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ENCYCLOPEDIA
OF 20TH-CENTURY
ARCHITECTURE

ENCYCLOPEDIA
OF 20TH-CENTURY
ARCHITECTURE

ENCYCLOPEDIA
OF 20TH-CENTURY
ARCHITECTURE
GENERAL EDITOR:
VITTORIO

MAGNAGO LAMPUGNANI

HARRY

ABRAMS,

N.

INC., PUBLISHERS,

NEW YORK

Translated frem the

German and

edited by Barry Bergdoll

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Hatje-Lexikon der Architektur des 20. Jahrhunderts.


English.

Encyclopedia of 20th century architecture.


Translation of: Hatje-Lexikon der Architektur des 20.

Jahrhunderts/translated from the

German and

edited by

Barry Bergdoll.
"Originally published in 1964 as Encyclopedia of

modern

Architecture. Translated and adapted from Knaurs

Lexikon der modernen Architektur"

Includes index.
I.
I.

II.

Architecture,

Modern

20th century Dictionaries.

Lampugnani, Vittono Magnago, 1951Bergdoll, Barry.

NA680.H3913

ISBN
ISBN

III.

1985

Title.

84-24166

724.9T0321

0-8109-0860-3
0-8109-2335-1 (pbk.)

Originally published in 1964 as Encyclopedia of Modern


Architecture, translated

and adapted from Knaurs Lexikon

der

modernen Architektur, edited by Wolfgang Pehnt. Copyright

Droemersche

Verlagsanstalt, Th.

This completely revised and enlarged 1986 edition

and adapted from the revised

Knaur Nachf, Munich and Zurich.

German

is

translated

edition, Hatje Lexikon der

by Vittorio Magnago
Lampugnani. Copyright 1983 Verlag Gerd Hatje, Stuttgart.
English translation and additional material copyright 1986
Thames and Hudson Ltd., London, and Harry N. Abrams, Inc.,
Architektur des 20. Jahrhunderts, edited

New York.
Published in 1986 by Harry N. Abrams, Incorporated,
All rights reserved.

No part of the contents

New York.

of this book

may

be

reproduced without the written permission of the publishers.


Published in Great Britain under the

title

Encyclopedia of 20th-century Architecture

Printed and

bound

in Japan

The Thames and Hudson

General Editor's Preface

The predecessor of this work, the Encyclopaedia


of Modern Architecture, was first published in

of this type is of necessity limited, but an index


of proper names is also included for the reader's

1963. Now, after an interval of twenty years, a


new, expanded and completely revised version

against inclusion has to be based

is

available.

their

wide implications - omitted.

Similarly, important figures such as Heinrich

Tessenow, then not the subject of much discussion, were not accorded individual entries
alongside a Mies van der Rohe or a Terragni;
even Erich Mendelsohn was included primarily
for his bold use of modern materials, rather than
for the expressive and sculptural qualities of his
work; and, in the context of building materials,
glass, steel and reinforced concrete - viewed as
primary stimuli in the evolution of a new
architecture- were accorded their own entries.
In short, after more than twenty years, the
preparation of a new edition could not be
restricted to bringing existing entries

up

to date

new names and concepts.


entire work had to be revised and

and introducing

Rather, the
given a broader historical basis. It is thus not a
matter of chance that this latest edition appears

under a different title, one in which the emotive


and subjective concept of the Modern Movement has been replaced by a neutral designation
based on the period covered.
The scope of this encyclopaedia

is,

then, the

and urban planning of the 20th


century seen in an overall spectrum and presented in three different general categories of
subject-matter: biographies of individual architects; surveys of architectural developments in
individual countries; and overviews of movements, groups and stylistic trends.
The number of individual biographical entries which can be included in an encyclopaedia
architecture

on a variety of
an omission may well seem
unjust. The same holds true in the case of those
criteria,

Any attempt at an overview of architectural


development, such as that presented in an
encyclopaedia, is inevitably rooted in the assumptions and historical perspectives of the
period in which it is compiled. It comes as no
surprise, therefore, that in the early 1960s an
over-riding concern was to present an extensive
panorama of architectural modernism, with the
result that concepts and movements like contemporary historicism or Art Deco were despite

convenience. In each case the decision for or

and

many

individual countries
tural

output

is

whose

significant architec-

the subject of closer scrutiny; as

with the biographical entries, the choice has had


to be severely restricted and the coverage
general.

The

situation

is

no

different, either, in

the case of movements, groups and trends; their

inclusion brings with

questionable

it

an involvement in the

game of philological

classification

and labelling - something which inevitably


tends to categorize in crude terms the complex
and multifarious elements that interact with
each other in a cultural context.
The era in which an encyclopaedia could by
claim to being a tool for 'knowing everything'

Denis Diderot and Jean-Baptiste


past.
d'Alembert could still put forth a thoroughly
unified and complete system of human knowledge as a manifesto of the Enlightenment.
Today, when knowledge presents itself as
fragmentary and contradictory, it is no longer
possible to produce encyclopaedias in which a
great deal of varied information is juxtaposed
with equal weighting. Thus, our aim here is to
is

offer a

handbook which contains an overview,

and even more a book to provide the reader


with a sense of orientation within a larger
context, rather than to present a definitive and
complete compilation of facts. The latter is
better achieved in works devoted to specific
topics.

Jorge Luis Borges' statement that 'to possess


an encyclopaedia is to possess all books' can only
be valid if the general work directs the reader to
the specific. The present encyclopaedia seeks to
achieve this by means ofbibliographic.il citations at the end of individual entries, as well as by
its overall structure: by taking a middle course in
as exact and complete as necessary but
same time as lucid and as far-reaching

being
the

possible.

at

as

Thus, the architects selected are those


independent

who first formulated or advocated


and

clearly stated positions (,u^\ in

some

cases

themselves embodied

shifts

in

entirely

directions); the countries are those

new

which have

witnessed important and influential architectural developments; and the movements those

which have had a decisive influence on the entire


architectural panorama.
Even if the final responsibility for the selection and the balancing of the entries lies with the
editor, there is certainly no other type of book
in which one relies more on the help of others
than

is

the case with an encyclopaedia.

The

work is the result of the collective efforts


group of colleagues, almost without
exception well-acquainted and often close
who,
despite
holding
varying
friends,
present

of

viewpoints, united in

These

contributors

this

common

cannot

all

be

purpose.
suitably

thanked here, and least of all Axel Menges, who


was the most closely involved with the book as a
relentless reader and a most competent con-

of the task
of co-ordination; and Gerd Hatje, who was
naturally also closely involved as a contributor,
friend, critic, adviser and publisher.
Finally, mention must be made of the fact
that a significant part of my own work on this
tributor, as well as bearing the brunt

book was done

at

Columbia University,

New

York, especially on those articles which directly


concern the USA. This would not have been
possible without the generous support of the
American Council of Learned Societies and, in
particular, the personal and friendly interest of
Richard Downar, Director of the American
Studies Program.
VML

List of contributors

FA

Friedrich Achleitner

VML

Vittorio

RB

Reyner Banham

BB

Carolina Mang
Karl Mang

CB

Barry Bergdoll
Moritz Besser
Peter Blake
Christian Borngrber

CM
KM

RBr

Robert Bruegmann

NM

MC

Max

RMi

MB
PB

AC-P
JLC

Cetto
Alexandre Cirici-Pellicer
Jean Louis Cohen

RLD

Robert

L.

Delevoy

RM
HM
AM

KM
HEM
LM
CFO

Magnago Lampugnani

Robert Maxwell
Harold Meek
Axel Menges
Norbert Meler
Robin Middleton
Kirmo Mikkola
Henrique E. Mindlin
Leonardo Mosso
Christian F. Otto

PD

Philip

TF
KF
JG

Tobias Faber

JPa

Kenneth Frampton

WP

Jorge Glusberg
Vittorio Gregotti

JPo

Oswald W. Grube
Ids Haagsma
Hilde de Haan
Horst Hrtung
Gerd Hatje

PR

Peter

JR

Joseph Rykwert
Peter C. von Seidlein
Margit Staber

VG

OWG
IH

HdH

HH
GHa
GHe

Drew

CR
PCvS

MS
GS

Gilbert Herbert

PS

Antonio Hernandez
Thomas Herzog
John M. Jacobus, Jr

JS

FJ

Falk Jaeger

JJV

JJ

BL

Jrgen Joedicke
William H. Jordy
Walter Kie
Bjrn Linn

DM

David Mackay

AH
TH
JMJ

WHJ

WK

BT

GV

FW

AW

Jrgen Paul
Wolfgang Pehnt
Julius Posener
Christopher Riopelle

Rumpf

Gavin Stamp
Pekka Suhonen
Julia Szabo
Barbara Tilson
Giulia Veronesi
Jacobus Johannes Vriend
Frank Werner
Arnold Whittick

Boyd Whyte

IBW
AWi

Iain

HY

Hajime Yatsuka

Alfred Willis

Dating
In references to individual buildings, the dates
cited are presented in accordance with the
information available. If specific, distinct dates
are known for the original design and for
subsequent construction, both are given (e.g.

'1937, 1939-42'); in

many

instances,

however,

only the overall period from design to completion or of the period of construction alone may
be known, and in such cases a simple span of
years is indicated (e.g., '1939-42'); in other
instances it has only been possible to state the
year of completion.
Cross-references

Further information in related entries is indicated by means of an asterisk preceding the title
of the entry to be consulted.

beginning of his relationship with artists such as


Fernand Leger, Constantin Brancusi, Laszlo
Moholy-Nagy, Georges Braque and Alexander
Calder. A. and his family moved to Helsinki in
193 1, an event which signalled his complete

integration into Finnish cultural

Aalto, (Hugo) Alvar (Henrik),

Kuortane,
Finland 1898, d. Helsinki 1976. Studied at the
Polytechnic in Helsinki from 19 16, graduating
in 1 921; he was a pupil of Armas Lindgren and
Lars Sonck. In the following years he travelled
widely in Scandinavia, Central Europe and
Italy and was probably active for a short time in
the Planning Office of the Gothenburg Fair of
1923. His career began officially with the
Tampere Industrial Exhibition of 1922,
although various minor works dating from
student years are

his

In 1923 A.

and

in

Marsio,

opened

b.

known.
his first office

injyvskyl,

1925 he married the architect Aino

who was

to be his

most important

collaborator until her death in 1949, above all in


handling the production and direction of the

Wooden

life.

The highly important Turku period closed


with the shift of A.'s work and of Finnish
architecture in general towards modernism.

the

At
same time his work in Turku anticipated the
developed Aalto

style. Thus, the


period already encapsulated the
outstanding characteristic of A.'s architecture:
its capacity to be both of its time and essentially

later, fully

works of

this

Examples are the Headquarters of the


Turun Sanomat newspaper in Turku (19278,

timeless.

1928-9), the Library in Viipuri (1927, 1930-5)


and the Sanatorium of Southwest Finland in

Paimio (1928, 192933). Numerous other


works date from this period, many of which
were soon to become classics of modern architecture: A.'s own house in Helsinki (1934, 19356);

the Finnish Pavilion at the Paris Exposition

first

Universelle (1935, 1936-7); the complex for the


Cellulose Factory in Sunila (1935-7, 1936-9);
the Villa Mairea, near Noormakku (1937-8);

In 1927 A. left Jyvskyl, where he had


designed several important buildings including
the Workers' Club of 1923-5 and the building

Fair (1937, 19389),

firm of Artek

Furniture,

which was

conceived in 1928 in conjunction with the


construction of the Sanatorium at Paimio.

for the Patriots' Associations, 19279

which belong

He

- works

to his pre-functional, neo-classi-

Turku, then Finland's


These were key
years in his development as an architect, a
period in which his works attest to the same
direction and the same level of quality
as the most advanced contemporary work in
Central Europe. The standardized block of flats
of 1927-8 in Turku, with its prefabricated
concrete elements, is comparable with the
contemporary experiments of *Mies van der
Rohe and *Gropius in Stuttgart.
In 1929 A. worked in collaboration with
cal period.

most

settled in

artistically receptive city.

*Bryggman on

the exhibition held to celebrate

the 700th anniversary

of the

city

of Turku;

staged one year before the better-known Stockholm Exhibition designed by *Asplund, it was,

together with the house A. built in Turku, the


first complete and public expression of modern
architecture in Scandinavia. In the same year A.

was drawn into the international architectural


avant garde as the result of Sigfried Giedion's
praise and through his participation at the
meeting of *CIAM. This year also marks the

New

York World's
the Finnish Pavilion at the
and the Terrace House in

Kauttua (1937, 1938-40). Moreover, several


unexecuted designs of this period are essential to
an understanding of the complex themes of A.'s
work. These include: the Blomberg Cinema in
Helsinki (1938); the competition design for the
extension of the University Library in Helsinki
Aalto. Municipal Library, Viipuri (1930^5)

Aalto

House)
nology

Town

Massachusetts Institute of TechCambridge, Mass. (19478); and the

at the

in

Hall in Syntsalo (1949, 19502), a


which a love of ma-

timeless masterpiece in
terials

and

rediscovered

and

romantic

as a

means

political values

of space are
enhance the social

sense
to

of the community. The

unrealized design for the cemetery chapel in

Malm in north Helsinki (1950) reflects a psychological sensitivity

to

human

respect for the pain experienced

fragility and a
by those having

of another person's death; here


Aalto achieved the profundity and tenderness of
high poetry, for which no parallel exists in the
architecture of this period. Likewise unrealized,
the cemetery project for Kongens Lyngby, near
to face the fact

Aalto. Cellulose Factory, Sunila (1935-7, 1936-9)


Aalto.

Town

Copenhagen

Hall, Syntsalo (1949, 1950-2)

(195

1),

succeeded

more than

any other design in encapsulating A.'s relationship to Nature as a logical collaborator in

Haka

the creative process. Finally, the project for the

Helsinki (1940); the 'Experimental


City' (1941); and the development plan for the
Kokemki valley (194 1-2).

Vogelweidplatz in Vienna (1953) expresses


another recurrent and complex theme in A.'s
work the effect on the individual of being
handled as part of the greater mass.
A. achieved at this point an absolute control
in the handling of technique and space, based on
his thirty years' experience and enriched by his
continual involvement with human and psychological needs. This was also the period of his

(1938); the competition entry for the


district in

The war

years, during

which A. served on

the front, and the period immediately after the

war, in which he was actively engaged in


reconstruction work in Finland (including the
development plan for the ruined capital
of Finnish Lapland, Rovaniemi, which he drew

up

in 1944-5), interrupted the architect's cre-

development; around 1950, however, his


fertile mind was directed towards even more
complex problems, considering simultaneously
the fundamental physical, psychological, social
and cultural needs of the era. From this period
ative

date: the Senior Students'

Dormitory (Baker

urban involvement, culminating in his different


plans for the centre of the Finnish capital (195973). His most important buildings in Helsinki
include: the National Pensions Institution
(1948, 1952-6); the Rautatalo Office Building
(1952, 19535); the Cultural Centre (1955-8);
the Administration Building of the Enso-

Aalto

Aalto. Cultural Centre, Helsinki (1955-8)

Aalto. Vuoksenniska Church, Imatra (1957-9)

Gutzeit Company (1959, 1960-2); the Scandinavian Bank Building (1962, 1962-4); the
University Bookshop (1962, 19669); the Con-

after the

cert

and Congress Hall (1962, 1967-71); and


'Finlandia' conference centre and

finally the

concert hall (1970, 1973-5).

The architect Elissa Mkiniemi, whom A.


had married in 1952, collaborated increasingly
in his later works, and particularly on the
extension to the Polytechnic in Otaniemi and
the Lappia Cultural Centre in Rovaniemi, the
latter built 1970-5 as part of the administrative
and cultural centre originally projected in 1963.
Since 1976 Elissa Aalto has continued the work
of A.'s office, having finished work left incomplete or still at the planning stages at the time of
the master's death, including the Essen

House

Opera

(1959fr), the Civic Centre in Jyvskyl

(1964fr.),

and the church

at

Lahti (competition

project 1950, realized i97off.).


In addition to work in Helsinki, a

and the prototype houses for the reconstruction

war

(1941); the master-plan for Imatra

(1947-53); the regional plan for Lapland (19505); the campus of the College of Education,

Jyvskyl (1950, 19536); the centre of Seinjoki with the Protestant Church (1952, 195860), the Town Hall (i960, 1962-5), Library
(1963, 19645)
(1963,

and Parish Community House


own summer house in

1964-6); A.'s

Muuratsalo

Munkkiniemi

(1953);

his

(1953-5); the

own

studio

in

main building of

the Polytechnic in Imatra (1956, 1957-9); the

Vuoksenniska church, Imatra (1956, 1957-9);


Museum of Central Finland in Jyvskyl
(1959, 1960-2); the Library of the Polytechnic
in Otaniemi (1964, 1965-9); the Sports Institute
of the College of Education, Jyvskyl (1967-8,
1968-70); and the Alvar Aalto Museum in
the

Jyvskyl (1971, i97i~3)A. was also responsible for

a series

of build-

whole
of buildings, development plans and

ings and projects outside Finland. These include, in addition to those already mentioned:

projects outside the capital bear witness to the

the apartment building for 'Interbau' in Berlin's


Hansaviertel (1955-7); the Finnish Pavilion at
the Venice Biennale (1956); the Maison Carre at

series

high quality of A.'s design capabilities and to the


profundity of his thought, deeply rooted in the
historical, cultural, and geographical traditions
of his country. For example: the programme

Bazoches-sur-Guyonne (1956-9); tnc North


Jutland

Museum

in

lborg,

Denmark

(1958,

Aalto

cerne, (1965, 19668), the Library of

Mount

Angel Benedictine College, Mount Angel,


Oregon (1965-6, 1967-70); and the parish

community

centre in Riola di Vergato, near

Bologna (1966-78). Among A.'s unrealized


projects
were those for town halls in
Gothenburg (1955-7), Marl (1957) and
Castrop-Rauxel (1965), for a cultural centre in
Leverkusen (1962), and for museums in Baghdad (1958) and Shiraz (1970).
The furniture, lighting fixtures and other

by A. in conjunction
with his individual building projects from 1928
on, and produced under his supervision, reflected the same development stages as are
seen in his architecture. These interior fittings
were always conceived as 'detached parts' of the
useful objects designed

which they were intended - they should not be regarded simply as


instruments of, but rather as one aspect of an allencompassing architectonic vision.
LM
Aalto, Alvar, 'Rationalism and Man', The
Architectural Forum (New York), September
'Zwischen Humanismus und
1935;
Materialismus', Der Bau (Vienna), nos. 7/8,
'Problemi di architettura', Quademi
1955;
ACI (Turin), November 1956; Lab, Giorgio,
Alvar Aalto, Milan 1948; Gutheim, Frederick,
New York i960; Mosso,
Alvar Aalto,
Leonardo, L' opera di Alvar Aalto, Milan 1965:
Alvar Aalto, I: 1Q22-62, Zurich 1963; Alvar
Aalto, II: ig6j~70, Zurich 197 1; Alvar Aalto,
III: Projekte und letzte Zeichnungen, Zurich 1978;
particular building for

Aalto. Maison Carre, Bazoches-sur-Guyonne,


France (1956-9)
Aalto. Church

at

Riola

di

Vergato (1966-78)

1969-73); the apartment block in Bremen's

Neue Vahr development

(1958, 195962); the

and the parish


centre (1959, 1960-2) in Wolfsburg; the Vastmanland-Dala Students' Associcultural centre (1958, 1959-62)

community

ation headquarters in Uppsala (1961, 1963-5);

House in Reykjavik (1962-3,


1965-8); the interior design of the Institute of
International Education,
York (1963,
Scandinavia

New

1964-5); the Schnbhl apartment house, Lu-

Aillaud

New

Pearson, P. D., Alvar Aalto,

York

1978,

Mosso, Leonardo, Alvar Aalto (exhibition


catalogue), Turin 198 1; Quantill, Malcolm,
1980;

Alvar Aalto: a

critical study,

Abramovitz, Max,
at

b.

London

Champaign-

Urbana, Columbia University in New York,


and at the *Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In
194 1 he entered the office of Wallace K.
*Harrison and Jacques Andre Fouilhoux; from
1945 to 1976 he was Harrison's partner.
D The Architecture of Max Abramovitz,

Champaign-Urbana,
Adler, Dankmar,

Weimar, Germany

111.

b.

1963.

Stadt

near

Lengsfeld,

Chicago 1900. The


son of a cantor, A. began his drawing studies at
fifteen. Emigrated to Detroit, 1854. Worked in
1844, d.

association with A.J. Kinney, 186971;

Edward

Burling, 187 1-9; Louis H. Sullivan, 1881-95.

(*USA; ^Chicago School).


With Burling, he collaborated on numerous
designs during the building boom in Chicago
which followed the great fire of 187 1. In 1879,
he set up independent practice and was joined
two years later by Sullivan. His most important
work was the Central Music Hall in Chicago

demolished to provide space for the


present retail store of Marshall Field and Co.),
(later

which was

entirely

A.'s

work except

for

organ grilles. Finished in


1879, it was the prototype for a subsequent
series of theatres by the firm, notably the
Auditorium Building. The planning, layout
and lighting were noteworthy in these buildings, although A. was praised primarily for his
instinctive mastery of acoustics. Sullivan rose
rapidly to the position of chief draughtsman.
During his later years, A. managed the engineering and business aspects of the firm and
Sullivan's decorative

was

the building

it

the concealment of

PL

Institute Kindergarten in Osaka (1974), or a conscious restraint


itself, as

in his

in architectural expression, as in the

1983.

Chicago, 1908. Studied

the University of Illinois at

ture of 'concealment', be

Nirvana

House in Fujisawa (1972) or in the Annihilation


House in Mutsuura (also 1972).
AM

The Japan

Architect

(Tokyo), 232, vol. 51

(1976), no. 6, pp. 29-38; op.


(1977), nos. 10/11, pp. 51-4.

cit.,

247, vol. 52

Aillaud, Emile, b. Mexico 1902. The housing


estates which A. built after World War II in
France, such as Les Courtilieres in Pantin (195556, 195760), Wiesberg at Forbach (1959, 1961
ff.) and La Grande Borne at Grigny (196471),
are representative of the attempts to compensate for the uniformity which resulted from
extensively industrialized constructional meth-

ods (principally heavy construction employing


prefabricated reinforced-concrete panels) by
adopting more individualizing urban planning
strategies. This is chiefly achieved in the overall
arrangement of the building masses, reduced to

smooth

abstract forms, in curved serpentine


compositions; through the integration of works
of art; and finally through the careful handling
of public spaces, at times eccentrically shaped

and colourfully treated. The residents are thereby given an impetus to identify with their
AM
environment.
D Dhuys, Jean-Francois, L' Architecture selon
Emile Aillaud, Paris 1983.

Aillaud. Les Courtillieres housing


(1955-6, 1957-60)

estate,

Pantin

active in various architectural organiza-

introducing many progressive reforms


and attempting to improve the position of
tions,

Among

architecture in

American

works were a
one,
Anshe

of interesting synagogues,
father's
his
Ma'arev,
for

society.

his

series

congregation.

Salzstein, Joan;

'Dankmar Adler:

the

Man,

the Architect, the Author', Wisconsin Architect


38.

Aida, Takefumi, b. Tokyo 1937. A member of


the *Architext group, he represents an architec<3

Albini

Albini, Franco, b. Robbiate, Como, 1905, d.


Milan 1977. Studied at Milan Politecnico;
diploma 1925. From 1930 he practised alone
and after 1952 with Franca Helg; in 1962
Antonio Piva joined the practice, followed in
1965 by A.'s son Marco. He was a professor at
Milan Politecnico, 1963-77, and a member of

Roman

Renaissance palaces, while the infill


panels harmonize with the existing urban envi-

ronment through

their reddish colour and


granular texture. Representative of his interior

schemes and restorations, principally of museums, is the Museo del Palazzo Bianco at

Genoa

Assicurazione (INA)

where the metaphysical spatial


and transparent or
intersecting glass surfaces became prototypical;
the Museo del Tesoro di San Lorenzo (19546),

1935, A.'s

also in

*CIAM.
The

effects

Pavilion for the Istituto Nazionale delle

at the Milan Congress of


executed work, exhibits already
in unmistakable fashion his straightforward
reductivist style, which is not uninfluenced by
the architectural vocabulary of *Mies van der
Rohe. His style is characterized by formal
restraint, geometric order, technical perfection
first

and the careful attention to

detail.

A. applied these principles in the totality of


his artistic activity. Important stages in his
strictly-defined

architectural

work

are:

the

Favio Filzi workers' housing in Milan (1936;


with Renato Camus and Giancarlo Palanti); the

Milan (1938); the INA


Building in Parma (195 1); and the department
store La Rinascente in Rome (195762; with
Franca Helg), in which the mat black steel
construction takes up the moulding patterns of
Villa Pestarini, also in

(195

of

1),

clear geometries

Genoa, with its crystalline dovetailed


ground-plan and dramatic lighting effects; and
the restoration of the Chiostro degli Eremitani
for the municipal museum in Padua (1969-74).
A.'s industrial design

work

extends from his

role in the team-designed metal chair for the

1936 Triennale to the circular 'Margherita'


armchair of Spanish cane and bamboo (with
Franca Helg) for the i960 Triennale. Among his
town-planning activities, the plan for Reggio
Emilia (1947-8) is noteworthy; Giancarlo *De

Carlo and other architects collaborated on

this

project.
A's. architectural

work,

in

cation of form and structure


in

practice

went -

in

its

which the identifi-

is

constant theme,

attention

to

the

urban context - beyond the limits of


dogmatic *Rationalism, though without abandoning its fundamental principles.
VML
D Argan, Giulio Carlo, Franco Albini, Milan

historical

1962; Moschini,

F.,

Franco Albini,

London

1979.

Alexander, Christopher,

b. Vienna 1936 (the


son of English parents). Studied architecture
and mathematics. In 1970 he became Professor

art*?!*
"

-ffciii:

Albini. La Rinascente department


(with Franca Helg; 1957-62)

of Architecture at the University of California


His contribution to contemporary
architecture lies foremost in the realm of
planning theory, which he attempts to establish
on a more solid basis by the application of
scientific principles. A. started from the observation that original native cultures, because of
their gradual organic development, unconsciously produce forms in complete harmony
with their environment. He then developed
complex mathematical formulae, as equivalents
of this type of 'unconscious' form-creation
process, by which design and planning problems are decomposed into a series of components and then by reversal recomposed into
fundamental 'patterns' to synthesize form. The
experimental results achieved at the Center for
Environmental Structures (CES) founded in
1967 at Berkeley led to a greater emphasis on
in Berkeley.

store,

Rome

Andrews
empirical investigation of the needs and de-

Aires (1966), the country's

mands of users. The first major practical


of A.'s theories was his contribution

testing

entirely of steel.

to the

competition for a residential quarter with 1,500


units in

Lima

Alexander,

C, Notes on the Synthesis ofForm,


1964;

London 1975;
London 1977;
Way of Building, London 1979.

Experiment,

Language,

The Oregon
,

Pattern

The Timeless

along with

aM

Marcelo

A.,

Mario

Roberto

Alvarez, Buenos Aires 1975.

Amsterdam, School

of. Group of architects


whose analysis of the works of *Berlage and the
young Frank Lloyd *Wright served as a point

of departure for

their

own

work, and

who

represented a local 'vernacular' parallel to German *Expressionism, particularly as it had been

Almqvist, Osvald, b. Trankil, near -Karlstad


1884, d. Stockholm 1950. Studied first at the
Technical College and then at the Academy of
Fine Arts in Stockholm, which he left in 1910 to
establish,

made

AM

(1969).

Cambridge, Mass.

Trabuco,

building

first

six fellow-students includ-

manifested in the early works of Erich


^Mendelsohn. Their mouthpiece was the magazine
Wendingen
edited
by
(1918-36),
Hendricus Theodorus Wijdeveld. Their sculp-

picturesquely-composed

turally-conceived,

ing Sigurd *Lewerentz, the short-lived Free

brick buildings stand in abrupt contrast to the

Architectural School. There under the profes-

spare rationalist buildings of the contemporary

sors

Carl

Ragnar stberg, Ivar


Carl Westman - Gunnar

Bergsten,

Tengbom and

*Asplund was to study.

In opposition to the

academic *neo-classicism which was taught at


the time in Sweden, A. and his associates
embraced a re-evaluation of the Swedish vernacular tradition, a sort of 'national realism'.

With his designs for standardized kitchen components (1922) and his hydro-electric power
plants near Hammarsfors and Krngfors (both
1925-8), in which all ties to the past are cut, A.
became one of the pioneers of modernism in
Sweden.
GHa
D Linn, Bjrn, Osvald Almqvist: En Arkitekt
och Hans Arbete, Stockholm 1967.
Alvarez, Mario Roberto, b. Buenos Aires
1913. Immediately upon completing his studies
in Buenos Aires in 1937, he opened his own
office (since 1947 Mario Roberto Alvarez y

He was Architect to
Works in Buenos Aires,

Asociados).

De

*Stijl group. The most eminent exponents


of the Amsterdam School were J. M. van der
*Mey, P. L. *Kramer and Michel de *Klerk.
D Pehnt, Wolfgang, Expressionist Architecture,
London and New York 1980; Searing, Helen,
'Berlage or Cuypers? The Father of them all' in
Searing, H. (ed.), In Search of Modern Architecture, Cambridge, Mass. 1983, pp. 226-44.

Andrews, John, b. Sydney

1933. Studied at the

Harvard Univerunder J. L. *Sert. In 1962 he opened his own


office in Toronto and in 1973 one in Sydney. He
taught at the University of Toronto 1962-9. His
debut on the international architectural scene
came with Scarborough College, Ontario (ist
phase 1963; 2nd phase 1969), a late masterpiece
of New Brutalism. In addition to the emphasis
University of Sydney and

at

sity

the Ministry

1937-42, and
City Architect of Avellaneda, 1942-7; he acted
as Advisor to the Secretary of Public Works of

for Public

his native city,

1958-62. A. became one of the

leading architects of Argentina and an impor-

of the Modern Movement, to


which he remained consistently faithful. Interested in the shaping of all aspects of the physical
environment, he has been active not only in
tant advocate

conventional architectural matters, but also, for


instance, in dealing with issues of engineering
construction and the problems of prefabrication
in relation to prevailing conditions in
tina.

Argen-

An example of his more recent work is the

headquarters of the Somisa firm in Buenos

Andrews. Scarborough
through Humanities

College,

Wing

Onun

(1964^ -5)

IS

Arbeitsrat

fiir

Kunst

on raw materials and monumental forms, an


essential characteristic

of the building

internal street (a concession to the cold

is

the

Cana-

dian winter) which serves to unite all the college


functions one to another. A.'s other important
buildings include the Seaport Passenger Terminal in the Port of

Miami, Florida

(1967), the

Graduate School of Design at Harvard University (1968), and the Cameron Office Block at
Belconnen, Canberra, Australia.
AM
D Drew, Philip, The Third Generation, the
Changing Meaning of Architecture, New York
1972; 'Conversations with the John Andrews
Architects', Progressive Architecture, no. 54 (Feb.

1972), pp. 62-75.

Arbeitsrat fr Kunst. Group of German


architects and artists founded in December 1 9 1
under the leadership of Bruno *Taut; it rapidly
gained a large membership, which included the
architects Otto *Bartning, Walter *Gropius,
Erich *Mendelsohn and Max *Taut, the painters
Cesar Klein, Erich Heckel, Ludwig
Meidner, Max Pechstein, Karl SchmidtRottluff and Lyonel Feininger, and the sculptors Rudolf Belling, Oswald Herzog and
Gerhard Marcks. It was Taut's original intention that the Arbeitsrat

unlike the

bergruppe - should exercise


in the post-revolutionary

*Novem-

political influence

government

as

an

equivalent to the workers' and soldiers'


councils which briefly held power in Novem-

artistic

December 191 8. The founding manidemanded: 'Art and the people must form
a unity .... From now on the artist alone, as
moulder of the sensibilities of the people, will be
responsible for the visible fabric of the new
state.' No political power was gained, however,
and Taut resigned from the leadership at the end
of February 1919, to be replaced by Gropius.
Dismissing any direct political aspirations,

ber and
festo

Gropius suggested that the Arbeitsrat should be


reorganized into a community of radical architects, painters and sculptors who would work
together on a symbolic building task, the
'Bauprojekt'. This would provide the means of

mam artistic aim, which


was defined as 'the fusion of the arts under the
wing of a great architecture'. However, the
achieving the group's

combination of political instability, inflation


and material shortages precluded any concrete
progress on this project.
In April 19 19, Gropius took up his post at the
newly-established *Bauhaus at Weimar, whose
16

first

programme

closely reflected the ideals

of

Although the 'Bauprojekt' was


retained as an ultimate goal, the group increasingly devoted its attention to publications and
exhibitions. In addition to its own programmes
and the 'Architektur-Programm' of Bruno
Taut, the group also published two books, Ja!
the Arbeitstrat.

Stimmen des Arbeitsrates fr Kunst in Berlin


(1919), and Ruf zum Bauen (1920). Among the
exhibitions organized by the Arbeitsrat were
the 'Ausstellung fur unbekannte Architekten'
(April 19 19), another devoted to workers' and
children's art (January 1920), and 'Neues
Bauen' (May 1920). The group also arranged
exhibitions of contemporary German art in
Antwerp and Amsterdam. Although the exhibitions attracted considerable public attention,

group became increasingly


and the Arbeitstrat was
formally dissolved on 30 May 192 1.
IBW
the finances of the

strained during 1920

Arbeistrat fr

Berlin 1980;

Kunst (exhibition catalogue),


Iain Boyd, Bruno Taut and

Whyte,

the Architecture of Activism,

Cambridge

1982.

The Archigram group was


formed through the collaboration of six young
architects who came together in i960 while
working for Taylor Woodrow Construction
Co. on the redevelopment of Euston Station,
London, under the direction of Theo Crosby:
Warren Chalk (b. 1927), Peter *Cook, Dennis
Crompton (b. 1935), David Greene (b. 1937),
Ron Herron (b. 1930) and Michael Webb (b.
Archigram.

The first number of Archigram appeared


96 1, and the name of the publication soon
became the name of the group and a statement
of their method: architecture by drawing. They
!937)-

in

were

identified publicly after their

- 'Living City' in 1963 at the


Contemporary Arts in London.

bition

first

exhi-

Institute

of

Their ideas were initially directed against


formal conventions and towards all kinds of
loose and free associations. This led towards
expendables, towards pop culture and its optimistic assimilation of new technology, and the
idea that the most advanced space hardware
should be available as an everyday enabling
system to generate more personal choices and to
break down the tyranny of the traditional city.
As architects, they were able to project their
ideas graphically with great verisimilitude and
knowledge of technical gadgetry.
The group found a strong supporter in the
critic

Reyner Banham, whose

writings,

in

Art Deco

Archigram. Walking City

project

(Ron Herron;

1964)

addition to their
their ideas

of educational
London, Warwickshire, Hertfordshire and Dorset, and university premises at Leicester, Carmarthen and
Cambridge. Their early use of industrialized
building materials and their preference for an
'anonymous' team approach to architecture,
legacies of the European continental Modern
Movement, were developed into the current
quently displayed in a

series

buildings, including schools in

own

worldwide.

prolific talents, spread


It

could be said that the

group did for architecture something akin to


what the Beatles did for music in the 1960s.
Their concepts of expendability were also
adopted by the *Metabolism school in Japan.
Their most influential Utopian projects were
Fulham Study (1963), Plug-in City (Cook,
1964-6), Walking City (Herron, 1964), Cushicle (Webb, 1966/7), Instant City (Cook, 1968)
and Inflatable suit-Home (Greene, 1968);
among their realized or realizable designs were
the Archigram Capsule at Expo '70 in Osaka,
the project for a summer casino at Monte Carlo
(1971), a review of contemporary British design
at the Louvre in Paris (1971) and the still extant
Malaysian Exhibition
Institute in

London

at

the

Commonwealth

RM

(1973).

Archigram (London), 196170; Cook, Peter,


and Plan, London and New
York 1967;
Experimental Architecture,
London and New York 1970;
Archigram,

Architecture. Action

London and

New

York

1974.

sophisticated consultant engineering firm.

Architext.

An

HM

informal group of architects,

centred on the periodical of the same name,


founded in 1971 by Takefumi *Aida, Taka-

mitsu *Azuma, Mayumi Miyawaki, Makoto


Suzuki, and Minoru Takeyama. The various
members subscribe to no complete doctrine, as
was the case with *Archigram in England or the
representatives of *Metabolism in Japan, but
rather the rejection of such doctrines, which
they consider to be expressions of the totalitar-

of modernism. Convinced indipluralism,


for
argue
AM
discontinuity and contradiction.
D Architext (Tokyo); 'Architext', The Japan
Architect (Tokyo), 232, vol. 51 (1976), no. 6, pp.
ian pretensions
vidualists,

they

"

19-80.

Architects' Co-Partnership. Practice orig-

founded in 1939 by eight former students


of the Architectural Association, London, and
reformed in 1945 by C. K. Capon, P. L. Cocke,
M. H. Cooke-Yarborough, L. M. de Syllas,
J. M. Grice and M. A. R. Powers. Their rubber
factory at Brynmawr, South Wales (1949),
with its repetition of simple but powerful
shapes, gave the first indication of the feeling for
inally

which characterizes the firm's


style and announced their pragmatic, modernist-intoned approach to design. This was subse-

sculptural effect

Art Deco, which borrowed

its

name from

the

'Exposition Internationale des arts decor.it its et


industriels modernes' held m Paris in [925,
developed rapidly from being a uniquely

French phenomenon to become an international fashion in design, interior decoration and


architecture. As a synthetic form of stylization,

mediating between the avant garde and tradition, it absorbed impulses from *Cubism,
other
and
"^Expressionism
*Futurism,

movements.
17

Art Deco
In

the

French architecture Art Deco appeared

most varied

guises: pseudo-purist in

let-Stevens' residential

complex

in

*Mal-

in the

Rue

Mallet-Stevens in Paris (19267), a style-conscious offspring of Cubist thought which draws


markedly on *Le Corbusier's formal vocabulary; opulent, luxuriant, and frankly ornamenin

tal

at

du Collecwhere

the Paris exhibition of 1925,

pyramidal

the

Pavillon

Patout's

Pierre

tionneur

massing

predominates

over

structural expression; decidedly arid in Patout's

house in the Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clement at


Boulogne-sur-Seine (1929), which is articulated

by

clear cubic forms; and, finally, idealistic-

technological in *Chareau and Bijvoet's Mai-

son de Verre in Paris (1928-32), which points


clearly beyond Art Deco as the expression of a
bourgeois fashion for the avant garde in the
radical nature of its machine metaphor.
Elsewhere in Europe, Art Deco was integrated with existing architectural traditions
such as the School of *Amsterdam in Holland
(Bijenkorf department store in The Hague by

*Kramer, 19245), as well as with the legacy of


Frank Lloyd *Wright, or with Expressionism
in Germany (Paula Modersohn-Becker House
in the Bttchergasse, Bremen, by Bernhard
Hoetger, 1926).
Art Deco's stylistic flourishing is to be found
in the *USA, where a scenographic architecture
of highly decorative facades was launched
through the use of polychromy and ornamentation (modernistic as well as historicizing).
There, Art Deco mediated between the tradition of the French *Ecole des Beaux-Arts and

modern

constructional techniques in

its

distinc-

between skeleton and cladding. It combined influences derived from skyscraper


Gothic (Cass Gilbert), Art Nouveau ornament
(*Sullivan), traditionalism (Eliel *Saarinen) and
the emerging ^International Style, a melange
best exemplified by Art Deco's American icon,
William van Alen's Chrysler Building in New
tion

York

NM

(1928-30).

Art Deco, Minneapolis 1971;


Cervin, and Bletter, Rosemarie

Hillier, Bevis,

Robinson,
Haag, Skyscraper

Style,

New York

1975.

Rob MalletMallet-Stevens, Paris (1926-^7)

Art Deco. Residential complex by


Stevens in the

Rue

Art Deco. The Chrysler Building,


William van Alen (1928-30)

[8

New

York, by

Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau. An individualist and highly romantic reaction to the currents of ^eclecticism
and academic classicism (*Ecole des BeauxArts) in late 19th-century architecture, Art
a diverse phenomenon which
most of Europe and, some historians
argue, even North America between 1890 and
1910. Known at the time under a variety of
rubrics which reflect its sources in the investigations of individual architects and the specific
contexts of various national traditions. It was
known for instance in England at the time as the
'modern style'; in ^Belgium as the coup defouet

Nouveau was
affected

(eel) style (from the flexible


introduced by *Horta), or the style des Vingt
(in view of the important part played by the
group Les Vingt led by Octave Maus); in

(whiplash) or paling

line

page for Dominical by van de Velde, 1892).


Next came architecture, represented by the
house which Victor Horta built in Brussels in
1 892-3 for the engineer Tassel, a key work of
the new style, which was to find a dazzling
counterpart a few years later in the Elvira studio
in Munich by August *Endell (1897-8, detitle

stroyed).

Among

the most characteristic archiof Art Nouveau, albeit widely


purpose and plastic expression,

tectural products

differing

in

were: the houses built by Paul Hankar in

works of Willem
Th.
Sluyterman
(1864 1940),
(1863-193 1) and L. A. H. Wlfin the *Netherlands; Guimard's Castel Beranger (1897-8),
entrances to Metro stations and the auditorium

Brussels (1893-1900); the

Kromhout

Germany it was called the Jugendstil, from the


Munich periodical Jugend; in France it was
known variously as the style nouille (noodle
style), style

Guimard

*Guimard,

who

(after the architect Henri


designed the decorative entrances to the Paris Metro stations in 1899), or
Art Nouveau. The Austrians named it the
Secessionsstil
(after
the Viennese Secession
group, led from 1897 on by the painter Gustav

Klimt and the architects *Hoffmann and *01brich); in Italy


floreale;

and

historicist

in

it

was the

stile

Liberty or

Spain modernisme.

(*historicism)

The

stile

anti-

polemic often ob-

scured a considerable debt to ornamental and

which had been initially


conducted within the context of the revival
styles, as for instance in the case of the various
theories of finding the geometric or organic
principles underlying all historical styles so as to
structural research

use those principles in turn as the starting point

new, 'modern' style.


Often referred to simply as the style 1900, Art
Nouveau expresses an essentially decorative
trend that aims to highlight the ornamental
value of the curved line, which may be floral in
origin (Belgium, France) or geometric (Scot-

for defining a

land,

Austria).

This line gives

rise

to

two-

dimensional, slender, sinuous, undulating and


invariably asymmetrical forms. The applied

were the first to be affected (textiles by


William Morris, 1880; wood-engraved title
page to Wren's City Churches by Arthur H.
Mackmurdo, 1883; vases by Emile Galle, 1884;
ornamental lettering by Fernand Khnopff and
Georges Lemmen, 1 890-1; mural tapestry The
Angels' Vigil by Henry *van de Velde, 1893;
furniture by Gustave Serrurier-Bovy, 1891;
arts

Art Nouveau. The


(1897-8), by August

Elvira

Photo Studio, Munich

Endcll: facade and staircase

n;

Art Nouveau

of the Humbert de

Romans

building (1902,

destroyed) in Paris; Horta's Maison du Peuple


(18969, destroyed) and the former Hotel

Solvay (1 895-1900) in Brussels; the overhead


Stadtbahn station in the Karlsplatz, Vienna
(1897) by Otto * Wagner; and the Museum

Folkwang, with
Velde,

at

Hagen

interior

design by van de

(1900-2).

All these works are the result of a deliberate


attempt to put an end to imitations of past styles;
in its place is offered a florid type of architecture
which exploits craft skills, using coloured materials (faience cabochons, stoneware, terracotta
panels, stained glass), exotic veneers,

stonework,

Art Nouveau. Hotel Solvay,


1900), by Victor Horta

Art Nouveau.

Brussels (1895-

Karlsplatz Station of the Vienna

Stadtbahn (1897) by Otto

Wagner

moulded

and tapered
brackets in wrought iron; and burgeoning with
asymmetrical door- and window-frames, bow
and horseshoe windows, etc. The common
denominator of these diverse works is then
more a new conception of the relationship
between surface and ornament, rather than a
change in spatial expression of plan. An exception to this may, however, be found in buildings
designed in the tradition of the English country
house (*Voysey, *Mackintosh), with their
principle of building from inside to out; and the
Continental examples based on them (Olbrich's
houses on the Mathildenhhe at Darmstadt). In
the later phases of Art Nouveau, facade decoration was accompanied by a powerful plastic
treatment of the whole building, either by the
dramatic accentuation of individual parts of the
structure (Glasgow Art School, 1 898-1909, by
Mackintosh) or by the sculptural modelling of
the whole building mass (Werkbundthcater,
Cologne, 19 14 by van de Velde; Casa Mila,
grilles,

balconies,

Barcelona, 1905-10, by *Gaudi).


Art Nouveau was first and foremost an
aesthetic undertaking, based on social theories

and inspired by aesthetes such as Ruskin, Morris


and Oscar Wilde. It was born of a reaction to the
rise of industrialism, and from a determination
to create a new style, in view of the belief that
the 19th century had been stylistically impotent. Its proponents sought a style which would
affect the design of objects of everyday use as
well as architecture and leave its mark ultimately on the decor and surroundings of daily
life. In terms of its theory, from the ethical and
political point of view Art Nouveau appears as
an attempt to integrate art with social life; in
practice, and from the cultural point of view,
however, it quietly assumes the manner of a
reactionary bourgeois movement. Art Nou-

Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau. Casa Mila, Barcelona (1905-10),


by Antonio Gaudi

veau

man from

and surface ornament, and by basing all its


efforts on theories of decoration, it was a
stylistic recuperation with relatively few reper-

the

cussions in subsequent architectural develop-

of a technological milieu. Faced with


the machine, which it regarded as the work of
the devil, it aimed at renewing contact with
nature and rehabilitating the tool in its role of
the 'lengthener of the hand': by the same token,

architects of the Art


such as Mackintosh, *Behrens
and the Viennese masters became pioneers of
modern architecture, it is true, but with their
forward-looking buildings they overstepped

tried, in effect, to relieve

pressures

it

obliged the

artist to

express himself in the

margin of the living forces of technology. On


the other hand, it claimed to be able to fashion a
three-dimensional universe, independent of the
fundamental support of the true creators of the
epoch (Cezanne, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Munch)
or rather, only borrowing the most external
trappings of their inspiration. The point may
thus be seen at which Art Nouveau (in the midst
of its romantic, sentimental and social outbursts) posed in contradictory terms the problem of the social relations of art. It may also be
seen

how

it

produced, in

all

fields,

real

severance between life and thought, and partially destroyed the 'relation between plant and
soil'.

Art

Nouveau may

compared
by confounding

thus be

electrical short circuit;

to an
style

ments.

Distinguished

Nouveau

style,

the frontiers
its

which the

style

adherents.

Schmalenbach,

had imposed upon


RXD/BB

F., Jugendstil.

Ein Beitrag zu

Theorie und Geschichte der Flchenkunst,

Wrz-

burg 1934; Madsen, Stephan Tschudi, Soun es q)


Art Nouveau, New York 1956; Scling, Helmut
(ed.), Jugendstil. Der Weg ins 20. Jahrhundert,
Heidelberg 1959; Selz, Peter, and Constantmc,
Mildred (eds.), Art Nouveau. Art and Design at
the Turn of the Century, New York 1959; Gans,
Louis, Nieuwe Kunst. De Nederlandse Bijdrage tot
Utrecht i960; Cassou, Jean,
Langui, Emil, and Pevsner, Nikolaus. Durchbruch zum 20. Jahrhundert. Kunst und Kultur der
de 'Art Nouveau',

Jahrhundertwende, Munich 1962; Schmutzler,


Koben, Jugendstil-Art Nouveau. Stuttgart 1962;
Russell, Frank (ed.), Art

London

1979-

Nouveau

Architecture,

Arts and Crafts

Arts and Crafts. Movement which developed


in reaction to the cheap, machine-produced
kitsch which inundated the furnishing and
architecture market of the mid- 19th century in
the wake of the Industrial Revolution. Much
inspired by the writings of Pugin and especially
of Ruskm. the English architect and social
reformer William *Morris was one of the first
to strive for a revival of handicraft. The
symbolical start was the Red House (1859) at
Bexley Heath, Kent, which Morris commissioned after his marriage from his friend Philip
*Webb. Seen as an escape from the tasteless and
'false' ^eclecticism of contemporary design, the
Red House represented the first and most
important attempt to renew domestic architecture within the Gothic Revival.
However, this individualistic response was
not sufficient for the socially-engaged Morris
(he was a member of Engel's Social Democratic
Federation and later, in 1891, wrote the socialist
Utopian novel, Newsfrom Nowhere). In 1 861, on
the model of Henry Cole's Art Manufactures,
Morris founded, together with a group of
painters and architects, the firm of Morris,
Marshall, Faulkner and Co., to produce highquality wallpapers, woven and printed fabrics,
tapestries, and stained glass. Subsequently Morns ran the company alone as Morris & Co. The
products of the Morris workshops, as successful
as they were exclusive, were oriented towards
medieval models, as well as more exotic patterns drawn from that very same Grammar of
Ornament by Owen Jones which was subsequently to provide a source of inspiration to
*Sullivan and *Wnght in America. With this
undertaking, Morris laid the foundations for a
far-reaching movement, which aimed at the
renewal of handicraft and was characterized by
moralizing undertones. In place of the 'ugly'
and 'decadent' domination of the machine, he
advocated
an
anachronistic
anti-machine
stance. In spite of all their social claims and
intentions, however, the adherents of the Arts
and Crafts philosophy were not prepared to
confront the dilemma that handicraft was far
more costly than machine production and that
their handsome products were indeed largely
beyond the means of the wide spectrum ot the
very public for whom they were originally
intended.

This was equally the case for the associations


artists that grew up within
Morris's circle: from the Century Guild of

of architects and

22

Arts and Crafts. Red House. Bexlev Heath. K


(1859), by Philip Webb

founded in 1882 by Ruskin's pupil


Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo and a small group
of friends; to St George's Art Society, which
was started by five students of *Shaw, including
*Lethaby and Edward S. Prior, in 1883 and
established one year later as the Art Workers'
Guild. From this group there developed in 1888
a parallel organization, the Arts and Crafts
Artists,

Exhibition Society, which also represented


Morris's workshops; it was here for the first

time that the term 'Arts and Crafts' was


introduced. Also in 1888, the Guild and School
of Handicraft was founded by C. R. *Ashbee,
an independent disciple of Ruskin. This was to
represent a highpoint ot the movement and
would continue to flourish until 1905.
In the

enon of

reality that

came

much-hated phenomhad become a


could no longer be ignored. Ashbee

meantime

the

industrial production

to terms

with

only faint-heartedly,
theory the notion of
collaboration with the machine. He thus introduced the methods of industrial design, which
had seemed, since the Crystal Palace of 1851,
predetermined for the Machine era.
The Arts and Crafts Society maintained a far
more conservative position. Its first president,
Walter Crane, who was personally allied with
the romantic-regressive aesthetic of the Pre-

and accepted

it,

if

at least in

Raphaelites, was at first opposed to any opening-up of the movement. Thus the young C. R.
*Mackintosh and the entire Glasgow School
(*Art Nouveau) were categorically excluded

from

their exhibitions. In

architects figured

among

any

the

numerous
members and

case,

first

Ashbee
exhibitors, including Ashbee, Prior, *Voysey,
George Walton, *Lutyens and W. R. Lethaby,
the leading promoter and, in 1894, the first
Director of the Central School of Arts and
Crafts in London.
The effects of the Arts and Crafts movement
were, for all its contradictions, as profound as
they were lasting and far-reaching. In *Great
Britain a notably high professional standard was
established in its circles, which was characterized by an intensive reformatory involvement
with the problem of the house. It was here that
the concept of the house as a 'total work of art'
was developed. It was also out of the theoretical
principles and architectural statements of the
Domestic Revival that the Garden City movement developed. This was launched in 1898 by
Ebenezer *Howard with his book Tomorrow A
,

Peaceful Path to Social

Reform (retitled in the


second edition of 1902 Garden Cities of Tomorrow).

The

battle against the stylistic revivals

the 19th century, the rejection

of

of

illusionistic

modernism. He was one of the


founding members in 1933 of the Modern
Architecture Research Group (*MARS), and
architectural

subsequently was active

as

consultant to

*Lubetkin and bis *Tecton group. Other


examples of his engineering activities are the
school at Hunstanton, Norfolk (1949, 1952-4)
by Alison and Peter *Smithson, the Sydney
Opera House (1956-74) by *Utzon, the multifunctional Hall for the 1975 Bundesgartenschau

Garden Show) in Mannheim (1973-4,


by Carlfried Muttschler, Joachim
Langner and Frei *Otto, as well as the Centre
Pompidou in Paris (1971-7) by *Piano and
(Federal

1974-5)

*Rogers. Not only


architects,

numerous

Arup

as engineers,

but also

as

Associates have undertaken

university buildings.

The

pedestrian

bridge over the River Wear in Durham (1963) is


an example of A.'s personal design work. AM
Arup Journal (London); 'Arup's First Ten
Years', Architecture Plus (New York), Novem-

berDecember

1974; 'Arup Associates', Archi-

preference for closed

and Urbanism (Tokyo), December 1977;


Brawne, Michael, Arup Associates, London

for that break

I983-

representation in decorative design and the

form provided the basis


with the aesthetic of the 19th
century that was advocated by artists at the turn
of the century. Finally, the idea of a reunion of
art, handicraft and architecture was introduced
in Germany, through the agency of *Muthesius,
into
the circle of the
^Deutscher

Werkbund.

GV/VML

Pevsner, N., The Sources of Modern Architecture and Design, London and
York

New

1968;

Pioneers of

William Morris

to

tecture

Ashbee, Charles Robert,

London

b.

London 1863, d.
by the ideas

1942. Strongly influenced

of Ruskin and *Morris, A. founded the Guild


and School of Handicraft in 1888, a highpoint in
the *Arts and Crafts movement. His own
works included several houses in Cheyne Walk,
London (1897-1904), and Norman Chapel

Modern Design from

Walter Gropius,

Harmonds-

worth 1974; Davey, P., The Arts and


Movement in Architecture, London 1980.

Crafts

Arup, Ove (Nyquist), b. Newcastle-uponTyne 1895. A. studied at first philosophy and


mathematics and then civil engineering. From
1934 to 1938 he was Director and Chief
Engineer of the English engineering firm J. L.
Kier and Company. Then, in 1938 he founded,
together with his cousin, the engineering and
consulting firm Arup and Arup, which he left in
1946 to open an independent engineering office, active since 1949 under the name Ove Arup
and Partners. Finally in 1963 he launched,
together with the architect Philip Dowson and
others, the interdisciplinary planning firm Arup
Associates, which today employs a staff of over
1,600 in Great Britain and a further 1,000
worldwide. From early on, A. was inclined to

Ashbee. Houses
London (1904)

in

Cheyne Walk (nov

39 and 38),

23

Asli

House, Broad Campden, Glos. (1906). His


was especially felt through his elegant
design for craft objects. He was active as an
urban planner in Egypt during World War I and
later in Jerusalem (*Israel). In 1924 he returned
influence

VML

to Kent.

Ashbee,

Houses,

CK., A Book of Cottages and Little

London

1906; Service, Alistair, Edwar-

London

1978; C. R. Ashbee and


Guild of Handicraft (exhibition catalogue),
Cheltenham 198 1.

dian Architecture,
the

Aslin, Charles Herbert,

b.

Sheffield 1893, d.

1959. Studied at Sheffield University Department of Architecture. After a career in various


local

authority

offices,

A. became County

Architect for Hertfordshire in 1945, where he


stayed till his retirement in 1958.

War

At the end of World

shortage of school places in

II,

an acute

Hertfordshire,

together with lack of manpower and craftsmen

moved

in the building trade,

A. to tackle the

problem as a quasi-military 'planned operation'. Taking advantage of the production


potential of light industry, built up during the
war, he organized a system of school prefabrication from factory-made parts, but with sufficient flexibility to allow each school to be
treated individually.

The

prototype

was

Cheshunt

Primary

School, built in 1946 on an 8 ft 3 in. (2- 52 m)


grid. In 1947, eleven schools were projected on a
serial production basis, with flat roofs, solid

and standardized stanchions and beam


connections; in 1948/9, development proceeded
on twenty-one primary schools, while the 1947
schools were being completed. The hundredth

floors,

school of this type was opened in 1955 (*Great

HM

Britain).

Aslin, C. H., 'Specialized

school construction', JRIBA,

developments

November

in

1950;

Twist, K. C, Redpath, J. T. and Evans, K. C,


'Hertfordshire Schools Development', Architects' fournal (London), 12 and 26 May 1955, 19
April and 2 August 1956.

Asplund. Restaurant building

Asplund, (Erik) Gunnar, b. Stockholm 1885,


d. Stockholm 1940. Asplund was one of the
most prominent Swedish architects of the first

at the

Stockholm

Exhibition (1930)

Asplund. Stockholm South Cemetery:


Crematorium (1935-40)

work is of historical
combining of traditional and

half of the 20th century; his


significance for

modern
tural

at
at

He

received his architecTechnical College in


the Free Architectural Acad-

architecture.

training

Stockholm and
24

its

the

emy founded

there in

1910 by *Almqvist,

*Lewerentz and others. From 1931 to 1940 he


was a professor at the Technical College.

