(PDF) "Çatışma çözme, iletişim ve empati kültürünün kazanılmasında dini fenomenlerin etkisi: Sosyal psikolojik bir değerlendirme". (Uluslararası dini turizm ve hoşgörü konferansı, Konya Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi, 9-12 Mayıs, 2013, Konya, ss. 893-908). | Kasim Tatlilioğlu - Academia.edu
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"Çatışma çözme, iletişim ve empati kültürünün kazanılmasında dini fenomenlerin etkisi: Sosyal psikolojik bir değerlendirme". (Uluslararası dini turizm ve hoşgörü konferansı, Konya Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi, 9-12 Mayıs, 2013, Konya, ss. 893-908).

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"Çatışma çözme, iletişim ve empati kültürünün kazanılmasında dini fenomenlerin etkisi: Sosyal psikolojik bir değerlendirme". (Uluslararası dini turizm ve hoşgörü konferansı, Konya Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi, 9-12 Mayıs, 2013, Konya, ss. 893-908).

"Çatışma çözme, iletişim ve empati kültürünün kazanılmasında dini fenomenlerin etkisi: Sosyal psikolojik bir değerlendirme". (Uluslararası dini turizm ve hoşgörü konferansı, Konya Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi, 9-12 Mayıs, 2013, Konya, ss. 893-908).

    Kasim Tatlilioğlu
FACULTY OF TOURISM ISBN:978-605-4769-22-3 7 7 86 0 54 76 9 22 3 Internat onal Conference on Rel g ous Tour sm and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Editor Prof. Dr. Muhsin KAR 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Internat onal Conference on Rel g ous Tour sm and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY © Her hakkı saklıdır. Bu kitabın tamamı yada bir kısmı, yazarının izni olmaksızın, elektronik, mekanik, fotokopi yada herhangi bir kayıt sistemi ile çoğaltılamaz, yayınlanamaz, depolanamaz. Bu kitaptaki bilgilerin her türlü sorumluluğu yazarlarına aiittir. Editor Prof. Dr. Muhsin KAR Designer Recep TAN Himmet AKSOY ISBN: 978-605-4769-22-3 Aybil Yayınevi Sertifika No : 17394 YAYINL ARI www.aybilonline.com KONYA - MAYIS - 2013 FOREWORD Respected Guests and Participants! On behalf of my University's academic team and administrative staff, I would like to welcome and greet all of you with peace and happiness and thank all the participants who have come from various parts of the globe to attend this International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, organized by the Tourism Faculty of our University. Needless to say, hosting such an important and timely academic event, in such an historically, intellectually and spiritually affluent city as Konya, gives us great pleasure but at the same time thrusts upon us an enormous task of making your stay enjoyable and fruitful. This Conference, as has been well understood from its title, aims to bring to the attention of the interested researchers, academics, students, teachers, as well as entrepreneurs and managers, the importance of faith and religion in the context of tourism and vice-versa. As such, it apparently involves a number of interdisciplinary and cross-cultural areas, ranging from humanity and social sciences to management and business administration, from religion, ethics and spirituality to international relations and tourism, etc. Again, this International function, apart from its intrinsic value for both academics and tourism experts, it has also paramount social significance for the citizens of the world at large, as it deals with so many crucial and global issues concerning pluralism, multi-culturalism, multi-religiosity, religious tolerance, faith-oriented visits, inter-religious and inter-faith activities, as well as interactions and collaborations among diverse religious communities. I am confident that all the participating experts in the Conference will not only share with us their precious knowledge, wisdom and experience in their respective fields but also cast their valuable perspectives and insights into the understanding of the various aspects and implications of the Conference's main theme, i.e. religious-oriented tourism and tolerance. Moreover, they will offer fresh projections for prospective studies and researches to be conducted in the above-listed interdisciplinary subjects. At this point, I should like to mention, again, how meaningful it is to hold such a very timely international function in this metropolitan city of Konya. As is well known, this magnificent town, especially when it had been serving as the capital city of the Seljukid Empire for about two hundred years, had attracted many great scholars, thinkers and theologians from different regions of the Islamic world. Mawlana Jalal al-Din Rumi and Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi, for instance, had flourished in this fertile intellectual setting and enlightened the whole world by leaving behind their intellectual heritage in this culturally diverse and intellectually dynamic city. Besides, together with its surrounding environment Konya has numerous historical sites, such as Neolithic and Chalcolithic (Catalhoyuk) settlement, and magnificent religious centers and architectural edifices. Hence, this is the most suitable place for hosting this Conference. In concluding, I wish to reiterate my heartfelt gratitude to all the guests and participants, national and international alike, for being with us in this International scientific convention, and also to the members of the Organizing Committee of the Conference who have all been working for nearly a year, day and night, behind the scene, to make this event a huge success. I leave you with a word of wisdom uttered by Mawlana Jalal al-Din Rumi, one of the greatest representatives of love and tolerance in Islamic Civilization and the worldly-renowned intellectual and spiritual master of our city. God's Presence is full of Mercy and Generosity. Both existence and nonexistence are in love with Him. (Mathnawi I/2445) Prof. Dr. Muzaffer ŞEKER Rector PREFACE Distinguished Guests and Dear Participants, On behalf of the Organizing Committee for the International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, I would like to thank you all for your positive response to our call. Each year millions of people are travelling throughout the world for different purposes. Faith- based visits to holy sites and sacred places are the oldest and most common type of travel in human history and this type of tourism is increasingly finding its share in the sector. Obviously, motivations behind religious tourism may depend on many reasons: searching for truth and inner peace, enlightenment, developing a genuine relationship with the divine, satisfaction of the spiritual and/or material needs. Considering the multi-religiosity in the world and spreads of the religions, travelling to religious sites may generally require visiting other countries. The spiritual journey may also result in a direct interaction with "the other" and hence may change the perceptions of pilgrims, tourists and local people. Undertaking such visits and journeys generally requires serious thinking and planning, as well as economic means and travel arrangements. Regarding the seasonality of the religious activities, the sustainability of this type of tourism is also very important for regional economic development, as well as for the local people. With the aim at discussing various aspects of the religious tourism, we have convened the International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance (RTT2013) in Konya. Convening this conference in Konya also carries an important message, as the city hosts Mawlana Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Rūmī, well-known in the West as Rumi, a very prominent Sufi thinker and famous poet (d. 1273), whose teaching fosters respect among humanity, love of God, and religious tolerance, inspiring today's multi-cultural societies. Therefore, Konya is the best place in Turkey to host this important International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance: the major goal here is to interconnect tourism with religion and other inter-disciplinary subjects. In the Conference, we have seven keynote speakers, well-known people in the tourism, religion and religious tourism area. We have participants from the various regions of the world. The participants will focus their presentations on latest theoretical developments and practical observations on tourism, religion, pilgrimage and tolerance around the world as reflected in various civilizations. This academic gathering and professional activity is intended to facilitate and promote the means of communications and cooperation among the conference participants. Thank you all for participating and sharing your knowledge with us. By seizing upon this opportunity, I would like to thank Prof. Dr. Muzaffer ŞEKER, the Rector of Necmettin Erbakan University for his encouragement to realize this Conference. I also thank Tahir AKYÜREK, the Mayor of Metropolitan Municipality of Konya for his support and collaboration to convene this Conference. Last but not least, I also thank each member of the Organizing Committee, including the Secretary, for their unselfish efforts and precious time for the actual realization of the Conference. Prof. Dr. Muhsin KAR Chairman COMMITTEES Honorary Board Aydın Nezih DOĞAN Governor of Konya Tahir AKYÜREK Mayor of Konya Metropolitan Municipality Prof. Dr. Mustafa ĠSEN General Secretary of the President of Turkey Prof. Dr. Muzaffer ġEKER Rector of Necmettin Erbakan University Chairman Prof. Dr. Muhsin KAR Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey Scientific Committee Prof. Dr. A. Akın AKSU Akdeniz University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Abdülkerim BAHADIR Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Anna TRONO University of Salento, Italy Prof. Dr. A.Celil ÇAKICI Mersin University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Ahmet AKTAġ Akdeniz University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Ahmet TAġĞIN Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Bilal KUġPINAR Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Birol AKGÜN Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Çağatay ÜNÜSAN KTO Karatay University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Cevdet AVCIKURT Balıkesir University, Turkey Prof. Dr. David A.MASON Kyung Hee University, Korea Prof. Dr. Derman KÜÇÜKALTAN Trakya University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Ercan SIRAKAYA TÜRK University of South Carolina, USA Prof. Dr. Fevzi OKUMUġ University Of Central Florida, USA Prof. Dr. Füsun BAYKAL Ege University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Füsun ĠSTANBULLU DĠNÇER Ġstanbul University, Turkey Prof. Dr. G. Nilüfer TETĠK Akdeniz University, Turkey Prof. Dr. hab. Jerzy WYRZYKOWSKI University of Business in Wroclaw, Poland Prof. Dr. Jafar JAFARI University of Wisconsin-Stout, USA Prof. Dr. Keith HOLLINSHEAD University of Bedfordshire, UK Prof. Dr. Kiran A. SHINDE Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, India Prof. Dr. KurtuluĢ KARAMUSTAFA Erciyes University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Levent ALTINAY Oxford Brookes University, UK Prof. Dr. Meryem AKOĞLAN KOZAK Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Metin KOZAK Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Muhsin HALĠS Sakarya University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Muzaffer UYSAL Virginia Tech University, USA Prof. Dr. Nazmi KOZAK Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Necdet HACIOĞLU Balıkesir University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Nelson H.H. GRABURN University of California, Berkeley, USA Prof. Dr. Orhan BATMAN Sakarya University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Orhan ĠÇÖZ YaĢar University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Recep ġENTÜRK Fatih Sultan Mehmet Waqf University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Suavi AHĠPAġAOĞLU Anadolu University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Yüksel EKĠNCĠ Oxford Brookes University, UK Prof. Dr. Yüksel ÖZTÜRK Gazi University, Turkey Prof. Dr. Zbigniew KAZMĠERCZAK University of Bialystok, Poland Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ashraf GHAREEB King Abdul Aziz University, S. Arabia Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ferhan NĠZAMLIOĞLU Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mete SEZGĠN Selçuk University, Turkey Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nejdet GÖK Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mustafa KOYUNCU NevĢehir University, Turkey Assoc. Prof. Dr. Syed Farid ALATAS National University of Singapore, Singapore Assoc. Prof. Dr. Zeynep ASLAN NevĢehir University, Turkey Sen. Lec. Dr. Noga COLLINS-KREINER University of Haifa, Israel Sen. Lec. Dr. Razaq RAJ Leeds Metropolitan University, UK Assist. Prof. Dr. Abdurrahman DĠNÇ Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey Assist. Prof. Dr. Hamira ZAMANĠ-FARAHANĠ Islamic Azad University, Iran Assist. Prof. Dr. Mustafa ÇIPAN Governship of Konya, TURKEY Assist. Prof. Dr. Özgür ÖZER Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey Assist. Prof. Dr. Sebahattin KARAMAN Balıkesir University, Turkey Assist. Prof. Dr. Yasin BĠLĠM Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey Dr. Ciprian I. ALECU Romanian Academy, Romania Dr. Michael A. Di GIOVINE University of Chicago, USA Dr. Necdect SUBAġI Directorate for Religious Affairs, Turkey Organizing Committee Prof. Dr. Muhsin KAR Necmettin Erbakan University (Chairman) Prof. Dr. Bilal KUġPINAR Necmettin Erbakan University Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmet TAYFUN Gazi University Assoc. Prof. Dr. ġuayip ÖZDEMĠR Afyon Kocatepe University Assist. Prof. Dr. Ali Osman ÇIBIKDĠKEN Necmettin Erbakan University Assist. Prof. Dr. Cengiz SARIKÜRKÇÜ Necmettin Erbakan University Assist. Prof. Dr. Ahmet BÜYÜKġALVARCI Necmettin Erbakan University Assist. Prof. Dr. Fatih Mehmet BERK Necmettin Erbakan University Assist. Prof. Dr. Özgür ÖZER Necmettin Erbakan University Conference Secretary Assist. Prof. Dr. Abdurrahman DĠNÇ Necmettin Erbakan University Assist. Prof. Dr. Yasin BĠLĠM Necmettin Erbakan University Instructor Ceyhun Can ÖZCAN Necmettin Erbakan University Instructor Murat KOÇYĠĞĠT Necmettin Erbakan University Instructor Soner ARSLAN Necmettin Erbakan University Res. Assist. BüĢra MADENCĠ Necmettin Erbakan University Domestic Tourism As A Viable Option- A Sustainability Approach Discourse: The Case Of Iran 1 Habib Alipour Holy Sites in Neo-Liberal World:Indian-Banaras Model 31 Cemil Kutlutürk Behavioral Differences of Muslim and Non-Muslim Visitors at Holy Sites: Case of Mother Mary House 43 Zafer Öter Mehmet Yavuz Çetinkaya A Comparison of Museum Visitors’ Expectations within the Context of Faith Tourism 57 Özgür Özer Serhat Adem Sop Umut Avci A Proposal of A Route to Tours to the Ancient Age Oracle Centres of West Anatolia 67 Vedat Acar Gül Erbay Aslitürk Rihla: Activist Of Campus Da’wah Institute’s Lifestyle In Urban Area 85 Jhane Pebyana Wilis Nur Aida Mardhatila The Narrative Skills of the Tourist Guides in Faith-based Tourism: the Case of Yılanlı Church in Göreme Open Air Museum 95 Aytuğ Arslan Hayrullah Çetin Sociological characteristics of religiosity of Poles 101 Beata Rafalska Aneta Michałowska St. Thecla: a native of iconium 109 Fatih Mehmet Berk Mustafa Arslan Unlocking the Potential of Religious Tourism in Manisa, Turkey 123 Burak Kartal Mustafa Tepeci Hakan Atlı The Role Of Service Quality In Promoting Tourism Development In Obudu Mountain Resort 137 O.B Enemuo Barra Temple Being ‘the European other’: Codification and commodification of Ottoman Heritage in Bosnia & Herzegovina 145 Senija Causevic Derek Bryce Faith-Based Tourism to Turkey as Cultural Diplomacy for American Christians 155 Allison Block Taylan Gürbüz Role of Religious Tourism in Conflict Resolution 179 Adejoh Apeh Matthew Alternative Tourism in Isparta City: Faith Tourism in Psidia Antiocheia Ancient City 185 İsmail Kervankıran Hüseyin Kaya Religious Recourses and Pilgrim tourism in Georgia 191 Marina Metreveli The Knowledge of Students of Tourism about Sacred Monuments on the Territory of Serbia 199 Snežana Štetić Sanja Pavlović Dario Šimičević Sara Stanić Tourism and the Transformation of Ritual Practice with Sand Pagoda 211 Ploysri Porananond The Passengers Islamic Perspective in Airline Hospitality 227 Ehsaneh N.M. Nameghi Mohammad Ali Shadi Upon This Rock I Will Build My Church: Constructions of Christianity (and Their Consequences) at American Religious Youth Music Festivals 239 Kellee Caton Colleen Pastoor Yaniv Belhassen Billy Collins Mark Wallin Recreational and the Geotourism Value Estimated Babek Castle Using Conditional Valuation Method 259 Fariba Ayase Mohammad Hosein Fathi Adel Mohammadi Far Mina Farokhi Someh Halal and Haram foods-drinks in the views of Rumi 267 Zabihi Robab Zabihi Ebrahim Raoufi Farzaneh A socio-demographic study on Iranians Hajj-pilgrims 273 Zabihi Ebrahim Zabihi Robab Emrani Ali-Asghar Raoufi Farzaneh The Usage Of Socio-Psycho Factors As A Sustainable Competition Medium To Develop Faith Tourism Center: The Case Of Konya 279 Ahmet Tayfun Erkan Akgöz Karabey Palavar An Evaluation on the State of the Visit Sites Took Part In Holy Bible in Faith Tourism 291 Hakan Yılmaz Feeling of Security in Iranian Pilgrims Traveling to Mashhad 301 Hamed Bakhshi Residents attitudes toward religious tourism development in Medjugorje 307 Ivana Pavlic Promotion of tourist destinations as ethno-brands 319 Zanina Kirovska The role of electronic tourism industry on the interaction between Islamic Countries (with the Emphasize on the role of Iran) 329 Mohsen Kalantari Samira Moradi Mofrad Akbar Hossein Zadeh Mohammad Kazem Jamshidi Ghamar Abasi Analysis of Dimensions and Components of Sustainable Pilgrimage CityStudy Case's: Mashhad 339 Mozhgan Azimi Hashemi Evaluate of Ecological Ability of Eco-Tourism With GIS Software. Case Study: Khorasan-E-Razavi Province, Iran 347 Mozhgan Sabet Teimouri Churches and Synagogues in Classical Islamic Law: Debates on Construction, Continuance and Repair 353 Necmeddin Güney Traditional Tourism: A Tool Towards Religious Tolerance in Nigeria 361 Fabunmi Samuel Kehinde Protection and Respect for the Places of Worship in Islam 373 Sanaullah Bhutto Muhammad Khan Sangi Islamic Tour Operators and Religious Tourism Markets in Syrian Shi’ite Visits 379 Shin Yasuda Islamic Issues In The Hotel Industry: The Dilemma And Tolerance 389 Basri Rashid The Role of Second Houses in the Development of Tourism Focusing on Investment in Rural Areas (Case Study; Hesar Valiasr Village, Boeinzahra Township) 401 Jamshid Einali Hosein Farahani Ahmad Romyani Samira Sohrabi Vafa A Research Aimed at Determining the Mediating Effect of Leadership in the Relationship Between Knowledge and Innovation 409 Rana Özen Kutanis Muammer Mesci Zeynep Mesci Hatice Bozkurt The Importance of the Innovation to Enhance the Competitive Power: A Research in Hotel Managements 417 Rana Ozen Kutanis Muammer Mesci Zeynep Mesci Tugba Şen A Study on the Role of religious Tourism in Economic, Social and Cultural Development of Rural Areas (Case Study; Fakhrabad district, Meshginshahr county, Iran) 425 Mohsen Ahadneja Ebrahim Sadegh Ahmad Roumiyani Afshin Naderi The routes of money in the routes of faith 435 Christos Desyllas Contribution of Religious-Tourist Attractions to Social Tolerance: The Case of Batu Caves in Malaysia 447 Saim Kayadibi Mehmet Birekul Ahmet Koyuncu Place of Religious Tourism and How to Use Them to Improve On Existing Capacity and Potential: A Case Study of Neyshabour, Iran 485 Robabeh Sadat Hosseini Artinah Zainal The Need for Cooperation of Peace Activists for Peacebuilding by Bottom-Up Globalization Approach Based On Education of Universal Ethical Norms 493 Volkan Çiçek Peacebuilding Activities of Gulen-Inspired Institutions through Education in Iraq and the World: Educational Philosophy and Characteristics 509 Volkan Çiçek Legal Protection of Religious Tourist Attractions 521 Akmal Ramadan In Search of the Miracles: Pilgrimage to the Miraculous Pla 535 Darius Liutikas The Usage Of Socio-Psycho Factors As A Sustainable Competition Medium To Develop Faith Tourism Center: The Case Of Konya 551 Ahmet Tayfun Erkan Akgöz Karabey Palavar A Research For Determination Of Travel Business Managers Profiles Organized Religious Tourism Travels In The Aegean Region 563 Burhanettin Zengin Gül Erkol As a Conceptual Proposal for Spiritual Searching with Tourism Marketing Perspective: Mawlana Camps in Konya 579 Özlem Güzel Özgür Özer İnanç Turizmini Yönlendiren Bir Unsur Olarak Coğrafya 587 Abdurrahman Dinç Çevre ve İnsan Bağlamında Kur'ân'ın Turizm ve Seyahate Yüklediği Mana 599 Mustafa Kayhan Türklerde Kutsal Sayılan Bazı Hayvanlar ve Biyolojik Özellikleri 617 Rahile Öztürk Türkiye’de İnanç Turizmi: Bugünkü Durum, Sorunlar ve Gelecek 627 Ayşe Okuyucu Mehmet Somuncu Hititler Dönemi Anadolusunda Ritüel Malzemesi Olarak Ekmek 645 Tolunay Sandıkcıoğlu İslami Otellerin Ürün Nitelikleri: Türkiye Örneği 651 Önder Met İsmail Mert Özdemir Burhan Aydemir Edirne Selimiye Camii Ziyaretçilerinin Beklentilerinin Saptanmasına Yönelik Bir Araştırma 663 İbrahim Alpay Yilmaz Adil Oğuzhan Derman Küçükaltan Mevlevilik Felsefesinin Konya Mutfağı Üzerindeki Etkisi 679 Mehmet Sarıoğlan Murat Doğdubay Ayşe Can Erken Hıristiyanlık Döneminin Konyalı Manevi Önderleri 687 Nermin Öztürk Turizm Rehberliği Eğitimi Alan Öğrencilerin Mevlana ve Mevlevilik ile İlgili Algılarının Ölçülmesine Yönelik Bir Araştırma 695 Emel Morel Gökgözoğlu Özlem Köroğlu Merve Kalyoncu Hz. Pir Şeyh Şaban-I Veli ve Kastamonu Evliyaları Anma Haftası’nın Türkiye İnanç Turizmi ve Hoşgörü Kültüründeki Yeri 707 Muharrem Avcı Ziyaret Yerlerinin İnanç Turizmi Açısından Değerlendirilmesi: Giresun İli Örneği 717 Ünsal Bekdemir İbrahim Sezer Silifke İnanç Turizmi’nde Aya Tekla’nın Yeri ve Önemi 739 Nur Bakar Özkan Demir Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti’nde Hoşgörü Ortamı Bağlamında Maronitler ve İnanç Turizmine Yansımaları 747 Ulvi Keser Hoşgörü Bağlamında KKTC’de İnanç Merkezleri ve Turizm Ekonomisine Katkıları 759 Ulvi Keser Heybeliada Aya Triada Manastırı 771 Salih İnci Tarsus İnanç Turizmi Potansiyeli ve Halkın İnanç Turizmine Bakışı 781 İhsan Kurar Atilla Akbaba Şanlıurfa Kültür ve İnanç Turizmi Potansiyelinin Değerlendirilmesi 795 Sabri Kürkçüoğlu Gül Erkol İnanç Turizminde Göbekli Tepe'nin Yeri ve Önemi 815 Tolga Fahri Çakmak Dinî Yolculuğun Varoluşsal Anlam ve Önemi 835 Cenan Kuvancı Alevilerde Yeme-İçme Adetleri ve Yasakları: Güneybatı Akdeniz ve Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgeleri Üzerine Karşılaştırmalı Bir İnceleme 833 Olcay Kılınç Uğur Kılınç İnanç Turizminin Din Eğitimi Açısından Değeri 851 Mehmet Ayas Dünyada Yaşanan Çatışmaların Göz ardı Edilen Boyutu: Dini-Jeopolitik 865 Fatih Sezgin Recep Bilgin Bilal Altıner İnanç Turizminde Belediyelerin Rolü: İstanbul İlçe Belediyelerine Yönelik Bir Araştırma 877 İsmail Kızılırmak Mehmet Altuğ Şahin Çatışma Çözme, İletişim Ve Empati Kültürünün Kazanılmasında Dini Fenomenlerin Etkisi: Sosyal Psikolojik Bir Değerlendirme 893 Kasım Tatlılıoğlu Mehmet Karaca Kur'ân’da Yolculuk ve Gerekleri 909 Şaban Karasakal Sessiz ve Doğal Bir Turizm Noktasi Olarak Barla ve Said Nursi: Destinasyon Yönetimi Bağlamli Bir Analiz Çalişmasi 921 Hulusi Doğan İlknur Doğan İstanbul’un İnanç Turizmi Potansiyelinin Değerlendirilmesi 935 Füsun İstanbullu Dinçer Serol Dilmaç Orhan Akova Uşak’ta İki Önemli Sûfî: Hacım Sultan ve Şeyh Alâeddin Uşşâkî’nin Tarihteki Yeri ile Sosyo-Kültürel Alandaki Önemi 965 M. Murat Öntuğ Salih Gülerer Zemzem Suyunun Faziletine Dair Rivayetlerin Değeri 991 Mehmet Eren Turizmin Niş Pazarı Şırnak İlinin (Şehr-İ Nuh) İnanç Turizmi Açısından Değerlendirilmesi: Sorunlar ve Çözüm Önerileri 1005 Nurdan Şarman Sedat Çelik Siirt’in İnanç Turizmi Açısından Değerlendirilmesine Yönelik Nitel Bir Araştırma 1021 Sedat Çelik Nurdan Şarman İnanç Turizmi Çerçevesinde Antalya Destinasyonunun İncelenmesi: Dinler (Hoşgörü) Bahçesi Örneği 1041 Gökhan Yılmaz Saliha Başak Erdinç Sema Küçükali Türkiye’nin Kutsal Yiyecekler ve İçecekler Açısından Turist Çekme Potansiyelinin İncelenmesi 1057 Hacı Ahmet Çakır Atila Akbaba Kültür ve İnanç Turizmi Kapsamında Hoşgörü Kenti Hatay İlinin Değerlendirilmesi 1063 Melda Harbalıoğlu Gamze Özel Aziz Nikola Kilisesi ve Efes Meryem Ana Kilisesi Bağlamında İnanç Turizminin Seküler ve Dini Boyutları Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme 1071 Ayşe Ambaroğlu Mutlu Akıncı Üç Büyük Dine (Hristiyanlık, İslamiyet ve Musevilik) Ev Sahipliği Yapan Anadolu’nun İnanç Turizmi Açısından Pazarlanması 1079 Özlem Köroğlu Veli Ulaş Asmadili Kutsal Ateş, Ocak Pişirme ve İnanç Turizmi Açısından Yemek Sosyolojisi 1095 Halil Mutioğlu Bütünleşik Pazarlama İletişimi Çerçevesinde Türkiye’de İnanç Turizminin Geliştirilmesi 1103 Sadık Serçek Gülseren Serçek Tüketicilerin Dini Olmayan Kutsal Yerlere Gelme Nedenleri: Şafak Koyu’nda Bir Araştırma 1133 Nilsun Sarıyer Etnik Kültürlerin Ortak İnanç Paydası: Dünya Coğrafyasında Hıdırellez 1141 Melih Aydın Çanakkale’de İnanç Turizminin Geliştirilmesi ve Din Görevlilerinin İnanç Turizmine Bakışı 1147 Ersin Arıkan Emre Çilesiz Afyonkarahisar Sandıklı İlçesinde Turistik Ürün Çeşitlendirme Stratejisi Kapsamında İnanç Turizminin Geliştirilmesi Üzerine Bir Araştırma 1157 Ahmet Baytok Hasan Hüseyin Soybalı Melek Yavuz Ahmet Yavuz İnanç Turizminde Kutsal Mağaralar: Türkiye’deki Ashâb-ı Kehf Mağaraları (İzmir-Mersin-Kahramanmaraş-Diyarbakır) 1173 Bayram Çetin Çağlar Kıvanç Kaymaz Yalvaç’ ta İnanç Turizmi ve Sosyo-Ekonomik Etkileri 1191 Melda Harbalıoğlu İpek Ünal Dini Tolerans Bağlamında Endülüs Medeniyetinin Karakteristik Özellikleri 1199 Nejdet Gök The Origins Of Religious Tourism, Important Places, Person And Time-Frames In Terms Of Islam 1207 Mehmet Şimşir Anadolu’da Yatır, Ziyaret ve Türbe İnanışlarının Doğa Korunması Açısından Önemi 1221 İhsan Bulut Abdurahman Dinç Şeb-i Arus Törenlerine Katılan Ziyaretçilerin Memnuniyet ve Sadakat Düzeyleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma 1235 Ahmet Tayfun Arzu Kılıçlar Ahmet Uşaklı Özgür Yayla İnanç Turizmi İle İlgili Türkiye’de Yapılan Akademik Çalışmaların İncelenmesi 1245 Yalçın Arslantürk Özlem Altunöz Sevil Bülbül Fulden N. Güral Şehir Pazarlaması ve Bir Şehir Varlığı Olarak Hz. Mevlana Algısı 1255 Erkam Yarar Ashabü’l Kehf’in Afşin’in Ticaret Hayatına Katkısı: Bir Alan Çalışması 1271 Hüseyin Ağır Nurettin Koca Ahmet Şahbaz İnanç Merkezlerinin Pazarlanmasında Eleştirel Noktalar: Hatay Örneği 1281 Kazım Kocabozdoğan Cevat Tosun Fikret Gökçe Yasin Bilim Halkla İlişkiler Bağlamında Konaklama İşletmelerinin Müşterileri İle İletişim Kurma Biçimleri: Web Siteleri Üzerinde Bir İnceleme 1291 Murat Koçyiğit İnanç Turizminin Sosyo-Kültürel Etkilerine Yönelik Yerel Halk Algısı 1305 Mutlu Uygun Sinan Mete H. Bahadır Akın Sosyal Medyanın, İnanç Turizminin Tanıtım ve Pazarlamasında Oynayabileceği Rolün Önemi ve Ortaya Çıkabilecek Muhtemel Sorunlara Bulunabilecek Çözüm Yolları 1321 M. Murat Yeşil Domestic Tourism As A Viable Option- A Sustainability Approach Discourse: The Case Of Iran. Habib Alipour Eastern Mediterranean University Faculty of Tourism Gazimagusa/KKTC/TRNC Via Mersin 10, Turkey Habib.alipour@emu.edu.tr Abstract Most of the studies in the tourism literature have focused on international tourism; however, domestic tourism in specific destinations as Iran can contribute to job creation, heritage restoration, regional integration, cross-cultural understanding and enhancement of environmental awareness. Market for domestic tourism in Iran, despite its potentials, has been downplayed and the true value of this activity is underutilized. This study is an effort to explore the problems/bottlenecks associated with the lagging domestic tourism sector which is reinforced by public sector‘s passive role in tourism system definition. This study argues that tourism institutions have an apathetic behavior towards such vital market in one hand and remained complacent to the vigor of domestic tourists and their travel pattern/behavior in another hand. Domestic tourism is emphasized not by chance; rather it is an alternative form of tourism that can be placed in the context of ‗sustainability‘ discourse. A triangulation method adopted towards the study that composed of three tier approach. First, survey questionnaire was administered to the domestic travelers who frequented the travel agencies in the capital city-Tehran. Second, the theoretical frameworks that guided this study are based upon: I) an assertion that domestic tourism is indeed ‗poor cousins no more’ (Scheyvens, 2007); II) the culture-ideology of consumerism as the manifestation of global tourism in conflict with ‗sustainability‘ (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2009, 2006); III) social metabolism and sustainable de–growth in reference to our interaction with the environment (Martinez-Alier et al, 2010a, 2010b); IV) and ‗globalization‘ approach to tourism with emphasis on ‗ the global culture approach’ (Sklair, 2010, 1999). Third, an interview was conducted with the officials/employees of formal institutions responsible for tourism development and management in Iran. Study has revealed that the supply side components of the tourism functioning system (i.e., attractions, transportation, promotion, information, and services) (Gunn and Var, 2002; Jafari, 1982; Mill and Morrison, 1989) are devoid of rational planning principles in the context of the multiplicity of spatial characteristics of different tourism regions. In addition, the study revealed that sustainable tourism development through dynamics of domestic tourism is a possibility in the case of Iran; and direct or indirect critique of international tourism through study‘s theoretical frameworks reinforces the fact that domestic tourism is a domestic investment (Collier, 2010) with a sustainability agenda. Keywords: Domestic Tourism Development; Global Tourism Structure; Sustainable Tourism. 1 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Introduction Iran‘s tourism potentials make it one of the highly suitable candidates to focus on tourism resources and reap the deserved share of world tourism pie. However, this sector has been neglected for various political and social reasons, especially, during the post- Islamic revolution of 1979. In a nutshell, the country has experienced numerous turns and twists as it was engulfed in the upheavals of the 1970s (i.e., post-revolution) and 1980s (i.e., war with Iraq). Obviously, both of the decades of revolutionary transition from monarchy to Islamic Republic and subsequent war with Iraq, were not conducive to tourism development particularly. However, with the passing of time and peace agreement between Iran and Iraq, a gradual calm returned to the country by the late 1990s. Nonetheless, the tourism sector has remained a low key activity in comparison to other sectors. In juxtaposing the post- revolutionary upheavals, Iran‘s demographic structure experienced a rapid population growth due to ‗adoption of a [pronatalist] policy and suspension of the family planning program after the revolution; there has been a huge rise in the fertility and population growth rates during the first decade after the revolution (1979-1989)‘ (Mehryar and Ahmad-Nia, 2004). Demographic shift accompanied higher transportation use-mainly car ownership- which allowed a higher mobility of the population. The implications of these developments have been an increase in both domestic and outbound tourism. In the meantime, lack of suitable transportation system of roads, railway, and airway facilities, resulted in various bottlenecks and increase in the rate of car accidents on the dilapidated and inadequate roads (http://payvand.com/news/04/jan/1142.html). Not to forget that domestic tourism, as well as, VFR tourism have been established in Iran for a long time regardless of lack of formal and institutional approach to tourism system development, especially in the post-Islamic revolution (O‘Gorman et al, 2007). The dominant nature of domestic tourism in Iran has been revolving around pilgrimage to shrines of revered religious saints of Shiite sect. This by itself results in spatial pattern of tourism which is highly concentrated in a few locations of pilgrimage sites. The second important magnet for domestic tourism in Iran is the Caspian Sea region, especially for the Capital city of Tehran. In the meantime, the economy of Iran is highly dependent on the export of fossil fuels, with unemployment running in double digits; the tourism sector has remained dormant notwithstanding the tremendous potential for varieties of tourism resources. With the future of nonrenewable sources of energy in doubt, due to environmental concerns and their possible depletion (Marsh and Grossa Jr, 2005), tourism remains a prospective alternative to combat economic and social hardships (http://travel.mapsofworld.com/iran/history.html; Karbassian, 2000). The paper is structured as follows: section 1contextualizes the tourism industry as an instrument to achieve economic growth; however, ‗economic growth‘ which focuses on increase in the rate of GDP per person, may not satisfy the demands of ‗sustainable development‘ (Kates et al, 2005; Hurka, 1992; Hosseini, 2003). Section 2 brings in theoretical discourses emanating from the recent critique of globalization and tourism in general, as well as, in the context of present global economic crisis (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/special_reports/global_economy/). Section 3 focuses on attitudes and perception of domestic tourists in Iran. Section 4 concludes that in the context of theoretical discourse in the literature– in respect of sustainable tourism development– domestic tourism can offer an opportunity to initiate a process towards sustainability. In the meantime, the present tourism policy of the public sector is a blessing in disguise as manifested through regime‘s apathy towards a full force international tourism development. The study aims to fill some of the existing gaps in literature in regard to domestic tourism and its implications for a sustainable tourism specific to certain destinations. This is in line with local tourism governance (Beaumont and Dredge, 2010) which is a characteristic of 2 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY domestic tourism –external to global tourism system (Higgins-Desbioless, 2012, 2009; Sklair, 2011; Burns, 1999). The significance of this paper is that it opens up discussion about domestic tourism as an option in certain destinations such as of Iran. The study highlights the advantages of domestic tourism and explores its relevance to sustainable tourism management. The findings can inform public sector of advantages/benefits of domestic tourism and the cost of their inaction. Furthermore, the following questions will also guide the study process:  What is the nature of Iran‘s domestic tourism in relation to the supply side?  What is the attitude of the domestic tourists in relation to the quality of the  Supply?  What are the main deficiencies in the domestic tourism supply/development?  What are the shortfalls of the Iran‘s tourism organization regarding domestic tourism development?  To what extent does the domestic tourism supply fulfill the desires of the market/demand? Theoretical backdrop: A prelude Tourism has gone and will continue to experience metamorphosis in reaction to the changes around us. The evolutionary process of tourism phenomenon can be witnessed through the changes that are experienced in the supply side (destinations) , as well as, in the demand side (the market) (Inskeep, 1999; Gunn with Var, 2002; Hall, 2009; Edgell et al, 2008; Walton, 2009; Papatheodorou, 2004; Cooper and Hall, 2008 ). The obvious manifestation of the changes in the destinations is the shift from myopic focus on mass tourism to so called alternative tourism e.g. specifically ecotourism which is highly charged/framed by the sustainability and environmentalism discourse. It seems that the survival of tourism, as a productive sector, is strongly linked to the environmental quality and sustainable planning (ample evidence can be accessed in the journal of sustainable tourism; journal of sustainable development and planning; journal of sustainable development, and the Journal of American Planning Association). In the other side of the coin is the demand or tourism market which is highly capricious and volatile with ever changing character of its protagonists–the tourists (Cooper and Hall, 2008). At any rate, by looking at the history of tourism one can witness how a limited business oriented perception of tourism as an economic activity has evolved into a discipline (composed of fields) (Tribe, 1997) that draws a pool of literature presented by sociology, anthropology, geography, urban planning, economics, environmental sciences, law, political science, and development discourse versus growth (GDP) with hotly debated issues or thesis and antithesis (Walton, 2009; Tribe, 1997). No doubt we have come a long way since the Grand Tour of 17th century which the traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper- class European young men of means from an aristocratic rite (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Tour; Walton, 2009, p. 786). At the same time, the extraordinary dynamism of tourism industry is planning to take us to the space unimaginable by the early travelers (USA TODAY– http://www.usatoday.com/travel/columnist/mcgee/2010-02-24-space-travel_N.htm). Nevertheless, an evolutionary path of ‗tourism industry‘ should not come as a surprise as this is the nature of constantly changing phenomenon that surrounds humanity. But what is unique about tourism industry is its highly peculiar structure and operation. It is not 3 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY comparable to any other industry because it is not based on a simply packaged and managed product with a clear cut process; therefore, linear and reductionist approach to its analysis is not suffice (Farsari et al, 2011; Cole, 2009; Farrell and Twining-Ward, 2004; Zahra and Ryan, 2007; Miller et al, 2010; Tribe, 2006; Gunn with Var, 2002). When it comes to the decision making process it poses a unique challenge as ‗Tourism policy-making is a complex phenomenon involving various actors and institutions in the negotiation of power distribution and organizational complexity. Moreover, the contested political character of sustainable development with its meaning along with its ethical considerations still being debated in policy, industry and academic circles has complex ramifications for decision making‘ (cf. Farsari et al, 2011: 1110-1111). To clarify further, its analysis is not also adhering to conventional models because tourism industry is ―chaotic‖ and ―industry of industries‖ that ‗is complicated by its many entities and interactions, or as an activity critically vulnerable to irregular climatic, political, and market events; and as a global phenomenon, is indisputably complicated, and vulnerable to unscheduled events with its specific local manifestation‘ (Cole, 2009: 691). Therefore, it ‗may exhibit quite different dynamics from those captured by traditional growth models or localized supply- demand elasticity models‘ (Cole, 2009: 689). At any rate, ‗environmental‘ concerns/problems are a hot potato now-a-days. Because the conflict between economic development and environment can be crystalized easily as evidences are abundant (Martines-Alier et al, 2010a; Martinez-Alier et al, 2010b; Redclift, 2007). In the meantime, ‗social and political institutions change too slowly, and are unable to accommodate the realities of new resource pressures‘ (Redclift, 2007: 124). By borrowing from Redclift, his expression of the conflict is enlightening as it is placed in the context of historical process and political economy by saying: ‗To locate our conception of the ‗environment‘ within a broader historical and comparative framework, one which distinguishes the historical role of the environment at different stages of capitalist development. [Furthermore], to identify common elements in a political economy of the environment in which changes in the natural environment are analytically related to ‗super-structural factors, such as ideology and policy, and at different levels of political complexity (2010, p. 124). However, Redclift‘s statement which is in line with Sklair‘s (2010) notion of crisis of ecological sustainability, alerts us about the challenges of managing the contradictions between development and the environment. The point is that ‗environmental‘ or ‗ecological‘ crisis are rather transparent and tangible entities as their decline and demise can be measured in various forms (Marsh and grossa Jr, 2005: Warland, 2001). However, it is the concept of ‗development‘ which is highly controversial (Hosseini, 2003; Starr, 2006) and misguided. As expressed by Wallerstein: ‗We are told that socialism is road to development. We are told that laisssez-faire is the road to development. We are told that a break with tradition is the road to development. We are told that a revitalized tradition is the road to development. We are told that industrialization is the road to development. We are told that increased agricultural productivity is the road to development. We are told that delinking is the road to development. We are told that an increased opening to the world market (export-oriented growth) is the road to development. Above all, we are told that development is possible, if only we do the right thing. But what is this right thing? (1994, p. 3). And/or, we are told that ‗mass tourism‘ is the road to development. Sklair eloquently poses a thorny dimension which has been ignored by voluminous tourism literature that are focused on micro level studies and highly charged with neo-liberal economic perspective (Martinez-Alier et al, 2010; Walton, 2009; Higgins-Desbiolles, 2009). Sklair‘s thorny issue, which is not pleasant to neo-liberalists‘ ears, is at the heart of this discussion. Because, he touches upon the most visible/tangible problem associated with global capitalism, as well as, globalized tourism in the following terms: 4 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Capitalist globalization simultaneously enriches more people all over the world than ever before in human history, but cannot bring the poorest out of debilitating poverty in most societies, and those in the middle seem fated to suffer cyclical bouts of economic insecurity, and the crisis of ecological unsustainability - capitalist globalization spreads industrial civilization all over a planet that cannot cope (Sklair, 2010, p. 115). Two items are worthy of attention in the statement above when it comes to tourism per se. first, the relationship between tourism development and ecological sustainability which poses an obvious oxymoron and are paradoxical. To clarify the issue, ‗an important distinction must be drawn between ‗sustainable tourism‘ and ‗sustainable development in the context of tourism‘; where the former is aimed at sustaining the tourism industry, while the latter is geared to meeting the ‗greater good‘ or human needs through tourism‘ (cf. Higgins- Desbiolles, 2010, p. 117). However, the devil is in the detail. Up to now, tourism‘s role in poverty alleviation has remained skeptical in the case of the so called Third World countries (Hall, 2007; Scheyvens, 2007, 2008; Schilcher, 2007). With a note of cautious, tourism per se is not the culprit, rather its domination and operation by the global protagonists in the context of ‗culture-ideology of consumerism‘ and at the mercy of Transnational Capitalist Class (TCC) produced a distorted development as well as an unattainable sustainability in the context of ecological crisis (Sklair, 1999, 2002). The influence of TNCs alluded to by Harrison as he stated: ―Transnational companies operate at all levels of the industry, as travel agents, tour operators, hoteliers and airline operators. Indeed, the industry as a whole is characterized by considerable vertical and horizontal integration. Even in 1978, when only sixteen transnational hotel companies were linked with international airlines, they accounted for 34 percent of all foreign hotels; on average, nearly three quarters of the airline-associated hotels were foreign based and , of these, three firths were in developing countries‖ ( Harrison, 1994, p. 241). Some of the globalization scholars have taken the discussion to a higher level by referring to ‗ecotourism‘, which supposed to be sustainable form of tourism, not necessarily sustaining tourism but rather using the industry as a whole to fix the contradiction that are inherent in the global capitalism which manifests in numerous crisis temporally and spatially. Therefore, tourism in general and ecotourism in particular are instruments of ‗fixes‘ that is elaborated by Harvey as: ‗Spatial fix‘ entails exporting excess capital to a new geographical location where it can be reinvested in novel development. International tourism development can be viewed as an ideal means by which this is accomplished, and ecotourism in particular, in its quest specifically for relatively undeveloped areas, can be viewed as the epitome of this strategy. A ‗temporal fix‘, by contrast, involves displacing excess capital into future return, either by investing in ventures that will realize profit down the road or by reducing turnover time, that is, ‗the speed with which money outlays return profit to the investor. In addition to helping to resolve the central capitalist contradiction, ostensibly ‗sustainable‘ forms of tourism such as ecotourism in particular may help to resolve what James O‘Connor calls capitalism‘s ‗second contradiction‘ (cf. Fletcher, 2011, p. 450-51). However, globalization discourse has not zoomed on tourism for nothing; in fact, the field of tourism (i.e., not necessarily the ‗tourism discipline‘) is composed of two sub-fields that one is focusing on ‗environmental impacts, tourism perception and social impacts‘ and the second one is built upon tourism business studies which has strong marketing connotation within the global market (Tribe, 1997) . In the process, it is the community that by passed because ―disorganized capitalism and its tendency to transform itself over space and time- particularly through the growth of individualization and privatization‖ (cf. Hall, 2004: 138). In this context, tourism planning and policy-or simply tourism development-has become a political battle ground by the power brokers which were also connected to the global structure. 5 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Domestic tourism: a sustainable option? With respect to the significant role of tourism in the global economy and the destination‘s wellbeing, the concept of ‗tourism ‗addresses two major sectors: ‘international’ and ‘domestic’. ‗Domestic‘ tourism has been defined as being: 'In relation to a given country or a region, it is considered a form of tourism, involving residents of the given country travelling only within this country' (WTO, 1995: 11); and/or 'domestic tourism is the activity of people visiting destinations within their own country's boundaries' ( Demir, 2004: 325). Although tourism goes back to the ‗grand tour‘ of preindustrial era; however, it was not until post- industrial revolution that a subsistence economy of the UK transformed to an urban based manufacturing and paved the way for the growth of domestic tourism. No doubt, technological innovation and economic growth, which finally generated a middle class eager to travel, were main influencing factors. Eventually, by 1900, domestic tourism began to be consolidated where factors such as limiting working hours, higher wages, weekend holidays, annual summer holidays, the pioneering of the railway age, and affluent urban population with the romantic movement of 19th century were highly influential (Burton, 1995). Despite domestic tourism‘s role in socioeconomic, as well as, infrastructural development of the destinations, it has not received sufficient attention in terms of research and analysis (Eijgelaar et al, 2008). As Massidda and Etzo (2012: 603) noted: ‗It is common knowledge that in many countries domestic tourism is dominant with respect to international flows in terms of both size and economic contribution. In spite of that, only recently researchers have started to concentrate on this phenomenon and its economic impact, as well as on its potential for reducing disparities in less developed world areas‘. Nevertheless, UK residents alone took 76.8 million domestic holidays within the UK in 2007, spending £14 billion. England accounted for 60.9 million of these holidays and spent £10.9 billion. In Wales the equivalent figures were 6.5 million holidays and £1.1 billion were spent, and in Scotland, 8.7 million holidays generated £1.9 billion. Domestic tourism for the UK registered 126.0 million trips (a rise of + 7%) for year 2009. (billionhttp://www.britishresorts.co.uk/tourismfacts.aspx). In 2005, domestic tourism contributed an estimated $55.5 billion to the Australian economy, more than three times the contribution of international arrivals. Despite this, the main focus of Australian academic tourism research has been on international tourism (Athanasopoulos and Hyndman, 2008: 19). Domestic tourism has also made various impacts in many areas of China. ‗ It makes a significant contribution in promoting regional economic growth, improving local economic structures, driving the development of related industries, enhancing employment and activating domestic demands' (Wu et al, 2000: 296). Domestic tourism in Turkey has experienced a burgeoning growth between 1980s and 2000 where the number of travelers within the country reached 16.4 million. The growth has been attributed to increasing income level, improved transportation facilities/modes, cultural change, and improved accommodation sector (Demir, 2004: 327). ‗The World Tourism Organization (WTO) predicts that during the next 20 years the expansion of domestic tourism will be especially strong in several developing countries, most notably China, India, Thailand, Brazil and Mexico. These are the examples of contribution of domestic tourism which is already a growing industry in several parts of the developing world‘ (Mazimhaka, 2007: 491).The scale of world domestic tourism, on the other hand, exceeds world international tourism by a ratio of 10:1. For instance, in the case of India, for every international tourist, there are 80 domestic tourists (http://www.planningcommission.gov.in/plans/planrel/fiveyr/10th/volume2/v2_ch7_5.pdf). Domestic tourism has been instrumental in increasing expenditure, reducing seasonality, improving the geographic spread of tourism, as well as, alleviating regional imbalances. These outcomes have positively affected job creation, GDP growth and transformation. For 6 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY example, in the case of South Africa, these impacts have been reflected through 49.3 million trips with receipts valued at R 47 billion (South African Rand) in 2003 (http://www.southafrica.net/media/en/page/annual-reports). After the 9/11, In the case of United States, international tourism experienced a set back; however, domestic tourism thrived (WTTC, 2011). Furthermore, this study is, to a large extent, an attempt to delve into a specific tourism destination (i.e., Iran), where not only there is not any directed research, but tourism development itself has not become a full force deliberate policy yet. This study, in a way, contrary to most of the tourism studies, is focusing on an uncharted waters metaphorically speaking. Because most of the studies have focused on areas and locations where tourism has been developed and policies for its development, to some extent, have been formulated. As Mason and Cheyne (2000: 392) stated: ‗There are few studies on the perceived impacts of tourism either prior to any development or when it is not yet seen to be a significant economic area of activity for a region. The majority of research since the mid-70s, however, has been in the form of ―snapshots'' taken at a particular time, in a particular location, with most of the studies taking place where it was already economically important. The perceived impacts on host communities and their attitudes to its growth were the focus of much of this research in this period'. In another hand, the concept of domestic tourism per se, which has been established as a dynamic sector in different destinations to achieve various economic, social, and environmental objectives is a dimension to reckon with (Athanasopoulos et al, 2008; Wu et al, 2000; Burton, 1995; Seckelmann, 2002). Thus, domestic tourism, has been given a lofty attention to alleviate various economic and social ills, especially in those destinations where the primary resource development has been in decline and environmentalism has been in rise (Rigas, 2009). Another qualifying/ amplifying dimension of domestic tourism is its characteristic as an alternative form of tourism which is sustainable as it remains external to global tourism system (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2009). Furthermore, domestic tourism is in harmony with the goals of sustainable management which is also reiterated in the Rio Earth Summit‘s 12 key principles for sustainable development and the Agenda 21 ―to conserve sensitive areas; balance the demands of conservation and development; stimulate community- based economic growth; and preserve the intrinsic features of rural areas‖ (Ghaderi and Henderson, 2012: 48). As Higgins-Desbiolles (2010, p. 126) articulated: ‗ For instance, holidaying closer to home may provide us with greater connections to our community and its environment, thereby combating the sense of alienation increasingly evident in our globalizing world and fostering an appreciation of our own environment that is conducive to a commitment to sustainability‘. Arguing for sustainability potentials of domestic tourism is also plausible through the social dimension of sustainable development (Steward and Kuska, 2010; Baker, 2006). As articulated by the researchers: Encouraging participation in domestic tourism by minimizing constraints to access and enjoyment may help bridge cultural gaps and enhance respect for cultures between and within communities. Domestic travel can raise people‘s appreciation of different cultural, linguistic and religious groups and of common interests of the people of a country, thus helping to foster national integration. Similarly, domestic tourism is often more concerned with nation-building (instead of looking for the „exotic‟)‖. It can expand people‘s knowledge and understanding of their home country, with a subsequent increase in national pride. Generally, mobility helps people to know and be reflexive about both self and places. Tourism researchers have acknowledged the importance of putting the social into tourism. Most social networks develop in the context of leisure. It is the social aspects of domestic tourism that are of particular interest in the present context as domestic tourism has the greatest potential for connecting people (cf. Moufakkir, 2010: 50). Some went further and considered domestic tourism as an important tool in social integration in line with Putnam‘s concept of ‗social capital‘ essential for community bonding; 7 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY social networks and trust (cf. Moufakkir, 2010). Furthermore, it is immune to problems that associated with international mass tourism. In fact, domestic tourism tends to have a positive impact regarding the seasonality, spending, dispersion, security, participation and solidarity. As suggested by Mendiratta (2011: 5). ‗Domestic tourism, when developed in a meaningful, sustainable and complementary way to international tourism, offers destinations an exceptional platform for year-round tourism economy growth and development. And, as importantly, domestic tourism creates a destination that stands proud as a place for both the people of the world, and those of the destination, to explore and enjoy as their own‘. Thus, Iran‘s domestic tourism development issue and the urgency for its research should not come as a surprise. The case of Iran-a critical view Iran is an ancient civilization with land area of 1.648million Km² (terrestrial area of 1.636 million Km² and 12,000Km² of aquatic area), coastline of 2,440Km in the south and 740 Km in the north and a population size of 78,868,711 (http://geography.about.com/library/cia/blciran.htm). (See figure 1). Iran is located on the confluence of oriental and occidental world. Iran has ranked seventh in the world in terms of possessing varieties of attractions (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Iran.pdf). Iran with attractive natural and historical sites is rated among the 10 most touristic countries in the world in terms of its history. With a wealth of cultural, natural, and historical resources, it can offer varieties of tourism activities and products. For instance, there are 131 protected areas, including19 national parks, 91 natural reserve, 21 natural parks, 15 world heritage sites and 54 submitted sites which are on the tentative list (http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/ir/). Iran also possesses about 1000 spa and a history of medical tourism (Kazemi, 2008). However, Iran currently ranks 68th in tourism revenues worldwide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourism_in_Iran#cite_note-IR-1). Iran‘s market share of Middle East total demand is 16.7%, but on the global scale it is a mere 0.35%. For instance, in compare to Egypt, an Islamic country of relatively similar geographic size and population, ranks sixth in the top ten most sought after destinations in the world. Such figures are very disappointing considering Iran‘s tremendous potential (http://www1.american.edu/ted/iran- tour.htm?iframe=true&width=100%&height=100%). Notwithstanding the lack of attention and absence of a clear policy objective to develop international tourism in Iran, a spontaneous surge in domestic tourism has been witnessed as relative calm permeated in the country and the turmoil and revolutionary fervor began to settle to some extent. This rather unplanned domestic tourism activity poses some questions which answering and exploring them is fundamental to the future of Iran‘s tourism se Figure 1. Map of Iran 8 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Resim 8: Source: http://www.infoplease.com/atlas/country/iran.html Now-a-days, the political-economy of Iran along with international sanctions, which is exacerbated by threat of war, does not make it terribly conducive to international tourism (inbound foreign tourists). With the exception of limited religious tourism from neighboring Islamic countries, the latest number of arrivals has remained under 3 million including Iranian ex-patriots. As stated by Alavi & Yasin (2000: 2-3): ―While Iran has a great potential for attracting tourists due to its rich history and culture, it dramatically lags behind in terms of achieving such potential. According to the UNSCO, Iran is ranked as one of the top ten countries in the world in terms of its ancient and historical sites. However, the number of tourist arrivals to Iran in 1995 was only 443 thousand, which is less than one tenth of one percent of the total global tourism market. In the case of Iran, the gap between potential 9 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY and reality can be attributed to many factors. The most important of these are the political realities of Iran, lack of infrastructure needed to support and facilitate tourism activities, and the absence of a systematic tourism policy‖. With increasing sanctions imposed against Iran because of its nuclear program, and ongoing tensions with western powers and their regional allies (cf. Ghaderi and Henderson, 2012), a full force international mass tourism is a far-fetched-scenario. Despite the repeated claim by Iranian officials that the nuclear program is for peaceful purpose; some of the main tourism markets have closed their embassies in Iran (e.g., Canada, UK, and USA) (Austen, 2012). However, Iranian officials do not have to throw the baby out with the bathwater. They can capitalize in and pave the way for domestic tourism because it ‗requires little foreign exchange to develop, and it is not as vulnerable to fluctuations in numbers caused by seasonality or problems arising from travel booking systems, international airline schedules, changing international tastes, perceived security threats or world economic recession‘ (Scheyvens, 2007: 311). Furthermore, the implications of domestic tourism economically (i.e., in terms of job creation); socially (i.e., in terms of recreation and leisure, as well as, cohesion among numerous ethnicities); politically (i.e., in terms of placing Iran within the global community of nations as she deserves), and environmentally (i.e., enhancing appreciation and awareness of rare natural resources) is undisputed (McDowall and Choi, 2010; Carr, 2002). The bottom line is, if international tourism is not palatable to the public sector in Iran, which is understandable; however, it needs not to spearhead the same attitude towards domestic tourism. Because domestic tourism will curb the burgeoning numbers of outbound tourists (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourism_in_Iran) that results in outflow of hard currency during the present economic hardship as a result of economic sanctions (http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/370870/economic-sanctions-hit-irans-merchants). Building on these themes, it is essential to argue some of the institutional short falls associated with the public sector‘s attitude. Of course, this is not limited to public sector in Iran where ―…existing tourism policies in developing countries have tended to concentrate overwhelmingly on expanding international tourist arrivals from the North and have frequently ignored both the benefits and problems of the emerging phenomenon of mass tourism involving domestic and regional visitors‖ (cf. Scheyvens, 2007: 1). However, the public sector‘s suspicious attitude towards international tourism is not without its ground as ample critique has leveled against global tourism structure /nature that discussed in this paper. In respect of those critical views, Iran‘s policy makers‘ attitude is a blessing in disguise and policy makers‘ ideological position towards international tourism may not be completely irrelevant as numerous scholars have cautioned about unsustainable nature of mass tourism in the past (Kuvan, 2010; Gössling, 2002). Therefore, the public space in Iran is ripe for a home grown economic activity (i.e., domestic tourism), in light of unwitting behavior of government towards mass tourism. Therefore, to argue for the option of domestic tourism, Higgins-Desbiolles articulation is worthy of attention when she said: ‗More radically, we may see an acceptance of the need to holiday closer to home or even at home. This may become imperative for greater numbers of people as the global financial crisis hits, the finite energy resources we rely on become scarcer and full environmental costing of our activities makes our old patterns prohibitively expensive or impossible. Rather than decry these developments, we should embrace such possibilities as they invite us to think more imaginatively about the meaning, purpose and impacts of our tourism and travel cultures. For instance, holidaying closer to home may provide us with greater connections to our community and its environment, thereby combating the sense of alienation increasingly evident in our globalizing world and fostering an appreciation of our own environment that is conducive to a commitment to sustainability‘ (2009: 126). 10 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Adaptive domestic tourism model (ADTM) An Adaptive Domestic Tourism Model (ADTM) is illustrated in Figure 2, which contextualizes domestic tourism planning within a sustainability framework that ‗accounts for resource-based (e.g. impacts on natural and cultural capital), activity-based (e.g. growth and development of industry) and community-based (e.g. involvement of social capital in a local context) traditions‘ (cf. Larson and Poudyal, 2012: 919). ADTM is adopted to fit Iran‘s case in respect of culture, religion, geography, demography, environment and Iran‘s political- economy. The model focuses on domestic tourism development in order to remove ambiguity regarding the goals and strategies that needs to be clarified by the managers and planners. Therefore, ADTM is a framework that can facilitate acquiring knowledge and know-how towards this process. It is also essential to clarify the potentials and problems at the beginning of the process through the feedback loop. Notwithstanding the national decision (i.e., at the macro level), a National Tourism Organization (NTO) is a prerequisite to establish a functional institution specifically for tourism. This will clarify and facilitate a political vision ‗that step beyond a sometimes fragmented and disorganized administrative culture‘ (Burns, 2004: 33). NTO-via domestic tourism, will have three fundamental objectives: first, it will remedy some of the economic ills through job creation; second, it will provide an uplifting recreational means to a population in desperate need of transition from revolution to recreation/regeneration; third, it will facilitate a socio-cultural harmony through interaction among ethnicities that can bring cohesion and understanding within different ethnic groups in a multi-ethnic country (Moufakkir, 2010). NTO will approach the process within a sustainability framework to maximize the benefits and minimize the impacts through three traditions: resource-based, activity-based, and community-based traditions (Saarinen, 2006). Based on such perspective (traditions), ADTM inseminates sustainability process/goals into the political-economy of domestic tourism where power issues and decision-making processes are established and perceived at the local levels (i.e., local, provincial/regional, and urban). Not to forget, ADTM is a domestic project that supposed to: ‗… Address the elements of education, training, and capacity building, as is strongly indicated in pro- poor tourism discussions, for example. There is also an urgent need to re-evaluate the perspectives from which the industry and its sustainability are perceived and redefine the position of tourism and scale of analysis in sustainable development discourses‘ (Saarinen, 2006: 1131). In a way, the ‗resource-based‘ tripod lays the foundation for three levels/scales (indicated in grey bubbles) where domestic tourism will function. The characteristics of each level are different in terms of capacity, education, attractions and the host in general. Such scaling will allow for better control, management action, implementation and monitoring. This is also conducive to Iran‘s case which is challenging geographically and culturally. This is tantamount to a decentralized approach that will emit innovative ideas based on knowledge‘s of the community at each level. In another hand, ADTM is not a top-down planning process but rather it is place-based model guided by local knowledge and concerns (Larson and Poudyal, 2012). For instance, the ‗urban tourism organization‘ is identified as a separate scale because an approach to and management of tourism in urban centers require certain actions that are dictated by challenges specific to urban areas. Namely, environmental profile of urban areas in terms of quality of urban fabric, infrastructure, pollution, and waste management is not comparable to profile of rural areas. Public-private partnership takes a new meaning when it comes to urban regeneration via tourism (Tsenkova, 2002). ADTM focuses on market ties which in the case of domestic tourism it takes a different meaning and morphology. Interestingly, domestic tourism market, for example, in the case of Turkey (Özel and Kozak, 2012), showed an expanse of motivations and clusters that can easily fulfill the suppliers expectations. In the case of Iran, which is highly multi-ethnic/culture entity, a rich market with varieties of motivations to travel at home also is in abundance. Although, the 11 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY model (Figure 2), divides tourism to domestic and international; however, the focus is on ‗domestic‘ tourism where underpinning planning philosophy is based on governance inclusive of public sector, private sector and universities within the community framework. Involving universities in such partnership is not metaphorical, since in the case of Iran, ubiquitousness of Islamic Azad University is a reality. This notion is also known as TRG-triangle (tourism, research and governance), which ‗is a form of steering that involves the governed and other actors necessary to provide knowledge-based management‘ (Viken, 2011: 335). The presence of NGOs is to signify the community and its role as a formidable stakeholder in the process. However, the decentralized nature of the model aims to facilitate the flourishing of civil institutions which lacks in the case of Iran, as well as, in most of the developing countries (Burns, 2004). The policy formulation, plan and implementation stage in ADTM is also an adaptive practice. This means that shortfalls and benefits of the whole domestic tourism project are addressed at the beginning of the process through ‗feedback loop‘. There will not be room for surprises at the end. In a ‗bottom-up‘ approach, obstacles associated with institutional complexity will be discussed and avoided. 12 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Figure 2. An Adaptive Domestic Tourism Model. DOMESTIC TOURISM DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF IRAN. FEEDBACK NATIONAL TOURISM ORGANIZATION (NTO) Resource- Activity- Community- based. based. based. Provincial tourism Local tourism organization. Urban tourism organization. organization. Focus on local Regional level approach affairs/community Urban specific to tourism planning based operations. &management. tourism. TYPES OF TOURISM BASED ON MARKET TIES? Domestic International tourism (mass tourism and not welcomed by the (sustainable/pr public sector). actical). PLANNING APPROACH/DOMESTIC TOURISM PLANNING PROCESS. FOCUSED PROPOSITION. Public sector; private sector; universities/NGOs (TRG triangle). policy plan Implementatio n. Implementation stage will be flexible and open to a participatory decision-making in order to acquire cooperation as well as greater logistic, financial, and technical support across multiple scales. ADTM is not ‗one-shot, big bang’ (Burns, 2004) master plan, which are highly technical and discrete; therefore, it is based on local values with measurable outcomes 13 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY and immediate, mid-term and long-term utility. The underpinning philosophy of ADTM is to be implementable in a way to take full account of the local social dynamics in the context of a platform for sustainable growth and human development. Study method The study has administered a multi- strategy approach, which is also known as ‗triangulation‘. It entails using more than one method of source of data in the study of social phenomena (Bryman, 2004; Fetterman, 2010). See also figure 3. The first tier of the research (method 1) brings in sociological theories of: ‘culture-ideology of consumerism’, ‘tragedy of tourism resources’ (strategic game), ‘environmental economics’, ‘ecological economics’, ‘political ecology’, and ‘global tourism system’ (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2009, 2011, 2004; Schilcher, 2007; Fletcher, 2011; Sklair, 2010, 1999; Burns & Novelli, 2007; Garrod and Fyall, 1998). Each of these theories brings in sociological, ecological, as well as, political- economy discourse in the context of globalizing capitalism/global economic system that critically analyzes the paradoxes between international tourism system (mass tourism) and sustainable development. These authors argue that sustainable tourism development is a far- fetched goal because the tourism industry is interwoven into globalizing capitalism based on overproduction and overconsumption that environmental and social problems are an inevitable result. For instance, Bramwell‘s research in the case of Malta‘s tourism pictures some of the contradictions as he noted: 14 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Figure 3. A Triangulation research process model. Method 1. Theoretical discourse based Method 2. Qualitative approach: on following theories: ‘culture-ideology of unobtrusive observation /ethnography/indirect consumerism’, ‘tragedy of tourism measure/content analysis (Fetterman, 2010; resources’ (strategic game), ‘environmental Trokhim, 2006; Reeves et al, 2008). . Authors’ economics’, ‘ecological economics’, involvement through various research projects ‘political ecology’, and ‘global tourism in Iran, their unobtrusive observation as native system’ (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2009, 2011, scholars highly aware of Iran’s socio-cultural 2004; Schilcher, 2008; Fletcher, 2011; Sklair, characteristics, religion, history, geography and 2010, 1999; Burns & Novelli, 2007; Garrod political-economy and environment. Knowledge and Fyall, 1998) of Iran’s multi-ethnic character and variation. Multiple research method (triangulation) applied to investigate the conduciveness of domestic tourism as an option for the case of Iran. Method 3. Quantitative research strategy. A deductive approach to data collection and analysis based on descriptive statistics. Two population groups in two different locations were targeted; non-probability sampling was applied; self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed; SPSS program employed to conduct data analysis. 15 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Many residents realize that there are relatively few economic alternatives to this industry within the global economy, and some recall the economy‘s precariousness when the country gained political independence in 1964. But the resulting growth has exacerbated problems of economic dependency, class inequality, low wages, summer crowding, and considerable environmental degradation. Some Maltese are concerned that it has significantly accelerated the loss of scarce open space and has contributed to an erosion of moral standards and family life. [Furthermore], ‗Government-related organizations led one intervention advocating sustainable development, but actually it was much affected by business considerations and technical rationality. A second effort by a heritage organization emphasized environmental concerns, but this lacked power to influence official policies‘ (2006: 957). The above statement is not irrelevant to what Milne and Ateljevic stated about hegemony, globalization and tourism policies by saying: ―Tourism […] must be viewed as a transaction process which is at once driven by the global priorities of multi-national corporations, geo- political forces and broader forces of economic change, and the complexities of the local – where residents, visitors, workers, government and entrepreneurs interact at the industry ‗coal-face‘‖ (cf. Giampiccoli, 2007: 176).Therefore, an alternative form of tourism (e.g., domestic tourism) may be sustainable and averse to hazards of globalizing capitalism. In the meantime, domestic tourism is conducive to the present political economy, as well as, to the socio-cultural characteristics of Iran as a religious nation-state where the institutions responsible for tourism see international tourism as a global conspiracy to export western decadency to Islamic Republic of Iran (http://english.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=9007271782). Such an attitude is a ‗blessing in disguise’ that coincidentally shares some common grounds with ‗culture-ideology of consumerism’ perspective that recommends travel closer to home or at home as a mechanism of sustainability (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2011). If Iranian officials are calling international tourism as a form of cultural invasion, the pro ‗culture-ideology of consumerism‘ theorists are also wary of international tourism as means to fix the globalizing capitalism problems by saying: ―… Researchers, however, identified a number of mechanisms by which capitalism is able to alleviate overproduction crises through economic growth. Thus, they contend that capitalism requires continual expansion in order to survive – what Sandler calls the GOD (‗grow or die‘) principle. Harvey, for instance, observes that excess capital may be reabsorbed into the system by means of a variety of different spatial and/or temporal displacements or ‗fixes‘, thereby (temporarily) forestalling an overproduction crisis. Tourism can be seen to provide a number of such fixes. Harvey‘s ‗spatial fix‘ entails exporting excess capital to a new geographical location where it can be reinvested in novel development. International tourism development can be viewed as an ideal means by which this is accomplished, and ecotourism in particular, in its quest specifically for relatively undeveloped areas, can be viewed as the epitome of this strategy‖ (cf. Fletcher, 2011: 448-49). Thus, the notion of international mass tourism is an arrangement to fix the problems inherent in global economic structure (Fletcher, 2011; Evans, 2008). However, scholars who adhere to this argument do not throw the baby out with the bath water. They are calling for an alternative globalization –alternative to generic globalization (Sklair, 2010; Evans, 2008), which is also conducive to alternative tourism (g. e., domestic tourism). Finally, domestic tourism can be perceived in tantamount to a means of production that ‗create opportunities for movements to experiment with new practices prefiguring the democratic management of collective affairs that must be central to any progressive alternative institutional architecture‘ (Evans, 2008: 276). Second tier (method 2) focused on inductive approach based on observation, content analysis, unstructured interviews, researcher reflexivity, and numerous visits and personal communication (Gilgun, 2010; Watt, 2007) with officials in Iran. Participant observation and direct observation have been significant approach that allowed us to delve into the culture and 16 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY the context. This process provided the collection and storage of data in relation to power relations, community attitude, and conflict between and within the power bases relevant to present political economy of Iran. Within the second tier of study method in the context of an inductive reasoning, unstructured interviews contributed to the analysis of field data (Trochim, 2006). For instance, collaboration in relation to tourism planning and development in Iran is not necessarily a process of joint decision-making among key stakeholders. Reasons are fragmented political-economy, geographic vastness of the country, multi-ethnic/culture trait, and overall preoccupation with international conflict (Akbari, 2011; Alamdari, 2005). With the present multiplicity of power base, a unified policy-essential for establishment of an international mass tourism system remains to be an illusion. As Eisenstadt (2011: 1) stated : ‗Iran‘s political system is characterized by parallel structures that are the locus of multiple power centers. These consist of both traditional and revolutionary institutions: the President and Supreme Leader; the Majles and Guardian Council; the Judiciary and Special Clerical Courts; and the regular military and the Islamic Revolution Guard Corps (IRGC). Due to this organizational complexity and the importance of informal influence networks, the functioning of the regime is often opaque—even to many of its members‘. One proposed solution to this, which is indicated in the ADTM (figure 2) model (i.e., local, regional and urban), is to apply a decentralized approach to domestic tourism system management as each level in the system has its own so called DNA (Gunn and Var, 2002). Gunn and Var have used the DNA metaphorically in reference to supporting resources for tourism which signifies the uniqueness of each destination. Nevertheless, while international mass tourism remains a far-fetched scenario; however, domestic tourism by its nature has been less subject to contentions as it is not bounded into the global tourism structure- role of tourism in providing capitalist fixes (Fletcher, 2011). The third tier of research method (method 3) (Figure 3) focused on domestic travelers‘ perception to explore their views about bottlenecks associated with traveling in Iran. The assumption is that travelers‘ perception can shed some light about the behavior of public sector towards domestic tourism development. The approach involved an empirical study through the administration of a survey questionnaire which had applied by Mason and Cheyne (2000). In addition, numerous other studies have examined different destinations that particularly targeted travelers or residents (domestic tourists) attitudes towards tourism development (Andereck & Vogt, 2000; Andriottis, 2002 ; Ap and Pang, 2002). For this purpose, two locations were targeted based on their ranking in terms of receiving the number of domestic visitors. The process of sampling and distribution of survey questionnaire were conducted in two different locations. The first location was the city of Tehran (the capital city), and second location was the city of Chaloos located in the north of Iran in the region of Caspian Sea. Chaloos was selected as it is located in one of the highly popular sun, sea, and sand tourism zone and the area is also popular for its green and lush environment. It is also playing the role of ‗pressured area‘ –a rural region within the sphere of influence of major urban areas (i.e., Tehran), where the countryside is used for daytrip recreation (Burton, 1995). A non-probability sampling was administered based on a mode of sampling known as ‗convenience‘ sampling. This mode is highly popular in studies of this nature and in social sciences where the samples are simply available to the researcher by virtue of its accessibility (Bryman, 2004). Out of 500 self-completion/administered questionnaires, 400 were distributed in various travel agencies in Tehran, and the rest were filled out by the respondents in Chaloos, where tourists were targeted in different hotels. The total of 483 survey 17 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY questionnaires were collected and analyzed, with the number of missing samples of 17. Each questionnaire form contained a total of 42 questions composed of three sections. The medium of language was Farsi (the official language of Iran). This was also due to the nature of the study which focused on domestic tourists and foreign tourists were not considered. The responses to the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0 (http://www-01.ibm.com/software/analytics/spss/). Data analysis also revealed the internal reliability of the indicators that made up the scale/index is in a consistent manner, meaning, confident interval for the Cronbach‘s Alpha value is 0.95 percent, which is a validation of reliability coefficients. This is also obvious in relation to standard deviation where almost a bell shape curve can be generated as the variation from the grand mean is minimal. Refer to the appendix A for the statistical information and data tabulation. First 33 questions designed to measure the responses based on Likert scale –essentially a multiple indicator – on a 5-point scale referring to frequency and evaluation ranging from ‗totally agree, agree, I have no idea (neutrality), disagree, and totally disagree‘ (totally agree=1, agree=2, I have no idea=3, disagree=4, and totally disagree=5) (See also appendix A/table 1, 2). As shown in table 1, respondents overwhelmingly supported domestic tourism and are aware of its economic, social and cultural impacts. They believe domestic tourism can bring different ethnicities together and achieve cross-cultural understandings. They also believe that domestic tourism can be instrumental in maintaining the heritage resources. They are also in agreement with the need for recreation and leisure which domestic tourism can fulfill these needs (consistency of standard deviation in respect of cumulative percentages of respondents to totally agree and agree ranges (for quantitative statistics, refer to Table 1and 2/Appendix A). However, they are highly critical of public institutions for lack of attention to this sector. They are critical of lack of adequate facilities, information, adequate transportation, sanitations, attractive food outlet, and quality of services. The findings are in accordance with the literature that supports domestic tourism as an option when the condition is not suitable for mass tourism. The second section composed of 4 questions regarding demographic information to identify age, gender, education and frequency of travel pattern (for quantitative statistics refer to appendix A/table 3). The third part of the questionnaire composed of 5 items to clarify the purpose of travel, seasonality, length of stay, availability of information prior to trip, and satisfaction with the facilities (See also appendix A/table 4 for quantitative statistics). Discussion and Conclusion This study has focused on domestic tourism in the context of political economy of Iran. In this regard, Iran‘s political economy manifest in lack of cohesiveness amongst numerous political and economic clique (i.e., formal and informal), who do not realize the advantages of domestic tourism as a potential sustainable mode of tourism (Seckelmann, 2002; Ghaderi, 2011). The overarching problem identified in this paper is the policy makers‘ suspicious of international tourism (i.e., to some extent understandable); however, this attitude need not to hold domestic tourism at bay which is a significant tool to development. in fact, there are critical views of international tourism who defend domestic tourism by saying ‗if we took more time and resources to make ‗here‘ look more like ‗there‘ to be ‗here‘ would become more attractive‘ (cf. Burns, 1999: 345-6). There is also a deficit in the literature which mainly has focused on evaluation and impact assessment that generalized to other destinations. Iran‘s case is unique and complex. One can easily witness the clashes of ideas of modernity and traditionalism hand in hand that makes achieving a synthesis of reconciliation cumbersome (Jahanbegloo, 2004; Arjomand, 2002). In the meantime, the dynamism of Iranian society has enough space to pursue a rational planning process towards a formidable, as well as, a 18 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY sustainable domestic tourism system and its definition. This study has tried to fulfill the need to theorize the nature of power, conflict, development and political agency (Theerapappisit, 2011) in the context of domestic tourism and the deficit of sustainable planning instrument. Within such a kaleidoscope of political economy, ‗domestic tourism‘ dissected as a project which potentially is impregnated with social, economic, environmental, and political and sustainability connotations not as a metaphor but a plausible reality. For instance, domestic tourism and its growth in Iran has become a challenge where citizens are demanding recreation and leisure as their human right, while the officials perceive it as a luxurious decadency associated with the western way of life. In this regard ‗the European Union (EU) declared that travel and tourism is a basic human right and introduced a program whereby the EU will subsidize vacations for youth, the elderly, the disabled and for those who are poor‘ (http://landlopers.com/2010/05/27/is-travel-a-human-right/). The study looked at anatomy of domestic tourism project as a wakeup call to the public sector not only to fulfill the demands of the tourism market in the country, but also a way out for the policy makers who are suspicious of tourism and complacent to the tenacity of the Iranians to travel. Therefore, domestic tourism project analyzed and justified on three grounds. First, domestic tourism has been identified as an activity that can be immune to the vagaries that are laid against global tourism structure (i.e., especially mass tourism) in the context of global economic structure. This perspective, under the ‗culture-ideology of consumerism’, is highly critical of mass tourism as an active dimension of global accumulation of wealth controlled by global tourism which is motivated by profit through capitalist production of mass tourism. they argue that in respect of production and consumption, as the key to rate of growth of profit, the global structure of tourism contradicts the implementation of sustainability principles in relation to ecology, society and economic (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2010; Sklair, 2002; Hall, 2009; Azarya, 2004). Therefore, sustainable tourism becomes an ultimate paradox of globalization; furthermore, it fixates the destinations (i.e., especially in the less developed world) to the margins of global economic structure where ‗sustainability‘ is the last thing to be concerned with. ‗Their marginality is kept so that it can be commercialized in the context of globalization‘ (Azarya, 2004: 964). Secondly, domestic tourism and its system definition (Ritchie and Crouch, 2003) interrogated in the case of Iran, was examined through an interview with the officials who supposed to agree upon and involve in a framework to govern such system. Because without an explicit recognition and common understanding among formal sector, it would be almost impossible to agree on the entity for which the strategy is to be developed. The result of the qualitative approach to this tier of research revealed that an absence of an explicit philosophy resulted in lack of development of a coherent domestic tourism policy. Notwithstanding religious tourism dynamism in Iran, domestic tourism system should embrace and facilitate numerous compatible activities along the religious practices/worships without jeopardizing the sacred traditions. In fact, some entrepreneurial developments are underway to achieve just this (personal communication, August 15, 2012). At the end, the governance for tourism must incorporate the present dynamism of religious tourism with the demand of the population for a better mobility, recreation, entertainment, art and cultural activities within a clearly defined domestic tourism system. Such system must take under consideration several fundamental issues. First, domestic tourism will save Iran billions of dollars which leak out through outbound tourism. This is the case where the country is experiencing the shortage of hard currency and economic hardship (Gladstone, 2012). ‗According to Euro monitor report (Euro monitor International ,2009) there were 5,588.800 people traveled to other countries, among which 4,633.000 people traveled for leisure and totally have spent 31,207.8 IRR billion and it is predicted that the 19 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY number of outbound tourists from Iran will reach 6,167.000 in 2013 and outgoing tourism expenditure will reach 26,682.000 IRR billion‘ (Asadi and Daryaei, 2011: 780). Secondly, in a multi-ethnic Iran with regional disparities and a gap between rural and urban areas, domestic tourism has the potential to contribute to cross-cultural understanding and rural development (Seckelmann, 2002; Brouder, 2012; Yang, 2011; Sheykhi, 2009) which can strengthen the communal bonds, as well as, modify the negative stereotypes. Third, domestic tourism, if supported and involved by the active role of public sector (i.e., political will), can be a catalyst to lay down the supporting factors and resources essential for domestic tourism now and international tourism in the future (Ritchie and Crouch, 2003). Hopefully, this study gains the legitimacy and justification as it is the first study of its kind in this location, and it is a research about tourism where tourism has not been assimilated into the psychic of the policy makers as a means for economic growth and development (Alipour and Heydari, 2005). Last but not least, this study explored the situation of tourism in Iran where government‘s perspective is not conducive to embracing international tourism in one hand, and does not have a clear policy how to cope with a spontaneous domestic tourism in another hand. Domestic tourism can become a catalyst and a strategy to rescale the cities which are struggling with unemployment and lack of proper services/facilities because of rural-urban migration in a rapidly urbanizing country (71% of population reside in urban areas) (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2212.html). Domestic tourism can become complementary strength to community-based strategies to enhance social capital, increase citizen involvement and to build civic capacity (Svatch and Kantor, 2003). Alas, despite a ready to develop potentials, public sector needs to overcome some obvious barriers. These barriers are: lack of education about tourism impacts, lack of vision, lack of education about development processes, insufficient infrastructure, lack of direction and organization, lack of decentralized approach, and need for hospitality training (Gunn and Var, 2002). 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From Chaos to Cohesion-Complexity in tourism structure: An analysis of New Zealand‘s regional tourism organizations. Tourism Management, 28 (3), 854-862. 26 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY (Appendix. A.) Table 1. Descriptive statistics Questions Totally Freque Cumulative Agree Frequency Cumulative Mean St. D. agree ncy % (a) % (t.a) 1 T.A 255 56.2 A 141 87.2 1.64 .888 2 T.A 268 55.7 A 190 95.2 1.51 .639 3 T.A 250 52.6 A 188 92.2 1.57 .691 4 T.A. 210 43.5 A 223 89.6 1.69 .722 5 T.A. 226 47.6 A 191 87.8 1.66 .724 6 T.A. 226 47.0 A 220 92.7 1.62 .673 7 T.A. 229 48.0 A 188 87.4 1.67 .763 8 T.A. 239 50.1 A 190 89.9 1.61 .709 9 T.A. 218 45.5 A 207 88.7 1.69 .763 10 T.A. 187 39.0 A 226 86.0 1.80 .797 11 T.A. 266 56.2 A 179 94.1 1.52 .695 12 T.A. 204 43.4 A 194 84.7 1.74 .768 13 T.A. 222 46.3 A 206 89.4 1.66 .700 14 T.A. 261 54.7 A 199 96.4 1.50 .600 15 T.A. 254 53.4 A 197 94.7 1.54 .672 16 T.A. 218 45.7 A 226 93.1 1.64 .692 17 Y.A. 242 50.6 A 208 94.1 1.58 .683 18 T.A. 253 53.4 A 192 93.9 1.54 .663 19 T.A. 222 46.0 A 221 91.7 1.65 .723 20 T.A. 267 55.4 A 185 93.8 1.53 .697 21 T.A. 278 57.8 A 183 95.8 1.49 .665 22 T.A. 283 59.2 A 169 94.6 1.49 .687 23 T.A. 208 43.3 A 239 93.1 1.66 .698 24 T.A. 190 39.8 A 207 83.2 1.80 .796 25 T.A. 233 48.4 A 195 89.0 1.67 .799 26 T.A. 184 38.3 A 249 90.0 1.73 .686 27 T.A. 147 30.7 A 242 81.2 1.94 .835 28 T.A. 198 41.9 A 232 91.1 1.68 .671 29 T.A. 194 40.7 A 245 92.0 1.70 .709 30 T.A. 186 39.1 A 240 89.5 1.74 .711 31 T.A. 186 39.2 A 236 88.8 1.74 .707 32 T.A. 184 38.6 A 185 77.4 1.95 .991 33 T.A. 222 46.4 A 199 88.1 1.69 .793 27 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY (Appendix A.)Table 2. Questions and descriptive statistics. Descriptive Statistics Std. N Mean Deviation 1. The higher the quality of the services in hotels and other public accommodation, the more the number of the domestic 454 1.64 .888 tourists 2. The historical places of Iran are the main causes of attracting visitors 481 1.51 .639 3. Travelling (domestic tourism) leads to better social health 475 1.57 .691 4. Iranian domestic tourism helps in flourishing Iranian handicrafts 483 1.69 .722 5. The expansion of Iranian national tourism leads to the expansion of the international interaction of the country 475 1.66 .724 6. Domestic tourism contributes to appreciation of different cultures 481 1.62 .673 7. Domestic tourism can lead to expansion of the tourism industry 477 1.67 .763 8. Maintaining historical places result in expansion of Iranian tourism industry 477 1.61 .709 9. The quality of public facilities is a catalyst to travel. 479 1.69 .763 10. Domestic tourism is helpful in cross-cultural interaction among different ethnicities. 480 1.80 .797 11. The destruction of historical places is equal to the destruction of the national culture 473 1.52 .695 12. The inadequacy of the domestic tourism in Iran is attributed to lack of planning and management 470 1.74 .768 13. Domestic tourism can enhance growth and employment. 479 1.66 .700 14. Public sector should actively involve in focusing on positive aspects of domestic tourism 477 1.50 .600 15. Domestic tourism can help to improve the rural economy 476 1.54 .672 16. Domestic tourism will lead to future development of international tourism. 477 1.64 .692 17. Lack of Information has undermined the expansion of domestic tourism 478 1.58 .683 18. Lack of service quality is an issue that affects domestic tourism negatively 474 1.54 .663 19. Knowledgeable tour guides is a factor that can encourage domestic traveling. 483 1.65 .723 20. Quality of food, food outlets and rest- areas can encourage domestic traveling. 482 1.53 .697 21. Overall quality of sanitation can encourage domestic traveling. 481 1.49 .665 22. Lack of adequate and safe transportation system is an obstacle to domestic traveling. 478 1.49 .687 23. Domestic tourism can enhance the quality of life of citizens. 480 1.66 .698 24. Fuels subsidies can encourage domestic travelling. 477 1.80 .796 25. Social tourism should be available for low income domestic travelers. . 481 1.67 .799 26. Safety and security are important factors to enhance the number of domestic travelers. 481 1.73 .686 27. Intra-regional cooperation can boost the number of domestic travelers. 479 1.94 .835 28. Domestic traveling will result in inspiring local, regional and national pride. 472 1.68 .671 29. Air traveling as a mode of transportation is highly convenience for domestic travelers. 477 1.70 .709 30. Overall needs of domestic travelers are not met. 476 1.74 .711 31. The pilgrimage domestic tourism can be boosted by incorporation of non-pilgrimage activities. 475 1.74 .707 32. Domestic tourism is an attractive option for the case of Iran in compare to neighboring countries. 477 1.95 .991 33. Public sector‘s active role is highly needed. 478 1.69 .793 28 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY (Appendix. A.). Table 3. Demographic information. DEMOGRAPHIC RESPONDENTS n. (%) CHARACTERISTICS (FEMALE/MALE) 0-15 483 3% 16-30 483 21% Age 31-40 483 33% 41-55 483 39% Over 55 483 4% total 100% Gender Male 82% Female 18% total 100% Secondary Education 483 29% Education University Graduates 483 40% No official Certificate 483 13% Post graduate degree 483 18% total 100% Frequency of Once a year 483 25.4% Travel Twice a Year 483 36.6% pattern 3 Times a Year 483 29.60 5 times a Year 483 8.2% 10 times a Year 483 0.2% total 100% 29 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY (Appendix. A). Table 4. Frequencies for non-likert/exploratory questions. QUESTION ON THE PATTERN OF TRAVEL/HOW OFTEN. Annually Frequency Cumulative % Once a year 109 26.1 Twice a year 157 62.7 Three times a year 80 81.4 Four times a year 31 88.6 Five times a year 35 96.7 QUESTION ON RESPONDENTS’ SATISFACTION WITH THE FACILITIES THEY VISIT Response Frequency Cumulative % no 327 69.4 yes 144 100.0 total 471 QUESTION ON THE DURATION OF THE TRIP. Response Frequency Cumulative % Less than a week 107 22.5 One week 167 57.7 More than a week 127 84.4 One month 46 94.1 SEASONALITY Response Frequency Cumulative % spring 98 20.7 autumn 30 27.0 summer 261 82.1 winter 21 86.5 QUESTION ON AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION PRIOR TO THE TRIP Response Frequency Cumulative % yes 74 15.7 no 398 100.0 30 Holy Sites in Neo-Liberal World: Indian-Banaras Model Cemil KUTLUTÜRK Ankara University, Faculty of Divinity Department of World„s Religions, Turkey cemilkutluturk@gmail.com Abstract There is a great connection between religious tolerance and holy sites due to this kind of holy places are regarded as sacred, securely and reliable by all human beings who belong to different religions. In this context, India is one of the most pertinent samples in neo-liberal world because of its various holy sites and different religious beliefs. Especially Banaras, the city of India, which is regarded as religious and cultural capital of India, is the center of religious freedom. With religious freedom comes a respect and tolerance for other religions, which is a value held in high esteem in both India and Banaras. This paper, therefore, aims to discuss the relationship between religious forbearance and holy sites by examining the Indian – Banaras sample. The first section mentions about the importance of Banaras in terms of religions and informs about holy places in this city. The second section deals with contributions of holy sites to religious peaces and tolerance under the example of Indian – Banaras model. Along with this, the paper has been supported by interesting photos which have been taken in original sacred places. Keywords: India-Banaras (Varanasi, Benares), holy places, religious tolerance 1. Introduction The demographics of India are inclusive of the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people (2011 census),1 more than a sixth of the world‟s population. A vast majority of Indians associate themselves with a religion. Hence, religion has been a significant part of the India‟s culture and tradition, throughout its history. Religious diversity and religious tolerance are both established in the country by custom and law. India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism which are the four major world religions. Besides this, India is one of the most diverse nations in terms of religion. Even though Hindus form close to 80 percent of the population, the country also has large Muslim, Sikh, Christian and Zoroastrian followers. Among them, Islam is the largest minority religion in this country. According to some new data Hinduism is the majority religion with 78.5% of the population of India. Islam (15.4%), Christianity (2.3%), Sikhism (1.9%), Buddhism (0.8%) and Jainism (0.4%) are the other minor religions followed by the people of India.2 This diversity of religious belief systems existing in India today is a result of, besides existence and birth of native religions, assimilation and social integration of religions brought to the region by traders, travelers, immigrants, and even invaders and 1 Provisional Population Totals – Census 2011, Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner (Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India), http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov- results/indiaatglance.html. [accessed 17.11.2012]. 2 Justice Rajindar Sachar (Chairperson), Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India (Reported by Prime Minister‟s High Level Committee), (Cirrus Graphics Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2006), p. 28. 31 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY conquerors.3 All these religious belief systems have lived harmonizingly until today without any big problem. 