Month: juli 2014

Women in power 1450-1500

1450-51 Regent Duchess Catharina van Kleef of Geldre and Zutphen (The Netherlands)

Catharina van Kleef, Regent of Geldre and Zutphen

Catharina van Kleef, Regent of Geldre and Zutphen

During the pilgrimmage of her husband, Duke Arnold van Egmond (1410-1473), Duke of Gelre and Count of Zutphen she regiend together with a council consisting of members of the States. She was politically influential and during the powerstruggle between har husband and her son, Adolf van Egmont, she sided with her son. A daughter, Mary was Queen of Scotland and another, Catharina, regent of Guelders 1477-82. Catherine of Cleves lived (1417-1476)

Around 1450 Chieftainess Sharifa Fatima of the Zaydi (Yemen)

Daughter of the religious leader, Imam al-Zayel al-Nasir Li Din Allah, she and her tribe took San’a by force of arms in the mid 15th century.


Circa 1450 and 1484-… Regent Dowager Queen Nang Han Lung of Möng Mint (Myanmar-Burma)

Ruled in the name of her son, Si Wai Fae, and acted as head of one of the Shan – ethnic Thai – states in Burma. The state is also known as Momeik and had the ritual name Gandalarattha.


1450-82 Reigning Dowager Lady Countess Mechthild von der Pfalz of Böblingen, Sindelfingen, Aidlingen, Dagersheim, Darmsheim, Dettenhausen, Döffingen, Holzgerlingen, Magstadt, Maichingen, Ostelsheim, Schönaich and Steinenbronn in Württemberg (Germany)

Mechthild von der Pfalz

Mechthild von der Pfalz

After the death of her husband Ludwig von Württemberg she was in a yearlong dispute with her brother-in-law Ulrich and her brother Pfalzgraf Friedrich over the guardianship of her two sons. In the end she retired to her dowry, before she married Archduke Albrecht VI, the younger brother of Emperor Friedrich III, though they mainly lived apart, from 1456 mainly lived in Rottenburg, but she remained in the possession of her main dowry Böblingen. Her court was an intellectual and cultural centre and she promoted convents, churches and the University of Tübingen. She lived (1419-82).


1450-54 Princess-Abbess Agatha von Stadion of Heggbach (Germany)

Member of the noble family von Stadion zu Börningheim that supplied the church with many bishops, imperial abbots and Princess-Abbesses throughout the centuries. She resigned and (d. 1480).


Around 1450 Princess-Abbess Johanka z Risenberka of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prague (The Czech Republic)

The St. Georg auf dem Hradschin zu Prag, Sankt-Georg Kloster or Sv. Jiri was the oldest convent in the Bohemian Lands founded in 973 by Prince Boleslav II and his sister, Mlada. The Abbess of was named Princess-Abbess in 1348 with the right to crown the Queens of Bohemia. During the reign of Josef II the Chapter was abolished in 1782.Johanka was daughter of Děpolt z Risenberka (d. 1474) and Kateřina Sokolová z Lemberka (d. 1470).


Around 1450 Reigning Abbess Germaine de Chambray of Montvilliers (France)

Daughter of Jean III de Chambray, seigneur de Chambray and Gilette Cholet


Around 1450 Reigning Abbess Jeanne de Chambray of Montvilliers (France)

Succeeded her relative Germaine de Chambray at a not known time.


1451-53/54 Regent Dowager Duchess Chiara Giorgio of Athenai (Greece)

Also known as Chiara Zorzi, Clara or Claire, she was charge of the government after the death of her husband, Raineri II Acciajulo, who was duke of Athens 1435-39 and again from 1441 until his death 10 years later. He was involved in the fights against the Ottomans, who conquered Constantinople a few years later. She was regent for her son Francesco I. She fell in love with the Venetian Bartolomeo Contarini, who murdered his wife in order to stay with her and marry her in Athens in 1453. However, Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire intervened at the insistence of the people on the behalf of her son and summoned her and her lover to his court at Adrianople. Another member of the Acciajuoli family, Francesco II, was sent to Athens as a Turkish client duke and she was thus deprived of her power in the city. Evidently, the citizenry had mistrusted the two lovers influence over the young duke, for whose safey they may have feared. The new duke had her murdered and Bartolommeo appealed to the sultan for justice. Athens was taken into Turkish hands and the new Duke deposed. She was the daughter of Nicholas III Zorzi, the titular margrave of Bodonitsa, and renowned for her beauty. (d. 1454).


1451-64 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Brandenburg of Pommern-Stettin (Poland)

After both her husband, Joachim and his cousin Barnim VIII. von Pommern-Barth, had died of the plague, she took over the regency for her son, Otto III (1444-64) together with her brother, Elector Friedrich II. von Brandenburg, who was the co-guardian. In 1454, she married Duke Wartislaw X von Pommern-Rügen und Barth (1435-78) and became mother of two more sons, who died of plague like their older brother in 1564. She lived (1425-65).


1451-61 Governor Queen Juana Enriquez de Mendoza y Fernández de Cordoba of Navarra
1461-62 Governor of Cataluña
1466-68 Presiding over the Cortes of Aragón (Spain)

Also the 5th Lady of Casarrubios del Monte, she was very influential during the reign of her husband, Juan II of Aragón, who took over the crown of

 Juana Enriquez de Mendoza y Fernánde

Juana Enriquez de Mendoza y Fernánde

Navarra after the death of his first wife Queen Blanca I (1391-41). After he tortured Don Carlos, his son by Blanca to death in 1461 the nobles of Catalonia offered the crown to various neighbouring kings and princes who held to e principality for brief periods until 1479 when Juan won the battle. She was daughter of Fadrique Enríquez de Mendoza and Marina de Ayala, mother of one son and three daughters, and lived (1425-68).


1451-78 Princess-Abbess Adelheid V Trüllerey genannt von Trostberg of Schänis (Switzerland)

Even though the chapter had become part of the Swiss Confederation in 1438, the Abbess still used the title of a Princess of the Holy Roman Realm (Fürstin des Heiligen Römischen Reiches). Her sister, Adnes, was Meisterein (Mistres) in Hermetschwil. They were daughters of Rüdiger von Trullerey, of a noble family from Aargau and Schaffenhausen in Switzerland, which also had possessions in Germany, and Anes from Trostberg.


1451-87 Politically Influential Sultanina Mara Branković of the Ottoman Empire (Covering The Balkans, what is now Greece, Turkey, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

Also known as Sultana Marija, Mara Hatun, Maryam Khanum, Despina Hatun or Amerissa, she was daughter of Durad, Despot of Serbia, and when she

Mara Esfigmen

Mara Esfigmen

was married to the Ottoman sultan Murad II in 1433 her dowry was the larger part of Serbia. She had no children of her own but was close to her husband’s son, Mehmed II the Conqueror (1430-51-81), and she was very influential during his reign from 1451, and he often called upon her for advice. She later held court at Ježero in Macedonia surrounded by exiled Serbian nobles, 1461 she was joined by her sister, Catherine, widow of Ulrich II Cantacuzene of Cilly, and they lead an unofficial “foreign office” from Macedonia. In the war between Turkey and Venetia (1463-79) they played an important role as intermediaries and were employed by both sides as diplomatic agents. In 1471 Mara personally accompanied a Venetian ambassador to the Porte for negotiations with the Sultan. She retained her influence of the appointment of leaders of the Orthodox Church, and remained influential during Mehmed’s successor, Bayezid II. She lived (circa 1412-87).


1451-57 Reigning Abbess Marie III de Montmorency of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Daughter of Jean II de Montmorency, Seigneur de Beaussault and Isabelle de Nestlé, Dame du Plessis-Cacheleu. Her older sister, Catherine inherited the titles of dame de Beaussault et de Breteuil after the death of two of their brothers. Marie (d. 1461).


1452-60 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna of Teschen-Freistadt (Cieszyn) (Poland)

After the death of her husband, Bolesław II of Cieszyn, she ruled the Slesian Duchy for her son Kazimierz II. She was daughter of Duke Ivan Vladimirovich, Prince of Bielsk. (d. after 1490)


1452-58 Joint Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Nassau-Beilstein of Hanau (Germany)

When her son, Reinhard III von Hanau (1412-52) died one year after his father, Reinhard II, she became part of the regency for his son, Philipp I the Younger, together with his maternal grandfather, Pfalzgraf Otto I. von Pfalz-Mosbach and her youngest son, Philipp I the Older, until the country was devided in 1458, when the latter became sole regent. Mother of 6 children, and (d. 1459).


1452-57 Joint Guardian Dowager Countess Margareta von Pfalz-Mosbach of Hanau-Lichtenberg (Germany)

When her husband, Reinhard III, died after only one year reign, she fought to secure the whole County for her oldest son, the 3 year old Philipp I the

Margareta von Pfalz-Mosbach, Guardian of Hanau-Lichtenberg

Margareta von Pfalz-Mosbach, Guardian of Hanau-Lichtenberg

Younger (1449-1500), according to principle of primogeniture which had been followed since 1475, but other members of the family wanted to divide the inheritance. Her mother-in-law, Katharina von Nassau-Beilstein, was able to secure the support of many of the relatives, the most important co-operations of the inhabitants of the County, most importantly the citizen of the the 4 cities; Hanau, Windecken, Babenhausen and Steinau, a number of associations and the vassals of the County. But Margareta and her father managed to keep the County undivided until her death. Born as Pfalzgräfin von Mosbach, and lived (1432-57).


1452-76 Sovereign Countess Marie d’Harcourt of Aumale (France)
1456-76 Sovereign Countess of Harcourt

Inherited the counties from her father Jean VII d’Harcourt, Count of Tancarville, and married to Antoine de Lorraine, Duke de Vaudémont in 1440 whose descendants inherited the duchy of Lorraine Lillebonne, Elbeuf, Aumale. She was succeeded her sister, Jeanne in Harcourt, and lived (1398-1476).


1452-56 Sovereign Countess Jeanne d’Harcourt of Harcourt (France)

Second daughter of Jean d’Harcourt, she was first married to Jean de Rieux Baron d’Ancenis (d 1431) and secondly to Bertrand de Dinan, Baron de

Marie d'Harcourt

Marie d’Harcourt

Châteaubriant, Marshal of Bretagne. Succeeded by sister, Marie, who had been Countess of Harcourt since 1452. She lived (1399-1456).


1452-62 Regent Dowager Duchess Barbara Rochemberg of Karniów-Rybnik and Pszczyna (Poland)

Widow of the Slesian Duke Mikołaj III.


1452-1485 Acting Governor Inés de Peraza de las Casas of The Canary Islands (Spain)
1452-1503 Reigning Lady of Lanzarote

Inherited the governorship from her father, Ferdinand de Peraza, together with her husband, Diego García de Herrera y Ayala, who was Governor by the rights of his wife (jure uxoris) but ruled the his absence and defend the islands. In 1576 there was a revolt against their rule because of their continued reclutings of islanders to fight against the „unfaithful islands”, but they won the battle, but Queen Isabel I took over the protection of Lanzarote and send a commission leaded by Estevan Perez de Cabitos to examine their rights over the Canary Islands and the following year they were given a large sum of money and the title of Countess and Count but was deprived of Tenerife, Canaria and La Palma. After her husband’s death in 1485 at the age of 60, the islands were divided among 2 of their 3 sons and 2 daughters. The daughters Maria de Ayala and Constanza de Sarmiento, split Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste among them. She was daughter of Inés de Las Casas, and lived (circa 1425-1503).


1452-67 Princess-Abbess Walburg zu Spiegelberg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Thrown out of the chapter by troops from Braunschweig in 1453. Her election was confirmed by the Pope in 1453, 1456, 1458 and 1465, but she was not able to claim her rights, and in 1467 she resigned.


1452-53 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne III de Chauvirey of Remiremont (France)

As sovereign of the territory she had the right to choose the mayor of Remiremont from a list proposed by the nobles of the city. The mayor’s deputy, the Grand Eschevin, was chosen by the mayor from a list of 3 candidates presented by the bourgeois of the city with her advice. Her family originated from Haute Saône south of Paris.


1453-67 De Facto Ruler Sophia IV zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Gandersheim (Germany)
1467-85 Princess-Abbess

The troops of her brother, Duke Heinrich III from Braunschweig pawed her way to the office by exiling Princess-Abbess Waldburg, and after Waldburg’s abdication in 1467 she was confirmed in the office. Sophia’s sister, Agnes II, reigned 1412-39. She lived (circa 1407-85).


1453 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth Selnhofer of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The sources show how her family paid 63 pound for her support when she entered the chapter.


1453-71 Queen Shin Saw Pu of Mons (Bartaban) (Myanmar-Burma)

Also known as Byih-nya Daw, Shinsawbu or Shengtsambu, she was daughter of Razadarit, king of the Mons in Hanthawaddy (Bago) in Lower

Queen Shin Saw Pu of Mons

Queen Shin Saw Pu of Mons

Myanmar, who was succeeded by her brother. She married Sinphushin Thihathu of Bamarl. After his death three years later, she married his successor Minhla Nge, who died after three months, and his successor Kalay Taung Nyo died after seven months. She then moved back to Hanthawaddy, which was then ruled by her brother King Byinnya Yan. Within a year he was succeeded by Byinnya Baru and Byinnya Gyan, before she finally became Queen of the Mons Kingdom. Her reign was peaceful, quiet and prosperous. She abdicated and retired to the Shwedagon Pagoda, built new pagodas and monasteries and devoted to rest of her life to religious activities. She died at the age of 79.She is still revered today for giving the pagoda its present shape and form. She gave her weight in gold (40 kg) to be beaten into gold leaf and used to plate the stupa.


1453-66 Regent Dowager Duchess Hedwig von Liegnitz of Hainau-Lüben (Chojnów-Lubin) (Poland)

Also known as Jadwiga Legnicka, she was the youngest daughter of Duke Ludwik II of Legnica-Brzeg and Elżbieta von Brandenburg (ruler of Legnica-Brzeg in 1436-38). In 1445 she married Duke Jan of Chojnów-Lubin. In 1446 she gave birth her only son, Duke Friederich (Fryderyk). Her husband died in 1453 and she became regent of the Slesian Duchy. She lived (circa 1430-1471).


1453-? Political Advisor and Head of Diplomatic Missions Sara Khatun of the Ak Kooyunlu (Azerbaian, Armenia, Western Iran, Iraq and Turkey)

After the death of Turali bek Akkoyunlu, she was able to stop the struggle for power among his sons and had her son, Uzun Hasan (1453-78) placed on the throne. He transformed the Akkoyunlu state into a powerful feudal empire. Apart from supporting him in his actions, she was in charge of diplomatic negotiations with foreign diplomats from Europe and the East. 1461 she was also send to negotiate with Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire who was about to conquer the neighbouring Empire of Trapezund, and was received by Mekhmed with great respect and honor. In the course of the talks, it was decided that the state of Akkoyunlu would remain neutral during Mekhmed IIs campaign against Trapezund, and Turkey would not go to war with Akkoyunlu. That accord had enormous importance for Akkoyunlu. Indeed, it was thanks to this agreement that the state of Akkoyunlu preserved its independence.


1453-1507 Leader and Spokesperson of the Byzantine Diaspora Anna Notaras Palaiologina in Venetia (Italy)

Together with two of her sisters, she had already been send to Italy when the Ottomans conquered Constantinople in 1454. Her father, Byzantine Grand Duke and Prime Minister, Loukas Notaras, and the rest of the family were killed. She became a leading member of the Byzantine Diaspora and 1471 she obtained the permission of the city authorities to establish a Greek colony in the Commune of Siena, but for an unknown reason it never materialized. Later moved to Venice where she worked for the right to establish an Orthodox Church against the wishes of the Catholic hierarchy. She used her mother’s surname Palaiologina and (d. 1507).


1454-94 Sovereign Lady Johanna van der Aa de Randeraedt of Veulen (Belgium)

Her husband, Willem de Mérode was co-lord until 1483. Succeeded by Willem de Mérode, who was probably her son.


1454-1501 Politically Influential Queen and Grand Duchess Elisabeth von Habsburg of Poland and Lithuania

Elisabeth von Habsburg

Elisabeth von Habsburg

Also known as Elzbieta Rakuszanka (of Austria), she was very influential during the reign of her husband, polish king and great duke of Lithuania, Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk and their son, Jan I (1492-1501). She was a daughter of Emperor Albrecht II von Habsburg, king of Bohemia and Hungary and Elisabeth of Bohemia-Hungaria (1437-48), and lived (1436–1505).


1454-62 Regent Dowager Duchess Barbara of Mazowsze (Poland)

Following the death of her husband Duke Bolesław IV, she ran the government in the name of her sons.


1454-80 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II Kröhl of Heggbach (Germany)

In 1467 she introduced a more sombre version of the convent life of the Cistercian order. Anna Gräter was “Anti-Abbess” in 1439, but apparently died after a few months in office. She was probably daughter of a citizen of Lindau.


1454-73 Princess-Abbess Elsa van Buren of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Became acting Vorstin-Abdis of the Ecclesiastical Territory, after Jacobäa van Heinsberg vacated the post, the former Abbess Mechtildis van Heine, did not die until 1459. Elsa was excommunicated because of her refusal to follow certain Papal decisions.


1454-64 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth Rentz of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Member of a seigneurial family.


1455-79 Lieutenant General Infanta Leonor Trastmara de Aragón y Navarra of Navarra (Spain)
1479 Queen Regnant

Queen Leonor I of Navarra

Queen Leonor I of Navarra

Daughter of Blanca I of Navarra and King Juan II de Aragón, and at the age of 2 she was acclaimed by the Cortes in Pamplona as the legitimate heir of her brother and sister; Carlos, Prince of Viana, and Blanca of Navarra, but when their mother died in 1441, their father ursurped the throne. She was appointed Governor General of the Kingdom in 1455 civil war broke out between her father and brother until the latter’s death in 1461. Her father made a treaty making her his heir, excluding her older sister, Blanca II, who was left with Foix and Moncada, but died in 1464. The following year she signed a treaty with the Beamontese using the title of “Primogenic Princess, Heiress of Navarra, Infanta of Aragón and Sicilia, Countess of Foix and Bigorra, Lady Béarn, Acting General for the Serene King, my wery reduptable lord and father in this his Kingdom of Navarra”. And when her father died, she succeeded him as monarch of Navarra, but died soon after. She was married to Gaston IV, count of Foix, and had 11 children with him. The oldest, Gaston died in 1470 and her daughter-in-law, Madelaine de Valois was regent for her two children, Francisco and Catalina who succeeded their grandmother. She lived (1425-79).


1455-58 Regent Dowager Duchess Eleonora of Scotland of Austria-Tirol
1467 Regent of Vorlanden (Austria)

In charge of the government in the name of her husband, Sigismund von Habsburg, who was abroad. They had no children, and she lived (1433-80).


1455-62 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Oleśnicka of Mazowsze-Bełz (Poland)
1455-1476 Reigning Dowager Duchess of Sochaczew
1455-81 Reigning Dowager Duchess of Płock
1476-before 1491 Reigning Dowager Duchess of Koło, Brdów, Bolimów, Mszczonów and Stare Wikitki

After the death of her husband, Władysław I of Masovia-Plock she reigned in the name of her sons Siemowit VI and Władysław II. Both sons died in 1462. She was daughter of Duke Konrad V Kantner of Oleśnica and Małgorzata and lived (1420/30-before 1491).


1455-73 Princesse-Abbesse Alix de Paroye of Remiremont (France)

Held the office of Dame Doyenne and Second-in-Command 1452-55. In 1468 the territory was hit by plague.


1455-81 Sovereign Countess Françoise de Châtillon of Périgod, Vicomtesse de Limoges and Dame d’Avesnes (France)

Daughter of Isabelle, who reigned 1317-28 and succeeded father, Guillaume de Châtillon-Blois, dit de Bretagne, vicomte de Limoges, Seigneur d’Avesnes. Married to Alain d’Albret Le Grand, Seigneur d’Albert, Comte de Graves, Vicomte de Tartas (1440-1522), who was joint ruler 1470-1522. She (d. 1481).


1455-73 Princesse-Abbesse Alix de Paroye of Remiremont (France)

Held the office of Dame Doyenne and Second-in-Command 1452-55. In 1468 the territory was hit by plague.


1456-79 Princess-Abbess Kunigunde von Egloffstein of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of a Swiss noble family, originating in Burg Egloffstein now in Bavaria, and divided into various sidelines.


Around 1456 Reigning Abbess Ursula von Mirlingen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Also sovereign over a number of possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace.


1456-80 Hereditary Countess Margaret of Celje (Slovenia)

Daughter of Ulrich III of Cilli (1406-1456), who was supporter of Queen Elisabeth of Bohemia and her son, Ladislaus V Posthumous, and virtually regent of the kingdom. Margaret married Count Herman of Montfort and Duke Vladislav of Teschen (d. 1456).


1456-89 Hereditary Lady Elisabeth von Sirck of Furbach, Monklar and Meinzberg, The Fief of Lützelburg and other Lordships (Germany)

Elisabeth von Sirck, Gräfin zu Sayn inherited the Lordships from her uncle, Jacob von Sirck, Kurfürst von Trier and her father and her possessions were

Elisabeth von Sirck, Gräfin zu Sayn

Elisabeth von Sirck, Gräfin zu Sayn

incorporated into the County of Sayn. Her husband, Gerhard II, Count of Sayn, Lord of Homburg, (1452-1493), was an influential statesman in the German Empire and was named Stadholder of the Westphalian Courts. She was mother of 9 sons and 7 daughters, though most of them died as infants. She was first married to a Count of Zweibrücken, and lived (1435-89).


1457-1515 Sovereign Dame Claudine Grimaldi of Monaco, Sovereign Dame of Mentone and Roccabruna, Baroness di San Demetrio


Claudine Grimaldi, Dame of Monaco

Daughter of Seigneur Catalan Grimaldi and reigned jointly with her husband and relative Lamberto Grimaldi d’Antibes during their marriage 1458-94 and with sons Jean II 1494-1505 and Lucien 1505-23. She lived (1451-1515).


1457-58 Regent Dowager Dame Pomellina Fregoso of Monaco

Took over the regency for her granddaughter, Claudine, after the death of her son Catalan Grimaldi di Monaco, Signore de Monaco et Menton (1454-57). Her husband, Jean I, who had initially ruled with his two brothers, were taken prisoner of the Duke of Milano who threatened to kill him if Monaco was not released to his power, but her tough and courageous attitude was catalyst to his release. Her daughter-in-law, Blance del Caretto, died in 1458. Born as Pomellina Campo Fregoso to a noble Genoese family, she lived (1387/88-1468).


1457-58 Captain-Donatary Isabel Moniz of Porto Santo in Madeira (Portugal)

Succeeded her husband, Bartolomeu I Perestrelo (1425-57), to the office of capitano donataria, which meant that she was governor of the Island and had full control over the domain. She held the office of judge, could make land grants. er daughter, Felipa Moniz e Perestrello, was married to Christopher Columbus in Lisabon, where the family had moved. But later they moved back to Porto Santo in the Madeira islands, to live with her son, who had been handed over his Hereditary Captainship (Capitão Donatário do Porto Santo) about 1476. She was daughter of Vasco Martins Moniz and Brites Pereira, and lived (circa 1430-after 1480).


1457-62 Princess-Abbess Walpurgis Aigler of Baindt (Germany)

As Fürstäbtissin had the right to be represented on the on the College of Prelates of Swabia which had one joint vote in the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Council of Princes of the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


1457-75 Reigning Abbess Marie IV de Bretagne of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor Berenger of Provence. The order had suffered severely from the decay of religion, which was general about this time, as well as from the Hundred Years War. In the three priories of St-Aignan, Breuil, and Ste-Croix there were in all but five nuns and one monk, where there had been 187 nuns and 17 monks at the beginning of the thirteenth century, and other houses were no better off. In 1459, a papal commission decided upon a mitigation of rules that could no longer be enforced, and nuns were even allowed to leave the order on the simple permission of their priories. Dissatisfied with the mitigated life of Fontevrault, she moved to the priory of La Madeleine-les-Orléans in 1471. Here she deputed a commission consisting of religious of various orders to draw up a definite Rule based on the Rules of Blessed Robert, St. Benedict, and St. Augustine, together with the Acts of Visitations. Sixtus IV finally approved the resulting code in 1475, and four years later it was made obligatory upon the whole order. She lived (1442-77).


1457-59 Reigning Abbess-General Maria de Almenárez of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

In the same way as Bishops, she held her own courts, in civil and criminal cases, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.


1457 Rebellion Leader Elizabeth Szilágyi in Hungary

Szilágyi Erszébet was widow of Hunyadi János (John Corvinius) (circa 1387-1456), Baron of Szolnok and Count of Temesvár, Regent of Hungary 1446-

Elizabeth Szilágyi

Elizabeth Szilágyi

53 during the minority of Lazslo V Postumus. Together with her brother, Michael, she led an open revolt against the king who held her son, Matthias Corvinus (Mátyás Hunyadi), as prisoner. Fierce but indecisive fighting continued for months and was ended only by the news of Ladislaus V’s premature death in Prague in November 1457 without an heir. Her son was elected king by the Diet and crowned the following year.


1458-64 Queen Regnant Charlotte of Cyprus and Titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia

Charlotte of Cyprus

Charlotte of Cyprus

As she succeeded her father, Jean II, the Grand Caraman, the Turkish ruler of Caramania, seized the opportunity afforded by a weak government in Cyprus to capture Courico, the last Latin outpost in Armenia, which had been in the possession of the Lusignans since the reign of Pierre I. In 1453 the Ottoman Turks had expanded to the shores of the Bosporus and invested Constantinople by sea and land. While she had the support of the nobility, her half-brother Jacques the Bastard, had the sympathy of the Cypriot population, and had been led to believe that his father wished him to succeed to the throne. But the barons were too strong for him, and Jacques, although archbishop, was not allowed to take part in the coronation. In 1459 she married her cousin, count Louis of Savoy, and Jacques broke into open rebellion and took refuge in Cairo. Presenting himself to the sultan, who was suzerain of Cyprus, Jacques complained that, though next male heir to the throne, and he had been driven from the island, and appealed successfully for help to recover his inheritance.
In 1460, with a fleet of eighty Egyptian galleys, Jacques landed at Larnaca. The Cypriots, hating the Savoyards whom her husband had brought to the island, received him gladly, and he was soon master of the island. Charlotte and her husband took refuge in the castle of Kyrenia, where they were blockaded for three years. The castle, which was not actively attacked, was finally surrendered by the treachery of its commandant. They fled to Rome, where she died in 1487 after bequeathing her sovereignty to the house of Savoy. Her half-brother was renowned for his political amorality. She lived (1436-87).


1458-59 Regent Dowager Despotess Jelena Palaiologina of Serbia

Widow of Lazar II Brankovic (1456-58) and regent for son Stefan Brankovic. In 1459 Stefan Tomasevic was despot, but the same year the Ottoman

Jelena Palaiologina of Serbia

Jelena Palaiologina of Serbia

Turks finally conquered Serbia. Died as nun in 1473.


1458-86 Temporary Regent Margravine and Electress Anna von Sachsen of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Brandenburg-Kumblach and Brandenburg (Germany) 1486-1512 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office and Castle of Neustadt an der Aisch

Anna von Sachsen, Regent of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Brandenburg-Kumblach and Brandenburg

Anna von Sachsen, Regent of Brandenburg-Ansbach, Brandenburg-Kumblach and Brandenburg

After their marriage in 1458, she was in charge of the government during many absences from the state of her husband, Margrave and Elector Albrecht Achilles (1414-86), Margrave of Ansbach after the death of his father in 1440, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach after the death of his brother in 1464 and Elector of Brandenburg in 1470 after the abdication of his oldest brother and at the same time he inherited all the possessions of the House of Hohenzollern. After his death she resided at her dowry. She was mother of 13 children, and lived (1437-1512).


1458-79 Sovereign Countess Margaretha von Limburg and Broich (Germany)

Succeeded her father, Wilhelm and was married to Wilhelm von Buren and Gumprecht II von Neuenhar, and lived (1406-79).


1458-1511 Princess-Abbess Hedwig von Sachsen of Quedlinburg (Germany)

In 1465 Emperor Friedrich III confirmed her secular rights as Princess of the Realm (Reichsfürstin). 1477 the citizens of Quedlinburg raised arms to remove her, but she was supported by the Dukes Ernst und Albrecht with 400 mounted and 200 foot soldiers, who occupied the castle after a short fight and a little later the city capitulates. Hedwigs terms were written down in a treaty – among others she forced the Council of the City to leave the Hanse – the Northern German Trade Association. When the administration of the Holy Roman Empire was divided into Imperial Circles, Reichskreisen, in 1495, she became member of the Upper Saxon Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly. She was daughter of Kurfürst Friedrich II and Archduchess Margarete von Habsburg of Austria, and lived (1504-74).


1458-59 Politically Influential Dowager Despotess Helena Palaiologina of Serbia

Attemted to assume power together with her brother-in-law Stefan III Brankovic after the death of her husband Prince Lazar II Branković, as local Serbs

Helena Palaiologina

Helena Palaiologina

rebelled after Ottomans seized Smederevo in March 1458, taking Michael Andjelović prisoner. She arranged the marriage of her daughter to the King of Bosnia in an attempt to gather support for her position, but the Ottomans captured Smederevo during a major assault 20 June 1459 which marked the final end of the Serbian state. She fled with her two younger daughters to the island of Leukas, where she converted to Catholicism and became a nun as Hypomone. The daughter of Thomas Palaiologos, Ruler of Morea, and Catherine Zaccaria of the Principality of Achaea, she lived (1431-73).


1459-74 Hereditary Duchess Zofia of Pommern-Stolp (Pomerze-Słupsk) (At the time Germany, now Poland)
1474-83 Lady of Darłowo

She left her husband, Erich II of Pommern-Wolgast, Hinterpommern and Stettin (1425-74) and moved with her children to the Duchy of Rügenwalde alone only with the aid of her Lord-Chancellor Lord Ritter Johann von Massow. In 1459 Erich I (ex-king of Denmark) had died and left the Duchy of Hinterpommern without heirs. Sophia and Erik II hurried there because she saw herself as the sole heir, but the following year a war of succession broke out with various other pretenders. But she remained in her territories until her death. She was daughter of Bogusław IX and Maria, who had been regent for Erik I of Pommerania (ex-king Erik VII of Denmark). She lived (1435-97).


1459-89 Princess-Abbess Sophia III von Gleichen of Essen (Germany)

Member of a family of Counts of Gleichen in Thüringen.


Around 1459 Reigning Abbess Eva von Erpach of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Her family was Free Lords and Lords zu Erpach und Bickenbach in Odenwald and the city of Michelstadt.


1459-73 Reigning Abbess Ottilia Durchlacher of Gutenzell (Germany)

Emperor Sigismund confirmed the privileges of the Chapter in 1437, and they formed the legal foundation of the territory’s position as an independent state.


1459-77 Reigning Abbess-General Juana de Guzmán I of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas she possessed the privilege also to confirm Abbesses of subsidiary convents, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.


1459-79 Hereditary Lady Margarethe von Limburg of Bedbur and Hakenbroich (Germany)

Daughter of Wilhelm I, Count von Limburg (d. 1459) and Metza von Reifferscheid (d. 1437), and married to Gumprecht II von Neuenahr (d. 1484).


1460-63 (†) Regent Dowager Queen Mary of Guelders of Scotland (United Kingdom)

Maria de Gelders, Regent of Scotland

Maria de Gelders, Regent of Scotland

After the death of her husband, of James II, she was regent for her son, James III, and her adviser, James Kennedy, bishop of St. Andrews. After their deaths, James was seized (1466) by the Boyd family, who ruled Scotland until 1469. In that year James married Margaret, daughter of the Danish king, and began to rule personally. Maria de Gelders was daughter of Duke Arnold Gelders and Catherine of Cleves and lived (1432-63).


1460/65-74 Regent Dowager Countess Maddalena di Carreto of Gaustalla (Italy)

Widow of Pietro Guido I and regent for son Guido Galeotto.



1460-72 Regent Duchess Battista Sforza of Urbino (Italy)

Battista Sforza, Regent of Urbino

Battista Sforza, Regent of Urbino

In charge of the government during the absence of her husband, Duke Federico from the state. She was the daughter of Alessandro Sforza and Constanza da Varano. She lived (1446-72).


1461-64 Titular Queen Blanca II of Navarra (Spain)

Proclaimed Queen on the death of her brother, Carlo, but was imprisoned by her father Juan II, King of Aragon since 1458, who then became King of Navarra, and was succeeded by her younger sister, Leonor in 1479. Blanca II was married to Enrico IV of Castilla and Léon, until their marriage was annulled in 1454 because she had chosen to remain a virgin. She lived (1420-64).


1461-70 Regent Dowager Sultana Mhduma Gahan of Bahmani Sahi (India)

Ruled on behalf of her sons, Nizanu Shah (d. 1463) and Sams ad-Din Muhamed Shah II (1463-82).


1461-65 Member of the Regency Council The Dowager Queen, Makhduma-e-Jahan Nargis Begum of The Bahmani Deccan (Oudh) (India)

The widow of Humayun she was the mastermind of the Regency Council, which reigned for her son, Nizam-ud-din Ahmad III, who succeeded to the throne at the age of 8. He died on the night of his marriage, and was succeeded by his younger brother, Shams-ud-din Muhammad Shah III, who was between 9 and 10 years. When he got married at the age of 14, she retired from active role.


1461-72 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Anastasya Aleksandrovna of Suzdal of Tver (Russia)

After the death of her husband, Boris (1399-1425-61) she was regent for Mikhail III (1453-61-85-1505), the last Grand Prince of Tver. (d. 1483).


1461-80 County Sheriff Hebele Lydikesdatter of the County of Nygård, Denmark

Heble Kande or Kane was widow of Peder Eriksen Gyldenstierne and took over the function as County Sheriff (Lensmand) of the Tenantcy of the Bishop of Roskilde (Bispelensmand). She Chief of the Court (Hofmesterinde) of Queen Dorothea and allowed to enjoy the income of the City Tax of Odense. The daughter of Lydike Kane or Kande and Elsebe Daa, she lived (circa 1420-80).


1462 Politically Active Princess Katherine of Płock, Rawsk and Zawkrzew (Poland)

Engaged in politics since the death of her nephew, Prince Władysław II of Wisk, Płock, Płońsk, Rawsk, Sochaczew, Zawkrze and Bełz) in 1462, but she was deposed. Also an army leader. She had married the Lithuanian prince Michał 1440/45. She was daughter of prince of Mazowsze Siemowit IV and Aleksandra, a sister of king Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland, and lived (1409/20-after 1468).


Around 1462 Regent Dowager Duchess Barbara Ruska of Mazowsze-Warszawa (Poland)

The widow of Bolesław IV, she reigned jointly with the bishop of Płokck.


1462-74 Princess-Abbess Agnes II de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Member of the family of Mérode-Frankenberg, who were Guardians or Stewards if the Imperial Ecclesiastical Territory of Burtscheid. Its members were sometimes known as Merode sometimes as Franckenberg, but most Princess-Abbesses of Nivelle and of Burtscheid used the name of Franckenberg.


1462-71 Princess-Abbess Anna VI von Räns of Baindt (Germany)

The chapter was founded 1227 it’s Princess-Abbess had been Sovereign Ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory since around 1373 with the rank of a Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin).


1462-91 Reigning Abbess Jeanne IV d’Ailly of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Jeanne IV of Jouarre

Jeanne IV of Jouarre

The lands that was abandoned as a result of the war, weighed heavily on her and she constantly leased them out to the very poor. This was the origin of the association known as the “Usages” which still exists today.


Until 1462 Hereditary Countess Anastasia von Isenburg-Wied of Isenburg and Wied (Germany)

She was the last of her line and married Dietrich IV von Runkel. Their son, Friedrich IV, was created Count zu Wied in 1454.


1463 Regent Dowager Duchess Petronella Bembo of Naxos et de L’Archipel (Greece Island-State)

Second wife of Francesco II, 16th Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelagos, Lord of Syros, and regent for son Giacopo III (1446-63-80), whose daughter Fiorenza was Lady of Santhorini (1479-80), Namphios 1463, and Paros in 1520. The Turks attacked Andros in 1468 and 1470, and Naxos in 1477. His unnamed daughter held the island of Santorini as her dowry.


1463-1528 Sovereign Dame Fiorenza Crispo of Namfios (Greek Mainland)
1479-80 Sovereign Princess of Santhorini, Thera and Therasia (Greek Island-State)
1520-28 Sovereign Dame of Paros

Inherited the lordship from her father, Guglielmo II, Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelagos, Baron of Artrogidis, Lord of Milos, Santhorini, Andros, Delos, Ios, Paros and Co-Lord of Amorgos, who had succeeded his great nephew in 1453 as Duke of Naxos with the agreement of his nephew and co-regent Francesco, depriving his niece Adriana of her rightful inheritance as well as her right of inheritance, as it was also agreed that Francesco would succeed Duke Guglielmo. She was married to Luigi Barbaro (d. 1485). Domenico I Pisani, Lord of Antiparos, and lived (1463-1528).


1463-78 Dowager Queen Katarina Vukic Kosaca of Bosnia-Serbia

When the kingdom was occupied by the Ottomans in 1461, her husband Stjepan Tomasevic (1461-63) was killed and her son and daughter brought up

A Serbian Queen

A Serbian Queen

in the Islamic faith. She escaped and lived in exile in Rome where she died. As the legal representative of the Bosnian Kingdom, she left it to the Holy See. She lived (1424-78).


1463-65 Reigning Princess Isabelle de Clermont of Taranto, Titular Queen of Jerusalem (Italy)

Princess  Isabelle of Taranto

Princess Isabelle of Taranto

Isabella di Chiaromonte succeeded her uncle, Giovanni Antonio Orsini Del Balzo and had been married to Ferrante di Aragona since 1444/45, the natural son of Alfonso V of Aragon who had conquered the Napolitan kingdom from French Angevins. Her husband became King of Napoli in 1458 and through her claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The elder daughter of Tristan di Chiaramonte (Tristan de Clermont-Lodeve), Count of Cupertino, and Catherine Orsini Del Balzo di Taranto, daughter of Maria d’Enghien, she was mother of 6 children, and lived (circa 1424-65).


1463-74 Princess-Abbess Begina Grassler of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The Abbess had been a Prelate of the Realm in 1242 and member of the bank of the Swabian Prelates of the Realm in the Imperial Diet – Schwäbisches Reichsprälatenkollegium.


1463-69 Princess-Abbess Margaretha von Merwitz of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Elected Pröbstin of Frose in 1425, which meant that she was the head of that dependent chapter. She gave the tenantcies of “the Castle of Plötzkau with dependencies, the Stewardship of Gernrode and Badeborn, the Lord-service (herrendienst) and half of the excise of Gernrode, estates in Asmersleben, the income from Frose and a “free farm”, and some rights in Juezer, Balberge, Pösigkau und Möllendorf and the Sewardship of Walda” jointly to the to Sovereign Princes Georg I. von Anhalt-Zerbs, Adol and Albrecht in 1468.


Around 1463 Princess-Abbess Suzanne d’Eptingen of the Royal Abbey of Andlau, Lady of Wagenbourg and Marlenheim etc. (France)

Confirmed the fief, castle and village of Wangenbourg at Georges de Wangen and his brothers.


1464-1505 Sovereign Princess Marietta Da Korogna of Sifanto
1464-76 Sovereign Princess of Zia (Greek Island States)

Married to Nicolo Gozzadini II (Nikolaos B’ Goranidis or Gozadini). They reigned during very difficult times for the island, which was under attack from the Turks and experienced as serious reduction of the population.


1464-79 Baroness Regnant Catherine de Coarraze of Coarraze and Aspet (France)

When she succeeded her father, her husband, Count Mathieu de Foix had been dead for 11 years, and her reign was troubled by family feuds, and in 1479 she lost the Castle and Barony of Coarraze and withdrew to Aspet. Ruined by the feuds, she sold the barony to Jean de Foix, Vicomte de Narbonne in 1483, and sought refuge at he Castle of Durfort in the village of Galey in Couserans. The mother of two daughters, she lived (1431-92).


1464-1506 De-facto Ruler Ginevra Sforza of Bologna (Italy)

Totally dominated her second husband, Giovanni II Bentivoglio. Also her first husband, Sante Bentivoglio, ruled the state 1454 until his death in 1462.

Ginevra Sforza

Ginevra Sforza

She was illegitimate daughter of Alessandro Sforza, Lord of Pesaro, and she lived (1440-1507).


1464-83 Politically Influential Queen Elizabeth Woodville of England (United Kingdom)
1475 “Guardian of the Keeper of the Realm”

Queen Elisabeth Woodville of England

Queen Elisabeth Woodville of England

In 1464 she was married privately to King Edward IV, who reigned (1461-70 and 1471-83). Apparently she was a greedy, unscrupulous woman who insisted on the King showering lands and wealth on all her relations. In 1470 her husband was in exile and she had to take sanctuary at Westminster. In 1475 her infant old son, the later Edward V, was appointed “Keeper of the Realm” and she was named his guardian during her husband’s absence from the country. When her husband died she attempted to play a part in the regency but instead her marriage was declared invalid and she took sanctuary again. The most extraordinary point in her career was reached when the wily Richard III tempted her to come to his Court again and she went through some sort of reconciliation with him. Henry VII never trusted her and, in 1487, she went to reside in the nunnery at Bermondsey on a pension. She was daughter of Sir Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers, and Jacquetta, Duchess of Bedford, of the house of Luxemburg, and had first been married Sir John Grey of Groby, a Lancastrian, who fell at St. Albans in 1461. By him she had two sons. With Edward she had 10 children, among whom was Elizabeth of York, who married Henry VII and the “Princes in the Tower”, Edward V and his brother, Richard, Duke of York, who were murdered, apparently, by their uncle, Richard III. She lived (1437-65).


1464-96 Reigning Abbess Anna von Reischach von Reichenstein-Linz of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Resigned (d. 1499).


1464 Acting Lady Anne Jensdatter Present of Gotland (Sweden)

Acting Lensherre – representative of the king – jointly with brother-in-law Filip Axelsen Thott after the death of her husband, Oluf Axelsen Thott, whose third wife she was. She (d. 1485/87)


1465-97 De-Facto Reigning Duchess Sophia von Hinterpommern of Rügenwalde in Pommern (Poland)

Left her husband, Erich II of Pommern-Wolgast, Hinterpommern and Stettin (1425-74) and moved with her children to the Duchy of Rügenwalde alone

Sophia von Hinterpommern

Sophia von Hinterpommern

only with the aid of her Lord-Chancellor Lord Ritter Johann von Massow. In 1459 Erich I had died and left the Duchy of Hinterpommern without heirs. Sophia and Erich II hurried there because she saw herself as the sole heir, but the following year a war of succession broke out with various other pretenders. She remained in her lands until her death. She was daughter of Bogislaw IX von Hinterpommern and Sophie von Schleswig-Holstein. She lived (1435-97).


1465-75 Reigning Abbess Ursule de la Viefville of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Sister of Bonne, who reigned 1438-65.


1466-72 Female King Atotoztli of Tenochtitlán (Mexico)

Also known as Huitzilxochtzin. Sources indicate that she might have acted as tlatoani (King) of the kingdom during a six-year gap between the reigns of

Female King Atotoztli of Tenochtitlán

Female King Atotoztli of Tenochtitlán

Motecuhzoma I and Axayacatl. This possibility is raised by the document ‘Los Anales de Tula’. Another document, the ‘Relación de la genealogía’ goes even further, claiming that this Atotoztli actually ruled for more than thirty years. The reason so little is known about her reign because the official Aztec scribes—almost all of whom were men—neglected to mention the female tlatoani since female rulers were so uncommon. Thus, rather than mentioning her, most scribes filled this gap between male kings either by extending the reign of Motecuhzoma I beyond his death, or by pushing back the beginning of Axayacatl’s reign to a date before his actual inauguration. Shewas daughter of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma I and Chichimecacihuatzin, the daughter of Cuauhtototzin, the ruler of Cuauhnahuac, and married Tezozomoc, son of the previous emperor Itzcoatl, and gave birth to three sons who would later become emperors themselves: Axayacatl, Tizoc, and Ahuitzotl.


1466-69 Regent Duchess Yolande de Valois of Savoia, the Counties of Aosta, Moriana and Nizza and the Principality of Piemonte
1471-1472-78 Regent Dowager Duchess of Savoy (Italy)

Yolande de Valois

Yolande de Valois

Jolanda di Valois was in charge of the government during the illness of husband, Amedeo IX. With the help of her brother, King Louis XI of France, she managed to fight of the armed resistance of her three sons. After Amadeo’s death she became regent for her son, Duke Philiberto I of Savoy and Titular-king of Armenia, Cyprus and Jerusalem, who died 18 years old in 1482. She managed to manoeuvre between the interests of her brother and Charles, Duke of Burgundy. She was daughter of King Charles VII of France and Maria di Napoli, and lived (1434-78).

1466-94 Regent Dowager Countess Theda Ukena of Ostfriesland (Germany)

Grand-daughter of the Friesian chief Fokko Ukena and married Ulrich Cirksena who was created count of Ostfriesland in 1454 one

Theda Ukena, Regent of Ostfriesland

Theda Ukena, Regent of Ostfriesland

year after their marriage. After his death she was first regent for son Enno I, who drowned in 1491 and then for Edzard I. She successfully led her troops in warfare against other major chiefs and counts in the Friesland area.


1466-80 Dowager Reigning Lady Dowager Countess Katharina von Gemen of the Office and Castle of Gronau in Bentheim-Steinfurt (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Arnold I von Bentheim-Steinfurt, she reigned her dowry, until she resigned in 1480. She lived (after 1439-1502).


Until 1466 Sovereign Countess Marguerite d’Orléans of Vertus-en-Champagne (France)

Daughter of Louis de France, Duc de Touraine, d’Orléans etc., and married Richard de Bretagne, comte d’Étampes. She lived (1406-66).


1467 Princess Regnant Bigum Hatun of Qara Quyünlü (Black Sheep Turks in Iran/Iraq)

An unnamed high ranking Muslim lady

An unnamed high ranking Muslim lady

After the death of Jahanshah (1435-67) she held power before the Hassan Ali came on the throne of the Emirate of Qara Qoyunu, Turkmen vassals of the Jalayirids in Eastern Anatolia. They became independent in 1389, after the Jalayirids had been overrun by Tamerlane’s Timurids.


From 1467 Sovereign Countess Margarete of Leiningen-Westerburg (Germany)

Following the death of her brother Hesso, the last male of the family, she took possession of the lands. She was the widow of Richard zu Westerburg and became the founder of the lines of Alt-Leiningen-Westerburg and Neu-Leiningen-Westerburg.


1468-77 Regent Great Dowager Queen Yun Jong-hi of Korea

Also known as Jong-hi Wang-hu, she ruled in the name of her son Ye-jong II after the death of her husband, Great King Se-jo. In 1469 her son died and

A Queen of Korea

A Queen of Korea

was succeeded by a nephew, her grandson Song-jong (1457-69-95). She was daughter of the Prime Minister, and lived (1418-83).


1468-69 De Facto Reigning Dowager Countess Marie von Croÿ of Blankenheim (Germany)

She managed to keep control of the territory for a period after her husband, Wilhelm von Blankenheim, had been killed in battle, but in the end had to give in to her in-laws. At first she pretended to be pregnant, and then petitioned Duke Charles von Burgund for aid and assistance. In 1471 her marriage to Wilhelm von Vierneburg ended the feud.


1468-70 Claimant Elisabeth von Schleiden of the County of Blankenheim (Germany)

Daughter of Johanna von Blankenheim and Johann von Scheiden, she claimed the County after her cousin, Wilhelm von Blankenheim, had been killed in battle, without leaving any heirs. Elisabeth’s son Dietrich von Manderscheid came in possession of the territories Blankenheim and Gerolstein in 1470, but the disagreements with other branches of the family continued for many years.


1469-82 Politically Influential Lucrezia Tornabuoni of Firenze (Italy)

During the reign of her son, Lorenzo de’ Medici, she was very involved in the political life of the Republic and exercised considerable influence. She also

Lucrezia Tornabuoni

Lucrezia Tornabuoni

also wrote sonnets, She was a daughter of Francesco Tornabuoni and Selvaggia Alessandrini. and was married to Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici, son of Cosimo de’ Medici, a wealthy banker from Florence, who helped the family return from their exile from the City State. She lived (1425-82)


1469-87 Politically Influential Clarice Orsini of Firenze (Italy)

Clarice Orsini

Clarice Orsini

Functioned as representative – as a quasi-diplomat – of her husband, Lorenzo de’ Medici, during his tenure as de-facto ruler of the Florentine Republic. She was mother of Pope Leo X and daughter of Giacomo Orsini, Lord of Monterotondo and Bracciano, and his wife and cousin Maddalena Orsini. She lived (circa 1453-87).


1469-1504 Princess-Abbess Scholastika von Anhalt-Zerbst of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

The Princess grew up in the Convent of Helfta and became a canoniss in Quedlinburg before she was elected Fürstäbtissin at the age of

Scholastika of Gernrode and Frose

Scholastika of Gernrode and Frose

18, but was not confirmed in office by Emperor Friederich III until 1488. She stabilized the internal affairs of the chapter, but the finances was put under heavy strain by a process against the Bishop of Halberstadt, who had made a dam which flodded parts of the lands of the territory. After 24 years it ended with a settlement. She was daughter of Georg I von Anhalt-Zerbst and Sophie von Honstein (d. 1451). Her aunt, Mechtildis, had been sovereign of the territory 1451-63, and her sister, Agnes was Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim from 1485. Scholastika lived (1451-1504).


1469-75 Acting Reigning Abbess Margaretha III von Paulstorff of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

As Coadjurix she was Acting Chief of the chapter and territory.


1469-1490/1492 Politically Influential Catherine Cantacuzina Branković in the Ottoman Empire (Covering The Balkans, what is now Greece, Turkey, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

When her husband, Count Ulrich II of Celli (1406-56), died she inherited his properties, but was obliged to conclude a treaty one year later with Friedrich III Duke of Austria under which she handed over all the Cilli castles in Carinthia, Styria and Carniola while she retained the family castles in Hungary and Croatia. However, in 1460 she was had to sell her remaining properties to Vitovec, Ban of Slavonia, and retired to Dubrovnik. 9 years later she joined her younger sister, Mara Branković, widow of Sultan Murad II of the Ottoman Empire, at her residence in Ježevo (probably identical to the modern settlement of Dafni in Mount Athos), who was and advisor of her step-son Mehmed from 1451. Together with her sister, she acted as intermediary during the Turkish/Venetian war which lasted until 1479. The daughter of Despot Đurađ Branković of Serbia and Eirene Kantakouzene, she lived (circa 1418-1490/1492).


1470-82 Regent Princess Madeleine de France of Andorra and Foix-Béarn (France)
1479-83 and 1483-84 Regent of Navarra (Spain)

Also known as Madalena de Valois, she was in charge of the government in the name of Francesco in Foix-Béarn and Andorra 1470-83 after her

 Madeleine de France, Regent of Navarra, Andorra and Foix-Béarn

Madeleine de France, Regent of Navarra, Andorra and Foix-Béarn

husband, Count Gaston V’s death. In 1479 her son succeeded his paternal grandmother, Queen Leonor, who only reigned a few months, in Navarra, After Francesco’s premature death, she became regent for daughter, Catalina, but her brother-in-law, Jean de Foix, claimed the throne on the basis of salic law, which had never been used in Navarra. This led to civil war, and she was taken hostage by Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1494, and died the following year. Her death provoked fresh conflict. She was daughter of Charles VII of France and Isabeau of Bavaria and lived (1443-95).


1470-circa 92 Regent Khatun Mandughai of Mongolia

Also known as Mandugaya Setsen Khatun, she was widow of Grand Khan Mandaghol, the 27th successor of Jengis Khan, who was succeeded by his nephew, Bolkho, in 1467. When he was assassinated three years later, the mother of his five-year-old son, Dayan Qagani, had deserted the child, and Mandughai took him under her protection, proclaimed him khan, and became his regent. She assumed command of the Mongol troops and defeated their enemy, the Oirat. In 1481 she married Dayan, and 1491-92 she again lead the army to fend off the Orat. She lived (circa 1448-circa 1492).


1470-90 We Ban-ri Gau Daeng Marawa Makalappi Bisu-ri La Langpili Patta-ri La We Larang, Arumpone of Bone (Indonesia)

Styled Arung Majang before her accession on the death of her father. Her ceremonial name was Malajangi-ri China, and she was mother of two sons.


1470-… Sultana Narisa Malik uz-Zahir of Samudra Pasai Kesepulih (Indonesia)

Daughter of Sultan Kadir al Malik uz-Zahir ibnu al-Marhum of Pasai and married to Sultan Muhammad of Aceh, who reigned (1465-77).


1470-97 Temporary Regent Ingeborg Åkesdotter Tott the County of Gripsholm with the Shires of Selebo, Åkers, Österrekarnas and Villåttinge and the Estate of Strömsrum (Sweden)
1504-07 Reigning Dowager Lady of the fief of Häme Castle (Finland)

 Ingeborg Tott

Ingeborg Tott

Often in charge of Gripsholms Län after her second husband, Sten Gustafsson Sture, became regent of Sweden. She was highly interested in science, theology and education and known as the patron of such things. She encouraged the foundation of the first secular university in Sweden, the Uppsala Academy and the Uppsala University in 1477, and gave large and independent donations from her own money to print books and finance libraries. When union with Denmark was re-established, and the Danish king made regent of Sweden in 1497, she and her husband left for Finland, where they held a grand court at Tavastehus Castle. In 1501, a rebellion broke out and her husband again retook his position. After his death in 1503, she withdraw to her estates. In 1505, the castellan Folke Gregerinpolka tired to take the castle by force with the support of the council, but she was supported by the people and by some of the nobility and his troops had to retreat. She lived (1440s-1507).


 1470s Legendary Resistance Leader Marfa Boretskaya of Novgorod (Russia)

Also known as Marfa-posadnitsa – or Martha the Mayoress – and according to legend she led the Novgorodian opposition to Grand Prince Ivan III of

Marfa Boretskay

Marfa Boretskay

Muscovy. Her reputation derives from the “Slovesa izbranna,” a unique medieval account of events culminating in the Battle of Shelon’ in 1471. Its anonymous author vilifies Marfa for conspiring to align Novgorod politically and ecclesiastically with Lithuania and alleges that her treasonous, heretical acts prompted Ivan III’s retribution against Novgorod. This article correlates the literary portrait with other documentation, including charters, land cadastres, and chronicles. These sources confirm that Marfa Boretskaia was a wealthy widow, connected through kinship ties to a number of influential Novgorodian families, but not that she organized anti-Muscovite activities. Literary analysis identifies the “Slovesa izbranna” as a work of homiletic rhetoric. By exploiting misogynistic biases to demonize Marfa, the writer hoped to divert the blame for Novgorod’s transgressions away from his clients, Archbishop Feofil and the ecclesiastical administration at the Cathedral of St. Sophia, and thus to forestall anticipated reprisals by Moscow against the Novgorodian church. Novgorod was finally conquered in 1478.


1471-75 Regent Infanta Joana of Portugal

Pruncess Joana of Portugal

Pruncess Joana of Portugal

In charge of the government during a military campaign of her father, king Afonso V (1438-81). At birth, she was declared Crown Princess after the death of her older brother João who died as an infant the year before, and she was given the title of Princess – a title reserved to the heir apparent. When brother, Joao was born in 1555 she became second-in-line to the throne. After vehemently refusing several proposals of marriage, she was allowed to join the Dominican Convent of Jesus in Aveiro in 1475 after her brother, had his first child. Still, she was compelled several times to leave the convent and return to the court, before she was finally professed as a nun. She continued to be a great supporter of her brother, the later king João II of Portugal, throughout his reign and her life. She was beatified in 1693 by Pope Innocent XII, and even though she has not been canonized, she is known as Santa Joana Princesa, and lived (1452-90).


1471-72 and 1477-81 Regent Princess Catarina van Egmond-Gelders of Gelders and Zypten (The Netherlands)

First reigned on behalf of her brother, Adolf II, who was held prisoner and later for son, Karel van Egmond (1492-1538). In 1479 her

Catarina van Egmond-Gelders, Regent of Gelders and Zypte

Catarina van Egmond-Gelders, Regent of Gelders and Zypte

claims was recognized by France who supported her against Emperor Maximilian I von Habsburg, who in the end drew her away. She was daughter of Duke Arnold van Egmond-Gelders and Katharina von Kleve, and lived (1439-96).


1471-1514 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg of Lüchow in Braunschweig (Germany)
1479-86 Member of the Council of Regency of Braunschweig-Lüneburg
1479-1514 Reigning Dowager Lady of Ziegenhain and Nidda in Katzenelnbogen

 Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg, Herzogin zu  Braunschweig, Gräfin  von Katzenelnbogen

Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg, Herzogin zu Braunschweig, Gräfin
von Katzenelnbogen

After the death of her husband Duke Otto (1438-64-71), she withdrew to her dowry in Lüchow. In 1474 she married Count Philipp von Katzenelnbogen and leased her dowry out, and left her children behind in Celle as costmary for princely widows at the time. After Philipp’s death in 1479, she returned to Braunschweig, where her son Heinrich had succeeded his grandfather Friederich II (reigned 1451-57, d. 1578) as Duke a few months before. She was given a large sum to give up claims to the County of Katzenelnbogen (her step-daughter Anna (1443-94) was among the claimants of the county). In 1481 she is mentioned in the sources as her as part of the regency council, even though no official sources of her installation as regent has survived. She reformed the economy of the country; spend money on religious institutions and charity. Her son proved to be a totally irresponsible ruler, and with the help of the Estates, became head of a council that virtually empowered him. She put much energy in reforming the economy but many depths remained when she again withdrew to her dowry. 1495 was also the year that Celle was hit by the plague and she therefore reformed the hospitals. During her last years she travelled a lot visiting family, and lived (1440-1515).


1471-94 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Landgravine Mechthild von Württemberg of the City and Office of Rotenburg an der Fulda and the Castle and Office of Gudensberg in Hessen (Niederhessen) (Germany)

Even though she had been asked to take the regency, she transferred the guardianship for her two sons Wilhelm the Older and Wilhelm the Middle in Niederhessen, to her brother-in-law Heinrich III in Oberhessen. three days after the death of her husband, Ludwig II. Instead she was given a rich dowry and she was possibly in charge of the upbringing of her sons, and she remained influential in the government of the county. She lived (circa 1444-94).


1471-75 Reigning Dowager Duchess Margareta of Masowia of Bernstadt and Oels (Bierutów and Oleśnica) (Then Germany, now Poland)

Also known as Małgorzata, she had been politically active since her marriage to the Slesian Prince of Oleśnica, Konrad IX, in 1447/53 and after his death she held the duchy as her dowry, and 1575 her daughter, Barbara took over as Duchess of Oels. Daughter of prince of Małopolska Siemowit V (Ziemovit von Masowien) and Małgorzata, she lived 1436/41- after 1483).


1471-1504 Princess-Abbess Margarethe III vom Feld of Baindt (Germany)

In 1478, by a visitation of the bishop of Trient, the Chapter was “Hortus Floridus” – describer of flowers – for the first time.


Around 1471 Reigning Abbess Osanna Jäger of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

The Chapter acquired many possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace, but the abbess did apparently not have the dignity of Princess of the Empire.


Until 1472 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Guise (France)

Married Charles d’Anjou, Duc de Maine, whose first wife was Corbella Ruffo, Contessa di Montalto e di Corigliano (d. 1442). She was mother of one daughter, Louise (1445-77), who was married to Jacques, Comte d’Armagnac and Duc de Nemours.


1472-92 Reigning Abbess Apollonia von Hohenberg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Daughter of Sigmund von Hohenberg, of the House of Hohenzollern, and Ursula von Räzüns.


After 1472-1503 Politically Influential Grand Duchess Sophia Palaiologina of Moscow and Russia

Over the years she started to wield great influence on her aged husband, Ival III, Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all the Russians (1440-

Sophia Palaiologina

Sophia Palaiologina

1505). It is thought that she was the first to introduce the Kremlin to grand Byzantine ceremonies and meticulous etiquette. The idea of Moscow as the Third Rome evidently pleased her. Shortly before her death she persuaded her husband to pass the throne to her son Vasili, rather than to Ivan’s grandson Dmitry, as had been planned earlier. Apart from Vasili III, only her fifth son, Andrey of Staritsa, left issue. She was daughter of Thomas Palaeologus, the Despot of Morea and was taken to Rome together with her brothers after conquest of Morea by Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire in 1460. In Rome, her Greek name Zoe was changed to Sophia. She lived (circa 1455-1503).


1473-74 Regent Dowager Queen Catherine Cornaro of Cyprus
1474-89 Queen Regnant of Cyprus and Titular Queen of Jerusalem and Armenia
1489-1510 Sovereign Countess of Alonso (Italy)

Queen Caterina of Cyprus

Queen Caterina of Cyprus

When her husband King Jacques II died, she was appointed Queen until the birth of an heir, with a council of regency among whom were her uncles, but her son King Jacques III only lived one year. The Venetians acquired increased importance, but their pretensions were resented by the Cypriot nobility, who designed to place on the throne Alfonso, a natural son of Ferdinand of Napoli. The Latin archbishop, Fabricius, who was the leader of Alfonso’s party, arrived in Cyprus with two armed galleys and a letter from the Pope denouncing her uncles Andrea Cornaro and Marco Bembo as murderers of her husband, and they were killed. But the Cypriots did not support the conspiracy. On the arrival of a Venetian fleet at Famagusta to demand satisfaction for the murder of her uncles, the conspirators sought safety in flight. She was allowed to remain Queen of Cyprus, but had no real power, since all the principal offices of the kingdom were in the hands of the Venetians. After 15 years she was persuaded to leave Cyprus. To compensate her she was allowed to retain the title of Queen, with an ample allowance. In 1489 she embarked for Venice, and remained in exile at Alonso for the remainder of her life. She lived (1454-1510).


1473-83 Sovereign Duchess Yolande d’Anjou of Lorraine
1480-83 Duchess of Bar, Countess d’Alsace (France)
1480-83 Titular Queen of Sicily, Sardegna and Jerusalem

Her brother, Jean II, succeeded their mother, Isabelle, who was Duchess 1431-53), and when he died, his son, Nicolas, inherited the title. She succeeded

Yolande den Lorraine

Yolande den Lorraine

him, but transferred the Duchy to her son, Ferry II, and did the same when she inherited the Duchy of Bar from her father. From him, René I d’Anjou, Count of Guise, Provence and Forcalquier Duke d’Anjou, King of Napoli and Titular king of Sicily, Hungary, Jerusalem and Aragon (1409-80). From him she also inherited the claim to Jerusalem. She was married to Ferry II de Lorraine, Count de Vaudémont and Lord de Joinville (circa 1428-70), son of Antoine de Lorraine and Marie, Comtesse d’Aumale et baronne d’Elbeuf. She lived (1428-83).


1473 Edaiken Edeleyo of Benin (Nigeria)

A death mask of a Queen in Benin

A death mask of a Queen in Benin

King Ezoti was killed by an aggravated palace boy during his coronation. A relative, Owere, was elected king, but both he and his mother were assassinated on the way back by his uncle, Okpame – but news of Okpame’s action leaked, and he was banished to Ora. Fear of Okpame made Owere’s brother, Olua, refuse the throne and instead his older sister, Edeleyo was invited to become Oba. She was actually installed as Edaiken but fell ill to an unspecified incurable female complaint on her way to Uselu. Since her problem was incurable and of “a peculiarly female nature” it was enacted that no woman should be allowed to reign in the future. But Queen-Mothers continued to be important and still is.


1473-88 Reigning Abbess Ursula Egglofer of Gutenzell (Germany)

The Swabian Chapter was mainly for Swabian noble maidens.


1473-86 Princess-Abbess Gertrudis de Sombreffe of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Countess Eva van Isenburg, was elected as her successor in 1486, but another of the ladies of the chapter, Amalia van Rennenberg, claimed to be have more right to the position of sovereign of the territory. Emperor Maximillian supported Eva, but Amalia and her brother Count Willem van Rennenberg attacked the Abbey, and the succession was not finally settled until 1502 with Eva as the winner.


1473 Princess-Abbess Catherine III de Neufchatel of Remiremont (France)

Her election was not confirmed. A sister, Agnes was a nun at Remiremont until her death in 1474 and another, Marguerite, was Abbess of Baume-les-Dame. They were children of Thibaud IX, Lord de Neufchatel, de Blamont, etc, Vicomte de Baume, Marshall and Captain-General of Burgundy and Bonne de Chateauvillain, Dame de Grancey. Catherine lived (1455-1501).


1473-1505 Princess-Abbess Jeanne III d’Anglure de Germainvilliers of Remiremont (France)

Doyenne and Second in Command 1427-52, and probably held other offices until her election as sovereign of the statelet. In 1484 the troops of Maréchal de Bourgogne and the Lord de Joinville fought a battle on the walls of Remiremont and the lands of the abbey was ruined by the war. Also Dame de Germainvilliers, and lived (1474-1505).


1473-93 Politically Influential Duchess Eleonora de Aragon of Modena and Ferrara

Eleonora d'Aragona

Eleonora d’Aragona

Held firmly on to the reins of government during the absences of her husband Ercole I d’Este, showing herself to be decisive and authoritative, but also wise and level-headed. She had first been married to Massimiliano Sforza, Duke of Bari and was daughter of Ferdinando I of Napoli and Isabella of Tarento and lived (1450-93).


1474-1504 Queen Isabel I de Trastamara of Castilla and León (Spain)

The daughter of Juan II of Castile and León by his second wife, Isabella of Portugal. In 1469 she married Fernando de Aragón. She

Queen Isabel I of Castilla and León

Queen Isabel I of Castilla and León

succeeded her brother Enrico IV, but Alfonso V of Portugal, who supported the claim of her brother’s daughter, Juana la Beltraneja, attacked Castile and León but was defeated by the Castilian army in 1476. Three years later her husband became King Fernando V the Catholic of Aragón. This union of the two main Spanish kingdoms laid the foundation of Spain’s future greatness. They had five children, including Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII of England, and Juana the Mad. Isabella and her husband (known together as “the Catholic monarchs”) are remembered for initiating the Inquisition in 1478, for completing the re-conquest of Spain from the Moors and for their ruthless expulsion of the Spanish Jews, both in 1492. That same year they sponsored Christopher Columbus’s voyage, which led to the creation of the overseas Spanish colonial empire, bringing great wealth and power to Spain. She lived (1451-1504).


1474-76 Pretender Infanta Juana da Beltraneja of Castilla (Spain)

Juana, Heir and Pretender to the throne of Castille

Juana, Heir and Pretender to the throne of Castille

In 1454 her father, Enrico IV appointed her heiress to the throne (Princess of Asturias) after he had disinherited Isabel after her marriage to Ferdinand of Aragon. Rumours had it that she was the result of an affair between her mother, Juana of Portugal, and Beltrán de la Cueva, and therefore the paternity was disputed, and she was passed over in the succession in favour of her aunt, Queen Isabel I. She rebelled but in 1479 she signed off her rights to the throne and the following year she entered a Chapter in Portugal. Juana lived (1462-1530).


1474 Acting Captain-Donatary Antonia de Burges of the Island of Terceira in Azores (Portugal)

Reigned as governor of the king of Portugal in the absence of her father, Jacome de Burges, who had evidently disappeared during a sea voyage, and in spite of the fact that the captaincy was originally granted with a stipulation that if there were no male heir, she would inherit it, the King Afonso V, gave it in part to Joao Vaz Corte-Real.


Until 1474 Hereditary Marshall Irmgard von Wevelinghoven of the Archbishopric of Köln and Heiress of Alfter (Germany)

Married to Count Johann VI von Reifferscheid, Count zu Salm (d. 1475).


1474-97 Princess-Abbess Ursula von Silberberg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Steiermark.


Until 1474 Princess-Abbess Beatrix von Enzberg of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Resigned because of fights between different factions of the ladies of the chapter.


1474-90 Princess-Abbess Marguerite II van Hauchin of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Another member of the family, Joannes Hauchinus (Hauchin) (1527-89), was the second Archbishop of Mechelen.


1475-78 Sovereign Duchess Barbara von Ohlau of Oleśnica (Oels) (Then Germany, now Poland)

The Polish version of her name is Barbara Oleśnicka, she was daughter of Duke Konrad IX and Małgorzata, who reigned 1471-75.


1475-… Hereditary Castellana Ludovica Hofer of Duino in Trieste (Italy)

Her father, Matteo Hofer (or Hoffer) had been given the fief by Emperor Maximilian in 1473. Ludovica was married to Raimondo IV della Torre. In 1653 the fief reverted to the state, but the family continued to rule the area and it was handed down trough the female line to the families of Della Torre Valvassina, Hohenlohe, Thurn und Taxis and Torre e Tasso.


1475-1520 Princess-Abbess Agnes von Notthafft of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

1494 she was appointed Princess of the Empire and was granted a vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses

Agnes of Niedermünster in Regensburg

Agnes of Niedermünster in Regensburg

and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Holy Roman Diet (Reichstag), where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench (Geistliche Bank der Reichsfürstenrat). The Reichstag frequently met in Regensburg, and from 1500 she was member of the Geistlischen Fürstenbank (Lords Spiritual) of the Bayrischer Kreis (Bavarian Circle). She was daughter of Count Albrecht von Notthafft von Wernberg (1422-68), Her niece, Kunigunde, was Lady of the Chapter and was mentioned as the “Old Lady of the Chapter” in 1560, and lived (before 1440-1580).


1475-95 Reigning Abbess Barbe I d’Ollenhain d’Estaimbourg of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of the Lord of Estaimbourg.


1475-93 Reigning Dowager Lady Katharina von Österreich of the Administrative Office and Castle of Hohenbaden in Baden-Baden (Germany)

Widow of Margrave Karl I von Baden (1453-75), who was succeeded by their oldest son, Christoph I, who build the “New Castle” and left the old one for his mother as her residence and dowry. Among her other 5 children was Margareta, Abbess in Lichtenthal, who lived (1452-95). Katharina lived (1423-93).


1476-81 Regent Dowager Duchess Bona di Savoia of Milano (Italy)

Bona di Savoia, Regent of Milano

Bona di Savoia, Regent of Milano

After the death of her husband, Galeazzo, she became took over the regency for their son, Gian Galazzo II (1476-94), until she was replaced by her brother-in-law, Lodovico the Moor in 1474. She was daughter of Duke Ludovico I of Savoy (1343-65) and Princess Anne de Lusignan Cyprus, mother of four children and lived (1449-1503).