Atelier 5
In 1914 A., in collaboration

won

with Lewerentz,

the competition for the layout of Stock-

holm South Cemetery, where he later built the


Woodland Chapel (1918-20). Other works of
these years include the

holm

Snellman

villa in

Djurs-

Cinema (1922-3)
Stockholm City Library (1924-7). The

much admired

at

the time of

is rectangular in shape, with


depends for aesthetic effect on a
balance of verticals and horizontals and a
restrained use of classical decoration. The City
Library is symmetrical in plan with a large

construction,

side balconies;

it

central cylindrical lending

area enclosed

on

by rectangular volumes containing


reading and study rooms and offices. The work

three sides

is

Gunnar Asplund, Architect,


Stockholm 1950; de Mare, Eric,
Gunnar Asplund, A Great Modern Architect,
London 1955; Wrede, S., The Architecture of
Erik Gunnar Asplund, Boston, Mass. 1980.
Kjell (eds.),

1885-1940,

(1917-8), the Skandia

and the
Skandia Cinema,
its

Odeen,

classicist in

conception, recalling ultimately

theme of the merging of cube and


on simplicity and severity
was a trend of the time. However, had A.
continued designing in the style of the cinema
and library, he might have been regarded
simply as just another competent traditionalist.
With the buildings for the Stockholm Exhibi-

Atelier 5. Group of architects founded in Berne


by Erwin Fritz, Samuel Gerber, Rolf
Hesterberg, Hans Hostettler and Alfredo Pini.
In 1983 Atelier 5 included twelve partners:
Jacques Blumer, Christian Flckiger, Anatole
du Fresne, Ralph Gentner, Christiane Heimin 1955

gartner,

Rolf Hesterberg, Hans

Lanini,

Alfredo Pini, Denis Roy,

Hostettler, Pier

Bernard

Thormann. The strong


ence of *Le Corbusier on the group's
Stebler and Fritz

influ-

early

work is evident in the Halen housing estate near

the ageless

Berne (195561), which

cylinder; the accent

at La
Sainte-Baume (1948), in which rows of terrace
houses were rolled out almost like a carpet on
the landscape. Their early style, dominated by a
unified formal vocabulary derived from *New
Brutalism, gave way increasingly in the early
1970s to a tendency to derive formal expression
from the particular demands of the commission
and the local context. Examples of this are the
Thalmatt housing estate at Herrensch wanden,
near Berne (1967-72), and the Stuttgart
University Dining Hall (1970-6) at Stuttgart-

of 1930, he revealed himself as a modernist,


handling glass and steel expressively to
achieve a great lightness of effect. This is seen
especially in the Paradise Restaurant, with its
tion

skilfully

slender

supports,

glass

walls,

circular

glass

tower and large coloured sunblinds, elements


which were to be basic to 'the new architecture'
in

Vaihingen.
Bezzola, Leonardo,

Europe.

After this exhibition A. designed the Bredenberg store in Stockholm (1933-5), which has

something of the lightness of the exhibition

is

based on the master's

unrealized project for a housing estate

AM
Thormann- Wirz,

Es-

Wohnort Halen. Eine


Architekturreportage, Teufen 1964; 'Atelier 5
Terrace Houses: Flamatt, Halen & Brugge',
ther,

and Thormann,

Fritz,

buildings; the State Bacteriological Laboratory,

Global Architecture (Tokyo), no. 23, 1973; 'Ate-

Stockholm (1933-7); the Gothenburg City


Hall Extension (1934-7), tne design of which
is modern in spirit yet harmonizes in scale with
the original building in the classical style; and
lastly the Crematorium, Stockholm South
Cemetery (1935-40). The group of buildings
consists of three chapels, the crematorium and
the columbarium; at the main entrance is a large
portico with numerous plain shafts. Simple,
dramatic and original as is the design for a
purpose of this kind, it is essentially Greek in

liers',

conception, the feeling of repose that

it

Bauen

+ Wohnen (Munich),

35, nos. 7/8,

1980, pp. I4-77-Atelier 5. Halen housing


(I955-6I)

estate,

near Berne

creates

depending on the relationship of verticals and


horizontals; it demonstrates clearly Asplund's
conviction that the classical Greek architectural
sense can harmonize with the modern spirit. AW
D Zevi, Bruno, E. Gunnar Asplund, Milan
1948; Holmdahl, Gustav, Lind, Sven Ivar, and
25

Athens Charter

Athens Charter. At its fourth congress, held in


1933 on a cruise between Marseilles and Athens
aboard the Patris II, the *CIAM organization
undertook a systematic investigation of thirtythree major cities; the result was the 'Principles
of the Fourth Congress'. These were concerned
with the 'functional city' (as it had been defined
two years earlier at a meeting in Berlin) and
were based principally on *Le Corbusier's ideas
(which he revised in 194 1 and published anonymously in 1943 as a book under the title La
Charte d' Athene s. One of the six basic principles
was the distribution and ordering of the four
primary functions of the city (residential, work,
free-time and traffic), which established the
urban planning of modernism on a simple
formula at once concise and, arguably, illconceived.

VML

CIAM, La

[Le Corbusier], Urbanisme des

Charte d'Athenes, Paris 1943 (English ed.: The


Athens Charter, New York 1973).

Austria. As the capital of a multi-nation state,


Vienna had, by the late 19th century, developed, even in architecture, that polyglot
character and that emphatic consciousness of
language, which have remained typical of the
cultural

life

of the

city to this day.

This social

pluralism was reflected in the multiplicity of

and trends. Otto *Wagof Gottfried *Semper's will


architect of the epoch of the

architectural schools
ner, the executor

and the last


Viennese Ringstrae, introduced the new approaches of the Secession (*Art Nouveau) and
the seeds of architectural modernism into the
broad current of Viennese classicism. Wagner's
empirical positivism, got up in the slogan-like

doctrine of a 'Nutzstil' (functionalist style) and

united with a solid

artistic training,

endowed his

school with the legendary reputation that


enjoys.

To

cite his

it still

most important pupils

is

Austria. Palm House in the Burggarten. Vienna


(1902-4). by Friedrich

Ohmann

Austria. Project for the


(1910-11),

26

XXIInd

by Otto Wagner

District.

Vienna

to

Austria

Austria. Sanatorium
Josef

at

Purkersdorf (1902) by

Hoffmann

Austria. Steiner House, Vienna (1910), by Adolf

Loos

demonstrate the geographical extent of

his

Vienna were Hermann


Aichinger, Leopold Bauer, Karl *Ehn, Max
Feilerer, Franz and Hubert Gener, Josef
*Hoffmann, Emil Hoppe, Marcel Kammerer,
Oskar Laske, Ernst Lichtblau, Rudolf Perco,
Josef Plecnik (later in Prague and Laibach [now
Ljubljana]), Heinrich Schmid and Otto Schntal; in the provinces Mauriz Balzarek (Linz) and
Wunibald Deininger (Salzburg). Working in
Prague were Josef Chochol, Bohumil Hbschmann, Pavel Jank and Jan Kotera - the
central figures of Czech *Cubism. Similarly,
influence:

active

in

significance for later developments.

schools

emerged

From

these

the critical intellectuals of

Viennese architecture, such

as

Josef Frank and

(Zagreb) and Giorgio Zaninovich


to be major influential figures in
their native countries. Rudolph *Schindler's

Oskar Strnad, who later, as teachers at the


Kunstgewerbeschule (today Hochschule fr
angewandte Kunst) along with Hoffmann
and Heinrich *Tessenow, were to exercise a
great influence on the Viennese scene, and in

work

particular within the

Istvn

Benko-Medgyaszay (Budapest), Viktor

Kovacic

(Trieste)

were

in California

is

well

known.

In addition,

although they were not Wagner's pupils, Max


Fabiani (Vienna and Grz) and J. M. *01brich
(Vienna,

Darmstadt

and

Dsseldorf)

were

by him.
Wagner's opposite number was Friedrich
Ohmann, a native of Prague and director of the

strongly influenced

second 'special class' at the Akademie der


bildenden Knste. Today, his romanticizing,
atmospheric and emotionally charged architecture seems a more direct reflection of the
Viennese fin-de-siecle, than does the optimistic
forward-looking ethos of Wagner. The conservative schools (such as that of Karl Knig) at the
Technische Hochschule also had a particular

Werkbund.

Adolf *Loos was naturally a


architectural

debate,

focal point

especially

after

of the
1897

through his writings. Loos was at once an


innovator and a traditionalist, a critical voice
within his medium, as were Ins friends Karl
Kraus and Arnold Schnberg. He discussed
architecture as a cultural phenomenon and m
relation to society. His thinking, as contradictory and fascinating as the city which he both
hated and loved, still provides the stimulus for

any Viennese architectural discussion


The architecture of the [920s, almost exclusively determined by the housing programmes
of the Viennese municipal authorities, was

Austria

unquestionably dominated by the School of


Otto Wagner. The architecture of the 'Superblocks' derived from a strong typology of the
apartments, a labour-intensive building tech-

nology

(to

counteract unemployment), from

the expression of planned urban

form and from

language of detail. The revolutionaries of the Wagner School became pragmatists


who understood how to clothe the new politically provocative building types so as to convey
an appropriate sense of architectural continuity.
In opposition, Loos, Josef Frank, Franz Schuster
and others involved themselves in the residents'
movement. The Viennese Werkbundssiedlung
(under the general direction of Frank, 1932)
once again united all progressive forces with a
programme to provide for the workers housing
that combined the maximum of 'bourgeois
culture' with a minimum of building costs.
A new school began to exercise its influence
a pluralistic

in

Vienna after World

War

Austria. Parish Community Centre. Puchenau


near Linz (19736). bv Roland Rainer

(^Behrens, *Holz-

meister, Tessenow, as well as Strnad

and Frank).

At the same time Vienna witnessed

loosening

Austria. Interior of the branch bank of the


Zentralsparkasse der Gemeinde Wien at Floridsdorf
(1970-4), by Friedrich Kurrent and Johannes Spalt

of its hold over the regions, accelerated by the


political opposition ('Red Vienna'). In the
Tyrol, under the influence of Munich, there
developed a regional modernism (Franz Baumann, Theodor and Wilhelm Nikolaus
Prachensky, Lois Weizenbacher); Wunibald
Deininger and Clemens Holzmeister dominated in Salzburg, Mauriz Balzarck, Julius Schulte,
Kurt Khne and Hans Steineder in Upper
Austria. A small but effective opposition was

formed in Styria by Hubert Eicholzer, Max


Lukas and Rambald von Steinbiichel-Rheinwall. Finally in Vienna after 1934 the progressive forces went over to the defensive. After
Josef Frank's emigration and the dissolution of
the Werkbund (1934), only Ernst A. Plischke

was

able to maintain a firm position in the face

of regionalism and a new national romanticism.


With the exception of several industrial
enterprises and numerous 'Sdtiroler Siedlungen' (South Tyrolean housing estates), the
architecture of National Socialist Austria dating
from the period of the 'Austrofascist' Assembly
(1934-8) established by the Hitler regime repre-

World War II
many architects tried to pick up lost threads;
among these were Clemens Holzmeister, who

sents a questionable legacy. After

returned
Haerdtl,

from

Max

exile

Ankara, Oswald
Eugen Wrle, Franz

in

Feilerer,

Schuster and Lois Welzenbachcr. In contrast to


this,

28

Roland *Rainer

deliberately sought,

on

the one hand, to consolidate the 'consequences

and perceptions of modernism' and, on the


other, to adapt the urban planning ideas of the
English Garden City movement (*Howard) to
new conditions. The architectural scene began
to change in the wake both of Rainer's work as
Vienna's city planner (195863) and of the
contemporary buildings of Karl Schwanzer.
Above all, the Arbeitsgruppe 4 (consisting of
Wilhelm *Holzbauer, Friedrich Kurrent,
Johannes Spalt and - for a short time - Otto
Leitner) began in the 1950s to revive architectural debate through exemplary designs, exhi-

Austria

Austria. Vorarlberg Provincial Government

The

Building, Bregenz (1973-82), by


Holzbauer and others

changes in Graz.

bitions

Wilhelm

and writings. At the same time they

mine Vienna's own architectural


from Otto Wagner to Josef Frank.
Thus the lessons of history were introduced
early on in Vienna among a younger generation
of architects and came to play a major role in
architectural theory. Even today, this view of
history continues to be the link between the
diversified work of such architects as Johann
Georg Gsteu, Wilhelm Holzbauer, Viktor Hufnagl, Gustav *Peichl, Hans Puchhammer, Anton Schweighofer, Gnther Wawrik, Ottokar
Uhl and others. While most of the members of
this group were strongly influenced by Konrad
*Wachsmann's Summer Seminars at Salzburg,
in 1963 Hans *Hollein and Walter Pichler

began

to

history,

launched the Viennese functionalist critique.


Far from Vienna, Pichler is building his 'Cult
Places', a testimony to the fact that a 'universal
meaning' is still possible in architecture.
In the early 1960s Gnther Feuerstein's ClubSeminar was a hothouse for architectural theory
which gave birth to the activist and Utopian
groups *Haus-Rucker-Co, *Coop Himmelblau, Znd up Salz der Erde, and Missing Link.

as

'wild'

1960s also spurred fundamental

On the one hand, teachers such

Friedrich Zotter, Karl

Raimund

Lorenz,

Hubert Hoffmann and Ferdinand Schuster


guaranteed a continuity of development on
which architectural co-operatives like the
Werkgruppe Graz (Eugen Gro, Friedrich
Gro-Rannsbach, Werner Hollomey, Hermann Pichler) and Team A Graz (Franz
Cziharz, Dietrich Ecker, Herbert Missoni, Jrg
Wallmller) could build. On the other hand,
there was the 'Graz School' in the stricter sense,
with its expressive formal language, and also

such architects as" Gnther Domenig, Eilfried


Huth, Klaus Kada, Karla Kowalski, Michael
Szyszkowitz, Heidulf Gerngro and Helmut
Richter who emerged from the studios of the

Technische Hochschule in Graz. The contemporary spectrum in Styria is further enriched by


a broad movement for participatory construction (Huth) and a new form of regionalism.
There are independent developments in other
provinces, led in

Upper Austria by Roland

Ertl,

Klaus Ntzberger, Karl


Odorizzi, Franz Riepl and the Werkgruppe
Linz (Helmut Frohnwieser, Heinz Pammer,

August Krmayr,

Edgar Telesko and Helmut Werthgarner; in


Salzburg by Gerhard Garstenauer; in the Tyrol
by Othmar Barth, Ekkehard Hrmann, Josef
Lackner, Gnther Norcr and Horst Parson; in
29

Aymonino

Austria. Head Sales Office of the Austrian Travel


Bureau, Vienna (1976-8), by Hans Hollein

the architectural continuity that has been so

of the capital and above all a critical


approach to architecture seen as a social art.
FA
D Schwanzer, Karl (ed.), Wiener Bauten, igoo
bis heute, Vienna 1964; Uhl, Ottokar, Moderne
Architektur in Wien. Von Otto Wagner bis heute,
Vienna 1969; Graf, Otto Antonia, Die vergessene
Wagnerschule, Vienna 1969; Neue Architektur in
sterreich ^4570, Vienna 1970; Sechs Architypical

Austria. The Favoriten branch in Vienna of the


Zentralsparkasse der Gemeinde Wien (1975-9), by

Gnther Domenig

vom Schillerplatz (exhibition catalogue),


Vienna 1977; Bode, Peter M., and Peichl,
tekten

Carinthia by Karl Hack, Manfred Kovatsch,

Gernot Kulterer and Felix Orsini-Rosenberg;


and finally in the Vorarlberg region by a homogeneous 'Bauschule' represented by Hans
Purin, Rudolf Wger, Gnther Wratzfeld and
the younger architects Dieter Eberle and
Markus Koch. All of these regional developments already bear witness to a strong selfdynamism.
In Vienna a vibrant scene of 'minor architecture', which is especially bound up with the
Viennese tradition of Loos and Frank, has
developed in opposition to the commercial
architecture of large office blocks. The new
generation which has grown up in the charged
field that lies between Arbeitsgruppe 4 and
Hans Hollein has shown a particularly high
level of architectural awareness. Luigi Blau,
Hermann Czech, Igirien (Werner Appelt,
Eberhard E. Kneissel, Elsa Prochaszka), Missing
Link (Otto Kapfmger, Adolf Knschanitz) and
Heinz Tesar, together with an even wider
circle, will assure both the multiplicity of
30

Gustav, Architektur aus sterreich seit iq6o,


Salzburg 1980; Achleitner, Friedrich, sterreichische Architektur im 20. Jahrhundert, 3 vols.,
Salzburg 1980-5; Architektur aus Graz, Graz
1981.

Aymonino,

Carlo, b.

Rome

1926. Studied at

the University of Rome; diploma 1950.

He was

an editor of Casabella-continuit, 195964, and

became

a professor at the Istituto

di Architettura in

Universitario

Venice in 1968. Since 1981 he

has been an architectural consultant to the city


authorities in

Rome.

In 1950, in the construction

INA-Casa

of the populist
of Rome,

in the Tiburtino quarter

he shared the experience of Italian architectural


neo-realism with members of the 'Rome
School', such as Lodovico Quaroni and Marco
*Ridolfi. Later he designed the residential
complex 'Gallaratese 2' in Milan (built 196773; in collaboration with his son Maurizio, as
well as with Giorgio Ciucci, Vittorio De Feo,

Azuma
- and

Florence (1978; with Aldo Rossi)

numerous
influenced

through

work

publications, A.'s

recent

architecture,

his

has greatly
particularly

view of the city as a functionally


integrated and historically created form. VML
D Aymonino, C, La fortnazione del concetto di
his

tipologia edilizia,

Venice 1965,

Origine e
moderna, Padua 1965;
77
significato della citt, Bari 1975;
Lo studio dei
sviluppo della

citta

fenomeni

Rome

urbani,

Aymonino',

'Carlo

1977;

Architecture and Urbanism (Tokyo),

February 1978.

Azuma,

Osaka 1933. Before


Tokyo, A. was for
many years head designer in Junzo Sakakura's
office. He was a founding member of the
*Architext group in 1971. A. seeks 'oppositional
opening

Aymonino.

Gallaratese 2 residential complex,


Milan (Aymonino and others; 1967-73)

Takamitsu,

his

own

harmonies' in

b.

office in

his architecture, that

not seek to resolve, but rather to


Alessandro De Rossi, Mario Manieri-Elia and
Sachin Messare). The rows of houses one by
Aldo *Rossi are mostly seven storeys high and
are arranged geometrically and urbanistically
around an amphitheatre-shaped centre. The
architects sought thus to recapture urban quali-

suburban area through a


simultaneously strong and expressive multiplicity of formal elements and types. In the G.
Marconi Technical School in Pesaro, built in
1970, the fundamental principles of *Rationalist architecture are independently worked out.
ties in

this desolate

Through his role in city-centre planning


schemes -Turin, Bologna (both 1962), Reggio
Emilia (197 1; with Constantino Dardi) and

is

the har-

monic juxtaposition of opposites which he does


engender tension.
design philosophy is
to

telling

stress in

order

example of

his

own

house in Tokyo
(1967), a tall narrow concrete tower deliberately
contrasted with the traditional single-storey
buildings that surround it. In the Satsuki Kinhis

dergarten in Osaka (196973) the relationship


between courtyard and street spaces is endowed
with a degree of tension by the inclusion of wide
openings in the smooth facade.
AM
D The Japan Architect (Tokyo), 232, vol. 51
(1976), no. 6, pp. 39-48; ibid., 247, vol.

52

(1977), nos. 10/11, pp. 72, 73.

Azuma.

Satsuki Kindergarten,

Osaka (1969

31

B
Bakema, Jacob Berend,
Rotterdam

b.

Groningen 1914,

d.

Technikum

in

1981. Studied at the

Groningen, the Architectural Academy in Amsterdam and the Technical College in Delft.
While still a student, B. worked under Cor van
*Eesteren, then under Willem van Tijen and
H. A. Maaskant, as well as for the municipal
architectural office in Rotterdam. In 1948 he
entered into partnership with J. H. van den
*Broek, and they soon became an influential

Dutch architecture.

In 1947 B. became a
1963 of Team X; he
was co-editor, 195964, of the journal Forum,
which helped at that time to prepare the ground

force in

member of *CIAM and in

for

Dutch ^Structuralism. From 1965 B. was

professor at the Staatliche Hochschule fur Bild-

ende Knste in Hamburg.


Van den Broek and Bakema's architecture has
remained indebted to the formal and philosophical ideals of De *Stijl and the *International Style. The Lijnbaan shopping street
(19524) in the centre of Rotterdam, an area
destroyed in World War II, features a clearly
articulated and partially covered urban environment; flanked by low, unobtrusive buildings, the street

turally

is

a pedestrian

expressive

town

zone.

hall

in

The

sculp-

Terneuzen

(1968) and the psychiatric hospital in Middel-

Bakema.

Psychiatric Hospital, Middelharnis

(Bakema and van den Broek; 1973-4)

work in the field of exhibition architecture, two


examples stand out: the Vesta Pavilion for the
Milan Fair of 1933, a strong, formalistic structure with an elegantly proportioned and
mullioned glass facade; and the Brida Pavilion
at the Milan Fair of 195 1, with a bold free-form
roof of thin concrete. B. is one of the least
conventional exponents of Italian Rationalism: very early in his career he abandoned
unthinking *Functionalism in order to create
spaces endowed with a more pronounced ab-

VML

stract clarity.

Contraspazio,

10

(1978),

special

Veronesi, Giulia, Luciano Baldessari

issue;

architetto,

Trent 1957.

harnis (1973-4) display an optimism ultimately

derived from *Constructivism.

Bakema, Jacob, Towards an

Society, Delft 1963;

GHa
Architecture for

Stdtebauliche Archi-

Salzburg 1965; Joedicke, Jrgen (ed.),


Architektur und Stdtebau. Das Werk der Architekten van den Broek und Bakema, Stuttgart 1963;
tektur,

(ed.),

Architectengemeenschap van den Broek

en Bakema. Architektur

Urbanismus, Stuttgart

1976.

Baldessari, Luciano,

b. Rovereto 1896, d.
Milan 1982. Studied at the Politecnico in Milan;
diploma 1922. Baldessari began his career in the
1920s as a stage designer and painter. In 192932, together with Luigi *Figini and Gino
*Pollini, he undertook the elegant rationalist
building of the De Angeli Frua Press in Milan.
In 1932-3 he built, with Gino *Ponti, the Cima

chocolate factory, also in Milan.


32

Of his

varied

b. Milan 1910, d. in the


Mauthausen concentration camp 1945. Studied
at the Milan Politecnico. In 1932 he was a

Banfi, Gianluigi,

founding

member of

the

firm

*BBPR

in

Milan.

Barnes, Edward Larrabee, b. Chicago 1922.


Studied under *Gropius and *Breuer at Harvard. Since 1949 he has had his own office in
New York. Strongly influenced through his
teachers by the *Bauhaus, B. has favoured
abstract compositions of clear geometric form
with smooth, unornamented surfaces, which
are designed with notable sensitivity for the
specific situation. The Student Center of Monterey Peninsula College in Monterey, Cal.
(i973)> the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis
(1974) and the IBM World Trade Americas/Far
East Corporation Headquarters in Mount Plea-

Barragn. San Cristobal

estate,

Mexico City

B. finally developed a personal form of artistic


Vegetation, water and a simple

(1967-8)"

expression.

architecture of primary geometric forms are

combined

N.Y.

and the Visual Arts Center of


Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine (1978),

sant,

(1977),

are

among

Robinson,

AM

works.
Cervin,
'Edward

his best

Larrabee
Barnes: Profile of Firm and Work', American
Institute of Architects Journal, April 1980, pp. 52-

in

which

Trained

Mexico

1902.

an engineer, B. is self-taught as an
architect. After travel in Spain and France, he
established himself in Guadalajara in 1927, but
since 1936 he has worked and lived in Mexico
City. His earliest work was characterized by the
adaptation of indigenous vernacular forms of
Mexican architecture, as well as by elements
as

drawn from Islamic architecture, particularly


that of Morocco, which he had studied in
books. His move to Mexico City coincided
with a

shift

to the ^International

Style and

*Le Corbusier. Around 1940 and


under the influence of the French painter and
landscape architect Ferdinand Bac and the German-born Mexican sculptor Mathias Goeritz,

especially to

surrealistic-

this effect

is

height-

Mexican building

translated

tradition

into an abstract architectural language, are the


architect's

own

Mexico

house
the

City:

Satelite (1957,

Luis, b. Guadalajara,

works

ened by magically oscillating colours. Among


the most important milestones in this last phase,

in

Barragn,

composition of

his

retreats. In his later

in

Tacubaya (1947) and,

towers of the Ciudad

with Goeritz); the overall plan-

as
ning and several public spaces for the
Arboledas residential quarter (1957 61); and a
house and stud-farm stables for the San Cristo1

AM

bal estate (1967-8).

Ambasz,

Emilio,

Barragn,

New

The

York

Architecture

1976;

'Luis

of

Luis

Barragan.

Barragan & San Cristobal',


Global Architecture (Tokyo), no. 48, 1979.

House

for Luis

d.

Darm-

1959. Studied at the Technische

Hoch-

Bartning, Otto,
stadt

b.

Karlsruhe 1SS3,

lie was
schulen in Berlin and Karlsruhe
Director of the Hochschule fur [andwerk und
1

Baukunst in Weimar, 192C) 30. B.'s work


consists of industrial, administrative, residential
and hospital buildings, but above all Protestant
33

Basile

churches, mostly planned around a central altar.


His early country house designs are part of
architectural ^Expressionism, as is the project
for a

Sternkirche (Star Church;

192 1-2) in

which the structural idea of the Gothic was to be


with modern building methods. The
church for the 'Pressa' exhibition in
Cologne (1928) and the Church of the Resurrection, with a circular ground-plan, in Essen
(19 jo) seem closer to the *Rationalism of those
years in German architecture. After the war, he
was involved with the emergency programme
to provide churches of prefabricated timber
construction, sponsored by the German Evangelical Relief Organization (designed 1946).
realized
steel

Bartning, O.,

191 9;

Vom

Mayer, Hans K.

Bartning. Star Church project (192 1-2)

favoured disciple of Viollet-le-Duc, he was


active as a restorer of medieval buildings in
^France and a propagandist of Viollet-le-Duc's
rationalized gothic point of view. After the
master's death, his attention turned increasingly
to experiments with reinforced concrete and
brickwork, culminating in his church of St

Jean-de-Montmartre in Paris (1 894-1904),


where reinforced concrete is combined with a
metal roof structure. B.'s attempts to incorpo-

neuen Kirchenbau, Berlin


F.,

Der Baumeister Otto

Bartning und die Wiederentdeckung des Raumes,

Heidelberg 195 1.
Basile, Ernesto, b. Palermo 1857, d. Palermo
1932. Studied at the University of Palermo,

moved to Rome in

188 1, where he taught after


1883 at the University. In 1892 he was appointed a professor at the University of Paler-

mo. After

several early eclectic

for the Parliament Building in

works

(project

Rome,

1883-4;

Villino Florio in Palermo, 1899), B. adopted the


Italian version of *Art Nouveau around the
turn of the century (Villino Basile, Palermo,

1903). Later, his architecture adapted classicisttraditional

(Istituto Provinciale AntiPalermo,


1920-5;
Albergo
Diurno, Palermo, 1925) and thereby came into
opposition with the ^Rationalism of the 1920s
traits

tubercolare,

VML

in Italy.

Ernesto

Basile

architetto

(exhibition

cata-

logue), Venice 1980.

Baudot, Anatole
Paris 191

34

5.

de, b.

Sarrebourg 1834,

d.

Pupil of Henri Labrouste and the

Baudot.
1904)

St

Jean-de-Montmartre, Paris (1894-

Bauhaus
rate his
torical

experiments into Viollet-le-Duc's his-

schema are reflected

also in his

writings, notably L' Architecture

et le

numerous
beton arme

BB

(1905).

Francoise Boudon, 'Recherche sur

pensee
et l'ceuvre d'Anatole de Baudot 1834-1905'.
Architecture, mouvement, continuite, March 1973.
la

immediately after World War I ^Expressionism), but which go back ultimately to the *Arts
and Crafts movement of the 19th century.
In the first years this union of art and craft was
achieved in

communal

teaching activity di-

by 'Formmeistern' (masters of design)


and 'Werkmeistern' (work masters), that is of
artists and trained craftsmen. Studies were
conducted in workshops (sculpture, theatre,
rected

Bauhaus. In the fourteen years of its existence


the Bauhaus showed itself to be not just an
important school of art, design and (belatedly)
architecture, but much more importantly it was
a crucible of European modernism, an organization which took up numerous reform ideas of
the epoch and helped to ensure that they were

work, ceramics, typography/advertising/exhibition design, mural painting, weaving), and


this provided the opportunity for individuals to
earn money for themselves. At the end of the
course, examinations were held for associates' or

pursued to the greatest possible

masters' diplomas.

though

chewed

its

effect.

Al-

director and teachers always es-

the notion of a Bauhaus style,

stained glass, photography, metalwork,

Gropius'

skill in

wood-

the selection of his collabo-

its

rators explains, in the end, the fact that a typical

teaching and artistic successes made the Institute


and its production an oft-imitated model. Not
without some part in this was the Bauhaus's

school of the period could succeed in becoming


an artistic and intellectual centre of the republic.

own

painters Lyonel Feininger,

self-dramatization,

which arose from

continual sense of a need to legitimize

Like the

Weimar Republic

itself,

its

itself.

the Bauhaus

was founded in the city of Goethe and Nietzsche, lasted from 19 19 until 1933 and experienced heated political confrontation to which
it

finally fell victim. Its fate was, for better or for

worse, tied to that of Germany's first democratic government. This parallel as well, lent the
Bauhaus an exemplary role.

The involvement of the Grand Duchy of


Saxe-Weimar with Walter *Gropius went
back as far as 191 5. Henry *van de Velde had
suggested Gropius as his successor at Weimar's
Kunstgewerbeschule (Arts and Crafts School),
while lecturers of the Hochschule fur Bildende
Kunst had declared their interest in Gropius as
director of a new architecture section. In spring
19 1 9, Gropius was charged with the direction of
both schools, now to be united, to which he
gave the name 'Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar'.
This background history attests to his intention
of creating a comprehensive art institution: 'The
Bauhaus strives to collect all artistic creativity into a unity, to reunite all artistic disciplines

and handicraft - into


a new architecture', as it was formulated in the
prospectus of April 1919. In this celebration of
handicraft, of teaching workshops, of a communal collaboration of teachers and students,
and the synthesis of all the arts, the early
Bauhaus took up notions which had circulated
in expressionist artistic circles in the months
sculpture, painting, design

Artists

were engaged

as masters,

including the

Oskar Schlemmer,
Georg Muche, Paul Klee and Vassily Kandinsky, and the sculptor Gerhard Marcks. Johannes
Itten,

who

developed the 'Vorkurs' (introduc-

tory course), was especially influential in the


early phase. This elementary instruction,

pulsory for

all

beginners

at

com-

the Bauhaus, intro-

duced the student to the principles of form,


taught him to work with materials and colours,
directed him to an analytical study of pictorial
works of art and sought above all to stimulate a
free creativity independent of all preconceived
notions or models.

The orientation of the Bauhaus was modified


by the influence of De *Stijl, whose leading
spokesman Theo van *Docsburg gave independent courses in Weimar, and by Russian Constructivism. The esoteric and romantic was
replaced by active involvement in the contemporary scene, active concern with the environment, and a realistic assessment of the needs
of an industrial society. Gropius devised the
motto 'Art and Technology, a new unity'
('Kunst und Technik, eine neue Einheit').
When Itten left the Bauhaus in [932, his responsibilities were taken over by Lszl MoholvNagy and Josef Albers. The resulting change in
direction manifested itself for the

the Bauhaus's involvement

111

first

time

in

the exhibition

organized by the Thuringian provincial gov-

ernment

in 1923.

Even an

architectural experi-

ment, the 'Haus am lorn' designed by Muche.


was shown, although the Bauhaus, despite its
1

35

Bauhaus
and life-styles, the opposition,
Thuringian handicraft circles, increased after the students began to take an

esoteric doctrines

especially in

interest in design prototypes for industrial serial

HI

production; the production of its workshops


began to seem to be in competition with local

workshops. Especially attacked was the link


between a state-subsidized teaching institution
and workshops run by private enterprise. The
provincial elections of 1924 gave the political
right wing a majority, a development which led
to the masters' decision at the end of the year to
disband the school.
In Weimar, the Hochschule fr Handwerk
und Baukunst, of which Otto *Bartning was
director, became successor to the Bauhaus.
Gropius and most of the teachers and students of
the Bauhaus took up an offer of the city of

Dessau to continue their work in that small


Thus Dessau not only took
over the school, but made possible the construction of a new complex of Bauhaus buildings as
well as residences for the masters. Gropius' new
Bauhaus complex was occupied by 1926. Its
freely disposed layout with three extending
wings, a two-storey bridge spanning the street,
and the great curtain wall of the workshop
building were to serve as practical demonstrations of a modern architecture.
With the new home came a thoroughgoing
consolidation. Former associates such as Josef
Albers, Herbert Bayer, Marcel *Breuer, Hinnerk Scheper, Joost Schmidt and Gunta Stlzl,
who dominated both theoretical and practical
principles, took over the workshops and
rendered superfluous the former distinction
between 'Formmeistern' and 'Werkmeistern'.
The production of the Bauhaus - itself now
provincial capital.

linked, via

Bauhaus. The experimental Haus am Horn by


Georg Muche (exhibited 1923)

Bauhaus. Views of

the Dessau buildings by


Walter Gropius (1925-6)

tunities to acquire practical experience in the


field

name, did not have an architectural department


until 1927 when Hannes *Meyer arrived.
While the early Bauhaus had startled the

Weimar populace with its Utopian social ideas


and numerous flirtations with mystical and
36

numerous international connections,

with the other centres of European modernism


- was determined by functionality, economy, a
preference for primary stereometric forms and
the crisp elegance of machine-produced objects.
Through commissions such as that of 1926 for
the experimental housing estate at DessauTrten, which was built using industrialized'
techniques, the Bauhaus was given opporof mass housing. Not least in its festivals, for

which the Bauhaus was renowned, was the new


ideal life-style highlighted: unburdened by
history, spontaneous, creative, of one mind and
uncompromisingly of its own time. It was thus a
matter for general astonishment when, in 1928,

BBPR
Gropius gave up his relatively assured position
of the school he had founded and
justified his action by reference to the renewal of
as director

political difficulties.

Gropius himself selected

as

his

successor

Hannes Meyer, who sought to emphasize the


social aspect of the Bauhaus's work. Meyer expounded the notion of 'the needs of the people
instead of the needs of luxury' ('Volksbedarf
statt Luxusbedarf'), engaged the city planner

Ludwig *Hilberseimer for the


department (in which Meyer's
partner Hans Wittwer was also
creased the output of the

architecture
professional
active),

in-

workshops and pressed

development of inexpensive furniture,


textiles, carpets and lamps that could be afforded
by the working classes. He unequivocally opposed both the open and the latent aestheticism
of the Bauhaus: 'Everything in the world is a
product of the formula: function times econfor the

omy

Building is a biological procedure.


Building is not an aesthetic process. .Architecture as the "artist's realization of effects" is
without justification.' This stance led to internal
conflicts among the artists at the Bauhaus.
.

Meyer's political leanings became increasingly


leftist, and he was attacked from outside by the

more influential. Finally, the


mayor of Dessau, Fritz Hesse, an active

right, increasingly
liberal

supporter of the Bauhaus, was forced to dismiss

Meyer.
In

its last

director,

Ludwig *Mies van

Rohe, the Bauhaus gained

a leader

der

devoted to

absolute standards of quality and a relentless

work

ethic.

This

work was

especially concen-

to 'Bau und
Ausbau' ('Building and Development'), so that
the conflict with the advocates of an independent art which had begun under Meyer's
directorship was continued, even if now under
different banners, under Mies van der Rohe. In
1932 the right-radical faction of the Dessau
municipal council put down a motion to close
the Bauhaus, and this was adopted with the
support of the Social Democrats. For over six
months Mies van der Rohe carried on the work
of the Bauhaus as a private institute, housed in
an abandoned telephone factory in BerlinSteglitz. However, after the enforced closure of
the school by the Gestapo and the S.A., the
Bauhaus's board voted on 20 July 1933 to
disband for good.
According to the estimate of its chronicler
Hans M. Wingler, the Bauhaus had scarcely

trated

on those

skills

related

more than

1,250 pupils in total.

Its

influence

stands in inverse proportion to this limited

number. The enforced emigration of many


Bauhaus members dispersed its principles
throughout the world. Its work was continued
in the *USA, by Gropius and Breuer at Harvard
University, by Moholy-Nagy at the New
Bauhaus in Chicago, by Mies van der Rohe,
Hilberseimar and Walter Peterhans at the
Armour Institute (today Illinois Institute of
Technology), also in Chicago, and by Albers at
Black Mountain College in North Carolina.
Exhibitions, such as that at the Museum of

Modern Art

in

New

York

in the winter

of

93 89, and numerous publications spread the


fame of the school worldwide. The Bauhaus
1

became a legend of modernism and thus attracted much of the criticism voiced in the 1960s in
connection with the discussion of *functional-

Both in its reputation and as a target, the


Bauhaus assumed in later history, and for the
first time, a monolithic character that it had

ism.

its brief career - a career


by contradiction, contro-

never possessed during


characterized rather
versy,

and

lively artistic discussion.

WP

Bauhaus Weimar 1919-1923, Munich and Weimar 1923; Gropius, Walter, Idee
und Aufbau des Staatlichen Bauhauses, Munich
and Weimar 1923; Bayer, Herbert, and Gropius, Walter and Ise (eds.), Bauhaus 1919-1928,
New York 1938; Wingler, Hans M., Das
Bauhaus 1919-1933 Weimar Dessau Berlin, Cologne 1962; 30 Jahre Bauhaus (exhibition catalogue), Stuttgart 1968; Franciscono, Marcel,
Walter Gropius and the creation of the Bauhaus in
Weimar, Urbana, 111. 1971; Hter, Karl-Heinz,
Das Bauhaus in Weimar, Berlin 1976.
Staatliches

BBPR.

Partnership founded in Milan in 1932

by Gianluigi *Banfi, Lodovico *Bclgiojoso,


Enrico *Peressutti and Ernesto Nathan *Rogers. BBPR was launched in the overheated
atmosphere of the
creating

its first

Italian Rationalist debate,

masterpiece in the

late 1930s,

the

Lcgnano (1937-8). The 'objectivity' manifested there was continued in the


reductivist geometries of their Memorial to the
Sanatorium

at

victims of the concentration camps, erected in


Milan in 1946. With the Torre Velasca in Milan

(1954-8) they created

building which reacted

against the polemic of the ^International Style,


treating its machine aesthetic as an isolated and

unique episode in modern architecture. With its


abstracted medieval reminiscences, the design
37

Beaudouin

BBPR.

Beaudouin, Eugene,

Torre Velasca, Milan (1954-8)

b. Paris 1898.

Studied

at

the *Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and the

Rome. One of the


Modern Movement in

of the tower responds to its prestigious location,

Academie de France

near Milan's Gothic cathedral. This rejection of

leading exponents of the

dogmatic modernism, which was vigorously

he designed, in collaboration with


Marcel *Lods, the Cite de la Muette at Drancy,
near Paris (19324), a mixed-development es-

criticized

by many

at

the time, anticipated

by

of
however, an isolated
incident in BBPR's development. Already in
the restoration of the Monastery of San Simpliciano in Milan (1940; with E. Radice Fossati),
they demonstrated an unusual awareness of
traditional values, which recurs in the same city
both in the equally elegant and clear museum
decade the

later international reorientation

architecture.

It

was

not,

installation in the Castello Sforzesco (19526)

and

in the offices

of the Chase Manhattan Bank

(1969), notable for an expressive steel facade


sensitively

harmonized

with

its

15;

VML

units

Behnisch, Gnter,

b.

Lockwitz, near Dresden,

1922. Studied at the Technische Hochschule in

Zodiac (Milan), no. 4, 1959, pp. 82Bonfanti, E., and Porta, M., Citta, museo e

Stuttgart, where in 1952 he founded an office


with Bruno Lambart. After their partnership
was dissolved in 1956, he continued alone until
966 when the firm of Behnisch and Partners
was formed, consisting of Fritz Auer (left 198 1),

Enzo,

architettura: II

'Continuita

gruppo

BBPR

coerenze

Antonio,

BBPR

nella cultura archi-

Florence 1973; Pavia,


Milano, Milan 1982.

tettonica italiana IQ32-70,

38

where prefabricated reinforced-concrete


were used (developed in collaboration
with Eugene *Freyssinet), the Pavilion School
at Suresnes (19325); and the Maison du Peuple
at Clichy (1937-9), in which the engineer Jean
*Prouve played an important part. He drew up
the plans for the Cite Rotterdam suburb at
Strasbourg (195 1-3) and built (with *Ncrvi and
Alberto Camenzind) the extension to the Palace
of the League of Nations in Geneva (196773).
tate

dei

Paci,

BBPR',
1

France,

urban

surroundings.

in

Behrens

and Convalescent
6);

Home

at

Reutlingen (1973-

various projects for the governmental quar-

ter of Bonn (1973-81); the replanning of the


Knigstrae and the Schloplatz in' Stuttgart

the

(1973-80);

Sports

Hall

in

Sindelfingen

(1976-7); and the Study Centre of the Lutheran


Church in Stuttgart-Birkach (1977-9).
FJ

Behnisch

&

Partner,

Bauten und Entwrfe,

Stuttgart 1975; Klotz, Heinrich, conversation


with Gnter Behnisch, in: Architektur in der
Bundesrepublik. Gesprche mit sechs Architekten,

Frankfurt

am

Main, Berlin and Vienna 1977,


+ Partner', Das Kunst-

pp. 13-63; 'Behnisch

werk (Stuttgart), 32 (1979), nos. 2/3, pp. 22-29;


'Offenheit und Vielfalt. Behnisch & Partner,
Stuttgart', Deutsche Bauzeitung (Stuttgart), 116
(1982), no.

3,

pp. 12-42.

Hamburg

Behnisch. Study Centre of the Lutheran Church,

Behrens,

Stuttgart-Birkach (1977-9)

1940. In a society torn

Peter, b.

1868, d. Berlin

between archaic mental

and a blind faith in the rapid progress


of technology, B. was one of the first architects
of the 20th century to develop a form of
architectural thought that would answer to the
demands of an industrialized civilization. At a
period when the moral and social demands put
forward by the Expressionist painters of Dresden (Die Brcke) were leading to new directions in the graphic arts, he was in at the birth of
modern architecture in Germany, where he
exerted a leading influence between 1900 and
1914. Furthermore, the sidelines derived from
architecture in which he engaged inaugurated
(1907) a form of specialization that has become
widely known in our times under the name of
Industrial Design. Here, too, he deeply influenced the development of technology and style
at a time when the propagation of craft-derived
forms by the exponents of *Art Nouvcau was
threatening to undermine any attempts to
formulate design principles in conformity with
new ways of living.
B. did not discover his true vocation from the
first. Like *van de Velde and *Lc Corbusicr, he
began as a painter and came to architecture via
the so-called applied arts. From SS6 to 889 he
attended painting classes at the art schools of
Karlsruhe and Dsseldorf. In [890 he was
impressed by the work of the luministes (Josef
Israels) in Holland, and the work ot~ painters
foundersuch as Leibl in Munich; he was
member of the Mnchner Se/ession 111 [893.
Already interested in the graphic arts, lus early
compositions (coloured woodcuts, trontisattitudes

Winfried Bxel, Manfred Sabatke, Erhard


Trnkner and Karlheinz Weber (left 1981).
Since 1967 he has served as a professor at the
Technische Hochschule in Darmstadt.
Undoubtedly the best-known works of the
Behnisch office are the sports buildings of the
Olympiapark, Munich (196772), built for the
1972

Olympic Games. The tent-roof construc-

with Frei *Otto)


over the stadium, sports hall and swimming
pool seems at first glance uncharacteristic of the
work of B. and his partners in its virtuoso
engineering. Yet the concept expresses very
clearly their understanding of the architectural
requirement to create an adaptable artificial
environment, and was notable for its reflection
of the festive character of the games.
Initially, B. was active almost exclusively
in school building, in which field he made
several important pioneering contributions in
the use of prefabrication. Important stages were
tion (designed in collaboration

the

Hohenstaufen-Gymnasium

in

Gppingen

Fachhochschule fr
Technik in Ulm (1959-63), the Mittelpunktschule in Oppelsbohm (1966-9) and the Pro(1956-9),

the

Staatliche

gymnasium in Lorch, Wrttemberg (1972-3).


The strong circular form of the school in
Oppelsbohm is further developed in Lorch into
a free framework of a classroom core and
attached wings for special uses. The graceful
looseness of this composition established the
pattern for the firm's

work.

important recent designs

Among

are: the

their

Old

most

People's

,1

39

Behrens
still permeated by the
decorative influence of Art Nouveau.
After travelling in Italy (1896), B. turned in

pieces for books, etc.) are

1898 to problems of industrial production and


designed a number of prototype flasks for mass
production by a large glass works; these are
already notable for their plain, straightforward

Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig


him to stay at Darmstadt and join a
group of young artists (the architect J. M.
*01brich, the interior decorators P. Huber and
shapes. In 1899 the

invited

H. Christiansen, and the


Habich and R. Bosselt) who under
the name of 'Die Sieben' (The Seven) had
as their aim the establishment of effective
relationships between all the plastic arts. It was
then that B. took up architecture and, as van de
Velde had done at Uccle five years before, built
his own house and fitted it out completely in a
unitary style that betrayed the influence of both
van de Velde and "^Mackintosh. At the instance
of *Muthesius, he was appointed head of the
Dsseldorf School of Art in 1903, a post he held
until t 907. From this period onwards his classical
temperament led him to design sober, powerful
and massive works, strongly functionalist in
P. Biirck, the painter

sculptors L.

Behrens. The architect's house on the


Mathildenhhe, Darmstadt (1901)

Behrens.

40

AEG

high-tension plant, Berlin (1910)

Belgium
style.

The Obenauer House (Saarbrcken,

Cuno and

Schroeder
Houses (Eppenhausen, near Hagen, 1908-10)
express this rationalistic tendency, that was
ultimately to distinguish the work of Behrens
from the plastic dynamism and lyricism of
*Poelzig and ^Mendelsohn.
In 1907 (the year the *Deutscher Werkbund
was founded), B. was summoned to Berlin by
the AEG (the German General Electrical Company). His duties comprised the design not only
of electrical appliances (cookers, radiators, ventilators, lamps, etc.), but also of the firm's
packaging, catalogues, leaflets, posters, letter19056), as well as the

showrooms, shops, and, to boot, factories and workshops. This marks for the first
time, in a large industrial context, the emergence of a desire to humanize technology. By
employing an architect to ensure a good visual
appearance for their products, the AEG was
bringing objects into daily life that were not
only functionally efficient, but were harmoniously and sensitively designed as well, permeated as they were by an authentic creative

heads,

which, in the last analysis, projected the


brand image of a major industrial company. At
style

same time, B. introduced a new expression


of monumentality to European architecture
with his turbine factory for AEG (1908-9) - the
first German building in glass and steel - the
high-tension plant (19 10) and the factory for
small motors (1910-11), etc. B. also built a
complete district of flats for AEG workers at
Henningsdorf, near Berlin (1910/ 11). Apart
the

from numerous

factories erected at various


times throughout his career, mention should be

made of certain other major works designed in a


neo-classic style that expressed the clients'

need
These include the Mannesmann AG
Dsseldorf (1911-12), those for the

for prestige.
offices at

Rubber Company at Hanover


German Embassy in St
Petersburg (now Leningrad; 1911-12).
Continental

(1913-20), and the

In 1922 B. was appointed director of the


School of Architecture at the Vienna Akademie
der bildenden Knste; some of the buildings he
designed in the following years may be considered as examples of German ^Expressionism
(Hoechst Dyeworks, 1920-5). In 1936 he became head of the department of architecture at
the Prussian Academy of Arts, Berlin. Among
B.'s most outstanding pupils are: Le Corbusier,

who worked

in his Berlin office

from 19 10

to

*Gropius, from 1907 to 1910; and *Mies


RD
van der Rohe, from 1908 to 191 1.
D Behrens, Peter, Feste des Lebens und der
Kunst, Jena 1900; Hoeber, Fritz, Peter Behrens,
Munich 191 3; Cremers, Paul Joseph, Peter
Behrens, Sein Werk von igog bis zur Gegenwart,
Essen 1928, Grimme, K. M., Peter Behrens und
seine Wiener akademische Meister schule, Vienna
1930; Buddensicg, Tilman, et al., Industriekultur. Peter Behrens und die AEG; lgoj-igi^,
Berlin 1979; Windsor, Alan, Peter Behrens,
Architect and Designer, i868-ig^o, London 1981.
191

1;

Belgiojoso, Lodovico (Barbiano di), b. Milan


1909. Studied at the Milan Politccnico. He was a
professor at the Istituto Univcrsitano di
Architettura in Venice, 1955-63, and from 1963
at the Politecnico in Milan. He was a founder-

member of
Milan

the firm

*BB1

<

established in

in 1932.

Belgium.

Brussels

was the leading European

centre for advanced architectural production


during the Art Nouveau phase 111 the Sons. The
1

influence ot Belgian Art

Behrens. Technical administration building of the


Hoechst Dyeworks, Frankfurt (19205)

Nouveau

111

us

many

was widely felt, particularly in ^France


and ^Germany; the principal features were the
guises

Belgium
of Victor *Horta and
Paul Hankar, both based in Brussels and credited with independently achieving a non-his-

distinctive personal styles

Horta

toricizing architecture as early as 1893.

went further than any other architect of his time


in dissolving traditional interior volumes into
unified flowing space. Hankar superimposed
and interlocked interior volumes just as he did
the structural and graphic elements that defined

them, so

as to

express their special integrity as

components of a whole. Henry *van de


Velde, interior designer, craftsman, and artist,
as well as architect and theoretician, was invited
in 1902 to teach at the design school in Weimar,
whence he exerted a great influence on German
discrete

Jugendstil.

The determining sources of Belgian Art


Nouveau lay in the ferment of architectural
ideas in Brussels during the 18 80s, catalyzed

the

completion

there

of Joseph

by

Poelaert's

overwhelming Palace of Justice (186683) ana


tempered by the contributions of such eclectic
architects as Alphonse Balat, Henri Beyaert,
"

and Jean Baes. The theories of Viollet-le-Duc


permeated the scene not only during that
decade but also during those that preceded and
followed it. Another major influence on the
efflorescence of Belgian Art Nouveau was the
English *Arts and Crafts movement. Beginning in 1888, Gustave Serrurier-Bovy, a Liege
cabinet-maker and the leading Belgian exponent of Art Nouveau outside Brussels, imported the products of Liberty and Company of
London.
The various Art Nouveau styles attained
immense popularity throughout Belgium
around the turn of the century. Some of the
considerable production in these modes was of
unquestionable originality, but the mass of it
was derivative, based on the successes of the
style's

leading practitioners.

original

Among

the

more

minor masters of Art Nouveau were

Octave van Rijsselberghe and Gustave Strauven in Brussels; Paul Jaspar in Liege; and Emile
van Averbeke in Antwerp.
Even as Art Nouveau enjoyed its greatest
vogue in the design of residential buildings,
gaining an enviable reputation abroad, revival
styles remained in extensive use for all building
types.

Not

infrequently, Art

Belgium. Hotel

Nouveau

Tassel, Brussels (1892-3),

Victor Horta: facade and internal staircase

4^

motifs

by

Belgium
were eclectically mingled with stylistic elements of neo-Gothic and neo-Renaissance derivation. French academic classicism (*Ecole des
Beaux-Arts) was favoured by King Leopold II
personally and particularly for large-scale secuwork; ecclesiastical commissions were
lar
usually executed in neo-Gothic style. Bye. 1910,
Art Nouveau was losing its prominence, even in
the domestic sector, to the very historicizing
styles whose hegemony it had originally challenged. Designers such as Horta and Antoine

New Objectivity (*Neue Sachlichkeit),


brought to Belgium principally via the Netherlands, appealed mainly to Flemish architects like
Braem and Leon Stijnen. The Brussels design
school of La Cambre, opened in 1928 with van
de Velde as director, was a veritable Belgian
*Bauhaus. Belgium was to be a crossroads of
various modern tendencies without ever making an original contribution of importance to
developments outside the country. Conservative public taste between the wars was the major

Pompe

factor in limiting the opportunities available to


Belgian architects to experiment fruitfully.

switched from primarily fluid geomemore rigid, mainly orthogonal ones,


responding to conservative trends in taste and
also to the tone set by early 20th-century
Viennese work (introduced directly into Brustries to

sels

11),

by Josef *HofFmann's Palais Stoclet, 1904and prefiguring *Art Deco. Meanwhile, a

desire for a quaint regional character in

much

buildings informed

new

Belgian architecture

from f.1900 onwards. Bruges, perhaps, was the


major centre for regionalist ideology in Flanwith Liege playing

Wallonia.
After World War I, most of the reconstruction work in such devastated cities as Louvain
and Ypres was carried out in the conservative
ders,

this role in

regionalist vein that

had

Advanced Belgian

architecture of the 1920s,

set in

well before 19 14.

as that of Huibrecht Hoste, often reflected


contemporary Dutch building as well as the
rationalist tradition, ultimately deriving from
Viollet-le-Duc, carried on in Belgium by Louis
Cloquet of Ghent. Garden-city housing estates
planned along English lines were occasionally

such

None of the ambitious modernist projects,


including one by Le Corbusier and Hoste
entered in the IMALSO competition for the
development of the

left

Antwerp
After World War II,

river opposite

political

bank of the Scheldt


was executed.

(1933),

the

new

international

and economic order made

prepon-

derant American influence on Belgian architecture

and planning inevitable. The application of

pseudo-CIAM

principles, in conjunction with


American-inspired traflic-flow models, to the
development not only of certain suburban areas
but also the central areas of such cities as Brussels
and Liege benefited the narrow interests of
developers more than society at large, and in

many

places resulted in a serious erosion of the

historic

urban

fabric.

Through

the 1950s and

1960s, talented architects such as

Braem and

Stijnen continued to produce designs of quality,

In the late 1920s and 1930s, Art Deco and


streamlined styles were widely employed, notably in Ghent and Charleroi and their suburbs.

but their contributions were obscured by the


enormous quantity of undistinguished curtainwall structures that increasingly dominated
many Belgian cities. The Brussels Exposition of
1958 provided an occasion for demonstrating
many new building materials to an international audience; but many of its pavilions

Albert van Huffel stunningly exploited an Art

seemed

Deco manner

(*Functionalism). Such pavilions did even

the setting for progressive domestic architecture of Cubist character (*Cubism).

modified design for the


unfinished national memorial basilica, Koekelberg, Brussels (1921; completed 1970).
The ^International Style, on the other hand,
made less of an impact in Belgium although
not for any lack of talented and dedicated
representatives there: *Le Corbusier himself
built the Guiette studio-house (1925-7) in an
in his

Antwerp suburb, and he had many Belgian


Renaat Braem, L. H. De
Koninck, and Victor "^Bourgeois. Belgians
were present at La Sarraz and subsequent
followers, including

*CIAM

meetings, as well as

at

Weienhof
in 1927. The

the

housing exhibition in Stuttgart

to caricature the Functionalist aesthetic


less

than the prize-winning design by *Skidmorc,

Owings and

Merrill, erected in Brussels tor the

Banqne Lambert
improvement in

(i960), to inspire significant

the

declining

standards of

Belgian urban design, but rather encouraged


the multiplication of bizarre formalist exen ises
in the 1960s. The finest examples of Belgian
architecture from the 1950s and [960s were to
be found in the private residential sector and in
rural or semi-rural contexts.

Beginning c. 1970, local councils and planning groups, such as the Atelier de Recherche et
d'Action Urbaines m Brussels, were able to
43

Belluschi

Belluschi, Pietro, b. Ancona 1899. Studied at


the University of Rome and at Cornell University. He was chief designer in the office of A. E.
Doyle and Associates in Portland, Oregon,

192742. In 1943 he founded his own office


which was taken over by *Skidmore,

there,

& Merrill in 1950. He was Dean of the


School of Architecture and Planning at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, 195165. From 1965 he again had his
Owings

own

m2agtip$&

office in Portland. B. first

came

to public

attention with his Equitable Savings Building in

Portland (1948), an early example of a curtain


all the facade elements are

wall in which

composed

in

the same plane.

The

Juilliard

School of Music in New York's Lincoln Center


(1970), with its incorporation of various functions within a large single structure, is evidence
of B.'s continued devotion to the ideal of a late
International Style container architecture. GHa
D Gubitosi, C, and Izzo, A. (eds.), Pietro
Belluschi:

Edifici

e progetti,

igj2-igyj,

Rome

1974-

Berg, Max,

Belgium.

Students' Residence, Universite


Catholique de Louvain, Woluve Saint-Lambert
(1970-7), by Lucien Kroll

b. Stettin 1870, d.

