly count- 

ermarked. 


With this installment is completed Section I of this article, which com- 
prises the Countermarked Modern Coins of the World except those of the 
West Indies and the United States. Section II, wliich embraces the coun- 
termarked and cut issues of the West Indies, will begin next month. 

(TO UK ( ONTI MKI). ) 


BELGIAN SO( lETV, FBIENDS OF THE .MEDALLION, .ME>IHER,SH11*. 


Mr. .J. deLagerberg of New York City. write.s that he has received a let- 
ter from Mr. Victor Tourneur, President of the Belgian Society, Friends of 
the Medallion, that the fee for foreign members (membres amateurs) has 
been increased (o 30 francs annually. It was formerly 25 francs. 


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JUL-y, 1920. 


295 


A NAVAL HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR AS SHOWN 

BY MEDALS. 


By MALCOLM STOKER, M. D. 


(continued from last month.) 


1915, .March 14. IH*structioii of ‘Dre.sdcn." 

78. — Hornlein Series. Obv., Eagle, etc. Rev., In circle of laurel, ZUM [ 

A.\DE.\KEN I A. DE.\ EHREXVOL 1 LEN VNTERGANG 1 S. M. S. DRES- 
DEN I 14 MARZ 1915. 30mm. Arg. On edge, K. S. M. 999, incused. 

It will be remembered that the Dresden was the only one of von Spee’s 
ships to escape at the battle off the Falkland Islands. Being attacked off 
the roadstead of Juan Fernandez by Capt. Luce of the Glascow, with the 
Kent and Orama, and in view of the futility of resistance, the captain of 
the Dresden blew her up, the crew being saved. 

1915, March 18. Do.struction of English and French CVuisers Bouvet and 

Irresistable at the Dardanelles. 

79. — “Fame” Series, No. 69. Obv., GOTT, etc. Rev., 69 | NIEDERLAGE 

I DES I ENGL. FRANZ , PANZERGESCH W. , VOR. DEN 1 DARDANELLE.N 
I 18. MARZ 1915. 15mm. Arg. 

Von der Goltz. 

80. — Obv., GENERALFELDMARSCHALL FRHR. V. D. GOLTZ. Bust to 
left. Rev., 1915. View of Dardanelles with enemy’s ships sinking at en- 
trance. Ex., SIEGREICHE VERTEIDIGUNG DER DARDANELLEN. 34mm. 
Arg. By Fr. Eue. 

1915, .April 25. Landing at GaUii>oli. 

81. — Obv., GALLIPOLI APRIL 25 1915. Australian soldier assisting 
wounded comrade and beckoning with left hand. Rev., TO ] COMME.MO- 
RATE I THE LANDING j APRIL 25 i 1915 in two laurel sprays. Below, 
PROUDS LTD. 

82. — Obv., I.NSHI YALIA. A soldier landing to left. Rev., DARDANEL- 
LES I 1915. On rising sun, APRIL 25. 28.5mm. Gold. Silver. Bronze. 

1919. Dardanelles. .Marshall Linian v. Handers. 

83. — Obv., MARSCHALL LIMAN VON SANDERS. Bust in uniform fac- 
ing, wearing three-cornered hat. Rev., DARD.A..NELLEN 1915 1916. 

Two nude men fighting on rock, while a third endeavors to escape by swim- 
ming. 98mm. Iron. By Prof. Max Lange, 1916. Schulman, LXXV, 212. 

Although this medal is of rather later date, it may well come in here. 

Gallipoli. 

84. — Obv., In field to left. DIE | MO.NSSVCH | TIGEN. AVF j GALLIPOLI. 

An English soldier trampling on crescent and holding a man-of-war' in 
hand with a French poilu kneeling beside him. Rev., Two skeletons in 
trench. Above, 1915, star and crescent, 1916. 56mm. .Ae. 