1476 De-Facto Ruler Duchess Barbara von Brandenburg of Glogau and Krossen (Głogów-Krosno/Krosno Odrzańskie) (Poland/Germany)
1476-1510 Reigning Lady in Züllichau und Crossen

Her first husband, Heinrich XI of Glogau and Krossen (Głogów and Krosno) died in February and in August 1476, she married per procura Ladislaus II Jagiellon of Bohemia and Hungary, but they never met and as her husband wanted to marry the Anna von Habsburg of Bohemia and Hungary and in 1495 she asked the pope to annul her marriage and got engaged to Konrad von Heideck. As reaction her family imprisoned her in the Castle of Plassburg. Five years later the divorce was granted and nothing more is known of her, but she probably remained at Plassburg. She was daughter of margrave Albrecht Achilles Hohenzollern and his wife Anna, and lived (1464-1515).


1476-79 Contra-Abbess Jakobe von Neuenhar of Herford (Germany)

In oppositon to Abbess Margarete von Gleichen (1442-84). Margarete von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen had been Contra-Abbess 1442-43.


1476-81 Territorial Countess Anne Mowbray of Norfolk (United Kingdom of Great Britain)

Norfolk was an autonomous fiefdom from the Norman conquest. She was the only child of John Mowbray, 4th. Duke of Norfolk. She was only three

 Anne Mowbray

Anne Mowbray

years of age when her father died, leaving her heiress to the vast Mowbray estates. At the age of three she was married to king Edward IVs younger son Prince Richard, Duke of York. (1473-83). She died of the plague and died in 19 November 1481 a month before her ninth birthday and two years before the disappearance of the Princes. She lived (circa 1472-81).


1477-82 Maria de Bourgogne, by the Grace of God, Duchess Burgundy, Lorraine, Geldre, Limburg, Jülich, Brabant, Quilon, Bar and Franche-Comté, Margravine of the Holy Roman Empire of Higher-Elsass, Breisgau, Lower-Elsass and Antwerpen, Countess of Flanders, Hainault, d’Artois, Boulogne, Namur, Ponthieu, Picardie, d’Eu, Vermandois, Charolais, Macon, Montbelliard, Zutphen, Nevers and Rethel and Baroness d’Ilês, Bar-sur-Seine, Lady of Friesland, Salins and of Mechelen etc (France and Belgium)

Mary of Burgundy

Mary of Burgundy

At her father’s death in January 1477, Louis XI of France seized Burgundy and Picardy and prepared to her entire inheritance. To gain the assistance of Flanders, Brabant, Hainault, and Holland, whose representatives met at Ghent in February 1477, she granted the Great Privilege, which restored the liberties of the provincial estates that her father and grandfather had abrogated. She then rejected Louis XI’s proposal that she marry the dauphin Charles, and in May she married Maximilian, who had hastened to her assistance with an army. However, the Low Countries remained in turmoil; despite his victory at Guinegate in 1479, and after her death Maximilian was forced to agree to the Treaty of Arras, by which Franche-Comté and Artois passed to France. She died after a fall from horseback, and this left her young son Philip (later Philip I of Castile) her heir, but only in 1493 was Maximilian able to regain control over the Low Countries, where Philip had been a virtual prisoner until 1485. The Treaty of Senlis in 1493 with France restored Artois and Franche-Comté to Philip, but Burgundy and Picardy remained French. Mary of Burgundy had several children, and lived (1457-82).


1477-82 Regent Princess Catharina van Gelre of Geldre (The Netherlands)

Also known as Catherine of Guelders or Catharina van Egmont. When Charles of Burgundy who had controlled the Duchy since the death of her father

Catarina van Egmond-Gelders, Regent of Gelders and Zypte

Catarina van Egmond-Gelders, Regent of Gelders and Zypte

in 1473 died, the Duchy saw its chance to regain its independence. Her brother, Adolf, became Duke of Geldre but the new Duchess of Burgundy, Maria, appointed him her Captain-General in Flanders, and the States of Guelders convinced him to appoint her as regent, pending his return and she reluctantly agreed. But the regency lasted much longer than expected because Adolf was killed in battle. She became involved in the Guelderian War of Independence with Maximilian of Austria. In 1482, she was forced to conclude peace with Maximilian and to retire from politics. In 1492, she witnessed the regained independence of Guelders under her nephew Karl II van Gelders. She was unmarried and lived (circa 1440-1497).


1477-1501 Sovereign Countess Caterina Sforza of Forli and Imola (Italy)

Caterina Sforza, Countess of Forli and Imola

Caterina Sforza, Countess of Forli and Imola

Daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza by Lucrezia Landiani, and was later legitimized. At the age 15 she gave birth to the first of 7 children in nine years. The Orsi family murdered her first husband, Girolamo Riaria, in 1488 and she was taken captive with the children – but escaped. She got help from Milano and Bologna. From here on, she became noted as a brutal tyrant, initially as regent for her son, Ottaviano. Married her second husband, Giacomo Peo, around 1490 and had a son with him, before he was murdered 1495. Her third husband was Giovanni di Pierfrancesco de Medici, who died of natural causes after one year of marriage. She continued to rule her small lands until they were attacked by Cesare Borgia in 1499. She was then imprisoned in Belvedere Palace at the Vatican for four months. After a failed escape attempt, she was imprisoned in Castel Sant’ Angelo for one year. Released after having given up her lordship, and died eight years later in Firenze. She lived (1463-1509).


1477-1500 Acting Captain-Donatary Maria de Vilhena of Flores e Corvo in the Azores (Portugal)

Acted in the name of her oldest son, Capitão do donatário Rui Teles. In 1500 she sold the islands to João da Fonseca, de Évora.


1477-91 Reigning Abbess Anne d’Orléans of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Sister of Louis XII, she continued the reforms of the order initiated by Marie de Bretagne.


1477-86 Reigning Abbess-General María de Herrera of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Spiritual and secular ruler of more than 60 lordhips and villages in Castilla and Léon.
Barbara von Hohenzollern zu Brandenburg of Mantua


1478-before 1481 Regent Dowager Margravine Barbara von Hohenzollern of Mantua (Italy)

Participated in the management of government during the reign of her husband, Ludovico II Gonzaga 1444-78, and personally edited the education of

Barbara von Hohenzollern, Regent of Mantua

Barbara von Hohenzollern, Regent of Mantua

children. After the death of her husband, she was regent for son, Federico (1441-84). She was the first daughter of Johan the Alchemist, Elector of Brandenburg and Barbara of Saxe-Wittenbere lived (1423-81).


1478-82 Princess-Abbess Dorothea von Jestetten of Schänis (Switzerland)

The chapter presented her to the Bishop of Chur for her inauguration after her election. 1479 se presented the priest Bartholome Zwingli to the church of Schänis, he was uncle of Ulrich Zwingli, the leader of the Swiss reformation. She was member of the line of “Civil Servant Nobility” (Ministerialen) von Tengen, who owned the Swiss lordship of Hedingen in the Canton of Schaffenhausen, and originated in the Baden-area on the boarder to Switzerland.


1478-1501 Politically Influential Queen Giovanna III de Aragona of Napoli (Italy)
1494-96 Lieutenant General of Napoli
1501 Regent of Aragon (Spain)
1505 Regent of Valencia (Spain)
1505-08 Regent of Napoli
Until 1517 Lady of the Fief of the Sorrento Peninsula (Italy)

Closest advisor of her husband, Ferrante I, who succeeded his father Alfonso I of Sicily in 1558. After his death in 1494, she encouraged her step-son King Alfonso II (1448-95) not to abdicate after the French attacked the kingdom, and when he left the country, he appointed her Lieutenant General in Napels. He was succeeded by his son, Ferrante II (1469-96), who married his aunt – her daughter, Giovanna IV (1478-1518) who was styled as joint monarch, whom she attempted to have placed on the throne in 1496. Instead her younger step-son Federico II came on the throne until he was deposed by King Louis XII of France in 1504. She went to Spain and was Regent in Aragon and Valencia until she returned when her brother, Ferdinand the Catholic of Aragon (married to Isabel I the Catholic of Catille) conquered Napoli, and she became regent until she was removed from office, and both she and her daughter, Giovanna IV, disappeared from public life. Born as Juana de Aragón she was daughter of King Juan II of Aragon, Navarra, Valencia, Cerdeña and Sicilia and his second wife doña Juana Enríquez Señora de Casarrubios del Monte y Arroyojolinos, and lived (1454-1517).


1479-84 Regent Ippolita Maria Sforza of Bari (Italy)

Ippolita Maira Sforza, Regent of Bari

Ippolita Maira Sforza, Regent of Bari

Ruled for her brother Ludovico il Moro (1452-1508). She was the daughter of Bianca Maria Visconti and the condottiero Francesco I Sforza. Ippolita was married to of King Afonso II d’Aragon of Napoli and she was mother of Isabella of Aragon, who later became Duchess of Bari and mother of Polish Queen Bona Sforza. She lived (1446-84).


1479-94 Hereditary Countess Anna of Katzenelnbogen-Dietz (Germany)
1483-94 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Lordship and Village of Biedenkopf, City and Office of Grissen and the City of Grünberg in Hessen-Marburg

A few days after the death of her husband, Landgraf Heinrich III von Hessen-Margurg (Oberhessen) , she relinquished all claims of the regency for her son, probably because she was only 20 years old herself, and the age of majority was 25. A source shows how she and her Councillors mended various feuds between the Council and inhabitants of Grünberg. She was daughter and heir of Philipp I. (circa 1402-79), who was married to Anna von Württemberg, and Count of Katzenelnbogen and parts of the County of Diez, and after her death the County was in dispute between her two daughters and their heirs after the death of their brother, Wilhelm III in 1500; Elisabeth of Nassau-Dillenburg (d. 1523), clamed one part in 1500, and Duchess Mathilda of Jülich-Berg (d. 1505) another. A compromise was not reached until 1520. Anna lived (1443-94).


1479-86 Possible Member of the Regency Council Margarethe von Stargard of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Germany)

Known as Margarethe von Stargard, it appears that she sometimes stood in for her sister-in-law, Anna, when she was absent from Celle. She was the third wife of Heinrich von Mecklenburg-Stargard (1417-38-66), and mother of tow daughters Magdalene (1454-1532), who was married to Duke Wartislaw V of Pommerania (d. 1478) and Count Burkard von Barby-Mülingen (d. 1505) and Anna, who was a nun at Ribnitz (1465-98). After her husband’s death she resided at her dowries at Plau, but she moved back to Braunschweig around 1473. The dispute over her dowries between the ducal houses of Mecklenburg and Lüneburg continued after the Stargard line dies out and was never settled. In 1498 she entered the Convent of Wienhausen and lived there for the rest of her life. She (d. 1512).


1479-1500 Princess-Abbess Sibylla von Paulsdorff of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

1484 the Abbey was turned into a Chapter for Noble Ladies with a vote in the College of the Prelates of the Rhine, whose 17 members (Princess-Abbesses and Prince-Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. (Geistliche Bank der Reichsfürstenrat) and the Princess-Abbess also sat in the Bavarian Landtag. She was succeeded by her relative Agnes II von Paulsdorff.


Circa 1480-ca.90 Paramount Chief Orompoto of Oyo (Nigeria)

Either the sister of Ofinran (1452-54) or his son, the sources are not clear about this!


1480-1509 Princess-Abbess Anna I Sauter of Heggbach (Germany)

1481 Emperor Friederich III confirmed the imperial protection of the Chapter. During her reign the Abbey-church received another altar around 1490, the chapel a side-chapel and the west wing an addition. She was born as daughter of a citizen of Pfullendorf


1480-1502 Joint County Sheriff Margrethe Henriksdatter Friis of the Counties of Kirkendrup and Fremmeløv, Denmark

Margrethe Friis was appointed jointly with her husband, Morten Tinhuus Skinkel, for life. Her son Laurids Skinkel paid it off from her in 1502. She (d. circa 1511).


1481-1521 Royal County Sheriff Queen Christine von Sachsen of Denmark of the Counties Tranekær, Næsbyhoved, Koldinghus and Ribe (Denmark)
1500-02 In charge of the government in Sweden

Queen Christine von Sachsen of Denmark

Queen Christine von Sachsen of Denmark

Given the fiefs for personal use when her husband, Hans, became King Denmark, Norway and Sweden. 1500-02 she was in charge of the government in Sweden during his engagement elsewhere. She was under siege from the Swedish nobility and kept in captivity 1502-03. After Hans’ death in 1513 she withdrew to her fiefs, being in charge of aspects of the local administration. She died (1521).


1481-1501 Reigning Dowager Lady Anna von Sachsen von Bayern-Landshut of the Castle, City and Administrative Unit of Rochlitz in Sachen (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig she returned back to Saxony and exchanged her Bavarian dowries with Rochlitz, where

Anna von Sachsen, Herzogin zu Bayern-Landshut

Anna von Sachsen, Herzogin zu Bayern-Landshut

she lived with a large court. The reason for the exchange seems that she wanted to be close to her mother, Margarethe von Österreich, who mainly lived at Altenburg and Colditz. Anna lived (1536-1501).


1481-86 Amina Gülbahar Khanum Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)

A Turkish Valide Sultan

A Turkish Valide Sultan

Gülbahar was the widow of Mehmet II the Conqueror and became Queen Mother of her son, Bayazit (1481-1512). The Valide Sultan was the mother of the sultan, and had an important place in the imperial family. In some aspects she was considered as a joint-ruler with theoretical jurisdiction over the women in the empire. An apocryphal story about her is that she was a daughter of the king of France and abducted by the Turks on her way to marry the Emperor Constantine XI Draganes of Byzanz, but she was probably originally Greek and lived (1434-86).


1482-92 Regent ‘A’isha al-Hurra of Cordova (Spain)

Gained support from the nobles and military leaders to depose her husband, ‘Ali abu al-Hasan (reigned 1461-82), who was being infatuated by his Christian concubine, Isabella, who had converted to Islam and taken the name of Soraya. Aisha’s son, Muhammad Abu ‘Abdallah was proclaimed as caliph, and she played a prominent role in the last years of the Muslim reign in the south of Spain, which was conquered by their Catholic majesties, Isabel I of Castilla and Fernando of Aragon.


1482-1503 Politically Influential Dowager Duchess Margaret of York of Bourgogne (France)

Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy

Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy

Acted as de-facto joint regent with her son-in-law Maximillian von Habsburg, who was Holy Roman Emperor after the death of her stepdaughter, Duchess Maria. Margaret was the third wife and widow of Charles Le Hardi, who died 1477, and lived (1446-1503).


1482-1546 Sovereign Countess Marie I de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Saint Pôl, Ligny, de Marle, Soissons and Conversano, Sovereign Princess of Condé-en-Brie, Vicomtesse de Meaux, Dame de Condé, Oisy, Espernon, Luceu, Ham, Bohaing, Beaurevoir, Dunkerke, Bourgbourg, Gravelinghes, Tonnelieux, Bruges, Chastelaine of De l’ Isle and Dame of the Castellany, Lands and Lordship of Saint Callais (France)
1495-1508 Regent Dowager Countess of Vendôme, Chartres and Mondoubleau

Daughter of Count Pierre II de Saint Pôl, Soissons, Brienne, Roussy and Marle and Margaritha of Savoia. First married to her uncle,

Marie I de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl

Marie I de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl

Jacques de Savoie, Comte Romont and Baron de Vaud, and secondly to François de Bourbon, Count of Vendôme. After her husband’s death, she was regent for her son, Charles, Duke of Vendôme, Count of Chartres and Soissons, Marle and La Fere and Lord of Mondoubleau, and the period of her regency was the most brilliant in the history of Vendôme. She enlarged the Collégiale Saint Georges, rebuilt the Church of Saint Martin. Her second son was François I de Bourbon-Saint-Pôl, Duke of Estouteville, Count of St.-Pôl. who died in 1545 and was succeeded by his son, François II, who died after one year and was succeeded by his sister Marie de Bourbon-Saint-Pôl. A daughter, Louise, was Abbess of Fontevrault. Her sister, Françoise was dame d’Enghien, and she lived (1472-1546).


1482-1530 President of the Regency Council The Makhduma-e-Jahan of The Bahmani Deccan (Oudh) (India)

As Dowager Queen, she was regent for son Mahmud Shah Bahmani, who ascended the throne at the age of 12 years, when some usurpers had been overthrown.


1483-1512 Queen Regnant Catalina de Grailly of Navarra, Co-Princess of Andorra, Duchesse de Gandía, Montblac, Peñafiel, Countess de Foix, Bigorre, Ribagorza and Vicomtesse de Béarn (Spain)
1513-18 Queen of Baja Navarra

Also known as Catharine de Foix-Grailly, she succeeded brother, King Francesco under the regency of her mother, Marguerite de Valois (regent for her brother from 1479), and until 1492 she fought over the throne with her uncle, Juan de Foix. 1484 she married Jean II d’Albert and ruled jointly with him. The death of her mother, Magdalena, 1504 as a hostage of Ferdinand the Catholic in Medina del Campo, provoked new wars between the Navarrese and the count of Lerín until 1508. In 1512 the Duke of Alba occupied Pamplona and the following year the Cortes of Navarra proclaimed Fernando the Catholic as king of Navarra, and since then, Alta Navarra has been an integral part of Spain. All subsequent attempts by her and her husband to reassemble their kingdom were futile, and she was queen in Lower Navarre, north of the Pyrenees, Succeeded by son, Enrique II and after his death by daughter Juana II d’Abret as titular Queen, and lived (1468/70-1517).


1483-90 Regent Princess Anne de Beaujeu of France
1503-circa 09 Regent of Bourbon etc.

Anne de Beaujeu, Princess-Regent of France

Anne de Beaujeu, Princess-Regent of France

Created Viscountess of Thouars in 1468 in anticipation of her marriage to Nicholas, Duke of Lorraine, but when he broke the engagement and then died unexpectedly in 1473, her father, Louis XI took back the fief. That same year, Anne married Pierre II de Bourbon instead. After her father’s death, she was regent during the minority of her brother, Charles VIII, and maintained the royal authority and the unity of the kingdom against the Orleans party. Her regency overcome many difficulties, including unrest amongst the magnates who had suffered under her father’s oppressions. Concessions, many of which sacrificed Louis’s favourites, were made, and land was restored to many of the hostile nobles, including the future Louis XII, then the Duke of Orleans. She made the final treaty ending the Hundred Years’ War, the Treaty of Etaples and, in 1491 arranged the marriage of her brother to Duchess Anne de Bretagne, but when her brother came of age she and her husband fell victim to the wrath of the new queen, whose duchy’s independence had been compromised. When her husband died in 1503, their daughter Suzanne, succeeded him as Duchess of Bourbon. Anne, however, had always been the more dominant member in her marriage and remained the administrator of the Bourbon lands after his death, protecting them from royal encroachment. Suzanne married another Bourbon prince, Charles of Montpensier, Constable of France, who later became Charles III, Duke of Bourbon. The couple, however, remained childless, and Suzanne predeceased her mother and for the rest of her life, she was engaged in disputes with Louise de Savoie over succession to the Bourbon lands. Anne lived (1456-1522).


1483-87 and 1500-01 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Anna Vasilievna of Ryazan (Russia)

Анна Васильевна became regent for her 16 year old son, Ivan, after the death of her husband, Vasily, who grew up in Moscow as Anna’s father had been entrusted with the regency of Ryazan after the death Vasily’s father, Ivan, in 1456. In her policy Anna tried to expand her domain, she visited often Moscow and due her diplomatic efforts the Pronsk principality was added to Ryazan. A major problem in Ryazan-Moscow relations was so-called Ryazan Ukraina, a huge steppe region in the basin of Don River. According to treaties, Ryazan was obliged not to settle in these lands, but many years Ryazan princes secretly colonized this area and during her regency this process become much more significant. When her son died, she became regent for her grandson, Ivan VI, until her own death. She was daughter of Grand Prince Vasily II of Moscow and Maria Yaroslavna of Borovsk, mother of 2 sons and 1 daughter, and lived (1451–1501).


1483-1507 Duchess Regnant Julianna Iwanówna of Mstsislaw (Belarus)

Daughter and heiress of Duke Iwan Jurjewicz (1456-83).


1483-89 Regent Dowager Lady Camilla Covele da Marzano of Pesaro and Gradara (Italy)

Ruled for Giovanni I of Pesaro, her husband Costanzo I’s illegitimate son with Fiora Boni. She (d. 1490).


1483-91 Princess-Abbess Barbara I Blarer von Wartensee of Schänis (Switzerland)

The chapter asked the Bishop of Chur to inagurate her after she had been elected in a unclear election (zweispältiger Wahl). Invested Johannes Meyer with the fief of the Meierhof Knohau (“verge estate”) in 1483 and begun building a new church of the chapter in 1487. She bbelonged to one of the richest families in Switzerland, the Lords of Wartensee and had the Freedom of the Canton of Appenzell.


1484-88 Sovereign Countess Jeanne d’Harcourt of Tancarville, Vicomtesse de Melun (France)

Succeeded her brother, Guillaume who succeeded their mother, Marguerite de Melun, who was Countess de Tancarville (1415-48). Jeanne was married to Duke René II of Lorraine (1451-1508) and as she had no children, she bequeathed all her estates to François Count de Dunois et de Longueville (d. 1488).


1484-94 Reigning Abbess Anna I von Hunolstein of Herford (Germany)

Her family were Stewards of the Herford area.


1484-1508 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Falkenstein of Säckingen (Germany)

received letters of protection and privileges from Maximillian I in 1495 and a confirmation of her jurisdiction and right of asylum. During the Swabian war between Austria and Switzerland the City of Bad Säckingen suffered badly. After the Peace of Basel in 1499, Maximilian paid a visit to the town. She was engaged in long dispute with the canonesses and canons, who accused her of over-stepping her authority, taking important decision without consulting them. Bishop Hugo von Hohenlandenberg tried to mediate and introduce new statutes. Also the king tried to persuade her to accept the Bishop’s intervention but she refused and decided to resign instead, but remained in the chapter until her death, and was succeeded by her half-sister, Anna von Falkenstein. The daughter of Freiherr Thomas von Falkenberg and Ursula von Ramstein, she lived (before 1462-1520).


1484-87 Princess-Abbess Sibylla von Helfenstein of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

The first Count von Helfenstein, Helfrich is recorded as being a citizen of Rome in 225 CE. He was captain of the 5th Legion of Veterans in Germany, and Lord of the Fils River. His Legion fought against Hannibal in 210-205, hence the elephant symbol in the coat of arms. In the 800s another Count of Helfenstein was given magnificent lands in Swabia, in the South-West of Germany.


1484-95 County Sheriff Birgitte Olufsdatter Thott of the County of Dronningholm, Denmark

Birgitte  Thott

Birgitte Thott

Birgitte Thott was a major landowner and was married to the Swedish Councillor of State and lagmand Erengisle Nilsson, who died 1469. She was in dispute with her husband’s children of first marriage over her Swedish castles, and with her stepmother, Anne Present, over the ownership of Vallø-Castle, which Birgitte had inherited from her mother, Karen Falk. She was supported by the Danish king, who appointed her Lensmand (County Sheriff) of the Royal Lands of Dronningholm, and as such she was in charge of local administration. She sold many of her possessions to king Hans. Much of her troubles with inheritance and keeping on to her lands must be seen as a result of her having no children. (d. 1498)


1485… Joint Lady Maria de Ayala of five parts of Lanzarote and half of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste (Spain)

After the death of her father, Diego García de Herrera y Ayala, his possessions were divided among her and her brothers and sister. She was married to Diego de Silva Count of Portalegre. Their other brother, Fernan Peraza, got the islands Gomera and Hierro, but was killed by the inhabitants of Gomera. She did not have any children.


1485…. Joint Lady Constanza Sarmiento of three parts of Lanzarote, and half of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Palma, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste (Spain)

Her oldest brother, Pedro Garcia de Herrera was disinherited, and the third brother, Sancho de Herrera (1442-1534) inherited five parts (Fuerteventura, Alegranza, Graciosa, Lobos and Santa Clara) She was married to Pedro Fernandez de Saavedra and was mother of 5 sons and 1 daughter.


1485-1509 Politically influential Lady Margaret Beaufort in England (United Kingdom)

Margaret Beaufort

Margaret Beaufort

Involved in the running of the government during the reign of her son, Henry VII Tudor, who inherited the throne through her – and his wife, Elizabeth of York. Margaret was the daughter of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp, and was married at the age of about 7 to John De La Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, but the union was later dissolved. Henry VI, who had no children always looked upon the Beauforts as possible heirs and, in 1455, married the 12-year-old Margaret to his own maternal half-brother, Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, who died 1456, the same year their son was born. She, soon afterward, married Henry Stafford, the second son of the Duke of Buckingham, and submitted to the Yorkist rule; but, after the Battle of Tewkesbury, she was obliged to send her son, Henry to seek refuge in Bretagne. Margaret’s fourth husband was a pronounced Yorkist, Thomas, Lord Stanley, afterwards Earl of Derby; but his final defection from Richard III on the field of Bosworth secured the victory to his stepson, Henry VII. Margaret, though she seldom appeared at her son’s court, remained his constant correspondent and one of his wisest advisers. She took vows of religion in 1504, but continued to live out of a nunnery. Also a very learned person, she lived (1441-1509).


1485-1504 Princess-Abbess Agnes III von Anhalt-Zerbst of Gandersheim (Germany)

In 1503 the chapter had to accept the occupation of Wilhelmsburg and the Convent of Barfüßer by the Duke of Braunschweig. She was also Abbess of Neuenheerse (1486-92) and of Kaufungen (1495-1504). She was daughter of Georg I von Anhalt-Zerbst and Sophie (d. 1451), and her sister Scholastika, was Abbess of Gernrode (1465-1505). She lived (1445-1504).


1486-1503 Regent Dowager Countess Margarethe von Mansfeld of Mansfeld zu Hinter-Ort (Germany)

Possibly also known as Margareta. She became regent for her one-year-old son, Albrecht VII, after the death of her husband, Ernst I, and lived (1450-1531).


1486-1538 Hereditary Steward Elisabeth of Hunolstein and Heiress of Neumagen and Sankt-Johannisberg (Germany)

Elisabeth von Hunolstein-Neumagen was married to Count Salentin VII of Isenburg in Salm und Hohenstein (d. circa 1534). Mother of 8 children, and lived (circa 1475-1538).


1486-Circa 1494 Regent Dowager Lady Elisabeth von Bolchen zu Zolveren of the Stewardship of Hunolstein, Neumagen and Sankt-Johannisberg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Heinrich von Hunolstein, Vogt von Hunolstein-Neumagen, she was in charge of the lordships in the name of her daughter. (d. 1506/07)


1486-1531 Princess-Abbess Eva von Isenburg of Thorn (The Netherlands)

In the first years of her reign she was in dispute with Amalia van Rennenberg over the position of sovereign of the territory. Eva had the support of emperor Maximillian, who in 1494 and 1499 declared that the Abbey and its lands were under the protection of the realm (Holy Roman Empire). The dispute was settled in 1502 in her favour, but she encountered many complaints over her reign, high taxes and her immoral conduct. Eva was daughter of Gerlach II von Isenburg in Grenzau and Hildgard von Sirck, Heiress of Meinsberg and Frauenberg.


1486-99 Reigning Abbess-General Leonor de Mendoza I of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her family was very powerful and the many braches held many high state and ecclesiastical office – including the office of Señora Abadesaes of Las Huelgas.


1486 Pretender Ludovica Francesca di Savoia to the County of Roemont and the Lordship of Vaud (France and Switzerland)

Daughter of Giacomo di Savoia and Maria de Luxembourg, Countess of Saint-Pôl, Marle and Soissons. 1503 she married Count Heinrich III von Nassau-Diez. (d. 1511).


1487-96 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth V von Wissemburg-Krenkingen of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

In charge of the City of Zürich and many possessions in Uri Schwyz.


1487-88 Queen Regnant Paccha of Quito (Cara) (Ecuador)

After the death of her father Cacha Shyri XV, Inca Huayna Cápac invaded the kingdom and the chiefs and nobles of the Kingdom appointed her

An Inca Queen of Peru

An Inca Queen of Peru

sovereign. They then married and they became parents of two sons who divided the Inca Empire.


Until 1487 Dame Jeanne de Bourbon of Rochefort (France)

Daughter of king Jean II de Bourbon, Count de Vendôme etc. and Isabelle de Beauvau, Dame de La Roche-sur-Yon (1436-74), and married to Louis de Joyeuse, Count de Grand-Pré. She lived (1460-87).


1488-1514 Sovereign Duchess Anne of Bretagne and Montfort-l’Amaury (France)

Anne de Bretagne

Anne de Bretagne

Also known as Anne de Dreux Montfort, she became Duchess at the age of 11, just after her land had been invaded by French troops who demanded that she should not marry without the consent of the crown. Afraid that Bretagne would be absorbed into France, she made an alliance with Maximilian of Austria (whom she married by proxy in 1490), Henry VII of England and Ferdinand II of Aragon, but eventually, after a long siege, she was forced to marry the French king Charles VIII in 1491. After he died without an heir in 1498, Anne had to marry his successor Louis XII. But she insisted that Bretagne should form a separate part of the inheritance, going to a second son or daughter, or to her own heirs. Anne was a great patron of scholars, poets and artists, and lived (1476-1514).


1488-98 Regent Dowager Duchess Ludmiła of Bohemia of Liegnitz and Brieg (Legnica-Brzeg) (Poland)
1488-1503 Reigning Dowager Duchess in Brzeg and Oława

Also known as Ludmilla Poděbrady or Ludmiła z Podiebradu. After the death of her husband, Friederich I von Chojnów-Oława-Legnica-Brzeg-Lubin, she first reigned for her sons; Jan, Fryderyk II and Jerzy, and then held Brzeg as her dowry. She was daughter of king Georg Podebrad of Bohemia, and (1456-1503).


1488-98 Acting Governor Beatriz de Bobadilla y Ulloa of The islands El Hierro and La Gomera in the Canary Islands (Spain)

Also called Isabel or Beatriz de Bobadilla y Ossorio, she acted on behalf of her son Guilléna Perazy de Ayala after the death of her husband, Ferdinand de

Beatriz de Bobadilla y Ulloa

Beatriz de Bobadilla y Ulloa

Peraza y Ayala, the son of Inés de Peraza de Las Casas, Governor of the whole of the Canary Islands 1552-85. In 1498, she married Alphonse Fernández de Lugo, the Governor whole of the Canary Islands. She was known for her beauty and cruelty. the daughter of Juan Fernández de Bobadilla and doña Leonor de Aza y Ulloa and of Jewish origin. At the age of 17 years, was the lady-in-waiting on the court of Isabel the Catholic, and lived (1462-1501).


1488-1505 Reigning Abbess Walburga Gretter of Gutenzell (Germany)

The chapter for noble ladies was situated in Gutenzell-Hürbel in Württemberg.


1489-1521 Princess-Abbess Meyna Amoena von Daun-Oberstein of Essen (Germany)

The first Princess-Abbess to represent the 3 estates (Ladies of the Chapter, the male canons and the office-holders) in the local Diet (Landtag) for their approval of proposed tax-rises. As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin) she had a vote in the College of Prelates of the Rhine, which had one joint vote in the Council of Princes on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


1489-98 Abbess Nullius Marcella Orsini of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Member of the large Orsini-family.


1490 Dowager Queen Beatrix de Aragón of Hungary

Queen Beatrix de Aragón of Hungary

Queen Beatrix de Aragón of Hungary

After the death of King Matthias Corvinius (1458-90) she was de facto regent in the interregnum. She did her utmost to prevent her stepson, John Corvinius’ succession to the throne. Determined to have a word in the kingdom’s government she used her considerable wealth to help Vladislav of Bohemia, a son of a sister of King Lazlo of Hungary. She married the new king – who became king Laslo VI (1490-1516), but she gradually realised that she had been deceived, after nine years her husband managed to divorce her, her possessions were confiscated and she spend the rest of her life in Napoli. Also known as Beatrice, was daughter of King Ferrante of Napoli (1431-94) and Isabelle de Clermont, she did not have any children, and lived (1457-1508).


1490-96 Regent Dowager Duchess Bianca di Monferrato of Savoia, the counties of Aosta, Moriana and Nizza and the Principality of Piemonte (Italy)

Married to Carlo I, who was surnamed the Warrior was the Duke of Savoy 1482-90 and titular King of Cyprus and Jerusalem from

Bianca di Monferrato

Bianca di Monferrato

1485. After his death she was regent for their son, Carlo II (1489-96). She lived (1472-1519).


1490-1503 Olangio to tilaiot Ntihedud Raja To Tilayo of Upper Parts of Gorontalo (Indonesia)

The principality in North Sulawesi was divided between to branches of the same dynasty, which reigned a part each. She belonged to the Raja To Tilayo Branch and her title means ruler of the upper parts. She was daughter of Uloli (1427-1450) and succeeded her brother, Polamalo I (1481-1490) and was later followed on the throne by his son.


1490-94 Princess-Abbess Guillelme de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Also known as Wilhelmine, she was the fourth of the Mérode-Franckenberg family to reign the territory.


1491-1500 Sovereign Countess Charlotte de Bourgogne of Rethel (France/Belgium)

Succeeded father, Count Jean de Nevers, de Rethel, d’Étampes et d’Eu (1415-91). Her sister, Elisabeth de Rethel, was heiress of Nevers and Eu, but died

Charlotte de Bourgogne, Comtesse de Rethel

Charlotte de Bourgogne, Comtesse de Rethel

1483 – she was married to Johann I of Clèves. Charlotte married Jean d’Albret, Seigneur d’Orval (d. 1524) and was succeeded by daughter Maria d’Albret de Rethel. Charlotte lived (1472-1500).


Until 1491 Princess-Abbess Ursula II von Prassberg of Lindau (Germany)

In 1466 the Abbess of the Ladies Chapter was granted the position of a worldly Princess of the Realm within the Holy Roman Empire. (die Würde einer weltlichen Reichsfürstin innerhalb des “Heiligen Römischen Reiches Deutscher Nation”), which is the reason why her successor was Member of the Bench of Secular Princes in the Swabian Circle Estate. It is not known when Ursula II was elected as ruler of the territory.


1491-1531 Princess-Abbess Amalie von Reischach of Lindau (Germany)

When the Holy Roman Empire was divided into 6 circles (later 10), she became member of the Bench of Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly of the Schwäbischer Kreis (Together with a Prince-Abbot and the Princess-Abbess of Buchau). In 1528 the City of Lindau became Protestant, but the Chapter and the surroundings remained Catholic, and the Chapter and City of Lindau were often engaged quarrels over their territory. The “Gefürstete Äbtissin” Amaile was daughter of the Count von Reischach who was also in charge of Burg Neuhewen in Bavaria.


1491-1534 Reigning Abbess Renée de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Possibly the greatest of the abbesses of the Chapter, both on account of the numbers of priories in which she re-established discipline, and the victory which she gained over the rebellious religious at Fontevrault by the reform, enforced with royal assistance in 1502. The result was a great influx of novices of the highest rank, including several princesses of Valois and Bourbon. At her death there were 160 nuns and 150 monks at Fontevrault. She was daughter of Jean II de Bourbon, Comte de La Marche et de Vendôme and Isabelle de Beauvau, Dame de La-Roche-Sur-Yon, and lived (1468-1534).


1492-1504 Sovereign Duchess Agnieszka Zatorska of Wadowice (Poland)

Also known as Agnes of Zator was daughter of Duke Władysław I of Zator and Anna. In 1492 her father left her Wadowice in his will. But in 1503 King Aleksander Jagiellończyk granted the Duchy to Piotr Myszkowski of Mirów. She fought for her heritage, but the following year the king adjudicated, that Wadowice also belonged to Piotr. Married to Jan of Tworków and Kobierzyn (died in 1504). Mother of one son. She lived (1477/80-1505).


1492-1528 Sovereign Lady Cordula von Gemen of Gemen (Germany)

The daughter of Heinrich IV von Gemen and Anna von Wevelinghoven, she married Count Johann IV von Holstein-Schaumburg as her second husband and they founded the line of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen. The Lordship had been “reichsunmittelbar und reichsstündisch” – an Imperial immediacy – that is placed directly under the Realm of the Empire – since 1431 and from 1495 with a seat in the Imperial Circle Estate (Regional Assembly) of Westphalia.


1492-1520 Regent Dowager Duchess Marguerite de Lorraine-Vaudémont of Alençon (France)

After the death of her 23 year older husband, René, she reigned the Duchy for 20 years in the name of her son, Charles IV (1489-1524). She declared

Marguerite de Lorraine-Vaudémont, Regent of  Alençon

Marguerite de Lorraine-Vaudémont, Regent of Alençon

holy in 1921 by Pope Pius XI because of her work for the poor. She also founded a convent and entered it after her children came of age, but refused to become the Abbess. Her oldest daughter, Françoise d’Alençon, succeeded Charles in 1524. Marguerite de Lorraine was Daughter of Duke Ferry II de Vaudémont and Yolande d’Anjou, Titular Queen of Sicily and mother of three children and lived (1463-1521).


1492-93 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV von Goldenberg of Schänis (Switzerland)

A candidate in the 1482 elections but lost as she was not yet 30 years old at the time. She confirmed the tenancy of Johnannes Meyer von Knonau with the Meierhof (“verge estate”) in 1492. Member of a knightly family from Zürich


1492-1515 Reigning Abbess Antoinette de Moustier of Jouarre (France)

Antoinette of Jouarre

Antoinette of Jouarre

She had already put in the lower room of the Tower the beautiful entombment, the work of Michel Colombe, a famous sculptor of the time: the principal figures that have survived are presently in the Parish Church.


1492-97 Politically Influential Duchess Beatrice d’Este of Bari and Milano (Italy)

Visited Vennetia in 1492 as ambassador for her husband, Lodovico de’ Medici in his political schemes, which consisted chiefly in a beatrice-destedesire to be recognized as duke of Milan and when Gian Galeazzo Sforza died the same year, his usurpation of the Duchy of Milano was legalized, and after the Battle of Fornovo in 1495, they both took part in the peace congress of Vercelli between Charles VIII of France and the Italian princes, at which she showed great political ability. But her brilliant career was cut short by death through childbirth. She surround herself with learned men, poets and artists, such as Niccolo da Correggio, Bernardo Castiglione, Bramante, Leonardo da Vinci and many others. The daughter of Ercole I d’Este and Eleonora d’Aragona, she lived (1475-97).


1493-1506 Duchess Regnant Barbara von Schlesien of Jägerndorf-Rybnik (Poland)

Daughter of Duke Nikolaus IV (circa 1400-52) and Margareta Clemm von Elguth, she succeeded brother, Johan IV in Jägerndorf. She married Duke Hanus IV of Auschwitz, was mother of one daughter, Helena, and lived circa (circa 1445-1510).


1493 Taoist Priest Empress Zhang in China

The scroll that documents her ordination as a Taoist priest is one of the most important surviving documents of the relationship between Taoism and

Taoist Priest Empress Zhang

Taoist Priest Empress Zhang

the Ming imperial family. The painting shows her with a group of divine ladies called “jade maidens,” the Taoist priest who ordained her, and a procession of deities. An accompanying inscription can identify each deity, making this work an invaluable source for the identification of images of Taoist gods in the Ming dynasty. The depiction of empress and priest together with Taoist gods indicates that the human figures have achieved divine status. She was married to Emperor Hongzhi.


1494-99 Regent Dowager Duchess Isabella de Aragón of Milano (Italy)
1502-24 Sovereign Princess of Bari, Rossano, Crottaglie, Ostuni and Monteserico

Isabella de Aragón, Regent of Milano

Isabella de Aragón, Regent of Milano

Widow of Gian Galeazzo Sforza, she was in charge of the regency for son, Francesco Sforza, until the King of France, Louis XII, ordered him into exile in France. Faced with limited options, she recognized the supremacy of the Spanish King Ferdinand the Catholic and was able to take the throne in Bari and Rossano. She was very strong and self-determined and she knew what it took to achieve her political goals. She managed the budget and resources very well and they soon started bringing profits. In 1518 her only surviving child, Bona, married to King Sigmund I of Poland, who later succeeded her mother as ruler of Bari etc. She was daughter of King Alfonso of Napoli and lived (1470-1524).


1494-1520 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III van Herzelles of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Member of a very illustrious Belgium family, which was in charge of many lordships.


1494-1520 Reigning Abbess Ponzetta Boniseth von Limburg-Stirum of Herford (Germany)

Became member of the Geistlichen Fürstenbank (Bench of Lords Spiritual) of the Westphalischer Kreis (Westphalian Circle) when the regional assembly was created by Emperor Maximilian I in 1500. She was daughter of Count Wilhelm I von Limburg and Agnes von Limburg. Her sister Anna vas Abbess of Vilich and Borghorst. Apparently she resigned in favour of her relative, Anna, and died four years later in 1525.


1494/95 Princess-Abbess Sussana von Sal of Schänis (Switzerland)

Appears to have died just after her election. She was daughter of Konrad von Sal, of a local knightly family.


1495-1525 Princess-Abbess Barbara II Trüllerey of Schänis (Switzerland)

Like her predecessors she confirmed Johnannes Meyer von Knonau as tenant of the Meierhof (“verge estate”) in 1492. She began rebuilding the choir of the church of Schänis. Member of a knightly family from Aaargau.


1495-1533 Reigning Abbess Adrienne de Noyelle of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Also known by the surname de la Chapelle, she was daughter of the Lord de Noyelle and Calonne.


Around 1495 Reigning Abbess Jeanne Chrétien of Faremoutiers (France)

As Abbess she held clerical and seigneurial rights, but the chapter was in decay and 3 nuns had children.


1495-1515 Sovereign Grand Princess Alexandra Olena Olelkowicz-Slucki of Pinsk (Belarus)

Daughter of Simeon Olelkowicz, and succeeded her brother, Vasily Olelkowicz, Prince of Pinsk (1488-95), and married Fiodor Ivanovich in 1498, and he became Prince of Pinsk (†V.1527).


1495-96 Co-ruler Queen Consort Giovanna IV of Napoli (Italy)

Daughter of Ferrante I of Naples (1458-94) and his third wife Infanta Juana of Aragon (Giovanna III) (1454-1517), and married to her nephew, King

Queen Consort Giovanna of Napoli

Queen Consort Giovanna of Napoli

Ferrante II (1469-95-96), who succeeded her half-brother, Alphonso II, who abdicated because of the approaching invasion of Charles VIII of France and the general dissatisfaction of his subjects. Her husband defeated the French garrisons but died shortly after. Her mother tried to have her placed on the throne. She lived (1478-1518).


1495-1525 Sovereign Countess Charlotte de Chalon of Joigny (France)

Successor of her father, Charles de Chalon, and married Adrien de Sainte-Maure Count de Nesle et de Joigny (d. 1504) and Francois de Tourzel, seigneur de Precy.


1495-1522 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Elisabeth zu Stolberg-Wernigerode of the Administrative Office and Castle of Stauffenburg in Harz in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Germany)

Elisabeth zu Stolberg-Wernigerode

Elisabeth zu Stolberg-Wernigerode

Her husband, Wilhelm II zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel was deposed in 1595 after he had deposed and imprisoned his brother, Friederich. Their sons inherited the dukedom. She promoted mining and the area propored economically. (d. 1522)


1495-1506 Politically Influential Queen Helena Moskiewska of Poland

Involved in politics during the reign of her husband, Aleksander Jagiellonczyk (the Jagiellonian). In 1503 she negotiated an armistice

 Helena Moskiewska

Helena Moskiewska

between Moscow and Lithuania. (1476-1513).


1496-98 Regent Duchess Anna of Poland of Pommern (Pomerze) (Poland/Germany)

Anna of Poland, Regent of Pommern

Anna of Poland, Regent of Pommern

Her husband Bogislaw X of Pommern (1454-71-1523) charged her with the government when he left for a meeting with Emperor Maximilian asking him to mediate in the ongoing conflict with his brother-in-law about various lands. He then went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and did not return until two years later. She was his second wife, mother of nine children and daughter of King Kazimierz IV of Poland and Elisabeth of Austria. She lived (1475-1503).


1496-1515 Sovereign Countess Louise de Savoie of Angoulême
1515-31 Sovereign Duchess d’Angoulême, Nemours, d’Auvergne, Bourbonnais et Châtellerault, Comtesse du Maine, de Beaufort, Clermont-en-Beauvaisis et Gien
1516-31 Sovereign Duchess d’Anjou
1523-27 Sovereign Duchess de Bourbon and La Dombes
1525-26 Regent of France
1528 Sovereign Duchess de Touraine (France)

Daughter of Philippe II de Savoie and Marguerite de Bourbon, married to Charles d’Orléans, and succeeded him as Duchess of Angoulême and d’Anjou.

Louise de Savoie

Louise de Savoie

She was very influential during the reign of her son, King François I of France, and during his absence in the Italian Wars, she acted as regent, and during his captivity in Spain 1525–26 she made an alliance with King Henry VIII of England, in which Henry deserted his alliance with Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, François’ opponent in the Italian Wars. In 1529 she also negotiated the so-called Ladies’ Peace with Margaret of Austria, Charles V’s aunt. Louise lived (1476-1531).


1496-1539 Sovereign Countess Louise de Bourbon of Montpensier, Princesse des Dombes, Dauphine d’Auvergne
1530-61 Countess of Mortain
1538-61 Duchesse of Auvergne
1539-61 Duchesse of Montpensier (France)

Louise de Bourbon

Louise de Bourbon

She was daughter of Gilbert de Bourbon, Comte de Montpensier, Dauphin d’Auvergne, Archduke de Sessa, Vice-roi de Napoli (1443-99) and Claire de Gonzaga of Mantua. First married to André de Chauvigny and then to Louis de Bourbon, prince de la Roche-sur-Yon. She lived (1482-1561).


1496-1539 Sovereign Baroness Renée de Bourbon-Montpensier of Mercoeur (France)

Succeeded her father, Gilbert (1443-86-96), comte de Montpensier et dauphin d’Auvergne, under the guardianship of her mother,

Renée de Bourbon-Montpensier

Renée de Bourbon-Montpensier

Claire Gonzaga (1464-1503). She was married to Duke Antoine of Lorraine (1489-1544) and succeeded by her son, François (1517-45), She lived (1494-1539).


1496-1503 Reigning Dowager Lady Duchess Barbara Gonzaga of Böblingen in Württemberg (Germany)

Barbara Gonzaga

Barbara Gonzaga

After the death of her husband Eberhard V von Württemberg (1445-57-96), she took up residence at her dowry. Her only daughter, Barbara had died a few months after her death. She was Daughter of Ludovico II, Margrave of Mantua and Barbara of Brandenburg, and lived (1455-1503).


1496-1524 Princess-Abbess Katharina von Zimmern of Fraumünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

Around 13 years old when she, together with her older sister, Anna, entered the Chapter. As Fürstäbtissin was she the titular Head of

Fürstäbtissin Katharina zu Fraumünster, Frau von Zürich

Fürstäbtissin Katharina zu Fraumünster, Frau von Zürich

the City, but most of the executive rights had already been transferred to the city. As a result of the reformation it became her task to dissolve the small state and she sold the remaining territories to the City of Zürich. She then married Eberhard von Reischach, who was killed by the battle of Kappel. They first lived in Schaffhausen and Diessenhofen until 1529 when they moved back to Zürich. Mother of one daughter, and lived (1478-1547).


1497 Princess-Abbess Anna IV von Werdenberg of Buchau (Germany)

Elected as the successor of her sister, Margarethe, on the 20th of February 1497, she was inaugurated at 11th of March but died already at 23rd of October the same year.


1497-1523 Princess-Abbess Barbara von Gundelfingen of Buchau (Germany)

One of the important rulers of the territory she was elected at the age of 25 and therefore obtained papal dispensation a few months later, because the minimum age for abbesses was 30. 1507 Mentioned in the Inventory of the Realm (Reichsmatrikel) as Princess Abbess, 1510 she was the first leader of Buchau to sign a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid). 1517 she was represented by the Abbot of Weissenau in the Assembly of the Swabian Circle (Kreistag). She reformed the internal affairs of the Chapter and was much preoccupied with the affairs of the territory and its neighbours. The daughter of Freiherr Georg von Gundelfingen and Countess Waldburga von Fugger-Kirchberg, she lived (1473-1523).


1497-1505 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II von Harbach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Her family posessed many estates in both Niederbayern and Austria.


1497-1506 Reigning Abbess Anna II von Stein of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Head of the Franciscan Ladies Chapter for noble ladies and of its territories and lands in Switzerland and France.


1497-98 Princess-Abbess Sussana von Saal of Schänis (Switzerland)

Only women of the aristocracy were accepted as community members. Applicants were initially obliged to prove descent from four grandparents of the higher aristocracy, but later from 16 great-great-grandparents of the same rank. In this way Schänis became a place of care for the unmarried female offspring of the higher nobility of southern Germany.


1498-1525 Princess-Abbess Barbara II Trüllerey of Schänis (Switzerland)

Apparently member of an important family in the Canton of Schaffenhausen.


1498-1505 Sovereign Duchess Jeanne de Valois of Berry (France)

Jeanne de Valois, Duchesse du Berry

Jeanne de Valois, Duchesse du Berry

Daughter of King Louis IX and Charlotte de Savoie. Married to Louis II, Duc d’Orléans and later King Louis XII of France. She was crippled and a hunchback, the marriage was never consumated and they divorced in 1498 and she retired to Bourges, where she founded a convent. In 1950 she was canonized as Sainte Jeanne de France. She lived (1464-1505).


1498-1504 Reigning Abbess Barbara von Hausen of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The chapter was a major landowner with seigneurial rights.


1499-1502 Governor Lucrezia Borgia of Spoleto and Foligno (Italy)
1501-02 In charge of the Administration of the Vatican and the Catholic Church
1506 Regent of Ferrara

Daughter of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia (Pope Alexander VI) and Vannozza de Cattanei. First married to Giovanni Sforza, Prince of Pesaro. After their

Lucrezia Borgia

Lucrezia Borgia

divorce in 1497 she served as her father’s hostess at diplomatic receptions. Also in 1497 she had a child by her young lover, who was given the name of Giovanni and legitimised as the son of her father, which led to rumours they had an incestuous relationship. The following year she was married to Prince of Alfonso Aragon, Alfonso, Duke of Bisceglia and Salerno in Napoli. She was appointed governor of Spoleto by her father, an office usually reserved for cardinals, and she administered the city well. In 1500 Alfonso was murdered by her brother, Cesare. A year later her father left the administration of the Vatican and the Church in her hands. A woman of twenty-one, acting as the head of Christendom, did not shock the cardinals of the Curia, accustomed as they were to the excesses of the papacy of Alexander. 1502 she was married to Afonso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio and had four children by him, at the same time as she carried on a romance with the poet Pietro Bembo. At this time Lucrezia sided with her brother in his various military adventures. She brought her two sons, Giovanni, who posed as her brother and her son by her second husband, Rodrigo, to the court of Ferrara. Eventually, the two young boys were sent to Isabella of Aragon. As regent of Ferrara in absence of her husband in 1506 she issued an edict in favour of the Jews. After Rodrigo died in 1512, she retired a convent, but later returned to her husband. After giving birth to her fifth child, who died shortly after being born, she contracted puerperal fever and died. She lived (1480-1519).


1499-1521 Politically Influential Princess Jadwiga of Cieszyn-Głogów of Hungary

Since 1483 married to the Hungarian Palatin Stefan Zapolya (died in 1499) and a mother of Barbara (since 1512 Queen of Poland) and Janos II. She fought for her the Hungarian Throne for her son, but he did not become king until 1526. She was daughter of a prince of Cieszyn-Głogów and Anna Mazowiecka, and lived (1469-1521).


1499-1529 Reigning Abbess-General Teresa de Ayala of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her official title was “noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals”, and she reigned over vast territories in Castilla and Leon.

Women in power 1400-1450

Circa 1400-? Queen Regnant Kalaimanuia of Oahu (Hawai’i)

12th Alii Aimoku in succession to her mother, Kukaniloko who ruled from 1375, and married to Lupe Kapukeahomakalii. Later she gave her position to her daughter, Kekala, a warrior Chiefess.


Around 1400 Queen Regnant Kekala of Oahu (Hawai’i)

A warrior Chiefess, she was handed the position as Mo’iwahine or supreme female ruler by her mother, Queen Kalaimanuia.


1400-17 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth de Sponheim-Kreuznach of Vianden (Luxembourg)
1414-17 Countess of Sponheim-Kreutznach (Germany)

Daughter of Countess Maria von Vianden (ca 1337-1400) and Count Simon III von Sponheim-Kreuznach who was Count of Vianden by the right of his wife until his death in 1414. Her brother Walram von Sponheim died 1382 and her sister Maria von Sponheim circa 1414. Elisabeth first married Engelbert III von der Mark and Ruprecht Pipan, Count Palatine of the Rhine, had no children and lived (1365-1417).


Circa 1400/08-27 Sultana Seri Ratu Nihrasyiah Rawangsa Khadiyu of Pasai/Pase (Samudra Pasai Kesepulih) (Indonesia)

Nihrasyiah Rawangsa Khadiyu

Nihrasyiah Rawangsa Khadiyu

Succeeded her father, Sultan Zainal Abidin, after she had gained the respect of the whole community and the royal family, who agreed to hand over the power of the state to her.


Around 1400-42 Titular Queen Yolande de Aragón of Sicily, Napoli, Jerusalem, and Aragón (Italy)
1417 Regent Dowager Duchess of Anjou and Provence (France)
1424-27 Presiding over the Estates General of Anjou and Provence

Daughter of Juan I, king of Aragón, she was initially called Violenta. Her father was succeeded by Martin

Marie d'Anjou

Yolande of Sicily, Regent of Anjou and Procince

as king of Aragón. Her marriage to Louis II of Anjou in 1400, who spent much of his life fighting in Italy for his claim to the kingdom of Napoli. She was appointed guardian of her son-in-law the Dauphin Charles, who became Charles VII in 1422, but his title was still challenged by the English and their Burgundian allies. In this struggle, she manoeuvred to have the duke of Bretagne break from an alliance with the English, and was responsible for the Breton soldier, Arthur de Richemont, becoming the constable of France in 1425. Her early and strong support of Jeanne d’Arc, when others had reasonable doubts, suggests the Duchess’ possible larger role in the orchestrating the Maid’s appearance on the scene. Her younger daughter, Yolanda, was married to the heir of Bretagne, her youngest son, René, inherited Lorraine in 1431 and after her older son’s Louis III’s death, and three years later he also became duke of Anjou and heir of Sicily. She lived (1379-1442).


1400-34 Sovereign Duchess Marie d’Anjou of Auvergne (France)
1414-34 Regent of Bourbon
1416 Sovereign Duchess de Montpensier

Marie d'Anjou

Marie d’Anjou

Also known as Marie de Berry, she was daughter of Jean d’Anjou, Count de Poitiers, Duc de Berry, d’Auvergne and Jeanne d’Armagnac, and was married to Louis de Châtillon, Count de Dunois, Philippe d’Artois, Count d’Eu and finally to Jean I, Duc de Bourbon (1410-15-34), and regent during his imprisonment in England. He was succeeded by his son, Charles I (1401-34-56). The county of Auvergne had been divided into two in 1155, and Marie d’Auvergne reigned the county 1424-37. Marie d’Anjou lived (1367-1434).


1400-03 Princess-Abbess Ursula I von Brasberg of Baindt (Germany)

As Princess of The Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin), she had a seat on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


1400-17 Countess-Abbess Bertrade von Schneuditz of Gernrode and Frose
1417-25 Princess-Abbess of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

The first ruler of the territory to be granted the rank of Princess of The Empire in 1417.


1400-02 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II von Murach of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

It is not certain who was chosen as her successor, but it is known that Margaretha I reigned until 1435.


Around 1400 Military Leader Maire O’Ciaragain of Ireland

Led Irish clans against the English and was known for her ferocity in battle.


14.. Rani Regnant Lakshimi Devi of Mithila (India)

 Lakshimi Devi of Mithila

Lakshimi Devi of Mithila

Succeeded her husband, Siva Simh, who reigned around 1399. Mithila is an ancient cultural region of North India between the lower ranges of the Himalayas and the Ganges River. The Nepal border cuts across the top fringe of this region. The Gandak and Kosi Rivers are rough western and eastern boundaries of Mithila.


14.. Rani Regnant Visvasa Devi of Mithila (India)

Ascended the throne after the death of Padma Sima Chaulukyas. In the thirteenth century Mithila was invaded by Afghans, who deposed the Kshatriya ruler and placed a Maithil Brahman in control of land revenues over much of this region. This family soon began calling themselves kings, distributing land to other members of their caste, so that gradually land passed into the control of Maithil Brahmans.


14… Queen Putri Kaumnu of Bandjermasin (Indonesia)

Ruler of the principality in southern Borneo.


14… Queen Daroh Nanti of Sangau (Indonesia)

Born as Princess of Majapahit and founded the state in Borneo.


14…. Tribal Leader Lalla Aziza in Morocco

Very influential during her lifetime in her Berber tribe, she is now considered a saint who protects chasseurs and the aèdes berbères.


14…. Malika Tindu of the Jallarid Dynasty (Iraq)

Ruled sometime during the 15th century, and had the khubta – Friday’s prayers – preached in her name.


1401-20 Reigning Dowager Duchess Eufemia Mazowiecka of Oppeln (Opole) (At the time Germany, Now Poland)

Held the Duchy after the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Władysław Opolczyk. She lived (1352-1418/24).


1402-04 (†) Regent Dowager Duchess Caterina Visconti of Milano (Italy)

Caterina Visconti

Caterina Visconti

The widow of her cousin Gian Galeazzo Visconti, who inherited the lands of his family. 1395 He bought his investiture as hereditary duke of Milan from Holy Roman Emperor Wenceslaus and later defeated Emperor Ruprecht who sought to restore imperial rule over Italy. During her regency for their son, Giovanni Maria Visconti (1389–1412). Many cities were lost and political chaos prevailed. On reaching his majority Giovanni Maria revealed himself a dissolute and cruel ruler. He was assassinated, and the duchy passed to his brother, Filippo Maria Visconti, (1392–1447). She lived (1360-1404).


1402-08 Sovereign Lady Valentina Visconti of Asti (Italy)
1407-08 (†) Regent Dowager Duchess of Orléans and the Counties of Valois, Blois, Dunois, Angoulême, Périgod, Dreux and Soissons (France)

After her husband, Duke Louis d’Orléans et cetera, was assassinated on the command of the Duke of Burgundy she became

Valentina Visconti

Valentina Visconti

guardian of her children and took over the fiefs of her husband. She became the leader of the Orléans-party and worked for the rehabilitation of her late husband. Daughter of Duke Gian Galeazzo I of Milano, Lord of Pavia, Novara, Como, Vercelli, Alba, Asti, Tortona, Alessandria e Vigevano (1355-1402) and Princess Isabella de Valois of France and mother of eight children. She lived (1366-1408).


1402-13 Temporary Regent Hereditary Princess Infanta Juana of Navarra (Spain)

Recognised as heiress to the throne of Navarre at Olite 3 December 1402, and governed Navarre in the name of her parents, King Carlos III of Navarra (1361-1425) and Leonor de Castilla y León, during their absences abroad. 1401 she was bethrothed to King Martin I of Sicily, who instead married her sister, Blanca, who became Regent of Sicily in 1409 and Queen of Navarra in 1425. Their younger sister, Beatriz, was officially made third-in-line on the same occation in 1402. Juana did not have any children with her husband, Count Juan III de Foix. She lived (1382-1413).


1402-04 Sovereign Princess Maria II Zaccharia of Achaia, Queen of Thessalonica (Greece)

Succeeded her husband Pierre Bordeaux de San Superan (1386-1402). She was daughter of Centurione I Zaccharia, Lord of Veligosi, Damala and Chalandritza and was deposed by her nephew, Centurione II, who was prince until 1432/39. His daughter, Catharina Zaccharia, was marred to Thomas Palaiologos, Despot of Morea 1428-60 and Prince of Achaia from 1432.


1402-25 Sovereign Countess Bonne d’Artois of Auxerre, d’Eu, de Mâcon, de Vermandois, d’Amiens et de Ponthieu (France)

Inherited parts of the domains of Jean, Duke of Touraine, Dauphin de Viennous, Duke de Berry, Count of Poitiers and

Bonne d'Artois

Bonne d’Artois

Ponthieu. First married to Philippe de Nevers and Rethel, with whom she had two sons, and then, as his second wife, her first husband’s nephew, Philippe de Bourgogne. Died in childbed, and lived (1393-1425).


1402-10 Reigning Abbess Anna III von Gundelfingen of Buchau (Germany)

Probably daughter of Stephan von Gundelfingen. She was canoness around and 1385 and is confirmed as abbess in 1402. Her family was very influential in the Chapter during the 15th century, and she lived (circa 1360-1410).


1402-20 Princess-Abbess Adelheid IV von Schwandegg of Schänis (Switzerland)

In 1403 she entered a treaty of a Burgrecht (Borough right) with the City of Zürich. The chapter had since then in the Münsterhof its own office that collected the income of the chapter in the city. She was member of the Freiherrliche family, the Barons of Schwandegg, which build the borough of Schwandegg in the 13th century and died out in the 15th.


1402-12 Countess Abbess Sophia III zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Restored the economic situation that had deteriorated during the reign of her predecessor, Luitgard III zu Hammerstein. She was the only child of Duke Ludwig and Mathilde zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. (d. 1412).


1402-24 Politically Influential Empress Xu of China

Empress Xu

Empress Xu

In charge of the administration of the City of Yan while her husband Zhu Di (the Yongle Emperor), was pursuing his campaign and in the midst of fierce fighting, she ascended the city walls and personally encouraged the troops to defend it.


1403-19 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Blois of Sancerre, Dame de Sagonne, de Marmande, de Charenton-du-Cher, de Meillant and de Faye-la-Vineuse, etc., (France)

Daughter of Jean III and Marguerite, Dame de Marmande. Married Gerard VI Chabot, Baron de Retz (d. circa 1364), Beraud II Dauphin d’Auvergne, Comte de Clermont (d. 1400), Jean de Saligny, Constable of Naples and Jacques de Montberon, Baron de Maulevrier (d. 1422).


1403-06 Princess-Abbess Adelheid III Abtsreuter of Baindt (Germany)

As ruler of the principality, she had the right to a seat on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


1403-07 Princesse-Abbesse Catherine II von Blamont of Remiremont (France)

Concurrently held the office of Abbess of Epinal. In 1403 the Pope accepted the transformance of the Abbey into a chapter for noble ladies. She was the youngest daughter of Theobald von Blamont and Marguerite de Vaire. (d. 1408).


1403-21 Political Advisor Lady Jelena Balšić of Zeta (Montenegro)

Jelena Balsic

Jelena Balsic

After her husband, Lord Durad II of Zeta, died in consequence of the injuries suffered in the Battle of Gračanica, she became the advisor of her 17-year old son, Balša III. She made him declare the Orthodox Church as the official confession of the state, while Catholicism became a tolerant confession. Her son waged two wars against Venezia, winning some territory and then loosing it again. He also became a vassal to the Ottoman Turks. 1419 he went to Belgrade to ask for aid from his mother’s brother, Despot Stefan Lazarević, but never returned and 1421 he passed the rule of Zeta to his uncle. She had married Vojvode Sandalj Hranić Kosača of Bosnia in 1411 and lived (1365/70-1443).


1404-15 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Braunschweig of Holstein (Germany)

After the murder of her husband, Gerhard IV, she was regent for their son, Heinrich IV, jointly with Bishop Heinrich of Osnabrück, Count of Holstein. Gerhard was count of Holstein-Rendsburg (1382-1404) before he was given Slesvig as a hereditary fief with the title of Duke by Queen Margrethe I of Denmark, Sweden and Norway in 1386. Elisabeth engaged in various disputes with Queen Margrethe and King Erik 6. of Pommern of Denmark over lands and incomes. Various dukes were asked to mediate, and in 1410 they made a truce. 1411 she gave the Shires of Søderup and Alslev to the Queen as security for lones. She was mother of 3 sons and two daughters, including Heilwig, who married Dietrich von Oldenburg, whose son, became Christian I of Denmark in 1448, and inherited Slesvig in 1459.


1404–19 Regent Duchess Marguerite de Bavière of Artois and Fanche-Comté (Burgundy in the Low Coutnries) (Belgium/France)
1419–23 Regent of Bourgogne (France)

In charge of the government during the absence of her husband, Count Jean de Bourgundie, who was regent for his mentally

Marguerite de Bavière

Marguerite de Bavière

ill first cousin Charles de Valois VI of France. Jean succeded her father, Philip the Bold, as Duke of Burgundy, and his mother, Margaret of Dampierre, Countess of Flanders, Artois and Burgundy in 1404 and 1405. She became most known for her successful defense of French Burgundy against the Count of Armagnac in 1419. Her brother’s daughter, Jacbäa succeeded to the counties of Hainault, Holland etc, but her grandson claimed the counties as his inheritance through her. She had 1 son and 7 daughters and lived (1363–1423)

1404-12 Princess-Abbess Benedicta von Bechburg of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

Fürstäbtissin von Fraumünister, Frau von Zürich

Fürstäbtissin von Fraumünister, Frau von Zürich

Member of an ancient Baronial (Freiherrliche) family in today’s Canton Solothurn with close links of the Canton of Bern.


1405-57 Politically Influential Gawhar Shad of Herat (Afghanistan)

Also known as Gowhar Shād, Gauhar Shad or Goharshad, she exercised extraordinary influence at court during the reign of her husband, Shah Rukh of the Timurid Dynasty, and among others advised him on military campaigns. She was a patron of art and architecture, donated grants to mosques, She outlived her husband, who died 1445, by a decade, manoeuvred her favourite grandson onto the throne, and was executed on July 19th 1457 on the order of Sultan Abu Sa’id. Goharshad. (lived before 1377-1457).


1405-17/18 Regent Dowager Signora Paola Colonna of Elba and Piombino (Italy)
1441-45 (†) Regent of Elba and Piombino (Italy)

Following the death of her husband, Gherardo Leonardo Appiani, who was lord of Lord of Pisa (1398-99), Lord of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and of the Isles of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa 1399, Palatine Count of the Holy Roman Empire 1402, she was regent for their son, Iacopo II (1400/01-1441), who was succeeded by his sister Caterina. Paola was daughter of Agapito Colonna, Lord of Genazzano and sister of Pope Martinus V, and lived (1378/79-45).


1405-35 Princess-Abbess Adelheid IV von Isenburg of Quedlinburg (Germany)

1426 Quedlinburg joined the German Hanse, the most powerful trade association in Europe. In 1435 she resigned and died five years later. She was daughter of Count Heinrich and Countess Adelheid von Isenburg. Resigned in 1435. (d. 1441).


Around 1405 Reigning Abbess Adelheid II von Hallwyl of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

She was member of an old Baronial (freiherrliche) family which was in the service of the Habsburgs and worked for the city of Bern, and was in charge of a number of lordships in Switzerland.

1406-18 Regent Dowager Queen Catalina de Lancaster of Castilla (Spain)

Catalina de Lancaster

Catalina de Lancaster

Widow of Enrique III (1379-90-1406) she was joint regent with Fernando de Antequera for son, Juan II (1405-06-54). She was an active regent, involved in financial matters, using her influence in negotiation about matrimonies and peace-treaties in the most important European nations. She was daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Aquitaine (1340-99) and his second wife, Constance, titular Queen of Castile (1354-94) whose father, Pedro I of Castile and Leon (1350-69), was succeeded by a brother. Through her mother’s claims, Catalina was considered heiress of Castilla and married her half-cousin, King Enrique, and became the mother of 1 son and 2 daughters, and lived (1374-1418).


1406-20 County Sheriff/Reigning Lady Queen Philippa of England of Denmark of the County of Nøsbyhoved (Denmark), Romerike (Norway) and the County of Närke with the Castle of Örebro (Sweden)
1420 and 1425-27 and 1429-30 In Charge of the Government of Denmark in Sweden
1420-30 County Sheriff/Reigning Lady of the County of Närke, most of the Mälar Area, all of the County of Västmanland with Västerås, the County of Uppland with Uppsala and the City, Castle and County of Stockholm
1423-25 Regent of Denmark, Norway and Sweden(August-May)

After her marriage to Erik VII of Pomerania, she was granted several fiefs in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. When Erik

Philippa of Denmark

Philippa of Denmark

appointed his cousin, Duke Bugislav IX. of Pommern-Stolp, they made a settlement that meant that she was granted large parts of Sweden as her Dowry (livgeding) and she acted as her husband, ‘s representative in the country, and she spend much of her time here. During his pilgrimage to Jerusalem from 1423 she was Guardian of the Realm in Denmark. She made a treaty with some members of the North-German Confederation of so-called Hanse-States about the validity of the coin-system (A monitary union) using the titulature; “We, Philippa By the Grace of God, Queen in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Wends and Goths and Duchess in Pommerania…according the power and command that our dearest graceful Lord in his absence has commanded realm and land..”. After his return, she was in charge of the government in Sweden. In 1426 she met with the Swedish Council of the Realm in order to secure military help in the war against the counts of Holstein and the following year she met with the Council to discus the war and domestic matters. 1428 she successfully organized the defence of Copenhagen against the attacking Hanse-Cities. The following year she returned to Sweden, gave birth to a still-born child in 1429, and lived (1394-1430).


1406-1408 Reigning Abbess Margaretha I von Wachingen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Related to Bishop Bertold von Wachingen. Her family originated in Mittenwald in Bavaria.


Around 1406-09… Princess-Abbess Anna of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)

In 1406 she instigated a day of memory of the late Abbess Katherina. Dorotha was mentioned as Prioress in 1409 and Katherina as Cutrix


Until 1407 Chatelaine Jeanne de Luxembourg of Saint Pôl and Ligny, de Lille (France)

Daughter of Count Valeran III de Luxembourg-St-Pôl (1355-1415) and Lady Maud Holland (Half sister of King Richard II of England). Married to Antoine de Bourgogne, Duke of Brabant and Limbourg (d. 1415), and their son, Philippe succeeded her father as count.


1407-18 Princesse-Abbesse Henriette II d’Amoncourt of Remiremont (France)

Held the office of Secrète 1381, 1384 and afterwards. Her election was contested by the supporters of Catherine de Blamont and Henri de Blamont deployed his troops in the territory, making it impossible for her to take up her position until 1412.