2. Holy Sites of Banaras Since Banaras is accepted a mini India and also cultural capital of India, the city was preferred for this study, which is one of the most proper model to this field. Banaras is the mosaic of Indian culture with respect to representing the diversity and the distinctiveness of the regional cultures of India. People from different parts of India, speaking different languages and carrying their own features, beliefs and customs have settled in this city. But in this process they inwardly have protected their own culture and outwardly have become a part of mosaic culture of the city. Banaras, therefore, is a living expression of Indian culture and traditions in all its multi-ethnic traditions, particular relationship with life and death, ancient educational methods and practices, multi-ethnic population architectural treasures, religious rituals and religious beliefs.4 The word “banaras” comes from the word “bana” which means “a place where always ready” and the word “ras” which means “juice of life”. It is the blending of these two words, which makes up the mosaic of culture known as Banaras. The natural setting, the spirit of place, and the continuity of cultural traditions have all blended together to create and preserve a unique lifestyle known as Banarasi. The life style of Banaras is an art of living, both passionate and carefree, both traditional and modern, both relaxed and concentrated, both intense and free.5 The city of Banaras, on the other hand, has different names such as Kaşi, Varanasi etc. The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganges bounded by its two tributaries, namely Varuna and Assi.6 The population of city of Varanasi is about two millions. It is unique in the architectural, artistic and religious expressions of traditional Indian culture and is, even today, a living sample of this style of life. The city, moreover, is an extraordinary testimony to living traditions in religious faith, rituals and various festivals, ancient forms of worship and belief that are still practised in the varied expressions of asceticism, spiritual and meditative exercises, education, music, dance, handicrafts and art forms, passing from one to other generations, from past to present. Banaras is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Banaras was a place of Aryan philosophy, religion and culture and was also a commercial and industrial center famous for its silk fabrics, ivory works, sculpture and perfumes by the 2nd millennium BCE. After that this historical city was the capital of the kingdom of Kashi during the time of the Buddha, about 6th century BCE.7 The city has remained a center of religious, educational, and artistic activities until today. Banaras has an important universal value, because of its architectural heritage is linked strongly, since centuries, to the living cultural and religious traditions of three of the major 3 Kenneth Pletcher, The Geography of India Sacred and Historic Places, (Britannica Educational Publishing, New York), 2011, p. 160. 4 See in detail, Rana P.B. Singh and Dar V. (2003). Varanasi as Heritage City (India) on the scale the UNESCO World Heritage List: From Contestation to Conservation. International Conference on Communication for Development in the Information Age: Extending the Benefits of Technology for All, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India), 2003, pp. 4-5. 5 Rana P.B. Singh, Cultural Landscapes and Lifeworld. Literary Images of Banaras, (Indica Books, Varanasi, 2004), p. 10. 6 Ibid, p. 11. 7 S. Pravin, Banaras Region: A Spiritual and Cultural Guide, (Indica Books, Varanasi, 2002), p. 7. 32 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY religions of the world which are Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism According to their followers the city is the most important religious pilgrimage destination. Traditional worship, religious rituals, beliefs and festivals are still practiced in here. Banaras is also considered to be a storehouse of religious festivals and ceremonies. The popular saying that more than ten festivals happen in a week, express this richness.8 In this respect, there are few cities in the world of greater antiquity and none have so uninterruptedly maintained their ancient celebrity and distinction. In Banaras there are not only Indian religions but also other religions and their holy sites. It can be found over 3000 Hindu shrines and temples, about 1400 Muslim shrines and mosques, 12 churches, 3 Jain temples, 9 Buddhist temples, 3 Sikh temples (Gurudvaras) and several other sacred sites in this ancient city of India.9 It can be said that this is one of the rare places in the world where such a huge number of Hindu and Muslim sacred places co-exist. And the existence of these various holy places still until today demonstrates that religious tolerance is the main characteristic feature of people of this city. In India, Banaras (or Varanasi) is a holy city for Indian religions especially for Hinduism and being one of the most sacred pilgrimage places for Hindus of all denominations. Banaras is to Hindus what Mecca is to Muslims or Vatican to Catholics. Because the holy sites such as River Gangas, Ghats, Kashi Vishwanath Temple and Sarnath, the place where Buddha preached his first sermon after enlightenment, are found in this city. On the other hand, it is one of seven Hindu holiest cities (Sapta Puri), considered the giver of liberation (moksha).10 Banaras also houses a community of more than 50,000 Brahmins who give religious services to devout. Some of them come on a traditional pilgrimage while others come to die. Besides these, the holy epic poem Shri Ramcharitmanas by Goswami Tulsidas was also written here.11 All this makes Banaras a significantly holy place. The culture of Banaras is closely associated with the River Ganges and the river‟s religious significance. It is believed that bathing in the River Ganges results in the remission of sins and dying in this holy city (Banaras) ensures release of a person‟s soul from the cycle of its transmigrations.12 Thus, many Hindus come here for dying. These kinds of beliefs lead to increasing of religious tourism to Banaras from all over the India. Banaras owes its existence to the Ganga River considered to be the most holy river for the Hindu people and especially sacred in Banaras where its course towards the Bay of Bengal suddenly turns north. Symbolically, the flow from south to north refers to the life cycle from death. This unique directional change of the river course brings about the development of the importance of the ancient city.13 The Ganges is the most sacred river to Hindus and is also a lifeline to millions of Indians who live along its course and depend on it for their daily needs. It is worshiped as the goddess 8 Rana P.B. Singh and Dar V, Varanasi as Heritage City (India) on the scale the UNESCO World Heritage List: From Contestation to Conservation, p. 3; B. Hans, Construction and Reconstruction of Sacred Space in Varanasi, Numen,Vol. 43, 1996, pp. 32-55. 9 Rana P.B. Singh, Banaras (Varanasi): Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions, (Tara Book Agency, Varanasi, 1993), p. 24; Rana P.B. Singh and Dar V, op. cit., p. 5. 10 The other holy cities are 1 Ayodhyā, 2 Mathurā, 3 Gayā, 4 Kaśī, 5 Kañchi, 6 Avantikā, 7 Dwārāvatī. These seven cities (including Banaras) should be known as the givers of liberation. See Garuḍa Purāṇa, XVI, 114. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/gpu/gpu18.htm. [accessed 20.11.2012]. 11 Myra Shackley, Managing Sacred Sites: Service Provision and Visitor Experience. (Cengage Learning, 2001), p. 121. 12 Wilder-Smith, E. Schwartz and M. Shaw, Travel Medicine Tales Behind the Science, (Elsevier Linacre House, UK, 2007), p. 273. 13 B. Hans, op. cit., p. 53. 33 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Ganga in Hinduism.14 Hindus consider the waters of the Ganges to be both pure and purifying. Nothing reclaims order from disorder more than the waters of the Ganges. Moving water, as in a river, is considered purifying in Hindu culture because it is thought to both absorb impurities and take them away.15 The Ganges is a sacred river along every fragment of her length. All along her course, Hindus bathe in her waters. All along her course, they pay homage to their ancestors and to their gods by cupping her water in their hands, lifting it and letting it fall back into her; they offer flowers and rose petals. On the journey back home from the Ganges, they carry small quantities of her water with them for use in rituals. When a loved one dies, they return to the Ganges to consign the ashes to her custody. The Ganges is invoked whenever water is used in Hindu ritual, and is therefore present in all sacred waters.16 In Banaras, several festivals and religious rituels have been hold in the name of Ganga. For instance, Ganga Mahotsav is a five-day music festival organized by the Uttar Pradesh Tourism Department, held in November–December culminating a day before Kartik Poornima (Dev Deepawali). In this time the Ganges is venerated by “arti” offered by thousands of pilgrims who also release lighted lamps to float in the river from the ghats.17 Varanasi has at least 84 ghats which are embankments made in steps of stone slabs along the river bank where pilgrims perform ritual ablutions. Steps in the ghats lead to the banks of River Ganges, including the Dashashwamedh Ghat, the Manikarnika Ghat, the Panchganga Ghat and the Harishchandra Ghat where Hindus cremate their dead. Many ghats are associated with some legends and most of them have their own features. The Dashashwamedh Ghat is the main and probably the oldest ghat of Varansi located on the Ganges. It is believed that the god Brahma created it to welcome Shiva and he also sacrificed ten horses during Dasa -Ashwamedha yajna performed here.18 14 Sukumari Bhattacharji, Legends of Devi, (Orient Longman Limited, Calcutta, 1995), p. 56. 15 Diana L. Eck, Banaras, city of light, (Columbia University Press, 1982), p. 217. 16 See in detail, op. cit., p. 212-214. 17 Kisanlal Sharma, Why? Hindu Customs, Rituals and Rites, Manoj Publications, Delhi, 2010, p. 168; Rana Singh, Water Symbolism and Sacred Landscape in Hinduism: A Study of Benares (Varanasi), Erdkunde, Vol. 48, 1994, pp. 212-214. 18 Bansal Sunita Pant, Hindu Pilgrimage: A Journey Through the Holy Places of Hindus All Over India, (Pustak Mahal, 2008), pp. 34–35. 34 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Picture 1: People performing Hindu ceremony at Ganga River and Ghats of Varanasi Source: Author‟s own, October-2012 Kashi Vishwanath temple is another holy place for Hindus. It is most important temple in Varanasi and located on the outskirts of the Ganges. Kashi Vishwanath Temple dedicated to lord Shiva. The name of Vishwanath means “Lord of the world”. Besides this temple, in Banaras there are two other significant temples named “Durga”. The first one is Durga Mandir which built about 500 years ago and other one is Durga Kund which built in the 18th century. Thousands of Hindu devotees visit Durga Kund during Navratri to worship the goddess Durga. The temple has multi-tiered spires and is stained red with ochre, representing the red colour of Durga. The building has a rectangular tank of water called the Durga Kund. The meaninig of "Kund" is a pond or pool. Every year on the occasion of Nag Panchami, the act of depicting the god Vishnu reclining on the serpent Shesha is recreated in the Kund.19 19 Alexander Cunningham, Ancient Geography of India, (Munshiram Manoharlal, 2002), pp. 132-136; Rana P.B. Singh, Banaras (Varanasi): Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions, p. 53. 35 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Picture 2: Durga Kund is one of the most important Hindu temples in Varanasi Source: Author‟s own, April-2012. The sacred city, on the other hand, is bounded by a holy road known as Panchakosi. Every devout Hindu wishes to walk this road, visits the city once in a lifetime and hopes to die there in old age. All these kinds of grounds make to Banaras holy for Hindus and therefore, more than a million pilgrims visit this sacred city each year. Banaras is also important for Buddhism because of Sarnath where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence. Sarnath is located 13 kilometres north-east of Banaras. It is a place of Buddhist pilgrimage and the site of the deer park where Siddhartha Gautama is said to have given his first sermon about the basic principles of Buddhism.20 According to Buddhist tradition, after attaining enlightenment at Bodh Gaya the Buddha went to Sarnath; and it was here that he preached his first discourse in the deer park to set in motion the “Wheel of the Dharma”. Therefore, it is one of the most holy sites as in this place the stream of the Buddha‟s teaching first flowed.21 A Monastic tradition flourished for over 1,500 years on the site of the deer park at Sarnath. In the third century BC Ashoka erected a column 15.24 m in height which had four lions as its capital which is now treasured in the archaeology museum. The lion symbolizes both Ashoka‟s imperial rule and the kingship of the Buddha. The four-lion capital was adopted as the emblem of the modern Indian republic. The largest monastery constructed was Dharma-Chakar-Jina Vihar, erected by Kumardevi, who ruled over Benares during 1114 to 1154. In due course Sarnath became a forest of debris below which the historical ruins remained buried. Of the two great stupas which adorned the city only the Dhamekha remained which is of the 6th century.22 The Dhamekha Stupa is the most conspicuous structure at Sarnath. Dhamekha seems to be a distorted form of Dharma Chakra which means turning the wheel of the Dharma. The 20 Shobhna Gupta, Monuments of India, (Har-Anand Publications, New Delhi, 2003), p. 11. 21 V.S. Bhaskar, Faith and Philosophy of Buddhism, Kalpaz Publications, Delhi, 2009, p.169; S. Gupta, op. Cit., p. 12. 22 W. Joanna, Sarnath Gupta Steles of the Buddha’s Life, Ars Orientalis, Vol. 10, 1975, p. 175. 36 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY original stupa was constructed by Ashoka. The present size of the stupa is 31.3 m high and 28.3 m in diameter. The lower portion of the stupa is covered completely with beautifully carved stones. The Dhamekha stupa is considered to be the sacred place where the voice of Buddhism was first heard. Most of Buddhist who are from different countries, visit this place for circumambulation of this sacred stupa and to worship the Buddha. Some Buddhists, especially Tibetan Buddhists repeat a mantra -Om mani padme hum- when they circle of this structure.23 Picture 3: Dhamekha Stupa at Sarnath Source: Author‟s own, Augus-2011. At Sarnath, on the other hand, there are ruins of ancient Buddhist monasteries and temples as well as temples built by the Maha Bodhi Society and by the Chinese, Burmese, and Tibetan Buddhists.24 These kinds of places are regarded as holy by Buddhist and they come to this place, Sarnath, from different countries for visiting the temples and worshiping to Buddha. Banaras is also one of the most important religious centers of Jainism. Jainism is one of the oldest religions identified today. It‟s not just a religion; it‟s thought way to live a happy life. Its principals, way of life and philosophies emphasize the essential of self-effort to progress the soul towards heavenly realization and freedom. The Jain literature refers to Banaras as a Jain holy place because here were born 4 of the Jain Tirthankaras (the ford-makers). In the 8th century BCE Parshvanatha was born around Bhelupur in Varanasi. He was followed in the 6th century BCE by Mahavira, who also visited Varanasi during his 42nd year of teaching. The birthplace of Suparshvanatha, the 7th Tirthankara, is also mentioned in the Jain literature, but its location and identification have still not been verified. It is believed that the present Jain temple in Sarnath, near the Dhamekha Stupa, was built to commemorate the birthplace of 11th Tirthankara, Shreyamshanatha. The birthplace of the 8th Tirthankara Chandraprabhu, is identified with Chandravati, an ancient village lying on the Varanasi-Ghazipur road at 23 km northeast from Banaras at the western bank of Ganga River.25 23 V.S. Bhaskar, op. cit., p. 170. 24 See in detail, W. Joanna, op. Cit., pp. 177-184. 25 Bharat S. Shah, An Introduction to Jainism, (Setubandh Publications, New York, 2002), p. 104; L. M. Singhvi, Jain Temples in India and Around the World, (Himalayan Publishers, 2002), p. 42. 37 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY There are also different holy sites for Jains in Banaras. For instance, Bachraj Ghat also known as Jain ghat, is located at the bank of the Ganga. Near this Ghat there are three Jain temples located to bank of Ganges. It is believed that visiting to these temples is a lifetime experience for Jain Pilgrim. Jain community people have a visit this place and have a dip in the Ganga and then go for prayers one by one in all the three consecrated temples. Banaras, therefore, is a pilgrimage site for Jains along with Hindus and Buddhists. It is believed to be the birthplace of Suparshvanath, Shreyansanath, and Parshva, who are respectively the seventh, eleventh, and twenty-third Jain Tirthankars. Besides this, Shree Parshvanath Digambar Jain Tirth Kshetra (Digambar Jain Temple) is situated in Varanasi. This temple has a great religious importance for Jain Religion as such Banaras is a holy city for Jains.26 Picture 4: With a Jain Monk in a Jain Temple Source: Author‟s own, September-2011. Banaras is also an important holy place for Sikhs because it is accepted that Guru Nanak (1469-1539), the founder of Sikhism, had been in this city. The story suggested that Nanak visited Varanasi two times; firstly when he was on pilgrimage. Secondly he came to have discourses with saints living in Varanasi and also to convey his messages in 1506 on the day of the Maha Shivaratri festival and stayed in a garden at this city, which later came to known as Guru Bagh. The Adi Granth consists of the hymns of Guru Nanak and of the first five gurus as well as poems by great earlier saint-poets and singers such as Kabir and Raidas. the visiting of Nanak played a large role in the founding and development of Sikhism.27 Banaras also plays host to non-Indian religions such as Christianity, Judaism and Islam. The East India Company, which has begun a direct political control in the time of Warren Hastings by end of the 18th century, has established a strong field for Christianity in Banaras and this movement has encouraged the development of Christian missionaries. They have built sacred places for their religion. Some of the important churches are St. Thomas Church (at Godaulia), Red Church (at Nadesar), St. Paul Church (at Sigra), David‟s Church (at 26 Bharat S. Shah, An Introduction to Jainism, p. 108. 27 Surjit Singh Gandhi, History of Sikh Gurus Retold, (Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 2007), p. 90; S. J. W., Charles, Guru Nanak and Origins of the Sikh Faith by Harbans Singh, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 92, 1972, pp. 320-322. 38 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Teliabagh), St. Mary (at Cantt.), Bethlehem Gospel (at Mahmoorganj), Evangelical Church of India (D.L.W.) and Church of Varanasi (at Sunderpur and Kakarmatta).28 Banaras, on the other hand, is an important area for Muslims and their religious traditions. Muslims have been residing in Banaras since several generations starting from the rule of the Delhi Sultanate. The invasions of Mahmud of Ghaznawi in 1021-1030 CE had opened the door to Muslim settlement in Banaras. Nowadays they constitute about one fourth of the total population of Banaras District and have earned a significant place in the traditional economy, society, culture and trade of the city.29 In Banaras, there are a huge number of holy sites of Muslims such as Masjids (mosques), Mazar (religious-cultural sites), Takiya (burial ground) and Idgah (place of special prayer), since they have been living in this city for centuries. The total numbers of sacred places of Muslims are more than one thousand in this city. Among them the Mosques have basic and significant statuses which cater to the prayer needs of the Muslims. For Muslims, Gyanvapi Mosque, Alamgiri Mosque, Ganj-e-Shaheedan Mosque and Chaukhamba Mosque are some of the important sacred places in this city.30 Picture 5: Muslims performing salaah in a mosque at Varanasi Source: Author‟s own, February-2012. These events demonstrate that the city of Banaras does the honors several holy sites and religious beliefs which are different from each other. People who live in this city can perform their religious doctrines and can visit their sacred places without any oppression and invasion. People, in general, respect to all kind of beliefs and allow living a person‟s inner life in this city. The majority of the people in Banaras are of the Hindus, yet religious tolerance is the norm in this city where a great deal of faiths and cults are believed in and different languages are spoken. 28 Rana P.B. Singh and Dar V, Varanasi as Heritage City (India) on the scale the UNESCO World Heritage List: From Contestation to Conservation, p. 5. 29 See G. Smita, The Muslims of Uttar Pradesh, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 42, 2007, pp. 2142-2146; See in detail, Census of India-Socia-cultural aspects. Censusindia.gov.in. http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Social_and_cultural/Religion.aspx. [accessed 02.12.2012]. 30 Koenraad Elst, Ram Janmabhoomi vs. Babri Masjid, (Voice of India, New Delhi, 1990), p. 140. 39 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 3. Contribution of Banaras to Religious Tolerance The city has been famous not only as a religious sites and place of pilgrimage but also as a center of cottage industries and textile manufacturing even in Pre-Buddhist times. Silk weaving and sari making, metal, wood and terracotta handicrafts, toy making, particular painting forms, etc., comprise the religious and commercial importance of Banaras. These commercial activities range from gold and silver jewellery, saris, utensils, carpet weaving, a variety of handicrafts, publishers and book shops, stationery articles, handmade paper, wooden toys, bangles made of glass, ivory work, perfumes, etc.31 All these activities make the city holy and significant and give an opportunity to observe of various religious traditions and customs. The cultural and religious richness of Banaras, on the other hand, leads to increasing of religious tourism. Hence, religious tourism is a thriving business in Banaras, where thousands of temples and sacred places represent numerous religions. Every devout Hindu hopes to visit the city at least once in a lifetime, take a holy dip at the famous “Ghats” of the Ganga, walk the pious Panchakosi road that bounds the city, and die here in old age. Every year around a million pilgrims come to this city, and all of them bathe in the Ganga River, followed by worshipping in various temple. People from all over the world visit this historical city in order to promenade the holy places and to purchase same special goods during a year. Tourism and related activities are major source of city‟s economy.32 However, it is more important to maintain a sustainable tourism development that is in harmony with the existing cultural and religious atmosphere of the city. Some efforts to this end are being taken by the concerned authorities through specific kinds of promotion activities and organization and re-vitalization of religious festivals. Both Hindus and non-Hindus from around the world visit Varanasi for different reasons. For every visitor, Varanasi has a different experience to offer. The gentle waters of the Ganges, the boat ride at sunrise, the high banks of the ancient “Ghats”, the array of shrines, the meandering narrow serpentine alleys of the city, the myriad temple spires, the palaces at water's edge, the ashrams (hermitages), the pavilions, the chanting of mantras, the fragrance of incense, the palm and cane parasols, the devotional hymns that is unique to the city of Banaras.33 Among international tourists visiting Varanasi, more than 40% is shared by four countries, viz. Japan, France, UK and Germany. Especially the Japanese come to the city because of its association with the Buddha, who gave his first sermon in Sarnath.34 The foreign tourism inflow is largely seasonal concentrating in the months of July- September and from November to April. By the way of religious sites and religious tourism individuals can attain a chance through which they can observe several religious traditions. Thereby they enhance religious tolerance to all kinds of beliefs. By means of religious tolerance a person accepts and permits religious beliefs and practices which disagree with his own way of life. Moreover he acknowledges that others have the right to hold and practice their beliefs.35 Another significant benefit of religious indulgence is, within a nation or ethnic group, acceptance of the right to hold beliefs that differ from the dominant religion, worship freely according to these beliefs and attempt to peacefully convince others to convert to that faith. 31 Wilbert M. Gesler, Margaret Pierce, Hindu Varanasi, Geographical Review, Vol. 90, 2000, pp. 232-235; Rana P.B. Singh, Cultural Landscapes and Lifeworld. Literary Images of Banaras, p. 17. 32 Rana P.B. Singh and Dar V, Varanasi as Heritage City (India) on the scale the UNESCO World Heritage List: From Contestation to Conservation, pp. 9-10. 33 S. Pravin, Banaras Region: A Spiritual and Cultural Guide, p. 11. 34 Rana P.B. Singh and Dar V., op. cit., p. 9. 35 Jolie M.F. Wood, Contentious politics and civil society in Varanasi, (Anthem Press, 2011), p. 9. 40 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 4. Conclusion The existence of temples (Mandır, Gurudwara etc.), mosques, churches and devotees of different religions affirm that religious tolerance is the basic feature of Banaras. In this sense, Banaras, which is called the religious capital of India, is one of the most appropriate model of city of religious tolerance where various cultures and religious systems have been living since centuries. Consequently, the model of Banaras and events which are mentioned above demonstrate to us that holy sites bring about the improving of the religious tourism. A result of religious tourism, people attain an opportunity in the name of understanding and observing of other person‟s sacred values. Hence, it can be put forward that the role of holy sites is very important and essential on behalf of increasing the religious tolerance. References Bhaskar, V.S. (2009). Faith and Philosophy of Buddhism. New Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. Bhattacharji S. (1995). Legends of Devi. Calcutta: Orient Longman Limited. Charles, S. J. W. (1972). Guru Nanak and Origins of the Sikh Faith by Harbans Singh . Journal of the American Oriental Society, 92, pp. 320-322. Cunningham, Alexander. (2002). Ancient Geography of India. Munshiram Manoharlal. Eck, Diana L. (1982). Banaras, city of light, Columbia University Press. Elst, Koenraad. (1990). Ram Janmabhoomi vs. Babri Masjid. New Delhi: Voice of India Gandhi, Surjit S. (2007). History of Sikh Gurus Retold. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. Gupta, Shobhna (2003). Monuments of India. New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. Hans, B. (1996). Construction and Reconstruction of Sacred Space in Varanasī. Numen, 43, pp. 32-55. Joanna, W. (1975). Sarnath Gupta Steles of the Buddha‟s Life, Ars Orientalis, 10, pp. 171- 192. Mcleod, W. H. (1989). The Sikhs History, Religion and Society. New York: Columbia University Press. Pletcher, Kenneth. (2011). The Geography of India Sacred and Historic Places. New York: Britannica Educational Publishing. Pravin S. (2002). Banaras Region: A Spiritual and Cultural Guide.Varanasi: Indica Books. Rana, S. (1994). Water Symbolism and Sacred Landscape in Hinduism: A Study of Benares (Varanasi). Erdkunde, 48, pp. 210-227. Rana P.B. Singh. (1993). Banaras (Varanasi): Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency. Rana P.B. Singh and Dar V. (2003). Varanasi as Heritage City (India) on the scale the UNESCO World Heritage List: From Contestation to Conservation. International Conference on Communication for Development in the Information Age: Extending the Benefits of Technology for All. Varanasi, (India): Banaras Hindu University, pp. 1-11. 41 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Sachar, J. R. (Chairperson) (2006). Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India (Reported by Prime Minister‟s High Level Committee). New Delhi: Cirrus Graphics Pvt. Ltd. Shackley, M. (2001). Managing Sacred Sites: Service Provision and Visitor Experience. Cengage Learning. Shah B. (2002). An Introduction to Jainism. New York: Setubandh Publications. Sharma, Kisanlal. (2010).Why? Hindu Customs, Rituals and Rites. Delhi: Manoj Publications. Singh, Rana P.B. (2004). Cultural Landscapes and Lifeworld. Literary Images of Banaras. Varanasi: Indica Books. Singhvi, L. M. (2002). Jain Temples in India and Around the World. Himalayan Publishers. Smita, G. (2007). The Muslims of Uttar Pradesh. Economic and Political Weekly, 42, pp. 2142-2146. Sunita Pant, Bansal. (2008). Hindu Pilgrimage: A Journey Through the Holy Places of Hindus All Over India. Pustak Mahal. Wilbert M. Gesler, Margaret P. (2000). Hindu Varanasi. Geographical Review, 90, pp. 222- 237. Wilder-Smith, E. Schwartz and M. Shaw. (2007). Travel Medicine Tales Behind the Science. UK: Elsevier Linacre House. Wood, Jolie M.F. (2011). Contentious politics and civil society in Varanasi. Anthem Press. Provisional Population Totals – Census 2011. (2011). Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner (Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India), 2011, http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/indiaatglance.html. [accessed 17.11.2012]. http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Social_and_cultural/Religi on.aspx. [accessed 02.12.2012]. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/gpu/gpu18.htm. [accessed 20.11.2012]. 42 Behavioral Differences of Muslim and Non-Muslim Visitors at Holy Sites: Case of Mother Mary House Zafer Öter, Mehmet Yavuz Çetinkaya Izmir Katip Celebi University, Department of Tourism Management & Department of Tourism Guidance Faculty of Tourism, Cigli- Izmir, Turkey E-mails: zafer.oter@ikc.edu.tr , mehmetyavuz.cetinkaya@ikc.edu.tr Abstract The global importance of tourism industry is on the rise. This fact is better understood day by day not only by large destinations but also by remote small villages. Tourism industry creates human mobility, generate trillions of dollars to global economy, create new jobs for young generations, and help people to discover other cultural heritages. Tourists are getting increasingly diversified and their expectations constantly change in time. Diversification of the demand in tourism industry has several reasons including the participation of new emerging nations to the consumption, rising 3rd age populations in Europe, greater levels of access to travel by younger generations during education, diversification and accessibility of tourism attractions by recent transportation investments. In this sense, the importance of alternative tourism types is on the rise. Faith-based tourism is one of the alternatives for tourists who are in search of information about the past of the beliefs, who prefer to visit centers of divine religions in order to pray and be part of a spiritual experience. This qualitative and exploratory study aims to find out behavioral differences between Muslim and non-Muslim visitors during holy site visits in Turkey. Discovering these differences can help better prepare attractions for new visitors, solve in situ problems, increase visitor satisfaction, and protect cultural heritage area. One of the most popular faith tourism attractions, the House of Mother Mary located near Ephesus ancient site in Selçuk-Izmir is a holy sanctuary for both Christians and Muslims. This research tries to reflect primary data obtained through qualitative data collection techniques (semi-structured interview) from professional tourist guides at House of Mother Mary. Following the evaluation of findings recommendations will be developed for tourism industry and cultural heritage managers. Keywords: Visitor Behavior, Religious Tourism, Cultural Heritage Sites. 1. Introduction Travel for religious reasons dates back to the Roman, Greek, Egyptian and Indus Valley civilizations, and is perhaps the oldest and most prevalent type of travel in human history +(Jackowski,A., Smith, A. 1992 in Rodriques, S.A.M, 2012). Every year, millions of people are attracted to visit major religious destinations around the world (Jansen & Kühl, 2008), both ancient and modern in origin. According to the World Religious Travel Association, over 300 million travelers undertook journeys to sacred sites in 2007, and consequently the industry size was estimated at US$18 billion (Wright, 2007). Rundquist (2010), estimates that approximately 300 million people motivated by religion travel across the world, despite the fact that a majority of people actually live in a secular way (Rojo, 2007). The majority of religious travelers emerges from the major religions, and identify themselves as Christians, Muslims, Hindus and Buddhist (Gan, Ma & Song, 2000). For thousands of years, people have been travelling to places considered sacred to meet or to worship concepts around Divinity (Coleman, 2004; Tirca, Stanciulescu, Chis & Bacila, 2010). Religion is important in people‟s lives, and indeed it has been argued that human beings have always had a need to believe in a superior entity (Timothy and Olsen, 2006). 43 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY From the beginning of creation until modern times therefore, there have been several cults and beliefs relating to different Gods and superior forces, which were and are worshipped and venerated through statues, representations and buildings (Rojo, 2007). Religious tourism is defined as „that form of tourism whose participants are motivated in part or exclusively for religion reasons‟ (Rinschede, 1992). The term religious emerges as a result of the understanding of tourists‟ motivations. Religious tourism therefore involves visiting local, regional, national or international pilgrimage centers, attending religious ceremonies, conferences and celebrations, and all other religious oriented meetings that do not take place in the home environment (Rinschede, 1992). According to Hinnells (1984), the concept of religion revolves around a system of recognizable beliefs and practices that acknowledge the existence of a `superhuman' power that enables people to both address and transcend the problems of life. Religious tourism is therefore linked to this system through the behavior and motives for visiting sites of religious significance. Religious tourism, also commonly referred to as faith tourism, is a form of tourism, where people travel individually or in groups for pilgrimage, missionary, or leisure (fellowship) purpose. Most researchers identify religious tourism with the individual‟s quest for shrine sand locales where the visitors seek to experience the sense of identity with sites of historical and cultural meaning (Nolan and Nolan 1989). It is explained according to Al-Amin(2002), how religious tourism is not one type of tourism, as is the case of secular tourism and describes two different types of religious tourism, a tourism performed through a religious duty, and tourism where the knowledge is recorded and quoted for wider dissemination. Another definition of religious tourism is that the evaluation of touristic travels which people make with an aim of visiting faith attraction centers, practicing religious beliefs in tourism phenomenon out of the places of people, where they continually reside, work and meet the regular needs can be defined as religious tourism.1 2. Religious Tourism in Turkey Not only did the development of first civilizations in Anatolia but also the defection of apostles in Early Christianity and Jewish people in their own countries to Anatolia as a result of severe repression and destruction policies, played a significant role in emerging of many synagogues and churches in Anatolia as well as the structures belonging to Islam, which is the religion of Turkish Nation. The people living during the period of Seljuk and particularly Ottoman period were allowed to live their own religion without any pressure, build their own sanctuaries related their own religions and this was one of the most significant factors on this. As a result of this, the sanctuaries and temples built in Anatolia reached today in line with Islamic understanding of Turkish Nation with deep respect and tolerance. Turkey is an important center for that fact that apostles and important religious saints lived in Anatolia during the early Christianity for a long time and the spread of this religion started from Anatolia. Not only is Turkey an important center for Christianity, but also for Islam. There are so many mosques, shrines and sacred places belonging to people named saints with a high spiritual identity in almost every city of Turkey as well as the religious structures constructed during the Ottoman Empire which was a worldwide empire having the leadership of Islam for 6 centuries and the culture of Turkish-Islam which dominated these lands for more than 1000 years.2 The peninsula of Anatolia has been the cradle of many civilizations, cultures and religious beliefs for thousands of years. Turkish Republic situated in this peninsula is now in the position of inheritor of religious beliefs with this overall cultural heritage. Turkey houses many monuments regarded as sacred by Muslims, Christians and Jews (Aktas & Ekin, 2007).When it comes to Christian sites, Turkey is as important as Israel or Greece for 44 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY religious tourism. For instance, St. Jean, regarded as the most important apostle in the first years of Christianity and who played a considerable role in spreading of it, passed to Anatolia from Jerusalem owing to the pressure of idolaters. This event is accepted as one of the turning points of Christianity. Furthermore, also the mother of Jesus Christ, Mother Mary passed to Anatolia under the auspices of St. Jean. A number of archaeological proofs support this viewpoint. It is accepted by the Vatican and by a considerable number of churches. 3. Mother Mary House in Selçuk (Ephesus-Western Turkey): A Global Attraction for Religious Visitors The modern history of Meryem Ana begins in the first half of the 19th century on the banks of the Rhine in Germany, in the sickbed of a peasant woman in a village near Dülmen in Westphalia. Anna Katharina Emmerick (1774-1824) suffered from an incurable illness which confined her to bed for 10 years. During that time she took comfort from visions which she had concerning the lives of Jesus and Mary. These visions were extraordinarily extensive and detailed, and they contained facts, places and people that she could not have otherwise known (Granella, 2011). Following the visions of Anna Katharina Emmerick, a group of Lazarist priests discovered a house, which is believed to be the place where Mother Mary spent her last days in 1891. This discovery attracted the attention of the entire Christian world (Selçuk Municipality, 2012). According to predominant Christian tradition, Mary was brought to Ephesus by the Apostle John after the Resurrection of Christ and lived out her days there. This is based mainly on the traditional belief that John came to Ephesus combined with the biblical statement that Jesus consigned her to John's care (John 19:26-27).Mother Mary, accompanied by Saint John, came to Ephesus at the end of her life, circa 37-45 A.D. Renaissance church historians mentioned the trip, and it is said that local Christians venerated a small house near Ephesus as Mary‟s. St. John, in his Gospel, tells us that Jesus, before dying on the Cross, entrusted to him the care of his Mother when he said (saying): “Here is your mother” and from that hour St. John took her to his own. The “Acts of the Apostles” relate how after the death of Christ, his followers were persecuted in Jerusalem. St. Stephen was stoned in 37 A.D. , St. James was beheaded in 42 A.D. and any further relate how they divided the world between them for preaching the Gospel, and St. John was given Asia Minor. Now, Mary had been given to his care and with the persecution, probably brought her with him to Asia Minor. There are two evidences confirming historically these facts; 1- The presence of the tomb of St. John in Ephesus, 2- The presence of the first Basilica of the world dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. In the early days of the Church, places of worship were only dedicated to persons who had lived or died in the locality. 45 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Picture 1 House of Mother Mary House in Selçuk İzmir Source: http://www.sacred-destinations.com Furthermore, the Ecumenical Council of 431 was held in Ephesus in this Basilica for the definition of the dogma of the Divine Motherhood of Mary. There is another confirmation in the oral tradition of the villagers of Kirkindje (Şirince). These people were the descendants of the Christians of Ephesus. They had passed from generation to generation, the belief of the death of Mary in this place, so they called “Panaghia Kapulu”. They have kept this tradition alive through the annual pilgrimage of 15th of August (Şirince Houses,2012). The house received visits from Pope Paul VI in 1967 and Pope John Paul II in 1979 who declared the Shrine of Virgin Mary as a pilgrimage place for Christians, which strengthened the belief that Virgin Mary lived and died in Ephesus. This site has become a frequent destination for pilgrims, tourists and curious visitors since the image of Virgin Mary is venerated not only by Christians but also by Muslims who recognize Mary as the mother of one of their prophets. Every year on August 15th, a ceremony is organized to commemorate Mary's Assumption. On November 29, 2006, Pope Benedict XVI celebrated mass here (House of Mother Mary, 2012). The House of Mother Mary (Meryem Ana in Turkish) is located on the top of “Nightingale” mountain is situated in a nature park between Ephesus and Seljuk and is believed to be the last residence of the Virgin Mary, Mother of Jesus (House of Mother Mary). The original two-stored house, which consisted of an anteroom (where today candles are proposed), bedroom and praying room (Christian church area) and a room with fireplace (chapel for Muslims). A front kitchen fell into ruins and has been restored in 1940's. Today, only the central part and a room on the right of the altar are open to visitors. From there one can understand that this building looks more like a church than a house. Another interesting place is the "Water of Mary", a source to be found at the exit of the church area and where rather salt water, with curative properties, can be drunk by all (Ephesus, 2012). 46 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Picture 2 House of Mother Mary in Selçuk İzmir Source: http://www.sacred-destinations.com Mother Mary is a mother of help and goodness. Regardless of religion, people visit the house of Mother Mary for so many different reasons. All the people hearing that the water coming from the source at the back of the house is a healing and treatment-giving one for all kinds of illnesses and disorders come to visit the house of Mother Mary. Some patients claim that they got rid of their illnesses after drinking the water and some other visitors claim that their wishes came true after their visit. The wishes change according to the gender, age and the economic situation of people. Any wish which may come to the mind of people is written in the guest book of the house (Yitik, 2000 in Türkoğlu, 1986). Today, the House of Mother Mary, which is recognized as one of the most sacred places in the world by Vatican is, regarded one of the popular and holy places visited by Christians coming from all over the world. Furthermore, the house of Mother Mary is also visited by Muslims, as Mother Mary is accepted as the mother of one of the prophets, Hz. Isa (Jesus) in Islam. The House of Mother Mary attracts nearly 1 million visitors each year (Efes Museum, 2012). 4. Mother Mary’s House and Its Muslim Visitors There is no cult of Holy Mother Mary among Muslims like among Catholic Christians. According to Islam, Mother Mary is not a mother giving birth to God, which is accepted as the main sin, protected from all kinds of spiritual dirt or raised to God (Assumption) immediately after her death. Furthermore, there is no depiction of Mother Mary carrying Jesus (Her Son) in her arms in any Muslim shrine and none of the countries with the religion of Islam has a city or state devoted to Mother Mary with the names such as Virginia, Santa Maria and Mary Land. This situation should not be interpreted that Muslims ignore Mother Mary in their beliefs and prays. Because Mother Mary is only woman who is chosen, cleaned and made superior to all women of in the world with the verses(42-43) of Al-I Imran, I. Sura in Quran (Yitik, 2000). 47 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY "Behold! The angels said: 'O Mary! God hath chosen thee and purified thee - chosen thee above the women of all nations. O Mary! Worship thy Lord devoutly: Prostrate thyself, and bow down (in prayer) with those who bow down.'" (Quran 3:42-43). Many people may be surprised that Muslims love Mary, the mother of Jesus. In the Quran, no woman is given more attention than Mother Mary. Mother Mary receives the most attention of any woman mentioned in the Quran even though all the Prophets with the exception of Adam had mothers (Jesus and Virgin Mary in Islam). Moreover, the Koran gives Mother Mary special consideration: numerous verses and suras speak of Mary and Jesus Christ. The Koran even contains a surah named after Mary (Surah XIX), describing her virtues and qualities. Mary has various names and titles in the Koran, such as She who was chosen, the greatest of Women, the Pure, The Immaculate, The Chaste, She of whom the Hadiths Speak, Interlocutor of the Angels, She who Bows Down to Allah in Worship, Receiver of the Good News of the Birth of Jesus. She and her son Jesus Christ are viewed as signs demonstrating the existence of God (Granella, 2011). Mother Mary is mentioned in different verses of Koran for 70 times and her name is repeated 34 times in total in Koran, which makes her the 4th person mentioned in Koran after Prophet Moses (169), Prophet Abraham (69) and Prophet Noah (43)(Smitt,1989 in Yitik,2000). Today, the House of Mother Mary is mainly visited by Muslim visitors as Mother Mary is regarded as the mother of one of the prophets Prophet Jesus (Isa) in Islam. As many Muslim visitors think Mother Mary as a respectful and helpful person, they go to visit the house of Mother Mary, pray there and ask for a help from God through Mother Mary when they have some problems such as a crucial illness with no treatment, financial hardship, and search for spouse or job etc. According to them, God never refuses prays and wishes of his bellowed servants, because of this reason their prays will be accepted by God if they are done with purity and sincerity (Yitik, 2000). 5. Mother Mary’s House and Its Non-Muslim Visitors The Holy Bible begins in Turkey with Abraham‟s vocation in Harran (Southeast Turkey) and it ends in Turkey with the book of Revelations (the letters to the seven churches in Anatolia) (Granella, 2011). Not only do the Muslim visitors visit the house of Mother Mary and ask her for help and goodness, but also the house of Mother Mary is a holy sanctuary which is visited by Christians, Jewish, Buddhist, Shintoists and the people without any belief in a religion. However, there is no doubt that Christian Catholics take the first place among them, because the house of Mother Mary is not a simple usual place of visiting for them. According to the Christian Catholics belonging to Lazarist and Capuchin traditions, the house of Mother Mary and its surrounding is a place where Mother Mary came after the crucifixion of her only son Jesus Christ, spent the last days of her life and probably died (Yitik, 2000). On one hand Protestant Christians think that it is not right to accept the Mother Mary as a mediator between God and human being, on the other hand Orthodox Christians regard Mother Mary as a helping and healing goddess having super human characteristics and qualifications. Furthermore, Mother Mary is accepted as a person with the characteristics such as Teotokos, Immaculate Conception and Assumption of Mary by Catholic Christians (Yitik,2000). According to predominant Christian tradition, Mary was brought to Ephesus by the Apostle John after the Resurrection of Christ and lived out her days there. This is based mainly on the traditional belief that John came to Ephesus combined with the biblical statement that Jesus consigned her to John's care (John 19:26-27). As the House of Mary in Ephesus is a very tangible reminder that Mary plays an important role in Christianity, the sanctuary was visited by three popes as pilgrims: Pope Paul VI, who stopped in Ephesus in 48 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY July 1967, Pope Jean Paul II, who came here as a pilgrim on November 30th 1979; and lastly , during his visit to Turkey Pope Benedict XVI also decided to come here to Ephesus as a humble pilgrim and live this day of prayer ( he had no official appointments, just the Mass in Sanctuary) in the memory of Mary, praying for peace in Jerusalem and all over the world in her name (Granella, 2011). The house of Mother Mary is therefore primarily a place of prayer, silence and reflection. A place where groups of Christians pilgrims from all over the world celebrate Holy Mass in memory of Mary taken up into the heaven, and where the flocks of pilgrims both Christians and Muslims and others with another religion belief stop to say a silent prayer. The Mother Mary grants grace to those who come with faith and a pure hearth cleansed of all sin (Granella, 2011). 6. Visitor Behavior at Holy Sites Visitors demonstrate changing behavioral patterns at tourism destinations. Tourist or visitor behavior is shaped under several circumstances. The behavior of visitors might be questioned from the perspective of space or location. Visitors of websites have certain behavioral characteristics, but their behavior is generally analyzed during their online website surfing. One can surf the Internet at home, at work or at other places and their behavior regarding their website visits may differ. For instance; these behaviors can be clarified by the timing of website visits, frequency of visits per given time (day/week/month etc.), duration of the visit (minutes, hours etc.) per visit or per given time slice (day, week, month, year…), choices of pages displayed, preferences of website languages, use of certain web site features (e-mail, commenting etc.), activities realized on web site (purchase of products, music listening, video watching, reading, listening news, watching live stream TV programs…), preferences of explorer (Opera, Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, Chrome, Pardus…), web sites visited prior and ulterior to the actual visited website and so on. Moving from this analogy it is possible to analyze visitors of holy sites behavior at different spaces such as; at homeland (another country and city), at the country of holy site, at transport vehicles, airports and terminals, at other holy sites of the country visited, at accommodation units and hotel location, and finally at the holy site itself (in situ behavior). Nearby this spatial analysis it is possible to look at visitor behavior with temporal perspectives. Visitor behavior may differ at different time pieces such as; before the visit of holy site, during the visit of holy site (in situ behavior), after the visit of the holy site, and variations with change of seasons, holy time pieces (days, weeks, months). Visitor behavior might be affected from several factors. Traditionally, consumer behavior theory puts forward factors such as; situational conditions, family and household, personal characteristics, social class membership and socio-economic status, and culture. Visitors experience psychological processes during their visits as economic or cultural (aesthetic, recreational) consumptions. Three most known processes are; attitudinal and behavioral changes, learning, and information processing (Engel et al., 1990). Tourist or visitor behaviors have been widely analyzed from the economic, marketing, and consumer behavior perspectives. Thus, their behaviors regarding the purchase decision is similar to the other buyers in different markets. Typically, visitors‟ purchasing decisions follow stages of; recognizing a problem/need, research on the problem, comparing alternative decisions, decision-making for selected alternative(s), action of buying/purchase, post-purchase evaluation and behaviors (Boone and Kurtz, 1993). In tourism industry tourist behavior has been categorized from different angles (Hart and Troy, 1996). From travel motivation it is possible to classify them as business, pleasure, and personal motivation seekers. From consumption/usage rate or frequency; never users, old and 49 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY new users, first time and repeat users, regular and irregular users, heavy users and light users are classified. Loyalty is another criteria used for grouping tourist behaviors. Some tourists are loyal to one destination, one enterprise, one brand, some tourists are demonstrating soft loyalty (2-3 brands), and some tourists are experience seekers and are never loyal to any destination or enterprise. The literature given above can partly help understand and explain visitor behavior at holy sites. Personal characteristics of holy visitors may vary from other types of visitor/attraction couplings. For instance, it is natural to expect Christians to visit cathedrals, churches, Christian temples, while Muslims are expected to visit Islam‟s heritage areas. However, a great majority of holy sites and buildings are open to visits from different faith holders. Therefore, it is quite natural in Selçuk-Ephesus to see Muslims, Christians, and other spiritual groups visiting House of Mother (Virgin) Mary. 7. Discovering Behavioral Aspects of Muslim and Non-Muslim Visitors: An Application at Mother Mary’s House in Selçuk (Ephesus) The house of Mother Mary Turkey is located in İzmir Province (ancient Smyrna). Selçuk district where Mother Mary‟s House is actually located lies at the border of İzmir and Aydın provinces of Aegean Region, at the Western extremity of Anatolian peninsula. The location of the House is 7 km. from the ancient Ephesus archeological remains and modern centrum of Selçuk. The house is found on Mt. Koressos (Bülbüldağı in Turkish literally meaning Mt. Nightingale) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_the_Virgin_Mary ). According to religious visions of German nun named Anna Catherina Emmerich (1774-1820), recorded and published by C. Brendano Mother Mary lived near Ephesus for three years after her arrival with St. John, but because she missed Jerusalem she went back with St. John and St. Peter. During this last stay in Jerusalem she was heavily ill, and people around thought she would die shortly. However, she recovered and felt strong enough to return to Ephesus to live her last days at her house on Mt. Koressos, before she died at age of 64. Her coffin was put into a cave 2 km. away from her house (http://www.kusadasi.biz/virgin-mary/ ). Most of the house seen today dates back to 6th and 7th centuries; however its foundations back to 1st century. The site had long served as a place of pilgrimage for Orthodox Christians of the vicinity (http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/ephesus-house-of-the-virgin ). Mother Mary‟s house is open for visits all year. In summer, visitors are accepted from 07.00 to 17.00. In winter period, visiting hours are from 07.30 to 17.00. Within the scope of this research behavioral aspects of Muslim and non-Muslim visitors will be analyzed based on the primary data obtained from professional tourist guides those practice their profession at Mother Mary House. In order to collect primary data from tourist guides a semi-structured interview has been prepared following the principle aims of the research question. This research basically aims to discover behavioral characteristics of religious (holy, sacred) site visitors from different religious convictions. By discovering these differences holy sites like Mother Mary‟s House can be better prepared and designed for visitors from diverse origins and religious affiliations. Understanding differences of visitors can help to solve in situ visitor originated problems and eventually increase visitor satisfaction. One last aim of the research is to develop suggestions for better protection and management of holy sites as cultural heritage zones. After an intensive literature search seven questions were developed. Table 1 depicts questions probing the research question. 50 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Table 1 Questions Developed for Interview at Mother Mary‟s House 1. How the Holy Site of Mother Mary House can be prepared for first-time Muslim and non-Muslim visitors for a satisfactory visit? (State of readiness to the group visits) 2. How can in situ visit experience of Muslim and Non-Muslim visitors be improved? (What type of arrangements for physical surroundings and procedural aspects can be developed? Please state type of problems you have discovered/observed/experienced during tours and visits.) 3. Please develop your recommendations separately to increase visitor satisfaction for Muslims and Non-Muslims at Mother Mary House? (What type of precautions can increase satisfaction of Muslim and Non-Muslim visitors? Please differentiate specifically.) 4. Please evaluate behaviors of Muslim and Non-Muslim visitors of all types (women, men, old/young, children, different nationalities…) during their visits. Are there differences among Muslims? How? Are there different behaviors among Non- Muslims? How? (E.g. Catholics, Protestants…) 5. Please differentiate behaviors of Muslim/Non-Muslim visitors regarding the protection of Mother Mary House Holy Site as a cultural heritage area? How should visitors and Holy Site managers protect this heritage area during visits? 6. Please suggest solutions for tourism industry professionals - companies and religious cultural heritage area managers in general? 7. Please add your comments freely regarding this research? Note: Questions are formulated after literature search by authors. After preparing research instrument, authors of the study have realized study trip to Mother Mary‟s House during December 2012. Before visiting the Holy Site of Mother Mary‟s House sufficient number of notebooks, pens and pencils, voice recording equipment with adequate storage memory and batteries, photo camera devices have been prepared. Authors consumed an entire day at Mother Mary‟s House and interviewed 25 persons having experience and information about visitors of the Holy Site. Initially, these interviews were planned to be realized only with tourist guides, however the number of tourist guides interviewed has reached to 13 including off-site interviews with guides having experience of Mother Mary‟ House touring. The rest of the interviews were belonging to three main groups, namely; visitors (Muslims and non-Muslims), personnel working at Mother Mary‟s house, salesmen employed by sub-contractors at souvenir shops of Holy Site. Interviews were male in majority, ranging from 20 years old to 60 years old. Tourist guides‟ experience level was moderate ranging from 5 years to 16 years. Tourist guides guided groups of mixed nature (having members of different religious affiliations), and few tourist guides guided uniquely for Muslim groups. Most of the guides had experience of touring with Catholic visitors at Mother Mary‟s House. Guides were grouped into two regarding their employment status, since majority of them had other income sources than guiding profession. Therefore, tourist guiding is still practiced as a temporary job for many due to seasonality of the profession and industry. The questions are asked to participants (professional tourist guides, visitors, personnel of Mother Mary‟s House, and salespeople employed at the Holy site) about the behavioral differences of Muslim and Non-Muslim visitors making a visit to the house of Mother Mary which is accepted as a holy sanctuary by Christianity and Islam as well. Within the scope of 51 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY the research data were collected through qualitative data collection techniques (semi- structured interview). The obtained results are followed;  Muslim Visitors: According to the results of the research, it is found out that the number of the Muslim visitors visiting the house of Mother Mary is less than the Non-Muslim visitors in spite of the fact that the house of Mother Mary is accepted as a holy sanctuary by both Islam and Christianity, and that there is an immense Muslim population close to the Holy Area. The possible reasons of this result are followed; o The management of the House of Mother Mary belongs to a Christian Association. Mother Mary‟s House is associated with Christianity despite its importance and recognition by Islam. o There is a sign on the left side of the inner door at the entrance of Mother Mary House indicating that “the written prayers and printed brochures belong to the religion of Christianity", which inherently proposes that the House is primarily serving to visitors belonging to Christianity. o There seems limited preparation for Muslim visitors regarding their spiritual needs such as a place of worship/pray, ablution, souvenir shop including books related with Islam and so on in the vicinity of Mother Mary House. The possible reason that could explain this situation is the low number of Muslim visitors. o Muslim visitors may slightly perceive a sense of belongingness to the area while visiting this holy sanctuary since the visual aspects offer few imaginary for Islam. Therefore among Muslim visitors those who have deep knowledge about Mother Mary and those who are conscious on the Mother Mary‟s religious importance can feel more attached to the location. o When the motivation (purpose) of Muslim visitors is compared with that of Christian visitors, it is found out that the Muslim visitors are in general far less conscious and informed about the history, meaning, and cultural importance of the place. Most of Muslim visitors‟ aim seemed to be realizing a recreational/tourism focused visit instead of a religious visit. For a large part of Muslim visitors, Mother Mary‟s House had an image of one of the must-see attractions around İzmir. o According to the research results, it is found out that the majority of young (less than 35 years old) Muslim visitors such as students from universities and high schools behave in an inappropriate way during their visits. This group is not careful about presence of other visitors and does not keep silent in conformity with area management‟s principles. o Another inappropriate behavior stemming from young visitors including Muslim and Non-Muslim visitors, is speaking loudly in the holy sanctuary, disturbing other visitors, and taking pictures in the inner part of the house even it is forbidden. o In general young Muslim visitors (predominantly Turkish citizens in this research) have limited or very little information and education about the Mother Mary Phenomena. Even if they know that Jesus Christ and Mother Mary are accepted as Holy personages by Islam, their knowledge is very superficial. 52 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY o During the access and visiting period at Mother Mary‟s House no visual clues help Muslim visitors perceive that this area is a place of worship, and it has meaning and importance for Islam faith nearby Christianity. o Despite, for a small group in total Muslim visitors, religious purpose is valid and of importance, however in general Muslim visitors seemed to visit this holy area not for true religious purposes but only for tourism/travel purposes. o The age of Muslim visitors is related with their behavioral characteristics. Visitors over 35 years old are more conscious, pre-planned, and have more respect for the holy shrine of Mother Mary. This situation can be explained by their growing interest for meaning in life via religion and their increased maturity level.  Christian Visitors; According to the results of the research, it is found out that the number of Christian visitors visiting the house of Mother Mary surpass Muslim visitors and visitors of other religious convictions. Visitors from countries having considerable Christian populations although they may not be strictly practicing Christianity rules, behave in a more respectful an appropriate way when compared with Muslim visitors. The possible reasons for this situation are followed; o Mother Mary is accepted as a holy figure in all the sects of Christianity (Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant). Respect for Mother Mary is generalized among Christians during their visits. o Among Christian visitors, behavioral differences are observed between sects. Accordingly, Christian Catholics have deeper interest and respect and they feel much more impressed from their visiting experience than other Christian visitors. Visits of Popes from Vatican may support the interest of Catholic visitors. o It is also found out that Christian visitors belonging to Orthodox and Protestant sects make a visit to the house of Mother Mary for touristic reasons as the house is included in their tour program rather than for religious reasons. However, it is possible to observe passionate visitors from these groups occasionally. o Similar to the behavioral changes by age, Non-Muslim visitors, and in particular Christians over mid-age behave more polite, more respectful, more silent, and in a more careful manner during their visits at Mother Mary‟s House. 8. Conclusions and Policy Implications There should be a limit to the number of visitors as the carrying capacity exceeds during the summer time when the high season is on its path, because the visitors complain about the congestion in the house of Mother Mary during the visit. The high season for this holy shrine is during July and August. Currently, there is no restriction for visit, and tourist guides communicate among each other to plan their visiting hours and decrease level of congestion. Tourist guides generally interchange timing of visits of Mother Mary‟s House, Ephesus ancient Site, and/or Ephesus Museum. In future, when the number of tours and participants of individual and group visits increase the carrying capacity will be questioned. As the house of Mother Mary is accepted as a holy sanctuary and universal place both by Muslims and Christians, it may be a good idea to give a brochure or a leaflet giving information about Mother Mary and the house and how to behave in the house of Mother Mary to the visitors at the entrance of the house in different languages such as Turkish, English, German, French and Russian. It is urgent to prepare documents in Turkish for 53 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Turkish speaking visitors with a map, because when they arrive with school buses their visits create congestion momentarily. According to the results of the research, it is found out that the house of Mother Mary has visitors from all age groups. Some visitors, especially elder ones, have a great difficulty in reaching the mountain where the house of Mother Mary is located. This problem may be overcome with a cable car (lift) which will be established like in Acropolis archeological site in Pergamum. Furthermore, the establishment of this cable car will enable visitors to see the view of the Ephesus an ancient city founded as a port city in ancient time. The civil transport to the hill where Mother Mary‟s House is located is not well-designed. Someone who tries to visit the House should either take a taxi from Selçuk District center or from gates of Ephesus ancient site. This can be expensive and impossible service during peak seasons. Dolmus (minibus for collective transport), city bus, and cable lift can be put on service for the ease of visitor. The current road is narrow, and needs protective side-bars for pedestrians and vehicles. There is no road section reserved for cyclists and visitors coming with motorbikes or bikes. The existent information signs and other warnings in the vicinity of Mother Mary House can be reorganized. For example; warnings like; “It is not allowed to smoke here and to speak loudly here”, “Please keep right during your walk” in different languages. New arrangements can be done to prevent the objects destroyed in the holy structure. Protecting the garden of Mother Mary House is also critical. For example; the food and beverage organizations, parking area for the tour buses and other cars and entrance door can be taken a little bit farther to prevent the noise, pictures informing visitors about the holy sanctuary can be hung to meet the visitors coming from entrance and there may be a holy music application informing visitors about the holy sanctuary of Mother Mary House. Solutions are required to increase awareness level of Muslim visitors (such as seminars, mini booklets to be distributed, large signs with explanations etc.) Especially young visitors and students should be informed about the house of Mother Mary before their arrival to the heritage site. The society will have more consciousness through these seminars and the level of respect will increase in this way. The necessary precautions that should be taken to increase the level of satisfaction of Muslim visitors , increase the number of Muslim visitors, increase the level of their consciousness are written below as follows; It is thought that the increase of awareness for this heritage area among Muslim visitors will make a contribution to the number of the Muslim visitors in a positive way. Providing Muslim visitors with the brochures or leaflets giving information about the importance of Mother Mary in Islam at the entrance of Mother Mary House will make a contribution in a positive way. The existence of a small prayer place (Masjid or a Small Mosque) which will enable Muslim visitors to pray in the holy vicinity of Mother Mary House may attract more Muslim visitors to the area. If the Muslim visitors are provided with the chance to buy some souvenirs related to Islam in the shops situated in the garden of Mother Mary House and use the current currency of Turkey (Lira) as well as Euro may increase satisfaction of Turkish Muslim visitors. Tourism industry stakeholders should work in close coordination with the Association responsible for management of this heritage area. Another key relationship is between Municipality and the Association. Cultural heritage management principles should be developed in long term for Mother Mary‟s House. Visitor management principles should be applied in conformity with heritage management cases from all over the world. 54 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY References Aktaş, A., Ekin, Y., (2007), Case Study 5: The Importance and the Role of Faith (Religious) Tourism As Alternative Tourism Resources in Turkey, In, R. Raj and N. 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Rojo, D. M. (2007). Religious Tourism: The Way to Santiago, MA European Tourism Management, Bournemouth University. Smith, J.I., Haddah,Y.Y. (1989). “The Virgin Mary in Islamic Tradition and Commentary” The Muslim World,Vol LXIIX, July October pp 161-187 Timothy, D., and Olsen, D., (2006) Tourism, Religion and Spiritual Journeys. Routledge. Rodriques,S.A.M.(2012). Motivations, Experiences and Potential Impacts of Visitors to a Monastery in New Zealand: A Case Study.The University of Waikato Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management. 55 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Timothy, D. J., & Boyd, S. W. (2006). Heritage tourism in the 21st century: Valued traditions and new perspectives. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 1(1), 1–16. Wright, K. (2007) November, Leisure Group Travel Special Edition.(8-16). Religious Tourism, A New Era, A Dynamic Industry. Yitik,A.İ.(2000). İslam Kültüründe Hristiyanlığa Bakış ve Müslüman-Hristiyan Münasebetleri. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi. Internet References Selçuk Municipality.(2012) Selçuk, Ephesus, Mother Mary House http://www.selcuk.bel.tr/tr/selcuk.php?module=9 [Accessed 15.12.2012] Kuşadası Biz. (2022) Virgin Mary, http://www.kusadasi.biz/virgin-mary/ [Accessed 15.12.2012] Şirince Houses.(2012) House of the Virgin Mary. http://www.sirince-evleri.com/Default.asp?L=EN&mid=275 [Accessed 15.12.2012] House of the Virgin Mary.(2012). Welcome to the House of the Virgin Mary in Ephesus, Turkey.http://www.sfpnn.com/TravelbyPatty/1Patty2011/Virgin%20Mary%20House/HOUS E%20OF%20VIRGIN%20MARY.htm [Accessed 15.12.2012] Ephesus.(2012). House of Virgin Mary. http://www.ephesus.us/ephesus/houseofvirginmary.htm [Accessed 15.12.2012] Ephesus Museum.(2012). House of Mother Mary. http://www.efesmuzesi.gov.tr/index2.php?dil=TR&sayfa=dp&pc=40 [Accessed 15.12.2012] Onislam. 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(2012) House of the Virgin Mary, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_the_Virgin_Mary [Accessed 15.12.2012] 56 A Comparison of Museum Visitors’ Expectations within the Context of Faith Tourism Özgür ÖZER Konya Necmettin Erbakan University Tourism Faculty Department of Travel Guide, Turkey E-mail: oozer@konya.edu.tr Serhat Adem SOP Mehmet Akif Ersoy University School of Tourism and Hospitality Management Department of Hospitality Management, Turkey E-mail: serhat_adem_sop@yahoo.com Umut AVCI Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University School of Tourism and Hospitality Management Department of Hospitality Management, Turkey E-mail: aumut@mu.edu.tr Abstract Due to the functional diversification of museums in recent years, it has started to arouse interest in understanding the museum visitors‟ expectations and finding out whether their expectations are met or not. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and compare the expectations of domestic and foreign visitors of Mevlana Museum particularly within the context of faith tourism in Konya, Turkey. 163 domestic and 184 foreign visitors that visited the museum were surveyed with the questionnaire developed specifically for the research. Then, a factor analysis was conducted to reduce data and to clarify the dimensions, and finally five factors were obtained: attention and empathy, cultural impression, escapism, reminiscence and value for money. According to these findings, 80 % of the visitors seemed as having information about Mevlana while 57 % of the visitors were determined as having information about the Mevleviyeh. The findings of this study prove that the visitors of the museum mostly consist of informed ones. On the other hand, the expectation levels of the domestic visitors in attention and empathy and cultural impression dimensions were found higher while the expectations of both the domestic and the foreign visitors in terms of value for money dimension were similar. Keywords: Domestic and foreign visitors, expectations, faith tourism, Mevlana Museum. 1. Introduction Since the earliest times, there have been many factors that lead people to travel. Among these factors, especially the religious ones have been in the forefront since the middle age. Therefore, travelling for religious purposes started to become significant among all travels. One of the aims of religious journeys is one‟s desire to worship in these places. The other important aim is one‟s desire to visit sacred places and holy shrines no matter which religion he or she belongs to. In line with these aims, throughout history people have visited many different places of religious and scientific attractiveness. Among these attractions, museums hold an important place. In general, museums are defined as “places and buildings in which artistic and scientific works or useful objects for art and science are preserved and available 57 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY for public viewing” (TDK, 2005: 1445). However, Yılmaz (2011) draws attention to the fact that today the scope of the definition of “museum” has expanded in terms of tourism and has also covered places of religious interest. The fact that the scope of museums has expanded and they becoming important tourist attractions have contributed to the importance of managing those areas as well as meeting the expectations of the visitors over time. Museum administrators are obliged to ensure visitors‟ satisfaction particularly by capturing their imagination (Gartenhaus, 1997). Within this context, while taking measures not only to improve museums but also to increase the satisfaction level of visitors, it is of great importance to take into account of what expectations the visitors of museums have during these visits and in which direction of their perceptions have developed. Although museums have become complex and important tourist attractions today, it is observed that not many studies have been conducted on the expectations and satisfaction of the visitors. However, it is known that having little or no feedback from the visitors will fail to guide the museum administrators. Thus, the current study aims to find out and compare the expectations of both domestic and foreign tourists who visit Mevlâna Museum within the context of faith tourism. It is considered that the findings of the study will provide the museum administration with some leading insights and will guide further research to be conducted in this field in the near future. 2. Faith Tourism and Mevlâna Museum Faith means “heartfelt attachment to a thought” (TDK, 2005). As a requirement of their faith, people are travelling for such spiritual purposes as "pilgrimage" and "seeing the holy places". It is known that not only pilgrims but even other people also visit those places out of curiosity and get involved in tour organizations for those places (Özgüç, 2003: 84). In this sense, Mecca and Medina in Islam, Jerusalem, Rome and Ephesus in Christianity, and again Jerusalem in Judaism are holy places of mass religious tourism. It is possible to increase the number of such holy places when taken into consideration of many parts of the world (Sargın, 2006: 3). In terms of tourism, those activities and events carried out to visit such places are described as “faith tourism”. According to the definition made by the “Ministry of Culture and Tourism” of Turkey, faith tourism is identified as “the evaluation of touristic trips in the scope of tourism phenomenon, which are taken by people with the aims to fulfill their religious needs and see religious attractions outside the places in which they continually reside, work, and meet their usual needs” (Dikici and Sağır, 2012: 36). In Turkey, since the 1990s, activities to improve faith tourism have been attached importance by the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism, and the inventory of the extant works of the three major religions and worship centers was created in 1993 (Kuter, 2008: 518). For this purpose, centers which are thought religiously important and visited mostly, are thought important in terms of the history of art, are the first of its kind and interesting due to the architectural features, are located in an easily accessible area and thus are included in tour programs by travel agencies have been evaluated in the scope of faith tourism. Many important structures and places, bearing the above-mentioned features, in Turkey have been opened to visitors within the scope of faith tourism, and it has been aimed to turn Turkey into an important centre of these tourist activities. Mevlâna Museum, situated in Konya, is one of these centers. Also known as a literary museum, Mevlevi Lodge and Mausoleum were first opened to visitors under the name of Konya Asar-ı Atika Museum in 1929 (Özkul et al., 2012). In 1954, the museum was given the name of Mevlâna Museum. The current area of the museum (along with a rose garden) is 15,000 square meters. Mevlana Jalaluddin-i Rumi was the great Turkish thinker, Sufi, cleric and humanity poet who lived in Konya during the thirteenth century. This museum in which his 58 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY memory is kept alive is visited by foreign visitors who pay attention to his opinions as well as domestic visitors (Tapur, 2009: 484). Mevlâna Museum is the third-most-visited museum placed after Hagia Sophia and Topkapi in Turkey. In 2011, a total of 1, 735,424 people visited the museum (www.kulturvarliklari.gov.tr). 3. Museum Visitors’ Expectations Throughout the world, there has been a significant increase in the number of museums since the 19th century. Along with this period, the number of museum visits has increased and museums have become important places over this time. No doubt that this situation has played an important role in increasing interest in museums both in terms of tourism activities and management (Uralman, 2006: 252). In addition, along with the functional diversification of the museums (Weil, 2000), there has been an awakened interest over the issues of identifying what expectations the museum visitors have and finding out whether these expectations are met or not. Despite an increase in the number of studies on exploring this interest in recent years, it is interesting that there is a limited amount of academic research about this subject. Museums, which play an important role because of being among tourist attractions, are generally known to focus on education, conservation and exhibition of works. However, it is also obvious that the visitors‟ expectations of trying such different experiences as entertainment and internal satisfaction have shown an increase (MacDonald and Alsford, 1995; Moscardo, 1996; Kang and Gretzel, 2012). Therefore, it has been crucial for museums to be able to understand and meet the expectations of visitor groups who wish to have different experiences from their visits to the museum (Moscardo, 1996; Kang and Gretzel, 2012). In this context, it is an important attempt to involve researchers from different academic units in the management of some museums with the purpose of understanding the expectations of people who visit the museums (Barnes and Lynch, 2012). Another point of view on the importance of the expectations of museum visitors has been suggested by Weil (2000). Weil (2000) stresses that being familiar with the expectations of museum visitors and meeting these expectations will help improve their quality of life. In the study carried out by Sheng and Chen (2012), it was also found out that there are a lot of factors influencing the experiences of museum visitors. Among these factors, the interaction of personal, social and environmental factors stand at the forefront. In the literature relating tourism, there are only few studies based on the experiences of museum visitors. In this sense, a study conducted by Yılmaz (2011) on the Goreme Open Air Museum examined a total of 308 visitors' perceptions of service quality. In this study, their perceptions of quality were examined under four headings as "the physical elements of the service", "elements of exhibitions", "empathy" and "price, and other service elements". The results of the study show that the visitors expect higher quality service from all of these factors. In addition, it was found out that the visitors coming to the museum for the first time had low levels of quality perceptions. In another study carried out by Sheng and Chen (2012), the expectations of a total of 425 tourists who visited 5 different museums were evaluated (those museums were the Taiwan Museum, the Museum of Drinking Water, the National Museum of History, the National Taiwan Science Education Centre and the Miniatures Museum of Taiwan). At the end of the study, it was found out that the majority of visitors had the expectations of “comfort and entertainment". 4. Methodology The main purpose of the study is to explore the expectations of tourists who visit Mevlâna Museum and compare the expectations of domestic and foreign visitors. With this purpose, 59 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY data were gathered from October 1 to December 1 (2012) through a questionnaire completed by 163 domestic and 184 foreign tourists who visited Mevlâna Museum. 37 out of the questionnaires filled out by the domestic visitors, and 16 out of those completed by the foreign visitors were not evaluated because they had the missing or incorrect information. The data base of this study consisted of 347 valid questionnaires. The questionnaire used as a data collection tool was developed by taking into account of the studies by Barrio et al. (2009), İlhan (2009), Yılmaz (2011), Sheng and Chen (2012). The propositions drawn from these studies were associated with religious tourism. After the questionnaire form was constructed, a total of 68 domestic and foreign visitors were asked to respond the questionnaire form under the plot study in order to check the reliability of the scale. Following this pre-application, the reliability of the questionnaire was found as 0.83. So, the questionnaire form consists of 23 items that prepared to find out the expectations of the visitors. In addition, 6 questions to determine the participants‟ experiences of their visit to the museum and 9 questions to identify their demographic characteristics are included to the form. 5. Findings of the Study The findings regarding the characteristics of the participants are presented separately for domestic and foreign visitors as seen in Table 1. In this context, 55.3 % of the participants are domestic and 44.7% are foreign visitors. The majority of the participants are aged between 19 and 29, and 58.5% of them are single, and most of the participants are university graduates. Whereas 33.7% of the foreign participants have visited Mevlâna Museum with a tour group, 26.4% of the domestic participants have visited it along with their families. It has been identified that 16.7% of the foreign participants have come from European countries while 11.8% of them have come from the Far East countries. Table 1: Profile of the respondents Domestic (N=163) Foreign (N=184) Total (N=347) n % n % n % Gender Male 88 54 104 56.5 192 55.3 Female 74 46 80 43.5 155 44.7 Age 19-29 93 57.1 97 52.7 190 54.8 20-39 33 20.2 26 14.2 59 17 40-49 26 16 23 12.5 49 14.1 50-59 8 4.9 19 10.3 27 7.8 60 and more 3 1.8 19 10.3 22 6.3 Marital Status Married 98 60.1 105 57.1 131 37.8 Single 60 36.8 71 38.6 204 58.5 Other 5 3.1 8 4.3 13 3.7 Education Primary School 12 7.4 2 1.1 14 4 High School 21 12.8 21 11.4 42 12.1 University 115 70.6 104 56.5 219 63.1 Master‟s 10 6.1 45 24.5 55 15.9 PhD 5 3.1 12 6.5 17 4.9 Travelling with whom Alone 29 17.8 37 20.1 66 19 Suppose 24 14.7 21 11.4 45 13 Family 43 26.4 42 22.8 85 24.5 Relatives 8 4.9 4 2.2 12 3.5 Travel Agency 29 17.8 62 33.7 91 26.2 60 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Other 30 18.4 18 9.8 48 13.8 Nationality Turkey 163 100 - - 163 47 Arabian Countries - - 21 6.1 21 6.1 Middle Asian Countries - - 19 5.4 19 5.4 Far Eastern Countries - - 41 11.8 41 11.8 European Countries - - 58 16.7 58 16.7 Russian Federation - - 2 0.6 2 0.6 South American Countries - - 28 8.1 28 8.1 North American Countries - - 1 0.3 1 0.3 African Countries - - 14 4 14 4 When the participants‟ experiences of their visit are examined, it has been observed that 64.8% of them have visited the museum before (Table 2). The majority of these participants have visited the museum one or two times. The rate of the participants who have knowledge about Mevlâna is 80.6% whereas the visitors who have knowledge about the Mevleviyeh rates 57% of the participants. Furthermore, it can be seen that 52.1% of the visitors have gathered information from different sources before they visited the museum, and 61.9% of them have particularly devoted time in their holiday schedule to visit the museum. Table 2: Visiting experiences of the respondents (N=347) Have you ever visited Mevlana Museum before? n % Yes 225 64.8 No 122 35.2 If yes, how many times? n % 1 94 41.7 2 69 30.6 3 34 15.1 4 16 7.2 5 and more 12 5.4 I have information about Mevlana n % Yes 280 80.6 No 67 19.4 I have information about the Mevleviyeh n % Yes 198 57 No 149 43 I’ve collected information from different sources before n % visiting Mevlana Museum Yes 181 52.1 No 166 47.9 I’ve spared some special time for today to visit Mevlana n % Museum in my holiday schedule Yes 215 61.9 No 132 38.1 23 items produced which are to be able to identify how the visitors‟ expectations of the museum are grouped for testing the validity of the questionnaire and were analyzed through the exploratory factor analysis. The items with factor loading < 0.40 were excluded from evaluation. Until it reached a meaningful factor construct, the analysis was repeated in three stages. In the fourth stage, the 17 items, as referred to in Table 3, were grouped under five factors. In the analysis, those factors that have an eigenvalue >1 were evaluated. As a result of the factor analysis, the KMO value of the sampling was calculated as 0.846. The result of the Bartlett test (Sig.0.000) showed that a significant factor model can be established. 61 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Table 3: Factor analysis and reliability test results of expectation. (N= 347) Explained Cronbach‟s Factor Factors and Items Variance Alfa Loading Eigenvalue (%) Factor 1 – Attention and Empathy 5,360 % 31,527 0.81 Mevlana Museum is a worldwide known faith ,494 tourism center. While visiting Mevlana Museum, I would like to ,664 see other visitors‟ interest for the museum. I expect not be disturbed by other visitors while ,697 visiting Mevlana Museum. Just as expected from the visitors, I also expect ,696 the museum officials to behave in a good manner to keep silence and peace in the museum during the tours to Mevlana Museum. I‟d like to feel myself as one of the conscious ,506 visitors while visiting Mevlana Museum. Factor 2 – Cultural Impression 1,688 % 9,931 0.79 While visiting Mevlana Museum, I expect the ,607 historical artifacts presented in the museum to evoke admiration on me artistically. I expect the historical artifacts that I see in ,730 Mevlana Museum to influence me spiritually. While visiting Mevlana Museum, I‟d like to find ,468 out some interesting differences and changes between that age and today. I‟d like to relax and feel at peace while visiting ,531 Mevlana Museum. Factor 3 – Escapism 1,422 % 8,362 0.77 I feel myself as a part of history while visiting ,462 Mevlana Museum. While visiting Mevlana Museum, I feel as if I ,933 lived in the same age with the historical artifacts presented in the museum. I visualize the legendary characters or events of ,476 that age while visiting Mevlana Museum. Factor 4 – Reminiscence 1,117 %6,568 0,74 I‟d like to buy souvenirs while visiting Mevlana ,414 Museum. I‟d like to have good memories that will remind ,881 me the Museum after the visit. I‟d like to feel that I‟ve gained a new aspect of ,504 future after visiting Mevlana Museum. Factor 5 – Value for Money 1,036 %6,096 0,72 I‟d like to feel that the payment of museum ,765 entrance is worth for the visit. After visiting Mevlana Museum, I‟d like to feel ,702 that the payment I‟ve made is worth for the souvenirs. 1- strongly disagree ………………………………. 5- strongly agree As the result of factor analysis, five factors were identified as “attention and empathy”, “cultural impression”, “escapism”, “reminiscence” and “value for money”. The total variance of these five factors is 62.4% that means they can be explained. Among these, the variance explanation rate of the "attention and empathy" factor is 31.5%. 62 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Table 4: T-test results between domestic and foreign visitors Levene's Test for Equality T-test for Equality of of Variances Means F Sig T df Sig. (2-uçlu) Assumed* 1,453 ,229 8,063 345 ,000 Attention and Empathy Not assumed** 8,114 344,908 ,000 Assumed* ,289 ,591 7,115 245 ,000 Cultural Impression Not assumed** 7,135 343,119 ,000 Assumed* 1,500 ,222 4,581 345 ,000 Escapism Not assumed** 4,568 335,612 ,000 Assumed* 0,339 ,561 2,181 345 ,031 Reminiscence Not assumed** 2,174 334,415 ,030 Assumed* 3,279 ,071 1,743 345 ,082 Value for Money Not assumed** 1,725 314,771 ,086 * Equal variances assumed ** Equal variances not assumed An independent t-test was employed in order to compare the expectations of domestic and foreign tourists who visited Mevlâna Museum. The result of analysis points out that the domestic and foreign visitors do not show any differences only in their expectations of the "value for money" factor (Table 4). Table 5: Post-Hoc comparisons after T-test Cumulative Std. Std. Error N Mean Deviation Mean Domestic Visitors 163 21,5583 3,10137 ,24292 Attention and Empathy Foreign Visitors 184 18,7065 3,44524 ,25399 Domestic Visitors 163 17,4049 2,64724 ,20735 Cultural Impression Foreign Visitors 184 15,3261 2,77620 ,20466 Domestic Visitors 163 11,3804 2,54153 ,19907 Escapism Foreign Visitors 184 10,1576 2,42756 ,17896 Domestic Visitors 163 11,4601 2,47268 ,19368 Reminiscence Foreign Visitors 184 10,8967 2,33650 ,17225 Domestic Visitors 163 7,4724 2,21196 ,17325 Value for Money Foreign Visitors 182 7,0934 1,82283 ,13512 The responses of the domestic and foreign visitors were compared to determine the sources of these differences in their expectations. As can be seen in Table 5, the expectation levels of the domestic visitors are higher than those of the foreign visitors. Especially the difference in terms of the first two factors is at a higher level. 6. Results and Discussion In this study, the expectations of domestic and foreign visitors who visited Mevlâna Museum were measured and compared. For this purpose, the data were collected through a questionnaire form conducted with a total of 163 domestic and 184 foreign visitors who visited the Mevlâna Museum. In order to evaluate the expectations for the museum in the study, the questionnaire was developed by benefitting from the studies by Barrio et al., (2009), İlhan (2009), Yılmaz (2011), and Sheng and Chen (2012). Following this, a factor analysis was conducted to determine how the items included in the questionnaire were grouped. As a result of the factor analysis, the five factors referred as "attention and 63 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY empathy", "cultural impression", "escapism", "reminiscence" and "value for money", and 17 items were identified. The total variance of these five factors is 62.4%. The study presents some crucial findings as to the experiences of the visitors. For example, it is pointed out that 80% of the visitors have knowledge about Mevlâna while 57% of them have information about the Mevleviyeh. Moreover, 52 % of the visitors obtained information from different sources before their visit to Mevlâna Museum. It can also be considered that these findings show that the participants of this study visited the museum consciously. The tourists‟ expectations of their visit to Mevlâna Museum vary with respect to such dimensions as “attention and empathy”, “cultural impression”, “escapism” and “reminiscence” in terms of domestic and foreign visitors. The domestic visitors‟ expectations as to these four factors are at a higher level than those of the foreign visitors. In particular, the perception levels of domestic visitors in terms of "attention and empathy" and "cultural impression" are much higher. This point can be occurred due to the domestic visitors‟ beliefs. Moreover, such a difference can be explained by that the domestic visitors are generally motivated and conscious in their visits to Mevlâna Museum. Another interesting finding of the study is that the expectations for the factor referred as “value for money” do not show any difference in terms of domestic and foreign visitors. The cumulative arithmetic average for this factor is low, so this can be considered as an indicator of the fact that financial expectations are slightly significant during their visits to Mevlâna Museum (Table 5). This finding is valid for both domestic and foreign visitors of the museum. According to those findings, some suggestions should be made as listed here. Firstly, it is suggested that the expectations in the context of “attention and empathy” and “cultural impression” should be taken into consideration in museum planning. Hence, it should also be suggested museum managers may train the staff with regard to “attention and empathy” dimension. Because of being important from the point of the visitors, museum managers need to ensure the continuity of cultural impression dimension which includes the artifacts and the atmosphere itself. Finally, the academicians who are enthusiastic in this subject should make a detailed research focusing on “attention and empathy” and “cultural impression” dimensions and their variables. 7. References Barrio, M.J., Herrero, L.C. & Sanz, J.A. (2009). Measuring the Efficiency of Hertage Institutions: A Case Study of a Regional System of Museums in Spain. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 10, pp. 258-268. Barnes, A. & Lynch, D.R. (2012). From Classroom to the Museum: Understanding Faculty- Designed Assignments in an Academic Museum. Museum Management and Curatorship, 27(5), pp. 487-503. Çelebi, C. (1997). Hazret-i Mevlana. Konya: T.C. Konya İl Müdürlüğü Yayını. Dikici, E. & Sağır, A. (2012). Antalya‟da İnanç Turizminin Sosyolojik Çözümlemesi: Demre- Myra Örneği. KMÜ Sosyal ve Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 14(2), pp. 35-42. Falk, J.H. & Dierkingi L.D. (1992). The Museum Experience. Washington D.C.:Whalesback Books. Fletcher, A. & Lee, M.j. (2012). Current Social Media Uses and Evaluations in American Museums. Museum Management and Curatorship, 27(5), pp. 505-521. Gartenhaus, A.R. (1997). Minds in Motion-Using Museums to Expand Creative Thinking (3rd Ed.). USA: Caddo Gap Press. 64 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Grasskamp, W. (1981). Museumsgrunder und Museumssturmer - zur Sozialgeschichte des Kunstmuseums. Munchen: C.H. Beck. İlhan, A.Ç. (2009). Educational Studies in Turkish Museums. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, pp. 342-346. Kang, M. & Gretzel, U. (2012). Perceptions of Museum Podcast Tours: Effects of Consumer Innovativeness, Internet Familiarity and Podcasting Affinity on Performance Expectancies. Tourism Management Perspectives, 4, pp. 155-163. Kuter, N. (2008). İnanç Turizmi ve Isparta-Yalvaç, Pisidia Antiocheia Antik Kenti. In Proceedings of the ‘IV. Lisansüstü Turizm Öğrencileri Araştırma Kongresi’. Antalya, pp.517-531. MacDonald, G.F. & Alsford, S. (1995). Museums and Theme Parks: Worlds in Collision? Museum Management and Curatorship, 14(2), pp. 129–147. Moscardo, G. (1996). Mindful Visitors: Heritage and Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(2), pp. 376-397. Özgüç, N. (2003). Turizm Coğrafyası. İstanbul: Çantay Kitabevi. Özkul, E., Demirer, D. & İpar, M.S. (2012). Edebiyat‟ın Pazarlama Aracı Olarak Turizm Amaçlı Kullanımı Üzerine Bir Araştırma. In the Proceedings of „13. Ulusal Turizm Kongresi’. Antalya, pp. 1-22. Özönder, H. (2005). Dünden Bugüne Konya. Konya: Konya Büyükşehir Belediyesi Kültür Yayınları, No: 67. Sargın, S. (2006). Yalvaç‟ta İnanç Turizmi. Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 16(2), pp. 1-18. Sezgin, M. (2008). Konya. In Aktaş, G. (eds.) Turizm Coğrafyası. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık, pp. 315-333. Sheng, W.C. & Chen, M.C. (2012). A Study of Experience Expectations of Museum Visitors. Tourism Management, 33, pp. 53-60. Tapur, T. (2009). Konya İlinde Kültür ve İnanç Turizmi. Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 2(9), pp. 473-492. TDK - Türk Dil Kurumu. (2005). Türkçe Sözlük. Ankara: 4. Akşam Sanat Okulu Matbaası. Tröndle, M., Wintzerith, S., Waspe, R. & Tschacher, W. (2012). A Museum for the Twenty- First Century: The Influence of „Sociality‟ on Art Reception in Museum Space. Museum Management and Curatorship, 27(5), pp.461-486. Uralman, N.H. (2006). 21. Yüzyıla Girerken Bir Bilgi Kurumu olarak Müze. Bilgi Dünyası, 7(2), pp. 250-266. Weil, (2000). Perspectives on Outcome Based Evaluation for Libraries and Museums. http://www.imls.gov/assets/1/AssetManager/PerspectivesOBE.pdf, accessed: 17.101.2013. Yılmaz, İ. (2011). Müze Ziyaretçilerinin Hizmet Kalitesi Algılamaları: Göreme Açık Hava Müzesi Örneği. Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 22(2), pp. 183-193. http://www.konhaber.com/yeni/haber-82855-KULTUR-SANAT-Bayramda-Mevlana- Muzesine-ziyaretci-akini.html accessed: 5.11.2012. http://www.kulturvarliklari.gov.tr/TR,43336/muze-istatistikleri.html, accessed: 5.11.2012. 