Baden-Baden

Hochschule in
Berlin-Charlottenburg. Later he was Municipal
1947. Studied at the Technische

in Breslau. His Jahrhundcrthalle


(Century Hall) in Breslau (1912-13), a huge
cupola with exposed ribs, was one of the boldest
reinforced-concrete buildings of its time. Its

Architect

organize popular opposition to grandiose planning schemes and the banal architecture that

accompanied them. The rehabilitation of

dis-

used structures, the preservation of significant

expressionistic (*Expressionism) feeling

older buildings, and the rights of squatters

rived purely

became issues with which municipal authorities


have been forced to reckon. Widespread disillu-

structural skeleton.

sionment with late Modern architecture, such


that seen in the Quartier

as

Nord in Brussels

(1960ongoing), favoured the development in Bel-

gium of

nexus of fertile Post-Modernist


alternatives
(*Post-Modernism). Belgium's
leading Post-Modernist, Lucien *Kroll, has had
a profound influence on many members of a
younger generation of architects, including
Rudy Vael of Sint-Niklaas. In Liege, Charles
a

Vandenhove
styles

has rationalized local vernacular

and deployed them

sensitively in a variety

of different situations. An interest


geometry and proportioning systems

in

pure

in archi-

tectural design runs strong in the Belgian Post-

Modernist milieu, which includes such notable


figures as Bob Van Reeth, Marc Van Bortel,
and Georges Baines of Antwerp; Paul Robbrecht and Ilde Daem of Ghent; and Philippe
Caucheteux of Mons.
AWi
+4

Berlage, Hendrik Petrus,


d.

de-

is

from the formal pattern of

b.

Amsterdam

its

1856,

The Hague

his

own

1934. Studied in Zurich, and had


practice in Amsterdam from 1889

onwards; he figures among the great innovators


of architecture around the turn of the century.
Reacting against 19th-century *eclecticism, he
aimed at an 'honest awareness of the problems
of architecture' and a craftsmanlike approach to
materials and construction. B. revealed once
more to his contemporaries the meaning and
magic of brickwork. Plastering a wall was in his
view tantamount to falsification, and he eschewed the practice even in the rooms of
private houses. His 'moral' outlook was in
harmony with the social climate of the times,

which

since

c.

1895 was strongly influenced by

movement.
by the massive gravity of the
Romanesque, which is reflected in his semithe rising labour

B.

felt

attracted

Bill

and his large unbroken wall


These features also recall the work of
the American architects H. H. Richardson,
Louis *Sullivan and Frank Lloyd *Wright,
whose work he had seen on his 191 1 trip to the
*USA. Characteristic works of his own include
the Diamond-Workers' House, Amsterdam
(1899- 1 900), Holland House, London (19 14),
and above all the Amsterdam Stock Exchange,
completed in 1903. The Stock Exchange was
the outcome of a competition held in 1897; B.'s
winning design was subsequently altered by
him in many details. In this monumental work,
he used a light-coloured stone for special
features, in addition to brick. The steel roof
structure over the main hall is left exposed.
circular arches

surfaces.

As an

architectural writer, B. exerted great

work of Frank
Lloyd Wright to public notice in Europe)
through his numerous publications and lectures. Many buildings, especially in the *Netherlands, are in fact based on B.'s work, even
though they differ formally from it. The poetry
of smooth surfaces had considerable influence
on the Modern Movement in Holland (De
*Stijl), while his expressive use of historic forms
influenced the development of Dutch *Expressionism (*Amsterdam, School of). In 1928 he
attended the first congress of *CIAM at La
Sarraz, but felt himself to be too committed to a
influence (notably bringing the

Berlage. Stock Exchange. Amsterdam (1903):


exterior and interior views

more traditional conception of architecture to


\\\ GHa
be able to join CI AM.
Berlage, Hendrik Petrus, Gedanken ber den

Stil in der

Baukunst, Leipzig 1905;

rrund-

und Entwicklung der Architektur, Berlin and


Studies over Bouwkunst,
Rotterdam 1908;
lagen

StijlenSamenleving,

Rotterdam

19 10; (lr.it.inia.

Jan, Dr. H. P. Berlage Bouwmeester,


1925; Havelaar, J.,

Dr H.

P. Berlage,

Rotterdam

Amsterdam

1930; Singclcnberg, Pieter, H.P. Berlage.

Am-

sterdam 1969.
Bill,
tor,

Berg. Jahrhunderthalle, Breslau (1912-13)

the

Max,

b.

Winterthur 190S. Fainter, sculp-

exhibition designer, architect. Studied

at

Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich and from


4n

Block, Der

Bill.

Hochschule fr Gestaltung,

Ulm

(1953-5)

an architecture 'which takes account of the lifeand views of a people and the conditions
and nature of the country.'
VML
styles

1927 to 1929 at the *Bauhaus in Dessau.


1944 he was involved in industrial design.
195

to 1956 he

From
From

was Rector of the Hochschule

Ulm, as well as being in charge


of the departments of architecture and industrial design. He taught at the Hochschule fur
Bildende Kunst, Hamburg, 1967-74. His bestknown architectural work, the Hochschule fur
Gestaltung in Ulm (1953-5), embodies a complex scheme in an open, easily grasped layout,
which harmonizes well with its setting
fur Gestaltung at

("^Switzerland).

Aires
1

Max Bill, Buenos


1955; Staber, Margit, Max Bill, St Gallen
Huttinger, Eduard, Max Bill, Zurich

Maldonado,

971;

Tomas,

1977.

Block, Der (The Block). Association of tradiGerman architects, founded

tionally-oriented
in

Berlin in

1928 principally

as

Blom,
ied

Piet (Pieter), b.

Amsterdam

under Aldo van *Eyck

Academy

in

awarded the

Amsterdam.

Rome

at

1934. Studthe Architectural

In

1962

he

was

Prize for a project for a

Pestalozzi Village. Since 1967 he has had his


office in

Monnickendam. Alongside van Eyck,

Herman
geren, B.

*Hertzberger, and Frank van Klinis one of the most important expo-

Dutch ^Structuralism, the pursuit of


which has sometimes given rise in his work to

nents of

extremely provocative forms. The 'Kasbah'


housing estate at Hengelo (1965-73) is a manifesto of structuralist urban planning: the houses
were densely packed and the ground level was
kept free and open with the intention of
creating an unobstructed circulation zone,
which, however, was not achieved. B. built 't
Speclhuis community centre and its surround-

counter-

movement to the avant-gardist *Ring group.


The impetus was the dispute over the Weienhofsiedlung in Stuttgart, in which both Paul
*Bonatz and Paul Schmitthenner were meant

have participated. At the behest of the


Deutscher Werkbund, Bonatz prepared a siteplan which proposed an overall scheme for
building pitched-roof houses - a plan which
soon met with resistance. Ludwig *Mies van
der Rohe was then called in, and his 'modernist'
to

won favour. In protest, Bonatz and


Schmitthenner withdrew from the undertak-

solution

were joined by German


Bestelmeyer, Paul Schultze-Naumburg and
other conservative architects to form the
'Block', whose members were united to create
ing; a year later they

46

Blom.

'Kasbah' housing estate, Hengelo (1965-73)

Bhm, D.
Heimond, 1975-8. Here
dominant theme was that of a cube set on
one corner; the housing units are stacked on
hexagonal shafts, resulting in a kind of 'forest'
formed of a series of 'tree' dwellings.
AM
ing ring of houses at
the

Lchinger, Arnulf, Strukturalismus

in

der

Architektur, Stuttgart 198 1.

Bofill

Ricardo, b. Barcelona 1939.


the Escuela Tecnica Superior de

(Levi),

Studied

at

Arquitectura in Barcelona and at the University


1962 he founded Taller de
Arquitectura, an interdisciplinary team of art-

of Geneva. In
ists,

writers, musicians

Taller de Arquitectura

and architects. With the


team B. realized, among

other projects: the Calle J. S. Bach flats in


Barcelona (1964-5); the Barrio Gaudi residential quarter in Reus (1964-7); the La Muralla
Roja holiday complex in Calpe (1968-73); the
'Waiden 7' flats at Sant Just Desvern, near
Barcelona (1970-5); and, in France, the housing
complex Les Arcades du Lac at Saint-Quentinen-Yvelines. After his neo-realist and *New
Brutalist experiments in the 'Barcelona school'
of the 1960s, B. turned decisively in the mid-

He

1970s to historical prototypes.

most

prominently

tural

at

monumental

Yvelines, a

developed,
Saint-Quentin-en-

neo-classical architec-

language which, he claims, reconstructs

FW

the collective consciousness.

Ricardo, L' Architecture d'un homme,


Paris 1978; Goytisolo, Jose Augustin, Taller de
Arquitectura, Barcelona 1977; Taller de ArquiBofill,

tectura.

London

Ricardo Bofill
1981.

(exhibition catalogue),

Bohigas (Guardiola),
Studied

Oriol, b. Barcelona 1925.


the Escuela Tecnica Superior de

at

Arquitectura in Barcelona. In 195 1 he formed a


partnership with Joseph *Martorell, which was

joined in 1962 by David *Mackay.

He became a

professor at the Architecture School in Barcelona in 197 1 and its director in 1977. Since 198

he has served as architectural adviser to the City


of Barcelona. B. has achieved prominence not
only as a practising architect but also as a

AM

theorist.

Bohigas, Oriol, Arquitectura modernista, Barcelona 1968;


Contra una arquitectura ad,

Barcelona 1969;
La arquitectura
espahola de la Segunda Republica, Barcelona
Proceso y erotica del diseno, Barcelona
1970;

jetiuada,

1972;
durant

la

Catalunya: Arquitectura y urbanisme

Republica, Barcelona 1978.

Bhm,

Dominikus. Frielingsdorf parish church,

near Cologne (1926-7)

Bhm,
d.

Dominikus, b. Jettingen, Bavaria 1880,


Cologne 1955. Studied under Theodor

*Fischer at the Technische Hochschule in StuttIn 1902 he opened his own office in
Cologne, which he directed from 1952 on, in
collaboration with his son Gottfried *Bohm.
He was a professor at the Kunstgewerbeschule in
Offenbach, 1914-26, and at the Cologne
Werkschule, 1926-35. From the 1920s on, B.
advocated a reform in ecclesiastical architecture
in Germany, by the abandonment of the
historical formal vocabulary as well as by the
bringing together of congregation and altar. A
strong sensory-emotional element pervades his
work, whether it be that which depends ultimately on *Expressionism, as in the Circumgart.

stantes project (1922), the Christknigskirche in


Mainz-Bischofsheim (1926) or the parish

church in Frielingsdorf, near Cologne ( 926-7)


with their dematerialized, abstractly gothicizing white folds, or whether it be churches of
1

which arc more influenced by


European modernism, such as St Engelbert .it
Cologne-Riehl (1932) and St Maria Knigin at
GHa
Colognc-Manenburg (1954)his late period,

Dominikus Bhm, Berlin


H., and Thoma, R.,
Dominikus Bhm Leben und Werk, Munich and
Zurich 1962; Stalling. Gesine, Studien zu
Dominikus Bhm, Herne and Frankfurt [974.
Hoff,

August,

Muck,

1930; Hoff, A.,

47

Bhi

Bhm,

Gottfried. Pilgrimage church at Neviges

(1963-8)

Bhm,
In

marked tendency towards an architeclanguage more influenced by *Rationalism; examples are the - often metal - skeletal
structures such as in the Landesamt fur Datenverarbeitung und Statistik (Provincial Administration for Data Processing and Statistics) in
Dsseldorf (1969-76) and the pilgrimage
church in Wigratzbad (1972).
FJ
D 'Gottfried Bhm', Architecture and Urbanism
(Tokyo), March 1978; 'Bhm, Das Kunstu'erk
well

as a

tural

Gottfried, b. Offenbach

Munich he

studied

am Main

architecture

1920.

at

the

Technische Hochschule and sculpture at the


Akademie der bildenden Knste. In 1952 he
entered the office of his father Dommikus
*Bhm, which he took over upon the latter's
death in 1955. Since 1963 he has been Professor
for Regional Planning and Public Works at the
Technische Hochschule in Aachen. Following
his father, B. initially was primarily a church
designer, his work being characterized by a
highly expressive formal language derived
from *Expressionism. A highpoint was the
pilgrimage church in Neviges (1963-8), where
crystalline forms are composed into a towering
rugged mountain of concrete. The same sculptural approach also endows the town hall in
Bernsberg (1962-7) with a powerful shape. In
this case, B. enlarged the existing ruins of a
medieval castle to produce an impressive ensemble in a harmonious architectural style. The

(Stuttgart), 12 (1979), nos. 2/3, pp. 30-7; Raev,


Svetlozar, Gottfried Bhm. Bauten und Projekte

Cologne

ig>,oig8o,

Bonatz,

1982.

Soigne, Lorraine 1877, d.


Studied at the Technische
Hochschule in Munich 1 896-1900. Worked as
Theodor *Fischer's assistant at the Technische
Stuttgart

Paul, b.

1956.

Hochschule
appointed

partnership

in

1902-6,

Stuttgart,

professor there in 1908.

with

Friedrich

Eugen

and was

He was

in

Scholer,

1913-27, and served as adviser to Fritz Todt for


construction of the German Autobahn
system, 1935-40. After a period as consulting
the

People's Home in Diisseldorf-Garath


(1962-7) and the residential quarter in Cologne-

architect to the City of Ankara, 1943-6,

Chorweiler (1969-75) reveal a sensitivity to


patterns of social relationships, as well as to the
nature of specific sites. The last tew years have
witnessed entirely new types of commissions, as

bul, 1949-53, he returned to Stuttgart in 1954.

Old

48

and

as a

professor at the Technical University in Istan-

The

forcefully expressed

monumentality of

the Central Station in Stuttgart (191 1-27; with

Scholer) recalls the contemporary industrial

Botta
buildings of Peter "^Behrens. In
functionalist articulation

cism,

it is

Station,

its union of
and reduced *histori-

related to Eliel *Saarinen's Helsinki

which

actually served as a model. In

purveyed a tasteful
and definite traditionalism, while in transportation and industrial structures he tended to a
residential architecture B.

'objectivity' (*Neue Sachlichkeit)


which was only superficially disguised under
the Third Reich. From the 1930s he adopted a
rationalist

conservative architectural stance in his theoreti-

GHa

cal writings.

Bonatz, P., Leben and Bauen, Stuttgart 1950;


Graubner, G. (ed.), Paul Bonatz und seine
Schler,

Stuttgart

1930;

Tamms,

Friedrich

Paul Bonatz: Arbeiten aus den Jahren 1907 bis


1937, Stuttgart 1937; Bongartz, N., Dbbers,
P., and Werner, F., Paul Bonatz 1877-1936,
(ed.),

Stuttgart 1977.

Botta, Mario, b. Mendrisio, Ticino (Switzerland) 1943. Trained as a technical draughtsman,


1958-61,

and studied

at

the

Istituto

Uni-

versitario di Architettura in Venice, 19649. In

1976 he was a visiting professor at the Ecole


Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne. He worked

Botta. School

*Le Corbusier's office in 1965 and with Louis


*Kahn in 1969, and is one of the most important
members of the 'Ticenese School' (*Switzer-

(1972-7) - a straight, three-storeyed series of


concrete units, additively composed of slightly

land). Already in his first building, the clergy


house in Genestretta, built in 1961-3 (thus

landscape

before his architectural studies), the principal

reflects the visual

at

Morbio

Inferiore (1972-7)

in

lines

of

his

later

work were

encapsulated:

attention to topographical conditions, regionalist

sensibility,

preference for clear architectural

geometric order and emphasis


on craftsmanship. These maxims reach a poetic
types, desire for

synthesis in the school at

Morbio

Inferiore

varied elements. Although carved out of the


as

an

ordered feature, it
impulses of its very natural

artificial

setting. B.'s legible formalistic attitude

pressed above

Rota,

Italo (ed.),

Mario

Botta. Architetture e

progetti negli anni '70. Architecture

Scholer; 191 1-27)

Station, Stuttgart (with F. E.

ex-

VML

fabric.

Bonatz. Central

is

of refined singlefamily houses, from the house in Stabio (19657), still strongly reminiscent of Le Corbusicr, to
the independent buildings at Cadcnazzo (1970
and Riva San Vitale (1972-3) and the
1)
elegantly
striped
house
at
mannered,
Ligornetto (1975-6). The house at Riva San
Vitale renders the relationship between building and landscape problematic: as a tower
constructed on a slope, it is built on a rectangular group plan, but at its uppermost level - a
separate entrance is reached by a wire-mesh
gangway. With the administration building tor
the Staatsbank in Fribourg (197" s -^- 1* began
his involvement with the problems of integrating a new building with an existing urban
all in a series

the '70,

Milan 1979; Mario

and

projects in

Botta; Btiments

projets, 1978-1982, Paris [982.

*9

Bourgeois

and

of

with the
development of a local
architecture, brought about throughout the
colonial period by an ecological assimilation of
the Portuguese Baroque style, was disrupted,
and all kinds of foreign pseudo-styles were

various technical periodicals, and was vice-

introduced, turning the 19th century into an

Bourgeois, Victor,

b.

Charleroi 1897,

Academie

1962. Studied at the

sels

Beaux-Arts

1914 19. Active

in Brussels,

architect in Brussels

d.

Brus-

Roy ale
as

des

an

from 1 920, he also became a

professor at the Ecole Nationale Superieure


d'Architecture,
president of

He was

Brussels.

*CIAM,

editor

The most im-

1928-40.

portant advocate of modernism in Belgium, he


realized his masterpiece early in his career: the
Cite

Moderne

Brussels

expression by
as

well

at

Berchem-Sainte-Agathe, near
Influenced in its formal

(1922-5).
as

Tony *Garnier's Cite Industrielle

by Frank Lloyd ^Wright's

early

works, the architecture of the estate is distinguished by differentiated articulation of the


housing terraces, numerous squares and courtyards, and by an elegant and classically enlivened facade composition. It was to influence
*May's first work in Frankfurt am Main, the
flats in the Bruchfeldstrae (1925; with C. H.
RudlofF). B.'s other works include his

house

in Brussels (1925), a

house

at the

own

Weien-

hofsiedlung in Stuttgart (1927), and the house


for the sculptor

Flouquet,

Architecture

O. Jaspers

in Brussels (1928).

Pierre-Louis,

1Q22-IQ52,

Victor

Bourgeois:

Brussels

1952; Linze,
Georges, Victor Bourgeois, Brussels 1959; Victor
Bourgeois

i8gy-ig62

(exhibition

catalogue),

Brussels 1971.

When in 1943 the Museum of Modern


Art in New York presented its exhibition on old
and new architecture in Brazil, the world was
suddenly made aware that here the international Style of the 1920s had blossomed into a
Brazil.

its

regional connotations,

also

with the country's colonial past. In


had sprung up in the wake of two rebel
movements, the Modern Art Week in So
Paulo, 1922, and the Regionalist movement in
Recife, 1926, led by Gilberto Freyre, which
aimed at giving new shape to Brazilian intellectual and artistic life, not only by introducing a
truly modern outlook rooted in the most
genuine sources of Brazilian life, but also by
to

destroy

the

alien

influences

which had dominated the country since the


arrival in 1 806 of the King of Portugal, who fled
the Napoleonic invasion and transferred his
court to Rio de Janeiro. In 18 16 Domjoo VI
invited a French mission of painters, sculptors,
so

the

modern

projects

were

disqualified

by

tion, Gustavo Capanema, who was surrounded


by a group of far-seeing collaborators, was bold
enough after the paying the prizes awarded by
the jury to invite Lucio Costa, one of the

it

attempting

all

and its
had strong spiri-

its

tual links
fact,

copying of whatever might be done abroad not only in architecture but in all the arts.
A few years before these two new movements, scientific studies of the effect of sunlight
in relation to buildings had been started by
Alexandre Albuquerque, who in 19 16 succeeded in incorporating into the Building Code
of the city of So Paulo precise requirements as
to the minimum provision of sunlight in a new
building. Thus, there existed in the 1920s not
only an intellectual atmosphere receptive to
new ideas in architecture but also a sound
regional approach to the basic problem of the
exposure of buildings, both in order to assure a
minimum of sunlight and also to control any
excess. In 1927 in Sao Paulo, Gregori *Warchavchik, a newcomer from Russia, presented
his first cube-like houses to the public, and was
later joined in partnership by Lucio *Costa.
When the Revolution of 1930 upset all the
conventional political and cultural values of the
country and launched a programme of important new public works, the younger architects
were already prepared for the decisive, if
paradoxical, episode of the new building for the
Ministry of Education and Health. A competition was held for the design of this building, and
conservative jury. But the Minister of Educa-

by

lyrical content,
it

uncharacteristic interval, chiefly notable for the

daring

tropical version. Characterized

formal expression,

architects to 'civilize' the country,

result that the organic

unsuccessful competitors, to design the final

on the formation of a
team to include all the other rejected candidates,
and this was done. Thus Costa, Oscar *Niemeyer, Jorge Machado Moreira, Affonso
Eduardo *Reidy, Ernani Vasconcelos and Carlos Leo were jointly responsible for the development of the final design, with landscaping by
Roberto *Burle Marx. In 1936, *Le Corbusier
was invited to act as a consultant on this project,
as well as on one for the New University City.
project. Costa insisted

He stayed in Brazil only three weeks, but during


this short stay the

turning-point was reached

Brazil

and modern architecture was irrevocably established. Le Corbusier's main ideas fell on fertile
ground. The use of pilous was especially appropriate for the Brazilian climate, the brise-soleil

was

in

many cases an

absolute necessity, and his

basically lyrical formal

approach was thorough-

Brazil. Ministry of Education and Health, Rio de


Janeiro (193643), by Lucio Costa, with Le
Corbusier and others

Brazil. So Francisco Chapel, Pamplha (1944),

by Oscar Niemeyer

ly suited to the Brazilian spirit.

A local version of

the International Style thus emerged.

The high quality of modern architecture


achieved in Brazil from 1936 on can be seen in
an impressive number of buildings, including:
Rino Levi's Art Palacio Cinema in Sao Paulo
(1936), Oscar Niemeyer's Day Nursery in Rio
de Janeiro (1937), his Ouro Preto Hotel (1940),
his Casino, Yacht Club and Restaurant (1943)
and the So Francisco Chapel (1944) at
Pamplha; Luiz Nunes's (with Fernando Saturnio de Brito) Water Tower at Olinda (1937);
Attilio Correo Lima's Santos Dumont de
Hidros Airport in Rio de Janeiro (1938), with

Jorge Ferreira, Thomaz Estrella, Renato


Mesquita dos Santos and Renato Soeiro; Lucio
Costa's and Oscar Niemeyer's (with Paul Lester
Wiener.) Brazilian Pavilion at the

New

York

World's Fair (1939); Marcelo and Milton


Roberto's ABI (Brazilian Press Association
Building; 1938), the Instituto de Resseguros
Building (1942), and the Santos Dumont Airport Building (1944), all in Rio de Janeiro;
Alvaro Vital Brasil's Edificio Esther apartment
building (with Adhemar Marinho) in So Paulo
(1938); Olavo Redig de Campos's Social Centre in Rio (1942); Firmino Saldanha's Mississippi (1938) and Mossoro (1940) apartment
buildings in Rio, not to mention the Ministry of
Education and Health itself, started in 1937 and
finished in 1943.
After the war years the country entered a

phase of rapid industrialization which helped to


raise standards

of construction,

as

well as a

period of tremendous real-estate speculation,


which naturally gave rise to various mediocre
Brazil.

Museum

of Modern Art, Rio de Janeiro

(1954-9), by ArTonso Eduardo

Reidy

Si

Brazil

Mindlin and Giancarlo Palanti. The most important examples of Brazilian architecture since

1950 are Oscar Niemeyer's Ibirapuera Exhibition Pavilions in Sao Paulo (195 1-4); in Rio,
Lucio Costa's Parque Guinle apartment build-

ings (1948, 1950 and 1954); Affonso

Eduardo

Reidy's Pedregulho Housing Estate (194752)


and Museum of Modern Art (1954-9), both in
Rio de Janeiro; Jorge Machado Moreira's University City, Rio de Janeiro (1949-62); and, of
course, Niemeyer's buildings in Brasilia.
Brasilia, the new capital for the country, was

founded some 1,000


Atlantic
Brazil. General plan for Brasilia (1957) by Lucio

coast,

in

km

(600 miles) from the

hitherto

virgin

territory.

Located on gently sloping highlands, half sur-

Costa

rounded by

Brazil. Presidential Palace, Brasilia (1958), by

planned for 600,000 inhabitants, was formally


inaugurated as the new seat of the Federal
Government on 21 April i960, only three years
after an international jury had selected Lucio
Costa's plan in an open competition among
Brazilian architects. In a general outline reminiscent of an aeroplane, the wings are devoted
to the super-blocks of apartment dwellings; the
main axis, along what would correspond to the
fuselage of the plane, to the monumental

Oscar Niemeyer

buildings alongside those of genuine quality.


Architects whose work has become better

known abroad include Paulo Antunes Ribeiro,


Joo Vilanova Artigas, Sergio Bernardes, Francisco Bolonha, Oswaldo Bratke, Icaro de Castro Mello, Ary Garcia Roza, Henrique E.
52

huge

artificial lake, this

new

city,

Breuer

and the Plaza of


Three Powers (Presidential Palace, Supreme
Court, and Congress), with the business and
distribution of the Ministries

the

entertainment

districts

at

the

intersection,

which is emphasized by the bus depot, arranged


on several levels. Thoroughly planned with
deep human concern, yet deliberately aiming at
a clear symbolic expression of the city's unique
function, Brasilia has carried to the man-in-the-

the concept of urban planning to an


unsurpassed degree. The unity and integrated
character of Brasilia derive not only from

street

Costa's lucid plan but also

meyer's

striking

from Oscar Nie-

designs

for

the

public

buildings.

Building Brasilia was not only the highest


peak of Brazilian architecture, as a mere function of the sheer magnitude of the task and the
architectural postulates formulated there. It also
implied a certain break with rationalist modernism. Although buildings continued to be

formalism in favour of an architecture based on


environmental, and even more significantly, on

economic conditions. He objected to a transposition to Brazil of architectural models originwith high purchasing
power. Guedes is predominantly concerned
with housing, particularly for low-income
groups. A demonstration of his ideals is to be
found in the new city of Caraiba (1976 ff.).
Another architect who seeks expression in
themes identifiable with the environment is
Carlos Nelson Ferreira dos Santos, who worked
extensively on Brazil's shanty towns or favelas.
Furthermore, the process of change has evidently brought about a new, locally inspired, use
of materials. In this context it is appropriate to
mention Zanino Caldas and his simple building
techniques. The 'new' generation of architects
also includes Fabio Penteado (although his
ally created for societies

beginnings

professional
Filgueiras

Lima

date

from

1950),

of the exceptional
Centre) and Paulo
HEM/JG

(creator

built

Bahia

and

Mendes da Rocha.
D Goodwin, Philip L., Brazil Builds,
York 1943; Hitchcock, Henry-Russell,

according to International Style principles


keeping with its utilitarian and technical
as well as economic guidelines, it is important to
in

stress

the significance of

new

trends.

One, the

improvement of the 'quality of life', argued for


an ecologically minded point of view, while the
other sought explicit references to
traditions

and

Brazil's

life-style.

of Rino Levi and Marcello


and of Mindlin in 197
coincided with the coming of age of a new
generation of Brazilian architects. One of the
most brilliant among these is Joaquim Guedes.

The

deaths

Roberto

in

1965

of Le Corbusier, whose influence in


Brazil was indeed considerable, Guedes rejected
Critical

Administrative

New
Latin

American Architecture since 1945, New York


1955; Mindlin, Henrique E., Modern Architecture
in Brazil, Rio de Janeiro and Amsterdam 1956;
Bracco, S., L'architettura moderna in Brasile,

Bologna 1967;

Bullrich, F.,

Latin American Architecture,

Breuer, Marcel (Laiko),


1902, d.

New York 198

New

New
b.

Directions in

York

Pecs,

1969.

Hungary

In 1920, B. entered the

Akademie der bildenden Knste in Vienna,


intending to become a painter and sculptor.
After a brief attendance there he became disilluand looked
one of
the crafts. Before long, he heard of Walter
*Gropius and the *Bauhaus, and, late in 1920,
he left Vienna for Weimar to become one of the
youngest members of the first generation of

sioned with

around for

its

'tired eclecticism'

a practical apprenticeship in

Bauhaus students. B.'s principal interest, at that


time, was in the area of furniture design, and by
took over the
1924, at the age of twenty-two. he
direction of the Bauhaus's furniture depart-

ment

Before long,

his

preoccupation

with

modular unit furniture led him to


interior design and standardized, modular unit
housing - and thus to architecture.
B.'s most notable contribution to contemporary design in the 1020s was in the field of
furniture, for he had invented, as early as [925, a
standardized,

Brazil. Anna Moreau Residence, Ibiuna, So


Paulo (1978), by Joaquim Guedes

53

Breuer

anm

tal work in furniture design was made possible


by the move, in 1925, of the Bauhaus to Dessau,
and the construction of the new Bauhaus by
Gropius. B. was commissioned to design all the

new buildings, and this


commission provided an important stimulus to
his work in this field. In later years he maintained his interest in furniture design and
produced some of the first bent and moulded
furniture needed in the

plywood

chairs, as well as

chairs using

aluminium

some of

as a structural

the

first

support-

ing frame.

He

left

architect

Breuer. Multiple housing

in the Doldertal,

Zurich

(i935~6)

Breuer. The
Conn. (1947)

architect's

own

house,

New

Canaan,

the Bauhaus in 1928 to practise as an


and interior designer in Berlin, and

during the next half-dozen years built several


houses and apartments quite as radical as - and
often more practical than - the contemporary
work of *Le Corbusier and others. Moreover,
he entered a number of competitions and
prepared theoretical projects for

moved

cities, theatres,

England and
soon entered into partnership with F. R. S.
factories, etc. In 1935 B.

of systems that employed continuously


tubes (painted or chromium-plated)
to form the structural frames of stools, chairs,
and tables. Much of this important experimenscries

bent

54

steel

to

in London. The partnership lasted until


when Walter Gropius, who had been

*Yorke
!937>

appointed Chairman of the Department of


Architecture at Harvard, invited B. to join him

Breuer
there as Associate Professor.
the

two men formed an

At the same time,

architectural partner-

Cambridge, Mass.
While it is difficult, if not impossible,

for

ship in

to

separate the individual contributions of Gropius

and Breuer both to the teaching

at

Harvard and

to the houses designed in their office,

it is

say that B.'s contact with individual

students

them

was

especially close (he

in age,

was

fair to

Harvard
closer to

and he tended to be extremely

practical in his approaches to design problems);

and

it

is

attention

fair,

to

also, to say that

detail

is

much of

evident in the

B.'s

work

completed by the Gropius and Breuer partnership. In any event, both B.'s teaching and his
completed buildings left a profound impression
on a new generation of American architects.
Among his students, for example, were Philip
Johnson, Paul *Rudolph, John *Johansen, and

Edward

L. *Barnes.
94 1 B. set up an independent practice in
Cambridge, and in 1946 he moved to New
York City. For the first few years, his work was
limited largely to houses and relatively smallscale institutional buildings; but in 1952 he was

In

Breuer. Whitney Museum of American Art,


York (Marcel Breuer and Associates; 19636)

*Nervi and *Zehrfuss) to be one


of the three architects for the new Headquarters
selected (with

New

UNESCO

in Paris (built 1953-8).

his other buildings

were

St John's

Among

Abbey and

University in Collegeville, Minn. (1953-61),


New York University campus at
University Heights, N.Y. (1956-61), the IBM
the former

Research Centre at La Gaude, France (1960-9),


the Winter Sports Centre at Flaine, France

Whitney Museum of American


York (1963-6), as well as the IBM
Boca Raton, Fla. (1967-77).

(19609), the

Art

in

New

complex

in

of Breuer's architecof the


*Constructivist movement in Russia and Western Europe on his early career, is his sense of
ture,

characteristic feature

which

reflects the decisive influence

strong articulation. All his designs were highly

Breuer chair would express every


element separately, both in form and in material; a Breuer house would express different
areas of activity in different and separate forms
(his H-plans for houses, which separate the daytime areas from the night-time areas, are
articulated: a

especially
details,

well known); in his construction

every element of the structure was

always clearly defined and separately articulated; and even in his large buildings, such as the
UNESCO Headquarters, there was always a
clear distinction and separation of functionally
different elements - whether different kinds of
building or different parts of the same building.
Already in his early American houses B. had
abandoned the rigid formulae of the International Style and had adopted a style in which
regional characteristics were given new life by
the generous use of texturally rich materials.
such as wood and rubble masonry, and by close

attention to the nature of the topography and


The large buildings o( the

specific landscape.

early 1950s signalled a shift towards strongly


expressive forms, whether in detail, such as the

facade elements of the IBM Research C entrc in


La Gaude, or in overall form, as in the belfry of
the church of St John's Abbey in Collegeville.
In the face of the exhaustion of *Rationahsin. B.
can be counted among the first to turn to the
search for new principles of architectural

PB

creation.

am

Blake, Peter, Marcel Breuer: Architect and


(ed.). Marcel
Designer, New York 1949;

Sun and Shadow. The Philosophy of an


London, New York and Toronto
1956; Argan, Giulio Carlo, Marcel Breuer.

Breuer:

Architect,

Disegno industriale

architettra,

Milan

[957;

55

Brinkman

Brinkman. Van Nelle Tobacco Factory,


Rotterdam (with J. H. van den Broek; 1926-30)
Jones, Cranston (ed.), Marcel Breuer, iQ2iig6i
Buildings

and

Projects,

London

1962;

Papa-

Technical College, from which he graduated in


1924.

He

started his

own

practice in 1927 at

Rotterdam, entering into partnership withj. A.


*Brmkman in 1937, and with J. B. *Bakema in
1948-

JJV

christou, Tician, Marcel Breuer.

Projekte,

architectonische conceptie, Delft 1948.

Neue Bauten und


Stuttgart 1970; Wiek, Christopher,

Marcel Breuer: Furniture and


catalogue),

New

York

Broek, J. H. van den, Creative Krachten

in

de

Interiors (exhibition

Bryggman,

1981.

Erik, b.

Turku

1891, d.

Turku

Studied at the Helsinki Polytechnic,


where he graduated in architecture in 1916.
After collaborating on a variety of projects, he
opened his own office in 1923 in the old capital,
where he. always lived, and where he was joined
a few years later by Aino and Alvar *Aalto. This
collaboration did not last long, however, as the
1955.

Brinkman, Johannes Andreas,


1902, d. Rotterdam 1949. From

b.

Rotterdam

1925 he was in
partnership with L. C. van der *Vlugt; later,

1937-48, with J. H. van den *Broek. The Van


Nelle Tobacco Factory in Rotterdam (1926
30), to whose design Mart *Stam contributed
is, with its transparent facade and
exposed structure, one of the most important
industrial buildings of the 20th century and an
elegant manifesto of the modern movement.
The slab-shaped Bergpolder block in Rotterdam, built in 1933-4 (Brinkman, van der Vlugt
and Willem van Tijen), was an early example of
a domestic building elevated on stilts.

substantially,

Broek, Johannes Hendrik van den,

dam
56

1898, d.

The Hague

b.

Rotter-

1978. Studied at Delft

Aaltos moved on to Helsinki; but it came


during the most critical period in the development of their architectural thought and resulted
in a unique work of collaboration, of great
importance in the history of Finnish architecture: the design for the Exhibition commemorating the 700th anniversary of the City of
Turku, which took place in 1929.
B. had carried out a good many works before
the Turku Exhibition; they mark the most
important stages in that process leading to a

Burle Marx

modernism which was


Finnish architecture.

noted: a block of
Finnish Sugar

silently

developing in

Amongst them may be

flats

for

Company

at

(1928),

Turku

(1923-4);

and the Hospits

Betel (1927-9). His finest work, characterized


by a very pure Rationalist style, was carried out,

however, between 1930 and 1940, starting with


the Parainen Cemetery Chapel and the Finnish

Antwerp International Exhibition, both dating from 1930; the Vierumki


Sports Club (193 1-6); and the Library of bo
Academy in Turku (1935). The tower of the

Pavilion at the

of the old city, over


which the dark mass of the Cathedral looms in
the distance. It is remarkable for the balance of
its openings in the large white walls, and for the
perfect way it fits in with its surroundings, by
means of subtle handling of proportions and a
complete understanding of the genius loci. TurLibrary

rises in a district

ku Cemetery Chapel (1938-41) is B.'s


known work, and is undoubtedly very
especially in the magical lightness
space,

but taken

as

alism of the architect's previous work.

employees of the

some houses in Turku and elsewhere; and two


hotels in Turku - the Seurahuone, with very
sophisticated decor

intrusion of romanticism into the serene ration-

whole

bestfine,

of its internal

it

reveals the

B.'s notable

post-war works, in the decade

from 1945 to 1955 - a period of romantic


decline - include a housing estate at Pansio, near
Turku (1946), the Students' Union and the
chemistry laboratory of bo Academy, Turku
(1950), and Riihimki Water Tower (1952).
These later works show a tendency towards
more complex forms, at times pointing toward
^organic architecture, with the careful siting of
buildings in the landscape,

more

at

others revealing a

LM

strictly 'national' inspiration.

Mosso, Leonardo, 'L'opera

man

di Erik

Brygg-

nella storia dell'architettura finlandese',

Atti S.J.A.

Anna-Lisa,

(Turin),

Erik

December

Bryggman,

1958; Stigell,

Ekens

1965;
Piironen, Esa, Erik Bryggman (exhibition catalogue),

Turku

1967.

Burle Marx, Roberto,

b.

So Paulo 1909.

After a long stay in Berlin, where he attended a


private art school and

Botanical Gardens in
interest in the

time

at

was inspired by the

Dahlem

to take a close

world of plants, he studied for

the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in

Rio de Janeiro.

In 1934 he established himself as


landscape architect. Although he had had no
professional training in garden design, he soon
a

gained a reputation throughout Brazil. A profound knowledge of tropical flora, developed


on extensive trips throughout the country, is
the basis of his art. Spacious, rhythmically
articulated forms, which often seem an abstraction of the landscape

itself,

are typical

of

his

gardens and parks. His involvement with painting is especially evident in his conscious manipulation of the colours in different plants.
Among the highpoints of his extensive ceuvre

garden of the former Education MinisJaneiro, a building designed by


Lucio *Costa, Oscar *Niemeycr and others,
with *Le Corbusicr as consultant (1938); the
garden setting of the Yacht Club and Restauare: the

try in

Rio de

Pamplha by Niemeycr (1943); the


grounds of Botafogo in Rio de Janeiro (1954);
and the Del-Este Park in Caracas (1956). AM
D Bardi, Pietro Maria, The Tropical ( wardens of
Burle Marx, New York [964; Roberto Burle
rant in

Marx

Bryggman. Cemetery

(exhibition catalogue), Paris n.d.

Chapel, Turku (1938-41)


57

elegant Beaux-Arts banking halls and office

c
Canada.

nial rule,

and

its

country formerly subject to colonow to economic domination by


neighbour, the United States (*USA),

Canada

reflects its colonial past in the essential

of

features

its

national architecture imported

from abroad. At

the time of Confederation in

dominated public buildWilliam Cumberland followed


his friend John Ruskin's precepts when he built
University College at the University of Toronto (1856), while Thomas Fuller initiated a
long line of government facilities in Gothic style
with the Centre Block and Library of the
1867, Gothic Revival

ing. Frederick

Dominion

Parliament

Buildings,

Ottawa

(185967), a powerful symbol of British authority, crowning a cliffon what was then the edge

of wilderness. (Destroyed by fire in 1916, the


Centre Block was rebuilt to the more severe
design of John A. Pearson and J. Omar Marchand.) The national railways saw tourist potential in this confrontation of picturesque
architecture and dramatic natural sites, and built
imposing chateau-style hotels, all turrets and
pinnacles, of which an impressive example is the
Chateau Frontenac in Quebec City (begun by
Bruce Price in 1892; additions by Edward and
E. S. Maxwell, 1920-4). While Collegiate
Gothic played an important role well into the
20th century (Henry Sproatt & E. R. Rolph,
Hart House and Soldiers Tower, University of
Toronto, 1912-25), architects explored the full
range of historical styles current at the turn of
the century. Trained at the Ecole des Beaux-

Edward Maxwell was as adept at


mixing Romanesque and Italianate elements
Arts in Paris,

(Henry Birks & Sons Store, Montreal, 1893) as


he was with pure classical forms (Montreal Art
Association Gallery,
Arts,

9 10-12).

imitated

H.

now Musee

Edward

H.

J.

des BeauxLennox frankly

Richardson's

Allegheny

County Courthouse, Pittsburgh, when he built


the Toronto Municipal Building and Courthouse in 1887-9, and F. M. Rattenbury won the
1893 competition for the British Columbia
Legislature, Victoria, with a design combining
English Renaissance and Richardsonian Romanesque elements. Frank Darling and John A.
Pearson provided the financial world with
58

towers (Bank of Commerce Main Branch,


Winnipeg, Man., 1910-11), while John Lyle,
who with Hugh Jones designed Toronto's
cavernous Union Station (19 12), 'nationalized'
the foreign-born styles with architectural ornament based on Canadian flora and fauna.

Although the influence came first from the


United States, French-speaking architects in
Quebec, sympathetic to emerging nationalism
in the province, saw in the Second Empire style
a way to proclaim their commitment to French
culture (*France). Henry Maurice Perrault's
Bureau de Poste (1872) and Hotel de Ville
(1875) i n Montreal, both destroyed, and E. E.
Tache's Assemblee Nationale in Quebec City
( 1 878), which translates the High Victorian plan
of Fuller's Parliament into a French idiom, are
all carried out in the Second Empire style, while
Tache's Manege militaire (1888) in the same
city is a rare North American example of
Gothic Revival influenced by Viollet-le-Duc.
Among domestic architects, Samuel Maclure
provided the sedate ascendancy of Victoria,
B.C., with residences such as the BiggerstaffWilson House (19056) characterized by the use
of natural materials, sensitive siting in a rugged
landscape, and compact cross-axial plans focusing on stairways or large, open entertainment
spaces. Francis C. Sullivan, a student of Frank
Lloyd *Wright, introduced a version of the
Prairie Style house (Connors House, Ottawa,
191 5), while at a later date Robert Blatter
(Bourdon House, Sillery, Que., 1935) and
Ernest

Cormier

(his

own

house, Montreal,

1934-5) were influenced by the asymmetrical,


planar forms of European modernism.

Canada. Supreme Court Building, Ottawa (193850), by Ernest Cormier

Canack

Cormier

(i

885-1980) must be accounted the

leading architect of the half-century. Trained at


the *Ecole des Beaux-Arts and in

Rome, he

combined rare gifts for rational planning, rich


ornament and the creation of ceremonial spaces
with a mastery of new technology and materials. His masterpiece is the *Art Deco building
Montreal (1928-55). The
Supreme Court, Ottawa (193850), shows that
he was alive to the 17th-century French classical
for the Universite de

tradition,

while

the

curtain-wall

National

Printing Bureau, Hull, Que. (1950-8), places


Cormier among technical innovators.

After World War II the ^International Style


gained ground, first in Vancouver where the
innovative firm of Sharp & Thompson, Berwick, Pratt built the sleek Vocational Institute
in 1948-9 and the BC Hydro Building, an early
curtain-wall skyscraper, in I955 -7- John C.

whose masters were Walter *Gropius


and Ludwig *Mies van der Rohe, provided
Toronto with a manifesto of the new functionalism in the steel-and-glass office he built for his
firm (1954; demolished). Parkin deftly solved
complicated transportation problems at Malton
International Airport, Toronto (1964) and at
Parkin,

Ottawa Railway Station

and the University of Alberta Students' Union,


Edmonton (1974), byjack Diamond and Barton
Myers. Although in plan a variation on the
suburban shopping mall, Eberhard Zeidler's
immense and immensely popular Eaton Centre
in downtown Toronto (1973-81; with Bregman & Hamann) recaptures the urban animation of the 19th-century European galleria.
Moshe *Safdie's much remarked experiment
in modular mass housing, 'Habitat' (Montreal,
1967) built at the time of Expo '67, has had little
direct influence in Canada. Nonetheless, as
Canadian cities attempt to ensure that large,
heterogeneous sectors of the population live in
the city cores, mass housing remains a lively

Canada. Concordia Hall, Place Bonaventure,


Montreal (1964-7), by Affleck, Desbarats,
Dimakopoulos, Lebensold & Sise
Canada.

Students' Union, University of Alberta,

Edmonton

(1974),

byjack Diamond and Barton

Myers

(1967). In the 1960s

banks and corporations imported prestigious


architects such as Mies van der Rohe and I. M.
*Pei to design their office towers and it was only
later that Canadian firms received major corpocommissions; unfortunately the

rate

results

were often over-wrought imitations of the


latest American angularities. Notable, however, are Arthur *Erickson's 'Doric' MacMillan-Bloedel Building, Vancouver (1968-9), and
the

NOVA Building, Calgary, Alta. (1982), by

H. Cook. Mention should be made of the


speculative building activities of the huge Canadian real-estate development corporations,
which have employed teams of architects to
transform city skylines across the country and
are finding a ready market for their efficient

J.

expertise in the

USA.

have
proved skilful in the design of large, technologiIn an inhospitable climate architects

cally sophisticated, multi-use structures, often

incorporating interior circulation spines and


atria,

such

as

Place Bonaventure in Montreal


DimaDesbarats,
Sise; Simon Frser

by Affleck,
(1964-7)
kopoulos, Lebensold

&

University, Burnaby, B.C. (1964-5), and the


Provincial Government Offices and Law
Courts, Vancouver (1974-9), both by Erickson;
59

Candela

Canada. Scarborough College, Ontario


John Andrews
architectural concern.

(1966),

by

The 'towers-in-the-park'

the co-operative St

Lawrence Neighbour-

hood, Toronto (by various architects), and False


Creek Development, Vancouver (Thompson,
Berwick, Pratt & Partners, co-ordinating architects), both projects adjacent to the respective
city centres. At his own house in Toronto (1972)
Barton Myers offered a prototype of the small,
efficient single-family

and

home,

easily replicated,

sensitively adapted to the existing

fabric.

existed,

Where no

urban

recognizable urban centre

Raymond Moriyama

Deer, Alta.

bec:

Quebec 1979;
Canada issue, May
Bernstein, William, and Cawker, Ruth,

Trois Siecles

d' architecture,

Architectural Review, special

1980;

Building

with

Architecture,

Canadian Architects on

Words:

Toronto

1981.

(Scarborough,

Ont., Civic Centre, 1975), Phillip H. Carter


(Markham, Ont., Village Green and Community Library, 1981), and

J. Michael Kirkland,
winner of the 1982 competition for Mississauga,
Ont., City Hall are providing them. Historical

areas are being preserved in St John's,

New-

foundland, Halifax, N.S., Montreal and, most


remarkably, at Granville Island, Vancouver,
where 20th-century industrial buildings and
warehouses are being wittily recycled under the
direction of Norman Hotson.
Mention should be made, finally, of the
Australian architect John * Andrews, whose

Canadian works include Scarborough College


(1966) and the eerily beautiful CN Tower
(1975), both in Toronto; of Paul Cardinal's
60

Red

of attention in a flat prairie


landscape; of Arthur *Erickson's Museum of
Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (1971-7); and of Peter Rose's
private residences near Montreal, subtle evocations of Shingle Style vacation homes.
CR
D Gowans, Alan, Building Canada: An Architectural History of Canadian Life, Toronto 1966;
Ritchie, Thomas, Building Canada 1 867-1 967,
Toronto 1967; Noppen, Luc, and others, Que(1977), a vivid focus

concept has been abandoned in favour of


communities integral to the urban fabric, such
as

sinuous St Mary's Church,

Candela,

Felix, b.

Madrid

1910. Studied at the

Escuela Superior de Arquitectura and at the


Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando,

Madrid. Towards the end of his studies, C. had


the opportunity of watching two of the bestknown structures by *Torroja, the roof of the
spectators' stand at the La Zarzuela racecourse
and the roof of the Fronton Recoletos, being
built. The double barrel-vault of the latter,
spanning an area of 60 x 36m (197 x 118 ft), and
other works by Torroja probably awakened
C.'s interest in shell vaulting, a construction

method which combines,


leled degree, inspiration

to an almost unparal-

and precise

calculation.

After fighting in the Spanish Civil War on the


Republican side, C. arrived in *Mexico in the

Candilis

summer of 1939

via

the

refugee camps

at

Perpignan. After twelve years in his adopted


country, during which time he, and later his

brother Antonio, made their living as architects


and builders, he began advocating the use of
shell vaulting, at first in articles

and

lectures.

The building of the University City in Mexico


City gave him an opportunity to construct the
first

hyperbolic paraboloids, which enabled

him

to reduce the

roof of the Cosmic

Ray

Building (195 1) to a thickness of 15 mm. (fin.).


A special advantage of hyperbolic paraboloids (as compared with the sphere or other
types of vault) is that the shuttering required can

be made from straight boards. Due to the


relative simplicity of this process, and the great
saving in material, C.'s constructions are

economical than other rigid roofs, and


alone

won

his

more

this fact

firm numerous industrial

com-

missions. His spans increased with every project

and he became increasingly bolder in the


When he maintains that he has been guided less by exact
calculation than by an intuitive feeling 'in the
manner of the old master-builders of cathe-

exploitation of shell vaulting.

we must recall that his intuition has a very


firm foundation in his knowledge of materials
and stresses, which has grown with each new
drals',

building.

As an architect and designer, C. has distinguished himself with his Church of Santa Maria
Miraculosa in Mexico City (1954-5, with
Enrique de la Mora) which shows the unmistakable influence of *Gaudi. Later buildings of a
non-industrial nature, such as several churches
and pavilions in Mexico City and Cuernavaca,
the Los Manantiales restaurant in Xochimilco
(1958), and the Olympic Stadium in Mexico
City (1968), were executed in collaboration
with different architects, who were glad to avail
themselves of the free outlines of his structures
in their search for organic or baroque shapes.
From 1953 to 1970 C. was a professor at the
National University of Mexico, and from 197
to 1978 in the USA at the University of Illinois,
Chicago, where he has also worked as an

MC/GHa

architect.

Faber, Colin, Canada:

New York and London,

The Shell

Builder,

1963; Smith, Clive B.,

Mexican Architects, New


York, 1967; 'Candela: Recent Works', Zodiac
Builders in the Sun: Five

(Milan), no. 22, 1973, pp. 70-87.


b. Baku, Russia 1913.
Polytechnikum in Athens where,
at the 1933 *CIAM Congress, he first encountered *Le Corbusier. He emigrated to Paris in
1945 to join Le Corbusier's office and he
remained until 1950 (from 1948 as site architect
of the Unite d'Habitation, Marseilles). He
worked in partnership with Vladimir Bodiansky and Shadrach *Woods in the African
office of ATBAT (Atelier des Btisseurs) in
Casablanca, 1951 5- In 1955 he founded in
Paris, with Alexis *Josic and Woods, the firm
Candilis/Josic/Woods, which he continued

Candilis,

Studied

with

Georges,

at the

Woods

alone after Josic's departure

1963. Since 1967 he has

had

his

own

in

office in

Paris.

In collaboration with Josic and Woods, he


planned the new towns Bagnols-sur-Ceze
(1956) and Toulouse le Mirail (competition

1962, realization 1964-77) in

which the firm

sought to create differentiated urban spaces


through a system of spatially identifiable 'nupropositions
clear' unities. In keeping with the
of the Team X critique (*CIAM) and the
Candela. Church of Santa Maria Miraculosa,
Mexico City (with Enrique de la Mora; 1954-5)

*Athens Charter, urban functions were


grated

as fully as possible in

inte-

order to favour

6]

Candilis

&+.

Candilis. Plan for Toulouse

le

Mirail (Candilis/

Josic/Woods; 1962)

more organic

surface distribution. In the

com-

plex of Institute buildings for the Free Univer-

Berlin-Dahlem (1963, 1967-79; also with


and Woods, together with Manfred
Schiedhelm), Jean *Prouve served as consultant

sity in

Josic

on the facade construction. The individual


buildings are freely inserted in an orthogonal

GHa

transportation network.

Candilis /Josic I Woods. Ein Jahrzehnt Archi-

tektur
le

und Stadtplanung, Stuttgart 1968; Toulouse

Mirail. Geburt einer neuen Stadt. Candilis/Josic/

Woods,

Stuttgart

Recherches sur
,

I'

1975;

Candilis,

Georges,

architecture des loisirs, Paris 1973;

Batir la Vie:

Un

architecte temoin de son

temps, Paris 1977-

Casson,

Sir

Studied

at

62

Hugh

(Maxwell),

Cambridge; the

b.

London

1910.

British School at

Candilis. Free University, Berlin-Dahlem


(Candilis/Josic/Woods, with Manfred Schiedhelm;
1967-79)

Chareau
Athens; and the Bartlett School of Architecture,
University of London. In private practice from
1937 with the late C. Nicholson; resumed 1946,
after

He

war

service, latterly

with Neville Conder.

has been senior partner of Casson,

Conder

and Partners since 1953, and was Professor of


Interior Design, Royal College of Art, 1953
75. His directorship of architecture at the
^Festival of Britain, 1948-51, ensured its remarkable triumph as a piece of organized
townscape; the same powers of urbanistic control are evident in his schemes for Cambridge
University (with N. Conder). His Youth Hostel in Holland Park, London, blends sympathetically with the remains of Holland House (17th
century).

He

has exercised considerable influence over

the British art establishment, especially during


his

period of office

as

President of the

Royal

Academy of

Arts (197184).
Casson, H., Homes by the Million, London,

1946;

Murray,

Peter,

'Looking Back', Building

Design, January 1975.

Chamberlin, Powell and Bon. Firm established in 1952 by Peter Chamberlin, Geoffrey
Powell and Christof Bon. In the same year they
attracted attention for their prize-winning
scheme for high-density housing at Golden
first

Lane,

London

(19537), a controversial layout

with interesting treatment of multiple ground


levels, a preoccupation later (1957) developed in
their plan for the Barbican district of London,
with separate routes for traffic and pedestrians; a
concern for urban mise-en-scene and the largescale design characterizes all the firm's work.
Their Bousfield Primary School, with its exteriors in the manner of *Mies van der Rohe,

was awarded the London Bronze Medal


Architecture

in

1956.

Among

their

academic layout

HM

with the city centre.

'Detailed Proposals for the Barbican

velopment', in

Architects' Journal

Rede-

(London), 4

June 1959; 'Barbican Metropolitan Neighbourhood', Bauen und Wohnen (Zurich), April 1974.

Chareau,

Pierre, b.

Hampton, N.Y.,

Bordeaux

1950.

Bijvoet; 1928-32)

Paris (with

Hail,

Bernard

for

sculpturesque buildings atop a large podium,


and the development plan for Leeds University,
closely integrates the

Chareau. Maison de Verre,

New

other

schemes mention may be made of the Sports


Centre for Birmingham University, with

which

Chamberlin, Powell and Bon.


Cambridge University (1966)

1883, d. East
at the

After studies

*Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and a period of

apprenticeship

with the Paris

of an

office

English furniture firm, he established a practiceas a private architect and furniture designer in
1918.

He

first

came

to public attention

at

the

1919 Salon d'Automne in Paris, when Inexhibited furniture designed for the Dalsace
apartment. Dr Dalsace and Ins wife also commissioned the Maison de Verre in Pans [928
32), at once one of the most thoroughgoing
realizations of the idea of the 'Machine tor
Living in' (first postulated by *Le Corbusier in
(

his description of the Maison Citrohan design)


and probably the most poec example of
architecture inspired by the world of modern

63

ChermayefF

The Maison de Verre was realized,


were several other buildings of those years, in
collaboration with Bernard Bijvoet who, as
Johannes *Duiker's partner, had also worked
on the Zonnestraal Sanatorium at Hilversum
(1926-8). C. was a founding member of the
Union des Artistes Modernes, launched in Paris
in 1929. In 1940 he emigrated to the USA where
he built, notably, a house for the painter Robert
AM
Motherwell at East Hampton, N.Y.
D Herbst, Rene, Un inventeur, I'architecte
Pierre Chareau, Paris 1954; Frampton, Kenneth,

with other arand several key students was an


important force in crystallizing his architectural
theories. He was in partnership with Heywood
Cutting (ex-Chicago Institute), 1952-7; at Harvard he collaborated with Christopher Alexander, and at Yale with Alexander Tzonis.
Executed works include fabrics, paintings, interiors and exhibitions, while his domestic archi-

'Maison de Verre', Perspecta (New Haven), no.


12 (1969), pp. 77-126; 'Pierre Chareau with
Bernard Bijvoet. Maison Dalsace ("Maison de
Verre")', Global Architecture (Tokyo), no. 46

Truro (1945-72); a house in Portland and his


own studio in Truro (both 1952); houses in
Truro (1954, 1956); and his own house in
New Haven, Conn. (1962-3).
BT

(1977)-

ChermayefF, S., and Alexander, C, Community and Privacy, London 1963; ChermayefF,
S., and Tzonis, A., Shape of Community London
1 971; Plunz, Richard (ed.), Design and the Public

technology.
as

Serge,

b.

1900 in Russia.

leading British Modernist in the late 1920s and

C.

design as

achieved prominence

Modern Art Department

in

tectural projects include: houses in

his interiors for the

interior

Exhibition of Modern

Good, Cambridge, Mass. 1983.

Chiattone, Mario,

no
the

London and Birmingham, but principally on


domestic interiors. By 1935, his work embraced

the

designer,

furniture, rugs, textiles, exhibitions, clocks

and

radios.