1408-38 Hereditary Countess Adelheid of the Wild- and Rheingrafschaft of Kyrburg and Schmidtburg (Germany)

Daughter of Gerhard III of Kyrburg und Schmidtburg, and Adelheid von Veldenz, and married to Johann III, Wild- und Rheingraf zu Dhaun (d. 1428). She (d. 1438).


Until 1408 Princess-Abbess Catherine de Blamont of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz et cetera (France)

In 1403 the Pope accepted the transformation of the Abbey into a chapter for noble ladies. She was the youngest daughter of Theobald von Blamont and Marguerite de Vaire, and (d. 1408).


1408-37 Reigning Abbess Bertha III von Freisingen of Gutenzell (Germany)

After the fall of the Stauffen kings the Chapter were able to became Imperial Immediate (reichsfrei), and in 1417 Emperor Sigismund granted certain privileges.


1409-15 Vice-Reine Blanca I de Navarra of Sicilia (Italy)
1425-41 Queen Regnant Blanca I Navarra, Countess de Nemours and Everex (Spain and France)

The daughter of King Carlos II of Navarra, Comte d’Évreux and Duc de Nemours (1361-1425) and Leonor de Castilla y León,

Blanca i of Navrra

Blanca i of Navrra

she was recognised as second in line to the throne at Olite in 1402 and as heiress to the throne of Navarre at Olite in 1416, and succeeded her father in 1425. Her first husband was Martin I de Aragón (1392-1409), who had first been married to Queen Maria of Sicilia, Duchess of Athens, and was succeeded by his father, Martin II (1409-10), who named her as regent in Sicily. Her second husband was Federico I de Aragon, who became King Consort of Navarre in her right. Their son, Carlos de Aragón y Navarra (1421-61) was designated heir to Navarre from birth by the Cortes, but her husband was already trying in 1427 to change the order of succession in favour of their daughter Infanta doña Leonor. Infante Carlos was excluded from the succession on her death, with her husband as King. Carlos left Navarre 1451 for Guipúzcoa, supported by the Beaumont clan. Imprisoned 1453-1455, and after a brief reconciliation in 1460, Carlos was incarcerated at Lérida. And after his death in 1479 her daughter, Leonor became Queen. Blanca de Navarra lived (1385-1441).


1409-42 Reigning Abbess Mathilde III von Waldeck of Herford (Germany)

Also known as Mechtild, she was also Abbess of Heerse, and the daughter of Count Heinrich III von Waldeck and Elisabeth von Berg. Her sister, Elisabeth, was Abbess of Kaufungen until her death in 1495.


1409-44 Politically Influential Margravine Paola Malatesta of Mantova (Italy)

Paola Malatesta

Paola Malatesta

Took an active part in the government during the reign of her husband Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, who was Lord of Mantova and Captain of Popolo (1407-33) before being granted the title of Marchese by the Emperor in 1433. She was daughter of the Venetian noble, Carlo I Signore di Rimini and his wife Elisabetta Gonzaga dei Signori di Mantova. She lived (1393-1449).


1410-40 Temporary Regent Margravine Elisabeth von Bayern-Landshut of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Germany)

Often managed the affairs of state and functioned as an effective ruler and valuable aid to her husband,

Elisabeth von Brandenburg

Elisabeth von Brandenburg

Margrave and Elector Friedrich Hohenzollern I von Brandenburg-Ansbach und Kumblach. He was Burgrave of Nürnberg 1397-1409 and Elector from 1410. She was mother of 11 children, and lived (1383-1442).


1410-26 Reigning Abbess Agnes von Tengen of Buchau (Germany)

In the year of her death she laid the foundation of the chaplancy of the Holy Cross (Heligkreuzkaplanie). Possibly daughter of Johann the Younger, Lord of Elisau and Freeherr of Tengen and Margrethe von Nellenburg. Lived (circa 1381-1426).


1410-13 Reigning Abbess Katharina I von Egloffstein of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of a Swiss countly family, who were lords of the Castle of Egloffstein in the Swiss Franconia (Schweizische Franken).


1411-19 Governor and Sultan Tandu of Baghdad (Iraq)

Also known as Tindu, she belonged to the Jalarid Dynasty, a branch of the Ilkhan Mongol rulers, and daughter of king Awis. She was first married to al-Zahir Barquq, the last Mameluk king of Egypt. She did not like life in Cairo and her husband let her go back to Baghdad, where she married her cousin Shah Walad bin Ali, the Governor for the Caliph, and after his death she acceded to the throne, had coins stuck in her name and the khutba (sovereign’s prayer) proclaimed in her name in the mosques. She was one of the last Mongol rulers in the area.


1411-43 Elisabeth von Görlitz, by the Grace of God, Duchess of Luxembourg, of Brabant and of Limbourg, Margravine of the Holy Roman Empire and Countess of Chiny

Given the Dukedom of Luxembourg as mortgage (Pfandherzogin) by her uncle Emperor Sigismund von Luxembourg, who

Duchess Elisabeth of Luxembourg

Duchess Elisabeth of Luxembourg

was also king of Hungary trough his marriage to Queen Maria of Hungary. Her first husband, Anton von Burgundy, Duke of Brabant and Limburg, fought back three uprisings of the nobility until his death in 1415. Her next husband was Johann von Bavaria of Holland, and after his death in 1427, she became heavily indebted and sold her hereditary rights to Duke Philippe von Burgundy, but the Luxembourg states rejected this, but instead he invaded the duchy two years later. She was the only daughter of Duke Johann von Görlitz (d. 1396) and Ricardis von Mecklenburg-Schwerin, had no children and lived (1390- 1451).


Until 1411 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Coucy of Soissons (France)

Daughter of Enguerrand de Coucy, Count de Soissons, and married Philippe de Bourgogne, Count of Nevers and Donzy, whose second wife was Bonne d’Artois, heiress d’Eu et cetera. They had no surviving children, and her husband inherited the county.


1411 Regent Dowager Despotess Eudokia Balšić of Ioannina (Greece)

When her husband, Esau de’ Buondelmonti, died, she attempted to maintain control of Ioannina in the name of her infant son Giorgio, but she was not popular with the local nobility and when they learned that she was seeking to marry a Serbian nobleman, they promptly deposed her and her son just 20 days after his accession. He survived until at least 1453, and his name appears in various Ragusan documents.


1411-15 Reigning Abbess Margaretha II von Grünenberg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Member of the Swiss noble family of the lords of Langenstein and Grünenberg.


1412-25 Regent Dowager Countess Catherine d’Alençon of Mortain (France)

After the death of her husband, Pierre de Navarre, she was regent for Louis I, dauphin de Viennois, Duc de Guyenne, Comte

 Catherine d'Alençon

Catherine d’Alençon

de Mortain. In 1413 she married Louis II de Bavière, Duke of Bavaria, Count Palatine of the Rhine, who also became count of Mortain.


1412-14, 1416-19 and 1431-33 “Stadholder” Queen Barbara von Cilli in Hungary and Croatia
1437 “Stadholder” of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
1439-51 Reigning Dowager Lady of 28 Domains in the Czech Lands and Hungary

Barbara von Cilli

Barbara von Cilli

Her husband, Sigmund of Luxemburg, king of Hungary and King of Germany from 1410, king of Bohemia from 1419 and Holy Roman Emperor since 1433. In Hungary she took over the “regni curia” when he went to Italy, first supported by her brother-in-law the Palatine Garai Miklós and two bishops. 1414-16 she went to Aachen for the coronation and participated in the Council of Konstanz before she returned and took over the government in Hungary. In the 1420’s she followed her husband on his journeys during the Empire and he included her in the decision-making. During her second regency in Hungary she managed to maintain peace after a settlement was reached with the Hussites. After her coronation as Queen of Bohemia in 1437 she also acted as regent here for a few moths. After her husband’s death the same year she was arrested by his successor, Albrecht II, but was able to flee to Poland. 1426 she was granted 3 lordships in Mähren and given the incomes of several royal cities in Bohemia after her coronation in 1437, so that at the time of the death of her husband, she controlled 28 domains with a number of villages. After Albrecht’s death in 1439 she returned and settled at her dowry at Melnik near Prague for the rest of her life. She was daughter of Herman II, Count von Cilli and Countess Anna von Schaunberg, mother of one daughter, Elisabeth who inherited Hungary and Bohemia, and lived (1390/95-1451).


1412-21 Lieutenant Queen Dowager Margarita de Prades of Aragón (Spain)

Though she held the title of Queen Lieutenant, she did not govern because she was only 15 when her husband, Martin I de Aragón died after 6 months of marriage. Since he had no children by any of his marriages, his death led to a 2 year interregnum, which was ended by the Pact of Caspe, in which Ferdinando I of Aragón, infante of Castile’s House of Trastámara, younger son of his sister Leonor de Aragon, was chosen as the next king from among at least five contenders. She married her second husband Juan of Vilaragut in 1414, and when he died 1422, she entered the monastery of Monrepes. The daughter of Pedro de Aragon, Baron of Entenza (1352-1395) and Juana of Cabrera, she did not have any children and lived (1395-1422).


1412-29 Princess-Abbess Anastasia von Hohenklingen of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

Represented by her father, Walther IX, Lord von Hohenklingen, Guardian of Stein am Rhein, at the Council of Konstanz, which assembled under the presidency of Emperor Sigmund.


Around 1412-about 1437 Princess-Abbess Lucia von Kerpen of Elten (Germany)

Founded the first public school in the area in 1412 and in 1437 she founded the chapter of Saint Ursula.


1412-17 Countess Abbess Agnes II zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Gandersheim (Germany)
1417-39 Princess-Abbess

Received the rank and title of a Princess of the Realm in 1417. Daughter of Duke Erich I of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen Elisabeth of Braunschweig-Göttingen. Her sister, Sophie, was de-facto ruler of the territory from 1443. Agnes lived (circa 1406-39).


1413-26 Princess-Abbess Margareta I von der Mark-Arenberg of Essen (Germany)

During the 1500th century Essen was the only Imperial Free Worldly Ladies Chapter to develop a full “land-constitution” as territorial state within the German Realm with three estates; The Ladies of the Chapter (chanonesses), the male canons in the Abbey and the Office-holders of low nobility of the chapter. She was daughter of Eberhard von der Mark, Lord of Arenberg etc and Marie von Looz. One of her sisters, Maria, was Lady of the Chapter until she left it to marry and the other, Anna, was elected Abbess in Freckenhorst in 1427.


1413-17 Reigning Abbess Barbara I Höffer of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

In 1416 she and her chapter appointed the Provsosty of the Chapter to Heinrich V. Notthafft v. Wernberg as life-tenantcy from Georg v. Abensberg.


1414-35 Queen Regnant Giovanna II d’Angiò of Napoli (Italy) and Titular Queen of Jerusalem Cyprus and Armenia, Sicily, Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Ramia, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria

Giovanna II of Napoli

Giovanna II of Napoli

Also known as Jeanne d’Anjou, she succeeded her brother, and two years later, her second husband, Jean de Bourbon, was imprisoned after trying to seize power. She adopted Alfonso V of Aragon as her heir in 1421. After he tried to take over power in 1423, she transferred the adoption to another relative Louis III d’Anjou, who she had expelled in 1420 for trying to seize power. After Louis’ death in 1434, his brother, Rene was appointed heir, but Alfonso took power after her death. She lived (1373-1435).


1414-37 Sovereign Princess Fiorenza Sommaripa of Antiparos (Greece)

Daughter Gaspare Sommaripa, Lord of Paros and Maria Sanudo of Naxos and Antiparos, and married to Jacopo I Crispo, 11th Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelagos (1383-1418). Their two daughters, Maria and Fiorenza, were Co-Ladies of Milos.


1415-circa 26 Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Agnes von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Pommern-Barth-Rügen (Poland/Germany)

One of her close advisors, Kurt Bonow, an old enemy of Stralsund, was killed, probably in 1417, by a member of the Regency Council, Marshall Degner Buggenhagen, who found refuge in Stralsund, but its inhabitants could not prevent that Buggenhagen was killed by Heneke Behr and his followers at the table of her husband’s nephew, Duke Wartislaw IX of Pommern-Wolgast on her initiation in 1420. Consequently the cities of Stralsund and Greifswald to send troops to the Castle of Usedom, where Behr had sought refuge, he was caught and punished. She was widow of Wartislaw VIII. von Pommern-Wolgast (1373-1415) and mother of Barnim VIII, Duke of Pommern-Barth-Rügen (circa 1405/07-51) and Swantibor IV (circa 1408/10-32). Also mother of a daughter and another son that died in infancy, and (d. 1435).


1415-59 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Pierrepont Bar of Soissons, Marle and Roucy (France)

Granddaughter of Marie de Coucy (1366-1405), who was the granddaughter of King Edward III of England, who was heiress of Soissons and most of the Coucy’s French estates. Her father, Robert, Count de Marle et de Soissons, was killed in battle in 1415. Her mother was Jeanne de Bethune (d. 1450) and she married Robert III de Sarrebruck, seigneur de Commercy (d. 1460), succeeded by son Jean VII, and lived (1415-62).


From 1415 Regent Dowager Countess Marie de Bretagne of Alençon (France)

Widow of Pierre II le Noble she ruled in the name of her son Jean V le Beau (1409-15-75-76). She lived (1391-1446).


1415-48 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Melun of Tancarville, Vicomtess de Melun (France)

Successor of her father, Guillaume IV de Melun, Grand Bouteiller de France, who was killed at Agincourt, and married to Jacques II Baron de Montgomery, who had first been married to Leonore Jumelles, Dame de Cresèques. Her husband was killed in 1428. Her mother was Jeanne de Parthenay, Dame de Samblancay. She was first succeeded by her son, Guillaume and in 1484 by daughter Jeanne.


1415 Hereditary Countess Elisabeth von von Blankenheim of Blankenheim-Gerolstein and Kasselburg (Germany)

Her father, Gerhard VII died in 1406 and the territory was administered by her uncle, Prince-Bishop Friedrich von Utrecht until his death in 1415. Her husband Wilhelm I. von Loon of the house of Heinsberg, then came in possession of the County.


1415-31 Lady Philippa de Mohun of the Isle of Wight (United Kingdom)

Became Lady of the island after her third husband Edward, Earl of Rutland and Duke of York was killed at Agincourt. She

Philippa de Mohun

Philippa de Mohun

was first married to Lord Fitzwater and secondly to Sir John Golafre.


1416 Regent Dowager Queen Nang Chlo Pumba of Lan-Xang (Laos)

After the death of Phya Ounmuong or Sam Sene Thai (1356-73-1416) she was regent for Lan Kamdaeng (1416-28). The name of the state is also spelled as Lan Ch’ang.


1416-56 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth II von Leiningen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Might have been the seventh child of Count Rudolf von Leiningen-Rixingen, and Agnes von Zweibrücken.

1417-28 Sovereign Duchess and Countess Jacobäa von Bayern of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault, Lady of Friesland and Countess of Ponthieu (The Netherlands and France)
1428-33 Titular Countess

Jacobaa van Holland

Jacobaa van Holland

Only child of Willem VI of Bayern-Straubing and Hainault-Holland. In 1415 she married the French Dauphin, Jean de Touraine, who died 1417. The following year she got papal acceptance to marry her cousin Jean IV of Brabant. With the support of Emperor Sigismund of Germany, her uncle, Johan VI of Bavaria demanded that she accepted him as regent. He persuaded the Pope to withdraw the dispensation and gave her lands to him. In 1419 Philippe of Bourgogne intervened. Johan got parts of southern Holland. The next year her husband gave Holland, Zeeland and Hainault as security to Johan. She die not accept this and had the marriage annulled. In 1422 she married Humphrey of Gloucester and in 1424 they launched an attack on her ex-husband. In 1424 she was taken prisoner and the following year her uncle died. He had given the countries to Philippe of Bourgogne. She escaped and fought against Philippe until 1428 until she had to capitulate. In 1432 she married Frank van Borsele and the next year she abdicated. Died of tuberculosis and lived (1401-36).


1417-20 Sovereign Countess Elénore de Beaufort of Touraine (France)

Succeeded brother, Raymond Louis de Beaufort. She was succeeded by her cousin Amanieu, who was first succeeded by his brother and in 1444 by niece, Anne.


1417-23 Princess-Abbess Isabelle II de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

One of the sisters Franckenberg

One of the sisters Franckenberg

Also known as Belle, she was the 35th ruler of the territory and was succeeded three others of the same family, Christine, Agnès and Wilhelmine.


1417-22 Reigning Abbess Herzenleid von Wildenwarth of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Cordula von Wildenwarth was Coadiutrix (Deputy Reigning Abbess) 1417-27.


1418-61 Fon Nguopu of Banum (Cameroon)

Ascended to the throne after the death of her brother, Share Yen, who founded the state around 1394, but wore male dress,

A Queen in Cameroon

A Queen in Cameroon

so that her gender was not discovered, and she ruled as Fon – or king.


1418-circa 33 Regent Dowager Duchess Sofia von Schleswig-Holstein of Pommern-Stargard (Pomerze) (Poland)

Also known as Zofia Holsztyńska, she reigned in the name of her son Bogusław IX of Pommern-Stargard after the death of her husband, Bogislaw VIII. She was daughter of Count Heinrich II von Holstein-Rendsburg (1317-40-82-84) and Mechtild zur Lippe, and lived (circa 1375-1448).


1418-21 De-Facto Joint Ruler Dowager Queen Kujava Radinović of Bosnia

She married King Ostoja in 1399, shortly after he repudiated his first wife, Queen Vitača. He gained support of the noble family of Radenović by marrying her, as they were closely related to the new queen consort. When her husband was deposed in 1404, he left Bobovac and fled to Hungary, but she and her son remained in Bosnia whose crown was given to her brother-in-law, King Stephen Tvrtko II. Tvrtko II himself was deposed in 1409 when Kujava’s her returned from exile and resumed the throne, at which point she became queen of Bosnia once again, but the marriage started falling apart in 1415. Prince Pavle Radenović, her brother or cousin [1], was killed in a plot set by her husband. Duke Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić died soon after, leaving behind a wealthy widow, Jelena Nelipčić. Her husband saw the opportunity and divorced her and married Duchess Jelena, who brought Hrvoje’s lands into marriage. Three years later her ex-husband died and was succeeded by their son, Stephen Ostojić. She suddenly became very influential and powerful, de facto ruling along with her son. Her son’s short reign wa marked by her conflicts with Queen Jelena. Their conflicts stopped in the summer of 1419, when her son imprisoned the dowager queen. Jelena died under mysterious circumstances in 1422. After her son died in 1421 she supported various pretenders to the Bosnian throne.


1418 Princesse-Abbesse Marguerite II de Salvain of Remiremont (France)

Another version of her name is Grilde de Salverne.


1418-21 Reigning Abbess….. von Schwandorf of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Her first name is to be checked.


1418-38 Reigning Abbess Marie I de la Chapelle of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

The chapter was placed under the direct authority of the Pope.


1419 Regent Dowager Queen Sophia of Bavaria of Bohemia (Czech Republic)

After the death of her husband, Václav IV of Bohemia (1378-1419), she acted as head of state until Sigismund of

Queen Sophia of Bohemia

Queen Sophia of Bohemia

Luxembourg took over the throne. Her husband was king of Germany (1378-1400) and Duke of Luxembourg as Wenzel. She was the daughter of John II of Bayern-München and Catherine of Gorize, had no children, and lived (1376-1425).


1419-30 Sovereign Lady Johanna van Boutershem of Bergen op Zoom and Grimsbergen, Bracht et cetera (The Netherlands)

Succeeded father, Hendrik II, and was joint ruler with husband, Jan I van Glymes, until his death in 1427. Succeeded by son, Jan II, and lived (circa 1330-90).


Around 1419 Reigning Princess Bikhakhanim of “A small polity located on the Taman Peninsula” (Russia)

May have been of Circassian, Georgian, or Cuman origin, but it is suggested that she was Princess Bikhakhatun, daughter of the Georgian prince Beka II Jakeli (d. 1391), the ruler of Samtskhe and Klarjeti. She was married to Genoese Jew Simeone de Guizolfi, who through this marriage became ruler of that country under Genoese overlordship. One of his heirs, Zacharias de Guizolfi, was still reigning in 1482.


1419-36 Reigning Abbess Brigitta Kopp of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Since 1227 the Abbey had been place directly under the Emperor as a Realm of the Holy Roman Empire.


1420-23 Lieutenant-General Queen Maria de Trastámara de Castilla of Aragon, Valencia and Mallorca
1432-58 Lieutenant-General of the Principality of Catalunya, (Spain)

Maria de Trastámara de Castilla

Maria de Trastámara de Castilla

Regent in Aragón and Cataluña during her cousin and husband, Alfonso V’s warfare in Italy, conquering Napoli from Giovanna II in 1442. He was king of Aragon (1416-58), Napoli (1435-58) and Sicily (1442-58) and spent most of the time in Italy from around 1435. She was daughter of king Enrique III of Aragon and Catherine of Lancaster, was heir to the Castillian throne as Princess of Asturias 1402-05, had no children and lived (1401-58).


1420-36 Sovereign Countess Marie of Dammartin (France)

Married to Reynald V of Nanteuil-Aci, and succeeded by daughter, Marguerite.


1420-51 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Greiffensee of Schänis (Switzerland)

In 1438 the Lordship of Windegg became a possession of the Cantons of Glarus and Schwyz, and thereby the chapter became a part of the Swiss Confederation (schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft). And even though the emperor confirmed the rights of the chapter in 1442, Glarus and Schwyz from then on considered themselves to be the rightful successors of the Royal Stewards of the chapter. Elisabeth was member of an old noble family that originated near Zürich.


1421 Hereditary Lady Luitgard von Bentheim of Steinfurt (Germany)

Inherited Steinfurt from her maternal grandfather, Ludolf VIII von Steinfurt, since her mother, Mechtild, had died the previous year. Luitgard ceded the lordship to her father, Everwin I, and thus to her stepbrothers. She later married Wilhelm von der Lecke, Lord van Berg-s’Herenberg.


1421-28 Princess-Abbess Gertrud II von Helfenberg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a Bavarian noble family.


1421-44 Princesse-Abbesse Isabella de Demengeville of Remiremont (France)

Also known as Yasbel de Demengevelle, she had been Doyenne and Second-in-Command 1414-21.


1422-28 Guardian Dowager Queen Catherine de Valois of England

Catherine de Valois

Catherine de Valois

Her husband, Henry VI died suddenly in 1422 and she was effectively exiled from court, suspicion falling on her nationality, and passed over as regent for her son Henry V by her brothers-in-law and kept away from her son. She entered a relationship and later married Owen Tudor, a Welsh courtier, who would become the founding father of the Tudor dynasty. Of their five children, two sons, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond and Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford, were to play an important role in the future of the English monarchy. She was daughter of King Charles VI of France and Isabeau de Bavière, and lived (1401-37).


1422-24 Reigning Dowager Countess Rengarda di Brancaleoni of Cingoli (Italy)

Held the territory after the death of her husband, Giovanni Cima and in 1424 the county became part of the Papal State.


1422 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II von Bussnang of Säckingen (Germany)

Was in office for about 6 months before she died. The noble von Bussenang family had a tradition of occupying high clerical offices – Abbots of St. Gallen and high officials by the bishop of Konstantz and Zürich and other parts of Switzerland. Another member of the family, Elisabeth, was Abbess of Säckingen (1307-18) before it became a principality within the German Empire.


1422-28 Princess-Abbess Johanna von Hohenklingen of Säckingen (Germany)

Listed as Kellerin (Wine-maker) in 1395. She was sister of Klaranna (1379/80-1422), and daughter of Freiherr Walther von Hohenklingen, Lord of Stein. Her family was closely related to the Lords von Brandis im Emmental and the von Bechburg in the Canton Solothurn was of importance, and the family split into two lines in the 14th century – Hohenklingen-Bechburg and Hohenklingen-Brandis.


1422-27 Reigning Abbess Anna I von Streitberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The Lords of Streitberg were originally noble officials of the local Bishop they joined the service of the Duke of Meran. Throughout the years the various family-lines fought over the inheritance and who were to be in charge of the Castle of Streitberg in Bavaria.


1423-27 Lady Maria d’Harcourt of Brüggen, Grevenbroich, Arschot and Brebeke in Jülich and Geldern (Germany and the Netherlands)

Maria d'Harcourt, Herzoginwitwe von Jülich und Geldern, Herrin von Brüggen, Grevenbroich, Arschot und Brebeke

Maria d’Harcourt, Herzoginwitwe von Jülich und Geldern, Herrin von Brüggen, Grevenbroich, Arschot und Brebeke

Daughter of Count Jean VI d’Harcourt et Aumale and Catherine de Bourbon, Princess of France. After the death of her husband Duke Rainald IV, Duke of Jülich and Geldern, Count of Zutphen, she remained Lady of a number of possessions of Jülich. In 1424, she granted freedom to her serfs. Two years she married Duke Ruprecht von Jülich-Berg, Bishop of Passau and Paderborn. She lived (circa 1389-1427)
Another of the Franckenberg-sisters


1423-41 Princess-Abbess Christine de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Succeeded her sister, Isabelle I, and was member of the family De Mérode who used the surname of Franckenberg.

One of the sisters Franckenberg

One of the sisters Franckenberg


1423-25 Reigning Abbess Henriette I de Mello of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

The chapter was still marked by the 100 years war, a conflict lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet or Anjou.


1424–circa 1449 Sovereign Duchess Elena Korybutówna of Pszczyna within Racibórz-Karniów (Poland)

Widow of Prince Jan II and ruled together with Mikołaj III and Wacław of her dowry in Pszczyna, a part of the Slesian Duchy of Racibórz-Karniów.


1424-37 Sovereign Countess Marie I of Auvergne (France)
1424 Sovereign Countess of Boulogne

Granddaughter of Robert VII (circa 1282-1314-25), she succeeded her cousin, Jeanne II (1404-24), and was succeeded by husband, Bertrand I de la Tour and then by son, Bertrand II. The county had been divided into two in 1155, and Marie d’Anjou, reigned as Duchess of Auvergne 1400-34. Marie d’Auvergne lived (1376-1437).


Until 1425 Sovereign Vicomtesse Marie Chamillart of Beaumont au Maine (France)

Married to Pierre d’Alençon, Comte du Perche and d’Alençon.



1425-30 Regent Dowager Grand Princess Sofia Vitovtovna of Moscow and Vladimir (Russia)

After the death of her husband, Vasiliy I, she was regent for her fourth and only surviving son, the 10-year-old Vasiliy II ,

The picture shows Sofia Vitovtovna pulling off the belt of a member of the Royal Family who insulted her son at his wedding

The picture shows Sofia Vitovtovna pulling off the belt of a member of the Royal Family who insulted her son at his wedding

who reigned until 1433 and again 1434-62. She was daughter of Grand Duke Vytautas the Great of Lithuania ( Lietuva) (1392-1430) and Anna of Smolensk, and lived (1371-1453).


Until 1425 Sovereign Vicomtesse Marie Chamillart of Beaumont au Maine (France)

Married to Pierre d’Alençon, Comte du Perche and d’Alençon.


1425-45 Princess-Abbess Agnes Schenkin von Landsberg und Sydow of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Schenkin von Landsberg or Schenkin von Sydow, she brought the chapter in disrespute. Engaged in fights with the ladies of the chapter, who accused her of misusing the fortune of the stift. She got a warning letter from the pope and later also one from the Cardinal of St. Angelia and the Bishop of Halberstadt, but she did not change her ways and a court was put together consisting of the Bishop of Halberstadt and the Princes of Anhalt and Brandenburg, who removed her right to make decisions on her own. But at that time she had already died. Her family had been appointed to the office of “Schenk” of the Margraves of Landsberg in the beginning of the 12th century and after Duke Rudolf of Sachsen took over the territory in 1328, they were given the fief of Teupitz and were also lords of Sydow.


Circa 1425-circa 30 Reigning Abbess Marguerite III de Bréban of Jouarre (France)

Daughter of Admiral Pierre de Bréban.


1425-38 Reigning Abbess Margarethe von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Member of the member of the family of Freiherren von Reischach and a decendant of Konrad von Reischach who married Titlar Queen Isabella of Mallorca.


1426-45 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV Stecke van Beeck of Essen (Germany)

After the resignation of Margareta von der Mark, 10 of the ladies of the Chapter voted for her and 11 of the male canons voted for Margarete von Limburg, who had the support of the Duke Kleve. The ladies – referring to the fact that they alone had the right to vote according to the various royal ad papal privileges -proclaimed her as Abbess, the men, referring to their majority, proclaimed to Margareta. The pope first confirmed the latter, but soon after withdrew the confirmation and installed her. She had sought refuge at the castle of Borbeck with the ladies of the chapter and was siege by the forces of Limburg, not until 1428 did the Papal legates manage to establish a ceasefire and she was confirmed as Abbess and the following she also granted the imperial fief. (kaiserliche Belehnung).


1426-49 Reignign Abbess Klara von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)

Daughter of Count Heinrich V von Montfort and Anna Truchsess von Waldburg and stepdaughter of Count Stephan von Guldenfingen, who was very influential in the chapter. Because of illness, she resigned in 1449 in favour of her relative Margarethe von Werdenberg, who was still a minor at the time, and died later the same year.


1426-30 Army Leader Jeanne d’Arc in France

Jeanne d'Arc

Jeanne d’Arc

As a teenager, Joan of Arc believed she heard the voices of angels telling her to help the future Charles VII, who had been deprived of his inheritance by the English and the Burgundians, to regain his throne. Charles sent her to raise the siege at Orléans, which she did successfully, driving the English from the city and allowing him to be crowned at Rheims. She was soon captured by Burgundians and sold to the English, who found her guilty of witchcraft and wearing a man’s clothes. She was burned at the stake in 1431 and canonized in 1920. She lived (1412-31).


1426-36 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I of Clermont-en-Auvergne and Sancerre, Dauphine of Auvergne (France)

The County of Auvergne had been divided into two – the Dauphinie and the County in 1155 and therefore

 Jeanne I de Clermont

Jeanne I de Clermont

there are Countesses and Dauphines with the same name. She was daughter of Berauld III, count of Clermont and Boulogne and Gabrielle de la Tour, Heiress of Auvergne. She married Louis de Bourbon, who was count of Clermont, Sancerre and Montpensier. She did not have any children, and lived (1412-34).


1427-47 Queen Regnant Suhita Prabusti of Majapahit at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)

Suhita Prabusti of Majapahit

Suhita Prabusti

Daughter of king Wikramawardhana Bhre Lesem Sang Alemu. The Damarwulan legend is associated with her reign, as it involves a maiden queen (Prabu Kenya in the story), and during Suhita’s reign there was a war with Blambangan as in the legend. She was succeeded by 2 brothers.


1427-39 Regent Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Göttingen of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (Germany)

Widow of Erich II (circa 1383-98-1427) and acted as regent for son Heinrich III (1416-27-64) . She lived (ca 1390-1444).


1427 Reigning Abbess Beatrix von Rotheneck of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Since 1002 the Reichsstift was placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany, and the chapter was granted royal protection and, immunity.


1427-44 Acting Reigning Abbess Osanna von Streitberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

As Coadiutrix she acted as head of the chapter and territory.


1427-34 Princess-Abbess Klara Strölin of Heggbach (Germany)

Also known as Ströl or Ströler, she was the first Abbess of the chapter to be given the rank of Princess of the Realm in 1429. Two of the three co-heirs to the lordship of Achstetten, Eberhard and Hans von Freyberg, had sold their rights of patronage over Burgrieden to Heggbach Abbey in 1420 and the Abbey possessed the right to dispense low justice from at least 1429 in Sulmingen and from 1491 in Baustetten. In Mietingen the abbey had acquired the right to dispense both low and high justice in 1442. She was deposed and (d. 1460).


1428-42 Sovereign Duchess Euphemia of Münsterberg (Ziębice) (Poland)

Daughter of the Slesian Duke Boleslaw III of Münsterberg (1358-1410) and Euphemia of Schlesia-Beuthen-Kosel, and inherited the Principality after the death of her brother, Duke Jan (1380/90-1410-28). Married to Count Friedrich IV von Öttingen (d. 1423). She lived (1370/85-47).


1428-30 Princess-Abbess Margareth II von Klingen of Säckingen (Germany)

Probably identical with Margareth von Altenklingen who is mentioned as Küsterin (Verge) and acted as “election officer” at the election of her predecessor.


1428-63 Princess-Abbess Anna I von Herbersdorf of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Known in a folkstale as “Frau Hitt”, a cruel and despotic ruler of the Chapter and surrounding territories.


1429-38 Regent Dowager Countess Elisabeth de Vaudemont of Nassau-Saarbrücken (Germany)

Also known as Elisabeth von Lothringen, and was daughter of Duke Friederich of Lorraine and Marguerite de Vaudémont-

Elisabeth de Vaudemont, Regent of Nassau-Saarbrücken

Elisabeth de Vaudemont, Regent of Nassau-Saarbrücken

Joinville and grew up in the boarder-area between France and Germany and was bilingual. After the death of her husband Count Philipp I. she took over the regency of the country for her under-age sons. She translated four “Chanson de geste” in German and wrote her own novels and is known as the first German female author. (After 1393-1456).


1429-36 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Kijowska of Mazowsze-Warszawa (Poland)

Anna Kijowska

Anna Kijowska

Also known as Anna Holszańska or Anne of Kiev, she was in charge of the government in the name of her son Bolesław IV after the death of her husband, Bolesław Januszowic of Masovia-Warsaw. She was daughter of Ivan Olshanski and Agrypina, and mother of 2 sons and a daughter. (d. after 1458).


1429-33 Joint Guardian Dowager Lady Margarete von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen-Einbeck of Lippe (Germany)

When her husband, Simon IV, died her oldest son, Bernhard VII, was hardly one year old and she was pregnant with the second. She was in serious disputes with her brother-in-law, Otto, Dean of the Cathedral of Köln, who was named Guardian. In 1433 he gave part of the Lordship as security for loans he took out in order to secure her dowry at the Castle Brake, where she moved – without her sons. Otto died the same year and Archbishop Dietrich von Moers of Köln, the brother of her mother-in-law Elisabeth, was named regent. She lived (Ca 1411-56).


1429-84 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Höwen of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

Member of an old Swiss noble family, which saw several Prince-Abbots and Bishops.


1430-71 Politically Influential Duchess Isabelle de Portugal of Bourgogne (France)

Isabelle de Portugal

Isabelle de Portugal

As the third wife of Duke Philippe of Burgundy (1396-1467), she exercised power in the very wearied domains of her husband. She acted as regent in his absence, was in charge of the finances, negotiated treaties and initiated reforms of religious orders. Daughter of King João I of Portugal and Philippa de Gent and mother of Duke Karl (1433-1477) (The father of Duchess Maria of Burgundy).


1430 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Luxembourg-Saint-Pôl of Saint-Pôl and Ligny and Dame de Roussy (France)

Known as La Demoiselle de Luxembourg, she was daughter of Countess Mahaut de Châtillon of Saint-Pol sur Ternoise and Guy de Luxembourg, Count de Ligny-en-Barrois (1335-60-78), she succeeded her grandnephew, Philippe, who was son of the Hereditary Countess Jeanne (d. 1407), daughter of Waléran III (d. 1415), and after her death, the two Counties were devided between two nepews, Pierre and Jean. She (d. 1430).


1430… Sovereign Lady Ludovica of Monte Porzio, Consignora, Bernardovecchio, Busichio, Ghirardo, Monleone, Calbana, Calbanella, Ginestreto e Secchiano, Castiglione (Italy)
1438… Lady of San Mauro

Daughter of Gaspare and Novella dei Signori di Roello and married to Niccolò da Montefeltro, natural son of Count Conte Antonio da Montefeltro.


1430-32 Princess-Abbess Anastasia von Geroldseck of Säckingen (Germany)

First mentioned in documents from 1430 because of her dispute with Albrecht von Schönau and the compromise reached with his widow about the bailiffs’ office (Meieramt) in 1432. Her family were lords of the Lordships of Lahr and Hohengeroldseck by Strasbourg.


1430-33 Reigning Abbess-General Juana de Astúñiga of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As all the abbesses of the chapter, she was a member of one of the most illustrious noble families of Castillia.


Circa 1430-33 Reigning Abbess Marie II de Bréban of Jouarre (France)


1431-53 Sovereign Duchess Isabella of Haut-Lorraine and Bar (France and Belgium)
1435-38 Regent Queen of Napoli (Italy)

Succeeded her father Karl I as Duchess of Lorraine. Her husband, René d’Anjou (d. 1480), Duke of

Anjou from 1430 was Duke by the right of his wife of Bar from 1434, and when Queen Giovanna of Napoli died in 1435, she left him her throne. Isabella led the government during his warfare with Giovanna’s previous adopted heir King Alfonso of Aragón and Sicily and in 1442 he defeated René, took Naples, and the following year he was recognized as King by the Pope Eugene IV. Among Isabella’s six children was Queen Margaret d’Anjou of England. Isabel lived (1410-1453).


1431-34 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Hanau of Rieneck (Germany)
1434-60 Reigning Lady of the Office and Castle of Mainberg bei Schweinfurt in Henneberg

After the death of her husband, Thomas II (1408-31), she was regent for their two sons Philipp the Older, Lord of Grünsfeld, Lauda und Wildenstein (d, 1488) and Philipp the Younger, Lord of Lohr, Gemünden, Brückenau und Schildeck (d. 1497), until her marriage to Count Wilhelm II von Henneberg-Schleusingen (1415-44). Instead her brother took over as regent. She declined any rights of the county of Rieneck but received her dowry of 8.000 Guilders and Mainberg from her new husband. Mother of another 5 children. She was oldest daughter of Reinhard II and Katharina von Nassau-Beilstein, and lived (1408-60).


1431-34 In Charge of the Government Dowager Duchess Margarethe von Bayern of Haut-Lorraine (France and Belgium)

Apparently Marguerite de Bavière took over the regency after her husband, Karl II von Ober-

Margarethe von Bayern, Regent of Haut-Lorraine

Margarethe von Bayern, Regent of Haut-Lorraine

Lothringen died, since his successor, Isabella resided in Napoli. Her marriage was not very happy and she devoted her time caring for the poor and founded a number of hopitals. Later declared Holy. The daughter of the German Emperor Ruprecht van der Pfalz and Elisabeth von Hohenzollern and mother of two surviving daughters and two sons who died young, and lived (1373-34).


1431-51 Reigning Abbess Marie II d’Harcourt of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Successor of her cousin Blanche d’Harcout, she was daughter of Jacque dHarcourt, Baron de Montgomery etc and Jeanne d’Enghien, chatelaine de Mons.


1431-34 Contra-Abbess Marguerite II de Beaufort de Montmorency of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Elected in opposition to Marie II and was not recognized by the Pope.


1432 Regent Dowager Sultana Aisha Sia of Ternate (Indonesia)

After the death of her husband Paduka Sri Sultan Bessi Muhammad Hasan, Kaicili Komalo Pulu, Sultan of Ternate (1377-1432), who established himself as paramount ruler of the Moluccas, taking the title of Kolano ma-Lukku in 1380, for grandson Kaicili Ngolo-ma-Kaya, who succeeded as Paduka Sri Sultan Gapi Baguna II. She was daughter of another sultan of the state.


1432-62 Sovereign Lady Aikaterina Asania Zaccariaina of Arcadia, Heiress of the principality of Achaia (Greece)

Also known as Aikaterina Asanina Zaccariaina, she succeeded her father, enturione II, who succeeded his father in 1401 as Lord of Arkadiak and was installed in 1404 as Prince of Achaia by Ladislas King of Sicily, but was dispossessed in 1430 by the Emperors of Byzantium. Her husband, Thomas Palailogos, Despot of Morea 1428-60, son of Emperor Manuel II of Byzantinium, was Lord of Archaia-by the right of his wife. She lived (1392-1462).


1432-84 Princess-Abbess Agnes II von Sulz of Säckingen (Germany)

She got papal dispensation to assume the office as she was on 22 at the time of her election. She mediated in a dispute between the fishermen of Säckingen and Laufenburg in 1438, Emperor Friederich II confirmed the rights and privileges of the Chapter in 1442, which suffered under the dispute between Austria and the Swiss Confederates and she reached an agreement with the Austrian Lordship Rheinfelden about the rights of the town of Mumpf. Her son, Hohann Thurn, was granted a position as canon at Säckingen through Papal intervention. She was daughter of Count Rudolf von Sulz and Ursula von Habsburg-Laufenburg, Heiress of her father, Hans von Habsburg-Laufenburg, and lived (1409-84).


1433-43 Sovereign Countess Isabel de Urgell, (Titular Dame of Andorra) (Spain)

The daughter of Jaime II, Count de Urgell, etc, who died in jail in Jativa and Princess Isabel of Aragon (1380-1424), she was married to Pedro of Portugal, Duque de Coimbra (1392-1449). They did not have any children, and she lived (1409-43).


1433-1447 Co-ruler Duchess Eufemia Mazowiecka of Teschen-Freistadt (Cieszyn) (Poland)

Reigned the Slesian Duchy together with her 4 sons. She lived (1395/8-1447).


1433-57 Reigning Abbess-General María de Sandoval I of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her official title was “noble Lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals”.


1433-62 Reigning Abbess Jeanne III de Melun of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Sister of Philippe de Melun, councillor of King Charles VII. After her death both Isabelle de Neuville and Marguerite de Levilly were elected abbesses. Jeanne d’Ailly took over in the end.


1434-38 Possible Member of the Regency Council Dowager Queen Zofia Holszańska of Poland
1434-61 Politically Active

Also known as Sonka or Sofia of Holszany. After the death of her husband, king Władysław II

Queen Zofia von Holstein of Poland

Queen Zofia von Holstein of Poland

Jagiełło, she lost the struggle over the regency for her son King Władysław III Warneńczyk of Poland and Hungary, though new research indicates that she might have been Regency Council Member. Anyhow she remained involved in politics, and in 1454 helped her younger son, Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk, to asume the throne after the death of his brother. She lived (1405-61).

Around 1434 Governor Princess Medhyn Zemeda of Damot in Ethiopia

An Ethiopian Queen

An Ethiopian Princess

Held the additional high office of “keń bituedded”. She was daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub (ruled 1434-68), who appointed his daughters to high state offices and governors in the provinces. Her sister, Byrhan Zemeda, held the office of “gyr bituedded”.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Amete Meszih of Amhara in Ethiopia

Their brother, Baeda Mariam I, also known as either Siryakos or Dawit II (ruled 1507-40), killed his mother, Tseyun Work, for attempting to usurp power.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Dyl Semra of Tigraj in Ethiopia

Another daughter of Emperor Zera Jaykob, who was also known as Yaqub or Qwastantinos I or Constantine. He was father of one son.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Atsnaf Semra of Godzham in Ethiopia

Also daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Rom Genejda of Scheua in Ethiopia

One more daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Atsnaf Segedu of Geń in Ethiopia

Another daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Tsebele Marjam in Ethiopia

Also known as Abala Marjam.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Amete Gijorgis of a Province in Ethiopia

The name of the province she was in charge of is not known.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Sofija of Gyddym in Ethiopia

Also daughter of Emperor Zara Yaqub.


Around 1434 Governor Princess Bahyr Mengyschain of a Province in Ethiopia

The name of the province she was in charge of is not known.


1435-42 Regent Dowager Empress Zang of China

Widow of Emperor Hsuan Te (1425-35) and ruled in the name of her son, Zhu Qizhen (Zhengtong), who was Emperor (1435-49) and (1457-64). She was one of the most powerful of all Ming empresses was accompanied by her son, on a visit to Wansuishan, the artificial mountain just behind the palace. They also made a very public visit to the Ming tombs, thirty li northwest of the city. (d. 1442).).


1435-38 Regent Electress Mechtild von Savoien-Achaien of Pfalz (Germany)

Mechtild von Savoien, Regent of Pfalz

Mechtild von Savoien, Regent of Pfalz

From 1430 the progressing blindness of her husband Ludwig III von Wittelsbach, Elector of the Palatine, forced him to transfer more and more of his powers to his brother, Otto, and in 1435 she was appointed joint regent together with brother-in-law and a Council of 25. The following year she became regent for her son, Ludwig IV after his death, but died before he came of age. She lived (1390-1438)


Until 1435 Princess-Abbess Margarethe I Sattelbogerin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

It is not certain whom she followed on the post as Reichsfürstin and ruler of the ecclesiastical territory.


1435-56 Princess-Abbess Barbara I von Absberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The Head of the territory had been a Princess of the Realm since 1315.


1435-38 Princess-Abbess Agathe II Grähter of Heggbach (Germany)

Another version of her surname is Gretterin.


1435-58 Princess-Abbess Anna I von Plauen-Reuss of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Count Heinrich IX von Reuss, Lord of Plauen und Auerbach and Countess Anna von Riesenberg. (d. 1458).


1436-38/39 Reigning Duchess Elisabeth von Brandenburg of Liegnitz and Brieg (Legnica-Brzeg) (Poland)

Elisabeth Hohenzollern

Elisabeth Hohenzollern

After the death of her husband, Ludwik II of Brzeg and Legnica, Elżbieta Hohenzollern ruled in her own name until she married her brother-in-law, Wacław I 1438/39, but the marriage ended in divorce. Later regent for son. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich I von Brandenburg and mother of four children, and lived (1403-49).


1436-39/65 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Nanteuil of Dammartin (France)

Daughter of Marie Dammartin and Reynald V of Nanteuil-Aci, and married to Antoine de Chabannes (d. 1488), one of the favourites of King Charles VII, who fought under the standard of Joan of Arc, became a leader of the Ecorcheurs, took part in the war of the public weal against Louis XI, and then fought for him against the Burgundians. Their son, Jean de Chabannes, left three heiresses, of whom the second left a daughter who brought the countship to Philippe de Boulainvilliers. She lived (1422-75).


1436 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Rothenstein of Rottenmünster (Germany)

The Chapter became an Imperial Immediacy (achieved Reichsunmittelbarkeit) in 1442 and the Abbess became Lady of the Chapter and its possessions, and given the right to collect taxes and customs. After the Holy Roman Empire was divided into 6 administrative units, called Imperial Circles or Reichskreisen in 1495, in the Abbess of Rottenmünster became member of the Bench of Prelates of the Swabian Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the Regional Assembly of the Schwäbischer Kreis. 1521 the Abbess was mentioned as Imperial Prelate in an inventory of the Reichsstände – the territories of the Realm – which meant that she was member of the College of the Prelates of Swabia, whose 22 members (Abbesses and Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. The next known Princess-Abbess was Ursula Scherlin, who was in office 1657-87.


1436-51 Reigning Abbess Marie II d’Harcourt of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Successor of her cousin Blanche d’Harcout, she was daughter of Jacque d’Harcourt, Baron de Montgomery etc and Jeanne d’Enghien, chatelaine de Mons.


1437-44 Regent Dowager Duchess Francesca Morosini of Naxos et de L’Archipel (Greece Island-State)

After the death of her husband, Giovanni II Crispo of Naxos, she first imprisoned by her brother-in-law, Guglielmo Crispo, who claimed the regency for his son, but after 4 years she took over as regent for her son Giacopo II (1433-47). After the death of his cousin Andrea Zeno Lord of Andros in 1437, the Venetians installed their nominee Francesco Quirini to rule the island, Duke Giacomo being blackmailed into acceptance by threat of attack. In 1440 a Venetian court ruled in favour of Crusino I Sommaripa, son of Maria Sanudo, as ruler of Andros. Her daughter Adriana was deprived of her rightful inheritance by Guglielmo. She (d. after 1455)

1437-40 Queen Elisabeth von Luxemburg of Bohemia and of Croatia-Dalmatia, Sovereign Duchess of Luxembourg
1439-1440 De-facto Regent of Hungary (27.10-29.07)

Queen Elisabeth of Bohemia and of Croatia-Dalmatia, Duchess of Luxembourg

Queen Elisabeth of Bohemia and of Croatia-Dalmatia, Duchess of Luxembourg

Known in Hungarian as Luxemburgi Erzsébet királyné, she was daughter of Sigismund of Luxembourg, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, who was joint regent and successor of his first wife, Queen Maria d’Anjou of Hungary. Her mother was Barbara Cilli. After his death in 1437, the Hungarian Estates recognized her as sovereign or Lady of the Land (Landesherrin), which pawed the way for her first husband, Albert von Habsburg’s election as king of Hungary. After his death in 1439, she wanted to secure the throne for the unborn child. This would have meant that the reins of government would have been in her hands, but this the estates would not accept, and they offered the crown to Wladislas II Jagiello of Poland. In February, her son Lászlo was born and on 15 May, she had him crowned. However, the Estates declared that this had happened against the will of the people and in June, they invalidated her son’s coronation. Elisabeth had secured the holy Stephan-Crown and Wladislas had to be crowned with another crown. A civil war followed among her supporters and those of the Polish king. Lászlo V the Posthumous was recognised as king in 1446 with Hunyadi Janos (John Corvinius) as regent until 1453. When he died in 1457 her two daughters, Elisabeth and Anna, inherited some of the rights to the family lands. She lived (1409-42).


1437-39 Regent Dowager Queen Joan Beaufort of Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)

After her husband, James I, was murdered, she reigned on behalf of their seven-year-old son

Queen Joan of Scotland

Queen Joan of Scotland

James II. Despite her efforts he became the pawn of two unscrupulous Scottish lords, Sir William Crichton and Lord Livingstone. The Black Douglas entered the fray and succeeded in defeating and executing Livingstone. Crichton, in turn, manipulated James into killing the Black Douglas. Eventually, James II defeated the Douglas family at the battle of Arkinholm. Daughter of John Beaufort and Margaret Holland, she had eight children by James I of Scotland and one with her second husband, James Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn (circa 1383-circa 1451) John Stewart, 1st Earl of Athol. (d. 1445).


1437-44 Reigning Abbess Agnes of Gutenzell (Germany)

Emperor Sigismund confirmed the privileges of the Chapter in 1437, and they formed the legal foundation of the territory’s position as an independent state.


1438-50 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I Hoffmann of Heggbach (Germany)

In old sources her surname is written as Hofmannin. The chapter aquired the right to dispence both low and high justice in one of its possessions, the village of Mietingen, in 1442.


1438-40 Regent Dowager Queen Leonor de Aragón-Urgell of Portugal and The Agaves

Leonor de Aragón-Urgell, Regent of Portugal

Leonor de Aragón-Urgell, Regent of Portugal

Also Countess de Urgell and Duchess de Goimbra. Her husband, Duarte (1391-1433-38) had appointed her as regent of in his will for their son, Afonso V (1432-38-81). However, she was inexperienced and, as an Aragonese, unpopular with the people who preferred the late king’s brother Pedro, Duke of Coimbra. Negotiations for a compromise arrangement were drawn out over several months, but were complicated by the interference of the Count of Barcelos and the Archbishop of Lisbon, as also by her giving birth to a posthumous daughter in March 1439, and by the death of her eldest daughter, Philippa. Eventually the Cortes appointed Pedro the sole Regent, but Eleonore continued conspiring, but was forced to go into exile in Castile in December 1440. She was daughter of Fernando I of Aragón and Leonor Urraca de Castilla, Countess de Albuquerque (1409-45).


1438 Queen Regnant Samdach Brhat-Chao Nang Keo Phim Fa Mahadevi of Lan-Xang (Laos)

Took over as ruler after having placed various princes on the throne. She only reigned for a few

A Laotian Queen

A Laotian Queen

months before she was deposed and killed. She lived (1343-1438).


1438-62 Sovereign Duchess Eléonore de Bourbon-La Marche of Nemours, Countess of Castres and La Marche (France)

Daughter of Jacques de Bourbon-La Marche (1370-1438) and Beatrix d’Évreux, the daughter of Carlos III of Navarra. Her father’s second wife was Giovanna II of Napoli. Eleonore was married to Bernard d’Armagnac, Count de Pardiac.


1438-44 Princess-Abbess Anna V Schenkin zu Limpurg of Baindt (Germany)

1437 Emperor Sigismund had granted the Princess-Abbess of Baindt the right to act as a low court judge (Niedere Gerichtshofheit).


1438-65 Reigning Abbess Bonne de a Viefville of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Daughter of the Seigneur of Thiennes and Blaringhem.


1439-circa 46 Sovereign Princess Maria de Sommaripa of Antiparos (Greece Island-State)

Succeeded father Crusino I. She was daughter of Princess Maria Saudos of Andros, Gespario and Samnaripa,


1439-61 Reigning Dowager Duchess Scholastika von Sachsen-Wittenberg of Naumburg am Bober (Nowogród Bobrzański) (Poland)

Also known as Scholastyka Wettin, she held the Slesian Duchy as her dowry after the death of her husband, Duke Johan von Sagan (Jan I of Żagań).


1439-49 Reigning Dowager Lady Małgorzata of Wołów (Poland)

Following the death of her husband, Duke Konrad V Kantner of Oleśnica (Oels) and Kozielsk, she held the Slesian lordship as her dowry.


1439-92 Joint Hereditary Lady Anna of Wevelinghoven (Germany)

Daughter of Wilhelm II von Wevelinghoven and married to Heinrich IV von Gemen and they were succeeded by their daughter, Cordula. She lived (1423-circa 92).


1439-? Joint Hereditary Lady Irmgard von Wevelinghoven of Wevelinghoven (Germany)

Sister of Anna, she married Johann VI. von Reifferscheid in 1433. She received the Lordship of Alfter and the Erbmarschallamt Köln after an agreement with her husband in 1461.


1439 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I von Dorstadt of Gandersheim (Germany)

Succeeded Agnes II zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen.


1439-52 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II zu Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Gandersheim (Germany)

Also known as Ilse, she was sister of Agnes who reigned the territory (1412-39), she was elected Fürstäbtissin in the year she became widow of Duke Kasimir V of Pommern, even though – according to the statutes from 1357 – she would not have been allowed to enter the chapter as she was not unmarried. She lived (circa 1409-52).


Around 1440-46 Princess-Abbess Sophie of the Royal Abbey of Andlau, Lady of Wagenbourg and Marlenheim etc. (France)

Transformed the lower parts the north transept of the Chapel .


1441 Hereditary Duchess Bianca Maria Visconti of Milano (Italy)
1466 Regent of Milano

Bianca Maria Viscontii

Bianca Maria Viscontii

Heiress of the duchy and married to Francesco Sforza. She was a very energetic woman who assisted her husband in the administration of the state. Her cultural engagement was one of the contributing factors to the Lombardian Renaissance. After her husband’s death she was in charge of the government and had the Privy Council elect her son, Galeazzo Maria Sforza – who was in France at the time – as Duke. She lived (1425-68).


1441-51 Sovereign Signora Catarina Appiano of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriato, Abbadia, al Fango, Vignale, Valle, Montini and the Island of Elba (Italy)

Daughter of Gherardo Leonardo who was, Lord of Pisa (1398-99), Lord of Piombino, Scarlino, Populonia, Suvereto, Buriano, Abbadia al Fango and of the Isles of Elba, Montecristo and Pianosa 1399, Palatine Count of the Holy Roman Empire 1402, who lived (1375-1445), succeeded her brother, Jacopo II, and died of the plague. Married Rinaldo Orsini Conte di Tagliacozzo et Alba, and was succeeded by uncle Emanuele. She lived (1402-50).


1441-54/55 Reigning Dowager Duchess Margareta von Oppeln in Ohlau and Niemcza (Oława)

Also known as Małgorzata Opolska, she held the principality after the death of her husband Ludwig III of Lüben, Hainau, Ohlau, Nimptich and Brieg. She was the daughter of Duchess Bolesław IV of Opole and Małgorzata of Gorycja, mother of 2 sons: Jan and Henryk, and lived (1412/14-1454/5).


1441-49 Princess-Abbess Agnès I de Franckenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

The third ruler of the territory from the Mérode-family that used the name of Franckenberg.


1441-52 Reigning

Abbess Barbara von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

One of many members of her family to be Abbesses of the chapter.


1442-58 (†) De Facto Co-Regent Queen Helena Palaiologina of Cyprus

Probably the most important event in the reign of Jean II was his marriage to Helena of Byzantine-Morea. She was stronger in character than her

 Helena Palaiologina

Helena Palaiologina

husband, took over the running of the kingdom and brought Greek culture out of the oblivion in which it had languished for three centuries. Her actions in favour of the Orthodox faith and Greek culture naturally disturbed the Franks, who came to consider her a dangerous enemy, but she had become too powerful to attack. Greek Cypriots have always revered Queen Helena as a great heroine because of her boldness. Their daughter and heir, Charlotte, was married to João, duke of Coimbra, grandson of the king of Portugal, who used his influence in support of the Catholic party, and so incurred the enmity of the Queen that Helena persuaded King Jean II to exclude him from any share in the government, on the grounds that he might grow too powerful and attempt to seize the crown. João left the court with his wife and died within a year under circumstances, which led to the belief that he had been poisoned at the instigation of Helena. In 1458 Helena died and the king, now entirely under the influence of his illegitimate son, Jacques, thought to make him his heir. But a few months later Jean himself died and Charlotte succeeded him as Queen at the age of twenty-two. Helena lived (1432-58).


1442-84 Reigning-Abbess Margaretha I von Gleichen of Herford Germany)

In dispute with the Hereditary Steward and Lords von Helfenstein-Sporkenburg about a number of tenants and villages and against her protests, Johann XII von Helfenstein, Lord of Sporkenburg, placed the villages Arnberg and Immendorf under the protection of the Archbishop of Trier. This created the situation where the Abbey were Lords of the Fief and the Bishopcy were Lord Guardians.


1442-43 Contra-Abbess Margarete von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen of Herford (Germany)

In oppositon to Abbess Margarete von Gleichen. 1476-79 Jakobe von Neuenhar was Contra-Abbess.


1442-76 Politically Influential Princess Magdalena Oppeln (Opole) (Poland)
1474 Regent of Oppeln

Very influential during the reign of her husband Mikołaj I, and in 1474 she acted as regent for him. She lived (1426/30-1497).


1442-59 Reigning Dowager Lady Margaretha von Ratibor of Gostynin in the Masovian Duchy of Rawa (Poland)

Also known as Małgorzata Raciborska, she received the town of Gostynin as her dowry after the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Siemowit V of Masovia-Rawa, while the rest of the domain was joined with Płock.


1442-59 Regent The Dowager Queen Nguyễn Thị Anh of Vietnam

When Nguyen Thi Anh’s husband, King Lê Thái Tông, died, she took over the regency for her 1 year old son, Lê Nhân Tông. In reality, the real power behind the throne was Trịnh Khả and together they managed to rule Vietnam reasonably well, though there was some friction. Her son was officially given the powers of government in 1453 even though he was only 12 years old. This was unusual and seems to have made little real difference, the she continued to rule while the other noble families acted as a brake on her power. In 1459 her late husband’s oldest son staged a coup, killed the king and the next day she allowed herself to be killed by a loyal servant. She lived (circa 1422–1459).


1444-(90) Sovereign Countess Agnes de Touraine (France)

Succeeded brother, Pierre. Her husband Agne de la Tour, was count by the right of his wife (1445-90).


1444-60 Co-Ruler Duchess Margaret Cilly of Schlesien-Teschen-Gross-Glogau
1460-76 Titular Duchess of Głogów and Żagań

Also known as Małgorzata Cyllejska, and after the death of her husband, Władysław of Głogów and Cieszyn, she formally held Glogau and Sagan as her dowry until she was deposed and the principality was incorporated into Schlesien-Teschen-Freistadt. Daughter of count Herman III of Cilly. (d. 1480).


1444-57 Princess-Abbess Wandelburgis of Baindt (Germany)

In the first year of her reign, she temporary took over the Patron-rights over Wechstsweiler.


1444-52 Princesse-Abbesse Henrica III de Vienne of Remiremont (France)

Also known as Henriette de Vienne.


1444-50 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth Hofmann of Heggbach (Germany)

Heggbach was the only ecclesiastical territory where the Princess-Abbess mainly came from peasant and merchant families.


1444-59 Reigning Abbess Dorothea Neth of Gutenzell (Germany)

It is not clear when the abbesses became Princesses of Empire, Princess-Abbesses (title Reichsäbtissin zu Gutenzell), but in 1417 and 1437 the Chapter was granted certain privileges by Emperor Sigismund.


1444-48 Reigning Abbess Ursula von Tauffkirchen-Hohenrain und Höchlenbach of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

She originated from a family of Lords of the Watercastle in Taufkirchen near Munich and the lords of Hohenrain in Switzerland.


1445-54 De-facto in charge of the Government Queen Margaret d’Anjou of England
1455-82 Leader of the Lancastrian Party
1460-61 Acting Regent of England

Margaret of Anjou

Margaret of Anjou

Dominated her husband, Henry VI, and was very determined to keep him on throne during the War of the Roses. She headed the Lancastrian forces, and also controlled the government during her husband’s fits of insanity (1445-53). When he became incapable of reigning in 1453 shortly after the birth of their first child, Edward of Lancaster, she presented a bill to the parliament which would have named her regent, but it was defeated and the following year she appointed Richard of York as Protector. The Yorkists deposed her husband in 1461, and she and her son fled to Scotland and then to France. The following year she invaded Northumbria, but it did not achieve anything, so she once again returned to France. Gathering her forces, she again landed in England in 1470, and this time her army prevailed and Henry was replaced on the throne of England. But soon after the Lancastrian forces were defeated by Yorkists at Tewkesbury, in the battle in which her son was killed. When Edward IV regained the throne, her husband was soon put to death. She was captured herself and imprisoned in Tower. Edward IV eventually ransomed her to King Louis XI and she was allowed to return to France, where she spent rest of her life in seclusion. She lived (1429-82).


1445-65 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarethe von Brandenburg of the City of Friedberg in Bayern (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig VIII of Bayern-Inglofstadt (1403-45), she kept her father-in-law, Ludwig VII (1365-1447) imprisoned at the Neuburg in order to use him as exchange for the damage payment demanded by her brother, Albrecht Achilles of Brandenburg-Ansbach until Heinrich the Rich of Bayern paid the ransom. She kept her residence at Neuburg even though her dowry was at the Castle of Friedberg, and she died in Landshut. (d. 1465).


1445-1456 Politically Influential Duchess Małgorzata of Szamotuły in Racibórz (Poland)
1456-? Regent
Until 1464 Co-Ruler

Very active supporter of her second husband was prince Wacław II of Racibórz’ politics. After his death she became regent and (later) co-ruler of their son, Jan V. (d. 1464).


1445-47 Princess-Abbess Sophia II von Daun-Oberstein of Essen (Germany)

Member of the family of the Counts von Daun-Falkenstein, Lords of Daun-Oberstein und Falkenstein, who were vassals, of the Duchy of Berg.


1445-63 Princess-Abbess Mechtildis II von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Perhaps Coadjurix and Pröbstin (Deputy Abbess) from 1439. Also known as Mathilde, she was daughter of Siegmunt I von Anhalt-Dessau and Jutta von Querfurt. Her niece, Scholastika, was abbess from 1569. Mechtildis (d.1463).


1445-49 15th Territorial Countess Anne de Beauchamp of Warwick, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)
1447-49 Lady of the Isles (Dependency of the English Crown)

As the only daughter of Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick and 14th Earl of Warwick, she was heir to the Warwick and the Despenser lands, the latter trough her grandmother, Isabel Despenser. When she died in January 1449, aged only five, her heir was her aunt Anne Neville, her father’s only sister in the full blood. His half-sisters were barred from any claim through common law to her estates. None the less a royal license dated 12 July 1449 described Margaret, Eleanor, Elizabeth and her as joint heiresses of Richard Beauchamp, but on July 23 of the same year, the king granted the title of Earl of Warwick to Richard and Anne Neville, declaring she was Henry Beauchamp’s heir. Anne de Beauchamp lived (1443-49).


1446-49 Regent Dowager Princess Maria of of Poland of Pommern-Stolp (Pomerze-Słupsk) (Poland)

After the death of her husband, Bogisław IX, she was regent during the absence of his nephew, King Erik VII of Denmark and Sweden, who had abdicated in 1438 and spend the years 1442-49 as a privateer in the Baltic Seas, until he retired to Pomerania with his partner, Cecilia and lived there until his death in 1459. He was succeeded by her daughter, Zofia. Maria was the daughter of Duke of Mazowsze Siemowit IV and Aleksandra of Poland, a sister of king Władysław II Jagiełło, and lived (1408/15-1454).


1446-1528 Sovereign Princess Lucrezia Loredano of Antiparos (Greece Island-State)

Succeeded sister. 1207 the Venetian noble Mario I Sanudo conquered the Cycladerna, Sporades and other islands in the Aegean Sea from the Byzantine Empire. Naxos became the centre, but later the Aegean was marred by pirates and some times the Island of Antiparos was abandoned all together. In 1537 the island was occupied by the Ottomans.

1446/47 Reigning Dowager Lady of Dagno Danjë (Albania)

The Lordship was also known as Dagno or Danja. In 1444 Gjergji Skanderbeg liberated parts of Albania and united the Albanian Princes in the “Liga of Lezha” in the fight against the Ottoman Turks, but 1448 the city and lordship was lost.


1446-54 Princess-Abbess Jakoba van Heinsberg-Loon of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Took over as acting sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Principality from Mechtildis, who vacated the position, but remained titular Abbess to her death. Jacobäa abdicated in 1454 and moved to the court of her half-brother, the Prince-Bishop of Liège, where she seems to have fallen in love with the Knight van der Marck. Since she was also very pious she withdrew to a Benedictine Chapter – another version of the story is that he died in a duel. She was daughter of Johann II von Loen, Lord of Jülich and Heinsberg and his second wife, Anna von Solms, and died 1466.


1447-59 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth V von Saffenberg of Essen (Germany)

She might have been identical with the Elisabeth von Saffenberg, Lady of Saffenberg, Co-Heiress of Thomberg, Lanscroon, Koningsfeld and Meyl who was married Luther von Quadt zu Lantscroon, Knight from 1464 and Lord of Tomberg, Lanscroon, Hardenberg and Vorst. This Elisabeth was daughter of Croft van Saffenberg en Elisabeth Tomberg.


1447-70 Abbess Nullius Sancia Fungeta of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Among the many privileges she enjoyed as Abbess were that of appointing her own vicar-general through whom she governed her abbatial territory; that of selecting and approving confessors for the laity; and that of authorizing clerics to have the cure of souls in the churches under her jurisdiction.


1448-49 Regent Dowager Empress Helena Dragaš of the Byzantine Empire (Greece)

Left the convent where she had stayed since the death of her husband, Emperor, Manuel II Palaiologos (1350-91-1425), and asserted her right to act as

Helena Dragaš

Helena Dragaš

regent until the eldest of her surviving sons arrived from Greece, after the death of her oldest son, John VIII Palailogos, since the younger of the surviving sons, Demetrios, had hurried to the capital to stake his claim over the older Constantine XI. She sent George Sphrantzes to the Sultan Murad to seek his approval and recognition of Constantine as the new Emperor, and commissioned two of her leading courtiers to go to Mistra to confirm the fact of his succession. On 6 January 1449 they proclaimed and invested Constantine, who died in 1453 as the last Byzantine Emperor. The daughter of Constantin Dragaš, Authentes of Serbia, Gospodin of Vardar and Serrhesother of 9 sons and 1 or 2 daughters, and lived (circa 1372-1450).


1448 “Holder of the Royal Authority” Dowager Queen Dorothea zu Brandenburg of Denmark
1448-52 Mistress of the Counties of Örebro, Närke and Värmland (Sweden)
1481-90 Regent of Slesvig-Holsten (Schleswig-Holstein) (Germany)

Dorothea af Brandenburg of Denmark

Dorothea af Brandenburg of Denmark

The “royal authority” was vested in her after the death of her first husband, Christoffer 3 of Bayern. She contra signed and authorized the decisions made by the Council of State, which reigned the country. Later same year she married the new king Christian I of Oldenborg and often acted as regent during his many warfares. Her dowry included Roskilde Len and Ringsted Len, and held large parts of Lolland, Falster, Slesvig and Holsten together with Abrahamstrup, Kalundborg, Närke and Värmland (Sweden) as security for loans she granted her husband. She founded a convent in Køge and travelled twice to Rom on pilgrimages. A month before his death, Christian granted her Slesvig-Holsten as a personal fief, and after his death she acted as regent for son, Frederik, (later king) in the Dukedoms. She lived (1430-90).


1448-69 Sovereign Lady Johanna von Loon zu Heinsberg of Heinsberg, Geilenkirchen, Dalenbroich, Diest, Sichem and Zeelhem (Germany and The Netherlands)

Daughter of Johann IV von Loon, Herr zu Heinsberg and Johanna von Diest and married to Johann II von Nassau-Saarbrücken (1423-72) and lived (1443-69).


1448-68 Reigning Abbess Ottilia von Abensberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of an ancient Austrian noble family.


1449-96 Princess-Abbess Margaretha I von Werdenberg of Buchau (Germany)

Only 12 when elected abbess, and the Pope appointed the Counts Ulrich and Ludwig von Württemberg and the City of Ulm to run the affairs of the Chapter, and her mother, Elisabeth von Württemberg, was also influential. First mentioned as Princess of the Realm in 1455. She problably took over the reigns herself around 1466 when she reached the age of 30, the normal minimum age for abbesses. Her father was Johann IV von Werdenberg of the House of Montfort, she was succeeded by sister, Anna, and ived (circa 1436-66).


1449-62 Princess-Abbess Marguerite I d’Escornais of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

The abbess of Nivelles was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.


1449-50 Territorial Hereditary Countess Anne de Beauchamp Neville of Warwick, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)
1471-87 Lady of the Isles (Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, Brechou, Herm, Jethou and Sark) (Dependencies of the English Crown)

 Anne de Beauchamp Neville, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales

Anne de Beauchamp Neville, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales

Inherited the claim to the title of her brother’s daughter Anne de Beauchamp, though her half-sister claimed the lands and title. After an investigation into Anne de Beauchamp’s estates affirmed that she was the heir and on 2 March 1450 a fresh grant of the title of Warwick was made to her and her husband, Richard Neville, who became the 16th Earl, this time adding provision that her sister, Margaret would inherit if the Nevilles remained childless. Anne and her husband were also confirmed with the office of Chamberlain of the Exchequer, which was part of the earldom of Warwick, on 6 December 1450 and her husband took possession of the office. Her half-sisters and their husbands immediately protested, and in consequence, her husband was removed from the office and the king committed it to temporary custodians until the Exchequer court could determine the rightful owner. 1454 they were re-confirmed with the office. After his death in 1471, she took over as Lady of the Isles. Their daughter, Anne Neville, first married the Prince Edward of Wales, and then Richard III. Anne de Beauchamp Neville lived (1426-92).