65 A Proposal of A Route to Tours to the Ancient Age Oracle Centres of West Anatolia Vedat ACAR Adnan Menderes University Department of Tour Guiding, Tourism and Hotel Management, Kuşadası / AYDIN vedat.acar@adu.edu.tr Gül ERBAY ASLITÜRK Adnan Menderes University Department of Tour Guiding, Tourism and Hotel Management, Kuşadası / AYDIN gerbay@adu.edu.tr Özet Günümüz insanının bile çok ilgisini çeken geleceği bilme, gelecek hakkında bilgi edinme isteği, antik çağda günümüzdekinden çok daha fazla önem arz etmekteydi. Kentlerin kuruluşunda, kentlerin sorunlarının çözümlenmesinde, kentlerle ve kişilerle ilgili önemli kararların alınmasında ve olağanüstü olayların açıklanmasında Apollon kült merkezlerine danışılmaktaydı. Apollon kâhinleri tarafından çeşitli şekillerde yapılan yorumlar, kimi zaman bir krallığın yıkımına, kimi zaman da bir krallığın doğuşuna neden olabilmekteydi. Apollon kült merkezleri, bu açıdan bakıldığında insanların yaşamlarını şekillendirmekle kalmayıp, aynı zamanda onların hayatlarına yön veren önemli bir güce sahipti. Bu araştırmanın kapsamında, Batı Anadolu‟da antik çağın önemli kehanet merkezlerinden olan Letoon, Patara, Hierapolis, Alabanda, Telmissos, Didyma, Klaros kentleri kehanet merkezleri olmaları açısından değerlendirilmiştir. Bu kehanet merkezlerinin kurulmalarını sağlayan kâhinler, bu merkezlerin seçilmesinde dikkat edilen noktalar ve dönemin insanları tarafından bu kehanet merkezlerinin ne şekilde ziyaret edildikleri ele alınarak, günümüz insanları tarafından bir güzergâh dâhilinde bu kehanet merkezlerinin ziyaretini olanaklı hale getirme önerisi amaçlanmaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Kehanet, Apollon Kültü, Kehanet Turu Abstract Desire to know the future, to get information about the future was much more important than it is at the present time compared with the one in the ancient age. The Apollo cult centres were consulted on founding the cities, solving the problems of the cities, taking important decisions about cities and habitants and clarifying the extraordinary events. Interpretations made by the oracles of Apollon in various ways might sometimes cause a kingdom to demolish or a kingdom to rise. When considered the matter from this point of view, Apollo cult centers used to have a significant power not only shaping the lives of people but dominating the lives of them as well. Within the scope of the research, the cities of Letoon, Patara, Hierapolis, Alabanda, Telmissos, Didyma, Claros, many of which were considered to be important cult centres of Apollo in the ancient world, were evaluated with regards to being of Oracle centres. Bringing a proposal of a visit to those oracles centres within the compass of a route by today‟s people was aimed at taking into consideration of the oracles who had those centres founded, the points when those centres were chosen and in what way, they were visited by the people in that age. Key words: Oracle, Apollo Cult, Tour of Prophecy 67 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 1. Introduction Prophecy may be defined as “to foretell an event that will ocur, to notice future with a perception or intuition beyond the five senses, to foresight”. Ciccero (106-43 B.C), a well known politician stated in his book known as “The Nature of The Gods” that prophecy is (Akoğlu, 2006: 96): “the power or art or ability to foretell the things which will happen in the future was given to none of the creatures but to humans by immortal Gods. The truth is that Gods do not only care and protect the human race as a whole but also each of individuals singly. By frequently coming in sight in person, Gods themselves reveal the care they take of both society and each of individuals one by one. This care is also understood from the signs, correlated with the events to happen in the future, which are shown sometimes in their dreams and sometimes when they are awake. Moreover, we are stimulated by a lot of other signs causing to form the art of divinatio1by a lot of indications, by watching and using a long time of many visceral organs of sacrifices. For this reason, there is nobody among great people who aren‟t inspired by the divinatio somehow!” It may be inferred from Ciccero‟s words that oracles are individuals equipped with special abilities. We know very little knowledge about which tactics oracles used while they were prophesying, however, there are some assertions suggested; one of those is the pareidolia effect of the gases and the other one is the dream. It was believed that the dreams were sent out by the Gods in the Roman Period just like in the Ancient Age (Akoğlu, 2006: 118). Apollo, the son of Zeus and Leto, may probably have been the most significant God in the Ancient Age Greek World and a great number of temples were built in his honor. The officials serving in his temples had special places in the hearts of the society. Why individuals used to consult the prophecy hoping for solutions for their problems may be understood that the prophecy itself was a phenomenon not only correlated with the future but also affecting the life of individuals at the present time. “Future” is one of the most wondered matters at the present time. There are some reasons why people want to know the things happening in the future. Desire to be prepared for disasters, desire to take advantage of the matters the other people don‟t know how to act, desire to keep away from disappointments and desire to know whether they will achieve their goals or not may be the reasons why people want to get knowledge about the future. From this point of view, a question came up as follows: “Could the curiosity of today‟s people be supported or satisfied by making an expedition to Ancient Age Oracle Centers?” The main aim of this research is to determine the oracles, myths and annals which occured in the light of the Oracle Centers and to make a route appropriate for this theme in the Ancient Age West Anatolia. Within the scope of the research, the literature of archaelogy and mythology became the starting point of the cities related to the cult of Apollo. In the light of the data acquired, it may be said that a lot of temples were built in honor of Apollo, that a lot of oracles‟ names were mentioned, that Apollo played a crucial role in such important events as Trojan War, the destruction of Sardis and establishment of Smyrna. The cities discussed are Letoon, Patara, Hierapolis, Alabanda, Telmissos, Didyma and Claros respectively. Oracles and prophecies were mentioned by scanning the Myths about those cities and those information were supported by archaeology. Within this framework, it was seen that Akurgal (1988) evaluated Letoon in terms of Archaeology whereas Grimal (2007) and Des Courtils (2003) informed about the myths about that city. Herodotus (1920), Akurgal (1988), Grimal (2007), Gürdal (2007) and Işık (2008) are the authors who mentioned the ancient city of Patara and myths of prophecy. Sevin 1 Prophecy 68 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY (2001), D‟Andria (2004), Negri and Leucci (2006), Gürdal (2007), Johnston (2008) are the authors who mentioned about Hierapolis. Vitrivius (1914), Herodotus (1920), Strabo (1960) and Bağdatlı (2006) may be considered to be the authors mentioning Alabanda in their works. Herodotus (1920), Graves (1960), Grimal (2007) Gürdal (2007) handled the myths of Telmissos. Fontenrose (1988), Erhat (1996), Kennedy (1998), Grimal (2007), Gürdal (2007) and Eren (2008) are such writers who touched the prophecy of Didyma. When Claros is taken into consideration, while Şahin (1998) studied in terms of Archaeology, Erhat (1996), Kennedy (1998), March (2001), Strabo (1960), Schwab (2004), Grimal (2007) and Johnston (2008) wrote about the myths of prophecy of the city. On the other hand, although the region of Troas and Cnidos have remarkable amount of data with respect to the myths, they have been excluded from the tour program on account of being located in certain spots of destination halting the tour program. In the last chapter, a three days and two nights‟ tour to Letoon, Patara, Hierapolis, Alabanda, Telmissos, Didyma and Claros has been programmed and an available schedule has also been organized. 2. Oracles in the Ancient Age West Anatolia A lot of oracles lived in the ancient age West Anatolia. It is possible to encounter a lot of prophecies and oracles from the begining to the ending of the Trojan War. When the son of Thetis was nine years old, Calchas, one of those oracles prophesied that unless the son of Thetis was engaged in the Trojan War, the war wouldn‟t be won by Achaians and on account of that, he advised Thetis to hide her son among the daughters of the king of Skyros. It was also Calchas who prophesied that the wind preventing the fleet of Achaians from setting sail for Troy was because of Agamennon who angered Artemis and the only way to soothe Artemis was the sacrifice of Iphigenia, daughter of Agamennon to the Goddess. One of the prophecies Calchas foretold, was that unless the daughter of Cyrises was given back to her father, the rage of Apollo wouldn‟t cool down. Calchas also prophesied that Troy would be captured in the tenth year of the war. The other prophecy Calchas foretold just after Achilleus had died was that unless the arch of Herakles wasn‟t found, Troy wouldn‟t be captured and that the only person knowing which circumstances the city would be conquered was Helenos, one of the sons of Priam and Having dreamt, He also advised Achaians to make a wooden horse as well (Grimal, 2007; Morford and Lenardo, 2003: 444, 453, 455; Rose, 2005: 97, 198; Kennedy, 1998: 5, 18, 49, 61, 73, ; Berens, 2007: 61, 189, 190, 192, 198). The other significant oracle in the Ancient Age West Anatolia was Aisakos. Aisakos having the ability to interpret dreams was the son of Priamos and Arisbe. When Hekabe dreamt that she bore a blazing torch, she consulted to Aisakos in order to interpret her dream. After that, Aisakos advised them to kill the infant as soon as he was born because of the fact that the infant would cause the city to demolish. Soon afterwards he had interpreted the dream of Hecabe, his wife passed away on account of being bited by a snake. As soon as he saw his wife‟s dead body, he did away with himself (Grimal, 2007: 30). Aisakos wasn‟t the only child of Priamos having the ability to prophesy. Cassandra and Helenos, twins of Priamos and Hecabe had the ability to soothsay as well. When they were born, a ceremony was conducted in the Tymbra Apollo Temple. Having finished the ceremony, the twins were forgotten in the temple. On the following day, the twins were given the ability to prophesy. Before Paris set sail for Greece, Helenos prophesied all the disasters that voyage would bring about. After Paris had died, Priam married Helena to Deiphobos. Helenos went to Mount Ida on acount of his father‟s not marrying him to Helena. When Calchas mentioned the only person knowing how to conquer Troy was Helenos, Odyseus found Helenos and persuaded to tell how to capture the city. Helenos took his revenge on 69 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY telling Odyseus that there were three conditions to capture the city (Erhat, 1996: 133, 166, 246; Nardo, 2002: 41, 54, Rose, 2005; Coleman, 2007: 466, 825). Besides Helenos, his sister was also an oracle. In some sources, Cassandra got the ability to prophesy after she stayed the night in the Tymbra Apollo Temple just as her brother. But in some sources, it is stated that Apollo gave Cassandra the ability to prophesy. According to the first legend, Cassandra and Helenos were forgotten in the Tymbra Apollo Temple after the ceremony had been conducted in honour of their birth. When Priam and Hecabe came to the temple the following day, they found their infants being asleep and two snakes by the side of them. As soon as the snakes realized the people coming in the temple, they withdrew to sacred laurels. After the snakes had mundified the infants, they got the ability to prophesy. According to the other legend, Apollo fell in love with the daughter of Priam, Cassandra and wanted to lie with her. Cassandra told him that she would accept his proposal on condition that he gave her the ability to prophesy. Apollo taught her how to prophesy completely, however, Cassandra broke her promise and didn‟t want to lie with Apollo. On account of that, Apollo spitted at her mouth and punished her by ordaining that she would always tell the truthful prophecies but that nobody would believe her (Nardo, 2002: 26). It was Cassandra who prophesied that when Paris came to Troy, he would spell troubles to the city and should be killed immediately. When Hector was carried away by Achilleus, Priam went to the military quarters of Achaian to get Hector back. Cassandra was the first person who foretold that Priam would come back safe and sound. Having seen the wooden horse, she claimed that there were Achaian soldiers inside the wooden horse and it shouldn‟t be let in the city. It was also Cassandra given to Agamennon as a spoil of war after Troy had been occupied and although she had foreseen both she and Agamennon would be killed by Clytaimestra and her lover, she didn‟t clam up (Erhat, 1996; 105, 164; March, 2001: 188, 215, 769, 784). One of the most significant oracles in The Ancient Age being the son of Eueres and Chariclo, one of the Nympha, was Tiresias. There are different rumours about getting the ability to prophesy. Some mention that on account of seeing Athena completely unclothed, Tiresias was punished by being made blind by the Goddess and afterwards, she made up for giving him the ability to prophesy (Mair and Mair 1969: 119; Grimal, 2007: 746; Coleman, 2007: 107; Daly, 2009: 141; Kennedy, 1998: 56). However, according to another legend, as Tiresias was wandering around the Mounth of Cyllene or Mounth of Chitharion, he saw two snakes mating. Some say that Tiresias killed the female one, on the other hand some say that he wounded both of them.That intervention resulted in his turning into a woman. Seven years later, while he was wandering around the same place, he saw once again two snakes mating. He acted just as he had done seven years ago. This time he turned back into a man. What Tiresias had come across popularized him. One day, while Zeus and Hera was argueing on the matter which sexes enjoyed love more, Tiresias came to their minds by virtue of his having been both a man and a woman. They asked Tiresias whether man or woman enjoyed love more. Tiresias answered:“If the parts of love- pleasure be counted as ten, Thrice three go to women, one only to men (Graves, 1960: 219). As soon as Hera heard what Tiresias had said, she blinded him. To make up for that deed, Zeus gave the ability to prophesy and bestowed favors on living an extraordinarily long life (Grimal, 2007: 747; Coleman, 2007: 471; Anonym, 2009, 918, 1077). Tiresias took part in a series of prophecies. It was Tiresias who revealed sins of Oedipus and when Eteocles consulted him in the course of the campaign of Seven Champions, he prophesied that Thebans would be victorious only if a prince of royal house freely as a sacrifice to Ares and that city of Thebans would be overrun and the only one of the Seven Champions would stay alive for that reason, they should leave the city at a nighttime (Graves, 1960: 219, 221, 225, 261; Grimal, 2007: 746, 747). On account of the oppression of Protesilaus to reveal them the location of Achilleus, Tiresias prophesied that 70 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Achilleus was on the island of Lycomedes, wearing women‟s clothing (Roman and Roman, 2010: 2). Just After the invasion of Theban by Epigons, Tiresias migrated from the city with other locals. One morning, they stopped by the side of a spring water known as Telphoussa. He passed away as soon as he drank water. According to another legend, he passed away while he was sent to Delphi as a captive or while he was going to Colophon with his daughter, Manto (Grimal, 2007: 747; Coleman, 2007: 995). In the Ancient Age West Anatolia, there were prophetesses like Cassandra. Manto was one of those prophetesses. After the invasion of Thebans by Epigons, Manto was taken captive and dedicated to Apollo as a sacrifice in Delphi. Manto became skilled during the stay in Delphi (March, 2001: 290, 475; Grimal, 2007: 459). After a while, Manto came to the city situated in the Asia Minor2. She was captured by Cretans who were making war with the local Carians and Rakius, the leader of Cretans, married Manto and she bore him a son, Mopsus (March, 2001: 475; Grimal, 2007: 459; Coleman, 2007: 668). When Mopsus grew up, he became the oracle of Apollo in Claros (see Claros). The other prophetess in the Ancient Age was Herophile. Herophile one of the prophetesses known as Sibylle were mentioned in a lot of places (Rose, 2005: 114). Herophile was the daughter of a Nympha living in Troas3 and Theodoros, a sheepherd in the Mounth Ida. Her first prophecy was that city of Troy would be tolled the death knell on account of a woman coming from Spartan (March, 2001: 700; Rose, 2005: 114; Grimal, 2007: 278, 713) and she interpretted the dream of Hecabe and advised her to kill the infant as soon as it was born (Graves, 1960, 363). Herophile wandered around the world and came to Claros, Samos, Delos and Delphi. When she prophesied, she stepped up onto a stone which she carried along with her (Grimal, 2007: 278). 3. Prophecy of Apollo in the Ancient Age West Anatolia 2.1. Letoon Letoon being a wealthy region in terms of spring waters even in ancient ages, is a a sanctuary place situating four kilometers from Xantos and in the west coast of Xantos River (Akurgal, 1988: 489). The name of Letoon stems from Leto, the mother of Apollo and Artemis and the daughter of Titan Koius and Titan Phoibe. According to the legend, Having learnt Leto‟s being pregnant, Hera did everything in order to prevent that birth. No pieces of land accepted Leto. Leto came to Island of Delos relentlessly and had her twins there. Afterwards, on account of being afraid of Hera, Leto came to Lykia. While she was resting near a water spring in order to wash her twins, sheepherds prevented Leto‟s taking the water from the spring. Losing her temper on account of the sheepherds‟ attitudes towards her, Leto transformed them into frogs. A Cult was founded at that place where that miraculous incident had happened (Des Courtils, 2003: 130; Grimal, 2007: 430). Although the cult of Apollo doesn‟t predominate in the sanctuary place of Letoon, it is important in terms of being worshipped with Leto and Artemis in the same sanctuary place. At this place, there is just an evidence connected with Apollo is a mosaic pavement, on the cella of one of the temples, dating back to the second century B.C. It is remarkable that there are three figures reflecting Apollo‟s features. One of them is a motif situated on the right side of the plaque and decorated with lyra depicting artistic aspect of Apollo. On the left side of the plaque, arrow and quiver, being the other features of Apollo, are depicted. This brings to mind the quality of “archer god” of Apollo. Finally, there is a motif depicting of the Sun, the other symbol of Apollo, situated in the middle of the plaque (Des Courtils, 2003: 142, 143). 2 Anatolia 3 The whole land of Çanakkale, a region comprising Biga Peninsula 71 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 2.2. Patara Ancient city of Patara is situated in a region, known as Gelemiş at the present time, eleven kilometers west of Xantos. Patara was among the coastal towns of Lykia in the Ancient Age (Akurgal, 1988: 490; Gürdal, 2007: 133). Like other cities associated with Apollo, there is a legendary story of Patara. According to the legend, Apollo and a nympha called as Lykia had a child known as Ikadius. The name of Lykia was given to the country where he was born. When he grew up, he came to Patara and founded the Oracle there. Afterwards, He decided to go to İtaly; however, his ship went down without arriving there. A dolphin brought him to mountainside of Parnassus. When Ikadius arrived in Parnassus, he founded a city called as Delphi in memory of the dolphin rescuing him (Grimal, 2007: 323). Contrary to Letoon, the cult of Apollo comes into prominence in Patara. The original data is reached from Herodotus stating that Prophetesses, associated with Apollo, were confined to the temple during the night with the purpose of getting in contact with the God. At the same time, Herodotus also mentioned that those Prophetesses couldn‟t be reached (Herodotus, 1920: 227). It might probably be stemmed from serving of the temple in winter months. Işık (2008: 346) has mentioned that Kokarsu believed to heal wounds by local people and being two kilometers away from Patara is the same water spring which healed the wounds of Telephus in accordance with the suggestion of Oracle of Apollo. According to what Gürdal (2007) has cited by Pausanias, Patara was also a city where Telephus gave a bronze pot made by Hephaistus, as a gift to Apollo. Gürdal (2007) has also stated that Apollo was known as Patroos in the region and that oracle center gained such a reputation and worthiness to compete with Dephi and Delos in the Roman Age. 2.3. Hierapolis According to Sevin (2001: 203), Hierapolis was founded by Seleucus and in 190 B.C. it was captured by Eumenes the second, the king of Pergamon and ıt was named as “Hiera” or “Hiero”, legendary founder of Pergamon. According to a research in 1960‟s, a large marble building correlated with Apollo known as “Plutonion” which was situated on the top of monumental stairs and near underground chasm was revealed (Negri and Leucci, 2006). On account of an epidemic illness in the Ancient Age, there were five cities mentioned in the sources. Those were thought to be Pergamon, Hierapolis, Caesarea Trokketa, Callipolis and most probably Sardis. In order to tackle that epidemic, on the one hand, The God Apollo advised Pergamon to constitute four choirs consisting of young men so as to sing hymns to Zeus, Dionysus, Athena and Asclepius and make sacrifices. On the other hand, he said to inhabitants of Hierapolis that the Earth was angry owing to the death of Python, and advised them to make sacrifices to her, to Aether4 and the other gods, told them to consecrate statues of Apollo the Archer averting plagues and to send choirs of boys and girls to sing in his sanctuary at Claros (Johnston, 2008: 80). According to what Gürdal (2007: 109) cited by D‟Andria (2003: 136), the Sanctuary of Apollo is situated in the middle of Hierapolis, in other words in the heart of the city and is surrounded by a temenos wall which was accompanied by porches built with Doric order. The sanctuary is situated within the boundaries of Temenos5 and there are sacred cave known as Plutonion6, building of prophecy and a monumental fountain situating on opposite side of the temple in the sanctuary. Strabo mentioned that Plutonion as (Strabo, 1960: 187): 4 One of the Gods in the Greek Mythology, Air God of the Upper Atmosphere. 5 A sacred place surrounding the temple. 6 The caves which were believed to be the entrances to the hell in the Roman Period. 72 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY “First, near the Mesogis, opposite Laodiceia, to Hierapolis, where are the hot springs and the Plutonium, both of which have something marvellous about them; for the water of the springs so easily congeals and changes into stone that people conduct streams of it through ditches and thus make stone fences consisting of single stones, while the Plutonium, below a small brow of the mountainous country that lies above it, it is an opening of only moderate size, large enough to admit a man, but it reaces a considerable depth, and it is enclosed by a quadrilateral handrail, about half a plethrum7 in circumference, and this space is full of a vapour so misty and dense that one can scarcely see the ground. Now to those who approach the handrail anywhere round the enclosure the air is harmless, since the outside is free from that vapour in calm weather, for the vapour then stays inside the enclosure, but any animal that passes inside meets instant death.” And he also mentioned (Strabo, 1960: 187): “But the Galli8, who are eunuchs, pass inside the such impunity that they even approach the opening, bend over it, and descend into it to a certain depth though they hold their breath as much as they can.” D‟Andria (2004: 149) verified those data which Strabo had mentioned in the reports of excavation by saying that they came across small birds exposed to the gas evolution in front of the Plutonion in some mornings. Besides D‟Andria (2004), Negri and Leucci (2006) also stated about the Plutonion that: “The Plutonion is a chamber wide enough for a person to enter and very deep, broadening as one descends. There is a hole 9 m in diameter surrounded by a fence, which is covered by a thich mist, making it impossible to see inside. The air outside the fence is quite clear, and when no wind is blowing there is no danger in approaching it, but any living creature that enters the whole dies instantly.” In Hierapolis, the process of prophecy was a bit different by comparison with Didyma or Claros. First of all, as we understand from what Gürdal (2007: 110) cited by D‟Andria (2003: 223-231) that the people wanting to consult the prophecy of Hierapolis, took 24 tickets on which each of the letters of Greek Alphabet were written. After that, they chose one of them and got an answer by looking the inscription on which there was a response to each one of all the letters. 2.4. Alabanda Alabanda, one of the cities of Caria Reigon in the Ancient Age, is situated four kilometers away from west of river of Marsyas (Akurgal, 1988:475). Although the name of Alabanda was sometimes mentioned in the sources dating back to the ancient ages, continuity informations about the history of Alabanda in the sources weren‟t observed. The very first data about Alabanda date back to the Period of Hittites. According to what Bağdatlı (2006) has cited by the study on the historical geography of the Hittite Empire of Gargstang and Gurney, although there hasn‟t been found prof positive, they mentioned that while launching an expedition to a city known as Ahhiyawa, the name of one of the sites that Mursilis the second passed, was Waliwanda and that may most probably be Alabanda. Strabo, one of the most notable authors in the ancient age, mentioned the location of the city and how a prosperous city it was (Strabo, 1960: 299): “Alabanda is also situated at the foot of hills, two hills that are joined together in such a way that they present the appearance of an ass laden with panniers. And indeed Apollonius 7 Unit of measure in Ancient Greece, a plethrum is equivalent to 30.83 meters. 8 Priests of Cybele 73 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Malacus, in ridiculing the city both in regard to this and in regard to the large number of scorpions there, said that it was an "ass laden with panniers of scorpions." Both this city and Mylasa are full of these creatures, and so is the whole of the mountainous country between them. Alabanda is a city of people who live in luxury and debauchery, containing many girls who play the harp. Alabandians worthy of mention are two orators, brothers, I mean Menecles, whom I mentioned a little above, and Hierocles, and also Apollonius and Molon, who changed their abode to Rodes” The other Information about Alabanda is obtained from Herodotus. He stated that there was Aridolis, the tyran of Alabanda, among the prisoners whom Persians had captured during the naval warfare between Greek and Persian near Euboi in 480 B.C. (Herodotus, 7, 195)9. On the other hand, the first information about the Temple of Apollo in Alabanda is obtained from “The Ten Books on Architecture” which was written by Vitrivius. Vitrivius mentioned The Temple of Apollo in Alabanda in the chapter “Classification of Temples” of his book while he was defining the types of temples: “The pseudodipteral is so constructed that in front and in th rear there are in each case eight columns, with fifteen on each side, including th corner columns. The walls of teh cella in front and in the rear should be directly over against the four middle columns. Thus there will be a space, the width of two intercolumniations plud the thickness of the lower diameter of a column, all round between the walls and the rows of columns on the outside. There is no example of this in Rome, but at magneisa there is the temple of Diana by Hermogenes, and that of Apollon at Alabanda by Mnesthes” (Vitrivius, 1914: 78). In addition to what Vitrivius mentioned, it may be said that the excavations of Ethem Bey at the beginning of the twentieth century, formed the basis of Isotimos Temple of Apollo in Alabanda (Bağdatlı, 2001: 13). It has been stated that the temple, was dedicated to Apollo Isotimos, to defied Augustus and to public as a result of the inscription, unearthed as a result of the excavations. It is possible that the inscription is the only evidence confirming what ancient age writers mentioned about the past of the city. According to what Bağdatlı (2006) cited by Laumonier (1958), the name of “Ismotimos” was used in the meaning of “equality to Zeus Khrysaoreus” (Bağdatlı, 2006). 2.5. Telmissos Telmissos, as being one of the Lelegian cities that Mauosoles connected to Halicarnassus, is located 10 km away from Halicarnassus (Gürdal 2007: 19). Apollon Telmissos was considered to be the prime god of the city Telmissos. In a battle against the Persian King Cyros, on realizing the weakness of his forces, the Lydia King Croesus took the decision to withdraw from the region to Sardis. After having spent the winter in Sardis, he aimed at going to war against the Persian by providing his forces with some help and support from the nearby kingdoms (the Egyptian, the Babylonian, the Lacedaemonian) in spring again. But Croesus never happened to think of the possibility that the Persian King Cyros might approach Sardis. In the meantime that Croesus turned up Sardes,snakes started to raid climbing up the external walls of the city.When the snakes appeared, horses acted as if they had been determined not to leave the pastures that they were accustomed to and ate up all the snakes at one stretch. Telmissos sent a group of envoys to his interpreter so that he could interprete that miracle. The envoys were not able to convey the information that they had got from the interpreter of Telmissos to Croesus because Croesus had already been taken prisoner before they turned up Sardes. The Monk of Telmissos had foretold them that Croesus should be prepared for an attack on his country and when that attack was performed, it would make all the inhabitants in 9 The History of Herodotus, parallel English/Greek, tr. G. C. Macaulay, [1890], at sacred-texts.com 74 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY the city obey and the snakes were the children of the Earth but the horses were the enemies or foreign bodies. But when that information was about to be conveyed to Croesus, the Sardis city had already been invaded and Croesus had been prisoned (Herodotus, 1973: 78-80). Grimal (2007: 206) mentiones about two Hyperboreans called Galeotes and Telmessos related to the foundation of the oracle of Telmissos. Galeotos was the son of Themista, the daughter of the Hyperborean King Zabios and Apollon.When Galeotes and Telmessos went to the oracle of Dodona to consult him, he advised them that one was supposed to walk towards the East while the other one was heading for the west until an eagle appeared to snatched the sacrifical flesh away on the course of votive offerings.And told them to found an altar at the scene of the event. Galeotes went to Sicily and Telmessos arrived in Caria. When Midas, the King of Phrygia trooped in the Asia Minor directed by the Brigian, Gordios the childless King of Phrigia adopted him. One day, as he was plowing his field, he was surprised to withness when a magnificent eagle flew down and perched on the yoke of his ox cart remaining there all day long. Upon that, he went to Telmissos of Phrigia where a highly respected priest used to live. When Gordios arrived at the very doorway of the city, an oracle welcomed him and she noticed the eagle still perching on the yoke of the ox cart. There she insisted him on sacrificing to the god Zeus immediately. She told Gordios „ Let me accompany you, the peasant „ and warned him „ Make sure you have chosen the right sacrifice „ Then Gordios replied her „ of course „ and asked her „You are a wise and thoughtful woman,will you marry me?‟ „As soon as the sacrifice has been offered‟ the woman replied him. The King of Phrigia died without any reason and an oracle called out to the Phrigian telling them that the new king and his bride were about to approach the city on the ox cart. When Gordios arrived at the agora of Telmissos on his ox cart, he was proclaimed king. After his death, Midas took his position (Graves 1960: 167). In a text dated back to the end of 3 BC, it is stated that Apollon Telmissos, the oracle and the priest founded a kind of sect called as „thiasos‟, and all the members of the families pertained their whole power to keep the existence of that sect and for the sake of their belief, they spent money in order to make sacrifice and buy land for the god (Gürdal 2007: 21). 2.6. Didyma The foundation of Apollo oracle in Didyma is connected to a legend. As Fontenrose (1988: 118-119) narrated by Connon and Varro, a Delphi citizen whose name was Democles had a son called Smikros. Having listened to what a soothsayer told him, he came to Miletos with his son. After they had had their meal, he went on his destination but leaving Smikros on the coast behind. A goatherd found the boy and took him to his father Eritharses. Eritharses liked him as much as he liked his son. One day Smikros and Eritharses‟ son caught a swan while they were pasturing the goats and got it to dress up. Then they began arguing about who would give that swan to Eritharses. When they finally got tired of arguing and pulled up the cloth off the swan and made it undressed, they noticed that they made a woman purely naked who was the goddess of the Leukothean and then she asked them to do her the honour of helding a competition. Then Smikros got married to a daughter of a distinguished person from Miletos. When she became pregnant,she had a dream about the sun descenting from the sky,visiting every corner of her body and then leaving her out through her belly.When the soothsayers were consulted they stated that it was a blessed sign. She called the baby Bragkhos by birth. After he had grown up, Apollo saw him one day while he was pasturing his herd and was very much fond of him. Later on Bragkhus built an alter to Apollo and founded a center of oracle in Didyma located in the South of Miletos (Grimal 2007: 122). Just the opposite of Grimal (2007) and Erhat (1996), it is written in some sources that the founder of the oracle of Apollo was Machaereus, the ancester of the Bragkhos, he who became infamous for being the murderer of Neoptelemos (Kennedy, 1998: 197). No matter how the 75 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY legend ended ,whatever a family or a clan or an institution it was,it was known that the Branchiadian conducted all the acts of worship in the heart of the oracle and had an effective way of ruling as to have that holly place called by their reputation (Fontenrose, 1988; Eren, 2008). In the center of worship, certain rituels of sacrifice would be carried out and the animals to be sacrificed were of bulls, sheepand goats. As for Seleucos Nikator and Antiochus, in 288 BC, it was documented in the inscriptions that he had sent 1000 sheep and 12 bulls as votive offerings (Gürdal, 2007: 45 cited by Rehm, 1958). Among the things that had been vowed most for Apollon Didymeus, there were the phiales to come across. The rich used to offer golden phialaies. Fontenrose (1988: 66) states that there found the candles, golden censers and cups in various types, hole digging tools, earthenware pitchers, tea pots, baskets and golden crowns in the inscriptions. Among the people who had made those offerings, Antiochus who had sent him 318 drahmas, a couple of palimpotas of two obels was considered to be as one of them (Fontenrose, 1988: 66). Fontenrose (1988: 68-69) also mentiones that a charitable called Eudemos had had a school built near the temple and sacrificed an ox to Didymeia every four year. On those days, anyone was possible to be positioned as a soothsayer for several times. Claudias Damas was eighty-one when he was promoted for that mission forth he second time and probably in the 1st century, a poseidonios man was another to be promoted for the third time. At the same time, there were no limitations of age for being an oracle. When he was honoured with that position, Claudias Damas was eighty-one whereas Markus Ulpius Flavianus Phileas was only twenty-three when he undertook the position of his father as an oracle. Similar to Phileas, most of the oracles used to be either the children or the grandchildren of the oracles. But in Miletos, the art of prophecy was not limited to any certain families, any male citizen could be promoted to that position. It was put forward in the inscriptions that, after 334 BC, as it happened in Dephoi, a woman who had been inspired by Apollon conveyed his quotes to the people who would consult (Fontenrose, 1988: 55). In Apollon Didymeus several feasts used to be celebrated, among those the most significant ones were the Didymeia feasts. During the feasts starting with certain rituels of sacrifice, various music contests and sports competitions used to be organized and for those especially related to both theatre and music, the Miletos theatre was used (Fountenrose, 1988: 71). 2.7. Claros Sacred place of Claros is 13 km away from the southeast of Colophon/ Degirmendere and 2 km away from North of Notion (Şahin, 1998: 17). The importances of Claros may probably resulted from having been one of the most notable oracle centers of that age. The date correlated with the cult of Apollo goes back to the period of Mycenae 13th Century B.C. and 12th Century B.C. According to a legend, a group of Cretans came to Colophon and defeated the local Carians and captured Colophon under the leadership of Rhacius. After a bit later of the colonization of Mycenaean, the region confronted another flow of migrants coming from Theban. However, Cretans didn‟t let them come in the city. Among that flow of migrants, there was a woman known as Manto, the daughter of Tiresias and a prophetess of Apollo. Rhacius, the leader of Cretans fell in love with Manto at first sight (Şahin, 1998: 19). That legend was told differently in some sources. Kennedy (1998) and Grimal (2007) mentioned that when Thebai was besieged, Tiresias prophesied that the city would be invaded, so he advised the local Thebans to leave the city at a nighttime and that he also set off with the other flow migrants but he died as soon as he drank some water by the side of the water spring known as Telphoussa. They also mentioned that before they captured Thebai, Epigons had decided to sacrifice the most beautiful woman they would take captive for this reason, Manto, the daughter of Tiresias, was taken captive and then she was sacrificed to the God, Apollo. On account of living in the Temple of Apollo in Delphi through long ages, Manto 76 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY became skilled in prophesying. Grimal (2007) told that Manto was sent to Anatolia by Apollo and she got married with Rhacius, one of Cretans. According to what Şahin (1998: 20) cited by Apollonius “Manto the daughter of Tiresias was sent to Delphi among the spoils of war in order to sacrifice to the God. When se was getting out of the temple, she ran across Raikus, the son of Lebes, a Mycanean. Raikus got married with Manto and he brought away her to Colophon. When Manto came to Colophon, she broke into tears on account of losing her motherland. She founded a temple in honour of Apollo. By virtue of the tears of Manto, a spring water came about in Claros. As regards to Raikus, the reason why he was given that name was that he was dressed badly and he was poor”. On the other hand, Erhat (1996: 199) mentioned that Manto came to Claros by herself and that she was taken captive by pirates and got married to Rhocius, the leader of them and that bore him Mopsus. In spite of the fact that the legend was told differently, Manto came to Colophon and bore a child known as Mopsus and founded the cult of Apollo in Claros. Mopsus, the son of Manto became a skilled oracle in Claros. After the army of Achaean had devastated Troy, they came together in order to set sail for their homeland. However, what Aias the Lesser hailing from Locris had done to Cassandra, the daughter of Priam, brought down Athena‟s vengeance. When Troy was conquered by Achaean forces, Cassandra took refuge in the Temple of Athena. Aias dragged Cassandra from the local altar of Athena and raped her. Achaeans wanted to lapidate him by virtue of his insolence but he saved his life by skipping out to the Temple of Athena and taking shelter by the atlar of Athena. Not only Aias but also all the other Achaean fleets paid the penalty for that insolence by being exposed to storm (March, 2001: 70; Nardo, 2002: 16; Schwab, 2004: 609-610; Coleman, 2007: 41). A dispute started between Menelaus and Agamennon whether they should set sail for their homeland or stay on the shore after they all had seen the rage of Athena. All the fleet of Achaean were somehow exposed to the rage of Athena during their voyages except for Amphilochus, Calchas, Leontes, Podalirius and Polypotes who left their vessels behind on the shore of Illıum10 and came to Colophon by land. Calchas had known the prophecy that when he came across an oracle, sager than him, he would pass away. When they arrived at Colophon, they were hosted by Mopsus, the son of Manto, one of prophetesses of Apollo and a debate over foretelling the future between Calchas and Mopsus began. Apollodorus mentioned that event as follows: “A wild fig-tree grew on the spot, and when Calchas asked, „How many figs does it bear?‟ Mopsus answered, „Ten thousand, and a bushel, an one fig over‟ and they were found to be so. And when Mopsus asked Calchas concerning a pregnan sow, „How many pigs has she in her womb, and when will she farrow?‟ Calchas answered, „Eight‟. But Mopsus smiled and said, „The divination of Calchas is the reverse of exact; but I, as a son of Apollo and Manto, am extremely rich in the sharp sight which comes of exact divination, and I divine that the number of pigs in the womb is not eight, as Calchas says, but nine, and that they are all male and will be farrowed without fail tomorrow at the sixth hour” When the things Mopsus had said turned out so, Calchas died of grief and he was buried at Notium (Apollodorus, 1921: 245). Hesiod told the story a bit different from Apollodorus. According to what Strabo cited by Hesiod (Strabo, 1960: 233- 235): “„I am amazed in my heart at all these figs on this wild fig tree, small though it is; can you tell me the number?‟ And Calchas makes Mopsus reply: „They are ten thousand in number, and their measure is a medimnus11; but there is one over, which you cannot put in the measure.” Oracle Center of Claros, played a significant role in establishment of New Symrna. When Alexander the Great was sleeping under a tree on the Pagos Hill, he saw Nemesis in his 10 One of the names of Troy in latin 11 About a bushel and a half (About 54 kg) 77 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY dream. She told him to found the new city there and make the habitants move to there. As soon as he woke up, he went to Claros in order to make his dream interpret. Oracle of Apollo told him: “Habitants living in Pagos, off side of Sacred Stream of Meles would become happy threefold or fourfold”. So, the new city was founded on Pagos Hill on account of that prophecy (Şahin, 1998: 23). Prophecy in Claros began right after the past sun down under the torchlights. A Ciereus12, a prophetes13, a thespioidos14 a graphylochos15 and a kleidophoros or kleidouchos16 served in the temple. The man carrying the key of the temple had no dealing with the prophecy and the oracles transmitting the order of God, put into words those prophecies with hexametron prosody17. Some officials were chosen for annually like prophetes, but some like thespiodos took charge in the temple for lifelong. Although function of prophecy was undertaken by mostly women, sometimes respectively by women or men in the other Oracle Centers that function was carried out by only men in the Oracle centers of Apollo Claros, Apollo Ptoion and Apollo Koropaios (Şahin, 1998: 26). During the Imperial Period, people consulting the Oracle Center of Claros inscribed the names of themselves, the cities from which they came, the dates they visited and the officials taking care of them during their visit on the external walls, stairs and columns. From this material, it may be said that three of the officials played important role in the process of prophecy. First of them was the prophetes serving a year long period. The others were a priest and a thespioidos each of whom held office for a longer period. Some scholars state that the prophetes drank the water from the sacred spring and afterwards the thespioidos put what prophetes said into verse. On the other hand, some suggest that the one drinking the water from the sacred spring was the thespioidos and that the other putting into the verses was the prophetes. Whoever it was drinking the water from the sacred spring, he was most probably the only official admitted to the underground cave During the Imperial Period, people visiting Claros were patients coming from the Asia Minor rather than from Hellas18(Johnston, 2008: 77-78). Prophecy in Claros began right after the past sun down under the torchlights. People coming from all over the world in order to solve their problems could come in front room of adyton19. The chieftains coming to consult on behalf of their homelands were called as “theoros” or “theopropos” and they were the only ones admitted to the adyton. They sat on sediles with the prophetes or waited standing beside the omphalos20. The graphycos (amanuensis) wrote the questions on the plaques standing on their knees and then thespiochos took those plaques and passed to the back room of adyton where the sacred well was situated. After he had drunk some water, he went into trance, posed questions to the God and received the answers. Those responses were put into verses by prophetes. Finally, they were delivered to the people who consulted (Şahin, 1998: 27). 3. Tour Route of Prophecy West Anatolia is one of the most important settlements in the Asia Minor hosting a lot of legends and wars not only in the ancient ages both also at the present time. It is also important with regards to being a territory where the cult of Apollo spreaded to the other regions and 12 Priest 13 Oracle 14 A man who interpret the prophecy, medium 15 Amanuensis, secretary 16 A man who carry the key of the temple 17 A traditional Hellene prosody. Homeros and Herodot used that prosody. 18 Greek mainland 19 The sacred room of the temple 20 A sacred Stone standing in the front room of Apollo Temples 78 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY countries. When we draw a line from the North to the South of the West Anatolia, we come across a lot of settlements correlating with Apollo. Cnidos, Letoon, Patara, Hierapolis, Alabanda, Telmissos, Didyma, Claros and Troas are the most important settlements in the West Anatolia correlated with Apollo. When it is evaluated with regards to tourism, a lot of tours are organized to the region. However, there hasn‟t been any tour under the name of “Tour of Oracle” so this has constituted the starting point of the research. When considered from this aspect, a tour program lasting two nights and three days can be carried out. It must be pointed that entrances to the ruins have been arranged according to the day light saving time. Internet Page of Maps Google has been used to determine the interzonal distances. There are such airlines as Turkish Airlines, Pegasus, Atlasjet, Sun Express and Onur Air shuttling from İstanbul to Dalaman. Guests coming from abroad could arrive in Dalaman by the plane of Turkish Airlines21 making a flight from İstanbul Atatürk Airport to Dalaman Airport at 10.45. The first day of the tour starting at 11.30 comes to an end in Hierapolis at about 21.30 once after the visit of Letoon and Patara. Second day of the tour starts at 07.30 with the visit of Hierapolis. Right after the visit the ruins of Hierapolis, the guests depart for Alabanda and they have lunch in Çine at 12.30. After the visit of Alabanda, the group depart for Telmissos at 15.00 and stay overnight at a hotel in Bodrum. Third day of the tour starting at 07.30 goes on with the visit of Didyma at 09.30. After the lunchtime at 12.30 in Selçuk, Claros is visited and afterwards they depart for İzmir at 15.30. After the setting time for the guests for shopping, They are transferred from İzmir to İstanbul with the flight of Turkish Airlines at 21.00. There are some significant points to determine about this tour. One of them is that although Smintheon in Troas is correlated with Apollo, it has been excluded. Being in a different location of Troas is the main reason of that. Cnidos, the other settlement in Datca Peninsula correlated with Apollo has also been excluded due to the same reason. When all of which are evaluated, there will be a tour schedule as follows: I. DAY: İstanbul- Dalaman Airport (Landing at 10.45, Turkish Airlines) 11.30 Departure to Gocek 12.00 Gocek (Lunchtime) (Dalaman- Gocek 23km, 32 min.) 13.00 Departure to Letoon 14.30 Arrival to Letoon (Gocek- Letoon 88km, 1 hour and 30 min.) 15.30 Departure to Patara 16.00 Arrival to Patara (Letoon- Patara 18km, 30 min.) 17.00 Departure to Hierapolis 21.30 Arrival to the Hotel in Hierapolis (Kas- Hierapolis 296km, 4 hours and 20 min.). II. DAY: 07.30 Departure to Hierapolis 08.00 Hierapolis 09.30 Departure to Alabanda (Hierapolis- Alabanda 158km, 3 hour and 8 min.) 12.30 Lunchtime in Cine 13.30 Departure to Alabanda (Cine- Alabanda 10,5km, 20 min.) 21 http://www.atmairport.aero/ucus_gelis_ichatlar.php ATM Dalaman Airport 79 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 13.45 Alabanda 15.00 Departure to Telmissos (Alabanda- Telmissos 111km, 2 hours) 17.00 Telmissos 18.30 Departure to the Hotel 19.00 Arrival to the Hotel in Bodrum III. DAY: 07.30 Departure to Didyma 09.30 Didyma (Bodrum- Didyma 118km, 2 hours) 11.00 Departure to Selcuk 12.30 Lunchtime in Selcuk (Didyma- Selcuk 92km, 1 hour and 30 min.) 13.30 Departure to Claros (Selcuk- Claros 20km, 20 min.) 14.00 Claros 15.30 Departure to İzmir 16.40 İzmir, Konak (Ahmetbeyli- Konak 53km, 1 hour and 7 min.) 16.40-19.30 Setting time for the guests for shopping in Konak 19.30 Departure to Adnan Menderes Airport ( Konak- Adnan Menderes Airport 16km, 30 min.) 20.00 Adnan Menderes Airport 21.00 Flight (Turkish Airlines (From İzmir to İstanbul) 80 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Picture 1 Route of the Oracle Centers in the West Anatolia Maps Google Web Page: https://maps.google.com/ 4. Conclusions A lot of places correlated with the cult of Apollo have been spotted in the Ancient Age West Anatolia. Letoon, Patara, Hierapolis, Alabanda, Telmissos, Didyma and Claros may be considered as the ones associated with the prophecy. The abundance of the oracles and myths of prophecies about so called cities has brought to mind a suggestion for carrying out a tour schedule. Besides these cities, Oinoanda, Sura, Philedelphia, Thyateira, Sardis, Eumeneia, Kyzikos, Germe, Smintheon, Thymbra, Troia, Gryneion, Aigai, Magnesi ad Maendrum, Smyrna, Erythrai, Cnidos, Caunos, Myndos, Amos, Loryma, Amyzon, Neandria and Mylasa are also among the cities associated with the prophecy of Apollo (Gürdal, 2007: 3-4). However, apart from Region of Troas and Cnidos, one of the reasons why the formerly mentioned cities are excluded from the tour schedule is that the cult of Apollo wasn‟t a dominant power in those cities. The main reason why both of the cities were excluded from the tour schedule is that the cities are situated in different routes. Including Cnidos situated in Datca Peninsula in the tour schedule means about a twelve hour waste. That is to say, a visit to Cnidos will cause to overrun the time for another one more day. This tour has been scheduled with the aim of visiting as many cities associated with the cult of Apollo as possible in the shortest possible time. On account of this, Datca Peninsula hasn‟t been included in the schedule. The reasons why the region of Troas hasn‟t been included in the tour schedule are that except for Smintheon, the cult of Apollo wasn‟t dominant in the other settlements and that the take off would have to be from İstanbul and that after the visit of Troas, a next coming long journey would be waiting for the guests. Most probably, the main disadvantage of the schedule is that the very day would be very tiresome because just after the 81 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY visits of Letoon and Patara, there is for about a four hour journey to Hierapolis. Another disadvantage is that the schedule hasn‟t been carried out practically. “Maps Google” has been used to estimate both the distances among the cities and the time in the process of scheduling the tour. Next researches aiming at determining the profile of tourists interested in the cult of Apollo and prophecy, marketing of the regions correlated with the cult of Apollo, devising projects reflecting the process of a prophecy (devising buildings showing similarities with the temples of Apollo in the Ancient Age) and doing a cost analysis for such a tour of prophecy may contribute to the literature. References Akurgal, E. (1988). Anadolu Uygarlıkları. İstanbul: Net Turistik Yayınları. 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Daly, K.N. (2009). Greek and Roman Mythology A to Z (revised by M. Rengel). New York: Infobase Publishing. D‟Andria, F. (2004). Hierapolis 2003. 26. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı II. Cilt, 24-28 Mayıs 2004, Konya: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları, pp.147-156. Des Courtils, J. (2003) The Guide to Xanthos and Letoon, Ege Yayınları: İstanbul. Eren, K. (2008). Didyma- Klaros Bir Karşılaştırma Denemesi. In I. Uluslar arası Antik Dönemde Kehanet ve Apollon‟un Kültleri Sempozyum Bildirileri, 17-20 Agustos 2005. İzmir: Ege Universitesi, Arkeoloji Dergisi (Ege University) 2008/2, pp. 69-74. Erhat, A. (1996). Mitoloji Sözlüğü. Remzi Kitabevi: İstanbul. Fontenrose (1988). Didyma: Apollo‟s Oracle, Cult and Companions. University of California Press: London. Graves, R. (1960). The Greek Myths Revised Edition), Grimal, P. (2007). Mitoloji Sözlüğü Yunan ve Roma (Translated by S. Tamgüç), Kabalcı Yayınevi: İstanbul. Gürdal, T. (2007). Anadolu‟da Apollon Kültü. 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Cambridge: Harward Universitiy Press, London: Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press. 83 Rihla: Activist Of Campus Da’wah Institute’s Lifestyle In Urban Area Jhane Pebyana Wilis and Nur Aida Mardhatila (co-author) Universitas Indonesia Department of Sociology and Department of Politics Science Faculty of Social and Politics Sciences Indonesia e-mail: jhanewilis@ymail.com, mardhatillanuraida@gmail.com Abstract It is important to know why rihla is eagerly awaited by activist of campus da’wah insitute and it has already been a part of Islam student activist in urban area. For this case I took Universitas Indonesia as the scope of research and Islam activists to be informant. Rihla is an da’wah activist’s activity outside their secretariat or formal events. The main purposes are to strengthen silahturahim and enhance the understanding of the nature (tafakur alam or natural recognition). Also in relation to the internal strengthening a movement, rihla can be means of strengthening the identity of member organizations. Strong solidarity can facilitate resource mobilization da’wah activities. Commonly rihla takes place in outdoors, such as mountain, waterfall, beach, forest, and so on. This activity is packaged in fun and informal, such as outbound, games, or simulations of cultural agenda that must be done. It is not wrong if rihla considers as a lifestyle. In order to postitif implications such the strengthening the organization. Due to the impact of rihla itself on activist of Universitas Indonesia has consolidated bonds and upheld unity. More the values which are brought are the value of Islamic norms and thankfulness to the Creator. Keywords: Da’wah, Activist, Rihla 1. Introduction Islam entered Indonesia through various ways, including trading, preaching, marriage, education, mysticism, religious congregations, as well as art. Through these channels Islam gradually spread in Indonesia. In the 14th century until the 15th century AD, when the Hindu Majapahit Empire had collapsed, the spread of Islam is still relatively in the port city. The merchants and scholars with his students play an important role. Port cities, such as Pasai (Sumatra) and Demak (Java) developed into kingdoms palace, education centers, as well as the spread of Islam who visited students from outside the area. Later in the Dutch colonial period around the 18th-century, colonial take over the system of government, especially in the Islamic kingdom of Java. The scholars and students chose exile to the countryside and some superior sending students to study religion in the Middle East. When the students who studied in the Middle East returned to Indonesia they become young scholars and established organizations in urban areas. Furthermore, these organizations, such as SI, Muhammadiyah, and Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) became the base of the Islamic youth movement against colonialism for independence. After the proclamation of independence August 17, 1945, Indonesia was led by President Sukarno in a period called the Old Order (1945-1966). During this period the upheaval of thought between the nationalist, religious, and communist, especially in terms of the formulation of the state. Indonesian Islamic group wants to be the state that based on Islamic values. The claim is brought in the 1955 Constituent Assembly in three main reasons. First, Islam is a concept that is whole and does not distinguish the state and society. Second, Islam appeared in the process of state formation and nation of Indonesia. Third, the fact is 85 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY quantitatively if Muslim is majority in Indonesia (Sunanto, 2005). The suit ultimately agreed, especially after the Islamic group (Masyumi) only received 44 percent of the vote in the 1955 election. While PNI and PKI, two other parties nationalist and communist ideology, more agreed basing on the principle of Pancasila. Furthermore, under the rule of President Suharto (1966-1998) Indonesia experienced authoritarian rule. Political participation is limited in order to maintain political stability for economic development. Learning from the Old Order where there is a conflict of ideologies, the government was doing Fusion Party. Parties in Indonesia merged into three groups: Islam, Nationalism, and Golongan Karya (Golkar). Golkar is an organizations such as the party of government at that time. Golkar always gets the most votes in each of the elections. While Islamic groups and the Nationalist limited role in terms of banning religious symbols or criticizing government policies. Although the participation of Islamist groups is limited in practical politics, but it is more developed at universities. The decline of ideologies in New Order made an impact on the younger generation to better explore Islam as the energy change in the community. Normalisasi Kehidupan Kampus (NKK / Campus Policy Normalization) and the Badan Koordinasi Kemahasiswaan (BKK / Student Coordinating Board) issued by the government to restrict the activities of student organizations do not apply optimally. Heads of various universities in major cities such as UI (Jakarta), ITB (Bandung), UGM and UII (Yogyakarta) implicitly allow students engage in a discussion or activity other underground organizations. The discussion was continued to the campus mosque. After New Order cover faucet mass political Islam, on the 1998 Reform taps wide open and gives students the opportunity to declare his organization activity. Ignas Kleiden (1999) in writing Sudarsono (2010) tried to explain this phenomenon is due to the explosion of the student movement ban on political activities during the New Order was more like quarantine to protect students from germs and viruses. In the case of Muslim students, space is becoming increasingly sterile quarantine when meeting with mosque variables are identical to sacred space and religious nuances. Not many people suspect that the mosque became a place for discussion and exchange students during the repressive reign until today become the base for activist of campus da’wah institute’s. Since the 1980's the movement of da’wah activist has built a strong network in the basement. Until the 1990's activists have started building the pillars of da’wah as lighters Islamic revival in Indonesia by targeting the campus and education. Campus as a center of civilization and development need to build a generation of educated intellectual morality, especially based on Islamic values. This is the main goal of the da’wah activist. Especially in the period of the 2000s, when political participation and ideological currents open widely, facing the opponent is no longer an authoritarian regime, but a war of ideas (ghazwul fikr). The euphoria of democracy post-1998 Reforms in parallel with the introduction of liberal thought and culture. This situation is supported by the rapid development of globalization. Kenichi Ohmae (1992) as quoted Dr. Nayef R.F. Al-Rodhan in his book titled Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definitions (2006) write the definition of globalization as "the onset of the borderless world." Limitation of the country increasingly blurred with the phenomenon of what is becoming a trend in Western countries can also become a trend in other countries, including lifestyle matrealisme and pragmatism. This new ideologies that influence the shift in the thinking of the youth, including a change in the character and contribution of young people in the democratic era (Mardhatila in KOMAP FISIPOL GMU, 2012). 86 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Nabiel Habib bin Fuad Al-Amin Musawa in the prologue of the book titled Ijtihad Membangun Base Gerakan (2010) writes that in the era of democracy, there are two types of dangers faced by Muslim students. First, secularism thought. On the one hand it contains the goodness when their purpose is to conduct scientific specialization according their respective fields. However, it would be dangerous if the purpose is to separate religion from science because they think science and religion are not incompatible logic. Second, the next danger of activist is culture shock (Cylde Khuckpohn). Most of the current Muslim students lose their identity and history as the heir of the great Islamic civilization. The material on the history and science world dominated by Western values. It is also exacerbated by sending students abroad without equipped with a solid base of faith. This situation became the reason for the phenomenon of brain drain and brain washing. Brain drain is a runaway intellectuals from Islamic countries to the developed countries because of incentives and greater life. While brain washing phenomenon manifested in changes in mindset and behavior of the intellectuals after returning to school from developed countries. Negative impacts, these phenomenon conflict with the culture and values of Islam that dominant in Indonesia. Nabiel writing is open discourse on the da’wah activists challenge facing the movement today. In addition to forming a professional management of da’wah and projects effectively and efficiently, the da’wah activists need to make internal activities to strengthen the base of the movement, the solidarity of its members. In this paper the authors raise rihla as da’wah activist activities undertaken to strengthen the relationship between goals and organizational members. In addition to the focus of the study, the authors take a case study at the Universitas Indonesia (Depok Campus). Special interests rihla as reinforcement base movement is then a background formulation of the problem: How can rihla be an activist of campus da’wah institute’s lifestyle in urban area? 2. Conceptual Framework 2.1 Definition of Rihla According Perwitasari (2004) rihla word implies a break. As a term, rihla aimed at recreational activities provide a means of refreshing the mind and heart. In general, rihla done by visiting outdoor attractions that provide a new atmosphere, in contrast to a typical day. Perwitasari also wrote several benefits of rihla, there are: as a means of refreshing to eliminate boredom that inhibits productivity; adds knowledge to broaden their horizons; cultivate a sense of gratitude to God: as a means of strengthening ukhuwah; social media mature emotional learning, particularly in interacting with people; as well as nourish the body with a variety of activities such as sports or other physical games. Based on these explanations can be concluded that rihla not only take a walk, sightseeing, or others benefit of religion an education, but also it can strengthen solidarity of the organization. 2.2 Definition of Da’wah Etymologically, da’wah comes from the Arabics, there are da'a, yad'u, da'wan, du'a are defined as the invite, call, request, and demand. At the practical level, da’wah should be involve and contain three elements, namely the messenger, the information submitted, and the recipient. However, da’wah implies wider than those terms. Because the term implies da’wah as an activity to convey the message of Islam, do good and prevent unjust deeds, and give good tidings and warnings to humans. According to Munir and Ilaihi (2006) based on the notion that da’wah has been collected in their book entitled Manajemen Da’wah, the essence of da’wah can be summed up as an 87 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY attempt to change people, both individuals and the community from bad to a better situation. Moreover, the term da’wah include, first, da’wah is an activity of a call or invite others to practice the teachings of Islam. Second, da’wah is the delivery of Islamic teaching is done consciously and deliberately. Third, da’wah is an activity whose implementation can be done in various ways or methods. Fourth, the mission was planned with the aim of looking for happiness in life on the basis of the pleasure of God. Fifth, efforts to increase understanding of the mission is to change the religious view, mental attitude, and behavior of people who do not conform to the teachings of Islam to suit the demands of shari'a to gain happiness in this world and the hereafter. 2.3 Group Identity Identity is defined as the process by which social actors recognize themselves and are recognized by others as part of a wider grouping, and build an emotional bond with them. The identity is not only shaped by social characteristics in common, but also a result of sharing orientation, values, perspectives, lifestyles, and experiences (Astarini, et.al., 2012). Identity can be exclusive where exclusion of other ideas, and to be inclusive where individuals can engage in some kind of collectivity at the same time. The formation or reproduction of identity is an important part of enabling individuals give meaning to their experiences and transformation. Identity is also an important component of collective action, through which the actors involved in the conflict are identified, build trust among members, and connect events from different periods. According to Porta and Diani (2006) there are two paradoxes of the concept of identity. First, social identification can simultaneously static and dynamic. On the one hand, identity can generate sustainability and robustness of members. On the other hand it also allows identity to the constant redefinition, where the modification of binding limits repeatedly. Second, is a multiple identity. Where social actors can have multiple identities at the same time. As an activist who was also a student, children, consumers, and citizens. Porta and Diani also wrote that the collective identification very rare a homogeneous identity and integrated strongly. This is because identity is formed through a social process, where the collectivity and the feeling of belonging among the groups are fluid. In reality, it is also very rare to find the identity of the dominant actors who are able to integrate a whole. In fact, identity tends to have a polycentric structure rather than hierarchy. This is because the motivations and expectations of individuals participating in social movements is very diverse and more diversified than the public image of the movements. 2.4 Resources Mobilization Porta and Diani in their book titled Social Movements an Introduction (Second Edition, 2006) wrote about the theory of resources mobilization that needed to understand the formation and consolidation of the beginning of a movement. The concept is based on the question, How can a movement attract the attention of someone that he wanted to join and be a participant of that movement or organization? The study of this theory begins by American sociologists in the 1970s about the study of the formation of the organization and concluded the importance of the resource to mobilize movements. In view of the early scientists, collective movements is a form of conventional political participation. The actors are bounded by rational interests, such as a movement that sponsored by a capitalist and able to contribute to the mass movement followed in large numbers. 88 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY The movement is part of the normal political process. The existence of obstacles in the form of provision of material resources (funds) to develop studies on the theory that the movement or organization can also be formed by a variety of other resources. Fulfillment of resource mobilization has an important position, because after that the movement can proceed with the strengthening of solidarity, development strategies, concrete action, and evaluation. Mobilization capacity of a movement or organization depends on the resource material and non-material. Material resources such as employment or the division of labor (work), money, concrete benefits, and services. While the non-material resources such as authority, moral engagement, faith, and friendship are formed in a group. Resources are distributed objectively and exchanged with each other among the members. 3. Description 3.1 Description of Interview Results Universitas Indonesia (UI) is one of the best universities which creates many reliable generations of the nation, determining the direction, as well as the rise and fall of the Indonesian state. UI students known as the ranks of students continuing to think critically and have role as a messengers of aspirations, both among students themselves and in the society. Oftentimes UI students engage in significant momentum in Indonesia. It is a form of actualization of the knowledge-gained and result of forging dynamically student activities running at the university. No doubt, too, that most of UI students are Muslim Students. Splendor of Muslim student activities characterized by varying shades of Muslim student activities, such as day-to-day commemoration of Islam, scientific studies theme of Islam, the development of Islamic art, and so on. The general framework of student over the activity is to strengthen the moral life functions and establish a climate of Islamic brotherhood among Muslims and the Muslimah Student in UI. The diversity of student activities nuanced Islam made organizing-process are varied. At the faculty level bodies are relatively independent as Forum for Islamic Studies (FSI), Mosque, Forum Brotherhood and Islamic Studies (FUKI), and the Forum Amal and Islamic Studies (Formasi). While at the university level, the organization of the activities carried out by Islam's Student Activity Unit (UKM) called Spirituality Nuance Students Islamic University of Indonesia (SALAM UI), which was officially established on October 28, 1998 in Ukhuwah Islamiyah Mosques (MUI) at Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. The da’wah institutions annualy work program according to the vision, mission and values of the organization. In the swift currents of globalization, activists’ challenges of work program are behavior and paradigm shift of Muslim students on campus. Theories and Western Culture adopted by college, in this case the UI, has influenced the way students toward liberal thinking and pragmatic. This phenomenon is the duty of the individual to the da’wah activist on campus to formulate more solid base movement, including the strengthening of identity and understanding of the members. One way to strengthen the da’wah institution by organizing solidarity among members, called ‘rihla’. In this study the authors conducted interviews with da’wah activists of faculty (LDF) and on campus (LDK), including two people on board of SALAM UI, one of (Forum of Islamic Studies of Faculty of Social and Politics Science) FSI FISIP UI board, and one of (Islamic Studies of Faculty of Computer Science) FUKI Fasilkom UI. From interviews with Arief Aditya (Chairman) and Syahidah Asmaamani (Head of External) which is the SALAM UI 2013 board, information of rihla that is generally understood as journey activity. The term is 89 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY derived from the Arabic and is commonly used to express the da’wah activist of campus activities roads that have a specific purpose, kind of glue relationships between members. Rihla essence starts from the organization atmosphere that can not be forced to do hard-work continuously. Completion of a work program requires professional-work and is identical to the situation serious and exhausting. Presence of rihla can be a means of refreshing and strengthening solidarity among members, in addition to other benefits such as matural recognition (tafakur alam) and enriching the knowledge. Both Aditya and Asmaamani agree that rihla is not a formal activity which become mandatory for every member of the organization. Due to rihla is cultural and not a formal agenda although in practice a routine that is always held annually in stewardship. Therefore, if there is a member who was unable to attend rihla may ask a permission and there is no specific sanction for it. Although rihla is cultural and not a mandatory agenda, but importance of rihla in every stewardship has made this activity as a lifestyle. Especially when rihla held outside the campus, such as natural attractions or other tourist areas that require careful planning in its realization. For da’wah activist of campus in urban that is almost hard to find a refreshing, rihla can be a means of adding new inspiration, strengthen solidarity organizations, and engage in natural recognition to encourage the spirit and rectify the intention of da'wah movement. Information about rihla not much different from two other informants that authors obtained. According to Arif Rahman Hakim (General Secretary of FUKI Fasilkom UI 2012) rihla has been doing by Islamic Organizations (Rohis) at secondary school level. Despite the difference, in higher-education level, rihla done with a more mature, like a mix-match between serious-fun agendas. Hakim agrued it is really important in organization to pack a serious agenda in a more fun because not all members are interested in serious things, and vice versa. It is also due to the ‘entertainment needs’ of human’s life. The same opinion was also obtained from Risza Damayanti (Head of Muslimah Department of FSI FISIP UI 2012). From the information gathered by the authors, adding that rihla, Damayanti can be performed by an organization in the beginning, middle, or end of stewardship. Both at the beginning and middle management of an organization, rihla intended to recognize and strengthen solidarity among the members. While at the end of the stewardship, generally rihla bring the alumni organization that later merged with the regeneration agenda. If the informant had previously said there was no specific sanctions if there are members who do not follow rihla, Damayanti have different answers when rihla linked in the process of regeneration. According to Damayanti, the absence of a person in rihla is no specific formal sanctions, but members will lose their right to vote, elected, or participate in the process of determining the next muslim activist on board which generally done in the form of deliberations (syuro'). Either Hakim or Damayanti agreed saying that rihla has become a lifestyle of muslim activist on campus, especially in urban areas. It is based on the human need for entertainment and the diversity of human character are not all members like serious agendas. The professionalism of the organization and purpose of the movement need to be packaged in fun activities in order to strengthen solidarity among members, and refresh the mind of every individual. Because the organization's work situation is identical to a busy schedule and completion targets that require workers to stay healthy both mentally and physically. Therefore rihla is always scheduled every year until arguably the da'wah activists on campus in urban’s lifestyle. 90 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 3.2 Analysis Rihla is a refreshing activity that deliberately scheduled the management of an organization to raise the spirit and refresh the mind of its members. It departs from the background situation of organizations, including da’wah institutions, which is identical with serious agendas with a busy schedule and tiring. Situation can lead to boredom and stagnation movement that affects disorientation and degradation of commitment. Broader negative impact is not achieving the vision, mission, and values that have been implemented. It is certainly not expected in an institution of da’wah campus that has a mission to strengthen the moral of Muslim students to be able when to go into the community with values of Islam. In this paper the author tries to analyze rihla in the socio-political context in which the activities of student organizations are also influenced by the country's political dynamics and the development of people's minds. It is against the backdrop of historical records that the student has a moral force in developing politically oriented movement. Including activists of da’wah that bases its motion on the situation in Indonesia as a Muslim majority country. Culturally, democracy emerging post-1998 Reforms have opened up the idea of new ideologies, especially those from the Western. In addition to the positive effects of globalization that brings progress the flow of information, technology and communication, the process also brings negative effects such as the spread of ideologies contrary to the domestic values. Capitalism, individualism, pragmatism is considered contrary to the values and culture of Indonesian people who are predominantly Muslim. Islam teaches people to always beneficial to each other, helping each other, and live a life based on the Al-Quran and Hadith. This situation challenges the activists of da’wah campus today. Especially in terms of building an Islamic moral of Muslim students that began degraded by Western values. A pattern of brain drain and brain washing that is packaged in the form of scholarships, student exchanges, and cooperation with universities in developed countries shows that Indonesian Muslim students who attend the program does not have the provision of Islamic morals that is strong enough. This is certainly be a concern especially the students are the next generation who determine the future direction of the nation. Therefore, as a driver of change morality, student activists, particularly in this paper are the da’wah activists, need to develop the activities of an organization that aims to strengthen understanding and identity as Muslims who uphold the values of Islam. The strength of identity can facilitate the resources of mobilization to the vision, mission, and values of the institution. And in this study the authors noticed that rihla is an activity that can strengthen the identity and facilitate mobilization. The author’s argument is based on interviews with da’wah activists by taking a case study in Universitas Indonesia. The results of these interviews indicate that rihla understood as recreational activities that have an implicit agenda to strengthen solidarity between members, as well as casual agenda to refresh the activist’s minds. Refresher required given formal organizational activities synonymous with serious agendas which require hard work and are exhausting. The rihla show if the serious agenda can be packaged in a form that is more enjoyable. Besides, rihla also has religious and educational mission. Because urban activist generally do rihla to natural attractions that have more calm and fresh atmosphere, away from the noise and hassle of urban area. Determining of the destination of rihla is important and meaningful because the da’wah activists can also add insight contemplation of nature and the beauty of the panorama or the availability of new information at rihla destination. Rihla as a reinforcement of the importance of identity members to facilitate the resources mobilization within a movement, making this activity as a regular agenda of da’wah campus 91 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY institutions. Although based on author interviews, rihla is not a non-formal agenda with absence of specific sanctions for members who are absent, but rihla remain on the agenda that must exist in any programming work. It is based on the human need for entertainment. In the context of resource mobilization theory, the needs of the entertainment is included in the non- material resources which include moral engagement, faith, and friendship. These resources are believed to strengthen the solidarity among members to keep running the movement according to the vision, mission and values of the organizations. Therefore rihla is a routine agenda and it is important, authors state that rihla can be considered as an activist of campus da’wah institute’s lifestyle in urban area. Thesis writers strengthened by the results of interviews with informants who are da’wah activists that say if rihla always run every year, either at the beginning, middle, or end of stewardship. Rihla for activists seeking not merely a means of take a walk and sightseeing. Rihla also contains the interests of strengthening the organization, solidarity and identity of members, and rectifying the commitment to fight for the vision, mission, and values of movement. Especially for da’wah campus activists in urban area that gets stronger challenges than other areas. The challenges is a war of ideas (ghazwul fikr). This is parallel with the strengthening of the globalization that brings foreign values and ideologies. These values do not necessarily correspond with the local culture of Indonesian society, especially the Muslim population that dominant in this country. 4. Conclusion and Policy Implication During the existence of da’wah campus activists remain in Indonesia, particularly universities in urban area like Universitas Indonesia, rihla activity will always intently as their lifestyle. Formal agenda such as consolidation, succession planning, regeneration, and others will be much more interesting if it is packaged in a form that is more fun as rihla. Rihla indirectly alter the perspective of organizational activities that in fact often serious and saturate, more enjoyable. So that, the vision and mesages of the organization conveyed to the next generation. Moreover, human nature, refers to the theory of Maslow's needs, have a need for spiritual support towards self-actualization. Thus, rihla be the best option for the da’wah campus activists in internalising the values and norms of the organization. The essence of rihla is basically a trip. The linkage between rihla and organizational agenda, particularly activist of da’wah campus very closely. With the purpose of the student movement that took place in the sights, the government should be able to see the opportunities that the potential for tourism in Indonesia is very large.Not only focused on the pragmatic side, but also there is the potential for religious tourism where activists of da’wah campus can utilize it as a place to study or discussion. No doubt, if Indonesia has the potential to be a destination for the da’wah activists, both domestics and foreign countries, who seek solace in the beauty of nature and to tafakur them. References Al-Rodhan, Nayef R.F. (2006). Definitions of Globalization: A Comprehensive Overview and a Proposed Definitions. Jenewa: Geneva Centre for Security Policy. Astarini, Priska Dewi, et.al. (2012). Perbandingan Antara Kelompok Feminis dan Kelompok Islam dalam Menanggapi Rancangan Undang-Undang Keadilan dan Kesetaraan Gender. Depok: Departemen Sosiologi, FISIP, Universitas Indonesia. Maarif, Syafii. (1999). Upaya Membingkai Peradaban. Cirebon: Pustaka Dinamika. Porta, Donatella Della & Diani, Mario. (2006). Social Movements an Introduction; Second Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 92 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Sudarsono, Amin. (2010). Ijtihad Membangun Basis Gerakan. Jakarta: Muda Cendekia. Sunanto, Musyrifah. (2005). Sejarah Peradaban Islam Indonesia. Jakarta: PT RajaGrafindo Persada. UGM, KOMAP FISIPOL (ed.)/2012. Mahasiswa Merajut Asa: Antara Pemikiran dan Aksi. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Bulaksumur Empat. Internet Resources Admin. (2012). Sejarah. http://salam.ui.ac.id/profil/sejarah [accessed 13.1.2013] Perwitasari. (2004). Mengembangkan Diri Lewat Rihla. http://bnurulfikri.tripod.com/BNF2004053.pdf [accessed 13.1.2013] 93 The Narrative Skills of the Tourist Guides in Faith-based Tourism: the Case of Yılanlı Church in Göreme Open Air Museum Aytuğ Arslan & Hayrullah Çetin Selçuk University & Nevşehir University Department of Tourism Guidance, Beyşehir Ali Akkanat Vocational Training School & Ürgüp Sebahat ve Erol Toksöz Vocational Training School, Turkey arslan_aytug@hotmail.com Abstract Göreme National Park which was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985 contains an open air museum of rock-cut churches in the village of Göreme, Nevşehir. The mean annual visiting rate for Göreme Open Air Museum is 25 percent, meaning 1 in 4 tourists in Cappadocia region visit the site. Therefore a huge number of the tourists reach the information given by the tourist guides. This study aims at finding out the narrative skills of the tourist guides in terms of three criteria; familiarity, accuracy and association. Keywords: tourist guide, narrative skill, Göreme. 1. Introduction For this study, a number of commentary questions were gathered and a survey was applied to evaluate the narrative accuracy of the tourist guides for the frescoes of Yılanlı (snake) Church. After creating data frames for the three criteria, a survey was carried out with the nineteen tourist guides whose average working years in the tourism sector range from 4 to 30 years in the region of Cappadocia. While the criterion of familiarity means their awareness of the frescoes, the accuracy is used to evaluate the accounts made by the tourist guides whether they are faithful according to the Christian tradition or not. The last criterion is the association with regard to establishing close links with the other myths of the different faiths. 2. The Definition of Religious Tourism and Attraction - Göreme Open Air Museum Religious motivated tourism is probably as old as religion itself and as a consequence it is perceived by some scholars as being the oldest form of tourism (Terzidou, 2010). However, there is no single confirmed definition for religious tourism. There are two general views: the first is based on the fact that religious followers conduct touristic activities for the purpose of religion, including pilgrimage, doctrine-spreading etc.; the second focuses on the various touristic activities performed around resources of religious tourism (Zhang et al., 2007). On the other hand, although religious tourism, in theory, only focuses on those visitors who belong to a certain religious group and travel primarily with the aim of furthering their knowledge of or engagement with a specific faith, most religious sites also attract cultural heritage tourists who may or may not have a religious affiliation (Smith et al., 2010). The people would not generally be seen as religious tourists because their motivation for visiting a religious site is probably more cultural. This is also underlined in the relatively short visits paid by most cultural tourists to religious sites (Richards, 2007). According to a recent study conducted in Göreme Open Air Museum by Yılmaz (2011) reveals that 77 percent of the tourists visited the museum for the purpose of culture, 19 percent for the faith and 12 percent for the other reasons. These results reveal that most of the tourists do not take part in the form of tourism with strong religious motivation, but for sightseeing. Cappadocia is world renowned for its exceptional natural beauties as well as its historical and cultural heritage apart from the religious attraction of Göreme Open Air Museum. This 95 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY situation confirms Richards’ (2007) and Vukonić’s (2006) views that many of the trips usually seen as cultural tourism often involve a visit to a religious site and the sacred sites derive additional value from the accompanying historical and cultural attractions. Religious sites can be classified based on the sites’ type.  Pilgrimage shrines – places that serve as the goals of religiously motivated journeys.  Religious attractions – structures or sites of religious significance with historic and artistic importance.  Festivals with religious association (Nolan & Nolan, 1989). Religious attractions as parts of the natural landscape are usually ecclesiastical structures visited by secularly oriented tourists and religious groups but are not considered to be places of pilgrimage. Such religious places attract both believers and non-believers (Terzidou, 2010). Göreme Open Air Museum seems to be in the second category because of not being actually a pilgrimage site but religious with its historic importance and natural feature as a part of the natural lunar landscape including fairy chimneys, rock-cut castles and valleys. 2.1. Yılanlı Church After Christianity was officially accepted as a religion in 313 A.D., three religious figures known as Cappadocian Fathers; St. Gregory of Nyssa, St. Basil of the Great, and St. Gregory of Nazianzus effectively took part in the promotion of the new religion. After succeeding in vanquishing the Arabs towards the middle of 9th century, the Byzantine Empire established powerful administrative control over the eastern frontiers which was to last until the third quarter of the 11th century, during which the region enjoyed a relatively prosperous period. Göreme National Park which was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985 contains an open air museum of rock-hewn churches in the village of Göreme, Nevşehir. The churches in Göreme Open Air Museum are richly adorned with the frescoes dating to 10th and 11th centuries. Among the churches, Yılanlı Church is simple barrel-vaulted church with a long nave. It was named after the dragon Saint George slays as depicted in a fresco. The church has also a fresco of Emperor Constantine and and his mother Saint Helena holding the True Cross. Another fresco is the portrait of Saint Onuphrius who led hermetic life in the Egyptian desert near Thebes. 3. The Data Frame of the three Criteria 3.1 The Familiarity The sample of the tourist guides in this survey was supposed to be familiar with the frescoes of St. George and the Dragon; the Emperor Constantine the Great and the Empress Helena, known as the True Cross and St. Onuphrius (Pic. 1-3). 3.2 The Accuracy 3.2.1 The Battle of St. George and the Dragon George, a tribune, was born in Cappadocia, but traveled to the town of Silene in Libya. Near this place was a pond in which resided a monstrous dragon which had many times driven back an armed host sent to destroy it. It was a terrible menace to the city, for it would from time to time approach the walls, and with its poisonous exhalations kill all the inhabitants who happened to be near. To pacify the monster, it was decided to supply him each day two sheep, and he was given sheep until none were left in the neighborhood. The hungry dragon then attacked the town. The people held a council at which they decided that each day a man and a beast should be offered, so that they actually sacrificed their sons, and 96 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY daughters.. At last the lot fell upon the daughter of the king, princess Saba. The king dressed her in royal robes. Then after a last embrace they parted, and she walked down to the lake. Now it so fell out that George was passing that way, and seeing the weeping maiden, asked the cause of her tears. She told him all; but on hearing her story, he replied “Fear nothing. In the name of Jesus Christ I will assist you.” The dragon appeared above the surface of the water. St. George advanced to meet it. Then with his lance he transfixed the monster to the ground and smote off the head of the monster. Then, the king, and all his people, twenty thousand men, without counting women and children, were baptized. After instructing the king in the duties of his new religion, he went on his way rejoicing (Howey, 2005). 3.2.2 The Emperor Constantine the Great and the Empress Helena, the True Cross When Helena arrived in Jerusalem she summoned the leading Jewish experts in the Law and berated them for not accepting Jesus as the Messiah. Then one of them, Judas, told the story of his grandfather, who told how the discovery of the True Cross would assure the victory of the Christians. To compel him to reveal the location of the Cross, Helena threw Judas into a well for seven days, after which time he agreed to lead her to the place where the Cross was buried. After Judas prayed that God might reveal this place, he began to dig and quickly found three crosses. To determine which of the three the cross of Jesus was, a corpse was brought to the crosses; the raising of the dead man identified the True Cross. Helena put the Cross in a silver casket and had Judas baptized. Pope Eusebius made him bishop of Jerusalem with the new name of Cyriacus. Not content with just the cross, Helena searched for the holy nails, with which “the Jews” had crucified Jesus. When Cyriacus prayed for their discovery, a flash of light from heaven revealed where the holy nails were. This miracle caused many Jews to convert to Christ (Frassetto, 2007). Helena returned to Constantinople, apparently taking part of the True Cross to her son and leaving the rest in Jerusalem. Over the site at which Helena, the mother of Constantine, was believed to have discovered the wood of the True Cross in 324, a church -the Holy Sepulchre- was erected (Kroesen, 2000). Constantinople was captured and sacked by the forth crusade in 1204. After the conquest of the city, a part of the cross of the Lord was divided among the knights; it was donated to churches after their return to their homelands. Not only did the kings of Jerusalem but also the patriarchs of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher give away pieces of the Holy Cross from time to time. It seems that being able to obtain a fragment of the True Cross was one of the aims of European pilgrimage. The relic was believed to have powers (Schein, 2005). 3.2.3 St. Onuphrius The story of Onuphrius, one of the Egyptian desert hermits of the fourth or fifth century, was recounted by Paphnutius, an abbot in Egypt. He wandered in the desert for sixteen days, meeting Onuphrius on the seventeenth day. He was startled by his appearance. His hair and beard reached to the ground, his body was covered with hair that looked like fur, and he wore only a loincloth of leaves. When they began to talk, he said that his name was Onuphrius and that he had once been a monk in a large monastery in the Thebaid, but felt called to the solitary life and had been a hermit for seventy years and a palm tree near his cave provided him with a few dates. He took Paphnutius to his cell and they spent the night together in prayer, but in the morning Paphnutius found that Onuphrius was dying. Onuphrius said, “Fear not, brother Paphnutius, for the Lord in his infinite mercy has sent you here to bury me.” The old man blessed Paphnutius and died. It was a barren and rocky place, so Paphnutius could not dig a cave. He tore his own cloak in half to provide a shroud and left the body of the old hermit in a cleft in the rocks, weighted down with stones to protect it from wild beasts. When he had done this, the cave which had been Onuphrius’s cell crumbled and the date palm drooped and died (Butler et al., 1997). 97 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 3.3 The Association The tourist guides were supposed to establish a close link with other stories such as the battle of the Storm God and the dragon Illuyankas, Bellerophon and the Chimaera, the Battle of Zeus and Typhon, the legend of Shahmaran or the apocryphal Acts of Philip. 4. The Evaluation of the Narrative Skills of the Tourist Guides in Yılanlı Church The answers they gave to the open-ended questions have revealed that all of the tourist guides are familiar with the frescoes. For the fresco of the St. George and the Dragon; fifteen out of the nineteen tourist guides just told that “the battle was the symbol of Christianity’s victory over paganism or victory of goodness over evil. Three of them said that the story was told in the Bible. The dragon lived in the mountain of Erciyes, ancient Argaeos. Saint George killed the dragon because it abducted the daughter of the king, cut the water supply off to the villagers or attempted to carry the devil into the heaven”. Only one of them gave a full and accurate account of the story and established a close link with other myths. For the fresco of Emperor Constantine and Helena; it has been determined that two of the nineteen tourist guides just recognized the scene but not the details. Fifteen out of told that “the cross known as the True Cross was discovered in Jerusalem and brought to Constantinople by Empress Helena. The Emperor Constantine permitted Christianity and Christianity was promoted to the rank of a legal religion in 313 A.D. For their activity of spreading Christianity, Emperor Constantine and Empress Helena were canonized as equal to the apostles. The scene symbolizes the end of the paganism in the Roman Empire. However, two of them added that the True Cross was buried under the foundations of the Church of Hagia Sophia or the Column of Constantine (Çemberlitaş)”. Two of the tourist guides gave different information about the scene. The former informed that “on the day before a war, Constantine the Great saw in a dream a cross in the sky and an angel told him that he would conquer under the sign of the cross. Therefore, this led to Constantine’s conversion to Christianity with his soldiers’ shields and banners emblazoned with the cross”. The latter told that “the reason of Emperor Constantine and Empress Helena to be painted in the church is the council which was convened by the Emperor Constantine the Great to restore the veneration of icons and put an end to the Iconoclastic debate”. Although the discovery of the True Cross begins with the miraculous vision of the cross on the day before the important battle on Milvian Bridge in Rome which Constantine the Great won against Maxentius and became sole Emperor of the Roman Empire, the other information about the Iconoclasm is false because the council was convened by the Empress Irene in Nicaea in 787. None of the tourist guides gave a full and accurate account of the story. For the fresco of Saint Onuphrius; the twelve of them told the story of a virtues young girl named Onuphria after stating that he was actually an Egyptian desert hermit. In this story, “Onuphria prayed all night to become a man in order not to marry a suitor and had her wish miraculously granted with an along beard on her face. Therefore, he is depicted as a half- man with a long beard and half-woman with breasts with a fig leaf”. The five of them confused the both stories although they do not have causal relationship. When reporting him as a hermit, they added some elements related to the story of virtuous girl and Hermaphrodite in Greek mythology. Only two of the tourist guides opposed talking about the Saint Onuphrius under another stories and gave a full and accurate account of his life. 5. Conclusion It has been found at the end of the study that the entire tourist guides who participated in this survey could describe the event and persons in the frescoes. However, most of them could not provide detailed information. One of the a few reasons for the lack of an extensive 98 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY knowledge on the frescoes is the fact that they are not able to find reliable and comprehensive sources for the accurate information. The great amount of their knowledge generally comes from the explanations of the other tourist guides. On the other hand, the great number of European tourists consist the important part of Cappadocia visitors which means that they are not familiar with the stories originated in the Eastern world of Christianity, especially in Asia Minor. This leads the tourist guides to be more inclined towards the distortion of the stories. This study confirms this view that the stories of frescoes has been differentiated by adding some irrelevant but interesting elements to make compensation for the missing information and draw the attention of the tourists. Plate 1 Pic. 1. St. George and the Dragon Source: author’s own Pic. 2. Emperor Constantine and Empress Helena Pic. 3. St. Onuphrius Source: author’s own Source: author’s own 99 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY References Butler, A. - Jones, K. - Burns, P. (1997). Butler's Lives of the Saints. Continuum International Publishing Group. Frassetto, M. (2007). Christian Attitudes toward the Jews in the Middle Ages. CRC Press. Howey, M. O. (2005). The Encircled Serpent a Study of Serpent Symbolism in All Countries and Ages: A Study of Serpent Symbolism in All Countries and Ages. Kessinger Publishing. Kroesen, J. E. A. (2000). The Sepulchrum Domini through the Ages: Its Form and Function, Peeters Publishers. Nolan, M. - Nolan, S. (1989). Christian Pilgrimage in Modern Western Europe, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Richards, G. - Fernandes, C. (2007). Religious Tourism in Northern Portugal. In Richards, G. (ed.). Cultural Tourism: Global and Local Perspectives. The Haworth Hospitality Press, PP. 217-218. Schein, S. (2005). Gateway to the Heavenly City: Crusader Jerusalem and the Catholic West (1099-1187). Ashgate Publishing. Smith, M. - Macleod, N. - Robertson, M. H. (2010). Key Concepts in Tourist Studies. Sage Publications. Terzidou, M. (2010). Religion as a motivation to travel: The case of Tinos Island in Greece. In Management of International Business and Economic Systems (MIBES). Kavala: Kavala Institute of Technology, p. 338. Vukonić, B. (2006). Sacred Places and Tourism in the Roman Catholic Tradition. In Timothy, D. J. et al. (eds.) Tourism, Religion & Spiritual Journey. Routledge, p. 248. Yılmaz, İ. (2011). Müze Ziyaretçilerinin Hizmet Kalitesi Algılamaları: Göreme Açık Hava Müzesi Örneği, Anatolia: Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 22:2, pp. 183-193. Zhang, M. - Huang, L. (2007). Religious Tourism and Cultural Pilgrimage: a Chinese Perspective. In Raj, R. et al. (eds.) Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage Management: An International Perspective. CABI, p. 101. 100 Sociological characteristics of religiosity of Poles Beata Rafalska1 , Aneta Michałowska2 1 The Jerzy Kukuczka University of Physical Education in Katowice, 2 The Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw e-mail: beciulka@gazeta.pl Abstrakt Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate religiosity of Poles on a basis of religious practices and respecting the Church's social teaching in private and in everyday life. Methods and tools: Theoretical implications. Results: Social and financial status do not lead to deepening religiousness, however inter-Church factors provoke greater faith and religiosity in Polish people. Religion and the Church lose their monopoly position in the life of Christians. Every Catholic chooses and then builds their own religion. Religion and the Church for Christians mean only fulfilling their social roles. Religious experiences, that are available only for some people, should be institutionalized so that they are accessible for all. Poles claim they are devout people, which is not reflected, however, in their daily life. Those who consider themselves as practicing Catholics do not honour many dogmas of faith. Young people understand some of the tenets as they want to, and not as they should be understood. Conclusions: Poles declaring themselves as practicing Christians do not take part in Holy Masses, which are one of the fundamental duties of their faith. In everyday life they do not pay attention to the foundations of their religion and from the teachings of the Church they choose the ones that suit them. Keywords: Christianity, Catholic Church, Polish society Introduction Our experience with religion can begin at any point of our life, but perhaps the best time to start this adventure is the childhood - by being baptized, or in our youth, whilst our personality, system of values and our interests is beginning to take its shape. At this point we are gaining the experiences that can strongly influence our faith, spirituality and religiousness. Defining religion may be a difficult and complex task, depending on the intensity of its influence on individual's life. Just to quote one of such definitions that provides a clearer picture of how the religion can be defined: „Religion is an organized collection of belief systems in a community that describes the relationship between the sacred (spirituality and the divinity) and the individual. It demonstrates through the doctrinal dimension (doctrine, belief), religious rituals (cult), social dimension - social structure and institutions (church, religious community) and in individual's spiritual life. The correlation between the individual and the sacred is mostly focused on the sanctity itself, the deepest desire is to be closer to the sacred, the fear of the scared, the worship and the distance between the individual and the sacred” (Wikipedia). „A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, i.e., things set apart and forbidden, beliefs and practices which unite in one single moral community called a Church” (É. Durkheim, 1990). According to Berger's (2005) concept, religion is a symbolic collection of meanings, with a transcendent roots. Religion influences all aspects of our existence. Religion's main purpose is to maintain and legitimate the social world of existence. It's important to prevent social anomy and chaos. All becomes possible thank to tradition. 