In 1932 C. entered the field of architecture


proper, designing his own house in Rugby
(built 1933). He was in partnership with Erich
Mendelsohn, 1933-6. This phase dominated his
career and resulted in prominent British Mod-

Movement

structural

buildings

engineering),

Samuely's
including:
Shrubs
(using

b.

Bergamo

1891, d.

Luga-

1957. Studied architecture and painting at

Accademia di Brera in Milan. In 1914, in


Milan, he exhibited, together with his fellowstudent *Sant'Elia, a group of drawings with

(19289) and the Cambridge


London (1929-30). As a freelance
he worked on BBC studios (193 1) in

Furnishings
Theatre,

ern

Piedmont

(with Clarence Mayhew) and in Redwood


(both 1942); extensions to his own house at

director at

Waring and Gillow, London, 192831, and


with

chitects

ChermayefF,
1930s,

versity, 1962-9. Collaboration

titles

'Structures for a

modern

Metropolis',

and 'Forms'; these were among the


most important formulations of *Futurist architecture. In his later work, however, C.
approached increasingly the harmonic monumentality of the Novecento Italiano group
'Factory'

(Italy).

Veronesi, Giulia, and Regoli, Gigetta Dalli,

L'opera

di

Chiattone (exhibition catalogue), Pisa

1965.

Wood (1933-4); De La Warr Pavilion, Bexhill-

Chicago School. Designation

on-Sea (1933-5); House in Chelsea (1934-6);


Gilbey offices (1935-7) and ICI Manchester
(1936-8). The architect's own house, Bentley

architects active in the last quarter

group of
of the 19th

for a

period and his experiments with wood-frame

century, above all in Chicago, or rather for a


group of commercial and office buildings
constructed in Chicago between 1875 and 1910.
These buildings have two principal charac-

structures.

teristic

After emigration to the *USA in 1940, he


distinguished himself as a teacher, promoting

structure,

curriculum planning, urban organization, and


research into the multivalent discipline of 'environmental design'. He was successively Director, Department of Art, Brooklyn College,
19426; President, Chicago Institute of Design,
1946-51; Professor of Architecture, Harvard
University, 1952-62; and Professor, Yale Uni-

whereby

Wood

64

(1937-8),

anticipated

his

American

features:

and

a clear

steel-skeleton

supporting

expression of the static and

functional structure in the building's form,


a

straightforward and often novel

vocabulary, which anticipated


modernism, was employed.
After the great fire of 1871 and the worldwide depression two years later, Chicago witnessed a tremendous expansion within a very
brief period. This resulted from the shift in
architectural

Chicago School
already tested in a five-storey factory building
York in 1848. This proved not only

in

New

under stress but also under strain and


formed a completely rigid structural system, which he clad with masonry to make it
reliable

thus

more
(later

heat-resistant. The first Leiter Building


Morris Building, today 208 West Monroe

Street)

though

was erected
it still had

in
a

Chicago in 1879; alcast-iron skeleton, the

structure already suggested the lightness of later

works. It was followed by the Home Insurance


Building in 1883-5 (subsequently extended);
the Manhattan Building in 1889-90, together
with D. H. Burnham andj. W. Root's contemporary Rand McNally Building, one of the first
skyscrapers entirely of steel-skeleton construction; and the second Leiter Building (today
Sears,

Chiattone. Structures for

Roebuck

new

structures rose to a great height

in close juxtaposition. Single multi-

storey high-rise buildings had already been

constructed in the

*USA. One of the

first

was

the Jayne Building in Philadelphia, built in

1849-50 by William Johnston; among the most


impressive was the Tribune Building in New

York by Richard Morris Hunt (1873-5). Nonetheless, as a

new

constructive, functional and

aesthetic creation built in significant

the skyscraper type

was born

numbers,

in Chicago.

One

of the two prerequisites for multi-storey residential, commercial and office buildings had
been available since the mid- 19th-century:
Elisha Graves Otis had invented the elevator and
in 1853 demonstrated it in spectacular style in
New York. The second prerequisite was an
appropriate construction system which would
at once allow construction to great height and
be fireproof; this was still lacking.
The credit for having discovered a structural
solution able to carry loads for

buildings largely erected

tall

fireproof

by assembly

William Le Baron Jenney.

He

fell

a classic

of

new

With

mode of

overcame the

construction, Jenney

Jenney's

from hand labour to


industrialization; Chicago benefited tremendously due to its position as the market place for
the region. Buildings began to grow like
mushrooms, and as sites were expensive and
agricultural production

and were

Co.) in 188991,

his

height restrictions associated with conventional


load-bearing masonry construction.

modern metropolis

(project, 1914)

scarce, the

&

the Chicago 'commercial style'.

to

used a steel
skeleton, in contrast to the cast-iron type which
the inventor and architect James Bogardus had

technologically

pioneering

ten-

Home

Insurance Building did not, in


terms of external articulation, free itself any
storey

more from the *historicism of the Victorian


period than did the 16-storey Manhattan Building;. both were out of step with the innovative
structural type on account of their conventional
additive facade articulation. In fact, as far as a
formal vocabulary was concerned, it was not
who provided the most important
impulses for the Chicago School (nor by any
means only for it), but H. H. Richardson.
Richardson studied in Paris at the *Ecole des
Beaux-Arts, worked in the atelier of Henri
Labrouste and, after his return to America,
designed numerous buildings in a purified and

Jenney

powerful neo-Romanesque

style.

He com-

pleted the Marshall Field Wholesale Store in

Chicago (18857), a massive, rationally designed masonry building, the effect of which
derived principally from the expressiveness of
rusticated facade. This straightforward
monumentaility, whose closed character was
softened by the great round-arched windows,
was to be imitated by, among others, Dankmar
*Adler and Louis *Sullivan, in the architectural
language of the Auditorium Building ( S x - 9;
today Roosevelt University), as traditional in
its architectural language as it was technologiits

cally progressive.

Richardson's model was also taken over and


reduced by Burnham and Root in the powerful
65

Chicago School

Chicago School. The Marshall


Store,

Field Wholesale
Chicago (1885-7), by H. H. Richardson

Rookery Building (18856) and in the Monadnock Building (1889-91) - the last tall building
in this group with load-bearing outer walls all
ornament is avoided: instead the exterior of the
16-storey building is enlivened by simple, canted bow-windows which elegantly subdivide
the facade. The corner of the building from
ground level to the upper window ledge is
sharply angled, and the projecting cornice as
well

as its

upward tapered base are reduced to


The steel frame for skyscrapers
significant exterior form for the first

simple curves.
received a

time in D. H. Burnham & Co.'s Reliance


Building (today 32 North State Street), erected
in Chicago in 1894-5 (design by Charles B.
Atwood). The light, almost floating skeletal
structure,

with

its

overwhelmingly

vertically-

articulated facade, anticipated the aesthetic

of

the glass-and-steel buildings of the mid-20th

century.

William Holabird and Martin Roche likewise followed in the tracks of Richardson, with
the Tacoma Building (18879), an d the reserved and elegant Marquette Building (1893
4), both in Chicago. Their unpretentious and
well-balanced aesthetic reached a highpoint, as
unobtrusive as it was noteworthy, in the
McClurg Building (today Crown Building) of
1899-1900.

The most important protagonist of the Chicago School and its formative head was, however, Louis Sullivan. He studied briefly at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology and
later, like Richardson, in Paris; he worked in
Philadelphia under Frank Furness and in Chicago under Jenney, then in 1881 formed a
partnership with Dankmar Adler in which he
66

Chicago School. The Monadnock Building,


Chicago (188991), by Burnham and Root
Chicago School. The Reliance Building, Chicago
(1894-5), by D. H. Burnham & Co.

Chicago School

.,

took responsibility for the form of the building.


In his works, the elegant neo-Romanesque style
of Richardson was transformed into a rugged
rigorism with classic handling of masses and
oriental-gothicist decoration.

Building in St Louis,

The Wainwright

bold upward-soaring

steel-skeleton structure, dates

from

890-1;

it

already manifests Sullivan's typical tripartite


division into a massive

lower storey with

mezzanine, a vertically articulated office section, as well as a tall attic for mechanical
services.

It

marked

the

moment of birth

for the

an independent and significant


building type. In 18989, Sullivan designed one
part of the facade of Holabird & Roche's Gage
Building in Chicago; while respecting the
existing grid of the construction, he created a
fully independent work. The diverse qualities
of the Chicago School are clearly seen in this
facade: the directness and simplicity of Holabird
and Roche's work formed a revealing contrast
to Sullivan's refined, complicated, but nonetheskyscraper

less

as

uncommonly

clear design.

Sullivan built the Schlesinger and

Mayer

Department Store (today Carson Pirie Scott &


Co.) in two phases (1899 and 1903-4); he

Chicago School. The Gage Building, Chicago


(1898-9), by Holabird & Roche, with (right) the
facade designed by Sullivan
created there one of the most significant build-

Chicago School. The interior space,


with its continuous surfaces, was of the conventional department store type. The particular
achievement lay in the facade: the tautly organized network of horizontal and vertical lines
give expression to the underlying steel-skeleton
construction, displaying a strength at once
ings of the

and legible. The wide, horizontally


arranged Chicago windows (each divided into a
broad fixed central part with a narrower sash
window at either side) are framed by metal
rational

casements; those of the lower storey arc united

by

narrow band of

terracotta

ornament

111

order to emphasize the dominant horizontals.


In conscious contrast to this restraint, the two
floors

of the display windows are clad

organic ornamentation of

in a lively

filigree oast iron.

The World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893), whose layout was originally projected by Root in a romantic way nearly in the
manner of Richardson (1891) but subsequently
67

CIAM
Beaux-Arts manner of
the end of the Chicago School's heyday. This opting in favour of
the neo-classicist 'White City' was no coincidence. After the grand episode of noble, but
mainly disparate individuals, with each reaching
realized in the calmer

Burnham's

marked

plan,

separately for the sky,

it

was necessary for

architecture to turn again to the traditional

concept of the city as a coherent continuum.


Thus, by c. 1900 the period of the protomodernist commercial buildings of Chicago
was over. Isolated later instances are to be found
in such works as the Chaplin and Gore Building
(19014; later Nepeenauk Building, today 63
East Adams Street) by Richard Schmidt; the
Montgomery Ward and Co. Warehouse (1906
8) by Schmidt, Garden & Martin; and, in an
especially challenging way, in the Larkin Building in Buffalo, N.Y. (1904-5), built by
Sullivan's most independently minded pupil
Frank Lloyd *Wright. Nearly thirty years were
to pass before Raymond *Hood and John Mead
Howells, under the influence of European
*Rationalism, would erect the Daily News
Building in New York (1929-30), and thus
introduce a new era for the modern American

VML

skyscraper.

Early

Modern

Architecture:

Chicago 1870

1910, New York 1930, 2nd ed. 1940; Tallmadge, Thomas E., Architecture in Old Chicago,
Chicago 1941; Randall, F. A., A History of the

Development of Building Construction in Chicago,


Urbana, 111. 1949; Condit, Carl W., The Rise of
the Skyscraper, Chicago 1952;
The Chicago
,

School of Architecture, Chicago 1964.

CIAM

(Congres Internationaux d'ArchitecThe foundation of CIAM in


1928 has been called the beginning of the
'academic' phase of modern architecture: the
time certainly appeared propitious for the
introduction of some kind of international
order into the scattered and independent essays
towards a new architecture whose international
unity of intention and style had been demonstrated at the Weienhof exhibition of the
ture Moderne).

previous year.

The
tion of

effective

impetus towards the founda-

CIAM came from Helene de Mandrot, a

and intelligent woman who had aspirations towards being a patroness of the arts. She
proposed in the first place a reunion of creative
spirits at her chateau at La Sarraz, Switzerland,
but this romantic project was turned to some-

sincere

68

thing

more purposeful

Sigfried Giedion and

after consultation

with

*Le Corbusier. The pre-

paratory document, issued to intending deleis convened


with the aim of establishing a programme of
action to drag architecture from the academic
impasse and to place it in its proper social and
economic milieu. This congress should
determine the limits of the studies and discussions shortly to be undertaken by further

gates, stated: 'This first congress

congresses.'

Although

made between

a distinction

was thus

the preparatory congress and

of 26, 27, and 28 June


La Sarraz is remembered and recorded as
I, in spite of the fact that the properly

later meetings, the date


1

928

at

CIAM

constituted series of congresses did not begin


until the following year.

The

contents of the declaration of 28 June

embodied most of the best aspirations as well as


the most fashionable fetishes of the architecture
of the time. Sample statements read: 'It is only
from the present that our architectural work
should be derived', and 'The intention that
brings us together is that of attaining a harmony
of existing elements a harmony indispensable
to the present - by putting architecture back
ON ITS REAL PLANE, THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL
plane; therefore architecture should be freed of
the sterile influence of the Academies and of
antiquated formulas', and again, 'The most
efficacious production is derived from ration-

and standardization.'
of these repeated invectives against the Academies is underlined by the
dry, formalistic statement of aims that appears
as the preamble to the statutes drawn up at
Frankfurt-am-Main in 1929 (CIAM II). The
Frankfurt Statutes also gave CIAM three operative organs; (1) the Congres or general assembly
of the members; (2) CIRPAC (Comite Internationale pour la Resolution des Problemes de
F Architecture Contemporaine), to be elected
by the Congres; and (3) working groups, to apply
alization

The

historical irony

themselves to specific subjects in collaboration

with non-architectural specialists. At the same


time the hierarchy of membership was stabilized
in the form of national member-groups, to

which individuals belonged.

The Frankfurt Congress had been called


under the auspices of Ernst *May, the city
architect and Europe's greatest expert on lowcost housing, and its outcome was a serious
report, Die Wohnung fr das Existenzminimum.
CIAM III was held in Brussels in 1930, through

CIAM
good

the

offices

of Victor ^Bourgeois, and

applied itself to basic problems of land-organization for housing, publishing an equally important report, Rationelle Bebauungsweisen.

By
that

1930

it

was already becoming apparent

CIAM was neither intellectually nor orga-

problem to which
had driven it town
planning. In order to deal with this situation

nizationally prepared for the

the logic of its discussions

CIAM

set to

work

to standardize the graphic

techniques, scales, and

used by

its

members

methods of presentation
was not

(an enterprise that

completed until the adoption of the


Grille-CIAM after 1949). The Dutch national
group, under Cor van *Eesteren, became the
working group entrusted with the evolution of
an effective symbol language for town planning. These labours, conducted against a background of growing political tensions and disintegrating international relations, proved to be
protracted, and CIRPAC met three times
(Berlin, 193 1, Barcelona, 1932, and Paris, 1933)
really

before

it

was

felt

that

work was

sufficiently

advanced for another plenary Congres to be


called.

CIAM

IV - theme 'The Functional City' in July and August aboard the S.S.
between Marseilles and Athens. It was

took place
Patris,

the

first

of the 'romantic' congresses,

set against

background of scenic splendour, not the


reality of industrial Europe, and it was the first
Congres to be dominated by *Le Corbusier and
the French, rather than the tough German
realists. The Mediterranean cruise was clearly a
welcome relief from the worsening situation of
Europe, and in this brief respite from reality the
delegates produced the most Olympian, rhetorical, and ultimately most misapplied document to come out of CIAM: the *Athens
a

Charter.
Its

and

practical

With

benefit of hindsight, we
merely the expression of an
aesthetic preference, but at the time it had the
power of a Mosaic commandment and effectively paralysed research into other forms of
housing. The Paris Congres of 1937 (CIAM V)
did little more than make marginal annotations
exists'.

recognize this

the

as

to the Charter.

After World

War II, the next meeting, CIAM

was held in 1947 at Bridgwater, England;


this was a joyous reunion of the heroes of
Weienhof and the followers they had collected
in the 1930s, and its outcome was a review of
buildings erected since CIAM V by the members, edited by Giedion and published under the
title of A Decade of New Architecture. But at
VI,

CIAM

VII, held at

Bergamo

in

1949, a

new

was beginning to emerge, with the


growing importance of the Italian delegation
and the gathering of numbers of war-toughened
students on the fringes of the Congres in order to
sit at the feet of those, to them, legendary figures,
the makers of modern architecture.
At CIAM VIII, held at Hoddesdon in England, in honour of the "^Festival of Britain, 195 1
the new pattern of CIAM was becoming plain increasing numbers of students, and official
pattern

recognition of the inadequacy of the Charter,

theme was 'The Urban Core'. For this


theme the delegates were as unprepared intellectually as they had been for town planning in
1930, and the Congress report was little more
since the

than a
as the

compendium of fashionable cliches, such


need to integrate painting and sculpture

into architecture.

was not long before the failure of CIAM


was recognized, but in the meantime
CIAM IX at Aix-en-Provence had taken place;
theme was officially 'Habitat', but the
its
Congres will be chiefly remembered as a mass
rally of Lc Corbusier's student fan-club and the
proceedings, culminating in an impromptu
striptease performance on the roof of the Unite
at Marseilles, were marked by adolescent bonhomie rather than mature celebration. Yet it w as
to be the young who undertook to deliver
CIAM from the new 'academu impasse' into
which it had lapsed. The group who were
It

tone remained dogmatic, but was general-

related to immediate
problems than the Frankfurt and
Brussels reports had been. The generalization
had its virtues, where it brought with it a greater
breadth of vision and insisted that cities could be
considered only in relation to their surrounding
regions, but this persuasive generality which
gave the Athens Charter its air of universal
applicability concealed a very narrow conception of both architecture and town planning and
committed CIAM unequivocally to: (a) rigid
functional zoning of city plans, with green belts
between the areas reserved to the different
ized

functions, and (b) a single type ofurban housing,


expressed in the words of the Charter as 'high,
widely-spaced apartment blocks wherever the
necessity of housing high densities of population

less specifically

VIII

entrusted with the preparation of CIAM X


(who were therefore known as Team X) took

69

CLASP

extent

that, though it drew to some


on the programme documents for

CIAM

IX, nevertheless represented a clean

up

a position

break with both the mood and the content of


the Athens Charter. Against the large-scale
diagrammatic generalizations of the Athenian

X set up the personal, the


and the precise: 'Each architect is
appear with his project under his arm,
Team

tradition,

particular,

asked to

ready to commit himself.


the existence of a

Today we recognize

new spirit.

It is

manifest in our

from mechanical concepts of order


CIAM X must make it clear that we,

revolt

accept

architects,

the

responsibility

creation of order through


ponsibility for each act

form

for

as

the

the res-

of creation, however

small.'

Though the theme of CIAM X was still


nominally 'Habitat', the real business of the
Congres, which took place in Dubrovnik in
1956,

was the

direct challenge presented to the

members by the young radicals of


Team X, *Bakema, *Candilis, the *Smithsons,
established

and van *Eyck. By the end of the congress,


CIAM was in ruins and Team X stood upon the
wreckage of something that they had joined
with enthusiasm, and - with equal enthusiasm destroyed. The sense of the end of an epoch was
so strong that the Congres accepted the fact of
death with comparative calm; the national
groups were instructed to wind up their affairs,
and the project of a memorial volume covering
twenty-five years of work was seriously discussed. But there were national groups, notably
the Italian, who felt that CIAM could still be of
service. In addition, Team X were not averse to
international meetings as such, and the combination of these two parties produced, in 1959, a
further congress in Otterlo, Holland. In content

was to be similar to what Team


had
intended for CIAM X, and particular projects
were indeed discussed, individual responsibility
this

was accepted, and the results, edited by Oscar


Newman, were published as CIAM '59 in
Otterlo. These published documents reveal that
close discussion of the particular could often be
broad discussion of generalities,
while the title of the report conceals a bitter
dispute among the delegates who, in fact, voted
as

trivial

as

dissociate their activities from the label


'CIAM'.
This was neither a productive nor a dignified
outcome to thirty years of international activity, and the blame for the final collapse of

to

70

CIAM
the

must be laid chiefly on the inability of


founder-members to resist the temptation

They failed to guard against the


academic tendencies in their midst, and became
the victims of what van Eesteren termed 'a too
formal structure' to which work-programmes
had to be subordinated. Nevertheless, in two
vital periods - 1930-4 and 1950-5 - CIAM was
the major instrument through which the ideas
of modern architecture and town planning
were made known to the world, while it
performed an equally vital function during the
war years in maintaining the nucleus of an
international network of communications between progressive-minded architects. It is quite
possible that these achievements may ultimately
prove to be of greater historical importance
than any of the documents that CIAM produced, even the Athens Charter.
RB
D Die Wohnung fr das Existenzminimum,
to faire hole.

Stuttgart

1930; Rationelle Bebauungsweisen,


Stuttgart 193 1; Logis et loisirs, Paris 1938; Sert,J.
L.,

CIAM, Can Our

and

Cities Survive?,

Cam-

and London 1942; [Le CorUrbanisme des CIAM. La Charte d'

bridge, Mass.,
busier],

Athenes, Paris 1943; Giedion, Sigfried, A Decade


of New Architecture, Zurich 195 1; Rogers, E. N.,
Sert,J.L.,andTyrwhitt,J. (eds.), The Heart ofthe
City,

New

Oscar
1

York and London

(ed.),

CIAM

'5g

in

1952;

Otterlo,

Newman,
Stuttgart

96 1.

CLASP

(acronym for Consortium of Local

Authorities Special Programme). In 1957, a

group of local education authorities in England


banded together to exploit a system of prefabricating schools, originally devised in Notting-

ham under Donald Gibson

to counteract sub-

sidence in mining areas and later extended, as in

C. H. *Aslin's Hertfordshire schools, to allow


buildings to be erected rapidly from mass-

produced prefabricated units at low cost and


with a small labour force. Consortium components accounted for about half the cost of
CLASP schools; ^7 million worth of work was
built in 96 1-2, and a second consortium was
formed by other authorities (SCOLA).
A 3 ft 4 in. ( 1 -oi m) planning grid was used,
with external walls that can change direction at
1

ft 8 in. (2-02 m) or 10 ft (3-05 m) intervals. An


organic grouping of elements with carefully
controlled relationships between the spaces

creates a deceptive,

though usually successful


The same informality,

feeling of informality.

Constructivism

CLASP.

Croxley Green Junior School,


Hertfordshire (1947-9) by C. H. Aslin

however, when evoked in the choice of external


cladding components often appears arbitrary
and visually confused, lessening the effect of the

HM

carefully related spaces.

Coates, Wells (Windemut),

Canadian parents,

d.

b.

London

Tokyo

1895 of

1958. After en-

gineering studies in Vancouver and London,


C. first worked for a number of years as a

and
an engineering and
architectural consultant. In 1929 he opened his
own architectural office in London which he
continued until his death, with the exception of
periods during World War II and during
several years involvement in urban planning
affairs in ^Canada. He was a founder-member
in 1933 of the *MARS group and one of the
leading English exponents of modernism before
the war. His Lawn Road Flats in Hampstead,

Constructivism. As Le Corbusier once remarked, Constructivism is a term whose connotations are vague, for, unlike *Purism or

London

Italian

journalist for the Daily Express (London)

then for

a short

(1933),

time

as

slender concrete building

Coates. Lawn

Road

Flats,

Hampstead, London

(1933)

^Rationalism,

clearly defined.

its

boundaries u ere ne\

possible,

however,

er

to assign

with continuous balcony fronts, is one of the


earliest expressions of the ^International Styfe
in *Great Britain. C. was particularly active in
industrial design, designing notably a radio set
which can be considered a classic of its time. AM
D Cantacuzino, Sherban, Wells Coates, Lon-

put it in their slogans of the early [920s: 'Down


Long live
with Art! Long live technology!

don 1978.

the Constructivist Technician''

It is

an identifiable profile to ( Constructivism mihi- it


strove to eliminate the traditional distinctions
separating art

from

life,

or

Productivists

as the

ww--

through
was a period of
timber construction which was em-

In *Russia, Constructivism passed

two

distinct phases.

agitprop

The

ployed for exhibitions or for revolutionary


forms of street art. The second was a professional phase in which buildings were conceived as a genre lying somewhere between
machine form and biological structures. The
scientific ideology of this second phase accounts,
in part, for the invention of complex sections
such as interlocking dwelling units, and for the
expression of access systems such as ramps and
elevators.

first

JV)&HJ*

This drive also accounts for the


of extra-architectural elements

introduction

such

as searchlights, electrical sky-signs,

radio

and cinematographic equipment. Such a


rhetoric of machine expression subsequently

aerials

alienated

more

formalist

artists

like

the

Suprematist-Elementarist, El *Lissitzky, or the

Dutch *Neo-plasticism, Theo van


*Doesburg, or certain Russians who were
seemingly closer to the radical impulse, such as
the vkhutemas architect Nikolai Ladovsky,
who founded the formalist asnova group (New
Association of Architects) in 1923.

leader of

The canonical Constructivist work was Vladimir *Tatlin's project for a gigantic Monument to the Third International, first exhibited
in 1920. This design, projected as a distorted
frustum (logarithmically diminishing in a spiral
vortex towards the summit), was inspired, like
all Constructivism, by the triumphs of modern
technology. And yet, while the precedent for
this project was clearly the Eiffel Tower of 1889,
the science-fiction aura of its form derived from
Alexei Kruchenikh's Futurist opera Victory over
the Sun. Naum Gabo's public criticism of
Tatlin's proposal - 'Either build functional
houses and bridges or create pure art, not both.
Don't confuse one with the other.' (made within
the

Moscow vkhutemas) - was instrumental in

persuading a
art to

work

number of artists

to

abandon

as industrial designers; figures

fine

such

Alexei Gan, Liubov Popova,

Constructivism. Monument to the Third


International (1920), project by Vladimir Tatlin

Russian agrarian construction. This vivato be repeated in


Melnikov's Sucharev Market, built in Moscow
in 1923, and in his Russian Pavilion (1925)
tional

cious

method of building was

erected

in

nationale

Paris

des

for

arts

the

'Exposition

decoratifs

et

inter-

industriels

modernes'. Articulated pre-cut, standard timber members, wood-block stencils, interlocking mono-pitched roofs and rhetorical stair-

Alexander
Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova and Vladimir
Tatlin claimed for themselves the description

ways are the salient features of Melnikov's early


style. Melnikov's manner changed, however,

Productivist rather than Constructivist.

in

as

As far as architecture is concerned, Russian


Constructivism was never more 'production'oriented than in the early timber structures
designed by Konstantin *Melnikov, whose
Mahorka pavilion at the All-Russia Agricultural and Craft Exhibition in Moscow of 1923
was a non-folkloric reinterpretation of tradi72

when he

technology
of which the
Rusakov Club in Moscow (1927-8), with its
cantilevered concrete lecture halls, is the most
characteristic example.
The post-Revolutionary attempt to evolve a
totally new architectural expression, one which
would be based on the direct revelation of
structural and technical form, gave rise within
a

started to use sophisticated

series

of workers'

clubs,

Constructivism
the vkhutemas to a number of rival factions.
The most prominent of these, the functionallyoriented OSA group (Association of Contem-

porary Architects), was founded in 1925 by


Alexander Vesnin. Vesnin, who taught in the
vkhutemas from 1 92 1 onwards, was one of the
first to formulate the architectural syntax of
Constructivism in his project for the Leningradskaya Pravda Building in Moscow (1923), of

which
.

Lissitzky

such

wrote

as signs,

in 1929: 'All accessories

advertising, clocks, loud-

speakers and even the elevators inside, have

Constructivism. The Rusakov Club, Moscow


(1927-8), by Konstantin Melnikov
Constructivism. Project
Pravda building,

Vesnin

Moscow

for the Leningradskaya

(1923),

by Alexander

been incorporated as integral elements of the


design and combined into a unified whole. This
is the aesthetic of Constructivism.'
However, the method for determining form
varied from one faction to the next. There was a
wide divergence between the functionalist
ideology of Vesnin's OSA group and the more
formal gestalt theories advanced by asnova, the
latter ultimately seeking a lexicon of pure forms
which could be seen as inducing certain psychological states.

In

programmatic terms, Russian Construcfocused on two primary themes.

tivist architects

In the

first

place, they

attempted to invent the

form of the ideal socialist town - an endeavour


which attained its apotheosis in N. A. Miliutin's
model for a 'six-banded' linear city (1930)- In
the second place, they tried to postulate the new
'social condensers' of the society at both an
architectural

and

institutional level. This ac-

counts for the prevalence of workers' clubs in


the late 1920s and for Soviet research into
communal housing prototypes under the leadership of the OSA architect, Moisei Ginzburg.

one such dom-kommund


Narkomfin housing block in
Moscow (1929). The dwelling unit employed
in this block was derived from the OSA housing
competition of 1927, and from an inquiry
which was conducted by the OSA magazine.
Given the priorities of the Soviet Union,
Russian Constructivism came to be devoted in
the main to meeting the infra-structural needs
of society, most of the realized works being such

Ginzburg

realized

prototype in

his

structures as offices,

department

stores, sanato-

printing plants, research stations, factories,


workers' clubs and, last but not least, hydroria,

Among this last category


Russian civil-engineering un-

electric installations.

was the

largest

dertaking of the inter-war period, the famous


Dnieperstroi Dam, completed to the designs of

Victor Vesnin in 1932.


73

Cook
It was in the late 1920s that Constructivism
began to exert an influence outside the

Soviet

Union

in countries as diverse as France,

Sweden, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia, England and even the United States (Philadelphia
Saving Fund Society Building in Philadelphia

by *Howe and *Lescaze). Constructivism at its


most authentic, however, was largely restricted
to the Netherlands and Germany, where such
architects as Mart *Stam andjohannes *Duiker,
or in Germany Hannes *Meyer and Walter
*Gropius, realized works which consisted of
little

more than translucent envelopes, stretched

over exposed structural frames, with directly


expressed systems of access and circulation. The
most purely Constructivist work of this era
seems to have been in the Van Nelle factory in
Rotterdam (192630) by Johannes Andreas
*Brinkman and Leendert Cornelius Van der
Vlugt, on whichjob Stam also worked. Close in
spirit to Hannes Meyer and Hans Wittwer's
Constructivist entry for the League of Nations
competition of 19267, the Van Nelle factory
still stands today as a tour deforce in curtainwalled,

mushroom-column, reinforced-con-

crete construction.

What finally

Constructivist work, however,

confirms
is

it

as a

the use of

continuously moving conveyor belts, crossing


back and forth in transparent elevated tubes,
between the factory slab and the canal-side
warehouse. With the work of Duiker and his
partner Bernard Bijvoet, however, we are
confronted with a Constructivism which is
more formalist in its intentions. This much is
clear from Duiker's symmetrically planned
Zonnestraal Sanatorium in Hilversum (19268)
and from his equally symmetrical Open Air
School built in Amsterdam in 1928-30. A
higher-level synthesis between these two aspects of International Constructivism - that is,
between the asymmetrical Functionalism of
Stam on the one hand, and the symmetrical
formalism of Duiker on the other- was possibly
attained in Pierre *Chareau's Maison de Verre
(designed in collaboration with Bijvoet), Paris
(1928-32). It says something for the continuation of the Constructivist tradition that
Richard *Rogers - the co-designer with Renzo
*Piano of the Centre Pompidou in Paris (19727) - was to make a study of this machine-house
in the early 1960s.
KF

Kopp, Anatole,

1967;

Quilici,

costruttiuismo,

74

Ville

Vieri,

et

revolution,

L'architettura

Paris
del

Bari 1969; Shvidkovsky, O. A.

(ed.), Building in the

and

New

York

USSR,

igi7~igj2,

London

1971; Lissitzky, El, Russia:

An

World Revolution, Cambridge,

Architecture for

Mass. 1970.

Cook, Peter, b. 1936 Southend, Essex. Received his architectural education first at the
Bournemouth College of Art, and then

at the
Architectural Association in London. His love

grew up) and the


imbued his whole

for seaside suburbia (where he

fantasy of holiday resorts has

production with a sense of play and enjoyment.


His free-ranging imagination was equally at
home in the technologically super-heated 1960s
'70s. As a founder-member of
*Archigram group, in i960, his reputation
has been both enhanced and obscured by the

and the regressive


the

success ofthat group. His

eclecticism has

more

own peculiar brand of

become more apparent

in his

recent work, particularly in the Green,

Yellow,

Red and Blue Houses he designed with

Hawley in 1979, where a kind of


Deco spirit emerges: as these
houses were designed to be built, they are more
Christine

Californian *Art

important

as

concrete indications of his specifi-

cally architectural

wayward and

talent

fantastical

than are the

more

drawings such

as the

Arcadia sequence of 1977-9, which exist primarily as art works. They blend a reflection of
the aspirations of the high technology era with a
kind of intense hedonism, indeed eroticism,
which may well provide evidence for future
generations of the fantasy inherent in technological dreams.
RM
Cook, Peter, Architecture, Action and Plan,
London and New York 1967;
Experimen-

London and New York 1970;


Archigram, London and New York
The Arcadian City, London 1978.

tal Architecture,
,

1974;

Coop Himmelblau. Group of architects founded in Vienna in 1968 by Wolf D. Prix, Helmut
Swiczinsky and Rainer Michael Hlzer (dissolved in 197 1). Under the influence of Hans
*Hollein and contemporary experimental
teams such as *Haus-Rucker-Co, the group
was at first concerned with pneumatic space
structures. It was, however, pyschological and
aesthetic matters rather than technological concerns which engaged their interest. With their
'Wiener Supersommer' (Viennese Super Summer) of 1976, Coop Himmelblau for the first
time made strong play with their alternatives to
currently accepted modes of urban design. This

Costa

form of confrontation became a hallmark of the

Cook.

group.

Coop Himmelblau. Cloud

Architecture should not mollify or


reconcile, but rather represent in a visually
heightened way the contemporary tensions of a

Plug-in City, project (Archigram; 1964-6)


project (1968)

Thus they conceived architecwere evocative of terror,


harmful, or even aflame. The group produced

particular place.

tural projects that

such poetically aggressive 'demonstration obReiss Bar in Vienna (1977), the


branches of 'Humanic' in Mistelbach (1979) and

jects' as the

Vienna (1980), and the Flammenflgel (Flamewing; 1980), as well as the 'Roter Engel' (Red
Angel) Music Bar in Vienna (1981).
FW
D Coop Himmelblau, Architektur mu brennen, Graz 1980.
Costa, Lucio, b. Toulon 1902. After graduating
1924 from the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes
in Rio de Janeiro, he entered into an early
partnership with Gregori *Warchavchik. In
193 1 he was appointed to the directorship of the
School of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro, which
included the School of Architecture, and
adopted new teaching methods, through which
a generation of young architects were given a
grounding in the principles of the European
avant garde of the 1920s and '30s. Between 1936
and 1943 the Ministry of Education and Health
(now Palace of Culture) in Rio de Janeiro - for
which *Le Corbusier was consulting architect
and C. was for a time the leader of the team of
architects, which included *Niemeyer and
*Reidy - was under construction; this proved
to be the most important building in ^Brazil in
terms of spreading Modern Movement ideas
there. With Niemeyer, C. designed the Brazilian Pavilion at the New York World's Fair
in

WOLKE-HIMMELBLAU-

BSSBKSSf;

(1939). Subsequently he was actively involved


in city planning, culminating in his master-plan

for Brasilia (1956); in this plan the principles of

the *Athens Charter found their greatest expression, providing a superb

framework

for

l-M/VML
Niemeyer's public buildings.
D Gazenco,J. O., and Scaronc, M. M.. Lucio
Costa,

Buenos Aires 1959; Costa, Lucio, Sobre

Arquitectura,

Porto Alegre 1962.


75

Cubism

Cubism. Movement

European painting in
which developed the
new 'way of seeing' which Paul Cezanne had
already introduced around the turn of the
century, whereby the representation of objects
in

the early 20th century

is

reduced to compositions of elemental forms.

The Cubist movement

arose in Paris between

1905 and 19 10 from parallel developments in

Georges Braque and Pablo


The essence of
their experiments, which drew their formal
inspiration from a variety of sources including
African art, was the depiction of three-dimensional space without recourse to illusionistic
perspective devices. Among the most important characteristics of the Cubist formal language were: composition of pictures with
simple geometric structures; sculptural reproductions of objects in their spatial entirety, in
which, above

all,

Picasso played decisive roles.

parency, volumetric interpenetration and the


simultaneity of perception - were adapted to a

more comprehensive view of architecture as an


independent discipline.
VML
D Barr, Alfred H., Jr, Cubism and abstract art,
New York 1936; Sting, H., Der Kubismus und
seine Einwirkung auf die Wegbereiter der modernen
Architektur, Aachen 1965; Burkhardt, Francois, and Lamarova, Milena, Cubismo cecoslovacco, architetture e interni, Milan 1982.
Cuypers, Petrus Josephus Hubertus,

mond

1827, d.

Roermond

b.

Roer-

1921. Studied at the

Antwerp Academy;

a follower of the theories


of Viollet-le-Duc, and like him an admirer of
the Gothic style, C. stood at the watershed
between *historicism and the Modern Move-

ment in
numerous

the

*Netherlands.

He

designed

Roman Catholic churches in a freely

which they separated the component surfaces


and either placed them next to one another or
represented them as penetrating one another by

adapted Gothic manner. The Rijksmuseum


(1877-85) and Central Station in Amsterdam
(188 1-9), both with strongly symmetrical

transparent effects; simulation of the simultaneous perception of the diverse aspects of an


object, in which no single aspect is given
priority. All of these techniques gave expression
to their principal aim: to represent not only
what can be seen but, above all, what is known
about an object.
The direct application of Cubism to architecture remained problematic. The project for a

plans, display lively,

by the sculptor Raymond Duchamp-Villon (1912) was nothing more than a


'Villa Cubiste'

conventional neo-classical house with applied


Cubist decoration. The situation was not
greatly different in the- case of the Prague or
Czech architectural Cubist group, which coalesced after 191

around the magazine Umeleky

work the Cubist


elements were confined to ornament, or at best
a sculptural handling of facades, which did not
Mesicnik. Yet, even in their

affect either the

ground-plan or the

'type'

of the

buildings. In any case the relatively short-lived

episode produced bizarre architectural sculpture often close in spirit to contemporary

*Expressionism. The principal protagonists of


Cubist architecture were Josef Capek, Josef
Chochol, Josef Gocar, Vlastislav Hofman, Pavel

Jank and Otokar Novotny.

A less rushed and immediate investigation of


the application of Cubist principles to architec-

was reserved for the masters of the Modern


Movement; but with their work the fundamental experiences of Cubism asymmetry, trans-

ture

76

monumental silhouettes.
They are examples of a picturesque architecture
whose principles of truth to materials and
expressivity

were to be important impetuses for


*Amsterdam.

the School of

Het Werk van Dr. Petrus Josephus Hubertus

Cuypers, 1827-IQ17,

Amsterdam

1917.

Cuypers. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (1877-85)

Denmark

D
D'Aronco, Raimondo,

b.

Gemona, Udine

1857, d. Naples 1932. After receiving a diploma

from the Accademia delle Belli Arte in Venice,


he was active in Italy and Turkey. With Ernesto
*Basile and Giuseppe *Sommaruga, he was one
of the leading exponents of Italian *Art Nouveau. He designed the entrance pavilions and
the main building for the Turin Arts and Crafts
Exhibition of 1902 - a stylistically bizarre
mixture revealing the most varied influences:
especially apparent was that of the Viennese
School centred on Otto *Wagner and that of
Joseph Maria *01brich's buildings in Darmstadt. Later, however - like *Horta and *Behrens - he turned to a more classically oriented
architectural style, as in the

town

hall at

Raimondo D'Aronco,

Milan 1955.

De

Carlo, Giancarlo, b. Genoa 1919. After


studying engineering at the Milan Politecnico

and architecture

at

the Istituto Universitario

d'Architettura in Venice, he established himself

1950 as an architect in Milan. He was


appointed Professor of Town Planning at the
architecture school in Venice in 1955. As a
member of Team
(*CIAM), he was at the
heart of the movement seeking an ethical and
formal renewal within modernism during the
1950s. His first important work was the Students' Residence in Urbino (19626), in which
are convincingly united the vocabulary of
in

Brutalism, responses to particular his-

and geographic conditions, as well as the


specific programmatic solutions. Urbino has
remained the centre of his activity, and his work
has continued to display the virtues of the
Students' Residence. In collaboration with
Fausto Colombo and Valeria Fossati, he built
the Matteotti workers' housing in Terni (ist
phase 1970-4). The scheme was planned in close
co-operation with the inhabitants and forms a
dense complex of three-storey houses with
differentiated floor-plans and with a garden or
garden terrace for each dwelling.
AM
toric

D De

plan

carlo

De

Carlo,

reconciliation
politique',

Milan 1964; 'G.


de

Carlo,

urbanistica,

G.,

De

l'architecture

Carlo. La
et

de

la

L' Architecture d'aujourd'hui (Paris),

no. 177, January-February 1975, pp. 32-43.

Denmark. The Danes have

Nicoletti, Manfredi,

*New

Carlo. Students' Residence, Urbino (1962-6):

Udine

(1909).

De
site

Questioni di architettura

Urbino 1965; Colombo, C, Gian-

inspiration

from the major

always drawn
of world

centres

culture, but have shown a critical and cautious


approach when adapting borrowed ideas to
Danish landscape and climate, customs and

building practices. Thus the process whereby

Danish architecture acquired its own character


was markedly evolutionary. Securely anchored
in their own tradition of craftsmanship, the
Danes developed a sense for simple order,
natural proportions and rhythm, first through
half-timbered work and afterwards through the
brick buildings of the Empire period. Emotionalism in architecture was distrusted, and thus the
worst excesses of *eclecticism were avoided; on
the other hand, avant-garde tendencies were
slow to make themselves felt.
A functional tradition runs through Danish
architecture, from the simple brick housing of
the Empire period, via Michael Gottlieb

onward to 20th-century *neo-classicism and to Ivar Bentsen and Kay Fisker.


Bindesboll's Medical Association houses and
Oringe Hospital (c. 1850) are simple buildings

Bindesboll

of yellow brick serving


purpose. Daniel Herholdt's

more pronounced

clear

work

stylistic

c.

functional

i860 has

expression,

but

maintains the same respect for simple structures


and truthful expression of materials. Herholdt
was the first to use cast iron in a major building

Copenhagen University Library


architect

(1861).

The

of Copenhagen's City Hall, Martin

"

Denmark

ain building

Denmark. Grundtvig Church, Copenhagen

(1913,

by Jensen Klint

1921-40),

From the 1920s Kay Fisker was the leading


exponent of traditionalism, playing a leading
part in the efforts to improve the quality of
housing. The most important product of traditionalism is Arhus University (begun 193 1), the
first part of which was designed by Fisker in
collaboration with Christian Frederik Moller
and Povl Stegmann. Its many separate buildings
stand skilfully related to one another in a parklike campus. Moller later continued work on
the University alone, without sacrificing the

Nyrop, developed

this materialist approach to


architecture further, while Jensen * Klint, who

unity projected in the original design. Fisker's


strong personality shows to advantage in

took the Danish brick-building tradition as


point of departure, achieved an architecture
of expressive effects in the Grundtvig Church

Copenhagen's Voldparkens School and the


Maternity Care Building of the mid-1950s.
Kaare Klint carried on the ideas of his father
Jensen Klint in the Bethlehem Church (1937) in

also
his

(191 3, 1921-1940) in Copenhagen, a gigantic


paraphrase of the Danish village church type.

The *Art Nouveau period left only a few


notable traces in Denmark; its most important
exponents were Anton Rosen and Thorvald
Bindesboll.

The

chief

which

monuments of the

predominated

neo-classicism

immediately

before

World War I are: Carl Petersen's Fborg Museum (designed 191 2); and, in Copenhagen, the
Police Station (1918-22) by Hack Kampmann,
his two sons, and Age Ram. In terms of future
developments, the chief significance of this neoclassicism v/as that

78

led to a

more severe artistic

and a heightened feeling for the


of craftsmanship and material.

discipline
qualities

it

Copenhagen, and also became the leading


figure in Danish furniture design, with traditional work of the highest craftsmanship. Characteristic of such traditionalist housing of the
post-war years as Sondergardsparken in Bagsvaerd (1950) by Povl Ernst Hoff and Bennet
Windinge is a harmonic relationship of buildings to the terrain and
traditionalist-oriented

its

landscaping.

The

school architecture of

the 1950s consisted principally of one-and

twoon

storey buildings intended to provide a milieu

an intimate scale for the pupils. One of the finest


examples is the Hansstedt School in Copenhagen (1954-8) by Frederik Christian Lund and
Hans Christian Hansen.

Denmark
The

"^International

seriously felt after the

Style

first

made

itself

Stockholm Exhibition of

a revelation for young Danish


Vilhelm Lauritzen became an outstanding exponent in projects such as Copenhagen Airport at Kastrup (1939) and Broadcasting

1930,

which was

architects.

House (1938-45). Mogens Lassen built the first


*Le Corbusier-inspired villas and Fritz Schleget
became the Danish exponent of a freedom from
aesthetic preconceptions established by *Perret
with his use of reinforced concrete (Mariebjaerg

Crematorium at Lyngby, near Copenhagen,


J 937)The young Arne *Jacobsen also belonged to

this

pioneering group, with the


development at Bellevue,

Bellavista residential

near Copenhagen, and later

(in

collaboration

with Moller and Lassen) with the Arhus and


Sollerod town halls. These represented the
climax of avant-garde building in the 1930s,
before the material shortages during the war
and in subsequent years brought a return to the
cultivation of traditional qualities.
The post-war years have been marked especially

by

inspiration

from

the

USA,

Frank Lloyd * Wright's houses and


tion to the landscape, later

Rohe's

disciplined

steel

first

by

their adapta-

by *Mies van der


Again

structures.

Jacobsen was the leading figure, with large


administration

Rodovre Town

buildings

Hall

and

(1955),

hotels,

like

and the

SAS

Building (1958-60) and the National

Bank

(1965-71), both in the capital. In his schools and

housing Jacobsen convincingly combined foreign inspiration with Danish tradition. Jrn
*Utzon is the country's most important representative of a dynamic and expressive architecture. In Denmark he has built noteworthy
single-family and terrace houses and his only
public building, the church at Bagsvaerd (19746). In the Sydney Opera House in Australia he
realized a building of great expressive power.
Halldor Gunnlogsson is a fine exponent of a
severe classicist architecture (Kastrup town hall,
1957-60, with Jrn Nielsen). Vilhelm Wohlert and Jrgen Bo have created a delightful

contemporary art in Louisiana Museum at Humlebaek, near Copenhagen (1958).


Through the 1960s the country enjoyed
economic growth, with plentiful building activity. Industrialized building methods now
setting for

began to dominate the scene to such an extent


that they accounted for the greater part of new
housing. Building projects have increasingly
involved larger units. One of the first big

Denmark.

Broadcasting House. Copenhagen

(1938-45), by Vilhelm Lauritzen

Denmark.
71),

National Bank, Copenhagen (1965

by Arne Jacobsen

Denmark. Kingo

houses, Helsingor (1956-60),

by

Jrn Utzon

79

Deutscher Werkbund
Smaller units of high-density low-rise developproviding greater opportunities for

ments,

community life and with


are now more frequent.

variations in design,

A fine example is
Galgebakken at Herstederne (1969-74) by J. P.
Storgrd, J. Qrum-Nielsen, H. Marcussen and
A. Qrum-Nielsen. In recent years a growing
general interest in historical buildings and
cityscapes has also led to a series of wellexecuted examples of conservation.
TF
D Fisker, Kay, and Millech, Knut, Danske
Arkitektur stremninger l^o-ig^o,

Copenhagen

195 1; Faber, Tobias, Neue dnische Architektur,


Stuttgart 1968;
Danske Arkitektur, Co,

penhagen 1977-

Deutscher Werkbund. Founded in Munich


on 9 October 1907 as an association of archiindustrialists, teachers and
aim was the 'ennobling of German
work'. Its members conceived of work as
embracing both handiwork and industrial
work, which constituted the major difference
between the Werkbund and the English *Arts
and Crafts movement, which had served as the
basis for the German group. The Arts and Crafts
embodied the protestations of men such as
William *Morris against the flood of flimsy,
ugly, characterless objects produced by industrial methods. Morris considered the machine
inappropriate for producing objects intended
for everyday use. Such objects should be
reserved for handiwork, so that the quality of
products and of work might be re-established.
The Werkbund took up this protest against an
environment lacking in quality, but its founders
- Hermann *Muthesius, Fritz Schumacher and
Peter ^Behrens - saw in the machine an
improved tool which must, and could, be used
to ensure that its products were also of high
tects,

craftsmen,

publicists,

Denmark.

Louisiana

Museum, Humlebaek

(1958),

by Jrgen Bo and Vilhelm Wohlert

Denmark. Odense

University (1966-76) by

Krohn, Rasmussen and Holscher

housing developments carried out entirely in


prefabrication was Hoje Gladsaxe near Copenhagen (1960-4). The concept of 'open
architecture' offering the highest degree of
flexibility has been realized in such institutional
buildings as Odense University (1966-76) by
Gunnar Krohn, Hartvig Rasmussen and Knud
Holscher, and in the

Copenhagen Country

Herlev (1960-76) by Gehrdt Bornebusch, Max Briiel and Jrgen Selchau. Between
1968 and 1974 Knud Friisr and Elmar Moltke
Nielsen, with their secondary schools at
Riiskov, Skanderborg and Viborg, created
some of the finest works of the period.
Most recently, architecture has been characHospital

at

terized

by

dential

developments such

so

a strong reaction against


as

huge

resi-

those of the 1960s.

quality.

its

The Werkbund took

the idea that industrial

as a starting

point

development could not

be reversed.
Their efforts had a strong echo immediately,
and the effect of their movement extended
throughout the cultivated middle classes who
suffered from the general lack of culture during
this period. Industrialists and businessmen recognized the advantage that tasteful modern
products could afford. In the very year of the
Werkbund's foundation, 1907, Emil Rathenau,
the founder of the AEG (Allgemeine Elektricitts-Gesellschaft, or General Electric Company), chose the painter-architect Peter Behrens

Deutscher Werkbund

duced

were railway coaches designed by


Gropius, automobiles styled by Ernst Neumann
and steamships with interiors by Bruno Paul.

Deutscher Werkbund. Model factory building


by Gropius and Glass Pavilion by Bruno Taut at
the Cologne exhibition (1914)

These were presented annually (from 19 12) in


the Werkbund\ Jahrbcher. Their influence was
immediately felt: in keeping with the activity of
the Werkbund, which comprised handicraft, art
and industry, the annuals also illustrated silver
designs, painted glass, applied sculpture and
even painting.
In July 1914, on the occasion of the first
Werkbund exhibition held in Cologne, at
which *van de Velde's Werkbund Theatre,
Gropius's model factory and Bruno *Taut's
Glass Pavilion were shown, Muthesius put out
a suggestion which he hoped would overcome
the duality of the Werkbund: 'Die Werkbundarbeit der Zukunft' (The Werkbund's work o(
should
the future) the title of his discourse

serve as the typical object, not as an individual


as

designer for his factories, workers' estates,

company

graphics, and even for certain of the

company's products, such as the lamps which


have, justly, been considered early examples of
Industrial Design. The Werkbund was also
considered

work

good

German
Naumann, who

for the standing of

in the world. Friedrich

can be considered the chief ideologue of the

Werkbund
pointing

in the early years,

never tired of

this out.

Between 1907 and 1914 new developments


by Behrens, *Poelzig and
*Gropius; country houses by Muthesius; furniture made by the Deutsche Werksttte fr
Handwerkkunst (German handicraft workincluded: factories

shops) in Hellerau, near Dresden, as well as the

Garden City of Hellerau itself (*Riemerschmid, Muthesius and *Tessenow). Also pro-

work of

art

or handicraft. This suggestion


lively opposition

provoked considerable and


within the Werkbund.

name of free art

Van de Velde

protested

any suggestion of
a canon or a standardization' and the younger
members, Taut and Gropius, supported him.
But the advent of World War I prevented the
immediate collapse of the Werkbund. With the
end of the war in 1918 came the victory of the
majority in 1914 - the victory of handicraft
over industrial production. In 1919 Poelzig
delivered a campaigning speech in Stuttgart in
which he renounced the tendeiu v towards big
Naumann and
by
advocated
business
Muthesius, and proclaimed handicraft as the
goal of the Werkbund. It seemed as though the
movement might be reverting to the ideology
of William Morris.
in the

'against

Si

Deutscher Werkbund

Deutscher Werkbund. Weienhofsiedlung,

*Great Britain, intended

Stuttgart (1927)

part of the

But German industry was not devastated and


the Werkbund again took up the question of
industrial work; now it was essentially the social
aspect which interested them, and housing and
advice for the 'Existenzminimum' (minimal
existence) in particular. Walter Gropius, who
had founded the *Bauhaus in Weimar the
name was meant to call to mind the workshops

which Gropius designed, had rather

as

an English counter-

Werkbund.

The Werkbund

exhibition in Paris in 1930,

men like Adloph Schneck worked in the


Werkbund, and that their clear and straightthat

forward furniture designs were not indebted to


the machine aesthetic of the Bauhaus. Nor

or 'Bauhtte' of medieval cathedrals- claimed

should

1926 that all men's needs were the same and


that they could be better and less expensively

*Bonatz and Paul Schmitthenner,

in

satisfied

by machine than by

the hand.

'A

violation of the individual through standardizais not


to be feared'; Gropius and his
Bauhaus were again on the path towards

tion

industry after 1922.

The Weienhofsiedlung (housing

estate) in

was the great accomplishment


of the Werkbund in that year. Designed under
the supervision of *Mies van der Rohe, it was
the first of the Werkbundsiedlungen (WerkStuttgart in 1927

bund housing

estates): that in

Breslau

came two

years later, that in Vienna in 1932. Foreign


architects

Weienhof

were

heavily

involved

in

the

*Le Corbusier from Paris,


Victor ^Bourgeois from Brussels, J. J. P. *Oud
from Rotterdam, Mart *Stam from Amsterdam, Josef Frank from Vienna. Even before the
war, Werkbnde had been founded in *Austria
and in *S witzerland, and in 1 9 1 5 in the midst of
the war, the Design Association was founded in
estate:

82

horrific

terms of both doctrine and discipline.


It was more an exhibition of the Bauhaus than
of the Werkbund. It should not be forgotten
results in

it

be forgotten that others, such

as

Paul

also

be-

longed to the Werkbund.

The political transition from Republic to


Third Reich witnessed a situation in which
several members sought to assure their position
by a cautious strategy - Mies van der Rohe
belonged to this group, along with several
committed National Socialists and others, such
as Winfried Wendland, who joined the Party.
There were also those such as Walter Riezler,
who remained unswerving. The National Socialists adopted catchwords of the Werkbund,
such as 'quality', 'value of work', 'meaning',
'accomplishment', but these were always qualified by the adjective 'German'. The dissolution
of the Werkbund as an essentially organizational entity can be dated to 1934, although the
National Socialists sought to preserve its principles in an 'Amt Schnheit der Arbeit' (Office
for the beauty of work).
The Werkbund was refounded in 1947. In
the first ten years of the new Werkbund, it

Doesburg

seemed

as

though the old union with industry

would again

find validity.

The German

section

World's Fair of 1957 was created


by the Werkbund and revealed to an astonished
world that German work had won back its high
quality: this was equally true of the exhibition
buildings (by Egon *Eiermann and Sep Ruf),
the gardens (Walter Rassow) and the objects
at the Brussels

Werkbund. The policy of reform in the applied arts,


Princeton, N.J. 1978; Junghanns, Kurt, Der
Deutsche Werkbund. Sein erstes Jahrzehnt, Berlin
(East) 1982.

Dinkeloo, John (Gerard),

exhibited.

joined

However, it also served as proof that in its


campaign for 'good form' the Werkbund had
been too successful. Industry thought it no
longer needed the Werkbund, and the Werkbund was more severely critical of it in the
context of a world faced with new requirements and new problems. This was in keeping
with Werkbund tradition, and it had been the
desire to re-establish the Werkbund on the basis
of a simple design - or overseeing - function.
But the Werkbund had in fact never been

Owings

satisfied

with 'good form'. In the 1960s the


'Tassenwerkbund'
(coffee-cup

expression

Werkbund) was coined

to indicate a

Werkbund

which could be satisfied with 'good form'. The


Werkbund had never been such an organization
and now it desired less than ever to become such
a Tassenwerkbund. Certainly the Werkbund
both before and after the war has concerned
itself with our immediate environment: that of

lamp and, by extension,


garden and greenery. But it is

the table, bed,


street,

the
also

concerned with threats to the environment, to


the status quo which it wishes to maintain, with
its form, its tradition and its substance. The title
would now have to be changed for an essay on
the activities of the Werkbund, but the essence
has remained the same: it has always striven to
be broader in scope than the narrow concept of
an industrial culture.
The theme of the Werkbund is, in the
broadest sense, that of a cultural critique. It has
never been anything else. That the Werkbund
should find it less simple today than in the 1920s
and 1930s to imagine and define its relationship
to

economic

Jahrbcher des Deutschen Werkbundes, 1912,

forces

is

evident.

JPo

1913,1914, 1915,1917, 1920; Die Form, monthly


1922, 1925-34; Werk und Zeit,
monthly publication, since 1952; Zwischen
Kunst und Industrie. Der Deutsche Werkbund
publication,

(exhibition catalogue),

Munich

1975, also Ber-

and Hamburg 1976; Burckhardt, Lucius


(ed.), Werkbund. Germania, Austria, Svizzera,
Venice 1977; Campbell, Joan, The German

lin

b.