Women in power 1350-1400

Around 1350 Queen Argoye of Zamfara (Nigeria)

Also known as Algoje, she was succeeded by Karafau. The state was created before 1200. 1764-1804, Zamfara was annexed by Gobir and in 1902 it was split between France and the British protectorate of Northern Nigeria.


1350 Princesse-Abbesse Simonetta de Vara of Remiremont  (France)

Another version of her name was Symonate de Varre.


1350-66 Princesse-Abbesse Eléonore de Châlon of Remiremont  (France)

Eléonore de Châlon of Remiremont

Eléonore de Châlon of Remiremont

Also known as Aliénor, she was the 10th child of John II de Chalon and Alix de Bourgogne.


1350 Reigning Abbess Gerhild von Krenkingen of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Apart from a number of estates and villages, the chapter also owned vineries in Wald Aufkirch, Goldbach, Sipplingen und Bermatingen, am Untersee auf der Insel Reichenau and in Allensbach.


1350-65 Reigning Abbess Isabelle I de Herzelles of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

The Abbey was in constant dispute with the local bishop over supremacy over the internal affairs.


1350-57 Politically Influential Queen Maria of Portugal of Castile (Spain)

After the death of her husband, king Alfonso XI, she was very influential in the government of her son, king Pedro the Cruel, who began to reign at the age of sixteen. She controlled him, but emancipated himself with the encouragement of the minister Juan Alfonso de Albuquerque (her favourite) and became attached to María Díaz de Padilla, marrying her in secret in 1353. She turned him against Albuquerque and joined the rebellion against her son, but when it collapsed, she returned to Portugal in 1357. She lived (1313-57).


1351 Reigning Abbess Anna Boller of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Since 1227 the Abbey had been place directly under the Emperor as a Realm of the Holy Roman Empire.


1351-80 Princess-Abbess Mathilde van Leeuwenberg of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Member of a Dutch noble family.


1351-61 Reigning Abbess-General Urraca Fernández de Herrera of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The abbess held the right to grant letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls. She was privilege also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.


1352-54 Regent Princess Constanza of Sicily (Italy)

Unmarried daughter of Pietro II of Sicily (1337-42) and Elisabeth of Carinthia and Tirol (regent in 1342), she was regent during the reign of her brother Luigi, who was king 1342-55. Her sister Eufemia was regent for their other brother, Federico from 1355. Constanza lived (1324-55).


1352-58 Sovereign Princess Simona Fadrique de Aragón of Tinos (Thenos) (Greek Island-State)

Succeeded her husband, Giorgio Ghisi, Lord of Tinos and Mykonos. She was daughter of Alfonso Fadrique de Aragon, Count of Malta and Gozzo, Lord of Salona and of certain territories in Greece,  (d. 1335/39)  – the son of King Federico of Sicily (1299-1337), and Lady Marulla of Aegina et cetera, the daughter of Bonifacio da Verona, Lord of Negroponte.


1352-58 Dowager Duchess Katharina Subić of Brieg and Ohlau (Brzeg-Oława) (Then Germany, now Poland)

The Polish version of her name is Katarzyna Subić. Held the duchy as her dowry after the death of her husband, Bolesław III. She was daughter of the Croatian ban Mladen II.


1352-56 Regent Jeanne de Bar of Bar (France)

The daughter of Count Henri III of Bar, she was regent for her nephew Robert. She fought for the regency with her sister-in-law, Jolanta van Flanders-Cassel. She had been married to John de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey until an annulment in 1315. Her mother was Eleanor of England, daughter of king Edward I of England, and she lived (1295-1361).


1352-54 Sovereign Lady Philipotte van Kleef of Valkenburg (Belgium)

Also known as Philippa, she succeeded brother, and reigned jointly with husband, Hendrik van Vlaanderen, Lord van Ninove, as vassal of the Duke of Brabant.


1353-71 Reignign Abbess Adelheid II von Lupfen of Buchau (Germany)

Daughter of Count Konrad von Lumpfen and Elisabeth von Liebenstein, and was a nun in Rottenmünster around 1346.


1353-73 Reigning Abbess Jeanne de Mangey of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

The chapter was founded in 1101, and was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. A Prior under the control of the Abbess commanded the monks in the double-convent.


Circa 1353-90 Sovereign Lady Maria van Wesemaele of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)

Succeeded her distant relative, Mathilde, and her husband Hendrik van Boutershem was joint lord until his death 1371 after which her son, Hendrik II was joint lord, until he was succeeded by his granddaughter, Johanna, in 1419. Maria lived (circa 1330-90).


1354-59 Acting Governor Jelena Subica of Bosnia

Regent for the ban (governor) Tvrtko I (1353-77/91), who succeeded her husband, Stjepan II Kotromanic, initially with Prince Vladislav as regent. After his death she took over as regent.


1354 Acting Duchess Margareta von Bayern of Croatia

After the death of her husband, Stephen, Duke of Transylvania, Slavonia, Croatia and Dalmatia (1332-1354), she held the principality shortly until his relative, Carlo Dancki of Napoli, took over the reigns. 1357/58 she married Gerlach von Hohenlohe. She was daughter of Emperor Ludwig IV of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Upper and Lower Bavaria, King of Italy, King of Germany and his second wife, Margaret of Hainault, Countess of Hainault, Holland and Zeeland (1311-1356), she did not have any children and lived (1325-1374).


1354/5-1357 Reigning Dowager Duchess Małgorzata Morawska in Beuthen (Bytom) (Poland)

Following the death of her husband, Bolesław of Bytom, she held the Duchy as her dowry, though her reign was disputed. Also known as Margaret of Moravia, she was daughter of Johan von Sternberg.


1354-62 Princess-Abbess Agnes III von Schrapelau of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Edlen (the noble) Buchard von Schrapelau and Luitgard Gans von Wittenberge und Pereberg. Resigned in 1362, died two years later.


1355-1404 Sovereign Duchess Jeanne III of Brabant, Limbourg, Derby and Larche  (Belgium)

Johanna van Brabant succeeded her father, Jan III van Brabant and had to confirm the privileges of the large citys of the Duchies. She engaged in a war over the succession with her brothers-in-law, Lodewijk II van Male, Count of Flanders, and Duke Reinoud III van Gelre, which hit the territories hard financially. 1371 her second husband, Wenceslaus I of Luxembourg was taken prisoner. She had first been married to Willem IV of Holland, Zeeland and Hainalut. Her sister Marguerite de Brabant-Limbourg was Dame of Mechelen and Antwerpen, and she abdicated in favour of her daughter, Marguerite III of Flanders, who died shortly after. Jeanne lived (1322-1406).


1355-1401 Sovereign Princess Maria Palaiologina of Lesbos (Greek Island State)

Her brother, Emperor Ióannés V Palaiologos, Emperor of Byzantium, gave her the island as dowry when she married Baron Francesco Gattilusio, patrician of Genoa, Archon of Lesbos. In 1384 her husband and two oldest sons were killed by an earthquake and. Their only surviving son, Jacopo, reigned under the name of Francesco II until his death 1403. She lived (Circa 1330/35-circa 1401).


1355-57 Regent Princess Eufemia of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)

The unmarried daughter of Pietro II (1337-42) she was regent for brother, Federico III, Duke of Athens and Neopatras (1341-55-77), who was succeeded by daughter Maria in 1377. Their mother, Elisabeth von Kärnthen was regent 1342 and their sister, Constanza had acted as regent 1552-54 for their brother King Ludovico. Eufemia lived (1330-59).


1355-58 Sovereign Lady Juana Núñez de Lara I of Vizcaya and Lara  (Spain)

Assumed the title after the death of her brother, Núño, who had succeeded their mother, María Díaz de Haro II and their father Juan Núñez de Lara, and. After she was assassinated during the civil war between Pedro I the cruel and Enrique II de Trastámara, her husband, Tello de Castilla, Lord of Aguilar y Castaneda, kept the lordship until 1370. Her sister, Isabel claimed the position as titular sovereign Lady, but Pedro I de Castilla usurped the territory 1358-66 and then her husband, Tello of Aragón was seigneur until 1370, when he was succeeded by her father’s sister, Juana II. Juana I was murdered, and lived (circa 1333-59).


1355-56 Regent Dowager Tsarina Helena of Bulgaria of Serbia
1355-59 Reigning Dowager Lady of The Ser Region (between the lower Vardar and the Mesta) and the Chalcidic Peninsula

On the death of her husband, Stefan Uroš IV Dušan, she was regent and reigned her dowries in the Southeastern part of the former Serian Empire until she  became a nun under the religious name Elisaveta in 1359, but continued to play an active role in politics. She was the daughter of Sratsimir of Kran and Petritsa and the sister of Tsar Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria. She (d. 1374).


1355/56 Acting Governor Irina of Serbia of Thessaly (Croatia)

After the death of her first husband, the Serbian Governor of the Province, Gregorios Preljub, she attempted to retain control of Thessaly in the name of her minor son Tomo Preljubović, but in 1356 she was displaced and forced to return to Serbia by Nikephoros II ex-Lord of Epirus. Here she married Radoslav Hlapen, the ruler of Vodena, who took Thomas Preljubović under his wing and in 1367-84 he was Despot of Epirus. She was the daughter of tsar Stefan Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia and Helena of Bulgaria.


1355-81 Princess-Abbess Gertrud I von Hanau of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Hessen in Germany.


Around 1355 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Leiningen of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

As Abbess of the Chapter, she was Lady of possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace, but did apparently not have the dignity of Princess.


1356-57 Regent Princess Caima Cam Todorita Bals of Moldova

Bogodan was The Gospotar – ruler – of the principality of Moldova (1356-74).


1356-60 Sovereign Countess Isabella de Brienne of Brienne, Lecce and Conversano, Dame de Ramerupt and Titular Duchess of Athens, Claimant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem et cetera  (France, Italy and Greece)

After brother, Gautier de Brienne, was killed in the battle by Poitiers, she and her husband, Gautier IV d’Enghien, Seigneur de Tubize et Lembeek, the family possessions in France and Italy. She was the only daughter of Duke Gautiers V de Brienne and Jeanne de Châtillon, who had ruled the Duchy in 1311. She divided her numerous possessions among her numerous sons during her lifetime, and 1384 her granddaughter, Maria d’Enghien inherited some of the possessions. Isabella lived (Circa 1300/05-60).


1356-58 Sovereign Countess Clara von Freiburg of Freiburg, Lady of Lichteneck und Nimburg (Germany)

Only daughter and heir of Count Friedrich von Freiburg and Anna von Baden. She succeeded her father, but resigned the county after two years of succession-war with her uncle, Egino IV. Married to Gottfried II von Tübingen, Count Palatine of Böblingen. She lived (Circa 1320-68).


1356-79 Princess-Abbess Margarethe I von Grünenberg of Säckingen (Germany)

Her election ended in a draw but she was inagurated by the Bishop of Konstantz after the resignation of the other candidate, Anna von Brandis. 1356 she agreed not to sell any possessions of the Chapter without the accept of the other canonesses. The new Gothic church of the city was inaugurated 1360 and she mended the relationship between Glarus and Säckingen in 1373.  She was possibly daughter of Freiherr Johann I von Grünenberg and Clementia von Sigau. Her brother, Mark, was Abbot of Einsiede (1364-76).


1356-57 Reigning Abbess Judenta von Hohenfels of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Member of the family of Counts of Hohenfels in Bavaria.


1357-84 Sovereign Countess Adelheid von Wittgenstein (Germany)

Succeeded her brother, Werner IV, the last male of the family and together with her husband, Salentin von Sayn-Homburg, they founded the new line, and he used the title of Count von Sayn zu Wittgenstein from 1361. He descended from the Counts of Sayn, who owned the Offices and Lordships of Hachenburg and Altenkirchen, and his father inherited Homburg from his mother.


1357-58 Countess Abbess Ermengard zu Waldeck-Schwalenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Also known as Ermengardis, she was first a nun at Mariensee, and later succeeded her sister, Jutta, who ruled in Gandersheim 1331.


1357-61 Reigning Abbess Margaretha I Gösslin von Altenburg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Gössl is a town near Salzburg in Austria, not far from Regensburg in Bavaria.


1358-61 Titular Lady Isabel de Lara of Vizcaya and Lara (Spain)

Succeeded her sister, Juana I, as sovereign Lady, but Pedro I de Castilla usurped the territory 1358-66, when her brother-in-law became Sovereign Lord. Isabel was married to Infant Juan of Aragon, Lord of Elche (d. 1358). And like her sister, she was murdered and lived (Circa 1335-61).


1358…Sovereign Princess Tommasa Orsini-Angelo-Comneni of Tessaglia (Italy)

Confirmed as Princess the year after her father was assassinated. She was daughter of Niceforo II, Despot of Epiros and Tessaglia, Count of Cefalonia and Zante, Governor of Aenos and Maria Cantacuzena of Byzantine. Married to Prince Simeon Uros of Serbia (d. 1371).


1358-62 Reigning Dowager Duchess Agnethe von Sagan of Brieg and Ohlau (Brzeg-Olawa) (At the time Germany, now Poland)

Also known as Agnieszka, she was daughter of Duke Henryk II Wierny of Żagań (Sagan) and Matilda of Bavaria. Her first husband, Duke Leszek of Racibórz died in 1336, and between 1341 and 1345 she married Duke Ludwig von Brieg (Ludwik I of Brzeg), who gave her half of his land and cities as her dowry in 1358. With Ludwig she had 6 children: Henryk, Wacław, Małgorzata, Jadwiga, Katarzyna and another daughter. She lived (1312/1321-1362).


1358-70 Co-ruler Duchess Agnes von Lichtenberg of Münsterberg (Ziębice) (At the time Germany, now Poland)

Also known as Agnieszka, she ruled in the Slesian Principality together with her sons Bolesław II (1358-1410) and Henryk II (1358-circa 66/85) after the death of her husband, Mikołajs. Mother of 5 children. (d. 1370).


1358-98 Princess-Abbess Beatrix von Wohlhusen of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

1373 she approved the second “Sworn letter of Zürich” (Dem Zweiten Geschwornen Brief Zürichs) that limited the powers of the mayor of Zürich after the rein of the Brunschen.


1359-62 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Several members of her family were heads of the chapter.


1359-64 (†) Regent Dowager Grand Duchess Aleksandra of Russia, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev

Ruled in the name of son, Dimitri IV Donskoï (or Donskoy), who succeeded his grandfather, Ivan II (1353-59) She (d. 1364).


1359-63 Sovereign Countess Marie I de Bourbon of Vestitza (Greece)
1364 Governor of Kephallenia and Corfu (Greek Island States)
1364-70 Sovereign Princess of Achaia and Queen of Thessalonica (Greece)

Daughter of Louis I de Bourbon and Marie d’Avesnes of Hainault, and succeeded the Baronesses Agnes and Guillermetta (Wilhelmina). First married to Guido de Lusignan, Prince von Galilaea (d. 1346) and secondly to the son of Catherine II de Valois, Robert II. d’Anjou, Titular Emperor of Byzantine and Prince of Achaia (1333-64), whom she succeeded as Princess of Achaia. She sold the Baronies of Vostitza and Nivelet to Nerio Acciaiulo, Duke of Athens and Vicar-General in Corinth. Mother of one son, Hugo de Lusignan (Circa 1335- 1385/86) and two daughters, and lived (1315-87).


1359-1402 Countess Abbess Luitgard III zu Hammerstein of Gandersheim (Germany)

Also known as Lutgard. During her reign the chapter became more and more under the influence of the Dukes of Braunschweig.

1360-78 Sovereign Countess Mahaut de Châtillon of Saint-Pôl (France)

Daughter of Jean de Châtillon (1292-1334) and succeeded brother, Gui (d. 1360). She was married to Guy de Ligny and Charles de France, Count de Valois et cetera. And lived (1293-1358).


Before 1360 Regent Al Udar al-Karimah Shihaab ad Din Salaah of Yemen

In charge of the government during the absence of her son, Sultan Sayf al-Islam al-Mujahid ‘Ali ibn al-Mu‘ayyad Hizbir al-Din Da’ud, who reigned 1322-63, on warfare in Egypt (at a time not known to me). During her reign she built schools and mosques, established both internal security, justice and administrative order. Is also said to have gone secretly from house to house of the poor, seeking to learn their needs and giving them generous gifts. The translation of her title is Vice-Regent, Lordly Lady of Piety, Goodness, Sharp Intelligence, Decisive Resolve, Calm Forbearance, and Supreme Political Acumen Patroness of Scholars and Upright Men of Religious Piety Champion of the Poor and Needy, and she (d. 1360).


1360-70 Princess-Abbess Irmgard I von Broich of Essen (Germany)

Her family was first mentioned in 1093 under the nobleman Burkhard von Broich, who renovated the castle that was built around 880. Her family inhabited the Castle in Mülheim an der Ruhr until the main line died out. at the beginning of the 16th century.


Around 1360 Princess-Abbess Margaretha of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)

The Abbess of was named Princess-Abbess in 1348 with the right to crown the Queens of Bohemia.


1361-1405 De facto Co-Ruler Duchess Anna of Ratibor (Racibórz) (Poland)

In effect joint ruler with her husband, prince Jan of Racibórz, and after his death in 1380/82; she stayed in power as Co-ruler with her son Jan II. Daughter of prince Heinrich V of Głogów-Żagań and Anna of Płock, mother of 3 children, and lived (before 1350-after 1405).


Until after 1361 Heiress Hedwig of the Wildgrafschaft Dhaun und Grimace (Germany)

Married to Rheingraf Johann I vom Stein and Gerlach von Brunsholm and Gerlach von Brunshorn – and the foremother of the Salm-Dhaun family.


1361 Reigning Abbess Heilwig von Bentheim of Herford (Germany)

Succeeded Ludgard II von Bicken, who died in 1360, but was only in office for a short while.


1361-74 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth I von dem Berge of Herford (Germany)

Her surname also seems to have been spelled v.d. Berghe.


1361-67 Reigning Abbess-General Leonor Rodríguez Barba of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her full titulature was “noble lady, the superior, prelate, and lawful administratrix in spirituals and temporals of the said royal abbey, and of all the contents, churches, and hermitages of its filiation, of the villages and places under its jurisdiction, seigniory, and vassalage, in virtue of Bulls and Apostolical concessions, with plenary jurisdiction, privative, quasi-episopal, nullius diacesis.”


1361-65 Reigning Abbess Margaretha II Punzinger of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of a Bavarian noble family who lived in and around Regensburg. Perhaps her surname was Pinzingerin and in that case she was the second of her family to be head of the chapter and territory.


1361-65 Reigning Abbess Jeanne I de Frolois of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Cousin of the de Noyers’ Abbesses. Perhaps her sister Alix was also Abbess.


1362-71 Sovereign Duchess Fiorenza I Sanduro of Naxos et de L’Archipel (Greek Island State)

After she succeeded her father, Giovanni I (1341-61), Venice vetoed her potential second husbands, first the Genoese lord of Chios, then Nerio Acciaiuoli future Duke of Athens, anxious to increase its influence over the duchy by arranging a suitable match for her.  She was kidnapped by Venetian agents, taken to Crete and blackmailed into marrying her cousin Niccolo Sanudo as her second husband, and he was granted the title Duke on his marriage and after her death, he continued to govern the duchy as avogier on behalf of her son by her first husband, She had first been married to Giovanni dalle Carceri, Lord of Euboea (d. 1358), Niccolo II dalle Carceri, who was murdered in 1383. She (d. 1271).


1362-75 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I von Hackeborn of Quedlinbug (Germany)

Daughter of Edlen Albrecht von H. and Countess Richza von Schrapelau. (d. 1375)


1362-1400 Princess-Abbess Agnes von Wildenberg of Schänis (Switzerland)

She sold the church treasure of Nuolen, a parish within her jurisdiction. Reached a compromise with the canonesses about the incomes from Benken. The area was under the overlorship of the Habsburg until 1388 when they lost the majority of the possessions in the Schänis Area. Daughter of Freiherr Heinrich II von Wildenberg.


From 1362 Hulufira Nilüfer Valide Sultan of Anatolia and Rumalia (Turkey)

After the death of her husband, Sultan Orkhan Ghazi, she became Sultana Valide during the reign of her son, Sultan Murad Hudavendigar Han. According to some sources she had acted as regent during the military campaigns of her husband, whom she married in 1299. She was daughter of the Bey of Yarhisar (b. 1283).


1364-84 Reigning Dowager Lady Rikardis Schwerin-Wittenburg of the Island of Als med Sønderborg with several shires in Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland) in Slesvig (Denmark)

Widow of Valdemar 3, who was King of Denmark 1326-30 and Duke of Slesvig 1325- 26 and 1330-64. He was 11 years old when the Council of the Realm chose him as successor of the deposed King Christoffer 7, with his mother’s brother, Count Gert 3. von  Holsten-Rendsborg as regent. This led to civil war and peasent’s uprisings, and Christoffer was reinstated and Valdemar became Duke of Slesvig. She was mother of two sons, Valdemar (Circa 1338– 60) and Henrik who inherited the duchy. She (d. circa 1384).


Until 1364 Burgravine Isabeau D’Antoing, Heiress of Antoing (Belgium)

Also known as Isabelle, she was married Infant Alfonso of Castilla e León, de la Cerda, Lord de Lunel, Governor de Languedoc (1310-27).


1364-70 Countess Isabelle de Pierrepont of Roucy (France)

Succeeded father, Robert II and married to Louis de Namur. 1370 she sold the County to Louis d’Anjou en 1370, but his uncle started a process, and after a process which lasted 20 years, the Parlement de Paris judged in her favour.


1364-75 Co-Sovereign Princess Catharina Michieli of Keos (Greek Island-State)

Together with sister she succeeded father, who came from a Venetian family.


1364-75 Co-Sovereign Princess Angelina Michieli of Keos (Greek Island-State)

Also known as Kea. With the fall of Constantinople to the Franks, Michael Akominatos, the Metropolitan of Athens, took refuge on the island in the monastery of Prodomos where he stayed until he died. The island was captured by the Venetians and recaptured by the Byzantines in 1278. In 1296 it fell to the Venetians again and built a castle on the ancient acropolis of Ioulis.  The two sisters were succeeded by Maria da Coronia.


1365-90 Queen Regnant Nyilak of Alur (Uganda)

Succeed her father, king Kyebambe (Circa 1330-65), as ruler of the kingdom in mountainous Alur Region.  She married Opodhu and mother of Nyipir (Giipir) (1390-1450).


1365-68 In Charge of the Government Queen Leonor de Gandia de Aragón of Cyprus, Titular Queen Consort of Jerusalem (Israel)
1369 Co-Regent of Cyrus

Her husband, Pierre I de Lusignan, who had been away on various expeditions since 1365, returned to Cyprus in 1368, he retaliated on the nobles who had been her favourites during his absence, and behaved with such haughtiness and tyranny that he alienated the sympathy of his barons and even of his brothers. In January 1369 a body of nobles assassinated him with the concurrence of his brothers. His son Pierre, a boy of thirteen, succeeded to the throne under the regency of his uncles, Jean, prince of Antiochia, and Jacques, constable of Cyprus. She quarrelled with both of them, who had both been concerned in the assassination of her husband. She first welcomed the invaders as a means of avenging the murder of her husband, but when she saw that the Genoese were bent on destroying her son’s kingdom, she joined the other royalists and took refuge with Jacques, the constable of Cyprus, in the Kyrenia castle. It was not until 1374 her son was reinstated on the throne. She lived (1333-1416)


1365-91 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth III zu Rhein of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of a noble Bavarian family, with alternative versions of the name being von Rain, von Rhein or zu Rhein.


1365-75 Reigning Abbess Jeanne II de Noyers of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Former Treasurer of the chapter.


1365-77 Abbess Nullius Constanza II da Bari of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Among the many privileges she enjoyed was that of appointing her own vicar-general through whom she governed her abbatial territory; that of selecting and approving confessors for the laity; and that of authorizing clerics to have the cure of souls in the churches under her jurisdiction.


1365-77 Co-Sovereign Countess Petronelle de Thouars of Dreux (France)

Also known as Perenelle de Thouars, she was daughter of Jeanne II (1309/9-46-54/5) and succeeded her brother, Simon, jointly with two sisters. In 1377 the three sisters sold the County to the king of France. She was first married to Amaury de Craon (d. 1373) and secondly to Clément Rouault (d. 1397) . She (d. 1397).


1365-77 Co-Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Thouars of Dreux (France)

First married to Thomas de Chemille and secondly to Guy Turpin, seigneur de Crisse, she (d. 1404).


1365-77 Co-Sovereign Countess Isabeau de Thouars of Dreux (France)

Ruled jointly with two sisters and married to Guy de Nesles (d. 1352), Ingelger d’Amboise and finally to Guillaume d’Harcourt (d 1400).


1365-73 Politically Active Queen Maria of Lesser Armenia

In 1372 she send Pope Gregory XI a letter requesting military help against the Moslems. The following year her husband, King Constantine V, was murdered, and the Pope wanted Marie to marry Otto of Braunschweig. In 1374 Levon VI was crowned king of Cillician Armenia or Armenia Minor. Her background is not known.


1365-1418 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Joinville of Vaudémont (France)

Succeeded father, Henri V and first married to Jean I de Châlon, seigneur de Montagu, secondly to  Pierre, comte de Genève and finally to Ferry I de Lorraine (1368-1415). She lived (1354-1418).


1365-87 Reigning Abbess Isabelle II de Ghistelle of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Member of a Belgian seigneurial family.


1366-92 Sovereign Princess Juliana Rurikova of Vitebsk (Belarus)

At the time of Vitebsk was a principality within Lithuania. She was succeeded by Jogaila Wladyslaw Gediminas.


1366-71 Regent Khanum Beng Shi of China

For the pretender Ming Sheng of the Yuan Dyasty.


1366-67, 1383 and 1391-93 Regent Countess Bona de Borbone of Savoia, Moriana Chablais, Aosta, Ivrea,  Susa, Baugé, Romont, Faucigny, Vaud, Gex, Nice and Geneva (Italy, France and Switzerland)

Bona de Borbone

Bona de Borbone

Also known as Bonne de Bourbon, she was first in charge of the government when her husband, Count Amedeo VI of Savoy during his absence on crusade. He then desingated her as regent for their son, Count Amedeo VII, in 1383, who in his turn had desingated her as regen for his son Amedeo VIII in 1391, which led to a dispute with her daughter-in-law, Bonne de Berry, and she renounced her role in May 1395 and retired to Mâcon. She was daughter of Duke Pierre I de Bourbon and Isabella de Valois. She lived (1341-1402).


Around 1366-74 Princesse-Abbesse Eléonore de Châlon of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)

As sovereign of the territory she had the right to choose the mayor of Remiremont from a list proposed by the nobles of the city. The mayor’s deputy, the Grand Eschevin, was chosen by the mayor from a list of 3 candidates presented by the bourgeois of the city with her advice. She was the 10. child of John II de Châlon and Alix de Bourgogne. There is a gap in the list of sovereigns of the Abbey until 1501.


Around 1367-74.. Princess-Abbess Elisabeth of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)

Mentioned in a number of documents together with the Prioress Bohunka and custrix Agnes. In 1370 Agnes is Prioress and in 1374 Dorothea is Prioress.


 1367-80 Reigning Abbess-General Estefanía de la Fuente Almexía of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Both temporal and secular ruler of vast territories in Castilla and Leon.


Circa 1368-79 Queen Ehuatl-Ycetzin of Quauhtitlan (Mexico)

An Aztec Queen

An Aztec Queen

Ruled the Aztec state in Central Mexico.


1368 Brhat Pada Samdach Sdach Brhat Rajangsa Brhat Parama Lambangasa Rajadhiraja Nang Keo Lot Fa Kaeng Kangya of Lan-Xang (Laos)

Her husband, Samdach Brhat Agna Fa Ladhuraniya Sri Sadhana Ganahudha Maharaja Brhat Rajadharana

A Laotian Queen

A Laotian Queen

Sri Chudhana Negara, was King of Lan Xang (1353-71) until he was deposed. She was a fervant Buddhist, and, according to Siamese sources daughter of the King Sri Chandraratta of Cambodia (d. 1368)


1368-71 Regent Dowager Duchess Agnes von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Pommern-Stettin (Poland)

After the death of her husband she took over the regency for her three sons; the joint Dukes of Pommern-Stettin: Kasimir IV (circa 1351-72), Swantibor I (circa 1351-1413) and Bogislaw VII (circa 1355-1404). She was daugther of Heinrich II. von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen and his first wife Jutta von Brandenburg, and lived (1318-71).


1368-92 Hereditary Countess Agnes von Habsburg of Fürstenburg und Schweidnitz (Austria)

Agnes von Habsburg zu Fürstenburg und Schweidnitz

Agnes von Habsburg zu Fürstenburg und Schweidnitz

Succeeded husband, Bolko II, and after her death, the country went to Bohemia.


1368-84 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Mechtild von Geldern of the Linner Land (Burg Linn bei Krefeld) in Berg (Germany)

First married to Godert von Leon, Herr von Millen und Eyck and secondly to Johann I Graf von Kleve, and appointed Amtmann Heinrich von Stünkede to take care of her interests. She lived (circa 1325-84).


1368-81 Territorial Countess Philippa Plantagenet of Ulster (United Kingdom)

Only child of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence and Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster, whom she succeeded as 5th Countess in 1468. Her father was the second son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and therefore she was heiress presumptive from 1477 to her cousin until her own death, she married Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March (circa 1351-81) in about 1368. As a result of her seniority in the line of succession to the throne of the Kingdom of England and her marriage into the powerful Mortimer family, her descendants eventually succeeded to the throne as the House of York under Edward IV. She lived (1355–82).


1368-69 Reigning Abbess Judel of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

In the 14th Century the chapter and its vast possessions was under the Stewardship of Württemberg which also held the higher juridstiction.


1368-98 Politically Influential Empress Ma of China

Also known as Xiao He, she assisted her husband, Zhu Yuanzhang of the Ming Dynasty, in both his military activities, the

Xiao He

Xiao He

management of his household and the decisions he made in institutional matters and in managing his civil and military subordinates. She influenced his decisions on a wide range of issues from the punishment of senior officials and merchants whom he suspected of treason to the treatment of prisoners forced to do corvee labour. She took a personal interest in the welfare of the students at the National University at Nanjing, and sponsored the setting up of the “Red Plank Granary” to dispense grain as part of a stipend for the students and their families.


1369/73-82 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Bourbon of Lyonnais et Forez (France)

 Jeanne de Bourbon, Comtesse de Lyonnais et Forez

Jeanne de Bourbon, Comtesse de Lyonnais et Forez

In 1350 she married king Charles V of France (1338-64-80). His reign was marred by the Hundred Years’ War, but Charles’ army scored some victories and defeated the army of the King of Navarre. He declined to be drawn into a crusade. Nonetheless, dissatisfaction with his rule was such that at one point the Mayor of Paris, Etienne Marcel, led a revolt against Charles that forced the king to flee the city. A strong supporter of the arts, Charles had the Louvre restored and improved and in 1367 created the first royal library in France. Mother of three children, and lived (1338-78).


1369-1403 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne II d’Aigremont of Remiremont  (France)

In 1371 an act stated that there were 21 ladies in residence. Her long reign contributed to the

Jeanne II de Remiremont

Jeanne II de Remiremont

development and stability of the chapter. She was member of a noble family from present day’s Belgium.


1369-94 Claimant to the Throne and Titular Queen Constanza of Castilla (Spain)

Constanza of Castilla

Constanza of Castilla

Daughter of King Pedro I of Castilla and Léon, who was murdered in 1369. Since her brother had died in 1362 and her sister was a nun, she and her husband since 1371, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, perused the throne of her father, though unsuccessfully. Their only son died as an infant and their only daughter, Catalina de Lancaster (1372-1418), married King Enrique III of Castile (1379–1406) of the Trastamara line and was regent 1406-18. Constanza lived (1354-94).


1370-75, 1376-77 and 1378-79 Regent Dowager Queen Elżbieta Łokietkówna of Poland and Dalmatia

As regent Queen Elisabeth or Erszébet had the official title Regina Senioris Poloniae and 1370-80, she

Queen Elżbieta of Poland and Dalmatia

Queen Elżbieta of Poland and Dalmatia

was in fact joint ruler with her son, Louis d’Anjou of Hungary, and officially appointed regent during his stays in Hungary after he inherited the kingdom after her brother, Kazimierz III of Poland (1309-33-70). She had already been very influential since he succeeded her husband, Karol Robert, as king of Hungary in 1342. She had gained the upper hand at court and for several decades she acted as a sort of co-regent, and even the Hungarian barons were afraid of her. She was a fanatical catholic and founded countless religious churches and convents. Of her 7 children, the second son, Andreas married his cousin, Joanna I of Napoli and was Duke of Calabria until he was murdered by his wife in 1345. She lived (1305-80).


1370-81 Sovereign Lady Juana Mauel II of Vizcaya, Villena, Escalona, Penafiel and Lara (Spain)

Had succeeded her niece Blanca, as Lady of Villena, Escalona y Penafiel in 1361 and succeeded Tello of Castilla in Vizcaya, who was the husband of her brother’s daughter, Juana Núñez de Lara I, as señora soberana. Juana II was married to King Enrique II of Castile (1333-79) and after her death, the Basque Country was incorporated into Castilla and later Spain. She was daughter of She was the daughter of the Infante Juan Manuel of Castile (1282-1349) and his second wife Blanca Núñez de Lara de La Cerda, mother of several children, and lived (1339-81).


1370-73 Khanum Regnant Tulun Beg of the Golden Horde in Russia and Serbia

Member of the Ak Urdu Dynasty and followed Mohammed Buluq-Khan, who only ruled in 1370 and died 1379. She was succeeded by Arab Shaykh of the Arab Shaykh Dynasty. The Golden Horde was the Western division of the Mongol Empire, subject to the Great Khans at Karakorum, and ruling most of Russia.


1370-1412 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Nassau of Essen (Germany)

After her election she created uproar by demanding that the City Council and Citizen should pay homage to her according to an old custom that had been forgotten. In 1372 she had sovereign status of the Chapter as a Realm in the Empire was confirmed and in 1399 she and the city agreed on a settlement on the distribution of powers. Daughter of Johann von Nassau-Hadamar and Elisabeth von Wied. She (d. 1413).

1370-83 County Sheriff Helene Olufsdatter Lunge of the County of Bjernedegård with Stormandsgården, Denmark

Helene Lunge was widow of Evert Moltke, she followed her husband as holder of the tenantcy appointed by the Bishop of Roskilde (Bispelensmand). She lived (circa 1540-83).


1370-80 Politically Influential Saint Catherine of Siena in France and Italy

Saint Catherine of Siena

Saint Catherine of Siena

An Italian mystic and diplomat, a member of the third order of the Dominicans. In 1370 she began to take part in the public life of her time in response to a vision, sending letters to the great of the day. She went to Avignon and exerted decisive influence in inducing Pope Gregory XI to end the “Babylonian captivity” of the papacy and return to Rome in 1376. She helped bring about peace between the Holy See and Florence, which had revolted against papal authority. In the Great Schism, she supported the Roman claimant, Pope Urban VI, and worked vigorously to advance his cause. She also advocated a crusade against the Muslims. In 1375 she is supposed to have received the five wounds of the stigmata, visible only to herself until after her death. She became the centre of a spiritual revival and a formidable family of devoted followers gathered around her. Though she never learned to write, she dictated hundreds of letters and a notable mystic work, commonly called in English The Dialogue of Saint Catherine of Siena or A Treatise on Divine Providence. She was canonized in 1461 and declared a Doctor of the Church in 1970. The daughter of Giacomo Benincasa, a Sienese dyer, Catherine from early childhood had mystic visions and practiced austerities; she also showed the devotion to others and the winning manner that characterized her life. At age 16 she entered the Dominican order as a tertiary and lived at home, and lived (1347-80).


1371-79 Sovereign Duchess Mechtild of Gelders and Zutphen
1372-79 Countess of Zutphen, Regent of Over- en Neder Betuwe, de Bommeler en Telewaarden en de Veluwe (The Netherlands)

After her brother, Reinhald III’s death she was declared Duchess in her own right by the States of Gelders, but was deposed. She continued to reign as Countess of Zutphen until she was deposed by her nephew in 1377, but did not resign the titles until 1379.  Married to Count Godfried van Looz en Chiney (d. 1342), count Johan I von Kleve. (d. 1368) and Jean de Châtillon, then count of Blois. She lived (circa 1325-84).


1371-1402 Reigning Abbess Anna II von Rüssegg of Buchau (Germany)

Her background is not clear and other versions of her name are Ruseck, Rünsegg or Riinseck. She was elected 25th of May 1371 and inaugurated by the bishop of Konstanz on 5th of September.


Around 1371 Reigning Abbess Anna I von Goldenberg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Her family had been lords of Mörsburg since 1363 and remained in charge of the castle until 1569 when the Lords von Hallwyl auf Hegi took over. In 1587 Zürich bought the stewardship.


1371-72 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Vendôme of Vendôme and Castres (France)

Just an infant, she succeeded  her father, Bouchard VII de Vendôme (1345-64-71), and since her mother, Isabelle de Bourbon, had died in childbed, she reigned under the regency of her grandmother, Jeanne de Ponthieu, but died after a few months. Succeeded by aunt, Catherine. Lived (1371-72).


1371-72 Regent Dowager Countess Jeanne de Ponthieu  of Vendôme and Castres (France)

After the death of her son, Bouchard VII de Vendôme, she was regent for her granddaughter, Jeanne de Vendôme  until her death after a year. She was widow of Jean VI de Vendôme, comte de Vendôme (1354-64) and her daughter, Catherine de Vendôme took over as ruler in 1372. She (d. 1376).


1372-1412 Sovereign Countess Catherine de Vendôme of Vendôme and Castres (France)

Catherine de Vendôme et Castres

Catherine de Vendôme et Castres

Succeeded her niece, Jeanne, and reigned jointly with husband, Jean VII de Bourbon-La Marche, Count de La Marche until his death in 1393. He was the brother of Isabelle de Bourbon, who was married to her brother, Bouchard. Her son Louis I was count (1403-15). Catherine (d. 1412).


1372-83 Titular Duchess Maria of Gelders and Zutphen (The Netherlands)

Fourth daughter of Reinald II and Sofia de Berthout van Mecheln, Countess of Mecheln. She married to Duke Willem II/VI of Jülich (d. 1393), and was a contestant for the title after the death of her brother, Reinald III. Her sister Mechtild was also declared Duchess, but Maria’s side prevailed and her son, Willem III, was named duke by the Holy Roman Emperor, Karl IV in 1372. Maria’s daughter, Johanna, was heiress to the Duchy of Gelders. Maria (d. 1397).


1372-89 Dowager Princess Milica Eugenia Vratkovic of Rudnik (Serbia)
1389-97 De-facto Ruler

Regent for son Stefan Lazarevic both during his minority and when he came of age. She was very wise and tactical in the

A Serbian Queen

A Serbian Queen

difficult times during the Turkish invasion.


1372-1416 Sovereign Countess Anne d’Auvergne of Lyonnais et Forez (France)

Anne d'Auvergne, Comtesse de Lyonnais et Forez

Anne d’Auvergne, Comtesse de Lyonnais et Forez

The daughter of Béraud II, dauphin d’Auvergne (1333-99) and Jeanne de Forez and succeeded her maternal uncle, Jean II, as Countess of Forez, and was married to Louis II duc de Bourbon, Count de Forez and Prince de Dombes (1337-1410). She lived (1358-1416).


1373-94 Joint Sovereign Countess Isabelle of Neuchâtel (Switzerland)
1375-94 Sovereign Countess of Neuchâtel and Cerlier, Dame de Vercel, Genz, Dandans, Flangebouche, Vernier-Fontaines, Baclains, Ballaigue,de Vuillafans-le-Neuf, de la garde du Val de Morteau,  Vannes, Balm, de Lugnorre, Jorissens and Provence


Isabelle de Neuchâtel

When her father, Louis I de Neuchatel died, she inherited his  possessions, jointly with her sister, Varenne, but she managed to take over the whole county. Since she did not have any children with her two husbands: Count Rodolphe IV de Nidau and Jacques de Vergy, seigneur d’Autrey, she was succeeded by her nephew, son of her sister Varenne. She lived (circa 1535-93).


1373-75 Joint Soverign Countess Varenne of Neuchâtel (Switzerland)
1373-80 Baroness du Landeron

Varenne de Neuchatel

Varenne de Neuchatel

Inherited the county jointly with her sister, who managed to take over most of the territory after a few years.  whose son, Conrad IV de Fribourg, called “de Furstemberg”, inherited the county. Her daughter, Anna von Freiburg (1374-1427) was married to Rudolf III Von Baden-Hachberg von Zähringen and their grandson, Rodolphe IV de Hochberg, became Count of Neuchatel in 1458. She lived (1359 – 1380).


1373 Reigning Abbess Adélaïde de Ventadour of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

The chapter was one of the wealthiest in Europe.


1373-93 Reigning Abbess Eléonore II de Parthenay of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Held the office of Abbess of St-Jean de Bonneval-lès-Thouars before she came to Fontevraud. She was daughter of Jean I, sire de Parthenay, de St-Christophe et de Semblançay, gouverneur de Saintonge and Marie de Beaujeu (Forez).


Until 1374 Princess-Abbess Agnes I von Munebach of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The dates of the reigns of her two predecessors are not known, but she was followed by Adelheid von Aerenbach, Katharina I

Agnes I von Obermünster in Regensburg

Agnes I von Obermünster in Regensburg

von Murach as head of the Territory of the Realm.


1374-1400 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I von Parsberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

In 1315 Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian appointed the Abbess as Princess of the Realm. Heinrich II granted the Chapter immunity and during the reign of Konrad II, the abbess even received a royal sceptre.


1374-1400 Countess-Abbess Adelheid IV von Walde of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

A member of the family of the Lords of Walde.


1374-1409 Reigning Abbess Hildgund von Oetgenbach of Herford (Germany)

Head of the large Benedictine convent in northwestern Germany, just north of the Teutoburger Wald. The establishment was granted Princely status in the 12th century, with a seat on the Imperial Diet. Aside from the convent, the town of Herford was an Imperial Free City and a member of the Hanseatic League.


1374-83 Reigning Abbess Irmengard von Hohenberg of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Member of the ancient Countly family of Zollern-Hohenberg in Swabia.


Circa 1375-circa 1400 Queen Regnant Kukaniloko of Oahau in Hawai’i (USA)

11th Alii Aimoku – and the first Mo’iwahine or supreme female ruler because her father, Piliwale, had chosen her as his successor rather than let the position fall to a male of junior lineage. She married Luaia, the great-great-grandson of Hanalaa, the 4th Alii Aimolu of Maui, and was succeeded by daughter, Kalaimanuia.


1375-93 Sovereign Countess Blanche de France of Valois (France)

Succeeded husband Philippe (1344-75). She was daughter of King Charles IV, and lived (1328-92).


1375-1426 Countess Alix de Baux of Avellino, Vicomtesse de Turenne and Dame de Baux et cetera (France)
1404-26 Countess of Beaufort

Reigned in succession to her brother, Jean de Baux. She was daughter of Raymond II de Baux, Sire de Baux, Count d’Avellino and Jeanne de Beaufort (1351-1404), married Odon de Villars, titular Count of Geneva (d. 1413) and in 1418 she married Count Konrad IV von Freiburg und von Neuenburg (d. 1424). She lived (circa 1367-1426).


1375-…  Sovereign Countess Maria da Coronia of Keos (Greece)

Succeeded Angelina.


1375-83 Princess-Abbess Anna IV Hundpis of Baindt (Germany)

The first abbess to become Princesses of Empire (Fürstäbtissin or Reichsäbtissin) in circa 1376, and thereby sovereign ruler of her Ecclesiastical Territory with a vote in the College of the Prelates of Swabia, whose 22 members (Abbesses and Abbots), which a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. She was member of the noble family of Von Hundpis, who owned castles in Amtzell from the 14. to the 16th century.


1375-83 Reigning Abbess Marguerite I de Noyers of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Succeeded by sister, Marie.


1375-1403 Titular Queen Isabel of Mallorca and Ibiza, Countess of Roussillon and Cerdeanya (Spain)

In Catalan known as Elisabet, she was daughter of King Jaime III of Mallorca et cetera. (1315-24-49), who was killed fighting against the king of Aragon who had retaken Majorca during the 1340s, labelling him as “a contumacious vassal”. She succeeded her brother, Jaime VI (husband of Queen Joanna I of Napoli (1326-82)) to the titular dignity and lived in her family’s possessions in Southern France at Chateau de Gallargues. Her first husband was Margrave Giovanni II of Montferrato (1313-72) and the second Konrad von Reischach zu Jungnau. She was mother of four sons (3 of whom became Margraves of Monferrato) and a daughter by her first husband, and one son by the second. She lived (1337-after 1403).


1376-87 Regent Dowager Queen Margrethe I Valdemarsdatter of Denmark and Norway
1387-1412 Reigning Queen (Master and Mistress) of Denmark, Sweden and Norway

Margrethe I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

Margrethe I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

Youngest daughter of King Valdemar IV of Denmark. At the age of ten she was married to King Håkon VI of Norway, son of Magnus II of Sweden and Norway. Their son Olaf, born in 1370, was elected King Olaf II of Denmark in 1375 at the death of Margrethe’s father, with her as regent. After her husband’s death shortly after her son also became Olaf IV of Norway. After Olaf’s death in 1387 the Estates in Denmark elected her as “Full-mighty Master and Mistress of All the Real” for life. The following year she became regent of Norway. In 1388 the Swedish nobility dethroned their king Albrecht of Mecklenburg, and elected Margrethe as their reigning Queen instead. She chose her sister’s daughter’s son Erik of Pommerania as her successor, who became king in 1389, but Margrethe remained the real ruler. She founded the union of Kalmar, which in the case of Sweden would last until 1523, and with Norway until 1814. In 1410, Margrethe tried to reinstate Danish overlordship over Schleswig, which caused a war with the Counts in Holstein. She travelled to the conflict area, and died there in 1412. She lived (1353-1412).


1376-1443 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Comminges (France)

Married to Count Jean III d’Armagnac.


1376-14.. Sovereign Lady Fiorenza Sanudo of Milos and Kimolos (Greece Island-State)

Succeeded father. From 1383 she reigned jointly with her sister Maria. They were daughters of Fiorenza Sommaripa of Milos et cetera, and Jacopo I of Naxos and of the Archipelagos, and she married Giovanni Michiel, Co-Lord of Seriphos, and then Francesco I Crispo (+1397), Venitian Patrician and Lord by the right of his wife of de Milos and also inherited Naxos and the Lordships of Santhorini, Andros, Astyphalea, Delos, Ios, Paros and Amorgos.  She lived (1410-14…).


1376-79 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I von Hackeborn of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Edlen Albrecht and Countess Richza von Scharpelau. (d. 1375).


1377-1402 Queen Regnant Maria of Sicilia (Sicily) (Italy)
1377-79 Duchess of Athens and Neopatria and Titular Queen of Jerusalem

Maria of Sicilia

Maria of Sicilia

At the age of 15 she succeeded her father, King Federico with Artale of Alagona as regent. 1379-88 she was in-exile in Sardegna because of civil war in Sicily. In 1390 she married Martin the Younger of Aragon and two years later they returned together with his father, Martin the Old, King of Aragon, and Maria received the crown by the Sicilian Barons. As king and Queen they used the titluatures; “Nos, D. Martin, e duenya Marya, per la gracia di Dios, roy e reyna de Sicilia, e de los ducados de Athenes e de Neopatria duque e duquessa, e nos infante don Martin, del mult alto D. Pedro, de buena memoria, roy d’Aragon fillo, e per la gracia di Dios duque de Monblanc, Conte de Luna e senyor del marquesado e de la ciutat de Sagorbe, governador general per lo mult alt senior D.Jean, rey d’Aragon, ermano e senyor nostro muyt car, en tut sus regnos e terras, coadjutor de la dicha reyna en lo regimento del regno e ducados sopredichos, e padre e legitimo administrador del dicho rey.” She died without an heir, and lived (1361-1402).


1377… Sovereign Grand Princess Juliana Rurikova of Vitebsk (Belarus)

Reigned in succession to Olgerd, who was Grand Prince 1316-77 and remained in Lithuania from 1345. Also known as Yolyana Aleksandrovna of Tver.


1377-88/before 94 Sovereign Countess Marie de Brienne d’Enghien of Argos and Nauplia (Greece)

Succeeded father Guy III de Brienne and reigned jointly with Pietro Cornaro (d. 1388) and Pasquale Zane (d. 1392). In 1388 the county was conquered by Venice. She (d. before 1394).


1377-1400 Sovereign Lady Herzlaude of Gross-Rappoltstein und Hohenach (Germany)

Married to Heinrich III Graf von Saarwerden. She kept her paternal inheritance but transferred the lordships of her husband to his brother, the Archbishop of Köln, Friederich III von Saarwerden. She willed her own possessions to her second husband, Count Johann I von Lupfen-Stühlingen. She lived (1372-1400).


1377-79 Princess-Abbess Margarete von Schrapelau of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Her sister, Agnes III. was in office (1354-62). Margarete (d. 1379).


1377-circa 88 Territorial Countess Margaret Mormaer of Mar, Lady Garioch, Chief of the Clan of Mar in Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)

Inherited the titles from her brother, Thomas Mormaer, 9th Earl of Mar (circa 1330-1377). She had married William, first Earl of Douglas, who was succeeded by their son, James. 2. Earl of Douglas and Earl of Mar and Garioch in right of his mother, and when he fell, leading the Scots at the battle of Otterburn. he was succeeded by her daughter, Isabel, who became owner of the Earldom of Mar and the Lordship of the Garioch and became the owner the unentailed lands of the House of Douglas.


1377-85 Politically Influential Dowager Princess Joan of Kent of Wales in England, Hereditary Countess of Kent, Baroness Wake de Lydell (United Kingdom)

Her husband, Edward, Prince of Wales died in 1376, and the following year her son succeeded as King Richard II, who

Joan of Kent

Joan of Kent

reigned under Council of Regency until he came of age in 1390. Joan was daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, earl of Kent, youngest son of Edward I, and Margaret de Wake, 3rd. Baroness Wake of Lydell, whom she succeeded upon her death of the plague. She early gained wide note for her beauty and charm and became known as the Fair Maid of Kent. Her marriage to the earl of Salisbury was annulled on the grounds of a pre-contract with Sir Thomas Holland, whom she then married and became mother of four children. Upon the death of her brother in 1353 she became Countess of Kent in her own right. In 1361, after Holland’s death, she married Edward the Black Prince, by whom she had two sons, Edward (1365–70) and Richard. In 1378 she was instrumental in halting proceedings against John Wyclif, though there is insufficient evidence to determine if she accepted his doctrines. As long as she lived, she was probably the principal influence on her son Richard II. She lived (1328–85).


1379-81 Sultan Myriam Raadafati Kambadi Kilege of the Maldive Islands

Also known as Queen Siri Suvama Abaarana. Her sister, Sultan Khadija, reigned three times beginning in 1337. Myriam was the last of the Lunar Dynasty and was deposed by a Moslem cleric by the name of Fagi Mohamed son of Kaeumani Kaulhannaa Kilege of Maakuratu, who was succeeded by his daughter Daainu Kambaa in 1383.


1379/80-1422 Princess-Abbess Klaranna von Hohenklingen of Säckingen (Germany)

The territory suffered from the freedom fight of the Swiss against Habsburg-Austria and in 1409 the she granted the cities of Säckingen and Laufenburg as fiefs to the Duke of Austria, and thereby they came totally under the influence of the Habsburgs, but 1417 she had King Sigisumd confirm the rights and liberties of the chapter. She was daughter of Freiherr Walter von der Hohenklingen, Lord zu Stein and Countess Kunigunde von Fürstenberg, and her sister Anastasia was Princess-Abbess of the Frauenmünster 1412-29.


1380-1405 Princess-Abbess Irmgard II von Kirchberg of Quedlinburg (Germany)

1384 the City of Quedlinburg joined the Association of Cities of Low Saxony (Niedersächsischen Städtebund). In 1396 the City Council succeeded in acquirering the Stewardship over the Chapter from Count Ulrich von Regenstein. She was daughter of Burggrave Albrecht von Kirchberg and Countess Elisabeth von Orlamünde. She lived (1350-1405).


1380-86 Princess-Abbess Aleide II de Ligne of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

The abbess of Nivelles was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.


1380-96 Reigning Abbess-General Urraca de Herrera of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Señora Abedesa she was also Head of the subsidiary parishes of Bercial and Lorilla


1381-90 Regent Dowager Countess Katharina von Henneberg of the Osterland, Landsberg, Pleißnerland, Orlamünde, Kahla, Jena und Naumburg (Saale) (Germany)
1381-97 Reigning Dowager Lady of Coburg and Weißenfels

Katharina von Henneberg

Katharina von Henneberg

She ruled in the name of sons Friedrich, Wilhelm and Georg, who divieded the margravates of Thüringen and Meissen with their uncles after the death of her husband Margrave Friederich, who had named her as the regent in his will. Her father Heinrich VIII von Henneberg-Schleusingen (d. 1347) named her heir of Coburg together with her mother Jutta von Brandenburg (d. 1453) and 3 sisters, while the rest of the Henneberg territory went to his brother Johann. The surviving sons, Friedrich IV (1370-1428), Wilhelm II (1371-1425) and Georg (1380-1402) later inherited Thüringen and Meissen from their uncles. She lived (1334-97)


1381-after 98 Princess-Abbess Katharina von Truthan of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The chapter was the only in the Austrian lands which enjoyed immunity and the status of an Imperial Immediacy.


1381-86 Politically Influential Queen Margherita d’Angiò-Durazzo of Napoli (Italy)
1386-1400 Regent Dowager Queen

Very influential during the reign of her husband and nephew Carlo III Durazzo, who succeeded her father, Andreas of Hungary, as king and was also king of Hungary 1386. He was killed same year and she took over the government in the name of her son Ladislao di Durazzo (1386-1414) who was later succeeded by his daughter, Giovanna II. Margherita was daughter of Duke Carlo di Durazzo and the former heir to the throne of Napels, Princess Maria of Napoli (1328-66) and her sister Giovanna, was Duchess of Durazzo 1348-87. She lived (1347-1412).


1382-85 and 1386-95 Queen Regnant Maria of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria and Cumania and Bulgaria

Mária rex Hungariæ

Mária rex Hungariæ

Mária was crowned as rex Hungariæ, and was the second of three daughters of Louis I the Great of Hungary from the House of Angevin (Anjou). Mary became Queen of Hungary after her father’s death in 1382 (her elder sister Catherine died four years earlier). Her mother and the Palatine Miklós Garai ruled the country. Many noblemen of Hungary were opposed to them and they helped Charles of Durazzo (Charles III of Naples, Charles II of Hungary) to become King of Hungary in 1385. Sigismund to whom she was betrothed rescued her from captivity. Sigismund took revenge on the murderers of her mother. From 1387 officially Maria and her husband were joint rulers of Hungary but in fact he ruled alone. In 1410 Sigismund was elected Holy Roman Emperor, two years after she married Barbara Cilli, and their daughter, Elisabeth and her husband became Queen of King of Bohemia and Croatia-Dalmatia in 1437. She lived circa 1372-95).


1382-86 Regent Dowager Queen Elisabeth of Bosnia of Hungary

Assumed the regency without difficulty after her husband’s death, but the political elite was divided over whom Maria should marry, She worked for a marriage between her daughter and Louis d’Orléans of France. The Polish nobles insisted that their ruler should reside permanently in their kingdom. At first Elisabeth considered taking up arms, but in March 1383 she accepted the accession of her younger daughter, Hedwig (Jadwiga) as Queen of Poland. In August 1384 some of the Hungarian nobles renounced their allegiance to her. She was under threat from both Sigismund of Luxembourg – whom her husband had designated as Maria’s husband – and Carlos d’Anjou of Durazzo-Napoli, who was offered the Hungarian throne. Elisabeth was forced to abandon the idea of the French marriage and accepted that Maria married Sigismund, but it was too late in December 1385 Maria abdicated and Carlos became king, but in February the following year he was deposed, he was wounded and died. Elisabeth again seized the reigns of power and immediately rewarded those who had been loyal to her daughter. In April 1386, king Wenceslas of Bohemia brought Sigismund to Hungary, and by the Treaty of Györ the queens were forced to accept him as prince consort. A riot had broken out in Slavonia and Elisabeth thought that the presence of Maria would calm the situation. She was wrong, her small army was slaughtered, and the queens were imprisoned at the bishop of Zagreb’s castle, and this marked her fall from power, and in January 1387 Elisabeth was strangled in her prison.  Elisabeth was daughter of Stefan Kotromanić, Ban of Bosnia and Elżbieta of Poland, and lived (circa 1340-87).


1382-94 Regent Dowager Countess Helena Asanina Kantakouzene of Salona (Amphissa) (Greece)

Also known as Helena Kantakouzena, she was regent for daughter after the death of her husband, Louis Fadrique, until she was killed by the Turks who had invaded the city of Salona. She was daughter of Matthaios Asanes Kantakuzenos ex-co-Emperor of Byzantium & his wife Eirene Palaiologina (d. 1394).


1382-94 Sovereign Countess Maria Fadrique de Aragón of Salona, Burgravine of Siderokastron  (Greece)

The daughter of Count Luis Fadrique de Aragón of Malta, Gozzo and Salona  (d. 1381/82) and Despotina Helene Asenina Cantakuzene (d. 1394), she was engaged to Geoffroy and Bernaduc de Rocaberti, to Stefan Dukas Nemanjic of Serbia, and to Matheu de Moncada. The Turks, under Sultan Bayezid I, besieged Salona in early 1394. The Greek Orthodox Bishop of Salona opened the city gates to them as he was anxious to dispossess her and her mother, whose administrative abuses had been excessive. She was taken for the Sultan’s harem, but he refused her, and she died in prison at Adrianople shortly after. She lived (circa 1370-95).


1382-? Sovereign Dame Marie de Sully of Boisbelle-Henrichemont, Dame de Sully et Craon (France)

Daughter of Louis, Seigneur de Sully (d. 1382) and Isabeau, Dame de Craon, she first married Guy VI de La Tremoille, Count de Guines in 1382. He died in Rhodesin 1398 and secondly to Sire Charles I d’Albret, Count de Dreux, Baron de Sully, constable of France, who was killed at Agincourt in 1415.


1383 Titular Queen Beatriz of Portugal

Beatriz of Portugal

Beatriz of Portugal

Also known as Brites, she was married to king Juan of Castilla, and after her father, Fernando I’s death, she claimed the throne of Portugal between 22 October and the middle of December 1383, but was deposed by the Còrtes, who chose her uncle as king. Her son Fernando I of Aragon and Sicily, who was married to Leonor Urraca de Castilla, Countess de Albuquerque. Beatriz lived (1372-circa 1410).


1383 Regent Dowager Queen Leonor Tellez de Menezes of Portugal

First married to João Lourenço da Cunha, Lord of Pombeiro and in 1371 she married king Fernando I,

Leonor Tellez de Menezes

Leonor Tellez de Menezes

which caused a war with Castilla as her husband broke an engagement with Enrique II’s daughter. During the later years of their marriage, her husband was very ill and had to withdraw from the government, which was left in her hands. After his death, she was appointed regent for their daughter, Beatriz, who was married to Juan I of Castilla. She was very unpopular because of her pro-Castilian politics, and people did not trust the promises of autonomy, and as she gave her lover, Juan Fernández Andeiro, Count von Ourém, much power, she was deposed after only six weeks by a riot of the artisans of Lisbon in favour of her husband’s illegitimate half-brother, João de Avis. Mother of one son by her first husband and two by her second, who both died as infants. She was daughter of Martim Afonso Telo de Menezes and Aldonça Anes de Vasconcelos, and lived (circa 1350-86).


1383-88 Sultan Malikat Daainu Kambaa Radafati Kambadi-Kilagi of the Maldive Islands

Also known as Fatima, she was daughter of Sultana Myriam, who was deposed by Fagi Mohamed in 1381. Daainu was deposed by her husband who ascended the throne as Sultan Abdulla II and reigned a month and a half before being assassinated by Osman of Fehendu.


1383-1404 Judicissa Eleonora de Capraia of Arborea and Gallura, Countess of Goceano in Sardinia (Italy)

Defeated the rebels that had killed her brother, Ugone III, and she reigned as giudicessa in the name of her infant son

Judicissa Eleonora of Arborea and Gallura

Judicissa Eleonora of Arborea and Gallura

Federigo. For the next 4 the state was at war with Aragon, which lost much of its possessions to her and was trying to reclaim the island. She obtained almost all of the island during this war. After rallying Sardinian forces, she was able to negotiate a favourable treaty. Federigo died during this war, and was succeeded by her younger son, Mariano V. An alliance was formed with Genoa, and Arborea maintained its independence until 1409 or 1410. She composed the Carta de Logu, a body of laws which came into force in  1395. They were considered to be far in advance of the laws of other countries, the penalty for most crimes being a fine, and the property rights of women were preserved. Many of these laws remained in force in Sardinia until 1713 and others until Italian unification in 1861. She was daughter of Mariano IV of Arborea and Timbora de Roccaberti, married to Brancaleone Doria, a Sardinian nobleman, in order to strengthen local alliances, and mother of a number of children. She died of the plague and lived (circa 1347-1404).


1383-? Sovereign Duchess Fiorenza II Sanduro of Naxos et de L’Archipel (Greek Island State)

Succeeded Niccolo II dalle Carceri, the son of her cousin, Fiorenza, after he was murdered by her husband, Francesco Crispo, Baron of Astrogidis in Eubœa and Duke of Naxos  by the right of his wife. She had succeeded her father, Marcolino Sanudo as Lady of Milos when he died after 1376.


1383-1437 Sovereign Co-Baroness Maria Crispo of Milos (Greece)

Reigned jointly with her sister, Fiorenza, whose reign began in 1376. They were daughters of Fiorenza Sommaripa and Jacopo I of Naxos and of the Archipelagos. Maria married Andrea Dandolo, and lived (1406-37).


1383-.. Sovereign Countess Maria II Sanudo of The First Triarchy of Euboea (Greece)
1389-1414 Sovereign Princess of Antipatos and Andros (Greek Island-State)
Circa 1389 Sovereign Baroness of Naupila

Granted the island of Andros as a fief, but was deprived of Andros by Francesco Crispo who bestowed it on his son-in-law Pietro Zeno, bailie in Eubœa, in an effort to increase his influence on the island.  She was compensated by the island of Paros on condition that she would marry Gasparo di Sommaripa. Venice granted her 1/3 of the island of Eubœa, and here she and Gaspar Sommarippa reigned as heads of Parts of Euboea and the Barony of Naupila, an island in the central Cyclades, west of Naxos, and south of Delos and Mykonos. Today it is known as Paros. Her descendants continuing to hold this part under Venice until the Ottoman Turks invaded the island in 1470. She was daughter of Duchess Fiorenza I Sanudo of Naxos and her second husband, Niccolo Sanudo, Duke by the right of his wife. She (d. 1426).


1383-92 Princess-Abbess Christina II Holbein of Baindt (Germany)

The Abbey was founded 1227 it’s Princess-Abbess had been Sovereign Ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory since around 1373.


1383-86/96 Reigning Abbess Marie I de Noyers of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
1386/90-06 Reigning Abbess of Montivilliers

As Madame Abbesse, she exercised ecclesiastical jurisdiction in 28 parishes in Normandy, including Saint-Paul and Eauplet by Rouen. She (d. 1396).


1383-94 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Hornstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Member of an ancient noble framily from Sigmaringen near Wald.


1384-99 Queen Jadwiga of Poland and of the Lands of Crakow, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Leczyca, Kujawia, and Hereditary Lady of Pommerania

Hedvig Rex Poloniæ

Hedvig Rex Poloniæ

Her official title was “Hedvig Rex Poloniæ”, and she was the youngest daughter of king Louis of Hungary and Poland and Elizabeth of Bosnia. She was brought up at the royal court in Buda. In 1378 she was betrothed to Wilhelm von Habsburg and spent about a year at the imperial court in Vienna. She was well educated and polyglot, interested in arts, music, science and court life, and was also known for her piety. When her father died in 1382, the Hungarian throne was inherited by her older sister, Maria. The lords of Lesser Poland did not want to continue the personal union with Hungary and therefore chose her as their new monarch. After two years of negotiations with Jadwiga’s mother and a civil war in Greater Poland (1383), she finally came to Kraków and was crowned King of Poland. As a monarch, she probably had little actual power, but she was actively engaged in her kingdom’s political, diplomatic and cultural life. In 1387 she led a military expedition to re-conquer the Duchy of Halych and in 1390 she began to correspond with the Teutonic Knights. She gave much of her wealth to charity, including foundation of hospitals; she founded the bishopric in Vilnius and resorted the Academy of Kraków, since called Jagiellonian University in honour of her and her husband. Her engagement to Wilhelm of Habsburg was broken off, and instead she married Jagiello, Gand Duke of Lithuania, in order to unite Poland and Lithuania and to convert the Lithuanians to Christianity. She was said to be a blonde, blue-eyed beauty, and an exhumation performed in 1976 showed that she was unusually tall for a medieval woman (180 cm). Her only daughter, Elizabeth Bonifacia, died one month after her birth, and Jadwiga died soon after. She lived (1374–99).


1384-1405 Sovereign Countess Marguerite III de Mâle of Flanders, Artois, Countess Palantine of Bourgundie (known as Franche-Comté), Marchioness d’Anvers, Dame of Antwerpen, Mechelen and Malines (Belgium and France)
1384 Countess of Nevers
1384-1402 Countess of Rethel
1404 Sovereign Duchess of Brabant and Limburg

Also known as Margaretha de Dampierre, she was daughter of Louis de Male of Flanders – she inherited his lands and those of

Marguerite III of Flanders, Franche-Comté, d'Anvers, Mechelen and Malines, Nevers, Rethel, Brabant and Limburg

Marguerite III of Flanders, Franche-Comté, d’Anvers, Mechelen and Malines, Nevers, Rethel, Brabant and Limburg

her grandmother, Marguerite de France, Countess of Bourgogne and Artois, and first married to Philippe le Hardi de Rouveres, Duke de Bourgogne, who died after 6 months. Her second husband was Philippe, Duke de Bourbon, and she became famous as patron of fashion, art and art crafts. She inherited Brabant and Limburg after the abdication of her aunt, Johanna. Margaretha lived (1350-1405).


1384-1414 Sovereign Countess Maria d’Enghien of Lecce (Italy)
1406-07 Sovereign Princess of Taranto
1434 Countess of Conversano

 Maria d'Enghien

Maria d’Enghien

Her father, Giovanni d’Enghien, had received the County of Lecce from his mother, Isabelle de Brienne, and she succeeded her brother, Pietro. A year later she was married for political reasons to Raimondello Orsini del Balzo, Count of Soleto. It was a serene period, during which, their government was dedicated to commissioning architectural works and establishing, in Lecce, “Concistorium principis”, a civil court. However the peace did not last long, in fact in 1405 king Ladislao, worried about the power Raimondello held, decided to invade. He was killed in 1406, and this enabled the Princess to begin the most romantic chapter in her life. King Ladislao tried to gain power over the city, however he had underestimated the strength of Maria and his quest was unsuccessful. He began to court her and tried to attain power in this way. The next year they were married, but according to some chronicles their union was not at all happy and she lived with the constant knowledge of his indifference to her. Ladislao died in 1414 and his cruel sister, Giovanna II, tried to imprison the new Queen but she was liberated by Giacomo Della Marca. After this she returned to Lecce and passed over power to her son, Giovanni Antonio Orsini del Balzo, and retired from public. She lived (1367-1446).


1385-91 Reigning Dowager Despotess Komina Musaki of Valona (Vlora) (Albania/Montenegro)

Took over the principality after the death of her ex-husband Balsa II of Zeta. In the southern parts of the country (nowadays Northern Albania) From 1387 as an Osman Turkish vassal. When her daughter, Rudjina, married she retired to a convent in Ksenija.


1385-94 Dowager Despina Maria Angelina Dukaina Palaiologina of Ioannia (Greece/Albania)

Maria Angelina Dukaina Palaiologina

Maria Angelina Dukaina Palaiologina

Daughter of Tomaida Orsini, daughter of Joannes Dukas Komnenos Angelos Orsini, Despot of Epirus and Simeon Uros Palaiologos, Tsar of the Serbs, Greeks and Albania. Her first husband Thomas Comnenus-Preljubović, was Despot of Ioannina, the capital of Epirus in northern Greece, until he was murdered in 1384. The population of Ioannina acclaimed Maria as ruler. She used the title of basilissa, female form of basileus. She summoned her brother John Uroš Doukas Palaiologos (now monk under the name Joasaph) to advise her in the affairs of state. John Uroš suggested that Maria marry Esau de’ Buondelmonti, one of the Latin noblemen captured by Thomas in 1379. There is an allegation, that Maria was already enamoured of the captive before the murder of her husband, and that this affair had resulted in the assassination of Thomas. The following year she married Esau Buondelmonti-Acciaiuoli, who also became Despot of Jannina (†1411). She lived (1350-94).


1386-1416 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Vaudemont, Dame de Joinville (France)

Succeeded father, Henri V de Vaudemont. Her mother was Marie de Ligny de Houdanc.


1386-1417 Princess-Abbess Catherine van Halewyn of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Her surname was also spelled De Halluwin.


After 1386 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth de Geroldseck of the Royal Abbey of Andlau, Lady of Wagenbourg and Marlenheim etc. (France)

Awarded Jean de Wangen with the fief of the Castle of Wangenburg.


Until 1386/90 Reigning Abbess Marguerite de la Rivière of of Montivilliers
1386-1400/18 Reigning Abbess of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

During her second tenure, she was known as Marguerite II. She (d. between 1400 and 1418).


1387-91 Countess Giacoma d’Aragona of Malta

Also known as Giovanna she was member of the Argonese royal sideline of Farique de Aragon. Guillermo d’Aragona (a grandson of king Federico of Sicily, born as Fadrique of Aragon) was count around 1377. She held the county as a fief of the Aragonese ruler of Sicily, and was succeeded by Guillermo Raimondo de Moncada.