101 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY „Religion is a system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long- lasting moods and motivations formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic” (C. Geertz 2005). Religion should be something of a great importance for each individual human being, therefore each Christian should endeavour deepest understanding and knowledge of the his/hers religion. The faith and belief themselves are a first step to knowing and understanding God through the loving unity with God's Kingdom. In a nutshell, we can say that religion is an important phenomenon and it is inseparable from human's life. Religion is also common across all cultures and that is what makes it so significant in individual's life. The main purpose of this dissertation is achieving a better understanding of religious life in Poland, religious rites and the acceptance and incorporation of Catholic Church's system of beliefs, taking into account both public and private spheres of life. The research is also focusing on the religiousness of Polish people, what's influencing it the most, the percentage of Polish people declaring themselves Christian, and what has triggered their religious choices in the first place. The study is based the following research questions: 1. Which gender (male or female) is more religious? 2. Is there a correlation between the place of living and the religiousness? 3. What are the religious rites amongst the young people and the adults? 4. What are the most commonly received holly sacraments? Material and methods This study is a result of analysing a series of scientific articles and essays originating from a Google search engine and across the board literature study, touching upon religion and the place and role of the Church in Polish society. Only the subject articles referring to Polish people were taken into account. Whilst analysing the articles and publications firstly the simple method of dividing the findings between the young people and adults was implemented. Secondly, the publication were subcategorised based on a specific subject touched upon, also chronologically. Diagnostic surveys method was used in the research done by the Office for National Statistics. This is a method of collecting and gathering data based on public opinion, common beliefs and viewpoints. The method mainly focuses on structural and functional subjects, the dynamics of social events - their intensity and directions they may take. Diagnostic survey is also used to research any other not institutionalized phenomena as long as the phenomena has an educational value. A predefined target group affected by the phenomena in question, that represents a general population, is being analyzed here. In our research the data originating from religious organizations and churches was analyzed. In addition, the statistical data regarding the percentage of Catholics in Polish society from the sociological and statistical researches was taken into account. There is a significant correlation between the level of religiousness in a society and its demographical structure. Therefore, amongst the most religious we can list: elderly, woman and children. Religiousness also determined by level of education, place of living, or financial background/wealth. The most important indicator of the level of religiousness in a society is its participation in religious rites. 102 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY When it comes to the young people attitude towards religion, this is mainly influenced by their family home's socializing and educational patterns. Surveys of public opinion indicate that in Polish society between 88.9% to 96% respondents declare themselves Catholic, amongst adults the numbers vary between 79,8% to 97,1%, and amongst the young people the percentage of the declared Catholics varies from 77,5% to 95,6%. Results Theological concept of the everyday language comes from Suchy (2011). The concept highlights the fact that people who in fact openly declare themselves as a church members, have been taught this great love at their family home. Erasmus of Rotterdam said that if the Catholics will become better human beings then the Church will be a greater place. The main role in upbringing of the children lies with their parents. Erasmus said that parents who would take their children to church would bring them closer to God. Saint Monica had a similar approach towards her son. Although, his life was not an easy one, she would carry on praying for him and never lost her fight in his religious awakening and conversion. By our identification with the Church and its values we help to build our religious community. The religious homelessness in people's spiritual life can be observed amongst the baptised people. Those who choose not to nourish their faith are moving away and drifting off the Church and God's Kingdom. Smoła (2011) is listing the family itself as one of the reasons for the religiousness homelessness. A family where the religious homelessness has been present for a very long time. Individual, who's been raised in such an environment will not see his or hers home as a family home. This may be one of the reasons why the 72 thousands of married couples divorced one another in 2009 in Poland. This is a 1/3 of all marriages that took place in that year. For an individual coming from such background the parish will only be an institution not a home. This religious homelessness occurs more and more commonly. (J. Smoła) According to the research done by Czarnik (2011), it is the Church's responsibility to plant and nourish the faith amongst all human beings. This enables the God's Kingdom to enrich and evolve. Christians, by spreading good, living according to the commandments, by cherishing and loving God and others are building the foundations of the Church. Berger (2005) suggests, that the religiousness should be researched in the everyday life. Religion can only be experienced by the chosen ones, and that means that the society should institutionalize religion in order to reach out to the common people. As a result religion becomes the main sphere and ingredient in public life. Ciupak (1984) back in 1980 carried out a study about religiousness. In 1997 the this was a subject of Mariański's research (1997). They both stating that this was not an easy task. First cross national survey about religiousness in Poland took place in 1959-1960. It was the Centre for Public Opinion Research working alongside Polish Public Radio who organized the survey. The research would focus on young people aged 18-24. The results were in fact very optimistic, as over 78% of the respondents stated that they are Catholics, but the definition of Catholics varied. They would say that they are active in their religious life, but would disagree with some of the principles of the Catholic faith. The Centre for Public Opinion Research (part of the Polish Public Radio) would focus on the one main indicator of the religiousness, and that would be taking an active part in religious rites. Obviously, different religious rites represent the religiousness in a diverse 103 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY intensity. The less objective parameter is a simple declaration of one's participation in religious rites. A vast majority of the young people taking part in the study declares participation in religious rites, however, only the minority participates on a regular basis. Most of them are students and therefore no longer under parents' supervision. Whilst defining different types of religiousness we need to focus on a social-religious bonds in a society. Rules and norms of social coexistence are defined by the coexistence of common beliefs, religious rituals in a community, rules, allowances, disallowances. This is an important aspect in defining young people's religiousness. Their belongingness to the church community or lack of it. The lack or very vague bond between the young people and the Church is visible in the way that young people view, or not, Church as an authority. Young people do not view the Church as an important player when it comes to solving the issues and conflicts arising in each society's everyday life. Based on a multiple studies we know that the clergy is ranked here much lower than politicians. If a person identifies with the spiritual life of each community he or she takes an active part in this community and parish's life. Such activities include: common prayers, commemorative masses/religious services, pilgrimages to holy places, one can also volunteer work, or any other activities in the community. The Centre for Public Opinion Research (part of the Polish Public Radio) during its study strongly highlights the fact that the other important factor in the level of religiousness is celebration of family and community special events (such as: weddings, baptisms, first holy communion) in the Church. Young people aged 18-24 declare they would like to have a church wedding, however, the result is the same for the atheists and agnostics. So it seems that the decision about making the relationship formal is more linked to the cultural choices rather than the religious ones. We are so strongly influenced by the society that we feel the need for receiving the holy sacrament - in this case a church wedding. The reasons are twofold. On one hand this is a tradition that needs to be cultivated, and on the other hand this is strongly embedded in conformism. Most of the young people who took part in the study declares themselves as 'believing in God', however, only few were able to explain the reasons behind such a declaration. Young people approach religion in a very individual way. This means that they have their own definition of the religious dogma, that differs from the proper one advertised by the Church. Amongst people declaring themselves Catholics there were individuals not believing in God, or the creation of the world, or in afterlife. When we look at the subject of young people's religiousness closer, we'll see the important role of the concepts that interest young people the most. Those would be the ethical and moral rules in a society. That means the young people would concentrate on a humanism as such, therefore, at the same time avoiding the religious systems and issues. If becomes clear that young people represent a very basic theoretical knowledge of religion i.e. about its rules, rites, rituals. There also is no urgency in young people to change this and improve the understanding of religion amongst them. There is a possibility that this is a result of the early experiences (first holy communion, confirmation) and seeing the theoretical knowledge as something with no use it the real life, with no implication in real life. This is to be learnt by heart and forgotten. Though, as we go through life we learn that Bible can provide a vital and irreplaceable advice to our daily struggles and questions that may arise as we're getting older. However, understanding the Bible, its arguments, is a difficult assignment and finding a parallel between our world and Bible proves to be a complex task. There are a several independent variables - social parameters and social events that decide about religiousness. Amongst the fundamental ones we can list: gender, age, place of living. We also have: psycho-sociological environment, mentality, culture of symbols and institutions. There are two main variables here: demographical one and socio-cultural. 104 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY In studies the most analyzed is the relation between the religiousness and gender. Amongst Catholics woman are the most orthodox it their religious believes. There are approximately 20% more orthodox Catholics among woman than there are among men. Female more often become very strict when it comes to the subject of marriage and its sanctity. The same applies to abortion or pre-marriage sex life. This is a result of: religion itself, but also very pragmatic approach towards life. Men are more cautious toward the Church as an institution. One's attitude towards religion is also a repercussion of each individual's social background. The other important factor is the place of living. Living in a countryside will greatly influence person's attitude towards Church. This can be easily confirmed by the fact that most of the people who live in a countryside (villages) are mostly very faithful and rigorous Catholics. Whilst assessing population living in cities there is a great need to take social background into account. The general rule is the lower the social class background - the higher the level of religiousness. Young people's attitude towards religion is majorly shaped by their family home - the overall upbringing. We can count the traditional upbringing as the most effective method religious wise. This means the parents remain full and close control over their children, and they will make the decisions. The less effective is the "modern-liberal" upbringing, that cultivates partnership in the parent-child relationship. We cannot forget however, about the importance of the young people's peers, colleagues, friends. Although, they would not strongly impart their beliefs on their colleagues but there is a correlation between the behaviour of young people and their peers. Young people's beliefs, ethics, attitude are influenced by their colleagues, this happens especially if child leaves his or hers family home to study. Amongst additional, but equally important, parameters that can shape and affect religiousness are: lifestyle change, the diversity of people that may influence young person, new opportunities to spend their free time differently, the influence that the new school may have, and also multiculturalism characteristic of the urban lifestyle. Mariański (1997) explains how the modern influences society and therefore Church is losing its position as a final resort for the moral and ethical meanings. In a modern world, so full of a socio-cultural pluralism of ideas, and the individualism, results in "the necessity to build your own individual religious existence". Religiousness no longer equals Church, Church that would supreme the other religious institutions. "The view that the morality equals the religiousness is fading away. No longer we say that only the religious people, or the ones believing in God, can be good and right." The way we define religion is more and more problematic for the traditional institutions. Baptism is the first act confirming one's belongingness to the Christian religion, it introduces a new member of the Church. Mariański (2011) states that this first holy sacrament is received by the new member of the Church via his parents, as this is the traditional way. Nevertheless, after this single activity most parents stop their religious activities and no longer participate in the Church's life. Seeing the Baptism as an obligation rather than choice. Comparing the data for the new born Baptisms (under the age of 7) we learn that between 1969 and 1990 96,6% of all children were baptised. Only 3,4% new born children were not baptised, or were baptised in a different Christian church. Hypothetically, assuming that approximately 3% of those children were baptised in Christian church, this gives us a result of less than 1% of new born children that are not baptised at all. Matthes (2005) states that the Baptism itself does not define the religiousness. We can have adults being Baptised but have no connection with any of the official churches whatsoever. Some of the baptised switch to a different church, some will rather move toward atheism but still feel a connection with the Catholic Church. 105 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Modern times have a negative influence on modern human's awareness and his or hers attitude towards religion. A modern human trying constantly to catch up with the reality becomes this individual consumer, where a religion is nothing but a product. He or she can taste it in the same way as any other product. He or she chooses the religious event or institution that suits him or her most, browsing the more traditional but also the modern religious movements. Polish society's secularisation is below 58.1%. 58.1% of all Christians believes in the primary dogma that God was a human, and believes in the existence of hell. Only 31.9% of young people believes in afterlife. Mariański (1991) says: „I declare that I'm a Catholic, I believe in God no longer means that one accepts even the most basic dogma of Christian faith”. According to the 2006 Statistical Yearbooks (GUS) 33 921 016 of Polish people declared that they belong to the Catholic Church - to all its varieties including Greco-Catholics, Armenian, and the Catholic East Church, to the other religious institutions and communities total of: 842 816. Taking into account that the total population of Poland in 2006 was: 38 125, 5 thousand, then 89,0% of all polish citizen declared being Catholics. 2,2% declared belonging to the other religious institutions and communities. 8,8% were not taken into account in this study (Statistical Yearbook 2007). According to the 2008 (December 2008) statistical study by The Centre for Public Opinion Research 92,7% of adult in Poland declared that the belong to the Catholic Church, 0,4% - Evangelic, 0,5% - Eastern Orthodox Church, 1,4% - Christian in general, 0,9% - other faith, 2,6% - agnostics, atheists, 0,9% - not able to declare, 0,5% - no answer. Amongst all of the respondents 11,9% declared that they are orthodox believers, 81,4% - believers, 3,9% - rather believing and 2,8% - non- believers. The respondents were also asked about the intensity of their religious rituals/rites (masses, religious gatherings) 7,4% would declare taking part in such activities few times a week, 46,6% - once a week, 16,2% - once or twice a month, 20,8% - few times a year and 9,0% - never. Those studies were repeated 2 months later and then 94,7% of adults declared they belong to the Catholic Church, 0,4% - Evangelic, 0,4% - Eastern Orthodox Church, 0,4% - other faith, 2,1% - agnostics, atheists, 1,2% - Christian, 0,4% - not able to declare, 0,4% - no answer. Conclusion There is a huge discrepancy between the declaration in the scientific studies that most of the Poles are Catholic and deeply religious. It proves to be completely different in real life. In this study Polish religiousness is described in a socio-cultural criteria. Being a Catholic is a cultural imperative. The scientific studies clearly show the correlation between the religiousness and demographical structure of the society. Woman, children and the elderly are being described as the most devoted and religious than men and young people aged 18-24. Also, the education is very significant. The higher the education, the less religious the person. It varies depending on the subject of study, we can observe more religious people amongst those studying technical or natural sciences. Also, the economical status has an impact. The poorest find in religion hope and a promise of a better life. People with a better socio-economical status put less effort towards their spiritual existence. Similarly, in big cities people are more cautious when it comes to Church, were rarely they would take part in religious activities as masses, gatherings. Their religiousness can be described a 'celebratory' as they would only actively engage in the Church's life during holiday season such as Corpus Christi. Countryside/polish villages and small towns represent 106 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY just the opposite - most of the citizen would actively participate in masses, religious gatherings - for Saint Mary, rosary masses. To summarize, the socio-cultural factors have no influence over the religiousness of Polish people, this rather stops them from taking active part in the religious rites such as holy mass. References Berger P. (2005). Sacred canopy. Elements of a sociological theory of religion. Kraków: Wyd. Nomos. Ciupak E. (1984). Religiousness of young Pole. Warszawa. Czarnik J. (2011). I believe in the Church. In Siwak W. & Janiga W. (eds.) Creed and the Ten Commandments. Catechism homily – Series „B” 2011-2012. Przemyśl: Wyd. Archidiecezji Przemyskiej, pp. 156-160. Durkheim E. (2005). The elementary forms of the religious life. Warszawa, pp. 31. Geertz C. (2005). Religion as a cultural system. In: The interpretation of cultures: selected essays Kraków, pp. 502 Kehrer G. (1996). Introduction to the sociology of religion. Kraków: Wyd. Nomos. Kiciński K & Koseła K. & Pawlik W. (eds.) (1995). School or parish? Religious education in school, in the light of sociological research. Kraków: Wyd. Nomos. Mariański J. (2011). Polish Catholicism - Continuity and change. Sociological study. Kraków: Wyd. WAM. Mariański J. (1991). Religious and moral condition of young Poles. Kraków: Wyd. Nomos. Mariański J. (1997). Religion and Church between tradition and postmodernity. Sociological study. Kraków: Wyd. Nomos. Mariański J. (1997). Postmodern religiosity and measurements methodology. Religious Review, nr l, pp. 35-51. Matthes J. (2005). Das Eigene und das Fremde. Würzburg: Ergon. Merton T. (1989). No man is an island. Kraków: Wyd. Znak. Murphy J. (2012). The Power of Your Subconscious Mind. Warszawa: Świat Książki. Piwowarski W. (1996). Sociology of Religion. Lublin: RW KUL. Rynio A (red.) Catholic pedagogics. Selected issues. Stalowa Wola: Oficyna Wydawnicza Fundacji Uniwersyteckiej. Statistical Yearbook of Demography. 1998-2008. Warszawa: GUS. Smoła J. (2011). Construction of the spiritual temple or the religiousness homelessness. In Siwak W. & Janiga W. (eds.) Creed and the Ten Commandments. Catechism homily – Series „B” 2011-2012. Przemyśl: Wyd. Archidiecezji Przemyskiej, pp. 107-114. Suchy Z. (2011). In the family we teach the love for the Church and the faith in its supernatural. In Siwak W. & Janiga W. (eds.) Creed and the Ten Commandments. Catechism homily – Series „B” 2011-2012. Przemyśl: Wyd. Archidiecezji Przemyskiej, pp. 42-47. 107 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Weber M. (1984). Sketches of the sociology of religion. Warszawa: Wyd. Książka i Wiedza. http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religia, [accessed 27.12.2012]. 108 St. Thecla: a native of iconium Asst. Prof.Dr. Fatih Mehmet Berk NE University, Tourism Faculty fberk@konya.edu.tr. Asst. Prof.Dr. Mustafa Arslan Selcuk University, Beysehir Ali Akkanat School of Tourism and Hotel Management. Abstract Asia Minor has been the highway of the nations crossing from East to West, and occasionally reversing their course. This privileged position of Asia Minor provided many opportunities to host many cultures and civilizations. The earliest traces of mankind date back to the Paleolithic Age in Asia Minor. Then with the Neolithic centers such as Çatalhöyük, Çayönü, Nevali Cori, Hacilar, Göbekli Tepe, we can see the the first human settlements in Asia Minor. This cultural movement continued with the contributions of the Assyrian Trade Colonies, the Hittites, the Phrygians, the Hellenistic, the Roman, Byzantine Kingdoms, the Seljukians and finally the Ottoman Empire. In this line, the religion history range from the early paganism with their god and goddess to the monotheistic religions in Asia Minor. In this context, no one needs to argue the significance of Asia Minor for the origins of Christianity. It was home to the first Christian communities and therefore one can easily follow the footsteps of the Apostles who founded them, from the first saints and martyrs to the first councils and monasteries. Here, the Aposte Paul, was born and went on much of his missionary journeys. Antioch, Constantinople, Tarsus, Ephesus, Trapezus, Myra and many other provinces are important sites for the Christian culture and movement. Konya, the hometown of Rumi and the capital city of the Seljukian Empire also equipped with some Christian figures and cultures. Iconium, the former name of Konya was mentioned many times in the New Testament. Saint Paul, the most responsible person for the spread of Christianity, visited Iconium and met with St. Timothy who would be one of the most beloved disciples of St. Paul in the following years. And the other important figure in Iconium is St. Thecla. She met with St. Paul in Iconium and converted to Christianity and became one of his first students. So, Iconium became a main place for the events narrated in the apocryphal Acts and Paul and Thecla. In this study, we will try to introduce St. Thecla in the context of Early Christian movements in Iconium and underline its noteworthy contribution for the introduction of Konya. Key Words: Early Christianity, Iconium, St. Thecla Introduction The knowledge of what has been excavated in Anatolia for many years testified the old phrase of ―Ex Oriente Lux‖1, or the view of Anatolia as the bridge between East and West. The autochthonous character of Anatolian culture of any period needs no particular explanation. It was favored by the geographical position of the land (Mellink, 1966: 129). The role of the geograpy has been widely ignored while analyzing cultures and civilizations.(Gleditsch and Ward, 2000:6). Braudel stated that the civilizations tightly coupled to the region that designed with geography (Braudel, 1992: 104). 1 Light comes from the East. 109 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY So, while studying any age of Anatolia, we have no option to ignore the geographical and geopolitical power of Anatolia. Ramsay, called Anatolia as one of the wealthiest country of the ancient times and underlines that this prosperity should be created again (Ramsay, 1923: 279). While stating the influence of geography upon the people who live in it, Ramsay empasized that no country can be compared with Asia Minor and called its situation as peculiar and unique (Ramsay, 1902: 257). In every phase of Anatolian prehistory and history, the cultural richness makes itself felt. It dominates one of the world's great crossroads and it has been a battle and trading ground and a land of passage in all times (Merriam, 1926:86). The opposing forces may be recognized as respectively Eastern and Western in every age, in every war, in every crisis held in this geography (Ramsay, 1902: 259). In nowadays as it is known by every one there are two common political phrase that are commonly based on culture covering especially ―Islam and Christianity‖. ―The Clash of Civilizations2‖ and ―the Alliance of Civilizations‖. Turkey, inherited from its rich past, now again a key country for those two theories concepts. Anatolia , from the beginnings of civilizations, a crossroads for numerous civilizations and therefore, the first revolutionary steps have been observed in Anatolia in the Neolithic Centers such as Çatalhöyük, Hacılar, Göbekli Tepe. The Neolithic Revolution seen in Anatolia was not only a set of technological innovations associated with farming and herding. It was also an institutional revolution that people became sedentary and social and political life changed. Known historically as Asia Minor, Anatolia, was one of the productive and opulent countries of which antiquity has left us (Cramer, 1832:10). Later then, this cultural movement continued throughout the periods of the Hittites, Phrygians, Urartians, Hellenistic settlements, the Romans, Byzantines, Seljukians and the Ottomans. King Midas, Sappho, Xenophanes,Thales, Heredotos, Strabon, Anaximander, Heraclitus, Diogenes, Homeros, St. Nicholas known as Santa Claus, St. Paul, St. Timothy are some of the well-known figures born in Anatolia. These peoples left indelible marks on the face of this unique peninsula. Anatolia is the hinge of the world especially around the three continents called Europe, Asia and Africa. The lock over this hinge can only be unlocked by the role of Anatolia. It can lock or unlock the north-south and east and west line. This characteristic has been continued throughout the history (Celerier, 1985: 76). Anatolia And Christianity Without doubt, the central and decisive element in civilization is religion. That alone which deals with the higher nature of man can so enter into even the life of nations as to result in the kind of growth in which civilization consists. Inevitably, a country with rich cultures and civilization should be filled with religious history and traces. The religion concept in Anatolia beginning from the early paganistic religions continued to the Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Ramsay, after observing the ancient history of Anatolia, noticed the religion essence in the adoration of the life of Nature and described the nature as an emerging one in new and different forms. So, the people who observing this unique beauty of Nature try to find some ways to worship. The mystery of self reproduction, of eternal unity amid temporary diversity is the key all the legends and ceremonies that cluster round worship (Ramsay, 1893: 565). As a key to history, religion has changed its form since its birth and but its strength remains the same throughout the history (Baldwin,1907: 221). The history of Judaism, Christianity and Islam is obviously mixed with the history of Anatolia. Following the early paganistic worships, Christianity was developed away from its 2 S.P. Huntington's thesis called as ― The Clash of Civilizations‖ outlines a future where the "great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural". Before Huntington, the theory was introduced by Arnold J. Toynbee in 1950s. 110 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY original place and taken a new form in Asia Minor, Greece and Rome especially by the missionary journeys of St. Paul. So many traces related with Early Christianity found in Asia Minor. Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Italy, Greece, Cyprus, and Turkey also are stages upon which the biblical story was enacted. Nearly two-thirds of the New Testament, including all the letters of Paul, most of Acts, and the book of Revelation, are set in either Turkey or Greece (Fant and Reddish, 2003:7). Paul may be said to have forwarded Jesus' own movement, and in how far he is to be regarded as the originator of a new movement (McGiffert, 1909: 5). French historian Guizot has said that democracy was introduced into Europe by a foreign missionary called Paul (Baldwin,1907: 220). If this be so, it was a democracy whose motive and sphere were religious and related with Anatolian geography as Paul originaly from Tarsus, a city in the southern part of Turkey. The Christian movement then continued its existence throughtout the geography of Asia Minor. The first seven ecumenical councils were held in Anatolia (Nicea, Constantinopole, Chalcedeaon, Ephesus). The first Christian church in history which was built in a cave in Antioch (Antakya) and the birth place of St Nicholas (The famous Santa Claus) is in Myra (Demre). The seven churches, Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea mentioned in the opening chapters of the Book of Revelation. The existence of the Christianity continued in the Roman, Byzantine and even in the Seljukian and Ottoman times. This cultural and religious richness makes Anatolia unique in the world history. Iconium and st. Thecla There is a phrase in Turkish language: ―Şereful mekan bil mekin‖. It means ―an honor of a city based on the people who live in it‖. Many cities obtained their familiarity from the well- known people who are related with the history of the cities. For instance, Urfa, called as the ―City of the Prophets‖, ―Tarsus, city of St. Paul‖, ―Amasya, city of Strabon or ―city of Şehzadeler (Princes)‖. Therefore many important figures whether as prophets, sultans, mystic leaders or any other important figures contributed a lot to the culture of cities. Sultan Alaeddin I., Shams-i Tabrizi, Rumi, Sadrettin Konevi are just only a few of the samples of well-known figures that contribute to the familiarity of Konya. And as it host Rumi, Konya is called as ―City of Rumi‖. In addition to the Muslim figures, the history of Konya related with the Christian figures such as St. Paul, St. Barnabas, St. Timothy and St. Thecla and Helena, mother of Byzantine Emperor Constanine. Iconium is one of the oldest cities in Turkey. It seems to have been inhabited as far back as the third millenium BC. During the 2nd millennium, the Hittites controlled the area. It was anciently the provinve of Phrygia. Xenophon referred Iconium as the last city of Phrygia (Xenophon, 1922: 1.2.19). The Lydians took control of Iconium at the beginning of the 7th century BC, and then the following century the Persians ruled the area (Fant and Reddish, 2003: 228-229). Strabo and Cicero stated Iconium as a Lycaonion city.3 Following the defeat of the Persians by the Alexander the Great, it became a part of Alexander‘s Empire. After Alexander‘s death, Iconium was controlled by the Seleucids and then by the Pergamene rulers. In 129 B.C., four years after the Pergamene kingdom was bequeathed to Rome, Iconium was made a part of the Roman province of Asia (Fant and Reddish, 2003: 229). Iconium in the time of St. Paul was a city of the Province called Galatia (Ramsay, 1908: 343). During the missionary activities of St. Paul in Iconium (See: Figure I) in the Jewish synagogue, a great multitude both of the Jews and the Greeks believed Paul‘s ideas. St. Paul and St. Barnabas had to leave Iconium after experiencing some mistreatments by the people 3 Strabon, Geographica ( XII:6); Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares (15.4.2); 111 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY who didn‘t believe them(Acts 14:1-7).4Iconium5 was the setting for several episodes in the Acts of Paul, a work from the latter half of the 2nd century that contains legendary stories about the missionary activities of Paul. The episodes in Iconium involved Thecla, a young woman from the city who was so impressed by Paul‘s preaching that she left her fiancé and followed Paul on some of his travels. (Fant and Reddish, 2003:230). St. Timothy, a native of Lystra one of his helpers during Paul‘s missionary travels (I Corinthians, 4: 17). 6 We learnt the involvement of St. Timothy in the early letters of Paul, the Acts of the Apostles and the Pastoral Epistles. St.Timothy is described in the Pastoral Epistles as exercising authority in particular churches as Paul‘s life and ministry. Figure I: St.Paul's First Missionary Journey (http://www.biblestudy.org/maps/pauls-first-journey-map.html) 4 And it came to pass in Iconium, that they went both together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spake, that a great multitude both of the Jews and also of the Greeks believed. But the unbelieving Jews stirred up the Gentiles, and made their minds evil affected against the brethren. Long time therefore abode they speaking boldly in The Lord, which gave testimony unto the word of His grace, and granted signs and wonders to be done by their hands. But the multitude of the city was divided: and part held with the Jews, and part with the apostles. And when there was an assault made both of the Gentiles, and also of the Jews with their rulers, to use them despitefully, and to stone them, They were ware of it, and fled unto Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia, and unto the region that lieth round about: And there they preached the Gospel." (Acts 14:1-7) 5 Then some Jews arrived from Antioch and Iconium and won the crowds to their side. They stoned Paul and dragged him out of town, thinking he was dead (Acts, 14:19). So they shook the dust from their feet as a sign of rejection and went to the town of Iconium (Acts, 13:51). In Iconium Paul and Barnabus went into the Jewish synagogue and spoke in such a way that a great number of both Jews and Greeks believed (Acts, 14:1). You also know about the kind of persecutions and sufferings which happened to me in the cities of Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra. I endured those persecutions, and the Lord rescued me from all of them ( II. Timothy, 3:11). The believers in Lystra and Iconium spoke well of Timothy (Acts, 16:2). 6 For this reason I have sent to you Timothy, who is my beloved and faithful child in the Lord, and he will remind you of my ways which are in Christ, just as I teach everywhere in every church (I Corinthians, 4: 17). 6 112 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY The position of st. Thecla in christianity The Holiness is important concept for the Christians to spread their religion. In this context, not only the ―holy virtues‖ but also some ― holy figures‖ such as heroic monks and martyrs were mentioned to the people by the priests during their preaches. These holy figures played a crucial role as healers, exorcists, patrons, counsellors, and arbiters of disaggrements. While they were living, their personel sanctity attracted the followers of them and after death, their life stories were retold in hagiographical narratives. Many Christians believed that they could obtain access to the power of Christ manifest in the saints‘ lives by imitating them (Davis, 2008: 3-4). Devotion to the holy people has been observed in many forms such as radical acts of asceticism and long pilgrimage journeys to more mundane activities like the decoration of a grave, the reading of sacred texts at a local martyr shrine, or private veneration of images in the home. All of these practices commonly called as the cult of the saints (Davis, 2008: 3-4). St. Thecla is the person who had chosen the narrow gate and refused the easiest one that was supported by her beauty by following the verse stating in the New testament: ―Enter through the narrow gate; for the gate is wide and the way is broad that leads to destruction, and there are many who enter through it. But the gate is narrow and the way is difficult that leads to life, and there are few who find it‖ (Matthew 7: 13-14). She entered through the the narrow gate and chose the difficult life. The apocryphal Acts of Paul and Thecla probably originating in Asia Minor during the latter part of the second century BC. (Elliot, 1993: 350). The emergence of the Acts of Thecla remains as a mystery like much else in ancient literary history. The work may be classified as a short novel or perhaps more accurately as a feuilleton (series)â episodes, possibly emanating from the literary and religious fringe. (Petropoulos 1995,127). D. Ronald MacDonald and Virginia Burrus have each argued that the ATh should be understood as folk tales and were originally oral stories shared in women-centered communities that resisted the established patriarchal order.7 The Acts of Paul and Thecla has come down to us in Greek, Coptic, Syriac, Slavic, Arabic and four independent Latin versions. (MacDonald, 1983: 90). The Acts of Thecla of the second century AD., which seem to have come from women‘s oral traditions were a great source for great inspiration for women in the ancient world. Stories on Thecla handed down from generation to generation, obtaining embellishments with every expression and seen every where ranging from the church walls to the medallions. The author of Thecla could have been exposed to the visual discourse directly from the philosophical and doxographical sources or filtered through the Church Fathers. It might have been compiled by one of the disciple of Paul in at a date about A.D. 160. Tertullian, states that it was written in honor of Saint Paul by a presbyter of Asia (Gündüz, 2004: 28). Early Christian preachers described her as the role model of chastity for women. St. Ambrose, bishop of Milan (c. 330 –397), urged virgins to take Thecla as a role model second to Mary in his book ―De Virginibus‖ (Pederson, 2006: 61). St. Methodius (early fourth century AD), bishop of Olympus and Patara in Asia Minor, in his symposium of the ten virgins, included Thecla among the exemplary virgins (Methodius, 1958: 104). At the end of the second century Tertullian denounces the the Acts of Thecla as a forgery and points out that Paul would never have permitted a woman either to teach or to baptize and complained some stories such as that of Thecla, were used to legitimate women teaching and baptizing (Tertullian,1908: XVII). Emmelia, mother of Gregory of Nyssa (335-395), had a 7 MacDonald The Legend and the Apostle; Virginia Burrus, Chastity as Autonomy: Women in the Stories of Apocryphal Acts (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 1987). 113 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY vision of St Thecla, while she was in labor. Therefore, Emmelia named her child Macrina after her grandmother, but gave her Thecla as a private name which may have been an indication of her aptitude to virginity (Gregory of Nyssa,1967:164). Gregory of Nyssa states that Thecla , having heard the words of St. Paul, destroys the outward character within herself, renounces of the world and wipes our all her carnal thougts and desires. 8 Hippolytus, in his work Commentary on Daniel, written about 204, refers to Paul & Thecla and the baptized lion without hesitation as orthodox (Hippolytus, 2010: 3.29; Elliot, 1993: 351). Egeria9 (fourth- early fifth century A.D.), traveller, devout Christian pilgrim, writer, visited the tomb of St. Thecla in Seleucia.10 In Seleucia, Egeria met her woman friend from her days in Jerusalem, the deaconess Marthana (Egeria, 1919: 42). John Chrysostom (347-407), a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the fourth and fifth centuries in Syria and Constantinople, praises Thecla as she gives away her gold jewels to meet with St. Paul in prison. (Chrysostom,1851: 36811.The Homily Of Pseudo-Chrysostom on St. Thecla glorifies the virginity of of Thecla and analyzes her chastity and martyrdom. In this work, Thecla flees into the desert after escaping from her lover and disappears in a desert leaving him alone (Pesthy, 1996: 171-173). Epiphanius of Salamis sets Thecla in row with Elijah, John the Baptist and Mary12. St. Isidore of Pelusium (died around 435), a native of Alexandria, stated St. Thecla as the first woman martyr (Pesthy,1996: 168) 13. Although the Acts of Thecla even labeled as apocryphal by St. Jerome (in the fourth century), he considered her as a saint (Petropoulos 1995,126). A homily of Severus of Antioch, a bishop of Antioch, in 512, also described her as a person who possesses the virtues of the whole church (Pesthy, 1996: 173). Syncletica of Alexandria, a Christian saint and Desert Mother of the 4th century, called as a ―genuine disciple of the blessed Thecla‖ as she followed her teachings. Like Thecla, Syncletica left her house, changed her appearance, and assumed a public role as an ascetic teacher of women (Davis, 2008: 108-111). Eugenia, the daughter of Philip (born in 183), the Eparch of all Egypt, imitated Thecla. She cuts her hair and dresses herself like a man, a sign of her rejection of family ties and commitment to the virginal life after reading the Acts of Paul and Thecla (Davis, 2008: 108-143). The next source, a two volume text entitled as ―The Life and Miracles of Saint Thecla, was attributed to the theologian Basil of Seleucia in the fifth century. ―The Life and Miracles of Saint Thecla,‖ which reiterates the tales of the Acts of Paul and Thecla (Vol. I) and then recounts a number of miracles attributed to Thecla by Christians throughout the area of Asia 8 Monika Pesthy cited in her paper called as ―Thecla among the Fathers,‖ in Bremmer, The Apocryphal Acts of Paul and Thecla on page 167 referring Gregory of Nyssa, Homilies on the Song of Songs 14, in PG 44:1068. 9 Egeria (sometimes called as Etheria) was a fifth-century devout Christian pilgrim, traveler, and author of the Itinerarium Egeriae. Clearly, Egeria traveled to Asia Minor, Palestine, and Egypt in the late fourth and early fifth A.D. (Ligtmann et al., 2008: 111). 10 Three places are stated for the tomb of St. Thecla. Meryemlik in Seleuica (Silifke), Maalula in Syria and Rome (Pederson, 2006: 68). 11 Hear concerning that blessed Thecla, how, that she might see Paul, she gave even her gold: and thou admirest what she did, but dost not emulate her. Hearest thou not that Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy? What is the gain for your costly garments? How long shall we continue agape for this attire? Let us put on the glory of Christ: let us array ourselves with that beauty, that both here we may praised, and there attain unto the eternal good things, by the grace and mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom, to the father and the Holy Ghost together, be glory, dominion, honour, now an ever, world without end. Amen (Chrysostom,1851: 368 (Home.25). 12 Monika Pesthy stated Epiphanius of Salamis in her paper called as ―Thecla Among the Fathers of the Church,‖ in a book edited by Jan N. Bremmer ― The Apocryphal Acts of Paul and Thecla Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha referring the work of Epiphanius called as ―Panarion‖. 13 St. Thecla was the summit of all the women‘s victories and exploits, who is renowned everywhere; she is still the eternal pillar of chastity which in the middle of heaving passions shows us the way into the waveless harbour (Isidore, Epistolarum I.87). 114 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Minor (Vol. II). However, this attribution proves to be false. Internal evidence shows that it was in fact written by an anonymous fifth-century rival of Basil, probably a local rhetorician from Seleucia. The first volume containing the life of Thecla and the second one is a series of 46 miracles of Saint Thecla (MacDonald, 1983: 92; Davis, 2008:40 ). There are many contrast between the Acts of Thecla and The Life and Miracles of Saint Thecla. St. Thecla observed as a silent character in the Acts of Thecla but in the work of Basil of Seleucia, she was described as a talkative person with her long speeches. She is a strong female character who takes on male dress and roles. So, the roles and deeds of St. Thecla is noteworthy as an evidence for women‘s experience and position (Welch, 1996:66). She had many awful experiences but with the blessings of God, she overcome all of the troubles she met. After escaping the arena in Antioch, the city resounds with the voices of women who cry out, ―One is God who has delivered Thecla‖ (Elliot, 1993: 369).14 Thecla found St. Paul in the city of Myra and after hearing her intention returning to Iconium, St. Paul replies, ―Go and teach the word of God‖.15 In the life of St. Thecla, ―acquiring maleness‖ is observed. She obtained the ―courage and fortitude‖ of a man and represented in a ―male‖ identity. The ―weakness‖ is an inherently female character while ―strength‖ is attributed to men. Acquisition of masculinity in Thecla‘s life is interpretted in many ways. It can be seen as an example of ―reversal‖ motif that is familiar in early Christian, especially in Pauline literature: ―the last becomes the first‖, ―the victim becomes the victor‖. The archtype of these early Christian themes based on Christ‘s victory on the cross. Thecla becomes a ―man‖ after she overcomes in the tests of her courage, faith and fortitude. Martyrdom is an another sphere in which female martyrs‘s unusual strength is often mentioned in masculine metaphors. We have also seen masculine metaphors in the experiences of Blandina, a martyr, a female slave, in 177 in the reign of Marcus Aurelius and Perpetua, martyr in the city of Carthage (Welch, 1996:69). In the Acts of Thecla, maleness confers not only strength but also authority. She takes on male roles in addition to the male appearance. Thecla obtained the privileges despite of her female identity and also criticized by some Christian writers such as Tertullian (Welch, 1996:69). The Acts of Thecla provides an egalitarian interpretation of Paul of Galatians: ―There is no longer Jew or Greek, there is no longer slave or free, there is no longer male and female; for all of you are one in Christ Jesus‖ (Paul of Galatians, 3:28). Dennis MacDonald, a scholar, stated that there is a contrast concerning the women position mentioned in the Acts of Thecla& Paul of Galatians and the Pastoral Epistles. According to him, The Pastoral Epistles were written specially to refute the women positions mentioned in the Acts of Thecla (Welch, 1996:70). In Christian faith, Thecla‘s story can be commented as an allegory illustrating the defeat of sexual desire. Chastity‘s enemies are classified as male in keeping with the traditional view that the man is the active partner in sexual intercourse. So, in the role model of Thecla, the passive female figure, overcome her attackers with the help of Jesus and resist the demons of sexual desire. In the Pauline doctrine seen in Thecla, the marriage and family concept was rejected. Sometimes Thecla is regarded as the female equivalent of castration after annihilating her female identity (Welch, 1996:71-74). Another abstention example seen in the Acts of Peter, one of the earliest of the apocryphal Acts of the Apostles. In the text Peter's 14 Acts of Paul and Thecla, 26-39; is taken in a book called as ―The Apocryphal New Testament. A Collection of Apocryphal Christian: Literature in an English translation based on M.R. James published by Oxford University Press. 15 Acts of Paul and Thecla, 41. 115 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY beautiful virgin daughter is paralyzed on one side after kidnapping by a rich person called as Ptolemy. St. Peter wants to protect her from men and doesn‘t want to heal her, so her chastity could be maintained(Welch, 1996:71). The aim of the Acts of Thecla, in Christian theology was composed of three parts: At first, to defend the apostle against his Ebionite traducers, with their hints of personal attachment to his women converts; second, to inculcate the practice of virginity and celibacy; and, third, to assert the right of women to preach and to baptize (Goodspeed, 1901: 186). After gaining an important position as a female martyr in Christianity, huge numbers of pilgrims flocked to churches and other shrines devoted to Thecla in Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt in search of her divine healing. Thecla revered as a model martyr and worshipped as a saint, in some parts of the Christian world next to the Mary, the Mother of Jesus herself, as the most important person outside the Trinity. Although it was considered as uncanonical by certain Church Fathers, Thecla has remained a paragon of female chastity and asceticism in the Orthodox Church, which commemorates her on September 24th16. Her feast and cult were officially supressed by the Roman Catholic Church in 1969, though her cult continues in countries like Spain (Petropoulos 1995,126). The identity of st. Thecla St. Thecla, a well-born and a beautiful virgin, who, upon hearing Paul preach regarding the blessedness of chastity, left her fiancé, and her family to follow the Paul and to become a Christian martyr ( Elliott, 1993: 365).17 As she speaks little and seldom, she is referred as a woman not of words but of deeds, she is a figure full of life, a girl of flesh and blood (Pesthy, 1996:166). Theoclia, mother of St. Thecla and Thamyris, her fiancé, are the other main figures in her story. While Paul was preaching in the house of Onesiphorus18 in Iconium, Thecla listened Paul night and day. Even without seen him, Thecla is made exceedingly joyous by his teachings. Thamyris, Thecla's fiancé, figures out the recognizable and transformative behaviours19 of Thecla after visiting her mother, then eventually drags Paul before the governor.The governor throws Paul into prison, where Thecla secretly goes and visits him at 16 In Bede's martyrology, Saint Thecla is celebrated on September 23, which is still her feast day in the Roman Catholic Church. 17 And while Paul was speaking in the midst of the church in the house of Onesiphorus a certain virgin named Thecla, the daughter of Theoclia, betrothed to a man named Thamyris, was sitting at the window close by and listened day and night to the discourse of virginity, as proclaimed by Paul. And she did not look away from the window, but was led on by faith, rejoicing exceedingly. And when she saw many women and virgins going in to Paul she also had an eager desire to be deemed worthy to stand in Paul's presence and hear the word of Christ. For she had not yet seen Paul in person, but only heard his word (Elliot, 1993: 365). 18 Onesiphorus, meaning "useful," is mentioned in Saint Paul's second letter to Timothy: May the Lord grant mercy to the house of Onesiphorus, for he often refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain, but when he was in Rome, he sought me diligently, and found me (the Lord grant to him to find the Lord‘s mercy in that day); and in how many things he served at Ephesus, you know very well (II. Timothy, 1: 16); Greet Prisca and Aquila, and the house of Onesiphorus (II. Timothy, 4: 19). 19 And as she did not stand away from the window, her mother sends to Thamyris; and he comes gladly, as if already receiving her in marriage. And Theocleia said: I have a strange story to tell thee, Thamyris; for assuredly for three days and three nights Thecla does not rise from the window, neither to eat nor to drink; but looking earnestly as if upon some pleasant sight, she is so devoted to a foreigner teaching deceitful and artful discourses, that I wonder how a virgin of such modesty is so painfully put about. Thamyris, this man will overturn the city of the Iconians, and thy Thecla too besides; for all the women and the young men go in beside him, being taught to fear God and to live in chastity. Moreover also my daughter, tied to the window like a spider, lays hold of what is said by Paul with a strange eagerness and awful emotion; for the virgin looks eagerly at what is said by him, and has been captivated. But do thou go near and speak to her, for she has been betrothed to thee (Acts of Paul and Thecla,8 ). 116 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY night, only to be discovered the next morning and accused of impropriety. This time both of them are dragged before the governor, with the result that Paul is expelled from the city and Thecla is condemned to be burnt on the pyre, to her furious mother‘s delight. Once the fires are lit around her, however, God sends a miraculous torrent of rain which put out the fire and allows Thecla to escape to Paul, who is mourning her death outside the city (ATh, 5-23). From there, they proceed to the city of Antioch20. Upon their arrival in Antioch, a magistrate named Alexander, notices Thecla and falls in love with her, and tryto bribe Paul with gifts and presents. Alexander attempts to rape Thecla, and she tears his ceremonial cloak in the process. So, again she is dragged before a governor‘s tribunal and condemned to be fed to wild beasts in the arena of Antioch. Although Thecla meets Queen Tryphaina, who admires her faith, she is thrown to the wild beasts. Despite all the attacks by the wild beast, bears and seals in the pool, she miraculously survives unscathed. The governor ultimately releases Thecla because Queen Tryphaina has fainted watching Thecla‘s trials. After this incident, the governor and Alexander fear retribution from the emperor Caesar. Because there is a good relation between Queen Tryphaina and Caesar. After releasing, Thecla leaves Antioch, having thus survived her second martyrdom, and she finds Paul in the city of Myra (ATh, 24-39). Paul approves her trials and sends her out to preach the Gospel. She then returns to her home city of Iconium and, finding her former fiancé dead, calls on her mother to believe in Christ. Without any further elaboration the story abruptly ends with the notice that Thecla spent the remainder of her life in Seleukeia (ATh, 40-43). The cult of st. Thecla around the world Thecla‘s final resting place is described as Seleucia (modern day Silifke, Turkey), a town near the southern coast of Asia Minor, about 100 km south-east of Iconium and 50 km south- west of Tarsus at the end of the Acts of Thecla. After seen her mother in Iconium, she turned back to Seleuica and enlightened with the word of God and finally rested in a glorious sleep (ATh, 43). Seleucia became a center for Thecla devotion and a shrine dedicated to Thecla (Hagia Thecla) was established on a hill just to the south of the city and by the fourth century many pilgrims from Asia Minor and from all over the Mediterranean world flocked into this holy site (Davis, 2008:36). A female pilgrim, traveller, Egeria, took a three-day detour from her itinerary of holy sites to visit Thecla‘s shrine21. Egeria stated the existence of many monastic cells for men and women and describes the huge wall to guard the church against the people who are known as malicious. (Egeria, 1919: 43). The statements of Egeria shed light on the existence of a church and probably the actual shrine (martyrium) of Saint Thecla was associated with that church (Davis, 2008:36)22. In addition to the cave church, Emperor Zeno built a larger basilica in the fifth century for the memory of St. Thecla as a gratitude for the saint‘s intercession on his behalf after defeating Basiliscus23 . An improvement was observed toward the end of the 20 Perhaps not the Syrian one. 21 Then, starting from Antioch and journeying through several stations, I came to the province called Cilicia, which hasTarsus for its metropolis. I had already been at Tarsus on my way to Jerusalem, but as the memorial of Saint Thecla is at the third station from Tarsus, in Isauria, it was very pleasant for me to go there, especially as it was so very near at hand (Egeria, 1919: 41). 22 Thecla‘s shrine was relocated to a nearby cave at the southern end of the same hill;there, a small, three-aisled basilica was built into the natural grotto of limestone (Davis, 2008:36). 23 But Zeno, after a vision, so they say, of the holy, greatly tried protomartyr Thecla, who encouraged him and promised the restoration of the empire, marched on Byzantium, after suborning with gifts those who were besieging him; he drove out Basiliscus in the second year of his control of the realm and handed him over to his enemies when Basiliscus approached the holy shrines. This Zeno dedicated a huge sanctuary of outstanding magnificence and beauty to the protomartyr Thecla at Seleucia, which lies near the country of the Isaurians; he adorned it with very many imperial dedications, which are preserved even in our time (Evagrius, 2000: 142). 117 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY fifth century and at least two other churches were built in this period, as well as a public bath and a number of large cisterns (Davis, 2008:38). Without doubt, the increasing number of the buildings at Hagia Thecla reflects the changing needs of rapidly growing pilgrims. Today, these buildings lie in ruins, but their remains testify to the crowds of pilgrims that once visited Thecla‘s hilltop shrine. (See: Figure II). The Acts of Thecla starting as an oral version then the author of the non-canonical Acts of Paul finally published Thecla‘s story as part of that larger narrative. By the fifth and sixth centuries, the Acts of Thecla was modified with biographical details about what Thecla did in her final days at Seleucia, and especially her final act as a martyr and an extended version was emerged (Davis, 2008:39-40). Figure II: Hagia Thecla the archeological site in Seleucia (Davis, 2008: Figure:4). The recognition of the St. Thecla also spread quickly throughout the Mediterranean world. By the end of the fifth century AD, Thecla was glorified as an exemplary virgin and martyr not only in Asia Minor, but also in Italy, Gaul, Germany, North Africa, Armenia, Cyprus, Palestine-Syria, and Egypt. Among these regions, Egypt seems to have been an especially fertile ground for the cult of St. Thecla (Davis, 2008:83-84). Egyptian devotion to Thecla is is more scattered and fragmentary than in Asia Minor. So, combining the devotion to Thecla in Egypt is harder than in Asia Minor. Thecla‘s name and image observed on a wide variety of media: Greek and Coptic papyri and parchment manuscripts, limestone grave stelae, wall paintings, textile fragments, wooden combs, terra cotta oil lamps, and pilgrim flasks. This material evidence for Thecla devotion spans in date from the fourth to the seventh centuries (Davis, 2008:84). 118 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Origen of Alexandria, a theologian, knew the Acts of Paul and Thecla and approved it by quoting some statements from it in the first half of the third century. By the mid-fourth century, Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, indicate that Thecla inspired a large community of virgins in Alexandria and chose to draw images liberally from the Acts of Paul and Thecla and presents Thecla as the ultimate model for women‘s piety in his treatise called as On Virginity. The statements of Athanasius started in Alexandria triggered the spread of Thecla cult to the rest of the Egypt. He made a visit to Thecla‘s pilgrimage shrine at Seleucia. (Davis, 2008:85-86). Alexandrian women adopted Thecla as their patron Saint. A virgin existence at home is important to guarantee salvation and protection for the family living there (Davis, 2008:86-87).24 In ancient times known as Mareotis, today called as ―Abu Mena‖, a town, a monastery complex and Christian pilgrimage center, is located 45 km southwest of Alexandria.The church, baptistry, basilicas, public buildings, streets, monasteries, houses and workshops in this early Christian holy city were built over the tomb of the martyr Menas of Alexandria, who died in AD 296. It is an ancient pilgrimage centre of the Egyptian martyr Saint Menas. Many pilgrims flocked into the Menas shrine for healing and bought many souveniers stamped with the image of the saints such as small clay flasks (ampullae) holding holy water or oil. Today, hundreds of these ampullae survive in museum collections throughout the Mediterranean world (Davis, 2008:115-116). The image of the holy martyr Thecla ―among the beasts‖ was observed on a number of surviving Menas flasks.Thecla appeared on pilgrim flasks from Abu Mina as the only female Saint figure. Probably Menas as a male saint and Thecla as a female saint were chosen to provide distinct, gendered models for male and female pilgrims (Davis, 2008:124). The scene of Thecla‘s second martyr trial among the beasts appears on sixteen different, published examples of Menas ampullae (on the reverse side) that date to the fifth or sixth century (480–560 ce). (See: Figure III). Figure III: Within a circular medallion 24 Davis quoted from the following work: Ps-Athanasius, Canon 98, The Canons of Athanasius, Patriarch of Alexandria, ed. and trans. W. Riedel and W. E. Crum (London: Williams and Norgate, 1904; repr. Text and Translation Society, 9, Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1973), 53. 14–15 (Arabic text); 62 (translation). 119 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY a more crudely limned figure of Thecla again stands with her hands (tied?) behind her back, but now her upper torso is modestly draped in a robe that reaches to her feet. In this scene, she is flanked by only two beasts—on the right an animal (probably a poor representation of the bear) turns to her with head upraised and mouth open, while on the left a lion with a large mane rears up at her. The bulls are absent; instead, two inscription above the scene, naming the figure, ―Saint Thecla‘. The border of the medallion reads another Greek inscription which confers the ―Blessing of St Menas, Amen‖. Pilgrim flask depicting Saint Thecla (reverse), h. 27 cm; diam.17.5 cm: Paris, Musee du Louvre, Departement des Antiquites grecques, etrusques, et romaines, MNC 1926 (photograph by M. Chuzeville). See Appendix A, no. 16. (Davis, 2008:285). Thecla‘s image with Menas in fifth, sixth, and seventh century Egypt is an interesting point. Someone attributed this link to the geographical connection with Asia Minor25. The importation of Thecla‘s cult to Egypt follows the same path as the geographical relocation of Menas‘ martyrium. The second comment on Menas and Thecla connection based on a story26. Although there was no archeological evidence for Thecla shrine, this story indicates Thecla shrine in the Mareotis. So, the pairing of Menas and Thecla on the pilgrim flasks be due to the proximity of another shrine dedicated to Saint Thecla in the Mareotis (Davis, 2008:128). RESULT The Acts of Thecla of the second century AD. emerged as an oral tradition then formed into the document called as ―The Acts of Paul and Thecla‖ and ―The Life and Miracles of Saint Thecla‖. Thecla became an important female figure throughout the world especially for the Christian history and culture day by day. Thecla is described as the pillar of chastity and honoured as martyr of Iconium despite some doubts related with her death. She despises all earthly goods and prefers the suffering of life. The familiarity of her not only spread to the Asia Minor but also in Europe, Syria27 and Egypt. The cult of Thecla became widespread in both East and West and seems to have reached a peak of popularity in the fifth century. It contributed a lot to the Christian art and literature.The separate circulation and the subsequent survival of the Acts of Paul and Thecla were also due to the veneration of Thecla, who was commemorated on 23 September (in the West) and on 24 September (in the East). Revered as a model martyr and worshipped as a saint, in some parts of the Christian world Thecla vied for centuries with Mary, the Mother of Jesus herself, as the most important person outside the Trinity and many of the church fathers praised her as a model virgin-martyr. A great number of pilgrims flocked to churches and other shrines devoted to Thecla in Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt in search of her divine healing. The religion, the sine qua non element of the civilizations, is one of the indispensable part of all cultures and histories. If you learn the history of religions, you can also obtain the chance of learning the history of mankind. Rome, Cairo, Jerusalem, Istanbul and Urfa are just a few examples that are grateful for their popularity to the religions and their elements. 25 Menas, as a native Egyptian, conscripted as a soldier under Diocletian and stationed in Phrygia in Asia Minor. He was martyred under the Roman emperor Diocletian when he publically declared his Christian faith. Devotees would have identified him as a native Egyptian, martyred in Asia Minor and then imported as a saint back to Egypt (Davis, 2008:121-122). 26 One of the stories in that collection tells of a rich woman, Sophia. She decides to travel to Abu Mina in order to dedicate her possessions to the Saint Thecla. Departing from her hometown of Philoxenite, the port town on Lake Mareotis that accommodated pilgrims in transit to Abu Mina, she travels alone on foot through the desert ‗until she approaches the martyr shrine of Saint Thecla Egypt. In the vicinity of this shrine of Thecla, a soldier sexually assaults Sophia; however, she is miraculously saved by Saint Menas, who arrives on horseback and carries her to the safety of his sanctuary (Davis, 2008:128). 27 There is a St. Thecla Monastery in Maalula, 50 km north of Damascus. 120 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Konya, formerly known as Iconium should introduce its Christain culture in addition to the Seljukian and Ottoman heritage and search for new ways to present them to the public without hesitation. The Christians, the Jews and the Muslims coexisted in peace and prosperity in this geography in the past and represented many noteworthy experiences for humanity. Konya, known as the capital city of tolerance based on Rumi‘s philosophy, is one of the leading city that should hug all the nations and keep on its traditional hospitality in every aspect. St. Thecla should be examined in all aspects and we can also underline her hometown, Iconium, while we are introducing her. Nowadays, Konya, just only benefit from Rumi and Seljukian assets in touristic aspects. After adding St. Thecla and the other Christian cultures and figures to the concept of Konya in the advertising activities of Konya, the familiarity of Konya will be increased throughout the world. Bibliography Baldwin, Simeon E. (1907). Religion still the Key to History. The American Historical Review. Vol. 12. No. 2. pp. 219-243. Braudel, Fernand(1992). Tarih Üzerine Yazılar (Çev. M.Ali Kılıçbay). Ankara. İmge Kitabevi. Campbell, G. , Doddridge, P. , Macknight, J. (1827). The New Testament. London. Published by Wightman and Cramp. Celerier, Pierre (1985). Dünya Hakemi Türkiye. BTT. Sayı. 2. Chrysostom, John (1851). The Homilies of S. John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople on the acts of the Apostles. Part I. Home. I.- XXVIII. (Translaed by John Henry Parker and F. And J. Rivington). Oxford. Cramer, J.R. (1832). A Geographical and Historical Description of Asia Minor. Vol.I. Oxford University Press. Davis, Stephen, J. (2008). The Cult of Saint Thecla: A Tradition of Women's Piety in Late Antiquity. New York. Oxford University Press. Egeria (1919). The Pilgrimage of Etheria ( Ed. M. L. McClure and C. L. Feltoe). New York. Macmillan Company. Elliott, James K. (1993). The Apocryphal New Testament. A Collection of Apocryphal Christian: Literature in an English translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Evagrius, Scholasticus (2000). The Ecclesiastical History of Evagrius (Translated with an introduction by Michael Whitby). Liverpool. The Liverpool University Press. Fant, Clyde E. Reddish, Mitchell G. (2003). A Guide to Biblical Sites in Greece and Turkey. New York. Oxford University Press. Goodspeed, E. Johnson (1901). The Acts of Paul and Thecla. The Biblical World. Vol. 17. No. 3. The University of Chicago Pres. pp. 185-190. Gregory of Nyssa (1967). The Life of St. Macrina by St. Gregory of Nyssa: Ascetical Works, Fathers of the Church. Washington, DC. Catholic University of America Press. Gündüz, Şinasi (2004). Pavlus: Hıristiyanlığın Mimarı. Ankara. Ankara Okulu Yay. Hippolytus of Rome (2010). Commentary on Daniel. (Translated by T.C. Schmidt). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform Lightman, Marjorie, Lightman, Benjamin (2008). A to Z of Ancient Greek and Roman Women. New York. Infobase Publishing. 121 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY MacDonald, Dennis R. (1983). The Legend and the Apostle: The Battle for Paul in Story and Canon. Philadelphia. The Westminster Press. McGiffert, Arthur Cushman (1909). Was Jesus or Paul the Founder of Christianity? The American Journal of Theology. Vol. 13. No. 1. pp. 1-20. Mellink, Machteld J. (1966). Anatolia: Old and New Perspectives. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 110. No. 2. Archaeology: Horizons New and Old. pp. 111-129. Merriam, Gordon P. (1926). The Regional Geography of Anatolia. Economic Geography. Vol. 2. No. 1. pp. 86-107. Methodius (1958). The Symposium: A Treatise on Chastity (Edited byT. C. Lawler). New York. Paulist Press, 1958 Gleditsch, Kristian S., and Ward, Michael D. ( 2000). War and Peace in Space and Time: The Role of Democratization. International Studies Quarterly ,44. p.1-29. Pederson, Rena (2006). The Lost Apostle: Searching for the Truth About Junia. San Francisco. A Wiley Imprint. Pesthy, Monika (1996). ―Thecla Among the Fathers of the Church,‖ The Apocryphal Acts of Paul and Thecla Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha. (Edit. Jan N. Bremmer). Kok Pharos Publishing House. Petropoulos, John C.B. (1995). Transvestite Virgin With a Cause: The Acta Pauli et Thecla and Late Antique Proto-―Feminism‖. Greece and Gender, (edited by B. Berggreen and Nanno Marinatos. Norwegian Institute at Athens. Ramsay, W. M. (1893). The Holy City of Phrygia. Contemporary Review. 64. Ramsay, William Mitchell (1902). The Geographical Conditions Determining History and Religion in Asia Minor. The Geographical Journal, Vol. 20. No. 3. p. 257-275. Ramsay, William,M. (1908). The Cities of St. Paul: Their Influence on His Life and Thought, the Cities of Eastern Asia Minor. New York. A.C. Armstrong. Ramsay, William Mitchell (1923). Geography and History in a Phrygo-Pisidian Glen. The Geographical Journal, Vol. 61, No. 4. pp. 279-296. Strabon (2005). Geographika (Çev. A. Pekman). İstanbul. Arkeoloji ve Sanat Tarihi Yayınları. Tertullian (1908). De Baptismo. (Edited by J. M. Lupton). Cambridge University Press. Xenophon (1998). Anabasis. (Çev. Tanju Gökçöl). İstanbul. Sosyal Yayınları. Welch, J. L. (1996). Cross Dressig and Cross Purposes. Gender Reversals and Gender Cultures: Anthropological and Historical Perspectives. (Edit. Ramet Sabrina). London. Routledge. 122 Unlocking the Potential of Religious Tourism in Manisa, Turkey Assist.Prof.Dr.Burak Kartal1, Prof.Dr.Mustafa Tepeci2 and Hakan Atlı2 Celal Bayar University 1 Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences 2 School of Applied Sciences, Manisa, Turkey. burak.kartal@cbu.edu.tr mustafa.tepeci@cbu.edu.tr hakan.atli@cbu.edu.tr Abstract Today, having a marketing perspective is becoming a necessity for nonprofit organizations. Museums, churches, and other types of nonprofit organizations have added marketing tools into their way of doing business. Branding is such a valuable tool which has been frequently used by cities recently. One of the goals of citywide branding efforts is to attract more tourists to a city. If a city has outstanding religious assets, it will inevitably make use of them to increase the number of its visitors and that is considered as „faith or religious tourism‟. In this study, we tried to assess the potential of Manisa for faith tourism and shed some light on the ways of increasing that potential. Towards that end, in addition to a comprehensive literature review, we conducted a number of depth interviews with the experts of culture, tourism, religion, and religious assets in Manisa. The findings indicate that Manisa has highly important religious monuments belonging to three major religions including three of the seven churches mentioned in the apocalypse section of the Bible. Besides, many suggestions have been made regarding possible changes in product, referring to religious monuments and sites in this study, and other marketing mix elements like possible ways of promoting the product. Keywords: religious tourism, faith tourism, city marketing, Manisa. 1. Introduction Turkey is one of the most important countries in the world for international tourism numbers. Turkey moved up one position to sixth place (with 29.3 million tourists) in 2011 for tourist arrivals and the twelfth in tourism receipts (WTO, 2012). In 2011, tourism generated approximately 11% of Turkey‟s GDP and employed 1.94 million people, or 8.1% of total employment (Travel and Tourism Economic Impact, 2012). However, most of the tourism development in Turkey has been in the mass tourism (sun, sea and sand) area and the development has taken place on a narrow coastal line along the Aegean and the Mediterranean coasts. Mass tourism is of great importance for the economic development of Turkey but it has such some shortcomings as lower spending per tourist, seasonality and intense pressure on the environment and on local communities. Previous studies emphasize the potential of religious or faith tourism development in Turkey (Egresi, Bayram, Kara and Kesik, 2012; Tandoğan and Avcı, 2012). It is widely known that Turkey is the repository of many Jewish, Christian and Islamic religious monuments and values (https://www.goturkey.com). The three celestial religions cohabit on Anatolia through the tradition of respect and understanding for the freedom of faith and worship since centuries that continues today in contemporary Turkey (Ulusoy and Yılmaz, 2002). In this study, religious tourism or faith tourism are used interchangeably. There is not much research in the literature that shows the causes, dimensions, consequences, market share and the value of faith tourism. Rundquist (2010) estimated that around 300 million people travel across the world for religious and faith objectives. Aktaş and 123 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Ekin (2007) reported that religious tourism accounts for only 1% of the total number of international tourists to Turkey. According to the Turkish Statistic Institute‟s "Foreign and Citizen Visitors by Purpose of Visit Survey", in 2011, 102.314 foreigner and 4.428 citizens who are resident abroad came to Turkey for religion and/or pilgrimage reasons (Tourism Statistics, 2011). Considering the total number of over 29 million tourists visiting the country in 2011, religiously motivated tourist numbers indicate Turkish tourism needs to improve its marketing efforts for religious tourism and to offer products and values to attract religiously motivated tourists. Thus, there is a need to assess the potential of Manisa for faith tourism and shed some light on the ways of increasing that potential. 2. Literature Review 2.1. Religious tourism Researchers state that religious tourism is among the least explored tourist activities in the world of modern tourism and the most understudied research areas in tourism research (Olsen and Timothy, 2006; Vukonic,1998: 83). However, it is one of the oldest types of tourism (Rinschede, 1992: 53; Rundquist, 2010). Religious tourism can be defined as the visit of sacred places, to participate or follow-up in religious ceremonies, and the pilgrimage in the form of visits or activities in order to fulfill of religious duties in the evaluation of tourism understanding (Usta, 2001:41). It mostly covers tourist trips to perform of the religious beliefs and/or in order to see the centers of faith attraction in the evaluation of the tourism phenomenon. In fact, religious and sacred sites are being visited more by curious tourists than by spiritual pilgrims and therefore commodified and packaged for all tourists (Olsen, 2003; Shackley, 2001). Religious tourism often involves visiting holy cities of particular faiths of followers whose journeys to these sites take place on the anniversaries of events that are of importance to their religions. Traditionally, those involved in religious tourism were referred to as pilgrims. But, in modern times that term is not widely used because of the many non-religious individuals also embark on trips to holy sites. Many of these sites are of cultural or historical as well as religious interest (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-religious-tourism.htm). The global revival of religious pilgrimage and tourism has occurred for several reasons such as the rise of spirituality, growing share of old people, media coverage regarding religious sites and events, the globalization of the local through the mass media, and seeking peace and solace in an increasingly turbulent world (Egresi et al., 2012; Olsen and Timothy, 2006). For religious tourism, the commodity to be packaged is ancient or present day religions, places and the rituals over worshipping attached to these belief systems (Örnek, 2002). People want these belief systems be protected and transferred to next generations so that they could be able to keep their cultural identity and historical conscience. All ancient place of worship, sacred sites, and pilgrimage shrines are important places of our existence today and of our future objective. Researchers state that public interest for religious tourism has grown in recent years because of the economic potential of religious tourism (Olsen and Timothy, 2006). Religiously motivated tourist or visitors of sacred places spend today more than they did in the past (Wright, 2007), and they spend more for shopping than other groups of travelers (Bar and Cohen-Tattab, 2003). Several advantages are seen for promoting and increasing market share for religious tourism, including more tourists and possibly higher tourism earnings, learning our cultural legacy, increased respect of the people of different religions who worship in these places, learning to regard members of other religions and the improvement of the peace on the world and the dialogue among religions (Olsen and Timothy, 2006; Örnek, 2002). 124 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Grabbing the benefits of religious tourism will be easier by adopting a marketing perspective. In her book Brands of Faith, Einstein (2008) argues that religion has become a product and accordingly faces competition not only from other religions but also from other secular leisure activities. She even adds that repackaging religion is justifiable and necessary to a certain degree. By adopting a similar perspective, trying to attract tourists to a city or a religious site from other cities or countries for religious purposes can also be considered as marketing of religion. Religious marketing calls for offering a product or better to say a religious asset that best suits customers‟ needs like pilgrimage or moral satisfaction at a reasonable cost and conveniently. Customers are also need to be informed about the merits of traveling, seeing, and experiencing that religious monument or site. 2.2. Religious tourism in Turkey There is no doubt that religious tourism has big potential to develop in Turkey, considering just over hundred thousand religiously motivated tourists visiting the country in 2011 (Tourism Statistics, 2011). The country owns religious and sacred sites as well as religious events and conferences and exhibitions of cultic objects that appeal to religious adherents. Many religious events happened on this land; Turkey is home to many Christians, Islamic and Jewish religious treasures. The believers desire to see the places where the events described in their holy books have occurred and trace their cultural and religious roots on foreign lands (Kasar 2002). Turkey has significant religious sites and biblical stories that are summarized below to experience for religiously motivated tourists (https://www.goturkey.com/en/pages/content/858; Fant and Reddish, 2003; Yenipınar, 2002).  Many locations in Turkey are mentioned in the Old Testament.  Ur or Şanlıurfa which is the birthplace of Abraham.  Harran which is the native town of Rebecca and Rachel. Abraham and Sarah moved after having left Ur.  In the new Testament, Antioch was the place where the name “Christians” was first used in reference to the followers of Jesus.  Mountain Ararat where Noah‟s Ark was grounded.  Garden of Eden, the plain between Tigris and Euphrates  Constantinople became the center of the church in the east. Hagia Sophia a former Orthodox patriarchal basilica, later a mosque, and now a museum in Istanbul.  Cappadocia-the region of exceptional natural wonders, and a unique historical and biblical heritage.  Saint Paul, the leading missionary of the Christian faith lived in Tarsus.  The seven churches, which are the first places that Apostle Paul visited in order to promote Christianity, are in the Western Anatolia region of Turkey. Seven Churches of Revelations: Ephesus, Sardes, Pergamon, Philadelphia Laodicia, Smyrna and Thyateira.  Christianity spread to Europe and the rest of the world through Anatolia.  The settlements in Aegean area have served as holy places and important sources during the spread of Christianity. Christians who have fled the oppression in Jerusalem have sought and found shelter in Anatolia.  Ephesus, where Virgin Mary spent her last years. After Jesus was crucified, St. John, fearing for Virgin Mary‟s life decided to move her to Anatolia. Near Ephesus there is another site of pilgrimage: the cave of the seven sleepers. 125 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Although Turkey has such an enormous potential for faith tourism there were few arrangements for religious tours. For example, one of Turkey‟s leading inbound tour operators, offers the 11-day Christian faith tour, 'In the Footsteps of St. Paul'. Groups can explore the spiritual route of St. Paul across Turkey, including Antioch, Tarsus, Konya, Pisidian Antioch (Yalvac) and the House of Virgin Mary in Izmir, the Grotto of St. Peter in Antakya and the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Hierapolis and Pamukkale. (www.magister.com.tr). It is known that there are many daily or weekly city tours to several Islamic values in Turkey. The participants are mostly domestic tourists and retired or third age groups. Islam supports in various tourism activities to enhance religious and social functions and to travel for searching the beauty and creating adventure of Allah. The most important attractions for Islamic tourists are Mevlana or Rumi –his shrine became a place of pilgrimage– (Konya), Blue and Süleymaniye Mosques (İstanbul) Selimiye Mosque (Edirne), Divriği Grand Mosque (Sivas), and Grand Mosque (Bursa). In addition to the economical gains, Turkey can benefit from promoting faith or religious tourism in several ways. One, religious tourism lower or dismiss the certain prejudices of the guests. Visitors learn to respect the culture and humanity that exists in Turkey (Örnek, 2002). Second, faith tourism gives the opportunity to the entrepreneurs to attract tourists year round instead in its concentration during a short summer time. Third, the tourism demand for Turkey is concentrated on Antalya, İstanbul and a narrow coastal area of Aegean and Mediterranean. Other parts of the country could benefit from the development of tourism. Fourth, religious places create a demand of accommodation around them (Baltazzi, 2002) and trigger other infrastructural and economical development, thus, decreasing regional inequality and causing more welfare. Government officials, city planners, entrepreneurs and all stakeholders need to work together to promote development of religious tourism. We have to protect Turkish and Islamic works as well as works of Christianity and before (Örnek, 2002). Most of the religious values today need repair, restoration, cleaning and signs for easy way of access. There should be detailed information plaques in religious places so that visitors experience and gain the most insights. 2.3. Religious tourism and monuments in Manisa Acknowledged as the city of princes, Manisa has always been important in history due to its strategic location, fertile lands, mythological Mount Sipylus (Spil), rich natural resources, and fine climate. Thus, it‟s no surprise that the city was selected as the best city suitable for investment among 200 cities worldwide by FDI magazine of Financial Times in 2004 (Genç, 2007:156) and as one of the top ten investment areas in the world for Chinese entrepreneurs in 2007 (www.mosb.org.tr, 2008). Also in the past, it was the last training ground for Mehmed the Conqueror or Suleyman the Magnificent before becoming the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Having witnessed many civilizations, different cultures, and early periods of all three major religions, Manisa is embellished with various historical and religious monuments. Therefore, it is one of the prominent cities in Turkey in terms of faith tourism. In accordance with the goals of this study, the potential of Manisa for faith tourism can be seen by looking at some of these monuments. Three out of the seven churches of Anatolia (or Asia Minor) mentioned in the apocalypse section of the Bible are in Manisa. In addition to these significant churches, one of the oldest synagogues in the world, Sardes Synagogue and many historical and famous mosques, tombs, 126 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY and dervish lodges are located in Manisa. Despite efforts to attract tourists to religious sites by improving regarding infrastructure (wiring excavation sites, constructing public toilets, and etc.) and enhancing promotional efforts (Manisa Guide, 2012:45-46), little progress has been realized so far. Thyateira Church (Akhisar) Having a strategic location, Akhisar (historically Thyateira) has always been important in terms of trade and military. Though the city was founded by Lydians and governed by Seleucid and Pergamon Kingdoms, it was the time of Romans during when Christianity spread in the region very quickly. Hence, the Thyateira Church became one of the famous three churches in Manisa along with Philadelphia and Sardes that were mentioned in the Bible. Other four churches in Anatolia which are also close to Manisa but founded in neighbouring cities are Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamon, and Laodicia. However, it should be noted that the term „church‟ used here is a reference to the early Christian communities lived here rather than the physical church structures which may have been built later on (Manisa Culture & Tourism Magazine, 2012:27; Manisa Municipality Booklet, 2008:74-76; Manisa Leaflet, 2012). The ruins of the church structure in Thyateira which have substantial faith tourism potential were uncovered during excavations at a place called Hill (Tepe) Cemetary (Manisa Guide, 2012:34; Manisa Guide, 2007:102). Opened on August 6th, 2012, Akhisar Museum gathered the historical artifacts of the city in one building which is located next to the antique Thyateira. The museum building is 650 square meters and located inside a 1250 square meter garden (Manisa Culture & Tourism Magazine, 2012:24). The new museum can be seen as a first step of efforts for increasing the faith tourism potential of Thyateira. Philadelphia Saint Jean Church (Alaşehir) Alaşehir is mostly established on Philadelphia antique city that is situated at a narrow valley at the foot of Bozdağ. Among the remnants of the city are the debris of an ancient theatre located at Toptepe and three columns of Saint Jean Church belonging to the first ages of Christianity (Manisa Municipality Leaflet, 2012:10; Manisa Leaflet, 2012). Even though the history of Alaşehir dates back to 3000 BC and has been glamorous during the Hittite era, the new city named Philadelphia is believed to be rebuilt during the reign of Pergamum King Attalos II 2nd century BC. In the excavations made in the 1980s, some relics including those of Saint Jean Church have been unearthed. In the 6th century, the church was built with a typical basilica plan and vaulted galleries. In later periods, some renovations and repairs have been applied to the basilica. Among the few remnants of the church, giant elephant legs, shows how magnificent the church was at its time. As mentioned in the apocalypse section of the Bible, the city was a meeting place for the followers of Saint Paul (Dogan, 2012:39-43; Manisa Guide, 2012:38; Manisa Guide, 2007:106). Sardes (Sard) Church and Synagogue (Salihli) As the capital of the antique Lydian Kingdom, Sardes is famous for inventing minted coins, operating gold mines around the Paktolos River (Sart Stream), and the Sardes Church mentioned in the Bible. The city also comprises a grand synagogue, thought to have been built between AD 161 and 169, which points to the presence of a Jewish community in Sardes in the past (Manisa Municipality Booklet, 2008:73; Manisa Guide, 2007:95; Ucar, 2008:25). The structure of the synagogue is considered as a masterpiece and there is a gymnasium next to it (Manisa Guide, 2012:28). Even though the city began to languish after 4th century AD, it kept its importance to some extent as a commerce, transportation and administration hub until 7th century AD (Ucar, 2008:26; Manisa Touristic Inventory, 2003:43; Manisa Leaflet, 2012; Manisa Municipality Leaflet, 2012:14). 127 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY In terms of religious monuments, there is a chapel which is located behind the Temple of Artemis and thought to have been built in the 5th century and an impressive synagogue. In the synagogue can be seen floor mosaics, ornamented walls with colored marble panels, and a table used as altar (Aksakal, 2009). Also, over eighty inscriptions including six fragments in Hebrew and the rest in Greek were found in the synagogue. It is probably the most outstanding monument belonging to Jews in the Aegean region from Antiquity (Ghiuzeli, 2013). Other Churches in Manisa There are two other churches in Manisa that are noteworthy. First one is a wooden Armenian Church said to be located in the Manisa Castle in the 17th century. It was seen by a famous Armenian traveler, Simeon of Poland and written in his travel book (Manisa Guide, 2007:86). The other one is The Church of Virgin Mary in Kula. The church which dates back to 1831 is one of the two churches left from the Orthodox congregation lived in the region. After renovations, the building now serves as a cultural center (Manisa Culture & Tourism Magazine, 2012:74-76). Mosques Among many mosques in Manisa, Ulu Mosque, Muradiye Mosque, and the Sultan Mosque are the most famous ones due to different reasons like history, architect, and Mesir festival. Ulu Mosque Ulu Mosque is the most important historical and religious monument left from the Saruhanoglu Principality. It was built in 1366 by the order of Muzafereddin Ishak Bey and its architect is Emet bin Osman. The complex was built in the north foot of Mount Spil and comprises of a mosque, an old madrasah named Fethiye, a tomb where Ishak Celebi and his family are believed to be buried, and a Turkish bath which was restored in 2006. There are two fountains lying on each side of the madrasah‟s crown door. The madrasah was built on the ruins of a Byzantine church. The mosque has a short bodied green, blue, yellow, and purple colored minaret and its pulpit was built by a special wood carving technique called kündekari. It can be considered as an ornamenting masterpiece of the principalities period. The pulpit is now in the Manisa Museum (Manisa Guide, 2007:28; Manisa Guide, 2012:48; (Manisa Municipality Booklet, 2008:44). Muradiye Mosque Muradiye mosque was built between 1583 and 1585 for Murat III. It is the only structure of architect Mimar Sinan in the Aegean region. The construction was initially administered by Mahmud Aga and then by Sedefkar Mehmed Aga upon the death of the previous one. The mosque was built of cut-stone on a 'reverse T plan‟. The mosque has tremendous intricate artworks inside just as its heavily decorated door. Its highly valuable marble pulpit is worth mentioning. Madrasah of the complex has the classical Ottoman architectural style. Today, madrasah and charitable establishment parts are used as museum. There is a library between the madrasah and the mosque built by Huseyin Aga in 1812 (Manisa Guide, 2007:32; Manisa Guide, 2012:52-53). Muradiye Mosque underwent significant restoration during the reign of Abdülhamit II (Manisa Municipality Booklet, 2008:48). Sultan Mosque Ayse Hafsa Sultan, the mother of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman and the wife of Yavuz Sultan Selim had the Sultan Mosque built in Manisa between 1522 and 1539. The surrounding complex includes an almshouse, an inn, an elementary school, and a hospital (darussifa). The 128 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY architect of the complex is Ser Mimar Acem Alisi. The mosque has three domes and two minarets. The soup kitchen and the inn in the complex collapsed due to the fire set by Greeks in the Turkish War of Independence. Hospital building is currently being operated by Celal Bayar University as a library. The mosque is also known as Mesir Mosque since the famous Mesir Paste is scattered from the top of this mosque to public every year during the Mesir Festival in March (Manisa Guide, 2007:30; Manisa Guide, 2012:52; Manisa Municipality Leaflet, 2012:18; www.bayar.edu.tr, 2012). Mevlevihane Mevlevihane was built on an order by Ishak Celebi, the grandson of Saruhan Bey, in the Northern skirts of Spil Mountain in 1369 and used as a Mevlevi dervish lodge until the end of 19th century. Its architect is Emet Bin Osman. A number of restorations were made throughout centuries and the last one was carried out by Celal Bayar University in 2001. Since 2005, it has been used as a museum operated by the same University. At the same time it is used for cultural activities (Manisa Guide, 2007:42; Manisa Municipality Leaflet, 2012:48; www.bayar.edu.tr, 2012 ). Kula Tapduk Emre Tomb Tapduk Emre Tomb, which is similar to Saruhan Bey Tomb in Manisa, is an important faith tourism destination in Emre Village, Kula. There are ten graves in the Tomb supposedly belonging to Tapduk Emre and his family. One grave having an axe picture on its stone just in front of the tomb‟s door is even said to be where Yunus Emre, famous poet and sufi dervish, is buried. There are also two Turkish bath relics, a fountain, and a madrasah dating back to AD 954 in the village (Manisa Guide, 2007:54). Kula Carullah Bin Süleyman Mosque The village where Tapduk Emre Tomb is located comprises another interesting temple, Carullah bin Süleyman Mosque. The mosque was built in 1547 AD but later, in 1808 ornamented with pictures of scenery and tall apartments up to six storeys (Kula Municipality, 2013). It is hard to find such a mosque with pictures and intriguing to see those apartments drawn at that time. Other Mosques & Tombs & Dervish Lodges (Tekke) Both in the city center and in its towns, Manisa has a number of other important historical mosques (e.g. Ivaz Pasha Mosque, Cesnigir Mosque, Hatuniye Mosque), tombs (e.g. Yiğitbaşı Veli Tomb, Ayn-ı Ali Tomb, Yirmiiki Sultanlar Tomb, Revak Sultan Tomb), and dervish lodges (e.g. Entekkeliler of the Rufais, Kabak Tekkesi) that have significant touristic potential. 3. Research Goal and Methodology After reviewing the literature regarding faith or religious tourism, marketing of faith tourism assets, and historical and religious monuments in Manisa, we determined to carry out a qualitative study first, to assess the exact potential for reliigous tourism in Manisa and second, to lead the way to increase that potential. In doing so, several depth interviews were conducted with different parties related to the subject of this study. As it would be very difficult to find experts who may have a word on the two research goals cited above, snowball sampling is preferred to identify and reach them. People and institutions regarding religious tourism were called, visited, and asked for the names of right interviewees. As a result, a total of 13 interviews were arranged and successfully accomplished. 129 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY The sample is comprised of at least one director, manager, or representative from each of the following institutions: Provincial Directorate of Culture & Tourism, Governorship of Manisa; Manisa Municipality Culture and Social Affairs Department; Manisa Museum; Celal Bayar University‟s Institute of Social Sciences, Office of the Mufti in Manisa, Christian Communities Association in Turkey, Manisa Rural Tourism Association, Akhisar Municipal Assembly. Besides, two representatives from different travel agencies and a former city mayor were interviewed just as the imam of a historical mosque in Manisa. The duration of each interview was between 40 minutes and one hour. Since interviewees we contacted are experts of one or a few aspects of the topic, they usually are not capable of answering all our questions. Thus, we adopted a semi-structured interview and used probes as needed. As Malhotra (2007:159) points out probing is used in all depth interviewing techniques and can be seen as an integral part of them. At the end of each interview, we submitted a form involving the questions we asked and requested that the form be returned to us completed in a week. By that way, interviewees had the chance to present new ideas and make recommendations on the topic in a wider time frame. The whole data collection phase took place in one month. The interview form consists of two sections and several questions. In the first section, there are closed-ended questions on ranking the importance of religious monuments in Manisa in terms of their religious tourism potential. In the second section, there are 11 open-ended questions some of which touch on issues like infrastructure, employee related and similar problems, current efforts and tours on religious tourism in the city, economic and social effects of such tourism, and specific recommendations about growing faith tourism potential. 