Holland, Mich.

1918, d. Fredericksburg, Va. 1981. After studies


at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, he

the

&

Chicago
Merrill,

office

of *Skidmore,

where he was head of

project planning, 1946-50.

He began

his col-

laboration with Eero *Saarinen in 1950 in the


same capacity and was promoted to partnership
in 1956. After Saarinen's death in 1961, D. took

over the office, together with Kevin *Roche,


and moved it from Bloomfield Hills and
Birmingham, Mich., to Hamden, Conn.,
where, until D.'s death, it was known as Kevin
Roche John Dinkeloo and Associates. In his
collaboration with Roche, D. was especially
responsible for the high formal value of the
structural aspect of the firm's work. He was the
technical innovator to whom can be attributed
the introduction of synethetic rubber mouldings, metallic smoked glass and weatherproof
steel in an architectural context.
AM
See under Roche.

Doesburg, Theo van, b. Utrecht 1883, d.


Davos 193 1; real name Christiaan Emil Marie
Kpper.

He began

his career as a painter and,

conventional beginnings, broke away c.


191 2 and investigated the formal language of
Kandinsky. His contacts with Mondrian, with
whom he planned as early as 191 5 a journal to
propagate the new ideas of *Neo-plasticism,
after

resulted in his

first

neo-plasticist pictures. In

collaboration with the architects

*Oud

and Jan

Wils, he endeavoured to transfer his painting


from the two-dimensional into something spatial

and to connect

it

organically with architec-

ture. In 1916, together

with Oud, he founded

the Sphinx group in Leiden, but

it

did not

last

One year later, hejoined a group of artists


and architects in De *Stijl, a movement set up to
long.

achieve a 'radical renewal of art'; he became the


spokesman of the group, whose ideology was
rationalist-inclined

sculptural

and advocated

architecture

in

a geometric,
opposition to the

picturesque effects of ^Expressionism and the

School of *Amsterdam.
In 1917, with Oud, he designed the hall ot
Oud's house at Noordwijkerhout, near Leiden,
in which he sought to reinforce and stress the
83

Drew
denden Kunst,

Amsterdam 1919;
The Hague

modern,

bar ok,

L''Architecture

Doesburg

vivante,

Paris

1925;

(exhibition

883-1 Q31

Klassiek,

1920;

Theo van
catalogue),

Eindhoven 1968; Balieu, Joost, Theo van Doesburg,

London

Drew,

1974.

Jane Beverley,

191

b.

1.

Studied

at

the

Architectural Association School, London. In

partnership withj. T. Allison, 1934-9. Independent practice, 1939-45. In partnership with

Maxwell *Fry (whom she married in 1942)


from 1945. Early work in Kenya led to specialization in tropical architecture. She was Assistant Town Planning Adviser, West Africa,
1944-5. As well as being responsible for schools,
Doesburg. Cafe L'Aubette, Strasbourg (1926-8)

architecture through the

medium of painting.

housing and colleges in Ghana, she undertook


work with Fry on the University of

joint

Ibadan, Nigeria. Other projects were in: Kuwait (1,000-bed hospital); India (hospitals,
housing, and a large school; senior architect at

Chandigarh

collaboration with *Le

His use of primary colours, tiled flooring and


geometrical leading on the windows is in
harmony with De Stijl methods. In the follow-

busier);

ing years, D. was invited to lecture on the

cinemas); and Mauritius (hospitals and hous-

movement's

ing).

activities at the

sau and Berlin.

*Bauhaus

in

Des-

The Bauhaus published his book

on the fundamental

principles

of art (originally

published in Dutch, Amsterdam, 19 19) as the


sixth of the series of Bauhausbcher, entitled
Grundbegriffe der bildenden Kunst (Munich,
1924).

When the Cafe L'Aubette in Strasbourg was


renovated in 19268, D. was able to realize his
ideas of space and colour on a larger scale, in
collaboration with Hans Arp. Moving to Paris,
he built a house and studio for himself at
Meudon-Val-Fleury (192930), which soon
became the focal point of De Stijl. He renewed
his collaboration with Cor van *Eesteren, with
whom he had worked in the early 1920s, and
turned his attention to applying the principles
of De Stijl to town planning.
D.'s death in 193 1 marked the end of De Stijl
as a group. Although his emphasis on the
primacy of the fine arts over architecture had
already come under critical attack in the 1920s
and had resulted in his break with Oud, the
concepts of space which he helped to define
remain a living issue today.
JJV
Doesburg, Theo van, De Nieuwe Beweging

in

de

Delft

Schilderkunst,

1917;

voordrachten over de nieuwe bildende Kunst,

sterdam 19 19;
84

Grondbegrippen der

Drie

Ambeei-

in

Singapore;

(housing,

town

Sri

Cor-

Lanka; south Persia

planning, hospital extensions,

She was Beamis Professor

chusetts Institute of

at the

Technology

Massaand

in 1961,

has lectured widely elsewhere. She retired

from

practice in 1974.
Drew, Jane, Kitchen Planning,

London 1945;
Drew, J., Tropical Architecture in the
Dry and Humid Zones, London 1966; Brockman, H. A. N., Fry, Drew, Knight, Cramer.
Architecture, London 1978.
Fry, E., and

Dudok, Willem

Marinus,

b.

Hilversum 1974. Trained

Amsterdam

1884,

an engineer at the
Royal Military Academy, Breda. In I9i3-i4he
d.

as

had his own office in Leiden, and from 191 5 in


Hilversum, where he was also director of
municipal works, 1915-27, and municipal architect from 1927. Although deriving something from both the School of * Amsterdam and
De *Stijl, D. evolved an independent position
of his own. The contrast of solid and void areas,
horizontals and verticals, recalls De Stijl, but
D.'s brick buildings nearly always retain that

quality of mass and weight


terizes

the

which

work of Michel de

also charac*Klerk. His

formal solutions also reveal the influence of


Frank Lloyd *Wright. D.'s most important
buildings are at Hilversum, including the Vondel School (1928-9) and the Town Hall (192830). He also designed Netherlands House at the

Cite Universitaire,

Paris

(1927-8),

and the

Bijenkorf department store in Rotterdam


(1929-30, destroyed in World War II).
D Stuiveling, G., Bakker-Schut, F., et al.,
Willem M. Dudok, Amsterdam 1954.

Duiker, Johannes,

Amsterdam

1935.

b.

The Hague

Studied

From

at

1890,

d.

the Technical

was in partnerAmsterdam, and


was editor of the journal De 8 en Opbouw, 19325. D. was an independently minded figure
College in Delft.

19 16 he

ship with Bernard Bijvoet in

of the Modern Movement in Holland. In his


Zonnestraal Sanatorium at Hilversum (1926-8,
with Bijvoet) the geometrical strength of
*Neo-plasticism is softened by combining it
with curved volumetric forms. Its generous
glazing and powerfully projecting terraced
roofs are not without some influence on Alvar
*Aalto's Sanatorium at Paimio (192933). The
Open Air School in the Cliostraat in Amsterdam (1928-30), a five-storey complex with
terraces for outdoor classes, is a highly transparent structure that makes free display of its
concrete skeleton. The Handelsblad-Cineac
Cinema in Amsterdam, completed in 1934, the
year before D.'s early death, is an elegant
composition of white surfaces, glass and a light
metal structure, in which the influences of *Le
Corbusier and above all of Russian *Constructivism are evident.

Eames,

Charles, b. St Louis, Missouri 1907, d.


and designer. Together

St Louis 1978. Architect

with his wife Ray, E. was active in almost


every domain of design from toys and furniture
(including the

Eames Chair,

exhibitions. His

own

house

1956), to films

and

at Pacific Palisades,

Cal. (1949), a steel-frame building constructed


units, is reminiscent - in its
proportions and light appearance
of an old
Japanese house.
Drexler, Arthur, Charles Eames (exhibition

from prefabricated

catalogue),

New

York

1973.

eclecticism. The free use of elements of


various styles, even within a single building.
The highpoint of eclecticism was reached as an
expression of *historicism in the architecture of
the second half of the 19th century. It has also
played a major role in *Post-Modernism.

Eames. The

architect's

own

house, Pacific

Palisades, Cal. (1949)

VML

Duiker, Johannes, Hoogbouw, Rotterdam


1930; 'Duiker 1' and 'Duiker 2', in Forum
(Amsterdam), November 1971 and January
1972.

Duiker. Zonnestraal Sanatorium, Hilversum (with


Bijvoet; 1926-8)

85

Ecole des Beaux-Arts

Ecole des Beaux-Arts. The Ecole des BeauxArts in Paris, which dates back ultimately to
organization of the Academie
Colbert's
d' Architecture in 167 1, was reorganized in 18 16
and quickly became not only the most important school of architecture in *France, but by
the third quarter of the 19th century the most
such

influential

institution

in

the

world.

Although various reforms were effected, notably in 1863, the methods and philosophy of
the Ecole des Beaux-Arts displayed an overall
unity for some 150 years. The same teaching
methods were employed until the student
revolts of 1968, which led inter alia to the
separation of the architecture section from the
fine arts divisions

of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.

Thus, despite often virulent internal conflicts,


the Ecole came to represent a bastion of official
taste and to serve as the symbol of the architec-

stereotomy, construction, and history of archi-

Design and drafting however were


ateliers (studios), run by
practising architects, many of whom also served

tecture.

taught in independent

refusing
tique

its

instruction, although his

was sharpened

there in

1863.

own

cri-

after his ill-fated lectures

Architectural manifestos and

treatises - from Viollet-le-Duc to Le Corbusier


- have used the Ecole as a negative postulate in
defining a rational modern architecture.

If as

an institution the school defended the

- and especially that of the


and the late International
Baroque which had been the formative influences in its nascent period - its method was
more one of abstract design principles than
stylistic representation. While the classical ideal
was upheld, it was subjected to considerable
remterpretation and renewal at the hands of
'rebels' turned masters from the generation of
Henri Labrouste and Felix Duban in the 1830s
to Charles Garnier in the 1 860s and finally Tony
classical tradition

French 'grand

*Garnier

siecle'

in the 1920s.

The unifying method -

belatedly codified in Julien Guadet's great four-

volume Elements et theorie de V architecture (1903


5) - was the basis of design in composition, i.e.
in the abstraction of the building programme
between expression and formal
were taught to conceptualize
the essence of an assigned programme and then
according to the rules of proportion, symmetry, axial organization, and convenance or typolinto a balance

pattern. Students

ogy, to find an appropriate compositional


expression {parti).
Technically speaking, the Ecole itself did not
provide practical instruction in design. It offered lectures in mathematics, perspective,
86

were prepared

students

to

compete

ateliers

in

the

monthly concours (competitions) set by the


Academie and administered by the faculty of
the school. These culminated in the renowned
Grand Prix (Prix de Rome) which permitted
one student a year to continue his study for
several years (the number varied from three to
five

over the century)

at the

French

Academy in

Rome (Villa Medici) and later in Athens as well.


This system, formalized by the regulations of
1 8 19, was designed to cultivate architects to fill
the

governmental architectural
which dominated the hierarchy of the

prestigious

posts

profession in France.

By

tural establishment. Earlier, in the 19th century,

Viollet-le-Duc had taken a polemical stance in

within the Ecole. In the

as professors

the

late

19th century,

the Ecole des

Beaux-Arts counted numerous foreign students


in its various ateliers (there were three large
'official'

ateliers

after

1863),

including

Americans Louis *Sullivan and C.

F.

the

McKim

(*McKim, Mead & White), as well as numerous


German students. Even more im-

English and

portantly, the French Ecole served as a prototype for architectural education either by emu-

American architectural
Cambridge, Mass., or Columbia University in New York - or by
lation

as in

schools at

the earliest

MIT

in

critique.
If the

Ecole des Beaux-Arts system came

increasingly under attack at the hands of the

masters of the

Modern Movement,

its

influence

remained nonetheless strong until World War


II. The *Art Deco style, for instance, was in
many respects a streamlined image for established compositional principles

whose

relation

Beaux-Arts teaching was especially evident


in American examples. Even the most vehement critics of the Ecole, such as *Le Corbusier,
were not totally free from its influence or
methods.
A re-evaluation of the Ecole, that bete noire of
the avant garde, might be said to have begun in
the 1950s, and notably in the work of Louis
*Kahn and his disciples. Kahn's formalized
composition, hierarchy of spaces, and preference for sequential articulation of volumes
draw heavily on the Beaux-Arts element in his
own training under Paul Cret at the University
of Pennsylvania. Through Kahn and Robert
*Venturi the Ecole was to be re-examined not
to

Ehn
only for its formal principles, but as a particular
approach to the problem of style, raised again in
the context of the growing disillusionment
with the international Style in America.
A 1975 exhibition of Beaux-Arts student
drawings held at the Museum of Modern Art in
New York marked a watershed in historical
study and architectural taste. 'Beaux-Arts' once
again became a household word in Anglo-

the Hoger Bouwkunstonderwijs in Amsterdam, 1919-22; he won the Prix de Rome and

American

the city's expansion, basing his

and its imagery


were quickly
assimilated in the eclectic catalogue of *PostModernism. Contemporary appreciation of the
French tradition is, however, highly inflected
according to architectural position and philosophy, from the self-styled defenders of an
eternal classicism to the most independently
spirited proponents of an imagistic and metaphorical architectural language.
BB
D Drexler, Arthur (ed.), The Architecture of the
Ecole des Beaux-Arts, New York and London
architectural circles

and approach

to representation

1975; Lipstadt, Helene, Architecte et Ingenieur


dans la Presse; Debat-Conflit-Polemique, Paris
1980; Egbert,

Donald Drew, The Beaux-Arts

Tradition in Architecture, Princeton, N.J. 1981;

Middleton, Robin

(ed.),

The Beaux-Arts and

French Nineteenth-Century Architecture,

London

and Cambridge, Mass. 1982 (paperback edition,

London

1984).

Eesteren, Cor (Cornelius) van,


(Alblasserdam), 1897.

Kromhout

b.

Kinderdijk

He worked with Willem

Rotterdam, 19 14, and gained his


Architectural Diploma at the Academie van
Beeidende Knsten en Technische Wetenschappen, Rotterdam, in 19 17. He studied at
in

Ehn. The Lindenhof, Vienna

(1924)

some time

at the *Bauhaus. He belonged


and in 1922 met Theo van
*Doesburg, with whom he formulated the
architectonic principles of *Neo-plasticism. He
worked under Jan Wils, 1924-7. As Architect of
the Town Planning Office of Amsterdam
(1929-59, after 1952 Director), he co-ordinated

spent

De

to

*Stijl,

work on

plan

prepared by *Berlage in 1917, which he substantially revised and enlarged. For many years
he was president of *CIAM.

Hans L. C, 'Prof. C. van Eesteren 4.


70 jaar', Bouwkundig Weekblad (Amsterdam), no. 85, 1967, pp. 213 ff.
Jaffe,

juli

Ehn,

Karl, b.

Vienna 1884,

d.

Vienna 1957.

After attending the Staatsgewerbeschule and


studying at the Akademie der bildenden Knste
(under Otto * Wagner) in Vienna, he worked as

City Architect in Vienna.


and early 1930s he was responsible for the public housing projects in which he
established prototypes for Viennese architecture of the inter-war years. His Hermeswiesc
(1923) was still oriented towards the English
Garden City movement, while in the Lindenhof (1924) he focused more on social needs,
looking especially to such Dutch examples as
Michel de *Klerk's block of flats on the
official

In the 1920s

Vrijheidslaan (192 1-2) in Amsterdam. Of E.'s


the Bebelhof (1925),
Karl-Marx-Hof (1927) and the Adelheid-Popp-

subsequent buildings,

Hof (1932) deserve special mention. In formal


terms, his work bears witness to a progression
Ehn. The Karl-Marx-Hof, Vienna

(1927)

*-

Eiermann

from Biedermeier-inspired stylistic elements


(Hermeswiese) via a monumental "^Expressionism (Karl-Marx-Hof) to a smooth cubistic

mode

(Adelheid-Popp-Hof).
1934 and to the end of the
Social Democratic era in the Viennese city
administration, E. found himself unable to
realize anything more than a few smaller
compositional
After the Civil

War in

Mang,

MM

CM/KM

private houses.

Kommunaler Wohnungsbau

Karl,

in

Wien. Aufbruch, ig2^-ig^4, Ausstrahlung (exhi-

Vienna 1977; Hautmann, H.


and R., Die Gemeindebauten des Roten Wien
IQ19-IQ34, Vienna 1980.
bition catalogue),

Eiermann, Egon, b. Neuendorf near Berlin


1904, d. Baden-Baden 1970. In the post-war
period E. became the dominant figure among
architects in West ^Germany during the first
quarter century of the Federal Republic's existence.

The example of his buildings,

as

well as his

teaching career at the Technische Hochschule in

Karlsruhe (1947-70) and his membership of

numerous competition

juries,

assured

him

degree of influence in Germany in his own


lifetime comparable only to that exercised by
Hans *Scharoun. E., who preferred the resilient
precision of steel to the sculptural possibilities of
reinforced concrete, attached tremendous im-

portance to pronounced articulation, logical


expression of the skeletal structure and clarity of
detail. His buildings evoke impressions of exceptional clarity and rigid organization. For E.,
who also designed furnishings, the require-

Eiermann. Handkerchief

factory,

Blumberg

(1949-51)

Eiermann. Neckermann Export Company


building, Frankfurt am Main (195861)

ments of architecture were 'to make visible the


order of urban planning down to the smallest
structure.' Components of circulation or tech-

thesis

nology, such

the building office of the Karstadt department

as

stair

or

lift

towers, heating

equipment or machine shops for

industrial in-

(handkerchief factory in Blumberg,


_ 5 1 )' are treated as aesthetically enlivening
I 949
architectural elements. In his later work, E.
tended to establish a secondary outer skin of
stallations

steel railings,

balconies and sun screens placed in

front of the building volume. Thus, even large

building masses, such as the


port

Company

61), the

in Frankfurt

Neckermann Exam Main (1958

tower of the Bundestag (Parliament)

in

(1965-9) or the IBM Administration


Building in Stuttgart (196772) were given a

Bonn

indeed cheerful character.


Technische Hochschule in
Berlin-Charlottenburg, 19237, where he was a

light, elegant,

E. Studied at the

pupil of
88

Hans *Poelzig. He wrote

diploma

on department

stores

and worked

first

in

from 1920 he had his own practice.


Decorative screens were used in his post-war
department stores for the Horten chains (Heilbronn, Stuttgart and Heidelberg), as well as in
several churches, most notably the Matthuskirche in Pforzheim and the Kaiser-WilhelmGedchtnis-Kirche in Berlin (195963), whose
existing war-damaged tower is contrasted with
the simple geometry of the new building. In
these church buildings, he employed coloured
glazing which produces an unreal lighting
effect in the interior. The dramatic contrast
between old and new in the Gedchtnis-Kirche
was symbolic of the post-war rebuilding of
West Berlin. In his later works E. also sought to
create striking architectural images through the
store chain;

Eisenman

Eiffel.

of the

The
site

Eiffel Tower, Paris (1887-9) with part


of the Exposition Universelle (1937),

showing the German Pavilion

and, facing

(left)

it,

Truyere bridge near Garabit in the Massif


Central (1880-4), E. was able to exploit the
advantages of rolled steel for large-scale struc-

the Russian Pavilion

tures.

He

used

this material, itself

much more

resistant to stress than cast iron, in the construc-

structure

itself;
the towers of the Olivetti
headquarters in Frankfurt-Niederrad (1968-72)
are raised on gradually widening concrete

supports.

After his pavilion group at the Brussels


World's Fair (1958, with Sep Ruf) E. received numerous government commissions.

The new German Embassy

in

Washington

(!959-64), an act of architectural diplomacy in


its contextual discretion, won him a certain

WP

international success.

Rosenthal, H. Werner, 'Egon Eiermann

1904-1970', J-R/v4, January 1971.


Eiffel, Gustave, b.

Dijon 1832,

After

training

as

chemist,

structural engineer almost

d. Paris 1923.

he became a

by chance. Several

years as a consultant to building firms and later

an independent consulting engineer immersed him in the problems confronting bridge


designers as railway construction extended into
as

ever

more

difficult

territory.

In

his

much

acclaimed wide-span railway bridges, such as


the Douro bridge near Oporto (1877-8) and the

up
from small individual members and riveted
together. His structures were of fundamental
significance for the modern aesthetic of reduced
use of materials (as exemplified in *Mies van
der Rohe's dictum 'Less is more'). His most
renowned structure, the Eiffel Tower in Paris
(18879), was built for the Exposition Unition of three-dimensional space-frames built

verselle in 1889; the

enthusiasm for the tower

Robert Delaunay and


Fernand Leger became a reality in 20th-century
architecture only in the 1930s, through the
work of Le Ricolais and Konrad *Wachsmann
GHa
on space structures.
D Besset, Maurice, Gustave Eiffel, Milan 19S7
and Paris 1959; Harris, Joseph, The Tallest

shown by such

Tower;

Eiffel

artists as

and the Belle Epoque, Boston, Mass.

1975; Gustave Eiffel et son temps (exhibition


catalogue), Paris 1982.

Newark, N.J. 1932. StudColumbia Universities and


England at Cambridge University. In

Eisenman,

Peter, b.

ied at Cornell and

then in

1957-58

collaborator of the

*TAC

team.
89

Ellwood

Even

the El

Odd House

metrie object' based on

of 1978, an 'Axonobackground play with

the representation and the reality of architecture, E. carried to

an

autonomous

its

limits his radical plea for

architecture

Five).

Five Architects,

P.,

House of Cards,

(*New York
VML

New York 1972; Eisenman,


New York 1978.

Ellwood, Craig, b. Clarendon, Texas 1922. He


first worked for several years as an accountant
and manager for a contracting firm before
opening his own architectural office in Los
Angeles in 1948. In order to deepen the practical
knowledge he had gained, he enrolled in
evening courses in civil engineering at the
University of California in Los Angeles, 1949
54. Since 1976 has been active as a painter and
sculptor and spends part of each year in Tus-

who has built almost exclusively in


known chiefly for the houses he realized

cany. E.,
steel, is

from 195 1 on

in the context

programme of the journal


In his

Eisenman. House

(Barenholtz Pavilion),
Princeton, N.J. (1967-8)
at

and,

editor of the architectural review Oppositions.

whose work draws especially on the Italian


^Rationalism associated with Giuseppe *Terragni, has closely bound theory and practice in
his investigation of the relationship of form and
function or the meaning of form 'an sicW (form
qua form). His realized ccuvre consists of houses
which are at the same time architectural experiments and products which he numbers like
E.,

abstract sculptural

works or

paintings, includ-

House I (Barenholtz Pavilion) in Princeton,


House II (Falk House) in Hardwick, Conn. (1969-70); House III (Miller
House) in Lakeville, Conn. (1969-70). A highpoint in his disdain for function was achieved in
House VI, built in 1972, the Frank Residence in
Cornwall, Conn., with its red staircase which
cannot be climbed and leads to a floor which
does not exist. These constructions of complex
geometrical systems are not meant to fulfil any
needs; E.'s aesthetic mannerism brushes aside the
ing:

N.J. (1967-8);

client's

90

dependence on *Mies van der Rohe,

as

well as in his structural sense and spatial organi-

Cambridge and Princeton Universifrom 1967, at the Cooper Union in


New York. Until 1982 he was Director of the
Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in
New York, which he founded in 1967, and coTaught

ties

of the Case-Study

Arts and Architecture.

expectations in order to criticize them. In

zation, his work displays an uncommon elegance and reductivist discipline. Among his
most important works - all in California - are
the Case Study House No. 18 in Beverly Hills
(i955, 1957-8), the Hunt House in Malibu
(i955, 1956-7), the Scientific Data Systems
Building (today Xerox Building) in El Segundo
(1965, 1966), and the bridge-like Arts Center of
the College of Design which spans a street in

AM

Pasadena.

McCoy,

Esther, Craig Ellwood,

New York

1968.

Endell, August,

b.

Berlin

1871, d.

Breslau

1925. Self-taught craftsman and architect of the

German Jugendstil (*Art Nouveau). Member of


the Munich group and art journal Jugend
(Youth); from 1900 he was director of the
Kunstgewerbeschule in Breslau. His most important works, the Elvira Photo Studio in
Munich (1897-8) and the decoration of the
Buntes Theater (Multi-coloured theatre) in
Berlin (1901), are characterized by lively ornamentation attached to flat surfaces. In 19 12 the
Trabrennbahn in Berlin-Mariendorf was built
to his designs.

Weiss, Peg

(ed.),

Kandinsky

in

Munich:

the

formative years, Princeton, N.J. 1979, pp. 3440;


Killy, H. E., Pfankuch, P., and Scheper, D.,

Erski

Erskine. Byker housing development. Newcastleupon-Tyne (1969-80)

PoeUig-Endell-Moll

und die Breslauer Kunstakademie: 1911-32 (exhibition catalogue), Berlin


1965.

England. *Great

Britain

by the practitioners of the ^International Style.


interest in the iconographic
aspect of architecture is also evident in such
works as the Canadian Pavilion at Expo '7 in
Osaka, the Museum of Anthropology of the
University of British Columbia in Vancouver
(197 17) and the great urban-block structure of
the new Justice Building in Vancouver (1973

A tremendous

80). In addition to large-scale public projects, E.

Erickson, Arthur (Charles),


Studied

b.

Vancouver

University of British
Columbia in Vancouver and McGill University
in Montreal, 1942-50. Active in various part1924.

nerships

at

the

from

1953, and since 1977 as principal


of the firm Arthur Erickson Associates, with
offices

in

Vancouver, Toronto, Kuwait and

Jeddah. Simon Frser University at Burnaby


near Vancouver (begun 1963) assumes a key
position in E.'s work:

it

reveals the influence of

*Le Corbusier, *Kahn, *Rudolph and *New


Brutalism, all independently reworked and
further developed in this building. The setting
of the campus is particularly striking. It assumes
the image of a mountain peak with its futuristic

autonomous forms. With

his paradigmatic use


of axes, symmetries, linear rows of arcades and
iconographic feeling, E. embraced theoretic
positions which would only later be reclaimed

number of simple wooden


houses in the structuralist tradition of *Mics van
der Rohe, in which he has not been afraid to
has developed a

adopt regionalist characteristics. The frequent


comparison of E.'s work with that of Philip
^Johnson is valid at least insofar as he has
exercised as considerable an influence on the
post-war Canadian (*Canada) scene as Johnson
has

w
on the American (*USA).
The Architecture ofArthur Erickson, Montreal
1

197-5-

Erskine, Ralph,

b.

London

[914. After stud}

at

Waiden. ssex
(which had a lasting influence on Ins development) and architectural studies at the Regent
ondon, he moved in
Street Polytechnic- in
1939 to Sweden, which seemed to him the
promised land in which society was the leader
the

Quaker school

in Saffron

91

Ervi

and modern architecture was understood to be


its servant. In 1944-5 he completed further
studies at the Stockholm Art Academy and in
the following year opened his own office in
Drottningholm, which he now supervises in
partnership with the Danish architect Aage
Rosen void. The determinant factors in E.'s
architecture are, on the one hand, a pronounced
social

consciousness, and,

on the

other, the

extreme climatic conditions of his adopted


homeland. The challenge of the climate led E. to
a specifically Scandinavian regionalism free

from

models. This prompted his

historical

adherence in 1959 to the precepts of Team


(*CIAM). His first important work was the Ski

Hotel, Borgafjll, Lapland (1948-50), in which


the roof grows out of the

ground

under
one with the
ground below. Further examples of this cli-

snow

the winter

the building

is

so that

at

from the other by a


green belt and ideally combined with the natural
conditions of the site. E. also realized buildings
for the University of Turku (1952-6).
GHa
quarters are separated one

Solla, Pentti,

arkkitehturia,

Hel-

Expressionism. Expressionist architects, like


Expressionist painters, had no cultural groupings, with unified programmes and activities,
and most architects who came within the ambit
of Expressionism did so only for a short period
of their development, although this often
proved to be the zenith of their artistic careers.
In the work of the best of them, the most varied
outlooks and artistic influences must be recognized.
It
was principally a German

phenomenon.
In ^Germany, during

matically inspired architecture are the paper

prior to

factory at Fors (19503), the housing estates in


Kiruna (196 12) and Svappavara (1963), as well

consisted of men

new town on Resolute Bay

Aarne Ervi

sinki 1970.

the years immediately

1914, the architectural avant garde

who owed

*Art Nouveau, with

from the

its

their allegiance to

considerable inheri-

in

*Canada,

tance

was

to receive

picturesqueness and a taste for organic forms,

the greatest international acclaim for his plan-

and hence we shall readily perceive the numerous connecting links with avant-garde German Expressionist movements such as Die
Brcke and Der Blaue Reiter. In this context one
thinks of the work of Otto Eckmann, Bernhard
Pankok, Hermann Obrist, August *Endell,
Joseph Maria *01brich, who played a key role
at this period with his activities at Darmstadt,
and above all of Richard *Riemerschmid with
his Hellerau factory (1910) and Henry *van de
Velde, for their direct influence on the architects of Expressionism.
It was Peter *Behrens who achieved the
transition to Expressionism with his buildings
for the AEG in Berlin (1908-13). We are not
concerned here with those elements which

as the

on which work began


ning of the

in 1973. E.

new housing development at Byker

Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1969-80), the form


in close dialogue with
the residents. Drawing on his earlier concepts,
he designed an immense housing scheme, up to
in

of which was developed

eight storeys in height, stretching for over


(f

mile);

it

features

km

few and small window

openings on the outer wall, thus protecting an


inner zone of two-storey terrace houses (some
80% of the programme) from the noise of
traffic on the adjacent expressway.
AM
D Egelius, Mats, 'Ralph Erskine: the humane
architect', Architectural Design (London), 47
(1977), nos. 1 1/12 (special number); Collymore,
Peter, The Architecture of Ralph Erskine, London, Toronto, Sydney and New York 1982.

clearly

historical styles

anticipated

the

and

its

Rationalist

general

style.

Behrens' factories were not designed with the

Ervi, Aarne (Adrian), b. Forssa, Finland 1910,


d. Helsinki 1977. Studied architecture at the
Helsinki Technical Institute, and in 1935 collaborated with *Aalto; from 1938 he had his own
practice. E. drew up the master-plan (1952) for
the garden city of Tapiola, near Helsinki, for
which he also designed and executed a number
of projects (city centre and terraced housing,
195264; swimming hall, 1962; Tapiola Garden
Hotel, 1974). Tapiola is one of the most
successful of the 20th century's new towns, not
least

92

because

its

city centre

and three

residential

kind of utilitarian character associated with the


functional tradition, but rather as the representation of a new power, and they took on an almost
representational character which, as it were,
apologised for their actual function.

Apart from Behrens, only two architects


World War I were clearly distinguishable as Expressionists: Hans *Poelzig and Max
*Berg. The conventional exterior of Berg's
reinforced-concrete Centenary Hall in Breslau
(19 1 2-1 3) gives no indication of the exciting

before

three-dimensional treatment inside the enor-

Expressionism

mous dome 65

m (213

ft)

in diameter.

early reinforced-concrete building

No other

was

as

com-

had as little of the schematic about it


comparison with the rich spatial treatment of
this hall. Of these three architects, however, it
was Poelzig who adhered most consciously to

from this period are clearly


influenced in conception by certain drawings of
sketches dating

pelling or

Oskar Kokoschka, and show

in

building with an aggressive immediacy that

Expressionism. His large industrial complex at


Luban (191 1 12) seems even more unprejudiced in design than the best works of Behrens at
this period. His volumes are built up of asymmetrical blocks,

whose organic unity seems

to

of the
design. Three years previously, Poelzig had
built a large house near Breslau, where the
plastic fusion of all the elements towards a
volumetric continuity recalls some of van de
Velde's villas of the same epoch.
Thanks to the absence of preconceived types,
underline

it

was

the

peculiar

individuality

industrial architecture that offered the

path of

least resistance to

ments

the time. This

at

progressive experi-

may be seen in the great

by Poelzig at Posen (191 1), with


water-tower above and an exhibition hall
below; brick is used here to clad a steel
framework. The bold handling of volumes
makes it one of the most significant German
buildings of its day - the 'total transposition of a
personal idea into a work' which Kirchner
demanded as the basis for art. A series of
structure built
a

Expressionism. Water-tower and exhibition


Posen (now Poznan; 191 1), by Poelzig

hall,

leaves

no

part of

a desire to

unmarked by

surface

its

model

its

author's will.

German culture in the years after World War


I

became progessively more

ter.

The

political in charac-

accompanied Ex-

Socialist revolution

pressionism as a form of protest for at least ten


years, in an ideologically hybrid identification

between

cultural avant-gardism

and progresExamples of this tendency may be


seen in the *Arbeitsrat fr Kunst and the
*Novembergruppe. The latter group attracted
all the foremost representatives of German

sive politics.

artistic life in

the years 191820;

many architects

were members, including *Gropius, *Mendelsohn and Bruno *Taut. Its programme
accorded particular importance to architecture,
regarded as a direct instrument for raising social
standards. The group was dissolved after the
bloody suppression of the Spartacist rising, and

among the progressive


Weimar Republic contributed
the emergence of *Neue Sachlich-

the ensuing disillusion

of the

spirits

decisively to
keit,

which took up the

essential

ideas

of

Expressionism.

The *Bauhaus, too, especially during its


Weimar period, absorbed many features of
Expressionism: the crude pragmatism; the stark
expressive simplicity; a tenacious grip on reality
combined with an ethical sense of human
all accord well with the School's
methodological programme as also with a type
of design that was a frequent outcome of

obligation;

Expressionist theory.

It is

in this light that

some

of the works of the protagonists of Rationalism


designed

at this

period

may be clearly explained

- works carried out in a style with close affinities


to Expressionism. They include *Mies van der
Rohe's project for an office building in the
Friedrichstrae, Berlin (1919)1 aiui llls memorial to

Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht

in Berlin (1926;

demolished),

War Memorial

at

as

Weimar

well as
(1922)

Jropius'

and

his

theatre at Jena (1923)-

Among

the

most important Expressionist

buildings in Germany in the first years after


the war were: in Hamburg the Chilehaus by
Fritz Hger (1923-4), the Ballinhaus In the

brothers Hans and Oskar Gerson (1922 4) and


their Sprinkenhof (1926-8), all influenced by
Fritz

Schumacher;

at

Potsdam, the Einstein


93

Expressionism

Expressionism. Einstein Tower, Potsdam (191721), by Mendelsohn

Tower by Erich Mendelsohn (19 17-21); and in


Frankfurt the administration building of the
Hoechst Dyeworks by Peter Behrens (1920-5).
In the entrance hall of Behrens' building, the
wall-surface features continuous punctuation
by varying textures and materials, which emphasizes a feeling of unrest and instability that
seems to lurk beneath the severe overall design.
The brickwork is in shades which range from
blue to orange and yellow, a palette which
recalls the watercolours of Nolde or Kirchner.
Mendelsohn, on the other hand, was influenced
by the movement Der Blaue Reiter - he knew
Franz Marc and Vassily Kandinsky when a
student at Munich in 1911 - and his Jugendstil
reminiscences derive from

executed between

that

source.

His

and 1920,
display the same stylistic idioms, and that
character of cosmic and stylistic search and lyric
effusion as an act of liberation, and at the same
time the mystical union with the world that is
typical of Der Blaue Reiter's spiritual posture.
His use of sketches to work out his approach to a
theme, without reference to structure, is typisketches,

19 14

cally Expressionist.

Two

other architects deserve special notice:

Hugo *Hring and Otto

*Bartning. For Hr-

ing adherence to the Expressionist aesthetic was

tantamount to

recognition of German Gothic

an anti-illuminist culture that shunned the


laws of geometry and was hence organic in
form (farm buildings, Garkau, 19245). For
as

Expressionism. Office building

in the
Friedrichstrae, Berlin (project, iyiy). by

der

Mies van

Rohe

Expressionism. Chilehaus, Hamburg (1922-3),


by Fritz Hger
94

Banning, however, architecture was growth


and activity, the force of nature itself (Star
church project, 192 1-2). Poelzig's development
between 1919 and 1930 is in two phases. The
Groes Schauspielhaus in Berlin (191 8-19) and
the designs for the Salzburg Festival Theatre

(1920-2) carry the process of dissolving not only

Eyck

Under

the stress of the

menacing

political

situation in the early 1930s, the artistic forces of

the

time tended

to

crystallize

into

groups

centring around the democratic opposition or

The sharpening of this crisis


betokened the end of Expressionism, which by
its intrinsic nature could not tolerate extreme
ideological conditions, although it tended to
promote and educe them. The 'white' architecture of Rationalism became a symbol of the
democratic opposition, while Expressionism
began to acquire pan-Germanic and nationalist
traits, and in its ideological uncertainty was
relegated to a position of cultural insignificance.
The School of ^Amsterdam, too, whose
mouthpiece was the journal Wendingen, disthe Nazi party.

played in its buildings parallels to German


Expressionism, but was more concerned with
the development of low-cost housing estates in

South Amsterdam. The Expressionist character


of these buildings derives from a peculiar ability
to evolve an endless variety of forms, in a threedimensional treatment that often achieves al-

most

VG

fairy-tale effects.

Borsi, Franco,

Architettura

and Knig, Giovanni Klaus,

dell'espressionismo,

[1967]; Sharp, Dennis,

Expressionism,

London

Modern
1966;

gang, Expressionist Architecture,

Genoa

n.d.

Architecture and

Pehnt,

Wolf-

London

1973.

Eyck, Aldo van,

b. Driebergen, Holland, 191 8.


Studied at the Eidgenssische Technische
Hochschule, Zurich. He was a professor at Delft
Technical College (from 1967) and has held

numerous guest
Expressionism. Salzburg Festival Theatre, project
(3rd version, 1921), by Poelzig
Expressionisn. The second Goetheanum,

Dornach (19248), by Rudolf

Steiner

the classic rules of composition but the very

constituent elements of the structure itself to

extraordinary lengths.

A second phase witnesses

the reassertion of volumetric values, with a

more monumental style, as exemby his designs for the IG-Farben offices at
Frankfurt (1928-31) and his broadcasting studios in Berlin.
Rudolf Steiner's second
Goetheanum at Dornach (19248) is linked to
Expressionism by its picturesque treatment, but
occupies a place apart, as it was designed in
accordance with the principles of Anthro-

severer and
plified

posophy.

lectureships in

USA. A member of Team

Europe and the

(*CIAM) from

1953, he came to an adherence to *Structuralism through his studies of the Dogon, the

African tribe of the upper Niger region (Mali),


where he spent the winter of 195960, as well as

through his involvement with the archetype of


the House. As co-editor of the periodical Forum,
he became one of the movement's most influential spokesmen. In the Municipal Orphanage in
Amsterdam, built 1957-60, small and large
forms are developed on a quadratic frame to
produce the effect of a small city. Important
later buildings

Arnhem

are the sculpture pavilion

church in The Hague (1970),


'Aldo van Eyck. En quete d'une

in

(1966) and the Pastoor van Arskerk

GHa
clarte

d'aujourd'hui
L' Architecture
labynnthienne',
(Paris), no. 177. January-February 1975, pp.

14-30.
95

Fahrenkamp, Emil, b. Aachen

1885, d. Dssel-

dorf 1966. Received his training at the


Technische Hochschule in Aachen and at the
Kunstgewerbeschule in Dsseldorf under Wilhelm *Kreis. In 19 19 he became a professor at
the Dsseldorf Kunstakademie, and in 1939 its
director. As architect to the Rheinstahl AG
(Rhine Steel Corporation), 192 1-3, he designed various factory and administration
buildings. In 1927 he won, with A. Denecke, a
first prize in the competition for the League of
Nations Building for Geneva. His most elegant
work is 'Shell House' (today Bewag-Administration Building, Berlin Gas & Electric Co.) on
the

Landwehr

canal in Berlin (1930-2), a steel-

frame building clad in travertine with strip


front, and gently curved step-backs in both plan
and elevation.
FJ
D Hoff, A., Emil Fahrenkamp, Stuttgart 1928.
Fathy, Hassan, b. Alexandria 1900. Practises in
Cairo, where he is head of the Architecture
Faculty of the University. His attempt to
reinvigorate the nearly forgotten traditional

methods of the underdeveloped


of Egypt began early on. He has
employed expensive, imported techniques only
when they have permitted a more effective use
of existing local resources. He thus set an
example, since adopted worldwide for building
in a manner that is in its context at once socially,
ecologically, economically, and not least aesthetically appropriate. His best-known work is
the New Gourna village near Luxor, built of
local building

rural areas

traditional

AM

Gourna: A Tale of Two


Cairo 1969; (expanded edition: Archi-

Chicago and London 1973);


The Arab House in the Urban Setting. Past,

Present, Future,

London

1972; 'Hassan Fathy',

L' Architecture d'aujourd'hui (Paris), no. 195,

Feb-

ruary 1978, pp. 42-78.

Fehling, Hermann,

Received
96

disdains

right-angles

in

developed anew
from the ground up in each commission; the
dynamic of form grows out of the almost
scholastic graphic indications of functions and
their interrelationships.

is

Among

their

most -im-

Planck-Institut for Astrophysics (1975-80) and

entangled

residents

tecture/or the Poor,


,

which

either plan or elevation,

in

bricks;

between the

Fathy, Hassan,

Villages,

architecture,

and the
has not, unfortunately, proved

sun-dried

to be an unqualified success.

Hamburg and established himself as an


independent architect in Berlin in 1945. Since
1953 he has directed his office in collaboration
with Daniel *Gogel, and in their own way they
continue the work of Hans *Scharoun. Their
in

portant buildings are the Max-Plan ck-Institut


fr Bildungsforschung (Educational Research)

countless quarrels

bureaucrats, this

Fehling. European Southern Observatory,


Garching, near Munich (with Daniel Gogel;
1976-80)

b.

Hyeres, France 1909.

his training at the

Baugewerkschule

Berlin-Dahlem (1965-74) and the Max-

in

European Southern Observatory (1976-80)


Garching, near Munich.
FJ
Conrads, U., and Sack, M. (eds.), Fehling +

the
at

Gogel, Berlin and

Brunswick 1981.

of Britain. A national manifestation


organized throughout *Great Britain in 195 1,
at the original suggestion of Sir Gerald Barry, to
mark the centenary of the Great Exhibition of
1 85 1. Its most important architectural expresFestival

sion

was the exhibition

laid

out on the South

Finland

Bank of

the

Architecture:

Thames

Hugh

in London (Director of
*Casson). This was signifi-

cant not only for the opportunity

it

afforded

modern

millions of people to see stimulating

architecture of an almost uniformly high level

provided an occasion
of townscape which
had been developing and clarifying themselves
over the previous years. Eschewing the formal
layouts that had been usual in earlier major
exhibitions, recourse was had to a subtly
planned disposition of buildings and features, an
exploitation of changes of level, progressively
evolving views and the dramatic long-distance
backdrop of the north bank of the Thames to
give an exciting complexity and size that was
of design, but because

it

for displaying the principles

quite extraordinary for so small a

various buildings on the South


the

Royal

Festival Hall

by

site.

Bank

Sir Leslie

Of the

only
*Martin

site

Figini, Luigi, b. Milan 1903. Studied at the


Milan Politecnico. Founding member of

*Gruppo 7 and of the *M.I.A.R. movement.


From 1929 he worked in collaboration with
Gino

*Pollini; their residential

and industrial

buildings for Olivetti at Ivrea (1934-57) figure


among the masterpieces of Italian *Rational-

However, the Church of the Madonna dei


Poveri in Milan (1952-6), built on a basilican
plan, seeks to evoke a mystical atmosphere of
faith by way of its visible concrete frame,
ism.

narrow

slits

lighting the nave, and the desired

appearance of being raw and unfinished (*New


Brutalism), thereby leading away from the
principles they had earlier advocated.
Gentile, Eugenio, Figini e Pollini, Milan

1959; Blasi, Cesare, Figini e Pollini, Milan 1963.

remains.

Notable contributions were made by Ralph


Tubbs (Dome of Discovery), Arcon (Transport), Maxwell *Fry and Jane *Drew, Edward
building),
R. Y.
(administration
*Mills
Goodden and R. D. Russell (Lion and Uni-

H. T. Cadbury-Brown (Land of Britain),


O'Rorke and F. H. K. Henrion (The
Natural Scene and the Country), ^Architects'
Co-Partnership (Minerals of the Land), G.
Grenfell Baines and H. J. Reifenberg (Power
and Production) and Basil *Spence (Sea and

corn),

Brian

Ships).

April 1950; Banham, Mary, and Hillier, Bevis


(eds.), A Tonic for the Nation, London 1976.

Casson, H., 'The 195

Exhibition', JRIBA,

Finland. The origins of modern architecture in


Finland lie in the stylistic revolution that
occurred around the turn of the century. Both
national and international in character, National Romanticism - further encouraged by the
political pressure of neighbouring Russia on
Finnish

autonomy -

influenced

all

the

arts. It

inspired architects also to seek the native and

popular roots of Finnish architecture, which


they felt lay partly in the birthplace of the
Finnish national epic poem, Kalevala, the Karelian border country scoured by Finnish artists

and architects in the 1890s, and partly in the


country's medieval stone churches and castles.

The

resulting so-called Karelian

wooden

archi-

found its best expressions in the Helsinki


area with the Kallela studio house of the painter
Akseli Gallen-Kallela in Ruovesi (1895), the
house of the architect Lars Sonck on Aland (also
1895) and the Hvittrsk studio house near
Helsinki (1903) by the architects Hermann
Gesellius, Armas Lindgren and Eliel *Saarinen.
Sonck, Gesellius, Lindgren and Saarinen were
also the creators of a National Romantic
tecture

Hi
jijBijB

jKSB-:-;

of Britain. The Royal


by Sir Leslie Martin

Festival
(195

1)

Festival Hall

:
:

architectural style using stone; the last three

designed the Finnish Pavilion at the Paris


Exposition Universelle of 1900, which proved
to be especially important symbolically as an
intellectual focal point. In the Pohjola Insurance Company Building (1899-1901) and the
Finnish National Museum (1904-10) in Helsinki, both likewise by Gesellius, Lindgren and
Saarinen, National Romantic motifs were
97

Finland

manifested chiefly in details, while the overall


composition drew on international movements, and especially on H. H. Richardson's
style. Richardson's neo-Romanesque formal
language also plays a considerable role in Tampere Cathedral (1902-7) and the Telephone
Company Building in Helsinki (1905) by Lars
Sonck.
Further international influence was exerted
by England and by Vienna. The ideas of the
English *Arts and Crafts reform movement
were adopted, including a new concept of
domestic life which permitted a much looser
arrangement of internal spaces. Typical examples are the villas

of the

and Saarinen,

well

trio Gesellius,

Lindgren

Sonck's Eira Hospital


(1905). The influence of early Viennese modernism is especially evident in the Takaharju
Sanatorium (1903) by Onni Tarjanne, as well as
the Suvilahti

and

as

as

Power Plant in

in the Villa Ensi (191

Helsinki (1908-13)

both by Selim A.

1),

Lindqvist, the latter building being strongly

reminscent of *Hoffmann's Palais Stoclet

in

Brussels.

In 1904, as a response to the competition for


Helsinki Central Station, Sigurd Frosterus and

Gustaf Strengeil published


phlet

which

in

they

polemical

called

for

an

paminter-

national approach and for rationalist design


principles.

About

this

mantic vocabulary

time the National Roits hold on


Finnish

lost

architecture, to be replaced

monumentality often with


rical

by an archaicizing
strongly symmet-

emphasis, a reflection of the country's

economic prosperity

World War

I.

the

period

Characteristic

works

in

before
ot

this

period are the Hypotheque Bank (1908) and the


Stock Exchange (191 1) in Helsinki, both by
as well as the buildings of the Suomi
and Kaleva (191 3) Insurance Companies
in Helsinki by Lindgren. A more modern
tendency can be detected in the Wuorio
Company Building in Helsinki ( 1 908) by Gesellius, and especially in Eliel Saarinen's Helsinki

Sonck,
(191

1)

Central

Station

(1904,

1910-14).

Saarinen's

- that for Munkkiniemi-Haaga (1910-15) and the general plan


large city planning projects
for Greater Helsinki (19 17-1

also anticipated

developments in their very modern


approach to considerations of structure, traffic
circulation and demography. World War and
the subsequent period of economic stagnation
hindered, however, the realization of these
grand schemes, and in 1923 and now unem-

future

98

Finland. Tampere Cathedral (1902-7) by Lars

Sonck
Finland. Suvilahti Power Plant, Helsinki
(1908-13), by Selim A. Lindqvist

ployed Saarinen emigrated to the *USA, where


he had already won second prize in the Chicago
Tribune Tower competition.
A massive *nco-classicism was typical of
Finnish architecture of the 1920s; this trend
reflected, on one hand, the tight economic
conditions and, on the other hand, increased
Scandinavian influence, especially that of the
Swede Gunnar *Asplund. Public housing was
the dominant concern until the new economic

Finland

upswing

the end of the decade; the

most
were Kpyl Garden City in
Helsinki (1920-5) by Martti Vlikangas, as well
as Gunnar Taucher's designs for blocks of flats
in Helsinki (1926). The most important public
buildings of the time were *Aalto's church in
at

successful projects

Muurame

(1927), Hilding Ekelund's Art

Finland. Helsinki Central Station (1910 14), by


Eliel

Saarinen

Finland. Olympic Stadium. Helsinki (194052),


by Lindegren and Jntti

Mu-

Helsinki (1928), Erik *Bryggman's


Hospits Betel Hotel in Turku (1927-9), and
especially the monumental Parliament Build-

seum

in

ing in Helsinki (1924-31) by Johan

Sigfrid

Siren.

Modernism began
1928.

As the leading

to penetrate Finland in
architects

of the time,

Bryggman, P. E. Blomstedt and Ekelund


had all worked already in a reductivist neoclassical style; they thus made the transfer to a
modernist camp with little difficulty. Even
public opinion offered no noteworthy resistance to the new style. Because of the economic
Aalto,

however, the accent of Finnish modernism - unlike the situation on the Continent
position,

and

Sweden, where prototypes were espesought by Finnish architects was directed not so much to housing, but rather was
regarded, more than anywhere else, as a style for
public buildings, which underlined the modernity of the young Republic.
Alvar Aalto immediately assumed the leading position among the modernists; his Sanatorium in Paimio (1928-33) and Municipal Libin

cially

99

Finland
rary in Viipuri ( 1927-3 5;
classic

now in the USSR) are

monuments of the Modern Movement.

Other important buildings included: Erkki


Huttunen's Mills in Viipuri (193 1, destroyed in
II) and church in Nakkila (1937);

World War

P.E.Blomstedt'sPohjanhoviHotel,Rovaniemi
(1935, destroyed in World War II); and Yrj
Lindegren and Toivojntti's Olympic Stadium
in Helsinki (194052). Aalto, who had from the
outset been critical of the mechanistic thinking
of the Modern Movement, developed a personal form of expression around the mid- 1930s
which led him towards *organic architecture.
Great curved forms were already introduced in
the auditorium ceiling of the Viipuri library as
well as in the great exhibition wall of the Finnish
Pavilion at the New York World's Fair of 1939.
In the Cellulose Factory

complex

at

Sunila

(19359) he employed red brick for the first


time, while in the accompanying workers'

housing estate the housing groups blended


harmoniously with the sloping terrain. The
Finnish Pavilion at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1937 heralded the beginning of a
predominance of wood as a building material,
and the Villa Mairea near Noormarkku (19379) represents a synthesis of all these themes.
Psychological and regionalist factors were
introduced in his work at the end of the 1930s,
and these were to expand considerably the
vocabulary of modern architecture. A parallel
line of development, which corresponded
roughly to Swedish neo-empiricism, was chiefly represented by Bryggman and the Neoromanticism of the 1940s. There was a cultural
and philosophical basis for the former, while in
the case of the latter the paucity of available
building materials also contributed to a revival

of traditional methods.
At the beginning of the 1950s there was a
return to the modernist tradition, the lead being
taken by Viljo *Revell in particular; an examthe industrial centre in Helsinki (1952) by
Revell and Keijo Petj. On the other hand,

ple

is

Aalto introduced in the Senior Students' Dormitory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge (1947-8) his 'red' period
(so called for the predominant use of red brick),
of which the masterpieces were the Town Hall
in Syntsalo (1949-52) and the administration
building of the National Pensions Institution in
Helsinki (1948-56). At the same time both Aulis
Blomstedt and Kaija and Heikki *Siren created
sensitively conceived housing; the Sirens also

Finland. National Pensions Institution, Helsinki


(1948-50), by Aalto

Otaniemi (1957),
Aarne *Ervi
Revell, and like Revell was

realized notably the chapel in

imbued with
came closest

a pantheistic spirit.

to

especially interested in industrial building (Por-

thania Institute at the University of Helsinki,


1957)-

The ideal experimental field for Finnish town


planning in the post-war years was Tapiola
Garden City, where construction began in
1953. Tapiola is the only community in which
the structural principles of Saarinen's Greater

Helsinki Plan of 1917-18 have been realized. As

town planning had not advanced in


terms beyond the workers' housing at

Finnish
social

Olympic Village in Helsinki


by Hilding Ekelund and Martti Vlikangas, Tapiola was an important testing
ground. At the same time it is the most
Sunila and the
(1940)

representative application in Finland of the

'Wooded City' ideal, where the town is embedded in natural surroundings. The urban milieu
of Tapiola is to a certain degree heterogeneous;
but careful environmental planning eliminated
this shortcoming to a large extent. The centre of
Tapiola (195469) by Ervi is an important

Finland

house projects, such

as the

Modular System

(1970-4) by Kristian Gullichsen and Juhani


Pallasmaa achieved this goal, they were unable
to

make an impact on

relied

on

its

own

a building industry that


crude prefabrication systems.

which were maniof new technologies can be seen as


successful examples of this constructivism, noSeveral industrial buildings

festations

tably the

Marimekko

factory (1972)

Kairamo and Reijo Lahtinen, but on

by Erkki
whole

the

the architectural achievements of this construc-

One of the principal


was no doubt the alien nature of
industrialized building methods in the context
tivist

period were few.

reasons

of Finnish architectural tradition.

*Post-Modernism
Finland. Municipal Theatre, Helsinki (1964-7), by

Timo

Penttil

which had an influence on architectural practice. Post-Modernism's

of the town-planning principles of


*Le Corbusier; later additions have, however,
realization

adversely affected

Towards

the

its

profile

own

characteristic *historicism

and

its

individualistic formal experiments are hardly

represented

in

Finland,

although

*Pietil's

buildings might be cited in this context. Char-

expressive character.

end of the 1950s the

instigated a lively archi-

tectural debate in Finland,

of

acteristic

instead

is

striving

to enrich the

Finnish architecture began to diversify. Aalto

prosaic and technological nature of modernism

entered his white 'Baroque' period, Revell

through a partial return to manual production


and by the use of a wider range of materials and
forms. Examples of this 'softened' modernism
are the churches by Juha Leivisk. On the other
hand, noteworthy examples of the application
of the most recent technology are to be found in
the Training Centre for the Metalworkers'

embraced geometric formalism, spiritually related to *Niemeyer's architecture; while Blomstedt remained the most prominent adherent to
modernist *Rationalism. Aarno Ruusuvuori,
Pekka Pitknen and Osmo Lappo were the
principal upholders of the modernist legacy in

the

1960s.

'school'

in

Although Aalto never created


Finland, his spirit

present in the

works of Timo

pal Theatre in Helsinki,

is

nevertheless

Penttil (Munici-

1964-7) and

Reima

*Pietil

(Kaleva Church in Tampere,

Pietil's

individualist solutions fired a lively

1966;
Dipoli Students' Residence in Otaniemi, 1967).

between Pietil himself and the


younger generation who had studied under
Blomstedt. This touched on - among other
things- the dispute which flared up in the 1960s
between informal and constructive art. Out of
this dispute developed a sort of constructivism
in the 1970s; as the dominant strain in Finnish
architecture, its goal was the creation of an
anonymous and flexible architecture. It was
hoped to resolve the social problems of the day,
which had been aggravated by the trend towards urbanization prevalent in the 1960s. This
architectural aesthetic was based on the beauty
of construction and materials and on the harmony of proportions, as well as on the careful
handling of details. Although several small
discussion

Finland. Training Centre for the Metalworkers'


Union, Teisko (1976), by Pekka Helin and Tuomo
Siitonen

Finsterlin

Finsterlin. Villa on the lake (project, 19 18)

architecture,

biomorphic form

fantasies, in line

and Karina Lfstrm

with Darwin's evolutionary teachings, harbingers of a new great cultural level which would
supersede
the
contemporary
'geometric
epoch'. As a theoretician and dreamer F. was
spared the conflicts with reality which his own
expressionistic departures stimulated within the
*Rationalist camp. After 1922 he was little
concerned with architecture. Moving to Stuttgart in 1926, he subsequently worked principally as a painter and writer.
FJ

Union

Weltarchitektur

Finland. Valio Dairy

Company

building, Helsinki (1979),

administration

by Matti K. Mkinen

Hermann,

Finsterlin,

Genesis

der

Deszendenz

der

'Die

Teisko (1976), by Pekka Helin and


Tuomo Siitonen, as well as in the administration building for the Valio Dairy Company in
Helsinki (1979), by Matti K. Mkinen and
Kaarina Lfstrm.
KM

seiner Idee,

Wickberg, Nils Erik, Byggnadskonsti FinStockholm 1959; Becker, Hans J., and
Schlote, Wolfram, Neuer Wohnbau in Finnland,
Stuttgart 1964; Suhonen, Pekka, Uuta suomalaista arkkitehtuuria, Helsinki
1967; Tempel,
Egon, Finnish Architecture Today, Helsinki 1968;
Richards, J. M., 800 Years of Finnish Architecture,
Newton Abbot 1978; Suhonen, Pekka (ed.),
Finnish architects and their work since 1949,

and Weidner, H.

land,

Architekturen. 191724, Stuttgart n.d.

