William IV, Duke of Bavaria
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|Duke of Bavaria|
|William IV, Duke of Bavaria|
(portrait by Hans Wertinger)
|Reign||18 March, 1508–7 March, 1550|
|Born||November 13, 1493|
|Died||March 7, 1550|
|Place of death||Munich|
|Predecessor||Albert IV (Bavaria)|
|Consort||Jakobaea of Baden (1507-1580)|
|Offspring||Theodo of Bavaria|
Albert V of Bavaria (1528-1579)
William of Bavaria
Mechthild of Bavaria
|Royal House||House of Wittelsbach|
|Mother||Kunigunde of Austria|
William IV of Bavaria (German: Wilhelm IV, Herzog von Bayern), (13 November 1493 – 7 March 1550) was Duke of Bavaria from 1508 to 1550, until 1545 together with his younger brother Louis X, Duke of Bavaria.He was born in Munich to Albert IV and Kunigunde of Austria, a daughter of Emperor Frederick III.
Though his father had determined the everlasting succession of the firstborn prince in 1506, his younger brother Louis refused a spiritual career with the argument that he was born before the edict became valid. With support of his mother and the States-General, Louis forced William to accept him as co-regent in 1516. Louis then ruled the districts of Landshut and Straubing, in general in concord with his brother.
William initially sympathized with the Reformation but changed his mind as it grew more popular in Bavaria. In 1522 William issued the first Bavarian religion mandate, banning the promulgation of Martin Luther's works. After an agreement with Pope Clement VII in 1524 William became a political leader of the German Counter reformation, although he remained in opposition to the Habsburgs since his brother Louis X claimed the Bohemian crown. Both dukes also suppressed the peasant uprising in South Germany in an alliance with the archbishop of Salzburg in 1525.
The conflict with Habsburg ended in 1534 when both dukes reached an agreement with Ferdinand I in Linz. William then supported Charles V in his war against the Schmalkaldic League in 1546. William's chancellor for 35 years was the forceful Leonhard von Eck.
William was a significant collector and commissioner of art. Among other works he commissioned an important suite of paintings from various artists, including the Battle of Issus by Albrecht Altdorfer. This, like most of William's collection, is now housed in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. In 1546 he ordered to upgrade Dachau Palace from a Gothic ruin into a renaissance palace.
On 23 April 1516, before a committee consisting of gentry and knights in Ingolstadt, he issued his famous purity regulation for the brewing of Bavarian Beer, stating that only barley, hops, and water could be used. This regulation remained in force until it was abolished as a binding obligation in 1986 by Paneuropean regulations of the European Union.
Family and children
In 1522 William married Jakobaea of Baden (1507-1580), a daughter of Margrave Philipp I. of Baden and his consort Princess Elisabeth of Palatinate; they had four children:
- Theodo of Bavaria (10 February 1526 — 8 July 1534)
- Duke Albert V of Bavaria (1528-1579)
- Wilhelm of Bavaria (17 February 1529 — 22 October 1530)
- Mechthild of Bavaria (12 July 1532 — 2 November 1565), married in 1557 Philibert of Baden (1536-1569)
Also he had two illegitimate children:A son Knight Georg v.Hegnenberg (c.1509 - 1590) with Margarete Hausner v.Stettberg and a daughter Anna (died 1570) with an unknown woman
Hofkleiderbuch (Abbildung und Beschreibung der Hof-Livreen) des Herzogs Wilhelm IV. und Albrecht V. 1508-1551. (Court and Coat of Arms Book of Bavarian Dukes: William IV and Albert V) at the Bavarian State Library
|William IV, Duke of Bavaria||Father:|
Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria
Albert III, Duke of Bavaria
Ernest, Duke of Bavaria
Anna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen-Einbeck
Erich I of Brunswick-Grubenhagen
Elisabeth of Brunswick-Göttingen
Kunigunde of Austria
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
Ernest, Duke of Austria
Cymburgis of Masovia
Eleanor of Portugal, Holy Roman Empress
Edward of Portugal
Leonor of Aragon
William IV, Duke of BavariaBorn: 13 November 1493 Died: 7 March 1550
|Duke of Bavaria|