Around 1387 Princess-Abbess Cunka of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)

The St. Georg auf dem Hradschin zu Prag, Sankt-Georg Kloster or Sv. was the oldest convent in the Bohmian Lands founded in 973 by Prince Boleslav II and his sister, Mlada.


1387-95 Reigning Abbess Jeanne de Fiennes of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Held semi-bishopal authority and secular jurisdiction of her territory.


1387-1434 Politically Influential Duchess Aleksandra of Mazowsze (Poland)

Dominant during the rule of her husband Siemowit IV. She was sister of Great Prince of Lithuania and king of Poland Władysław I Jagiełło, and lived (circa 1371-1434).


1388-95 Lieutenant Queen Violante de Bar of Arágon (Spain)

Wielded considerable administrative power during the frequent illnesses of her husband, Juan I of Aragón. She transformed the Aragonese court into a center of French culture, and especially cultivated the talents of Provençal troubadours. In the face of her husband’s unwillingness or inability to act in the face of demands for reorganisation of the royal household and other administrative reforms from urban deputies in the Cortes which met at Monzón in Nov 1388, she made compromise proposals which averted the crisis. Also known as Yolande de Bar, she wa mother of 3 children: Violante of Aragon (Titular Queen of Aragon from 1411), Jaime and Antonia. She was daughter of Robert I, Duke of Bar and Marie of Valois and lived (circa 1365-1431).


1388-97 Hereditary Countess Jutta von Diez of Diez (Germany)

Daughter and heiress of Count Gernard VII von Diez and married to Adolf Graf von Nassau-Dillenburg (1362-1420) and mother of one daughter, Jutta  (d. 1424).


1388 Reigning Abbess Katharina Gieringer of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Head of the chapter for noble ladies, which was situated in Rottweil am Neckar in the Schwarzwald (Black Forest) in Württemberg.


Circa 1388-1408 Territorial Countess Isabel Douglas of Mar, Lady Garioch, Chief of the Clan of Mar in Scotland (United Kingdom of Great Britain)

In 1390, Robert III. granted to his brother-in-law, Sir Malcolm Drummond, Lord of Mar in right of his wife, the 11th Countess, a licence to erect a tower on the lands of Castletown of Braemar. The King, in 1393, granted to Sir Malcolm by charter, forty pounds sterling per annum from the great custom of Aberdeen, until the King shall give him forty pounds worth of lands. In 1402 he was murdered by Alexander Stewart. In the summer of 1404 Alexander Stewart captured her castle and forced her to sign a charter on August 12, 1404. She revoked the charter later that year, but on marrying him, she gave him the earldom for life; the King confirmed her last action the next year. She lived (circa 1360-1408).


From 1389 Regent Dowager Countess Margareta von Berg von Bayern of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault  (The Netherlands)

Governed in the name of her son Willem VI of Bayern, who was governor of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault (1389-1404) and afterwards count after Marguerite III’s death – he was succeeded by niece, Jacobäa of Bavaria. Margareta lived (1363-1414).


1389-97 Princess-Abbess Margaretha III van Horne-Perwez of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Principality of Thorn. Not much is known about her reign.


Around 1390 Princess-Abbess Elsa of Elten (Germany)

Named as “Eerwoerdige und Hocgeborene vorstinne vrow Elsa” in a document. Dispensed both high and low juridstiction and held hunting rights in her territories. Also held the right to appoint and dismiss clerics, and the right to excommunicate or ban clerics was reserved to the Pope, not the Bishop of Utrecht.


1390-95 Abbess Nullius Francesca d’Angiò of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

A member of the ruling d’Anjou-family of Napoli.


1390 Guardian Dowager Countess Anna zu Mecklenburg of Holstein-Plön (Germany)

The widow of Count Adolf VII of Holstein-Plön (who reigned 1358-90), she made a treaty on behalf of King Albrecht von Mecklenburg of Sweden and Duke Johan of Mecklenburg, which transferred the regency of Sweden, Mecklenburg and the Counties of Mecklenburg, Schwerin and Rostock, to king Albrecht’s brother. She signed the treaty together with Abbot Johan Doberum, 14 Mecklenburgian knights and various Mayors.


1390-1401 Politically Influential Queen Anabella Drummond of Scotland (United Kingdom)


Anabella Drummond

Very powerful during the reign of her husband, Robert Johan Stuart of Kyle, who was partly paralyzed. In 1398 she had her son, David, Duke of Rothsay appointed regent. Her husband was succeeded by second son, James I. She lived (1350-1401).


1390-95 Politically Influential Queen Leonor de Castilla y León of Navarra in Catilla (Spain)

Left her husband, Carlos II of Navarra (1361-1425), with her 4 daughters in 1390, returning to Castile where she lived at Valladolid and played an active political role. She opposed her nephew Enrique III King of Castile, forming the League of Lillo together with her half-brother Fadrique de Castilla Duque de Benevente and cousin Pedro de Castilla Conde de Trastámara. King Enrique besieged her in her castle at Roa [mid-1394] and obliged her to return to her husband in February 1395. Crowned Queen of Navarre at Pamplona 3 Jun 1403. And later had one more surviving daughter, and two sons and a daughter who died as infants. She was daughter of Enrique II of Castile and doña Juana Manuel de Castilla, Señora de Villena, Peñafiel y Escalona. She lived (circa 1363-1415/16).


139..-circa 1400 Sovereign Countess Johanna van Hoogstraten of Cuyk (The Netherlands)

Succeeded father, Jan V. When she died circa 1400 without any children the country returned to Gelders. It was now a contested territory between Gelder and Brabant until the middle of the 16th century when it fell to Nassaus.


Until 1391/92 Political Advisor Julianna Twerska in Lithuania

Functioned as advisor for her son Władysław II Jagiełło, king of Poland and the Great Prince of Lithuania.


1391-1409 Regent Dowager Chiefess Foelkeldis of Ostfriesland (Germany)

After her husband Ocko fell in battle in 1391, she was regent for sons Widzelt (d. 1399) and Keno II (1391-1417).


1391-1410 Reigning Abbess Sophia von Daching of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Regensburg was the seat of the Imperial Diet and the Chapter and Territory of Niedermünster was one of the most influential and prestigious.


1392-1419 Regent Queen Isabeau de Baverie of France
1403-04 President of the Council of State

Isabeau de Baverie

Isabeau de Baverie

In 1392 her husband, Charles IV had the first of 44 fits of insanity, which were to last until his death in 1422, and would make him unable to reign. Isabeau was given large lands in Normandie, around Paris and in Champagne as a security, and officially declared regent during the “absence” of her husband. From 1395 she actively engaged in politics, and arranged the marriage of her children in very young age. Her advisors, the brother’s of her husband, Philippe de Burgundy and d’Orléans, engaged in a fierce power struggle, which almost resulted in a civil war. In 1402 she took over the control of the taxation and at 26.4.1403 she became President of the Council of State and took over the management of the Government. One year later Louis died, and she reigned jointly with Philippe. After the birth of the last child, she removed totally from Charles, who became more and more violent and dangerous. In 1407 her position was reaffirmed in an official act, but her husband’s cousin, Jean placed his followers in all the central positions. 1411-12 a civil war broke out between the Burundians and Orleans. In 1415 her 18-year-old son, Louis, took over the government, and soon after the English attacked France. After Louis’ death, his brother, Jean (Married to Jakobäa of Hainault, Holland and Zeeland) was regent until his death two years later. She then was in charge again, and appointed Jean without Fear as Governor of the French Kingdom. In 1419 and 1420 she met the English king, Henry V and negotiated a peace-treaty. After the death of her husband, she lived alone, plagued by rheumatism and immobile because of her heavy weight. Originally named Elisabeth von Bayern, she was mother of 12 children, and lived (1370-1435).


1392-94 Destine Elena Utopia of Raja (Albania)

Wife of Carlo Topia (1360-66, 1366-88 and 1394) and was deposed by the Ottoman Turks. (d. 1410).


1392/95 Sovereign Viscountess Alix of Dreux (France)

Succeeded her father, Etienne Gavin I, Seigneur de Bossart, Vicomte de Dreux (1330-92) and married to Mace de Gemges. She lived (1364-94).


Circa 1392-1418 Politically Influential Grand Duchess Anna of Lithuania

Married to Duke Vytautas of Lithuania. In 1392 she signed “The Agreement from Ostrowo”, promising that her husband would be loyal for Poland, for Queen Jadwiga and her husband king Władysław. Anna died in 1418.


1392-94 Princess-Abbess Fida Hundis of Baindt (Germany)

As Fürstabtissin she was sovereign ruler of the principality and had a seat on the Ecclesiastical Bench in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


Around 1392 Princess-Abbess Gunegundis of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)

The chapter of St. Georg auf dem Hradschin zu Prag, Sankt-Georg Kloster or Sv. was the oldest convent in the Bohmian Lands founded in 973 by Prince Boleslav II and his sister, Mlada.


1393-1404 Regent Dowager Duchess Maddalena Visconti of Lower Bavaria (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Friedrich, Duke of Bayern-Landshut (1375-1393), she took over the reins for their son Heinrich XVI the Rich (1386-93-1450). She was daughter of Lord Barnabas Visconti of Milano and Beatrix della Scala di Verona, and lived (Circa 1366-1404).


1393-1417 Sovereign Countess Marie de Baux of Orange (France)

Succeeded father Raymond IV and joint ruler with husband, Jean I de Chalons-Arlay, who died of the Plague in Paris. Succeeded by son Louis II de Châlon).


1393-97 Regent Dowager Duchess Hedwig von Liegnitz of Sagan-Glogau (Żagań-Głogów) (Poland)
1393-1409 Reigning Dowager Duchess in Sagan, Krossen,  Bobrowice, Naumburg am Bober Świebodzin (Żagań, Krosno, Nowogród Bobrzańsk

Also known as Jadwiga Legnicka. After the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Heinrich VI, of Sagan, she reigned for sons in Glogau and held the other territories as her dowry. The daughter Duke Wacław I of Leonia, she lived (1351/57-1409).


1393-98 Regent Dowager Countess Bona di Berry of Savoia, Moriana, Chablais, Aosta, Ivrea,  Susa, Baugé, Romont, Vaud, Gex, Nice and Geneva, Dame de Faucigny and de Carlat (Italy, France and Switzerland)

Also known as Bonne de Berry, she fought her mother-in-law, Bona de Bourbone, who had initially become regent after the death of her husband, Count Amedeo VII of Savoy, Aosta and Moriana (1383-91) and Count of Nice (1388-91). But after two years she as able to take over the regency for her son, Amedeo VIII who was Count of Savoy, Aosta, Moriana, Nice and Geneva, who later became the 1st Duke of Savoy (1416-34) and Prince del Piemonte (1418-34) until his abdication 1434, when he became a religious hermit, later antipope and biship. She was daughter of Duke Jean I of Berry and Jeanne d’Armagnac and lived (1362-1435).


1393-1431 Reigning Abbess Blanche d’Harcourt of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Cousin of king Charles VI of France.


1394-95 Sovereign Duchess Francesca Acciaiuoli of Athens (Greece)
1394-? Lady of Megara and Sikyon [Basilicata]
1429-? Lady of Santa Mavra and of Vonitza

In some lists of the Dukes of Athens she is listed as successor of her father, Nerio I Acciaiuoli, who was Lord of Corinth, circa 1370-1394. But she surely received the Lordships of Megara and Sikyon under the will of her father. Having inherited the political ability of her father, she advised her husband, Carlo I Tocco, Count of Kefalonia, Duke of Leukadia, in his councils, who had inherited Corinth in 1394 on the death of his father-in-law despite the latter’s arrangement with his other son-in-law Theodoros Palaiologos who unsuccessfully besieged the town in the same year but finally captured it in 1396. She inherited the island of Santa Mavra and the fortress of Vonitza when her husband died. From 1395 until 1402/5 the Duchy was occupied by Venice until her illegitimate brother, Antonio I, took over as duke 1402/05-35. Her sister, Bartolomea Acciaiuoli, received Corinth as part of her dowry.


1394-95 Co-executor Gismonda Acciaiuoli of the Duchy of Athens (Greece)

Appointed co-executor under the will of her brother Nerio in 1394, so long as she remained in Greece.


1394-1406 Sovereign Countess Blanche of Dammartin (France)

Daughter of Charles, Count of Dammartin, who died after 1368, and Jeanne, Vicomtesse de Châteaudun, and married Charles Bureau, Seigneur de la Riviere, who died 1429.


1394-1424 Sovereign Countess Jeanne II of Auvergne and Boulogne (France)

Jeanne II d'Auvergne and Boulogne

Jeanne II d’Auvergne and Boulogne

Succeeded father Jean II (1386-94), and reigned jointly with husband, Duke Jea I de Berry, Duke d’Auvergne, Count de Poitiers, and after his death in 1416 with George de la Trémoille, Comte de Guines, Baron de Sully. She became famous for saving the life of her nephew, King Charles the Mad, during the disastrous Bal des Ardents (“Ball of the Burning Men”). She was succeeded by her cousin, Marie I, and lived (1378-circa 1424).


1394–97 Marguerite of Enghien of Brienne (France)

Succeeded her father, Louis and reigned jointly with her husband, John, Lord of Beauvoir.


1394-1445 Sovereign Baroness Johanna van Wassenaer-Polanen of Breda with Polanen, Geertruidenberg, Hoge Zwaluwe, Naalkdwijk, Niervaard, Klundert and de Lek, Lady of Cuijk (The Netherlands)

As the only child of Jan III van Polanen, she inherited vast lands and a huge fortune. She married Engelbert van Nassau-Siegen (1370-1442) and lived (1392-1445).


1394–1442 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Margarete von Jülich of Hardegsen in Braunschweig-Göttingen (Germany)

Widow of Otto I of Braunschweig-Göttingen (circa 1340-94). She was mother of 4 children, and lived (circa 1364-1442).


1394-1400 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II Wiellin of Baindt (Germany)

The abbey was founded 1227 as a Cistercian Convent (Zisterzienserinnen-Klosters), and the free worldly chapter for noble ladies became Princesses of Empire in about 1376.


1395-98 Reigning Queen Jelena Gruba of Bosnia

Her husband, Stephen Dabiša, had designated King Sigismund of Hungary, the husband of his relative, Queen Mary of

A Slavic Queen

A Slavic Queen

Hungary, as his successor. The Bosnian nobility refuzed to recognize Sigismund as king and installed her as the new monarch. It was during her reign that the Bosnian nobility grew in power independently from the crown. Amongst them were the famous Dukes Sandalj Hranić and Hrvoje Vukčić and Prince Pavle Radenović that ruled their own demesnes independently from the Queen. Her demesne was a small territory in central Bosnia, while she lost the suzeiranity over the territories of Usora in the valley of the river of Sava. Though she lost some territory and control over nobility, Jelena’s reign saw successful trade with the Republic of Dubrovnik.In 1398 she was replaced with Stephen Ostoja. It is unclear why she was replaced. It is possible that her brothers were gaining too much wealth and influence during her reign and the rest of the nobility didn’t like it. She continued to reside at the court as queen dowager. Sources refer to her as the most serene and mighty lady Gruba. (d. after 1399.)


1395-97 and 1398-99 Regent-Governor Queen Maria López de Luna of Aragón (Spain)

Maria López de Luna

Maria López de Luna

Her husband, King Martin I, was king of Aragon (1395-1410) and in 1409 he succeeded his son as King of Sicily, where he reigned one year. Their son, Martin the Younger’s wife Maria of Sicily, inherited the kingdom in 1377 but 1379-88 she was in-exile in Sardegna because of civil war in Sicily. In 1390 they married and two years later they returned together with Martin I. After her death in 1402, Martin the Younger, married the later Queen Blanca II of Navarre (1391-1425-42). Maria succeeded her father Lope de Luna as Countess of Luna.  (d. 1406).


1395-1418 Reigning Abbess Agnès de Nieppe of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Succeeded by Marie I de la Chapelle.


1395-97 Reigning Abbess Katharina von Heudorf of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Head of the important teritorrial chapter in Swabia.


Circa 1395-1405 County Sheriff Gertrud Pedersdatter Grubbe of the Counties of Horsetofte and Ellinge, Denmark

Gertrud Grubbe held the very small estate as a tenant as the Bishop of Roskilde. She was so-called Bispelensmand. She was married to Erik Barnumsen til Skarsholm (d. 1367). She ( d. circa 1405)


1396-1420 Sovereign Despina Rudjina Balsha of Kanina, Lady of Valona
1414-17 Dowager Despotess of Valona (Albania)

Also known by the titles of kraljica (Slavic), Quin (Albanian) or Regina (Latin), she was daughter of Balsa II Balsic (Balshic), Lord of Zeta and Durazzo, who was killed in 1385, and Domnina Asen Komnenos, Despotess of Valona. Married to Merxa Zarkovic in 1391 and became Despotess-consort of the state after her mother retired. In 1417 the Osman Turks conquered her lands. (d. after 1421).


1396-97 Lady Bartolomea Acciaiuoli of Corinth (Greece)

Received the lordship as dowry upon her marriage of Theodoros I Palaiologos, Despot of Morea, son of Emperor Ioannes V of Byzantinum. But as the lordship went to her brother-in-law, her husband besieged Corinth and finally acquired Corinth it in 1396, after Venice mediated the release of Pedro Bordo de San Superano, whom he had captured, but he sold it in 1400 to the Knights of St John. She was daughter of Nerio Acciaiuoli, Duke of Athens, Baron of  Vostitza and Nivele (d. 1394) and Agnese Saraceno and her sister, Francesca inherited the lordships of Megara and Sikyon in 1394. She (d. 1397).


1396-1430 Reigning Abbess-General Urraca Díez de Orozco of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas she held quasi-episcopal powers and ruled a large territory at the same time.


1396-1446 Abbess Nullius Francesca d’Enghien of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Sister of  Maria d’Enghien who was Countess of Lecce (1384-1414), Princess of Tarento (1406-07) and wife of King Ladislao of Napoli.


1397-1443 Sovereign Countess Henriette of Montbéliard (France)
1419-26 Regent Dowager Countess of Württemberg (Germany)

Henriette de Montbéliard

Henriette de Montbéliard

Succeeded father as Countess of Montbelliard or Mömpelgard in Burgundy. After the death of her husband, count Eberhard V, she took over the regency for son Ulrich. She lived (1387-1444).


1397-1404 Sovereign Countess Marie de Coucy, Soissons and Marle (France)

Oldest daughter of Count Enguerrand VII, she sold the territory to Duke Louis d’Orléans and might have been murdered. Her only son with her late husband, Heinrich, Hereditary Count of Bar, Robert, died in 1415 and trough his daughter, the territory went to the House of Luxembourg-Ligny. Marie lived (1366-1411).


1397-1412 De facto Ruler Mara Brankovic of Kosovo

Widow of Vuk Brankovic (circa 1371 – 1397), she reigned together with her sons, until the final conquest by the Ottoman Turks.


1397-1420 Reigning Dowager Duchess Katharina von Oppeln in Zielona Góra and Kożuchów (Poland)

Also known as Katarzyna Opolska, she held the territories as her dowry after the death of her husband Heinrich VIII of Sagan.


1397-1446 Princess-Abbess Mechtildis van Horne of Thorn (The Netherlands)

Only 17 when she was elected abbess, and therefore she needed a special Papal dispensation to take over the position, as the minimum age was normally 30 year. She was mainly interested in the temporal side of her position, and during most of her reign she was busy with inheritance-disputes with the Counts of Loon, and in 1440 it even came to a regular war. In 1446 she abdicated in favour of Jacobäa van Heinsberg-Loon, but remained titular Abbess till her death. She lived (1380-1459).


1398-1412 Sovereign Countess Isabelle of Foix, Vicomtesse of Béarn and  Co-Princess of Andorra, Viscomtesse de Castellbó (et cetera), de Marsan, du Gévaydan et de Lautrec (France and Spain)

Succeeded brother, Mathieu V de Foix-Castelbon, and ruled jointly with husband, Archambaud de Grailly, who allied himself with the English and Navarrians against the French and was engaged in the 100 year war. As a result the territory of Foix was occupied by the French at one point, and in 1402 her husband and two sons swore an oath of allegiance to the king of France and Archambaud was named Captain-General in Languedoc in 1412.


1398-1404 Princess-Abbess Anna I von Bussnang of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

The noble von Bussenang family had many clerical members – Abbots of St. Gallen and high officials by the bishop of Konstantz and Zürich and other parts of Switzerland.


1398-1416 Reigning Abbess…..von Reischach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The stewardship and higher jurisdiction came into the posession of the family of Werdenberg in 1399. The Abbess held the lower jurisdiction.


1399-1402 Regent Dowager Duchess Juana de Navarra of Bretagne and Montfort (France)

Queen Joan of England

Queen Joan of England

After Jean IV’s death, she was regent for son Jean VI until she married king Henry IV of England as his third wife and became known as Joan of Navarra. Accused of conspiracy by her stepson Henry V King of England, imprisoned at Pevensey Castle, but released in 1425 by King Henry VI. She lived (circa 1373-1437).


1399-1421 Princess-Abbess Aloisia von Herbersdorf of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of the Austrian family of Counts of Herberdorf.


1399-1425 Politically Influential Princess Anna of Poland in Poland

Her father, Casimir III of Poland (1309–1370), was suceeded by his nephew, Louis of Hungary, who was again succeeded by his daughter, Jadwiga. When she died in 1399 her husband, Władysław IV Jagiełło, Grand Duke of Lithuania looked for a new wife among the heirs to the kingdom of Poland, and he was married to her yongest daughter, Anna of Celje and had one daughter, Princess Jadwiga of Lithuania, in 1408, with him. Anna died in 1416 without further surviving children and her granddaughter was married to Margrave Friederich II of Brandenburg Template (1413–1471), and she and a party of nobles wanted her granddaughter and her husband to succeed Władysław at least in Poland, instead of his sons by his fourth wife, but when she died, Jadwiga was without any strong relatives to support her position and she died 1431  without any issue, allegedly by poison. She had first married the Slovenian count William of Celje (Cilli) (1361–92) and secondly Duke Ulrich von Teck (d. 1432). She lived (1366–1425).

Women in power 1300-1350

1300-20 Sovereign Viscountess Alix II de Clermont of Châteaudun, Dame de Mondoubleau and Saint Calais (France)

Succeeded mother, Alix I de Dreux. Her first husband was Guillaume de Dampierre of Flanders, Seigneur de Tenremonde et de Richebourg – younger son of the Count Guy de Dampierre of Flanders – and the second Jean de Chalon, Seigneur d’Arly. In 1320 she resigned her title in favour of her son Jean de Dampirre-Flandres, who was succeeded by his oldest daughter, Marie, in 1325. Alix II (d. 1330).


1300-04 Reigning Abbess Adelheid II von Treidenberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The Reichsstift – Imperial Immediate Chapter – had been placed directly under the authority of the king of Germany since 1002, and its royal protection and, immunity was confirmed un many later occations.


Around 1300 Chiefess Nang’oma of Bululi (Uganda)

An Ugandan Queen

An Ugandan Queen

Daughter of Kabaka Kato Kintu Kakulukuku, who founded the kingdom of Buganda around 1300.


13… Sovereign Princess Maria of Keos (Greek Island-State)

Succeeded father. From the 12th Century the island was colonized by Ionians from the mainland and named the island Keos – today it is called Tzia (Kea).


13….Minister Nayakuralu Nagamma of the Haihayas (India)

Born as a peasant, but rose to her post due to her abilities and enabled her master to gain victories. When one of the enemy kings declared that as a woman she was not fit to sit on military councils she challenged him to a duel. She lost but eventually victory belonged to her side.


1301-04 Regent Dowager Lady Sophia van Heusden of Horne (Belgium)

After the death of her husband Willem III (before 1282-1300/01) she took over the regency for her two sons Willem (1300/01) and Gerard I (1301-30-50).


1301 Hereditary Countess Richardis von Bentheim of Tecklenburg (Germany)

Heir of her father, Otto V von Bentheim-Tecklenburg, and married Count Günzel VI von Schwerin.


1302-29 Sovereign Countess Mahaut of Artois, Dame de Conches (Belgium – France)
1302-21 Regent Dowager Countess of Bourgogne

Since her older brother, Philippe, she was the successor of her father, Robert II, under the suzerainty of the French king, rather than her nephew Robert,

Mahaut d'Artois

Mahaut d’Artois

based upon proximity of blood. She was a forceful administrator and defeated revolts of the nobles and was engaged in disputes over the succession with Robert. After the death of her husband, Othon IV of Bourgogne (1248-1302), she governed the County. She was succeeded by her daughter, Jeanne II, Countess de Bourgogne since 1315, and Robert claimed the County again, but Jeanne was succeeded by Mahaut’s sister – Jeanne III – after only one year. Mahaut lived (1268-1329).


1303-17 De facto Reigning Empress Violante degli Aleramici of Thessalonica (Greece)
1305-06 Sovereign Margravine of Monferrato (Italy)

Violante of Thessalonica and Monferrato

Violante of Thessalonica and Monferrato

Also known as Jolanda di Monferrato or Irene of Byzantium she married Emperor Andronikos II Palailogos, later Emperor of Constantinople, as his second wife in 1284 and became known as Yolanda, and was given Thessalonica as her dowry. She was in dispute with her husband over the future of their sons, as his sons by the first marriage were named as heirs. She wanted to have the Empire carved out in separate principalities for each of the three sons. They grew further apart when her husband married their five-year-old daughter to King Simonis Milutin of Serbia who were in his 50s and forced their oldest son to marry the daughter of his closest advisor even though she was of low nobility. In 1303 she packed her backs and took up residence in Thessalonica, which considered her own property. 1309 an attempt of reconciliation failed and she died in her territory in 1317. 1305 she had inherited Monferrato from her brother and the following year she passed the title to her second son, Theodore, who spend the rest of his life in Italy. She was mother of seven children.


Until 1303 Sovereign Countess Beatrice of Chiaggiolo (Italy)

Succeeded father and married Paolo Malatesta.


1303-10 Reigning Abbess Agnès IV de Gloise of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

As Abbess she had great authority in the region, organising fairs and markets, dispensing justice, appointing priests, having the right to arbitrate in distribution of the lands.

1304-08 Sovereign Viscountess Marguerite de Bourgogne of Tonnerre (France)

Marguerite de Bourgogne, Comtesse de Tonnerre

Marguerite de Bourgogne, Comtesse de Tonnerre

Daughter of Mahaut de Tonnerre and Duke Eudes de Bourgogne. The second wife of Charles I of France, Count d’Anjou et du Maine, Provence et de Forcalquier etc. King of Sicilia (1265), Titular King of Jerusalem (1267) and King of Napoli and Jerusalem (1265), she lived (1249-1308).


1304-11 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Touraine (France)

Successor of her father, Raymond VII and reigned jointly with husband, Bernard II de Comminges, who was succeeded by their son, Jean in 1335 and then by their daughter Cécile.


1304-14 Reigning Abbess Irmgard II von Köfering of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Köferingen is a village situated close to Regensburg.


1304-06 Feudal Baroness Giovanna de Chevereuse of Di Meta del Castello di Rutigliano (Italy)

Succeeded her father Anselmo, Seigneur di Rutigliano and di Sannicandro and her rights was approved by Carlo II d’Anjou of Napoli.


1305-06 Regent Dowager Margravine Margherita de Savoia of Monferrato (Italy)

Margherita de Savoia, Regent of Monferrato

Margherita de Savoia, Regent of Monferrato

She had been very influential during the reign of her husband, Giovanni I, Lord of Ivrea and Astri (1277-95-1305) and was in charge of the government until her sister-in-law, Empress Yolanda of Constantinople, transferred the Margravate to her fourth son, Theodoros Palailogos. She (d. 1339).


1305-18 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Margaretha von Kiburg of the Linner Land (Burg Linn bei Krefeld) in Berg (Germany)

Widow of Dietrich VIII von Kleve and resigned the lordship in favour of her younger son, Johann, when she joined the Convent of Bedburg in Kleve.


1305-16 Countess Abbess Mechthild II zu Wohldenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Member of a German countly family.


1305-17 Reigning Abbess Mathilde II d’Auchy of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Also known as Mahaut.


1306-44 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Soissons (France)

Daughter of Hugues, she was married to Jean de Hainaut, Seigneur de Beaumont, Valenciennes and Condé, and was succeeded by Jeanne de Hainaut.


1306 Regent Dowager Queen Eliška Rejčka of Bohemia (Czech Republic)
1306-35 Lady of Königsgrätz

Queen Eliška Rejčka of Bohemia

Queen Eliška Rejčka of Bohemia

Elisabeth Ryksa, Richenza, Richsa or Ryksa Elżbieta of Poland had been politically influential 1303-05 during the reign of her husband, Václav II of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, and regent from August till October, when she married Rudolf III of Austria, who was titular king of Bohemia, Hungary and Poland until his death one year later, but in reality Hungary and Bohemia was in an interregnum. Elzbieta married her third husband, Heinrich zur Lippe in 1315 and they continued as leaders of the Bohemian nobility against Queen Elisabeth. After his death in 1329, she withdrew to the Convent of Aula Sankt Mariæ in Brünn. She was daughter of King Przemysl II of Poland and Richeza, daughter of King Valdemar of Denmark, and lived (1288-1335).


1306-… Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Czerska of Racibórz (Ratibor) (Poland)

After the death of her husband, Duke Przemysław of Racibórz, she was regent for their son Leszek. She was daughter of Duke Konrad II of Czersk and Jadwiga, and lived (ca. 1270-1324)


1306-16 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II von Bussnang of Säckingen (Germany)

King Albrecht named her Princess of the Empire on 4 April 1307. She defended her rights against the citizen of Laufenburg in the Court of the City, and renewed the rights of the City of Bad Säckingen in 1316. She was member of a family of Lords from Thurgau in Switzerland that played an important role in the diocese of Konstantz.


1306-26 Princesse-Abbesse Clémence d’Oiselay of Remiremont  (France)

Held the office of Doyenne and was Second-in-Command 1288-92 before becoming Secrète; the canonnis in charge of the lighting of alter lights etc – the

Princesse-Abbesse Clémence de Remiremont

Princesse-Abbesse Clémence de Remiremont

third highest-ranking officer in the chapter. And she received papal protection sometime during her term in office. She was daughter of Jean d’Oyselet, Seigneur de Flagey, the issue of an illegitimate branch of the Counts of Bourgogne. Other versions of her surname found in the original sources are d’Oyselet, Oiselet or Oizelay.


1306-26 Military Leader Lady Christian Bruce in Scotland (United Kingdom)


An unnamed warrior lady

An unnamed warrior lady

During the Wars of Independence and the reign of Edward I, Lady Bruce defended Kildrummy Castle when David of Strathbogie, who served English interests, besieged it. When he fell in battle it was left to his widow to defend (for seven months) the island fortress of Lochindorb against three thousand vengeful Scots.” She was the sister of King Robert I and her sisters, Marjory Bruce and Mary Bruce, also took part in battles as did their brother’s supporter, Isobel, Countess of Buchan.


1306 “Enthroner” Lady Isabel Macduff in Scotland (United Kingdom)

Exercised the right of her house, and brought the sanction of ancient usage to the ceremony, by leading King Robert the Bruce to the

Lady Isabel Macduff

Lady Isabel Macduff

place of coronation. Her brother, Duncan, Earl of Fife, was an ally of the English and was married to Mary de Monthermer, niece of Edward I. of England. She was later captured by the English and placed in a cage on the walls of Berwick, while her brother and his wife were captured by Bruce and imprisoned in the castle of Kildrummie in Aberdeenshire, where the Earl died in 1336. Isabel was married to John Comyn, Earl of Buchan, was an ardent Scottish patriot. After four years she was rescued by Bruce’s forces.


Ca. 1306-61 Hereditary Countess Hedwig of the Wildgrafschaft Dhaun and Grumbach (Germany)

Daughter of Konrad IV, Wildgraf in Dhaun und Grumbach and Hildegard von Hunolstein, she was first married to Rheingraf Johann I vom Stein, and secondly to Gerlach von Brunshorn.


1307 Dowager Empress Khanum Bulugan of the Yuan Dynasty in China

Widow of Temur Oljetu (Chengzong) who ruled (1294-1307) as successor to Khubilai Setsen Khan (Shizu) and acted as regent for her step-grandson

Khanum Bulugan

Khanum Bulugan

Wuzong, also known as Khaishan, Hai San or Taji. She was born as Princess Bulukhan of the Baya’ud.


1307-10 Queen Anna Přemyslovna of Bohemia (Czech Republic)

Daughter of King Václav II and his first wife Guta, and married to Heinrich von Kärnten in 1306, who was named the Deputy of her father. After the murder of her brother, Václav III, and the take over of power by her cousin Rudolf von Habsburg (son of her mother’s brother, King Albrecht von Habsburg of Germany) – who married her stepmother Elzbieta Ryksa of Poland – she fled with her husband to Kärnten. After Rudolf’s death, Heinrich was elected king of Bohemia – legitimized by her succession-rights. When they tried to marry her younger sister, Eliška to Otto von Berg, she refused and took the offer of the Bohemian nobility to join the opposition against Heinrich. In 1310 Eliška married Johann von Luxembourg who occupied Prague and Anna and her husband spend the rest of her life in exile in Kärnten. She did not have any children, and lived (1290-1313).


1307-10 Opposition Leader Eliška Přemyslova in Bohemia
1310-25 Politically Influential Queen of Bohemia (Czech Republic)

Eliška Přemyslova

Eliška Přemyslova

Also known as Elisabeth of Bohemia, and after the death of her father, Václav II of Bohemia and Poland and the murder of her brother, Václav III she joined her aunt, Abbess Kunigunde (Kuhnuta) in the Convent of the Holy Georg at the Castle of Prague. She realized the weaknesses of her brother-in-law King Heinrich, and accepted the offer of the Bohemian nobility of clerics to marry another future ruler. In the summer 1310 she took part in the Assembly of the Land, which voted on the candidature of Johann von Luxemburg (1296-1346). He accepted the offer, and they married in September and returned to Prague in December the same year and deposed her sister and brother-in-law. She favoured a hard line against the opposition and because of her pressure her husband imprisoned the spokesperson of the Bohemian nobility, Heinrich von Lipá (Jindřich z Lipé) which led to civil war and almost cost them the crown and it was not until 1318 that peace was restored when her husband recognized the position of the nobility. Eliška was against this and was in opposition to her husband. She remained in Bavarian exile until 1325 and took part in her last political action – the abolition of the fiefs of the Slesian Dukes. But at this time she already lived apart from her husband, who took care of his duties in Europe, where their children were also distributed at various courts. Her last years was influenced by her lack of finances, which made her unable to maintain a court. Also known as Elizabeth, she lived (1292-1330).


1307-1317 Countess-Abbess Hedwig IV von Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

In the only known document from her reign is from 1311, where she sells one of the estates of the chapter in order to release the “church treasure” that

Hedwig IV von Gernrode and Frose

Hedwig IV von Gernrode and Frose

had been handed in as security for lones.


1307-11 Reigning Abbess Mechtild von Hasenstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Resigned from the post. Owned 2 estates together with her daughters Anna and Ita, who was canonesses in the chapter.


1307-13 Pretender Marguerite de Villehardouin of Achaia and Morea (Greece)

After the death of her sister, Isabelle de Villehardouin she claimed the principality, and again in 1313. When it proved unsuccessful, she transferred her rights to her daughter Isabelle of Sabran, wife of Ferdinand of Majorca. Her daughter’s son, James the Unfortunate of Mallorca, was proclaimed prince of Morea in 1315 under the regency of his father, who conquered the principality between 1315 and 1316 but was defeated and executed by her niece Mathilda de Savoie and her husband, Louis of Burgundy, who was deposed the same year by King Robert of Napoli after Louis died.


1308-46 Sovereign Dame Catherine II de Valois of Courtenay, Blacon and Montargie (France) and Titular Empress of Constantinople
1333-46 Sovereign Princess of Achaia (Greece)
1341-46 Governor of Kephalliena (Greek Island-State)

Catherine II of Courtenay, Blacon and Montargie, Titular Empress of Constantinople Sovereign Princess of Achaia and Governor of Kephalliena

Catherine II de  Courtenay,  Empress of Constantinople,
Princess of Achaia and Governor of Kephalliena

Inherited the title of titular Empress from her mother, Chatherine I de Courtenay (1283-1308), and was involved in the intrigues of the court of Giovanna I of Napoli and probably involved the murder of Giovanna’s husband, Andreas of Hungary. She was married to Philippe II de Taranto, and all of her three sons succeeded him as Prince of Taranto. Robert was his eldest surviving son and succeeded her husband as Prince of Taranto. In 1333 he received the principality of Achaea by agreement with his uncle, Jean de Gravina. However the 13 year-old boy was deemed too young to reign alone and his mother became his co-ruler for the rest of her life. In 1339 she arrived in Achaea and took an active part in its government. She gave refuge to Nikephoros II Orsini of Epirus and supported him in his attempt to assert himself in his land against the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. Her presence in Achaea was no longer needed by the time Robert reached adulthood in 1341. She became Governor of Cephalonia and spent the last five years of her life in this responsibility. Robert was succeeded as Prince of Achaia by his wife, Maria II Zaccharia in 1364. Catherine was mother of 5 children and her father was Count Charles III de Valois, Anjou and Maine and titular King of Aragon and Sicily and Titular Emperor of the Byzantine Empire (by the right of his wife). She lived (1301-46).


1308-14 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Lusignan of La Marche and Sancerrez, Dame of Lusignan, of Couhe and de Peyrat and Heiress of Fougères (France)

After the death of her two brothers  Hugues V (XIII) et Gui I, she inherited the territories, but but the County of Angoulême had been sold by her and her sisters to King Philippe of France. She was first married to Elie Rudel, Seigneur de Pons with whom she had  Renaud IV de Pons (born before 1282–1308), married Isabeau de Levis by whom he had issue and Yolande de Pons (born before 1290–?) who was married Fouques III, Baron de Matha by whom she had issue. Yolande’s second husband was Robert, Seigneur de Mathe. After her death, the French kingdom annexed La Marche. She lived (1257-1814)


1308-47 Princess-Abbess Jutta von Kranichfeld of Quedlinburg (Germany)

In 1320 she asked Duke Rudolf von Sachsen to renew the tenant-agreement thereby confirming the status of her independent territory. 1326 the cities of Halberstadt, Aschersleben and Quedlinburg made an agreement of mutual defence. During the fights between count Albrecht II. von Regenstein and the Bishop of Halberstadt, the count attacked Quedlinburg and the Neustadt in 1336, but his castle – the Gersdorfer Burg – was occupied and he imprisoned. After two years the Bishops of Quedlinburg reached a peace-agreement in which the Counts of Regenstein accepted the ”protection” of the city. Jutta was daughter of Count Volrad VIII von Kranichfeld and Countess Mechtild von Blankenburg, and lived (ca. 1285-1347).


1308-40 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV von Matzinger of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

The Ecclesiastical Territory included the City of Zürich and many possessions in Uri Schwyz.


1309-12/14 Regent Dowager Duchess Mechtild von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Gniezno (Poland)
1909-12 Regent of Glogau and Sagan (Głogów i Żagań)
1312-14 Regent of Poznan (Posen)

Also known as Matylda Brunszwicka, she took over the regency for her sons by Henryk I (III) of Głogów: Primko, Henryk IV, Konrad, Jan and Bolesław.

Mechtild von Braunschweig-Lüneburg

Mechtild von Braunschweig-Lüneburg

The daughter of Duke Albrecht of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, she was also mother of four daughters Agnieszka, Katarzyna, Jadwiga and Salomea. She lived (ca. 1276-1318).


1310 (April-June) Lieutenant Queen Blanche d’Anjou of Aragón (Spain)

Blanche d'Anjou, Lieutenant of Aragón

Blanche d’Anjou, Lieutenant of Aragón

Regent when her husband, Jaime II of Aragon, was on crusade on Almeria. The daughter of Carlos II of Napoli and Maria Arpad of Hungary, she was mother of 10 children, and lived (1280-1310).


1310-13 Co-Sovereign Princess Alix of Oroeos (Greek Island-State)

Her father Narzotto ruled (1247-64).


1310-22 Co-Sovereign Princess Maria of Oroeos (Greek Island-State)

Her father, Gaetano ruled (1264-80). The two Sovereign Princess were distant relatives.


1310-29 Sovereign Lady Sophia Berhout of Mechelen (Belgium)

Heir of her father, Floris Berhout, Lord of Mechelen or Malines (in French) a tradesman. She was the richest girl in Europe and very well educated both in economic and state affairs. She married Reinald, Count of Gelders and Züpten (1326-43) and helped him administer his lands and increase his wealth. She was mother of four daughters. and was succeeded by the oldest, Margaretha (1320-44).


1310-22 and 1326-1334 Sovereign Dame María Díaz de Haro I of Vizcaya (Spain)

Her father was the 7th Señor de Bizkaia, Lopez Díaz de Haro III, died in 1288 and was succeeded by her brother, Diego López de Haro IV, who died the following year. The king of Castilla then usurped the seigneurity. He was succeeded by her uncle, Diego López de Haro II, who proclaimed her heir in 1307. In 1322 she resigned in favour of her son, Juan de Haro, and after his death she became signora once again. In 1334 she resigned in favour of her niece, María Díaz de Haro II. Doña María I. (d. 1342).


1310-37 Princess-Abbess Margaretha I van Pietersheim of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeersel  (The Netherlands)

In 1310 Abbess Margaretha travelled to the pope in Avignon and obtained the position of sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Territory of Thorn.


1310-13 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Goritz of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

The first abbess of the Chapter of Königsfelden and its surroundings. It acquired many possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace.


1310-45 Reigning Abbess Hélissent I de Noyers of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

But the Hundred Years War devastated the whole of Brie and the nuns were obliged to flee. The monastery and the Tower were burnt down and the church fell partly into ruins. Succeeded by niece, Hélissent II.


1311-30 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Dreux of Montfort (Montfort-L’Amauri) (France)

Succeeded mother, Beatrice de Montfort (1249-1311). She married her first husband, Alexander III of Scotland, in the autum of 1285, he died in march

Yolande de Dreux, Comtesse de Montfort

Yolande de Dreux, Comtesse de Montfort

1286 and one month later she gave birth to a still-born son, and therefore the Guardians of the Kingdom selected his granddaughter, Margaret, the Maid of Norway as Queen of Scotland. Yolande married Arthur II de Bretagne (1262-1312) in 1292 and had at least 6 children by him. She was succeeded by her son, Jean II, and lived (1263-1330).


1311 Reigning Dowager Duchess Jeanne de Châtillon of Athens (Greece)

Her husband, Gauthier V de Brienne had succeeded his uncle, Guy I de la Roche as Duke in 1308 – his mother, Isabella had died 1291. Her husband was killed in the Battle of Halmyros against the Catalan Company. She may have tried to hold the Acropolis of Athens against them but eventually surrendered it. She returned with her son, Gauthier IV, to France, though her retainers continued to possess Argos and Nauplia under Gauthier de Foucherolles. In April 1318, she and her father sent a request to the Republic of Venice seeking money and ships for knights and infantry to Negroponte or Nauplia. The request, however, was refused, as the Briennist vassals in Greece had turned to the Catalans in the meanwhile. The following year however, Gauthier of Foucherolles was still commending his vessals in the Argolid to remain loyal to her and her son. By constant petition to the King of Naples, the King of France, and the Pope, she kept her claim to Athens alive for her son until he was old enough to campaign for his rights in the Aegean. In January 1321, Philip V of France mediating the suit brought against her by her own son, who was suing for the payment of some of his father’s great debt. She retained her ducal title until her death. Her tomb, in the church of Saint Jacobin in Troyes has the inscription Duchess d’Athènes. She was the daughter of Gaucher de Porcien, Constable of France and (d. 1354).


1311-27 Sovereign Countess Jacqueline de la Roche of Veligosti and Damala (Greece)

The last heiress of the De la Roche family which had ruled the Duchy of Athens from 1204 to 1308. She was the daughter and heiress of Renaud de la Roche.  1327 married Martino Zaccaria, Lord of Chios, as his second wife. When he was captured and carted off to Constantinople by Andronicus III Palaeologus in 1330, she was allowed to go free with her children “and all they could carry.” She may have been the mother of Bartolommeo, Margrave of Bodonitsa, and was probably the mother of Centurione I, Lord of Arcadia.


1311-22 Sovereign Marchionese Maria dalle Carceri of Bodonitza, Co-Heiress of a 6th of Euboea (Greece)

Upon the death of her husband, Albert Pallavicini, she succeeded to half of the marquisate of Bodonitsa. While she avoided submitting her principality to the Catalan Company, she could not avoid paying an annual tribute of four destriers. She was descended from a Lombard family of Verona that had come to Greece on the Fourth Crusade. She split the inheritance with her daughter, Gugliema and married Andrea Cornado, Baron of Skarpanto, who ruled jointly with her. She was a daughter of Gaetano dalle Carceri and also heiress of a sixth of Euboea. Her husband died the year after her and her daughter inherited the whole territory. (d. 1322).


1311-58 Sovereign Marchioness Guglielma Pallavicini of Bodonitza, Lady of Thermopylae, Co-Heiress of Euboea (Greece)

Sometimes refered to as Wilhelmina. The succession of all Latin fiefs in Greece was regulated at the time by the ‘Book of the Customs of the Empire of Romania’ by which, the inheritance was split between the widow and daughter. When her first husband, Bartolomeo Zaccaria died in 1334, she married Niccolò Zorzi, something that allowed her to remain in residence on Negroponte and to reconcile her claims to the castle of Larmena with La Serenissima’s. They continued the annual tribute of four destriers made to the Athenian Catalans. Peace did not attend their house, however. Venice continued the dispute over Larmena and even sought the arbitration of the bailiff of Catherine II, Princess of Achaea, the legal souzerain of Euboea and Bodonitsa. The bailiff decided for Venice. This strained the marriage, with her accusing her husband of “cowardice and bias towards Venice. She further believed that he ignored the interests of her child by Bartolomeo, Marulla, in favour of his own offspring. She had saved a large amount of money for her daughter, but deposited in a Venetian bank. The marchioness was finally whipped into a fury by the execution of her relative Manfredo, ordered by her husband. While the execution had been legal, she stirred the people against Zorzi, who was forced to flee to Negroponte and then went to Venice and appealed to the Senate, which demanded the return of him to his position or the relinquishing of his property, which she held. She refused and the bailiff of Negroponte was order to sever all communication between Bodonitsa and the island. The Catalans, who had initially been asked to stay out of the fray, were now pressed by Venice to intervene for peaceful settlement, along with Juana I of Naples, head of the Angevins, and Humbert II, Dauphin of Vienne, then a papal naval commander. This failing, Marulla’s money was confiscated and Niccolò compensated from the funds. She still refused to readmit her husband to her court. Despite the pleadings of Pope Clement VI, she preferred to heed the advice of her own nationalist bishop Nitardus of Thermopylae. In 1354, Niccolò finally died and she immediately installed their eldest son, Francis, as co-ruler. With him ruling beside her, she was on good terms again with Venice and was included in the treaty subsequently signed with the Catalans. She died in 1358 and was succeeded by Francis and her other two sons, Giacomo and Niccolò III, also later ruled the Marquisate. (d. 1358).


1311 Sovereign Baroness Margherita di Savoia of Karytaena (Greece)

Marguerite succeeded her mother, Isabelle II de Villehardouin – Princess of Morea and Achaia in Karytaena, but the barony was taken over by the new rulers of the principality.


1311… Joint Sovereign Baroness …. of Chalandritsa (Greece)

1311… Joint Sovereign Baroness …. of Chalandritsa (Greece)

The two sisters, whose names have been lost, succeeded their father Peter Carker, and reigned jointly with the husband of the younger daughter, Martin Zaccarias (1311-45).


1311-56 Sovereign Baroness Niccola Foucherolla of Naupila (Greece)

The state was in the hands of the De La Roche family of Athena 1212-1311. She was succeeded by Vonna.


1312-ca. 16 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anastazja of Dobrzyń   (Poland)

Following the death of her husband, Duke Siemowit, she became regent for her sons. She was daughter of Prince Lew of Halicz (in Ukraine).


1312/13-53 Sovereign Lady Mathildis van Wesemaele of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)

Succeeded father, Arnold. Her mother Johanna van Loon probably acted as regent in the first years. Mathildis married Albrecht van Voorne, who died 1331 and Reinhoud van Kleef. Her daughter, Johanna van Voorne was Dame for some years until she again took over as regent until she abdicated in favour of a distant relative, Maria van Merksem van Wezemaal and her husband, Hendrik I van Boutersem. Mathildis (b. 1310).


1313 and 1316-31 Sovereign Princess Mathilde d’Avesnes-Hainault of Achaia and Morea, Queen of Thessalonica, (Greece) Dame de Braine-le-Comte et de Hal (Belgium)

Mathilde d'Avesnes-Hainault, d'Achaia and Morea, Queen of Thessalonica, Dame de Braine-le-Comte et de Hal

Mathilde d’Avesnes-Hainault, d’Achaia and Morea, Queen of Thessalonica, Dame de Braine-le-Comte et de Hal

Also known as Mahaut, she was daughter of Isabelle de Villehardouin, who had been Princess of Achaia (1289-1307) until she was deposed. Her first husband,  Guido II de la Roche, Duke of Athens, Lord de Theben died in 1308 and in 1313 Philippe d’Anjou-Sicily, Principe di Tarento, transferred his rights to Achaia to her, on condition she transferred them to her second husband, Louis de Bourgogne. She refused the third marriage proposed by Philippe di Tarento, but was brought to Napoli from Morea by force and compelled to marry  Jean of Sicily, Conte di Gravina, but this marriage was annulled in 1321 for non-consummation. She continued to refuse to transfer her rights to Achaia to her new husband and appealed, unsuccessfully, to Venice and the Burgundy family for help. She was taken to Avignon where Pope John XXII ordered her to obey but then avowed her secret marriage with Hugo de La Palice. Her inheritance was confiscated by King Robert d’Anjou of Sicily for breaching the condition of the 1289 marriage contract of her mother, which required the king’s approval for her marriage. She was imprisoned in the Castell dell’Uovo in Naples, accused of conspiring with her husband to murder the king, transferred to the castle of Aversa in 1328. Before dying, she bequeathed all her rights verbally to her cousin Jaime II King of Mallorca but made no testament. Her sister, Marguerite, was Lady of Karytaena from 1311. Mathilde had no children, and lived (1293-1331).


Around 1313 Reigning Abbess Hedwiga von Kuntzlau of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Thought the Abbesses ruled over a considerable territory, they did apparently not become Princesses of the Empire unlike many of the other Reigning Abbesses.


Until 1314 Regent Dowager Duchess Jelisaveta Nemanjic of Bosnia

After 1283 she was married to ban Stjepan Kotroman (died in 1314) of Upper and Lower Bosnia. They had six children. Regent of Bosnia until Apr 1314,

Jelisaveta Nemanjic, Regent of Bosnia

Jelisaveta Nemanjic, Regent of Bosnia

after which she fled with her son to Dubrovnik. The daughter of King Stefan Dragutin of Serbia and Katalin of Hungary, she lived (1270-1331).


1314-27 Sovereign Countess Teresa de Entenza of Urgell, Co-Princess of Andorra, Vicountess of Ager and Lady de Alcolea de Cinca (Spain)
1324-27 Lieutenant of Aragón

Daughter of heir of Gombaldo, Baron de Entenza, Regent during the ilness of her husband, Alfonso IV de Aragón, but it is not clear whether she was a lieutenant earlier. There is no official privilege or other document naming her as lieutenant and because her husband was incapable of ruling she acted more as regent than a lieutenant. After her death, Alfonso married Leonor of Castilla (1307-59). Teresa lived (1300-27).


1314-17 Lady Eleanore de Clare of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)

Her mother, Princess Joan of England, was Lady of the two territories until 1307. Eleanore lived (1292-1337)


1314… Sovereign Countess Guillerma of Passava (Greece)

Succeeded husband Nicolas de St. Omer.


1314-33 Reigning Abbess Euphemia von Winzer of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The chapter for noble ladies was an important convent closely associated with Obermünster also situated in Regensburg, the seat of the Imperial Diet.


1315-30 Sovereign Countess Palatine Jeanne I de Châlons of Franche-Comté and Bourgogne (France)
1329-30 Sovereign Countess of Artois, Flanders and Brabant (France and Belgium)

 Jeanne I de Châlons , Countess of Franche-Comté, Bourgogne, Artois, Flanders and Brabant

Jeanne I de Châlons , Countess of Franche-Comté, Bourgogne, Artois, Flanders and Brabant

In Artois, she was known as Jeanne II. Succeeded Robert and married to King Philippe V of France, who succeeded to the throne in 1316, after having acted as regent for his late brother’s posthumously born son, Jean I, who died after a few months. In 1314 she became involved in a scandal conserning various sexual excesses together with her sister Blanche and sister-in-law Marguerite (The Scandal de Tour de Nesle) and fell from grace and internated in the Castle de Dourdan, but released soon after on the quest of her husband, who would have lost Franche-Comte which was part of her dowry if they had divorced. Her husband died in 1322 and was succeeded by his younger brother as King. She suceeded both her father, Otto I of Bourgogne and mother, Mahaut d’Artois and was succeeded by the oldest of her five daughters, Jeanne II and III in all her possessions. She died of the plauge, and lived (1294-1330).


1315… Sovereign Grand Princess Maria Rurikova of Vitebsk (Belarus)

Ruled jointly with Olgerd, who was Grand Prince 1316-77 and remained in Lithuania from 1345. He was succeeded by Juliana

A Russian Grand Duchess

A Russian Grand Duchess

Rurikova. Maria (d. aft. 1326).


1315 Sovereign Baroness Marguerite Villehardouin of Akova (Greece)

Succeeded Marguerite de Passavas-Neuilly, and succeeded by Jezebel Villehardouin.


1315-16 Sovereign Baroness Jezebel Villehardouin of Akova (Greece)

Also known as Isabella, she succeeded Marguerite Villehardouin. Akova is situated in the Gortyna Region of Arcadia.


Until 1315 Sovereign Countess Maria I of The First Triarchy of Euboea (Greece)

Reigned jointly with her husbands; Albert Pallavicini, Marchese of Boudonitza, who was killed in battle Kephissos River, near Thebes in 1311, and Andrea Cornaro. His sixth of the island of Eubœa, which he held by right of his wife, was captured in 1323 by his wife’s first cousin Pietro dalle Carceri.


1315 Sovereign Countess Beatrice Pallavizzini of The First Triarchy of Euboea (Greece)

Succeeded Maria I and reigned jointly with Jean de Maisy.


Ca. 1315-27 Sovereign Baroness Maria van Voeren-Montaigue of Ravenstein (Netherlands)

Held the small barony in the northeast of the Dutch province of Brabant, on the left bank of the Maas jointly with Jan van Valkenburg-Cleves 1328-56.


1316-17 Regent and Principal Minister Qutlug Sah Hatun of Persia and Iraq

After the death of her husband, Ghiyath al-Din Muhammed Uljaytu (1282-1304-16) the 8th Il Khan she ruled in the name of their son, ‘Ala al-Dunaya wa ‘l-din Abu Said (1304-1317-1335). The dynasty had reigned Persia, Iraq and China since Kublai Khan of Mongolia and China appointed his brother, Halagu (1256-1265) as tributary sub-ruler. With the death of Abu Sa’id the Il-lkhanid dynasty in Iran virtually came to an end.



1316 Reigning Dawlat Khatun of Luristan (Persia) (Iran)

Succeeded her husband, Izz al-Din Muhammad, the 13th sovereign of the Mongol Bani Kurshid dynasty, which ruled Luristan in south western Persia. She proved to be a poor administrator, and therefore she abdicated after a short period in favour of her brother-in-law, Izz al-Din Hassan.


1316-60 Sovereign Countess Béatrix de Bourbon of Charolais (France)

Daughter of Jean comte de Charolais, Seigneur de Saint-Just and Jeanne dame d’Argiès et de Calku and married to  Jean I comte d’Armagnac, who died 1373.


1316 Regent Dowager Queen Clémence d’Anjou-Napoli of France

Clémence d'Anjou-Napoli, Regent of France

Clémence d’Anjou-Napoli, Regent of France

When her husband Louis X (1289-1314-16) died she was pregnant, making it impossible to know Louis’s successor until the time his child was born. If the child were a son, he would succeed Louis as king: had the child been a daughter, Louis would have been succeeded by his brother Philip V. (John I’s half-sister Jeanne, as a female, could not succeed to the throne of France; she did, however, retain rights in the succession of Navarre). She was joint regent with her brother-in-law Philip for the five months remaining until the birth her child, who turned out to be male. But Jean I, only lived five days was succeeded by his uncle Philippe V.


1316-21 Sovereign Countess Beatrix of Geraki-Nivelet (Greece)

Succeeded husband Jean II.


1317-38 Sovereign Countess Maruella da Verona of  The Second Triarchy of Euboea, Karystos and Aegina (Greek Island-State)

Also known as Maria, she was daughter of Bonifacio da Verona, Lord of Negropont, she was married to Alfonso Fadrique de Aragon, Count of Malta and Gozzo, Lord of Salona and of certain territories on Greece. She (d. ca. 1338)


1317-39 Sovereign Lady Margherita Orsini of Zakinthos (Zante) (Greece)

Heiress of half the lordship. She married Guglielmo II Tocco, Governor of Corfu 1328. She was daughter of Giovanni Orsini, Lord of Leukas and Count of Kefalonia and Maria Komnene Dukaina Angelina of Epirus. She (d. 1339).


1317-28 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Castilla of Limoges (France)

Married to Jean I, who was Duke of Bretagne from 1312. 1314-17 his brother, Gui VII, was count, until she took over as Countess. After her death, her husband was count again, until he was succeeded in 1341 by niece, Jeanne, who had succeeded his father (the said Gui VII) as Countess of Penthièvre in 1331. Isabella (d. 1328).


1317-58 Sovereign Countess Mahaut de Châtillon of Saint-Pôl (France)

Daughter of Guy I de Châtillon-sur-Marne (1254-1317) and Marie de Bretagne and married to Charles de Valois. She was mother of Marie (1309-32), Isabelle (1313-83), Blanche (1317-48) and Jean (d. 1344), and lived (1293-1358).


1317-24 Countess-Abbess Gertrudis II von Boventhen of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Gertrud, she was in dispute with the nobles von Hadmersleben over the churches in Ströbeck and Siestedt, and in order to have her

Gertrudis II von Gernrode

Gertrudis II von Gernrode

rights recognized she had to give the patron rights over the church of Ammendorf as a tenancy. The financial difficulties of the chapter was so big, that she was unable to pay the annual “recognition fee” of the weight of 2 mark silver. She was also in dispute with the Princes of Anhalt over the supremacy of the territory.


1317-31 Countess Abbess Sophia II von Büren of Gandersheim (Germany)

The citizen of the city of Gandersheim bought their “eternal freedom” for 100 Silver Mark from the chapter in 1329, which enabled her to pay her depths by the Pope.


1317-32 Reigning Abbess Johanne de Rassenghem of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Held semi-bishopal authority and secular jurisdiction of her territory.


1318-63/69 Sovereign Countess Margarethe von Görtz und Tirol, Duchess of Kärnten (Austria)

Margarethe von Görtz,  Tirol, und Kärnten

Margarethe von Görtz, Tirol, und Kärnten

Also Princess of Bohemia and known as “Die Maultasch”. Married to Johan Heinrich von Böhmen von Tirol and von Mähren and afterwards to Ludwig V of Bavaria and Brandenburg. After the death of her son Meinhard in 1363, she gave to country to her daughter-in-law, Margarethe von Habsburg’s family in Austria. Countess Margarethe lived (1318-63/69).


Around 1318 Burgravine Marie d’Enghien of Ghent, Lady of Zotteghen (Belgium)

Married to Guy de Dampierre, Lord de Richebourg (1286-1345) and mother of Alix, Heiress de Ricebourg (1322-46), who married Jean I de Luxembourg, Lord de Ligny.


1318-28 Princess-Abbess Adelheid von Ühlingen of Säckingen (Germany)

Held the office of Kellerin (In charge of the vine cellar) 1316-18. Member of a noble family from Schaffenhausen in Switzerland


1318-24 Reigning-Abbess Guta von Bachenstein of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Member of a German noble family, which were lords of various small territories.


1319-24/30 Regent Dowager Duchess Ingebjørg Håkonsdotter of Södermaland (Sweden)
1319-26 County Sheriff of Norra Halland, Älvsyssel, 5 Shires in Västergötland and Värmland and the Estate of Lödöse
1319-23 Regent of Norway
1330-50 Regent of Södre Halland

Also known as Ingeborg, she had her son Magnus VII proclaimed king in succession of her father, Håkon V of Norway, and ruled together with the

Ingebjørg Håkonsdotter

Ingebjørg Håkonsdotter

council of state. After her husband, Duke Erik av Södermanland, Östergötland and Gotland had died in imprisonment, and his brother Birger had been deposed, she had her son elected as King of Sweden in 1319 with her grand-mother Helvig as regent here (she had first been regent in 1290). In 1321 the Regency Council’s chairman resigned and handed over the State Seals to her, which she possessed until a new chairman was elected the year after. She was Lady (Frue) in her own right of Vest-Gautland, Nord-Halland and Värmland in Sweden. Her son, Magnus VII Eriksson of Norway was king of Norway (1318-55), Sweden (1319-63) and of Skåne (1332-60). His son, Håkon of Norway was married to Queen Margrethe of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Ingeborg was deposed as regent because of her despotic rule, but continued as regent for her younger sons Håkon and Knut Porse in Southern Halland  She lived (1301-60).


1319-20 Regent Dowager Margravine Agnes von Bayern of Brandenburg (Germany)

Her husband, Heinrich I, reigned after 1293 until 1308/09 and died 1318. After his death, she became regent for son Heinrich II the Child (1319-20), who succeeded his cousin Waldemar. In 1322 Ludwig V of Bavaria inherited the Margravate


132..-29 Sovereign Princess Sophia Charitena of Cerigo (Kythera) and Cerigollo (Greece Island-State)

Succeeded husband.


1320-54 Politically Influential Empress Eirene Palaiologina Asenina Cantacuzene of the Byzantine Empire (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1348 In charge of the Administration and Defence of Constantinople

In 1318 she married Jean Cantacuzene, Lord of Kalliopolis in Thrace. In 1320 he left her behind in the city of Didymoteichou while he took part in Andronikos III Palaiologos’s rebellion against his grandfather, Andronikos II. She held the ford throughout the whole civil war that lasted until 1238, when Andronikos II abdicated. Also in charge of the defence of the city during the civil war against Anna of Savoia over the regency over Anna’s infant son from 1341-43. Jean was proclaimed Emperor and crowned in 1346 by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, who had taken side against Anna and the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the following year the new patriarch crowned Jean and Eirene. 1348 she was left in charge of Constantinople while her husband went on campaign against the Bulgarians. Six years later he abdicated and they both joined a convent. She was granddaughter of Tsar Jean II Asen of Bulgaria and (d. 1361/79).


1320-39 Politically Influential Queen Jadwiga Kaliska of Poland
1334-39 Duchess Regnant of Stary Sącz

Queen Jadwiga Kaliska of Poland, Duchess of Stary Sącz

Queen Jadwiga Kaliska of Poland, Duchess of Stary Sącz

She influenced the affairs of state during the reign of her husband king Władysław I Łokietek and her son Kazimierz III the Great. Her daughters were Elżbieta Łokietkówna, Queen of Hungary and Regent of Poland and Kunegunda, Princess regent of Świdnica. She took over the regency in Stary Sacz when her granddaughter, Konstancja z Świdnica, resigned to become a nun. Jadwiga was daughter of Prince Bolesław the Devout of Małopolska (Poland Minor) and the Hungarian Princess Jolanta-Helena, and lived  (1266-1339).


1320-26 Sovereign Lady Adelheid van Leuven-Gassebeek of Breda (The Netherlands)

Succeeded father, Philips and reigned jointly with husband, Gerad van Rasseghem. In 1326 the lordship was occupied by the Duke of Brabant. She lived (ca. 1300-36).


1321-42 Queen Regnant Mbam Wad of Walo (Senegal)

The first of four successive Queens, she was followed by Queen Fijo Wad.


1321/4-1325 Regent Dowager Duchess Eufrozyna Mazowiecka of Auschwitz (Oświęcim) (Poland)

After the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Władysław of Cieszyn and Oświęcim, she ruled jointly with her son Jan I Scholastyk. She was daughter of Duke Bolesław II of Mazowsze and Kunegunda, and lived (1292-1329).


1322-38/39 Princess-Abbess Bertha von Pux of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The Abbess of the Chapter had been a Prelate of the Realm in 1242 and member of the bank of the Swabian Prelates of the Realm in the Imperial Diet.


1322-23 Reigning Abbess Adellint of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

It is not known if she is identical with the in 1313 mentioned nun, Adelling Zimlich or with Ädellint, who is mentioned in 1355.


1323-29 Regent Dowager Countess Loretta von Salm of Sponheim-Starkenburg (Germany)
1329-… Dame of Frauenberg

Governed the county alone for her son after husband’s death. She managed to consolidate the family’s reign of the county and created a flourishing

Loretta von Salm, Countess of Sponheim-Starkenburg, Dame of Frauenberg

Loretta von Salm, Countess of Sponheim-Starkenburg, Dame of Frauenberg

economy. After her son came of age, she withdrew to her dowry, where she had full regal powers.  (b. 1297).


1323-28 Regent Dowager Countess Beatrix von Nieder-Bayern of Görz (Germany)
1323-26 and 1335-38 Regent of Treviso (Italy)
1332-34 Captain General of Aquileia and Administrator of Friuli (Italy)

Following the death of her second husband, Heinrich III. Graf von Görz, she was reigned in the name of her son, Johann Heinrich IV, Graf von Görz (1322-23-38). She was daughter of Duke Stephan I of Nieder-Bayern and Jutta von Schweidnitz, and lived (1302-60).


1323-29 Regent Dowager Margravine Elisabeth von Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk of Meissen (Later part of Sachsen) (Germany)
1329-59 Reigning Dowager Lady of Gotha

Elisabeth von Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk

Elisabeth von Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk

When her husband, Friedrich I. von Meißen (1257 -1323) died, she became regent for their son, Friedrich II. Landgraf von Thüringen und Markgraf von Meißen (1310-49). She was daughter of Elisabeth von Orlamünde and Lord Otto zu Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk, who died when she was 4 and after whom she inherited castles of Arnshaugk bei Neustadt an der Orla, Triptis, and Oppurg and lands in the area around Schleiz, and also mother of one daughter, Elisabeth (1306 -1367), who married Heinrich II. von Hessen. Elisabeth von Arnshaugk lived (ca. 1284-1359).


1323-29 Reigning Abbess Mechtild von Digisheim of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Member of a noble family, which started out as civil servants at one of the Duchal courts of Germany (Ministerialadel).


1323-41 Heiress Maria of the Duchies of Galicia and Lvov (Poland)

In 1323 her brother’s Andrei of Galicia and Volynia and Lev II of Lutsk were killed, and she and her niece, Eufemia, Heiress of Volynia-Lutsk, inherited the lands. She was daughter of King Yuriy I of Galicia (1252-1301-08) and his second wife, Eufemia of Kujavia (d.1308), and was married to Prince Trojden I of Masovia (d. 1341). Her grandfather, Lev, had been king of Galicia 1269-1301 and he moved his capital from Galich (Halicz) to the newly founded city of Lvov/Lwow (Lemberg). She lived (before-1293-1341)


1323-49 Heiress Eufemia of the Duchies of Volynia and Lutsk (Poland)

Together with her aunt Maria, Heiress of Galicia-Lvov, she inherited the lands of the family, after her father, Lev II of Lutsk, and his brother, Andrei of Galicia and Volynia, were killed. She was married to Lubart Gediminovich of Lithuania (d. 1384).


1324-51 Sovereign Countess Johanna von Pfirt und Rougemont (Austria)

Daughter of Count Ulrich III von Pfirt and Jeanne de Bourgogne, and the heiress of vast lands in Austria and thereby added to the wealth of her

Johanna von Pfirt und Rougemont

Johanna von Pfirt und Rougemont

husband, Albrecht von Habsburg, Count of Pfirt, Duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and South Tyrol (1330-58). He suffered from rheumatics and was partly paralyzed at times, and she was left in charge of the government at those occasions and remained very influential. After 15 years of marriage, she gave birth to her first child at the age of 39 and had five other children in 1342, 1346, 1347, and 1348 and died two weeks after giving birth to the last at the age of 51. She lived (1300-51).


1324/26-47 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne I de Vaudemont of Remiremont  (France)

Daughter of Henri II de Vaudemont, Count de Vaudémont et d’Ariano and Helissende de Vergy, Dame du Fay, and lived (Ca. 1267-1347).


1324-60 Reigning Abbess Ludgard II von Bicken of Herford (Germany)

Another version of her name is Luitgard von Bickenem


1325 Sovereign Viscountess Marie de Dampierre-Flanders of Châteaudun, Baroness of Mondoubleau and Dame of Nestlé and Saint Calais (France)

Succeeded father Jean de Dampierre-Flanders, whose mother, Alix II had abdicated in his favour in 1320. Marie transmitted the Viscounty in favour of her sister, Marguerite, but kept the Barony of Mondoubleau and the Seigneurity Saint Calais. She was first married to Count Robert VIII de Boulogne et d’Auvergne and secondly to Ingeler I d’Ambroise, with whom she had four children, of which the three daughters reached adulthood. (d. 1355).


1325…. Sovereign Viscountess Marguerite de Dampierre-Flanders of Châteaudun,  Dame of Nestlé (France)

Successor of her sister Marie de Dampierre-Flanders. Married to Guillaume de Craon and mother of 7 children. Succeeded by son, Guillaume II de Craon.


1325-33 Countess-Abbess Jutta von Oesede of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Dechaness (Pröpstin) of the chapter from about 1299. Her last known decree was an agreement between the chapter and Bishop Albrecht II. of Halberstadt, where she managed to have the  appointments of priests that she had made during the dispute with the bishop approved.


Until 1325 Princess-Abbess Bertha Walterin of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

In 1315 Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian appointed the Abbess as Princess of the Realm, and it thereby became the second Imperial Immediate – Reichsfreie – second richest Ladies Chapter in the City next to Niedermünster. The dates of the reigns of her successors are not known, but she was followed by Adelheid von Aerenbach, Katharina I von Murach and Agnes I von Wunebach, who reigned until 1374. The Abbess was both member of the Imperial Diet and Bavarian Assembly (Landtag).