191.J, April 27. Destruction of “Leon Ganibctta” by .Austrian Subniarine U ii. 

85. — Obv., On band, LEON GAMBETTA S. M. U. 5 27. 4. 1915. Cruiser 
sunk by submarine. Signed Hans pchwalke. Rev., ROTES KREVZ — . 
Austrian Red Cross Series. 4 Omni. 

We now come to the most celebrated of the propaganda medals — the 
Lusitania medal, which, while issued a,s a private speculation, did much to 
increase the loathing felt by all civilized peoples for German military 
methods. 


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THE numismatist 


1015, May 7. The Lusitania. 

86. — Obv., GESCHAFT UBER ALLEfi. Death selling tickets from booth 
marked CVNARD LINIE. Below, on booth, FAHRKARTE | AUSGABE. 
One of the crowd of would-be passengers is reading von Bernstorff's notice 
of danger. Signed L. G(oetz). Rev., KEINE B ANN WARE. A sinking 
ship. Below, DER GROSSDAMPFER | “LUSITANIA” DURCH EIN 
DEUTSCHES [ TAUCHiBOOT VERSBNKT ! 5 MAI 1915. 57mm. Bronze. 



No. S6 — The Lusitania Medal. 


It will be noticed that the date is given as May 5th, whereas the Lusitania 
was not torpedoed until the 7th. Considering that the medals appeared 
with suspicious promptness after the catastrophe, is it too much to assume 
that High Authority gave a hint to Goetz of what w'as coming and made 
a slight miscalculation as to the day w'hen the Lusitania was to be off the 
Irish coast? Copies of the medal struck more recently have the correct 
date, 7 MAI. 

87. — Obv., HEI.MTUCKE. U. GEWAR.VTER. LEICHTSINN. AN BORD. 

D. LUSITANIA. Skeleton leaning over sinking ship. Signed in field, WE, 
and in exergue, W EBERBACH. Rev., In a cartouche, DE.M VERACH- 
TER 1 DER ! WARNU.NG I WOODROW WILSON. 1916. 69mm. Iron. 

This is one of Eberbach’s “danse macabre” series, in which skeletons 
play a leading part. With its cool eft'rontry, von Bernstorff's “warning.” 
referred tc on the medal, did perhaps as much as anything to inflame the 
Ameiacan people. 

The Lusitania is also referred to on the following medal. 

88. — Obv., NACH P.A.RIS. 1914. A Valkyrie with torch riding west- 
wards. Rev.. LOUVAIN. THE LUSITANIA. EDITH CAVELL, CAPf. FRY- 
ATT, THE ZEPPELIN VICTIMS. “THE PRL'SSIAN IS CRUEL BY BIRTH. 
CIVILIZATION WILL -MAKE HIM FEROCIOUS.” GOETHE. Silvered. 
Obverse from die captured by the French. 

Another reference to the Lusitania will be found under date of Nov. 9, 
1916 (the Balfour Propaganda medal). 

lttl.5, May 24. .Austrian .Activity at I’crto Uiiisini. 

89. — Obv., NICOLAUS V. HORTHY. KOMM. S. .M. S. “NOVARA.” Bust 

to left. Signed W. SZ.-'SZ. Rev., Above, on band, S. M. S. NOVARA. In 
laurel wreath, a cruiser. Ex.. PORTO CORSINL 1915 V. 24. I SAN GIO- 
VANNI DI MEDUA. XII. 5. OTRANTO 1916 V. 9 ET 1917 V. 16. 38mm. 

Iron. 

90. — Obv., M (sic). VON. HORTHY. KOM. S. M. S. NOVARA. Head to 
left. Below, a dophin. Rev., .A.NO. D. MCMXVI. Novara in action. 38mm. 
Iron. 

)Vhile this nMght perhaps better have come under 1916. I prefer to give 
it here with the other von Horthy medal. He was later commander-in- 
chief of the Austrian navy. 


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JIITLY, 1920. 