4. Findings The findings of both literature review and the interviews conducted are presented according to the order of questions in the interview form and can be seen as follows: After a literature review on Manisa‟s religious assets, we ended up with over 80 monuments which may be potential candidates for religious tourism. Among them three churches (Sardes Church, Thyateira Church, Philadelphia Saint Jean Church), three mosques (Muradiye Mosque, Sultan Mosque, Ulu Mosque), and one synagogue (Sardes Synagogue) evidently come to the fore almost with a consensus based on the interviews. At this point, we need to divide the religious monuments into two groups since their target markets are different: Christian / Jewish and Islamic. Although Jews had a considerable population in Manisa until the beginning of 20th century (Emecen, 1997), today no Jewish religious monument could be identified by the researchers of this study other than the synagogue in Sardes. However, there are two other churches that can be taken into account. First one is The Church of Virgin Mary in Kula that is used as a cultural center nowadays. A few respondents think that it may also have religious tourism potential but to some lesser degree. On the other hand, none of the respondents give a similar chance to the Armenian church which does not exist right now but believed to be in the Manisa castle once. As far as Islamic monuments are concerned, Mevlevihane is a close follower of the three major mosques. Other Islamic monuments which have quite religious tourism potential according to some respondents are Kula Tabduk Emre Tomb, Kula Carullah Bin Süleyman Mosque, Ayn-ı Ali Tomb, Yiğitbaşı Veli Tomb, and Hatuniye Mosque. According to respondents, these are the mosques that are worth seeing in the towns of Manisa: Hacı Recep Mosque, Kurşunlu Mosque, Necip Mosque, Çarşı Mosque, and Taş Mahalle Mosque in Kula; Ulucami, Sheikh İsa Mosque, Sarı Ahmet Vefik Pasha Mosque, and 130 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Hergelen Mosque in Akhisar; Karaosmanoğlu Mosque, Sarıhoca Mosque, and Kabasakal Mosque in Kırkağaç; Minareli Mosque, Kırkoluk Mosque, and Ulupınar Mosque in Soma; Yıldırım Beyazıt Mosque and Sheikh Sinan Mosque in Alaşehir; Halime Hatun Mosque in Gölmarmara; Halime Hatun Mosque in Turgutlu; İrezler Mosque in Demirci. All respondents are certain that Manisa has enormous potential for religious tourism provided that shortcomings are addressed. There seems to be a new awakening on the subject but concrete steps are missing so far. However, everyone thinks that economic benefits of such an endeavor will be huge. Despite the fact that Manisa has tremendous potential in religious tourism, there are many problems and shortcomings that need to be overcomed. In order to address this issue, we asked what can be done in terms of infrastructure, transportation, and environment to attract more tourists to the religious sites. As for the mosques and churches in city centers, parking for buses is a serious problem along with toilet facilities especially for women. Also, information boards are inadequate in almost every site. Not only there should be more of these boards, but also their contents need to enriched and foreign languages used be varied. Excavations at Thyateira and Philadelphia should be extended deeper to bring out more historical remains and the surroundings of three churches and the synagogue be organized better. For example, one respondent suggested building a little amphitheater without destroying anything on the field so that tourist groups can listen to their guides and get information about the churches and synagogue nearby these structures and seated at comfort. The roads between any two destinations of these four sites are generally in good condition with the exception of Akhisar – Salihli route. The road between these two towns through Gölmara would better be repaired and enlarged. There are mixed thoughts about hosting and dining services in the vicinity of the religious sites. The number, quality, and price of these services may also differ between the city center and its towns. Yet, most respondents share the opinion that these facilities and services will not be sufficient in the long run and when demand jumps up. An important source of income related to religious tourism is selling souvenirs and other goods near the sites of attraction. For now, none of the respondents remembers selling of such a product. Nevertheless, one respondent claims that Provincial Directorate of Culture & Tourism, Governorship of Manisa performed a study last year to determine possible cultural products to sell and a group of young entrepreneurs in Akhisar started production of some of them. New products like miniatures of religious monuments may be added to that product line and offered for sale at gift stores. All respondents agree that new personnel are needed for religious tourism activities but think quite differently about who should take part in these activities. It is assumed that current guides usually do not have enough specific knowledge about the religious monuments in Manisa. Two suggestions seem to be valid in terms of personnel. First one is training and using current personnel of mosques in religious tourism with proper incentives. Second one is finding, training, and using new religious tourism volunteers. If volunteers and guides are specifically prepared for religious tourism and if they can be reached by calling a specific phone number or applying a designated office, then the problem of personnel can be alleviated effectively and with low cost. Also, authorities of the three celestial religions can take part in training of personnel. In Manisa Guide 2012, Provincial Directorate of Culture & Tourism, Governorship of Manisa offers a religious tour option for those who are not travelling with an agency. The outline of this tour is given below (Manisa Guide, 2012:202): 131 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Morning:  Akhisar Thyateira excursion site (Thyateira Church) (Manisa-Akhisar: 48 kilometers)  Break: Gölmarmara (Akhisar-Gölmarmara: 28 kilometers)  Bintepeler King Tombs  Sardes recreational site (Sardes Church and Synagogue)  Lunch: Salihli (Odun meatballs) (Gölmarmara-Salihli: 36 kilometers) In the afternoon:  Alaşehir Philadelphia excursion site (St.Jean Church) (Salihli-Alaşehir: 38 kilometers) (Alaşehir-Manisa: 110 km) In addition to this plausible tour option, travel agencies both in the city and nationwide have tours destined to Manisa and its historical towns. The amateur tours operated by local people and groups also benefit from travel agencies at least to meet legal conditions. Most of these tours come to the major mosques in Manisa from neighboring cities. Overall, we see that travel agencies can provide a tour option for those who want to see the religious sites in Manisa. On the other hand, a sound and successful religious tourism organization seem to be missing. When we asked about the cooperation between central and local governmental organizations on the subject, we noticed that there is strong desire but weak action. Increasing the religious tourism potential of Manisa can be considered as a part of the city‟s recent branding efforts. A specific team of experts from each organization can be formed and an action plan be prepared to determine the steps to be taken regarding religious tourism. The Governorship of Manisa can supervise the efforts and universities can contribute with their knowledge, facilities, and expertise in education, marketing, and publishing. It is known that that people with different faiths have lived together in peace for centuries on this beautiful land. When asked about the possible change in social life and reactions to rising number of religious tours, respondents had no worry about any negative consequence and stressed the high degree of tolerance in the region. Some respondents even assert that local people will benefit from religious tourism by having a wider perspective through experiencing differences. Anyway, communities living around the sites would better be informed and prepared about the importance and economic benefit of religious tourism. The last question of the interview form calls for specific recommendations which respondents might have to increase the religious tourism potential of Manisa. Since the respondents are mostly experts of their fields, some of them came up with interesting ideas. These ideas are meshed with findings from the literature review and answers to the other questions and presented in the conclusion and discussion part. 5. Conclusion and Discussion First and foremost, this study highlights the enormous potential of Manisa for religious tourism. Based on experts‟ views, over 80 religious monuments in the city have been ranked in terms of importance. At the top of the list are three churches (Sardes Church, Thyateira Church, Philadelphia Saint Jean Church) and one synagogue (Sardes Synagogue) for Christian and Jewish tourists and three mosques (Muradiye Mosque, Sultan Mosque, Ulu Mosque) for Muslim tourists. There are also many mosques in the towns of Manisa that are worth seeing such as Hacı Recep Mosque, Kurşunlu Mosque, Necip Mosque, Çarşı Mosque, and Taş Mahalle Mosque in 132 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Kula; Ulucami, Sheikh İsa Mosque, Sarı Ahmet Vefik Pasha Mosque, and Hergelen Mosque in Akhisar; Karaosmanoğlu Mosque, Sarıhoca Mosque, and Kabasakal Mosque in Kırkağaç; Minareli Mosque, Kırkoluk Mosque, and Ulupınar Mosque in Soma; Yıldırım Beyazıt Mosque and Sheikh Sinan Mosque in Alaşehir; Halime Hatun Mosque in Gölmarmara; Halime Hatun Mosque in Turgutlu; and İrezler Mosque in Demirci. The interviews conducted along with a literature review put forward a number of suggestions about ways of increasing Manisa‟s potential for religious tourism. Below you can find these striking recommendations and some of the interesting findings of this study:  The problems and shortcomings with regards to religious monuments and sites should be overcomed. The need for repair and restoration in structures, improving information boards, parking and other auxiliary services are some suggestions.  Hosting and dining services are believed to be insufficient in the long run. Accordingly, necessary future arrangements should be planned.  Preparations for selling souvenirs (like miniatures of religious monuments) and other religious and cultural goods near the sites of attraction can be made. A study conducted last year by Manisa Provincial Directorate of Culture & Tourism, Governorship of Manisa to determine possible cultural products to sell was detected.  New personnel and guides should be hired and trained for religious tourism activities.  New tour options can be planned for religious tourism in addition to the current one proposed by Manisa Provincial Directorate of Culture & Tourism, Governorship of Manisa.  No negative reaction is expected in surrounding communities of the sites to the possible rise in the number of religious tours.  A catalog needs to be written specifically for religious tourism. It may give detailed information about religious monuments in Manisa and include a map and adequate knowledge regarding hosting, dining, transportation, parking, and so on.  Brochures, booklets, and posters with the theme of religious tourism should be prepared and sent to selected travel agencies, hotels, and religious schools and colleges both in Turkey and in the world. Besides, participation to international tourism and travel fairs may be considered. The countries with the highest percentage of Christians and high levels of personal of income should be given special emphasis in promotion activities.  In addition to selling souvenirs (e.g., miniatures, postcards), local food (i.e., Mesir paste, Mesir delight) and local drinks (i.e., Mesir tea, Sübye) can be offered at gift shops or stores to be opened next to religious monuments.  A specific team of experts from each related organization can be formed and an action plan be prepared to determine the steps to be taken regarding religious tourism. A wise planning and an effective implementation of religious tourism efforts require an intense coordination among parties such as The Provincial Directorate of Culture & Tourism - Governorship of Manisa, Manisa Municipality Culture and Social Affairs Department, Celal Bayar University (Institute of Social Sciences and Departments related to History, Turkish Literature, Tourism, Marketing and Music), Office of the Mufti, Manisa Museum, Manisa Rural Tourism Association, Council of Monuments, Directorate General of Foundations, Directorate General of Religious Affairs, Christian Communities Association in Turkey, Chief Rabbinate of Turkey, The Association of Turkish Travel Agencies, and The Chamber of Izmir Tourist Guides. All these stakeholders should be consulted but don‟t need to take part actively in implementation. The Governorship of Manisa can supervise the implementation 133 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY process and Celal Bayar University can contribute with its knowledge, facilities, and expertise in education, marketing, and publishing.  The new generation in Manisa, Salihli, Akhisar, and Alaşehir can be educated on religious tourism assets in their city and its towns. For example, puppet shows, cartoons, and school trips may be used in kindergartens and schools towards that goal.  New museums or new sections specific to artifacts of the religious structures are necessary as there is limited space for them in museums. There are many religious artifacts like crosses, incense burners which are not on exhibition in museums due to space limitations.  The religious tourism activities would better be merged with those of other types of tourism. For example, those who come to Manisa to see historical mosques and tombs can have an organic breakfast at Mount Spil watching the view of Manisa city and Gediz Plain; and the tourists of Sardes can be given a chance to enjoy thermal springs of Salihli.  With the rising popularity of experiential and event marketing, tourists coming to Manisa to see religious monuments will be better off experiencing the atmosphere of these monuments. To that end, sufi music concerts, poetry days, and religious conversations can be organized once or twice a week and be scheduled in accord with tour programs. Likewise, personnel working at the historical sites can wear costumes of old times. For example, tourists may see personnel, animators, or folk dancers at Sardes in Lydian costume and at Mevlevihane in Dervish clothes.  The implementation of all the activities suggested above should be based on a well- designed plan. The sequence of activities is very important. For example, the starting point should be the „product‟, which in this case refers to historical monuments and sites. It‟s no use calling in tourists from all over the world before structures are restorated, guides are trained, and the whole process is organized.  Finally, we should keep in mind that it will take time for Manisa to become an outstanding touristic point of attraction. After all, „patience‟ is a great virtue of life leading to success, which has been adopted by societies of all the three celestial religions lived in Manisa. This study has some limitations though. Firstly, the findings are based on a qualitative study which limit their generalizability. Yet, the sample of interviewees is fairly large and utmost attention is given to the selection of them. Secondly, despite our efforts, we were unable to reach a representative reflecting the views of Jewish people. Although there is just one historical synagogue in Sardes, learning the views of all parties related to religious monuments in Manisa would be better. In the future, more stakeholders can be involved in the data collection process. Also, the views of general public on the topic can be investigated through surveys in order to determine the details of religious tourism activities. References Aksakal, A.H. (2009). Sardes - The capital city of the Lydia Kingdom. Manisa: Emek Publishing. Aktaş, A. and Ekin, Y. (2007). Case study 5: The importance and the role of faith (religious) tourism as alternative tourism resources in Turkey. In R.Raj and N.Morpeth (Eds), Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage Festivals Management: An International Perspective, (pp.170-183). Wallingford, UK.CABI Publishing. Baltazzi, A. (2002). We cannot have faith tourism before we stop wars. The Book of the Faith Tourism Days. (p.165-167). October 23-27. 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The Book of the Faith Tourism Days. (p.9-10). October 23-27. Kuşadası: Şubat yayıncılık. Usta, Ö. (2001). Genel Turizm. İzmir: Anadolu Matbaacılık. Vukonic, B. (1998). Religious Tourism: Economic Value or Empty Box, Zagreb International Review of Economics and Business, 1 (1), 83-94. WTO (2012). http://mkt.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/unwtohighlights12enlr.pdf Wright, K.(2007). Religious tourism: a new Era, a dynamic industry. Leisure Group. Yenipınar, U. (2002). The Book of the Faith Tourism Days. (p.159-161). October 23-27. Kuşadası: Şubat yayıncılık. 136 The Role Of Service Quality In Promoting Tourism Development In Obudu Mountain Resort Enemuo,O.B & Barra TEMPLE Department of hotel management and tourism Micheal okpara university of agriclture umudike Nigeria Abstract This work evaluated the role of quality hospitality service in promoting tourism development in Obudu mountain resort. Service quality is an attitude or global judgment about the superiority of service; it is the result of the comparism that customers make between their expectation about a service and their perception of the way the service has been performed. Quality service is an essential part of the tourists’ experience; thus, a crucial aspect of satisfying tourist. The objectives of the research were to identify the various services offered to tourist at the resort, evaluate how tourists perceive the quality of service offered at the resort and to determine the effect of quality hospitality service on tourists’ intention to revisit the resort and on the profit margin of the hospitality establishment in the destination. Data of this research was generated using quantitative technique. Simple frequency percentages and mean were used to analyze the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis revealed that quality hospitality service has an effect on tourist intention to revisit the resort, profitability of the establishment and consequently, tourism development. However, certain ancillary services have to be provided in order to make guest/tourist stay worthwhile. It is however important that stakeholders and managers in tourism industry combine the resources at their disposal; both human and capital in a flexible design to meet the needs of tourists/guests and if possible surpass their expectation. Introduction Tourism is a multi faceted activity; its complexity makes the concept difficult to define. Tourism experts define the term from their perspectives; however, there is a general consensus that tourism involves travel (Odutan, 2010). Tourism comprises of activities of people travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes (Holden, 2008).Tourism in Nigeria is still in its infancy, considering the large accumulation of resources which are yet untapped (Dantata, 2011). Among these are the size of the country and its rapidly developing structure (Anji, 2008). Despite the abundant sunshine characteristics of the tropical environment, the length and breadth of the country offers attractive tourism resources manifested in physical resources, like magnificent waterfalls, impressive rock formations, beautiful landscapes, vast tracts of unspoiled nature ranging from coastline of natural beaches, unique wildlife/ecotourism resources, abundant monuments and museums, rich cultural heritage/resources of great historical antecedents and man-made resources (Yemi, 2008). The hospitality industry includes lodging, accommodation, restaurant, event planning, cruise lines and ancillary activities in the tourism industry (Charles, 2004). Hospitality is the action of being hospitable in other words welcoming, helpful and providing a service for someone who is visiting (Goeldner, Ritchie and Mclntosh, 2008).Goeldner, Ritchie and Mclntosh, (2008) opined that hospitality is one of the four categories of resources in tourism supply, a product of the tourist receiving destination. Consequently these resources are the basics or prerequisite for tourism development (Philip, John and James, 2006). Westone (2003) however, noted that the boundaries between tourism, travel and hospitality are not easy 137 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY to define, because they blend into and overlap one another. Emphatically, there is just a thin line between hospitality and tourism; tourists require an overnight stay for tourism to be complete (Holden, 2008). As stated earlier, the hospitality industry includes lodging and accommodation, which is a requirement for tourism to be complete. To succeed in the international tourism market place, a destination must ensure that its overall attractiveness and the integrity of the experience it delivers to visitors must equal or surpass that of many alternative destinations open to the potential visitors (Larry and Chulivon, 2003). Hence, the need for this study; to bring to light the importance of the quality service that is offered to tourists /visitors and its role in promoting tourism development and consequently economic development. The relative large number of tourism destination available both nationally and internationally has intensified competition between destinations for tourists. In addition, changes in technology and consumers taste means that tourism products and services have shortening life cycles, this leads to the need to continually innovate and adapt tourism product offerings. These and other factors prompted the study of the role of service quality in promoting tourism development in Obudu mountain resort. Objectives Of The Study The major objective of this research is to evaluate the role of service quality in promoting tourism development. The specific objectives are to: 1. To identify the various services offered to tourists by Obudu mountain resort. 2. To determine tourists’ perception of the quality of services offered by Obudu Mountain resort. 3. To determine the influence of service quality on tourists’ intention to revisit the destination. 4. To determine the effect of service quality on the profit margin of the hospitality establishment at the destination. 5. To verify ways to improve the quality of services offered by hospitality establishments at the destination. Methodology Research design The study used survey research design. Area of study This study was carried out in Obudu mountain resort in Cross River State. The state of Cross River is located on longitude 5⁰45 N and latitude 8⁰30 N. The state was created on the 27th of May 1967. It has an area of 20,156km2 (7,782 Sqmile) and a density of 93km2 (240 sqmil). Population for the study The population for the study consisted of guests lodging in the resort and the management of the hotel as at the time the study was carried out. The population of the study however consisted of a hundred and fifty nine (159) guests/tourists (This information was gotten from the guest register) and six (6) top managers. 138 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Sample and sampling techniques The sample size was determined using the yaro yamani formula, which states: Where: n = Sample size 1 = constant N = Population e = margin of error Calculated thus: n = n = 113.77 n = 114 This yielded a total of one hundred and fourteen (114) respondents and six (6) managers who formed the sample of the study. The sample of the study was determined by simple random and purposive sampling techniques. Guests lodging in the resort were randomly selected and the top managers of the resort were purposively selected Instrument for data collection The study employed quantitative methods of data collection. The instrument used for the study was a questionnaire. The structured questionnaire was divided into three sections. Section A centred on the respondents demographic characteristics, Section B the purpose of visit and the respondents perception of the quality of service offered. Section C contained questions on management’s maximization of profit. The questionnaire used the likert scale with the following keys; 1- Very poor 2 – Poor 3 – Good 5 – Excellent 4 – Very good Data collection techniques The researcher administered 98 questionnaires by hand to guests/tourists at obudu mountain resort, Cross River while 16 questionnaires were administered by the staff at the reception. The researcher had an assistant who administered 6 questionnaires by hand to top managers at obudu mountain resort and collected the completed questionnaires on the spot. However, the questionnaires administered to guests/tourists were retrieved on the spot by the researchers while the other questionnaires administered by the staff at the reception were all returned to the reception. 114 completed questionnaires were collected from guests/tourists and 6 completed questionnaires were collected from top managers at the resort. 139 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Data analysis techniques Simple descriptive analysis was used to analyse objective one, three and five; objective two was analysed using the five point likert scale. The total score of the five levels of perception was fifteen (15) that is, the summation of 5,4,3,2 and 1. The average (mean) of these perceptions was 3.0; any response with a mean of 3.0 and above was regarded as agreed (indicating quality service) while any response below 3.0 was regarded as disagreed (indicating poor service quality). The grand mean (clustered mean) was used to assess the overall quality of service offered by the resort. The grand mean used was calculated using the formula below Where ∑x = summation of means n = number of means RESULT AND DISCSSION RESEARCH QUESTION ONE: What are the various services offered by the hospitality establishment in Obudu mountain resort? Table 4.1 Distribution of additional services offered by the hotel. Option Frequency Percentage 24 hours room service - - Laundry/dry cleaning service 84 73.7 Business centre/internet service 102 89.5 Sporting facilities 114 100 Travel agency 102 89.5 Banking services 114 100 Shops 114 100 Car hire service 114 100 Concierge service 90 78.9 Table 4.1 above showed that none of the respondents stated 24 hours room service as an additional service offered by the hotel, 73.7% stated laundry/dry cleaning service as an additional service offered by the hotel, 89.5% stated business centre/internet service as an additional service offered by the hotel, 100% stated sporting facilities as an additional service offered by the hotel, 89.5% stated travel agency as an additional service offered by the hotel, 100% stated banking services ,shops and car hire service as an additional service offered by the hotel, while 78.9% stated concierge service as an additional service offered by the hotel. RESEARCH QUESTION TWO: How do tourists perceive the quality of service offered by hospitality establishment in Obudu mountain resort? 140 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Table 4.2 Perception of service quality by respondents S/N PERCEPTION OF SERVICE QUALITY TOTAL SCORE MEAN DECISION 1. The resort has a good physical environment of the hotel. 546 4.8 AGREED 2. The staff at the front desk are courteous 504 4.4 AGREED 3. The hotel staff are orderly and neat time 474 4.2 AGREED 4 The hotel staff perform well at the first 468 4.1 AGREED 5. The service offered by the hotel staff is efficient as regards time 396 3.5 AGREED 6. The decor and furnishing of the lobby area and room are attractive 510 4.5 AGREED 7. The room furnishing are comfortable 510 4.5 AGREED 8. The hotel/s room service is standard 198 1.7 DISAGREED 9. There is a speed of service delivery 342 3 AGREED 10. There is a high standard of the restaurant and 474 4.2 AGREED Bar service; food and beverage offered by the hotel 11. There are high fire safety facilities and security measures in the hotel 450 3.9 AGREED 12 The management give individual attention to the guest 384 3.4 AGREED 13. The hotel offer quality of service 474 4.2 AGREED TOTAL 6168 54.2 CLUSTER MEAN 3.9 Source: Field survey 2012 Table 4.2 above showed that the respondents indicated that they like the physical environment, the staff at the front desk are courteous, the staff appear orderly and neat, they had a good check-in procedure, the hotel’s staff performed the service well the first time, the services offered by the hotel’s staff is efficient as regards time, the décor and furnishing of the lobby area and room are attractive, the room furnishing is comfortable, a speedy service delivery, a good restaurant and bar service; food and beverage, good fire safety facilities and security measures, the management gives a good amount of attention to guest, the hotel offers quality service and had 4.8, 4.4, 4.2, 3.8, 4.1, 3.5, 4.5, 4.5, 3, 4.2, 3.9, 3.4 and 4.2 means respectively. While respondents stated that the hotel’s room service is poor and had a mean of 1.7. This indicated that guests perceive that the hotel offers quality service considering the clustered mean of 3.9 (from decision rule any mean response of 3.0 and above should be regarded as quality service). RESEARCH QUESTION THREE: What is the effect of quality hospitality services on tourists’ intention to revisit the destination? Table 4.3 Tourists’ intention to revisit the hotel again. Option Frequency Percentage Yes108 94.7 No 6 5.3 TOTAL 114 100% Source: Field survey 2012 141 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Table 4.3 showed that 94.7% of the respondents have the intention to visit the hotel again, while 5.3% of the respondents stated they do not have the intentions to visit the hotel again. RESEARCH QUESTION FOUR: What is the effect of quality service on the profit margin of the hospitality establishment in the destination? Table 4.4 Rate of profit maximization Option Frequency Percentage 1% - 20% - - 21% - 40% - - 41% - 60% 1 16.7 61% - 80% 3 50 81% - 100% 2 33.7 Table 4.4 showed that 16.7% of top managers started 41% - 60% rate of profit maximization, 50% stated 61% - 80% rate of profit maximization, while 33.3% stated 81% - 100% as rate of profit maximization. RESEARCH QUESTION FIVE: In what ways can the quality of service offered by the hospitality establishment in Obudu mountain resort be improved? Table 4.5: The ways by which the resort can improve its services. Option Frequency Percentage Offering of room service 114 100 Increase in speed of service delivery 36 31.6 Provision of constant power supply 114 100 Table 4.5 showed that 100% of the respondents stated that the hotel can improve its services by offering room service, 31.6% stated that an increase in the speed of service delivery can improve the services offered by the hotel while 100% stated that the provision of constant power supply can improve the services offered by the resort. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS Table 4.2 showed that the respondents stated that the services offered by the hospitality establishment in Obudu mountain resort were laundry/dry cleaning services, business centre/internet services, sporting facilities, travel agency, banking services, shops, car hire service and concierge service. All of the respondents stated sporting facilities, banking services, shops and car hire services as services offered Obudu mountain resort. Also a few of the respondents did not state laundry/dry cleaning service, business centre/internet service, travel agency and concierge service as services offered by the hospitality establishment and none of the respondents stated 24 hour room service as a service offered by the hospitality establishment in Obudu mountain resort. This is in line with an article on city-hotel.com that stated that other services offered to guests of a hotel can be considered as bonuses; they are laundry service, fitness and gyms, banking services and many other things. These services can 142 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY be included in in the price of the room or paid separately. Recently the new trend is the separation of the service sectors in hotels. Table 4.3 showed respondents’ perception of service quality. This indicated that guests’ perceive they are offered quality service because the clustered mean of the overall responses was 3.9 which were higher than the decision rule that stated that any mean response above 3.0 should be regarded as high quality service. Quality or service is whatever the guest perceives it to be; services are subjectively experienced process where production and consumption take place simultaneously, thus buyer – seller interactions or service encounters have a critical impact on perceived service; as Chin-Tsai Kuo (2007) stated that the need to explore perceptions of tourists in order to satisfy their demand was motivation for his study and his findings showed that perception of service quality was affected by even age group. Table 4.4 showed that majority of the respondents stated they had intention to revisit the destination as a result of the quality of service offered in Obudu mountain resort, this is in line with Baker and Crompton (2008) that service quality influences tourists’ revisit intentions; a higher service quality will more likely bring visitors back. Kozak (2001) defining revisiting stated it as the willingness of tourists to travel other touring spots in a certain destination or in the same country. Table 4.5 showed that quality service has a positive effect on the profit management of the hospitality establishment.50% of the respondents stated 61% - 80% was stated as the rate of profit maximization, 33.3% of the respondents stated 81% - 100%, while 16.7% of the respondents stated 41% - 60% as the rate of profit maximization for the first half of the year, 2012. This corresponds with Ehigie (2006) which suggest that there is a significant relationship between quality service and customer loyalty retention; and when this happens; the profitability of an establishment would increase. Consequently, the obvious need for satisfying a firms’ customer is to expand the business, gain a high market share and to acquire repeat and referral business; all of which will lead to improved profitability (Bersky, 1992) Table 4.6 showed that all of the respondents indicated that offering of room service by the hospitality establishment and the provision of constant power supply as ways to improve the quality of service offered. Also 31.6% indicated increase in the speed of service delivery as a way to improve the quality of service offered in Obudu mountain resort. This is line with Dantata (2011) that the development of a complete of a tourism package (adequate lodgings, transportation, standard infrastructure and other ancillary services and providing prompt and courteous service will not only attract tourist, but encourage the visitors to spend money and most importantly come back. Alizera et al (2007) stated that dimensions such as quality of accessibility, infrastructures and quality of service offered have significant, direct and positive relationship with satisfaction of tourist, their intend to return to the destination and eventually the development of tourism in a region. Therefore to achieve competitive advantage and ensure the overall satisfaction of guests/tourists, tourist destinations need to improve the quality of service they offer. Major Findings The major findings of the study are: 1. Obudu mountain resort offers certain ancillary services to guests/tourists but does not offer 24 hours room service; detracting the overall quality of service being offered to tourists/guests. 2. The physical environment, room decor and furnishings and quality of food and beverage offered to guests/tourists enhance the quality of service, creating an intention for most guests/tourists to revisit the destination. 143 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 3. The quality of service offered to guests/tourists has a positive effect on the profitability of the establishment, the revenue generated by the resort and the economic activities in the destination. 4. The quality of service offered by Obudu mountain resort can be improved, if the resort offers 24 hours room service and provides a constant power supply. Conclusion This work has attempted to evaluate the role of quality hospitality service in promoting tourism development in Obudu mountain resort. For the best indicators of service quality in the tourism sector, the tourists’ experience might be the key indicator. Consequently, the quality of service involved in tourism plays an important role in the process of delivery (Whylie, 2000). Furthermore service quality is intangible and should be a crucial area interest to providers of tourist services, if they are to cause tourist revisit and increase the economic activities in the destination; which would in turn lead to tourism development. 5.3 Recommendations The following recommendations were drawn from the findings of the research work. 1. Management of hospitality establishments should create a flexible service design that would deliver quality service in order to always meet the ever changing needs of guests 2. Infrastructures such as assessable roads, efficient communication, constant power supply should be put in place at potential tourist destinations to enhance the overall tourist experience 3. Government and stakeholders in the hospitality and tourism industry should formulate policies that would ensure an effective delivery of quality service to guests’/tourists’ and the strict compliance of these policies. Refernces Aryi, C . (2004). An investigation of perceived value dimensions: Implications for hospitality research. Journal of Travel Research, 42,226-234. Chin-Tsaikuo, V. (2007). Targets and standards of quality in sport services. Sport Management Review, 3, 1-22. Ehigie, H.(2008). Investigating ways of public participation in Tourism Development, Journal of Cultural Management Research, before, third pre- issue,Tehran, Iran. Holden, A. (2008). Environment and Tourism. 2nd edition. Canada: Routledge. Kozak, P. (2001). Marketing, 5th Edition, PearsonEducation, Frenches Forest, Australia. Eda Antilgan; Serkan Akinci; Safak Aksoy Managing Service Quality; 2003; 13, 5; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 412 Philips V.,John, D., & James, S. (2006). Tourist satisfaction in Singagpore - a perspective fromIndonesian tourists. Managing Service Quality, 13(5), 399-411. Weston, N. (2003). Delivering quality service:Balancing customer perceptions and expectations. New York, N.Y.: Free Press. Yemi, C. V. (2004). Cross-cultural invariance of measures of satisfaction and service quality. Journal of BusinessResearch, 57, 901-912. 144 Being ‘the European other’: Codification and commodification of Ottoman Heritage in Bosnia & Herzegovina Dr. Senija Causevic, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, London, UK senija.causevic@soas.ac.uk Dr. Derek Bryce University of Strathclyde, Business School, Glasgow, UK derek.bryce@strath.ac.uk Abstract This research examines the role of tourism in the construction of what the Balkan means in modern European discourse. Empirical research, in the form of deep participant observation of the guided tours, and the interviews with the tour guides on the interpretation of Ottoman Heritage, namely Islamic, Jewish and Christian, took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina‟s cities of Sarajevo, and Mostar. The research findings are in line with Zizek‟s and Todorova‟s argument that in modern European discourse, the Balkans are presented as the ‘European other’, thus creating a binary discourse of what belongs to Europe and what is considered to be still internal, but European „other‟. For the purpose of generic tourism interpretation and easy commercial gain, the complex and syncretic Ottoman history in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) is simplified and truncated so that it actually reinforces this wider binary discourse, i.e. the binary between east and west, whereas west is represented as Christianity and east is represented as Islam. Being unaware of the consequences of such a simplification, tourism may contribute further divisions in Europe, allowing the „seduction‟ of decision makers with some dubious potential short-term gains. This practice overlooks reconciliatory aspects which tourism may bring with some more historically grounded interpretation which take into an account a syncretic nature of Ottoman laws. Through the lens of heritage codification, this research argues that Ottoman heritage should not be taken for granted, and tourism activities need to be recognised not only as an economic enhancer, but an interpretation of the religious heritage built during the Ottoman period in B&H, plays an important part of the total process of normalisation of social relationships, not only in B&H itself, but it also has implications on European identity. We thus investigate the interpretation of Ottoman heritage in order not only to enhance the possibility of deeper understanding of shared history and identity amongst the country‟s people, but also to highlight the significance of B&H and the wider Ottoman context as important markers of ways of being European that need not depend upon binary spatial divisions of „east and west‟ or „Christendom and Islam‟. We note, however, the intersection of the utility of that binary both for certain strains of ethno-nationalist opinion in BH as well as a commercial heritage sector of tourism driven to offer the country up in a familiar, consumable narrative. Keywords: Ottoman heritage, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Tourism 1. Introduction This research examines the role of tourism in the construction of the meaning of the Balkans and its relation to the construction of European identity in the modern European discourse. The starting point of this research is the premise argued by Jeffrey, (2008), Todorova, (2000), and Zizek, (2008) that European identity is created through imagining a 145 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY binary between Europe and European other, i.e. the Balkans which was imagined as primordial and exotic part of Europe. In that particular context, Jeffrey (2008) explores European‟s discoursive reaction, and its need to pose a „Balkanist‟ anxiety (Todorova, 2009) in order to construct its own identity, thus quarantining the Balkans as the land of „primordial evil‟ (ibid). The research deploys the term ‘Balkanism’, a term coined by Todorova (1996) which is analogous to Said‟s (1978) term ‘Orientalism’ where Balkan is positioned as European „internal other’ whereas Said‟s ‘orient’ is ‘external other’ thus cannot be a part of the concept. Jeffrey (2008) considers this particular narrative to be ‘normative and mainstream’ in the European sense. This particular narrative, in its untamed sense, has unfortunately been used by some right wing nationalist Serbian and Croatian ideologies in former Yugoslavia for a purpose of keeping European identity by violently externalising Islam in Europe (ibid) through exterminating Muslim population in the Balkan. Similar narrative has also been utilised by some contemporary fascist movements around Western Europe [author observation]. In that sense this binary discourse could be positioned as a background and excuse for doing genocide in Srebrenica for instance, so that Islam is kept away from European identity (ibid). The Western European attitude towards the Balkans, Zizek (2008) illustrates through his analysis of the movies directed by Emir (Nemanja) Kusturica which have the Balkans as their settings. These movies are very popular in Western Europe. Zizek coined the term ‘reverse racism’ in order to explain the popularity of Kusturica‟s movies, especially the movie „Underground‟ in the west. Basically Zizek (1999, 2008) argues that because the Balkans are a part of Europe, they can be spoken of in a racist clichés which would not be dared to be applied to Asia or Africa, as Zizek argues, „Political struggles in the Balkans are compared to ridiculous operetta plots.‟ Fascist radical atrocities which some of the paramilitary Serbian formations did in Bosnia were actually downplayed in the movie thus presenting the war in the carnivalesque way, as Bosnian novelist Aleksandar Hemon pose it, ‘as a collective savage madness’. Zizek (2008) argues that European self is actually constructed through positioning and imagining the Balkans as European lower self, as pointed here, „When discussing the Balkans, the tolerant [European] multiculturalist is allowed to act out his repressed racism and treat the Balkans in a racist clichés‟. One of the issues which allows to speak about Balkan in racist clichés is Islam which acts as a point to strengthen the binary between what belongs to Europe and what does not. Orient is, as Said (1978) argued, constructed as European external other, Balkans is constructed as European internal other. What both Balkans and Orient have in common is the Ottoman Empire. We conceptualise our research by taking Todorova‟s argument (1996) where Balkan is represented as the Ottoman legacy, and not to conceptualise it in a sense of Ottoman legacy in the Balkans. Further, we supplement Delanty‟s (2003) argument of the Ottoman-Islamic constellation as being essentially European. The full scope of an enquiry into the interplay of these prevailing and potential narratives of Europe(s) is beyond the scope here. Our focus is moderated to an extent by the fact that Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) is a former Ottoman Eyalet (province) where the socio-cultural legacy of Ottoman imperial rule as ‘management and maintenance of difference’ (Barkay, 2008) is particularly pronounced. Through this research, we study the role of tourism within these processes. We study the codification of Ottoman heritage in B&H and its commercialisation and representation for tourism purposes. Our empirical focus is B&H cultural heritage sites dating from the period of Ottoman rule (15th-19th centuries). We do not approach these studies through classifying them by their individual religious and ethnic attribution as Muslim, Jewish, Orthodox, Catholic or Bosniak, Sephardic, Serb or Croat but as „Ottoman‟ in terms of the historical 146 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY period and legacy they date from. Its focus is on how the entire mode of organisation across religious, language, and class boundaries that can collectively be called „Ottoman‟, can be represented as heritage. Before we move on to our empirical data, we briefly review the historical circumstance and points related to the representation of Ottoman heritage in B&H. 2. Ottoman heritage in the Balkans The Ottoman state expanded by the decline of the existing Muslim and Christian imperial powers in Anatolia and southeast Europe; the Seljuq Sultanate of Rum and the Byzantine Empire, i.e. East Roman Empire which contradicts the simplistic narrative driven by some of the Western European authors which constitute „the Turks‟ as part of an undifferentiated Islamic offensive on Christendom (İnalcık, 1994; 2006; Almond, 2009). Rather, it was an intrinsic component of geopolitical events within a Euro-Mediterranean ‘greater Western world’ (Goffman, 2002: 7-9). Ottoman expansion in South-Eastern Europe, i.e. West Balkans was done rapidly. By the late fifteenth century, it incorporated Macedonia, Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldavia, Wallachia (modern Romania) and a significant part of current Croatia (İnalcık, 1994; Lopasic, 1994). At the time of the Ottoman conquest in the late 1500s, the Bosnian Kingdom nobility was mainly Catholic, tied to Rome, Venetian Dalmatia and Hungary (Lopasic, 1994). Yet, majority of peasant population and indeed some of the nobility, adhered to the ‘heretical’ schismatic and dualist Bosnian Church whose teaching resembles Manichaeism to some extent. Through undermining the legacy of the existing feudal elites, the Ottomans offered an improvement in the material situation of the peasants, (İnalcık, 1954) which makes it clear that „Islamisation‟ of the Bosnian population was not mandatory, (Lopasic, 1994) setting aside the „devşirme‟ levy periodically replenishing the Ottoman military and bureaucracy with Christian peasant boys forcibly converted to Islam at their young age. Voluntary conversion proceeded gradually, becoming more intense during the mid 16th century peak of Ottoman military success in Central Europe. The height of Ottoman expansion in Europe culminated under Sultan Suleiman I (r: 1520- 1566) where the territory of Southeast Europe remained relatively stable military frontier between Ottoman and Habsburg lands from the end of Suleiman‟s reign until the first significant Ottoman reverses in the region after 1683 (Murphey, 1999). A set of relatively stable, and at least managed social relations developed amongst Muslims, Christians and Jews which can be identified as specifically Ottoman (Barkey, 2008). The legacy of Ottoman social organisation includes institutionalised interrelationship of religion, social class and state employment (Bieber, 2000). Islam was a supreme, the religion of the ruling class, with subordinate, yet legitimate status reserved for Christianity and Judaism, which crosscut with socioeconomic status. Finally, society was divided between those occupying positions in the state administration, inclusive of Askeri, representatives of three recognised religions, and the large population of Raya (the flock), a general word for subject people regardless whether they are Muslims, Christians or Jews. The main difference between Muslim and non-Muslim population is in certain privileges, but also the responsibilities given to Muslim population. While exempt from the „head tax‟ levied on Jews and Christians, Muslims were instead obliged to serve in the army. Yet, many Christians, though, served voluntarily (Barkey, 2008). Communities were largely self-regulating under the Millet system, wherein one was born into a recognised community, submitted to its „spiritual, financial and administrative authority‟ and could not exit it other than by conversion to Islam (Ortaylı, 2004: 18). Yet people crossed these „boundaries‟ relatively easy in a scope of their social, economic and legal interests. The Roman Catholic and post-Reformation Protestant churches did not occupy correspondingly formal positions within the governing apparatus of the Ottoman state, as it was the case with the Orthodox Church and Judaism (Barkay, 2008, Bieber, 2000). However, 147 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY legal provision was made for the toleration of both in separate cases, as is the case of an Ahdnama (contract based on Sharia), giving religious freedom to Catholics within the boundaries of Ottoman secular law (kanun), under the provision of Sultan Mehmed II given to the custodian of the Franciscan order in B&H, Fra Angelo Zvizdovic, The document was also a template for subsequent Fermana (decrees) for the protection of the non-Muslim population more generally (Čaušević , 2005). From the late 15th to late 17th centuries, the Ottoman state successfully developed and implemented this policy of toleration towards its non-Muslim population (Vickers, 1999). However, Barkey (2008) argues that although the instances like Ahdnamatestify a kind of humanistic characteristic of Ottoman legacy, on the other side, the minorities within Islam, i.e. Shi‟a, Alevi and certain Sufi „heresies‟ and emerginf Sunni Wahabi movement in the 18th century were repressed. After the conquest of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, Ottoman legacy legitimised itself as a guardian of Sunni orthodoxy, thus the minorities within Islam itself constituted an existential threat to Ottoman legitimacy (Newman, 2006). This is due to the possibility to regulate the subordinate status of Jews and Christians as Zhimmi (Peoples of the Book) within the schools of Islamic jurisprudence recognised by the Ottomans which was not possible within Islam itself. Further, they did not constitute an existential, ideological threat of the same order as some competing legitimacies within Islam. Toleration of religious difference was a pragmatic means for an Islamic empire to exercise control in regions with significant non-Muslim populations. As Barkey (ibid: 120) maintains, ‘difference was perceived as the norm, a condition that need not be altered, but managed’. Islam was not only supreme in terms of its position as the „state religion‟ but provided the legal framework, within which difference was tolerated, regulated and, if necessary, suppressed. So, what emerged in the Balkans, perhaps most obviously and throughout the empire more generally, was a situation where Islam constituted „the primary marker of [political] inclusion‟ and whose legal tenets towards Muslims, Jews and Christians formed a framework of relations best described as „separate, unequal and protected‟ (ibid). So, the „classical‟ Ottoman period was one in which „religion was considered more important than the linguistic and cultural group to which [people] belonged‟, as distinct from later „national‟ identifications emerging in the 19th and 20th centuries (ibid: 80). This is neither to set aside the genuinely felt intensity of ethno-nationalist identities around which resistance to Ottoman rule in Europe and subsequent, related emergence of Turkish nationalism emerged nor their more recent manifestation in the break-up of Yugoslavia. Rather, it is to question the timelessness of such ethnic discourses, to argue that the expansion and consolidation of Ottoman rule occurred under very different conditions and that, therefore, an associated codification of heritage legacy ideally should not be framed simply within nationalist or binary „civilisational‟ rubrics. Later periods, when national identities did provide the symbolic basis for resistance to imperial rule, Barkey (ibid) argues, clearly do not represent the eruption of latent inter-ethnic tensions, but the diminished ability of the Ottoman state to manage relations of difference and participatory access to power and the interractions between the centre and periphery. This Ottoman social legacy renders problematic the „mainstream‟ European discursive and their explanation and construction of the 1990s conflict in Yugoslavia as the logical consequence of embedded, „timeless‟ ethnic hatreds, subsumed by a regime in which discrete nations were artificially woven together. This narrative posits that repressed hatred was unleashed in the early 1990s as the Yugoslav state unravelled, causing brutal inter-communal war (see for instance Malcolm, 1994, Simms, 2001 on this critique). However, as Kovač (2006) argues, the non-existence of ethnically based politics for most of the Ottoman era created a heterogenic social texture in BH, constituting a „normality‟ of social experience for centuries. 148 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 2.1 Research approach Our research explores the role of tourism in creating the particular constructs and narratives of the Balkans, its meanings and representations. We study the representation of Balkans in the context of the formation of its own identity. We question the role of tourism and specifically Ottoman heritage codification in B&H and interpretation of that heritage in constructing the notion of identity formation and belonging. In doing so, we have done both textual and visual semiotic research of the written tour guides and brochures, both available off line and in the on line format. Further, the rest of the fieldwork we have conducted in the cities of Mostar and Sarajevo in B&H. We have chosen Sarajevo and Mostar as the main part of our research inquiry because both cities are very popular tourism destinations partly because of their rich and invaluable Ottoman Heritage which is promoted for tourism purposes. We have conducted the interviews with the tour guides, museum custodians and tourists and also we did an overt participant observation of the city tours. Although critical theory is a very convenient tool to be deployed as a research approach when normative assumptions need to be challenged, it is still rarely deployed in tourism studies. However, more and more tourism researchers have started using this particular approach in order to emancipate usually silent tourism voices, challenged meta-theories and create emancipatory knowledge (Causevic and Lynch, 2011). According to Kincheloe and MacLaren (1998, 2005), there are many different approaches to critical theory. Further, critical theory is not a uniformed approach, but very complex and discoursive. Yet, critical theories share some of the common characteristics, which are interdisciplinarity, dialecticism, epistemological reflexivity and emancipation (Habermas, 1978). Tourism per se is an interdisciplinary field of research; Hollingshead (2009) actually argued that tourism s actually a postdisciplinary study context. In any ways, it is a field of study which creates the dialogue between the disciplines and in such a way creates new knowledge. Further, this particular kind of research creates the knowledge through the epistemological reflexivity (Bourdieau, 1986) which encourages the reflection upon our assumptions about the world, and knowledge, questions the creation of the new knowledge, and helps to think about the implications of such assumptions for the research and its findings (Willig, 2001: 32). According to Bauer and Roth (2003), the knower and the known are in the dialectic unit, thus the knowledge created bares the mark of the epistemic subject and that particular relation which in fact is reflected upon through the epistemological reflection. Last but not the least, the emancipation is always imbedded as one of the main characteristics of critical theory. However, as Kincheloe and MacLaren (2005) argue, emancipation should be used very carefully in a postcolonial and neo-colonial narrative as „emancipation‟ in that particular context has a meaning which can easily be subjugated to „emancipation‟ understood as a core of the colonialism (Jack, 2008). However, in our case, the emancipatory concept comes from challenging the normative perspective and technical knowledge (Habermas, 1978) through which the binary discourse was developed. 2.2. Research Findings The tourists who come to B&H usually read the tour guides and the official promotional material created by both public and private tourism associations and enterprises in B&H. Most of the material is consistent with the interpretation of the Ottoman heritage which goes in line with the east-west binary concept, i.e. orient, and occident whose meeting point is in B&H. As for instance illustrated here, Bosnia and Herzegovina has emerged from the ashes of war to become one of the most exotic destinations of southeast Europe, an ancient crossroads where east meets west. 149 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Bradt Guide Furthermore, a tourism business advertises its trip to Sarajevo in this way; Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, is known as a place where East meets West. In the European Jerusalem, as many call it. Both local and foreign tour guides, tour operators and official tourism association of B&H actively feature the slogan that Sarajevo is the place where East and West meet which appears to be a pure theoretical simplification. Another, very popular slogan, which is especially popular among the local is the comparison between Sarajevo and Jerusalem. Although tour guides naively feature this comparison in the guided tours observed, and in promotional material, some tour guides are reluctant to this particular comparison. Locals want to promote their city as a peaceful place where different religions exist and live side by side. As narrated by the tour guide and few other decision makers who visited Jerusalem and experienced for instance very frequent check points, difficulties to enter into the main Al Aqsa mosque for non-Muslims, fear and violence, both in structural and physical terms (Galtung, 1996). In that sense, comparison in a simplistic commercial tourism term which further can detrimental effects on Bosnian tourism because that particular simplification is not sound in a wider tourism marketing and positioning terms. The only issue which makes Sarajevo and Jerusalem comparable, is that in a very small radius, one can find religious heritage, i.e. Orthodox and Catholic church, Mosque and a Synagogue at one place. In Sarajevo, these are the product of Ottoman legacy in the Balkans, and a specific and complex history of the place, where throughout the history there were no demarcated ghettos, thus its heritage cannot easily be truncated so that it resembles Jerusalem. In order to make a valid comparison, some important characteristics of both Jerusalem and Sarajevo would need to be truncated, therefore besides there is no marketing sense to compare these two cities, there is also neither historical point of doing so. Thus, this particular simplification, although very sensational in tourism terms, it is naively used by the tour guides and guided books. Another significant point of interest is a so-called binary between the east and the west, as noted by Said (1978). In this particular context, the binary is constructed through its constant reproduction. This can be very dangerous for local communities. For instance, the tour guides in Mostar advertise themselves as „Mostar-where east meets west’ which can be very dangerous material in a post-Dayton B&H where Mostar is the city officially divided into East and West Mostar where Croatian Catholics live in its west, and Bosnian Muslims live in its east part. Such a representation of Mostar is institutionalising this east-west binary and does not allow the normalisation of social relationships to take place, and as a matter of fact and although not the focus of this paper, but it needs to be mentioned that east and west in Mostar actually very rarely meet. The data show that, for the commercial tourism purposes, a rich and complex Ottoman Heritage in Bosnia is interpreted in a way that it actually needs to „make sense‟ to the foreign visitors. In that context, the tour guide explains Ottoman heritage in a deliberately simplified way. The tour guide is limited by the time. The tour is short. Further, the tourists are in a search of something more sensational thus speaking about the brutal conquest from the east makes much more sense for the tourists and the tour guide per se. The tour guides, especially these in Mostar, constantly report that they do not have enough time to explain the complexities of the Ottoman heritage. They use the binary discourse between the east and west because „it is something the tourists are familiar with’ (Interview transcript). 150 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY For the pragmatic reasons, the tour guide uses the binary discourse. The tourists are already informed about the east-west binary discourse, i.e. it is recognisable and easily received. The historical concept is simplified into a binary because only in such a way it „makes sense‟ to the western visitors. Talking about the syncretic characteristics of Ottoman legacies in the Balkans is complex and western tourists are not familiar with such rhetoric. On another side, it has also been noted that Turkish visitors appear not to be very familiar with the syncretic nature of Ottoman Empire. While visiting a Sephardic synagogue and museum in Sarajevo which has been erected in 1566, most of the Turkish visitors have very similar understanding of the Ottoman Empire heritage as the Western tourists had, i.e. syncretic legacy of Ottoman Empire has been marginalised and east-west binary plays a primate. This particular exemplar shows that both Turkey and Western European countries in fact have very similar understanding of the past. Due to this particular fact, in this particular context, complex historical legacies are deliberately simplified and condensed in a shape to both accommodate pragmatic, operational circumstances as well as the historico-civilisational subject positions of visitors. The museum custodian in the Jewish Museum and Synagogue which was erected in 1566, says that it is difficult for many visitors to understand the context within which Jewish life took place in Bosnia because of certain assumptions taken from situations elsewhere. Many tourists ask the custodian if it was difficult for Jews to live with Muslims; the tour guide assumed that this was due to the constant coverage of the Middle Eastern conflict and subsequent education. Under such circumstances the museum custodian actually challenges these assumptions by highlighting the position of Jews in Sarajevo as a valued for their skills and knowledge, and an important part of the Ottoman mode of social organisation (Barkey, 2008). However, the custodian highlights to the tourists that, ‘this museum shows the life of the Jewish community in Sarajevo and also how well integrated the community was’. Another Sarajevo tour guide, explained that in the beginning of his career, he said that for him, thinking of Bosnia in a syncretic terms is ‘normal, something what we take here for granted, the way we grew up in Sarajevo’ he commented that at the beginning of his career he was not aware of the importance of presenting that „normality‟. Further, while visiting Despica House which represents the life of bourgeois Christian Orthodox families in Sarajevo, tourists feel perplexed because the first floor of the house is designed in „Ottoman style‟. The custodian said that the tourists bring a lot of prejudices and he also points out how important it that through this particular ethnographic presentation to show this home „as it was, this was fashionable at that time, and comfortable too. So, wealthy people would be able to afford it, having lots of cushions was like having plasma TV now’. This statement, indeed, corresponds with Sugar‟s (1977) account of the diffusion of elite taste in Balkan cities up to and including the late Ottoman period: „because the Muslims had both old and new rich among them, this group automatically enjoyed the highest prestige and gave the tone to "high society". 3. Conclusion The richness of the heritage in B&H is that it is simultaneously Christian, Jewish and Muslim, yet, the organisational framework underwriting it in its historical and legacy terms is, of course, Ottoman. Nevertheless, Ottoman heritage in BH is now summed up under exclusionary ethnonationalisms internally and binary constructs that drives commodification and codification of the country‟s heritage reinforced into the binary between east and west (Islam and Europe), and also the binary between Europe and European other, i.e. the Balkans. Commodification and codification of the Ottoman heritage plays an important part in the process of building the European identity. Žižek (1999, p. 4) argues that Balkan is the most suitable for the construction of European superiority, arguing that European rhetoric applies 151 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY „reflexive‟ politically correct racism. We are dealing with an imaginary cartography, which projects onto the real landscape its own shadowy ideological antagonisms, in the same way that the conversion-symptoms of the hysterical subject in Freud project onto the physical body the map of another, imaginary anatomy, where according to Žižek (2008) Balkan is constructed rather as a backward and primitive „self‟ rather than an alien „other‟. The story of „the meeting point between the east and the west‟ is not only a part of the tourism offer in Sarajevo; it is a story of Istanbul as well, in both cities, the differentiation between ’East’ and ’West’ is Islam. However, the entire story of Islam in Europe generally and the Ottoman case specifically, is far more complex than this discourse suggests (Almond, 2009; Goffman, 2002). Similarly, the simplification of the Balkans as the European ‘other’ is also rather more complex then it is presented in the normative discourse. This shows further simplification; as to some tourists, the Ottoman past in Bosnia may be more easily understood as Turkish imperial occupation of Bosnian territory, rather than presenting and explaining the active participation of Slavic, Albanian, Greek, Hungarian and Romanian populations in an Ottoman context (Barkey, 2008). It appears that presenting it as simply „Ottoman‟ does not „fit‟ with Western understanding of how this empire „worked‟. We understand that historically locatable modes of social organisation in particular spatial contexts do not sit within the standard definitions of „intangible heritage‟ as reviewed by Kirshenblatt-Gimblett (2004) but, nonetheless, we suggest the change in heritage codification, arguing for the conceptualization of the social organization and management of the multireligious societies during the Ottoman times becomes codified as an intangible heritage and provides a frameworks for particular forms of narrative-associational understanding of built heritage sites to retain the potential to be recovered and redeployed. References Almond, Ian (2009) Two Faiths, One Banner: when Muslims marched with Christians across Europe’s battlegrounds. London: I.B. Tauris. Balagija, A. (1940). Les Musulmans Yougoslaves (etudes sociologique). Alger: La Maison des Livres. Barkey, Karen. (2008). Empire of Difference: the Ottomans in comparative perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 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London: IB Tauris Willig, C. 2001 Introducing Qualitative Research in Psychology: Adventures in Theory and Method. Open University Press: Philadelphia. Žižek, Slavoj (1996), “Underground, or Ethnic Cleansing as a Continuation of Poetry by Other Means”, InterCommunication, No. 18, Autumn 1996, 19 paragraphs, http://www.ntticc.or.jp/pub/ic_mag/ic018/intercity/zizek_E.html 153 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Žižek, S., 1999. „You May!‟. London Review of Books [Online] vol. 21 no. 6 pp. 3-6. Available from http://www.lrb.co.uk/v21/n06/slavoj-zizek/you-may [Accessed 25 December 2012]. Žižek, S., 2008. The Military-Poetic Complex. London Review of Books [Online] vol. 30 no. 16 p. 17. Available fromhttp://www.lrb.co.uk/v30/n16/slavoj-zizek/the-military-poetic- complex [Accessed 25 February 2013]. Žižek, S. (2008). Violence. Verso Books. London 154 Faith-Based Tourism to Turkey as Cultural Diplomacy for American Christians Allison Block, Taylan Gurbuz Turkuaz Tours, LLC e-mail: info@turkuaztours.com Abstract Miscommunication, misunderstanding and animosity between Christians and Muslims seem to be at an all-time high. There have certainly been times in distant history that there has been friction or even outright conflict between the two major religions. However, the level of enmity has skyrocketed recently--particularly safer 9/11. Our paper, “Faith-Based Tourism to Turkey as Cultural Diplomacy for American Christians” will outline the history of Christian and Muslim perceptions of each other, the primary reasons that the number of Americans visiting Turkey is significantly lower than it could be, why religious tours to Turkey by Americans will alleviate this animosity, the target sites that should be visited, and keys to reaching target audiences within the United States. The primary methodology is media analysis, in addition to personal interviews and anecdotes, and research from academic journals, holy books, and other reference sources. Keywords: American Christians, Turkey, Faith-based Tourism 1. Introduction The world‟s Muslim population is expected to increase by about 35% in the next 20 years, rising from 1.6 billion (23%) in 2010 to 2.2 billion by 2030, according to a recent report by the Pew Research Center‟s Forum on Religion & Public Life (Grim, 2011). Furthermore, the Center also states that the Christian population has seen a fourfold increase over the past 100 years, from about 600 million in 1910 to more than 2 billion in 2010 (32%) (Hackett, C., Grim, B., 2011). Considering the current figures, Christians and Muslims constitute more than half of the world‟s population. Thus, the state of relations between these two groups is critical not only to the groups themselves, but to the state of affairs of the world at large. This situation is realized, unfortunately, not in the reports of peacemaking activities or joint cooperations, but rather in cases of miscommunication, discrimination, and at times, outright war. The media is saturated with stories these days about the misunderstandings, discord and utter violence between Christians and Muslims. Some are representative of the realities. Others are blatant misrepresentations of the facts, consequently exacerbating the situation. Muslims perceive “the West” as “arrogant, greedy and selfish...and are portrayed in the Muslim media as a society obsessed with sex, drugs and alcohol, a society that doesn't understand the larger meaning in life,” (Jamal, 2006). The West perceives Muslims as “fanatics, not respecting democracy,” (Jamal, 2006). These stereotypes and clichés are not, and cannot be, a reflection of either faith or of the faithful. There must be a way forward. Cardinal Francis Arinze (1997) made five suggestions for the shape that Christian-Muslim relations should take: Better Knowledge of the Other; Acceptance of the Other and Respect for Differences; Actual Engagement in Dialogue; Joint Witness to Shared Values; and Joint Promotion of Peace. These five suggestions can certainly be carried out on an individual basis, but are best implemented organizationally to have the greatest impact. The two major groups that are poised to initiate the movement to positively influence this state of affairs and change the course of Christian-Muslim relations are Turks and Americans, more specifically, Turkish Muslims and American Christians. There are numerous reasons to 155 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY begin such interfaith dialogue with these two groups, first of which is the long-standing relationship between the two countries. Although the Turkish-American relationship has seen better days, this is primarily a political perspective on the relationship. Herein lies an opportunity to open the dialogue between the two faiths outside of a political framework. Tourism is a natural medium in which to create an atmosphere for interaction between Turkish Muslims and American Christians, specifically, tourism for American Christians to visit the Christian and Muslim sites in Turkey. Not only would such tourism serve as a means to draw attention to the wealth of sacred sites in Turkey, but also as a platform for which the visitors to interact with the faithful and faith leaders of Turkey, and for each to learn more about the faith of the other. Naturally, a targeted tourism campaign on its own cannot change the perception of a destination or a group of people in one fell swoop. Any study of tourism and cultural diplomacy must begin with an honest review of the past--the past of the destination country, and the perception that the target audiences have of the destination. For that reason, this study begins with a review of Christian-Muslim relations within a broad scope, and narrowed slightly to focus on Turkish Muslims and American Christians, starting from the Crusades to more recent current events. Next is a review of the reasons why Americans do not visit Turkey for faith-based tours. This can be considered part of a traditional marketing strategy as defining the target audience and what their needs and wants are. This section is followed by a summary of the trends in faith-based tourism and the role that Turkey can play for American Christians within this scope, aiming to explain that faith-based tourism is not simply what Turkey as a country has to offer, but rather something that tourism trends are signifying--that the traveling and spiritual populations are demanding. The subsequent section outlines the destinations that are most suitable for such tourism, followed by a description of how to target audiences to participate in organized faith tourism programs. To have the widest reaching impact, faith tourism cannot simply be targeted to a general audience, as sun and sand tours may be. The primary reason for this is the niche crowd that is curious and interested in such tours, and secondly, the outcomes of faith-based tourism, within the scope of this paper, are more intangible than revenues and volume of tourists. 1.1 Relevance and Objectives This study aims to outline the history and opportunities for faith-based tourism in Turkey for Americans, and a broad scope for projects that can emerge from such concepts. Faith- based tourism in Turkey is a niche market with a number of outcomes that can result from the broader goals of the projects. These can be explained in the form of a traditional public relations communication plan: GOALS: To improve relations, open dialogue, and improve perceptions between American Christians and Turkish Muslims. STRATEGIES: To provide a platform, hospitable to dialogue, understanding, and future cooperation between American Christians and Turkish Muslims. 156 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY OBJECTIVES: Organize tours to Turkey for each specific American target audience, providing an opportunity for American Christians to visit holy sites and relics of Turkey, both Christian and Muslim. These goals, strategies and objectives are undoubtedly more abstract and nearly impossible to measure, as most tourism projects might be able to do. However, abstract they may be, by building better relations, understanding, and dialogue between American Christians and Turkish Muslims, many other goals of both communities and of each individual country may be reached through the natural positive impact of such projects. 1.2 Methodology This desk study was carried out through personal and phone interviews, e-mail, meetings, literature reviews, and internet research. The nature of this study is to present the current statistics and reports on the status of the Turkish-American relationship (with a focus on Turkish Muslim and American Christian relations), and propose a strategy by which faith- based tourism to Turkey can be used as a means to develop an interfaith dialogue between the two groups. 1.2 Limitations This study is limited in the sense that there was no primary statistical research carried out to reach the conclusion. All statistical research used was secondary and tertiary data. Additionally, the case studies used in this study are also limited to the experience of the authors, who have included the case studies from clients of their own tourism company. Additionally, both authors claim no theological authority or education, therefore any false claims, misinterpretations, or inaccurate assertions about the nature of Christianity or Islam are absolutely unintentional, and the utmost effort was made to research the veracity of any statements on either faith. 2. History of Christian/Muslim Relations and Perceptions When considering the roots of Christian-Muslim relations, the scope of the relationship extends over many centuries and a vast geography. However, to narrow the focus of such an expansive history, when reviewing the nature of faith tourism within the context of Turkish- American relations, it is best to limit the discussion to events, and the subsequent impact of those events, that have directly had an effect on Turkish-American relations. Therefore, this study will provide a brief explanation of Christian-Muslim relations during the time of the Crusades, followed by an account of Christian-Muslim relations in the Ottoman Empire. The final section gives an in-depth examination of the current events that have shaped Christian-Muslim relations within the context of Turkish-American relations. 2.1 Crusades “Christian-Muslim relations over the centuries have developed on a kind of layer by layer basis: what happened in one community in one generation produced a reaction in the other community which in turn contributed to the development of formulations and attitudes in the first community in later generations. In Christian-Muslim relations, memories are long and thus the Crusades, for example, still exercise a powerful influence, many centuries later, in some parts of both the Christian and Muslim worlds.” --Hugh Goddard, “A History of Christian Muslim Relations” (2000). 157 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Whether perceived as an aggressive attack of religious fanatics or a defense of access to land that has, and continues to be, a symbol and holy site of the three major Abrahamic faiths, the Crusades served as a catalyst for animosity between Christians and Muslims. Since the marked spread of Christianity under the Byzantine Emperor Constantine (reign: 306-337 AD), Jerusalem was a pilgrimage destination for Christians. In spite of the fact that Jerusalem was controlled by Muslim forces from 638, Christians were still granted permission to visit the city. However, as the Seljuk Empire rapidly expanded its territory, by 1071 they had taken control of Jerusalem and forbade Christian pilgrims to enter. This sparked great concern throughout the Byzantine Empire, seeing as they had been defeated in the battle of Manzikert (modern Malazgirt, Turkey) in the same year. The Byzantine Empire was in decline, in terms of territory, leadership, and finances. Though the Eastern and Western Roman Empires had officially parted ways in the Great Schism of 1054, the Eastern Empire solicited the support of their fellow Christians in their defense. At the request of Alexius I Comnenus, Pope Urban II, in one of the most influential speeches of all time, called on his people to “take up the cross” and defend their faith. Thus, the First Crusade officially began in 1095. The remainder of the 12th century was dominated by the Second and Third Crusades, with marked periods of peace between Christians and Muslims. A lack of financial capital to carry out the Fourth Crusade caused the Crusading forces to forfeit their initial efforts to take back the Holy Land via Egypt, landing them instead in Constantinople (Istanbul) and establishing the “Latin Empire”, meanwhile ransacking and demolishing the city in 1204. The Byzantines recaptured the city in 1261, bringing the short-lived Latin Empire to an end. As a result, the Fourth Crusade became more about deepening the divisions between the Eastern and Western Empire, rather than between Christians and Muslims. In sum, the Crusades were an ineffective tool from the perspective of the two sparring Christian factions, in that they were not able to spread Christianity in the manner that they intended, they were unable to unite completely as one Christian body, nor were able to expand their territory, albeit the latter being only a minor objective to most. Furthermore, one must remember the context in which the Crusades occurred. Very little was understood of Christians by Muslims, and vice versa, and as a result, not all Christians could get behind this crusading concept, and those that did found justification for their violence. Roger Bacon, a Franciscan friar and one of the critics of the crusades, states his justification for his lack of support for the Crusades, declaring them ineffective because “those who survive, together with their children, are more embittered against the Christian faith.” (Neff, 2012). 2.2 Ottoman Empire Non-Muslim minorities (mostly Jews and Christians) in the Ottoman Empire (1299-1923) were organized under what was known as the “millet” system, though the concept of “millet” can be traced back as early as the 4th century. It was strengthened by Sultan Mehmet II after he conquered Constantinople. The term is derived from the Arabic word “millah” which denotes nation or community (in Turkish, it means “people”). Interestingly enough, the millet under the Ottoman Empire were administratively arranged according to their religion, rather than their nationality. The legal system of the Ottoman Empire was based primarily on Sharia (Islamic law), and thus these communities were recognized as “The People of the Book”, who, in return for the payment of a tax (ceza) were permitted to practice their own religion, and establish their own governance and administrative systems accordingly (within a specific scope). The authority of each millet system went only so far. For example, each millet was granted permission to have their own courts that operated according to their own legal system, except in cases where another millet was involved, cases of murder, or disruption to public 158 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY order. Essentially, the scope of the millet system extended only to cover personal law, and was inapplicable for cases in which a Muslim or another millet was involved. Later, the millet began to use the Muslim courts in cases where it was not necessarily compulsory. This system, though generally agreed upon, encouraged tolerance, but did not signify equality. In the early days of the implementation of the millet system, non-Muslims were forced to wear certain clothing of certain colors to overtly signify their millet. Muslims were obviously given preference in government positions, and thus more rights and responsibilities. Only later were more non-Muslims included in the high levels of administration. What makes the millet system unique was not its “fairness”, but rather its uniqueness compared to other government systems in the world at that time. The Jews who were expelled from Spain were accepted with welcome arms by the Ottomans. One can hardly imagine that any place in Europe during the Ottoman Era would have tolerance for authorizing a minority group such leniency and self-government. This characteristic was operationally functional until towards the end of the Ottoman Empire, when nationalism was on the rise worldwide, and administration by the millet system declined in importance. 2.3 Current Events Not only do the events of the distant past have an impact on today‟s Christian-Muslim understanding, but current events are also a major factor in the perception that one group has of the other. Whether a result of media coverage or based on reality, conflict between Christians and Muslims around the world has negatively impacted the sincere efforts that are being made to heal historic wounds. These conflicts, though fundamentally arising from conflict between states, have cultural and religious aspects that come into play. This results in conflict that is perceived as political or economic, but the repercussions naturally spill over into cultural and religious “finger pointing”. This concept of conflict along cultural lines, rather than that of the nation state, was first introduced as a comprehensive theory about international relations by Samuel Huntington in his 1993 article and further developed in his book, “The Clash of Civilizations” (1996). Huntington‟s main thesis supports the idea that "The most important distinctions among peoples are [no longer] ideological, political, or economic. They are cultural." (Huntington, 1996). However widespread this theory was accepted, it ignores many contextual aspects of conflict. David Brooks (2011) in his op-ed in the New York Times rightly accuses Huntington of the fundamental attribution error, which is defined in psychology as “the tendency to overestimate the internal and underestimate the external factors when explaining the behaviors of others.” (Heffner, 2001). This situation is affirmed in the aftermath of September 11th, the Iraq War, and Turkish-US relations. 2.3.1 9/11, Afghanistan, Iraq On the morning of September 11, 2001, Americans awoke to the news of the worst terrorist attack on American soil. Nineteen terrorists from the militant Islamist group, Al Qaeda, boarded flights on the east coast of the United States, with the intent of high jacking the flights and causing great damage to Americans on their own land. Nearly 3000 people died on that day, and major damage was inflicted on buildings, including New York‟s Twin Towers, and the United States Pentagon in Washington, DC. Al Qaeda leader, Osama Bin Laden, who initially denied any involvement, later claimed responsibility for organizing the attacks, citing three major motivations for carrying out such acts of brutal violence: the presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia, US support of Israel, and sanctions against Iraq. As early as 1996, Bin Laden and his followers had issued a fatwa, declaring a holy war against the United States, which he had been planning to execute even before that date. The aftermath 159 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY of this senseless and vehement event reverberated throughout the world, impacting relations between Turkey and the United States, as well. Turkey has been a key element of US policy in the region since the 1940s, based on it becoming a charter member of the United Nations, and its geopolitical location at the intersection of three regions that have been, and continue to be, essential to regional security: the Middle East, the Balkans, and Central Asia. The relationship between the two countries was solidified by the Truman Doctrine, which affirmed US financial and military support for Turkey‟s security. The partnership was augmented by Turkey‟s participation in the Korean War with the United Nations, and its subsequent membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The first real strain on Turkish-US relations came during the first Gulf War. The relationship was tested to a greater extent after September 11th and the successive US invasion of Iraq. A number of political gaffes by the Bush Administration in the aftermath of September 11th attacks further exacerbated what was at first a military response, into a clash of religious ideology. In response to the September 11th attacks, the Bush Administration designated its military response as “Operation Infinite Justice”. Due to widespread protests by Muslims, stating that Allah is the only one who can dispense “infinite justice”, the name was promptly changed to “Operation Enduring Freedom.” Such careless classification is one example of how a political/military conflict, though its origins can be said to be cultural/religious, can escalate beyond its original intent. Furthermore, a number of characterizations by the Bush Administration (“axis of evil”, “you‟re either with us or you‟re with the terrorists”, “we are the good”, and “civilized world”) led to a backlash among Muslims around the world. By far, the phrase that incited the most anger and outrage was, “This crusade, this war on terrorism, is going to take a while,”--a blatant reference to the Crusades of the 12th century. Certainly, such rhetoric would fail in any attempt to “win the hearts and minds” of “the other.” The Bush administration‟s claim that the only strategy to fight the “war on terrorism” was war, and the disproportionate military action, failed to recognize the deeper roots of terrorism- -the socio-economic and political strains in the regions where the terrorism originated. This, too, caused further hostility due to the perceived lack of sincerity on the part of the US government to resolve the issue with justice and peace. In spite of a lack of evidence linking Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to the September 11th attacks, as proven by the 9/11 Commission, the Bush Administration forged ahead with their false claims about Saddam and his connection to the attacks, swaying a large portion of the American public to support the invasion of Iraq. The Turkish public was not as convinced. The Turkish government was publicly in favor of supporting the US mission in Iraq. The Turkish public, however, held a diametrically opposed belief that the United States would neglect any attempts to garner international cooperation, and act unilaterally--in spite of Turkish public opinion. In a March 2003 survey of Turkish public opinion towards the United States in the context of the Iraq question, 90.5% of Turks had a negative opinion of President George W. Bush, and 85.1% had a negative opinion of the United States (Uslu, 2005). This was an increase over a previous survey conducted by the Pew Global Attitudes Project in the Summer of 2002, (Kohut, 2012), when 41% of respondents had a “very unfavorable” opinion of the United States, yet the peak of displeasure with the US came in Spring 2007, when 75% of respondents had a “very unfavorable” opinion of the United States. As of Spring 2012, 60% of the Turkish population still holds the same views. 160 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY These situations do not occur inside a box. As a result of the United States‟ brazen political/military actions, the Turkish perception of Christians continued to decline. In March 2004, 31% of Turks held a favorable view of Christians, and in 2006, this number dropped to just 16% (Kohut, 2006). These political/military conflicts also had a negative impact on Americans opinion of Muslims. In 2006, Americans had a 54% favorable opinion of Muslims (Kohut, 2006). Americans also believed that among the top three reasons for Muslim nations‟ lack of prosperity were government corruption (37%), lack of education (21%), and Islamic fundamentalism (15%) (Kohut, 2006). The once robust, dynamic and solid relationship between Turkey and the United States began to decline as a result of political and military conflict outside of the territory of both nations, and escalated to a point where Christian-Muslim relations were deeply scarred. The damage to the relationship is further illustrated in the more recent reactions from the public. 2.3.2 Muhammad Cartoon/Koran Burning On September 30, 2005, a daily newspaper in Denmark, Jyllands-Posten, published a set of 12 cartoons, depicting the Prophet Muhammad in what some deemed a satirical or humorous light. However, many Muslims around the world took great offense, not only for the portrayal of the Prophet Muhammad, which is forbidden in Islam, but for the manner in which he was depicted. In spite of an apology that was issued by the newspaper, claiming that it had no intent to offend anyone, the cartoons had already been published in numerous other publications, sparking outrage and protests, leaving more than 200 dead worldwide, including Andrea Santoro, a Catholic priest in Turkey. Santoro was killed by a 16 year-old who claimed he was influenced by the cartoons. Yet in spite of this worldwide outrage and violence, only 65% of Americans had even heard about the controversy, while 89% of Turks were familiar with it (Kohut, 2006). Of the population of Americans who were familiar with the controversy, 60% blamed the issue on Muslim intolerance, and 84% of Turks blamed it on Western disrespect (Kohut, 2006). Furthermore, only 42% of Americans were sympathetic to Muslims who were offended by the cartoons, regardless of their feeling toward the protests, and 80% of Turks claimed sympathy for the offended Muslims. The agitation that erupted following the cartoon controversy was echoed in the violent responses to a threat by extremist Terry Jones, pastor of the Christian Dove World Outreach Center in Florida, in July 2010, to burn 200 Qurans on the anniversary of the September 11th attacks. Days prior to the event, Jones cancelled the burning, but not before at least 20 people were killed in Asia and the Middle East as a result of the protests sparked by Jones‟ threat. In spite of his promise to never burn a Quran, he did so just six months later in the sanctuary of his church. Though the aforementioned events were carried out by extremists, and certainly are not representative of Christians or Christianity, or of Muslims or Islam, actions filled with such vitriol receive a disproportionate coverage through formal and informal media (mass media and social media), and incite further violence and animosity between Christians and Muslims. These reactions are often founded on a lack of knowledge about “the other”. Unfounded misconceptions are also to blame for the reason why dialogue between Christians and Muslims can be difficult to initiate. Yet the fact is that misconceptions exist and negatively impact the interest in and desire of American Christians to travel to Turkey. 161 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 3. Why do Americans not Visit Turkey? Long gone are the days when international travel was inaccessible to all but the wealthy and privileged. The world is superconnected today, making visits abroad far more common than even 20 or 30 years ago. Yet compared to some other countries, European countries in particular, Americans simply do not travel. In spite of Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative that came into effect in 2007, requiring the presentation of passports by US citizens when entering the United States, the number of passports issued by the United States Department of State has seen a steady decline since that very year, falling to 13,125,829 in 2012 (US Department of State, 2012) as illustrated in Figure 1 below. Approximately 35% of Americans hold passports, yet very few of those passport holders leave the country. For example, in 2009, there were 97,597,368 passports in circulation, and yet only 14.6 million Americans traveled overseas that year, which means less than five percent of all US residents (Chalmers, 2012). Figure 1 US Passports Issued by Fiscal Year Source: United States. Dept. of State. United States Department of State Passport Statistics. Web. 30 Dec. 2012. There are numerous domestic reasons why Americans do not travel internationally. First and foremost is likely due to the United States‟ own rich geographic and cultural diversity. The sandy beaches of Florida, the snowy mountains of Colorado, the vast plains of the Midwest, and the sweeping deserts of the Southwest, to name a few, offer an expansive variety of destinations that few other countries can claim. Furthermore, Americans live in a culture that socially and financially rewards hard work, thus, very rarely do they have the time to take off of work, or use the time available to them. In 2012, the average US worker received an average of 12 vacation days, down from 14 in 2011, but used only 10 of those days (Anthony, 2012). This pales in comparison to European workers, who receive approximately 25 to 30 days of vacation, and use nearly every one available (Anthony, 2012). 162 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY The aforementioned reasons are explanations why Americans do not travel in general. There are further explanations why only 667,159, 642,768, and 757,143 Americans traveled to Turkey in 2009, 2010, 2012, respectively (Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 2012). Among those are Americans‟ lack of knowledge about Turkey and the Biblical history of Turkey, Americans‟ perception of Islam. 3.1 Lack of Knowledge about Turkey and Biblical History Considering the long-standing relationship of Turkey and the United States, it comes as somewhat of a surprise that Americans know so little about Turkey, and have inaccurate perceptions of the country. However, considering that six in ten (63%) young American adults between the ages of 18 and 24 surveyed in a recent National Geographic-Roper poll cannot find Iraq or Saudi Arabia on a map of the Middle East, and three-quarters (75%) cannot find Iran or Israel, their ability to correctly identify Turkey as a relative neighbor amongst these countries, which have appeared in the media far more frequently, is a high expectation (2006). Half of the respondents of the survey think it is important but not absolutely necessary either to know where countries in the news are located (50%) or to be able to speak a foreign language (47%). Furthermore, speaking a foreign language is “not too important” (38%) to the young adults in the survey, and only 14% find it “absolutely necessary” (National Geographic-Roper Survey, 2006). Americans are simply not well informed--nor do they seem to care. Due to the fact that the little information that people possess about other countries is abstract, these opinions are rarely subject to influence. (Anholt, 2009). It is difficult for Americans to differentiate between what they know (or do not know) about Turkey culturally or as a tourism destination, compared to what they perceive of it politically. Furthermore, their lack of knowledge about Biblical history prevents any effort to associate modern Turkey with the roots of the spread of Christianity and major Biblical events that occurred on Turkey‟s soil. In a Pew survey about religious knowledge, Americans were questioned about figures, stories and locations in the Bible, only 45% of respondents could correctly name the first four books of the New Testament of the Bible (the Four Gospels) (Lugo et al., 2010). When questions about which Bible figure is most closely associated with his willingness to sacrifice his son for God, 60% responded correctly with Abraham. Considerably far fewer respondents are likely to be familiar with the significant role that Abraham plays in Islam, as a prophet and apostle of God, sharing this belief with Christianity. It is not surprising that just over half (52%) of Americans answered correctly that Ramadan is the Islamic Holy Month (Lugo et al., 2010). This is equally a reflection on the lack of knowledge about Islam and the negative perceptions that are held of the religion. 3.2 Perception of Islam Many Americans have the misperception that Turkey, as a Muslim country, is potentially unsafe for travel (Wilson, 13). This is likely due to the fact that people often wrongly attribute Islamic practices or understandings of the faith, which are based on culture, and are not teachings of the faith (Rae, 2002). Though nearly the entire population of Turkey claims to be Muslim, not all believers are well-versed in their own faith, or fully devoted to the whole of their faith‟s teachings. In her writings on Christian-Muslim relations, Pauline Rae stated: “Not every culture claiming religious sanction for their practices is totally authentic to the true teachings of their religion. Muslims are no different from Christians in this regard.” (2002). In fact, according to the Pew study “Muslims want Democracy”, in which 68% of Turkish respondents believe that it is very important that people of all faiths be allowed to freely practice their religion. Additionally, 61% of Turks claim that suicide bombing and other forms of violence against civilian targets are never justified in order to defend Islam from its 163 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY enemies, and 9% state that it is rarely justified. More than half of Turks (58%) also recognize that there is a struggle between groups who want to modernize Turkey and Islamic fundamentalists, and 67% of those respondents claim to identify with those who want to modernize, and only 16% side with the fundamentalists. In the end, 71% of Turkish respondents believe that democracy is preferable to any other kind of government (Kohut, 2012). Though it may be true that not all Muslims fervently adhere to their faith, nor do many of them endorse a radical interpretation of their faith, unfortunately, the few that do espouse such an extreme or violent rendering of their religion are the ones that Americans hear about in the media. In a Pew survey about How Muslims and Westerners perceive each other, only 44% of Americans view Muslims as honest and 43% perceive Muslims as fanatical (Kohut, 2012). Furthermore, a mere 19% of American respondents believe that Muslims have respect for women (Kohut, 2012). These daunting statistics are a clear reminder that in spite of the fact that there is very little knowledge about Islam among Americans, there is still a negative perception of the religion. 4. Faith-based Tourism and Americans Believers have long placed a priority on pilgrimages to holy sites, though not formally labeled as such. Visits to the Holy Land for Christians, the Hajj to Mecca for Muslims, and other sites for various faiths around the world have been destinations for the faithful for thousands of years. Believers have traveled thousands of miles to visit sites that have held importance in their faith. In recent years, the scope of faith tourism has expanded for many faiths to include destinations that have spiritual importance that were rarely known or included as spiritual destinations. Within this context, faith tourism as an alternative form of tourism is on the rise. In fact, faith-based tourism has become one of the fastest growing segments of the tourism industry (Tourism Review, 2012). The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) estimates that the faith tourism sector alone accounts for more than 300 million people a year, with about 40% of those visitors going to Europe, and more than 50% heading to Asia (Fraser, 2012). In the United States, the faith tourism market has expanded by 5% since 2007, in spite of the economic crisis (Brodhecker, 2012). Of all outbound travelers, 35% are considering faith based travel, and 17% hope to do so in the next five years (Brodhecker, 2012). Almost half of tourists who travel for the purpose of enhancing their faith (Brodhecker, 2012), seek a more personal and experience-based vacation (Verrastro, 2012). Considering that a majority of the faith destinations for Christians are outside of the United States, 25% of travelers are motivated to travel internationally for the first time based on their faith (Brodhecker, 2012). Notwithstanding these statistics, demonstrating that there is a market for tourists eager for travel based on their faith, Turkey has yet to be widely perceived as a faith tourism destination. This opportunity cannot be dismissed, not only to increase the market share of Turkey within the scope of faith-based tourism, but also to demonstrate Turkey‟s unrivalled richness and abundance of holy sites, and the more ethereal objective of interfaith dialogue through demonstrating the similarities of Christianity and Islam. 