1325-36 Politically Influential Baghdad Khatun of the Ilkhanate in Persia (Iran)

Bagdad was first married to Shaykh Hasan Buzurg, founder of the Jalayirid dynasty, whom she married in 1323. Two years later, they divorced on the orders of her uncle, Abu Said, the Ilkhan, and they married in 1327, and now enjoyed a period of unprecedented power as the harem favorite, even acquiring the honorific title of Khudawandigar [sovereign]. 1331-32, she briefly fell from grace because of accusations that she had plotted the assassination of Abu Said with her former husband, but in the following year she was restored to favour.  Another blow to her authority came in 734/1333-34, when Abu Sa’id married her niece, Dilshad Khatun, and elevated the latter to the rank of principal wife. She displayed her resentment at her diminished status and when, according to Ibn Battuta, Abu Sa’id died in 1335, she was accused of poisoning him and was beaten to death in her bathhouse either by order of his amirs or his successor, Arpa.


1326-27 Regent Dowager Queen Isabella de France of England

Isabella de France, Queen of England

Isabella de France, Queen of England

When her brother, King Charles IV of France, seized the French possessions of her husband, Edward II in 1325, she returned to France and gathered an army to oppose her estranged husband, who was probably homosexual and neglected her in favour of his male favourites. In 1326 she landed with her lover Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, at Suffolk with their mercenary army. King Edward’s few allies deserted him were killed, and himself was captured and abdicated in favour of his eldest son, Edward III of England. She and Roger Mortimer became regents for him. After he came of age Mortimer was executed and she was allowed to retire to Castle Rising in Norfolk where she enjoyed a comfortable retirement and made many visits to her son’s court. After her brother King Charles IV of France’s death, Edward III claimed throne of France – and thus began what is known as the Hundred Years’ War. Isabella was mother of four children, and lived (1292-1358).


1326-41 Reigning Rani Kotar of Kashmir (India)

After husband, Renchana’s, death, she married his successor, Uddyana Deo. Soon a Tartar chief, Arwan, made an attack on Kashmir

Queen of Kashmir

Queen of Kashmir

with his hordes. Uddyana Deo fled to Tibet, but Kota Rani stirred the local patriotism of the Kashmiris by an impassioned appeal, and the people in thousands gathered under her banner and inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Tartars. Uddyana Deo came back to rule until his death in 1341. At this time began the real struggle between Islam and Hinduism. Kota Rani tried to establish herself on the throne, but was defeated by the Muslim commander-in-chief, Shahmir, who mounted the throne, and the Rani killed herself. She was the last Hindu ruler of Kashmir.


1326-47 Queen Regnant Sariayakadevi of Malla Patan and Kathmandu (Nepal)

Also know as Nayakadevi, Sari Nayak Devi or Satinayakadevi, she was an infant when her father, King, Rudra Malla, died. She was brought up by her grand-mother, Padu Malladeva, with her mother acting as regent. She was later known by the the title of Dewaladeviraj and was married to King Harishchandradeva of Banaras who was poisoned in 1336 after which his brother, Gopaladeva and Prince Jagat Simha of Mithila, kept her in detention. They thus appear to have occupied Bhadgaun. The followers of Jagat Simha then killed Gopaldeva. Jagat Simha reigned for some days, but he too was imprisoned eventually. Her daughter, Rajalla Devi, Rajalaxmi or Rajalaxmo, who was full claimant of the throne.


1326-65 Regent Dowager Queen Devala Devi of Malla Patan and Kathmandu (Nepal)

When her husband, king Rudra Malla died without a male heir apparent in the throne, their infant daughter, Sariayakadevi, was declared as the heir to the throne of Thanthunim, and she became regent together with her mother-in-law, Queen Padumal Devi. Later she was also regent for her granddaughter, Rajalla Devi, who succeeded to the throne upon her mother’s death in 1347.


1326-? Temporary Co-Regent Dowager Queen Padmalla Devi of Malla Patan and Kathmandu (Nepal)

In charge of the education of her granddaughter, Sariayakadevi, and was joint-regent with daughter-in-law Devala Devi, which led to some tensions.


After 1326-80 Sultana Nur-Ilah of Kadah/Kedah and Pase/ Pasai (Indonesia)

A pair of gravestones, one written in old Javanese and one in Arabic characters, were found in the village of Minye Tujoh in Aceh with the appellation “Queen of the Faith…who has rights on Kadah and Pase.” Her father was Sultan Malikul Zahir Thani who ascended the throne in 1326.


1326-28 and 1328-29 Acting Vicar of Pisa (Italy)
1328-47 Consors Regni of the Holy Roman Empire
1345-56 Sovereign Countess Marguerite III d’Avesnes of Hainault, Flanders, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland (Belgium and The Netherlands)

In Pisa she acted as representative of her husband, Ludwig IV the Bavarian, who was Duke of Bavaria 1294-1347, German King 1314, Count Palatine

Marguerite III d'Avesnes of Hainault, Flanders, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland, Vicar of Pisa and Consors Regni of the Holy Roman Empire

Marguerite III of Hainault, Flanders, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland

(Pfalzgraf) von der Pfalz 1317-1329, Lord of Pisa 1326-29 and Emperor 1328-47. She succeeded her brother Willem IV as Countess after a battle succession with two younger sisters and was officially handed over the fief by her husband, and she swore the oath of allegiance. After her husband’s death in 1347 conflict broke out with her son Wilhelm. The dispute was settled in 1354 when she handed over Holland, Zealand and Friesland against a financial settlement and only remained ruler in Hainault. She lived (ca.1293-1356).


1326-29 Reigning Dowager Duchess Kunegunda of Schweidnitz-Fürstenberg (Świdnica) (Poland)

Held the Duchy after the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Bernard of Świdnica, and was secondly married to of prince Rudolf of Sachsen from 1329. The daughter of Władysław I Łokietek and Jadwiga Kaliska, she lived  (1298-1331).


1326-46 Guardian Dowager Duchess Elisabeth von Schweidnitz-Schlesien-Glogau of Pommern-Wolgast, Stolp and Stralsund (Poland)

Parts of the duchy were occupied by Mecklenburg after the death of her husband, Wartislaw IV. von Pommern-Rügen. The areas of Barth, Grimmen and Loitz paid homage to Heinrich II von Mecklenburg as their ruler (hüldigung). But Doch Stralsund, Greifswald, Anklam and Demmin joined her and her and her sons: Barnim IV of Pommern-Wolgast (1325-26-65), Bogislaw IV of Pommern-Stolp (ca. 1326-26-74) and the posthumously born Wartislaw V. Pommern-Stralsund (1326-26-90). King Valdemar of Denmark and Count Graf Gerd von Holstein joined forces with the two other guardians; the Dukes of Pommern-Stettin Otto und Barnim, and in 1327 Heinrich von Mecklenburg had to flee, even though the fighting continued another year. In the peace-agreement he handed back the landscape of Rügen though some of the territory remained in his possession as a security for the settlement. She was daughter of Duke Heinrich III. von Glogau and Mechthild von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen, and lived (1290-1356).


1326-36 Regent Dowager Countess Alburgas von Bederkesa of Stotel (Germany)

Together with the Deacon Giselbert von Holstein she reigned for her sons Rudolf III. and Johannes III. after the death of her husband, Johannes II. She was the only daughter and heir of Sir Dietrich von Bederkesa, gen. Scheele, and inherited numerous estates from him. Also known as Abele van Betderkhesa, and lived (ca. 1290-around 1375).


1326-36 Reigning  Abbess-General Maria González de Agüero of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Commissioned the copying of the Codex Las Huelgas a music manuscript or codex from c. 1300 which originated in and has remained in the Cistercian convent of Santa María La Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos, in northwestern Spain, then Castile. It was rediscovered in 1904 by two Benedictine monks. The manuscript is written on parchment, with the staves written in red ink with Franconian notation. The bulk of material is written in one hand, however as many as 12 people contributed to it, including corrections and later additions. The manuscript contains 45 monophonic pieces (20 sequences, 5 conductus, 10 Benedicamus tropes) and 141 polyphonic compositions, 1 of which doesn’t have music. Most of the music dates from the late 13th century, with some music from the first half of the 13th century (Notre dame repertory), and a few later additions from the first quarter of the 14th century.


1326-41 Abbess Nullius Maria d’Angiò of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Marie d’Anjou was daughter of Philippe II de Taranto, Prince of Corfu, Morea, Albania, Duke of Athens and Valaccia, Vicar of the Kingdom of Sicilia and Despot of Romania, and his first wife  Thamar Komnene Dukaina, Despota of Epirus (1277-1311). After their divorce in 1309 he married Catherine II de Valois, titular Empress of Constantinople, Princess of Achaia.


1327-59 Joint Sovereign Baroness Agnes de Charpigny of Vestitza (Vostitsa) (Greece)

Together with Wilhelmina (Guillermette) she succeeded Godfrey de Charpigny. Today Vestitza is known as Aiyon and it is situated at the North coast of Peleponnessus.


1327-59 Joint Sovereign Baroness Guillermette de Charpigny of Vestitza (Vostitsa) (Greece)

Ruled jointly with sister. Abdicated in favour of Marie de Bourbon (1359-63).


Until 1327 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna von Habsburg of Slesia and Breslau (Śląsk and Wrocław) (Poland)

Anna von Habsburg, Herzogin zu  Slesia und Breslau

Anna von Habsburg, Herzogin zu Slesia und Breslau

First married to Margrave Hermann I von Brandenburg-Salzwedel (Ca. 1280-1308) and mother of two daughters by him. Secondly married to Heinrich VI von Slesia-Liegnitz (1294-1335) and mother of Eufemia Ofka of Slesia-Breslaw, who married Boleslaw II von Oppeln and became mother of Jutta von Slesia-Falkenberg. Anna of Austria lived (1218-27)


1327-37 Princess-Abbess Kunigunde von Berg of Essen (Germany)

Prior to her election as sovereign of the territory, she was presented as a very well educated and cultured woman. During her reign, she engaged in quarrels with the neighbouring Duke of Jülich. She was daughter of Heinrich von Berg, Herr zu Windeck and Agnes von der Mark and related to Emperor Karl IV.


1328-50 Queen Regnant Sri Tribhuwanotunggadewi Maharajasa Jayawisnuwardhani Mahapati of Majapahit, Bhre Kahuripan at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)

Also known as Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi or Dyah Gitarj, she was daughter of king Kertarajasajasajayawardhana Raden Wijay

Sri Tribhuwanotunggadewi Maharajasa Jayawisnuwardhani Mahapati of Majapahit, Bhre Kahuripan at Java

Sri Tribhuwanotunggadewi Maharajasa Jayawisnuwardhani Mahapati of Majapahit, Bhre Kahuripan at Java

(1293-1309), she succeeded her half-brother, king Jayanagara (1309-28), who was assassinated. She was joint regent with her mother and aunt. And from 1330 Gajah Madah became patih or chief Minister of Majapahit, and ruled as regent. In 1331, she led the army herself to the battle field with the help of her cousin, Adityawarman to crush rebellion in the areas of Sadeng and Keta. The decision partly to resolve the competition between Gajah Mada and Ra Kembar for the army general position to crush Sadeng. She abdicated in favour of son, Rajasangsara Hayam Wuruk (1334–1389).


1328-50 Co-Regent Gayati Raja Patni Tribu of Majapahit at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)

Joint ruler with both her daughter and her sister, who was also widow of king Kertarajasajasajayawardhana Raden

Gayati Raja Patni Tribu of Majapahit at Java

Gayati Raja Patni Tribu of Majapahit at Java

Wijay. She was very influential until she withdrew  to a monestary to become a Buddhist nun. The kingdom was Based in eastern Java, and controlling at minimum that region and the island of Bali, some evidence suggests that it’s influence was much wider, extending throughout much of modern Indonesia and parts of Malaysia. She lived (possibly 1276—1350)


1328-50 Co-Regent Tribhuananesshwari Dewi Java Vishnuvardhanida of Majapahit at Java (Singosari and Majapahit) (Indonesia)

Widow of her relative, king Kertarajasajasajayawardhana Raden Wijay, she was mother of king Jayanagara, and joint ruler with his successor – his daughter – together with her husbands second wife (her sister), Queen Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi Mahapati.


1328-49 Queen Regnant Juana II Capet of Navarra and Pamplona (Spain), Countess of Angoulême, Mortain and a portion of Cotentin (Longueville)

 Juana II of Navarra and Pamplona, Countess of Angoulême, Mortain and a portion of Cotentin

Juana II of Navarra and Pamplona, Countess of Angoulême, Mortain and a portion of Cotentin

In 1316 both her father King Philippe IV, brother Louis X the Hunchback and half-brother Jean I died. She was excluded from the succession in France, mostly because of doubts about her paternity. Her uncles, King Philip V of France (II of Navarre) and King Charles IV of France (I of Navarre), took precedence over the young girl on the Navarrese throne, even though it was inheritable by females. With regards to the French crown, several legal reasons were invoked by Philip V and later by Philip VI of France to bar her from the succession, such as proximity in kinship to Louis IX of France. Later, the Salic Law was construed as the reason. After Charles IV of France died in 1328, she became Queen of Navarre through a treaty with the new king, Philip VI of France. She had to renounce her rights to the crown of France, and her grandmother’s estates in Brie and Champagne, which were put into the French royal domain.. In compensation, she received the counties of Angoulême and Mortain as well as a portion of Cotentin (Longueville). Later on she exchanged Angouleme for three estates in Vexin: Pontoise, Beaumont-sur-Oise, and Asnière-sur-Oise. She signed her laws with the title: Nos, donna Johana, por la gracia de Dius reyna de Francia et de Navarra, et de Jampayne et de Bria condesa palaziana. Mother of 8 children, and succeeded by son, Carlos II, she died of the plague and lived (1312-49).


1328, 1338, 1339-41 and 1346-47 Regent Queen Jeanne de Bourgogne of France

Her husband, king Philippe VI de Valois (1293-1328-50), appointed her regent when he fought on military campaigns, first against

Jeanne de Bourgogne, Regent of France

Jeanne de Bourgogne, Regent of France

Louis of Flanders and later several times during the Hundred Years War. Intelligent and strong-willed, her nature and power earned both herself and her husband a bad reputation, which was accentuated by her deformity (which was considered by some to be a mark of evil), and she became known as la male royne boiteuse (“the lame male Queen”), supposedly the driving force behind her weaker husband. One chronicler described her as a danger to her enemies in court: “the lame Queen Jeanne de Bourgogne…was like a King and caused the destruction of those who opposed her will.”. She was also considered to be a scholarly woman and a bibliophile: she sent her son, John, manuscripts to read, and commanded the translation of several important contemporary works into vernacular French. She was daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy and princess Agnes of France and the cousin of Countess Jeanne II of Bourgogne, who was married to King Philipee V of France. She was mother of 7 children and died of the Plague, and lived (1293-1348).


1328-92 Sovereign Countess Blanche de France of Beaumont (France)

Daughter of Charles IV, Count de La Marche and King of France and Navarra (1295-1328) and his third wife, Jeanne d’Évreux (1310-71). She was married to Philippe duc d’Orleans, Count de Valois et Beaumont (d. 1375), and lived (1228-92).


1328-32 Regent Dowager Duchess Isabella von Habsburg of Lorraine (Lothringen) (France)

Widow of Duke Ferri IV (Friedrich V) and regent for Rudolf or Raoul (1328-46). She (d. 1332).


1328-30 Princess-Abbess Jonatha von Donmartin of Säckingen (Germany)

Since she had not been elected with a clear majority, she was unable to inforce her authority over the chapter and Bishpop Rudolf von Montfort of Konstantz persuaded her to resign and withdrew the rigtht of free election from the chapter and appointed Agnes von Brandis as er successor.


1328 Reigning Abbess Katharina von Triberg of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Her family were lords of Triberg, but the family had died out in the male line in 1325 with the death of Burkard III, who had succeeded his uncle in 1311. He is buried in the choir of the Church of the Chapter. The Lordship of Triberg was awarded to the Lords of Hohenberg.


129-53 Reigning Abbess Anna I von Winberg of Buchau (Germany)

In 1347 she Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian addressed her as “My Dear Princess” in a letter, but it was not until about 100 years that the position of Princess of the Realm was confirmed for the Abbess of the Chapter. She lived (1303-53).


1329 Reigning Abbess Benigna von Bachenstein of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

Second member of her family to rule the territory. Member of a family of knights and Lords of Barchenstein, Kupfezell and von Goggenback.


Before 1330 Queen Regnant Yodith I of Simien (Falsa) (Ethiopian Sub-state)

Succeeded husband and succeeded by daughter, Yodith II.


After 1330 Queen Regnant Yodith II of Simien (Falsa) (Ethiopian Sub-state)

Ascended to the throne after the death of her mother, Yodith I, and thereby became ruler of the mountainous region in northern

Philippa de Hainault, Regent of England

Philippa de Hainault, Regent of England



1330 Regent Queen Philippa de Hainault of England

Her husband Edward III appointed her regent on many occasions when he was absent on the Continent. When the Scots invaded England as far south as Durham in1346, she raised an army, winning the battle of Neville’s Cross, and taking the Scottish King David II Bruce (d.1371) prisoner. She was responsible for the introduction of weaving into England and the patron of poets and musicians. She survived the Black Death (1348) – but her daughter Joanna, en route to marry the Castilian Prince Pedro the Cruel, was struck down and died. She was daughter of Count Guillaume III de d’Avesnes of Hainault and Holland (d.1337) and Jeanne de Valois (d.1352). She had 11 children and lived (1311-69).


1330 Regent Dowager Tsarina Theodora Palaiologina of Bulgaria

After her husband, Tsar Michael Shishman, was defeated and killed by the Serbians, under Stephen Uros III, at the battle of Velbflzhd (Kiustendil) she assumed the regency for stepson, Ivan Stepan Shishman, who died in exile in Napoli. Her husband’s ex-wife Princess Ana Nead of Serbia soon deposed her. Theodora was daughter of Micahél IX Palailogos, co-emperor of Byzantium and Rita of Armenia.


1330-31 Regent Ex-Tsarina Ana Neda of Bulgaria

After her brother had deposed her ex-husband, Michael III, she initially reigned in the name of her son, Czar Ivan Stephan, until she was removed herself. Her brother, Stephen Uros III, ruled Serbia and Bulgaria until 1355. Ana Neda was first engaged to Count Charles de Valois, but never married him. (d. after 1346).


1330-47 Sovereign Countess Jeanne III de France of Artois, Flanders, Brabant, Franche-Comté and Upper Burgundy (France and Belgium)

Jeanne III d'Artois, Flanders, Brabant, Franche-Comté and Upper Burgundy

Jeanne III d’Artois, Flanders, Brabant, Franche-Comté and Upper Burgundy

The daughter of Countess Jeanne I of Artois and Bourgogne and King Philippe V of France, she married to Eudes IV, Duc de Bourgogne, thereby uniting the two Bourgognes, which had been separated for 400 years. She was first succeeded by son, Philippe de Rouvres Bourgogne, Comte d’Artois and D’Auvergne, who succeeded his father in Rouvers and his grandmother in Franche-Comté etc. In 1361 he was succeeded by his cousin, Marguerite, daughter of Jeanne’s sister by the same name. Jeanne II lived (1291-60).


Around 1330 Reigning Abbess Agnes von Habsburg of Königsfelden, Lady of Bözberg, Eigenamt and the City of Brugg (Switzerland)

A few years after death of her husband Andreas III of Hungary (d. 1301), she entered the Chapter in 1317 without taking the wow of a nun, and continued her political activities in favour of the Habsburgs. As advisor of Duke Albrecht of Austria and Representative of the Habsburg interests in the “Front-Austrian” lands, she acted as intermediary in the conflicts between the Habsburgs and the States of Switzerland etc. on various occasions throughout the years. She was daughter of King Albrecht of Habsburg and Elisabeth von Görtz-Tirol and lived (1281-1364).


1330-49 Princess-Abbess Agnes I von Brandis of Säckingen (Germany)

Appointed by Bishop Rudolf of Konstantz as the chapter had lost the right of free election because of misuse of secular powers. After the roman church burned down in 1343, she initiated new Gothic Church, and the same year Queen Agnes of Hungary acted as mediator in disputes between the chapter and the Town of Säckingen. During her reign a number of churches and parishes were incorporated in the chapter for financial reasons. She was the sister of Bishop Heinrich of Konstantz (1357-83) and Abbot Eberhard of Reichenau (1343-79), and daughter of Freiherr Mangold I von Brandis and Countess Margaretha von Nellenborg.


1331-84 Sovereign Countess Jeanne of Penthièvre of Penthièvre
1334 Sovereign Countess of Goëllo and Dame de  d’Avaugour
1341-84 Sovereign Duchess of Bretagne, Vicomtesse de Limoges and Dame de Mayenne, de l’Aigle and de Châtelaudren (France)

First succeeded her father Guy de Bretagne, in Penthièvre, then her grandfather in Goëllo (Her mother, Jeanne d’Avaugour, had died in 1327), and finally her uncle, Jean III, in Bretagne. Married Charles de Blois, Seigneur of Châtillon-sur-Marne, who became duke by the right of his wife. She was known as Jeanne “La Boiteuse” and lived (1319-84).


1331-ca. 36 and 1339-ca. 44 Regent Dowager Margravine Marie d’Artois of Namur (Belgium)

Widow of Jean I, she was regent for son Jean II, who went to Bohemia in order to succeed King Jean de Luxembourg as king, and therefore appointed her as regent in the Marchionate. Jean II was succeeded two of her other sons, and in 1339 by 13 year old Guilllaume I for whom she also acted as regent.


1331-95 Sovereign Countess Jolanta van Flanders-Cassel of Cassel, Marle, Nogent, Bourbourg, Montmirail and Allauye (Belgium)
1344-52 and 1356-59 Regent of Bar (France)

Only daughter and heir of Count Robert van Flandern-Cassel (died in 1331). First married to Heinrich IV, Count of Bar (ca. 1312-44) and in 1352 Philippe d’Évreux, Comte de Longueville (1336-63). Her son, Eduard II of Bar, lived (1344-1352). Her second son was Robert I of Bar. In 1352-56 she fought for the regency with her sister-in-law, Jeanne. She lived (1324-95).


1331-33 Sovereign Lady and Steward Margaretha van Berthout of Mechelen (The Netherlands)

Succeeded the father of her mother Sophie de Berthout, Floris, with her father Reinald II the Black, Duke of Gelders, as Regent until the City Liège asserted its rule of the lordship, which is also known as Malines in French. Margareta’s father’s second wife was Eleonore of England, who was Guardian and Regent of Geldern (1343-44). Margareta married Count Gerhard von Jülich. 1333 she sold the Lordship and Stewardship of Mecheln to the county of Flanders. She lived (Ca. 1320-44).


1331-57 Countess Abbess Jutta zu Schwalenberg of Gandersheim (Germany)

Also known as Judith, she was daughter of Heinrich II von Waldeck, Count of Schwalenberg and Elisabeth von Kleve.


1332-33 Regent Dowager Empress Khanum Ptashali of the Yuan Dynasty of China

Leader of the Qagans, a Mongolian Dynasty that ruled most of China and surrounding territories, during the reigns of Irinjibal

Khanum Ptashali

Khanum Ptashali

(Irincinbal) (1332) and Toghon Temur (1333-70). In 1368 the Ming Dynasty replaced the Yuans after a period of internal revolt.


1332-67 Hereditary Countess Agnès de Montbéliard of Montbéliard (France)

Oldest daughter of Renaud de Bourgogne comte de Montbeliard and Guillemette de Neufchâtel, she was the heir to the county after her mentally handicapped brother, Othenin. She was married to Henri de Montfaucon, who was invested with the title of Count by Emperor Ludwig IV of the Holy Roman Empire in 1339.


1332-60 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I of Auvergne and Boulogne (France)
1349-50 Regent Dowager Duchess of Bourgogne and Rouvers
1356-58 Regent of Franche-Comté and Artois

Jeanne I d'Auvergne and Boulogne, Regent of Bourgogne, Rouvers, Franche-Comté and Artois

Jeanne I d’Auvergne and Boulogne, Regent of Bourgogne, Rouvers, Franche-Comté and Artois

Succeeded father, Guillaume XII, and first married Duke Philippe de Bourgogne, son of Countess Jeanne II and III de France of Bourgogne and Artois from 1329. Philippe was killed at the siege of Aiguillon, and after the death of his father, Eudes IV in 1349, she became regent for her son Philippe I de Rouvres (1349-61). The following year she married Jean II de Valois, Count of Guyenne etc, and King of France (1350-64). Her son married Marguerite de Flanders, who succeeded as Countess in 1384, and her daughter, also named Marguerite, inherited the titles of Countess of Bourgogne and Artois in 1361. Jeanne lived (1326-60).


1332-34 Duchess Regnant Konstancja z Świdnica of Stary Sącz (Poland)
1360-61/63 Duchess Regnant of Głogów

Very Politically Influential during the reign of her husband, Prince Przemko of Żagań, Ścinawa, Poznań and Głogów (Circa 1308-31), but after his death King Jan de Luxembourg of Bohemia invaded the Duchy. She lived with grandparents king Władysław I Łokietek and Queen Jadwiga Kaliska of Poland in Krakow, until she handed over the Duchy of Stary Sącz to her grandmother and entered the convent of St. Clare and Abbes of Stary Sącz from 1350 until king Karl IV of Bohemia gave her Glogau back 10 years later. She was daughter of Duke Bernard of Świdnica and Kunegunda of Poland, former regent in the Duchy of Swidnica, and lived (Circa 1309-61/63).


Until after 1332 Abbess Nullius Franceschina della Torre of the Monestary of Aguileia (Italy)

Held temporal and secular authority over the territory and held semi episcopal authority. She was daughter of Florimonte della Torre.


1332-50 Reigning Abbess Hersende de Guisenes of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Granted the right to name her own confessor and chaplains. Daughter of Baudoin III, count de Guînes.


1333-63 Countess Elizabeth de Burgh of Ulster (United Kingdom)

Elizabeth de Burgh

Elizabeth de Burgh

Inherited the title and lands after the death of her father, William de Burgh. Her husband, Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, (1347-68), was Earl of Ulster 1352-68. Their daughter, Philippa, succeeded him.


1333-40 Sovereign Princess Anna Melissinos of Dimitrias (Greece)

Succeeded Stephan as head of the area in southern Thessaly, beside the modern port of Volos. Pheres is the ancient town, while Dimitrias was a Medieval Principality and were a fief of the Duchy of Naxos.


1333-40 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth II von Eschen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Eschen is a city in the Principality of Liechtenstein.


1334-36 Sovereign Countess Jeanne of Joigny, Dame de Mercoeur and (France)

Daughter of Jean II. and first wife of Charles II de Valois, Comte d’Alençon (1297-1346).


1334-48 Sovereign Dame María Díaz II de Haro of Vizcaya (Spain)

Became the “XVIII señora soberana of Biscaia” upon the abdication of her aunt María Díaz de Haro I, who had reigned since 1310. She married Infant Juan Núñez de Lara (1313-50), son of Infant Fernando de la Cerda of Castilla and Juan Núñez de Lara. King Alfonso XI of Castilla had usurped the lordship in 1333 which resulted in internal warfare. Her husband was Señor for one year after her death and was succeeded by their son, Nuño de Lara and when he died in 1355 by their daughter, Juana. Doña Maria lived (d. 1348).


1334-37 Regent Dowager Duchess Caterina de La Tour du Pin of Piemonte (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Filippo I di Savoia, Lord of Piemonte and titular Prince of Achaia (by the right of his first wife, Isabella I de Villehardouin, Princess of Achaia.) she was regent for their son, Giacomo, who assumed the surname di Savoia-Acaia and title of Lord of Piemonte and Titular Prince of Achaia. As regent she signed decrees with the titulature: “Nos Katelina de Vianne, principissa curatris et curatorio nomine Iacobi de Sabaudia principis Achaye primogeniti nostri”. Catherine was daughter of Hubert I, Daupin of Vienne. (d. 1357).


1334-44 Countess-Abbess Gertrudis III von Everstein of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Gertrud Eberstein, had held the office of Pröbstin from 1302. She was member of an ancient noble family who were in

Gertrudis III von Gernrode und Frose

Gertrudis III von Gernrode und Frose

charge of the Castle of Everstein in Polle by the river of Holzminden an der Weser.


Around 1334 Reigning Abbess Adelheid I of Königsfelden (Switzerland)

The Chapter of Königsfelden was founded in 1310. It acquired many possessions in Aargau, Swabia and Alsace.


1334 Reigning Abbess Adelheid von Balgheim of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Member of a noble family, which started out as civil servants at one of the Duchal courts of Germany (Ministerialadel).


1334 Military Leader Countess Agnes Randolph of March and Dunbar in Scotland (United Kingdom)

Also known as Black Agnes, she was married to Patrick, fourth Earl of Dunbar and second Earl of March. In her youth she fought for the Bruce, but is better remembered for the later defence of her castle. In 1334 she successfully held her castle at Dunbar against the besieging forces of England’s Earl of Salisbury for over five months, despite the unusual number of engineers and elaborate equipment brought against her. After each assault on her fortress, her maids dusted the merlins and crenels, treating her foes and the dreadful siege as a tiresome jest. She was daughter of the great Randolf, 1st Earl of Moray and in 1346 she inherited from her brother the Earldom of Moray and the Lordships of Annandale and the Isle of Man and lived (Ca. 1300-ca.69).


1335-39 and 1341-42 Regent Dowager Despina Anna Palaiologina Angelina Basilissa of Epiros, the County Palatine, the County of Kephalonia and the Lordships of Jannina, Bonditza and Leukas (Greece)

Poisoned her second husband, Jean II Dukas Komnenos Angelos, Despot of Epiros (1323-1335), who had murdered his brother, Nicolai II. They were sons of Jean II Orsini and Maria Komnena Dukaina of Epiros, daughter of the Despot Nikephoros Dukas. She immediately entered into negotiations with the Byzantine emperor, hoping to be allowed to reign unmolested. Instead she was replaced by an imperial governor 1342-49 and imprisoned in Constantinople. 1355 she married Ionannes Komnenos of Bulgaria, Despot of Serbia and Governor of Valona Kanina and Berat (d. 1363). She was daughter of Andronikos Palailogos Angelos, Byzantine Governor of Berat. She lived (ca. 1300-after 1357).


1335-48 Administrator Queen Chikai Tai of Tulunad in Karnataka (India)

Ruled the region on behalf of her husband, the Hoysala king Vira Ballala III, and seems to have continued her role even after her husband’s death.


1335-63 Reigning Lady Queen Blanka av Namur of Some estates  by the Göta River and the Castle of Lindholmen på Hisingen (Sweden) and the Province and Castle of Tønsberg (Norway)
1343-55 Regent of Parts of Norway
1353-63 Reigning Lady of the Province and Castle of Bohus and Marstrand with Älvsyssel (Sweden)

When her son, Håkon IV was named King of Norway, with her husband King Magnus of Sweden and Norway (1316-19-64-74) was

Blanka av Namur

Blanka av Namur

named regent and appointed her to rule parts of Norway while he stayed in Sweden 1343-55. Håkon came of age in 1355 and Magnus was engaged in wars with their oldest son, Erik, who died of the plauge in 1359, his cousin Albrecht of Mecklenburg and the Swedish magnates. Even though he was most probably gay, they seemed to have a good relationship. Originally named Blanche, she was daughter of Jean de Dampierre of Namur and Countess Marie d’Artois, and lived (circa 1320-63).


1335 Reigning Abbess Ädellint of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Could be identical with Adellint, mentioned in 1322.


1336-45 Regent Dowager Duchess Agnes de Périgod of Durazzo e Gravina (in Napoli) (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Jean I d’Anjou-Sicile Duke of Durazzo (1294-1336) she took over the regency for their oldest son Charles de Durazzo d’Anjou-Sicile, Prince d’Archaïe (1323-48). Her husband had first been married to and divorced from Mathilde Mahaut d’Avesnes of Holland and Hainault Princess d’Archaïe and through her the title passed to Agnes’ son. She was daughter of Count Hélie VII de Talleyrand de Périgord and Brunissende de Foix-Béarn.


1336-40 Sovereign Duchess Anna of Ratibor (Racibórz) (Poland)

After the death her brother, Leszek, the king of Bohemia granted the Slesian Duchy to her and her husband, prince Mikołaj II of Opawa. She was a daughter of prince Przemysł of Racibórz and Anna, and lived (ca. 1296-ca. 1340).


1336-51 Reigning Abbess-General María Rodríguez de Rojasof the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Abbess she was Head of the Lordships of Albillos, Alcucero, Arkanzón, Arroyak, Arrunquera, Arto, Barrio, Bercial, Can de muñó, Candasnos, Cardeñadijo, Castril de Peones, Cilleruelo de Hannoverquez, Congosto, Escobilla, Estepar, Fresno de Rodilla, Galarde, Gatón, Herramel, Herrín, La Llana, Lena, Loranquillo, Madrigalejo del Monte, Marcilla, Montornero, Olmillos, Ontiñena, Palanzuelos de la Sierrra, Piedrahita, Quintana de Loranco, Quintanilla de San García, Sargentes de Loxa, Requena, Revenga, Revilla del Campo, Revillagodos, Rivayaz, Robredo, San Mamés, San Memel, San Quirce de Humada, Saniuste, Santa Cruz de Juarros, Santa Lecina, Santa María de Invierno, Sargentes de Loxa, Tablada, Tardajos, Tinieblas, Torralba, Torre Sandino, Urrez, Valdazo, Villa Gonzalo de Pedernales, Villabáscones, Villaneueva, Villanueva de los Infantes, Villarmejo, Yarto and Zalduendo.


1337-1400 Sovereign Countess Maria of Vianden (Luxembourg)

Maria von Vianden

Maria von Vianden

She was the posthumous daughter of Henri II (1313-1337) and Marie Flandrine de Dampierre. In 1348 she married Count Simon III von Sponheim. The only of her children reach adulthood was Elisabeth von Spoinheim-Vianden (1365-1417). Elisabeth had no children and the county was inherited by the son of Maria’s aunt Adelheid, Engelbert I von Nassau-Dillenburg. Maria lived (1337-1400).


1337, 1342 and 1380 Sultan Khadija of the Maldive Islands

Also known as Siri Raadha Abaarana and Sultana Khadeeja Rehendhi Kabaidhi Kilege, who ruled on three separate occasions, was one of the most memorable of the female leaders of the Maldive-Islands. Many people believe she came to power after murdering her young brother, and when she was overthrown by her husband in 1363, she killed him as well. In 1373, her second husband usurped her position. He suffered the same supposed fate as his predecessor. Triumphant over the dead bodies of her treacherous husbands, she ruled alone until she died in 1380. Her sister, Fatima, reigned as sultan (1379-81).


1337 Princess-Abbess Isolde von Wied of Thorn (The Netherlands)

In 1244 the first line of counts of Wied, of Altwied died out and a part of the possessions was inherited by the Counts of Grafen von Isenburg-Braunsberg who used the title of Count of Wied from 1388.


1337-78 Princess-Abbess Margaretha II van Heinsberg of Thorn (The Netherlands)

The first elected sovereign of the ecclesiastical territory. Numerous complaints against her reign reached the Bishop of Liège, and during an inspection he found 12 and not the stipulated 20 Ladies of the Chapter, and on top of it all, three of the inhabitants were young girls. The incomes of the territory were not used for the maintenance of the Abbey, and furthermore Margratha’s was absent very often. She was reprimanded but did not take it seriously. She was more Princess than Abbess. She was daughter of Gottfried, Lord of Heinsberg and Blankenburg and Mechtild von Looz.


1337-60 Princess-Abbess Katharina I von der Mark of Essen (Germany)

Daughter of Engelbert II von der Mark and Matilda von Arenberg. Her sister, Margrethe, was Abbess of Münster.

.......The so-called Katharina-Daler, the coin that Katharina von der Mark struck as Fürstäbtissin of Essen

The Katharina-Daler that Katharina von der Mark struck as Fürstäbtissin of Essen


1338-39 Al-sultana al-radila Sati Bek Khan Khallad Allah mulkaha of the Mongols Il Khans Empires in Persia (Iran)

Also known as Sati Beg Hatun, her title meant: “The just sultana Sati Bek, may Allah perpetuate her reign”. 1319 she was married to the Amir Coban, one of the most powerful individuals in the Ilkhanid court, but when he came into conflict with her brother, Ilkhan Abu Sa’id, she was returned to the Ilkhan, and her husband executed. After her brother’s death in 1335, the Ilkhanate began to disintegrate. By 1336, she and her son Surgan had taken the side of the founder of the Jalayirid dynasty, Hasan Buzurg. After the latter seized control of western Persia, Surgan was made governor of Qarabag (in modern Azerbaijan), where they moved to. However, when a grandson of Coban, Hasan Kucek, defeated Hasan Buzurg in July 1338, she defected to his camp. Taking advantage of her family ties, Hasan Kucek raised her to the Ilkhanid throne in July or August of that year. Her nominal authority did not extend beyond the Chobanid domains of northwestern Persia. Hasan Buzurg, who still controlled southwestern Persia and Iraq, requested the assistance of another claimant of the Ilkhanid throne named Togha Temur. The latter invaded the Chobanid lands in early 1339. Hasan Kucek, however, promised her hand in marriage to him in exchange for an alliance. This proved, however, to be a ruse; the intent was merely to alienate Hasan Buzurg from Togha Temur. The Jalayirids withdrew their support, and Togha Temur was forced to retreat without gaining her. Meanwhile, Hasan Kucek was growing suspicious of her and her son. Realizing that she was too valuable to be removed completely, he deposed her and then forced her to marry his new candidate for the throne, Suleiman Khan.  Hasan Kucek was murdered late in 1343 and her son Surgan found himself competing for control of the Chobanid lands with the late ruler’s brother Malek Asraf and his uncle Yagi Basti. When he was defeated by Malek Asraf, he fled to his mother and stepfather. The three of them then formed an alliance, but when Hasan Buzurg decided to withdraw the support he promised, the plan fell apart, and they fled to Diyarbakr. Surgan was defeated again in 1345 by Malek Asraf and they fled to Anatolia. Coinage dating from that year appears in Hesn Kayfa in her name – the last trace of her. Surgan moved from Anatolia to Baghdad, where Hasan Buzurg eventually executed him; she may have suffered the same fate, but this is unknown. (d. sometime after 1345).


1338-68 Reigning Dowager Duchess Agnes von Habsburg of Strzegom
1368-92 Reigning Dowager Duchess of  Schweidnitz and Jaur (Świdnica and Jawor) (Poland)

Her husband, Duke Bolko II of Świdnica and Jawor (1309/1312-1368) granted her Strzegom in 1338 and she reigned in Świdnica and

Agnes von Habsburg

Agnes von Habsburg

Jawor after his death. Daughter of Archduke Leopold von Habsburg. After her death, her lands were incorporated in Bohemia. (d. 1392).


1338 Sovereign Countess Aneza d’Aunoy of Kyparissa (Greece)

Succeeded Gerard II and married Stephen the Black. The County is today known as Arcadia and situated in the southwestern Peloponnesus.


1338-77 Lord Marshal of England Margaret of Brotherton Plantagenet of Norfolk
1338-99 Territorial Countess of Norfolk (United Kingdom)

Jointly with the Lord High Constable she headed the College of Arms, the body concerned with all matters of genealogy and heraldry, although the Earl Marshall’s connection with heraldry came about almost accidentally. In conjunction with the Lord High Constable he had held a court, known as the Court of Chivalry, for the administration of justice in accordance with the law of arms, which was concerned with many subjects relating to military matters, such as ransom, booty and soldiers’ wages, and including the misuse of armorial bearings. The Marshall, as eighth Officer of State, has to organise coronations and the State Opening of Parliament. Norfolk was an autonomous fiefdom from the Norman conquest She was daughter of Thomas “Brotherton” and Alice de Hales. Married to John de Segrave and mother of (d. 1353) and mother of Elizabeth de Segrave (1338-75), and held the duchy jointly with her grandson, Thomas II de Mowbray (1366-97-99), the father of Margaret Mowbray, Duchess of Norfolk. Margaret Plantagenet lived (ca. 1122-99).


1339-50 Sovereign Viscountess Cécile of Touraine (France)

Daughter of Countess Marguerite. She succeeded brother, Jean, and reigned jointly with husband Jaime de Aragón, Count de Urgell, until his death in 1346. Cécile and succeeded by brother-in-law Guillaume Roger de Beaufort (1350-93), who was first succeeded by son and in 1417 by his daughter Eléonore.


1339-50 Sovereign Baroness Luitgard of Rechteren (The Netherlands)

Succeeded Zweder I as head of the smaller Barony, until 1523 within the Bishopric of Utrecht, then within Gelders.


1339 Reigning Abbess Katharina die Schereberin of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Her sister Agatha and her relative Helena von Hinwill were nuns in the chapter.


1340-47 Regent Dowager Empress Anna de Savoie of Constantinople (Covering what is now Greece and Turkey)
1350-65/66 De Facto Ruler of Thessalonica (Greece)

Widow of Andronikos III (1296-1328-41) and governed for son Jean V (1332-41—47-91) jointly with the Patriarch of the Orthodox

Anna de Savoie, Empress of Constantinople and De Facto Ruler of Thessalonica

Anna de Savoie, Empress of Constantinople 

war. A civil war followed with the pretender Jean VI Kantakuzenos (1347-54) who became emperor in 1347 when her son was deposed. She lived in Constantinople until 1350 when she moved to Thessalonica, which she ruled as her own portion of the empire until her death. She lived (1306-65/66).


1340-41 Empress Regnant Eirene Palaiologina of Trebizond (Turkey)

Also known as Irene Palaiologina, she was the illegitimate daughter of Andronikos III Palailogos and married to Emperor Basileios II Komnenos of Trapezunt. In spite of her precipitous actions, Irene found the cares of government beyond her and appealed to her father to send her a husband from amongst the Byzantine nobles, who would rule the Empire and help fight off her mounting enemies. However Andronikos III died on June 15, 1341 before he could answer his daughter’s request, but it mattered little since she soon fell in love with her Grand Domestikos and split her court into factions by her unseemly favour of this man. The first round of the civil war began shortly after her accession. Three opposing parties had formed: first was that of herself, the family of Amytzantarants, and her Byzantine mercenaries provided courtesy of her father; second was of the opposing nobles under the Lord of Tzanich, the captain-general of the Scholarioi and a part of the imperial bodyguard loyal to the memory of their late Emperor, and the third party was that of the Grand Duke John the Eunuch of Limnia. The rebel nobles encamped themselves in the Monastery of St. Eugenios in the capital, but Grand Duke of Limnia decided to join her and helped her deal with the rebels. They bombarded the monastery, destroying it almost completely, and defeated the rebels in early July 1340. In the same time, affairs of the Empire went worse as the Turkmen attacked Trebizond and marched up to the walls of the capital itself. A first attack was repelled but the second could not be stopped by demoralized army of Irene, and the Turkmen set fire to much of Trebizond without being able to capture it. The catastrophy was exacerbated by the outbreak of an epidemic. The remaining nobles who had escaped the massacre in the Monastery of St. Eugenios, seeing that her incompetent rule would cause a catastrophy, decided to find a legitimate claimant to the throne in the person of the daughter of Alexios II, Anna Anachoutlou. They convinced her to abandon her monastic vows and acclaimed her Empress in Lazica. Irene, when she heard of the revolt, executed all of the nobles and prisoners from the St. Eugenian massacre, but it was of no avail. The Empress’s unpopularity by now was so horrible that as soon as Anna arrived at the city walls Irene was deposed on July 17, 1341. She was later sent off to Constantinople and we know nothing further of her fate. She lived (ca. 1315-41).


1340-74 Politically Influential Queen Consort Helvig von Slesvig of Denmark

Helvig of Denmark

Helvig of Denmark

By her marriage to Valdemar IV Atterdag (1340-75), her father gave her 1/4 of Jutland as dowry, which he had, in security for lones to the Danish kings and other royals who had engaged in a long civil war. Most of the country was in the hands of the Holstein Counts, but her dowry was a contributing factor to the fact that her husband managed to win back all the territory – giving him his by-name “Day again”. Helvig must have acted as regent during her husband’s many journeys abroad, but she also seems to have ended her days in a convent. She was the mother of Margrethe I of Denmark, and died (ca. 1374).


1340-58 Princess-Abbess Fides von Klingen of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

The head of the chapter had been Princess of the Empire since 1234 and acquired many possessions in Uri Schwyz and in Zurich throughout the years.


1340-41 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III de Gavre of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Succeeded by Elisabeth IV after about one year in office.


Before 1340-49 Princess-Abbess Dimudis of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Also known as Dietmut.


1340-57 Reigning Abbess Petrissa von Weidenberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The present church of the chapter was built during her reign. She was apparently member of a Bavarian noble family.


Around 1340s Legendary Princess Urduja of Tawalisi (The Philippines)

Ancient accounts say, was a 14th century woman ruler of the dynastic Kingdom of Tawalisi in Pangasinan, a vast area lying by the shores of the Lingayen Gulf and the China Sea. Pangasinan was an important kingdom then, and the sovereign was equal to the King of China. Legend has it that she was famous for leading a retinue of woman warriors who were skilled fighters and equestrians. They developed a high art of warfare to preserve their political state. The legend of Princess Urduja can be attributed to the famous story of Mohammedan traveller, Ibn Batuta of India, who was a passenger on a Chinese junk, which has just come from the port of Kakula, north of Java and Sumatra and passed by Pangasinan on the way to Canton, China in 1347.


1341 and 1341-42 Empress Regnant Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene  of Trebizond (Turkey)

A nun, but during the unsuccessful reign of Irene Palaiologina she had been persuaded by Trapezuntine nobles to abandon her monastic vows, and seize the crown. She was proclaimed empress in Lazica and advanced on Trabzon. Wherever she went, the people joined the revolt and when she, reinforced by the troops send by the Georgian king George V, arrived at the walls of Trebizond on July 17 1341 she was admitted without resistance and acclaimed Empress, while Irene was deposed and sent off to Constantinople on a western ship. For the moment, Anna ruled unchallenged, although she was actually a puppet in the hands of the ruling nobility. At the same time the people remained discontent, and the Turkmen plundered the countryside. Niketas and Gregory, the leaders of the Scholarioi, returned to Constantinople and convinced the government to give them Michael’s young son, John, as a claimant to the throne of Trebizond. In September 1342, with the help of the Genoese, John’s small forces (5 galleys) made their way to Trebizond. Although she and her courtiers prepared to defend themselves, they were sabotaged by a popular revolt. John’s supporters took control of the city on September 4 1342 and crowned John III emperor. The Scholarioi executed many of their rivals, and she was strangled soon after her deposition. (d. 1342).


Ca. 1341-48/49 Sovereign Lady Johanna van Voorne of Bergen op Zoom (The Netherlands)

Her mother Mathildis, was Sovereign Lady 1312/13-ca. 1349 and again 1351-53. Johanna married Jan van Vakenburg, who died 1352. They had no children, and Johanna lived (ca. 1325/30-48/49).


1341-51 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV de Liedekercke of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Member of a Belgian noble, family, the Lords of Liedekercke.


1341-45 Politically Influential Empress Kossi of Mali

Became the spearhead of the opposition to her ex-husband, Emperor Souleyman (1341-45) and launced an unsuccesful coup against him, but he managed to supress the opposition.


1342-47 Regent Dowager Queen Elisabetta di Carinzia of Sicilia (Italy)

Elisabeth von Kärnthen und Tyrol was also known as Isabella von Göerz, and she was regent for her son, Ludovico (1337-42-55)after the death of her husband, Pietro II. Of her other 8 children the two daughters, Costanza and Eufemia were regents respectively 1352-54 and 1355-57 for Ludovico and their brother Federico IV (1341-77). She lived (1298-1347).


1342-87 Sovereign Countess Blanche d’Aumale (France)

Inherited the realm of her father, Jean II and reigned jointly with husband Jean II d’Harcourt until he was killed in 1355. Succeeded by son Jean IV.


1342-49 Reigning Abbess Isabeau II de Valois of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Great granddaughter of king Saint-Louis and daughter of Count Charles II de Valois, third son of King Philippe III France and Titular Empress Catherine I Courtenay of Constantinople (1274–1308) Her oldest half-brother, was king Philippe VI and her older sister was Titular Empress Catherine II de Valois of Constantinople. She lived (1305–1349).


1342-43 Queen Regnant Fijo Wad of Walo (Senegal)

She succeeded Queen Mbam Wad and was succeeded by Queen Dudu Wad.


1343-44 Queen Regnant Dudu Wad of Walo (Senegal)

Succeeded Queen Fijo Wad and was succeeded by Queen Dofo Wad.


1343-82 Queen Regnant Giovanna I d’Angiò of Napoli and Sicilia and Sardegna, Sovereign Duchess of Pouilles and Calabre, Princess of Capua, Sovereign Countess of Provence, Forcalquier and Piémont (Italy and France)
1374-76 Princess of Achaia and Baroness of Vostitsa (Greece) and Titular Queen of Jerusalem

Giovanna I of Napoli

Giovanna I of Napoli

Also known as Joan or Johanna of Napels, Jeanne d’Anjou or Juanna. At the age of 17 she was crowned by her Grandfather, Roberto d’Anjou, and inherited a flourishing kingdom, however tormented by dynastic troubles. In 1342 Giovanna married Andrea of Hungary, who died two years later in consequence of a conspiracy, to which perhaps the Queen herself participated in. Her brother-in-law took his revenge invading Naples. In 1346 she had married her cousin Luigi d’Anjou of Taranto. Because of the invasion she flew to Avignon in Provence, in 1347 she sold the state to Pope Clemente VI who supported her as an exchange to hold back the Hungarian expansion in Italy.  After the death of her second husband, Giovanna got married with Juan of Aragon, who died very soon in consequence of an illness. Then in the same year she married a skilful captain, Otto of Braunschweig, to better defend her reign. She didn’t have any heir and this caused succession problems. Pope Urbano VI excommunicated her because she had backed up the Anti-Pope Clemente VII. Her cousin, Carlo of Durazzo of Taranto, invaded her reign also because she had appointed as her successor Louis I d’Anjou, brother of the King of France. Giovanna fell prisoner and Carlo imprisoned her in Muro Lucano, a small town in Southern Italy, and had her strangled in 1383. She lived (1343-83).


1343-66 Heiress Maria d’Anjou of Napoli, Countess of Alba (Italy)

Posthumously born daughter of Duke Carlo de Calabria and Maria de Valois, she was designated as heir to her sister, Giovanna I. First married to Charles d’Anjou, Prince of Durazzo, who was executed, she later murdered her second husband, Robert de Baux, Count d’Avellino in 1354 and the following year she married her last husband, Philippe II. d’Anjou, Prince de Taranto. Mother of ten children, who all died young and she died giving birth to the youngest. She lived (1328-66).


1343-47 Dowager Duchess Eleonora of England of Guelders and Zutphen (The Netherlands)

Also known as Alianora van Woodstock, she was widow of Reinald II the Black, and regent for son Reinald III the Fat, Duke

Eleonora of England

Eleonora of England

of Guelders (Gelder) and count of Zutphen (1333-43-61 and 1371). After his death her two stepdaughters engaged in a power struggle. She was daughter of King Edward II and Isabella of France, and lived (1318-55).


1343-45 Commander of the Montfort Faction Jeanne de Flanders of Bretagne (France)

Her husband, Jean de Montfort (who named himself Duke Jean IV), had taken up arms against his cousin, the reigning Duchess Jeanne de Penthièvre and her husband, Charles de Blois in 1341. When he died, she organized resistance to secure the rights of her son, Jean, who later became known as the 4th. In the siege of Hennebont, she took up arms and, dressed in armour, conducted the defence of the town, urging the women to “cut their skirts and take their safety in their own hands”. She even led a raid of knights outside the walls that successfully destroyed one of the enemy’s rear camps. Her forces captured Charles de Blois in battle. But she became insane and died in confinement, and her son grew up in England until he returned to Bretagne in 1364 and deposed his father’s cousin the following year. She was the daughter of Louis, Count of Nevers and Jeanne of Rethel and the sister of Count Louis I of Flanders, and lived (circa 1295–1374).


1343 Reigning Abbess Adelheid Diepolt of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Member of a noble German family.


1344-45 Queen Regnant Dofo Wad of Walo (Senegal)

The last of four successive Queens, she followed Queen Dudu Wad on the throne.


Ca.1344-ca.52 Sultan Regnant Mo’at Laila of Ifat (East Shoa, Ethiopian Substate)

The Muslim sultanate situated in the northeastern Shewan foothills was one of the boarder-states threatening the Ethiopian state but it was about one hundred years later.


1344 Regent Dowager Queen Maria of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Lesser Armenia) (Syria and Turkey)
1363-73 Politically Active

After Constantine IV of Armenia, who was the first Latin king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was killed in an uprising in 1344 after two years in office, she took over the regency. The new king was a distant cousin, Constantine V of Armenia, who died of natural causes in 1362. She then married Constantine VI another distant cousin, who formed an alliance with Peter I of Cyprus, offering him the port and castle of Corycus. On Peter’s death in 1369, Constantine looked for a treaty with the Sultan of Cairo. The barons were unhappy with this policy, fearing annexation by the Sultan, and in 1373 Constantine was murdered. The year before she had sent a letter to Pope Gregory XI requesting military help against the Moslems. After her husband’s death, the Pope urged her to marry Otto of Braunschweig. She was daughter of Jeanne of Anjou, Princess of Tarent and Oshin Korikos (or Corycos), who was regent of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1320-1329 during king Leo V’s minority. He was rumoured to have poisoned King Oshin and was probably responsible for the deaths of Leo’s father, Oshin’s sister Isabella of Armenia and two of her sons. He and his daughter, Alice was assassinated in 1329 at the behest of her husband Leo V.


1344-50 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I of Soissons, Dame de Beaumont, Chimay, Valenciennes and Condé (France)

Daughter of Countess Marguerite and Jean, Seigneur de Beaumont. She married Louis I, Count de Blois and Dunois, Seigneur de Châtillon and Seigneur d’Avesnes, and was succeeded by son,  Guy II de Blois-Châtillon.


1344-48 Countess-Abbess Gertrudis IV von Hessnem of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Gertrud. From the thirteenth century onwards, the community suffered from debts, poor management by its abbesses, divisions within the chapter, the poor economic conditions of the later Middle Ages, and the aggressive territorial politics of the archbishop of Magdeburg and the bishops of Halberstadt. The community gradually lost both goods and tenants.


1344-47 Reigning Abbess Agatha Truchsessin von Messkirch of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

As Abbess she also held the overlordship and lower jurisdiction in the villages of Wald, Buffenhofen, Burrau, Dietershofen, Gaisweiler, Hippetsweiler, Kappel, Litzelbach, Otterswang, Reischach, Riedetsweiler, Ringgenbach, Rothenlachen, Steckeln, Walbertsweiler und Weihwang by the Bodenzee Lake and outside it’s acctual territories of Igelswies, Ruhestetten und Tautenbronn Also Owned vineries in Wald Aufkirch, Goldbach, Sipplingen und Bermatingen, am Untersee auf der Insel Reichenau and in Allensbach.


Around 1345 Joint Ruler Empress Bendjou of Mali

When the noble ladies refused to show her the customary respect since she was of common origin, her husband, Souleyman, engaged in a battle with his ex-wife, Kossi, and her relatives as a reflection of a greater struggle for political power which escalated into a minor civil war – which he won, and she was able to take her customary place as joint ruler with the emperor.


1345-63 Sovereign Duchess Anna von Schweidnitz of Schweidnitz and Jauer (Świdnica-Jawor) (Poland)

Anna Świdnicka

Anna Świdnicka

Also known as Anna Świdnicka, she the only daughter of the Slesian Duke Henryk II of Schweidnitz (1312-26-45) and Katharina d’Anjou of Hungary (d. ca 1355) and as the wife of Emperor Karl IV (1316-78), she was Queen of Germany and Bohemia and Holy Roman Empress. As mother of the Imperial Heir, Wenzel, she was politically influential. She lived (1339-62).


1345-59 Princess-Abbess Anna II von Arbon of Schänis (Switzerland)

Possibly the first the first to use the title of Princess of the Realm, and throughout the centuries the Abbess claimed to hold that rank even though the chater newer acctually achieved the position of an Immediate Territory (Reichsabtei). She was daughter of Heinrich von Arbon and Wilburga. Her brother, Hermann, was Abbot of Pfäfers (1330-60).


1345-46 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I de Montpensier of Dreux and Braine (France)

Her father Pierre (1298-1331-45) was the last of three brothers to succeed each other as counts of Dreux since the death of their father, Jean II in 1309. Jeanne was succeeded by aunt, Jeanne II. She lived (1315-46).


1345-57 Reigning Abbess Hélissent II de Noyers of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

Succeeded aunt, Hélissent I.


1346-54/55 Sovereign Countess Jeanne II of Dreux and Braine (France)

The daughter of Jean II le Bon, she succeeded her niece, Jeanne I, and reigned jointly with husband Louis de Thouars (d. 1370). First succeeded by son and then by daughters Petronelle and Marguerite. Jeanne lived (1308-54/5).


1346-53 Regent Dowager Duchess Beatrice de Bourbon of Luxembourg

Governed in the name of Venceslas, whose half-brother was Emperor Karl of The Holy Roman Empire.


1346 Regent Dowager Countess Marguerite de France of Flanders and Rethel
1361-82 Sovereign Countess Palatine of Bourgogne and Countess of Franche-Comté, Artois and Salins (The low countries)

Daughter of King Philippe V of France and Jeanne I d’Artois (1329-30). She married Louis II de Nevers, Count of Flanders and Rethel,

 Marguerite de France, Comtesse de Bourgogne, Franche-Comté, Artois et Salins and regent of of Flanders and Rethel

Marguerite de France, Comtesse de Bourgogne, Franche-Comté, Artois et Salins and regent of of Flanders and Rethel

who fell in battle in 1346 and was regent for their son, Louis II de Male (1330-84), and in her own lands, she succeeded the her sister, Jeanne II (1330-47)’s great-grandson as Marguerite I in 1361. She abdicated in favour of son, but remained politically active to her death. Her son was succeeded by her daughter, Marguerite II, in 1384. Marguerite I lived (1310-82).


1346-6.. Regent Dowager Duchess Marie de Blois of Lorraine (France)

After the death of her husband, Rudolf or Raoul, she assumed the regency for her son Johann or Jean I of Lothringen or Lorraine (1346-90).


1346-73 Politically Influential Abbess Birgitta av Vadstena in Sweden and Europe

Birgitta av Vadstena

Birgitta av Vadstena

Despite her similar affinity to a religious life, Birgitta was married at the age of 13 to Ulf Gudmarsson for her family’s political advancement. The marriage proved to be a happy and pious union, bearing eight children and lasting nearly three decades. After her husband’s death in 1344, she was received various religious revelations, founding her own order, and using her influence in religious and political matters. 1349-50 she travelled to Rome to petition with the Pope for the recognition of her domination, and she founded a religious order here. 1371 she embarked on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem with her children. In Napoli her son, Karl Ulfsson, got entangled in a relationship with Queen Giovanna I, who wanted to marry him, but he died before anything came of it. Leaving the state, she handed the advice to Giovanna, that she should do something about the moral level. Stopping in Cyprus, she also gave advice to Queen Eleonora of Aragón. After four months in Jerusalem, they returned to Rome, where she died. 1374 the pope accepted the foundation of the Vadstena Convent – with both monks and nuns lead by Birgitta’s daughter, Katharina av Vadstena.  The Holy Birgitta was declared a saint in 1391 and Katharina some years later. Birgitta lived (1303-73).


1347-85 Queen Regnant Rajalla Devi of Malla Patan and Kathmandu (Nepal)

Also known as Rajalladevi, Rajalaxmi or Rajalaxmo, she was the daughter of Queen Sariayakadevi, and was brought up by her grandmother, Queen-Regent Devala. She was married to King Jaysthiti Malla of Bhadgaon, who invaded Nepal and ruled as Prince Counsort 1382-95, and described himself as the husband of Rajalladevi in many of his incriptions.


1347-53 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Jutta von Brandenburg of Coburg-Henneberg (Germany)

Inherited the landscapes of Coburg-Henneberg after her husband Heinrich VIII von Henneberg-Schleusingen’s death. Her son-in-law – the husband of her daughter, Katharina von Henneberg, then inherited the territories and they became parts of Meissen and Thüringen, of which she was regent from 1381.


1347-53 Princess-Abbess Lutgard von Stolberg of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Count Heinrich and Countess Jutta von Hadmersleben. (d. 1353).


Until 1347 Princesse-Abbesse Jeanne I de Vaudemont of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz  (France)

Succeeded her father, Henri II de Vaudemont, Count de Vaudémont et d’Ariano and Helissende de Vergy, Dame du Fay. She lived (ca. 1267-1312).


1348-79 Sultan and Maha Radun Malikat Rahandi Kambadi-Kilagi of the Maldive Islands, Sultan of Land and Sea and Lord of the twelve-thousand islands

Sultan Rahandi Kambadi-Kilagi of the Maldive Islands

Sultan Rahandi Kambadi-Kilagi of the Maldive Islands

One of three daughters of Sultan Salah ad-Din Salih Albendjaly, who was succeeded by her brother. The vizier ‘Abdallah al-Muhammad al-Hazrami married the sultan’s mother, and had him put to death. Meanwhile, Khadija had married Jamal-ud-din, who managed to take over the reigns of power for his wife. As vizier he issued orders in her name. Succeeded by sister, Myriam.


1348-87 Sovereign Duchess Giovanna de Sicile-Duras of Durazzo (Italy)

Also known as Jeanne, she succeeded her father, Carlo di Durazzo, Duke di Durazzo, Lord of the Kingdom of Albania and Conte di Gravina, who was executed in 1348. She was married to her cousin Clarles Martel di Calabria, Louis de Navarre, Comte de Beaumont and Robert IV d’Artois, comte d’Eu, who was poisoned in 1387. The duchy was named after Durazzo in Albania, which used to be ruled by Napoli. Her mother was the former heir to the throne of Napoli, Princess Maria (1328-66) and her sister, Margherita, was married to Charles III, King of Naples and Jerusalem (1381-86) and Hungary (1385-86). She lived (1344-87).


1348-84 Sovereign Countess Margarete of Berg and Ravensberg (Germany)

Only daughter and heir of both her parents, Otto IV von Ravensberg-Vlotho and Margrete von Berg-Windeck, Heiress of Berg (d. 1339). After the death of her mother’s brother Adolf IX, his widow, Agnes von Kleve, secured the succession for her. Margarete married Count Gerhard I von Jülich and was succeeded by her son, Wilhelm I (ca. 1848-1408). She also had two daughters, and lived (ca. 1320-84).


1348-after 1355 Reigning Dowager Lady Banass Jelena Nemanjić Šubić of Omiš, Klis and Skradin (Croatia)

When her husband, the magnate Mladen III Šubić, prince of Bribir, died, she tried to maintain rule over his cities on behalf of her infant son but was challenged by Hungary and Venice. Her half-brother Tsar Stefan Dušan sent troops to help her garrison Klis and Skadrin against Hungary in 1355. She was the daughter of king Stefan Uroš III Dečanski of Serbia.


1348-74 Countess-Abbess Adelheid III von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Daughter of Prince Heinrich IV von Anhalt-Bernburg and his wife Sofie. A document issued on August 5, 1352 recorded a donation of 30 Marks to the community by two of its canonesses, Agnes de Merwitz (referred to as a deaconess, decana) and Margareta de Warin (referred to as a concanonica) in order to rebuild a deserted home located close to the dormitory, which should serve as the summer dormitory.


Around 1348 Princess-Abbess Jeanne-Madeleine de Flachslanden of Andelau (France)

The l’abbaye d’Andlau in Franche-Comté was founded by Empress Richarde, the wife of Karl III the Great, which along the years came to own many lordships in Alsace and France. The Abbess held semi episcopal powers, was named by the Emperor or the King and had the title of Princess-Abbess from 1288.


1349-83 Queen Regnant Ilancueitl of Tecnochtitlan (Mexico)

An Aztec Queen

An Aztec Queen

Since her father Crown-Prince Iztahuatzin, had already died, she succeeded her grandfather, Teuhtlehauc (1337-49). She was married to Huehue Acamapichtli, “Toltec” King of Colhuacan, and succeeded by their son Acamapichtli, the first Aztec emperor (1372-91). The Aztec state based on what is now Mexico City, in the central plateau of Mexico. Originally vassals of the Tepanec in Azcapotzalco, they achieved independence in the late 1420’s, and thereafter built an extensive empire throughout the region.


1349-55 In Charge of the Government Dowager Empress Irene of Trebizond
1355-67 Politically Influential

After the death of her husband, Emperor Basil, a palace coup followed and his first wife, Irene Palaiologina and her supporters seized power. She was then sent her off with her two young sons to Constantinople where they could be guarded by Irene Palaiologina’s father, Andronikos III Palaiologos. Their time in exile seems to have been spent as witnesses of the palace revolutions taking place both in Trebizond and in the Byzantine Empire. When John VI Kantakuzenos won the Byzantine civil war, he overturned the weak and violent government of Michael and put her son, Alexios III Megas Komnenos (1338-90) on the throne. She seems to have struggled for power with the nobles and especially the Doranites family who unsucessfully revolted in the capital, while her son retired to the castle fortress of Tripolis for security. In 1351 she went with an expedition to Limnia with Michael Panaretos and seized the city from the lordly pretensions of Constantine Doranites. After the civil war ended, Irene seems to have played still some part in the government of Trebizond and in 1367 accompanied her son when her grandaugter Anna was married to the king of Georgia. She also was present at the baptism of her great-grandson Basil, renamed later Alexios IV of Trebizond. (d. after 1382).


1349-54  Princess-Abbess Katharina von Strettweg of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Member of a noble family from Kärnten.


1349-53 Reigning Abbess Théophanie de Chambon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

The chapter was founded in 1101, and was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. The monks in the double-convent were commanded by a Prior under the control of the Abbess. A total of 36 Abbesses.


1349-80 Reigning Dowager Lady Elisabeth von Hohnstein of Greifenstein in Schwarzburg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Count Günther XXI. von Schwarzburg-Blankenburg, who worked as a diplomat in the service of Emperor Ludwig IV. Mother of a son and 4 daughters. (d. 1380).


1349-56 Princess-Abbess Anna III von Thulen of Säckingen (Germany)

A decree with her seal from 1355 has survived. Around 1350 the Lords von Schönau was appointed Grand Masters of the Chapter of City of Säckingen. Her family were Lords of Thulen and various other Lordships near Paderborn.


1349-65 Abbess Nullius Costanza I da Lecce of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Both secular and temporal ruler of the territory and among others exercised, through a vicar, semi-episcopal jurisdiction in the abbatial fief of Castellana.


1349-75 Politically Influential Queen Leonor de Sicilia of Aragon (Spain)

Became a powerful influence at the Aragonese court, replacing Bernardo de Cabrera as King Pedro IV’s chief adviser. In 1357, faced with mounting opposition in Sicily, her brother King Federigo proposed that Athens and Neopatras be transferred to her in return for military help from her husband in Sicily, a proposal which was refused. She was the daughter of king Peter II of Sicily and Elizabeth of Carinthia and lived (1325-75).


Late 1340s-late 1380s Politically Influential Tsarina Sarah-Theodora of Bulgaria

There are some Greek and French sources claiming her to be a daughter of a Venetian banker, but sources agree that she was Jewish, having lived with her family in the Jewish Neighbourhood in Tarnovo, and converted to Christianity in order to marry Tsar Ivan Alexander, who divorced his wife of many years, Theodora of Wallachia, who was forced to become a nun. She became renowned for her fierce support of her new religion, the Eastern Orthodox Christianity, and was one of the instigators of a church council against the Jews. She also played a significant role in the separation of the Bulgarian Empire between her firstborn son Ivan Shishman and her step-son, Ivan Stratsimir, who was crowned co-emperor by his father, who made his elder son Despot of Vidin, which he declared a separate empire after his father’s death. From now on, the relationship between the two Bulgarian Empires became cold and remained so despite the threat of the forthcoming Ottoman invasion. The date of her death is unknown, although some historians assume she died in the late 1380s. although she is widely known as Sarah or Sarah-Theodora, the name she wore before her conversion to Christianity is not mentioned in any historical source. Sarah, the name that she is known under, came from the tragedy Toward the Precipice, written by the great Bulgarian writer Ivan Vazov. Mother of at least 5 children. (d. ca. 1380s).

Women in power 1250-1300

 1250-1315 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Neuilly of Passava and Akova (Greece)

The county was known as Passe-avant at the time, and she succeeded her father, Jean II. She first married Guibert de Cors, then Guglielmo da Verona, Lord of that part of Eubœa around Oreos and thirdly to Jean de Saint-Omer of Thebes. She was sent as a hostage to Constantinople in 1262 to secure the release of Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, whose niece she was. In Akova she was the heiress of her uncle Gautier II de Rozières, baron of Akova (Matagrifon) but was unable to claim her inheritance within 2 years and 2 days due to her absence and Prince Guillaume therefore declared her inheritance forfeit. Her third husband demanded the return of her inheritance, which was refused by a specially summoned parliament at Glarentza.  Prince Guillaume granted 1/3 of the barony to Marguerite as a concession, granting the other two-thirds to his own daughter Marguerite. She was daughter of Jean de Neuilly, Baron of Passava.


 1250-96 Sovereign Princess Felicia dalle Carceri of Karysto and Sovereign Countess of The Second Triarchy of Euboea

Succeeded brother-in-law. From 1276-96 The Byzantine Empire ruled the state with her as vassal. She reigned jointly with Otto de Cicone. Succeeded by Licarius.



 1250-54 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Châtillon of Tonnerre (France)

Successor of her brother, married to Archambaud IX de Bourbon, succeeded by daughter, Mathilde II, even though her grandmother, Mathilde I de Courtenay was still alive. Yolande  lived (circa 1221-1254).


1251-55 Regent Dowager Duchess Catherine de Limbourg of Lorraine (France)
1251-55 Reigning Dowager Lady of Bitche and Gondreville

After the death of her husband, 1225 Mathieu II (1193-1251), she became regent for their son, Ferry III (1240-1302), and her term in office was marked by warious conflicts with local magnates and cities. She was daughter of Countess Ermesinde de Luxembourg and  Count Waléran III de Limbourg, mother of 5 children, and lived (circa 1215-55).