297 


lOl.l, July 2.S. E.xocution of Captuin Fryatt. 

Captain Fryatt of the "Brussels” was summarily shot tor the imperti- 
nence of trying to ram a submarine — the U 53 — intent on s.nking him. 
He is referred to on No. 88. 

1015, .August 10. Geriiuin .Activity Off Higa. 

91. — “Fame” Series. No. 99. Obv., GOTT, etc. Rev.. VORSTOS3 | 

PEUTSCHER SEE j STREITSKRAFTE I. D. RIGAISCHE.N j .MEERBU- 
SEN 1 19. AUG. 1915. 15mm. Silver. 

1015, .August 10. The Bamlong .Affair. 

92. — Obv., B.AR.ALONG 1 MOERDER. Hand holding dagger with Union 
Jack on cuff. In field to left. 19. A\'G over spray of laurel. To right, 1915. 
Rev., HEIMKEHR DES SIEGERS. King of England decorating the cap- 
tain of the Baralcng. To right stands the Queen holding a wreath, on the 
ribbon of which is DEN KULTU3 KAMPFERN. Ex., K. G(oetz). 57mm. 
Bronze. Iron. 

The German certainly made the most of “Engli.ih Atrocities.” The Bara- 
long is referred to also on No. 104. 

101.5, September 24. .Abus«“ of .American Flag. 

93. — Obv., Fist issuing from sea threatens English flag on which is U 41 
in the quarters. Signed K. G(oetz). Rev., 24. SEPTEMBER. German 
sailor swimming toward a ship on which a sailor is substituting the Am.erl- 
can flag for the British, while the captain points a revolver at the swim- 
mer. 56mm. Iron. 

1015, December .5. .Austrian .Activity at .San Giovanni rti >le«lua. (See No. 

89.) 

1016. Kaid on England by U 16. I have been unable to find the exact date. 

9 4.— Obv., .U.22 : L 19 -h E.NGLAND. DAS. MASS. 1ST. VOLL. Death 
with clinched fists rushing through Channel towards England. .Above, a 
Zeppelin in cloud. Rev., EXORIARE ADLQUIS. NOSTRIS i EX. OSSIBUS 
I VLTOR. Above, the German flag. Border of bursting bombs. 70mm. 
Iron. Schulman. LXV'II, 675F. By Eberbach. 

Next I give a number of medals of 1916, of which it is difficult to know 
the exact date. 


English Dominion of the Se:i. 

liord Fisher. .Admiral. Commander in Chief of Navy. 

95. — Obv., BRIT.A.NNI.A. RULE THE. WAVES. THROUGH ? Skeleton 
resting upon a sinking dreadnaught. Signed, in field WILH EBER BACH. 
Rev., In pentagonal cartouche, DEM ERSTEN , SEELORD | FISHER | 1916 
! trident. 70mni. Iron. One of the “danse macabre” series. Schulman 
LXVIl, 675.A, figure of obverse. 

.American Protest .Against British Interference AVith I’ostnl Heiwice. 

96. — Obv.. I.NTERESSEN GE.MEINSCHAFT VERBIETER SCHON. Half 
figure of Wilson, facing, making a speech. Factories in rear. Rev., 
SCH.ARFEN PROTEST .AN ALBION. English sailor removing mailbags 
from U. S. ship. On bags, 1916 POST R.AVB. Signed K G(oetz). 57mm. 
Iron 

Demarkation at Salonika. 

97. — Obv., DIE BESCHVETZER DER NEVTRALEN. Pallas Athene 

standing on shore with her feet bound by two sailors in ships. Rev., 
GRIECHE.NLAND VND DIE FREVNDES HAND. Hand issuing from ciouds 
oppressing owl in column dividing 19 16. 56mm. Iron. By K. Goetz. 

The English claimed that the Tr.bantia was sunk by a submarine, but 


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THE NUMISMATIST 


the Germans denied this, although fragments of German torpedoes were 
found in lifeboats. 