Helsinki 1980.

Werkbund. His work is characterized by a


personal combination of classicist and regional-

in

Finsterlin,

Hermann,

Stuttgart 1973.

He first

b. Munich 1887, d.
studied medicine, phys-

and chemistry, and then philosophy and


He participated in the 'Exhibition of
unknown architects' arranged by *Gropius in
Berlin in 19 19, was a member of the *Arbeitsrat
fur Kunst and of Die ^Glserne Kette. Close to

ics

painting.

the theosophists, he designed unreal sculptural

Dome

oder

die

als Stilbeispiel', Frhlicht,

1922, pp. 73
Finsterlin.

ff.;

Idea

no.

Borsi, Franco (ed.),


dell'architettura.

3,

spring

Hermann

Architektur

in

Florence 1969; Lienemann, Knut,


P.

C, Hermann

Finsterlin.

Fischer, Theodor, b. Schweinfurt 1862, d.


Munich 1938. Collaborated with Paul Wallot
on the Reichstag Building, Berlin. He was
active as teacher

Munich and

and architect

elsewhere, and was

in
a

Stuttgart,

signatory of

the foundation manifesto of the ^Deutscher

formal elements, controlled restraint in


decoration and the use of new building materials, such as reinforced concrete. He designed the
Pfullinger Hallen in Pfullingen (1904-7), the
ist

Evangelical Garrison

numerous

offices,

Church

schools and

at

Ulm

(191

1),

museums.

Karlinger, Hans, Theodor Fischer. Fin deut-

scher Baumeister,

Munich

1932; Pfistcr, Rudolf,

Foster

Theodor Fischer. Leben und Wirken eines deutschen


Baumeister,

Munich

1968.

Lucius, and Frderer, Walter Maria, Bauen ein


Prozess,

Teufen 1968; Walter Maria

Frderer,

Architektur und Skulptur, Neuchtel 1975.

Frderer, Walter Maria, b. Laufen-Uhwiesen


(Canton Zurich) 1928. After working as a
sculptor, he became an apprentice to the Basle
architect Hermann Baur, 1954-6. Since 1966 he
has held a professorship in the discipline 'Art in

Construction'

the Staatliche

at

Akademie der

in Karlsruhe. As a planner F.
proponent of the attempt to achieve

bildenden Knste
is

functionally indeterminant spaces

which per-

mit the accommodation of a variety of activities. In formal terms, his buildings are closest to
*New Brutalism in their use of emphatic
compositional elements and in the cubistic,
sculptural development of the building mass as
a response to the variegated internal spatial
articulation. His architectural career began with
the Hochschule fr Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften in St Gallen (1957-63, with Rolf

Georg

Otto

sequently

church

his

and

Hans

Zwimpfer).

work focused
such

design,

as

St

Subon

principally

Nicholas

in

Heremence, Canton Wallis (1963-71), the


Church of the Holy Cross in Chur (1963-9) and

Norman, b. Manchester 1935. After


study at the University of Manchester and at
Yale University, he founded, in collaboration
Foster,

with his wife Wendy and Su and Richard


*Rogers, the office 'Team 4' in London, which
since 1967 has practised under the name of
Foster Associates. This includes eight partners in
addition to Norman and Wendy Foster (Loren
Butt, Chubby S. Chhabra, Spencer de Gray,
Roy Fleetwood, Birkin Haward, James Meiler,
Graham Phillips and Mark Robertson). Along
with his early partner Rogers, F. is one of the
most important representatives of an architecture based on modern technology ('High
Tech'). The dominating building type in his

work

is

whose
most differentiated
*Mies van der Rohe's

the great neutral space envelope,

interior can adjust to the

functions. In contrast to
essential classicism, F.

does not strive to elevate

mundane functional requirements into


commemorative monuments; his overall forms
and details refer much more consciously to the
the

the St Konrad multi-purpose centre, Schaffhausen (1968-71). In the 1970s urban renewal
schemes came to the fore, and he has recently
revived his interest in sculpture.
AM

world of machinery. Their beauty

of Fred Olsen Lines in London


of the Willis Faber &
Dumas insurance company in Ipswich (1975),
whose curved glass facade harmonizes with the
urban environment, the Sainsbury Centre for

Frderer, Walter Maria, Kirchenbauten von

heute fr morgen?

Wrzburg

1964; Burckhardt,

Foster Associates. Willis, Faber & Dumas


administration building, Ipswich (1975)

arises

from

precise engineering calculations, as in aircraft or


industrial design.

works

Among

his

most important
and adminis-

are the passenger terminal

tration building

(1971), the headquarters

103

France

The

contradictions inherent in

Viollet-le-

Duc's doctrines were made manifest

Foster Associates. Sainsbury Centre for Visual

Norwich

Arts,

(1978)

Visual Arts at the University of East Anglia,

near

Norwich

as

(1978),

well

as

the head-

ing

Hongkong and Shanghai BankCorporation in Hong Kong.


AM

'Foster

quarters of the

Associates',

Architectural

in

Design

(London), vol. 47 (1977), nos. 9/10, pp. 614-25;


London 1979; 'Recent Works
of Foster Associates', Architecture and Urbanism
(Tokyo), February 1981, pp. 43-112.
Foster Associates,

adherence to historic styles.


Despite the contributions of theorists such as
Auguste Choisy. whose analyses introduced a
rational ordering of all architectural history
(1899), and Julien Guadet, whose four-volume
Elements

et theorie

de

I'

architecture

(1902-4)

In a

Viollet-le-Duc

in

1863-4.

Away from

the

of the students, this theorist


persisted in his efforts to confront new technical
possibilities and historical lessons, notably in the
parti pris of 'absolute sincerity' evoked in his
hostile outcries

influential Entretiens sur

I'

architecture (Discourses

on Architecture, 1863 and


104

1872).

is

the

most complete expression of the compositional


doctrines of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, it was in
fact reinforced concrete which was, at this very

moment,

to provide the basis for

architecture.

The

new

ideas in

technical innovations of con-

Hennebique, who had


developed earlier contributions by men such as
Joseph Monier, were soon carried further in the
work of architects like Anatole de *Baudot. His
church of Saint-Jean-de-Montmartre in Paris
(1 894-1902) and his projects for public buildings extended the spatial and technical possibihtractors such as Francois

country which saw the beginnings


ot the Industrial Revolution several decades
later than in England, the use of iron and glass in
building further spurred efforts towards a
classification of types and systems in architecture, a process already initiated by such methodical thinkers as Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand
and Jean-Baptiste Rondelet at the dawn of the
19th century. It was the combination of this
classifying approach and newly learned lessons
based on recent archaeological excavations in
Greece carried out in accordance with newguiding principles - great interest was shown in
polychromy and antique construction which
opened the way for works such as those of Henri
Labrouste, and which led to a crisis in the *Ecole
des Beaux-Arts. The Ecole was especially
shaken by the reform efforts which coincided
w ith the short-lived period of teaching by

France.

the

temporary constructions built for the Expositions Universelles of 1878, 1889 and 1900. held
in Paris; in these the decorative envelopes of the
buildings were ever more in open contradiction
with their metal skeletons. This state of conflict
was also echoed in the domestic architecture
which followed the great building boom under
Haussmann. Although French architects rarely
attained the acuity of a *Horta in Belgium or an
Otto *Wagner in Austria, in the buildings of
*Guimard such as the Castel Beranger in Paris
(18978) or in the works of the Ecole de Nancy
(*Sauvage) a typological renewal was combined with a new aesthetic freed from strict

France. Bibliotheque Sainte-Geneviev


(184350), by Henri Labrouste.

Pans

France

France. Cite Industrielle (project, 190 1-4) by


Garnier: harbour area and residential quarter
ties of this new material well beyond the
suggestions of Viollet-le-Duc. At the same time

these researches received a

hands

of engineers,

new impetus

including

in the

*Freyssinet,

whose works became emblematic of concrete's


role in
as

modern architecture, and architects such


whose apartment house in the Rue

*Perret,

Franklin

and garage in the Rue de


Ponthieu (1906), Paris, both had concrete
frames. It was, however, on an entirely different
plane that young architects were to break with
(1903)

the educational establishment.

Unlike in *Germany, where the border area


between architecture and the decorative arts
provided an experimental testing ground for
new ideas, the graducates of the Ecole des

Beaux-Arts turned to urbanism where they


sought to apply the techniques of monumental
composition taught by Guadet. The generation
which succeeded Tony *Garnier in Rome had
the same intense curiosity for urban organization. This was true in the case of Leonjaussely,
who won the 1904 competition for the extension of Barcelona, and of Henry Prost who won
second prize in the 1910 competition for the
replanning of the former ring of fortifications in
Antwerp. Their efforts to define the governing
principles of the replanning and expansion of
large cities complemented those of Alfred
Agache and especially the metropolitan visions
of Eugene Henard's Etudes sur les transformations
de Paris (1903-9), in which he sought to
reconcile the new traffic requirements with the
urban legacy of Haussmann's major schemes. It
was at such institutions as the Musee Social,
which gave birth in 19 13 to the Societe
Francaise des Architectes Urbanistes, that these
architects first

the

working

met

the partisans of housing for

classes,

efforts to create a

who were

to join in their

convincing approach to urban

planning.
In Paris, Henri *Sauvage's 'habitations bon
marche hygieniques' in the Rue de Tretaigne
(1903) and the housing which A. Augustin-Rey

Rue de Prague as a result of the


important competition organized in 1905 by
the Rothschild Foundation reflect the often

built in the

105

France

between the new social poliand a modern architecture still somewhat


unsure of itself. At the same time the Associdifficult relations

the absence of a

cies

war

ation Francaise des Cites-Jardins,

created in

1903 by Georges Benoit-Levy, achieved little


else besides a few modest suburban schemes. In
addition to novel public buildings such as the
Central Telephone Office in the Rue Bergere

by Francois Le Cceur (1912) and the swimming


pool on the Butte-aux-Cailles by Louis Bonnier
(1912-24), the features of the new urban architecture of Paris were clarified before 19 14 with
Sauvage's apartment building in the Rue Vavin
(1912) and with the Theatre des ChampsElysees (1911-13), where Perret snatched
Henry *van de Velde's commission on the basis
of his dual role as architect and contractor.
The effects of World War I were so rapidly
felt that *Le Corbusier, who had only recently
arrived in Paris, seized the opportunity offered
by a still hypothetical reconstruction to propose, beginning in 1914 15, his 'Dom-ino'
housing prototypes. The 'Reconstructed City'
exhibition in 1916 marked the launching of a
regionalist

architecture

which predominated

during the entire inter-war period, appearing


notably in the garden cities such as those at
Tergnier, Longueau, Lille and Rheims, and on
the outskirts of Paris, as at Draincy or Stains.
With these garden cities the hygienic ideals of
the pre-war years, which had won the political
support of the Conseil General de la Seine in the
person of the socialist mayor of Suresnes, Henri
Sellier, were continually discussed and kept
alive until, having received state funding for the
construction of housing under the Loi Loucheur of 1928, these ideas encountered the
themes of modernism.
The principles of the new architecture were
formed by the integration of the structural
researches launched by *Perret and the explorations of form which set out to establish the new
aesthetic 'apres le cubisme', to

borrow

the

title

of the manifesto published by Le Corbusier and


Aniedee Ozenfant in 1918. This architecture
was disseminated through the pages of the
periodical L' Esprit nouveau ('The

founded in 1920,
foreign

work

New

Spirit'),

well as in juxtaposition with


in the plates of Jean Badovici's
as

journal L' Architecture vivante,

first

published in

At the 1925 Exposition Internationale des


Arts Decoratifs et Industrieis Modernes in Paris
- where the presence of the Soviet Union's
spectacular pavilion should not make one forget
1923.

106

mistrust

Germany

still

subject to post-

the only manifestos of a

new

approach were Le Corbusier's


Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau and *MalletStevens' Pavillon du Tourisme. Their radiance
was reflected elsewhere mainly in the private
houses by these same two architects and by
Andre *Lurcat and Gabriel Guevrekian, to
which should be added the Maison de Verre in
Paris by Pierre *Chareau and Bernard Bijvoet
(1928-32) and the Villa at Roquebrune (19279) by Eileen Bray and Jean Badovici.
Complexes of public housing designed by
modernist architects were in fact the exception.
At the Cite du Champ des Oiseaux at Bagneux
(1932) and the Cite de la Muette at Drancy
(1934) Eugene *Beaudouin and Marcel Lods
made extensive use of prefabrication. Morice
Leroux's proposal for a 'skyscraper' zone at
Villeurbanne, at the gates of Lyons, where
Tony *Garnier realized the Quartier des EtatsUnis (192435), is more monumental even if
bearing the stamp of a modernist idiom. It was
especially the rise of tourism in the south of
France which spurred the wide diffusion of
modernist architecture, from Lurcat's Hotel
Nord-Sud at Calvi (1930) to Chareau's Golf
Club at Beauvallon (1927), or especially to
Georges-Henri Pingusson's Hotel Latitude 43 at
Saint-Tropez (1933). The most important,
unfettered opportunities were to be found,
architectural

France. Pavillon de
by Le Corbusier

l'Esprit

Nouveau,

Paris (1925),

France

France. Karl-Marx School, Villejuif (193 1-3), by


Lurcat

however,

in

municipal patronage, the only

where building activity was unaffected


by the economic crisis. This margin of freedom
was exploited by Lurcat in his Karl-Marx
School at Villejuif (193 1-3) and especially by
Beaudouin and Lods in the Open Air School at
Suresnes (1932-5) and the Maison du Peuple at
Clichy (1937-9), in which Jean *Prouve
collaborated. However, as the architectural
debate which was occasioned by the Exposition
sector

Universelle of 1937 demonstrated, the climate


in

France was more susceptible to compromise

The

than to conflict in forms or doctrines.

appearance

in the

1930s of a 'third way' between

and modernism, marked by the


launching
of the journal
L' Architecture
classicism

d'aujourd'hui,

is

particularly

evident

in

the

France. Maison du Peuple, Clichy (1937-9), by


Beaudouin, Lods and Prouve

France. Residential buildings on the Place de


l'Htel de Ville, Le Havre (begun 1947), by Perret

architecture of Michel Roux-Spitz.

The

preparations for post-war reconstruc-

begun by the Vichy government (1940-4)


resulted in a triumph, as clear as it was shortlived, for a more sober form of modernism and
tion

especially for regionalism. After the war,


ever, the decisive factor

tion

was the

of the authoritarian

how-

direct interven-

state in

urbanism and

The reconstructions of
Le Havre by Perret, of Maubeuge by Lurcat, of
Sotteville-les-Rouen by Lods, by Pingusson in
architectural patronage.

and Le Corbusier's wanderings


from La Rochelle-Pallice to Saint-Die and
from Marseilles to Strasbourg - all these are
examples of that centralized state patronage
the Saarland,

107

France

which fostered the widest dispersal of prototypes of functionalist buildings and urban
forms. As a result of these immense undertakings, which were continued from the mid1950s in the 'Grands Ensembles' and the 'Zones
Urbaniser en Priorite', industrialized construction reached a level in France unparalleled

elsewhere. Yet the success of

ment

Modern Move-

architects did not in practice

open the

doors of the *Ecole des Beaux-Arts to new


ideas. This deficiency in architectural education,

which was made worse by the

paralysis

of

the architectural press, accounts for the feeble

of the following generations to develop


was rather in the open
fields of opportunity in Tunisia, Morocco and
Algeria that *Zehrfuss, Michel Ecochard,
Pierre-Andre Emery, Roland Simounet, Louis
Miquel and Georges *Candilis set about renewing modernist orthodoxy. Candilis was a leading light in France of Team X born of the crisis
within *CIAM - whose ideas were developed
by him, together with Alexis *Josic and Shadrach *Woods, in the new town project for
Toulouse le Mirail (1962, 1964-77). In such
success

a doctrinal debate. It

France. Notre-Dame-du-Haut,
4), by Le Corbusier

108

Ronchamp

(1950

individual approaches as those of Jean Dubuisson, Andre Wogenscky, Edouard Albert,

Raymond Lopez

or Emile *Aillaud, formal

researches and curiosity in technology exist side

by

side without ever being integrated. Le


Corbusier continued his series of Unites
d'habitation and forged an influential change in
style with Notre-Dame-du-Haut at Ronchamp

(1950-4) and Sainte-Marie-de-la-Tourette at


Eveux-sur-1'Arbresle (1957-60), while Jean

Prouve pursued

his

researches into a light-

metal architecture, and Paul Bossard explored


industrialization in an entirely personal manner
at

Creteil (195960, 1961-2).


In

the

1960s,

the urban

Utopias of Paul

Maymont and Yona ^Friedman bore witness to


an escapist desire entirely foreign to the more
prosaic adventures of the generation involved
in the 'multi-disciplinary teams' such as the
Atelier de Montrouge (Pierre Riboulet, G.
Thurnauer, Jean-Louis Veret and Jean Renaudie) or the Atelier d'Urbanisme et Architecture (A. U.A.; Paul Chemetov, Maria Deroche,

Georges Loiseau, Jean Perrottet, Jean Tribel,


Valentin Fabre, Jacques Allegret). These teams
produced the finest buildings of French *New
Brutalism for municipal clients in the suburbs of
Paris. The launching of the Villes nouvelles in

France

France.

Town

centre, Ivry (1970-8),

France. Housing development


(1980) by Paul Chemetov

by Jean

Renaudie

marked the re-animawhich had been

the Paris region in 1965

tion ofthat state building policy

inaugurated earlier in
with notably mediocre

a series

of Prefectures,

results. It

is

nonetheless

here that one must seek the anchoring point of


the

new themes which emerged from

the

crisis

of 1968.

The

real

turning point in the debate and in


culture in general was indeed

architectural

marked by

crisis

in

education and in the

architectural profession; the principal conse-

was the reconstitution of the


fundamentals of training and practice and a greater receptiveness in France to the
international architectural debate. The works of
the A. U.A. - from the urban plan for the
satellite town of Grenoble (1968) to the housing
built in the Paris region - and Jean Renaudie's
work at Ivry (19708) coincided with new
efforts on the part of the state and numerous
architects to create cities formed of the simple
multiplication of industrialized cells. These
'innovative' schemes were soon widely applied
in the Villes nouvelles. Towards the mid-1970s,

quence of

this

intellectual

much influenced by
amongst such architects as Bernard
Huet or Antoine Grumbach, who advocated an
architecture based on urban values. At the same
time the debate over industrialization was

this

spurred a reaction,

Italian ideas,

relaunched

with the propositions of Alain


and Bernard Hamburger, while the
cunning and patience of Paul Chemetov succeeded in by-passing some of the closed systems
which dominated the housing market.
Sarfati

at

Saint-Ouen

Despite the success of Renzo *Piano and


Richard *Rogers in the competition for the
Centre National d'Art et de Culture Georges
Pompidou in Paris (19717), the role of foreign
architects in France remained marginal, as it had
done throughout the century, if one excepts
several isolated works such as those of Adolf
*Loos (Tzara House, Paris, 1926), Theo van
*Doesburg (Van Doesburg House, MeudonVal-Fleury, 1929-30), Alvar *Aalto (Maison
Carre, Bazoches-sur-Guyonne, 19569), Marcel *Breuer and Pier Luigi *Nervi (UNESCO

Headquarters, Paris, 1953-8), or Josep Lluis


Saint-Paul-de*Sert
(Fondation Maeght,
Vence, 1959-64).
architectural
politics
provided
While
foreigners with few openings - the succes de
scandale of Ricardo *Bofill remains a spectacu-

exception - it has, under the cultural pressure


of the 1970s, given rise to a new generation
notably Henri Ciriani, Henri Guadin, Yves
Lion and Christian de Portzamparc - who,
lar

despite stylistic divergences,

share the

same

concern for maintaining cultural values and an


interest in the existing urban fabric into which
an individual building is to be inserted.
JLC
D Giedion, Sigfried, Bauen in Frankreich. Eisen
und Eisenbeton, Leipzig 1929; Ginsburger, Roger, Frankreich, Vienna 1930; Dormoy, Marie,
L' Architecture francaise, Paris 1938; 'La Contribution francaise revolution de l'architecture',
L' Architecture d'aujourd'hui (Paris), nos. 46/47,

1953; Piccinato, Giorgio, L'architettura contemin Francia, Bologna 1965; Besset, Mau-

poranea

109

Freyssinet

rice,

Neue

franzsische

Norma,

1967; Evenson,

Architektur,
Paris.

Stuttgart

Century of

Change, 1878-IQ78, Berkeley, Cal. 1979; Architectures en France.

hibition

Modernite, post-modernite (ex-

catalogue),

Marcel

(ed.),

La

urbaine

et crise

de

d'Aujourd'hui

Paris

198 1;

Roncaylo,

Ville d'Aujourd'hui. Croissance


la cite,

Paris 1983; Architecture

(ed.),

Guide

d' Architecture

en

France, 1945-1983, Paris 1983.

Freyssinet, Eugene, b. Objat, Correze, 1879,


Saint-Martin-Vesubie,
Alpes-Maritimes,
d.
1962. Pursuing his technical studies, F. graduated from both the Ecole Polytechnique and the
Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees in Paris, where
Charles Rabut, one of the pioneers in the use of
reinforced concrete,

new

first

directed his attention

He worked

grouped with the other reinforced-concrete


designers: *Maillart, *Nervi, and *Torroja. He
himself claimed as the basis of his work a
perception of facts and an intuition controlled
by experience which was enhanced by a sense of
responsibility and daring.
Already in his early bridges of the Moulins
period (bridges over the Allier near Le Veurdre
and near Boutiron) he had begun to move away
from conventional techniques; although still
built of compressed concrete, the bridges were
boldly conceived and executed.
Later,

F.

built

several reinforced-concrete

Bouches-du-Rhone
Avord, Cher (19 16). The exper-

aircraft hangars, as at Istres,

(19 14)

and

at

ience gained there prepared


dirigible hangars built at

him

for the

two

Orly (191624, de-

public administration in Moulins, 1907-13, and

stroyed 1944). Here he used reinforced-concrete arches - only 9 cm (3^ in.) thick - with a

from 191 8

profile

to this

building technique.

to 1928

in

was Director of the Societe


which city

des Entreprises Limousin in Paris, in

determined by the

he opened his own engineering office in 1928.


F. was one of the most important pioneering
advocates of pre-stressed concrete. The fact that
this process requires

smaller cross-sectional sur-

of the spanning cables


required in loosely-stretched reinforcedconcrete construction led - in both bridges and

faces for the installation

than

and thus

/A

more economic construc-

and elegant forms


of modern engineering constructions. As both
constructor and designer, F. relied much more
on his own instinct than on mathematical
calculations. In this regard he should be
tions

is

buildings to lighter,

stress

ft

to the slender

Freyssinet. Airship hangar

at

Ij

Orly (1916-24)

Freyssinet. Bridge near Plougastel (1925-30)

lines

catenary arch. These were joined in

sSSSKSF

ot

regular

Fuller

corrugated pattern to lend them longitudinal


rigidity. Thus the supporting construction and
the form-giving infill created an architectonic

Although the very large hangars were

unity.

devoid of

artistic

ambitions, they expressed

and clarity simply by their


size. In the locomotive depot at Bagneux (1929)
F. perfected the technique of thin shell construction to an even greater degree. From 1933 on, he
was involved with large-scale applications of
pre-stressed concrete: he built the substructure
of the Gare Maritime at Le Havre (1935), the
Beni-Bahdel Dam in Algeria (1935-40), the
runway of Orly airfield (1946), the rectangular
water tower (capacity 7,000 m 3 ) at Orleans
(1948), and the subterranean Basilica of St Pius
X at Lourdes (1958; with Pierre Vago). In
addition to the earlier bridges, F. was responsible for, among others, those at Tonneins-surGaronne
Saint-Pierre-du-Vauvray
(1922),
Plougastel
Luzancy
(1922-3),
(1925-30),
(1941-5) and Esbly (194650), as well as the
Saint-Michel bridge in Toulouse (1959), all
most impressive in formal appearance.

harmony,

stability

Incessant research,

practical adjustment, a
handling of materials and a rare
ability as a designer enabled F. to achieve in his
oeuvre a complete unity of structural needs and

consistent

WK

aesthetic expression.

Une Revolution dans les techParis 1926;


'Une Revolu-

Freyssinet, E.,

niques du beton,

tion dans l'art de btir. Les constructions precontraintes', Travaux,


schel,

November

Gnter, Groe Konstrukteure.

1941; Giin1

Freyssinet

- Maillart - Dischinger - Finster walder, Berlin,


Frankfurt am Main and Vienna 1966; Fernandez Ordonez, Jose, Eugene Freyssinet, Barcelona 1978.

ground, the secondary features being the inserted infill elements whose development

would more than ever before involve


in

the users

shaping of their environment.

the

The

generalized 'Ville Spatiale' (1959), which

F.

designed to demonstrate his 'mobile architecture', was soon followed by more concrete
projects such as 'Paris Spatial' and 'Tunis
Spatial' (both i960), as well as Bridge-City over
the rmel Canal (1963). Since the 1970s he has
been chiefly concerned with build-it-yourself
methods and simple technologies.
AM
D Friedman, Yona, L' Architecture mobile,
Brussels 1968;
Les Mecanismes urbains,
Brussels 1968;
Pour une architecture scien,

Paris

tifique,

getiques,

Alternatives
197 1;
Saint-Jean-de-Bray 1982.
,

ener-

Fry, Edwin Maxwell, b. London 1899. Studied


at
the Liverpool School of Architecture.

Worked 1924-34
Thompson; was

in

the firm of

&

with *Gropius

*Drew

1945-50; prac-

1934-6, and with Jane


tised as Fry,

Adams

in partnership

Drew, Drake and Lasdun, 195 1-8,

Drew and Partners. He


from practice in 1973. A pioneer of
modernism in Great Britain, he shows - in his
Sun House, Frognal, Hampstead, London
(1934-5) - his debt to *Mies van der Rohe,
while his Kensal House housing scheme at
Ladbroke Grove, London (1937; in collaboration) was the nearest British pre-war approach
and subsequently as Fry,

retired

to a Continental Siedlung. In 1936 he collaborated with Gropius on the design for the
Impington
Village
progressive
College,

Cambs., and in the following year collaborated


on the *MARS plan for London. From 1942,
his wifejane Drew, he worked extensively
West Africa and specialized in tropical
architecture and design problems. He worked
as a town planner in West Africa 1943-5, and
was a senior architect at Chandigarh in collabo-

with

in

Friedman, Yona,

b. Budapest 1923. After


studying in Budapest and Haifa (Israel), he
worked as an independent architect before
going to Paris in 1957 in order to devote himself

entirely to research

he founded the

Mobile
Fielitz,

In 1958

also

included

Ruhnau and Eckhard

Frei

Schulze-

among others.

idea,

ration with

*Le Corbusier, 195 1-4.

See under Drew.

Groupe d'Etude d'Architecture

(GEAM) which

*Otto, Werner
the

on urban planning.

Since 1956 F. has pursued


highly influential on the Utopian

urbanism of the 1960s, of dissecting the city into


a permanent primary structure - the infrastructure - and a changeable secondary structure. He
imagines the primary element as a spatial
supporting structure suspended above the

Fuller, Richard Buckminster,

b.

Milton, Mass.

1895, d. Los Angeles 1983. Not an architect in


the usual sense of the word, but instead a unique

of those 20th-century concepts remachine aesthetic. His formal


education was sketchy and did not progress
much beyond two years at Harvard, 1913-15.
In 1927 he perfected a kind of 'machine for
reflection

lated

living

to

in'

the

which he

called

the

'Dymaxion

Functionalism

[dynamic plus

maximum

efficiency] House'. In

contrast to the poetic expressions of the

ma-

chine age which were so frequently manifested


in the buildings of the 1920s in Europe, and
especially

(19293

in

1), F.'s

*Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye


product was a machine for living

than in a metaphorical sense.


Unlike the contemporary masterpieces of
European *Rationalism, the Dymaxion House
was not in any consequential way an object for
aesthetic contemplation, but is more correctly
viewed as an assemblage of mechanical services
in conjunction with living areas. In 1933 F.
developed a motorized version of this idea in his
'Dymaxion Three- Wheeled Auto'.
Subsequently, he devoted much time and
effort to the art of structures, and these studies
led to his Geodesic Domes, structures of metal,
plastic, or even of cardboard based upon octahedrons or tetrahedrons. He came to use the
domical shape not for a traditional, architectural reason - not for instance, because it was an
'ideal' form but because of its natural efficiency in providing the greatest space enclosed
in relation to the surface area of the enclosing
form. In their use of standardized parts, these
Geodesic Domes are, in a sense, the most recent
descendants of the assembly techniques that
were first employed by Sir Joseph Paxton in the
Crystal Palace, London, 185 1. The largest of
these domes to be erected was the repair shop
for the Union Tank Car Co., Baton Rouge, La.
(1958), with a diameter of 117
(384 ft), a span
that exceeds those of the mammoth 19thcentury exhibition halls. F.'s best-known dome
is without doubt the one for the U.S. Pavilion at
the World's Fair in Montreal (1967).
He also produced a structural system known
as Tensegrity Structures (a contraction of Tenin in a literal rather

mm

Fuller.

Dymaxion House

Fuller. U.S. Pavilion

at

(project, 1927)

Expo

'67,

Montreal (1967)

sion Integrity), spatial skeletal structures utiliz-

ing distinct elements in compression and ten-

whereby the tension rods are joined


together only via elements in compression.
sion rods,

Understandably more popular with students


than with the established elements in the architectural profession, F. enjoyed notable success as
a visiting lecturer in various architectural

USA, among them Cornell,


Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University and Yale University. He held a

schools in the

Dymaxion World of Buckminster Fuller, Garden


N.Y. 1973 (first pub. i960); McHale,
John, R. Buckminster Fuller, New York 1962;
Rosen, Sidney, Wizard of the Dome. R. BuckCity,

minster Fuller, Designer for the Future,

Boston

1969; Meiler, James (ed), The Buckminster Fuller

London 1970; Robertson, Donald W.,


Mind's Eye of Buckminster Fuller, New York
Reader,

1974-

professorship at Southern Illinois Institute of

Technology, 1949-75, and was an indefatigable


jmj
author and promoter of his ideas.
D Marks, Robert W., and Fuller, R. B., The

Functionalism. Architectural principle according to which the form of a building is to be


derived from the function it is intended to

Functionalist!!
fulfill; the schematic and technological aspect
of architectural modernism (*Rationalism),
whose wider theoretical stance comprises also
philosophical, political, social, economic, stylistic and symbolical questions.
Functionalism in architecture remains in part
the essence of the modern as opposed to the
traditional. Therefore there is hardly an architectural principle which occurs with greater
persistence in the history of architecture, nor
one which is less appropriate to characterize any
particular chronologically delimited movement. Even in palaeolithic cave dwellings and in
neolithic lake dwellings form was determined
by function; in Roman fortifications and aqueducts, in medieval castles, in Renaissance palaces and Baroque country houses, in 18thcentury warehouses, in residential architecture
of the 19th century and office skyscrapers of the

between form

romantic ^organic architecture of * Wright to


*Mies van der
Rohe, from the lively ^Expressionism of
^Mendelsohn to the severe monumentalism of
*Terragni, from the independent formal play
of *Hring to the strong geometries of *Le
Corbusier. Sharper contrasts are hardly imaginable, and the bitter dispute between Hring and
Le Corbusier alone makes evident the inappropriateness of such generalizing classification.
The matter is further complicated by the fact
that in the architectural discussion of the 1920s,
Rationalism and Functionalism were highly
disputed as to both meaning and relationship.
However, after Alberto Sartoris was persuaded
by Le Corbusier to change the title of the book
he had originally planned in 1932 to call
the classicist *Rationalism of

Architettura razionale,

Gli Elementi

it

was published instead

dell' architettura funzionale;

as

thus, the

Functionalism also goes back to the beginnings


of architectural theory: thus, Vitruvius insisted
that the form of a structure must be derived
from its intended use. Functionalist postulates
reappear from then on, above all in the rationalist treatises of the 1 8th century by Carlo Lodoli,
Marc-Antoine Laugier and Francesco Milizia.
In the 19th century it was above all Viollet-leDuc, Gottfried Semper, Henri Labrouste and
Julien Guadet who advocated a close and
realizable relationship between form and func-

concept of Functionalism entered everyday


parlance as a synonym of or even a replacement
for Rationalism. Hence, his meaning was restricted, and he thus aligned himself with that
very architectural movement that was least
functionalist. If the term can still be used justly
to describe the 'organic' houses by Hring,
which tried to attribute to each function its own
specially formed corner, it is hardly also appropriate in relation to a building by *Gropius or
Mies van der Rohe. Indeed, function is practically the last factor which determined the
eminently symbolic form of the Fagus Factory
or the Barcelona Pavilion. Their implications
are far more complex and the first aspect to be

tion in architecture.

sacrificed

Louis *Sullivan is considered the founder of


'modern' functionalism. In his 1896 essay 'The

their reputation

20th, there

is

a close relationship

and function. Functionalism

is

as

old as building

itself.

to

Parallel

tall

that,

the

theoretical

basis

office building, artistically considered',

of

he

coined the maxim 'form follows function'. He


was building on the thoughts of the sculptor
Horatio Greenough, who had introduced the
notion of a dialectic between form and function
as a frigate, in which design
were dictated by exposure to
extreme physical conditions. Although Sullivan drew parallels with 'circling eagles' and
open apple blossom, his expression was soon
restricted in meaning to scarcely more than
'naked functionality' in the view of Function-

in objects

such

considerations

alism.

Thus restricted, the concept of Functionalism


was to be used as the slogan for the most varied
directions in avant-garde architecture during

the

first

half of the 20th century:

from

the

on which
had been founded. With regard
to the inadmissible conflation of Rationalism
and Functionalism, the words of Le Corbusier,
that great apologist of engineers, and admirer of
the Bleriots, the Aquitania and the Bugattis,
is

precisely that usefulness

should not be forgotten: 'Architecture is the


masterly, correct and magnificent play of
cubes,
masses brought together in light
cones, spheres, cylinders or pyramids are the
.

great primary forms

which

light

reveals to

[they] are beautifulforms, the most


advantage
beautiful forms' {Vers une architecture). PB/VML
D Zurko, E. R. de. Origins of Functionalist'
Theory, New York 1957; Banham, Reyner,
Theory and Design in the First Machine Age,
London i960; Posener, Julius, Anfnge des Funktionalismus. Von Arts and Crafts zum Deutschen
Werkbund, Berlin, Frankfurt am Main and
.

Vienna

1964;

'Kritik

der

Kritik

des

Futurism
Arch

Funktionalismus'

(Berlin),

27

vol.

(1975)-

Futurism.

Tommaso

In 1909 the Italian writer Filippo


Marinetti published the 'Manifeste

du futurisme' in the Paris newspaper Figaro and


announced 'We affirm that the world's magnificence has been enriched by a new beauty: the
beauty of speed.' With that the central concern
of Futurism was formulated as a reaction to the
decadent and symbolic bourgeois art of the finde-siecle. To this was joined a polemically
advanced break with the past, an emotionally
intoned machine culture, activism, and a fascination

with world-scale war. Futurism

mained almost entirely confined to


soon dried up after entering the

The

Fascism.

ideas

it

re-

and
service of

*Italy,

propagated, however -

often in a bombastic, spectacular, and propagandistic

way - were

to bear fruit

throughout
Futurism. Citta Nuova

the international avant garde.

The
writers,

Futurist
painters,

movement, which counted


sculptors,

architects,

(project, 1913-14)

by

Sant-Elia

stage

and film-makers among


its members, had already put forth elements of
an individual architectural theory with the
publication of Umberto Boccioni's 'Manifesto
tecnico della scultura futurista' (1912) and with
Marinetti's essay 'Lo splendore geometrico e
meccanico nelle parole in liberta' which ap-

ims; which would bring the environment into


harmony with the new man; which would be

peared in early 19 14 in the periodical Lacerba.


With Antonio *Sant'Elia's entry into the
movement and the publication of the manifesto

for the other arts: the 'preference for lightness,

designers, musicians,

'L'architettura futurista' in Lacerba

19 1 4), Futurism also


lished in the field

became

(1

August

officially estab-

of architecture.

The manifesto was nothing other

than

by Marinetti of a
text which had appeared several weeks earlier
under Sant'Elia's name (and with his thoughts)
in a catalogue of an exhibition held in Milan of
the young non-futurist group of artists 'Nuove
Tendenze', although it had been originally
written by Ugo Nebbia (who had edited the
catalogue) and was later entitled 'Messaggio' (as
opposed to 'Manifesto'). Next to the furious
rejection of all past norms, an architecture was
advocated which would employ new materials;
which was expressive and artistic; which gave
version, slightly lengthened,

preference to diagonal and elliptical lines (these


were supposed to be more emotionally
charged); which renounced ornament; which
found its inspiration in the world of machines;

which accepted no preconceived design max114

perishable and

light,

dynamic

generation can, and must, build

so that every
its

own

city.

These propositions took account of new scientific and technological developments and accorded extensively with the Futurists' demands
ephemeralness and speed' is evifrom Boccioni's theory of
'dinamismo plastico'. Thus an unresolved contradiction was introduced into the movement's
architecture, which is confirmed by comparing
the texts with Futurist architectural drawings: if
the first encouraged a simultaneity, speed, and
usefulness,

dently

derived

temporariness, the latter displayed a


tal

architecture

monumen-

which radiated most effectively,

all its innovative potential, an expressive


modernist classicism.
In reality the manifesto served as a courageous theoretic document which engaged Italy

for

in the

European architectural

discussion; other-

remained, simply, potent rhetoric.


Along with Sant'Elia, Mario *Chiattone, his
lifelong friend, entered the Futurist movement.
Somewhat later, they were joined by the
architect Virgilio Marchi. But in 191 5 Italy
entered World War I - thanks in part to the
interventionism of, among others, the Futurists,
of all people - and the following year Sant'Elia
lost his life on the front. No important Futurist
wise

it

Gardella

work was ever built. Apart from


-

dell'architettura

futurista;

d'animo drammatica' (1920,


publication
ista,

the manifestos

which were added: Marchi's 'Manifesto

to

Roma futurista);

dinamico, stato
avant-garde

in the

Architettura Futur-

published only in 1924 although written

most part in 1919; and somewhat later


nuova, architettura nuoua (193 1) it was
only the virtuoso drawings of these three men
for the
Italia

which bear architectural witness

to this short

episode.

Fourteen years passed before Futurist archibecame a live issue in the context
of the search for an artistic identity for young
tecture again

Italian fascism. In 1928, in

journalist Fillia (Luigi

Turin, the painter and

Colombo), one of the

most convinced followers of Futurist ideas,


mounted the first (and last) 'Mostra di architettura futurista'. The work of artists of very

was exhibited. Architecture


was represented by Sant'Elia, Chiattone, Aldifferent origins

berto Sartoris, Virgilio Marchi, Enrico

Pram-

Nicola Diulgheroff and Fortunato


Depero. The only architecture, apart from the
exhibition building itself, actually to be built,
was by Sartoris; it was in any case a classic
example of Italian ^Rationalism and had nothing to do with Futurist principles. But Fillia
retained his faith in the possibility of a Futurist
architecture as an official state style and pursued
his goal in the various publications which he
edited or launched to this end (La Cittfuturista;
La citt nuova), in articles and books (Artefascista,
1928; La nuova architettura, 193 1). The Futurist
aesthetic witnessed both its coronation and its
conclusion in the 'Mostra della rivoluzione
fascista' (Exhibition of the Fascist Revolution)
in Rome in 1932. Largely organized by architects, painters and graphic artists, who for the
most part had their origins in Futurism, this
exhibition was the only artistic manifestation
under fascism, which demonstrated a historical
connection with the rest of Europe, but Futurist
sentiment was already merged with Rationalist, Expressionist or even neo-classicist notions.
Likewise the few buildings which appeared
under the banner of Futurism in the 1920s were
scarcely to be distinguished in their formal
language from those of Rationalism or the
Novecento Italiano. This is as true for Duilgheroffs 'futurist villas' in Turin and Albisola as
for Depero's Bestetti-e-Tumminelli pavilion at
the Biennale in Monza of 1927 or Prampolini's
pavilion for the 'Mostra di architettura futurpolini,

Parco del Valentino, Turin (1928). In


of Futurism resides less in its
direct production than in its deep influence. Its
ista'

in the

fact the significance

principles influenced nearly the entire European


and American avant garde of the early 20th
century. It was Italian Futurism which served as
a starting point for Soviet *Constructivism;
even an individualist talent such as *Le Corbusier's was in no small measure indebted to
Sant'Elia and Chiattone, and even to such littleknown Futurists as Guido Fiorini and his

'grattacielo in

tensistruttura'

Finally,

(1933).

day the entire 'Internationale' of


technological Utopia, from R. Buckminster
*Fuller via *Archigram to *Piano, *Rogers,
and *Foster, continues to feed on the bold
visions of Futurism.
GV/VML

even to

this

[Sant'Elia,

A.],

Lacerba (Florence),
Ulisse,

'L'architettura

futurista',

August 1914; Arata, Giulio

'L'architettura futurista', Pagine d'arte

(Milan),
futurista,

1914; Marchi, Virgilio, Architettura


Foligno 1924; Marinetti, F. T., Pram-

II,

polini, E.,

and Escodame, Sant'Elia


Milan 193 1;

tettura futurista mondiale,

A., Sant'Elia e

I'

architetturafuturista,

l'archi-

Sartoris,

Rome 1944;

Banham, Reyner, 'Futurismo and Modern


Architecture' JRIBA, Feb. 1957; Gambillo, D.,
Fiori, T., Archivi del futurismo, Rome 1958;

and

Taylor, Joshua

C,

Futurism,

New

York

1961;

Clough, Rosa, Futurism: the Story of a Modern


Art Movement, New York 1961; Apollonio,
Umbro (ed.), Futurist Manifestos, London and

New

York

1973.

G
Gardella, Ignazio,

b.

Milan 1905. Studied

at

the Politecnico in Milan and at the Istituto

Universitario di Architettura, Venice, where he

other architects of
he did not have recourse to any
or aesthetic ideologies for the genuine

later taught. In contrast to the


his generation,

social

^Rationalism displayed

in his first

works. His

designs were characterized by elegance and

purity of composition, in a lyric vein which he

used to provide magisterially free and simple


most complex problems.

solutions to the

He began his career with interior decoration


and rebuilding schemes, notably the renovation
of the theatre at Busto Arsizio (1934) and an
115

Garnier
extension of the Villa Borletti in Milan (1935),
which established his reputation. Soon after-

wards came

his finest

work

to that date, 'an

outstanding example of Italian rationalism'


(Mazzariol): the Anti-tuberculosis Dispensary
at Alessandria (1936-8). In this building the

most interesting

lines

of G.'s architecture are

Thereafter, however, he achieved - as in the


Casa alle Zattere, Venice (1957) -a light, playful
synthesis of sensible, functional forms and
regional traditions.
GV/GHa
D Argan, G. C., Ignazio Gardella, Milan 1959;
Rossi, Aldo, 'Ignazio Gardella', Architecture and
Urbanism (Tokyo), December 1976.

defined: clarity in the handling of plane surfaces

and

judicious use of materials as a means of

expression. In this connection, the extensive

employment of

brick to face a reinforced-

concrete building shows G.'s tendency to respect local traditions

- and

this at a

such respect was hardly common.


The Dispensary was the first
significant

of G.'s

many

time

when

and most

architectural activities

where his most important works


were built, including the Provincial Laboratory
for Hygiene and Prophylaxis (19379), an d a
block of flats for employees of the Borsalino
company (195 13), in which he tried, by an
interesting play of movement on the elevation
and the emphatic use of projecting eaves, to go
beyond a purely 'rationalist' scheme. In 1946, in
in Alessandria,

block of flats he designed at Castana, particular


emphasis was laid on an attempt to reinterpret
regional and traditional elements in a modern
idiom. Little by little, this characteristic was to
a

lead G. a long

way from

his initial standpoint,

with his architecture diverging from the tenets


of strict Rationalism. He returned to the
'rationalist' manner with the annexe for the
Museum of Modern Art in Milan (1953).

Gamier, Tony,

Lyons 1869,

La Bedoule
BeauxArts in Lyons and in Paris at the *Ecole des
Beaux-Arts and in the atelier of Julien Guadet.
Awarded the Prix de Rome, he spent the years
1899-1904 in Rome; he was city architect of
Lyons, 1905-19, and continued there afterwards in private practice.
During his years in Paris, he moved in the
socialist circles of Jean Jaures and Emile Zola,
increasingly radicalized by the Dreyfus affair.
Subsequently, his studies at the Villa Medici in
b.

d.

1948. Studied at the Ecole Nationale des

Rome were focused less on historical buildings


than on the preparation of one of the most
important projects of 20th-century architecture: the Cite Industrielle. He addressed himself
to the theme of an industrial city because he was
convinced that such was to be overwhelmingly
the trend for new cities in the new century. He
selected a terrain half-flat
river valley,

and

half-hilly in a

which setting, although hypotheti-

was in practice similar to that of his home


town, Lyons; he even included a medieval
settlement in his planning. For a population of
cal,

35,000 (scarcely greater than in *Howard's


City), G. envisaged a residential quarter, city centre, industry, a railway station and
all the requisite public buildings; he omitted,

Garden
Gardella.

Company,

Flats for

employees of the Borsalino

Alessandria (195 13)

however, barracks, police stations, prisons and


churches, all of which he considered would be
unnecessary in the new socialist society. He
decided that the buildings would be primarily
in reinforced concrete, even though at the time
only a handful of experimental structures had
been built by this method. He thus presented a
revolutionary urban vision, which already contained in essence the fundamental planning

of the Modern Movement: clear

principles
distinction

between various functions -

resi-

dence, work, recreation, and transportation;


traffic, with
between through and local
traffic corridors; decentralized layout, though
based on an urban grid system to guarantee
orientation and still permit expansion; 'residen-

division of vehicular and pedestrian


a further distinction

tial islands',

116

each 30 x

50

m (approx.

100 x 500

Garnier

without interior courtyards but surrounded


by green space equal to at least 50 per cent of

taken up in progressive architectural

he projected traffic-free,
generously planted pedestrian paths; a community centre which not only anticipated in its
programme the social centres of modern hous-

architectonic types influenced the entire

ft),

their area. In addition,

Both
ern

its

overall

Movement.

Its

circles.

planning concept and the


influence

Mod-

on *Le Corbusier,

strip

was substantial; he published parts


of the Cite Industrielle in the journal L'Esprit
nouveau in 1920 and later in his book Vers une
architecture (1923). G/s planning principles were
reworked theoretically by *CIAM and accord
with the later *Athens Charter.
Almost immediately after completing the
plans of the Cite Industrielle, G. was given an
opportunity to realize some of the ideas embodied there. In 1905 the newly elected reformminded mayor ot Lyons, Edouard Herriot,
appointed him city architect, with a brief to take
over the 'Grands Travaux de la Ville de Lyon'.
Between 1909 and 191 3 he built the Abattoirs de

canopies,

la

on its facade - and not by


chance - two quotations from Zola's Utopian
socialist novel Travail; a completely equipped
sports ground with a stadium for 20,000 spectators; and finally, a novel canal system.
ing estates, but bore

Taking

this

global vision as a starting point,

G. immersed himself with equal profundity and


creativity in the architectonic, constructive

technological detail of his plan.

and

He developed

formal elements which took the greatest advantage of the possibilities of reinforced concrete:

windows, glass walls, pilotis, projecting


open ground-plans, and roof terraces.
With these means he projected: a modernistic

railway station with subterranean platforms

and

tracks; clearly disposed factories

shops;

school on an open
easily

practically

single-level,

surveyed

site; a

hospital

pavilions;

and workorganized

composed of

small

residential

blocks and loosely divided single-family houses

of elegant cubic simplicity and with wellorganized plans. Everything, even down to
technical innovations such as electric heating
systems and temperature controls (for the economy of the Cite Industrielle was to be based on
the availability of inexpensive electricity), was
precisely set out in the

accompanying

texts.

For all his innovative powers, G. did not


conceive his project in a vacuum. Not only was
he influenced by the Rationalism of his teacher

for instance,

Mouche, a slaughterhouse complex centred


around a huge open hall, the interior of which,
with its exposed steel struts and glazed roof,
recalls the Galerie des Machines in Paris (1899)
by Ferdinand Dutert and Victor Contamin; the
smoke stacks were formed as simplified columns which narrowed towards the top. The
Olympic Stadium was built in 191 3 16, the
Grange-Blanche Hospital with its 22 pavilions
in 1915-30, and the 'Les Etats-Unis' residential
quarter between 1924 and 1935. In all of these
executed works G. needed to look no further
for ideas than the solutions already
in the

Gamier, Tony, Une Cite

pour

worked out

VML

Cite Industrielle.

la construction

Gamier.

industrielle.

Etude

des uilles, Paris 1917, 1932;

Abattoirs de

la

Mouche. Lyons (1909-13)

Guadet, but he also drew on the experiments of


the pioneer of reinforced concrete, Francois
Hennebique, as well as on the progressive urban
planning ideas of his contemporaries Leon

and Eugene Henard. He by no means


which he had imbibed during his Beaux-Arts training and on a trip to
Greece in 903 In fact, the residential quarter of

Jaussely

rejected tradition,

the Cite Industrielle

is represented as an arcadian-meridional garden city with clear classical


formal reminiscences; and the community cen-

tre

is

nothing but

modern

interpretation of a

roofed agora, under whose reinforced-concrete


peristyle people in Biedermeier-like dress stroll
about like ancient Greek citizens.

The Cite

Industrielle,

were exhibited

of which the plans

1904 and published in 19 17,


was, despite limited public response, rapidly
in

117

Gaudi
Badovici, Jean, and Morance, A., L'Oeuvre de
'Tony Gamier, Paris 1938; Veronesi, Giulia,
Tony Gamier, Milan 1948; Pawlowski, Christophe, Tony Gamier

et les

debuts de l'urbanisme

fonctionnel en Trance, Paris 1967;

Tony Gamier. The Cite

Wiebenson, D.,

Industrielle,

New

York

1969.

Gaudi, Antoni, b. Reus, Catalonia 1852, d.


Barcelona 1926. Coming from a family of
coppersmiths, G. began his architectural studies
in Barcelona at the age of seventeen and
graduated in 1878. He felt little attraction for
the official courses, whereas, during his years as
a student, he was an assiduous frequenter of the
philosophy classes of Llorens i Barba and the
lectures on aesthetics by Pau Mil i Fontanals. In
his youth Mil i Fontanals had lived in Rome
during its romantic period, where he had
moved in the circle of the Nazarenes, Friedrich
Overbeck and his fraternity. As in' many places
in Europe, there was in Catalonia - which had
always maintained a certain degree of cultural
and political independence in Spanish history
a romantic movement, the Renaixenca; this
was concerned with Catalan language and
poetry, as well as the medieval history and
architecture of the region.
The Spanish
*Modernisme which developed from this
movement towards the end of the 19th century
had a decisive influence on G.'s imagination,
and led him to a veneration ofcraftwork and the
honesty of medieval art; to a mechanistic logic
inspired by Viollet-le-Duc's conception of
medieval architecture; and to nature as a source
of inspiration, not only for decorative details
but for structures as well. In this context he also
concerned himself with the ideas of the *Arts
and Crafts movement, with which he came into
contact through the agency of his patron, the
textile manufacturer Giiell.
In 1 878. shortly after graduating, he designed
the Casa Vicens, in Barcelona, a building
suggestive of Islamic prototypes with its stepped prismatic blocks, its alternations of stone
and brick, and its brilliant decoration in polychrome tiles. Constructed as it was at a period

when

revivalism was in

full flood,

it

had the

merit of belonging to no known style. An


important feature of the interior was the modulation of indirect light, something that was to be
as much part and parcel of his architecture as
was his use of mosaics and of polychromy. A

milestone in G.'s

artistic

development was the

Gaudi. Palau

Giiell,

Barcelona (1885-9)

Palau Giiell, Barcelona (18859), where his


structural experiments - the use of parabolic
is the most evident one - create a personal
which formed the basis of his complete
liberation from *historicism.
In 1883 G. was commissioned to continue the
work on the Church of the Sagrada Familia in
Barcelona, a building of great size that was
progressively to monopolize his activities, but
which remains unfinished even today. A neoGothic design by Villar was already in existence; this G. abandoned, but the lines of the

arches
style,

he built, still contain many


Gothic reminiscences, although the mouldings
and decorative details are drawn much more
apse, the first part

closely

from nature.

Work on the Sagrada Familia continued with


the Nativity facade of the east transept. This
consists

of three open portals between four

interpenetrating square-based towers, set diag-

which

rise to a

and terminate

in thin,

onally,

crowned by

height of 107 m. (350 ft)


curved, circular features

of capricious play with


covered in mosaic. A
complex and lively world, modelled for the
most part by G. himself and comprising an
intersecting

a piece

surfaces,

Gaudi
umns. It permitted a type of vaulted structure
without buttresses of any kind, since all thrusts

up by suitably inclined pillars. This


method was later used in designing the naves of

are taken

the Sagrada Familia.

Barcelona (190014), G.
systematic use of inclined supports for
retaining walls and bridges. An important
In the Giiell Park,

made

is the abundant employment


of ceramic and glass mosaic, which presents an
extraordinary ensemble of powerfully expressive abstract compositions.
The Casa Mil (1905-10), called la Pedrera
(the quarry), is perhaps G.'s most original work.

feature in this park

Plastically speaking,

it

constitutes a great stone

rhythm of
undulating horizontal edges, comparable to
eyebrows or lips; an affinity between G.'s work
and Surrealism is especially evident here. His
structural masterpiece is the Sagrada Familia
schools (1909), walled and roofed by undulating membranes of thin brick.
Towards the end of his career, G. asserted
structure of organic shape, with a

belonged to men, the


curved one to God. Shortly before his death he
invented a system of well-nigh universal application, based on hyperboloids and paraboloids,
though his designs were never purely geometrical. They always preserved a close tie with
familiar living shapes: bones, muscles, wings
and petals, and at other times with caves and
even stars and clouds.
Because of its increasingly accentuated individualism, G.'s architecture could not serve as
the nucleus of a school or following, and with
the growing adherence to Modernism in the
that the straight line

Gaudi. Church of the Sagrada Familia, Barcelona


(1883-1926)

immense

variety of plants and animals, throngs

the great concavities

below the

gables.

Henceforth, as in the Casa Batll in the Paseo


de Gracia, Barcelona (1905-7), natural and
organic forms no longer simply comprise a kind
of ornament superimposed on the building, but

go on to constitute essential structural elements,


as in the case of the bone-shaped columns, the
undulating facade covered with polychrome
mosaics like a sheet of sea-water set on end, and
the imbricated roof like an armadillo's back.
This type of effect is a transitional one between
the sculptural plasticity of G.'s earlier years
(187891), and the structural type characteristic
of

his later period.

This structural plasticity has as one of its chief


features the system of design used by G. for the
Colonia Giiell Church at Santa Coloma de
Cervello, near Barcelona

(1

898-1914), which

was planned by means of

string

model

representing the structural ribs of the building,

from which were hung weights proportional to


the loads which each member would have to
carry. The catenaries formed by these strings
gave the inverted shape of the building's col119

Gehry
half of the century, appreciation was long
postponed. Indicative of this reappraisal are two
comments of Sir Nikolaus Pevsner: while he

house, in principle only the renovation of an


existing complex, breaks out of existing tight

1949 that 'Gaudi's Church of the


Sagrada Familia will without a doubt be judged

restructure

first

wrote
the

in

most anachronistic example of the eternal

southern Baroque', he concluded finally in


1957, 'He was the only genius produced by the
AC-P/GHa
Art Nouveau'.

Collins, George, Antonio Gaudi,

New York

i960; Brunet, Cesar Martinelli y, Gaudi.


vida, su teoria, su obra,
J. J.,

and

Sert, J. L.,

Mower,

Su

Barcelona 1967; Sweeney,


Antoni Gaudi, New York

D., Gaudi,

London

1977; Collins,
G., and Bassegoda, N., The Designs and Draw1970;

ings of

Antonio Gaudi, Princeton, N.J. 1982.

Gehry, Frank O.,

b.

Toronto 1929. Studied

at

the University of Southern California in Los

Angeles and at Harvard University. From 1953


he worked under Victor Gruen, Hideo Sasaki
and William Pereira, among others, before
establishing an independent office in Los Angeles in 1962. G.'s limited ceuvre, comprising
largely unrealized works, is neither theoretically nor formally aligned with any specific trend.
After a series of interiors and shops, he built in
the early 1970s a considerable number of singlefamily houses in which, increasingly, traditional forms are eliminated. His own house in Santa
Monica (1977, 1978-9) represents a synthesis of
the experiments pursued in such buildings as the
Davis House in Malibu, Cal. (19702), the De
Mesnil Residence in New York and the Spiller
Residence in Venice, Cal. (both 19789). His

Gehry. The
Cal. (1978-9)

architect's

own

house, Santa Monica.

and

structures

spatial

them

boundaries

order to

in

in multi-layered,

overlapping
and antithetical ways; the result evokes a
comparison with the spatial stratifications of a
Guanno Guarini. Evidence of G.'s ability to
master large-scale composition is provided in
Santa Monica Place, a complex of shops and
parking facilities in Santa Monica (1979-81)
which, in its relatively straightforward construction, recalls older, traditionally structured

FW

buildings.