1251-67 Hereditary Duchess Margarethe von Babenberg of Österreich (Austria)

 Margarethe von Babenberg zu Österreich

Margarethe von Babenberg zu Österreich

After her brother, Friedrich’s death in 1246 she was the heir of Österreich and Steiermark, but her niece, Gertrud and husband, held the duchy in a titular capacity until she and her second husband, Premysl Otakar II of Bohemia (1230-78), prevailed in the fight for the succession. She was the widow of King Heinrich of Germany (1211-27-42) and in 1261 her second husband disowned her. Both her sons predeceased her. She lived (1204-67).


After 1251 Mahamandalesvara Ganapamba of Guntur (India)

Initially Joint sovereign with her husband, her title after 1251 indicates an individual reign. She was daughter of emperor Ganapati in Andhra, who was succeeded by her older sister, Rudradeva, who reigned from 1259.


Circa 1251-before 98 Sovereign Lady Marchesina Ghisi of Skyros, Skiathos and Skopelos (Greece)

Succeeded her father, Geremia Ghisi, the Lord of Andros. Married to Lorenzo Tiepolo who was elected Doge of Venice in 1268. Her sister, Isabetta was Heiress of the island of Amorgos.


Circa 1251-? Sovereign Lady Isabetta Ghisi of Amorgos (Greece)

She succeeded her father, Geremia Ghisi, the Lord of Andros. Married to her first cousin, Filippo Ghisi. Her sister, Marchesina Ghisi, inherited the Lordships of Skyros, Skiathos and Skopelos


1251-87 Politically Influential Princess Eufemia of Poland Minor of Oppeln-Ratibor (Opole-Racibórz) (Poland)

Politically active during reign of her husband Duke Władysław I of Opole. The daughter of Władysław Odonic, Duke of Małopolska and Jadwiga, she was mother of 5 children, and lived (1239-87).


1251-52 Politically Influential Dowager Khanum Sorghaghtani Beki of The Qagans of the Khanate of the Eastern Turkiut (Xinjiang), of Qara Khitai (Covering present day’s China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan) and of Khurasan (Iran)

As the daughter-in-law of Chinggis Khan, she pointed out that future khans ought to be Chinggis’ direct descendants. The powerful nobles quickly sided

Khanum Sorghaghtani Bek

Khanum Sorghaghtani Bek

with her against the regent, Khanum Oghul, and her eldest son Mongke emerged as victor. He was enthroned in 1251, setting in place the accession of the future rulers of the Mongolian Empire through the Tolui line. Throughout the first year of her son’s rule, her influence and teaching was felt. She had ensured that her sons received proper training and the skills in combat and administration necessary to rule empires. Although she herself was illiterate, she gave them an education. Understanding what Khubilai Khan would need to rule China, she introduced him to the concepts of Confucian thought. Herself she was a Nestorian Christian who patronized a variety of foreign religions. She was daughter of Jakha Gambu Khan of the Kerate Tribe. She (d. 1252).


1251-? Warrior Princess Khutulun of The Qagans in the Khanate of the Eastern Turkiut (Xinjiang), of Qara Khitai (Covering present day’s China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan) and of Khurasan (Iran)

The niece of Kublai Khan, and relished the military life and loved combat. She even impressed Marco Polo who described her as so strong and brave that in all of her father’s army no man could out do her in feats of strength. She never did marry. She accompanied her father on all of his campaigns.


1252-61 Regent Dowager Khanum Organa Hatum of the Khanate of the Eastern Turkiut (Xinjiang), of Qara Khitai (China, Mongolia, Tibet, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan) and of Khurasan (Iran)

Also known as Oroqina Khatun or Orqina Khatum, she was head of the Ghafa Sid Horde (or Qara Khitai/ Chagataiid Horde) and ruled over a vast

Khanum Organa Hatum

Khanum Organa Hatum

territory after the death of Qara Hulegu as successor of Qara Hulegu, who reigned 1247-52 and 1252. She was succeeded by Khan Alughu. She was a Nestorian Christian and was often mentioned as a great benefactor of the Christian faith by contemporary Western historians.


Circa 1252/53 Sovereign Countess Sophie von Ravensberg in Friesland (Germany)

Left the county to the Bishop of Utrecht.


1252-5.. Regent Dowager Princess Lucienne de Cacammo-Segni of Antiochia and Tripoli (Lebanon)

Reigned in the name of her son Boemond VI (1237-75), until she was removed from the regency. But her son was weak and she continued to be influential during his reign, and she managed to maintain the influence of her Roman favourites – much to the consternation of the Barons. Her sister, Plaisance, was regent of Cypern. Lucienne was daughter of Grafen Paolo von Cacammmo-Segni and the grandniece of Pope Innocence III.


1252-81 Politically Influential Khanum Chabi of The Qagans Yuan (Mongolia and China)

Khanum Chabi

Khanum Chabi

Assisted her husband, Mongke Khan in his reign (1251-61), and supported Tibetan monks who began converting the Mongol elite to Tibetan Buddhism. When Kublai conquered southern China, Chabi was influential in preventing revenge. She took measures to maintain the Song imperial family, to provide them with funds and a palace, not to enslave them or kill them.


1253-61 (†) Regent Dowager Queen Plaisance de Antiochia of Cyprus
1257-61 (†) Regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in Acre (Israel)

At the death of her husband, Henri of Lusignan, her son Hugh II was only a few months old and she claimed the regency. The High Court of Cyprus confirmed her in this position, but the Barons in the mainland, in Akkon (what remained of the former Kingdom of Jerusalem) demanded that she showed up herself before they would confirm her as regent. Lord Jean d’Ibelin of Arsuf was bailiff in Jerusalem and she contemplated marrying his son. In 1258 she tried to strengthen her position and arrived in Tripoli with her son. The High Court of the Kingdom assembled, and her brother, Boemond tried to be accepted as heir to the throne of Cyprus in the absence of, grandson of Emperor Frederik II and Queen Maria of Jerusalem, but this was rejected and the royal family was drawn into the civil war between the Genoese, Venetians, Hospitallers and the Templars. A majority was in favour of Plaisance’s regency, and she returned to Cyprus after having reappointed Jean d’Ilbelin as bailiff. She was daughter of Boemond V of Antiochia and Lucienne de Cacammo-Segni, and lived (1236-61)


1253-5.. Regent Dowager Princess Marguerite de Dampierre-Bourbon of Navarra and Champagne (Spain and France)

Following the death of her husband, Thibaut, who succeeded his father as Count of Champagne and mother, Queen Blanca, as king of Navarra, Marguerite was regent for her son Thibaut II (also Thibaud V de Champagne). She (d. 1256).


1253-82 Rani Regnant Sri Uma Devi of Travancore (India)

The Kulusekhara Dynasty of Travancore (or Tiruvankur) is of very ancient lineage, tracing its origins to the Royal House of Vanad and dating from 1100 AD. They attained considerable power during the reign of Ravi Varma Kulasekhara, during the early years of the fourteenth century. Marco Polo claimed to have visited his capital at Quilon, a centre of commerce and trade with China and the Levant.


1253-54 Keeper and Governor Queen Eleanor de Provence of England (06.08-29.05)

Queen Eleanor of England

Queen Eleanor of England

Appointed to “keep and govern the realm of England and the lands of Wales and Ireland”, with the counsel of Richard, earl of Cornwall, when her husband since 1236, Henry III, was away in France to defend his territories in Gascogne. She was advised by a Council, but she was in charge of the government, even when giving birth to a daughter in November. Eleanor was very influential during her husband’s reign. Her determined resistance to baronial reform and her key part in bringing about the fall of Simon de Montfort’s government invite new appraisal. After her husband’s death in 1271 she was the only person in the realm anointed to the royal estate, she gave her consent to the breaking of the old seal and making of the new and the declaration of the new king, Edward I’s peace, but she did not act as regent in the period until Edward returned to England. As a widow she was in control of her big dowry in Amesbury. In 1286 she entered a convent, but was still consulted by her son, Edward I, from time to time. She was daughter of Raymond Bergengar, count of Provence and Beatrice of Provence. Her sister Marguerite was married to Louis IX of France, Sancha to Richard, Earl of Cornwall and the youngest Beatrice to Charles, Count d’Anjou. The youngest sister inherited Provence. Eleanor was mother of nine children of whom four survived to adulthood. She lived (1217/23-91).


1253-59 Regent Dowager Countess Cecilia del Balzo of Savoy, Moriana and Chablais, Aosta and Susa (Italy)

After the death of her husband, Amedeo IV, Count of Savoia, Moriana and Chablais, Prince-Bailiff of the Duchy of Aosta and Duke of Aosta, Marquis of Susa, Marquis in Italy and Imperial Vicar in “All of Italy”, she was regent for her son, Bonifacio I (1244-63) in all his territories. Her stepdaughters, Beatrice and Margherita were invested with a number of lordships from the family possessions. (1275).


1253-59 Lady Beatrice di Savoia of Busca, Roncaglia, Fontanile and Scarnafiggi  (Italy)

Oldest daughter of Count Amedeo IV of Savoy and his first wife, Anne di Borgogna, and was first married to Manfredo III Marchese di Saluzzo and then to Manfredi I Hohenstaufen, King of Sicily. Her half-brother, Bonifacio I, was Count of Savoy etc. (1244-53-63). She (d. 1259).


1253-54 Lady Margherita di Savoia of delle Valli di Matthie, Collegno e Pianezza (Italy)

Like her sister she was invested with a number of Lordships after the death of their father, Count Amedeo IV of Savoy. She was married to Bonifacio II Marchese del Monferrato (d. 1253), and (d. 1254).


1253 Hereditary Countess Adelheid von Tirol (Austria)

Daughter of Count Albrecht IV and Uta von Fronthausen, her husband Meinhard III von Görtz became Count of Tirol. She died (1275/79).


1253-1305 Countess Abbess Margarete I von Plessen of Gandersheim (Germany)

The protection by a Marshall of the chapter (Schutzvogtei) ended in 1259, and the chapter of the realm thereby reached the height of its power. Margarete I was born as “Edle Frau” or Noble Lady.


1253-60 Reigning Abbess-General Elvira Fernández of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

By the favour of the king, she was invested with almost royal prerogatives, and exercised an unlimited secular authority over more than fifty villages.


1254-63 Reigning Dowager Duchess Anna of Mačva (Serbia)

A Serbian Queen

A Serbian Queen

In the Middle Ages Macva was part of the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Serbia. During the Hungarian rule the region was territory of several powerful bans.


1254-62 Sovereign Countess  Mahaut II de Dampierre of Tonnerre
1257-62 Sovereign Countess of Auxerre, and Nevers, Dame de Bourbon, Perche-Goët, Montjoy, Thorigny, Broigny, et de Saint-Aignan, Baroness de Donzy (France)

Also known as Mathilde II, she was daughter of Yolande de Châtillon-sur-Marne  and Archambault IX de Dampierre, Seigneur de Bourbon – Count and Countess of Tonnerre. She succeeded her grandmother, Mahaut I, (Countess of Nevers 1199, Countess of Auxerre and Tonnerre 1219) in the other possessions, and was joint ruler with her husband Eudes de Bourgogne (d. 1269). After her death in 1262, her husband administered the counties until his death, and after that they remained vacant until her three daughters received their inheritance in 1273. Alix de Bourgogne became Countess of Auxerre; Yolande became Countess of Nevers and Marguerite Countess of Tonnerre. Mahaut lived (1249-62).


1255-57 Regent Dowager Khanum Boraqcin of Hwarizim Sahi (or the Khanate of Kipchak) (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan)

When her husband, Batu, who was khan (1227-55), died his son and heir, Sartaq, had gone to pay court to Grand Khan Mongka, his father’s friend. But he died before he could return home to the Khanate of Kipchak. Mongka nominated the young prince Ulagci, who was either the brother or son of Sartaq and she became regent of the Mongol tribe (The Golden Horde) in West Turkistan, roughly covering present day Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.


1255-70 Hereditary Countess Margaretha von Hohenstaufen of Altenburg, Zwickau, Chemnitz etc.  (Germany)

Daughter of Emperor Friedrich II Hohenstaufen and Isabella of England. She married Albrecht II von Thüringen, who committed adultery with Kunigunde von Eisenberg. Margaretha escaped to Frankfurt where she died after 6 weeks. She lived (1241-70).


1255…. Regent Dowager Duchess Catherine van Limburg of Haute-Lorraine (Ober-Lothringen) (France)

As widow of Duke Matthias II, she was regent for her son, Friedrich III (1238-1303). Her rule was marked by the fightings between Bar, Luxembourg and Champagne who all claimed the lordship of Ligny and she also engaged in fighting with Neufchatel in Switzerland. In 1255 her son was declared free of her guardianship, and she died shortly after. She was daughter of Walram IV of Limburg-Luxemburg and Ermensinde II of Luxembourg, lived (Circa 1215-circa 1255).


1255 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

The Ecclesiastical Territory included the City of Zürich and many possessions in Uri Schwyz.


1255-1269 Princess-Abbess Machtild III von Wunnenberg of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

Member of a noble family, which held lordships in both Switzerland and Germany.


1256-98 Margravine Regnant Isabella van Luxembourg of Namour/Namen (Belgium)

Daughter of Hendrik V and Marguerite de Bar and succeeded after a succession between her father and Guy de Dampierre, her later husband and they co-ruled the Margravate. Mother of three children, and lived (1247-98).


1257-82 Regent Dowager Sultan Turhan Hatun ‘Ismat ad-Duyan Wa’l-Din of Qutlug Khan (Iran)

Also known as Qutlug or Kutlugh, she ruled as regent for son Sultan Haggag (Hağğağ) until 1267, and afterwards alone. She had the khutba (prayer

Persian Khanum

Persian Khanum

for the sovereign) proclaimed in the mosques, the ultimate sign of legitimate reign. She was deposed by Ahmad Teguder and replaced by her stepson as ruler of Qutluq Khan or Kirman. Her daughter, Padisha, later reigned the Kingdom of Kirman.


1257-80 Dame Margaretha de Brabant of Mechelen and Antwerpen (Belgium)

Also known as Marguerite, she was second daughter of Duke Jean III de Brabant and married to Louis de Male, count of Flanders, Nevers und Rethel. After the Brabrandian succession-war she got the title of Dame de Mechelen and Antwerpen. She was heiress-presumptive of Limburg and Brabant after her sister, Duchess Jeanne. Mother of Margaretha II de Male, who succeeded her aunt. She lived (1323-80).


1257-59 Reigning Abbess Kühnheit Pinzinger of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The chapter had been placed directly under the king as the other states in Germany in 1002 and was granted royal protection and, immunity.


1257-64 Reigning Abbess Bertha de Augea of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The chapter was a major landowner and also held lower jurisdiction in a number of surrounding villages.


1258-66 Regent Dowager Countess Aleid van Holland of Holland and Zeeland (The Netherlands)
1280-84 Regent of Hainault (Belgium)

Aleid van Holland and Zeeland

Aleid van Holland and Zeeland

Also known as Aleydis or Aleid van Avesnes. Even though his mother was still alive, she became regent for her nephew Floris V after the death of her brother, Willem II. Another nephew, Henri III of Brabant, was joint regent until his death in 1261. Her rule was opposed by her brother Floris and and Countess Margaretha van Vlaanderen, and she sought help by Otto II van Gelre, but he deposed her instead. After that Floris V took over the government in 1266 he made a deal with her over her dowry and continued to seek advice by her. Her son Jan II of Hainault became count of Holland 1299 after having been regent for Floris V’s son Jan I (b. 1284-96-99). She was daughter of Floris IV, Count of Holland (1210-1234), and Machteld Duchess van Brabant (circa 1200-1267), and had been married to Jan I, graaf van Avesnes (d. 1257), and lived (Circa 1230-84).


1259-66 Regent Dowager Queen Margrethe Sambiria of Denmark
1266-82 Reigning Dowager Lady of Estonia and Virland and of Lolland-Falster

Also known as Margrethe Sprænghest, she was regent for her son Erik 5. Klipping after the death of her husband, Christoffer I. She fought against the

Margrethe Sambria

Margrethe Sambria

powerful Archbishop Jakob Erlandsen. In 1261 she and her son were taken prisoner in Germany. The next year she returned together with Albrecht of Braunshweig and Erlandsen left the country. She managed to persuade Pope to accept the idea of female succession to the Danish throne, though not to her daughters having succession-rights before male relatives in other lines. Estonia was her dowry which she controlled from Lolland-Falster another Dowry in the South of Denmark. Remained influential to her death. She was daughter of Duke Sambor I of Pomerania and Mechtilde of Mecklenburg.  lived circa (1230-82).


1259 Regent Princess Rudradeva of Kakatiyas (India)
1262-95/96 Rani Regnant

Originally named Rudramba, she was the eldest daughter of Emperor Ganapati in Andhra. She was formally designated as a son through the ancient Putrika ceremony and given the male name of Rudradeva and declared the queen-designate. She was trained in horse riding, fighting and military tactics. After her father’s death, she ruled her empire ably, winning battles. She was succeeded by grandson, Ptatapa who had been co-ruler since before 1293. Her sister Ganapamba was the joint sovereign of Guntur with her husband. After 1251 the sister was titled Mahamandalesvara, indicating individual reign.


1259-? Reigning Abbess Jutta of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

It is not known how long time she reigned but Gertrud II who took over as head of the state in 1265.


1259-61 and 1271-73 Reigning Abbess Wilburg von Lobsingen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Possibly Acting Head of the State in 1257. Her family, the nobles von Lobsingen, had been in charge of the castle of Lobsingen for four generations from 1133 until 1277.


1260-62 Regent Dowager Princess Turhan Hatun of Banu-Salgar (Iran)

In 1260 the Mongol Empire was fragmented into four states: The Golden Horde in the West, Il-Khans in Persia, The Chagatai Empire in Mongolia, and Kublai Khan in China. The Mongols in Persia were further divided into a number of smaller states in addition to the Il-Khans. One of them was Banu-Salgar.


1260-1300 Sovereign Viscountess Alix I de Dreux of Chateaudun, Dame de Mondoubleau and Saint Calais (France)

Succeeded mother, Clémence de Chateaudun, and reigned under the regency of her uncle, Simon de Dreux, the brother of her father, Robert de Dreux. She married Raoul de Clermont, Seigneur de Nesle, who died in battle 1302. She was succeeded by her only daughter, Alix II, and lived (1255-1300).


1260/70 Regent Dowager Countess Béatrix de Savoie of Viennois, d’Albon, Grenoble and Gap (France)

Following the death of her husband, Guigues VII, Dauphin de Viennois, Comte d’Albon et Grenoble (Circa 1225-1269/70) she was regent for son, Jean. She was Dame de Faucigny in her own right and lived (circa 1237-1310).


Circa 1260-65 Sovereign Countess Adélaïde de Brabant of Boulogne (France)

When her cousin, Mahaut II de Dammartin, died without direct heirs, the Parlement de Paris decided in her favour among the various possible heirs. She was daughter of Mathilde de Boulogne and Henri I de Brabant and widow of Guillaume X de Clermont, comte d’Auvergne and her son Robert, Comte de Auvergne (circa 1225-47-77) became co-ruler in her lifetime and succeeded upon her death. She lived (circa 1190-1265).


1260-1314 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Margarete von von Are-Hostaden of the County of Hückeswagen in Berg (Germany)

Wife of Adolf IV. von Berg (1246-59). Daughter of Count Lothar I von Are-Hochstaden and Mathilde von Vianden, mother of 5 sons and 1 daughter, and lived (1214-1314).


1260-75 Countess-Abbess Gertrudis I von Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Also known as Gertrud, she was daughter of Count Heinrich I of Anhalt and Irmgard von Thüringen.


1260-62 Reigning Abbess-General Eva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Like Bishops, she held her own courts, in civil and criminal cases, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.


1261-67 De Facto Ruler Queen Maria Laskarina of Hungary in Croatia and Dalmatia

Married to King Bela IV of Hungary (1235-70), she used much of his reign trying to curtail the power of the magnates and set out to recover the crown lands his father had given to supporters. Confronted by the menace of the Mongol invasion, he sent unheeded appeals to Pope Gregory IX and Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich II, but he was defeated in 1241. Returning after the withdrawal of the invaders, he repopulated the country by inviting foreign colonization. Bela’s long struggle with Ottoc

Queen Kunigunde of Bohemia

Queen Kunigunde of Bohemia

ar II, king of Bohemia, for Austria and Styria ended in defeat in 1260. His last years were disturbed by the rebellion of his son, King Stephen V (1270-72), who forced him to share the kingdom. Maria was involved in the struggle and was de-facto ruler of parts of the kingdom. She was born as Princess of Nicaea and (d. 1270).


1261-85 Politically Influential Queen Kunigunda Rostislavna of Kiev of Bohemia (Czech Republic)

A dominant force during the reign of her husband, King Otakar II of Bohemia, who had dicored his first wife, Margrethe von Habsburg who was unable to have children. Kunigunda was especially influential when it came to the politics towards Hungary. After his death she tried to convince both King Rudolf von Habsburg and Otto V. von Brandenburg, who had been named guardians for her son Vaclav (1271-1305), that her late husband had designated her as guard and regent of the realm. She made a truce with Rudolf, but Otto took her and her son prisoner and took control over Bohemia. Rudolf attacked Otto and she was released together with her son, and was in charge of only the province surrounding Prauge. In 1284 she married Count Zawisch von Falkenstejn and Rozmberk, who acted as the real ruler after Vaclav was released from the regency in 1283 at the age of 12. Kunigunde was daughter of Grand Prince Rostislaw II of Kiev and Anna of Hungary, and lived (circa 1245-85).


1261-63 Regent Dowager Princess Terken Khatun of Fars (Iran)

After the death of her husband, Atabeg Sa’d II bin Abi Bakr bin Sa’d bin  Zangi, she was duly confirmed by ruler of Fars by the Ilkhan Hülegü. She then married a kinsman, presumably as part of some now forgotten dynastic pact, but he killed her in a drunken frenzy and subsequently rebelled against the Ilkhan. After his defeat and death in 1263/64, Hülegü nominated her infant daughter, Abish Khatun to be the ruler of Fars.


1261-82 Sovereign Countess Marguerite I of Bourgogne (France)

Succeeded son of her sister Jeanne II. Marguerite I married Louis II, Count of Flanders. The husbands of her daughter, Marguerite: Philippe de Rouvre and Philippe de France were Dukes of Bourgogne in the same period.


1261-circa 64 Hereditary Countess Heilwig von Tecklenburg (Germany)

Daughter of Count Otto I. von Tecklenburg and Mechthild von Holstein-Schauenburg and married to Otto II von Bentheim-Tecklenburg (d. circa 1279). Her oldest son was Otto III of Tecklenburg, the second Ekbert I. of Bentheim and her daughter Gertrud was Abbess of Metelen from 1287


1261-62 Reigning Abbess Tutta IV von Putingen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

At the time Regensburg was the major city of Germany and the seat of the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire.


1261-82 Reigning Abbess Sara de Mernis of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

The abbey came under the sovereignty of France as part of “French Flanders”.


1262-73  Reigning Abbess Gertrud II von Stein of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of a Bavarian freiherrliche (free lord) family.


1262-88 Sovereign Countess Agnes de Dampierre of Bourbon (France)

Succeeded sister, Mahaut II and reigned jointly with husbands Jean de Bourgogne (d. 1268) and Robert I d’Artois. Succeeded by daughter Béatrix de Bourgogne.


1262-90 Sovereign Countess Alix de Bourgogne of Auxerre (France)

Youngest daughter of Mahaut II and succe she was joint ruler with husband Jean I de Châlons, sire de Rochefort (1243-76-90-1309), who was succeeded by their son, Guillaume de Châlon-Auxerre, after her death. Alix lived (1251-90).


1262–Circa 1270 Regent Dowager Duchess Perejasława Halicka of Mazowsze
1270 –76/79 Co-Ruler of Mazowsze (Poland)

After the death of her husband Duke Siemowit I of Masovia, she was regent for sons Bolesław II and Konrad II and afterwards joint ruler with them. She was daughter of king Daniel of Halicz (in present day Ukraine). (d. 1283).


1262-… Sovereign Countess Grapela dalle Carceri of The First Triarchy of Euboea (Greece)

Succeeded by Joint Count Gaetano.


1262-93 Sovereign Lady Isabelle de Reviers of The Isle of Wight (United Kingdom)

Other versions of her surname were de Redvers or de Vernon. She succeeded brother. After the death of her husband, William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, she was styled Countess of Albemarle and Devon and Lady of the Isle of Wight. Her chief residence was Carisbrooke Castle. She was mother of 3 sons, John, Thomas and William, and 2 daughters, Alice and Aveline, who survived her sister and the brothers. King Edward I negotiated the purchase of the Island with Isabella, who sealed the conveyance on her deathbed, but its validity was questioned in parliament. Edward eventually managed to purchase the Island for the sum of 6.000 marks and appointed wardens over it.


1262-.. Princess-Abbess Mathilde IV von Hardenberg of Essen (Germany)

Succeeded by Agata, or Hemelburg von Hardenberg, but it is not known when.


1262-66 Reigning Abbess-GeneralUrraca Alfonso of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

In virtue of her office as Abbess she was privileged also to confirm Abbesses, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.


1263-64 Regent Dowager Princess Isabella de Soissons of Acre (Lebanon)

Reigned in the name of her son, Conradin. Her mother, Alix de Champagne was regent of Jerusalem (1243-46).


1263-64 (†) Regent Princess Isabella of Cyprus

When Queen Plaisance of Cypern died in 1261 her son Hugo II was eight years old, at first Isabella’s son was appointed regent because the Supreme Court thought a man would be a better regent than a woman, but in 1263 Isabella and her husband, Henri de Poitou of Antiochia  (d. 1276), came to Cyprus and the nobles paid homage to her as regent, but she died the following year. As the younger daughter of King Hugo I Lusignan of Cypern and Alice de Champagne-Blois she was Heiress Presumptive of Jerusalem, since her mother was the daughter and Heiress Presumptive of King Henri I of Jerusalem and Princess Isabella d’Anjou of Jerusalem. Isabella’s oldest son, Hugo III, was king of Cyprus (1235-84) and her daughter, Marguerite Titular-Princess of Antiochia and Lady of Tyros and lived (before 1244-1308) and married to Jean de Montfort, Lord of Tyros (d. 1289). Isabella lived (circa 1215-64).


1263-75 Atabeg Regnant Abisha Hadud Khatun of Fars (Iran)
1283-87 Governor of Fars

Also known as Abish Khatun or Aubee Khatton, she was nominated as ruler by the Ilkhan of the Khwarazham Empire in Persi, after her mother, Terken Khatun, was killed. Her name was read in the khutha and struck on the coinage. In 1274, when she was about fifteen, she was taken to the Ilkhan’s ordu (Court), and married to Tash-Möngke (Mengü Temür), a younger son of Hülegü This was a marriage, forbidden in Islamic law, between a Muslim woman and a shamanist, but presumably the will of the Ilkhan transcended all other considerations. She became his chief wife and had two daughters by him, Kürdüjin and Alghanchi. When her husband was sent as governor to Fars, she was retained in the ordu, but 1283, the new Ilkhan, Ahmad Tegüder (1282-84), recalled him from Shiraz and appointed her in his place. Her financial recklessness, coinciding with a drought throughout Fars, meant that she defaulted on her revenue payments, so that Ahmad Tegüder’s successor, Arghun (1284-91), ordered her to appear at the ordu. Perhaps relying on the good offices of Öljei Khatun, Hülegü’s widow, to protect her from the Ilkhan’s wrath, she declined to go and behaved outrageously toward the officials sent to supersede her. She was eventually forced to capitulate and submitted to the Ilkhan (Öljei Khatun did indeed intercede for her), dying at the ordu in 1287, after having lived (circa 1269-87).


1263-91 Sovereign Countess Marie of Limoges (France)

Succeeded father Gui VI le Preux and reigned jointly with husband Duke Arthur de Bretagne (from 1305). He was succeeded in Limonges by their son, Jean I in 1301.


1264 and 1274-76 Regent Dowager Empress Xie Qingdau of China

Following the death of her husband, Emperor Lizong (1224-1264) she became regent for his nephew, Emperor Duzong (1264-1274). After his death she again took over the leadership, this time for his son, Gongdi (1274-76). The Mongols conquered parts of the territory and massacred the population and in order to prevent further bloodshed she decided to surrender. The terms were negotiated over three months and on February 21, 1276, the young Song emperor assembled a few officials to make obeisance to the North in the Yuan capital Dadu (Beijing). The Song imperial family was taken captive. Due to serious illness, Xie left Hangzhou several months later. The entourage traveled for two months and arrived at Dadu from where they journeyed to the Yuan emperor’s summer residence. There, they were received by a grand feast and stripped of their titles. Xie was given tax-free property in Dadu where she lived until her death She lived (1210-1276).


1264-82 Sovereign Dame Isabella of Beirut (Lebanon)
1277-82 Dame de la Roche-sur-l’Ognon

Eldest daughter of John II of Ibelin, Lord of Beirut and Alice de la Roche of Athens. As a child she was married to child-King of Cyprus, Hugh II, who died 1267. She had an affair with Julian of Sidon, and a papal bull was issued urging her to marry, but as an act of defiance, Isabella gave herself and her lordship to an Englishman Hamo L’Estrange. On his death in 1273, she put herself and her fief under the protection of Barbers. Hugh of Cyprus tried to carry her off. Isabella returned to Beirut, but this time with a Mameluk guard installed to protect her. On the death of Barbers, Hugh resumed control of the fief. Isabella married twice more (Nicholas L’Aleman and William Barlais) before her death. Succeeded by her sister Eschiva, wife of Humphrey of Montfort. She lived (Circa 1245/50 or 1252-82).


1264-77 Sovereign Dame Alice de la Roche of Roche-sur-l’Ognon (Lebanon)

Succeeded her husband, Jean II de Ibelin (1264) and was succeeded by daughter Isabella.


1265-80 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Bourgogne of Nevers (France/Belgium)

Daughter of Eudes de Bourgogne and Mahaut II de Bourgogne of Auxerre, Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnerre, and reigned jointly with her first husband Jean Tristan de France, Count de Nevers and Valois (1250-70), the son of king Louis IX (1215-70) and Marguerite de Provence. After Jean’s death she reigned jointly with her second husband, Robert de Dampierre, Count de Flanders (1280-1332). Yolande’s sisters succeeded in Auxerre and Tonnerre.


1265-97 Sovereign Baroness and Dame Isabelle of Beaujeu (France)

The daughter of Humbert V, who was killed in Egypt 1250, and Marguerite de Bauge, Dame de Miribel (d. ca 1252), she succeeded her brother, and was married to Count Simon II de Semur-en-Brionnais, seigneur de Luzy; and Renaud d’Albon, Count de Forez. Another of her sisters, Sibylle, was Dame de Belleroche. Isabelle (d. 1297).


1265-?  Reigning Abbess Gertrud II of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Her background is not known.


1265-76 Reigning Abbess Jeanne de Dreux (de Brenne) of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

The chapter was founded in 1101, and was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. The monks in the double-convent were commanded by a Prior under the control of the Abbess.


1266-70 Regent Dowager Princess Mathilde von Braunschweig- Lüneburg of Anhalt-Aschersleben
1275-95 Countess-Abbess Mechtildis I of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Before his death her husband, Heinrich II the Fat von Anhalt-Aschersleben, had named her regent in the event of his death. In the beginning she used the name “Mechtild, comitissa Ascharie et princeps in Anehalt” in the documents, the title of “princeps” soon went to her sons, Otto I and Heinrich III, and thereafter she did not issue decrees, she only accepted the decisions of her sons. In 1275 she became Abbess of Gernrode and Frose, and continued as a mild and just ruler. Daughter of Duke Otto I “the Child” of Braunschweig and Lüneburg (1204-13-52) and Matilda of Brandenburg (d.1261), she was mother of 7, resigned as Sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Territory, and lived (circa1230-circa1297/98).


1266-96 Countess Lucina de Candida Pistore of Malta, Lady of Candia

Also known as Lukina, she was daughter of Guglielmo de Candia Pistore who ruled 1285-1300, but was replaced by Ruggiero de Flohr, Vice Admiral of Sicily as Count in 1296. She then held the county as a fief of the Aragonese ruler of Sicily . She was married to Raimondo de Moncada and the mother of at least two sons and at least one daughter.


Circa 1266-79 Princess-Abbess Agnes de Salm of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz (France)

Daughter of Count Heinrich III von Salm and Judith de Lorraine.


1266-71 Reigning Abbess-General Urraca Martinez of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The Abbess of the Royal Abbey was one of the only abbesses in the history of the Catholic church to hold quasi-episcopal powers.


1266-70 Abbess Nullius Dameta Donna Paleologina of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

First abbess of the chapter that have been given to the congregation of Cistercian Nuns, that had fled from Greece. The abbey had originally been founded in 889 as monk cloister placed under direct papal protection in 1110. Her position as Abbess Nullius – or “Badesse Mitrate” was confirmed 1267 by Pope Clemente IV. Another version of her surname is Paleologo, and she might have been a member of the Byzantine Imperial Family.


1266 Reigning Abbess Hadwig of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Possibly the same as Hedwig, who is mentioned as ruler 1273/74.


1267-75 Regent Dowager Duchess Euphrosine von Opplen of Dobrzyń and Kujawy-Łęczyca (Poland)

Also known as Eufrozyna Opolska. After the death of her husband, Duke Kazimierz of Kujawy, she became regent for her three sons: Władysław I Łokietek (since 1320 king of Poland), Siemowit and Kazimierz. 1275 she married Duke Mściwój II of Pomorze Gdańskie – they divorced in 1288). She was the daughter of Wiola and Duke Kasimir von Ratibor-Opplen (Kazimierz of Racibórz-Opole), and lived (1228/30-1292/94).


1267-circa 77 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth I de Brugelette of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Apparently the position of Princess-Abbess was vacant 1265-67.


1267-70 Sovereign Princess Maria of Lemnos (Stalimene) (Greek Island-State)

Held out against the Byzantines for 3 years after death of her husband, Paolo Navigajoso, who had been appointed mega dux by the Latin Emperor and held the island of Lemnos as a fief. And she resisted Byzantine attempts to reconquer it before she left the island.


1268-77 Sovereign Princess Maria de Antiochia-Poitiers of Acre, Titular Queen of Jerusalem (Israel)

Maria II was the daughter-daughter of King Almaric I of Jerusalem and pretender to the throne against Hugh III de Lusignan, King of Cyprus and Jerusalem. She ceded her claims to the king of Napoli. After Jerusalem fell to the Selsjuks the capital of the Latin Kingdom moved to Acre.


1268-1310 Sovereign Countess Béatrix I of Charolais, Dame de Bourbon et Saint-Just (France)

Daughter of Jean II de Charolais (d. 1268) and Agnès, Dame de Bourbon (d. 1283) and married to Robert, Clermont-en-Beauvaisis.


1268-1310 Sovereign Baroness Beatrice de Savoie of Faucigny (France)

Succeeded her parents, Pietro II, Count of Savoy, Moriana and Chablais, Duke of Aosta, Marquis of Susa and Marquis in Italia, Count of Richmond etc and Baroness Agnese de Faucigny (heiress of Aimone I de Faucigny) who both died in 1268. During her first marriage to Guigues VII, Dauphin de Vienne, Count d’Albon, she became known as “The Grande Dauphine”. After his death in 1261, she married Gaston VII Viscount dei Béarn (1225 -90). In 1309 she renounced her claims on the County of Savoy. She lived (1237-1310).


1268-81 Sovereign Lady Isabella van Brunesheim Tienen of Breda (The Netherlands)

Inherited the lordship after the death of her brother, Hendrik V (1250-54-68), and after her death her husband, Arnold van Leuven-Gaasbeek took over as Lord until he was succeeded by their son in 1287. Isabella lived (Circa 1250-80).


1270-1308 Princess-Abbess Bertradis II of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Her background is unknown, but she was probably member of a noble family of Harzen, perhaps daughter of the Count of Barby. In 1300 she sold the Neustadt outside Quedlinburg for 1.000 Mark Stendale Silver (stendalischen Silber) to the Counts of Regenstein because she lacked money. (d. 1308).


1270-98 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II von Wedtzikon of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

The Fürstäbtissin was the leading personality of her time, not only in the political but also in the cultural life of the City of Zürich. She introduced the Gothic building style. More than 140 documents carries her name and seal, with the introduction: „Allen dien die disen brief ansehent, künden wir, Elsebetha von gottes genaden Ebetissinne zu Zürich es Munsters vnd ouch der Samenunk…“ During her reign the Benediktine Abbey was at the heights of its powers and she gave right to print coins, she leased the customs office and was involved in the appointment of mayors. She also played an important role in the external politics of the city and 1273 she received King Rudolf von Habsburg in Zürich „with princely glitter“. She was daughter of Lord Ulrich von Wetzikon.

1270-72 Reigning Abbess Ita Truchsessin von Waldburg zu Rohrdorf of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Possible Great-aunt of Agathe Truchsessin von Meßkirch.


1270-79 Claimant Agnes von Baden of the Duchy of Österreich (Austria)

Only daughter of titular Duchess Gertrude von Österreich and Margrave Hermann VI von Baden, she was first married to Duke Ulrich III von Kärnten and after his death to Count Ulrich von Heunburg in 1269. The following year they claimed the Austrian inheritance trough her mother, as her brother, Friederich II von Baden, Titular Duke of Austria, had been beheaded in Napoli in 1268. Both King Ottokar of Bohemia and King Rudolf von Habsburg of Hungary forced her to resign her claims, but she continued her pressure and in the end she was given 6.000 Mark as compensation. She had no children and lived (1249-95).


1271-74 Sovereign Countess Mathilde von Saarbrücken (Germany)

According to a treaty her father, Simon III had made with the Bishop of Metz in 1227 first his oldest daughter Laurette and in event that she should die without heirs Mathilde should inherit the county. But Bishop Lorenz claimed that female succession did not apply for fiefs of the Prince-Bishopcy of Metz, and therefore he apparently refused to pay homage to her as Countess, and had her excommunicated. She was on good terms with Duke Friedrich von Lothringen, and he supported her in her fight, but the situation was not cleared by her death in 1274. First married to Lord Simon II de Commercy and secondly to Count Amadeus von Mömpelgard (d. 1271). She was succeeded by her oldest son, Simon IV (d. 1309). Her second son was Count Walther von Mömpelgard (d. 1306). Mathilde (d. 1274).


Until 1271 Sovereign Baroness Helena Angelina of Karytaena, Corfu etc. (Greece)

Second wife of Manfred Hohenstaufen, King of Sicily (d. 1266), whose daughter by the first marriage to Béatrice of Savoia was Constance, Queen of Sicily. Her father, Michel Ange, was Depot of Epirus. Her only daughter, Béatrice Hohenstaufen died young and niece, Isabelle II de Villehardouin, who was also Princess of Archaia etc., and was the daughter of her sister, Anne, succeeded her. Karytaena is situated in the central Peloponnesus, about 65 km. northwest of Mistra and ancient Sparta. She lived (1242-71).


1271-95 Politically influential Padshah Khatun of Fars (Iran)

Second daughter of Qutluqh Terken’s sister and as the principal wife of the Ilkhan Abaqa she was well-placed to look after her mother’s and Kirman’s interests, and became involved in the intrigues of the last Qutlugh-Khanid contenders, eventually being strangled in 1295 by order of the Ilkhan Baydu for her murder of her half-brother, Soyurghatmish.


Before 1271-83  Princess-Abbess Herburgis von Ehrenfels of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

Fürstäbtissin Herburgis zu Göss bei Leoben

Fürstäbtissin Herburgis zu Göss bei Leoben

The Princess-Abbess was the superior head of the chapter, but the abbot or provost administered the estates of the clerical ladies, arranged the statues and appointed the prioress.


1271-73 Reigning Abbess-General Urraca Diezof the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Secular ruler of more then 60 lorships, towns and villages in Castilla and Léon, and head of a number of convents and parishes.


1271-96 Abbess Nullius Isabella I of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)

Confirmed as “Abbassa Nullius di San Benedetto in Conversano” by Pope Gregorio X in 1273, who also confirmed the direct papal protection. She was in dispute with Grand-Vicar Stefano of Conversano.


1272-77 Regent Dowager Queen Elisabet Kumanac of Hungary

After the death of her husband King István V (Stephen) of Hungary (1270-72) Erzsebet was regent for their son, László IV of Hungary (1272-90), who was murdered. Rebellious vassals had kidnapped him at age ten from his father’s court. His minority was an alternation of palace revolutions and civil wars, in which she barely contrived to keep the upper hand. In this milieu Ladislaus matured precociously and was poorly educated, which greatly confined his personalities as rough and reckless. Her daughters Katalin (Ca 1256-after 1314) was married to king Stepan IV Dragutin of Serbia (d. 1316), Mária (ca 1257-1323) was married to King Charles II of Naples and Sicily – recognized as Queen in parts of the country 1290-92, the third daughter was married to the Tsar of Bulgaria, Erzsébet (1255-1326) first married Zavis von Rosenberg zu Falkenstein and secondly King Stepan Uros II Milutin of Serbia and the youngest daughter Ágnes (ca 1260-ca 1281) was married to Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos of Byzantium. She was daughter of Zayhan, a prince of the Turkish Nomadic Cuman tribe, which had been pushed into Hungary by the invasions of Chinghis-Khan, and lived  (1240-after 1290).


1272-77 De-facto in Charge of the Government Tsarina Maria Palaiologina Kantakouzene of Bulgaria
1277-78 Regent Dowager Tsarina

According to George Pachymeres, she supported the military coup d’état of her uncle, Michael VIII Palaiologos, and the she prompted him to blind the legitimate Emperor Jean IV Laskaris. When Jean’s sister, the Bulgarian tsarina Irene died 1268, her widower, Connstantin, he married Michael’s niece Maria. Quarrels over the surrender of her promised dowry, the Black Sea ports of Mesembria and Anchialos, made her side with her husband against her uncle, and the Bulgarian government entered into an alliance with King Carlos I of Sicily who was planning a campaign against Michael VIII, who struck back, by marrying his illegitimate daughter Euphrosyne Palailogina to Nogai Khan of the Golden Horde, who pillaged Bulgaria in 1274. In the last years of his reign, her husband was partly paralyzed from a fall off his horse, and the government was firmly in her hands. She crowned their son Michael Asen II co-emperor soon after his birth, in about 1272. Her husband was killed during an uprising in 1277 lead by a swineherd named Ivaylo, who was able to extend his authority across much of the country, but the capital Tarnovo remained under the control of her and her son, the new tsar Michael Asen II. Her uncle then married his eldest daughter Eirene to Ivan Asen III, a descendant of Bulgaria’s ruling dynasty living at the Byzantine court, and dispatched troops to place him on the throne. This caused her to marry Ivaylo, who became co-tsar in 1278 with her son, and he led a successful defense of the Balkan passes against the Byzantine campaigns and met with success against casual Mongol raids, but in 1279 a major Mongol army blockaded him in the fortress of Dorostolon on the Danube for three months. A rumor of his death caused panic in Tarnovo, where the nobility surrendered to a new Byzantine army and accepted Ivan Asen III as emperor. She was sent into exile together with her son to Byzantine, where she gave birth to a daughter, whose name is unknown. She was the second daughter of Ioannes Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos and Eirene Komnene Palaiologina.


1272-?  Reigning Abbess Wilburgis von Leuchtenberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of the family of Landgraves of Leuchtenberg within Bavaria. It is not known how long she was in office but Ryssa I von Leuhtenberg reigned from 1286.


1273-99 Sovereign Countess Marguerite d’Anjou-Sicilie of Anjou, Maine and Perche (France)

Married to the French military leader, Charles de Valois the third son of king Philippe III. He was a military leader and dominated the reign in France of his nephew Louis X. When Pedro III of Aragón was excommunicated in 1284, Pope Martin IV made him king of Aragón and Sicily but he was defeated and in 1290 renounced his claim. In return he received Anjou and Maine as part of her dowry. During his second marriage to Catherine de Courtenay, Titular Empress of Constantinople, he unsuccessfully sought to obtain the crowns of the Byzantine and Holy Roman empires. His third wife was Mahaut de Châtillon-sur-Marne, Countess of St. Pol. (from 1344) Marguerite was daughter of Charles II of Sicily, Napoli and Jerusalem and Maria of Hungary, and among her 6 children was Philippe VI, who succeeded to the French throne in 1328. She lived (1273-99).


1273-80 Sovereign Countess Yolande de Bourgogne of Nevers (France)

Oldest daughter Mahaut II de Dampierre of Nevers, d’Auxerre et de Tonnerre (1249-57-62) and Eudes de Bourgogne (d. 1269), she and her two sisters divided the inheritance in 1173. She first married Jean Tristan of France, Count of Valois (d. 1270), secondly Robert de Béthune, the future Count of Flanders. She was succeeded by her son Louis I (1280-1322), who married Countess Jeanne de Rethel.


1273-93 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Bourgogne of Tonnerre  (France)

Second daughter of Mahaut II de Dampierre, she was married to Charles d’Anjou, King of Sicily and Napoli, Count of Anjou, Maine and Tonnerre. In 1293 she left the county to her nephew, Guillaume de Châlon-Auxerre (1279-1304), son of her sister Alix. She lived (1254-93).


1273-87 Reigning Abbess-General María Gutiérrez IIof the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The Abbess of the Chapter also held the position of Abbess General of the Order for the Kingdom of Leon and Castile since 1189.


1273-76 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth I von Stauf of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

In another list of Abbesses of Niedermünster she is named Stauffin von Stauffenburg.


1273/74 Reigning Abbess Hedwig of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Could be the same as Hadwig.


1274-1305 Queen Regnant Juana I of Navarra, Countess of Champagne and Brie (Spain and France)

Juana I de Navarra

Juana I de Navarra

Also known as Jeanne, and at the age of 13 she was married to king Philippe V of France (1268-1314), who became king of Navarra by the right of his wife. She left him to reign in Navarra and stayed in Champagne, and at one time led an army against the Count de Bar when he rebelled against her. Mother of 7 children.  Her three surviving sons: Louis X of France, Philip V and Charles IV all became kings of France and Navarra, and her only surviving daughter, Isabelle, married king Edward II of England. She died under mysterious circumstances; one chronicler even accused her husband of having killed her. She lived (circa 1271-1305).


1274-76 Regent Dowager Queen Blance d’Artois of Navarra and the Counties Troyes and Meaux
1274-84 Regent of the Counties of Champagne and Brie  (Spain and France)

After the death of her husband Henri I (1270-74), she was regent for daughter Juana I, and various powers, both foreign and from Navarra, sought to take advantage of the minority of the heiress and the weakness of the female regent. She left the administration of Navarra to King Philippe III of England after her marriage to Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245-1296), brother of Edward I of England, and they administered Champagne until Juana came of age in 1284. She was the daughter of count Robert I of Artois, and the granddaughter of Louis VIII of France, mother of four children with her second husband, and lived (circa 1248 -1300).


1274-76 Regent Dowager Queen Xi of Jiling (China)

Reigned for grandson Zhao Xian and died as a nun in Tibet in 1296. In 1276 Queen Yang became regent for her stepson.


1275 Regent Dowager Princess Sibylle of Armenia of Antiochia and Tripoli (Syria)

When her husband, Boemond VI died, King Hugo, claimed the post of regent of Tripoli as the oldest adult of the family, but she had already taken over the regency for her 14 year old son, Boemond VII, according to the ancient traditions of the family. She evacuated her son to the court of her brother, Leo III of Armenia, and appointed Bishop Bartholomæus of Tortosa to reign the city in her name. Boemond died in 1287 and was succeeded by his sister, Lucia, but she lived in Italian Apulia, and the nobles and citizen of Tripoli were not keen on a foreign Princess as their ruler, so they offered Sibylle the County of Tripoli. She accepted and wrote Bartholomæus asking him to act as her representative, but the letter was intercepted, the nobles withdrew their offer, declared that the dynasty had been deposed and a Commune had taken it’s place, but the following year Lucia arrived and took the position of Princess and Countess. Sibylle withdrew to her brother’s court in Armenia. She was daughter of Queen Zabel of Armenia and King Hethum of Armenia and lived (circa 1240-90).


1275-80 Sovereign Countess Isabelle I de la Roche of Karythaena, Co-Heiress of Thebes (Greece)

On the death of her first husband,  Geoffroi de Briel de Bruyères. the lordship of Karytena escheated to Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, who then allowed her to retain half of it as her portion. Also known as Jezebel I, she reigned jointly with second husband, Hugues de Brienne, Count of Lecce from 1277. Mother of two children by her second husband. Today the he territory is known as Skorta and it is situated in Central Peloponnesus.


Until 1275 Co-Ruler Ballamahadevi of the Barahkanyapura Province in Karnataka (India)
1275-92 Regent

The province was situated in Barkur in the South Kanara District of Karnataka. She assisted her husband, Vira Pandyadeva, in administering his province from Barahkanyapura. After his sudden death she was regent for their minor son, Nagadevarasa. She is mentioned as mistress of the Western Sea.


1275 Reigning Abbess Ute of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

The chapter held the overlordship of 15 villages within it’s territory and 3 outlying villages.


1275-1300 Politically Active Queen Violante de Aragón of Castilla (Spain)

 Violante de Castilla

Violante de Castilla

When her eldest son, Fernando de la Cerda, died suddenly, and her husband, Alfonso X of Castile, named their second son as heir instead of the sons of the Dowager Crown-Princess Blanche de France. Violante and her daughter-in-law escaped with the children to Aragon, where Viol ante’s brother was king. The two ladies tried to find supporters everywhere in Europe, and started to build up a political network by writing letters to Blanche’s mother Marguerite de Provence, the French dowager queen, to other royals, to the pope and other important personalities. Finally, after negotiating, Violante returned home but never was really reconciled with her husband. Violante spent several years in Castile consecrating her life to pious works, but occasionally made her way back to the political scene supporting for example her son Sancho, who had started a rebellion against her estranged husband, the king. (d. circa 1300).


1275-1320 Politically Active Dowager Princess Blanche de France of Castilla (Spain)

After the death of her husband, the Castillian Heir, Prince Fernando de la Cerda, she started the fight to have her children; Alfonso de

Princess Blanche de France

Princess Blanche de France

la Cerda and Ferdinando de la Cerda recognized as rightful heirs to the throne. She went in exile together with her mother-in-law, Violante de Aragón. She received open support from the queens and princesses, creating thus a kind of female network in politics. After Violante reconciled with her husband, Blanche continued her fight until her brother signed a peace treaty with king Sancho IV of Castile and recognised him as king. She was forced to ratify that treaty as well and then she retired to a French nunnery. She lived (1253-1323).


1276-79 Regent Dowager Empress Yang-shi of China (in Jiling in South China) (Southern Song Dynasty)

Her husband, Emperor Duzong had died in 1274 and was succeeded by a relative, Emperor Gongdi. The Mongols were threatening the capital and it was decided that the Emperor should remain with his mother and grandmother to either defend the capital or failing it, to negotiate the surrender terms. It was also decided that her son Zhao Shi and his half-brother, Zhao Bing (d.1279) should flee south to the sea with their mothers and their maternal uncles, Yang Chen and Yu Rugui. After Gongdi and the imperial court were captured and taken north to Dadu, the Mongol capital, the loyalist forces crowned her son as Emperor, in Fuzhou in June of 1276. He was only nine years old and she was named Empress Dowager and regent. When the Mongols threatened Fuzhou, the loyalists, under the command of Zhang Shijie (1236-1279) took the two young boys to the sea and sailed along the Guangzhou prefecture. In January 1278, a hurricane struck when they were offshore near present day Zongshan and destroyed the vessel that carried the boy emperor. Although he was rescued, he never recovered from the shock and died in May. Her late husband’s youngest son was then crowned as Emperor Bingdi. He was then six years of age and she continued as regent. In March of 1279, the Mongols pressed the loyalists and Lu Xiufu (1238-1279) jumped into the sea, carrying the boy emperor, and committed suicide. Yang-shi, accompanied by Zhang Shijie, continued to search for possible surviving members of the royal family but she despaired and committed suicide by drowning herself in the sea. (d. 1279).


1276-1309 Sub-Queen Helena d’Anjou of Dioclea (Montenegro)

Succeeded Stephen and followed by Stephen Uros III of Decani


1276-1315 Baroness Regnant Marguerite de Villehardouin of Akova, Lady of… (Greece)

Widow of Isnard, Sire de Sabran she married Riccardo Orsini, Count of Kefalonia, Conte di Gravina 1284/91, Vicar General of Corfu 1286/89 amd appointed bailli of Achaia by Isabelle Princess of Achaia in 1297. She died in prison and was daughter of Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia. She died in prison.


1276-85 Reigning Abbess Hedwig Kropflin of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Head of the Benedictine convent in Bavaria, which was closely associated with Obermünster.


1276-84 Reigning Abbess Isabeau I Davoir of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Member of a French noble family.


1277-84 Opposition Leader Eirene Komnene Palaiologina in the Byzantine Empire (Greece)

Opposed to the union of the Orthodox and Roman churches organised by her brother, Emperor Mikhael VIII, and was arrested on his orders in 1277. She then became the focus of organised opposition from the Bulgarian court of her daughter Maria. When her husband, Ioannes Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos died, she had become a nun as Eulogia. The daughter of Megas Domestikos Andronikos Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos and his wife Theodora Palaiologina, she lived (1218-84).


1277-1300 Opposition Leader Theodora Palaiologina Komnene Kantakouzenen in the Byzantine Empire (Greece)

Like her mother, Eirene Komnene Palaiologina, shShe was imprisoned in 1277 for opposing Emperor Mikhael VIII’s policy of pursuing the reunion of the Orthodox and Roman churches. She was accused of “magical machinations against the emperor’s health” and, according to Pachymeres, was tested by being put into a bag with some cats. After the accession of Emperor Andronikos II she was released. She restored the church of St Andrew of Crete at Krisis in Constantinople and lived in the convent there for the rest of her life, during which she amassed a library and acquired a reputation for learning. She wrote hagiographies of the 9th century Theophanes the Confessor and his brother Theodore. She made an unsuccessful attempt to negotiate with Alexios Philanthropenos who in 1295 rebelled in Asia Minor and was proclaimed emperor. Widow of Georgios Mouzalon and Ioannes Raul Komnenos Doukas Angelos Petraliphas. Her father was She was the daughter of Ioannes Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos, and she lived (1240-1300).



1277-? Princess-Abbess Aleide I van Beerbeke of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

It is not known how long her reign lasted, but Elisabeth II van Burget was in office until 1287.


1278-90 Sovereign Countess Leonor de Castilla of Ponthièu and Montreuil (France)

Leonor de Ponthièu et Montreuil

Leonor de Ponthièu et Montreuil

Succeeded mother Jeanne de Dammartin (1239-78) and king Edward I of England (1239-72-1307) and thus the county was inherited by the kings of England. Also known as Queen Eleonor of Castille, she gave birth to sixteen children, six of whom survived into adulthood, but only two or three of whom outlived their parents. Her father was Fernando III of Castilla and Leon, and lived (1244-1290).


1278-88 Reigning Abbess Mathilde II von Waldeck of Herford (Germany)

Also known as Mechtild. Irmgard was elected as abbess in 1290.


1278-1316 Reigning Dowager Lady Mechthild von Brandenburg of her Dowry in Pommern-Wolgast (Poland/Germany)

After the death of her husband, Barnim I (circa 1218-29-78), she fought for years with her stepson, Bogislaw IV, over her dowry and a partition of the Duchy in favour of her sons. In 1295 the Estates forced him to give in, and he accepted a partition and gave up Stettin-Greifenhagen in favour of her son, Otto I. She (d. 1316)


1278-8.. Sovereign Marchioness Isabelle Pallavicini  of Bodonitza (Greece)

Also known as Jezebel, she succeeded her brother Urbertino and also inherited her elder sister Mabilia’s Italian possessions in Parma. In the year of her succession she was requested by her new lord, Charles d’Anjou, Prince of Achaea, to do homage to his new vicar at Glarentsa. When the barons of the Principality of Achaea refused to do homage to the bailiff Galeran d’Ivry as vicar general, the primary reason was her absence, because she was their primus inter pares as the Marchionate was the highest ranking. She was already old at her accession and did not live long thereafter. She died childless and left open a succession dispute, which was eventually solved by the arbitration of William I of Athens, then acting bailiff of Achaea, in favour of her cousin Albert. She left a widower in Antoine le Flamenc.


1278-96 Sovereign Countess Alice dalle Carceri of The Third Triarchy of Euboea (Greece)

Reigned a part of the second largest island of Greece was divided into three parts, three Triarchies, each reigned by separate counts or countesses.


1278-79 Reigning Abbess Hedwig von Gutenstein of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Probably member of the Staufian noble family and her brothers,  Konrad and Werner  were mentioned as witnesses to the foundation of the Chapter of Wald in 1212.


1279-1328 Sovereign Princess Beatrice of Euboea (Negroponte) (Greek Island-State)

Inherited the state after the death of her father.


1279-92 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Chatillon of Blois, Chartres, de Dunois, Dame de Châtillon, d’Avesness and de Crécy (France)

Succeeded father Jean I de Châtillon, count of Blois and Chartres (1241-79). She married count Pierre d’Alençon, and since she had no children, she was succeeded by her German cousin Hugues de Châtillon, and (d. 1291/92).


1279-86 Sovereign Countess Jeanne I de Châtelon of Blois, Chartres and Dunois, Dame of Châteaurenault, Avesnes, Guise et Grécy (France)

Successor of her father, Jean I and was married to Pierre I d’Alençon, who was also styled Count of Blois, son of King Louis IX of France and Marguerite of Provence. She received the County of Chartres from her father during his life; she later sold these lands to Philip IV of France in 1291. She ceded the lordship of Avesnes to her cousin Hugh before her death. When she died in 1292 the other titles were left to him too. She had 2 children who died young, and lived (1279-92).


1280-82 Reigning Dowager Duchess Erszebet of Maczva (Serbia)

An unnamed Serbian Queen

An unnamed Serbian Queen

The Dukes of Macva in today’s Vojvodina were allies of the Hungarian kings.


1280-84 Regent Dowager Queen Ingeborg Eriksdatter of Norway

After the death of her husband, Magnus the Lawmaker (1238-63-80) she acted as regent for her son, Erik II (1268-99). She was the first Norwegian Queen to be crowned and was daughter of King Erik IV Plougpenning of Denmark and Jutta of Sachsen, and lived (1244-87).


1280-1220 Sovereign Countess Sachette of Nikli (Greece)

Succeeded father, Hugues and co-ruled with husband Androuin de Villers.


1280-89 Sovereign Dame Marquritte of Lisarea and Morena (Greece)

Inherited the lordship after the death of her brother, Seigneur Guillaume, and reigned jointly with Payen de Sastenay.


1280-82 Sovereign Duchess Ermengarde of Limbourg (Belgium)

Became ruler after the death father. After her death in 1283 her husband, Reinaud I can Geldre-Zupten engaged in a succession-war which was won by Jean van Brabant.


1281-1301 Sovereign Countess Anne of Viennois and Dauphiné (France)

Succeeded nephew, Jean I, and reigned jointly with husband, Humbert I de la Tour du Pin. Succeeded by husband, Jean II.


1281-… Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Dreux of Braine (France)

Daughter of Robert IV de Dreux and Beatrix de Montfort. Married to Count Jean IV de Roussy and Jean de Bar, Seigneur de Puisaye.


1281-1300 Chief of the Guglielmite Sect Manfreda Visconti da Pirovano in Italy

In 1260 Princess Blazena Vilemina – believed to be the daughter of the king of Bohemia – appeared in Milano and gathered a religious community

Manfreda Visconti

Manfreda Visconti

around her, and after her death in 1281, she was venerated as the Holy Spirit incarnate. The same year Manfreda Visconti da Pirovano was elected Pope (Papessa) and vicar of the Holy Spirit upon earth, by a college of female cardinals, and as a result an inquisitorial process was initiated against the group, which counted around 30 members from various social classes, with the ruler’s son, Galeazzo Visconti as the most prominent member. She was burnt at the stake. (d. 1300).


1282-1312 Sovereign Dame Eschiva d’Ilbelin of Beirut (Lebanon)

Succeeded sister, Isabella, and ruled jointly with various husbands, including Guy de Lusignan (d. 1300), Constable of Cyprus, the son of king Hugh III, who had unsuccessfully tried to control her Isabella, who was the widow of his cousin, King Hugh II. Eschiva’s son, Hugh IV de Lusignan, succeeded to the throne of Cyprus, even though his father, Guy was only the fourth son of Hugh III, but his elder uncles (John I and Henry II), were either childless or their heirs were disqualified to inherit the throne.


1282-1305 Reigning Abbess Marguerite de Wormhoudt of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)

Her family originated in Normandy.


1282-89 Politically Influential Bibi Terken in Kirman (Iran)

Also known as Bibi Khatun, she was a major player in events both in the ordu (at the court) and in Kirman until her death in 1288 or 1289.


1282-1337 Hereditary Princess Gwenllian of Wales, Gwynedd and the royal family of Aberffraw (United Kingdom)

The last trueborn Princess of Wales was the daughter of Llywelyn the Last and his cousin Eleanor de Montfort, daughter of Simon de Montfort. Her mother died in childbirth at the palace of Pen-y-Bryn, in Abergwyngregyn near Bangor, Gwynedd on 12 June 1282, and her father was killed at Irfon Bridge a few weeks later, becoming therefore the only child of the marriage. There were no sons to inherit the title of Prince of Wales, but as the daughter of Prince Llewellyn, she was the heiress of the Princes of Gwynedd and the royal family of Aberffraw. She thereby was the Princess of Wales and as a result represented considerable danger to the king of England. Were it not for their close family ties it is likely that the king would have arranged for her too to be killed. Instead, the king, Edward I, had her hauled off to Sempringham Convent in Lincolnshire, where she spent over 50 years incarcerated. Edward kept the title of ‘Prince of Wales’ for the crown, bestowing it upon his son Edward who was crowned in Caernarfon in 1301 aged 17 years. Hence the title passed as a grace title bestowable by the English monarchy. She lived (1282-1337).


1283-1317 Sovereign Countess Guillemette de Neuchâtel of Montbélard (France)

Also known as Guillaumette de Neufchâtel, she was named sole heir by her Her great-grandfather, Therry III (1205-37-87). Her father, Amédée de Neufchâte was son of Thierry’s daughter, Marguerite de Montbéliard, and the Grand Sire de Neufchâtel-en-Bourgogne, Signeur de Blamont, Châtelot, Belmont et Cuisance. She married Renaud de Bourgogne and after a war of succession, they reigned jointly until her death. When he died in 1322 their mentally handicapped son, Othenin de Montbéliard, succeeded under the regency of his uncle, Hugues de Chalon as regent. Her daughter Agnes and her husband inherited the County in 1332. Guillemette lived (1260’s-1317).


1283-1308 Titular Empress Catherine I de Courtenay of Constantinople (Turkey), Dame of Courtenay (France), Sovereign Princess of Achaia (Albaina) and Dame de Courtenay (France)

Daughter of Philippe, the son of Emperor Baudouin of the Latin Empire in the ancient city of Byzanz and parts of Greece. He was deposed 1261. Plans were made to marry her to Friederich of Sicilia, but nothing came of it. The Pope interfered, there were also attempts to have her marry the heir to the Byzantine throne, Michael IX, but she declined because the contract was not lucrative enough for her, and in 1302 she married Count Charles I de Valois (1270-1325), who was planning a crusade against Byzantine when she died. Mother of three daughters and a son, who died just before herself, and she was therefore succeeded by the oldest, Catherine II, as heir to the Latin Empire of the East. Catharine I lived (1274-1308).


1283-85 Governor Queen Constance Hohenstaufen of Sicily (Italy)

Governor Constance Hohenstaufen of Sicily

Governor Constance Hohenstaufen of Sicily

In 1262 her father, Manfredo Hohenstaufen, arranged her marriage to Infant Pedro of Aragon. Manfredo lost his crown and life in 1266, and she was his heir – though the throne remained in the hands of Charles of Anjou, a brother of King Louis IX of France. Her husband gave her in her own right the title of Queen, before succeeding to the throne in 1276. In 1282 her husband – now Pedro III made a triumphant entry into Messina, and in the following year she left for Sicilia, and it was announced that the Infant Jaime would be heir to Sicily as the elder son, Alfonso, would remain heir of Aragon. In the case of Jaime’s minority, she would act as regent. Pedro III had to depart Sicily, leaving her in charge. In November 1285 Constance’s husband died at Villafranca de Penadres where he was buried, and the following year Jaime was crowned – though the pope excommunicated both her and her son. When in 1291 her eldest son, Alfonso III, died childless Jaime succeeded him, remaining king of both countries until 1296 when Fadrique, Constance’s third son, became King of Sicilia. She returned to Spain and lived (1249-1301).


1283-91 Regent Dowager Dame Marguerite de Lusignan of Tyre, Titular Princess of Antiochia (Israel)

After the death of her husband, Jean de Montfort, Lord of Toron and Tyrus, she became regent of the Lordships. Sultan Qalawun was preparing to attack the Franks not protected by the truce of 1283, and she asked for a truce, which was renewed in 1291, the following year she handed over Tyre to her nephew Amalric and died as a nun in Cyprus. She was daughter of Henri de Poitiers of Antiochia and Isabella de Lusignan of Cyprus. She lived (1244-1308).


1283-84 Sovereign Countess Constance de Moncada of Bigorre (France)

Succeeded Eskivat de Chabannais, who had succeeded their grandmother, Countess Petronille, (1190-1251). Eskivat was grandson of Petronille and her second husband, Gui de Montfort and Constance was granddaughter of Petronille and her fourth husband, Boson de Mastas. His Montfort cousins at Viterbo 1271 murdered Constance’s first husband, Henry Plantagenet of Cornwall, the son of Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of The Romans and Isabel Marshal. She was joint ruler with her husband, Lori, who reigned until 1292. (d. 1310).


1283-98 Princess-Abbess Euphemia of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The Chapter enjoyed immunity and was not under the authority of the Prince-Bishop of Salzburg.


Before 1283 Reigning Abbess Mathilde von Hohenberg of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Daughter of Burchard III von Hohenberg and Mechtild zu Pfalz-Thübingen and sister of Anna (or Gertrud) von Hohenberg, the wife of Rudolf von Habsburg.


1284-85 Empress Regnant Theodora Megale Komnene of Trebizond (Turkey)

With help of Georgian King of Imereti, David VI Narin she managed to seize the crown of the Empire founded by members of the Imperial family which escaped to the Black sea after the Sack of Byzantium in 1204, and subsequent establishment of the Latin Empire by marauding Crusaders, from her half-brother, Emperor John II. Shortly afterwards she was defeated and John regained his throne, but she had managed reign long enough to have minted her own coins. A nun either before or after her short reign, and daughter of Emperor Manuel I of Trebizond by his second wife, Princess Rusudan og Georgia, and lived (before 1253–after 1285).


1284 Titular Queen Irene Palailologina de Monferrato of Thessalonica (Greece)

Her father, Guglielmo VIII of Monferrato in Italy gave up the title of titular king upon her marriage to Emperor Andronikos II. Palailogos of Byzantine. Her father was Marchese di Monferrato (1253-92), titular King of Saloniki (1262-84), Signore d’Ivrea (1266-67) and (1278-92), Signore di Milano (1278-82), and died in prison Alexandria in 1292. Her mother was his third wife, Beatriz of Castilla. She lived (1274-1317).


1284-1304 Reigning Abbess Marguerite I de Pocey of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

The abbey was placed directly under the protection of the Pope and the King of France and was among the richest in Europe and the Abbess ruled over both monks and nuns.


1285-87 Maat Layla Sultan of Harrar (Ethiopian Sup state)

She succeeded her brother as head of the Semitic speaking Islamic Ethiopian Boarder State.


1285-1300 Reigning Abbess Kunigunde IV Hainkhover  of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Another version of her surname was Hainkoverin.


1286-90 Queen Regnant Margaret of Scotland and The Orkney Islands (United Kingdom)

Also known as the Maid of Norway. When her mother, Margaret of Scotland married Erik of Norway, the marriage treaty included a provision for their children to succeed to the kingdom of the Scots if the male decendants of her father, Alexander III had died. And when his son died in 1284, Alexander summoned all 13 Earls of Scotland, 24 barons and the heads of the 3 main Gaelic kindreds of the West, and had them sign a document to recognise Margaret as “domina and right heir” if neither Alexander had left no posthumous child and the king had left no children at the time of his death. When he died suddenly in 1286, his widow, Yolande de Dreux, was pregnant but gave birth to a still-born child shortly after, making Margaret the heir, but Robert Bruce – a member of the royal family raised a rebellion, but it was soon suppressed. The Norwegians pressured Margaret’s claims and made a treaty with the King of England with Edward, Prince of Wales, but she died in the Orkney Islands in 1290 while voyaging to Scotland. She was buried in Norway. In the two years that followed, Scotland was left with 14 claimants to the throne. She lived (1283-90).


1286-1304 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Queen Agnes von Brandenburg of Denmark of Lolland-Falster

Queen Agnes of Denmark

Queen Agnes of Denmark

Acted as regent for son Erik IV Menved 1286-92 after her husband, Erik V was assassinated. Several magnates who had been found guilty – probably unjustly- of killing her husband and had been outlawed in 1287 challenged her rule. These outlaws, who were aided by the Norwegian king and soon joined by Duke Valdemar of Schleswig and the new archbishop, Jens Grand, raided the Danish coasts. Erik defeated Valdemar and reached an agreement with Norway in 1295, but he continued to feud with the Archbishop, whose imprisonment led to a papal interdict of the king in 1297. Erik’s settlement with Pope Boniface VIII (1303) enabled him to resume Danish conquests along the northern border of the Holy Roman Empire, and in 1304 the emperor Albert I ceded to Denmark all lands north of the Elbe River. Lolland-Falster was her dowry, which she administered as a royal fief, being in charge of aspects of the local administration also after her marriage to Count Gerhard II of Holsten and became mother of another son, Johann. She lived (1258-1304).


From 1286 The Sovereign Baroness of Chalandritsa (Greece)

Succeeded father Nicholas de la Tremouille and reigned jointly with Georges Ghizi (1291-1311).


Until 1286 Sovereign Dame Anna Komnena Dukaina of Kalamata and Clermont (Greece)

Married to Prince Guillaume II de Villehardouin of Achaia (d. 1278) and Prince Nicolas de Saint-Omer of Achaia (d. 1294), and mother of Isabelle de Villehardouin, who became Princess of Achaia 1278/94. Anna (d. 1286).