The Tubantia Case. 

98. — Obv., ENGLANDS. GRUSS. AX. DIE NEUTRALE. TUBANTIA. A 

skeleton seated, back to observer, holding mine and torpedo in raised hand. 
In rear, the Tubantia. Signed W Eberbach. Rev., In hexagonal cartouche, 
+ ES. KAXN. DER | BESTE. NICHT. IM | FRIEDEN. LEBEN .WEXX 
.ES .DEM i BOSEN. NACHBAR | NICHT , GEFALLT | 1916. 70mm. Iron. 

Austrian Flotteii Verein. 

99. — Obv., Resting on sea, the arms of the societv. By Malloria. Rev., 

OSTERREICH: | PLOTTEN VEREI.N [ ORTSGRUPPE OSTRAU | KAR- 
WINER REVIER ] WELT KRIEG 1915 ' 1916. 90mm. Iron. Octa- 

gonal. 

Irony of History. Sir Francis Drake. 

100. — Obv., FRANZ DRAKE. Bust in armor facing. By M. & W. (Mey- 
er & Wilhelm). Rev., FRANZ DRAKE | HEISS DER BRAVE MANN | DER 
VOR 200 JAHREN VON ENGLAND NACH AM ERIKA | ALS KAPITA.N 
GEFAHREN | UNDDER, ALS ER ZURUCKE KAM | VON SEINEN WEIT- 
EN REISEN, I DIE OUTER DINGER MITGEBRACHT. DIE WIE KAR- 
TOFFELN HEISSEN * 1 DIESE NUTZ LICHE FRUCHT VERDANKEN 
WIR DE.MSELBEN STAATE, DER UNS JETZT AUSHUNGERN WILL 
1916 I IRONIE DER WELTGESCHICHTE | UND POLITIK. 33mm. Arg. 
Zinc-gilt. 

1910, January 11. Boiiibardnient of Mt. Lov«'en by “Hadetzky.” 

101. — Obv., 1914 WELTKRIEG 1916. Head of Franz Josef in laurel 
wreath. Below, .S.M.S. RADETZKY. By R. Placht. Rev., View of cruiser 
with mountains in rear. By J. Prinz. 50mm. Bronze. 

Badge of 63rd Infantry Division mentions Lovcen. 

102. — Obv., 1915 SABAC VALJEVO UZICE POZECA JVANJICA 1916 
SJENIC.Y LOVCEN SKUTARI DURAZZO. Two soldiers carrying gun up 
mountain. In distance, two cruisers. Below, 63. I. T. D. 44x29mm. Zinc. 
By Lanyi. 

There are two medals of von Koevess, General in command of Austrian 
forces attacking Mt. Lovcen, but they have no naval allusions. 

1910, February 2. Refusal of t'aptain of Trawler King Stephen to Rescue 

Ci'ew of the Wi'eck»*d L 19. 

103. — Obv., A half-sunken Zeppelin. On its stern a group of sailors 

shaking their fists at the departing trawler. Above, the sinking sun, across 
which 1L9. Rev., The Divine Eye 1 FLVCH. DEN. BRITEN | ZVR. SEE. 
FLVCH. EVREM SCHLECHTEN. GEWISSEN ' HILFE SVCHENDE. 
SCHIFF I BRVE CHIGE. HABEN. VNTER 1 GEHEN MVE SSEN scales 
over K. 2.2, G ] 1916. 57mm. Iron. 

1915, August 17. The Honor of the English Flag. Halfour. 