Nairn, Janet, 'Frank Gehry: the search for

"no rules" architecture'.


June 1976, pp. 95102.

Architectural Record,

Germany.

In the closing years of the 19th


century and beginning of the 20th the German
Empire was successful in catching up with
countries such as *Great Britain where industri-

had begun much earlier. This was


achieved through the development of commeralization

cial

trade relations, the acquisition of colonial

possessions

and

the

sudden

acceleration

industrial production (steel, chemicals

and

of

elec-

Both public architecture and


commissioned by the growing industrial

trical industries).

that

concerns

among

reflected

this

ambition

the leading nations.

trend, even if interrupted

to

steady

count

upward

by the Depression,

freed capital to an unprecedented extent for

same time

policy of
provided the
necessary aesthetic incentives. While Great
Britain remained the only real economic rival,
it was Pans, despite the French defeat in 1870 1,
which retained unblemished its glittering role as
cultural 'Capital of the Nineteenth Century'
(Walter Benjamin) and thus provided the
construction, at the

cultivating

national

stimulus for
particular the

official

as a

prestige

architectural

policy.

In

development of Wilhelnunian

Berlin looked to the French capital as a model.

The

aspirations of Schinkel

foster a

and Semper

to

new indigenous architectural style from

the 'harmonious melding of the best of

all

periods' (Schinkel) and the incorporation of

new needs,

materials,

were not abandoned


in

and construction methods


but, with the

new

interest

the associational values of certain historic

merely retreated into the background.


For nationalistic representation, the Gothic,
which had been given a great impetus through
the completion of Cologne Cathedral, as well as
styles,

Germany
'German Renaissance' movement and fi- because of its abundant representation in
German architecture - the Baroque, were all
called into service. On the other hand *neoclassicism, which was stamped with reminiscences of the Wars of Liberation in 1813 and
(thanks to Schinkel's pupils) had long dominated in Prussia, was still a viable alternative in
the

dwelling in England, the terrace house.

nally

catastrophic

the early 20th century. Architects maintained

various rapports to this stylistic repertoire in

accordance with the nature of building tasks.


Thus, for civic buildings the Renaissance style
of the bourgeois city-states seemed most appropriate, while for large official buildings, such as
Parliament buildings, Law Courts, or administration buildings, Baroque prototypes were

was

appropriate, for the axially-ordered monastic and


castle complexes of the 18th century had
already united a variety of administrative functions. For ecclesiastical architecture the socalled 'Germanic' Style, i.e. Romanesque and
Gothic, was codified for the Protestant part of
Germany in the ten theses of the Eisenach
Regulations of 1861. These relationships were
either negated or enhanced by regional traditions and landscapes. Thus, 19th-century *histoncism had at its disposal rather differentiated
architectural means whose complicated rules in
the end came increasingly to compromise the
very understanding they were meant to engender. The tendency of the late 19th century
towards richness, exuberance, and encrusting of
forms resulted in an *eclecticism which increasingly obscured the possibilities for entirely new
demands: there were in fact no historical

often chosen; this

also functionally

prototypes for factories,

modern

transport fa-

and large-scale apartment houses.


The entire social structure was also transformed by advancing industrialization. Between 1882 and 1907 the proportion of the
population employed in agriculture and forestry dropped from 43 to 29 per cent, while the
percentage employed as labourers and in ser-

cilities

As a result, the rapid


was almost exclusively in

vices rose accordingly.

growth

of population

and the new industrial regions along


Rhine and in the Ruhr, in Central Germany
and Upper Silesia. An unprecedented rise in the
demand for inexpensive housing and the liberalization of the property market caused the
price of land to rise rapidly and led to densely
the cities

the

populated 'Miethaus'
contrast

to

the

(barracks)

prevailing

quarters,

in

type of artisans'

conditions

living

that

The

resulted

were hardly improved through the

first reform
of co-operative or cottage housing. The
problem of housing continued until well into
the 20th century to be an unresolved preoccupation of politicians, architects and that new
breed which was itself born in the late 19th
century: urban planners. These unmastered
problems stood in great contrast with the
tremendous organizational efforts and investments that went into tramways and railway
construction, sewers and electrification, and
even into the beautification of public streets and

efforts

squares.

While Pans offered the model for the grandeur of a capital city, the impetus for a practical
approach to achieving more comfortable housing and reasonable living conditions came from
England. In 1902 the German Garden Cities
Association was founded on the British model,
and realized

its

first

noteworthy scheme

at

Hermann *Muthesius,
an attache in the German

Hellerau, near Dresden.

who had worked as


Embassy in London,

studied

the

English

country house and sought to introduce some of


qualities
in
Germany. Both Richard
*Riemerschmid and Peter *Behrens launched

its

their

architectural

careers

houses. This narrowness


denial of the problem,

with

their

own

was not intended


since

as a

the residential

reform was not to be determined by popular


taste, but rather, as Henry *van de Velde
expressed it, from the 'ethos of the most
intimate of man's possessions', i.e. the ethos of
his own home. The Exhibitions on the Mathildenhhe in Darmstadt (from 1901), which
consisted mainly of such individual homes,
were thus by no means private, but rather
public events of considerable significance.
Unlike the situation in *France or *Belgium,
*Art Nouveau (Jugendstil in Germany) was
dominated, at least in architecture, by a sense of
proven solidty and of honesty in the expression
of materials and functions. The inner convictions of the Jugendstil continued thus to flourish
even when the outward signs of the new style
had withered. Enterprises such as the Vereinigten Werksttten (United Workshops) in
Munich, the Werksttten fr Handwerkskunst
(Workshops for Handicraft) in Dresden, and
above all the ^Deutscher Werkbund - founded
in 1907 and to which the most important
Jugendstil artists belonged - carried these ideas
121

Germany
Thus

the comparatively

now

translated

from

new

materials

utilitarian

were

buildings to

architecture. The firm Wayss and


Freytag, having acquired patents from Joseph

public

Monier, developed reinforced concrete into an


innovative undertaking. Germany witnessed

Germany. The Buntes

Theater, Berlin (1901), by

August Endell

technical novelties of international importance


with the reinforced-concrete dome of Max
*Berg's Jahrhunderthalle (Century Hall) in
Breslau (1912-13) and the shell structures of the
1920s and 1930s.
World War I and its unfortunate consequences for the countries of Central Europe
caused stylistic discussions as well as experimentation with new materials and technologies to
be pushed into the background for the duration.
Shortages of building materials, spiralling
building costs and the high cost of credit

combined

The departure from the Jugendstil was


indeed much easier in Germany, for no German
further.

had so thoroughly subscribed to the


aims of the style as had *Horta in Brussels,
^Mackintosh in Glasgow, *Gaudi in Barcelona,
or *Guimard in Paris. August *Endell's buildings, the most ingenious creations of German
Jugendstil in architecture, remain principally
decorative art, in which three-dimensional
architect

architectural elements are subordinate to at-

tached two-dimensional surfaces. The Belgian


van de Velde built too late in Germany to have

any significant influence on architectural developments there. Already c. 1910 other models,
such as the Empire and Biedermeier styles, were
adopted, as the Jugendstil had been, to help
counteract historicism.

They inspired a

'brger-

liche Sachkunst' (Muthesius: a bourgeois

mathousing and interior design,


while Behrens and other designers of industrial
buildings employed a monumentalized neoclassicism for their great factory and administration building commissions.
These various tendencies were summarized,
on the eve of World War I, at the Werkbund
Exhibition of 19 14 in Cologne. Beside the
representative festival buildings by Behrens and
*Hoffmann and the theatre endowed by van de
Velde with the most generous flowing lines of
late Art Nouveau, two buildings pointed to the
future: Bruno *Taut's pavilion for the German
glass industry and the model factory by Walter
*Gropius. Both buildings featured an expressively exaggerated use of materials, glass and
steel, and reinforced concrete, respectively.
ter-of-fact art) in

122

to hinder the building trades from


taking advantage of the inflationary conditions

of the first post-war years. The housing shortage inherited from the 19th century became
even more critical. Architecture was synonymous with the administration of shortages. In
this situation of urgency, which was at the same
time a period of political hope, the avant garde

dreamed of Utopias, which ran the gamut from


for town and country to cosmic

new schemes

Nearly
important role

visions.

Expressionist

whom

all

the architects

who

played an

went through an
Bruno Taut, around
of younger artists and

in the 1920s

phase:

whole

circle

assembled (*Glserne Kette), his


brother Max *Taut, Erich Mendelsohn, Hans
*Poelzig, Ludwig *Mies van der Rohe (in his
glass-tower designs and the memorial to Karl
Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg in Berlin;
1926), and Walter Gropius (in the War Memarchitects

orial in

Weimar;

1922).

For the *Neues Bauen group the *Bauhaus


became a kind of high school, first in Weimar,
later at Dessau, which was accompanied by a
series of other important schools in Frankfurt,
Berlin, Breslau, and at Burg Giebichenstein.

Although the educational principles were estabBauhaus and although its school
buildings in Dessau became exemplary models
lished at the

for

*Rationalism

in

Europe, the

Modern Movement took

real test

of the

place in the major

with Berlin at the centre. Since the new


zonal plan which Martin Mchler had presented
cities,

in

1920,

and due

to

*Novembergruppe and
Kunst,

a sense

the
the

activities

of the

*Arbeitsrat

fur

of creative activity prevailed

in

Germany
was not confined to the individual
encompassed a town-planning
concept. Berlin's housing estates, with their
rows of buildings set in green surroundings, still
Berlin; this

buildings, but

spirit even today. The


Weienhofsiedlung (1927) at Stuttgart was in
large measure disputed by Berlin architects,
who, despite stylistic and conceptual differences, had formed the association known as the
*Ring. Their secretary was Hugo *Haring,
who, together with *Scharoun, represented the
organic version of the new architecture.

bear witness to this

The new
Berlin.

Its

its tendrils from


were represented

architecture spread

principal outposts

by Bruno Taut, who for a while served as City


Architect in Magdeburg; Ernst *May, who
built the
lites')

in

'Vororttrabanten' ('suburban satel-

Frankfurt and advocated the industrial-

and Otto *Haesler in Celle


and Kassel. Contacts with the ^Netherlands and
with ^France strengthend the avant garde. Mies
van der Rohe's German Pavilion at the World's
Fair in Barcelona (19289), a subtle composition of flat, space-creating planes, as well as
numerous buildings of the Prussian state, reveal
that this architecture was also beginning to be
recognized as representative of the young Reization of building;

public.

The

position of the

new

'objective' architec-

was by no means undisputed. In North


Germany, where Fritz Schumacher created the
foundations for a regional plan that went
beyond the limits of civic design, architects felt
at home with an architecture that was based on
the local tradition of building in brick and
ture

Germany. Glass tower


Rohe

(project, 192 12)

by Mies

van der

Germany. Memorial
Rohe

and
by Mies van der

to Karl Liebknecht

Rosa Luxemburg, Berlin

(1926),

preserved

its

expressive character

somewhat

longer. Just as this was characterized in the


North as a sort of de-sentimentalized local art,

South similar efforts to preserve local


were launched by the Stuttgart school
around Paul *Bonatz and Paul Schmitthenner
and in Munich by the liberal Theodor *Fischer
and the conservative German Bestelmeyer.
Politically, these architects were more receptive
to the ideology of National Socialism than were
the adherents of the 'Neues Bauen', who found
their success in the middle-left governments of
certain cities and provinces.
The coming to power of the National
Socialists marked a sudden end for the new
architecture. The Bauhaus was disbanded, and
so in the
features

such as Gropius, *Hilbcrseimer,


*Breuer, Martin *Wagner, Mies van der Rohe,
Mendelsohn, May and *Meycr emigrated. In
architects

123

Germany
contrast to Italian Fascism, National Socialism

would tolerate virtually no modern architecture. The official style would be modernized
neo-classicism, the formulation of which was
largely the

work of the Fhrer's 'erster BauLudwig Troost. He was suc-

meister', Paul

ceeded by the young Albert *Speer, a pupil of


respected Heinrich *Tessenow. Speer's
plans and the colleagues he installed in the
'Fhrerstdten' and regional 'Gauhauptstdten'
foresaw a monumental remodelling of the most
important German cities, a process in which
Hitler personally played a part. Aside from
official state and party buildings, a regionalism
was purveyed which looked back to the conservative architecture of the Weimar Republic
and even further to its antecedents before 19 14.
the

Only

in industrial buildings

prefabricated

gave

architecture

rise to a sort

was

still

a functional,

possible;

this

of internal emigration.

The tabula rasa after 1945 was complete.


German architecture of the 1920s had been able
to look back to pioneer work done before
World War I; after World War II there was no
tradition that could be

revived.

It

was

immediately resumed or

necessary but laborious process

accomplishments of the 1920s,


without ever reaching the formal and social
qualities of that decade. Up to that point, the
upper hand had been held by conservative

to investigate the

whose representatives had made great


compromises in order to co-operate with the
Third Reich. Now, the emergency situation
was far worse than that of 191 8: the need for
housing in West Germany alone was estimated
in 1948 at 65 million units and in i960 still stood
at 13 million. Building production in the 1960s
and early 1970s, impressive in quantitative
terms, showed a yearly average of more than
elements,

peak years over 600,000


the tendency was to
concentrate on the hasty, and often bad, rebuilding of the cities and on the state-sponsored
estates of single-family homes. When problems
of traffic circulation and building maintenance
became evident, attention was turned to more
concentrated satellite towns, at first extending
horizontally, as in the case of the Neue Vahr in
Bremen (1957-62), then in chains of apartment
towers such as the problematic 'Gropiusstadt'
(i960, 1964-75) and the Mrkisches Viertel
(1962, 1963-74), both in Berlin. Nearly every
major German city would in time have a
Mrkisches Viertel of its own.
In the meantime, growing prosperity fostered the massive renovation of inner-city areas.
Administration and other service functions
acquired the most expensive sites and forced
increasing numbers of residents into the outer
neighbourhoods. Attempts were made to set
500,000
housing

aside

Germany. The
72),

Mrkisches Viertel, Berlin (1962


by Hans Mller, Georg Heinrichs and Werner

Dttmann

124

units,

in

units.

At

compact

Hamburg

first

areas

for

offices,

such

as

in

(City Nord) and in Frankfurt (Nie-

derrad), but as single-function areas they re-

mained unhappy solutions and even

in these

Germany
cities

they were not successful

in

counteracting

which was exerted on the


inner cities. With the change of direction from
wholesale redevelopment to smaller-scale, fragmentary renewal schemes and construction in
the context of the existing urban fabric - a trend
which developed in the late 1970s - a different
the pressure of change

kind of expulsion process arose: cheap innercity housing was now replaced by expensive
property.

Since i960 the legal basis of construction in

Republic has been the BundesBuilding Code); this replaced the reconstruction laws of the various
Lnder with their sometimes more favourable
planning provisions. The scandal of profits
arising from land speculation and planning
decisions persisted. The social responsibility of
property ownership established by the constitution (section 14 of the Basic Law) was as
the Federal

baugesetz

(Federal

haphazardly respected in reality as the more farreaching provisions of the Weimar Imperial
Constitution of 19 19 had been. Indeed, in the
case of the cities, one must wonder whether the
paucity of planning instruments has not proven
for the worst.

The

German Democratic
Germany), which accorded
much greater powers to its planners, of whom
the most important was Hermann Henselmann,

Germany. Phoenix-Rheinrohr A.G.

provides the negative response to this question.


Monotony and an absence of standards were

administration building (Thyssenhaus), Dsseldorf


(195760), by Hentrich, Petschnigg and Partners

even more dominant in the East through the


absolute priority accorded to industrialized
building production which after c. 1955 succeeded an academic formalist phase. The second
segment of the Stalinallee (later Karl-Marx

bau'

architecture of the

Republic

(East

- the first had been begun


19528 as a closed urban space - was
continued in 195965 with prefabricated elements and in a series of independent building
blocks. This was a prelude to the compulsory
industrialization of construction in order to
achieve economic housing throughout the
country. Neither in the East nor in the West did
an intelligent and useful simplification of the
procedure result; rather, a rigid and flat building technique continued to dominate.
With the advent of international competiAllee) in East Berlin

in

West Germany

architects

in

Berlin

the 'Inter-

of 1957 leading

of the Western world were invited to

design a model inner-city quarter. In keeping

with the then reigning doctrines, this merely


resulted in a collection of individual buildings
set

in

green surroundings. Rectilinear

and-glass cubes, such as the

steel-

North American

which *SOM had developed


under the influence of Mies van der Rohe, were
seen as testimony to a regained respectability
both in the West and although slightly later in the East. Important public buildings in East
office buildings

Berlin, such as the Staatsratsgebude (1962-4)


or the Palast der Republik (1973-6) by Heinz
Graftunder and others, were no longer in the

in the 1950s, architects

prevailing reinforced-concrete idiom, but were


built rather as slender steel-skeleton structures.

*USA, which in turn had been


by the German emigre archiBoth Gropius and Mies van der Rohe

standards of the

decisively shaped
tects.

German commissions. For

exhibition

to orient themselves to the architectural

tions in

began

received

West Germany this architecture of crisply


hung facades was purveyed by
Otto Apel, Helmut Hentrich and Hubert PetIn

cut profiles and

125

Germany
on

Wilhelm Kraemer, Egon


*Eiermann and many others. In contrast, Hans
Scharoun and his school, especially in Berlin,
represented an architecture of free groundplans and individualistic forms. Characteristic

entirely

of Scharoun's work are the Philharmonic Hall


(1960-3) and the Staatsbibliothek Preuischer

signpost to the archetype or as

schnigg, Friedrich

Kulturbesitz (Prussian State Library; 1967-78),


complex on the southern

his

teaching activity and his

mor-

phological studies; only recently - after a break


of nearly ten years - has he attracted commissions again. History as a source of architectural

inspiration has gained a

new

prestige,
a

be

it

as a

source

tects

for a

situated in the cultural

edge of the Tiergarten; as clear evidence of the


achievements of the free world, they are symbolic

rivals

to

communist

East

Berlin's

and city centre. Scharoun's lead has


been followed by a narrow faction with Hermann *Fehling and Daniel *Gogel at the head.
In the field of ecclesiastical architecture,
Dominikus *Bohm, Rudolf *Schwarz, Emil
*Steffan, Dieter Oesterlen and others continued
into the 1960s to produce works of calculated
simplicity and sculptural directness. It was
precisely in this area that a triumph of emotion
could seek to compensate for the pervading
sadness of the environment by means of
strongly expressed individuality in church deStalinallee

sign. Gottfried

*Bhm's

great space-creating

sculptures in reinforced concrete demonstrate


just

how much freedom

cial

patrons were prepared to grant architects in

extreme

ecclesiastical

and

offi-

cases.

German

post-

war architecture are the sports buildings in the


Olympic Park in Munich (1967-72), in which
Gnter *Behnisch and his partners adopted the
tent principle developed by Frei *Otto. The
contemporary scene is no more unified in
Germany than in other countries. Megalomaniac
projects
and
Brutalist
(*New
Brutalism) megastructures no longer command
respect; instead a respect for urban preservation
('urban repair') has gained support, and conservation issues can be relied upon to produce a
surprisingly large public response. At the level
at which prestigious new commissions are
awarded, the liberal, open buildings of
Behnisch and his partners stand in contrast to
ornamented historicism of
severely
the
Alexander von Branca; Ludwig Leo's designs
derive from particular functional requirements
of any situation and contrast with the projects of
an architect such as Josef Paul *Kleihues, who
works largely within the Prussian tradition.
O. M. *Ungers has achieved an international
reputation, his reputation being founded almost
126

St Bonifatius,

Aachen

by Rudolf Schwarz

Germany. The
(1969-71),

Among the relatively small group of internationally recognized successes in

Germany. Church of
(1962-4),

whole group of younger archiwide variety of quotations.

especially for a

DLRG

Building, Berlin-Spandau

by Ludwig Leo

Gibberd

Germany. Lightweight
the Bundesgartenschau,

Amidst
ber

this

umbrellas by Frei Otto


Cologne (1970 i)

at

contradictory panorama, a numprimarily determined by

of structures

technological considerations serve as examples

minimizing of expense and the continuof research: Fritz Leonhard's television


tower (1956) in Stuttgart, with an elegance
unequalled by any of its successors; bridges,
for the
ity

including the inclined cable types, a


speciality; halls

German

and other large enclosed spaces

using lightweight construction, in

which

Frei

Otto has been a pioneer. The economy of means


is a
lesson of which architecture will have
increasing need in a period of dwindling re-

Mller-Wulckow, W., Deutsche Baukunst

der

Gegenwart

(3

vols.),

Leipzig 1925-8; Herr-

mann, Wolfgang, Deutsche Baukunst


20. Jahrhunderts, (pt

I)

und
and II)

des 19.

Breslau 1932, (pts

Basle and Stuttgart 1977; Schumacher, Fritz,

Strmungen

in

deutscher Baukunst seit 1800, Leip-

zig 1935; Hatje, G.,

K.,

Gibberd. Liverpool Cathedral (R.C.; 1960-7)

WP

sources.

New German

Hoffmann, H., and Kaspar,


Architecture,

London 1956;
Cologne

Planen und Bauen im neuen Deutschland,

i960; Neue deutsche Architektur 2, Stuttgart 1962;


Pehnt, Wolfgang, Neue deutsche Architektur 3,
Stuttgart 1970; Huse, Norbert, 'Neues Bauen'

1918 bis 1933,

Munich

1975; Nestler, P., and

Gibberd, Sir Frederick, b. Kenilworth, near


Coventry 1908, d. 1984. Studied at Birmingham School of Architecture, where he met
F. R. S. *Yorke; in private practice from 1930.
Planning consultant to several borough councils and architect and planner of Harlow New
Town, G. was responsible for a wide range of
buildings, including flats, housing schemes and
hospitals. Notable post-war buildings were:
Scunthorpe steelworks and power house ( 1 947Airport, London (1950-69);
Dock Labour Board Offices, London
(1956); Didcot Power Station, Berkshire (19649);

Heathrow

Bode, Peter M., Deutsche Kunst seit i960, Architektur, Munich 1976; Petsch, Joachim, Baukunst
und Stadtplanung im Dritten Reich, Munich 1976;

National

Klotz,

winning 'Crown of Thorns' design for the

Heinrich,

Architektur

in

der

Bundes-

Frankfurt and Berlin 1977; Pehnt,


Wolfgang, 'Architektur', in: Erich Steingrber
(ed.), Deutsche Kunst der 20er und 30er Jahre,
Munich 1979; Bofinger, Helge and Margret
(eds.), 'Architektur in Deutschland', Das Kunstrepublik,

werk (Stuttgart), 32 (1979), nos. 2/3.

8);

Ulster Hospital, Belfast (1953-61). His prize-

Roman Catholic Cathedral at Liverpool (19607)

shows the influence of *Niemeyer's

Cathedral. His

more

recent

work

in

Brasilia

the capital

included the Inter-Continental Hotel,

Hyde

Park Corner (1975), and the Central London


Mosque (1977) in Regent's Park.
27

Gill

N.Y. 1870, d.
Carlsbad, Cal. 1936. First worked in the office
of * Adler and *Sullivan in Chicago; after 1896
Gill, Irving John, b. Syracuse,

in

San Diego on

own. His early buildings are


followed after c. 1906 by work

his

in a unified style,

which simple geometric elements assume


importance: 'the straight line, the arc, the cube
and the circle, the mightiest of all lines' (Wilson
Acton Hotel at La Jolla, 1908; Dodge House,
Los Angeles, 19 16). His whitewashed, flatroofed asymmetrically disposed reinforcedconcrete buildings, which often display no
mouldings of any kind and are presented as
abstract stereometric compositions, were inspired by Spanish missions in California and are
markedly similar to the Cubist architecture of
Adolf *Loos.
in

Irving Gill

870-1 936 (exhibition catalogue),

Los Angeles 1958;


nia

Architects,

McCoy,

New

York

i960;

Kamerimg,

as Architect,

San

Gisel, Ernst, b. Adliswill, near Zurich 1922.

After training as an architectural draughtsman

Zurich, he
principal

at

the Kunstgewerbeschule in

worked under Alfred Roth,

proponent of the Modern

in ^Switzerland. In 1945

the

Movement

he entered into part-

nership with Ernst Schr; since 1947 he has had


his own office in Zurich. Characteristic of G.'s
architecture,

*New

which

is

distant reflection

of

Brutalism, are the lively collision of

cubic and circular geometric forms; large, calm


surfaces;

and wood.

including stone, brick, concrete

Among

G.'s

most important works

atypical Park
Theatre in Grenchen (194955): the Bergkirche
in Rigi-Kaltbad (1962-4); the Protestant Community Centre in Stuttgart-Sonnenberg (19646); a residential complex with 1,800 units in the
'Mrkisches Viertel' of Berlin (1965fr).); and the
Gymnasium and Realschule in Vaduz, Liechfigure,

besides

the

relatively

tenstein (1968-73).

FJ

Maurer, F., and Kimmig, E., Ernst Gisel.


Bauten und Projekte, pamphlet on the exhibition
of the Wrttemberg section of the Association
of German Architects (Bund Deutscher Architekten), Stuttgart 1966; 'Ernst Gisel', Architec-

and Urbanism (Tokyo), August 1977; 'Ernst


Werk, Bauen + Wohnen (Munich), vol.
69, nos. 7/8, pp. 18-71, Munich 1982.
ture

Gisel',

Esther, Five Califor-

Bruce, Irving Gill: The Artist


Diego, Cal. 1979.

and studying

as if natural,

and natural materials or those handled

Glserne Kette. In November 19 19, Bruno


*Taut wrote to thirteen German architects,
artists and critics, suggesting that they should
band themselves into a private forum for the
exchange of architectural ideas, drawings and
fantasies. With one exception - the critic Adolf
Behne - all agreed. The group was made up of
Wilhelm Brckmann, Hermann *Finsterlin,
Paul Goesch, Jakobus Gttel, Walter *Gropius,
Wenzel August Hablik, Hans Hansen, Carl
Krayl, Hans *Luckhardt, Wassili *Luckhardt,
Hans *Scharoun, Bruno Taut and Max *Taut.
These thirteen were later joined by the playwright Alfred Brust,

who

'Die glserne Kette'. At


gation,

also

coined the

Bruno Taut's

pseudonyms were used

title

insti-

in the corre-

spondence.

The common

factor shared

by

the

members

of the group was a desire to break away from


the norms of academic architecture, and many
had exhibited at the 'Ausstellung fur unbekannte Architekten' organized by the *Arbeitsrat fr Kunst in April 1919. There was no group
style, but rather a tendency to look for fundamental constructional forms taken from nature:
crystals, shells, amoebae and plant forms were
favoured as models for future architecture. For
structural purposes, glass, steel and concrete
were the favoured materials, reflecting the
influence of Bruno Taut and his mentor, the
glass fantasist Paul Scheerbart. Also from
Scheerbart, reinforced by the Berlin Dadaists,

came

Gisel.

Gymnasium and

(1968-73)

128

Realschule,

Vaduz

the wilful nihilism and infantilism which


appeared particularly in the contributions of
Goesch, Krayl and Bruno Taut. Most of the

Grassi

work of

the

members of

by Taut

group was pub-

the

journal Frhlicht.
The correspondence ran until December
1920. Several members of the group later joined

lished

the

in the

*Ring, whose aims were more in accord


new spirit of *Functionalism and

with the

*Neue

DeLong, David, The

Architecture of Bruce

New

York

1977;

Architectural

London

Profiles 16: Bruce Goff,


Jeffrey,

and

The

New

Architecture of Bruce Goff,

York

AD

Design,

Cook,
London

1978;

1978.

IBW

Sachlichkeit.

D Die glserne Kette. Visionre Architekturen aus


dem Kreis um Bruno Taut (exhibition catalogue),
Leverkusen and Berlin 1963; Whyte, Iain Boyd,
Bruno Taut and the Architecture of Activism,
Cambridge

Go': Buildings and Projects, lgi-igyy (2 vols.),

1982.

Gogel, Daniel,

b. Berlin 1927.

After study

at

the Hochschule fur bildende Knste in Berlin,

G. established himself as an independent architect in his native city, and since 1953 he has
worked in partnership with Hermann *Fehling.

Goff, Bruce, b. Alton, Kansas 1904, d. Tyler,


Texas 1982. He had his first independent office
in Chicago, 1935-42, and later practised in
Berkeley, Cal., 1945-6, Bartlesville, Okla.,
1956-64, Kansas City, 1964-9, and Tyler 197082. He was a professor at the School of
Architecture of the University of Oklahoma at
Norman, 1947-55, and from 1948 also Dean of
the school. His built work consisted mostly of
houses, in

which the influence of Frank Lloyd

*Wright

especially evident in the early years.

is

G.'s ebullient individualism resulted in designs

of an expressionist eccentricity. Technical calculations and emotional improvisations are


often the mutually contradictory sources of his
inspiration. In the Bavinger House in Norman,
Okla. (1950-5), a logarithmic spiral of space is
contained externally by a wall of raw sandstone,
while the irregular roof, the stairs, the access
bridges and the living quarters are all suspended

from

central mast

1^^

by

v'

steel cables.

',

GHa

Gollins, Melvin,

Ward

Partnership. Partby Frank Gollins,


James Melvin and Edmund Fisher Ward. Extensive practice initially involved largely with
post-war rehabilitation work, distinguished for
ability to handle large masses and exploit the
results of careful research work. Extensive work
for schools and universities and for the National
Health Service, as well as numerous offices.
Their offices in New Cavendish Street, London
x
represented a pioneering use of the
( 957)>
nership established in 1947

The firm, which now


some 150 employees, enjoys an inter-

curtain-wall glass facade.


has

national clientele.

Architecture

Partnership,

of the

Gollins

Melvin

Ward

London 1974

b. Milan 1935. Studied at the


Milan Politecnico; diploma i960. From 1961 to
1964 he worked for the periodical Casabellacontinuit. In 1965 he was appointed a professor
at Milan Politecnico, and 1965-78 also at the

Grassi, Giorgio,

University in Pescara. Even

more

Aldo *Rossi, G.

individualism

attacks

radically than

fashionable experimentation in architecture.


considers

that

architectural

history

and

He

already

makes abundantly available the archetypes


which can be applied to the entire spectrum of

Not coincidentally,
work of Heinrich *Tesseno\v is,

possible architectural tasks.

the rigorous

alongside the traditional architecture of the


farm buildings of

large, strongly articulated

Lombardy, one of his principal models. The


in Velio di Marone on the Lago d'Iseo,

house

with G. Favazdemonstrates G.'s reductivist impulse. In his project for the conversion ot the
Castello Visconteo at Abbiategrasso into a
Town Hall (1970) he contrasts historical forms
with a neutral monumcntality. In 1976 he
built in 1962 in collaboration
zeni, already

Goff. Bavinger House,

Norman, Okla. (1950-5)

29

Graves
collaborated with Antonio Monestiroli on the
design of the Students' Residence in Chieti,

under construction from 1979. The heart of the


composition is a straight agora-style street
which, in its tall colonnades of slender square
pilasters flanking the street, also recalls Friedrich

Weinbrenner's unrealized design for the Lange


Strae in Karlsruhe (1808). G.'s

own

quest for a

maximally objective, formal language, represents the limits of *Rational architecture, in that economic factors and reason
collective,

VML

alone determine design.

Grassi, G.,

tettura,

La costruzione

Venice 1967;

mestiere

altri

logica

dell'archi-

L'architettura

come

Milan 1980 (originally

scritti,

as La arquitectura como oficio y otros


Barcelona 1979); Giorgio Grassi. Pro-

published
escrhos,

getti e disegni

Mantua

1965-1980 (exhibition catalogue),

1982.

Graves, Michael,
at

b. Indianapolis 1934. Studied


the University of Cincinnati, Ohio, and at

Harvard University, after which he was a


Fellow at the American Academy in Rome for
two years. In 1964, he opened his own office in
Princeton, N.J., where he was appointed professor at the University in 1972. G.'s

came

to

wide public attention

the inclusion of his

work

name

in 1972

in

first

through

Five Architects,

*Gwathmey and
*Hejduk and *Meier (*New York

alongside that of *Eisenman,


Siegel,

work at that point - such as the


Hanselmann House in Fort Wayne, Ind. (1967),
and the addition to the Benacerraf House in
Princeton (1969), both illustrated in the book -

Graves. Public Services Building, Portland,

shared with that of the other four architects a


formal, often radical, return to the style of *Le

Colquhoun, Alan, and Carl,

Five). His

Corbusier's

work of the

architectural

The primacy of
G. to some far-

form soon

led

first

to Boullee

and Ledoux and

finally to the antique and thus


continually further from a rationalistic white
architecture to a more colourful one of delicate

As earlier with his neo-modernism,

neo-historicism (*historicism) also moved


towards a highly abstract level which elimin-

this

from early styles. Charmost recent creative


phase are the Fargo-Moorhead Cultural Center
Bridge between Fargo, N.D., and Moorhead,
Minn, (designed 1977), the Kalko House in
Green Brook, N.J. (designed 1978), and the
ated direct borrowings
acteristic

examples of

his

Public Services Building in Portland,


(1980-2).

130

Five

Graves,

Architects,

London

New

York

1972;

Peter,

Michael

1979.

1920s.

reaching excursions into history,

pastel tones.

Oregon (1980-2)

Oregon

AM

Great Britain. At the turn of the century


British architecture seemed in some respects to
be the most advanced. In the second half of the
19th century, the movement for the reform of
design teaching and patronage led by Sir Henry

Cole was centred on the South Kensington


(later Victoria and Albert) Museum, and the
Royal College of Art produced several generations of well-trained designers. Art schools
were influenced by the preaching of John
Ruskin, as well as by the teaching and example
of William *Morris, who contributed to a
powerful revival of crafts and opposed the
spread of mechanization in everyday life. Attempts were made to bridge the contradiction
by architect-designers of the *Arts and Crafts

Great Britain

movement such as C. R. *Ashbee and C. F. A.


*Voysey, as well as by other leading architects
of the time, notably Richard Norman *Shaw.
Perhaps the most important attempt in this
direction was the creation of the Garden City
movement through the teaching of Ebenezer
^Howard. While England remained virtually
untouched by *Art Nouvcau, Scotland had in
Charles Rennie ^Mackintosh a one-man protagonist of this movement. In England the Arts
and Crafts designers produced a successful
simplification of Continental excesses in the
decorative arts, and this was re-exported to the
Continent by the early exponents of the *Neue
Sachlichkeit, notably Hermann *Muthesius.
However,

in the years

before

World War

and for some time after, British architecture was


dominated by a revival of 18th-century monumentalism, strongly influenced by French
academic teaching. Shaw became the most
important protagonist of this tendency, followed by his principal disciples Reginald
Blomfield (Piccadilly Hotel, the Regent Street
Quadrant and the layout of Piccadilly Circus in
London, 1904-23) and Sir Edwin *Lutyens,
who presided over the maximum extension of
British architecture in the heyday of the Empire. Its climax was the building of the government city of New Delhi in *India (1912-31),
though the manner was also exported to
Canada, Australia and South Africa. At home,
it dominated new commercial building in the
City of London, as in Britannic House (19204)
and the Midland Bank (1924-39) by Lutyens.
Meanwhile, a modified 19th-century style
(Neo-Georgian) was taken up by the Garden
Cities (Letchworth, Welwyn) and by the newly
constituted architectural offices of local government authorities, notably the London County
Council (LCC). The new (19 18 and after)

Great Britain. Arnos Grove Underground


Station, London (1922), by C. Percy Adams,
Charles Holden and J. L. Pearson
(^Expressionism)

manner, often

into

in

persuasive

interior

conjunction with Dutch-

influenced exteriors, which was used in the

many town halls,

cinemas, hotels and restaurant

last type, those done


Co. by Oliver P. Bernard). The
post-war period was dominated by the academic 'pompier' architects; besides Lutyens and

chains (particularly, of this


for J.

Lyons

&

Blomfield, Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, Sir Edwin


Cooper (Marylebone Town Hall; Port of Lon-

don Authority) and Sir Herbert Baker (Offices


and Assembly in New Delhi; rebuilding of the
Bank of England in London) deserve mention.
The younger generation was represented by
three remarkable architect-teachers, who were
inclined to entertain both

new

ideas

and

new

London Underground authority, amalgamated


with others in 1933 to become the London
Passenger

Transport Board, patronized an


of design which extended from
lettering and trains (1922) to the actual buildings; their architects, C. Percy Adams, Charles
Holden and J. L. Pearson, achieved a remarkable amalgam of imported Dutch ^Amsterdam, School of) and native elements, creating a
homogeneous and impressive style.
The 1920s were also a time when Britain was
infected with an enthusiasm for the *Art Deco
fashion from Paris. This was fused with certain
Swedish and German Expressionist features
overall standard

Great Britain. Peter Jones department store,


London (1934), by C. H. Reilly with Crabtree,
Slater and Moberlcy
31

Great Britain
materials: Albert Richardson,

Howard Rob-

ertson and C. H. Reilly. Richardson (Financial

Times Building

in

London) represented the

extreme academic position; Robertson (Royal


Horticultural Society Hall in London, 1923,
with Murray Easton; British Pavilions in Paris,
1925; Brussels, 1935; New York, 1939) dominated the Architectural Association; and Reilly
(Dorset House in Piccadilly, 1923, with Carrere
& Hastings of New York; the Peter Jones
department store in Sloane Square, London,
1934, with his ex-pupils Crabtree, Slater and
Moberley - a showpiece of the new *Function-

made the Liverpool University ArchitecSchool the leading one in Britain. Thomas
worked through the established
J. Tait, who
practice of the Scot, Sir John Burnet (extension
of the British Museum, London), introduced a
daring Dutch strain into their later work such as
alism)
tural

Royal Masonic Hospital in Hammersmith


Mount Royal Hotel in Oxford
Street, London (1932-3), and St Andrew's
House, the monumental Scottish government
centre in Edinburgh (1933-9). Joseph Emberthe

(1930-4), the

ton had been an assistant of Tait's, and began his

with the vast concrete Expressionist

career

Olympia Exhibition Halls (1929-30). The


Royal Corinthian Yacht Club at Burnham-onCrouch was a much more sober concrete-andglass pavilion in the water.

ings,

Of his

later build-

the stores for Simpson's in Piccadilly

(19334) ana Hi s Master's Voice in


"

Street,

London

Oxford
on the

(19389), both variants

horizontal articulation of the street facade, are

known.
However, the most showy innovator of the
period was not an architect: Owen *Williams
had worked on the design of railways and
aircraft. He became a specialist in reinforcedthe best

first major building


was the mushroom-columned and continu-

concrete construction. His

ously glazed factory for Boots at Beeston, near


Nottingham (1930-2), the next was the Wem-

bley

swimming pool

(1933-4), while at the

same time he worked on the Pioneer Health


Centre in Peckham, another concrete-frame
building, largely faced with glass.

The

office

building for the Daily Express in London was an


early experiment in the use of opaque glass as a
facing material. In the area of domestic building

was dominated by the expansion of


which was co-ordinated with suburban developments on a large scale; this happened particularly around London. The Garden
the scene

transport,

132

Great Britain. Boots Factory, Beeston, near


Nottingham (1930-2), by Owen Williams
Great Britain. 'High and Over', Amersham.
Bucks. (192930), by Amyas Connell

Great Britain
Cities

grew only moderately, and did not

though the new LCC office did


attempt to experiment with relatively high-rise
building (Somerstown, 1922-32).
Meanwhile a new generation of architects
multiply,

had matured. Amyas Connell built 'High and


Over' at Amersham, Bucks. (1929-30), for the
archaeologist Bernard Ashmole; but his best
work was done in collaboration with Basil
Ward (after 193 1) and Colin Lucas (after 1933),
a partnership which lasted until 1939. Apart
from some film studios, their work consisted
entirely of houses and apartments which, despite their modest scale, revealed a daring
formal attack, and among British architects this
group comes nearest to a Constructivist approach (^Constructivism). E. Maxwell *Fry
had been a pupil of Reilly, and his first major
independent building was the Sun House in
Frognal, Hampstead, London (19345), a re_
markably accomplished exercise in concrete
and glass. Fry was to work in partnership with
Walter *Gropius during the latter's first exile in
Britain in 1935. The partnership's only important non-domestic building, Impington Village
College,

Cambs. (1930-40), became

type for

much

the proto-

English scholastic architecture

war. Fry at this time also completed his


pioneering housing scheme, Kensal House,

after the

London. Marcel *Breuer entered into a similar


partnership with F. R. S *Yorke, as did Erich
*Mendelsohn with Serge *ChermayerT, an
anglicized Russian, with whom he built a
number of houses and De La Warr Pavilion, a
seaside concert hall and restaurant complex, in
Bexhill, Sussex. After Mendelsohn's departure
for

Palestine,

Chermayeff designed

large

warehouse in Camden Town, London, and was


working on an industrial complex for ICI Ltd in
Manchester, and meanwhile had also built a
remarkable all-timber house at Bentley, Sussex,
for himself. However, at the beginning of
World War II he left for the United States.
Another Russian, Berthold *Lubetkin, had
arrived in London from Paris (where he had
worked for Auguste *Perret) in 1931. The
group of younger architects which formed
around him, *Tecton, did some work at the
London Zoo, including a virtuoso exercise in
reinforced concrete for the penguin pool; and in
the very important blocks of flats, Highpoint I
(!933 5) and Highpoint II (1936-8), in Highgate, north London, the new architecture was
treated with a brio and elegance unrivalled in

Great Britain. The De La Warr Pavilion,


Bexhill-on-Sea, Sussex (1934), by Mendelsohn and
Chermayeff
Great Britain. Penguin pool
(1934) by Tecton

at the

London Zoo

U3

Great Britain
Britain. After the

marily on the

war Lubetkin worked

New Town

pri-

of Peterlee, near

Durham.
Peterlee was one of the many New Towns
conceived and designated after the war. The
most important group of them was sited to the
north of London. This policy was the implementation at government level of some Garden
City ideas. The last of the New Towns, Milton
Keynes, was not designated until 1967, and is
still under construction. The war period was
devoted to temporary construction (various
types of prefabricated housing) and to the
setting of town-planning exercises of some
ambition, of which the Abercrombie plan for
the LCC is best known. Post-war reconstruction inevitably started with emergency housing, though from the outset planning ideas were
being implemented. The 1944 educational reforms required the building of many new

The methods used were taken over and


developed by the Ministry of Education into
the metal-frame and concrete system which
came to be known as *CLASP.
By way of contrast with the rather restrictive
nature of the reconstruction programmes and
the earnest atmosphere of post-war austerity,
the *Festival of Britain took place in 1951, the
centenary of the Great Exhibition, with the
participation of established architects who had
been active before the war, as well as many
newcomers. The most important feature was
the complex of exhibition buildings on the
South Bank of the Thames, of which only one
remains, the Royal Festival Hall, a major
concert hall designed by a team in the LCC
architects' office led by Sir Leslie *Martin. It has
since become a major feature of the South Bank
rication.

cultural

complex which now includes two

smaller concert halls and a large exhibition

(LCC,

and some local authorities (notably


Hertfordshire under Charles Herbert *Aslin)

gallery

experimented with various methods of prefab-

*Lasdun, 1967-76).

Great Britain. The National Theatre. London


(1967-76), bv Denys Lasdun

In the 1950s a new generation of architects


was already making its mark. Peter and Alison
*Smithson had won the competition for a

schools,

134

Theatre,

1968-9), the National Film


and the National Theatre (Denys

Great Britain

school at Hunstanton, Norfolk,

designed in

manner

scaled

which they

down from

the

Great Britain. Housing estate at Roehampton,


London (1952-5), by the London County Council
(Hubert Bennett)

work of *Mies van der Rohe;

architects' office

rather

Great Britain. University of Sussex, near


Brighton (1964), by Sir Basil Spence

their attack on the


happy-go-lucky formal attitudes in
Britain and their attempt to form a Brutalist
movement (*New Brutalism) seemed in contradiction. In any case, attention was still very
much focused on the work coming out of the
local authorities' design offices, and the LCC
office assumed the characteristics of a school.
The most famous of its products was the
housing estate at Roehampton, London, which
clearly showed the debate between the 'empiricists', or Swedish-oriented group that designed
the first section consisting of tower blocks
(1952), and the 'formalist', *Le Corbusieroriented group responsible for the later (1955)
point blocks and slabs set in the undulating park
site.

The forecasts of a rapid population rise led to


an expansion of the educational system, espeof the universities in the 1950s and '60s. A
universities were founded, and
their new buildings were the only large-scale
institutional commissions in the country. The
first, and one of the most successful, was the
University of Sussex in Brighton (begun 1952)
by Sir Basil *Spence, which institutionalized Le
Corbusier's Maisons Jaoul; York University
was built by Sir Robert Matthew (who had
headed the LCC office at the height of its
activity) and S. Johnson-Marshall, using a
modified version of the CLASP prefabricatioh
system; the University of East Anglia at Norwich (1962-8) was planned by Lasdun as a
continuous spatial structure. At this time the
first public authority mega-structure was conceived by Geoffrey Copcutt as part of Cumber-

cially

number of new

nauld New Town near Glasgow, a concrete


shopping and civic centre begun in i960. An
analogous housing scheme in London was the
Brunswick Centre in Bloomsbury (1962-8) by
Patrick

Hodgkinson (with Sir Leslie Martin).


and '60s there developed a

In the late 1950s

brand of science-fiction fantasy projects


*Archigram group, most
notably their scheme for a Plug-in City (19646). Although the group had little direct influence on architecture, its indirect impact was
considerable: Richard ^Rogers (with Renzo
monumentalized the High-Tech
*Piano)
manner popularized by Archigram 111 the
local

associated with the

135

Greene

Great Britain. Brunswick Centre, Bloomsbury,


(1962-8), by Patrick Hodgkinson

The

in Paris

(1971

(exhibition

Lyall, Sutherland,

London

catalogue),

The

Greene, Charles Sumner,

cipal innovations are

1868, d. Carmel, Cal.

intense

being undertaken

still

to be seen in the held

of academic buildings: the Leicester University


Engineering Building (1959-63) by *Stirling
and Gowan became perhaps the most-publicized
ings

new

by

British building. University build-

Stirling included those in

Oxford

(at

Queen's College,

1966-71) and Cambridge


(History Faculty Building, 1964-7), as well as in
Scotland at St Andrews (student housing, 1964-

Among

8).

his

development

other works are a large housing

in

New Town

Runcorn

74), as well as the extension


in

London.

(1967of the Tate Gallery


jr

ture,

British

Mills,

Edward

D., The

Britain, IQ46-195J,
J.,

New Architecture in Great

London

Ten Years of British

1953;

Architecture,

Summerson,
London 1956;

'Great Britain', Zodiac (Milan), no. 18 (1968);

Landau, Royston,
Architecture

New

London and

New York

Brighton, Ohio
Studied at the

space, their projecting roofs, their


their

flat

gables,

warm materials (wood, shingle-clad walls,


windows) and highly elaborated

among

are

the

best

examples of

Californian version of * Art Nouveau, inspired

by the japonisme of the epoch.

McCoy,

New York
Greene:

Dobbs

Esther, Five California Architects.

i960; Current, William, Greene and

Architecture

in

the

Residential

Style.

N.Y.

1968; Pevs-

Harmonds-

inson, Randell L., Greene and Greene (2 vols.),

in

worth 1972; Maxwell, Robert, New


136

b.

1957.

1974; Strand, Janann, .4


Greene and Greene Guide, Pasadena 1974; Mak-

Directions

ner, N., Pioneers of Modern Design,

York

in Pasadena and Los


894-1922, then independently in
Carmel, Cal. The houses of Greene & Greene
were from the beginning stamped with the
handicraft ideal of the *Arts cV Crafts movement. At the highpoint of their extensive aeuvre
stand the Blacker House (1907) and the Gamble
House (19089), both in Pasadena, which, with
their interpenetration of interior and exterior

Angeles,

details,

1;

New

Henry Mather *Greene

stained-glass

195

London and

Massachusetts Institute of Technology in CamHe was in joint practice with his brother

of British Architects, One Hundred Years of

London

1979;

bridge.

tute

1851-1951,

London

1982.

ture

Architecture,

York

1980; Architectural Design (ed.),

Architecture,

C. W., and Summerson, J., ArchitecHere and Now, London 1934; Royal Insti-

Ellis,

British

New

State of British Architec-

commercial building activity


in city centres had produced
no architecture of great distinction, but did, in
the mid-1970s, produce a government-sponsored movement for urban renewal. The prin7).

and

1972

1973; Thirties: British Art and Design before the

War
Pompidou

design of the Centre

London

Architecture,

London

British

British

Salt

Ferry,

Lake City 1977/9.

Gropius
1952-60, of Edilizia Moderna, 1962//
Verri, 1963-5; Director of La
Rassegna italiana since 1980 and, since 1982 of

continuita,
4,

and of

Casabella. He has been a professor, first at the


Milan Politecnico, 1964-78, and, since 1978, at

the Istituto Universitario di Architettura in

Venice.
G., who during the years he spent with E. N.
*Rogers on the editorial staff of Casabellacontinuit had been an apologist for Italian Neoliberty (block of flats for the Bossi company in

Cameri, near Novara, 1956-7), developed in


the course of his work a progressively more
detached, rationally controlled formal lan-

Greene, Charles

S.

and Henry M. The Gamble

House, Pasadena, Cal. (1908-9)

guage. His interest in topographical factors as a


basis for determining a design already evident
in his urban plan for Novara (executed 1962-7)
- reached spectacular heights in the grand

Pasadena and Los

Palermo University (from 1970),


Zen in Palermo (from 1970), and
the University of Calabria (from 1972), near
Cosenza. The last (designed with Emilio Battisti, Hiromichi Matsui, Pierluigi Nicolin, Franco Purini, Carlo R. Clerici, Bruno Vigano) is an

then independently in

extensive, bridge-like structure set in the land-

projects for

Greene, Henry Mather,

Brighton, Ohio
1870, d. Altadena, Cal. 1954. Studied at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge.

Worked in

Charles

partnership with his brother

Sumner *Greene

Angeles,

b.

894-1922,

in

the Quartiere

Pasadena.

scape at right-angles to the nearby parallel

Gregotti, Vittorio, b. Novara 1927. Studied at


the Milan Politecnico; diploma 1952. From
1952 to 1967 he was in partnership in Milan
with Lodovico Meneghetti and Giotto Stoppino as Architetti Associati; since 1974 with

lic

mountain ranges. Communal

Pierluigi Cerri
otti Associati.

and Hiromichi Matsui as Gregan editor of Casabella-

He was

two-storey 'bridge' (for vehicles


of the town, while the
University services housed in buildings attached to the bridge-like spine - serve to 'fill up'
the valley. G.'s constant concern to base his own
ans) adjoins the old streets

artistic positions

them
Gregotti. Residence for employees of a textile
factory, Camen, near Novara (Architetti Associati;
1956-7)

and pubwhere the


and pedestri-

services

plazas are clustered at the point

on

rational ideas

and to express

in theoretical terms, lends his

work

particular weight. This, together with his un-

dogmatic openness, has placed him in a middle


position in the contemporary architectural
scene, one which is at once individual and

VML

fruitful.

Gregotti,

Vittorio,

tettura,

Milan 1966;

Italian

Architecture,

territories

//
,

New

dell'archi-

Directions in

London 1968 and

New

York

1969; 'Vittorio Gregotti', Architecture and


Urbanism (Tokyo), July 1977; Tafuri, ManVittorio Gregotti.

fredo,

New

York

Gropius, Walter,
Mass., 1969.

Buildings and Projects,

1982.

b.

Berlin 1883, d. Boston,

One of the

outstanding architects

and teachers of the 20th century, G. was the son


of an architect who occupied an important
official

position

in

Berlin.

His great-uncle,

Martin Gropius, himself an architect of some


137

Gropius
repute, served as Principal of the Kunst- und
Gewerbeschule (Arts and Crafts School) in
Berlin and Director of art education in Prussia.

G. received his training in architecture at the


Technische Hochschule, first in Munich and
then Berlin. In 1907, he entered the office of
Peter ^Behrens, where so many young archi-

become famous had

tects later to

among them *Mies van

der

also

worked,

Rohe and *Le

Corbusier. After three years in Behrens' office


G. started on his own in 19 10 as an industrial
designer and architect. His designing covered a
wide range and included interior-decoration
schemes, wall-fabrics, models for mass-produced furniture, motor-car bodies, and a diesel
locomotive. His first important building was
the Fagus Factory at Alfeld an der Leine, built in
191 1 in collaboration with Adolf *Meyer. This
building marked a step forward in steel-andglass construction.

It is

frame supports the

become glass screens,


ter

of which

three-storeyed, the steel

floors,

and the walls have

the non-structural charac-

emphasized by the absence of


supports at the corners. At the famous

vertical

is

Deutscher Werkbund Exhibition at Cologne


in 1914, G. and Meyer designed the Administrative Office Building which proved to be a
very notable contribution to modern architecture. The circular glass towers enclosing the
of an architecmotif that was to become an important

staircases represent the first use

tural

feature in

many modern

department

stores.

Mendelsohn
From 19 14

It

buildings, especially

was often used by Erich

to fine effect.

to 191 8 came a break while G.


Germany Army. In 19 15 he was
appointed by the Grand Duke of Saxe- Weimar

served in the
to succeed

Henry *van de Velde

the Groherzoglich-Schsische

as Director of
Kunstgewerbe-

schule and of the Groherzoglich-Schsische


Hochschule fr Bildende Kunst at Weimar, and
in 19 19

he combined the two schools under the

name of Das

Staatliche Bauhaus Weimar


(Bauhaus), an expression of his own belief in
the unity of design and craft, of art and technics.
He was Director first at Weimar from 19 19 to
1925 and then at Dessau from 1925 to 1928, in
which year he resigned in order to devote his

energies

more wholeheartedly

to architecture

untrammelled by official duties.


While Director of the Bauhaus, G. designed
the school's buildings at Dessau, completed in
1926. The complex consists of a classroom
building,

138

workshop

building,

students'

with community facilities and


covered bridge between the first two buildings, which, besides administrative rooms and
clubrooms, contained a private atelier for G.
himself. In the workshops' wing reinforcedconcrete floor-slabs and supporting mushroom
posts were employed, with the supports set well
back to allow a large uninterrupted glass screen
on the facade extending for three storeys. This
was probably the first time so ambitious a use of
the glass screen was adopted in an industrial
building, and it paved the way for similar
constructions throughout Europe and America.
Among other works was the rebuilding of
the Municipal Theatre at Jena (1923), designed
in collaboration with Meyer, and two very
interesting projects, one a building for an
international academy of philosophical studies
in Erlangen (1924) and the other the Totalhostel, a building
a

made in 1927 in collaboration


with Erwin Piscator, the Berlin theatrical producer. The purpose was to design a theatre that
could be adapted to suit the type of play to be
performed, from the Greek theatre with semicircular orchestra, to the circus with central
arena, and to a modern proscenium-arch type.
The tiers of seats could be revolved in sections to
enable the change from one form to another to
be effected quickly. A model was exhibited at
the 1930 Paris Exhibition, but it was never built.
G. was not only an architect and industrial
designer, but a sociologist who wanted to build
on the basis of a rational interpretation of the
needs of people. During the latter part of his
directorship of the Bauhaus, he studied the
problem of obtaining the best living conditions
in cities while preserving their urban character.
He aimed to produce city dwellings in which
the inhabitants obtained as much sunlight and
open space with trees and lawns as possible at
very much the same density as then existed. To
achieve this he evolved the tall slab-like apartment block of about ten storeys, sited to gain the
maximum of sunshine, with cross-ventilation
and with broad stretches of garden between the
blocks and open at both ends. He showed that
higher blocks housing people at the same
overall density would allow far more space at
ground-level and greater advantage to be taken
of natural light.
G. was able to realize his ideas partially in the
Dammerstock housing scheme in Karlsruhe
(1927-8); there he not only designed some of
theater, a design

the

five-storey

blocks

but

acted

as

co-

Gropius
ordinator for eight other architects.

In

this

scheme several blocks are arranged in parallel


lines transversely with the streets. A more
ambitious scheme was the large Siemensstadt
estate in Berlin (192930), in which G. acted as
supervising architect with several others collaborating, while he was himself responsible for
two of the blocks. The general layout consists of
long five-storey blocks, orientated north-south
so as to receive the

maximum

sunlight, widely

spaced with stretches of grass and


light delicate foliage

tall trees with


between. The blocks have

with large windows, and they


planned with two flats per landing. These
Siemensstadt flats exerted a wide influence and
have been much imitated.
With the accession to power of the National
pale plain walls
are

Socialists in 1933,

for liberal

1934 G.

conditions

became

and modern-minded

left

Germany

difficult

architects, so in

for England.

He settled in

Gropius. Apartment block


estate,

London and entered into partnership with E.