Around 1286 Sovereign Baroness Cassandra Sanudo of Milos (Greece)

Head of the island that is situated in the southwestern Cyclades, which belonged to the Byzantine Empire until 1204. It is not known whom she succeeded or how long she reigned, but François Sanudo is mentioned around 1300.


1286-92  Reigning Abbess Ryssa I von Leuchtenberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

As a reichsunmittelbare stift – an Imperial immediacy – the territory was was under the direct authority of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Imperial Diet, without any intermediary Liege lord and therefore had the right to collect taxes and tolls and held juridical rights.


1287-9… Regent Dowager Duchess Helene Angelina Komnena Dukaina of Athens, Heiress of Lamia and Larissa  (Greece)

After the death of her first husband, Duke Guillaume de la Roche-sur-Yon, she became rent for step-son, Gautier V, from 1391 jointly with her second husband, Count Hugues de Brienne, di Lecce etc. (1240-96) whose first wife was Isabelle de la Roche-sur-l’Ognon, Lady of Thebes and Countess of Karytaena. Helene was daughter of Joannes, Archon of Neopatras and lived (Circa 1260-94).


1287-94 Regent Dowager Duchess Salomea von Pommern of Karniów-Rybnik (Poland)

Also known as Salomea Pomorska, she was widow of Duke Siemomysł of Inowrocław in 1268. Daughter of Duke Sambor II of Tczew and mother of 6 children.  (d. 1312/14).


1287-97 Politically Influential Queen Guta von Habsburg of Bohemia (Czech Republic)

Soon after her marriage to Václav II of Bohemia she gained influence on him and inflamed his expansion plans in Slesia and Poland and she introduced German traditions at court, most importantly the presence of knights and she thereby continued the opening of Prague to the west, that Kunigunde of Swabia had begun, and the city became a cultural centre. She also tried to reconcile her husband and brother, Albrecht, Duke of Austria and her role in foreign politics was not without significance. She gave birth to 10 children but only the son Václav and the daughters Anna, Elisabeth und Margarethe survived. The two first motioned both became Queens of Bohemia. She originally named Jutta and was daughter of Count Rudolf von Habsburg and his first wife Gertrud von Hohenberg, and lived (1271-97).


Until 1287 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth van Burget of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

The abbess of Nivelles was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.


1287-93 Princess-Abbess Isabelle I of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

Elected by the ladies of the chapter as successor of Elisabeth van Burget.


Around 1287 Dame Abbesse Anne I de Glère of Remiremont (France)

Abbess of Säckingen and charged with the administration of Masevaux when she was imposed as Abbess by Emperor Rudolf von Habsburg. Later excommunicated for ursurping the abbasiate.


1287-95 Reigning Abbess-General Berenguela López of the Royal Monastery of Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Had the right to grant letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls


1287 In Charge of the Government Dowager Countess Sibylla of Armenia of Tripoli (Lebanon)

After the death of her son, Bohemond VII (1257-87) she appointed as regent Bertrand of Gibelet. He proved to be very unpopular with the commune of the city, who created their own administration. In 1288 her daughter, Lucia arrived to take over the government.


1287 Dowager Countess Sibylla de Châtillon of Tripoli (Lebanon)

Attempted to succeed her husband, Bohemond VII (1257-87), but her sister-in-law was finally selected as his successor.


1287-95 Reigning  Abbess-General Berenguela López of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Daughter of Lope López, II señor de la Guardia and Berenguela González de Girón


1288-99 Sovereign Countess Lucia de Poitiers of Tripoli (Lebanon)
1288-89 Sovereign Princess of Antiochia (Syria)

Lucia de Tripoli et Antiochia

Lucia de Tripoli et Antiochia

About a year after the death of her brother, Bohemund VII she came to Tripoli from Auxerre, where she had married Narjot de Toucy, to take control of the county, although she was opposed by both the commune and the Genoese. The Genoese, led by Benedetto Zaccaria, tried to install a podesta, an official administrator from Genoa, which would have made Tripoli essentially a Genoese colony. At this the leader of the commune consented to acknowledge her, but she unexpectedly allied herself with the Genoese instead. The Venetians and Pisans, who also had trading links with Tripoli, were shocked at this and supposedly conspired with the Mameluk sultan Qalawun to attack the city. She allied with the Mongols, who, knowing that Tripoli was too weak to defend itself even with their help, asked for support from Europe, although no aid was to be found there. Qalawun besieged Tripoli for one month in 1289 and captured it on April 26. Two years later Acre, the last Crusader outpost in the Holy Land was also captured. Although he could have claimed the county through her, her husband never came to Tripoli, as he was attending to business in the Kingdom of Napoli, where he died in 1292. The date of her death is unknown. She had one son, Philippe de Toucy, who inherited the lordship of Terza on Narjot’s death and the claim to Antioch on her death. She lived (circa 1265-1299).


1288 Reigning Dowager Countess Beatrix d’Avenes of Luxembourg

Widow of Heinrich VI (1240-81-88), and regent for son Heinrich VIII (1274/75-1313), who later became Holy Roman Emperor. She lived (1250/55-1320).


1288-1310 Sovereign Dame Beatrix de Bourgogne of Bourbon (France)

Succeeded mother, Dame Agnès, who inherited the title after her father in 1249, and reigned jointly with her husband, Robert II de France, Count de Clermont (d. 1317). Succeeded by son Louis I, who was given the title of Duke de Bourbon. She lived (1257-1310).


1289-1307 Sovereign Princess Isabelle de Villehardouin of Achaia and Morea, Queen of Thessalonica, Baroness of Karytaina and Bucelet (Arakloven) (Greece)

Also known as Zampea, she was daughter of Guillaume II de Achaia (1246-78) and Anne Komnena Angelina (Ange, Angelus). She had first been Betrothed to Andronikos Palaiologos, son of Mikhael VIII Emperor of Byzantium, but this was broken off. Instead her first marriage to, Philipppe of Sicily, son of Carlo I, had been arranged to seal her father’s, Prince Guillaume’s, alliance with the King of Sicily. It was popular with the Frankish barons in Achaia who preferred a westerner as their potential future prince, despite the marriage contract providing that Achaia should revert to the house of Anjou whether or not any children were born of the marriage. He was created titular King of Thessaloniki in 1274 at Brindisi by her brother, Philippe de Courtenay Emperor of Constantinople. After his death, she remained at the court of Napoli. Her brother-in-law, King Carlo d’Anjou II of Sicily, in his capacity of Prince of Achaia, granted her the barony of Karitena and Bucelet in 1289 and she was invested as Princess of Achaia by King Charles in 1289, jointly with her second husband, Florens de Hainalut, Stadholder of Zeeland, Lord of Braine-le-Comte et de Hal en Hainault, at the time of their marriage, and he held the offices of Constable of the Kingdom of Sicily and Vicar-General of Corfu 1289-1290. And she governed personally after his death in 1297, although she retired to her castle of Nesi in Kalamata. 1301 sShe married Philippe de Savoie, lord del Piemonte, whose rule in Achaia was marked by despotism and self-interest and he was deposed in 1306. The following year they separated and she continued to protest the loss of Achaia from Hainaut, where she was living, in spring. 1311 she affirmed her rights to Achaia, and those of her daughter Mathilde. Her younger daughter, Marguerite de Savoie, inherited Karytena in 1311. She lived (circa 1259-1312).


1290–1302 and 1320–1327 Regent Dowager Queen Helvig von Holstein of Sweden

When she was married to king Magnus III in 1276, she was granted the fief of Dåvö in Munktorp in Västmanland. She founded convents and churches but dooes not appear to have been politically active, but after his death, she was regent for their son, King Birger (1280-90-18), and after he was deposed and went into exile, she was in charge of the government in the name of her grandson, Magnus, with her daughter-in-law Ingeborg as regent in Norway. She lived (1260-1324).


1290-1300 Co-Regent Queen Catherina Tomasina Morosini of Hungary

Her husband István the Posthumous of Hungary, Duke of Slavonia (1236-71) who died as a Patrician in Venezia, was son of King Endre II of Hungary and Croatia (1205-35). She became co-ruler when her son, Endre III (1265-90-1301), came to the throne after the son of his third cousin; Lázsló IV was murdered during the civil wars in the country. She was daughter Micaele Sbarra Morosini, and Patrician of Venice of lived (1240-1300).


1290-92 Reigning in Dissidence Queen Mária of Hungary

Lead a contra government in opposition to King Endre III, after her brother Lázsló IV was murdered, when she was acknowledged as kiralyno (female king) by the Dalmatian regions, with the provision that her son Carlo Martello (Martell Károly) was to be elected king in her place. She was daughter of King V. István and Elisabeth, who was regent of the kingdom 1272-77, and married to the future King Carlo II of Napoli and Sicily. She lived (circa 1257-1323).


1290-1325 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Rethel (Belgium)

Succeeded father Hugues IV, and reigned jointly with husband Louis de Nevers (1290-1322).


1290-99 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Anjou and Maine (France)

Following the death of father Charles II, she reigned jointly with husband, Charles II (1270-1325), Count of Valois, Titular King of Aragon, Valencia and Barcelona, Titular Emperor of Constantinople, who was succeeded by their son in Anjou and Maine in 1313 and after his death also in Valois and Chartres. He became king Philippe VI in 1328.


1290 Sovereign Countess Marguerite of Béarn (France)

Inherited the county after the death of her father, Gaston VII, and in 1290 her husband, Roger Bernhard III of Foix also became count of Béarn. He was taken prisoner both by Philip III. of France and by Peter III. of Aragon. Their marriage led to the outbreak of a long feud between the houses of Foix and Armagnac; a quarrel which was continued by their son and successor, Gaston I., who became count in 1302, inheriting both Foix and Béarn.


Around 1290 Princesse-Abbesse Laure-Félicité de Dombasle of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz  (France)

Raised to the rang of Princesse of the Empire (princesse d’Empire) in 1295, the same year a peace-treaty was concluded with the Duke of Lorraine, Ferry III, after years of dispute over control of the territory. She was member of a line of the countly family of Salm.


1290-1323 Reigning Abbess Irmgard von Wittgenstein of Herford (Germany)

Her uncle, Siegfried von Westerburg, Archbishop of Köln, tried to remove Berta von Arnsberg as Princess-Abbess of Essen and impose her as the new head of the chapter, but he did not succeed. When Berta died in 1292, she was candidate for the position again and remained Contra-Abbess in opposition to Beatrix II von Holte until 1304.


1290 Reigning Abbess Adelheid von Grieningen of Rottenmünster (Germany)

Member of a German noble family.


1290 Reigning Abbess Anna von Veringen of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

Could be identical with the Abbess of the same name, that is mentioned 1311-20.


1291-95 Safwad al dunya wa ad-Din Padshah Hatun of Qutlugh Khan (Iran)

Padshah became ruler and took the title Safwad al dunya wa ad-Din (Purity of the earthly world and of the faith) after Djalal da-Din Abu’l-Muzzafar

Unnamed Persian Khanum

Unnamed Persian Khanum

was deposed as head of the Mongol tribe, which reigned in the southeastern Iran. She had her stepbrother Suyurghatamish arrested and eventually killed. She was daughter of Kitlugh Turkan or Turkan Khatun, Queen of Qutlugh Khan or Kirman (1257-82). In 1295 her husband’s successor Great Khan Baydo of the Ilkhan dynasty, had her put to death on the advise of the leader of Suyurghatamish’s clan, his widow, Khurdudjin.


1291-95 Ruler Kürdüjin of Kirman (Iran)
1319… Ruler of Fars

Eldest daughter of Abish Khatun, the last Atabeg (Ruler) of Fars 1263-75 and 1283-87. She was first married to the sixth Qutlugh-Khanid ruler of Kirman, Soyurghatmish and made two other significant marriages before the Ilkhan Abu Sa’id (717-36/ 1317-35) granted her the tax-farm of the province of Fars, but the but the new Ilkhan Ghazan (1295-1304) replaced her with a son of Hajjaj, and she either lived at the ordu or in Fars until Abu Sa’id granted her the revenues of Fars, where she ended her life as a magnificent ruler and patron.


1292-1327 Princess-Abbess Beatrix II von Holte of Essen (Germany)

Pröbstin of Vreden from 1273. After the death of Berta von Arnsberg, the Sub-Stewart, the Count von der Mark, quickly had himself appointed steward of the chapter by the Dechaness and had Beatrix elected as Abbess to make sure Archbishop of Köln would not impose his niece, Irmgard von Wittgenstein, Abbess of Herford as Princess-Abbess so that she could afterwards appoint him to position of steward of the chapter for the diocese, which had become vacant by the death of Rudolf von Habsburg half a year earlier. Beatrix was unanimously by the 26 canonesses and 16 canons present. Both the Pröbstin Mechthild von Renneberg and  Irmgard von Wittgenstein were absent. She was member of a family of lower nobility from who had moved away from Osnabrück because of disputes with the Bishop of Münster. Her brother, Wig bold von Hole, was elected Archbishop of Köln in 1297 and the following year Armguard von Wittgenstein officially resigned any claims to the chapter, but Beatniks was not officially confirmed in office by the Bishop of Minden as representative of the Pope and soon after by the king. She managed to improve the economic situation of the chapter and thereby secured its existence as an imperial immediate territory. She lived (circa 1250-1327).


1293-1340 Princess-Abbess Iolande de Steyne of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)

The Abbess of Nivelles was Princess of the Holy Roman Empire and Political Leader of the City of Nivelles.


Circa 1293-circa 1303 Princess-Abbess Catherine I de Vaudemont of Remiremont (France)

Head of the free worldly (secular) chapter for noble ladies.


1294-98/1300 Joint Guardian and Co-Regent Dowager Duchess Mechtild von Habsburg of Upper-Bavaria
1294-1304 Lady of Vohberg, Neuburg, Burglengenfeld, Reidenburg, Ingolstadt, Aichach, Landsberg and the other Bavarian Cities in the Schwäbische Land (Germany)

Mechtild von Oberbayern

Mechtild von Oberbayern

After the death of her husband, Duke Ludwig II von Bayern (1229-94) her oldest 19 year old son, Rudolf, claimed the right to be guardian and regent for the youngest son, Ludwig of Upper-Bavaria – later king of the German Realm under the name of Ludwig IV – but Mechtild did not accept this, and she continued to intervene in the affairs of state, and contemporary sources states that “her rule was good and masculine”. Mother and oldest son continued to be at odds and in 1302 she was arrested by Rudolf and brought to München, where she signed an agreement promising never to interfere in the government again, but as soon as she was outside the boarders of Bavaria she declared the agreement null and void, and got the support of her brother, Albrecht von Habsburg, her younger son and many others. She was daughter of the German King Rudolf I von Habsburg and Gertrud Anna von Hohenberg, was mother of five children, and lived (1253-1304).


1295-1301 and 1312-21 (†) Regent Dowager Queen María de Alfonso de Molina of Castilla and León (Spain)

Lady de Molina in her own right, she was widow of Sancho IV. As regent for her son, Ferdinando IV, she defended his throne against

 María of Castilla and León

María of Castilla and León

several pretenders, who were at various times supported by France, Aragón, Portugal, Navarre, and Granada. 11 years later, after Ferdinando’s death, she acted as a guardian to her grandson Alfonso XI, while the regency was contested among his other relatives. She was daughter of Alfonso de Molina, the son of King Alfonso IX de León, and Mayor Tellez de Meneses, Lady de Montealegre y Tiedra, and lived (1265-1321).


From 1295 Queen Wakaakaa of Buton (Indonesia)

She founded the state in South Eastern Suwasi, but ruled only on Buton Island. Succeeded by daughter.


After 1295 Queen Bulawambona of Buton (Indonesia)

Succeeded mother and expanded the territory


1295-1307  Princess Joan of Acre, Lady of Glamorgan and Wales (United Kingdom)

Born in Acre (Akko) in Palestine as daughter of King Edward I of England (d. 1307) and Leonor of Castilla and Leon while her parents were travelling to the Middle East on the Ninth Crusade. At least part of her childhood she spent in France with her maternal grandmother, Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu. She was betrothed as a child to Hartman, son of King Rudolph I of Germany, but he died in 1282 after drowning in the Rhine. She then married Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford, and was mother of Eleanor de Clare (1292-1337), who became Lady of G. and W. in 1314. After Gilbert’s death, she clandestinely married Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, a knight in her household, in 1297. Her father was enraged by this lowly second marriage, and her husband was thrown in prison but was released in 1297, and allowed to hold the title of Earl of Gloucester and Hereford during her lifetime. Princess Joan had 8 surviving children with her 2 husbands and died while giving birth to a stillborn child, after having lived (1272-1307).


1295-1327 Sovereign Countess Sibila of Pallars-Sobirá (Spain)

The successor of Ramón Roger I (1288-94), she ruled jointly with Hugo I de Mataplana from 1297.


Until after 1295 Hereditary Dame Beatrix de Champagne-Navarra of l’Isle-sous-Montreal (Lebanon)

Married Hugues IV, Duke of Bourgogne, Count de Châlon, etc, titular King of Thessalonica (1213-72) as his second wife. She was daughter of Theobaldo or Thibaut I “le Grand” of Navarre, Count de Champagne et de Brie (1201-53) and his third wife, Marguerite de Bourbon-Dampierre, mother of five children, her son was seigneur of Montreal until his death in 1294. She lived (1242-after 95).


1295-1326 Reigning Abbess-General Urraca Alfonso II of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

By the initiative of Infanta Blanca, Lady of Las Huelgas, Fernando IV granted her the right to name city scribes and authroze their acts, a privillege confirmed by Alfonso XI in 1317.


1296-1317 Sovereign Princess Agnese de Cicon of Karystos (Greek Island State)

Succeeded Felicia dalle Carceri and reigned jointly with Boniface da Verona, and was succeeded by Maria. The Greek name of Karystos is Evvia or Euboea is the second largest island. It lies along the eastern coast of the Attika mainland and is in fact an extension of an ancient mountain chain running up into the mainland in the north and continuing into Andros and the Cyclades in the south. It is termed a ‘mainland island’ and not included in any of the other island groups.


1296-circa 1313 Regent Dowager Despina Anna Paleologina-Cantacuzena of Epirus (Greece/Albania)

From the time of their marriage in 1264 she has exercised a dominating influence during the reign of her husband, Nicephorus I. After his death she became regent for her son, Thomas of Epirus. As the niece of Emperor Michael VII of Byzantine, the pro-Byzantine party gained control. In 1306 the anti-Byzantine forces, lead by Philippe de Taranto (married to her daughter Tamar) joined forces with the Catholic Albanians, seized Dyrrachium, and intended to depose Anna, but the campaign failed.


Around 1296 Baroness Thamar Komnena Angelina Dukaina of Bonditza and Lepanto (Greek Island State)

Daughter of Nikephoros I Dukas Komnenos, Despot of Epirus, (1240-96) and Anna Cantakuzene of Nikæa (d. 1313), she was given the baronies as a dowry upon her marriage to Philippe d’Anjou, Prince of Taranto, Despot of Romania, Lord of Durazzo and Prince of Achaia (1278-1332). She engaged in a dispute with her mother over Taranto. In 1309 he accused her of adultery and divorced her, and afterwards married Catherine II de Valois, titular Empress of Constantinople, Princess of Achaia. Thamar was mother of 8 children, entered a convent and lived (circa 1277-1311)


1296-1303 Reigning Abbess Elisabeth von Hohenfels of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)

If she was indeed a member of the Hohenfels-family, her father was Grosswin von Hohenfels, who worked for Rudolf von Habsburg.


1296-1303 Politically Influential Duchess Elisabeth von Liegnitz in Liegnitz-Brieg and Breslau-Liegnitz (Legnica, Brzeg and Wrocław) (Poland)

Following the death of her husband, the Slesian Duke Hendryk, she was involved in the governing of the state during the reign of her oldest son until she moved to Bohemia. The daughter of Duke Bolesław the Devout of Małopolska and Princess Helena of Hungary, she was mother of 8 children, and lived (1261/63-1304).


1298-99 Regent Dowager Tsarina Smiltsena Paleologina of Bulgaria

After the death of her husband, Tsar Smilets of Bulgaria (1292-98) she was regent in the name of her minor son, Ivan II, after apparently having defeated her brothers-in-law, Radoslav and Voysil (Vojsil), who sought refuge in the Byzantine Empire and entered into Byzantine service. To meet this threat and the invasion of the Mongol prince Chaka, she sought an alliance with Aldimir (Eltimir), the brother of the former ruler George Terter I, who was then married to her daughter Marija. 1299 she gave over the capital Tărnovo to Chaka, who installed himself as Tsar. Ivan II and his retinue settled in the possessions of Aldimir, where they may have remained even after the accession of Aldimir’s nephew Theodore Svetoslav to the throne in 1300. In 1305 she was negotiating with the Byzantine government on behalf of either Aldimir or her son, but with Aldimir’s subjugation by Theodore Svetoslav in the same year, the family disappears into obscurity. In the sources she is named as Smitlstsena, but her first name is not mentioned, she was daughter of the byzantine Prince Constantine Palaiologos and (d. after 1306).


1298-13.. Regent Dowager Duchess Agnes von Habsburg of Sachsen-Wittenberg (Germany)

After the death of her husband, Duke Albrecht II, she was regent for their son Duke and Prince Palatine Rudolf I. (Circa 1285-98-1356) She was daughter of Emperor Rudolf, and lived (Circa 1257-1322).


1298-1339 Titular Judicissa and Countess Giovanna Visconti of Gallura (and Cagliari) (Italy)

Her father, Ugolino Visconti, had already been deprived of Gallura by the Republic of Pisa at the time of her succession as an infant, so it was purely nominal. She claimed her rights in Sardinia to no avail and eventually sold them to her relatives, the Visconti of Milan, who later sold them to the Crown of Aragon. On 13 November 1309, she married Rizzardo da Camino, Count of Ceneda and Lord of Treviso. In 1328, she was granted a pension by the Este family of her mother, Beatrice d’Este. (d. 1339).


1298-1322 Princess-Abbess Herradis von Praitenfurt of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)

The Reichsabtei was home of ladies of high nobility of the Holy Roman Empire.


1298-1307 Countess-Abbess Irmengarde II von Ummendorf of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Irmengarde II von Gernrode und Frose

Irmengarde II von Gernrode und Frose

Also known as Irmingarde, she had to borrow money to cover the costs for the regalia and the “papal recognition fee” of about 1 “mark of silver”, and in order to pay off the depts she had to give out some of the possessions of the chapter as tenantcies to the local nobility.


1298-1308 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von Spiegelberg of Frauenmünster, Dame of Zürich (Switzerland)

Member of an old noble family, in 1281 Count Moritz came in possession of some land in the valley between the Mountains of Ith, Osterwald and Nesselberg in Weserbergland. The County included 5 villages and stayed in the family until 1557 when it was inherited by the House Lippe.


1298-1303 Reigning Abbess Agnès III de Cérilly of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

After both Agnès de Juilly and Marguerite de Sergines were elected Abbesses in 1443 a lenghtly dispute and court cases followed.


1298-1318 Politically Influential Queen Märta af Danmark of Sweden

During the reign of her husband, King Birger, she participated in all the intrigues of his court. In 1306 they had been captured and imprisoned by his brothers and forced to hand over the real power to them, but a few years later they invited the brothers to great festivities, captured and imprisoned them, and left them to starve to death. When her husband was deposed in 1318, she fled to Denmark, were she spent the rest of her life. She was daughter of King Erik V of Denmark and the former regent, Agnes of Brandenburg, and lived (1277-1341).


1299-? Reigning Abbess Ryssa II von Dornberg of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Dornberg is a village in the former County of Ravensberg in Preussen (Prussia).

Women in power 1200-1250

Around 1200-09 Hereditary Lady Bertha von Vohburg of Greiz, Hof, Regnitztal, Ronnenburg and Plauen (Austria)

Daughter and heir of the Margrave of Vohburg. Married Heinrich II der Reiche von Reuss Steward of Weida and Gera. Mother of Heinrich III and Heinrich IV.


Before 1200 Queen Arjayadengjayaketana of Bali (Indonesia)

A Queen in Indonesia

A Queen in Indonesia

Joint ruler with King Haji Ekajayalancana. The first centuries AD until the year o 1500, constituted the Hindu influence period. With the coming of Indian influences. In running the government, the monarch was assisted by a Central Advisory Board. In the oldest charter 882 AD – 914 AD, the board was called panglapuan. The Board members comprised several commanders’, Senapatis and Siwa and Buddhist priests.


1200-05 Sovereign Countess Palatine Jeanne of Bourgogne (France)

Daughter of Otto I and Marguerite de Champagne, Comtesse Palatine de Bourgogne (1200-1205) and succeeded by sister Beatrix II (1192-1231). She lived (1191-1205).

1200-31 Sovereign Countess Beatrix II of Franche-Comté (France)
1205-31 Countess Palatine de Bourgogne

Succeeded father, Otto I in Franche-Comté and sister in Bourgogne, and reigned jointly with husband Duke Otto II de Meran (1208-34), who was succeeded by their son, Otto III de Meran and Franche-Comté and in 1248 by daughter, Alix. She lived (1192-1231).


1200-after 45 Dame Beatrix de Courtenay of Toron and Cabor, Titular Countess of Edessa (Israel)

Oldest daughter of Joscelin II and Agnes de Milly, she first married Guillaume de Lusignan, Wilhelm de Lusignan, Seigneur de Valence (d. circa 1206) and Otto II. Graf von Henneberg and mother of two sons by the last son. (d. after 1245).


1200-08 Regent Burgavine Petronella van Kortrijk of Gent (Belgium)

Her husband Zeger II was a templar from 1200 and in 1202 he died, and she continued as regent for their son Zeger III (1190-1227). She remained influential after her son took over the government and for example donated some lands to an abbey in 1214. When signing documents she used the titulature of Burgravine van Gent and Kortrÿk.


Around 1200 Administrator Urodati Vennele Settikavve of Satenahalli in Karnataka (India)

Also security officer, and stopped loot and rampage in her territory in Karnataka by punishing the ruffians and supporting the ethos of traders. She also arranged seminars on religion (dharma-prasanga).


1200-20 De-facto Co-Ruler Terken Khatun of Khwarezmian Empire (Iran)

After the death of her partner, ‘Ala’ al-Din Tekish (1172-1200), she so dominated the court of their son, ‘Ala’ al-Din Muhammad II (1200-20) and quarreled so bitterly with his heir by another wife, Jalal al-Din, that she may have contributed to the impotence of the Khwarazmshahi kingdom in the face of the Mongol onslaught. She had a separate Divan and separate palace and the orders of the sultan were not considered to be effective without her signature. The Shah ruled the heterogeneou peoples without mercy. In face of Mongol attacks, Khwarazm empire, with a combined army of 400.000, simply collapsed. Harezmshah Muhammed had retreated to Samarkand towards the end of his domination and he had to leave the capital city of Gurgenç to her.


Around 1200 Army Commander Queen Umadevi of Hoysala (India)

Led two campaigns against recalcitrant vassals during the reign of her husband, king Viraballala II of Karnataka (1173-1220).


12… Regent Dowager Princess Alagai Bäki of the Ordos Mongols in Gansu and Shaanxi (China)

She was widow of Boyaoche and daughter of Djingis Khan. The tribe was also known as Öngüt in Chihua Cheng.


1201-30 Sovereign Dame Ermessenda de Castellbò i Caboët of Andorra
1226-30 Sovereign Viscountess of Castellbò-Cerdagne (Spain)

Inherited Andorra from her mother Arnalda de Carboet (1164-1201) and Castellbò by father Arnaud de Castellbò-Cerdagne (1155-1226). She and married to Roger Bernard II of Foix (1195-1241) in 1208, and trough their descendants Andorra was inherited by the houses of Foix, Bearn and Navarra and France. She lived (1185-1230).

1201-22 Regent Dowager Countess Blanca de Navarra of Champagne (France)
Until 1229 Regent of Navarra (Spain)

Comtesse Blanche de Champagne

Comtesse Blanche de Champagne

Also known as Blanche de Navarre, she was pregnant when her husband Thibaut III died, and she became regent for her posthumously born son Thibaut IV (1201-53). Her regency was plagued by a number of difficulties. Her brother-in-law, count Henry II had left behind a great deal of debt, which was far from paid off when Thibaut III died. Further, their son Thibaut’s legitimacy was not unquestioned, and his right to the succession was challenged by Henry’s daughter Philippa and her husband, Erard I of Brienne, count of Ramerupt and one of the more powerful Champagne nobles. The conflict broke into open warfare in 1215, and was not resolved until after Thibaut came of age in 1222. At that time Thibaut and Blanca bought out their rights for a substantial monetary payment. Her brother Sancho VII of Navarre was the last male-line descendant of the first dynasty of kings of Navarre, the Pamplona dynasty, and was childless and when he went into retirement (“el Encerrado”) she took administration of the kingdom, though he remained king until her son succeeded him in 1234. She was the youngest daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre (who died 1194) and Sancha of Castile. She lived (1170’s-1229).

1201 Pretender Philippine de Champagne-Jerusalem of Champagne (France)

Younger daughter of Henri de Champagne and Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem, she claimed the county of Champagne after the death of her cousin, Thibaud, jointly with her older sister, Queen Alice of Jerusalem, and the fights over the inheritance lasted about a quarter of a century. Some of the nobles and prelates supported Philippa and her sister; others supported Queen Blanca of Castilla and her son. In 1221 both sisters seceded their claims in exchange of a large payment. But in 1227 they made a new attempt and new fights erupted. But in 1234 the inheritance was finally settled, the sisters were granted a large sum of money and Alice had the treaty confirmed by her son, Henri of Cyprus and her daughters Maria and Isabella. Philippa was married to Sire Erard III de Brienne, mother of seven children, and lived (circa 1195- 1250).


1202-04 Regent Countess Marie de Champagne of Flanders and Hainault (Belgium)

In charge of the government during husband, Count Baudouin IX’s participation in the 5th crusade. He later became Emperor of Constantinople. She travelled to Jerusalem and died shortly after her arrival after having given birth to her second daughter, the later Marguerite II. Her husband died in 1205 and was succeeded by daughter Jeanne.


1202/03-18 Judicissa Elena of Gallura in Sardinia (Italy)

When her father, Barisone II, died left her and the giudicato under the protection of Pope Innocent III, who asked Biagio, Archbishop of Torres to assure a smooth succession in Gallura, which meant arranging a marriage for the young woman. In July 1204, the Pope wrote to her commending her for abiding by papal advice and admonishing her mother, Riccus, Archbishop of Cagliari, and the people of Gallura to follow the decision of Biagio. The bishop of Cività, the Gallurese capital, was sent to Rome to receive papal instruction concerning the marriage prospects. Gugliermo of Cagliari had already intervened to remove a suitor, and did so again in 1206. Later that year she was informed that she would be marrying Trasimondo, a cousin of the Pope, but she refused and instead married a Pisan named Lamberto Visconti di Eldizio. After her death, her husband was engaged to Benedetta of Cagliari. Her son Ubaldo II Visconti later succeeded, who was married to Judicissa Adelaisa of Logudoro. (d. circa 1218).

1202-circa 44 Sovereign Countess Isabelle Taillefer of Angoulême (France)

Daughter of Adémer III Taillefer, who was pretender to the county (1181-1202) against his sister, Countess Mahaut. After his death she claimed the title, 6 years before Mahaut died. First married to King John without Land of England 1216, who died when she was visiting Queen Blance in Paris. After having returned to England she gave birth to a daughter. After the coronation of her 8-year-old son, Henry, she was asked by the Barons to leave England and she returned to her own lands. Here she arranged for her daughter to marry Hugues X de Lusignan, Count de La Marche, to whom she was engaged before her marriage to John, but married him herself in 1218. She was very powerful in both counties. Both her second husband and her son, Henry III, were engaged in fights against the French king in 1242. The following year she divided her possessions among those of her 13 children who had survived infancy, and joined the convent Fontrevault. After her death her husband joined one of the crusades and died in the Holy Land in 1249. She lived (1186-1246).


1202-after 05 Regent Countess Alice of Angoulême (France)

Widow of the pretender, Adémer Taillefer to the county, she was regent for daughter, Isabelle.


1202-circa 06 Regent Dowager Countess Oda von Berg-Altna of Tecklenburg (Germany)

Ruled in the name of son Otto I von Tecklenburg after the death of her husband, Count Simon. Otto was succeeded by daughter, Helwig.


1203-28 Claimant to the Duchy Eléonore of Bretagne (France)

After her brother, Arthur I (1186-1201-03) was assassinated by their uncle, John without Land of England, claimed the duchy but was imprisoned by John and placed in a Abbey in England. (d. 1244)

1203-21 Sovereign Duchess Alix de Thouars of Bretagne (France)

Alix de Bretagne

Alix de Bretagne

Inherited Brittany after her half-brother Arthur was assassinated. She was daughter of Duchess Constance and her father, Gui de Thouars, who was duke-regent during her minority until 1213. Her husband, Pierre I de Dreux, Count of Penthièvre and Richmond was Duke by the right of his wife until 1221 and after her death during the minority of their son, Jean I until 1237. (d. 1221).


1203-28 Sovereign Countess Beatrice de Thiers of Chalons-sur-Saône and Beaune (France)

Succeeded father Guillaume VI and Married Etienne III de Bourgogne (1170-1240). After her death in 1228, the county was inherited by son, Jean I (1190-1266).

1203-08 Sovereign Countess Ada of Holland and Zeeland (The Netherlands)

Ada van Holland

Ada van Holland

Only daughter of Dirk VII of Holland, who installed her as heir in 1203. Her mother, Aleid von Kleve (d. 1238), married her off to Lodewijk II van Loon even before her father was burried. But within a short time, support was mounting for Dirk’s brother, Willem, who took the title of Count. Ada was taken prisoner by the English king and after 4 years she was released after an agreement that made her husband Count of Holland and her uncle Count of Zeeland. 2007 she was finally released from England. When her husband died in 1208 her uncle took over the reign and in 1213 he was officially granted the County by Emperor Otto IV. She had no children, and lived (circa 1189-circa 1223).


1203-24 Princess-Abbess Sophia von Brehna of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Margrave Friedrich and Hedwig and lived (1182-1226).


1203 Reigning Abbess Agnès II of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)

The last known predecessor was Agnès I who reigned about 100 years earlier.


1204-05 Nominal Regent Dowager Queen Constance de Aragón of Hungary
1212-20 Regent of Sicilia (Italy)

After the death of her first husband, King Imre of Hungary, she was regent for their son, Laszlo III, but they were held prisoners by her brother-in-law, Andras, but they managed to escape to Austria, where her son died in May 1205 after 3 months on the throne. She returned to Aragon, but soon after married Federico I Hohenstaufen di Sicilia (1194-1250), the son of Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich IV, who succeeded his mother, Constanza, as king of Sicily, and who became king of Germany 1212. She held the reins when he moved to Germany and was confronted the revolts of the Saracens (Moors). Together with her son, Heinrich, she visited Friederich in Germany in 1216. When he became Holy Roman Emperor in 1220 (as Friederich II), she joined him in Germany. After her death, her husband married Queen Yolande de Brienne of Jerusalem and then Elizabeth of England. Her son, Heinrich died before his father, and since both his sons had already died, Friederich was succeeded by his son by Yolande, Conradin. Constance lived (1179-1222).

1204-circa 05 Regent Dowager Countess Mathilda of Portugal of Flanders (The Netherlands)

Mathilde de Flanders

Mathilde de Flanders

Very influential during the reign of her husband Filips (d. 1191) and her sister-in-law Marguerite and again during the reign of her son, BoudewijnIX of Constantinople, and regent during his participation in the 5th Crusade. Born as Mafalda, she was daughter of King Sancho I (1154-85-1211) and Dulce of Aragón.


1204-13 Sovereign Lady Marie de Guilhem of Montpellier (France)

When her mother, Eudokia Komnen, a Byzantine Empress married her father, Guillaume VIII de Montpellier it was a condition that the firstborn child, boy or girl, would succeed to the lordship of Montpellier on his death. She was married to Barral de Marseille in 1192 or shortly before, but was widowed in that year. Her second marriage, in 1197, was to Bernard IV of Comminges, and her father now insisted on her giving up her right to inherit Montpellier. She had two daughters by her second husband, Mathilde and Petronille. The marriage was, however, notoriously polygamous as he had two other living wives. The marriage was annulled and she was once more heir to Montpellier. Her father had died in 1202 and her half-brother, Guillaume, had taken control of the city, but she asserted her right to it. On 15 June 1204 she married Pedro II pf Aragpm and was recognised as Lady of Montpellier and their son, Juan, was born on 1 February 1208. Her husband immediately attempted to divorce her, hoping both to marry Maria of Montferrat, Queen of Jerusalem, and to claim Montpellier for himself. Her last years were spent in combating these political and matrimonial manoeuvres. Pope Innocent III finally decided in her favour, refusing to permit the divorce. Both spouces died in 1213 and their son inherited Aragon and Montpellier. She lived (1182-1213).

1205-44 Sovereign Countess Jeanne de Constantinople of Flanders, Hainault and Namur (Belgium and France)

Countess Jeanne de Flanders, Hainault and Namur

Countess Jeanne de Flanders, Hainault and Namur

Also known as Johanna, she was the oldest daughter of Emperor BoudewijnIX of Constantinople. After the death of her parents she, and her sister, Marguerite, were raised by king Philippe Auguste of France and was married off to Ferrand of Portugal, who participated in the coalition against the king, and held as prisoner 1214-26. During this difficult period, she was advised by her mother-in-law and managed to secure her inheritance faced with the opposition of the nobility and cities. After she managed to obtain the liberation of her husband in 1226, she lived a couple of years in relative tranquillity and founded numerous charitable and religious institutions. After Ferrand’s death in 1233, she married Thomas de Savoie. Her only daughter, Marie, died as an as an infant and she was succeeded by sister, Marguerite, and lived (1188/1200-44).

1205-13 Queen Maria I de Monferrato of Jerusalem (Israel)

A Queen of Jerusalem

A Queen of Jerusalem

Alternative versions of her name is Maria La Marquise or Maria of Monferrato, she succeeded to throne of Jerusalem aged 13. The regent was John of Ibelin, Lord of Beirut (her mother Isabella’s half-brother). When Maria came of age at the age of 17 in 1208, she assumed the throne in her own right. The nobles of Outremer decided though that she was rather young and a man should rule the Jerusalem and so the search went out for a suitable husband for this young woman. In 1210 she married Jean de Brienne. Maria gave birth to a daughter, Isabella/Yolanda in 1212 and died shortly after and her husband, Jean de Brienne, became regent for their daughter until 1225. She lived (1192-1212).


From 1205 Regent Princess Burgundia of Cyprus

After the death of her father, Amalric I of Cyprus-Jerusalem she was held the regency together with husband Gautier de Montfaucon-Montbeliard, during the minority of her brother, Hugh or Hugo, who came of age in 1205. Their half-sister, Maria, became Queen of Jerusalem after the realm was divided. Burgundia or Bourgogne lived (Circa 1176-after 1205)

1205-12 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth de Luxembourg of Saint-Pôl (France)

Daughter of Hugues IV Camp d’Avesnes (d. 1205), and married Gaucher III, seigneur de Châtillon, de Troissy, de Montjay, de Crécy and de Pierrefons (d. 1219). Succeeded by son, Gui I, who married Agnès, Countess of Nevers and Auxerre. She lived (1179-1263).


1205-30 Reigning Abbess-General Sancha García of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The “Monastieum Cisterciense” records the stern inhibition that Innocent III, in 1220, placed upon Cistercian Abbesses of Burgos and Palencia in Spain, “who blessed their religious, heard the confession of their sins, and when reading the Gospel, presumed publicly to preach.”

1205-07 Countess-Abbess Richenza von Büren of Gernrode (Germany)

An Abbess of Gernrode

An Abbess of Gernrode

Also known as Rikinza. Around 1200 the community drew up a manuscript listing all its rights of ownership, dependencies, and holdings. According to this manuscript 24 entire villages, 21 churches, and nearly 400 hides of land belonged to the communities of Gernrode and Frose. Although the manuscript is a forgery (it purports to be a document issued by Margrave Gero in 964), it was accepted and strengthened by Pope Innocent III and was accepted as the truth thereafter.


Circa 1205-circa 10 Dame Abbesse Haduidis II of Remiremont (France)

The noble ladies of the chapter were member of the noble families of Lorraine, Franché-Comte and Germany and many of them did not take up permanent residence in the city, but lived of the income they derived from the territory.

1207-57 Sovereign Countess Mahaut I de Courtenay of Nevers, d’Auxerre and Tonnerre (France)

Mahaut I, d'Auxerre et Tonnerre

Mahaut I, d’Auxerre et Tonnerre

Also known as Mathilde of Maud, she was daughter of Comtesse Agnès and Pierre de Courtenay Count of Namur 1212, Emperor of Constantinople 1217, she married Hervé IV de Donzy, Seigneur de Donzy and Guy IV, Count de Forez. She liberated the serfs and was known as a very able administrator of her fiefs.


1207-21 Countess-Abbess Adelheid II von Büren of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Adelheid II von Gernrode

Adelheid II von Gernrode

At the height of their wealth, the communities of Frose and Gernrode held approximately 11.000 hectares, comprising woodland, vineyards, fishponds, and grazing. A dispute with the stewards of the chapter was settled by the Bishop Freiderich von Halberstadt in 1220. She (d. 1221)


1207-08 Reigning Abbess Marie I de Champagne (de Bourgogne) of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

The prosperity of the abbey continued under her reign, but by the end of the twelfth century, owing to the state of the country and the English wars, the nuns were reduced to gaining their livelihood by manual work. The situation was aggravated by internal dissensions, which lasted a hundred years.


1208-09 Reigning Abbess Ala/Alix de Bourbon of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

The chapter was founded in 1101, and was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. A Prior under the control of the Abbess commanded the monks in the dabble-convent.


1208/1214 Sovereign Baroness Eudocia Angelos of Argos and Naupila (Greece)

Succeeded by Theodore Angelos-Comnenos. They were members of the Byzantine Imperial Dynasty of Angelos.


1208-14 Regent Dowager Countess Elvira of Urgell (Spain)

Reigned in the name of her daughter. Aurembaix, jointly with Pedro I el Catolico of Aragon.


1208-19 and 1228-31 Sovereign Countess Aurembiaix de Castellbò i Caboët of Urgell (Spain)

Aurembiaix de Urgell

Aurembiaix de Urgell

Also known as Ermessende or Ermessanda, she was daughter of Ermengol VIII (1184-1208/9). She was deposed in 1214 by Guerau I de Urgell. 1228 Aurembiaix began her second reign, from 1229 together with husband Pierre I de Bourgogne. She had no children and the country was incorporated in Cataluña-Aragón.

1208-20 Princess Ahmadilidyn of the Ahmadil Dynasty in Maragha (Iran)

In 1029 the City of Maragheh on the southern slopes of Mount Sahand in North Western Iran (East Azerbaijan Province) was seized by the Oghuz Turks, but a Kurdish chief who established a local dynasty drove them out. The Mongols destroyed the city in 1221, but Hulagu Khan held court there until the establishment of a fixed capital at Tabriz.


From 1209 Sovereign Countess Gersende I d’Urgel of Forcalquier (France)

Succeeded her father, Guillaume IV d’Urgel and married to Reiner de Sabran, seigneur de Caylar, and succeeded by daughter at a not known date.


1209-19 Regent Dowager Countess Gersende de Sabran of Provence (France)
Until 1242 Sovereign Countess of Forcalquier (Gersende II)

The widow of Alphonse II, comte de Provence, she was regent for Ramón Berenguer IV together with King Pedro of Aragón (1209-13), Count Sancho de Bouillon (1213-16) and Nuño Sánchez. At a not known date, she succeeded her mother, Gersende I, as Countess of Forcalquier. She lived (1180-1242).


1209-18 Reigning Abbess Alix de Champagne of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

Apparently daughter of Count Henri I de Champagne et de Brie and Marie of France, the daughter of King Louis VII of France.


1210’s-1221 Reigning Lala Khatun of Bamiyan (Afghanistan)

Today Bamiyan is a town in North-central Afghanistan’s Hazarijat province. It is an ancient caravan centre on the route across the Hindu Kush between India and Central Asia, but was sacked by Genghis Khan in 1221 and never regained its former prominence.


121?-18 Ruler Salbak Turhan of Uiguristan (Kazakstan)

The Qara-Khitai Empire with Samarkand as its capital covering present day’s Mongolia, Northern-China, Kyrgyzstan and other Central Asian Territories. In 1210 the Qara-Khitai Empire lost Transoxiana to the Khwarazim Shahdom, previously a vassal. The empire ended in 1218, when it was annexed by the Mongol Empire of Chingiz Khan.


Circa 1211-31 Reigning Abbess Marguerite I of Remiremont (France)

The chapter was the most illustrious monastery in whole of Europe. It was founded ca 620 and transferred to its present location in 818. The act of 1070 whereby the abbey became directly dependent of the emperor is probably a falsification – it was probably much earlier that this statute was achieved.


1211/12-25 Hereditary Countess Gertrud von Egisheim-Dagsburg of Egisheim, Dagsburg, Metz and Moha (Germany)

Only daughter and sole heiress of Count Albrecht II von Egisheim-Dagsburg and Gertrud von Baden. After the death of her first husband, Thibaut I of Upper-Lorraine in 1220, she married the son of Countess Blance de Champagne -the later Count Thibaut IV – and after their divorce in 1222 she married Count Simon of Saarbrücken-Leiningen, Count of Dagsburg, who inherited her fiefs after her death in 1225. She had no children and lived (1205-25).

1212-28 Queen Isabella II de Brienne of Jerusalem (Israel)

Queen Isabelle II of Jerusalem with her husband

Queen Isabelle II of Jerusalem with her husband

Also known as Yolande, she succeeded her mother, Queen Maria La Marquise (1205-12), though her father, and Jean de Brienne (1210-25) continued to rule as regent. On the way to Italy to marry Emperor Friedrich II Hohenstaufen in 1225 she made a stop in Cyprus to se her aunt, Queen-regent Alice. She ruled jointly with husband, Friedrich Barbarossa of Germany, son of Queen Constanza of Sicilia, whose first wife, Constance of Aragon, had been regent of Sicily 1212-20. Isabella died six days after giving birth to a son, Conradin. In 1244 the Osman Turks conquered the state, and the capital of the Kingdom moved to Acre. She lived (1212-28).

1212-17 Sovereign Margravine Yolanda de Flanders of Namur (Belgium)
1216-19 Empress of Constantinople

Also known as Violante or Jolanta. After her brother, Emperor Henri’s death in June 1216 the Barons of the Empire offered her and

Yolande de Flanders

Yolande de Flanders

her husband Pierre, the crown, and they both accepted. In 1217 they left for Constantinople, and she seeded the marquisate to her oldest son. They were crowned in Rome by Pope Honrius III, and continued their journey, Pierre over land and were taken prisoner; she was pregnant and travelled by sea. In Morea she married her daughter Anges off to Gottfried II, the future Prince of Achaia. In Constantinople she gave birth to the heir to the throne, Baudouin II. (1228-1261), and took over the regency. Just before her death she married her daughter Maria to Emperor Theodor I. Laskaris of Nikæa. She was mother of 9 children and daughter of Count Baudouin V of Flanders and Hainault and lived (circa 1175-1219).


1212-25 Sovereign Countess Gertrude of Metz (France)

Succeeded father, Albert, and first married to Thiébaud I, duc de Lorraine, secondly to Thibaut IV, comte de Champagne until the marraige was annulled in 1222, and thirdly to Simon de Sarrebruck. After her death the County became an episcopal domaine.


1212-43 Reigning Abbess Hersende of Jouarre (France)

Also known as Hermensende or Hermengade. She engaged in an offensive against the Bishop of Meaux and 1225 the Abbey was granted episcopal exemption for 450 years and thus came under the immediate jurisdiction of the Pope.


1213-25 Sovereign Countess Agnès II de Donzy of Tonnerre (France)

She and her husband was given the County after their marriage. After her death her stepfather, Guigues de Forez took over the county until his death 1241 and was succeeded by her son, Gaucher. Her mother Mathilde de Courtenay, Countes of Tonnerre, Nevers and Auxerre died 1241. Agnès lived (circa 1205-25).


1213-16 Reigning Abbess Reichzca V of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Her background is not known.


1214 (†) Regent Dowager Queen Leonor de Plantagenet of Castilla (Spain)

Queen Leonor de Castilla

Queen Leonor de Castilla

Co-Regent for Enrique I (1214-17) and her daughter, Princess Berenguela became regent after her death. She was daughter of Duchess Leonora of Aquitaine and King Henry II of England. (d. 1214).


1214-15 Regent Princess Berenguela of Castilla (Spain)
1217 Queen Regnant of Asturias-León and Castilla
1217-19 Regent
1230 Regent in León

Berenguela I de Castilla

Berenguela I de Castilla

Initially she governed in the name of her brother Enrique I (1204-14-15-17). Later she divorced – under Pope Innocent III’s orders – from her second-degree cousin King Alfonso IX de Leon (King of Leon 1188 -1230). When her brother died in 1217, she renounced her rights in favour of her son, Fernando II de Castilla, and she acted as his regent, according to the Cronica Latina, her “total intent and desire being to procure honor for her son in every way possible”. She helped quell the rebellious nobles, and then arranged for Fernando to marry a high-born wife, Elisabeth of Swabia. She often found herself politically at odds with her former husband. Alfonso had two daughters, Sancha and Dulce, by an earlier wife, and wished to disinherit her children in favour of these daughters. To this end, he invited Jean de Brienne to marry his eldest daughter and thus inherit his kingdom. She sabotaged this plan by convincing Jean to marry her own daughter, also named Berenguela, instead. Later, in 1230 when Alfonso died, she and her son Fernando acted to set aside the rights of the older daughters, and seized the Leonese throne. She maintained close connections with her sister, Queen Blanche of France, and lived (1180-1246).


1214-32 Judicca Benedetta of Cagliari (in Sardinia) and Marchessa de Massa (Italy)

Consecrated as “ruling judge” in 1214 by Riccus, Archbishop of Cagliari, in the presence of the higher clergy and the grandees. She swore an oath not to diminish the territory of the giudicato, nor to alienate its castles, nor to make foreign alliances without their consent. Soon after she married Barisone III of Arborea, who was imprisoned by her father. He took the dynastic name “Torchitorio V” and they ruled their two giudicati jointly, each being cited in the acts of the other in their own giudicato. She favoured natives for positions in her government over Pisans and the economic benefits of Sardinian over the Republic of Pisa. In 1215 Lambert Visconti, judge of Gallura, landed a large army near Cagliari and took the dominating hilltop of S. Gilla, fortifying it. She was subsequently forced to flee her capital for the interior and in 1217, Lamberto’s brother, Ubaldo I Visconti, forced her to accept terms surrendering Cagliari. She received the giudicato back as fief from the consul of Pisa. However, violence between Sardinians and Pisans escalated in Cagliari and she and her husband made an alliance with Comita III of Torres and the Republic of Genoa in hopes of expelling the Pisans. They found support in Pope Honorius III. After her husband died in 1218, she was forced to marry Lamberto, but the pope immediately pronounced his annulment. In 1224 she renewed the oath of homage to the Holy See to Goffredo, the papal legate. Two years later war began again with Ubaldo, and she married twice more, both times without papal permission. Her third husband was Enrico di Ceola, a Pisan of the Capraia family who soon gained papal favour. Her fourth husband was Rinaldo de Glandis and their marriage was declared valid. Nevertheless, violence in Cagliari forced her to move to the castle of Santa Igia and then to Massa, her ancestral home. After her death Pope Gregory IX had given Massa and Potenzolo to Ugo di Procaria, while Cagliari was divided between the Visconti, Capraia, and Donoratico, Pisan families. Her heir was Guglielmo succeeded under the regency of her sister, Agnes and her husband, Marianus of Torres, held the regency.
She was the daughter Guglielmo I of Cagliari and Adelasia, and lived (circa 1194-1232/1233).

1214-circa 60 Sovereign Countess Mahaut II of Dammartin and Boulogne (France)

Also known as Mathilde, she succeeded mother, Countess Ide, who ruled (1173-1214), the daughter of Countess Marie (1159-69) who again was

Mahaut II de Dammartin et Boulogne

Mahaut II de Dammartin et Boulogne

daughter of Countess Mahaut I (Circa 1125-51). Mahaut was married to Count Philippe Hurepel de Clermont-en-Beauvais, Mortain, Aumale, Dammartin et Boulogne (the latter by the right of his wife) (son of King Philippe II Augusta of France) and in 1238 to King Alfonso III of Portugal (1210-79), who divorced her in 1253. Her son and daughter apparently died before her and the succession was settled with a relative, Adélaïde de Brabant. Mahaut lived (1190/95-circa 1260).


1215-42 Sovereign Dame Mahaut I of Bourbon (France)

Heir of Archambaud V (1116-71), she first married Gautier de Vienne, who ruled Bourbon (1171-1215), after his death she married Gui II de Dampierre and had two daughters, Mahaut II de Dampierre and Agnes. She was succeeded by Archambaud VII upon her death in 1242.


1215-19 Regent Dowager Margravine Adelasia di Monferrato of Saluzzo (Italy)

Azalaïs or Adelasia was regent for granson Manfredo III after the death of her husband, Manfredo II as her son, Bonifacio had predeceased his father. Upon her marriage in 1182 she had received lands in Saluzzo, Racconigi, Villa, Centallo and Quaranta. She was a a great patron of troubadours. 1216 she made a treaty with Thomas I of Savoia for a marriage between his son Amadeus and her grand-daughter Agnes. She had to pay tribute on behalf of her grandson, and for the next century the margravate was a vassal of Savoy. When her grandson took over the government, she retunred to church patronage and made many big grants. (d. 1232).


1216-.. Sovereign Countess Jezebel of Karystos (Greece)
1217-.. Sovereign Countess of The First Triarchy of Euboea

Also known as Isabelle. Under the division of Eubœa established in 1217 by Venice following the death of her husband, Ravano dalle Carceri, she acquired ½ of the southern barony with the town of Karystos, the other ½ being assigned to her daughter. The County was an important port on the southernmost tip of the island of Euboea, facing the island of Andros, in the Cyclades.


1216-40 Sovereign Countess Berta dalle Carceri of Karystos (Greece)
1217-40 Sovereign Countess Felicia dalle Carceri of The First Triarchy of Euboea

After the death of her father, Ravano, she shared the Barony with her mother, Isabelle. Euboea, the second largest island of Greece was divided into three parts, three Triarchies each reigned by counts.


1216-37 Princess-Abbess Adelheid von Wildenberg of Essen (Germany)

Her regency was a black period of the territory. Count Friedrich von Isenberg had inherited the Marshallty, but exploited the abbey totally, and Adelheid had to ask Archbishop Engelbert of Köln for help, and the dispute over the abbey that led to Engelbert’s murder by Friedrich in 1225.


1216-? Reigning Abbess Gertrud I of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

The Abbey was founded ca 833 and in 1219 the reichsunmittelbaren convent came under direct Papal protection. As Imperial immediacy the territory was was under the direct authority of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Imperial Diet, without any intermediary Liege lord and therefore had the right to collect taxes and tolls and held juridical rights.


1216-18 Reigning Abbess Tutta of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Her background is not known.

1216-18 Hereditary Sheriff Lady Nicola de la Hay of Lincolnshire and Constable of Lincoln Castle (United Kingdom)

A lady defending her castle

A lady defending her castle

Succeeded father together with Phillip Mar of Nottingham. She defended her territory against attacking forces during the rebellion against King John. She was married to Gerad de Camville and lived (circa 1160-circa1218).


1217-34 Reigning Abbess Gertrud II zur Lippe of Herford (Germany)

Daughter of count Bernhard II zur Lippe, who resigned in 1196 to become Abbot and then Bishop of Semgallen. Her mother was

Gertrud II von Herford

Gertrud II von Herford

Heilwig von Are-Hostaden, and resigned from her post in 1234. Her next known successor, Ida, became abbess in 1238. (d. ca 1245).


1217-43 Joint Reigning Lady Sancha de Léon y Portugal of the villages of Portela de San Juan, Burgo de Ribadavia and Allariz
1224-30 Co-Heiress of Leon
1230 Joint De Jure Queen of Leon (Spain)

She was daughter of King Alofonso IV and Teresa of Portugal, whose marriage was annuled in 1195 whereafter she was raised at the court of her father, where her sister, Dulce was raised in Portugal. When their stepmother, Berengeria, abdicated as Queen of Castille in favour of their half-brother, their father attempted to have her and her sister proclaimed co-heiresses, and named them officially so in 1224, but when he died in 1230, the people of Leon refused to recognise them and they in turn ceded their rights to the kingdom to their half-brother. This agreement, negotiated at Valencia de Don Juan by Berengaria and Theresa, with Sancha and Dulce present, is known as the “pact of the mothers”. The treaty was signed Benavente and in compensation Ferdinand promised a yearly stipend of 30.000 maravedíes to each of his half-sisters and the lordship of certain castles, but she resigned to the Monastary of San Guillermo Villabuena. She lived (circa 1192-1243).

1217-48 Joint Reigning Lady Dulce of León y Portugal of the villages of Portela de San Juan, Burgo de Ribadavia and Allariz
1224-30 Co-Heiress of Leon
1230 Joint De Jure Queen of Leon (Spain)

After ceeding the rights to the kingdom of Leon, like her sister, she resigned to the Monastary of San Guillermo Villabuena in León. She lived (circa 1194—1248)


1218-30 Sovereign Countess Marguerite de Champagne-Blois of Blois and Châteaudun (France)

Together with sister, Isabelle, she succeeded the son of their brother, Thibaud VI, Her first husband, Hugo III, Seigneur d’Oisy, Vicomte von Cambrai died in 1189, and three years later she married Otto I. von Hohenstaufen Pfalzgraf von Burgundy (1166/73-1200). Two years after his death she married Walter II d’Avesnes, Seigneur de Guise et Condé (d. 1243/46). She was succeeded by daughter Marie d’Avesnes Countess de Blois, Dame d’Avesnes and de Guise (Circa 1203-30-41). Marguerite lived (1164-1230).


1218-48 Sovereign Countess Isabelle de Champagne-Blois of Chartres and Romorantin (France)

Succeeded her nephew together with her sister, Marguerite. She was first married to Sulpice d’Amboise and secondly to Jean de Montmirail, Vicomte Cambrai. (d. 1248).


1218-23 Sovereign Countess Petronille of Bar-sur-Seine (France)

Her father, Milon II, count of Bar-sur-Seine, died in 1191, She was his only child, and was married to Hugues du Puiset, Vicomte de Chartres.

1218-28 Regent Dowager Queen Alice de Champagne of Cyprus
1243-46 (†) Regent of Jerusalem

Alice of Cyprus and Jerusalem

Alice of Cyprus and Jerusalem

The daughter of Queen Isabella of Jerusalem and her second husband Henri de Champagne, she married Hugues of Cyprus in 1208. He took over the reigns in Cyprus in 1210/11 from his sister Burgundia. After his sudden death at Tripoli in 1218, Alice acted as regent for her 8-month-old son Henri in Cyprus. In 1223 she married Bohemond V of Antiochia. In Jerusalem, Friedrich II, Holy Roman Emperor was recognized as suzerain but not regent of Cyprus in 1228, because of his marriage to Queen Yolanda. When she died, Alice travelled to Acre to put forward her claim to Crown of Jerusalem – without success. After she and Bohemond divorced because they were too closely related (third cousins), she married Ralph, Count of Soissons. As she was the great-aunt of King Conrad of Germany – who had failed to come East to accept throne – Alice was entrusted with regency of Jerusalem in 1243. After her death the regency passed to her son and heir, Henri, King of Cyprus. She lived (circa 1193-1246).


1218 Regent the Dowager Sultana of the Seljuks in Aleppo (Syria)

Widow of Al-Zahir and was regent for their son al-Aziz as ruler of one of the Seljuk Principalities that developed n Syria, Asia Minor and Kerman as the Seljuk Empire declined after 1091. Her troops was involved in the fight against the Christian crusaders and Frankish principalities in the area.


1218 Regent Duchess Alice de Vergy of Bourgogne (France)

After the death of her husband, Eudes III, she was regent for Hugues VI, Duke of Burgundy, Count of Chalon, Titular King of Thessalonica etc. Eudes III was first married to Countess Teresa of Portugal (1157-1218) until their divorce in 1195). Eudes and Alice had four children.


1218-48 Hereditary Countess Irmgard of Berg and Kleve (Germany)

Daughter of Adolf V and Bertha von Sayn. After her father’s death Archbishop Engelbert II of Köln took over as regent. In 1217 she married Count Heinrich von Luxembourg-Limburg and they clamed the county in 1225, and her they were recognized as her father’s rightful successors, something that curtailed the power of the bishop. She lived (circa 1200-48).


1218-24 Reigning Abbess Heilika V von Wittelsbach of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Member of the Ducal family of Bavaria. Another version of her name is Heylcirca


1218-28 Reigning Abbess Berthe of the Royal Abbey of Fontevraud (France)

The chapter was unique in the way that the community was placed directly under the Pope and the King of France. The monks in the dabble-convent were commanded by a Prior under the control of the Abbess.


1218 Politically Infuential Queen Sassouma Bassé of Mande (Mali)

When her son, Dankaran Touman, was placed on the throne of Mande after the death of his father, King Niani, they forced his younger brother, Suadjata and his mother, Sogolon Kédjou into exile, but they were deposed by King Soumaroro of Sosso (in Ghana) soon after. Suadjata became the first emperor of the Mali Empire as Mari Djata I in 1234 uniting the 12 Kingdoms.


1219-20 Sovereign Countess Alice of Alençon (France)

Succeeded Robert IV and in the period 1220-68 the county was ruled by the kings of France.

1219-52 Queen Regnant Zabel I of Lesser Armenia (Cilicia) (Turkey/Syria)

Queen Zabel I of Lesser Armenia

Queen Zabel I of Lesser Armenia

Also known as Isabella, her father, Leo II had promised his nephew Raimond-Ruben de Antiochia, the succession to the throne, but at his death-bed he her, as his heir. Her older sister, Stephanie, or her husband, Jean de Brienne, claimed the title for her and their young son, but they died shortly after. And the Armenian nobles followed the wish of Leo II, and paid homage to her as their Queen, under various male regents. She later ruled together with her two husbands Phillip 1222-25 (he was poisoned) and Heton I (1226-1269). Armenia Minor established very close ties with the Crusader States. It was still threatened by Byzantium, however, and appears to have come under Byzantine over-lordship for short periods. Her mother was Sibylla de Lusignan of Cyprus-Jerusalem; she was mother of two sons and two daughters, and lived (circa 1212-52).


1219 Pretender Stephanie of Lesser Armenia (Turkey/Syria)

Claimed the throne together with her husband, King Jean de Brienne of Jerusalem from her younger sister, Zabel, who had been proclaimed heir by their father on his deathbed. Jean made preparations to attack Cilicia but she died shortly after, apparently after being battered by himself after she had tried to poison his daughter by his first wife. Their son also died shortly after. (d. 1219).


1219-21 Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Ingardis af Danmark of Pommern-Demmin (Poland)

After the death of her husband Kasimir II (circa 1180-1219), she became regent for her son Wartislaw III. She cooperated closely with her sister-in-law, Miroslawa who took over in Slawien the following year. With two minor Dukes, the future of the Principalities of Pommern was very insecure, but both Princesses managed to fend off claims to the Duchies from Brandenburg and maintain the independence of the Principalities. Both relied heavily on support from Denmark, but when Count Heinrich von Schwerin attacked the area in 1223, she was unable to support her brother King Valdemar II the Victorious Her son called himself “the issue of the blood of the Daneking” at his seal, as she was the daughter of Knud III of Denmark (1128-46-79). Her sister, Hildegard, was married to the Wendian duke Jarimar of Rügen. Originally known as Ingegerd, she (d. 1236).


1220-33 (†) Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Miroslawa of Pomerelia of Pommern-Slawien (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)

Following the death of her husband, Bogislaw II. (circa 1178-871220), she took over the regency for her son, Barnim I. (1219-20-78). The year before her sister-in-law had taken over the regency in Demmin and both princesses continued the friendly ties to Denmark, and at a Landtag at Ückermünde that Miroslawa and Barnim I. called in 1223 representatives of the Danish King participated. But in spite of this the don’t seem to have done anything to help Valdemar II as he was attacked by Count Heinrich von Schwerin later in 1223 at the island of Lyø and imprisoned in Germany together with his sons. He only freed in 1225 after having given up his Wendian possessions, except Rügen, though he fought a war to get his North German possessions back, that ended with his defeat in 1227. She was Daughter of Mestwin I of Pomerelia and Swinislawa of Poland, and (d. 1233).


1220-90 Politically Influential Princess Witosława of Pommern-Gdansk (Pomorze Gdańskie) (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)

An excellent diplomat and political advisor of her brother, Prince Świętopełk II Wielki (the Great). She was Abbes of a Norbertine (Premonstratensian) nunnery in Żuków, and lived (1205-1290).


1220-55 Sovereign Princess Carintana dalle Carceri of Oreos (Greece Island-State)

Succeeded father, the Terzieri or “three-part lord” Rizzardo dalle Carceri, and married to Guillaume Villehardouin, and since they did not have any children, he claimed as inheritance after her death the 1/3 or the Lordship, in dispute with some of her relatives.


1220-25/25 Regent Dowager Princess Mathilde von Landsberg von der Lausitz of Brandenburg (Germany)

Widow of Albrecht II (1205-20) and regent for Johann I (1208/13-20-65). She (d. 1255).


1221-50 Sovereign Countess Marie of Ponthieu (France)

Daughter of Comtesse Alix du Vexin (reigned 1197-after 1200), she succeeded her father Guillaume II and reigned jointly with her husbands; Count Simon de Dammartin d’Aumale and Mathieu de Montmorency (probably d. 1249). Succeeded by daughter Jeanne de Dammartin.

1221-30 Regent Dowager Margravine Jutta von Thüringen of Meissen (Germany)

Jutta zu Thüringen

Jutta zu Thüringen

After the death of her husband, Markgraf Dietrich von Meißen, she reigned in the name of her 5-year-old son, Heinrich, jointly with her brother, Landgrave Landgraf Ludwig IV von Thüringen who tried to incorporate the Margravate in his territories, but she fought back. In 1223 she married Count Poppo VII von Henneberg and together they fought off her brother. She was daughter of Landgave Heinrich I, Count Palatine of Sachsen and Heiress Presumptive (Eventualerbin) to Thüringen and Sachsen, and her son eventually became Landgave and Count Palatine of the two territories in 1247. She was mother of 5 children by her first husband and 3 by her second, and lived (circa 1183-1235).


1221-44 Countess-Abbess Sophia zu Anhalt of Gernrode and Frose (Germany)

Daughter of Bernhard, Count of Anhalt (1170-1212) and Duke of
Sachsen (1180-1212) and Jutta von Poland, the daughter of Duke Mieszko III of Gnesen.


1223-47 Queen Regnant Rusudani of Georgia, by the will of our Lord, Queen of Queen of Kings and Queens of the Abkhazis, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetians and the Armenians, Shirvanshah and Shahanshah and Master of all the East and West, Glory of the World, Kingdom and Faith, Champion of the Messiah

Queen Rusudan of Georgia

Queen Rusudan of Georgia

Also known as Rusudan, she was daughter of Queen Tamar (1178-1213) she succeeded her brother, Giorgi IV Lasha. She was leader of the nation in a period when it was attacked by Mongol tribes and disintegrated into numerous petty principalities. Retreated to Kutaisi when Tiflis was besieged by Jalal ud-din Shah of Khwarazmia, and captured by the latter, 9th March 1226. Forced to accept the sovereignty of the Mongol Khan in 1242, an annual tribute of 50.000 gold pieces. In 1224 she married Muhammad Mughis ud-din Turkan Shah of Erzerum, who embraced Christianity on his marriage. Her son, Davit VI Narin, succeeded her as King of Georgia – Imerati. Her daughter, Princess Thamar, married her cousin, Sultan Muhammad Ghias ud-din Kaikhushru II of Konia. She lived (1195-1247).


1223-52 Countess Abbess Berta II of Gandersheim (Germany)

Even though Duke Otto von Braunschweig had promised not to build a castle that would damage the interests of the chapter, he build a “house” in 1232. She was member of a noble family from Hessen.


1224-25 Empress Regnant Lý Chien Hoang of Viet Nam

Her father Ly Hue Tong abdicated in her favour. Tran Thu Do, now a lover of her mother, Queen Tran Thi, arranged a marriage between Chien Hoang and his 7-year-old nephew, who became founding emperor Tran Thai Tong of the new Tran Dynasty in 1225. Tran Thu Do then had the rest of the Ly family – including her father – killed. In 1236, Thu Do forced the young emperor to abandon his wife, who was childless, in favour of her older sister, who was already married to another member of the Tran family and already pregnant. In protest Tran Thai Tong, a fervent Buddhist fled the capital and sought refugee at a Thien Buddhist monastery on nearby Mount Yen Tu, after which he was deposed by Thu Do.


1224-30 Princess-Abbess Bertradis I von Krosigk of Quedlinburg (Germany)

Daughter of Count Dedo II von Krosigk and Adelheid.


1224-29 Reigning Abbess Frideruna von Falkenstein of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)

Also known as Fritaun. The first of Lord of Falkenstein was mentioned in 1120. The family died out in 1334 and the castle of Falkenstein in Harz was inherited by the Lords of Asseburg.


1224-39 Titular Countess Alix de Mâçon of Mâçon and Vienne (France)

The County was occupied by the time she succeeded her father, Géraud II, who only held the county for a few months, and when her husband, Jean de Dreux, died, she sold the Counties to the French Crown. (d. 1260).


1225-32 Politically Influential Dowager Empress Yang Gongshu Renlie of China

Empress Yang Gongshu Renlie of China

Empress Yang Gongshu Renlie of China

She had earlier plotted to be named Empress, and when her husband, Emperor Ningzong died, she helped Prince Yun to be installed as Emperor Lizong, and he invited her to take part in the deliberations of government behind the lowered screen, and worked closely with the Chief Councilor, Shi until her death. She was an active patron of the arts and it has been established that she is the same person as Yang Meizi, author of many poetic inscriptions that accompany paintings by Southern Song court artists. She lived (1161-1232).

1226-36 Regent Dowager Queen Blanche de Castilla of France
1240-52 Sovereign Countess of Valois
1248-52 (†) Regent of France

When her husband, King Louis, invaded England after the death of her cousin, King John, to claim the crown in her right, only to