104. — Obv., ENGLI9CHE PLAGGENEHRE. A nude two-headed w’oman 
(England), one of her faces masked, kneeling on ship marked U. S. A., 
surrounded by smaller vessels, one of which is marked K. STEFFEN and 
another BARALONG. She holds a huge flag, on which USA HOLLAND 
NORW’EGEN SCHWED. DAN. Ex., 1914-? Rev., ARTHUR BALFOUR | 
DE.M . ERSTEN. LORD. DER. 1 GROSSBRITANNIS CHEN | ADMIRALI- 
TAT, all engraved. A submarine below. Border decorated with waves. 
83mm. Iron. Schulman, LXVII, 659. 

1916, February. Capture of Ap|Kiin by Dohna-Sehhxlleii of the Mowe. 

The Appam was subsequently brought into Newport News and there in- 
terned. 


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105. — Obv., KORVETTENKAPITA.N GRAF ZU DOH.XA-SCHLOlDlEN en- 
graved. Bust in uniform to right. By BHM(eyer). Rev., Field divided 
into two compartments. In the upper, the Appam surrounded by war ves- 
sels alternating with torpedoes. In the lower, UIE VO.N DER DEUTSCHEN 
MOVVE ERBEUT ETE ExVGLISCHE APPAM, FEBRUAR 1916. Below, a 
gull (Mowe) with nsh in beak. 60mm. Arg. 40mm. Arg. 

It«*rg (Lieutenunt) on Mowe. 

106. — Obv., Bust a little to left, with view of sea and lighthouse at en- 
trance of Weser. In Held to right, LEUT.VANT BERG. By BH.M(eyer). 
Rev., As last. 60mm. Arg. Bronze. 40mm. Arg. Bronze. 

1916, March 4. Return of Mowe. 

107. — Obv., S. M. S. MOWE. HEI.MKEHR. A seagull (Mowe) with fish 
in beak flying past, and in passing striking with wing a sea monster in shell 
armed with cannon and bearing English flag. Rev., In cartouche formed 
by two dolphins, DAS WELTMEER BE HERRSCHENDE ALBION 1 
ZEICHNET IN GOLD | EINE .MILLION. Above, 4. MARZ | 1916. Below, 
IV. REICHS KRIEGS 1 ANLEIHE. 56mm. Iron. ByKOfoetz). 

Return of Mowe. Admiral Dutlley de Chair. 

108. — Obv., Two walruses on guard on rocks. Between them flies a sea 
gull (the Mowe) with flsh in beak. Ex., ornament WIE DIE .MOWE orna- 
ment 1 DER SEELOWBN 1 SPOTTET. Rev., DEM | BRITISCHEN 1 VICE 
ADMIRAL I DUDLEY DE CHAIR | GE WID.MET. 83mm. Iron. Scluil- 
man, LXVII, 664. 


Return of Mowe. Dohna-Schlodien. 

109. — Obv., KORVETTE.NiKAPITAEN GR.AF ZU DOHNA SCHLODIEN. 
Bust in uniform to right. By M. Gotze. Rev., Nude man standing with 
raised arms at mouth of Weser watching return of Mowe. Above, a sea 
gull. In Held to right S. .M. S. MOW'E. 103mm. Iron. 33mm. Arg. 

no. — Obv., KORV. KAPT. NIKOLAUS BURGGRAF GRAF ZU DOHNA- 
SCHLODIE.N'. Bust to right. By E. W(rede). Rev., Sea gull flying over 
Viking-ship. 33mm. Arg. Iron. 

111. — Obv., .KOM .S .M .S .MOEWE .GRAF .DOHNA .SCHLODIEN. 
Naval bust to right. In Held to left, mark of artist. Rev., Cruiser with 
bow ornamented with immense seagull. Smoke and flag blow in different 
directions. Ex., .ANNO .D ..MCMXVI. 85mm. Cast bronze. Schulman, 
LXXV, 890. 