4.1 Turkey as a Unique Faith Destination There is not a single country in the world with the exception of Turkey, which can claim possession to such a vast and varied wealth of sites that are relevant to Christian history, with a layer of modern Islamic history. Thus, by exposing American Christians to Turkey through 164 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY tourism provides an opportunity to expose both Christians (and Muslims, as well), to not only the historic sites, but also the similarities between Christianity and Islam. Figure 2 Comparison of Christianity and Islam Beliefs, Christianity Islam Doctrine and Practices Sacred Text Bible (Old Testament (Jewish Bible) Koran and New Testament) Bible The inspired and inerrant word of God Respected word of the prophets in the original manuscripts (2 Tim. but the Bible has been corrupted 3:16). through the centuries and is only correct in so far as it agrees with the Koran. Koran The work of Muhammad. It is not The final revelation of God to all inspired, nor is it scripture. There is no of mankind given through the verification for its accurate archangel Gabriel to Muhammad transmission from the originals. over a 23 year period. It is without error and guarded from error by Allah. Nature of God Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit); Unity (One Substance, One Monotheistic Person); Monotheistic Other Angels and Demons Angels, Demons and Jinn Spiritual Bodies Jesus He is the word who became flesh A very great prophet, second only (John 1:1, 14). He is both God and to Muhammad. Jesus is not the man (Col. 2:9). son of God (9:30) and certainly is not divine (5:17, 75)) and he was not crucified (4:157). Birth of Jesus Virgin Birth Virgin Birth Death of Jesus The place where Jesus atoned for the Jesus did not die on the cross. sins of the world. It is only through Instead, God allowed Judas to this sacrifice that anyone can be saved look like Jesus and he was from the wrath of God (1 Pet. 2:24). crucified instead. Resurrection Affirmed Denied of Jesus Muhammad A non-inspired man born in 570 in The last and greatest of all Mecca who started the Islamic prophets of Allah whose Qur'an is religion. the greatest of all inspired books. Divine Through the Prophets and Jesus (as Through Muhammad, recorded in Revelation God himself), recorded in the Bible the Koran 165 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Original Sin This is a term used to describe the There is no original sin. All effect of Adam's sin on his people are sinless until they rebel descendants (Rom. 5:12-23). against God. They do not have Specifically, it is our inheritance of a sinful natures. sinful nature from Adam. The sinful nature originated with Adam and is passed down from parent to child. We are by nature children of wrath (Eph. 2:3). Salvation A free gift of God (Eph. 2:8-9) to the Forgiveness of sins is obtained by person who trusts in Christ and His Allah's grace without a mediator. sacrifice on the cross. He is our The Muslim must believe Allah mediator (1 Tim. 2:5). No works are exists, believe in the fundamental sufficient in any way to merit doctrines of Islam, believe that salvation since our works are all Muhammad is his prophet, and unacceptable to God (Isaiah 64:6). follow the commands of Allah given in the Koran. God's Role in Predestination, Various forms of Predestination Salvation Grace View of the Islam is respected as a fellow Christians are respected as Other monotheistic religion, but Muhammad "People of the Book", but they is not seen as a True Prophet have mistaken beliefs and only partial revelation House of Church, Chapel, Cathedral, Basilica Mosque, Mescid Worship Day of Sunday Friday Worship Religious Priest, Bishop, Patriarch, Pope, Pastor, Imam Leaders Minister, Preacher, Deacon Major Sacred Baptism, Communion The Five Pillars Rituals Major Cross, Crucifix, Dove, Fish, Alpha Crescent, Allah's Name in Arabic Symbols and Omega, Chi Rho, Halo Day of Occurs on the day of resurrection Occurs on the day of resurrection Judgment (John 12;48) where God will judge all where God will judge all people. people. Christians go to heaven. All Muslims go to paradise (3:142, others to hell (Matt. 25:46). 183-185, 198). All others to hell (3:196-197). Judgment is based on a person's deeds (5:9; 42:26; 8:29). Man Made in the image of God (Gen. Not made in the image of God 1:26). This does not mean that God (42:11). Man is made out of the 166 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY has a body, but that man is made like dust of the earth (23:12) and Allah God in abilities (reason, faith, love, breathed life into man (32:9; etc.). 15:29). Biblical Viewed as True Prophets Prophets Shared Adam, Enoch (Idris), Noah (Nuh), Abraham (Ibrahim), Isaac (Ishak), Jacob Prophets (Yakup), Joseph (Yusuf), Job (Eyup), Aaron (Harun), Moses (Musa), David (Davut), Solomon (Suleyman), Ezra (Uzair), Elijah (Ilyas), Jonah (Yunus), Ezekiel (Duhl-Kifl), Daniel (Danyal), Zechariah (Zakariya), John (the Baptist) (Yahya), Jesus (Isa) Key: Red: Disagreement, Green: Shared Belief, Yellow: Similar Belief Source: Slick, Matt. “Comparison Grid Between Christianity and Islamic Doctrine”. Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. Figure 2 demonstrates the similarities and differences between Christianity and Islam. Broad generalizations may have been made about either faith, which is acknowledged by the authors, and the chart is simply to outline general points about the two religions. The boxes highlighted in red indicate disagreement, green indicates agreement, and yellow indicates similarities. It may seem, at first glance that the discrepancies in belief far outweigh the points of agreement or even the similarities. However, it is worth noting that some of the dissimilarities are about practice and symbols (church vs. mosque, day of worship). It is also worth pointing out the significant number of shared prophets between the two religions, as well as the shared belief in the nature of those prophets. It is acknowledged that there are fundamental departures in belief between Christianity and Islam. However, greater mutual understanding, respect, and even admiration are possible when people of both faith can interact to discuss the similarities and differences between Christianity and Islam. 4.2 Observations/Case Studies Indeed, similarities do exist between Christianity and Islam. Turkey is supremely positioned to offer a platform to open this dialogue between the two faiths through tourism. Yet for any country or group of individuals (in this case, Turkish Muslims) attempting to change its target audiences‟ (American Christians) preconceived notion of it, a simple ad campaign is entirely insufficient. Relevance must be established in the mind of the audience. Once relevance is established, the perception becomes more personal, rather than abstract, and thus, change is possible (Anholt, 2009). According to Anholt (2009), the ideal realization of this relevance is when one visits another country as a tourist. He states that the most effective method to create relevance and change perceptions is by “using positive, direct experience to create an image where there is currently a mixed or weak image created through indirect experience, and where there is a good reason to trust in the quality of the direct experience”. He further states that “people will often change their minds completely and permanently about a country after they have visited it.” (Anholt, 2009). The authors of this study are tour operators themselves, with a focus on bringing American Christians to Turkey for the primary purpose of visiting sites of Christian history, secondarily to visit Islamic holy sites, and on a tertiary level, to provide a neutral and peaceful platform for American Christians and Turkish Muslims to interact and engage in dialogue. An informal survey is sent to guests subsequent to their visit to Turkey. To date, all participants 167 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY in the tours led by the authors are first time visitors to Turkey. Ninety percent of the participants considered themselves Christian. When asked to select statements that were familiar to the participants regarding their knowledge of Turkey prior to their visit, most knew very little about Turkey, beyond its large population, predominantly Muslim population, that Turkey was part of the Ottoman Empire, and Istanbul was once the capital of the Byzantine Empire. On a scale of 1-5 (1=Negative, 2=Somewhat Negative, 3=Neutral, 4=Somewhat Positive, 5= Positive), the average response was 3.9 to the question “How did you feel about Turkey prior to your visit?” One hundred percent of respondents gave a rating of 5 (same scale as above) to the question about their opinion of Turkey following their visit. These responses indicate that the participants in faith tours in Turkey already had a somewhat positive perception of the country prior to their visit, regardless of their knowledge about Christian history. Notable was the 100% response rate for the “positive” perception of Turkey following the visit. When respondents were questioned about their perception of Islam prior to their visit, the average response was 3.7, and following the visit, the average response was 4.6. This is best reflected in the follow-up question “How is this trip likely to change your perception of Islam and the way you interact with Muslims?” One responded, “I feel that Christianity and Islam have much more in common than I realized.” Another notable response was in regards to the Turkish practice of Islam, “I think I already interacted very positively, but I appreciated the religious tolerance of the country (non-Muslims could eat during Ramadan).” The responses indicate that participants learned more than they had previously known about Islam, and their perception was positively influenced. All participants were asked if they would recommend traveling to Turkey to a friend, relative, or colleague. Their responses were a unanimous “yes”, which can be inferred that the experience that the participants had in Turkey was quite positive, overall, and they would unequivocally suggest or encourage others to visit as well. The participants in the aforementioned tours all came to Turkey on their own ambition and inclination. Though their responses to the survey question indicate that their perceptions about Turkey and about Islam changed in a positive direction, and that they would recommend others to travel to Turkey, the reliability of small groups of individuals to act on such experiences is rather low. A directed campaign, aimed at bringing leaders (whether in the community or faith community) on a personalized tour of Turkey, tailored to their interests, has been proven as a far more effective method at achieving the goals of further developing a dialogue between Christians and Muslims, and striking a wider audience to whom Turkey can be recommended as a faith tourism destination. 5. Target Audiences According to Travel Market Report, an industry-specific publication, trends in faith based travel include: more families and intergenerational groups embarking on faith-based trips together, more vacations that involve volunteering, and more people of faith traveling to experience fellowship (Verrastro, 2012). Considering these trends, the targeted audiences should be carefully selected. The groups should be selected for the impact they will have on their respective communities upon their return. What is implied by the “trickle-down” effect is that these community leaders that participate in a faith-based tour of Turkey will return to the United States and share their experience with other members of their communities. According to Anholt, “good destination marketing can create networked or „viral‟ marketing effects well beyond the people who actually visit the country: they can become highly effective advocates of the country‟s image and thus extend the reach of the original promotions well beyond the size of the (original) audience” (Anholt, 2009). This will have a 168 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY twofold impact. First, it will have the potential to encourage others to visit Turkey as a tourist, whether on a typical vacation or part of a faith-based tour, thus increasing the image and perception of Turkish Muslims and American Christians through interaction on a one-to-one basis. Though intangible, the second and most valuable, is the diffusion of information, theology, history, impressions and interactions with Turks and the religious practitioners of the country. This presents an opportunity to present Turks and Islam in a positive light to Americans and American Christians, as a result of the positive experience of the participants while in-country. Furthermore, such organized tours will also give Americans and American Christians the opportunity to explain American values, perspectives, and perceptions, and Christian theology, in an environment that is conducive to dialogue and understanding. In sum, as Anholt explains, programs that focus on working via “influencers” are incredibly effective at engaging both communities directly and effectively, and simultaneously extending the scope of such programs (2009). When determining a target audience, the destination must create an image of itself that distinguishes it from the others, and making itself a distinct destination from all other choices that a consumer may have. It must evoke the appropriate images and perception in the mind of the customer that satisfy their needs and wants. By and large, the needs and wants of a travel customer are intangible. This is particularly true for faith tourism. For example, the principal motivation for tourists who participate in faith-based travel is to visit a site that is historically or spiritually significant to their faith, commonly as a pilgrimage. Certainly, the destination itself is concrete, but the resulting emotion and spiritual impact that visiting the site will have on potential visitors is very difficult to elucidate. Thus, it is of utmost importance that faith-based destination marketers precisely and fully understand the spiritual and/or religious nature of the destination to be able to elicit the necessary emotional impact to move customers to visit. 6. Target Destinations As previously mentioned, Turkey is a unique destination for faith tourism. Not only can Christian tourists to Turkey visit sites of Christian heritage, but simultaneously visit sites that are sacred in Islam as well. The following destinations are just a few of the many sites in Turkey that provide the opportunity for faith-based tourists to visit primarily Christian heritage sites, while including sites of Islamic heritage also. 6.1 Istanbul The most well-known city in Turkey--whether in terms of contemporary history or ancient times--is undoubtedly Istanbul. Since as far back as 660 BC, there has been some form of civilization settled in what is today known as Istanbul, particularly around the historic peninsula area. The name “Byzantium” allegedly comes from this era, when Greek settlers from the state of Magara established the city named after their king, Byzas. Yet it was not until Byzantium, the Eastern capital of the Roman Empire, became Constantinople, after its Emperor Constantine in 330 AD, and that the city began to emerge as a significant location in world history. Constantinople served as the capital of the Roman Empire from 330-395, after which it officially became the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. With a brief stint of governance by the Western Roman (Latin Empire) from 1204-1261, Constantinople remained named as such until 1453, after which it became the capital of the Ottoman Empire, and there is debate as to whether it was referred to as either Konstantinnye or Istanbul. Either way, Istanbul became the official name of the city after the foundation of the Turkish Republic, yet it no longer remained the capital city. 169 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Such rich, complex, and varied history of a city naturally gives way for a wealth of sites for faith tourists to visit. The layered history of Istanbul makes it possible to visit a structure that may have at one time been a church, may have been later converted to a mosque, and is today a museum. Alternatively, parts of modern mosques may have used the ruins from various buildings from the Byzantine Era. Furthermore, numerous holy relics of both Christianity and Islam have been held in Istanbul at one point or another, and those that remain can be seen today. 6.1.1 Hagia Sophia The most striking complex around the entire Istanbul area is inarguably the Hagia Sophia. The Hagia Sophia (Church of Divine Wisdom; Aya Sofya in Turkish) that stands on Istanbul‟s historic peninsula today is actually the third church to stand on that site. The first church was inaugurated in 360 AD, a short time after the conversion to Christianity by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine. This church was burned to the ground during rioting in the early 5th century, and a second church was inaugurated in 415. The second church was destroyed in the Nika Riots of 532, which also killed tens of thousands of citizens. The enthusiasm and determination to prove his strength following these riots led the Emperor Justinian I to build the largest and most grandiose house of worship that anyone had ever seen. The current Hagia Sophia remained as the largest basilica in the world until the erection of the Seville basilica. During the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the Crusaders were relentless in their ransack and pillaging of the city. They managed to maintain the structure of Hagia Sophia, but were merciless when it came to looting the holy relics and taking a majority of them back to St. Mark‟s Basilica in Venice. The city and the church were returned to the Byzantines after 1261, for approximately 200 more years, when it became a mosque after the Ottoman conquest of Istanbul in 1453. Today, one can visit the Hagia Sophia, a museum, to see the juxtaposition of the striking symbols of both faiths, and view the mosaics, which simply may not have survived had it not been for the plastering of them due to Muslim iconoclasm. 6.1.2 St. Savior in Chora (Kariye) Museum The only church to rival Hagia Sophia, in terms of grandiosity and majesty is the St. Savior in Chora. Like the Hagia Sophia, the structure has suffered the same riots and earthquakes, and survived hundreds of years as a church, then a mosque, and now a museum. Its size may not compete with the Hagia Sophia in size, but it far outshines it with its almost 50 mosaics, most of which are depictions from the New Testament, the Virgin Mary, and Jesus Christ. The mosaics inside were created at a later date than those in the Hagia Sophia, but serve as one of the finest examples of late Byzantine artwork. The church was converted to a mosque approximately 50 years after the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople, at which time the mosaics were plastered over, as was the case with many other churches that were converted to mosques, due to the prohibition of iconic images in Islam. In the 16th century the church was converted into a mosque and in 1948 officially became a museum. 6.1.3 Church of the Holy Apostles (Fatih Camii) Though all that remains of this once sacred place of worship, the Church of the Holy Apostles, are a few column pieces and foundation blocks, those few fragments are worthy of mention. The Church of the Holy Apostles was commissioned around the year 330, by the Emperor Constantine, who desired to gather the relics of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus in the church--hence its name. The only acquired relics were reported to be those of Saints Andrew, Luke, and Timothy, but there were numerous other relics of Christian leaders, saints and martyrs. Most significantly, it was believed to house part of the “Column of Flagellation”, to which Jesus was bound and whipped by Roman soldiers during His Passion and before His 170 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Crucifixion. The remains of this column are currently housed in the Patriarchal Church of St. George in Istanbul. What does remain on the site, however, is part of the courtyard of what is currently Fatih Camii (Fatih Mosque). Sultan Fatih Mehmet (the Conqueror) ordered the construction of this mosque as a reflection of his magnificent conquest of Istanbul in 1453. The structure was damaged and rebuilt numerous times over the course of the years, and the current structure has been standing since 1771. The sultan and his wife are buried in the türbeler (tombs) behind the mosque. 6.1.4 Hagia Irene Hagia Irene, the Church of Divine Peace, holds a significant place in Christian history as the site of the Second Ecumenical Council in 381, at which the Nicene Creed, the profession of faith that was previously adopted in 325 in the city of Nicaea (Iznik, Turkey), was confirmed. It is reported to have been the first church of Constantinople, even before Hagia Sophia. Like many other structures from the Byzantine era, the building has suffered heavy damage from rioting and earthquakes, but unlike the other structures, it was never converted to a mosque. During the Ottoman period, it was used as an arsenal. It is now operated by the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism, and special permission is required to enter the church, which is located within the outer courtyard of Topkapi Palace. 6.1.5 Topkapi Palace Serving as the primary residence of the Ottoman Empire for 400 years (1465-1856) of their 624-year reign, Topkapi Palace holds numerous valuables, not only from the Ottoman Empire, but also many holy relics from Islam and Christianity. For example on display in the Third Courtyard of the Palace, in the sultan‟s private chambers are the following relics: the pot of Abraham, the turban of Joseph, the staff of Moses, the sword of David, the scrolls of John, and the holy relics of Muhammad, including his footprint, a piece of his tooth, hair of his beard, the seal of the Prophet, an autographed letter, and his swords and bow. Because of the sacred nature of these relics and the rooms in which they are housed, a mufti is always present here, reciting the Koran. 6.2 Antakya, Tarsus 6.2.1 Footsteps of Paul and other apostles The most prominent figure from this area is St. Paul, significant for the efforts he made to spread the acceptance of Christianity. He was born in Tarsus, Turkey, just a few years after the birth of Jesus. The remains of the home of Paul‟s family and a functioning well can be seen by visitors today. As a Roman citizen, he had special rights and privileges, such as not being imprisoned without a trial or being crucified. His Roman citizenship saved Paul many times during his ministry. Across the Roman Empire, he was a prominent apostle of Christianity during the diffusion of the Gospel by the early Christian communities. In the area of Jerusalem, Apostle Paul was known to be a very devoted Christian, though interestingly, prior to his conversion, he confesses that he persecuted “the church of God” “beyond measure” (Galatians 1:13–14; Philippians 3:6; Acts 8:1–3), standing by as a witness to the stoning of Stephen. His conversion was a monumental moment for the spread of Christianity. Though his conversion was a drastic change in his belief system, he adhered to it fervently, mentioning in the first chapter of the book of Romans that he was called to be an apostle by as a servant of Christ. His faith took him on three major missionary journeys to spread the word of God. His first journey began in Antioch (Antakya, Turkey), with Barnabas and Barnabas‟ cousin, John 171 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Mark. On this first mission, they visited Perge (10 miles east of Antalya, Turkey), Antioch in Pisidia (Yalvaç), Iconium (Konya), Lystra (19 miles south of Konya), and Derbe (15 miles north-northeast of Karaman). They returned to the cities they had previously visited in an attempt to gather support again. They returned to Antioch by boat from Attalia (Antalya, Turkey). Paul‟s second missionary journey departed again from Antioch (Antakya), this time with Silas as his traveling companion. They visit Derbe and Lystra again, where they met Timothy and invited him to travel with them. They also went to Pisidian Antioch (Yalvaç) again, and traveled overland to Alexandria Troas (near Bozcaada, Turkey), where they were joined by Luke. This was followed by journeys to Samothracia, Neapolis, Philippi, Amphipolis, Apollonia, Thessalonica, Berea, Athens and Corinth (cities that are part of modern day Greece). He stayed in Ephesus (south of Izmir) for a short while, heading back to Jerusalem for Passover, and returning to Antioch. The third missionary started around Galatia (central Anatolia) and Phrygia (west central Anatolia), followed by a trip to Ephesus, where St. Paul stayed for nearly three years, during which time he wrote what is now known as the books 1 & 2 Corinthians in the Bible. He then traveled through Macedonia and with a change of plans turned to Corinth (modern day Greece). He visited numerous other cities throughout modern day Turkey on his return to Jerusalem. Paul‟s writings are mostly aimed at the communities he visited while traveling. Fourteen epistles of the New Testament are attributed to Paul (though some books‟ authorship is disputed by scholars). These books are: Romans, First Corinthians, Second Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, First Thessalonians, Second Thessalonians, First Timothy, Second Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and the “anonymous” Epistle to the Hebrews. 6.2.2 Antakya (Antioch) Antioch is referred to as the cradle of Christianity: it was the base for Paul's missionary journeys, as mentioned above, the place where Jesus‟ followers were first called "Christians" (Acts 11:26), and also where the Gospel of Matthew may have been written. Today visitors can see the Church of St. Peter, believed to have been dug by the Apostle Peter as a gathering place for the early Christians, thus it is believed to be the first church. In the latter part of the 3rd century, ten church assemblies were held in Antioch. Other famous figures from Antioch include St. Luke, Archbishop of Constantinople John Chrysostom (the “golden mouthed”, known for his eloquence in preaching), St. Simeon, and Habibi Neccar, who came to be known as the first Christian martyr. The story of Habibi Neccar is described in the Koran, in which according to some interpretations, two of Jesus‟ disciples visited Antioch where they met Habibi Neccar. The disciples were arrested and imprisoned, with plans to execute them. When Habibi Neccar learned of their condition, he said “Obey those who ask no reward from you for themselves”. Neccar and the disciples were then killed. Habibi Neccar is translated by some to mean “beloved (habib) one of Jesus (neccar)”, because the word “neccar” means “one who gives shape to a tree”, implying the word carpenter, and thus, the connection to Jesus, the carpenter, is made. Habibi Neccar is buried in his namesake mosque, where his tomb is said to be next to Sham‟un, who could either be St. Simeon, or even Simon Peter himself. This mosque is allegedly the oldest in Anatolia, and the first mosque dedicated to a Christian. 172 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 6.4 Konya Today Konya is recognized for its significance as religious center associated with Celaleddin Rumi and the Sufi Mevlevi Dervishes (Whirling Dervishes). Rumi was a mystic, poet and philosopher who lived in Konya from 1227 to 1273. He is the author of the Islamic mystic masterpiece, the Mesnevi, containing instructions on spiritual life and how to achieve perfection in one‟s love of God. For Rumi, love was superior to all. During Rumi‟s time, Konya was the capital of the Seljuk Empire. There are numerous buildings that can still be seen from this era, including the Alaettin Mosque, the largest and oldest mosque in Konya (1221) on Alaettin Hill, the site of Konya's original acropolis; the Karatay Medresesi (school), built in 1251, which is now a museum exhibiting Seljuk tiles; Ince Minareli Medresi (literally, the Slender Minaret Medrese (school)), named so for its slender minaret, in comparison to the others, and today houses a museum displaying stone and wooden artifacts from the Seljuk and Ottoman eras. Most significant is the Mevlana Museum also known as the Green Mausoleum or Green Dome. Here lies the tomb and shrine of Mevlana Celalettin Rumi, and is the original tekke (lodge) of the Mevlevi Dervishes. Iconium, as Konya was known during early Christianity, was a significant place for the missionary journeys of Paul. In fact, Paul and Barnabas preached here on the first missionary journey and converted many people to Christianity (Acts 14:1-6). Among those converts were Thecla, who became a passionate follower of Paul, much to the chagrin of her parents. She alluded execution for her faith more than once, and reputedly ran a nunnery and hospital for the sick, as she, herself, was allegedly a miraculous healer. 6.5 Cappadocia The natural geographic beauty of Cappadocia, with its unique volcanic peaks and valleys, has made the area perfect for its residents, over thousands of years, to dig caves in which to live and worship. Christians found refuge in these complex and extensive tunnels and caves in the 2nd century when they found themselves under Roman persecution. These underground homes allowed the residents to survive for months at a time with intricate ventilation and defensive traps throughout the multi-leveled edifices. The most famous Christian figures of the region were known as the Cappadocian Fathers: Basil the Great, bishop of Caesarea; Basil‟s Brother Gregory of Nyssa; and friend Gregory of Nazianzus, later Patriarch of Constantinople. They lived here during the 4th century. Today, the highlight of the tourist attractions in the region is the Göreme Open Air Museum, at which 10 different cave churches can be visited, all of which have some type of Byzantine-era frescoes, most of which are quite well preserved. Furthermore, two of the 36 underground cities are open to tourists--Derinkuyu and Kaymaklı. In both, visitors can have a better understanding of how underground life was for inhabitants, including their kitchens, stables, bedrooms and wineries. 6.6 Ephesus and Environs 6.6.1 Seven Churches of Asia Modern Turkey, near its Aegean (Western) coast, is home to the Seven Churches of Asia, mentioned in the first chapters of the Book of Revelation in the Bible. The Book of Revelation, like many of the other books of the New Testament, begins as a letter from a prominent faith leader to specific communities--in the case of Revelation, the leader is John the Apostle and the communities are seven churches of Asia Minor. John relays that he received a vision imploring him to write messages to “the seven churches: to Ephesus and to 173 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Smyrna and to Pergamum and to Thyatria and to Sardis and to Philadelphia and to Laodicea.” (Revelation 1:11). Figure 3 Seven Churches of Revelation Ephesus Smyrna Pergam Thyatria Sardis Philadelphia Laodicea um Modern Ephesus, Izmir Bergam Akhisar Sardis Alaşehir (near Day Efes a Denizli) City Name Bible Rev. 2:1-7 Rev. 2:8- Rev. Rev. Rev. 3:1- Rev. 3:7-12 Rev. Verses 11 2:12-17 2:18-28 5 3:14-21 Sites  Basilica  St.  Arche  4th-  Sardis  Byzantin  Stadiu of St. Polycarp ologic 6th Synag e m John Church al centu ogue Basilica  Scarco Museu ry  Ephesus  Archeolo  Temp phagi m publi Museum gical le of c Museum  Red Arte  Great buildi Basilic mis Theater  Izmir ngs a Agora  Byza  Zeus ntine Altar Churc (in h Berlin Museu m) Nature The church The church The The The The church The of the that had that would church church church of patient church Church forsaken its be afflicted that was with a that endurance. of first love for ten called to false appeared indiffere days. repent. prophet alive, but nce. ess was (Jezebel spirituall ). y dead. Sources: Faithlife Study Bible Application. New International Version. Logos Bible Software. App. 01 Jan. 2012.; Hays, Holly. Sacred Destinations. 2005-2010. Web. 14 Jan 2013. Figure 3 shows the seven churches, their modern day city name, the verses in which their messages appear in the Bible, the sites that remain related to Christianity, and the nature of the church to which the message of Revelation was directed. 6.6.2 Great Theater Paul spent at least two years preaching in Ephesus in the. It was here in the Great Theater that he gave his sermon condemning the worship of pagan idols. Paul, as told in the Book of the Acts of the Apostles (19:23-41), was a threat to the local silversmiths, who sculpted figures of Artemis, feared that if Paul was successful in converting the Ephesians to 174 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Christianity, they would be out of work. Today, the theater is within the campus of the ancient city site, which is encompassed as a museum. 6.6.2 Church of Mary The Church of Mary, also known as the Double Church, was where the Third Ecumenical Council, the Council of Ephesus, was held in 431. The most significant theological decision that was made at this gathering was the nature of Jesus being one person, not two “people”: both complete God and complete man, thus declaring the Virgin Mary as "Theotokos", bearer of God. A declaration was also made at this council that the Nicene Creed, which was written and agreed upon at the First and Second Ecumenical Councils (Nicaea and Constantinople, respectively), was complete and no further revisions would be allowed. The remains of the church and its well preserved baptismal font can be seen by visitors today within the Ephesus site. 6.6.3 Basilica of St. John In Selçuk, just a few miles north of the ancient city of Ephesus, sits the remains of the Basilica of St. John, is a tribute to the saint constructed by Justinian in the 6th century, atop what is likely St. John‟s final resting place. St. John is recognized to be an apostle, the author of the Fourth Gospel, and a prophet, as the author of the book of Revelation. The remains of the site today include some walls and columns of the basilica, as well as the baptistery and mosaics. 6.6.4 House of the Virgin Mary John was accompanied on his journey to Ephesus by Mary, who is said to have lived out her final years in a small house now known as the House of the Virgin Mary, set atop Bülbül Dagi (Mt. Koressos) near Ephesus. The stone building that stands today is said to be from the 6th or 7th centuries, but the foundations have been proven to originate from a much earlier date, around the 1st century. The springs that run under the house are said to have healing properties, evident in the canes and crutches that are left inside the house by the healed. This site today is visited by Christians and Muslims alike (Muslims also regard Mary as the mother of the Prophet Jesus, and accept the virgin birth). 6.7 Iznik Though Iznik (Nicaea) today has been relegated to a sleepy town of about 20,000 people on the shores of Lake Iznik, it was once a center for Christianity, being the location for the First and Seventh Ecumenical Councils. The First Ecumenical Council of Nicaea in 325 was called by Emperor Constantine the Great to discuss the Arian heresy, and it was at this council that the concept of the Trinity was more clearly defined and the first draft of the Nicene Creed was written. Both the Trinitarian Doctrine and the Nicene Creed were finalized at the subsequent Council of Constantinople in 381. Unfortunately, the location of the building where the First Council of Nicaea was held is underwater in Lake Iznik. However there are numerous Roman remains throughout the city including city walls, towers and gates. One important building that is still standing almost in its entirety is St. Sophia. The Seventh Ecumenical Council (Second Council of Nicaea) was held there in 787 to discuss the veneration of icons. An imperial edict by Leo III was made to suppress the veneration of icons, and made officially forbidden by his son, Constantine V, in what was known as the First Iconoclasm of the Byzantine Empire. The council reinstated permission for the adoration of icons, but not their worship. St. Sophia was converted to a mosque in 1331, during the Ottoman Empire and was abandoned around 1922. It is currently open for visitation. 175 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 7. Conclusion There is no doubt that Christian-Muslim relations are at a critical juncture. Numerous sources are to blame for the misunderstandings, discord and utter violence between the two groups. With members of each faith armed with better knowledge of the other, they will certainly come to accept and respect each other more, recognize their shared values, and cooperate to foster peace. Faith-based tourism is one particular medium that can aim to bridge the gap, open the platform for dialogue, and thus, further develop understanding and acceptance. By changing the perception that American Christians have of Turkey and Islam, they will be more likely to consider Turkey as a destination for their faith-based tourism desires. A well planned program to promote Turkey to specific, key audiences will inevitably have an immediate impact on the participants in such tours, but careful selection of the audiences will guarantee an even broader impact. With its rich intermingling of Christian and Muslim history, Turkey is uniquely poised to present the opportunity for interaction and dialogue between the two faiths. References Anholt, Simon. “„Is this about me?‟--The critical issue of relevance.” Journal of Place Branding and Public Diplomacy (2009) 5, 253-259. Web. 01 Jan. 2013. Anthony, Jillian. “Stressed Americans don't use their measly vacation time”. CNN Money. 16 Nov. 2012. Web. 02 Jan. 2013. Arinze, F. “Christian-Muslim Relations in the Twenty-First Century.” Center for Muslim- Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, Washington, DC. Lecture. 5 June 1997. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. Brodhecker, Cindi. “Understanding Faith Tourism: Defining the different types of religious groups and their unique needs.” Group University. 21 Dec. 2012. Web. 30 Dec. 2012. Brooks, David. “Huntington‟s Clash Revisited.” Op-Ed. The New York Times. 3 March 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2012. Chalmers, William D. “The Great American Passport Myth: Why Just 3.5% Of Us Travel Overseas!” Huffington Post. 29 Sep. 2012. Web. 07 Dec. 2012. Faithlife Study Bible Application. New International Version. Logos Bible Software. App. 01 Jan. 2012. Fraser, Jane. “Plenty Like to Keep the Faith.” The Sydney Morning Herald. 23 Sep. 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. Goddard, Hugh. A History of Christian Muslim Relations. Chicago: New Amsterdam Books, 2000. Print. Grim, Brian, Karim, Mehtab S. “The Future of the Global Muslim Population: Projections for 2010-2030.” Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 27 Jan. 2011. Web. 03 December 2012. Hackett, Conrad, Grim, Brian. “Global Christianity: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Christian Population”. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 19 Dec. 2011. Web. 21 Dec. 2012. Hays, Holly. Sacred Destinations. 2005-2010. Web. 14 Jan 2013. Heffner, Dr. Christopher L. “Psychology 101”. 01 April 2001. Web. [accessed 07.12.2012]. Huntington, Samuel. Clash of Civilizations. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996. Print 176 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Jamal, Amaney. Interview by Mark O‟Keefe. “Islam and the West: How Great a Divide?” Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 10 July 2006. Web. 3 Dec. 2012. Kohut, Andrew. “The Great Divide: How Westerners and Muslims View Each Other.” Pew Global Attitudes Project. 22 June 2006. Web. 14 Dec. 2012. Kohut, Andrew. “Most Muslims Want Democracy, Personal Freedoms, and Islam in Political Life”. Pew Research Center, Global Attitudes Project. 10 July 2012. Web. 05 December 2012. Lugo, Luis; Cooperman, A., Green, J., Smith, G. “US Religious Knowledge Study.” Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life (2010). 28 Sep. 2010. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. National Geographic Education Foundation/National Geographic Society. “2006 Geographic Literacy Study”. National Geographic-Roper Public Affairs. United States. May 2006. Web. 12 Dec. 2012. Neff, Blake. “Historicity & Holy War: Putting the Crusades in Context”. The Augustine Collective--Dartmouth Apologia. 2 Feb.2012. Web. 05 Dec. 2012. Rae, Pauline. “Christian-Muslim Relations”. Compass: A Review of Topical Theology. Autumn 2002, Vol 36, No 1. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. Tourism-Review.com. “Faith Tourism: One of the Fastest Growing Industries”. 23 Jan. 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. Türkiye Cumhuriyeti. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı. “2009-2011 Yıllarında Ülkemize Gelen Yabancıların Milleyetlerine Göre Karşılaştırlılması”. Web. 04 Jan. 2012. United States. Dept. of State. “United States Department of State Passport Statistics”. Web. 30 Dec. 2012. Uslu, Nasuh, Toprak, Metin, Dalmis, Ibrahim, Aydin, Ertan. “Turkish Public Opinion towards the United States in the Context of Iraq Question”. Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 9, No. 3, September 2005. Web. 20 December 2012. Verrastro, Nick. “Agents Essential to Dynamic Faith Based Travel Niche.” Travel Market Report. 31 May 2012. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. Wilson, Mark. Biblical Turkey: A Guide to the Jewish and Christian Sites of Asia Minor. Istanbul: Ege Yayınları, 2010. Print. 177 Role of Religious Tourism in Conflict Resolution Dr. Adejoh Apeh Matthew The Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Science and Technology, Bauchi Nigeria adejoh.am@gmail.com Abstract The paper analyzes discourse on religious tourism and its influence on conflict resolution. Religion is a very complex concept, which includes many important characteristics. Religious tourism, which is connected to sacred practices and discussion of diverse religious doctrines and values, has become one of the most important features of religion. Nowadays, in the modern era of globalization, people are actively sharing different ideas. Therefore, it is important to utilize religious tourism in order to share values, which can later contribute to conflict resolution. As the result, education and communication should become obligatory components of religious tourism. Keywords: Religious tourism, pilgrimage conflict resolution 1. Introduction Travelling is very popular nowadays. Tourism industry is one of the most profitable economic spheres. In fact, people choose to travel because of diverse reasons and motivations. Usually, exhausted from daily routine, people travel in order to relax and revive their energy. In our postmodern society, tourism is one of the most important economic industries for many developing countries. Nevertheless, there are also moral purposes of tourism. That is why it is important to pay attention to the phenomenon of religious tourism, which can also be referred to as pilgrimage tourism. In fact, tourism is a complex concept. Mill and Morrison once mentioned, “Tourism is a difficult phenomenon to describe, all tourism involves travel, yet all travel is not tourism” (Raj, 2007). Religious tourism involves travelling individually or in group for pilgrimage, mission work, fellowship vacations, crusades, retreats, and the likes. Journeys relating to religious sites and festivals, pilgrimage or spirituality, have long been a feature of human travel (Raj, 2007). Nevertheless, although religion is usually perceived as benevolent, it can sometimes be violent and hostile. For example, there exist various armed groups around the world, such as al-Qaeda, which claim religious justification for their activities (Haynes, 2009). That is why, it is necessary to mention that religious tourism can be beneficial to conflict resolution – a system of redressing “a process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another. Pilgrimage theories focus primarily on religious motivation for visiting religious sites (Schott, 2008). Thus, it is important to mention that peacemaking can be one of the goals of religious tourism. 2. Religious Tourism and Peacemaking Religion is a very complex concept, which includes many important characteristics. For example, Raj (2007) mentions that religion is an age-old dynamic concept embracing ancient, living (including traditional living religions of primal societies) faiths and the emergence of new religious and quasi-religious movements (also recognized as secular alternatives to 179 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY religion). According to this definition religion is not only a set of sacred practices such as worshiping. In fact, religion is an act of faith, which can have many forms, such as pilgrimage. It is on record that many great journeys and trips by individuals and groups have been wholly or partially inspired by belief, e. g. the exodus of the people of Israel, the spread of Islam, the journey of the Buddha, the Crusades, and Colonial conquests (Dallen, Timothy and Olsen, 2006) There are many historical examples of connections between religion and travel. For instance, Islam as a vital, vivacious and expanding religion, in which Muhammad‟s migration from Mecca to Medina in AD 622 was the genesis of the rapid spread of Islam throughout the world (Raj, 2007). Therefore, it is necessary to define the term “religious tourism”. In fact, it is not easy to give a single definition to “religious tourism”. Very often cultural and religious travel are used synonymously because the majority of cultural tourists visit religious sites as part of their itinerary, and are thus often referred to as religious tourists (Nieminen, 2012). Nevertheless, it is necessary to stress that unlike cultural tourism, religious tourism can have many functions. Therefore, religious tourism as a form of travel is either about observing or participating in different activities according to one‟s belief, and is about sharing a religious experience with someone and witnessing the faith (Nieminen, 2012). According to this definition, religious tourism is also focused on sharing religious practices. In fact, the number of tourists travelling purely for religious reasons is relatively small, while many studies conclude that spiritual motivations for engaging in pilgrimage outweigh religious ones (Richards, 2007). It also includes discussion of diverse religious doctrines and values. Thus, both cultural and religious tourism complement each other, and the promotion of religious tourism today seen as both devotional and cultural is a proof of the existence of this common “search” (Swatos, 1998). Therefore, religious tourism is a broad term, which involves many aspects. Religion is usually involved in different conflicts. One of the reasons is that there are various religious doctrines, which are competing with each other. If speaking in terms of contemporary conflicts, there are three common forms that involve religion, namely religious „fundamentalisms‟; „religious terrorism‟, especially involving „failed‟ states, such as Afghanistan, Iraq, or Somalia; and controversies that surround „the clash of civilization‟ thesis (Haynes, 2009). Thus, differences between East and West are creating many religious conflicts. For example, Christianity and Islam have many traditions and values that can clash. As a result, when claiming both absolute and exclusive validity, religious conviction can lead to intolerance, over-zealous proselytisation and religious fragmentation (Haynes, 2009). There are also many examples when religion has a different interpretation of law and individual rights. For example, leaders within faith-based organizations may seek to legitimize abuses of power and violation of human rights in the name of religious zeal (Haynes, 2009). Therefore, such situations can lead to serious conflicts. Religious tourism is closely connected to international relations. While religious conflict resolution began to emerge only in the 1990s, religion has always been an integral part of international relations (Shore, 2009). In addition, religion needs to be taken seriously in international conflict resolution, because the changing nature of international conflict necessitates consideration of religion as a dimension in resolution (Shore, 2009). Therefore, religion is an important part of international conflict resolution, because it is influencing moral obligation. Conflict resolution, or in other words peacemaking, is a process, which involves variety of important components. First of all, conflict resolution is impossible without strong leaders, 180 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY which are able to guide and inspire people. „Religious peacemakers‟ are religious individuals or representatives of faith-based organizations that attempt to help resolve inter-group conflicts and build peace (Haynes, 2009). These leaders should have particular qualities, which can help them achieve their peacemaking goals. For instance, true peacemakers are propelled by their faith; they have an unusual capacity to deeply understand others and experience with great compassion their hopes and their pain (Little, 2005). Religion can also help war-torn countries transit to democracy and sustainable peace building, because it often plays such a strong role in civil society (Shore, 2009). Therefore, religion can contribute to creation of effective civil society, which is able to peacefully involve in political process. Religion can provide people with understanding of peaceful negotiation, moral values and respect. Thus, people would be able to build effective government based on these basic religious values. Religious texts are also important sources of religious motivation. For example, Qu‟ran was used as a resource to help women become empowered (Little, 2005). Therefore, religious texts play a very important role in conflict resolution and transition to peaceful state. Tradition and symbolism are also important elements of peacemaking. Common religious traditions can contribute to conflict resolution in many situations. For instance, Ethiopia‟s tradition of eldership can bring communities to peace in a way that politicians or professionals with their frequent lack of understanding of key local traditions never can (Little, 2005). Thus, pilgrimage can be especially beneficial for places where people share the same religious traditions. Nevertheless, very often communities who do not share same religious traditions face conflicts. In such cases, religion helps in finding common ground through debates. For example, Nigerian Peacemakers Pastor Wuye and Imam Ashafa were bitter enemies leading militant religious groups, and decided to organize a debate between their respective Christian and Muslim communities (Little, 2005). It seems like Christianity and Islam have completely different religious approaches and traditions. However, despite this fact, both leaders came to a surprising realization that their religions had more similarities than differences, and now they work together to break stereotypes of religious “other”. This is a perfect example of how a common religious ground can impact peacemaking. Education is another important element of peacemaking. In fact, peace should not only be achieved, but also preserved. The promotion of religion, official religious education, the growth of diaspora tourism influenced the development of educational-religious tourism for educational and religious reasons sand purposes (Dallen, 2006). There are also many successful examples of religious education, which contributed to conflict resolution. For instance, Abuna Elias Chacour, a Palestinian Christian Istraeli citizen living in the Galilee, founded the Mar Elias Educational Institutions to educate a new generation on the possibility of coexistence in a land as diverse as the religious and ethnic identity he himself represents (Little, 2005). As a result, many students from diverse religious background are educated in this school. Religious tourism can also contribute to this practice. By travelling to new regions and sharing knowledge and experiences on conflict management it is important to establish principles of peacemaking in many regions. The fact is that communication is a vital tool for the peacemaking. Many religious leaders are writing different peace notes, which encourage religious peacemaking. For example, Nigerian peacemakers Pastor Wuye and Imam Ashafa drafted and signed the Kaduna Peace Agreement, helping to calm years of widespread violence perpetrated in Kaduna State in the name of religion (Little, 2005). Therefore, diplomacy and written agreements are also good ways of preserving peace. 181 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Nowadays there are many peace building religious organizations, which are promoting conflict resolution in different parts of the world. They have specifically been identified as following: 1. „emotional and spiritual support to war-affected communities‟, 2. effective mobilization for „their communities and others for peace‟, 3. mediation „between conflicting parties‟, and 4. a conduit in pursuit of „reconciliation, dialogue, and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration‟ (Haynes, 2009). Therefore, the role of such organization in religious tourism is increasing. 3. Conclusion The importance of pure pilgrimage can be clearly seen in sites such as Lourdes, Mecca and Chiang Mai (Raj, 2007). Nevertheless, it is also necessary to find universal ways to resolve conflicts through religious tourism. Nowadays, it is possible to think of interactions between religion and globalization in other ways (Lehman, 2009). For instance, today people are actively sharing political practices, such as democracy. Therefore, if it is possible to share democratic values, religious views can also be transmitted from one country to another. Religious tourism should play a major role in peace building process in the modern era of globalization. Religious tourism is also focused on sharing religious practices. That is why it is necessary to arrange different religious conferences and other events. In fact, religion is becoming less popular, while spirituality or the search for belief through spirituality is more of a trend, which will reshape the characteristics of religious tourism in the future (Nieminen, 2012). That is why such meetings can significantly contribute to peace building process and conflict resolution in many areas.When beliefs and values are shared in the light of fear of the Almighty professed, it is most likely that peace will reign as we respect one another‟s feelings. Religious reconciliation needs to use more of the language and methods of modern conflict resolution (Little, 2005). It is important to promote communication between diverse religious views. For example, it is possible to use language, which can be understood by different religious traditions. This communication should be focused on common features of different religions. For instance, the notion that there is God and He expects His people to behave in a moral way is similar in many religions. Thus, peacemaking can be achieved by finding some common grounds between different religions. Crusades, retreats and missionary outreaches are known to provide fertile training ground for peace building. Private and public agencies that are committed to sponsoring these programmes are overtly and covertly contributing to harmonious co-existence among citizens. Overall, religious tourism should play a major role in peace building process in the modern era of globalization. That is why it is necessary to arrange different religious conferences and other events. Religious tourism and communication, which are focused on common features of different religions, can effectively solve diverse conflicts. 182 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY References Dallen, T., & Olsen, D. (Eds.). (2006). Tourism religion and spiritual journeys. Oxon: Routledge. Haynes, J. (2009). Conflict resolution and peace-building: The role of religion in Mozambique, Nigeria and Cambodia. London: Commonwealth & Comparative Politics. Lehmann, D., (2009). Religion and globalization. Retrieved from http://www.davidlehmann.org/david-docs-pdf/Pub pap/Religion%20and%20Globalization%20proofs.pdf Little, D. (Ed.). (2007). Peacemakers in action: Profiles of religion in conflict resolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nieminen, K., (2012). Religious tourism - a Finnish perspective (Thesis). Retrieved from https://publications.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/51755/Nieminen_Katri.pdf?sequence=1 Raj, R., & Morpeth, N. D. (Eds.). (2007). Religious tourism and pilgrimage festivals management: An international perspective. Wallingford: CABI. Richards, G. (2007). Cultural tourism: Global and local perspectives. Binghamton: Haworth Hospitality Press. Schott, S. B. (2008). Religious tourism in America: Identity formation of sites and visitors (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest database. (UMI 3313163). Shore, M. (2009). Religion and conflict resolution: Christianity and South Africa's truth. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Limited. Swatos W. (Ed.). (1998). Encyclopedia of religion and society. London: AltaMira Press. 183 Alternative Tourism in Isparta City: Faith Tourism in Psidia Antiocheia Ancient City Ast.Prof. Dr. İsmail KERVANKIRAN Süleyman Demirel University Faculty of Arts and Science Department of Geography ismailkervankiran@sdu.edu.tr Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hüseyin KAYA Süleyman Demirel University Faculty Education Department of Social Studies Education huseyinkaya@sdu.edu.tr. Tourism can be defined as the movement of people to a specific destination, this is out of normality of work and home, to perform activities at these destinations by using facilities that fulfill their needs (Gunn, 1994: 5). Tourism is unique to the modern age providing nations and communities come together as a result of needs as recreation, entertainment and living in a different atmosphere, the desire to know the charming beauties fed by nature and art, the development of trade and industry and comfortable transportation facilities (Kahraman and Türkay, 2009). Tourism concept is defined by the Turkish Institute of Language as “The whole of the events occured as a result of entertainment, vacation, culture, visiting friends and relatives, active sport, meeting, vocational reasons, education, health, transit and such purposes from the living place to other places” in the the dictionary of terms. Tourism as being one of the mostly improved fields in the world causes international competition as a result of providing the development of the countries. Countries are working to attract more tourists by integrating alternative tourist products with the existing tourist products in order to supass their opponants. Daily changing demands of people in tourism force tourism firms to find different touristic products and facilities. In accordance with this alternative types of tourism as cultural tourism, thermal tourism, ecotourism, rural tourism and faith tourism appeared recently. Faith tourism, among these types of tourism is one of the oldest through the human history. People if not by name “tourism”, constantly used to visit the places that they consider as divine in the past. Today people visit places for veneration according to their religions as well. The travels from constant living areas to the places to meet the religious needs are considered as faith tourism according to the tourism concept. Human beings have felt the need of belonging to a religion since creation. Consequently, a number of various religion and faith groups appeared since the first man on earth in history. Hence divine places were visited with mass movements by the human beings. In accordance with these movements “faith tourism” appeared as an alternative tourism phenomenon. Faith tourism has indicated great developments especially in the last 30 years. The highest rise took place in 90’s (Wright, 2007). People used to accept the places to be seen as divine and traveled to these centers constantly or in particular periods. Almost all the religions have some time in a week or in the year to worship and since they are universal numerous people from all over the world travel these faith centers.These travels dependent to the charm of divine places used to be carried out by the rich in the past whereas recently turned to be a mass movement with the 185 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY participation of millions from all over the world. For instance, the hajj visit of muslims to Makkah and Medinah, Vatikan visit of christians for a week after December are such examples. Such visits cause believers to feel relieved for performing their religious duties. Because the interest is increasing to the faith tourism, tourism firms around the religous places are inclining as well. Besides performing their duties people visit historical and cultural places and participate in congresses, symposiums, religious meetings and conferences. Thus, an important source of income is provided financially. the most important source of income after oil is the currencies that Muslim pilgrims leave in Saudi Arabia. every year millions of people are visiting Mecca and Medina which are significant places in terms of spiritual values, for Hajj and Umrah worship, they accommodate in hotels buy souvenirs and benefit from other businesses. As a result of all these activities a significant revenue is taken. As a result of severe repression and destruction policies either the development of the first civilizations in Anatolia or the apostles in the early periods of Christianity, the Jews in the Middle Ages in their dwelling areas forced them to settle to these places, so besides a large number of Ġslamic Works of Turks, a lot of synagogue and the churches in Anatolia took place. Understanding, tolerance and respect of the Islamic nation in deep parallel artefacts that have survived to the present day Turkey, brings an advantageous position than other countries (http://www.kultur.gov.tr). Turkey has very important advantages in terms of alternative tourism products and resources in its geography in the world. One of the sources that is found in Turkey destination and can not be substituted is the presence of many living area and spaces significant for the members of the three monotheistic religions. This directly raises the faith tourism among other alternative tourism activities that can be developed. 6 of the 8 sacred religious centers (Selçuk, Demre, Tarsus, Istanbul, Iznik, Cappadocia) which adopted in the Christian world as divine are located within the borders of Turkey. In addition, Istanbul, Konya and Sanliurfa provinces, important for Muslims costitute the faith tourism centers (Kanıbir ve Kaşlı, 2007). In recent years, many tour operators and travel agencies focused on the faith tourism which is becoming a significant field of tourism, especially in the 90’s. Anatolia has a lot of faith centers that can host and attract more tourists with a higher income than the normal tourists. The important issues while using these belief centers are the growth of religious tourism and to provide the diversity of tourism in the country. some tasks can be done in order to attract more tourists for this type of alternative tourism. an inventory of religious places in Anatolia with a rich potential in terms of faith tourism. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism should address new markets and other countries that will participate in faith tourism by a market research with a good advertising campaign as carried out in the United States (Güzel, 2010). Religious tourism has socio-cultural, economic and political effects, also contributes to the provision of cross-cultural interaction and world peace as well. Anatolia, alongside a wealth of natural tourism resources, have sacred places because of being in an area where many civilizations and the nation's three major religions meet. This is therefore the advantage of Turkey, the global tourism market and tourism product diversification increases the competitiveness of tourism in the country for becoming a center of attraction for the whole year in terms of spreading the faith tourism. The Religious Tourism In Psidia Antiocheia Ancient City Isparta Province, as the land of roses and famous for its carpet is located in the western part of the Mediterranean region at inland so called "Lake District". The surface area is 8933 km ² and 68% of the surface area is mountainous. The altitude is 1030 m. There are a total of 186 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 12 districts with the Central town. It is located at a transition region between the Mediterranean climate and continental climate in Central Anatolia. It has a rich flora and fauna (Isparta Governance, 2006). Isparta Province has 11 hotels licenced by the Ministry of Culture with 534 hotel rooms and 1091 bed capacity and 55 hotel and hostel accommodation facilities with 2416 bed capacity with Municipal licence, in general there are 67 accommodation facilities and a total of 3561 bed capacity and also 14 travel agencies. 150 418 domestic and 17 246 foreign visitors, a total of 167 664 arrived in the region in 2010 and the same year 39 143 people visited the museum and archaeological sites (www.ispartakulturturizm.gov.tr). To compete in the global tourism market and to ensure the sustainability of tourism, religious tourism opportunities in terms of infrastructure and superstructure spaces that enhance the attractiveness of the tourism product and promotion of national and international markets, should be carried out properly. Providing tourism with appeals depends on sufficient possibilities of tourism enterprises and convenient transportation. There are such possibilities as lake tourism, winter tourism, rural tourism, ecotourism, cultural tourism, religious tourism, rose tourism, nature tourism, etc with rich tourism potential in the province of Isparta. However, as well as tourism potential, tourism investments need to be even more. one of the most important shortcomings in Isparta tourism is the lack of adequate tourism facilities. In order to increase the interest of the private sector in the region, the public sector should provide the necessary support. Isparta is not one of the important tourism centers of Turkey. Indeed, Isparta is not included among the major destinations on the web page of the Ministry of Tourism. This is because, Isparta does not have a tourist asset that will attract the attention of the whole world. However, in particular in terms of cave tourism, cultural and religious tourism It has considerable wealth. Also Isparta has a potential to be developed in terms of alternative types of tourism (Turkoglu et al, 2005). In order to raise the standards of tourism in the province of Isparta, public officials, private sector, local communities and all tourism actors have significant roles. These tasks are the most important ones in the public incentives to increase the provision of facilities to investors from outside, qualified institutions, to increase the interest of the private sector in the region, increasing the awareness of publicity of tourism, tourism facilities, improving the quality of service, professional presentations, result-oriented plans and "Isparta Tourism Action Plan” prepared by the experts , ensuring the sustainability of the natural and cultural tourism values of short, medium-and long-term conservation plans for the creation of the province of alternative tourism products to be integrated with the main tourist product, tourist profiles, continuous monitoring, both national and international festivals, congresses, symposia and festivals should be organized. Antiocheia, established along the southern slopes of the Sultan mountains about 1 Km from the north of Yalvac town of Isparta province. The ancient city is the capital of the Pisidia, on behalf of the city founder the name ' antiocheia ' was given (Map 1). For more than twenty cities in Anatolia called antiocheia so they are separated from each other with the names of the region. Prominent structures of Pisidia Antiocheia' are the Temple of Augustus, Aqueducts, St. Paul's Church, Tiberius Square, Roman Baths, Theatre, Main Street and west gate is located. Yalvaç (Antiocheia), established in the last period of Hellenism became very important during the reign of the Romans. W. Ramsay's excavations in this region, highlighted the role of Pisidia Antiocheia. Here, the head of the statue of Augustos, aqueducts, and other remnants of this region is oriented to the status of the transfer of the Romans (Demirgil and Demirgil, 187 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 2009). Anatolia, is very important in terms of the years of the first ascent of Christianity. This land has hosted the first Christian communities. Which is Saint Paul an important figure of the Christians, was born in Anatolia and visited a lot of points in here with missionary activities. Our country with religious tourism potential in addition to the potential of sea-sun-sand tourism has extraordinary richness and eco-tourism potential as part of the alternative tourism (Berk, 2011). Figure 1: Location Map of Pisidia Antiocheia Pisidian city, is one of the first settlements laid the foundations of Christianity and spread all over the world, and has been recognized as the second center of pilgrimage for Christians. Every year, hundreds of people come to this city to worship. With this feature, it has an important place for faith tourism. Taken within the framework of History and museum tourism Pisidia Antiocheia is one of the important places. The ancient city, is above all a source and document from past to present in terms of language, religion, art, history and science issues and socio-economic areas. storage of the protection of a variety of works obtained as a result of excavations, exhibition of these works for people in order to have more information about the works is an important tourism approach in terms of Anatolian Civilizations and the reflection of local culture for Yalvaç (Kuter ve Erdoğan, 2006). St. Paul's Road is the second long-distance walking route after the Lycian Way in Turkey. This route is 260 km long, begins from Perge in Pamphylia and ends at Pisidia settlement in Antiokheia area (Yalvaç) (Figure 1). St. Paul and his friends 46 A.D. moved from Perge to Pisidian Antiokheia (Yalvaç) in the north. The route of St. Paul is not known exactly. What is known in this route is that the date and nature intertwined. The starting point of the route is Aspendos or Perge. After the confluence of two tracks on the Adada ancient city, follow the 188 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY same route. The region between Perge and Taurus Mountains is full of impassable curves. The rivers fed by snow waters flowing from the plateau into the sea, farms, jungles, highlands, valleys, canyons and lakes along the way are the extraordinary beauties. Because the region indicates major changes in terms of climate and altitude, a different geography with forest and steppe areas meets us (Clow and Richardson, 2005). Yalvaç city important for faith tourism is the missionary voyages of St. Paul- an important figure in the spread of Christianity- in the ancient city of Pisidia . St. Paul's gave his first known sermon in this city, and at later years and St. Paul's Church was built in the name of this person. the interest in the region is increasing with each passing day by emphasizing the importance of this city in terms of Christianity and presentation of this church. But it is clearly seen that there is so much to do to catch the desired development trend. To succeed it and turning Yalvaç into a center for faith tourism will be a significant factor for the future development of the city. There are so many centers significant for Christian world over the Anatolian land. Some of these places are important to Christianity, such as the Vatican and the pope was declared as official places of Christian crosses officials. For example, the Pope of the 16th By Benedickt announced 2008 as the "St. Paul Year", St. Paul, one of the 12 apostles of Jesus, came and preached his first sermon in order to spread Christianity at Yalvac, Isparta in Anatolia, known as the place and the for 500 thousand tourists were expected to visit there. This figure is a substantial figure at all (Güzel, 2010). Today, the demand for faith tourism is increasing every day. Pisidian Antiocheia ancient city which contains St. Paul's Church, one of the oldest churches in Anatolia, located in Turkey's most important venues for faith tourism. If investments for the development of tourism rational planning and effective advertisement in the region, the demand will increase and tourism sector will be at a desired level. CONCLUSION The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) estimates that 300 million tourists every year throughout the world have been traveling for religious purposes. This economical value of these travels costs about 18 billion dollars. In addition, tourist movements in the religious tourism market are expected to increase by 20% by 2020. All this shows that, religious tourism in the future will be one of the important types of alternative tourism. The ancient city of Pisidian Antiocheia is a major attraction in terms of religious tourism. However, the ancient city tourist demand is below the expectations. Some studies for the development of tourism in this area is required. These are the most important ones in infrastructure, superstructure, promotion and marketing. Infrastructure, roads, electricity, water, sewer, zoning plans, and so on. As such, accommodation, recreational facilities, food and beverage outlets, shopping, culture, art houses, recreation centers, parks, gardens and recreational areas, etc. can be counted among them. Infrastructure, superstructure and carries out promotional activities with the public and private sectors. The priority of the private sector is in marketing. In the study area, effective factors for faith tourism not being at the desired level in the region are lack of adequate tourism enterprises, the lack of promotion and marketing, supporting the different tourist products, lack of faith, not completely putting forward the ancient city of Pisidian Antiochiea in the ancient area and adequate protection against both physical and human factors should be the measures. In order to increase the tourist demand to region public sector and private sector should cooperate and give common contributions. 189 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Reerences Berk, F.M. (2011). Ġnanç ve Doğa Turizminin Kesiştiği Nokta: Aziz Paul Yolu. 1. Uluslar arası 4. Ulusal Eğirdir Turizm Sempozyumu, Isparta. Demirgil, S. ve Demirgil, H. (2009). Isparta’nın Kısa Tarihi. Editör: Gül, H. ve Boybeyi, S. Geçmişten Günümüze Isparta. Atatürk Kültür Merkezi Yayını, No:370. Gunn, C.A. (1994). Tourism Planning: Basics, Concepts, Cases, 3rd Ed. Washington, Taylor & Francis. Güzel, F.Ö. (2010). Turistik Ürün Çeşitlendirmesi Kapsamında Yeni Bir Dinamik: Ġnanç Turizmi. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi, Vizyoner Dergisi, C.2, S.2. s.87-100. http://www.tdk.org.tr/terimler.html Erişim Tarihi: 18.12.2012. http://www.kultur.gov.tr/, Erişim Tarihi: 19.12.2012. http://www.ispartakulturturizm.gov.tr/belge/1-84335/konaklama-istatistikleri.html, Erişim Tarihi: (19.12.2012). ISPARTA VALĠLĠĞĠ, Ġl Çevre Ve Orman Müdürlüğü (2006), Isparta Çevre Durum Raporu, Editör: Tuzcu, D., Isparta Çevre Ve Orman Ġl Müdürlüğü Yayını. Kahraman, N. ve Türkay, O. (2009). Turizm ve Çevre. Detay Yayıncılık, Ankara. Kanıbir, H. ve Kaşlı, M. (2007). İnanç Turizmi. Editör: Bulu, M. ve Eraslan, Ġ.H. Sürdürülebilir Rekabet Avantajı Elde Etmede Turizm Sektörü Sektörel Stratejiler ve Uygulamalar. Ġstanbul: Uluslar arası Rekabet Araştırmaları Kurumu Derneği Yayınları, No:2007/1. Kuter, N. ve Erdoğan, E. (2006). Yalvaç, Pisidia Antiocheia Antik Kenti ve Çevresinin Peyzaj Özellikleri ve Turizm Açısından Değerlendirilmesi. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi Seri: A, Sayı: 1, Sayfa: 111-123. Sargın, S. (2006). Yalvaç’ta Ġnanç Turizmi. Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Cilt: 16, Sayı: 2 Sayfa: 1-18. Elazığ. Türkoğlu, M, Gövrede, B. ve Meydan Ç. (2005), Isparta Ġli Turizmin Sorunları ve Çözüm Önerileri, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, Yıl/Volume:1, Sayı/Number:1, s:29-38, Isparta. Wrıght, K. (2007). Religious Tourism, Leisure Group Travel Special Edition, November, pp:8-16. 190 Religious Recourses and Pilgrim tourism in Georgia Marina Metreveli PhD, Professor Leading Tourism Specialist, Economic Sector and Economic Policy Committee, Parliament of Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia E-mail: marinametreveli@yahoo.co.uk Web.: ww.marinametreveli.ge Heritage in Georgia is almost synonymous with religious heritage. Few countries in the world possess such an intensity of built religious patrimony in a small territory as the foundations of their heritage tourism sector as Georgia does. Georgia is already an increasingly popular destination, but owing to its important religious history, the multitude of ancient churches and holy relics at home there, and the inseparable mix of religious and natural heritages capes, the country has the potential to develop further in three areas of heritage tourism: domestic pilgrimage; international pilgrimage among Orthodox Christians from Eastern Europe and countries of the former USSR; and non-religious cultural tourists from all over the world. This brief research note describes the current situation regarding religiously based heritage tourism recourses and pilgrim tourism trends in Georgia. Keywords: Georgia; Caucasus; religious tourism; churches; heritage tourism; pilgrimage Introduction Pilgrimage is one of the earliest forms of organized tourism and involves visits to holy sites by religious worshippers for communion with deity, forgiveness for sins, healing, or other manifestations of personal spiritual growth. Most religions of the world today endorse or accept some form of religious travel, and this form of tourism is growing in importance in regions which possess sites that are venerated as sacred by the world’s faithful. Sites visited by pilgrims include churches, mosques, temples, gravesites, sacred groves and grottos, rivers, mountains, sites of miracles, and locations of divine visitations. These places, among many others, are deemed sacred and are venerated by the faithful and sanctified by faith organizations, so that they have become important destinations for devotees. In addition to being places of worship for people of a specific faith, many sacred spaces are viewed by the larger traveling public as important destinations and attractions in their own right because of their historical or aesthetic value (Jackson & Hudman, 1994; Shackley, 2001; Timothy & Olsen, 2006). Thus, some of the most important cultural attractions in Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Latin America are religious in nature. Buddhist temples and monasteries in Thailand and Bhutan; mosques in Jordan, Turkey, and Egypt; and churches and cathedrals in Latin America and Europe all form an important part of the heritage attraction base for religious adherents and non-adherents alike (Nolan & Nolan, 1992; Timothy & Nyaupane, 2009). A package tour of England would be incomplete without mandatory stops at Westminster Abbey or Canterbury Cathedral. A trip to Bangkok, Thailand, would be deficient without a visit to the Temple of the Emerald Buddha or the Temple of the Reclining Buddha. Many such religious sites throughout the world have been listed by UNESCO as important World Heritage Sites with universal appeal and value, adding yet an additional layer of allure for potential visitors. This research note describes tourism and the rich religious heritage of the Republic of Georgia and its role in Christianity through the ages. At present, the country’s religious heritage is one of its most salient tourism assets and is popular among domestic and 191 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY international travelers. Based on its rich living and built cultural past, Georgia’s potential tourism growth is substantial; this paper outlines three particular areas in which the nation’s heritage tourism has some of the strongest potential for growth. The religious history of Georgia Georgia is situated in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. It has long been a crossroads where east and west, north and south were commercially, socially, and spiritually connected (Coene, 2009; Griffin, 2001). Georgia’s ancient boundaries and socio-political influence extended far beyond its current national borders to include much of present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, and Turkey. Because of the country’s role as a junction of trade and transit, it developed a unique mix of western and eastern cultures unlike any other place. Georgia’s well-established position at the boundary of Europe and Asia, and its known trade routes made it a logical destination for the spread of Christianity from the Holy Land as it made its way through Southern and Eastern Europe. Following the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, his apostles scattered to begin their missionary efforts throughout the Mediterranean region and the Caucasus. According to Georgian religious historians, St Andrew, one of Jesus’ apostles, preached the Christian gospel in Georgia (then composed of two Georgian kingdoms – Colchis and Iberia) and won many converts in the first century AD. Colchis and Iberia were among the first states to accept Christianity as their official state religion early in the fourth century AD (319 or 337 AD) (Alasania, 2006). Other Christian apostles preached in Georgia, including St Jude (St Thaddaeus), Simon the Zealot, St Matthias, and St Bartholomew, and according to Georgian tradition, Simon and St Matthias were buried in Georgia. Based upon the doctrines and principles taught by St Andrew in the first century, the Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church was established and adopted as the state religion in the fourth century. Around that time, the first Georgian Orthodox churchwas built at Mtskheta. The current Svetitskhoveli Cathedral was built in the twelfth century on the foundations of the original fourth-century church and has become one of the most salient religious sites in the country and functions as the seat of the archbishop of Mtskheta and Tbilisi. Over the centuries, many invading forces have threatened Christianity in Georgia. Invasions by Persians, Arabs, Turks, and Mongols, to name just a few, aimed in part to diminish the role of the church and to topple the established Georgian Orthodox Church (Griffin, 2001; Pelkmans, 2006). Georgian history is rich with accounts of people suffering for their faith, including over 100,000 martyrs in 1226, who refused to deny their faith. Thousands of monks and nuns were also put to death during the medieval period by invading hordes. The Georgians are proud of their ancestors’ ability to withstand the invasions from the south and east that tried not only to repress the actions of the Church but also to topple the Georgian nation. This religious and political history has developed, within the Georgian national psyche, a great sense of pride and adoration for the Georgian Orthodox Church and today nearly 85% of the country’s population belongs to the faith. Additionally, the church is among the most influential establishments in the country from social, economic, and political perspectives. The early foundation of the church facilitated the early development of Georgian secular culture as well. Poetry, art, literature, intellectual discourse and music are important elements of Georgian identity that were boosted by the country’s religious institution from the outset and remain a salient part of the people’s national ethos (Suny, 1994). 192 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Religious Recourses and Pilgrim tourism in Georgia The history of the Orthodox Church is the foundation of the heritage of Georgia. While dramatic mountain landscapes and nature provide a lot of the much-desired backdrop for tourism in Georgia (Nasmyth, 2006), the country’s religious built heritage forms an equally important core of contemporary tourism (Lew, Hall, & Timothy, 2008; Metreveli & Timothy, 2010). There are, in Georgia, today an estimated 35,000 historic monuments, many of which are religious in origin. Some 5000 of these places are protected by the state; so there is much more work to be done to safeguard the country’s additional heritage resources. Three of the most significant sites have been inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List (WHL), including the historic village of Chazhashi in Upper Svaneti with its unique architecture and landscape, the Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (churches and religious architecture), and the Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery. In addition, 15 important sites have been added to UNESCO’s Tentative List (one is a natural site), which means that Georgia plans to nominate them for the WHL in the near future. As Table 1 shows, most of the nominated cultural or mixed sites are either religious monuments or have a religious component or connotation. This is illustrative of the importance of religious patrimony in the heritage product of Georgia. Toward the end of the twentieth century, with the collapse of the communist Soviet government in 1991, which shunned religious practices and adopted an official dogma of atheism, religious devotion began to grow. With increased freedom to worship and practice the faith of their forebears, the number of religious adherents has grown tremendously since the early 1990s. This has resulted in the large-scale building of new churches, but more importantly for this discussion, it also resulted in the preservation and restoration of many ancient churches and monasteries throughout the country that had been overwhelmingly neglected during the Soviet era. The atheist government in power between 1921 and 1991 discouraged religious worship and de-prioritized the conservation of spiritual places, whereas the new government has re-prioritized the country’s ecclesiastical heritage as worthy of protection and promotion for touristic and other purposes. Table 1. Georgia’s 14 cultural heritage properties on the Tentative WHL. Heritage property Location Religious site or associated religious site? Alaverdi Cathedral Kakheti region Yes Ananuri Mtskheta-Mtianeti region Yes David Gareji monasteries and hermitage Signagi and Dedoplistskaro Yes districts Dmanisi Hominid archaeological site Lower Cartli region No Gremi Church of Archangels and Royal Kakheti region Yes Tower Kvetera Church Kakheti region Yes Mta-Tusheti Kakheti region No Nicortsminda Cathedral Racha region Yes Samtavisi Cathedral Gori district Yes Shatili Mtskheta-Mtianeti region Yes Tbilisi historic district Cartli region Yes Uplistsikhe cave town Gori district Yes Vani Imereti region Yes Vardzia-Khertvisi Samtskhe-Javakheti region Yes Source: UNESCO (2012). 193 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Given this shifting perspective and prioritization, Georgia has seen a widespread and growing interest in tourism based upon its spiritual past. The most salient form of religious tourism is domestic pilgrimages, with a smaller contingent of Georgians traveling to holy sites outside their country’s borders. In 2006, approximately 3000 Georgian pilgrims traveled in their own country to churches and other sacred sites for spiritual purposes. The same year, 254 pilgrims visited Tao-Klarjeti (Turkey), 607 visited Jerusalem, 42 visited Egypt, and 43 visited Italy. In 2011, the number increased to some 50000 domestic pilgrims and 10034 to the same sites abroad (Department of Pilgrimage Tourism, Patriarchate of Georgia, 2012). These data do not give an accurate portrayal of domestic and outbound religious tourism because private tour companies are typically unwilling to provide information to government officials. However, they are based on best estimates and do demonstrate an emerging measure of growth in the pilgrimage sector. Although many Georgians do visit historic churches and monasteries for their historical and aesthetic value, it is expected that as the former atheistic influence of the Soviet Union continues to subside among the Georgian population, increasing numbers of churchgoers will undertake pilgrimages domestically and abroad. In addition to the relics and properties in Georgia, the Georgians also built or acquired sacred edifices in other parts of the world during and after the medieval period, the way other Christian churches did. For instance, there are Georgian Orthodox buildings in Israel/Palestine, Syria, Cyprus, Greece, and Bulgaria. The Monastery of the Cross in Jerusalem (presently under the jurisdiction of the Greek Patriarch of Jerusalem), St. Jacob’s Convent in Jerusalem (presently under the jurisdiction of the Armenian Church of Jerusalem), the Iberon Monastery on Mount Athos in Greece, and the Petritsoni Monastery in Bulgaria (now known as the Bachkovo Monastery) are a few prominent examples. Another aspect of religious heritage tourism is foreigners visiting sacred places, because the holy sites are an important part of Georgian culture and are among the most prominent ancient monuments in the country. Almost every region and district has historic churches or monasteries, which creates an immense heritage resource base also for non-pilgrim visitors, who can travel along the routes that highlight the most important historic properties. The importance of these sites is unmistakable, as their attention by UNESCO attests, and they are important heritage resources given their unique architecture, natural surroundings, interesting history, and new efforts at conservation. Table 1 provides information on international arrivals in Georgia between 2000 and 20011. There has been considerable growth in arrivals during the early twentieth century, but it is very difficult to extrapolate the number of people who visit religious heritage sites, and the government has no estimates in this regard. It is likely, however, that a significant proportion of international tourists do, in fact, visit religious heritage locations while in Georgia, since these are among the country’s most prominent attractions. In addition, it is possible that some of the visitors from the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (CIS) are Orthodox Church members themselves and have come to Georgia on some sort of pilgrimage. The potential for growth of religious tourism As already noted, the potential for pilgrimage tourism in Georgia is noteworthy, particularly among domestic residents, who are members of the Orthodox Church. However, there is a probable demand among the Georgian Diaspora abroad as well and perhaps among other Orthodox Church members from countries such as Ukraine, Greece, Serbia, Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, and Russia. This possibility is heightened by the ostensible existence of many sacred artifacts brought to the country from the Holy Land by the ancient apostles. 194 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY According to Georgian church historians and Eastern Orthodox religious traditions, the robe of Jesus (the Chiton of Christ) from the time of his crucifixion was brought to Georgia by a rabbi, who purchased the garment from a Roman soldier shortly after the death of Christ. The chiton is said to be preserved beneath Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta. As per the information of the Border Control Department, the number of visitors in Georgia in 2000 was 373 746; in 2003, 301 051 people visited Georgia and in 2004, the country had 364 512 visitors. In 2005, 559 427 people visited the country; 762 193 (in 2006), 1 05 036 (in 2007), 1 288 039 (in 2008), 1 497 415 (in 2009) and the number of tourists was 2 029 447 in 2010. The number of visits to Georgia in 2000-2010 increased by 5.4 and the share of tourism in the country GDP was 3,92% in 2006, 4,10% in 2007, 3,72% in 2008 and 4% in 2009, 2010, 2011. The number of tourists in Georgia in 2011 was 2 819 144 marked by 39% increase as compared to the previous year. Table 1. Number of incoming tourists in Georgia (Border Control Department of Georgia, 2011) 195 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Table 2. Trends of International Visitors in Georgia 2009-2012 (National Tourism Administration of Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development of Georgia, 2012) Trends of International Visitors in Georgia 2009-2012 400000 350000 300000 250000 2009 200000 2010 150000 2011 100000 2012 50000 0 r r e r r st ay y ch y ril ry be be be be n l ar gu Ju Ap ua M Ju ar em em m to nu Au M br ce Oc Ja pt v Fe De No Se Several additional holy relics are said to have been deposited in Georgia, in addition to the apostles Matthias and Simon being buried there. The mantle of Elijah is believed to be preserved in Georgia, and the original icon of Mary, the mother of Jesus, was brought to the country by St Andrew, where it was kept in the Atskveri Cathedral for many years. When Georgia adopted Christianity in the early fourth century, the Roman emperor Constantine sent the following gifts to the new Christian nation: of a piece of the cross of the crucifixion, two nails from the cross, the board upon which Jesus stood while he was crucified, and an original icon of Jesus. Clearly these traditions, the sites associated with the sacred artifacts, and the locations where the apostles preached have the potential to become a more important part of the pilgrimage product. It would behoove the Department of Tourism and Resorts to highlight these attractions in its domestic promotional efforts and in the parts of Europe where Eastern Orthodox churches are most dominant. The state Patriarchate, parliament, and other tourism policy-makers should cooperate more closely to develop a pilgrimage policy that would raise the status of Georgia as one of Christianity’s premier religious destinations, particularly for tourists from Eastern Europe and CIS. The country has a lot to offer even for non-pilgrim tourists. Curiosity seekers, casual heritage visitors, serious heritage enthusiasts, and amateur historians should have considerable interest in the ancient religious legacy of Georgia. More promotional efforts should focus on the World Heritage Site status of three of the country’s most scenic areas and the fact that 15 more have recently been placed on UNESCO’s Tentative List. Many heritage specialists believe that a site’s placement on UNESCO’s WHL can be used to a country’s tourism advantage, as it becomes a brand to help in promotional efforts (Boyd & Timothy, 2006; Fyall & Rakic, 2006; Hall & Piggin, 2003; Timothy, 2011). Regardless of whether or not tourists are adherents to Orthodox Christianity, they should find the country’s rich array of historic churches and monasteries to be an interesting part of its cultural landscape worthy of a visit. The ancientness of Georgia’s churches should prevail in the Department of Tourism and Resorts’ promotional efforts to attract non-pilgrim tourists as well. 196 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Conclusion This short research note provides a descriptive overview of the importance of religious heritage and its relics in the cultural tourism milieu of Georgia. Very little has been written about tourism in the Caucasus region, including Georgia; this paper contributes additional perspectives about a country whose primary heritage appeal lies in its spiritual and religious past. The country is unique as regards its religious heritage. Few places in the world can boast of such a focused heritage landscape, geared toward a unique religious past. Even the Holy Land and Rome are home to a much wider array of heritages beyond religion, while by far Georgia’s main cultural product is its churches and monasteries. This intensity of religious resources has the potential to make the country one of the most important heritage destinations in Europe. There is much work to do in Georgia to be able to understand domestic pilgrims, foreign pilgrims, and international heritage tourists who might visit the churches because of their aesthetic appeal or historical significance in the development of the Georgian nation. This should be an important priority for the government to expand its tourism industry. References Alasania, G. (2006). Twenty centuries of Christianity in Georgia. IBSU Scientific Journal, 1(1), 117–129. Boyd, S.W., & Timothy, D.J. (2006). Marketing issues and World Heritage Sites. In A. Leask & A. Fyall (Eds.), Managing World Heritage Sites (pp. 53–66). Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. Coene, F. (2009). The Caucasus: An introduction. London: Routledge. Department of Pilgrimage Tourism, Patriarchate of Georgia. (2009). Pilgrimage data. Retrieved January 9, 2010, from http://www.patriarchate.ge/_en/?action=home Department of Tourism and Resorts. (2010). Arrivals of non-resident visitors at national borders of Georgia 2000–2009. Tbilisi: Author. Fyall, A., & Rakic, T. (2006). The future market for World Heritage Sites. In A. Leask & A. Fyall (Eds.), Managing World Heritage Sites (pp. 159–175). Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. Griffin, N. (2001). Caucasus: A journey to the land between Christianity and Islam. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Hall, C.M., & Piggin, R. (2003).World Heritage Sites: Managing the brand. In A. Fyall, B. Garrod, & A. Leask (Eds.), Managing visitor attractions: New directions (pp. 203–219). Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. Jackson, R.H., & Hudman, L.E. (1994). Pilgrimage tourism and English cathedrals: The role of religion in travel. Tourist Review, 4, 40–48. Lew, A., Hall, C.M., & Timothy, D.J. (2008). World geography of travel and tourism: A regional approach. Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann. Metreveli, M., & Timothy, D.J. (2010). Effects of the August 2008 War in Georgia on tourism and its resources. In O. Moufakkir & I. Kelly (Eds.), Tourism, progress and peace (pp. 134–147). Wallingford: CABI. Metreveli, M., & Timothy, D.J. (2010). Religious heritage and emerging tourism in the Republic of Georgia. Journal of Heritage Tourism. Vol. 5, No. 3, August 2010, 237–244 Nasmyth, P. (2006). Walking in the Caucasus: Georgia. London: Mta Publications. 197 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Nolan, M.L., & Nolan, S. (1992). Religious sites as tourism attractions in Europe. Annals of Tourism Research, 19, 68–78. Pelkmans, M. (2006). Defending the border: Identity, religion and modernity in the Republic of Georgia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Shackley, M. (2001). Managing sacred sites: Service provision and visitor experience. London: Thomson. Suny, R.G. (1994). The making of the Georgian Nation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Timothy, D.J. (2011). Cultural heritage and tourism: An introduction. Bristol: Channel View. Timothy, D.J., & Olsen, D.H. (Eds.). (2006). Tourism, religion and spiritual journeys. London: Routledge. Timothy, D.J., & Nyaupane, G.P. (2009). Cultural heritage and tourism in the developing world: A regional perspective. London: Routledge. UNESCO. (2010). Tentative lists. Retrieved June 22, 2010, from http://whc.unesco.org/en/ tentativelists/ 198 The Knowledge of Students of Tourism about Sacred Monuments on the Territory of Serbia Snežana Štetić College of Tourism, Belgrade Serbia e-mail: snegics@gmail.com Sanja Pavlović University of Belgrade Faculty of Geography, Serbia e-mail: spavlovic20@gmail.com Dario Šimičević College of Tourism, Belgrade Serbia e-mail: dario@dancomsistem.com Sara Stanić University of Belgrade Faculty of Geography, Serbia e-mail: sara.stanic.zemun@gmail.com Abstract Sacral architecture represent a significant part of the cultural heritage in Serbia. They are the bearers of cultural identity, multiculturalism and the proof that in the territory of Serbia are twenty-eight ethnic groups, which are multi-religious, and the largest are: Christian (Orthodox and Catholic), Muslim and Jewish. The largest group of categorized cultural monument of great importance makes 400 churches, mostly Orthodox, and other religious, which were appeared for a long time. This paper explores students' knowledge about the religious (sacred) monuments in Serbia at the Faculty of Geography, Department of Tourismology and at the College of Tourism in Belgrade. The article emphasizes the existing students’ knowledge about permeation and connection of different religions, about places of worship in Serbia and their territorial distribution, as well as about their artistic values. The open-ended survey were analyzed the educational structure regard to year of study, level of study (undergraduate, master's, doctoral), socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents (gender, age). The first group of questions refers to the knowledge that students have about the historical, cultural and artistic values of religious monuments. The second issue deals interests, opinions, ways of information, information about tourist attractions, experiences, perceptions of sacred monuments, understanding the presence and interpenetration of different religions in Serbia. Keywords: sacred monuments, tourism, Serbia 1. Research on places of worship and religious tourism Since religion is understood as a portion of culture, many scholars see religious tourism as part of a broader cultural tourism (Rinschede, 1992). In this way, we do not talk only about one type of tourism, but this also includes visits to places of worship, as well as attendance to religious conferences, cultural and religious events, exhibitions of cult objects, as well as concerts of sacred music (Vorzsak & Gut, 2009). 199 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Previous research on places of worship and religious tourism are numerous and heterogeneous. Recent surveys indicate that the motivation for religious tourism is manifold and multilayered. Not all visitors to religious sites are "pious travellers." There is an increasing number of tourists who visit religious places of worship for non-religious reasons. They travel primarily to familiarize with historical, cultural and architectural values of sacred monuments. However, the largest number of tourists travels to have rest and recreation and they go sightseeing and visit various religious sites as part of their trip. This is precisely the reason for the authors of this paper to study the level of tourism students' knowledge regarding sacred monuments and religious tourism. Understanding of religious faith and respect for the sacred affects the distinction of categories of visitors to religious facilities. Vukonić (1990) singles out two categories of pilgrim tourists: • tourists – practitioners (religious tourists) who regularly fulfill religious commitments, • tourists – believers (religious tourists) who do not fully accept religious principles and visits sacred facilities out of curiosity. The same author has analyzed the motivation for visiting religious buildings and noted that it can be: • to participate in religious celebrations (church fairs, bringing out relics), • to meet the holy places, • to respect the saint who the holy place is dedicated to, • to worship relics of saints, • to explore the religious traditions of people living in other religious environment, or visiting the country of origin in order to get to know the culture and religion of their ancestors. The study conducted in the Turkish province of Mardin, a destination with a large number of religious and cultural facilities of Islam and Christianity, revealed that religious sites are visited because of their historical and cultural values, and not because of their sacred and spiritual values. Many tourists come to Mardin owing to multi-religious and multi-cultural character of the province (Egres et al., 2012). Religious contents are the most specific and most visible when the relationship between religion and tourism is concerned. Immovable facilities, including sacred or some other religious buildings are the objects of tourists’ attention and interest. They were originally intended for religious contents, but some of the sacred facilities gradually lost their original purpose and survived as cultural and historical sites (Stamenković, 2005). The function of religious contents in tourism is determined by their function in religion. Religious contents in sacral facilities are factors in tourism offer where tourists primarily meet their religious, and secondarily their cultural, artistic and aesthetic needs. In a broader sense, other facilities of religious communities and organizations in inbound tourism offer can be used to provide services to tourists (monasteries, religious schools, monastery lodgings). The most common religious themes in tourism are places of worship, and a considerable significance is also attached to religious feasts (Geić, 2002). Tourists visit historical sacred sites because of the possibility of cultural and educational experiences (Olsen, 2006). They are looking for authentic experiences that are related to a particular historical place (Macleod, 2006). When sacred facilities become commercialized, they often lose their authenticity (McKercher & du Cros, 2002). The level of 200 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY commercialization reduces visitors’ expectations about what is appropriate in a religious place, i.e. in a sacred object (Nolan & Nolan, 1992). Since the 1980s the unique characteristics and the importance of sacred places have been analyzed and the contribution that they have for cultural diversity has been recognized. Cummings (1987) believes that the value of sacred places is not measured by politics, history, or religion, and that the concepts of sacral places and sacred sites are broadly defined. Cultural monuments, among them sacred facilities of different religions, are building and architectural structures, which often enrich tourists’ stay in a certain place, which means that in the case of Serbia they are complementary, rarely independent tourist values. They are characterized by the time of their origin, their historical significance, cultural and artistic values (Ćirković, 2003). The research conducted at the University of Split has shown that students are poorly informed about the religious tourism as a segment of tourist offer, but they believe that the media coverage of religious tourism is insufficient. The objective of this paper is to determine the way in which students perceive the religious tourism as a specific socio-cultural phenomenon and their participation in religious tourism. Almost half of 300 surveyed students have not participated in religious tourism, which is influenced by study programs, attitudes toward religion, the importance of religion in life (Duvnjak et al., 2011). The research on religious tourism must be linked to the research within the origin and development of the specific tourism forms. As tourism is a very important economic, social and ecological factor of the development of a society on the global level, researchers must also possess knowledge about various changes that occur in its development (Štetić, 2007). Understanding these changes is usually a key to the successful operation of the tourist sector. 2. Methodology of the paper Since the development of specific forms of tourism must be considered in a specific way, we have approached the problem from the theoretical point of view corroborated by the survey research, which preceded the later data analysis processing through historical, empirical and mathematical models, in order to get valid results for further processing and concluding. The survey research was carried out through questions about students' scientific knowledge on places of worship and religious tourism, through the knowledge about religions in Serbia and their role in education. Sample survey knowledge of students of tourism about sacred monuments in the territory of Serbia included two sets of questions that were answered by students of the College of Tourism and Department of Tourismology at the Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade. 153 students of various levels of study, age and gender participated in this survey. Analyzes were carried out according to the level of study and gender. It was performed a comparative analysis of the two groups of responses to determine how much students know about the sacred monuments, what is the compliance level of theoretical knowledge on the one hand and their interests, perceptions, experiences on the other side. The results show that students' knowledge of the sacred monuments depend on the level of studies, curriculum, interests, and their tourist value affecting artistic, cultural and historical value, an initiative of individuals and organizations (associations). 3. Religions in Serbia Religious movements of the world population are almost as old as mankind. Global development of a society and an increase of the world population lead to a steady increase in the number of religions. Today we cannot list all the existing religions and which part of the 201 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY population is included in them with certainty (Štetić, 2007). In this paper, we point out why those religions that have an outstanding role in building religious facilities and in the emergence of new type of tourism - religious tourism. The Balkan Peninsula has always been a scene of historical conflicts and reconciliation where the events have intertwined and nations fought and defended. Religious and national identity are closely interconnected and they influence each other, especially in the Balkans, where three civilizational circles – Byzantine-Orthodox, Western European (Catholic- Protestant) and Ottoman-Islamic – adjoin, interfere and converge (Radisavljević-Ćiparizović, 2011). Serbia is a multiethnic and multi-confessional state. Orthodoxy, Catholicism and Islam are enriched by the presence of Judaism and Protestantism, and all confessions together contribute to the richness of diversity and abundance of sacred facilities. In the north of the country Orthodoxy encounters and permeates with Catholicism, in the south – with Islam (Kuburić, 2010). The revival of religious beliefs in various social and cultural contexts has been manifested differently. In Serbia there are two interpretations related to this phenomenon that indicate contextual distinction of this process in academic research: the return to the religions and the return of the religion. The first interpretation refers to the increase of individual interest in various religious traditions, beliefs and rituals. The second interpretation implies an increase of the social importance of religion and religious institutions (Pavićević, 2012). In this context, sacred objects should be analyzed so that they develop students’ awareness of intertwining different religions and their consciousness of tolerance. Arriving at the Balkan Peninsula, the South Slavs encountered with Christianity, which was organized by church and jurisdictionally dependent on major ecclesiastical seats in Rome and Constantinople at that time. In the early Middle Ages still unified Christianity was present in the Balkans. It can be said that Islam has an “areal” character on the Balkan Peninsula (communities that are spread in the form of several separate areas) (Šećibović, 2001). The population of Islamic believers in the Balkan Peninsula represents regionally differentiated and ethnically heterogeneous religious community (Vukomanović, 2003). More than five centuries of Islam in the Balkans had a significant impact in creating tradition which characterizes the mentioned part of Europe. In this part of Europe Islam has been kept and retained as a traditional social element until today by the population converted to Islam at the end of the Middle Ages. This paper explores the level of knowledge about religions, cultures and sacred objects in Serbia among students of tourism, aimed at considering their awareness of the role and importance of religion for the extension of tourism offer. 4. Education and Religion Educational standards in national strategies are an expression of cultural and social particularities of a country. Understanding the role that education has in a state is enabled by shaping national education systems, histories, cultures and values. The guideline which regulates relations between religious and institutionalized education in Europe is the recommendation of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in 1999, in which education is a decisive way to combat ignorance and stereotypes. The same recommendation implies revising school and university programs to improve the understanding of different religions. This recommendation is a guide aimed at the creation of conditions for the survival and development of various cultures and religions in the same social framework, which are based on an understanding of various worldviews and different ways of life. 202 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Understanding the differences between religions cannot be achieved by getting to know a single religion. It is necessary to provide an opportunity to explore the history of world religions in institutionalized education (Trifunović, 2010). At the Faculty of Geography, University of Belgrade, Department of Tourism and at the College of Tourism students are taught about different religions, especially those that are widespread in Serbia through the contents of several courses. In the teaching process, more attention is paid to monumental heritage, i.e. sacred objects and historical conditions in which they were built, and less to the features of religions. Furthermore, through the study of different tourism forms the basis for connecting history, culture, religion and tourism is created. In order to establish dialogue and tolerance among religious communities it is necessary to educate and train believers for them. The system of education should insist on studying and disseminating positive examples, creating awareness about the value of tolerance as a means for freedom and religious beliefs, and creating the personality of believers with broad culture (Ĉupić, 2008). If we want to develop sustainable and quality tourism in Serbia, then a proper link between high quality tourism development and sacred sites must be found including places of worship into tourist offer. Tourism product that will thus be qualified for the domestic and foreign market must be distinctive and interesting for tourist demand. 5. Research on the knowledge of students of tourism about places of worship The survey on knowledge of 153 students of tourism about places of worship in Serbia, was conducted at the College of Tourism and the Faculty of Geography in Belgrade. This survey identified the students' knowledge about the artistic values and time dating of sacred facilities, about intertwining various religions and their territorial distribution. The answers were classified into correct, partially correct and incorrect. The proportion of male and female students at the College of Tourism was approximately the same (there were 53.7%, of female and 46.3% male students) and the respondents were mainly the students of the third year. Among the surveyed students at the Faculty of Geography, 73% were female and 27% male and students of all ages and levels of study participated in the survey. In the first question students were asked to list four monasteries whose fresco painting represents the highest level of artistic achievement worldwide. (Figure 1) Monasteries in Serbia with the world-famous fresco painting are Sopoćani, Studenica, Mileševa, Deĉani, Graĉanica, Kalenić. The frescoes paintings an icons of churches in these monasteries are among the best preserved achievements of the time in which they were created. 203 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Figure 1 Graphically display the answer to the first question the correct incorrect answer answer 11.8% 29.4% the correct answer partially correct answer incorrect answer partially correct answer 58.8% Source: author’s calculations The results show that the majority of surveyed students gave partially correct answers to the question, because they did not specify exactly four monasteries, but less. Errors were made in quoting all the monasteries that they knew. Usually, these were: Ţiĉa, Patriarchate of Peć, Manasija, ĐurĊevi stupovi, Ljubostinja, Ravnica, whose fresco painting has a national significance. The largest number of incorrect responses was blank spaces, without any answer. Blank spaces indicate that, although the students study subjects dealing with these fields they do not retain this knowledge after passing the exam. In the second question they were supposed to write down in which part of Serbia there were the greatest number of Catholic churches. (Figure 2) The sub-question was to explain why the most Catholic churches are located in this part of Serbia. The western part of the Balkan Peninsula is the important sphere of influence of Catholicism. This confession dominated in the Habsburg Empire until the time it disappeared in 1918, and today it is most numerous in Vojvodina. Figure 2 Graphically display the answer to the second question incorrect answer the correct 16.3% answer 46.4% the correct answer partially correct answer incorrect answer partially correct answer 37.3% Source: author’s calculations In the partially correct answers the students wrote that the greatest number of Catholic churches is in Vojvodina, but could not explain why. The highest percentage of answers was 204 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY correct, which means that they were well acquainted with the territorial distribution and historical conditions in which Catholicism existed in Serbia. The third question was: "Where is the Altun-alem Mosque located and when was it constructed?" (Figure 3) This facility of sacred architecture is situated in Novi Pazar and was built in the sixteenth century. Figure 3 Graphically display the answer to the third question the correct answer incorrect 7.2% answer the correct answer 45.8% partially correct answer partially incorrect answer correct answer 47.1% Source: author’s calculations The greatest percentage of responses was partially correct, in which the students wrote that Altun-alem Mosque is in Novi Pazar, but they did not know when it was built. The percentage of incorrect answers was approximately the same. Wrong answers were: in Niš, Istanbul, Prizren, Priština, Belgrade, Prijepolje, but there were also blanks as an answer. The fourth question was: "Where is the Bajrakli Mosque and when was it built?" (Figure 4) The Bajrakli Mosque is the only active and preserved building of Islamic religious architecture in Belgrade, constructed in the seventeenth century. Figure 4 Graphically display the answer to the fourth question the correct incorrect answer answer 9.8% 24.2% the correct answer partially correct answer incorrect answer partially correct answer 66.0% Source: author’s calculations The highest percentage of answers was partially correct: the students knew that Bajrakli Mosque is located in Belgrade, but did not know when it was built. The incorrect answers claimed that this religious building was located in Niš, Istanbul, Novi Pazar, Peć, Priština, Prizren or the question stayed unanswered. The fifth task was that the students explain territorial distribution of mosques as religious facilities in Serbia. (Figure 5) The official data on the number of mosques in Serbia do not exist because in the South and Southwest Serbia they are constantly under construction, but their territorial distribution is known. Twenty-nine of these sacral buildings are under the state protection as cultural monuments. Most mosques are located in southern Serbia, Kosovo, 205 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY southwest Serbia, one is in Niš and one in Belgrade, and one is under construction in Subotica in northern Serbia. Figure 5 Graphically display the answer to the fifth question the correct answer 17.0% the correct answer partially correct answer incorrect partially incorrect answer answer 51.6% correct answer 31.4% Source: author’s calculations A significant number of incorrect answers were blank without any response or with mentioning only a part of Serbia where the mosques were situated, without explanations of their territorial distribution and mention of the Islamic faith population. The sixth question asked that the students cite three cities in Serbia in which synagogues are located. (Figure 6) Belgrade Synagogue is the only currently active Jewish place of worship in Serbia. The synagogue renovated in Niš is not used for religious ceremonies but for exhibitions, concerts, literary events. The synagogue in Novi Sad hosts classical music concerts and other performances, the synagogue in Subotica is being reconstructed. Figure 6 Graphically display the answer to the sixth question incorrect answer the correct 13.7% answer 47.1% the correct answer partially correct answer partially correct answer incorrect answer 39.2% Source: author’s calculations In the most partially correct answers Belgrade and Novi Pazar are listed, in the incorrect - Smederevo, Novi Pazar, Shkodra, Panĉevo, Zrenjanin, Priština, Prizren, Baĉki Petrovac. The seventh question was: "Where is the Peace Chapel situated and what is its historical significance?” (Figure 7) The Peace Chapel or the Chapel of Our Lady of Peace is located in Sremski Karlovci, not far from where Karlovac Peace between the Holy Alliance (Austria, Russia, Poland and Venice) and Turkey was signed in 1699. There are the crescent and the cross, symbols of Islam and Christianity, on the roof of the chapel, which makes this monument unique. 206 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Figure 7 Graphically display the answer to the seventx question the correct answer 5.9% partially correct answer the correct answer 27.5% partially correct answer incorrect answer incorrect answer 66.7% Source: author’s calculations There was the greatest percentage of incorrect answers to this question, which means that the students did not know that the Peace Chapel in Sremski Karlovci had been built in 1699 in memory of Karlovac Peace. A significant number of incorrect answers were blank. In partially correct answers the students only stated the name of the place containing the Chapel of Peace, but did not mention the year when the peace had been signed. 6. Conclusion The results of the survey on the knowledge of students of tourism about places of worship in Serbia show that there is mainly (generally?) the largest percentage of partially correct and incorrect answers, and the least correct answers in the responses. Students mostly make errors in dating and territorial distribution of facilities of Islamic religious architecture. Considering the dating of the monuments it is evident that the students of the Faculty of Geography make mistakes in one or two centuries back in the past (in one answer – three centuries), and the students of the College of Tourism give very few answers where the dates should be specified. The territorial distribution of the mosques is explained by the presence of the Muslim population in some parts of Serbia, but the responses listing all parts of Serbia where mosques are situated in larger number – are rare. The errors in questions where the Altun-alem and Bajrakli Mosque are located are apparent, but it is interesting to state that instead of Novi Pazar and Belgrade the students list those places where there are mosques (Peć, Priština, Prizren, Prijepolje, Niš). The largest number of incorrect responses is left to the question about the Peace Chapel, rare monument of permeating and intertwining religions in Serbia. The knowledge of the polled students of tourism about places of worship in Serbia are incomplete, although teaching contents include material on sacred facilities of Christian and Islamic architecture (at the Faculty of Geography they are taught within the course Monumental Heritage and Tourism and at the College of Tourism through the subject Cultural Heritage and Tourism and Tourism Geography). Approximately equal participation of female and male students in the survey at the Higher School of Tourism caused an analysis of responses depending on the gender structure. Male students gave 47% of incorrect answers in relation to the total number of answers that they gave, and female students – 42%. There were 30% of partially correct answers of male, and 37% of female students. Male students gave 23% correct answers in relation to the total number of responses, female students – 20%. Evidently, the differences in their knowledge 207 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY about religious buildings are not so big according to gender of those studying at the College of Tourism. In the beginning of the survey at the College of Tourism, ten first-year students were also polled. However, these survey sheets were not taken into account because they do not have a single course that deals with these issues in the first semester and therefore we were not able to quantify their answers. At the Faculty of Geography the analysis was carried out according to the year and level of study. The first-year students of undergraduate studies had the highest percentage of incorrect answers in relation to the number of respondents (52%); this is followed by the second-year students (43%) and the third-year students (25%); then graduate master studies (23%) and the fourth-year students of undergraduate studies (22%); the lowest percentage of incorrect responses was among PhD students (3.5%). Partially correct answers were mostly given by third-year undergraduate students (59%), then fourth-year students (57%), students of master studies (51%), first-year students (37%), PhD students (35%) and the second-year undergraduate students (34 %). The largest number of correct answers was given by doctoral students (62%), students of master-graduate studies (26%), second-year students of undergraduate studies (23%), fourth- year students (21%), third-year students (16%), and the least – first-year students of undergraduate study (11%). The research has shown that students at graduate-master and doctoral studies have less knowledge than expected as regards the level of study. The knowledge of the first-year undergraduate students was mainly learned in primary and secondary schools, because so far they did not attend courses in which they could learn about places of worship in Serbia. The Accuracy of responses depends not only on the level and year of study, but also on the generation of polled students, their random selection, size of the sample, and students’ interest in a particular subject. An important factor in data accuracy is forgetting or avoiding learning in which century or year a sacred facility was constructed. The research should take into account the fact that not all surveyed students have taken the exam that is largely related to these questions, and that they come to study at the university with different prior knowledge. 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In Vukomanović, M. & Vuĉinić, M. (eds.). Religijski dijalog – drama razumevanja. Beograd: Beogradska otvorena škola, pp. 159–171. Vukonić, B. (1990). Turizam i religija. Zagreb: Školska knjiga. 209 Tourism and the Transformation of Ritual Practice with Sand Pagoda Ploysri Porananond Division of Tourism, Faculty of Humanities, Chiang Mai University, Thailand ploysri.p@cmu.ac.th Abstract This study examines the transformation process in traditional beliefs and practices with sand of Lanna culture that reflects the influence of tourism, the growth of capitalism, the commoditisation process and the decline of Buddhism to local community of Chiang Mai. Traditionally, there were the customary practices and beliefs relating to the bringing of sand to the temples to make sand pagoda of Lanna people in Songkran festival. There were also the functions, beliefs and meanings of sand pagodas associated with the tung, a colourful paper flag used to decorate sand pagodas. This is based on the belief that dead relatives and friends residing in hell can catch the long tails of the tungs in order to reach heaven. Later, the traditional Buddhist belief associated with the making of sand pagodas, as well as the tung, has disappeared in Songkran. The bringing of sand to temples and sand pagodas became a contest between the members of the temples in the city for money and awards. Afterward, a large sand pagoda, additional to the activity of bathing the pagoda, was built by an abandoned temple in the city, as part of an effort to raise money to reconstruct the temple. Furthermore, making sand pagodas and decorating them with the tungs began to commoditise for tourists. Similarly, a sand parade was established to carry sand to nearby temples, and then it was re- organised in more elaborate and colourful. Recently, sand pagodas were transformed into art installations to attract tourists during Songkran days for the purpose of expressing Lanna culture in Songkran. Moreover, sand pagodas were also found in front of pubs and restaurants in the city during Songkran. Accordingly, sand pagodas transformed their forms and functions, not only in terms of sites but also beliefs, meanings and values. These phenomena reflect not only the power of tourism, the growth of capitalism and commoditisation but also signs of Buddhism decline in the local society of Chiang Mai, a major tourist destination in Thailand. Keywords: tourism, sand pagoda, commoditisation, Buddhism decline 1. Theoretical Approach 1.1 Ritual and symbolic meanings Turner (1967, p.19) defines ritual as ‘prescribed formal behaviour for occasions not given over to technological routine, having reference to beliefs in mystical beings and powers’. Turner (1969) further views that ritual practices can reflect social structure of communities. Thus, social conflicts bring into play to reduce or resolve conflicts in communities, in this way ritual is the ‘social glue’ of the society. In Turner’s view, social drama appears through ritual practices or performances, when the notion of social drama is introduced as ‘a device to look beneath the surface of social regularities into the hidden contradictions and eruptions of conflict in social structure’ (Turner, 1957, p.89). Likewise, Turner (1968, p.1-2) explains that ritual has symbolic meaning, when ritual symbol is seen as ‘smallest unit of ritual which still retains the specific properties of ritual behaviour’. Hence, ritual symbols can be objects, activities, words, relationships, events, gestures, or spatial units (Turner, 1967, p.19). In Turner’s perspective, ritual, religious beliefs and symbols are related. Thus, well definition of ritual is defined as ‘a stereotyped sequence 211 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and designed to influence preternatural entities or forces on behalf of the actors’ goals and interests’ (Turner, 1977, p.183). Rituals in this way have plenty of meaningful symbols in which information is revealed with values to community. Symbols in ritual display their powers to act upon and change the persons involved in ritual performance. Based on Turner’s ideas, ritual is viewed as a ‘window’ on the cultural dinamics by which ‘people make and remake their worlds’ (Bell, 2009, p. 3). In the study on religious rituals, Bradshaw and Melloh (2007) identify ritual in three broad approaches. In formal definitions, ritual is viewed as different activity from other forms of behaviour in terms of its distinctive features. In terms of the purposes, ritual serves in human life, in this way ritual serves collective needs of people, for instance, maintenance of group solidarity, rehearsal of group values, maintenance of social distinctions and categories, containing of social conflict, facilitating of transitions between categories or states of life. In symbolic approaches, ritual is an activity that conveys meaning. Hence, ritual is considered as activity which is interpreted as having some meanings. Accordingly, rituals can be perceived as extraordinary practices. Similar to others, Gilmore (1998, p.26) defines ritual as a repetitive sequence of activity, culturally sanctioned and regularized, but always involving an appeal to the supernatural; spirits, gods.’ Ritual is ‘social action; its performance requires the organised cooperation of individuals. According to DaMatta (1991, p.20), the ritual is a basic vehicle in transforming something natural into something social through some sort of dramatization […] a dramatization or crucial way of calling attention to certain aspects of social reality. In this view, rituals become special moments constructed by society under the control of the social system. For DaMatta ‘the world of ritual is the world of the […] purely ideological’ (DaMatta, 1991, p.49) and there is no society without ritual. The important point is the symbolic expression of ritual, which can enable people to share values and goals in common. In some societies, ritual practices become, for instance, important means of expression (Gilmore, 1998). 1.2 Tourism and the transformation of rituals Interestingly, socio-economic change and tourism development together can provide a major impetus to transform the traditional rituals of ethnic groups into tourist attractions. Many rituals or performances of ethnic groups that have long been ignored or repressed are included for tourists’ attention. In some cases, even the household rituals of ethnic groups are developed into exotic celebrations of the community for tourists. This results in an increasing number of rituals and places to serve large numbers of tourists. Furthermore, the other traditional identities of these ethnic groups become developed as urban tourist attractions. Mathew-Salazar (2006) describes how the traditional household ritual to honour the ‘mother earth’ or ‘Pachamama’ of the Indian community has been developed into a tourist attraction for the economic benefits of the community. Furthermore, the neighbouring communities imitate the process of the ‘mother earth’ in order to develop similar traditional rituals in their communities as a tourist spectacle. As a result, the rituals of these Indian communities are developed into a series of traditional celebrations to promote the visits of tourists throughout that region of the country. The traditional time of the ‘mother earth’ ritual was later moved, so that it was celebrated in the same month as the carnival, in order to attract large numbers of tourists during this period. This transformation reflects the influence of capitalism and tourism, not only on the organisation and practices of the rituals, but also on the changes in value and meanings of them to the community members. 212 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Similarly, Greenwood’s (1989) study of the Alarde celebration in the Spanish town of Fuenterrabia states that the celebration can also be ritualistic or sacred, because it reflects not only social structure of the community but also symbolic meanings to local people. He also debates the influence of tourism through the municipality authority that results to the transformations of this community’s ritual celebration in terms of space and the performances. The process turns the cherished celebration into the meaningless performances for community members. Cohen (2001) discusses how the ritual practices in the Vegetarian Festival in Phuket, which was first conducted under the traditional beliefs and practices in their hometown of the Chinese workers in Southern part of Thailand, supported the emotion of these workers from the dead of their friends and relatives from the epidemic. Later, ritual practices in the festival became major tourist attractions of the city. Furthermore, the ritual practices of the spirit mediums have been appeared in more horror performances. However, these terror performances attract numbers of tourists to join the rituals and festival. Changes in socio- economy, as well as tourism development in Thailand are considered as major factors to the transformation of the ritual practices. 1.3 Tourism and the commoditisation of rituals Cohen (1988, p. 380) defines commoditisation as ‘a process by which things (and activities) come to be evaluated primarily in terms of their exchange value, in a context of trade, then becoming goods (and services)’. Later, commoditisation is viewed more critically by Gotham’s study and refers to ‘the dominance of commodity exchange-value over use- value and implies the development of a consumer society where market relations subsume and dominate social life’ (Gotham, 2002, p. 1737). The commoditisation process can transfer the exchange value of trade into goods or commodities, which can be priced or marketed. Once commodities are conceptualised as items produced for their monetary value, the introduction of the ‘sign value’ can stimulate more consumption via the spectacle. The commoditisation process seems to fit a modern, developed and consumer society, where capitalism and monetary value can grow. Meethan (2001) views tourism as part of the process of commoditisation and consumption that exists in capitalism. Tourism itself is also recognised as a commodity (Watson and Kopachevsky, 2002). Signs and images are constructed to attract spending and consumption. In this way, cultural practices in terms of ritual symbols and images have in some cases become commodities to sell for consumption. Then, sign-value, which replaces the use-value and exchange value of commodities, becomes important. In Gotham’s view (2001), ‘sign value’ - the value of images and symbols - is not related to reality. In this way, cultural practices or performances such as ritual symbols can be transformed into commodities or products for sale to consumers. The new symbols of rituals as commodities can decrease their traditional meanings and value to community members. The process causes ritual practices to be ‘meaningless’ or ‘placeless’ for communities and their members (MacLeod, 2006). 213 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 2. Ritual beliefs and practices with sand in Lanna culture Traditionally, the practice with sand in Lanna1 culture happened on the second day of the Songkran festival, April 14, which was called Wan Nao. It was a preparation day of food, desserts and the tung, for the religious activities on the following day (April 15), Wan Phaya Wan, which translates as ‘the most important day of the year’. During the afternoon of April 14, local people went to the nearby river with silver utensils or buckets to carry sand from the river to the temples. Sand was then gathered into a 'sand pagoda' in the temple compound for the tungs, which were hung on branches of the 'Kuang tree' to be used by each household of the temple’s members to decorate the pagoda the next morning. In Buddhist beliefs about the Universe, sand in the compound of the temple represents the sea, and the main hall of the temple represents the Earth. Although Payomyong (1976) and Manopet (1994) both suggest that carrying the sand to the temple is believed to replace the sand which is carried out inadvertently on the soles of shoes during visits to the temple throughout the year, the idea behind this practice has hitherto gone unidentified. Nonetheless, carrying sand to the temple has been regarded as a traditional practice of the Lanna people for a long time. In the morning of April 15, which is called Wan Phaya Wan, desserts, other food and tungs are brought to the temple. At the main hall of the temple, all prepared desserts and other food are gathered to be donated to relatives and friends who have passed away. The Lanna people call this religious activity 'Than Kan Kao' (Rungruangsri, 1997). People then bring tungs which are hung on branches of the 'Kuang tree' and used to decorate the sand pagoda (Payomyong, 1976; Manopet, 1994). A religious ritual called 'Than Tung' follows next. This is based on the belief that those dead who are residing in hell can catch the long tails of the tungs in order to reach heaven (Manopet, 1994). 3. Transformation of ritual practices and beliefs with sand pagoda Practices with sand, which reflected profound beliefs in Buddhism, as well as social structure of local people in Chiang Mai in the 1950s, transformed into competitive practices, huge sand pagoda, sand parade and art installation in the following decades. 3.1 The practices with sand from the 1950s to the 1980s During the 1950s, bringing sand from the Ping River to Buddha Sathan (a Buddhist site located near Nawarat Bridge) and the nearby temples to make the sand pagodas was a popular activity for the local young people on the afternoon of April 14. Young women rarely had the chance to appear in public spaces, so they would ask their parents if they could attend the sand activity, which was usually allowed (Chaiwan, 2003-interview). After splashing water onto each other in the Ping River (Satrabhaya, 1960-photo), these young people put sand into their water containers, such as silver bowls or buckets, and brought it to Buddha Sathan or the nearby temples. Then, in the compounds of the temples or Buddha Sathan, these young people made their own pagodas, after which they prayed at their sand pagodas for good fortune (Thai Rath, April 18, 1969, p.1). Thus, there were hundreds of small pagodas in the compound of the temples and Buddha Sathan during this period (Khon Muang, April 15, 1968, p. 1). These individual pagodas could be gathered into one main sand pagoda for Buddhist activity the next day. Bringing sand to the temples for sand pagodas was still practiced in the 1960s and 1980s. 1 Culture of people who lived in Lanna Kingdom around 700 years ago which had Chiang Mai as its capital. Lanna culture is seen as a culture stemming from their deeply instilled Buddhist beliefs. At present, the term Lanna people refers to the people who live in the northern provinces of Thailand. 214 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Figure 1 A lady pouring sand for a sand pagoda in the compound of a temple in 1953 Source: Boonserm Satrabhaya collection In 1983, the level of water in the Ping River was higher than in earlier years, and the sand bed in the middle of the river disappeared. It has been said that sand was being extracted from the river for building construction works around the city and that this affected the depth of the Ping River (Satrabhaya, 2003-interview). The higher level of water resulted in decreasing numbers of people in the river during Songkran in 1983, but sand was still brought from the river for sand pagodas. Thus, there were still many sand pagodas in the compound of Buddha Sathan in 1983 (Raming, April 16, 1983, p. 9). It is said that during the 1980s, people still brought sand from the Ping River to make sand pagodas at Buddha Sathan and the nearby temples (Satrabhaya, 2003-interview). Figure 2 Sand pagodas in the compound of Buddha Sathan in 1983 Source: Raming (1983), April 16, p. 9 215 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 3.2 Turning the making of sand pagodas into a contest In the late 1990s, the traditional practice of bringing sand from the Ping River to the nearby temples and Buddha Sathan disappeared (Satrabhaya, 2003-interview). However, sand pagodas still existed in these places. Sand was purchased from suppliers and then brought to the temples by pick-up cars. The members of the temples paid for this arrangement, as they were too busy with their careers and responsibilities and could not find their time for this customary practice (Satrabhaya, 2003-interview). The high level of water made sand difficult to access in the Ping River. This can be considered as one of the factors to the change to the practice with sand in Songkran. In 1999, the making of sand pagodas in Buddha Sathan became a contest between the representatives of each temple in the city. The local Young Buddhist Group (a group of young local people who were members of temples in the city) was the major organiser of this competition, with money and a cup being the reward for the winners. It was reported in the local newspaper that ‘the Youth Group organise the contest for making sand pagodas in Songkran for money and a cup prize as a reward for the winners’ (Thai News, April 8, 1999, p.3). This describes the change in meaning of making sand pagodas, and the local Buddhist group was the organiser in this changing practice. Moreover, some regulations for this contest of making sand pagodas were introduced by the organiser, the local Youth Group. Later, in 2001, the number of competitors increased from fewer than 20 to 22 groups of the temples’ members in the city (Thai News, April 14, 2001, p. 8). It is clear that not only had the traditional practice of bringing sand to temples been changed; the small individual sand pagodas became, in effect, items made as competition and were larger in size, as well as altered in pattern and design. This indicates that there were not only changes to the practice with sand; the traditional meaning of bringing sand to the temples to make sand pagodas had disappeared too. These phenomena reflect the changes in the Buddhist beliefs of local people which in turn influenced changes to the practices associated with belief and meaning of sand pagodas in Songkran. 216 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Figure 3 Sand pagoda-making for the contest at Buddha Sathan in 2003 Source: Thai News, April 12, 2003, p.1 Figure 4: The contest of making sand pagodas at Buddha Sathan in 2004 Source: Ploysri Porananond In 2001, the amount of prize money in the contest of making sand pagodas at Buddha Sathan was increased to 10,000 bahts, with a champion cup being awarded by the Prime Minister. In addition, the local Young Buddhist Group, as the organisers of this contest, made the announcement that the objective of the contest was to prolong the Lanna tradition, as well as to make attractive activities in Songkran (Thai News, April 14, 2001, p.8). However, the Chiang Mai Municipality was the sponsor of this activity, with the aim of creating more activities in Songkran to attract tourists. This reflects the capitalist process and socio- economic changes in the local society that affected the changes in meaning, value and attitudes influencing the practices with sand. Tourism promotion can also be considered as another major factor for the establishment of this contest. 217 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 3.3 Transforms to tourist attractions and experiences In 2003, the Jed Lin Temple, started to make a large sand pagoda, additional to the activities of bathing the pagoda, in order to attract tourists. Thus, tourists were invited to practice Buddhist activities and donate their money for the renovation of this old temple (Thai News, April 11, 2003, p.1). Consequently, the sand pagoda at the Jed Lin Temple was promoted as the largest sand pagoda ever built, in order to attract tourists and their donations. In effect, the sand pagoda was transformed by the Jed Lin Temple into a commodity for tourists, with Songkran being used as a marketing event and the appropriate time for this purpose. The local religious groups, such as the monks and members of local Buddhist group, were the main organisers. This was an ironic situation given the decline in importance of its original religious significance. The change partly reflects the decline in the importance of Buddhist beliefs, but also the increasing strength of capitalism in the local area, as well as the growth of tourism-led economic development strategies in Thailand. Figure 5 Huge sand pagoda at the Jed Lin Temple in 2003 Source: Thai News (2003), 11 April, p. 1 In 2010 at Buddha Sathan, sand was used as an invitation to donate money for the making of sand pagodas. This reflects another way of commoditising sand for the Buddhist tourists in Songkran. Again, the local Buddhist group with responsibility for Buddha Sathan is involved in this. People are invited to buy the tungs to decorate the sand pagodas, demonstrating the change in value and meaning of making the sand pagodas and the tungs for the organisers. Making a sand pagoda and decorating it with tungs was believed to be a good thing for Buddhists to do at least once a year. However, these beliefs seem now to have disappeared amongst local people in Chiang Mai. Although the custom of making sand pagodas may exist in much the same way that it did in the past, the value and meanings of sand pagodas for the participants involved in this process has changed significantly. It has become a device to make money from tourists who would like to engage with Buddhist practices and the Lanna culture in Songkran. 218 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Figure 6 A sign inviting people to donate money for the making in 2010 of sand pagoda at Buddha Sathan Source: Ploysri Porananond Figure 7 The establishment of sand pagodas in the compound of in 2010 Buddha Sathan for tourists’ donations Source: Ploysri Porananond 3.4 Transforms to the sand parade in Songkran By 1999, the traditional practice of bringing sand to the temples had become part of the 2 parade of carrying sand by the Youth Group. In 2002, the parade to carry Mai Kham and sand to Buddha Sathan and nearby temples on Ta Pae Road was rehearsed in the afternoon of April 14. The parade started from the eastern bank of the Ping River and moved across Nawarat Bridge to Buddha Sathan and the temples. The Chiang Mai municipality was the organiser of this parade. The establishment of the sand parade on the afternoon of April 14 can be considered as an attempt to conduct an activity to attract tourists. Although the parade to carry sand to Buddha Sathan and nearby temples aimed to preserve the traditional practice with sand of the Lanna people (Punyasopa 2004-interview), 2 Pronged sticks, which are brought to be placed beneath the ‘Salee’ or the ‘Boh’ trees in temples. It is believed to be a practice to prolong Buddhism. 219 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY the practice was not relevant to the present lifestyle and beliefs of the local people. Although the bringing of sand from the Ping River to Buddha Sathan and nearby temples has disappeared, sand has not disappeared in Songkran at all. Sand has been present in Songkran for decades, but in different forms and designs and also with different participants and organisers. By 2010 sand was carried by being placed in large silver bowls, hung on each end of a wooden stick. This differs from the practice in 1953, when each person put sand in a silver bowl and carried it by hand to Buddha Sathan or nearby temples to make sand pagodas. The way of carrying sand in the parade can be seen as a show to attract the audience. On the other hand, bringing sand to Buddha Sathan in this way has no value for the participants because it does not relate directly to beliefs of the ones who carry the sand; rather, they are just the performers in the parade. Figure 8 The way to carry sand in the parade in 2010 Source: Ploysri Porananond Figure 9 Local women carrying sand in the parade in April 2010 Source: Ploysri Porananond Furthermore, making a sand pagoda as it was in the past is now promoted and demonstrated as a practice (Chiang Mai News, 15 April, 2008, p. 12). However, this can be seen as a nostalgic feeling of the relevant groups, due to the socio-economic changes in local society that have led to the disappearance of the traditional practice of bringing sand to 220 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY temples to make sand pagodas. Consequently, the belief and value of bringing sand and making sand pagodas has disappeared too. Its value, according to the practice and its meanings, is not relevant to the lives of local people at present. On the other hand, making sand pagoda was presented to tourists as part of Lanna traditional practices. Figure 10 The promotion of making sand pagodas as part of traditional Lanna culture in 2008 Source: Special Scoop, Chiang Mai News (2008), 15 April, p. 12 3.5 Sand pagodas as art installations in Songkran Sand pagodas and the tung have now basically become art installations in the public space in Songkran, with the Chiang Mai municipality the sponsor of the activities. The stated purpose of this event is to present Lanna culture to the tourists. However, there is little value or meaning in this kind of sand pagoda for local people, because these sand pagodas do not involve their lives or beliefs. The places in which to install sand pagodas have changed from the compound of the temples to other public spaces. In 2010, sand pagodas colourfully decorated with the tungs were installed in the area at the foot of Nawarat Bridge. Although the establishment of sand pagodas is said to preserve the traditional practice of the Lanna culture, sand pagodas at the foot of the Nawarat Bridge area are not valued by local people in the same way as was the original, traditional practice. At the same time, sand pagodas are also established in front of pubs or restaurants around the city moat - the popular area for the play with water - to decorate these places during Songkran. This underlines the loss of the traditional meaning of sand pagodas for local people and tourists in Songkran. As mentioned previously, sand pagodas have largely become pieces of art, which can be installed or decorated in any place during Songkran days. Sand pagodas, which used to be made in the holy places such as Buddha Sathan and temples, are now established in any space in the city as an attractive form of art in Songkran. 221 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Figure 11 Sand pagodas at the foot of Nawarat Bridge in 2010 Source: Ploysri Porananond Figure 12 Sand pagoda as art installation in 2010 Source: Ploysri Porananond The tungs used to be prepared in households on April 14 as a decoration for the sand pagodas. The tungs also had another traditional function in Buddhist belief, as a carrier to support the spirits of the dead on their journey into heaven. The place to prepare or produce the tungs has also changed. At present, the tungs are found in a ready-made form in the market place. In this way, people do not have to spend their time preparing the tungs at home; instead, the tungs are easy to find and buy, which suits the modern lives of the people in the city. In addition, these tungs are more decorative and colourful than the tungs in the past. 222 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Figure 14 A tung for sale in the market place in 2010 Source: Ploysri Porananond 4. Reflections on the power of tourism, commoditisation and the decline of Buddhism Tourism, capitalism and commoditisation associated with the decline of Buddhism in Chiang Mai can be considered as factors influencing the transformations of practices with sand for sand pagodas. The practices were traditionally believed to be the mediums which assisted the communication between the living and the dead, helping the latter to travel into heaven. As a result of the changes, they became commodities to sell for economic advantage. Tourism development of Chiang Mai from the 1960s can be claimed as major factor to the changes in practice with sand in Songkran festival. According to Songkran festival was first promoted for tourists as an exotic Lanna culture. Later, Songkran became the most popular tourist activities in Chiang Mai. However, tourism may not be the only factor to the transformations in Songkran, as well as the practice with sand. According to Turner (1967, 1968) rituals are special moments constructed by society under the control of the social system and ‘the world of ritual is the world of the […] purely ideological’ (DaMatta, 1991, p.49). The symbolic expression of ritual can enable people to share values and goals. In this sense, the practice with sand in Songkran in the 1950s can be seen as the ritual practice of local people to serve their beliefs. The practice also had value for them, symbolising that they would have good fortune in their lives, as well representing their support for the spirits of their relatives and friends on the journey via the tungs to heaven. In this sense, the traditional practice with sand and tung was a time for communication between humanity and spirituality (DaMatta, 1991). Consistent with the theories of De Bres and Davis (2001), the practice with sand in the 1950s helped to create images of Songkran at the time as the centre of the Lanna people’s cultural identity. Spaces for sand pagodas in temple compounds in the 1950s can be seen as ritual spaces, as these spaces had meanings and values to local people who participated in making them. Following Bird (2002) and Derrett’s (2000) view, local people had a ‘sense of place’ for the temple compounds, due to these spaces being different from other local spaces in terms of meaning and value; they are spaces for the traditional practice with sand. Furthermore, the practice with sand can be seen as unique characteristics and a particular identity – that is, Lanna cultural identity. 223 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY In 1999, the construction of sand pagodas at the compound of Buddha Sathan was turned into a competition between members of temples in the city, with money and a cup being the reward for the winners. Then, in 2001, the number of competitors was increased to 22 groups, the amount of prize money in the contest was increased, and a trophy was awarded by the Prime Minister (Thai News, April 14, 2001, p. 8). This phenomenon reflected social change in the local society of Chiang Mai, as well as the decline of Buddhist beliefs and the growth of capitalism. Making sand in the competition with money as the reward also mirrors change in the values of local people, with money becoming the aim of the practice with sand. Practice with sand in this way cannot be respected as ritual practice in Turner’s sense (1967, 1968); although sand was shaped into a pagoda figure, this practice does not allow people to share spiritual values and goals in a sense that has any significance comparable with the original practice, which was associated with good fortune in life and the spirits of the dead. The construction of the huge sand pagoda at the abandoned Jed Lin Temple, in order to attract tourist donations, first appeared in Songkran in 2003. This phenomenon again not only reflected the decline of Buddhism but also the growth of capitalism among the local Buddhist groups. Thus, sand pagodas which used to represent the traditional belief were turned into a tourist attraction in Songkran, with local Buddhist groups and monks being involved in this process. This can also reveal changes in the meaning of making sand pagodas and the decline in its religious importance. Thus, the sand pagoda was judged as a commodity to sell or display for the gaze of tourists, in return for money received in donations. In this sense, again, sand pagodas lost their ritualistic symbols, because the aims to make them were not based on Buddhist beliefs. Similarly, an invitation to donate money for the making of sand pagodas and selling the tungs to decorate the sand pagodas at Buddha Sathan in the late 2000s transformed the use of Buddhist activities - which used to have high value and meanings for local people in the past - into a commodity for the practices of tourists. As with the bringing of sand in the sand parade, the making of sand pagodas as art installations in front of pubs and restaurants around the city moat, reflect traditional religious practices being turned into tourist attractions for economic purposes. As a result, the traditional meanings and values of making sand pagodas have disappeared. Meethan (2001) views tourism as part of the process of commoditisation and consumption that exists in capitalism. Wang (2000), more specifically, considers how the tourist experience has been related to commoditisation. In this sense, tourist activities and experiences can be judged as commodities to be packaged, marketed and sold. The traditional practice with sand was changed and sand pagodas began to be used as commodities to sell as tourist activities and experiences. The contest of making sand pagodas at Buddha Sathan and the making of the huge sand pagoda can be considered the commoditisation of these pagodas as tourist activities and experiences. Surprisingly, the local Buddhist groups are involved in the commoditisation of the traditional sand pagodas. This reveals the growth of capitalism in Thai society in this period, as well as the decline of Buddhism. Sand pagodas were also used as pieces of art to decorate spaces for tourists. Thus, they were starting to be used as commodities by different groups of local people during Songkran days. The move of sand pagoda spaces from temples’ compound into public areas, near Nawarat Bridge and in front of pubs and restaurants around the city moat, reflects the decrease in these pagodas’ meanings. They have lost the symbolic pattern of the pagoda as the holy monument in a temple which acts as a medium by which the living communicates with the dead. In this sense, sand pagodas in the 2000s became ‘meaningless’ for the involved groups; at the same time, the sense of belonging this traditional practice offered local people disappeared too because of increasing commoditisation. Following Gotham’s view (2001), sand pagodas in 224 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY the 2000s became only ‘sign value’ or the value of images and symbols of Lanna culture in the Songkran without its traditional belief, practices and meanings. 5. Conclusion Sand pagoda used to be the unique ritual practice of Lanna culture in Songkran festival that mirrored the profound belief in Buddhism of local people in Chiang Mai. The transformations to sand pagodas in terms of practices, spaces and symbolic meanings reflect changes in socio-cultural values in the local society of Chiang Mai, associated with the growth of capitalism, the power of tourism and commoditisation. In this respect, sand pagodas transform into ‘meaningless’ or ‘placeless’ commodities for local communities in the city of Chiang Mai. References Bell, C. (2009). Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bradshaw P. and Melloh, J. (2007). Foundations in Ritual Studies. London: SPCK Cohen, E. (1988). Authenticity and Commoditization in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 15, pp. 371-386. Cohen, E. (2001). The Chinese Vegetarian Festival in Phuket: religion, ethnicity, and tourism on a southern Thai island. Bangkok: White Lotus Press. DaMatta, R. (1991). Carnivals, Rogues, and Heroes: an interpretation of the Brazilian dilemma. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press. De Bras, K. and Davis, J. (2001). Celebrating group and place identity: a case study of a new regional festival. Tourism geographies. 3 (1), pp. 326-337. Derrett, R. (2000). Making sense of how festivals demonstrate a community's sense of place. Event Management, 8, pp. 49-58. Gilmore, D. D. (1998). Carnival& Culture: sex, symbol and status in Spain. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Gotham, K.F. (2002). Marketing Mardi Gras: commodification, spectacle and political economy of tourism in New Orleans. In Urban Studies 39 (10), pp. 1735-1756. Greenwood, D. (1989). Culture by the Pound: An Anthropological Perspective on Tourism as Cultural Commoditization. In Valene L. Smith (ed.) Hosts and Guests. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 129-138. MacLeod, N. (2006). The placeless festival: identity and place in the post-modern festival. In D. Picard and M. Robinson (eds.) Festivals, Tourism and Social Change. Clevedon: Channel View Publications. pp. 222-237. Manopet, S. (1994). The legend of Tung. In the publication for the 20th celebration of The Northern Bank Day. (in Thai) Mathews-Salazar, P. (2006). Becoming all Indian: gauchos, pachamama queens and tourists in the remarking of an Andean festival. In D. Picard and M. Robinson (eds.) Festivals, Tourism and Social Change. Clevedon: Channel View Publications. pp. 71-83. Meethan, K. (2001). Tourism in Global Society: place, culture, consumption. New York: Palgrave. Payomyong, M. (1976). Lanna traditions within twelve months. Chiang Mai: Sor Sapkarnpim. (in Thai) 225 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Turner, V. (1957). Schism and continuity in an African society: A Study of Ndembu village life. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Turner, V. (1967). The forest of symbols: Aspects of Ndembu ritual. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Turner, V. (1968). The drums of affliction: A study of religious processes among the Ndembu of Zambia. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Turner, V. (1969). The Ritual process: Structure and anti-structure. Chicago: Aldine. Turner, V. (1977). Symbols in Africa ritual. In J. L. Dolgin (et al) Symbolic anthropology: A reader in the study of symbols and meanings. New York: Columbia University Press. pp.183- 194 Wang, N. (2000). Tourism and Modernity: a sociology analysis. Oxford: Elsevier. Local Newspaper Khon Muang, April 15, 1968, p. 1 Thai Rath, April 18, 1969, p.1 Raming, April 16, 1983, p. 9 Thai News, April 8, 1999, p.3 Thai News, April 14, 2001, p. 8 Thai News, April 11, 2003, p.1 Chiang Mai News, 15 April, 2008, p. 12 226 The Passengers Islamic Perspective in Airline Hospitality Ehsaneh N.M. Nameghi1 Mohammad Ali Shadi2 National Univeristy of Malaysia, Graduate School of Business, Malaysia1 IAU, Science & Reseach Branch,Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, Iran2 ehsaneh_nameghi@yahoo.com Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate hospitality from the perspective of the Muslim Malaysian passengers. There is no doubt that religion can be considered as a crucial factor which has influence on service receivers purchasing behavior. However the role of Islam on shaping passengers expectation from hospitality within flights is scant. This study investigates the key factors of hospitality according to Muslim passengers‘ perspectives by using an in- depth interviews. In-depth interview were conducted in Malaysia research leading university among academicians who are frequent flyers using various full service airlines. Findings represent themes that should be considered as the determinants of Muslim passengers‘ satisfaction and loyalties to airlines. This study provides insights toward airline companies which have focused on Muslim passengers as their target market. This study can be considered as premier on exploring hospitality concept from Islamic perspective in an airline context. Keywords: Airline Hospitality, Islam, Passengers Expectation 1. Introduction (First-level heading, Times New Roman 12, bold) The impact of culture on purchasing behavior of product and service consumers is confirmed by different studies (Mattila, 1999; Ueltschy & Krampf, 2001; Crotts, Ron Erdmann, 2000). Hospitality as a reciprocal relationship between the host side (service provider) and the guest side (service receivers) (Lashley, 2008) is about guests overall assessment of service provision (Ghobadian et al., 1994; Ingram 1999; Brotherton, 1999). In fact positive guest assessment toward quality of treatment would lead to fulfillment of their expectation following by provision of satisfaction and memorable experience. Culture can be considered as one of the determinants of the guests‘ judgment toward memorable experience (Ueltschy & Krampf, 2001; Lashley, 2008). However, Asian context studies mainly have looked into service receivers‘ behavior from non-Muslim cultural perspective (Tsang,2011; Kuo et al., 2012) and the studies which have look at quality of service provision from Muslim perspective is very scant (Gayatri et al. 2011). Although service quality can be considered as the basis for the hospitality provision, hospitality service excellence is one step beyond service quality excellence (Severt, 2008; Hemmington, 2007). Therefore, present study can be considered as initiator of hospitality assessment from Muslim perspectives using qualitative as well as quantitative approach. 2. Literature Review Although a wide- range of research have been carried out in hospitality context from various perspectives (refer to Hing, 1997; Line & Runyan, 2012), few studies have looked into hospitality from Islamic perspective. Most of the aforementioned studies have been conducted on Chinese context or other non-Muslim countries. The requirement of research in this Islamic area endorses an exploration into cultural and religion impact on passengers airline hospitality judgment. This study can be considered as preliminary stage for exploring 227 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Muslim passengers‘ evaluation of airline hospitality by investigating cultural influences on their assessment. Islamic culture can considered as one of the main approaches in today‘s world since 20 percent of world population (around1.2 billion people) are followers of this religion(The Canadian Society of Muslims, n/a; CIA Publication, 2004). Furthermore, Islam contains various traits (Ball & Haque, 2003; Siddiqui, 1997) which may have different impact on assessing quality of services performed. Hospitality has been described as ―friendly and generous reception of guests or strangers‖ (Oxford English Dictionary, 2002), while Chambers of English Dictionary (2001) explains it as ―entertaining strangers and guests kindly and without reward, showing kindness, generous and bountiful. The Collins Concise English Dictionary has described hospitality as a ―kindness in welcoming strangers or guests," while Cassee (1983) has defined hospitality more holistic, as a harmonic combination of tangible and intangible components such as food, beverage, beds, ambiance, environment and behavior of the staff (Brotherton, 1999).The root of the word hospitality is coming from Latin and is a medieval Latin ―hospes‖ which means guests and hospitari (be a guest), and hospitabilis (put up as a guest) (Ottenbacher et al., 2009). Based on Lashley (2008), hospitality is meeting the physiological and psychological needs of the guests. In other word, hospitality should be defined as an emotional and functional reciprocity between host and guest. Host should have the potential to provide a memorable experience and good feeling for its guest following by a good memory of service offering for its guests as well. Different researchers have focused on the concept of hospitality based on emotional and functional dimension, although they do not highlight that. Morrison and O‘Gorman (2008) have defined the principles of hospitality as follows: guests is always welcome, service should be offered at different levels, hospitality is performed according to the guests necessities, specific hospitality performance is required for guests who have special needs, hospitality provision must consist of basic needs such as (food, drink and accommodation) as well as other needs. In addition availability of food and drink for guests must be all the time they arrive. Hepple, Kipps and Thomson (1990) define hospitality based on four characteristics, firstly. Hospitality is a reciprocity behavior between host and guest, second it contains interactive contact between service provider and receiver, thirdly hospitality is a mixture of tangible and intangible factors and finally; host tries to fulfill the psychological and physiological factors such as security and comfort. 2.1 The relation between culture and hospitality Culture as a complex phenomenon or system consists of belief, customs, knowledge, moral , law, art and any other behavior or habits obtained by society members, (Levy, 2010; Schiffman et al., 2001). Culture can be either approached from cognitive (categorizing people according to mindset, Hofstede, 1994) or behavioral (observing culture through people behavior, Reisinger & Turner, 2003,) perspective. Since culture is based on collective framework of individuals‘ interaction in society Winsted, 1997, consumers from various cultural groups and roots would have different expectations, norms, thoughts accordingly (Mattila, 1999; Lam, 2002). Therefore, different consumers requirements and decisions due to their surrounding culture dogmas is comprehensible (Hirschman, 1981;Ueltschy & Krampf, 2001;Hofstede, 1980). This cultural diversity can be generalized to other contexts such as hospitality and quality of the services offered (Imrie et al., 2000, 2002; Mattila, 1999; Tsang, 2011). Lashley (2008) 228 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY has formulated hospitality as three domains model which cultural domain in hospitality is vital domain since it defines features of all communities as well as societies. In addition understanding guest side cultural characteristics can help for better service provision. Studies have stated cultural values might present special regulations for consumers‘ evaluation toward service quality (Ellis et al., 2003; Strauss &Mang, 1999; Imrie et al., 2002). In addition in case that cultural aspect can be accommodated in service quality by service providers, the potential of predicting consumers‘ behavior with better precision would be higher (Donthu & Yoo, 1998), which can leads to customers‘ satisfaction, perceived service quality (Mattila, 1999; Winsted, 1997) as well as loyalty (Liu et al., 2001). It is important to mention that level of considering weight for culture in service offering is highly dependent to the service providers ―epic‖ ( consider all market have the same global culture and standardize service offering Espinoza, 1999; Kettinger et al., 1995) ―emic‖ ( customize and differentiate service offering based on cultural group Espinoza, 1999) approach toward culture. Different studies have stated that quality of hospitality provision of the host side (Tse & Ho, 2009) as well as hospitality perception of the guest side (Espinoza, 1999; Smith & Reynolds, 2001) varies across different cultural groups. Hsieh and Tsai (2009) have confirmed the impact of culture on consumers‘ behavior by concluding that American and Taiwan hotel guests have different understanding toward quality of treatment in hotels. The differences are mostly in the categories named as ―assurance‖, ―reliability‖, ―tangibles‖, ―empathy‖ and ―reaction‖. Other studies also confirmed on the national culture impact on consumers‘ assessment of travel services using a Hofstede model (Crotts & Erdmann, 2000). They studied five groups of passengers from Germany, Taiwan, Japan, Brazil and UK. Study‘s results reveal that passengers from high masculine societies will to report dissatisfaction more compared to low or moderate masculine societies. In addition passengers from less masculine cultures (e.g. Brazil and Taiwan) found to be more loyal to specific airline compared to those belonging to high masculine societies (Japan, UK and Germany). Other studies have also express that different treatment manner for nationalities such as American and Chineses (Malhotra & McCort, 2001), Hispanic and Anglo (Ueltschy & Krampf, 2001) and Japanese and American (Winsted, 1999), Chinese, Taiwanese, Japanese and American (Gilbert & Wong, 2003). Despite number of theoretical discussion over association among quality of service and culture (Espinoza, 1999; Kettinger et al., 1995) as well as empirical research about impact of culture on service quality conceptualization and dimensions(Espinoza,1999; Malhotra et al., 1994; Kettinger et al.,1995; Winsted‘s,1999), exploring theoretical relationship between culture and hospitality (Lashley, 2008) and its implication (Levy, 2010) is scant. Indeed most of the hospitality studies are marking cross cultural comparison of service quality attributes in hospitality context (Mok & Armstrong, 1998; Tse & Ho, 2009; Reisinger & Turner,1999; Mattila,1999; Tsang & Ap, 2007; Furrer et al., 2000; Shanahan & Hyman, 2007) Rather than investigating treatment manner and hospitality per se among cultural groups. In addition hospitality concept has been theoretically underpinned from Greek and Roman, and Christian approach (Lashley, 2008; Arterbury, 2005; Hershberger, 1999) but it is not theoretically explored from Islamic philosophy. In fact few considerable attempts have investigated service quality concept from Muslim perspective (Gayatri et al., 2011) or implementing hospitality in Islamic context (Stephenson et al., 2010). Sobh and Belk (2011) explored Islamic hospitality in private domain of hospitality ,but understanding Islamic hospitality in commercial domain has not been explored. Present study can be considered as initiator of understanding Islamic hospitality in commercial domain of hospitality in general and in aviation industry in specific. 229 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 2.2 Islamic impact on hospitality Religion can be considered as one of the elements of culture that have impact on service receivers assessment toward quality of service receive and hospitality performance. Many studies have looked into Confucian beliefs as the basis for service offering judgment (Imrie et al., 1999, 2000, 2002; Calvert, 2001; Lam, 2002). Despite enormous emphasize of Islam on treatment manner and hospitality, very few studies have looked into Muslims perceptions just from service quality perspective (Gayatri et al., 2011). Therefore this gap provides opportunity to explore Islamic hospitality in commercial domain in general and in aviation industry in specific. Islam followers believe that since they are responsible toward Allah, they should absolutely obey god‘s willingness (Kadivar, 2003; Rice, 1999). This awareness guides them to take care of their behavior because they want to succeed in after death life and they understand that good after death situation is highly dependent to their life performance and behavior (Rice, 1999; Gayatri et al., 2011). For Muslims who obey Quran‘s morality, respecting and treating guest is recommended by Allah commands. Hence Muslim hosts tries to welcome their guests warmly and properly. Indeed Muslims consider having guests as an opportunity to receive Allah pleasure and delight. Based on Islamic thought Muslims tries to not only pay attention to their family circle, but also this attention is expanded to neighbors as well as guests who deserve it. Of course treating properly does not means that guests have the right to stay as much as they want and mostly three days is a recommended duration and after that it is host charity (O'Gorman, 2007). Hospitality is observable in various Islamic regions such as ancient Persia (O'Gorman, 2007) and denominations (sunni, shia, sufis). In Sufism hospitality is practiced in order to always be in remembrance of God (Milson, 1975). Prophet Ibrahim can be considered as the first role model of hospitality in Islam. Food provision was considered as a cue to soften the relationship between host and guest and tie the friendship knot between them so that the guest become part of the host family. Also when guest side eats the food, normally shows that they don‘t have hostile intentions (O'Gorman, 2007). Prophet Ibrahim was afraid when his guest refuse to eat the food (Qur‘ān 51:23), but then Jebrail (Gabriel) declares that they are divine messengers. In Islamic culture, eating together brings some obligations and duties (Doughty, 1888) such as protecting the guest side. Even in some countries (e.g. Iran) there was a practice that when people eat bread and salt, they consider respect and duties interchangeably and should help each other any time they need help. This nowadays become like a proverb in Iran that ―he/she (the guest) eat the salt but broke his/her (the host side) salt pot (referring to disrespect and unhelpful manner of guest to host) (O'Gorman, 2007). Islam prophet Muhammad (PBUH) also can be considered as the essence of hospitality concept. He always treated all the guests regardless of their ethnicity as well as religious. He advised Muslims to treat their guest properly and states that hospitality is a symptom of faith. To conclude prophet Muhammad (PBUH) behavior and manners shows that guests should be welcome cheerfully, entertained as well as fell comfort. 3. Method A qualitative research approach was applied in order to describe and investigate the Muslim passengers‘ airline hospitality experiences. This would help to understand the applicability of commercial hospitality model in an airline context from Islamic perspective. In order to collect data, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted. Semi structured in-depth interviews enable the researcher to better understand the phenomenon under study (Creswell, 2003). Indeed in-depth interviews pre-requirement are the researcher good listening power (Lee & Broderick 2007) as well as existence of empathy between researcher and respondents (Branthwaite & Patterson 2011). 230 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY 3.1 Participants The sample of present study encompasses of Muslim Malaysian academicians who have travel experiences with full service airlines in business class. Academicians were chosen as participants since they have good opportunities to patronize a range of full business class in different airlines due to their academic journeys to conferences. Hence, their experiences can explain the common themes inherent in commercial hospitality. By using purposive sampling technique; 10 academicians (full professors), consisting of 5 males and 5 females with different academic majors and area of specialization have been chosen as present study targeted sample. 3.2 Procedure and Data Analysis In-depth interview format included eight sections, consisting questions related to how hospitality in general and how airline hospitality in specific are defined by the respondent; memorable experiences of respondents in airline hospitality (e.g., during flights); values and feelings influencing respondents‘ perceptions toward airline hospitality that should be explained; assessing perception of respondents toward importance of existence of some well- known hospitality items in airline contexts (e.g. warmth welcoming, directing passengers to the seats); assessing perception of respondents toward importance of existence of not confirmed hospitality items in airline contexts (e.g. do you consider punctuality as an airline hospitality?); determining the perception of passengers on the level of hospitality that should be provided by the business class versus economy class; investigating the possible factors that predict (antecedent) airline hospitality and investigating the possible factors that may moderate the relationship between airline hospitality and passengers satisfaction. The semi-structured in-depth interview permitted respondents to feel more relaxed; hence they extended their responses during answering questions (such as providing narratives and examples that explained their experiences). Interview objectives were introduced and questions were open-ended in order to give a chance to respondents for clarifying their responses. The interviews duration were from 30 to 1.5 hours, with an average length of 40 minutes. In order to have proper data analysis, all in-depth interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed precisely into text. In addition field notes during and after each interview was written for highlighting important issues raised during interviews. Researchers used the four commercial hospitality themes extracted from the literature in order to identify the elements respondents considered as an Islamic airline hospitality experiences. A qualitative data analysis procedure (categorasation, abstraction and comparison) was followed. In addition interviews were read several times to obtain the total essence of responses for better categorization. Islamic elements identified were clustered under constructs during abstraction and comparison stage. 4. Research Findings and Discussions Interpersonal interaction The ‗interpersonal interaction‘ dimension refers to friendship, social contacts, companionship and affiliation in the commercial hospitality context. In addition cabin crews‘ interactions manner such as smiling, eye contact, pleasant tone of speaking and made passengers feeling welcome can be considered as elements of interpersonal interaction theme. Despite respondents emphasize on importance of eye contact, they believed that this importance is highly dependent on passengers‘ cultural and religion issues as well as personal sensitivity. This means that some cultures (e.g. Muslims) may not like and consider eye connection as the representative of hospitality and may interpret it differently: 231 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY “I have another experience in the gulf air that one steward was looking and trying to talk with the wife of one of the passengers and asking her what she would like and I could see that the partner , the spouse was offended , so to me this are cultural sensitivity , I mean for some countries and religions eye contact is ok but for some cultures( too much looking) is not good. So I think cabin crews should be very sensitive to cultural differences (Respondent 5, GH)”. Psychological connection The ‗psychological connection‘ dimension explains the emotional and psychological attachment of the guest side to the host side. Respondents explained their airline hospitality experiences by expressing the cabin crews‘ behavior and treatment manner. Participants liked to be recognized, respected and honored by the cabin crews. Indeed guests need to feel they are important, and to feel that their needs will be both recognized and met (Lashley, 2008). In addition, an effort of cabin crews to recognize passengers personally, have impact on passengers self-image. This will ends to enhancement of passengers-cabin crews‘ relationship and provision of memorable experience as well as sense of staying in their own home. Some Muslim respondents have explained their in-flight memorable experience by emphasizing on cabin crew help on taking care of their requests and helping them with their Islamic needs which was beyond responsibility of the cabin crews: “Another experience is that when I went to Europe and I forgot to bring my baya telekum(praying dress), and I borrow it from them and I promise them to return and this was beyond their duties and I like it …..so they were sensitive to my needs and this was very important for me, ….(Respondent 7, ISK)”. Openness to Different Cultures Another factor captured is ‗openness to different cultures‘ which determines passengers experience and satisfaction toward intercultural exchange. The emphasize of this dimension is on the needs of cabin crews (host side) as well as passengers (guest side) who must be open- minded in terms of cultural and religion differences. Indeed this leads to mutual understanding improvement in guest–host transactions. In General, respondents stated that airlines provide good hospitality experiences. However, some participants perceived different barrier (e.g. treatment manner, facilities provided) as the main problem which hinders passengers‘ satisfaction: “I expect that they don’t ask me to seat next to the big guys for example and that is important for me, and this are some of basic need that I need to be taking care of………(Respondent 6, KHA)” The reason that may cause passengers dissatisfaction is due to the concept of Mahrem and non-Mahrem which was explained earlier. Since airline seats normally is not so big and spacious (with the exception of first class), feeling comfortable for a long air journey is not really easy, specifically if the person next to you is a man who does not care about his sitting. Some respondents believe when airlines provide some facilities based on the culture and religious of the passengers, that can be considered as the hospitality in the airlines: “………….for the Muslims some airlines provide some corners for the prayers, so this is another aspect but I think they should be very sensitive about different needs of different groups of people depending on culture (Respondent 7, ISK)”. 232 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY To conclude, cultural and religion differences is an issue that needs to be taken into account in an airline hospitality context. These differences can manifests in language, physical environment and treatment manner. The level of sensitivity that airlines apply in their hospitality provision can be considered as an important competitive advantage which leads to their future success. In addition present study emphasizes on significance of intercultural communication skills as previous studies have also confirmed (Sizoo, 2006). Sensation satisfaction The ‗sensation satisfaction‘ dimension refers to an enjoyable atmosphere which has a significant impact on hospitality experiences. Indeed as Cohen (1999) stated, sensation includes all five human senses such as visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile and gustatory (Teng, 2011), which can lead a simple service provision to memorable experience (Hemmington, 2007) for the passengers. The type of the foods and drinks served during the flight were other concern of the respondents which can cause passengers dissatisfaction and providing not positive memorable flight experience: “…….in one of my traveling experience the foods (served) was pork and this flight was not Malaysian and I was quite sensitive about that…… (Respondent 6, KHA)” “I have an experience about the Malaysian Airlines and I was with my wife and she was wearing Hejab and the person (Stewardess) serving the alcohol was muslin and during the lunch time, she was offering to me and my wife alcohol and that is really insensitive you know. Maybe they have to serve that because there might be some people like it, but that would be very offensive for me and why this happens, because of the lack of cultural sensitivities there. I am sure in Malaysia offering a Muslim (an alcohol) is very offensive. So crews can be very nice to passengers but when they say or ask passengers that do you like to have wine! Then whatever nice thing they did during flight and whole good service provision to me will be no longer nice (Respondent 5, GH)” To conclude the finding of in-depth interviews emphasize that cabin crews need to be aware of Islamic requirements of the passengers from interactions, psychological connections, openness to different culture and sensation satisfaction perspective. In other word, passengers need to be treated with proper manner and behavior (such as smiling, eye contact), but it should be not offensive. This means cabin crews should have enough emotional intelligence in order to understand the level of their interaction with passengers which have various cultural and religion backgrounds. In addition cabin crews attempt to fulfill of religious requirement of their passengers (such as provision of spaces for praying of their Muslim passengers in long haul flight even if they don‘t have any specific praying room, or provision of Islamic meals for their Muslim passengers) can be considered as bonus and competitive advantage for airline to be promoted and penetrated in Muslim market. In addition a quantitative approach was also employed, in order to confirm the findings of in-depth interviews. Therefore, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Kuala-Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) among 391 Muslim and Non-Muslim passengers who have experience of flying within last six months. The results of post-hoc analysis indicate that there is a significant difference between Muslim and Non-Muslims passengers‘ in terms of the weight they consider for items such as cabin crews eye contact, spending time with passengers or initiating small talk with passengers. Therefore the finding of quantitative 233 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY technique confirms the findings of qualitative approach indicating that although quality of treatment manner is important for Muslim passengers; they expect certain regulations in service provision which needs to be taken into account. 5. Conclusion This study offered insight into how Islam influences the essence of hospitality assessment. This study offers Islamic elements under commercial hospitality themes. Conceptual as well as empirical investigation of commercial hospitality from Islamic perspective is very scant. Present study attempt to understand Islamic elements in commercial airline hospitality in general and in aviation industry in specific. The necessitate for research on Islamic elements which have influence on commercial hospitality is highlighted. 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Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 7 No. 2, pp. 106-241. 237 Upon This Rock I Will Build My Church: Constructions of Christianity (and Their Consequences) at American Religious Youth Music Festivals Kellee Caton Thompson Rivers University Tourism Management, Faculty of Adventure, Culinary Arts, and Tourism, Canada kcaton@tru.ca Colleen Pastoor Thompson Rivers University Tourism Management, Faculty of Adventure, Culinary Arts, and Tourism, Canada colleenpastoor@gmail.com Yaniv Belhassen Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Hotel and Tourism Management, Guilford Glazer Faculty of Business and Management, Israel yanivbel@bgu.ac.il Billy Collins Thompson Rivers University Tourism Management, Faculty of Adventure, Culinary Arts, and Tourism, Canada bcollins@tru.ca Mark Wallin Thompson Rivers University Journalism, Communications, and New Media, Faculty of Arts, Canada mwallin@tru.ca Abstract Christian youth music festivals (CYMFs) attract tens of thousands of participants each year; however, they have received surprisingly little attention in the literature on festivals, events, and tourism. This exploratory study seeks to better understand the CYMF phenomenon, and in particular, the role of these festivals in promoting positive social values, such as tolerance, inter-group harmony, and peace. To this end, an ethnographic field study was undertaken examining two popular CYMFs held annually in the United States: Lifest and the Cornerstone Festival. Fieldwork involved participant observation at each of these festivals in 2011, formal interviews with festival organizers and performers, and more than 30 informal interviews with festival participants. Based on this fieldwork, the paper attempts to present an ethnographic portrait of each of these festivals, and then to analyze the ideological position promulgated by each. It concludes that Lifest and Cornerstone are very different, in terms of the constructions of Christian doctrine and Christian identity that each festival advances, and that these constructions of the meaning of Christianity and of what it means to be a Christian have consequences for inter-group relationships in the United States and beyond. Specifically, Lifest is critiqued for advancing a form of fundamentalist Christianity that isolates its followers from others outside this in-group and encourages them to conceive of their faith as existing in conflict with being tolerant of difference. Cornerstone, on the other hand, is explored as a very different kind of CYMF, which advances constructions of Christianity that favor integration with the world and the championing of progressive social causes that bring people together across lines of difference. The paper thus illustrates that religious tourism, in 239 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY this case to Christian youth music festivals, can both promote and inhibit the development of the kinds of attitudes and values that lead to inter-group tolerance and harmony. Keywords: Christianity, ideology, peace 1. Introduction I’m not a regular churchgoer, but each time I attend services with my parents at their Protestant church or with my in-laws at their Catholic church, I am always struck by the shared ritual—common between these two, in many other ways, quite different Christian traditions—of pausing at a midpoint in the service for congregants to reach out to those seated around them and wish them the simple blessing ―Peace be with you.‖ But peace is a complex thing, and Christianity, despite the Bible’s exhortation to ―love thy neighbor as thyself,‖ hasn’t always been on the side of advancing it. Although the Crusades might be the most stunning example of this religious tradition at its worst, we don’t need to look further than the current era to find instances of the way that Christianity—like all major world religions—is both advancing and hindering humanistic concerns. American evangelical Christianity is a particularly interesting tradition to consider in this regard because of this movement’s long and complicated imbrication in the American political scene, culminating with the rise of the Religious Right over the last four decades. To fruitfully explore evangelical Christianity’s relationship with the promotion of peace is not to ask questions of a theological or doctrinal character. Instead, we must look at evangelicalism as a social force—at the way this movement operates in the world and at it its consequences for the lives of individuals, communities, and broader society. Central to such an interrogation is the exploration of evangelicalism’s subculture, as perhaps more than any other branch of American Christianity, this faith movement has articulated and sustained itself through cultural practices and systems that lie outside the bounds of the Sunday sanctuary— most notably, practices related to leisure, entertainment, and tourism (Marsden, 2006; Carpenter, 1997; Schultze, 2002). Questions of the evangelical subculture’s role in the advancement or hindrance of peace thus dovetail nicely with emergent concerns in tourism studies about the role of tourism in the same. Recent efforts, such as the establishment of the International Centre for Peace through Tourism Research, along with publications like Moufakkir and Kelly’s (2010) edited volume Tourism, Progress and Peace, have helped to place concerns about the role of tourism in promoting intergroup harmony and social improvement higher on the agenda of tourism scholarship. Nevertheless, religious tourism is an understudied area in the realm of peace and tourism research—hence, the need for the present conference on religious tourism and tolerance. In this paper, with the help of my team of co-authors, we aim to explore a particular aspect of evangelical Christian tourism—travel to American Christian youth music festivals (CYMFs)—in order to analyze the role these festivals play in the furthering of peace (or lack of peace), defined broadly, as discussed below, in keeping with Haessly’s (2010) conception of peace as representing far more than simply the absence of war or physical violence. I write here in first person, as the lead author of this piece, because it facilitates my ability to share reflections gleaned from my lifetime of engagement with American Protestant Christianity, and because the paper’s central argument, about the ways that CYMFs influence the production of peace at different levels in American society, is my own, and I take sole responsibility for the criticisms of evangelicalism expressed in the proceeding pages (although certainly my various co-authors share some or all of my concerns in this regard). The paper as a whole, however, is a joint effort, in the sense that it is part of a larger project, with the ethnographic data from the two CYMFs examined in this paper having been collected (and its analysis confirmed) by the second author, scholarly understanding of tourism and the evangelical subculture having been contributed by the third author, and expertise in the area 240 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY of music festivals as spaces of sociopolitical import having been provided by the fourth and fifth authors. A motley group of current and former Christians, Jews, and agnostics, we have each contributed personal experiences and observations, as well as formal scholarship, to this project, and we are united in our interest to understand American evangelicalism and its role in the world. The paper begins by contextualizing the present study with regard to concerns in the literature about the relationship between tourism and peace and about the role of religious tourism and heritage festivals in ideological production. The study’s method-related details are then shared, after which, an analysis is presented of two popular American CYMFs, Lifest and Cornerstone, which represent different manifestations of the production of evangelical Christian identity and meaning through tourism practice. Each festival, and the religio- cultural tradition of which it is a part, has its own complex implications for peace-building. The paper thus illustrates the way one particular form of religious tourism—the American evangelical Christian rock festival—can simultaneously create and undermine conditions conducive to creating peace in the American socioscape, and in the world more broadly. 2. Tourism, Religion, and Peace Tourism’s potential to promote peace is a longstanding concern within the academy, and one that has been reenergized of late, as part of the recent ―critical turn‖ (Ateljevic, Pritchard, and Morgan, 2007; Ateljevic, Morgan, and Pritchard, 2012) in tourism studies. Although early work in this area—such as d’Amore’s (1988) sentinel research note in Tourism Management, ―Tourism—A Vital Force for Peace‖—may have emphasized a more traditional notion of peace as the absence of armed conflict between nation-states or other groups, concerning itself primarily with tourism’s facilitation of cross-cultural contact, which could provide opportunities for people to meet others perceived as being different from themselves face to face and therefore promote stereotype reduction (i.e., the contact hypothesis— Tomljenovic, 2010), more recent work has tended to consider peace as a broader concept than simply the absence of violence. Haessly’s (2010) conceptualization of ―positive peace‖ nicely captures the broadening of this notion, as he argues that peace is best imagined not merely as an absence (of war, turmoil, suffering) but as a presence—of wholeness, contentment, and profound integration, as captured in the Russian notion of mir, or of harmony and unity in diversity, as in the Chinese concept of ping. Haessly has examined various religious traditions and notes that they tend to share such notions of peace, recognize that peace is characterized by both an individual and a social dimension, and hold that these features of individual and social well-being are interdependent. Contemporary peace researchers have added flesh to this characterization, describing positive peace as ―the presence of some desirable conditions in society, including integration, justice, harmony, equity, freedom, wholeness, the promotion of the dignity of each person and the wellbeing of all of a society’s citizens (Macquarrie, 1973; Wallensteen, 1988; Brock-Utne, 1989)‖ (Haessly, 2010, p. 5). Central to this image is the idea of the members of a society being able to actualize their potential, a notion taken up by philosopher-activists Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen in their ―capabilities movement‖ (Nussbaum, 2011). In the contemporary world, Haessly highlights several concrete concerns as being central to the creation of positive peace: the promotion of a worldview that does not draw lines between ―us‖ and ―them‖ but recognizes all people as part of a human family, and hence seeks to overcome racism, sexism, and all other forms of bigotry and exclusion; a concern for human rights around the globe, in terms of people having the right to life, to adequate food and shelter and the environmental resources that sustain life, to health care, to education, to meaningful work, to security, to free expression, to treatment with dignity, and to 241 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY participation in decisions affecting their lives; the prioritization of ecological security; and a commitment to non-violent paths to social change. Work on the relationship between tourism and peace is growing and has considered, among many other issues, host–guest interactions in contact zones for ethnic groups with a history of tense relations, such as Arabs and Jews in the Sinai (Uriely, Maoz, and Reichel, 2009; Maoz, 2010); tourism’s ability to unite acrimonious groups through large-scale events that celebrate the human spirit (Schulenkorf and Edwards, 2010); solidarity tourism, or travel for political purposes, to protest human rights violations or to promote reconciliation between groups (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2003; Higgins-Desbiolles and Blanchard, 2010); tourism as a catalyst for development and social normalization in post-conflict areas (Bujisic, 2011; Causevic and Lynch, 2011), representation and stereotyping in tourism (Echtner and Prasad, 2003; Caton, 2011); and philosophical explorations of the essence of the tourism experience and its role in promoting or hindering peace (Pernecky, 2010). Religion and spirituality in tourism is a robustly developing concern in the literature, as well. Work in this domain includes extensive considerations of tourism and pilgrimage (Cohen, 1979; Digance, 2006; Belhassen, Caton, and Stewart, 2008; Collins-Kreiner, 2010); investigations concerning the commercialization of spirituality (Nolan and Nolan, 1992; Shackley, 2006); explorations of the New Age phenomenon (Pernecky, 2006; Timothy and Conover, 2006); and general overviews of the relationship between the phenomena of religion and tourism (Vukonic, 1996; Sharpley, 2009). However, as noted, this area of research has only recently begun to intersect with explorations of tourism and peace. This paper seeks to advance discussion at this intersection through the exploration of American evangelical Christian tourism—specifically that to religious youth music festivals, often called ―Christian rock festivals,‖ as a reference to their rock-and-roll orientation in terms of genre. In so doing, it also advances the literature on tourism and peace more generally, by exploring religious tourism as a site of ideological production that can have consequences for peace—a highly under-researched phenomenon. Only a handful of interrogations in this direction are thus far extant, including Moufakkir’s (2010) analysis of Jerusalem tourism brokers’ use of tourism to promote various political goals; Sofield and Li’s (1998) consideration of religious tourism as a political apparatus of the state in China; Vukonic’s (1992) exploration of emergent pilgrimage to Medjugorje, which provoked a negative response from the socialist government of the former Yugoslavia, and thus played a role in the troubles in the Balkans in the 1990s; Hill’s (2008) work on New Age tourists’ appropriations of Quechua cosmology and ritual and their role in furthering the practice of othering and perpetuating ―racialized structuralized inequality‖; and the work of various scholars, including Bowman (2000), Sizer (1999), Belhassen (2009), Belhassen and Santos (2006), and Belhassen and Ebel (2009), on Christian pilgrimage to the Holy Land, its ideological and political implications, and the need for responsible pilgrimage. Religiously based festivals have not been given their due in tourism scholarship, but festivals in general have often been explored as sites of ideological production in tourism studies and beyond. Indeed, from the earliest days of western civilization, special events have served powerful ideological purposes, reaching well beyond any entertainment value they may have provided, with the Ancient Olympics, for example, having served primarily as an activity for generating civic pride among warring Greek city-states (Gomez-Lobo, 1997), and the Roman Circus Maximus having been used to draw attention away from sociopolitical concerns by providing a distraction for citizens; ―bread and circuses,‖ from the Latin ―panem et circenses,‖ was the going metaphor for the strategy of combining substantive security for the citizenry with superficial means of appeasement through the elaborate staging of circus games and other forms of entertainment to increase political power through populism. Events 242 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY as sociopolitical phenomena continued through the medieval era and into the present day, and scholarship on this issue includes, among many other explorations, Mullaney’s (1983) deconstruction of a series of Renaissance events and spectacles to reveal cultural understandings of otherness, Banet-Weiser’s (1999) analysis of beauty pageants as discursive spaces of national identity construction, and Xu’s (2006) consideration of the modern Olympic Games as a space for official national articulation of discourses surrounding the politics of multiculturalism and modernity. Scholars of cultural politics have also explored festivals as sites of contestation, as different groups vie to articulate local culture in terms favorable to their own goals and position (e.g., Jeong and Santos, 2003; Cohen, 1998; Davila, 1997). It is against this backdrop of festivals as spaces of ideological production that our interest in Christian youth music festivals emerges. 