1916. Dohna Sclilodien. 

112. — Obv., KORVETTENKAPITAN. BURGGRAF. | GR.\F ZU DOHNA- 
SCHLODIE.N 1916. Bust to left with bare head. Rev., DIE MOWE IM 
ATLANTISCHEN OCEAN. Head of seagull with flsh in beak. Below, ED- 
WARD VII. FARRINGFORD. CORBRIDGE | DRONOMBY. AUTHOR. TRAD- 
ER. ARIADNE I torn in assault and battery, or land in jail, like those 
fourteen men in London, on a charge of manoeuvering against the security 
of the realm. Of course, you may get off, but profits would be eaten into 
by lawyer's fees, stamped paper and cost of restaurant meals sent into your 
cell W'hile aw'aiting bail. 

The danger of drink comes from changing your French bank notes in 
cafes. The waiters w'ill always give you silver, nickel and copper change 
to make up ,'j francs, and the rest in 5-franc bank notes. The fight comes 
when you firmly refuse postage stamps in s’nops, or try to buy up silver 
in bulk from street car conductors, market women, cashiers or bill col- 
lectors. 

Jail lurks with it. 

You see, all these fellows have their own private customers for all the 
fractional silver they can lay hands on. or else are really truly patriotic. 

Which being the case, it w'ould be a w'aste of science to tell you how to 
get across the French frontier into Switzerland (or into Spain) with the 
bag. 

The bag w'ould be empty. 


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But if you should manage to have a lot of silver coin in it, they would 
sure take it away from you. 

-Sohody can get acioss tae French frontier with silver coin. 

At nearby r rench resoits, like uivonue, natives and sanatorium boarders 
obtain froiitier cards, ” good for a two-day trip into Switzerland and per- 
mitting tne bearer to carry in nis (or Her) pockets 10 francs worth of 
cnange in silver and lOo iraiics in rrencn bank notes. Parties of sight- 
seers linger aiouna tne posts to see automobile parties and entire train- 
loads searched tor ‘ the excedent” — anything over. Tne eternal feminine 
hides it down eternally in the eternal safe-deposit bulge of femininity. 

lourists wita a passport nave a rignt to taae out of France 20 francs 
in silver coin ana 1,000 francs in Frencn bank notes. 

Now you see one reason why silver coin is so scarce in France — and just 
as scarce everywnere else in Europe except in Switzerland, Spain and a 
few like sponges of humanity. (It is not tne Swiss, you understand, who 
Search you. Ihe Bank of France can print baniv notes, commodiously 
and cheaply. But to coin a silver dollar (which is likely to immediately 
disappear) today costs ?1.30 in France and about the same in England, 
even, wnich is tne gold and silver market of the world. At the recent new 
record price of 82 Vi pence per ounce, to which silver jumped in London, 
tne silver in a shilling became worth something more than ls3d and the 
silver in half a crown worth 3slVid. These values cannot, of course, be 
legally realized, because the laws in the various countries pievent the silver 
coinage from bemg melted down or exported. 

So it has to be done illegally. 

Every day, in ootii France and England, tney are catching parties ped- 
dling and fences accepting silver bullion so imperfectly melted down that 
outlines, dates, letters and devices of coins are visible, here and there, on 
this or tnat surface, it taaes a lot of heat to make silver as liquid as 
molasses. Only the competent and well provided should attempt it. Tney 
get there O. K. 

Please do not think that it is bleeding France alone that watches her 
disappearing silver. The bociie has none to melt — I mean, in circulation. 
As tor us Americans, tlie recent decision of the United States Treasury to 
melt up 10 , 000,000 silver dollars and use the ingots for setling trade bal- 
ances in China has brought to lignt tne fact tnat the American doliar is 
at a discount in several oriental countries — as it was, up to recently, in 
Switzerland and Spain — including China and India. 'ihis astonishing 
condition (in the general disruption of exchange) is brought about by im- 
mense trade balances in favor of China and India which have piled up in 
the United States and in Europe. The demand has been for payment in 
silver, and the price of tnat metal has advanced gradually to a point which 
makes the amount of pure silver in an American dollar worth considerably 
more than the face value of the