3. Study Method Given the lack of extant work on the phenomenon of CYMFs, the present study proceeded in an inductive and exploratory manner, using what has been referred to in the qualitative methods literature variously as a mini-, micro-, or compressed time–ethnographic approach (Jeffrey and Troman, 2004; Hammersley, 2006). Such an approach draws on the anthropological tradition of ethnography, with its emphasis on participant-observation and a holistic approach to the gathering and analysis of data, which often comes in many forms, including direct field observations, experiential understandings, formal and informal interviews with others in the research context, and physical and electronic documents pertaining to the field site. It differs from traditional ethnography, however, in its length of engagement with participants; whereas a traditional ethnographer might spent a year or more living and working among a cultural group she wished to study, a researcher conducting a compressed time ethnography would instead engage in participant-observation during concentrated time periods deemed particularly relevant for gaining an understanding of the group or phenomenon in question. Compressed time ethnography has obvious limitations, in that it does not allow for the researcher to build long-term relationships with study participants or to view each of their lives in its full context, but it can be appropriate in certain situations where traditional ethnography is not possible. In the case of this project, which involves a subculture of participants who are geographically spread out and who only come together for brief but intense periods (i.e., when a given CYMF is under way), the compressed time ethnographic approach allowed the researcher collecting the data (this paper’s second author, Colleen) to reap some of the benefits of traditional ethnography, in the sense of being able to immerse herself in the phenomenon, to understand it from an experiential point of view, and (in some instances) to bond with participants on the level in which they tended ordinarily to bond with each other in the liminal context of the festival. These brief periods of intense participant- observation were then supported by a broader and longer-term engagement with the phenomenon through formal interviews with festival organizers outside the timeframe of festival operations, analysis of documents pertinent to the festivals studied, and secondary research regarding the larger contexts of the Christian music subculture and Christian youth movements. The fieldwork was conducted between 2010 and 2012 and was anchored by participant- observation in the summer of 2011 at two important CYMFs in the United States: Lifest and the Cornerstone Festival. Colleen spent a total of 11 days attending the two festivals, camping on site, unobtrusively observing attendees, participating in various aspects of each event, and conducting more than 30 informal interviews, ranging in length from 15 minutes to two hours, with attendees, performers, staff, and volunteers. Observations and casual interviews took place at campsites, music performances, retail markets, exhibitions, activities, 243 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY and seminars at each festival site. Participating in the same activities as the other festival attendees facilitated a quick sense of trust and rapport between the researcher and the study participants, although all participants were made aware that the researcher was attending the festival for research purposes as well as to participate in the celebration of Christian music, and that her goal in conducting informal interviews was to better understand the phenomenon of CYMFs and the experiences of attendees and performers at these events. In keeping with the inductive study design, the informal interviews were open-ended, allowing interviewees to describe their experiences and to negotiate the meanings of those experiences within the context of the interview conversation (Rubin and Rubin, 1995). Interviews with festival organizers were more formal in nature and lasted between one and two hours. In these interviews, Colleen sought to gain an understanding of each festival’s history and of its organizers’ purpose in producing their respective event. She also sought to understand the organizers’ perceptions regarding the effects of their festival on attendees and the relationship of the festival to popular youth culture at large. An additional formal interview was conducted with Andrew Beaujon, author of Body Piercing Saved My Life: Inside the Phenomenon of Christian Rock (2006), an engaging book which offers a journalistic snapshot of the unique subculture surrounding Christian rock. In his interview, Beaujon was able to offer the perspective of an ―outsider‖ who had spent significant time exploring Christian rock festivals, and this helped to complement Colleen’s more emic perspective, as she has participated in the Christian youth music subculture for several years, as well as the obviously emic perspectives of Lifest and Cornerstone attendees, organizers, performers, and volunteers. Finally, the research included consideration of textual materials, including the official Web sites of each festival and the organization behind it, event programs, educational leaflets and advertisements found on site at the festivals, and Web discussion boards for Christian music enthusiasts. 4. Christian Youth Music Festivals and the Evangelical Subculture CYMFs must be understood not simply as desirable leisure opportunities pursued by groups of like-minded young people, but as an integral part of a broader evangelical subculture, with complex roots in both theology and American social and political history. What is known today as evangelical Christianity can be traced back to Martin Luther and his revolutionary stand against prevailing Christian doctrine and practice, in what history remembers as the Protestant Reformation. Luther felt the Church had badly misconstrued God’s message by coming to focus on a theology of works, in which one earned salvation through actions (hence the idea of purchasing pardons for one’s misdeeds), rather than a theology of grace, in which salvation depended simply on embracing Jesus Christ as the messiah, whose crucifixion had redeemed humans from sin (Nichols, 2007). Luther advocated a return to the gospels, or the ―good news‖ of Jesus Christ come as humanity’s savior, and the word evangelical derives from the Greek expression for one who shares the good news. Evangelicalism thrived in North America, and by the nineteenth century, evangelical Christians were an important part of the American political scene, championing such progressive causes as abolition, women’s rights, and amelioration of urban poverty (Balmer, 2006). Evangelicals in that day generally favored a theological position known as ―postmillennialism,‖ one of the various ways of interpreting the colorful and cryptic passages of the Bible, such as the Book of Revelation, that deal with the notion of the ―end times‖— what, in theological terms, has become the branch of religious study known as eschatology. In short, postmillennialism is the belief that Jesus will return after God’s kingdom has been established on earth and humanity has experienced a 1000-year golden age of peace, prosperity, and happy living in accord with Christian principles. As postmillennialists, 244 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY nineteenth-century evangelicals’ progressive political activism was thus logically aligned with the project of bringing the kingdom of heaven into being on earth, a task they saw as the responsibility of humanity to help initiate (Balmer, 2006). But as the century wore on, things were not going as planned. American southerners were not responsive to northern evangelicals’ calls for an end to slavery, and the Civil War, which abolitionists thought would be a reasonably quick effort, due to the obvious moral superiority of their anti-slavery position, instead deepened into a nearly half-decade struggle that tore the nation apart (Balmer, 2010). At the same time, the American landscape was changing, as the Industrial Revolution led to rapid urbanization, with its concomitant problems of poverty, poor working conditions, and poor sanitation in cities. The immigrants who took up residence in the burgeoning cities of the American North were a diverse lot, often of Catholic or Jewish religious identification, and evangelicals felt their grip on the American socioscape slipping away. As Balmer (2010) notes, such social conditions, in the eyes of nineteenth-century evangelicals, hardly looked like the millennial kingdom come to earth. Evangelicals thus needed a new eschatology—a new way of interpreting the Bible’s end times prophecies—that better suited the verve of the times. They found this new interpretation in the dispensational premillennialist theology of a former Anglican priest, John Nelson Darby (Weber, 1987). Darby argued that all of human history could be divided into distinct ages, or ―dispensations,‖ with each era representing a different covenant between God and humanity. As Balmer (2010, p. 34) explains, according to Darby, ―God had struck a particular deal, or covenant, with Adam, for instance, and another with Noah and Abraham, and with the people of Israel.‖ Darby argued that humanity was living in the final dispensation and that Jesus would return at any moment to fulfill God’s promise of taking his followers to heaven in the rapture, leaving the rest of humanity behind to face the great tribulation, after which point the millennial kingdom would be established (Balmer, 2010). The idea that Jesus would return to earth before the 1000-year golden age, and that humanity should expect things to get worse before they got better, easily made more sense to the beleaguered social reformers of the Civil War era, who weren’t seeing much hope in bringing about the millennial kingdom on their own. A consequence of this shift of theology, however, was that it effectively absolved Christians of all responsibility for social activism and improvement (Balmer, 2010). By the beginning of the twentieth century, evangelicals had begun to feel that their values were becoming in need of protection from what were then often articulated as ―modern‖ impulses within society at large (Marsden, 2006). Mainline Protestant denominations (e.g., Presbyterianism, Lutheranism) and their congregants were viewed as having sold out to these forces of modernism, condoning such practices as dancing, drinking alcohol, embracing immodest fashion trends, and consuming entertainment products that promoted lifestyle elements of greed, materialism, sex outside of marriage, and so forth. To insulate themselves and their children from such temptations, evangelical Christians constructed a rich subculture, complete with its own schools, artistic products, and avenues of entertainment (Carpenter, 1997). They generally withdrew from politics, perceiving, in line with their premillennialist views, that the world was hopelessly lost to sin and evil, and they instead focused fully on living piously and converting others to the faith so that their souls would not be lost at the coming of the rapture, when Jesus would lift his followers into the air, carrying them to heaven to avoid the great tribulation before the golden age of the millennium would finally be ushered in—a series of events felt by most people in the movement to be imminent. Twentieth-century evangelicals’ distrust of mainstream culture did not stop the movement from drawing on rhetorical forms from popular culture in order to engage followers, especially youth. Evangelicalism had long had somewhat of a theatrical element to it, dating 245 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY even back to the open-air preaching of George Whitefield in the 1700s, which had all the trappings of good dramatic oratory and spurred listeners to emotional responses. As the times changed, evangelical leaders were not hesitant to employ new technologies and cultural forms, such as televangelism programs, radio broadcastings, film, and the Internet, to promote their message among their laity (Cobb, 1998; Erickson, 1992; Melton, Lucas and Stone, 1997; Zaleski, 1997). At the same time, evangelicals needed a safe space from mainstream culture, where they could raise their children in ways that minimalized contact with the values and practices of the outside world, which they considered corrupting. Thus, an evangelical subculture began to take form, existing in parallel with mainstream America and providing its own ―Christian versions‖ of all things deemed essential to a twentieth-century life, including leisure and entertainment options. Christian entertainment products, such as music, films, and novels, thus served two purposes simultaneously: through their rhetoric, they provided a call to Christianity that was different from (and for young people, certainly more engaging than) the typical Sunday sermon, and they also served as a rallying force for creating a sense of community and cohesiveness among followers (Carpenter, 1997). This latter outcome was particularly important for evangelical youth, who often faced a sense of alienation from their mainstream peers, both because of their parents’ (or their own) choices to cordon them off from the activities of their classmates and because of discrimination against them by some classmates who viewed their beliefs and their separatist tendencies as strange. I recall many a friend from my childhood, growing up in the American ―Bible belt,‖ who was not allowed to attend the string of high school dances that served as bright spots for so many of us in the annual academic calendar; their reactions to this fate ranged from annoyance, or even anger, at their parents for ―being so out of touch,‖ to pride at exhibiting a proper Christian ―witness‖—a popular term in the evangelical subculture, meaning testimony through behavior—by steadfastly sacrificing these widely coveted social opportunities in the name of their faith. It is against this backdrop of the construction of America’s evangelical subculture that the phenomenon of the American Christian youth music festival was born. Christian rock festivals provided youth with the opportunity to participate in the music festival experience— a quintessential part of American teen cultural life—without having to leave the shelter of a subculture supportive of their spiritual values. They also provided a venue for Christian musicians to share their music, as these artists had generally found themselves shut out of the mainstream music industry after the cultural upheavals of the 1960s (Dueck, 2000; Thompson, 2000). From there, however, the story becomes more complex. I have been speaking of evangelical Christianity thus far as though it were some sort of perfectly coherent, homogenous movement, which it is certainly not nor ever has been. From the beginning, evangelicalism has had many strands, and this is nowhere more evident than in the current ethnographic study, which examines two very different CYMFs, premised on two very different ideologies, in terms of what it means to be a follower of Jesus in twenty-first-century America. The first CYMF considered here, Lifest (pronounced ―life fest‖), is a Christian music festival held each July at a community exhibition grounds in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The festival began in 1990 as a walk-and-run fundraiser and evolved into a full-on festival, featuring Christian music acts, in 1999. A five-day event, Lifest attracts an average of over 16,000 attendees on any given day of the festival, some of whom camp on-site and some of whom drive in for the day to attend music shows and seminars. Most participants are youth under the age of 18, and they typically attend the festival with their parents or with a church youth group. Tourists to the event come from near and far; Colleen counted license plates 246 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY from 30 U.S. states and several Canadian provinces on the festival premises. Slogans for the festival include ―Party with a Purpose,‖ ―More than Music,‖ and ―Where Kids Have the Time of Their Life without Hiding from Their Parents‖ (Lifest, 2012). The 2011 Lifest event attended by the researcher featured live Christian music acts, comedians, and speakers on multiple stages, as well as seminars and workshops for youth pastors and leaders. Lifest is run by Life Promotions, a nonprofit organization that produces faith-based programs and events for churches and value-based programs for public schools in the United States. The organization was founded in 1982 by Bob Lenz, a Christian speaker who still serves as president today, and emphasizes the need to reach youth before the age of 18 through a focus on intervention and education to encourage positive life decision-making (Life Promotions, 2012). Program topics include abstinence, cults, domestic discord, reverse discrimination, alcohol, pornography, drug abuse, and so forth (Life Promotions, 2012). Ideologically, Lifest is characterized by its affiliation with conservative evangelical Christianity, which is the mainline form of evangelicalism in the United States today. Followers of this movement hold the Bible to be the literal and inerrant word of God, which is provided as a guide for how human beings should live their lives (although, in reality, this literalism is practiced selectively, as Balmer (2006) demonstrates in his analysis of evangelicalism and politics); they believe that Christians bear a responsibility to proselytize and ―share the good news‖ of Jesus’ coming with nonbelievers; and they hold that acceptance of Jesus as the messiah is the only path to salvation and a heavenly afterlife. This form of Christianity is also often characterized by the experience of being ―born again,‖ meaning to have had a conversion experience in which one comes to Jesus of his or her own volition and accepts him as his or her personal savior and path to an eternal afterlife with God. Conservative Christianity also tends to be characterized by its promotion of traditional social values—such as heterosexual marriage and differential roles for men and women—which are often viewed by its members as being under attack by mainstream culture. Lifest’s enmeshment in conservative Christian culture was immediately apparent upon setting foot in the festival grounds, with vendor booths on display addressing hot-button social issues like abortion or offering attendees the opportunity to sponsor children in developing countries or to learn about how they could engage in mission work. The latter type of information was particularly ubiquitous, with most tents offering some sort of promotional material for missionary involvement, thus illustrating the festival’s strong evangelical moorings. Artists and speakers on stage would also frequently ask attendees to ―raise their hands and worship,‖ a common worshipping style associated particularly strongly with the conservative branch of Christianity in America. Essentially, Lifest exists to convert young people to Christianity, to help those who already identify as Christian to strengthen their faith and their ties to the church, and to provide a space in which Christian youth can experience elements akin to mainstream popular culture that they will find attractive (e.g., loud music, edgy fashion) but in a protective setting in which the ideological messages of these elements are tightly controlled. It is hoped that by drawing on elements akin to popular culture, the festival organizers will able to communicate with youth in ―a language they understand,‖ in order to deliver what is ultimately an evangelical message, as well as other secondary associated messages about a safe and healthy way to live their lives according to conservative Christian principles. Seminars for youth leaders were advertised as helping these adults learn to ―capture the hearts of youth with messages of hope,‖ as well as helping them to ―get a new perspective on youth culture, music, and what it means to be relevant in an ever-changing world.‖ The testimonials from festivalgoers published on Lifest’s official Web site (Lifest, 2012) go far in capturing the essence of the festival’s purpose. As one parent expressed, ―My 9 year old son accepted Jesus 247 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY at Lifest 2011!‖ Another commented that attending Lifest ―is like giving your life to Jesus all over again.‖ A third wrote, ―This year I brought my 16 year old nephew to Lifest with me, praying that he would be moved enough to want to learn more. He not only wants to learn more but on his own he decided to accept Jesus as his savior. As I saw him headed toward the prayer tent, my eyes swelled up with tears.‖ As a final attendee stated, ―Sometimes God speaks in a still, small, quiet voice; sometimes he speaks through amplified music. But He always has a way of getting through.‖ The second festival considered here, Cornerstone, differed strikingly from Lifest in many ways during its years of operation. Cornerstone has a long pedigree, dating back over a quarter of a century to 1984, when it was founded by the Jesus People USA movement (or JPUSA, pronounced ―japooza‖), a counterculture Christian group which sprung from the hippie movements of the 1960s and 1970s. Jesus People (also sometimes called ―Jesus Freaks‖) movements were commonly found throughout the United States in this era, but they declined with the general collapse of the hippie subculture, and JPUSA currently refers specifically to a particular group descended from this legacy, which remains active near Chicago, living communally and sharing all goods and property. It is this group that organized the Cornerstone Festival for 29 years until the event officially came to an end in 2012. Cornerstone rose from the cornfields near Bushnell, Illinois, for six days each summer, with most attendees camping on site and spending their days taking in music acts, seminars, and art exhibits and workshops. The festival attracted predominantly young people, but there was also a significant component of older attendees who returned to the festival year after year, and this group was especially prevalent in 2011, as the organizers pushed for a ―reunion‖ theme in an attempt to shore up declining participation numbers, with festival attendance having tanked from a height of 20,000 participants to fewer than 10,000 in recent years. Like Lifest, Cornerstone drew event tourists from a wide geographic area; again, license plates from most U.S. states were observed in 2011, and a significant Canadian contingent managed to find one another to create an impromptu celebration of Canada Day early on in the festival week. Counterculture values were core to Cornerstone: the festival functioned to counter both the mainstream world’s values of materialism and intense individualism and the socially conservative values espoused by fundamentalist Christianity—especially the notion that the arts and heavy music of the rock and metal genres are sinful. Indeed, the history of JPUSA is one of individuals ―united in a general distrust not only of secular society but also of mainstream religious institutions‖ (Johnston, 2011, citing Di Sabatino, 1999). Despite this stance, JPUSA characterizes itself as aiming to work with other, more institutionalized churches and organizations, while simultaneously describing itself as a haven for a dropout, rejected generation. This commitment could be seen at the 2011 festival, which featured formal worship sessions from various Christian traditions, including Eastern Orthodox and Catholic. (Notably, this stands in marked contrast to Lifest, which has a strong conservative Protestant bent despite festival organizers stating in an interview that the festival is meant to be welcoming to people from all Christian denominations.) JPUSA has garnered criticism, and sometimes even ridicule, from wider Christian and secular circles for being too radical in its pursuit of communal living and too avant garde in its artistic sensibilities, but this has not stopped the group from continuing to articulate its own notion of Christianity, which is purposely resistant to more entrenched expressions of Christian doctrine and practice. The group draws on Christian scripture to emphasize values of creativity (Psalm 149:3; Psalm 33:3), distrust of bureaucratic and hierarchical structures (Romans 13:3), freedom (Psalm 119:45; Isaiah 61:1; John 8:36; Acts 13:39; Romans 8:21; 2 248 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Corinthians 3:17; Galatians 5:1), pleasure (Ecclesiastes 8:15; 1 Timothy 6:18), direct and honest contact among persons (2 Timothy 2:15; Romans 12:16; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 2 Corinthians 13:1), and the need to discard restrictions and inhibitions (2 Samuel 6:22; Matthew 6:26). Its vision is perhaps best expressed in the interpretation set forth by John Thompson (2000), a sympathetic author who has studied the history of the Christian counterculture music scene extensively, of Christianity’s central figure, Jesus Christ: Who was more rebellious than Jesus of Nazareth? He railed against authority, spoke against personal and religious corruption, and took a stick and a whip to the temple. He healed the sick on the Sabbath, and he encouraged people to walk away from their jobs, sell their belongings, and give their money to the poor. He even refused to remain dead, according to the account of the resurrection. He owned only the clothes on his back, and had no home of his own, and got his tax money from the mouth of a fish. He was such a rebel that the religious leaders had him executed. Find one rocker with even a tenth of that rebellious fire. Yet Jesus has been reimagined in our postmodern world as a slow-moving, gentle, cryptic, and painstakingly polite rabbi, not the ruffian whom the San Hedrin thought was so dangerous. . . . From a certain perspective, Jesus and rock music are perfectly suited to each other. In keeping with the image they advance of Jesus as a rebellious and spunky philosopher and servant who advocated equality among people and love of one’s neighbor, Cornerstone’s organizers welcomed a variety of activists for progressive social causes to participate in the festival each year, from speakers who offered workshops on healing race relations or addressing urban homelessness to booths where attendees could collect information and sign petitions for social change. Like Lifest, there were many booths featuring information on missionary activities, but there was more of an emphasis placed on taking care of others in the spirit of Jesus as a healer of the sick and an advocate for the poor than on evangelizing for the sake of saving souls alone. And in keeping with the picture, described above, of Jesus as a ruffian rebel, Cornerstone, from its outset, was open to performers whose controversial artistic styles tended to leave them excluded from the mainstream CYMF circuit. In JPUSA’s view, Christianity at is core demands counterculture values and forms of expression. In 2012, Cornerstone closed its gates for the last time, with organizers citing the festival’s inability to maintain financial viability in a poor economy. Given that most attendees drove to the festival, often across long distances, it is perhaps not surprising that rising gas prices and an ―employer’s economy,‖ in which taking time off from work can more easily result in one’s job being given to somebody else, ultimately did the event in, especially given the low- income status of a large proportion of its followers. It is also the case, as Cornerstone organizers expressed in their interviews, that bands whose only refuge was once Cornerstone are now finding more acceptance on the mainstream rock festival circuit, as popular culture becomes more tolerant of overt expressions of Christian identity as long as the performer’s goal is not overtly evangelical in nature. The festival’s refusal to compromise its principles and seek sponsors who offer donations based on the number of ―souls saved‖ by the event—a tactic pursued by many other CYMFs—may also explain why it was hit harder by the recession than other programs (Johnston, 2011). Finally, Cornerstone’s closing may be due in some part to the simple vagaries of the life courses of key individuals involved in its production, as the festival’s longtime director moved on after the 2011 event, and follow-up contacts by Colleen revealed that several other festival organizers were in the process of leaving the JPUSA commune to transition into other life projects. The Cornerstone Festival was clearly a product of evangelical Christianity, and its founders and followers embraced many of the same core beliefs as those who gravitate toward Lifest: a belief in Jesus Christ as the path to salvation, a view of the Bible as the word of God 249 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY and the guide for a Christian life, and a firmness in the responsibility to live one’s life as a testament to Christ. Indeed the experience of being born again is common to Cornerstone attendees, and Johnston (2011), in his ethnographic study of the festival in 2008, reports the experience of a group of his research participants ―praying over him,‖ a common evangelical practice in which a person who is struggling with his or her faith is surrounded by believers, who offer a prayer that the person will be able to successfully connect with Jesus and feel Christ’s power working in his or her life. At the same time, however, Cornerstone’s organizers and attendees tend not to adhere to certain aspects of religious and social belief and practice associated with conservative evangelicalism, such as a skepticism toward Christians who are not conservative Protestants as not really being true followers of Jesus, an adherence to traditional social views, or a literal reading of passages in the Bible that marginalize women or gays and lesbians. Instead, they constitute themselves as rebelling against mainline evangelicalism and bringing their faith back in line with the example of Jesus as a social activist who exemplified a life of putting others first and embracing those on the margins of society. Although their social views may be reminiscent of evangelicalism’s nineteenth- century roots in the championing of progressive causes, there is no evidence that this group has shifted its thinking, theologically, back to the kind of postmillennialism that characterized their forebears, or that still characterizes mainline Protestant Christianity. Instead, they are truly a breakaway movement within a breakaway movement—a subculture within a subculture—whose views and practices stand as a testament to a long journey of contingencies that led them first away from mainstream American culture and then away from mainstream evangelicalism. Cornerstone and Lifest are thus very different manifestations of the CYMF phenomenon. As such, they illustrate the complexity of the evangelical subculture and its constitution through leisure and tourism practices. I now turn to a discussion of the role of these festivals in shoring up different notions of Christian identity and the implications of such constructions of Christian identity for the creation of conditions conducive to nurturing positive peace in American society and beyond. 5. Christian Music Festivals, the Evangelical Subculture, and American Politics: Implications for Positive Peace Growing up in the United States in the last quarter of the twentieth century, I lived through an era, still ongoing, of ―bumper sticker wars,‖ in which the pulse of the American religio-political scene could be read with little effort, as part of the standard workaday commute. ―God Made Adam and Eve, Not Adam and Steve!‖ one car would crow, in a condemnation against homosexuality. ―Hate Is Not a Family Value,‖ another car would retort. A particularly popular choice during my teen years read ―In Case of Rapture, This Vehicle Will Be Unmanned,‖ implying that the driver would have ascended into heaven, leaving his hapless vehicle abandoned on the road. In this case, the response from some non- evangelicals was ―When the Rapture Comes, Can I Have Your Car?‖—or sometimes the more pointed political response, ―When Will the Rapture Take All the Republicans Away?‖ The clever ―As Long as There Are Tests, There Will Be Prayer in Public Schools,‖ received the tart response, ―Don’t Pray in My School, and I Won’t Think in Your Church.‖ Such proclamations of automotive self-expression can no doubt represent the extreme, hyperbolic ends of the spectrum, in terms of serving as a gauge on public opinion. Nevertheless, no close observer of American politics in recent decades could easily miss what has been an emerging imbrication of evangelical Christianity with right wing politics. Although people rarely stop to think about it, American evangelicalism’s current level of political involvement is curious, given the movement’s longstanding shyness toward the political realm, in line with its premillennialist orientation that the earth is lost and doomed, 250 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY and that a Christian life is best served by turning inward and focusing on one’s salvation and the afterlife. In having chosen to re-involve itself in the political sphere, evangelicalism’s close relationship with the contemporary Republican Party is perhaps even more curious, given the movement’s much more left wing stance during America’s key nation-building era of the 1800s. Popular understanding holds that this relationship was born in response to the Roe v. Wade decision of 1973, legalizing abortion in the United States, a judicial action that supposedly caused the evangelical community to erupt in subsequent protest. Balmer (2006) debunks this myth, however, noting that evangelicals were not immediately galvanized by this issue; indeed, key movement leaders even issued statements supporting the Court’s decision on abortion rights. Instead, the key political issue centered around taxation status for religious schools, which were being forced to abandon racially based admissions policies if they wished to continue to qualify as charitable organizations under the U.S. tax code, as a result of a very different court decision, this time at the district level: Green v. Connally. As Balmer (2006) argues, the issue hinged not so much on the desire of evangelicals to pursue an agenda of racial segregation per se, but on the larger problem it represented: that of perceived government interference in religious practice (albeit simply through the withdrawal of favorable tax terms to religious schools deemed to be prima facie not humanitarian in nature, based on their embracing of racial segregation). Thus, evangelicals reentered the political scene in an organized way not because there had necessarily been any shift in their eschatology reinvigorating them to become involved in ameliorating the problems of the world, but quite simply because they felt their subculture—their safe place in a ruinous world not long for existence—was under attack. It would be a gross exaggeration to say that all American evangelical Christians are strongly political or that, of those who are, all identify with the right wing. Nevertheless, a strong alliance exists between the evangelical movement and the Republican Party, and studies from numerous disciplines have documented American evangelicals’ propensity to align themselves with the domestic social and foreign policy agendas of leaders to the right on the political spectrum (Thumma, 1991; Jelen, 1994; Hunsberger and Jackson, 2005; Baumgartner, Francia, and Morris, 2008). Such issues include, perhaps most prominently, opposition to abortion rights, opposition to gay rights and especially marriage equality, support for the state of Israel, and a hawkish approach to American foreign policy in the Middle East. This alliance was, in many ways, deliberately forged by an invisible hand of political maneuvers in the 1970s, when conservative activist Paul Weyrich, who had been trying to galvanize evangelicals as a potential voting block for years, finally succeeded in recruiting movement leaders James Dobson and Jerry Falwell to his cause in the wake of the Green decision and Bob Jones University’s unsuccessful attempt thereafter to sue the federal government to maintain both its tax-exempt status and its operating policies, which prohibited interracial dating among its students. Convincing evangelical leaders that involvement in the political process was their best route to defending their beleaguered subculture and that the Republican Party was best suited to serve their needs and enshrine their values in public policy, Weyrich won key evangelical figures for his conservative movement, a process which involved no little chicanery, as Weyrich was able to successfully pin the Bob Jones situation on Jimmy Carter (himself a card-carrying evangelical!) and the Democratic Party, despite that Carter was actually not yet president when that event occurred (Balmer, 2006). Once an alliance had been born, leaders worked to create a more full and robust platform that would compel evangelical voters. They also worked to consolidate their political voice through the creation of organizations like the Moral Majority, a group which sought to unite evangelicals with other types of religious adherents, including conservative Catholics and Jews, in the 251 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY quest to advance ―traditional values‖ in the American public sphere, and the Christian Coalition, unsuccessful 1988 presidential candidate Pat Robertson’s organization to unite various branches of conservative Christianity and mobilize them against perceived attacks on ―family values,‖ which in practice tended to result primarily in activism against abortion and gay rights. Thus, although not all evangelicals are overtly political, and although dissent is certainly evident, conservative politics have become very much embedded in the evangelical subculture, a fact evident in any glance at American voting patterns. As spaces in which American evangelical culture is nurtured, consolidated, and transmitted to the next generation, then, mainstream evangelical CYMFs like Lifest can, on some level, serve as a force for the perpetuation of right wing ideologies and conservative political convictions among youth. Although festival organizers may not see themselves as promoting political messages, just as Belhassen’s (2009) study participants who led groups of religious tourists on evangelical pilgrimages to Israel did not view their activities as political, such implications are nevertheless present. In their motivational speaking sessions, Life Promotions speakers do not actively promote the Christian Right’s agenda, and in fact often encourage criticism of this movement’s approach in subtle ways. They caution youth, for instance, against taking a ―morality-based‖ approach to Christianity, or one which focuses on following the right behavioral codes or coming down on the right side of political debates instead of on enhancing one’s relationship with Jesus. However, they say nothing to challenge interpretations of scripture that lead to negative attitudes toward sexual minorities or followers of other religious traditions. Similarly, they speak of loving those who are ―different‖ from oneself, but the categories of difference enumerated tend to be racial minorities, the elderly, the disabled, and the poor, or perhaps social categories, like ―nerds‖ or other types of kids who are low on the social hierarchy in teenage contexts. Notably absent is the overt mention of a need to exhibit love and tolerance toward sexual minorities, such as gays or lesbians, or members of other religious traditions, such as Muslims. Listeners have to be able to make that extrapolation in their own minds—and there’s no real reason to believe they do, especially given the negative messages they may hear about these groups at home, from their local or national evangelical leaders, or in the Christian media. Evangelical prejudice against sexual minorities and religious out-groups continues to be well documented in the psychology literature (Hunsberger and Jackson, 2005), and events that socialize youth into the evangelical subculture without challenging these prejudices perpetuate them— intentionally or not. Meanwhile, the social pressures to fit in with one’s peers on the Christian social scene can be enormous. I recall well from my own adolescence the sincere pain and fear that characterized the teen years of some of my close friends, as they struggled to achieve the experience of faith that was expected of them by their parents and friends at church. One friend, who was extremely gifted musically, repeatedly threw away all the cassette tapes in her collection that did not fall into the Christian music genre, backsliding each time into an interest in popular music only to eventually renew her religious commitment and purge her cassette box again. At the time, I found her actions a bit silly, and I remember thinking that she was wasting an awful lot of money buying music that she was just going to throw away after her next conversion experience. As an adult, I am able to much more sympathetically recognize the genuine torment that characterized her actions, as she struggled to live what her parents, pastor, and youth group were defining for her as a Christian lifestyle, hoping that her choice to forego the influence of secular music would help her to more fully experience Christ’s presence in her life and to live up the expectations of herself and others, regarding what it should ―feel like‖ to be a Christian. 252 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY CYMFs like Lifest therefore have complex implications for the building of positive peace. On one hand, they provide a safe space for Christian youth who may feel alienated from mainstream society, allowing them to feel a sense of inclusion and worth as part of a community, while being able to experience some of the trappings of mainstream adolescence, such as rock-and-roll music and current fashion trends. At the same time, however, the evangelical youth leisure subculture may make it difficult for teens to explore other aspects of their identity beyond religion, and the Christian youth scene may also be quite coercive in terms of scripting a single normative path to a young person’s experience of Christian faith. Perhaps more importantly, from a sociological point of view, this subculture may insulate young people from those who are different from them, especially in terms of sexuality or religious persuasion, and it may perpetuate prejudice through the advancement of particular doctrinal orientations that discourage tolerance and equal rights. The Cornerstone Festival can, in many ways, be read specifically as an act of resistance against this outcome. Cornerstone’s organizers see themselves as rebels, both against a mainstream society characterized by materialism and greed and a mainstream evangelical subculture characterized by narrow-mindedness and a failure to focus on the actual teachings of Jesus. They feel that conservative evangelicalism has failed to uphold its commitment to care and advocacy for those who are disadvantaged in society—those the Bible terms ―the least of these‖—for whom Jesus’ followers, mirroring his example, are supposed to take responsibility for looking after. In essence, they perceive mainstream evangelicalism as having defaulted on Jesus’ legacy. They thus tend to champion causes that would be generally associated with progressive, leftist politics in the United States: inclusiveness, equal rights, poverty alleviation, environmental protection, and so forth. The festival thus served as a space of comfort and support for individuals who feel alienated from mainstream society and mainstream evangelicalism, and attendees frequently expressed to Colleen that they lived for this event each year, relying on it for spiritual sustenance and community. It also, however, served to advance an alternative construction of Christianity and Christian identity, thus opening a potentially different path for young people who felt drawn to Christianity but also to types of social reform that might be frowned upon by their more conservative leaders, parents, or peers. CYMFs can thus be seen as flashpoints for the experience and expression of different ways of Christian being. Some festivals tend to buttress the status quo, supporting the maintenance of a conservative evangelical subculture that tends to thwart the building of positive peace in U.S. society, through its support of a right wing power structure that seeks to deny gay rights, cut assistance to disadvantaged members of society, and prevent wealth redistribution through taxation structures that favor the rich. Others, like Cornerstone, resist the alliance between evangelicalism and the Republican Party and provide attendees with educational opportunities, such as workshops and art features, which spur discussion of the Bible’s complexities and offer information on how to get involved in social activism projects that reduce poverty and promote inclusiveness. The fact that Cornerstone has now closed its gates, while events like Lifest are going as strong as ever, may lead one to take a rather pessimistic view regarding which of these versions of the evangelical subculture will prevail in the future. Only time will tell. 6. Conclusion Haessly (2010, p. 5) conceptualizes peace as a state in which ―human beings can achieve their true potential while caring for themselves, each other and all of creation.‖ Prejudice against those outside one’s social group is a barrier to actualizing such a vision. So is feeling alienated because of one’s spiritual beliefs. CYMFs create a safe space for youth to experience popular culture forms of entertainment and to bond with their fellow Christian 253 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY peers. As such, they offer a space of teenage normalcy and of solidarity, important features in helping youth to build and maintain self-esteem, an essential feature for realizing peace in the lives of young individuals during the turbulent teenage years, when a lack of inner peace can easily turn tragic. In their insulation of youth and maintenance of a rather closed evangelical subculture, however, CYMFs perpetuate conditions that can interfere with positive peace- building, both by failing to challenge right wing ideology within the evangelical movement and by failing to promote engagement of youth with peers outside their religious circle, which could help to build bridges between evangelicals and members of groups traditionally targeted by prejudice. CYMFs with alternative ideologies and practices have been forged, as exemplified by Cornerstone, but they lack the structural support of the mainstream evangelical community (e.g., corporate sponsorships), and thus are more difficult to maintain. It therefore remains to be seen whether alternative forms of leisure and tourism practice, which challenge ideologies that militate against the building of positive peace, will continue to arise and maintain a foothold in the evangelical community. One thing is certain, however: the evangelical movement’s importance in U.S. politics, and the concomitant significance of the American people’s political choices on the world stage, will ensure that this subculture’s leisure and tourism practices will remain a phenomenon to be closely watched by researchers interested in the connections between religion, tourism, and peace. References Ateljevic, I., Morgan, N., and Pritchard, A. (eds.) (2012). 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Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Xu, X. (2006). Modernizing China in the Olympic Spotlight: China’s National Identity and the 2008 Beijing Olympiad. The Sociological Review, 54, pp. 90–107. Zaleski, J. (1997). The Soul of Cyberspace: How New Technology Is Changing Our Spiritual Lives. San Francisco: Harper Edge. 257 Recreational and the Geotourism Value Estimated Babek Castle Using Conditional Valuation Method Fariba Ayase, Mohammad Hosein Fathi, Adel Mohammadi Far, Mina Farokhi Someh 1 M.A in Geomorphology, Tabriz University, Iran 2 Phd student of Geomorphology, Ardebil University, Iran Mail to:Hossein.mousavi047@gmail.Com 3 M.A in of geography and urban planning, Tabriz University, Iran 4 Phd student of geography and urban planning, Tabriz University, Iran Abstract Babak Castle 60 kilometers north of the city of Ahar and 5 kilometers from the city West nomads between deep and dense forests are located. This castle due to special status position among beautiful forests and beautiful nature area Arasbaran the one hand and due to Join old and ancient, tourist areas and Geotourism is important to our country. Therefore, it can study the tourist value in forecasting needs, and deficiency is effective regional tourism development. Especially prone to the region Ecotourism and Geotourism investment due to nature is pristine and beautiful. The purpose of this study to estimate recreational and economic value of this historic castle using Rate is conditional. Factors affecting the amount of people willing to pay the Logit model are used. Data through the use of questionnaires and interviews with 150 visitors from these regions were collected. The results showed that up to 90% visitors pay for the present and recreation visits are mentioned in the education and income variables, number of family members, gender and Offer the possibility of significant willingness to pay of their age, but variable in terms of was not statistically significant. Average willingness to pay USD 985 people and annual economic and recreational value of this castle 246,250,000 tomans respectively. Research has been done to the satisfaction of tourists in this region Geotourism evaluated and a suggestion for ptimal use of existing capabilities and facilities in the region is based on. Keywords: value promenade, long Rate, pattern Logit, Babak Castle, Geotourism. Introduction: The tourism as a fledgling industry in recent years a large impact on the economic situation, social and cultural world. Creating jobs, foreign exchange revenues, regional stability, contributing to world peace, helping to invest in cultural heritage, improving the environment, development of rural areas the tourism attractions and prevent out-nomadic population, and as such has been the industry's benefits.(Sadre Mousavi and fellow,2005,pp129-143). In addition creating a healthy and productive society for sustainable economic progress and development in need of the development and maintenance leisure places or tourism areas to response has to the a growing demand of people. Analysis of factors influencing people's need from point of view economic and social can be to substantial assistance predict the needs and eliminate shortages the tourism areas. Including these factors, value that people are expressed the stated sums willing to pay. One of the standard ways, flexible and applied in research to measure the willingness to pay and recreational values and existence of environmental resources is conditional valuation method. Many researchers have investigated amount of benefits derived from visiting recreation areas and the geotourism uses contingent valuation method that their studies can be an important step towards a correct understanding the benefits of investment in the tourism sector in the country. Including research can be noted the following: Recreational and economic value of the average of five national parks in South Korea 10/54 dollars per family per year gained (Han, Lee, 2002). 259 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Value of wilderness areas in Iceland 243/16 euro earned in the year (Mc millan, Leinhoop, 2007). Economic and recreational value of the annual leopard valley region of Qom based on travel grant 83,395 rials per hectare achieved ( 2000,Mirzaee ). To investigate the role of geo tourism in development the South East one part of Spain has And to the conclusion has achieved that the attention and investment in geo tourism sector, attract tourists to the area and the fullness income for residents is provided (Thomas ,hos, 2007). To assess the economic impacts of tourism attractions in the periphery of rural areas and its role in the economic development of this areas is discussed (Bebenk, 2006). To assess the economic value of recreational Ali Sadr Cave and several other attractions geo tourism contingent valuation method and willingness to pay 4,520 rials per person is estimated (Soraghi, 2007). The other hand due to nature-oriented tourism (ecotourism and geo tourism) is now at the head of Planning so that several Asian countries including China to attract tourists to the tourist attractions and nature guides, has been able to increase several times their foreign exchange revenues. Our country also having very high potential for tourism and nature guides is likely great economic investment in this sector that can provide many foreign exchange revenues for the country. Including tourism regions Babak Castle in East Azerbaijan province's, due to the specific location among beautiful forests Arasbaran, the beautiful and untouched nature, mineral waters, beautiful Aras River in surroundings on the one hand and due to ancient of history the other hand country is one of the main tourist areas that every year climbers and domestic and foreign tourists many are attracted. It should be noted that well known Babak Castle before to be names goat, president and girl Castle (Rostamzadeh, 2004, 22). According to the latest statistics provided by the province tourism organization around 250,000 people a year visit the area. So in this study an attempt has been made to the factors affecting the amount willingness to pay of visitors to this historic castle and economic and recreational value estimation of are examined to contingent valuation method. Location and natural features of the region Babak Castle, 60 kilometers north of the city of Ahar and in 5 km West the city of Kaleibar among the dense forests is located. Babak Castle is located in region that is part of the mountainous masses Arasbaran. This Mountainous mass is at the highest latitude of Iran and south of Aras River Which forms the of Iran northern border with the countries Azerbaijan and Armenia. This Mountainous mass is of main strings Azerbaijan which located in between the three main volcanoes Ararat, Sahand, Sabalan and active tectonics in come the form of a set of complex and much of its limestone rocks and igneous rocks formed and tufit, marl, shale and conglomerate are also seen. This collection was belongs to senozoeic periods and have emerged effect Alpine orogenic severe movements. This historic castle is located at an altitude of 2300 to 2700 meters above sea level and due to volcanic activity and the active tectonic own in the range have elevated peaks with very steep slopes (generally over 2500 m) and deep valleys, 400 to 600 meters. Often is region of soils of the type calcareous and brown soils. Placed in the path fronts of humid Mediterranean climate and Siberian has caused for winter precipitations as snow in the highlands accumulated In spring and summer, small rivers but permanent to feed that most them in direction north on the move and Pours to Aras river. In addition slopes proper nutrition, lead to have been great springs genesis and has created forest environment and various and picturesque landscapes wildlife. Arasbaran the region is also affected Mediterranean climates is the eclipse Caspian and ghafghaz climates and due to the large difference in height, has a variety of weather and climates. The number of foggy days was in this the high range and in altitude, due to accumulation of fog and clouds and cold weather, high dew is produced. Monthly maximum relative humidity is 85% in June. Average annual of temperature at various locations have extreme changes such that this difference is 12 °C. In the lower areas, is the mean annual of temperature 17 °C and at 260 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY altitudes, 12 °C. Climatic conditions in this region based on the Domarten method, are semi- humid temperate summers cool. Existence many historic castles in the area, including the historic castle of Babak, has added to its attractions. Materials and Methods: In this study to estimate value of recreation and geo tourism Babak Castle was used contingent valuation method and and data needed through completing the questionnaires designed with visiting of visitors the castle Babak that had an independent income were collected in the summer of 1388. The questionnaires were designed in two parts. The first section information about the personal, social and economic characteristics, the individual's response and in the second part of the questions was raised about the willingness to pay. In these Section three proposed price amounts 30000 and 50000 and 70000 Rials for dependent and interrelated questions were designed. This Suggested quantities were chosen based on a pretest. The sample included 150 subjects using Cochran formula and data from 25 questionnaires were obtained pre-tested. Sampling method using is simple random sampling. In this study to measure the amount the willingness to pay of visitors dichotomous choice questionnaires two dimensional by Haneman and Carson (1985) was used modified and adjusted. this method tries that willingness to pay (WTP) of individuals under certain hypothetical market scenarios, to determine and is requires determine and selection of a higher initial offer that is give further propose to answer "Yes" and offer less to answer "No". The selection method twofold assumed to be individuals are desirability function following (Amirnejad, et al, 2006,PP 665-675). Which indirect utility function U, individual income y and S vector of is from other economic and social factors. Each visitor is present to pay the amount from your income as suggested amount (A) for recreational use or the environmental sources that the use caused of create favorable for him be. Favorable rates caused by the use of environmental resources than state that he does not use environmental sources that following equation shows it (Haneman, 1984, pp 332-341). In this formulas are are random variables with zero mean that are distributed randomly and independently of each other. Make a difference in the desirability ( ) is in the impact use of environmental of resource is: The structure of double questionnaires in the survey willing to pay has a dependent variable with twofold choice. Thus been used logit model to investigate the effect of different explanatory variables on the WTP of visitors to determine recreational value. Based on logit model the probability of ( ) This person accepts one of the suggestions, as the following equation is expressed (Haneman,1984.pp 332-341). Which is cumulative distribution function standard logistic with a difference and some social and economy variables including income, the proposed amount, age, gender, household size and education in the this study is inserted. , , estimable coefficients are as expected were 0, , . There are three methods to estimate WTP values : The first method is called the mean WPT from which to calculate the expected value of WTP in the range zero to infinity by 261 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY numerical of integration is used. The second method is called average total WTP to calculate the expected value of wtp win the range to by numerical of integration can be. The third method, called the mean WTP is part of it for the calculation of the expected value of WTP by numerical of integration in the range of zero to offer maximum (A) is used. Among these methods, the third method is better because this approach limits consistency and compatibility with the theory of statistical performance and the ability of gather and maintains is calculated from the following equation (lee and Han, 2002, pp 531-540). E (WTP) willingness to pay the expected the amount and Intercept is adjustment. By the sentence socio - economically, to sentence the original intercept added. Logit models may be linear or logarithmic to form functions are estimated that linear function form to calculate mean WTP is easier and has been used from it in most studies. Logit model parameters to the method maximum likelihood were estimated using Shazam software and mathematical calculations with the software Maple. Tensile strength K th explanatory variable in the logit model the can be obtained from the following equation: Stretch each explanatory variable does expressed that one change percentage in ( ) is cause of change the some percentage in the probability of success the dependent variable ( ). Depending on the type explanatory variables, there are two separate methods for calculating the net effect in logit model: If quantitative variable is change in the probability of success dependent variable ( ) to effect of changing of one unit in that is called to name final effect as following equation is calculated. 1- As can be seen in this pattern value of changed in likelihood, based on the initial probability and depends on the initial values of all independent variables and their coefficients. 2- If is virtual variable, effect of final for this variable is change in the probability of success dependent variable ( ) in result of change ( ) from zero to one while the other variables are kept at one fixed value. The amount final effect virtual explanatory variable is can be calculated by the following equation: Other variables fixed values ( ), as "Sample of state" is known. Mode of to determine The amount status Sample is that for Virtual variables their mod the amount and for other variables their mean values are considered. Review and Discussion Functions and services valuation non-market of environmental is important for many reasons (oug, 2001, mihsa, 2000, emav, 1998) that the main the reasons can be mention items such as: identification and understanding of environmental and ecological resources by humans, environmental issues presented to the decision makers and planners, providing link between economic policies and natural of incomes, sensing role and importance of environmental resources in support of sustainable development and human welfare and prevent the destruction and unwise exploitation. In order by using valuation indicators and the questionnaires design and determining amounts of offer obtained recreational and the geotourism value Babak Castle. Results from a questionnaire survey showed that more than 80 percent of tourists addition to Visits of this historic castle, the purpose of your trip enjoy 262 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY the region beautiful nature and phenomena as have been Answering status to three proposed amount in Table no (1) is coming: The results show that from 150 the visitor this area, 48 person’s initial amount of offer, 120 persons down amount of offer (30,000) and 30 persons have accepted the high amount of offer. Table 1. Answering status to three proposed amount for calculate the economic value of recreation Babak Castle Admission status initial amount of down amount of high amount of offer 50000 rials offer 30000 rials offer 70000 rials Admission of Number 48 120 30 the proposed Percent 32 80 20 amount Rejection of the Number 98 30 58 proposed Percent 65/33 20 38/66 amount sum Number 146 150 35 Percent 97/33 100 58/66 For evaluate the presence or absence linear relation in this study analysis of variance test was used. The results of these tests showed that between explanatory variables used in the model, there is not linear relation. San and Mackinnon (1984) were presenting statistical under the title LM2 for testing anisotropy variance at Logit and Probit models. This statistic is based LM method and at that an artificial regression using the results of formed Logit or probit model estimates and this artificial regression is used for testing the anisotropy variance. Amount of statistic LM2 in pattern processed is equal to 3/3 and since the (‫ )از انجا که‬value probability this statistic is equal to 65%‫ ش‬ssumption of homogeneity of variance in the model is accepted (Whister, 1999). Intended logit model was estimated to form linear and logarithmic functions. The results of the assessment these two patterns showed that amounts determine the MAC Fadn and likelihood ratio form linear function than the logarithmic form been above Thus, was used from linear model. For evaluate the overall meaningful the estimated regression was used from statistic likelihood ratio (LR). The value of this statistic, in degrees of freedom 7 is equal to 170/ 27 and since that this amount is higher than the value probability value (p-) the proposed, therefore overall pattern estimates from statistically is significant in the 1% level. Coefficient values of the determine the Estrella, Madala, Krag – Auhler and Mac Fadn for logit model was estimated that is respectively 60%, 49%, 65% and 48%. These amounts considering dependent variable the number of observations are favorable numbers. Percentage of correct prediction model estimated is also more than 84% and since the acceptable value percentage of correct predictions for logit and probit models is equal to 70 percent, amount percentage of correct predictions obtained in this pattern show desirable number. So above pattern is reliable for further analysis. 263 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Table 2. The results of the estimation of logit pattern variables amount of value of the stretching the the final effect estimated statistic + total weight coefficients ‫عرض از مبدا‬ -4/46 -2/64 -1/97 -1/004 age 23% 1/03 42% 21% sex -1/25 -2/19 -37% -20% education 30% 3/71 1/55 80% household size -66% -3/36 -1.41 -75% income 0.000008% 3.68 1.69 83% proposed price 0.00022% -2.44 -19% -91% As table 2 show estimated coefficients for explanatory variables of sex, education, household size, income and proposed price Is statistically significant at the 5 percent of level. Age, education and income have a positive effect and sex, household size, and proposed price has a negative effect on the willingness to pay of visitors is of this historic castle. But variable the age statistically is not significant. Increasing number of households willing to pay to reduce and increase the number of years of education has led to an increased willingness to pay. Stretch of total weight related to income and education variables, is equal to the of 1/69 and 1/55 show that with fixed other factors one percent increase in income level and education increase the possibility of willing to pay the visitors 1/69 and 1/55 percent. Stretch of amounts studied for variables household size and proposed price that is equal to -1/41 and - 0/89 show that with fixed other factors one percent decrease in household size and proposed price the possibility of willing to pay the visitors1 /41 and -19 percent decrease. The ultimate effect of related to independent variables of education and income is respectively 3/71and 3/ 68. In other words, by increasing one unit mentioned of variables the possibility reception willing to pay by visitor increase 3/71and 3/ 68. Is the final effect of proposed price of -19 percent namely increase one unit above variable leading to a decrease the probability of acceptance Willingness to pay in visitor as much as 19 percent will be. Average willingness to pay using equation (5) was obtained for each visitor 985 Tomans. 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Sadr Mousavi, Mir Satar & Javad dakhili kahnemoyi, (1384), evaluation of tourism facilities, tourists view of East Azerbaijan province, Geographical Journal 61, pp. 129-143. Saraghy, Esa (1387), analyzing the development of ecotourism attractions Papdar Province, School of Humanities and Social Sciences University. Thomas A.hos(2007) landscapes of meaning geotourism and the sustainable Exploitation of the European geo heritage. National Geographic.pp.14-19 Vaze, P. (1998). System of environment and economic accounting (SEEA). London: ONS, U.K. Whister,D.(1999) An Introductory Guide to SHZAM .www.shazam.Econ.uba.ca.logit Test for Heteroskedasticity. 265 Halal and Haram foods-drinks in the views of Rumi Zabihi Robab, Zabihi Ebrahim, Raoufi Farzaneh Mashhad Education Organization Farhang- High School, Iran e-mail: robabzabihi@gmail.com Abstract Objectives: Mowlana Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi Rumi (1207-1273), is a great poet and mystic whose works in religion and mysticism are well known and highly respected in a better part of the Middle East cultures. In this article we have tried to summarize his opinions and views expressed about foods and drinks. Methodology: The most famous books of Rumi which are available in persian were extensively revievew and all phrases related to any kind of foods or drinks retrieved. According to any word’s meanings and its bibliography, the Rumi’s views were guessed and categorized. Results: According to the views expressed in Rumi’s 5 main books (Fihi-mafihe, Makatib, Kolyat Shams, Majales haftgane, Masnavi Ma'navi; he believed in two types of food: 1- body food which he mention it as sweet and fat; 2- Soul food which he name it jaan food. According to Rumi’s views, halal or haram (religiously allowed or banned) for these two types or foods/drinks are different. While Rumi, as a well known Islamic cleric, does not allow alcohol consumption, he name sentimental foods of jaan as the wine of the soul which he believes would enormously benefits the human. Love is the cornerstone of all human jaan foods and it is in higher rank compared to body’s foods which Rumi call them the grass!. Rumi believes that if somebody neglects to eat halal (good) jaan foods, his/her soul would get sick and ill. So for having a strong soul someone should seek halal jaan food and avoid harams. Finally, Rumi believes that the jaan foods are not some kind of materials but they are like lights which might be absent to ordinary body senses Keywords: soul, jaan, Masnavi, mysticism 1. Introduction Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, also named under Mevlana or Movlana or Movlavi, was born in Balkh, about the year 604 AH and died in Konya in the year 672 AH. Rumi was a great mystic who promoted himself to a high levels of sentimental information and wisdom through numerous travels full of austerity. For this reason he gives much more prices to the human soul and spirit than the body. He wrote in Masnavi this song: ‫( ای تزادر تْ ُوَ اًذیؼَ ای‬Eiy Baraad-dar to ham-eh Andisheh-ee) ‫( هاتمی خْد اطتخْاى ّ ریؼَ ای‬Maa Bagh-ee Khud Osstokhaan-o Risheh-ee) Which means: My bro, you are essentially just thoughts; the rest of you is only some bones and tendons. His cloths and foods (as far as related to himself) were simple as possible. His food, especially when eating alone, was a little bread with yoghurt or a small snack eating them by satisfaction. This was not, of course, because he was a greedy or voracious person. For this reason drinks, foods, Halal or Haram had different meaning to Movlana. For the instance, he look at the body foods meant as grass compared to the food of soul which seems to him as the light. Clarifying this different view of Movlana about Halal and Haram, which 267 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY are two internationally well known terms in Islam, based on Rumi’s available works, is the subject of this article. 2. The character of food in the views of Rumi Movlana, at the first section of his book Monajat-Nameh (meaning praying) compares the soul unity to wine and addresses: “taste to the soul of the fans the wine of unity” and believes that a good person should have close look at what he/she eats! And watch his/her carrion eater spirit and devilish desires. Also it might be a test trap from deity. He symbolizes the believers to the snake-fish and declares that the snake eats wind and soils same as the devilish soul’s food which is soil and wind. How does foods look like soil?! Look at the fate of fatty and sweet foods (two kind of delicious foods in Rumi’s era), which god has created them from soil, how they become soils. Now that you learnt the bread and meat are just painted soil! Seek another food. The other snake’s food is wind!, which wind?. The wind of arrogance and conceit. As soon as humans feel full of bread (foods), pursue arrogance and conceit. Here the believers’ moods are not just snake and not merely fish either, but it is snake-fish. Once, the snake side of their souls take them toward soils and wind and the other time the fishy side of their soul takes them toward water (which symbolizes the life pleasures). 3. Halal and Haram from Rumi’s point of view Rumi believes in two types of food: 1 - sweet and fatty food substances, which he says about: «:‫»چزب ّ ػیزیي کن دٍ ایي هزدار را‬ meaning: feed less sweet and fatty substances to this carrion (the body) ( ‫هْالًا خالل الذیي دمحم‬ ‫ هْلْی‬AH 1355 (AD 1976)) which this type of food originates from outside of the body and is like grass. 2- The second type of food is for human soul and spirit which their Halal or Haram differ fundamentally from the previous kind of foods. Rumi argues that this is the lovers' and the soul's food which originate from inside of human. He mentions: )472‫غشل‬،‫"تادٍ ی عؼك ای غالم ًیظت زالل ّ ززام" (دیْاى ػوض‬ meaning: Oh! buddy!, the wine of love is neither Halal nor Haram, or: "‫"ػزاب زك زالل اًذر زالل اطت‬ meaning: the wine of truth is definitely Halal The soul's and spirit's foods are more important to Rumi's, he advise to:.. make a cocktail! of confession and asking god forgiveness to refresh and nourish your heart and religion. This world's food is like a step mother's breast milk, which you might aspirate. Congratulation to that baby who got his/her wisdom teeth and got read of this step mother and her breast milk! and now his/her food, instead of that milk, is sentimental findings. Rumi believes that his soul is grown up from a kid and should not metnion to the secrets! as a fetus feed from the mother's blood and then this blood change to breast milk. Then after his/her teeth grown up, he/she stop eating breast milk and start new foods. Rumi symbolizes this world's food to the grass and says: "...do not bring me grass, I'm not animal, an angle eats by watching the god's beauty". 268 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY According to Rumi, the human soul's food is the spirit livelihood and your heart would lead you to heartily guided people, while your body would imprison you in soils and water and materialism. Hence, he ask: (34 ‫تخغ‬،‫دفتز اّل‬،‫"ُیي غذای دل تذٍ" (هثٌْی‬ meaning: "give me the soul's food" because if you only seek the body food, your bodily spirit would grow up and the bodily spirit is like hell. The hell is like a dragon which even if drink seven seas! it would be still thirsty and even if eat all the world its stomach says: I want more!. So. as you feed more sweet and fatty foods this bodily spirit, it asks for more and more! Rumi believes that the food of chosen (higher ranked) ones are not materially substances and there is no need for throat or any other objective means, but they mainly eat from the god's glow. It is the reason that he prays (before sunrise) as: ّ ‫" اللِن اخعلٌی ًْرا فی للثی ّ ًْرا فی تـزی ّ ًْرا فی ػعزی ّ ًْرا فی تؼزی ّ ًْرا فی لسوی ّ ًْرا فی دهی‬ ‫اللِن سدًی ًْرا‬.‫ًْرا هي تیي یذی ّ ًْرا فی خلفی ّ ًْرا فی تستی ّ ًْرا فی فْلی ّ ًْرا عي یویٌی ّ ًْرا عي ػوالی‬ )287‫ؽ‬،‫ افالکی‬-‫ّ اعطٌی ًْرا ّ اخعلٌی ًْرا یا ًْر الٌْر تززوتک یا ارزن الزازویي "(هٌالة العارفیي‬ meaning: "...Oh! Lord, please set light in my heart and light in my eyes and light in my mind and light in my skin and light in my muscles and light in my blood and light in my hands and light in my back and light in my below and light in my above and light in my left and light in north. Oh! my almighty, give me light and increase my light and put me in light, oh! my lord, you are lights of the lights. "(2009 ,‫)افالکی‬ He believes that the human has missed his real food which is the soul's food. For all humans there are soul's foods but because of the soul illness they mistakenly take clay (soil and water) which makes their souls more sick, pale!, and weak. It is the reason that in Quran god says: "... the martyrs are alive and they are fed by their god..." This type of foods doesn't need mouth or plate to be eaten! In “Daftar-e Sevvom” (meaning 3rd booklet) book, Rumi says: “ ..Oh! Zziaa-Oll-Hagh- Hessaa-Mmooddin!, disclose the secrets treasure a give up excuses. Your real food is the truth food not warm blood and vessels..” The glow of Shams (disambiguation: “The sun” in Arabic, or, “Sahms” The Rumi’s mentor) does not come from oil and lamp. As the Gabriel angle’s food does not come from the kitchen but it’s from the lord’s companionship…” and “… the food of God’s favorite men is from the truth not ordinary food and plate …” Rumi in another place (Daftar-e Sevvom- section 1) says about drinking: “… How shame that when it comes to thoughts, the human throat (an idiom) is very narrow and can’t swallow!. When wine of the truth wanted to appear in Mount Sinai (referring to Moses story) they could not swallow this drink and the mount exploded!..” According to Rumi, food donation is not a hard job! and could be accomplished by anyone, however, giving throat to somebody is just the Lord’s job!. The Lord gives throat to the body and the soul!. He gives the soul’s throat to make you a goddess and clean you from deception and dishonesty. So, this gift throat, which drinks the Lord’s secrets should not disclose them to inconsiderate people and should be remained muted like flowers, which have drunk hundreds secrets of the Lord’s beauty. Like a fetus which doesn’t have any food except blood while staying in the womb, the Lord does not feed you by the world’s secrets until you come out of your ordinary world!. 269 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Your food would be like blood to that fetus while your world is materialistic. Then, it is up to you to choose your food! For example; pig meat and carrion are two Haram foods for the body in Islam but backbiting is Haram for the soul!. Like the real world, people souls have different appetites and they choose their favorite foods for their souls! Humans are like guest on the creation’s table and it is just like the Lord has created different foods for different tastes. Rumi classifies the people’s throat illnesses into two types which they shall visit a physician who are body physicians or soul physicians to heal their God gift throat. The first type of physicians have their own bodily ill patients and look at the heart as a blood pump machine!. They are foods and fruits physicians and look after the bodily soul. Rumi jokes about them as: )121 ‫ " آى طثیثاى را تْد تْلی دلیل" (دفتز طْم تخغ‬. Meaning: “ …for these physicians urine is a sign!...” (Daftar-e Sevvom- section 1) These physicians ask for wage for doing their jobs. In contrary, the 2nd type of physicians, the soul physicians could look at the heart without any tools because they have got the wisdom and are inspired by the Lord’s glory. For cure, they say which act is useful or harmful, which talk promote you or is poisonous for your health. They have based their treatments on Lord’s revelation and do not ask for wage because they believe that God would pay them a lot. They invite the patients for healing and announce that their medications heal all patients. Rumi believes in 3 degrees of soul: 1) Soul of animal, 2) Soul of human, 3) Soul of God chosen talents The animals’ soul is like an oil-lamp which only foods keep them alive. If this lamp dies out, it doesn’t affect the neighbors’ home and doesn’t make there dark!. Those who posses only animal souls and eat only bodily foods are like wolves and dogs whose their souls are completely not related. Where Rumi mention: )17 ‫تخغ‬،4‫" خاى گزگاى ّ طگاى ُز یک خذاطت" (دفتز‬ Meaning: “…The dogs and wolves soul are all separated.. ” (Daftar-e Chahharrom- section 17) But those who brought faith in God are like a unified soul, where he says: "...‫هتسذ خاى ُای ػیزاى خذاطت‬..." Meaning: “…The souls of God’s lions are unbified. ” (Daftar-e Chahharrom- section 17) 2) The 2nd degree of soul is the human soul, he says about this degree of the soul: ‫هائذٍ عمل اطت ًی ًاى ّ ػْی ًْر عمل اطت ای پظز خاى را غذی‬.." ))‫اس خش آى خاى ًیاتذ پزّرع‬ ‫ًیظت غیز ًْر آدم را خْرع‬ )74 ‫تخغ‬،4 ‫(دفتز‬ Meaning: The (human soul’s) food is thinking not bread and vegetables; Buddy!, thinking glow is food for the (human) soul (Daftar-e Chahharrom- section 74) 270 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Movlana declares that if you don’t want to be like a donkey (animal), eat less bodily and materialistic foods to be able to eat glow foods: )74 ‫تخغ‬،4 ‫" (دفتز‬...‫لموَ ُای ًْر را آکل ػْی‬ ‫ تا غذای اؿل را لاتل ػْی‬..." To be able to eat the real foods And eat pieces of glow foods (Daftar-e Chahharrom- section 74) If you get the chance to eat the glow foods just for one time!, you would never be interested in ordinary bread and foods. 3) The 3rd degree of soul is the soul of God chosen talents. They are called “Olyaa Al- laah” (Arabic: ‫)اّلیا هللا‬. These are saints whose their foods are the Lord’s glow and truth. The glow which is the human soul’s food is body food for these God chosen talents (“Olyaa Al-laah”). Rumi says about them: )13‫تخغ‬،5‫لیک اس چؼن خظیظاى تض ًِاى))(دفتز‬ ‫زثذا خْاًی ًِادٍ در خِاى‬ Meaning: The Lord has set a generous table of foods in this world but it is hidden to parsimonious people’s eyes. (Daftar-e Pan-jom- section 13) And he believes that anybody who eat from the Lord’s glow would talk (and behave) magically and legitimately: )90 ‫ تخغ‬،3 ‫چْى ًشایذ اس لثغ طسز زالل " (دفتز‬ ‫" ُز کَ تاػذ لْت اّ ًْر خالل‬ 271 ‫‪International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY‬‬ ‫‪References:‬‬ ‫افالکی ع‪ .‬ا‪ .‬ا‪ .)2009( ,.‬هٌالة العارفیي‪.‬‬ ‫هْالًا خالل الذیي دمحم هْلْی ‪ (AH 1355 (AD 1976)).‬کلیات ػوض تثزیشی تِزاى‪ ,‬اهیز کثیز‪.‬‬ ‫تز لة دریای هثٌْی(تیاى هماؿذ اتیات)‪،‬کزین سهاًی – تِزاى‪ً،‬ؼز لطزٍ ‪2 ،1381،‬ج‬ ‫هثٌْی هعٌْی(تز اطاص ًتایح لًْیَ) تَ تـسیر ّ پیغ گفتار عثذالکزین طزّع چاپ اّل‪ 1375 :‬اًتؼارات علوی ّ‬ ‫فزٌُگی‬ ‫ػزذ هثٌْی ػزیف‪،‬تذیع الشهاى فزّساًفز‪،‬تِزاى‪،‬ػزکت اًتؼارات علوی ّ فزٌُگی ‪ 1380‬چاپ دُن‬ ‫تسز در کْسٍ‪،‬عثذالسظیي سریي کْب‪،‬اًتؼارات علوی‪،‬تِار ‪ 1372‬چاپ چِارم‬ ‫هدالض طثعَ(ُفت خطاتَ)‪،‬هْلْی خالل الذیي دمحم اتي دمحم‪ ،‬تا تْفیك ٍ ‪.‬طثساًی‪،‬تِزاى ‪،‬کیِاى‪1365،‬‬ ‫هدالض طثعَ ی هْالًا‪ ،‬تَ تـسیر ازوذ رهشی آلایْرک‪ُ،‬وزاٍ تزخوَ ی تزکی دمحم خلْؿی‪،‬تَ اُتوام دکتز فزیذّى ًافذ‬ ‫اّسلْق‪،‬اطتاًثْل‪،‬هطثعَ ی تْسلْرت‪1937،‬‬ ‫ػزذ کاهل فیَ ها فیَ‪،‬گفتار ُایی اس هْالًا خالل الذیي دمحم تلخی ‪،‬کزین سهاًی‪،1330،‬اًتؼارات هعیي‬ ‫سهاًی‪،‬کزین‪،‬ػزذ کاهل فیَ ها فیَ گفتار ُایی اس هْالًا‪،‬خالل الذیي دمحم تلخی‪،‬اًتؼارات هعیي‪ ،‬چاپ اّل‪1390،‬‬ ‫ػزذ هثٌْی هعٌْی هْلْی‪،‬ریٌْلذ الیي ًیلکظْى‪،‬تزخوَ ّ تعلیك زظي الُْتی‬ ‫ػزکت اًتؼارات علوی ّ فزٌُگی ‪1374،‬‬ ‫کلیات ػوض تثزیشی ‪،‬هْالًا خالل الذیي دمحم هْلْی تا تـسیسات ّ زْاػی تذیع الشهاى فزّساًفز‪،‬اهیز کثیز‪1355،‬‬ ‫گشیذٍ فیَ ها فیَ ‪،‬هماالت هْالًا‪،‬تا تلخیؾ‪،‬همذهَ ّ ػزذ زظیي دمحم الذیي الِی لوؼَ ای ‪،‬ػزکت اًتؼارات علوی ّ‬ ‫فزٌُگی ‪،1377،‬‬ ‫هیٌا گز عؼك ‪،‬کزین سهاًی ‪ً،‬ؼز ًی‪1382،‬‬ ‫هْلْی خالل الذیي دمحم‪،‬فیَ ها فیَ‪،‬تـسیسات ّ زْاػی‪،‬تذیع الشهاى فزّساًفز‪،‬چاپ طْم‪،‬اًتؼارات اهیز کثیز‪،‬‬ ‫تِزاى‪1358،‬‬ ‫هکتْتات هْالًا خالل الذیي رّهی‪ ،‬تـسیر دکتز تْفیك ٍ‪ .‬طثساًی (تا همذهَ هززْم عثذ الثالی گْلپیٌارلی تز تزخوَ‬ ‫هکتْتات)‪ ،‬تزکیَ‬ ‫سریي کْب‪،‬عثذ السظیي‪،‬پلَ پلَ تا هاللات خذا ‪،‬درتارٍ سًذگی‪،‬اًذیؼَ ّ طلْک هْالًا‪،‬تِزاى‪،‬علوی ‪1377،‬‬ ‫‪272‬‬ A socio-demographic study on Iranians Hajj-pilgrims Zabihi Ebrahim, Zabihi Robab, Emrani Ali-Asghar, Raoufi Farzaneh Babol University of Medical Sciences Cellular Molecular Biology Research Center e-mail: e.zabihi@mubabol.ac.ir Mashhad Education Organization robabzabihi@gmail.com Abstract Objectives: The Hajj pilgrimage has become the one of the most favorite religious tours in Iran, as an active Isalmic country, after Islamic revolution in 1979. The Hajj participants (“Hajji’s” in Persian) have a wide socio-cultural characteristics and with different attitudes toward this religious journey. The aim of this study was to evaluate some these socio- demographic properties of a small random population of Persian Hajj pilgrims. Methodology: Using a specifically designed questionnaire, some of the most important demographic and soci-economic information related to the pilgrims were obtained during their enrollment process for the Hajj at 4 different Hajj tour stations (Karavaan) during 2012. The obtained results were analyzed using SPSS® software and presented using descriptive statistics. Results: The provided information by 121 Persian pilgrims who filled the questionnaires were analyzed. There was no significant sex ratio heterogeneity (female/male: 59/61) among the pilgrims. The mean of pilgrims ages was 52±10 yrs (mean ± SD) with no significant sex-age correlation. More than 30% of the study samples had academic education (college or university). However, 87% of the sample population declared to have annual incomes less than 15000 USD. Surprisingly more than 73% of the pilgrims had previously participated in Hajj tours and most of them were satisfied with its price (59%) and its sentimental outcomes (90%). More than 84% of the pilgrims believe that their participation in Hajj ceremony increased their friendships and peace towards other Islamic nations. Conclusions: Hajj pilgrimage is a subsidized religious journey provided by Islamic government of Iran that could be of benefits for many low income Persian Muslims to participate in this internationally accredited religious event. They not only feel sentimental satisfaction after the Hajj ceremony, but also it could be useful for Islamic people unification and peace. Keywords: Income, education, sentimental 1. Introduction Saudi Arabia Ministry of Hajj has announced that every year about 3 million pilgrims from all over the globe come to Saudi-Arabia to participate in Hajj (or Umrah) pilgrimage (Ministry of Hajj-Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2009). With a share of better than 10% of annual participating Hajjis, Iran has the highest pilgrims in this unique international religious occurring, among all Muslim countries (2012 ‫; نمانيده ولي فقيه در امىر حج و زيارت‬2002 ‫)قهرودي‬. As the world largest religious occurring , Hajj brings together many races from different countries, even though some of them might be in conflict or even war against the others!, and provides a chance for different people from different nations peacefully interact (Greater Kashmir 2012) . Hajj is a religious duty and one of 5 pillars of Islam which must be carried out at least once in a Muslim lifetime who could afford to do so. It is a huge socio-economic motive among Muslims of all over the world specially among Iranian. After Islamic revolution in 273 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Iran, the tradition of Iranians to participate in Hajj has been highly promoted and improved both by government and non-governmental organizations. It is believed that Hajj for Iranian has become a kind of religious tourism accompanied by a life refreshment and world exploring. Many Iranians who travel on education or business purposes, might never find the chance to participate in Hajj and Saudi Arabia as pilgrims but at the depth of any Muslim Iranian Hajj is a great chance to fulfill his/her religious duty and open new horizons in his/her life specially if they have not got the chance to visit outside of the country. Mecca in Saudi- Arabia and two holly cities in Iraq (Karbla & Najaf) are the two most desired religious places to visit for Iranians. Despite participating in Hajj is once enough during whole one Muslim’s life, but the public ambition to repeat this holly journey seems to be much higher specially for those who participated once. While Iran’s population has been roughly doubled after Islamic Revolution in Iran (United Nations Population Fund, 2012), the total annual number of Hajj pilgrims have been increased nearly 10 fold!. To have a better picture of Iranian’s Hajj pilgrims, we designed this sociio-economic study. 1.1. Methodology As a cross-sectional study conducted on 300 participants who had enrolled for Hajj pilgrimage in 2012, a validated questionnaire was designed (for its English translation see App. 1) and after explaining the purpose of the study, filled anonymously by own pilgrims or by the investigators for those who might needed help. 1.2 Statistical Methods: Quantitative data are presented as Mean ± S.D. and the differences among between categories were evaluated either by ANOVA or chi-square tests. A P-value less than 0.05 assumed statistically significant. 2. Results There was no significant difference between women/men gender ratio among the candidate pilgrims (women 59/men 61) in this study (P<0.05). The mean of pilgrims ages was 52±10 yrs (mean±SD) with no significant sex-age correlation (P<0.05) (Table 1). Table 1. Age and gender information of the surveyed Hajj pilgrims Gender Number of Pilgrims (%) Age (mean±SD) Female 59 (48.7%) 53.8±8.2 Male 61 (50.4%) 49.9±11.2 N/A 1 (0.9%) - total 121 (100%) 52±10 * No significant age difference was observed among the 2 genders Only 13.2% of pilgrims (mostly female) were single. More than 30% of the study samples had academic education (college or university) (Fig 1). However, more than 87% of the sample population declared to have annual incomes less than 18000 USD (Fig 2). Surprisingly more than 73% of the pilgrims had previously participated in Hajj tours and most of them were satisfied with its price (59%) and its sentimental outcomes (90%). More than 84% of the pilgrims believe that their participation in Hajj ceremony increased their friendships and peace towards other Islamic nations. 274 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Figure 1. Pilgrims education levels Figure 2. Pilgrims annual income 3. Discussion and Conclusion: According to the survey results, Hajj pilgrimage is a favorite religious ritual among Iranians of both sexes (at least in Mashhad, a city at the east of Iran). The equal sex ratio among Iranians Hajj pilgrims is significantly different from the world Hajj pilgrims sex ratio of 56% (male)-44% (female) percentages reported by Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia (1998). This might be originated from Persian-Shiaism culture of Iran which gives more room for women to participate in socio-religious activities compared to some other Islamic countries where the male domination is more obvious (Mahallati, 2011). Despite of Islam permission and municipal laws in Iran, Polygamy is a controversial issue and a bizarre phenomenon in Iran's major provinces. Also the average of pilgrims ages (52±10 yrs) is well below the Iran's life expectancy annual report (which in 2012 was about 74 yrs) by Iran's Ministery of Health (2012) (2012 ,‫ )جهان نيىز‬which could justify the couple who participate the Hajj together and this would keep the female/male ratio near to 50:50 (Table 1). 275 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY The higher education levels among the pilgrims (more than 30% of the pilgrims have academic degrees) is in concordance with Iran's last decades public education progress, which has been addressed by United Nation (2012) as 84.6% rate of literacy (United Nations Population Fund, 2012). The skyrocket progress in Iranian women academic education, recently has been buzzing in the media. The average annual income of the Iranian pilgrims is lower than destination country (Saudi Arabia) per capita. The high percentage of repetitive Hajj journey among Iranian pilgrims (more than 73%) might not only arouse economic but also health issues. Since nowadays the world's Muslim population has passed the 1.2 billion in number, a practical planning to give all Muslims the Hajj opportunity at least once at one's whole life is a big job for Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Hajj. As a final word, the Iranian Hajj pilgrims seem to be very happy with the subsidized opportunity given by their Islamic government. This a good opportunity for poor people to encounter with other nations in a peaceful and spiritual atmosphere, but good planning of the country resources for this holy ritual to enable more Iranians get the opportunity to travel to the holy land of Mecca remains as a big responsibility for the Iranian authorities. References Greater Kashmir. (2012). "4 million perform Hajj." Retrieved 14 December, 2012, from http://www.greaterkashmir.com/news/2012/Oct/30/4-million-perform-hajj-43.asp. Ministry of Hajj-Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (2009). "Numbers of Hajj pilgrims (1996 - 2006)." Retrieved Dec. 14, 2012, from http://www.hajinformation.com/main/l.htm. ." Retrieved Dec 14, 2012, from ‫ " ساالنه ی ايران در حج سهميه‬.)2002( .‫ خ‬,‫قهرودي‬ http://noorportal.net/news/ShowNews.aspx?ID=9926. ." Retrieved 15 Dec . 2012, ‫ "سهميه حج تمتع و عمره ی ايران‬.)2012( .‫نمانيده ولي فقيه در امىر حج و زيارت‬ from http://www.asriran.com. Retrieved December 14, 2012, from ".‫ "نرخ اميد به زندگی در ايران اعالم شد‬.)2012( .‫جهان نيىز‬ ./http://www.ghatreh.com/news 276 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY Appendix 1) The design questionnaire for socio-demographic study on Iranians Hajj-pilgrims Dear Pilgrim: The following questionnaire is designed to assess your Hajj journey. Your honest responses will be very helpful in the future planning. Personal information: Age:......years Gender: □Male □Female Marriage: □ Single □ Married Level of Education: □ End of Primary (up to) □ Diploma (up to) □ Academic (higher) How many times you have participated in Hajj pilgrimage: ....... times Your average annual financial income is: □ <12 million Toman □ 12-36 million □ > 36 million Toman (< 6000 USD) Toman (> 18000 USD) (6-18× 1000 USD) Your main motive for this religious journey is: □ just religious duty and spiritual □ exploring and understanding other progress cultures Answer the following questions if you have Hajj journey experience in the past How many years ago you've been on Hajj journey? (last time): ....... years ago Was your last Hajj effective on your sentimental and spiritual progress: □yes □No Regarding welfare and comfort; are you satisfied with your previous Hajj: □yes □No Do you believe that Hajj improves Muslims unification and the world peace?: : □yes □No 277 The Usage Of Socio-Psycho Factors As A Sustainable Competition Medium To Develop Faith Tourism Center: The Case Of Konya Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmet TAYFUN Gazi University, Faculty of Tourism, Ankara, Turkey E-mail: tayfun@gazi.edu.tr Asst. Prof. Dr. Erkan AKGÖZ Selcuk University, Beyşehir Ali Akkanat School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Konya, Turkey, E-mail: eakgoz@selcuk.edu.tr Instructor Karabey PALAVAR Selcuk University, Beyşehir Ali Akkanat Department Hospitality Services Vocational School of Tourism and Hotel Services, Konya, Turkey, E-mail: kpalavar@selcuk.edu.tr Abstract The act of developing tourism centers and making them sustainable requires the effective usage of social, cultural and psychological assets. The faith tourism centers are developed by using social and psychological assets in some areas as a medium of sustainable tourism. The developing of the faith tourism centers requires human capital to be diversified and commercialized with technological capital. It is not appropriate to limit the approval of the any region as the faith tourism to the only religious attitudes and life style. It is crucial to evaluate the social and psychological assets such as cuisine, music and art according to some certain standards. In this study, the effects of the intense usage of the tourism sources on the environment, social and psychological factors are discussed. As a result of this, the importance of the ensuring the sustainability of the sources and standard quality for the faith tourism is emphasized. The potential of the faith tourism in Konya is determined at the first phase of this study. The solution proposals are presented by collecting the data related to the shareholders that use this potential with questionnaire and evaluating electronically in the subsequent phase. Key Words: Sustainability, Faith Tourism, Konya Introduction The concept of the competition which is the core of the economy according to the changing economic conditions is described as the share of the limited resources among the limitless human needs (Aktan and Vural 2004). The institution of the rival business is described as the race in which suppliers in a market take part to increase the sale of goods and services and profit by acquiring more customers (Rekabet Kurumu 2011). The competition is the advantage forming much more value than the economical profit created by the rivals in the market (Barney 1995). The regions that want to get this advantage and sustain is bound to analyze the successes and the failures of the regions which they compete. As a result of this analysis, the reasons of the success and the failure can be detected. The strategies can be changed according to this information. The settlements have to consider the decisions and application strategies of the rival regions while they supply the expectation of the target audience with the abilities they have. 279 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY The most chosen sector by the settlements as a means of social, cultural and economic development is tourism. Tourism is integral which consisted of sub-systems. The geography is the most important portion. The cultural activities, tourism facilities, the organizations and their products form the components of the tourism. This geographical area also constitutes the human area. The tourism activity in a specific area is the part of life circle for the local people. It affects the local people seriously in terms of social, culture, economy and environment (Alaeddinoğlu, 2007; 2). Konya that had hosted many civilizations has many historical and cultural values. Especially, the faith tourism is used as a means of sustainable competition instrument for the region. 1. The Faith Tourism The religion helps for the cultural cooperation and faith unity among the individuals and the regions. Therefore, lots of studies carried out about its affect and importance on person and societies. Besides, global cultural cooperation and the peace atmosphere can be reached much more easily thanks to the faith tourism. The atmosphere of peace and cooperation is not only important for the local people, but also for the tourists and the managers of the tourism enterprises. All of the religions such as Islam, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism remove the ethnicity and nationalism. The religious values are helpful for the effective usage of social, cultural and psychological factors and to make them sustainable. The visits of the people to the important places of the regions who want to be pilgrim and find spiritual peace are within the context of the faith tourism (İçöz, 2003:6). The faith tourism is the visits of the people in order to see the religious attractions and fulfill the religious needs in the regions that are away from the places they live permanently (Bingöl, 2007:1). The guides of the all religions make it compulsory to visit the religious sites, holy cities and lands by the faithful. These visits also start an economical action for the regions. As a result of this, the countries that host these religious buildings always get benefits from the visits by both the faithful and the curious visitors (Sargın, 2006:3). The most of the religious have liturgies in the specific periods of time. The pilgrimage of the Muslims in the Festivity of Sacrifice, the liturgy of Hindus in the River of Ganges to purify can be counted as examples. The studies on the faith tourism in Turkey started in 1995 and the faith tourism tours were made by the participants of the foreign tour operators, press, and cleric and scholars between the years of 1995-1998. There are important pilgrimage sites in Anatolia for the Muslims (The Sacred Trusts in the Palace of Topkapı, Eyup Sultan Mosque, Suleymaniye Mosque, Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, the Tomb of Mawlana in Konya), Christians (Ephesus, Nicaea, Antakya (Antioch) and Istanbul), Jews (Şanlıurfa, Hatay) (Sargın, 2006: 2). 2. The Social And Pyshoclogical Factors In Tourism The social and cultural values, life-styles, traditions and faiths of the societies are important for the tourism activities. The fairs, festivities, congresses, exhibitions, sport competitions in the settlements have important attractions for the tourism attractions. The density of the students, soldiers and the business centers are accepted as social factors affecting the tourism activities. These factors generally affect for the day or short-term visits. The tourism activities are also shaped according to the special tendencies of the people to some regions. The attitudes and the behaviours of the local people against the foreigners affect the tourism activities in the positive and negative decisions. The special tendencies, 280 International Conference on Religious Tourism and Tolerance, 9-12 May 2013, Konya /TURKEY subjective views and suggestions, personal faiths and values of the native and the foreign tourist are among the physiological factor. The good feeling of the people towards the local people is important as well as the other ones. 3. The Faith Tourism In Konya Konya is the cradle of many cultures and civilizations with its deep history. Konya hosted many historical buildings and monuments from the settlements dating back to 5500 B.C. to the first sanctuaries of the Christianity. Every nationality settled in Konya and nearby created their own culture and art assets and left them to the following societies. Çatalhöyük one of the first settlements in the world, Sille (the churches, monasteries, houses and mosques), Kilistra, Alaeddin Mound, Karahöyük, Ivriz reliefs, the ancient cities, Fasıllar and Eflatunpınar are important for the cultural tourism (Tapur, 2009;477). Konya became one of the settlements which had a profound affect in the spread of the Turkish culture and civilization. Turks in Konya and its surroundings built many mosques, madrasah, and caravanserai during the periods of Seljukids, Principalities and Ottomans that have tourism potential. Mawlana (1207-1273), one of the most important scholars of that period, came to Konya with his family in the time of Alaeddin Keykubat. Mawlana sheds valuable insight into the wide area such as Konya and its effect on Turkish culture, his life style, his philosophy (Tapur, 2009;478). In Konya, International Mawlana Commemoration Ceremony is held in December every year in the concept of the faith tourism. Apart from this, Esrefoglu Mosque in Beysehir has important place in the cultural and faith tourism. The Esrefoglu Mosque is the finest example of the Seljuk flat-wooden-ceiling and wooden column-style of mosque construction in Anatolia as one of the few remaining wooden mosques that date from the Seljuk period. Built by Eşrefoğlu