Maxwell *Fry, one of the most successful of the

ium

younger British

larly sited,

Together they designed film laboratories for London Film Productions at Denham (1936); two houses, one in
Sussex (1936) and one in Old Church Street,
Chelsea (1935); and Impington Village College,
Cambridgeshire (1936), one of four village
colleges erected by the County Council. This
was G.'s most important contribution to archiarchitects.

tecture in England.

It is a one-storey building
with single-depth classrooms, fan-shaped hall,
and club amenities, sited amongst lawns and
trees to serve the dual purpose of a secondary
school and community centre for adults. Early
in 1937, G. accepted an invitation to become a
professor at Harvard University and left for the
United States; the following year, he became
Chairman of the Department of Architecture at
Harvard. One year later, he built his own house

which has much of the classic


of the houses that he had designed for
himself and the Bauhaus leaders in 1926. This
was followed by a large number of private
residences built in collaboration with other
architects in America. In the year of his arrival
he entered into a partnership with Marcel
*Breuer, a former student and master at the
Bauhaus. In the years of their partnership, in
in

Lincoln, Mass.,

restraint

addition to several houses, including

one for

Breuer himself, they designed the Pennsylvania


Pavilion at New York World's Fair in 1939, and
an interesting housing scheme at
Kensington near Pittsburgh for workers in an alumin-

New

in the Siemensstadt

Berlin (1929-30)

factory (1941); the buildings were irregufollowing the contours of the hills,

and reached by winding paths. The partnership


with Breuer ended in 1941.
Already in Germany, in 1932, G. had begun
experiments with standarized building elements for mass-produced housing, and he
resumed these experiments during the war
years 1943-5. While the earlier ideas were concerned with the use of copper-sheet cladding,
these later developments employed timber panels based on a module - both horizontally and
vertically of 40 in. (ioi-6 cm). After experiments made in collaboration with Konrad
*Wachsmann on Long Island, N.Y., these
houses were erected in considerable numbers in
California.

went into partnership with several


of the younger generation, forming a
team of eight under the name of 'The Architects
Collaborative' (*TAC). In this enterprise he
was the guide and leading spirit. That he was
able to enter with enthusiasm into so large a
group demonstrates his great belief in the value
of teamwork something he had always felt to
be necessary in modern building. The work of
the team includes the Graduate Center, Harvard University, Cambridge (1949-50), which
consists of a group of seven dormitory blocks,
all sited around the social centre.
Much of G.'s activity in the last years of his
In 1945 G.

architects

from c. 1957 to 1969, was in West Berlin. In


1957 he built a handsome ten-storey apartment

life,

139

Gropius

Gropius. Harvard Graduate Center, Cambridge


Mass.

(TAC; 1949-50)

block

as part

of the Interbau Exhibition in the


has a concave balconied front
facing south, with an open ground floor and
free-standing piers - a work very much in the

Hansa

district. It

modern idiom. In the 1960s the New Town


of Britz-Buckow-Rudow was built to an overall urban plan formulated by G. The Bauhaus
late

Archive

Tiergarten was built long


after G.'s death, in 1976-8. Originally planned
for Darmstadt, it was adjusted to its new site byAlexander Cvijanovic.
in the Berlin

G.'s buildings are distinguished by an adventurous use of modern materials - steel, concrete

and

glass

Gropius. Apartment block

- while he may be regarded

as

perhaps

important as G. was as an architect, he was


possibly even more influential as a teacher. He

was

a great believer in the intelligent applica-

of standardization and prefabrication, but


above all he wanted a building to be the product
of teamwork in which each member of the team
tion

appreciated fully
to

the

whole

Munich and Weimar

Bauhauses,

The
and

New

work

always distinguished by a classic restraint and excellence of


proportion, of which the houses for the staff at
the Bauhaus in Dessau are an example. But
140

is

ter

1923;

Architecture and the Bauhaus,

New

York

1936;

New

der Demokratie,

his

AW

Gropius, W., Idee und Auflau des Staatlichen

screen in forming the entire outer shell of a

maximum of light.

contribution related
G. regarded this as a

his

integration of society.

architecture.

building, thus admitting the

how

design.

symbol of community living and the intelligent

the principal innovator in the use of the glass

Architecturally,

in the Hansaviertel

Berlin (with Wils Ebert; 1957)

London

Scope of

total

Apollo in
York 1943;
Mainz 1967; Giedion, S., Wal,

Gropius. Mensch und Werk, Stuttgart 1954;


James Marston, Walter Gropius,

New

Fitch,

York and London

i960; Franciscono, Marcel,

Walter Gropius and the creation of the Bauhaus

Weimar, Urbana,

111.,

1971.

in

Gwathmey
Gruen, Victor, b. Vienna (as Viktor Grnbaum) 1903. Studied in Vienna under Peter
^Behrens (1924-5). Emigrated to the USA in
1938. Mainly known for his town and country
planning projects (e.g. plan for Fort Worth,
Texas 1955). His conception of 'shopping centres' was epoch-making; sited out of town and
catering for the needs of a car-owning society
(Northland Shopping Center, Detroit, 1952),
they became prototypes for the American post-

war suburban expansion, although he himself


advocated striking a balance between private
and mass transit. These ideas were developed in
his Fort Worth plan and expounded in his Heart
of our Cities (New York 1964).

Tunnard, Christopher, Man-Made America,


Haven, Conn. 1963.

New

lit"

Guimard. Entrance
( 1

%'

- Kj'

to a Paris

Metro

station

899-1 900)

Gruppo

7. Alliance of seven Milanese archi(from the Scuola Superiore di Architettura


del Politecnico di Milano): Ubaldo Castagnoli,
tects

Luigi *Figini,

Guido

Frette, Sebastiano Larco,

Gino *Pollini, Carlo Enrico Rava and Giuseppe


*Terragni. The group was founded in 1926, but
Castagnoli left after several months and was
replaced by Adalberto *Libera. They first came
to public attention in 1927 with their exhibition
at the Biennale in Monza. In a four-part
manifesto, published in 19267 in the magazine
La Rassegna Italiana, the members declared their
withdrawal from a much too 'romantic' dependence on the past, as the Italian Futurists
(^Futurism) had already demanded twelve
years earlier, and proposed an 'Italian' version
of rationalist modernism. Their work was
characterized by a balance between a reverence
for

*Le Corbusier's machine

aesthetic

on the

one hand, and the classical monumentality of


Greek temples on the other; the group laid the
theoretical groundwork for Italian *Rationalism. In 1928 the M.A.R. (Movimento Architettura Razionale) grew out of the group. This
gave birth two years later to the *M.I.A.R.

(Movimento

Italiano per l'Architettura

zionale).

RaVML

and important architect of *Art Nouveau.

Among
8),

his principal

works

are the

still

eclecti-

composed

Castel Beranger in Paris (1897the entrances to the Paris Metro stations

cally

(1 899-1900), virtuoso pieces of organic design


evocative of forms in nature, as well as the
Humbert-de-Romans building in Paris (1902),

a large

auditorium of iron construction. G.'s

originality lay principally in ornamental design.

He

transformed railings, balustrades, furniture,


and even the structural elements of his buildings
into charged images of highly individual associational richness and refinement.

Graham,

F. L.,

Hector Guimard,

1970; Naylor, G., and

New

Brunhammer,

York

Y., Hector

Guimard, London 1978.

Gwathmey, Charles, b.

Charlotte,

N.C.

1938.

Studied at the University of Pennsylvania in


Philadelphia (under *Kahn and *Venturi) and
at Yale University (under ^Rudolph, ^Stirling
and * Woods). He was Professor of Design at the
Pratt

Institute,

New

York,

1964-6.

Sub-

sequently, he taught at Yale, Princeton, and

Harvard Universities and

at the

University of

California in Los Angeles. In 1966 he opened,

together with Richard Henderson, his own


practice in New York, which he has continued

La Rassegna Italiana, December


Hanno-Walter, 'Rationalismus in der Architektur - eine Be-

since 197 1 in partnership with

griffsklrung', Architectura, vol. 9, 1979.

who hadjoined the firm in the previous year.

Articles in

1926-May

1927; Kruft,

Robert

Siegel,

G.
along with *Eisenman, *Graves,
*Hejduk and *Meier, to the *New York Five,

belonged,

Guimard, Hector,

b. Paris 1867, d.

New York

1942. Studied in Paris at the Ecole des Arts

Decoratifs and at the *Ecole des Beaux-Arts.

was influenced by *Horta, the most

He

brilliant

who were much

discussed in the mid-1970s for

their formal, indeed overtly radical, return to

early

modernism,

especially

*Le Corbusier's
141

Haesler
early 1920s. In addition to numerous interiors, G. has for the most part designed
private houses, such as his own house at

work of the

Amagansett, N.Y. (1965-7), the Steel and Orly


Houses in Bridgehampton, N.Y. (1969-71;
with Siegel), as well as the Cogan House in
East Hampton, N.Y. (197 1-2; with Siegel). Of
the large-scale projects of recent years, the East
Campus Complex of Columbia University in
New York (198 1; with Emery Roth & Sons) is
AM
especially to be noted.
D Five Architects, New York 1972; 'Other
spatial

realms',

Progressive

Architecture,

Feb.

1977, pp. 72-83; Breslow, Kay and Paul (eds.),


Robert Siegel. Wohnbauten
Charles Gwathmey

&

19661977, Fribourg 1979; Marlin, William, 'A


section through the thinking of Gwathmey
Siegel

Architectural

Architects',

!979 PP- 91-102; Abercrombie,


Siegel,

New York

Record,

Sep.

Gwathmey

S.,

and London 198 1.

own

Zum

Problem des WohnungsMein Lebenswerk als


,

1957; Lane, Barbara


and Politics in Germany,
1918-1945, Cambridge, Mass. 1968

Architekt,

Miller,

Berlin (East)

Architecture

Haller, Fritz, b. Solothurn, Switzerland 1924.


After apprenticeship and collaboration with
various Swiss architects, as well as with Willem
van Tijen and H. A. Maaskant in Rotterdam,
H. established his own practice in his home
town in 1949. From 1966 to 197 1 he was guest
professor at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, where he worked with
Konrad *Wachsmann on pioneering studies on
movement patterns in space. Since 1977 he has
been a professor at the Technische Universitt
in Karlsruhe.

H. made

name above

his

is

all with his steel


one of the finest

achievements in industrialized building. In i960


he was given the task of erecting a fabrication
building for the metal constructions firm
in Mnsingen. This was the impetus for his
development of a universally applicable system
for spanning great distances in building (Maxi
system). Several years later, for an administration building to be erected next to the factory,
he developed a system involving shorter spans
for smaller buildings with appended extension
spaces (Mini system). A third building system,
likewise developed for the Miinsingen-based

USM

Haesler, Otto, b. Munich 1880, d. Wilhelmshorst, near Potsdam, 1962. After studying at the
Baugewerkschulen of Augsburg and Nuremberg and working for a time as a mason, he
worked for a time in collaboration with Ludwig Bernoully in Frankfurt am Main before
office in Celle in 1906.

an advocate of the

Haesler, Otto,

building system, which

H
starting his

baues, Berlin 1930;

maximum

He was

possible industri-

firm,

was the

USM

Haller office furniture

system, which he developed in 1964-70 and

become

of modern

alization

which has

thies

furniture design. Finally, in the early 1970s, H.

of housing construction. Such sympawere, he felt, in harmony with the aims of

the architectural association

he joined in

1926.

Der *Ring, which

Among

individual

H.'s

buildings of this period the best

known

is

the

Dammerstock estate in Karlsruhe

(1927-8, built
under the direction of *Gropius). Of his contemporary public work, the 'Italienischer Garten' (Italian

portions of

garden)

which

in Celle (1924)

still

survive

as

isolated

well as the

Georgsgarten estate in Celle (1925), the Rothenberg estate in Kassel (1929-31) and the
Blumenlagerfeld estate in Celle (193 1), all of
which adhere strongly to the strip-building
principle, should be noted. With the rise of
National Socialism, H. withdrew in 1934 to
Eutin, where he was active as a garden designer.
In 1946 he went to Rathenow to rebuild the
historic town centre, and from 1953 he lived in
Wilhelmshorst.
FJ
142

since

a classic

a system for highly systematized


construction of buildings with medium spanning distances (Midi system). This was used for

developed

first time on a large scale in the Swiss


Railways Training Centre at Murten (1980-2,
with Alfons Barth and Hans Zaugg). Among

the

H.'s other buildings, the best


for

known

are: those

USM in Mnsingen (1960-4); the Wagsen-

ring School in Basle (ist phase 195 1-5; 2nd

phase 1958-62); the Canton School in Baden


(1958-64); and the Hhere Technische Lehranstalt (Higher Technical Training Centre) in

Brugg-Windisch (1961-6).
H., who with Franz Feg

is

the

most promi-

nent representative of the 'Solothurn School'


("^Switzerland), has never sought originality,
but rather has always aimed at the generally
valid solution. His primary concern is the

Hring

Haller. Swiss Railways Training Centre, Murren


(with Alfons Barth and Hans Zaugg; 1980-2)

Hardy. Olmsted Theater, Adelphi

mastery of a given task on an abstract level. Just


architecture which he considers as based

buildings, for

as in
in

construction

his

approach led him to

develop building systems, so in town planning,


on which he has written two basic works, he
develops ideal plans which exclude any element
of chance.
TH
D Haller, Fritz, Totale Stadt. Ein Modell, lten
1968;

Totale Stadt. Ein globales Modell,

lten 1975; 'Die Solothurner Schule', Bauen


Wohnen (Munich), 36 (198 1), nos. 7/8.

Hardy, Hugh (Gelston), b. Majorca 1932 (the


son of American parents). Studied at Princeton
University and then worked for several years as
assistant to the New York stage designer Jo
Mielziner.

In

1962,

he established

his

own

New

York, and in 1967


entered into a partnership with his earlier
collaborators Malcolm Holzman and Norman
architectural office in

Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer


(HHPA). Their work is one of

Pfeiffer as

Associates

convincing examples of the 'third

most
way' in

the

American architecture, between the radicalof the abstract formal language of


modernism on the one hand (*New York Five)
and a no less formally obsessed *Post-Modernism on the other. Their work takes up the
imagery of everyday culture from that of
modern technology, with its prefabricated constructional and installation elements, via that of
'roadway culture' to that of vernacular construction, which at times are combined into an
astounding syncretism. A major part of their
production falls into the category of 'cultural'

ization

University,

Garden City, N.Y. (HHPA; 1974)

example the Orchestra Hall

Minneapolis (1974;

in collaboration

with

in

Ham-

& Abrahamson), the Olmsted


Adelphi University in Garden City,
N.Y. (also 1974), the renovation of the 1904
buildings of the City Art Museum in St Louis,
Mo. (1977), as well as the Boettcher Concert
Hall in Denver, Col. (1978). A typical example
of their residential work is the Cloisters Condomel Green

Theater

at

minium in Cincinnati, Ohio (1970).


AM
D 'HHPA's USA', Progressive Architecture,
February 1975, pp. 4259; 'Hardy Holzman
and Urhanism
(Tokyo), March 1976; Sorkin, Michael, Hardy

Pfeiffer Associates', Architecture

Holzman

Pfeiffer,

New York and London

1981.

b. Biberach 1882, d. Gppingen 1958. Studied at the Stuttgart Technische Hochschule (under Theodor *Fischer)
and in Dresden. In 192 1, he established his own

Hring, Hugo,

architectural practice in Berlin. In

1924 the

Zehnerring was founded to fight the tendencies


propagated by Berlin's city architect, Ludwig
Hoffmann, and this group was later enlarged to
become Der *Ring. The elite of the avantgarde architects of Germany belonged to it, and
H., as its secretary, was the leader of the
association, and in 1928 he participated in the
first *CIAM meeting at La Sarraz. In 1933 the
Ring was dissolved by the Nazis. Though
*Gropius and *Mies van der Rohe emigrated,
H. remained in Germany, where he was the
head of a private art school in Berlin from 1935
to 1943. In 1943 he returned to his native town
of Biberach.

H3

Harrison

H. was responsible for a number of imporof which the Garkau farm buildings
(1924-5) and the housing project in BerlinSiemensstadt (1929 3 1) became widely known;
his real importance, however, lies in the theoretical field. He expounded his views on organic
building in numerous articles and lectures
(Organic architecture). He maintained that
the work of rejuvenating architecture had to
proceed in two stages. The first is concerned
with research into changing needs, and aims at
fitness for purpose and the 'organism'; the
second, on the other hand, deals with 'design'.
While in rationalist thinking architectural
forms were determined by using geometric
forms accepted as a priori beautiful, H. attempted to develop designs solely in line with their
fitness for a purpose, without preconceived
aesthetic ideas. The decisive criterion in organic
building is the determination of form from an
object's identity. A building derives its shape
tant works,

from the function which

it

has to discharge as

the tool (or 'organ' as H. called

house

as

it)

the tool of its inhabitants

of man. The
is

the starting

point of his thinking.

GUT GARKAU

which in the 1920s were limited to


a small circle, became increasingly important
with the new phase of modern architecture that

Hring. Garkau farm buildings, near Lbeck

started

(1924-5)

H.'s ideas,

c.

1930. Later, architects as different as

Alvar *Aalto, Louis *Kahn and Hans *Scharoun adopted similar views.
JJ
D Hring, H., 'Wege zur Form', Die Form,
vol. 1, 1925;
'Geometrie und Organik',
Baukunst und Werkform, vol. 9, 195 1;
Die
,

Ausbildung des Geistes zur 'Arbeit an der Gestalt,


Berlin 1968; Lauterbach, H., and Joedicke, J.
(eds.),

Hugo Hring.

Lincoln Center (1962-8) in New York, as well


the Albany Mall state administrative and
plaza complex in Albany, N.Y. (1972-8). AM
as

Schriften, Entwrfe, Bauten,

Stuttgart 1965; Joedicke,

J.,

(ed.),

Das

andere

Bauen Gedanken und Zeichnungen von Hugo


Hring, Stuttgart 1982.

Harrison, Wallace K(irkman),

b. Worcester,
Mass. 1895, d. New York 198 1. Studied briefly
at the *Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He
worked in association with Harvey Wiley

Corbettand William H. MacMurray, 1929-34;


formed one of the three architectural teams for the planning of Rockefeller
Center in New York (1931-40). In 1934 he
formed a partnership with Jacques Andre Fouilhoux, Raymond *Hood's former partner,
which was joined in 1941 by Max *Abramtogether, they

ovitz. After Fouilhoux's death,

work with Abramovitz


144

was one of the most successful in post-war


America and played a major role in the planning
of the United Nations Complex (194750) and

H continued to

(194570); their firm

Haus-Rucker-Co.

Architectural
group
founded by Laurids Ortner, Gnter Zamp Kelp
and Manfred Ortner in Vienna in 1967, and also
active in Dsseldorf since 1970, as well as in
New York since 1971. The work of HausRucker-Co, which occupies a middle-ground
between art and architecture, is to be understood as a 'School of Astonishment', that is as a
means to set learning and self-experience processes in motion. They seek to propagate a
'provisional', disposable architecture, a concept

which

anticipates changes in the environment.

Among

the group's best-known achievements are: Balloon for Two, Vienna (1967); the
shell around the Haus Lange Museum, Krefeld
(1971); and the Oasis Number 5 at 'Documenta
5' in

Kassel (1972). In addition, a considerable

Havlicek

Harrison. View over Lincoln Center Plaza, New


York (overall plan by Harrison & Abramovitz),
showing: (left) the New York State Theater
(1964)
by Philip Johnson, (right) Philharmonic Hall
(1962) by Max Abramovitz, and (centre) the arches
of the new Metropolitan Opera House (1966) by

pneumatic cells;
posed of a resounding

artificial

Harrison

gigantic ladder leading

up into

number of

'paper projects' have been under-

Pneumacosm (1967),
New York using
and the Big Piano (1972), com-

taken. These include: the

an expansion proposal for

cloud with

FW

it.

Ortner, Laurids, Provisorische Architektur der Stadtgestaltung, Dsseldorf 1976.

Medium

Havlicek,

Prague 1899, d. Prague


the Technical University and

Josef, b.

196 1. Studied
the Fine Arts

at

Academy in Prague (191626).


Influenced by the cubic architecture of Josef
*Hoffmann, he became in the 1920s one of the
leading advocates of

modernism

in

Czecho-

slovakia.

Among

his

most important works was the

headquarters of the State Pensions Office in


Prague (1929-33, with Karel Honzik), a complex consisting of a cruciform office tower of 1
and 9 storeys and attached wings with shops,

Haus-Rucker Co. Pneumacosm

(projec t, 1967)

apartments for the employees,

etc. It

is

one of
145

Hejduk
most

the

significant buildings

of the 1930s

in

AM

Europe.
D Havlicek,

J.,

Nurhy

a stavby:

1925-IQ60,

Prague 1964.

Hejduk, John, b. New York 1929. Studied at


the Cooper Union in New York, the University of Cincinnati in Ohio and at Harvard
University. After working in various offices,
I. M. *Pei, he established an
independent practice in New York in 1965.
Since 1964 he has been professor at the Cooper
Union. International interest in H. is based not

including that of

much on

so

includes the

Long

his limited built

Demlin House

Island (i960), the

in

work which
Locust Valley,

Hommel Apartment in

New

York (1969) and the restoration of the


Foundation Building of the Cooper Union
(

-but rather much more on his theoreticengagement with architecture in which

975)

didactic

he strives to drive space and scale to their


absolute limits. His experimental, abstract approach to spatial and formal conflicts made H.,
together with *Eisenman, the leading theoretician in the

*New York Five.


New York

FW

1972; John Hej(exhibition catalogue), Zurich

Five Architects,

duk, Architect

1973

Hertzberger, Herman,

b.

Amsterdam

1932.

Immediately after completing his studies at the


Technical College in Delft in 1958, he established his
at

the

own

office in

Amsterdam. He taught
in Amsterdam,

Academy of Architecture

196570, and since 1970 has been

a professor at

the Technical College in Delft. Together with

*Bakema, van *Eyck and

others, he edited the

architectural review, Forum, 195963; thisjour-

way for the Structuralist


movement in the *Nether-

nal helped prepare the

(*Structuralism)
lands,

with H. and van Eyck

as its leaders.

For H.

the architect's task does not consist of offering

ready-made solutions, but rather in providing a


framework to be filled in eventually by

spatial
its

users. In

keeping with structuralist thought,

framework is conceived as a regular


system based on 'Archeforms' which are conthis spatial

tinually reinterpreted in new ways. The system


not only provides for individual expression, but
creates the very conditions to make that expression possible. Among H.'s most important
buildings are: the Montessori School in Delft
(196670); the 'Diagoon' houses in Delft (197 1);
the administration building of the Centraal

146

Hertzberger. Centraal Beheer Insurance Co.,


Apeldoorn (19702): exterior and interior

Beheer

Insurance

Company

in

Apeldoorn

Drie Hoven Old People's Home


in Amsterdam-Slotervaart (1972-4); and the
Vredenburg Music Centre in Utrecht (1976
(19702);

De

AM

8).

Herman,

'Huiswerk voor
meer herbergzame vorm', Forum (Amsterdam),
Hertzberger,

3/1973; Lchinger, Arnulf, Strukturalismus


Architektur, Stuttgart 198

1.

in der

historicism

Hilberseimer, Ludwig, b. Karlsruhe 1885, d.


Chicago 1967. Studied at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe, 1906-10, and principally
active in Berlin as an architect, 191028.

taught at the *Bauhaus,

He

192933, and later

became Director of the Seminar

for

there, 1955-7-

From the beginning H. moved in the most


advanced of avant-garde circles in German
architecture: in 1919 he shared in the experiences of the *Arbeitsrat fr Kunst and the
*Novembergruppe; in 1925 he was a member
of the Expressionist-oriented group of artists
(*Expressionism) and was

with them; in 1927


he joined the *Ring and in 1928 *CIAM; in
193 1 he was a director of the *Deutscher
Werkbund. His involvement in city planning,
the first architect to exhibit

begun

in 1919 for the 'Existenzminimum',


culminated in his 1924 project for a 'skyscraper
city', which developed *Le Corbusier's revolutionary notions of 1922 for a 'Ville con-

temporaine'.

Enormous uniform

slabs

form

two superimposed

cities; below, the city of


and automobile traffic; above
it, the residential city with its pedestrian paths.
This was intended to minimize the distance
between home and work and thus reduce traffic

business activity

Hilberseimer. Skyscraper

city (project, 1924)

tree

studies in a 1929 plan for central Berlin.

With

Housing

and Urban Planning there. He was again in


practice as an independent architect in Berlin,
I933~8. He held the post of Professor of City
and Regional Planning at the Armour Institute
(from 1940 Illinois Institute) of Technology in
Chicago, 193855, and was Director of the
Department of City and Regional Planning

known as Der Sturm

Apart from meagre roof gardens,


and no lawn interrupted the prismatic
artificiality of this anti-nature attitude determined by reason. H. applied these theoretical
circulation.

no

(house

his

at

few, but programmatic buildings

the Weienhofsiedlung in Stuttgart,

on the Rupenhorn, Berlin, 1935),


and schemes (among
others that for Chicago, 1937-8, reworked
1950) and his writings, H. represented an
extreme reductivist position within German
^Rationalism. He was thus close to the position
of *Mies van der Rohe, whose friend he had
been since the time of the magazine G and with
1927; house

his city-planning projects

whom

he also collaborated in Chicago. The

strong geometric ordering and conscious for-

which characterize his obsessively


works are kept alive in the most
VML
radical wing of *Rational architecture.
D Hilberseimer, Ludwig, Grostadtbauten,
Hanover 1925; (ed.), Internationale neue
mal

restraint

repetitive

Baukunst, Stuttgart 1927;


tektur,

Stuttgart 1928;

Chicago 1944;
Chicago 1949;
idee,

The

Grostadtarchi-

New City,
New Regional Pattern,
,

The

Entfaltung einer Planungs-

Berlin, Frankfurt

am Main

and Vienna

Contemporary Architecture: Its Roots


93;
The Nature of
and Trends, Chicago 1963;
X

Chicago 1965; Malcolmson, Reginald


F., 'Elementos de la nueva ciudad: La obra de
Ludwig Hilberseimer', Hogar y Arquitectura
Cities,

(Madrid),

May-June

1968.

historicism. The concept of historicism in


historical science, and particularly in the German philosophical tradition, has been used to
designate a consciousness of historical genesis
and relativity in not only the material but also
the intellectual realm. This view arose in
reaction to earlier forms of historical determinism. In a critical sense historicism designated the
progression from a 'critique of historical reason'
(Wilhelm Dilthey) to an 'irresolute relativism'
(Friedrich Meinecke) and the often culturally
pessimistic retreat
past.

The

first

from the present

into the

scholar to replace such negative

terms as revivalism and (even more unambiguously scornful) ^eclecticism as evaluations of


19th-century architecture as a whole, and in
particular the stylistic mixtures of the last
decades of the century, was the

Hermann Beenken, and

German

art

he
introduced the purely historiographical term

historian

in 1928

H7

historicism

'historicism' (with the intent

of

a positive re-

evaluation of the architecture of the 'romantic'

Germany)

period in

With

his

work

into architectural history.

the term

was accorded

a neutral

meaning as a time period, although implicitly a


fundamental qualitative difference was maintained between the stylistic borrowings of the
19th century and comparable phenomena in the
Renaissance. With Beenken the term became
standard among German art historians, but
even today it has found only limited application
in Anglo-American or French art-historical
studies, as a term which imparts a structural
unity to the salient historical approach which is
the common ground in the formally and
iconographically diverse architectural solutions
in the 19th century. Recent AngloAmerican usage has tended, following
Mandelbaum's suggestions, to distinguish
clearly between eclecticism, as one particular
architectural strategy, and historicism as the

adopted

more general description of an architecture


highly self-conscious of its position in a larger
chain of development, the structure of which
can be assessed by historical analysis. Thus

wide variety of architecand doctrines in the 19th century,


all of which conceived what Gtz has labelled 'a
programmatic relationship to history'. These

historicism describes a
tural theories

include the social Utopian-inspired architectural

Vaudoyer and their


French contemporaries, the structurally analytical and democratic theories of Viollet-le-Duc
and Gottfried Semper's approach to the development of types on materialist bases, as well as
the clearly historicist notion of 'development'
purveyed particularly by the architects of the
philosophies of Labrouste,

English High Victorian

From

art history the

broadly speaking, the premise that

emancipation of architecand traditions and in


the conviction that 'modern' architecture
created a 'true' unity of form and function and
thereby an ideal unity of art and function,
theory and practice, which could indeed be
linked to history through common principles,
but not by formal analogy.
sides precisely in the

148

from

history.

c.

19 10

is

but

Throughout

the

20th century historicism has continued to play a


which cannot be understood
simply in terms of the characterized antithesis of
role in architecture

the

*Neues Bauen or *Rationalism and

dition.

This requires rather

tra-

differentiating

of cultural definitions, ideological conand use of historical forms. The rejection of


stylistic eclecticism of the late 19 century did not
come about by a radical denial of all historical
relationships. It was much more a fundamentalist return - after the brief aestheticist episode of
the pure decorative freedom and stylistic invention known as *Art Nouveau - to 'genuine'
analysis
tent

historical principles, that

is

to the typological

helm

the present century's cultural achievement reture

myth of architectural

movement.

The point of departure of the historicist


is,

architecture against historicism

concept of historicism

tectural criticism, where it is often used as an illdefined and undifferentiated evaluation of the
most varied phenomena of 20th-century archi-

critique

approach to art history - to serve as the symbol


of the intellectual and cultural unity of an entire
epoch and to evoke the theory of an artistic
avant garde, opened the way for the postulate of
an aesthetic of 'pure' abstract (technical) form.
This was asserted as the fulfilment of the old
search for a 'new style' and, indeed, the only
'style' of the 20th century. This intellectualized
cultural and artistic model, however, denied
that historicism remained alive with varying
intensity in the artistic consciousness of the 20th
century. The by now well-known portrait of a
straightforward development of the international Style out of the revolution of modern

and formal paradigms of 'true' monumentally


and 'native' traditionalism. The unpretentious
*neo-classicism on the model of the 'Prussian
style' (Artur Moeller van den Brck, 19 16) seen
in the architecture off. 1800 (as in the works of
Peter *Behrens. Heinrich Tessenow or Wil-

has recently entered into contemporary archi-

tecture.

stylistic concept - devised


context of an idealist-intoned German

The adoption of a
in the

historical links

*Kreis), the timeless rusticated

monu-

mentality of the Stuttgart Central Station (Paul


*Bonatz), or the simplified Baroque forms
applied to late medieval or Biedermeier types
(as in the works of Theodor *Fischer, Paul
Schmitthenner or German Bestelmeyer) were,
as expressions of conservative bourgeois attitudes, quantitatively much more important in
the architecture of the 1920s in ^Germany than
were the examples of *Neue Sachlichkeit. Even

Expressionist

architecture

displayed strong historicist

(*Expressionism)
traits,

especially in

on

gestalt and
psychology (Wilhelm Worringer); and
moreover not exclusively in church architecture (Dominikus *Bohm, Peter Vilhelm Jensen

those gothic abstractions based


cultural

historicism
is also true of the brick architecwith their ethos of materials and
consciousness of tradition (Fritz Schumacher,
Fritz *Hger, *Amsterdam, School of), in
which the border with anthropological and
natural analogies was fluid (Bernhard Hoetger,
Anthroposophical architecture). The cultural
ideological 'racist' conservatism (Paul SchultzeNaumburg) on the one hand, and the socialutopian futurist pathos (Bruno *Taut) on the
other, represent only the extremes of these

*Klint). This

tural styles

historicist positions.

The opposition between 'traditionalist' and


'modern' architecture - especially in Germany
- was first polarized towards the end of the
1920s (controversy over the Weienhofsiedlung, Stuttgart), in

which more general

social

conflicts underlay the artistic issues (small town


and rural interests v. metropolitan societal

structures, handicraft v. industrial culture, indi-

vidual v standardized form).

Thus

the

monu-

mental building programme and the 'Blut und


Boden' (Blood and Earth) Housing Estates of
National Socialism represented less an interruption of a modern line of architectural development than a canonization of existing

now

historicism. League of Nations Palace, Geneva


(project, 1927), by Marcello Piacentini, Gaetano
Rapisardi and Angelo Mazzoni

even in countries with democratic institutions


the notion of a representative architecture was
strongly tied to historical models.

still

more strongly eclectic,


which held sway in *Russia from
(193

1)

into the 1950s, and

which

after 1945

strengthened emphasis on historical character

and above

national architecture, increasingly

all

albeit

with

the ideological content

building. In contrast, both of these aspects


less

of

were

strongly intoned in the official architecture

of Fascist *Italy. The League of Nations Competition (1927-8) for Geneva and the governmental and cultural buildings of the 1940s in

Washington, D.C., demonstrate, however, that


historicism. Pfullinger Hallen
Pfullingen (1904-7),

community

centre,

by Theodor Fischer

the time of

the competition for the Palace of the Soviets

dominant influence
states, was intended

conservative tendencies,

The

historicism

similar,

a cultural

The

was

also in the Soviet satellite

to

convey the idea of

imbued with

propagandistic significance.

general label 'historicism' encompasses

also the

more or

less

preservation-conscious

post-war reconstruction of historic city centres


destroyed in World War II. The strong need for
a tangible sense of historical continuity is
manifested not only in the imitative reconstruction, as in Poland (with its desire for a national
historical identity), but also in the restoration of

West German

cityscapes, in which nearly


everywhere a sympathetic-restorative reconstruction found favour, rather than radical

suggestions for

The

new

construction.

of *Post-Modernism
have developed in a rather contradictory context. These include a historicizing architecture
of luxury in the *USA (Philip *Johnson,
Minoru *Yamasaki), which continues the implicit

various

protest

strains

against

rigour of Rationalism

the

abstract

aesthetic

formulated theoretically by Robert *Venturi in 1966, as well as

more

recently

through

#**

in

first

architecture

intellectual

distance

in

which -

historical

elements are used playfully, ironically, or merely aesthetically as a pictorial 'book of quota149

Hoffman

Ssspjij

Ohio

New

Play House Theater, Cleveland,


(1981-4), by Philip Johnson and John Burgee

historicism.

tions' (Charles

architecture

canon of

W.

in

classic

*Moore), and finally that


which the structural formal
modernism is reworked aes-

^^

Wiener Secession, had a decisive


on the course steered by H. himself.
However, his elegance and refinement of taste
was far removed from the severity of *Loos. He
did not, in fact, despise ornament and this led
tion of the

influence

him

to

show

particular interest in the produc-

of an identity of theory and


through which the Modern Movement thought to triumph over history. JPa/BB
D Gtz, Wolfgang, 'Historismus', Zeitschrift

He taught at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Vienna from 1899 onwards,


and in 1903, together with Koloman Moser, set
up a group of studios and workshops, which
under the name of Wiener Werksttte enjoyed
widespread success and fame for thirty years.
In 1897 he had joined with other young
artists, including Joseph *01brich, in founding
the Wiener Secession. Under the influence of
the Glasgow School and of Belgian and French
*Art Nouveau, its aims were more radically
modernist than those of Wagner's school. In the
opening years of the 20th century H. designed
exhibition pavilions, decorative schemes for
interiors, and four houses (Moser, Moll, Henneberg and Spitzer). With the Purkersdorf Sanatorium (1903) he became one of the foremost
exponents of the early Modern Movement:
here the various elements of the external wall

des Deutschen Vereins fr Kunstwissenschaft, 24,

were combined

1970; Mandelbaum, Maurice, History, Man, and


Reason.
Study in Nineteenth Century Thought,

emphasize the abstract quality of the building's


volumes. His Palais Stoclet, Brussels (1905), is
an architectural masterpiece that evokes the
exquisite poetry of Post-Impressionism and
Symbolism. Although completely based on
modernist theories, it is rich and refined to the
point of decadence, a monument of the late
bourgeois age which represents a milestone in
H.'s own career, and in the history of European

through historical distancing (*New


York Five). In Europe, historicism is manifested
in *Rational architecture which harks back to
classical architectural theory and the autonomous character of art (Aldo *Rossi) as well as in
emphatic formal eclecticism (James *Stirling)
and even in more or less conservationistthetically

minded

'architecture in a historical context'

approaches (Alexander von Branca).


Despite numerous parallels, these contemporary trends are comparable neither in intent
nor in formal character with 19th-century
historicism. They are indeed sceptical of progress, but are in no way generally escapist or
culturally pessimistic reactions to the ahistorical
cultural Utopia
practice,

Baltimore,

Md

1972; Pehnt,

Wolfgang, Die

Architektur des Expressionismus, Stuttgart 1973;


Tafuri, M., and Dal Co, F. Modern Architecture,

New

York, 1980; Moos, S. von, 'Schwierigmit dem Historismus', Archithese, 2


(special number), 1972.

keiten

Hoffmann, Josef, b. Pirnitz, Moravia 1870, d.


Vienna 1956. He completed his architectural
Vienna under Otto *Wagner, whose
most faithful and convinced disciple he remained. The rationalistic theories that underlay
Wagner's teaching and the influence of *Mackintosh, who was represented at the 1900 exhibistudies in

150

tion of craft objects.

in a surface

which served

to

architecture.

he built dozens of
Vienna with few essential variations. At
the 1914 *Deutscher Werkbund Exhibition in
Cologne, for which he designed the Austrian
Pavilion in an elegant style of vaguely neoclassic derivation, he encountered in the work
In the years that followed,

villas in

Hollein

of *Gropius and Bruno *Taut a new and more


vigorous form of architectural modernity,
which gained ever greater influence in conjunction with De *Stijl, the *Bauhaus and *Le
Corbusier's circle in Europe; it was also not
without its effects on H.'s subsequent work.
Thus, the public housing schemes he carried out
in 1924 and 1925 in Vienna, and in particular his
terrace houses for the 'Internationale Werkbundsiedlung' of 1932, are built in a style of
extreme architectural purity that recalls the
houses of *Neutra, *Loos, *Rietveld and *Lurcat. The results bear witness to H.'s conscious
and deliberate 'presence' at a time of revolutionary development in architecture. H. designed the Austrian Pavilion for the 1934
Venice Biennale and, after World War II, a
series of dwellings.
GV/GHa

Kleiner, Leopold, Josef Hoffmann, Berlin,


Leipzig and Vienna 1927; Weiser, Armand,

Geneva 1930; Rochowanski,


Josef Hoffmann, Vienna 1950; Veronesi,

Josef Hoffmann,
L.

.,

Milan 1956; Sekler,


Josef Hoffmann, Salzburg 1982.

Giulia, Josef Hoffmann,

Eduard

Hger,

F.,

Fritz (Johann Friedrich), b.

Trained
in

in the

Becken-

Bad Segeberg 1949.


Baugewerkeschule in Hamburg,

reihe, Holstein

1877, d.

which city he opened his own office in 1907.


numerous small houses, showing clearly

After

of Hermann *Muthesius, he
designed a number of office buildings in Hamburg, whose clinker-brick facades introduced a
renaissance of north German brick architecture.
The best known is his Chilehaus (1922-3)
the

influence

whose sharply angled eastern corner recalls the


prow of a great ship. With its dynamic crystalform, the building is one of the masterpieces
of north German *Expressionism. H.'s other
important works include the Anzeiger Tower in
Hanover (1927-8) and the Town Hall in Rstline

ringen (1929).

FJ

Westphal, Carl J. H.

Palais Stoclet, Brussels (1905)

Hger. Der

WolfsGebhard, J., Fritz


Hger, Baumeister in Hamburg, Hamburg 1952;
Kamphausen, A., 'Der Baumeister Hger',
niederdeutsche

Backstein-Baumeister,

hagen-Scharbeutz

Studien

zur

1938;

Kunst-

Schleswig-Holsteinischen

geschichte (Mnster), vol. 12, 1972.

Holford, William,

London

b. Johannesburg 1907, d.
1975. Studied under Charles Reilly at

Liverpool University School of Architecture.


Professor of Civic Design at Liverpool University, 1937; active in formulating
framework of English town-planning legislation, he was appointed Professor of Town
Planning, University College, London, 1948.
He designed houses, factories and public buildings. Planning proposals, for the County of

He became

Cambridge, 1950; design


thedral

precinct,

1956;

for

St Paul's

three-level

plan

Cafor

He also developed plans for many


universities. He was chiefly active as a consulPiccadilly.

and planner, but his fourteen-storey block


of flats at Kensal, London (1958), has been called

tant

the

first

large-scale

modular building.

Holland. *Netherlands.
Hollein, Hans,

Hoffmann.

(ed.), Fritz

b.

Vienna 1934. Studied

at the

Akademie der bildenden Knste in Vienna


(under Clemens *Holzmeister), as well as at the
Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago and
the University of California at Berkeley. In

19767 he conducted
the Staatliche
since

a class in architecture at

Kunstakademie

1976 he has been

in

Dsseldorf;

professor at the

Hochschule fr angewandte Kunst in Vienna.


H. is one of the most important and gifted
intermediaries between art, design, and architecture. With his first commission, the renovation of the Retti Candle Company in Vienna
(19645), he came to international attention and
attracted many further commissions for renovations. Especially notable
the

among

Richard Feigen Gallery

in

these are:

New

York

AG

in
(1967-9); the interior design for Siemens
Munich (1970-5); the Schullin jewellery store

151

Holzbauer

Munich (1971-2). The building of the


Abteiberg Museum in Mnchengladbach
(1972-82) bears witness to H.'s total independence even when dealing with large building
volumes: smooth cubes, organic volumes and
in

produce an artionce influential and penetratand form a self-conscious ac-

petrified architectural settings


ficial

landscape

ing in

effect,

at

companiment to the 'art' on display.


PR
D Hans Hollein/ Walter Pichler, Architektur (exhibition catalogue), Vienna 1963; Dortmunder
Architekturausstellung igy6 (exhibition cata-

logue),

Dortmund

1976.

Holzbauer, Wilhelm,

b. Salzburg 1930. After


preliminary training at the Technikum in Salzburg, he studied under Clemens *Holzmeister
at the Akademie der bildenden Knste in
Vienna. In 1953 he founded, together with
Friedrich Kurrent, Otto Leitner and Johannes

Spalt, the

Arbeitsgruppe 4 (Work Group

4)

which played an important role in Austrian


post-war architecture. There followed a break
of several years during which, among other
things, he undertook further studies at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, and his collaboration with Kurrent and
Spalt was resumed only after he opened his own
office in Vienna in 1964. After several guest
professorships, he was appointed a professor at
the Akademie fur angewandte Kunst in Vienna
Hollein. Schullin jewellery

store,

Vienna (1972-4)

Vienna (1972-4); and the head sales office of


the Austrian Travel Bureau in Vienna (1976-8).
in

All these

works

are characterized

by the use of

expensive materials (predominantly marble,


brass,

and chrome) and by elegant staging,

well as an

as

but insurpassable attention to


details. H.'s imaginative and ironic pleasure in
allusions is especially called into play in the
Travel Office, where alien accessories or props
are

meant

No
works
is

less

all

to

do

evoke associations of travel.


his graphic and environmental

participate in this credo that everything

architecture.

Through

alienation, cult-wor-

ship suggestion and symbolic architectural rituals,

*Wachsmann (who taught at the Salzburg


Summer Academy) can be detected in the

rad

determination of form entirely through construction, H.'s later works - like, for example,
the St Virgil School in Salzburg-Aigen (196676), the De Bijenkorf department store in
Utrecht (1978-82) or the Amsterdam City Hall
(1978 ff.) - reveal his concern to develop each
building in terms of its particular context.
AM

Hbl, Heinrich, Wilhelm Holzbauer, Portrt


Vienna 1977; Sechs Architekten
vom Schillerplatz, Vienna 1977.

eines Architekten,

H. seeks to foster new ways of seeing and to

provoke subconscious

associations: Stadtstruk-

tur (City Structure, 1962), Aircraft-carrier City

(1963), 'Austriennale' at the

XlVth Triennale in

Milan (1968), the Exhibition 'Tod' ('Death') in


the Stdtisches Museum of Mnchengladbach
(1970), 'Media-Linien' in the

152

cannot be classified
under any current trend or theory. While in his
St Joseph College in Salzburg-Aigen (1960-4,
with Kurrent and Spalt) the influence of Konin 1970. H.'s architecture

Olympic

Village

Holzmeister, Clemens,
1

b.

Fulpmes, Tyrol

886, d. Hallein 1983 Studied at the Technische


.

Hochschule

in

Vienna, where he was later


and again (after a

active as an architect, 1914-38,

period

in

teacher, he

Turkey),

was

1954-7.

An

active notably at the

influential

Akademie

Hood

in Vienna (192438,
Technical College in Istanbul
(19409); many important Austrian architects
were his pupils, including *Hollein, *Holzbauer and *Peichl. Strongly stamped with a
basic 'scenographic' sensualism which can be

der bildenden

1954-7) and

traced back

Knste

at the

ultimately to the Baroque,

H.

remained faithful to tradition throughout his


career, even when outwardly he drew close to
contemporary trends, such as *Expressionism.
Among his most important works, in addition
to various

government buildings

Holzbauer.

St Virgil School,

Salzburg-Aigen

(1966-76)

decoration
ing in

is

avoided

in the Daily

News Build-

New York (1929-30). The simple facade,

consisting of vertical bands of stone and glass,

pronounced

verticality of
be found in the
buildings of Rockefeller Center in New York,
where H. and Fouilhoux formed one of three

lends the exterior a

monumental

effect, as

is

also to

in Istanbul

and Ankara (193 1-2, are the church of St


Adalbert in Berlin (1933) and the various
renovations and additions to the Festspielhaus
(Festival Concert Hall) in Salzburg (from

AM

1926).

Gregor, J., Clemens Holzmeister. Das architektonische Werk, Vienna 1953; Clemens Holz-

Vienna 1982.

meister (exhibition catalogue)

Hood, Raymond (Mathewson), b. Pawtucket,


R.I.

88 1, d. Stamford,

Conn. 1934. Studied at


of Technology in

the Massachusetts Institute

Cambridge and afterwards at the *Ecole des


Beaux-Arts in Paris. He worked in partnership
with Frederick A. Godley and Jacques Andre
Fouilhoux, 1924-3

with Fouilhoux
with John Mead
Howells, he won the competition for the
Chicago Tribune Tower (finished 1925) with a
neo-Gothic design; the other entrants included
Eliel *Saarinen, *Gropius, and *Loos. H.'s
further evolution brought an abandonment of
*historicism and a turning towards a restrained
rationalist formal language, with borrowings
from the *Art Deco style. Nearly all external
1,

after 193

alone. In 1922, in collaboration

Hood. McGraw-Hill

Building,

New

York

(1930)

153

Horta
architectural teams responsible for planning.

The McGraw-Hill Building


with

(1930),

in

New

York

horizontal bands of terracotta

its

panels and glass, introduced the curtain-wall

GHa

facades of the ^International Style.

Schwartzman,John

B.,

Raymond Hood: The

Unheralded Architect, Charlottesville, Va. 1962;


Kilham, Walter H., Raymond Hood, Architect,

New York

1973;

catalogue),

New

Horta, Victor,

b.

across glazing bars, encircling the feet of furni-

was

programmes

by

the

and cultural developments of his time.

He

building

set in train

also instrumental in devising a

subtle structural

number of

forms that drew on the re-

sources of iron and glass, and was a keen disciple

of Viollet-le-Duc.
He began his architectural studies at Ghent
Academy (1876) and continued them at the
Academie des Beaux-Arts at Brussels. After
spending some time in the office of Alphonse
Balat, a neo-classical architect of repute, he built
a group of three little houses in Ghent (1886) in

which

his special architectural ability

was

al-

ready obvious despite the modest scale of the

However, the building which revealed


an architect of great creative maturity was
the Hotel Tassel, Brussels (1892-3). This house,
a veritable manifesto of Art Nouveau, is revoproject.

H.

in this building,

Nouveau

and the creator of an original vocabulary of


ornament, H. helped to open up new paths to
20th-century architecture by doing away with
the traditional plan of the private house and
providing an architectural expression for the
social

It is

d. Brussels 1947.

leading figure of Continental *Art

new

the staircase and balconies.

an impressive repertoire of twodimensional forms was initiated, based on a


close study of plants and flowers: the 'whiplash
line' or 'Horta line' literally covers the floors,
walls and ceilings; it is in evidence everywhere,
coiling, interlacing, flying loose, climbing

Raymond M. Hood (exhibition


York 1982.
Ghent 1861,

winter garden on the ground floor is carried on


an exposed iron frame, while an elegant iron
column supports the staircase) and to supply
decorative elements in a flexible linear style,
exemplified by the wrought-iron handrails of

as

form and structure and is regarded


today as one of the classic monuments in the
history of architecture. It was the product of a

too,

ture,

ping,

that

branching out
often

to

in chandeliers

excess,

and outstrip-

every

structural

requirement.
One year later, in the Hotel Solvay, Brussels
(1 895-1900), Art Nouveau can be seen in its
fullest maturity: it is an astonishing symbiosis,

of Baroque and classical, sentiment and reason,


craftsmanship and industry, colour and form,
with aesthetics dominating technology. This
building, wholly fitted out and furnished by H.,
is undoubtedly the most significant and complete example of its period. H. built numerous
houses in Brussels before World War I in the
same style (Autrique, 1893; Winssinger, 1895-6;

Van Eetvelde, 1 897-1900; Aubecq, 1900).


The Maison du Peuple, designed for

and the department store 'A l'lnnovation'


(Brussels, 1901) both employed the structural
resources of iron in the service of a new
programme. The large glazed facades of these
buildings prefigure the light transparent curtain
walls that took the place of the load-bearing

lutionary in

wall.

country with an expanding middle-class economy, strong craft traditions and a high degree of
industrialization. Above all, the Hotel Tassel is
remarkable for the novelty of its plan: instead of
the corridor usual in *Belgium, H. substituted
an octagonal hall, from which a broad staircase
departs, giving access to the various rooms at
different levels. The arrangement broke with
the practice of uniform layout floor by floor,
foreshadowing the 'plan of volumes' conceived by *Loos in 1910 and *Le Corbusier's
two-storey system of 1930.
The Hotel Tassel is also remarkable as being
the first private house in which iron is used
extensively, both as a structural material (a huge

Horta. Maison du Peuple, Brussels (1896-9)

154

the

Brussels branch of the Socialist Party (18969),

Howard

N?2.-^

After his appointment (1912) as a professor at


Acdemie des Beaux-Arts, and a stay in the

the

USA

(1916-19), H.'s architecture assumed an

and
of Art Nouveau were

austere, classical direction; the picturesque

calligraphic tendencies

conclusively superseded

by

&*-

the straight line.

The

Palais des Beaux- Arts in Brussels (19228)


was the principal work of this period; well laidout and designed in concrete, it was the first
cultural centre of a type that was to gain wider

diffusion after

World War

RLD

II.

Delevoy, Robert L., Victor Horta, Brussels


1958; Paolo Ortoghesi, Victor Horta, Rome
1969;

and

Hoppenbrouwers,
Bruggemans, J.,

A.,

Vandenbreden, J.,

Victor

Horta

archi-

tectonographie, Brussels 1975.

Howard, Sir Ebenezer, b. London 1850, d.


Welwyn Garden City 1928. Began as a clerk
as a successful stenographer. While
America 1872-7, he met Walt Whitman and Ralph Waldo Emerson, who first
stimulated him to contemplate the possibility of
a better life than that of the overcrowded and

Howard. Garden

city

scheme: 'Rurisville' (from

Tomorrow, 1808)

and then
visiting

Subsequent influences
theories of Peter
Kropotkin, the economic ideas of Henry
George, John Ruskin's St George's Guild
(*Arts and Crafts) and above all from Edward
Bellamy's Utopian Looking Backward. All of
these trends have echoes in H.'s book of 1898,
Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Social Reform
(entitled Garden Cities of Tomorrow in the
second edition of 1902). In it, he described his
reforming vision of an ideal type of settlement:
a self-sufficient Garden City for some 32,000
inhabitants, consisting of rural-like residential
neighbourhoods, extensive cultivable terrains
(which were to be arranged as a green belt to
exclude any urban extension), shopping areas,
cultural facilities, a central park for community
and recreational activities enclosed in a crystal
filthy

industrial

came from the

city.

anarchist

whole was intended to be


town of no more than 58,000

palace. This organic

related to a large

railways nor highways


through the Garden City area.
H.'s ideas were by no means conceived in a
void. He relied, on the one hand, on the notions
of the Utopian socialists such as Robert Owen
and Charles Fourier, and on the other hand, on
private endeavours such as the company towns
of Saltaire and Port Sunlight. With English
pragmatism, he sought to find a'middle ground
on co-operative principles, with help from

inhabitants;

were

to pass

neither

private initiatives, but assured against speculation. The basic idea of his concentrically disposed plan - which he developed only as a
diagram - had already been proposed in the
Renaissance. The English architect J. B. Papworth had worked on proposals for
'rural towns' as early as 1827 (Hygeia). In
addition, James Silk Buckingham's Ideal City
of Victoria of 1849 and Joseph Paxton's Great
Victorian Way proposals of 1855 were precursors of H.'s formal scheme.
H. campaigned actively in numerous publications, assembled many sympathetic collaborators, and organized the financing of the
project. The Garden City Association was
launched in 1899.. The first Garden City was
begun on the plans of Barry Parker and
Raymond Unwin in 1903 at Letchworth near
London; however, it diverged considerably

from H.'s ideal conception. It was to serve as the


prototype for *Riemerschmid's design of Hellerau Garden City near Dresden (built 1909
onwards). A second Garden City near London,
Welwyn, was begun in 19 19; in this instance the
plans were drawn up by Louis de Soissons.
Countless further new garden cities were subsequently launched throughout the world.
Although most of the garden cities devel-

oped into viable residential towns, they remained isolated and weak palliatives against the
explosion of city populations in the early 20th
century. It was only in *Grcat Britain, with the

New Towns policy of the 1950s, that the garden


155

Howe
was developed into an effective, if not
unproblematic, means to limit the expansion of
city idea

VML

the great metropolises.

Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to


Social Reform, London 1898 (2nd ed.: Garden
Cities of Tomorrow, London 1902); MacFadyen,
Dugald, Sir Ebenezer Howard and the Town
Planning Movement, Cambridge, Mass., 1970;
Fishman, Robert, Urban Utopias in the 20th

Howard,

New

Century,

Howe,

E.,

York

George,

b.

1977.

Worcester, Mass. 1886,

d.

Cambridge, Mass. 1955. Studied at Harvard,


1904, and *Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 1907. He was
a partner in various firms: Mellor, Meigs &
Howe, 1913 16; Howe and *Lescaze, 192934;
Howe and Bel Geddes, 1935; Howe and *Kahn
(Louis) 1 941; Howe, Stonorov and Kahn, 19423; Howe and Brown, 19505. Howe's major
work, with William Lescaze, was the Philadelphia Saving

Fund Society (PSFS) Building,

One of the first major buildings


of the early international Style in the *USA,
PSFS is noteworthy for its strong expression of
horizontal and vertical structuring and its Tshaped plan, packaging the services separately
from the office spaces. Elements such as the
curved corner of the banking room set a trend
for skyscraper cliches of the later 1930s. The
PSFS Building marked a transition from the
first European phase of the International Style
to the second American phase. Indeed, H.'s own
original, basically Beaux-Arts scheme had been
modified to conform to International Style
built 192932.

Other notable works by H.


16);

the

Philadelphia Saving Fund Society


Building, Philadelphia, Pa. (with William Lescaze;
1929-32)

D
its

Jordy,

W.

H., 'PSFS:

Significance in

are:

High Hol-

own house in Chestnut Hill, Pa.


Newbold Farm, Laverock,

(1914-

Pa. (1922-8,

Oakland School, Crotonon-Hudson, N.Y. (1929), the first International


Style building on the East Coast of the USA;
Carver Court Housing, Coatesville, Pa. (1942

Its

Modern

Development and

Architecture', Jour-

nal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 21

(1962), pp. 47-83. West,

concepts.

low, his

Howe.

Howe,

Helen Howe, George

Architect, i886-igs5, Philadelphia 1973;

Stern, Robert A. M., George Howe,


Haven, Conn. 1975.

New

since destroyed); the

4);

the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin Building

(1954). Square

Shadows,

ley, Pa. (1934),

marked

Whitemarch Valdeparture from the

in
a

stuccoed boxes of European modernism by

its

use of local materials, further developed in his

Fortune Rock House (19389) on Soames


Sound, Maine.
In the 1940s H. was Supervising Architect for
the Public Buildings Administration and, later,
Deputy Commissioner for Design and Construction. He was Chairman of the Department
of Architecture at Yale, 1950-4.
156

Howell, Killick, Partridge and Amis. Practice established in 1959 by William Gough
Howell, John Alexander Wentzel Killick, John
Albert Partridge and Stanley Frederick Amis,
all of whom had worked for the London
County Council. Their style is characterized by
a powerful striving after plastic originality. The
project for the Department of Commerce and
Social Science at

Birmingham University

fea-

of precast-concrete
balcony units; a redevelopment plan for St
Anne's College, Oxford, consists of a series of
curved blocks with highly modelled surface
treatment, set in a wide oval round the college
tures *Gaudi-like facades

garden.

Hungarian Activism
Strongly influenced by the principles of the
*Smithsons, one of their most important projects while with the LCC was the Roehampton

housing estate (1952-5) in south London.

Hungarian Activism was neither a school of


modern architecture, nor an association of
architects, but a literary and artistic movement
which had much in common with the principles of ^Constructivism and of the *Bauhaus in
the second period of its history. The first circle
of Activist artists, writers, poets, painters and
sculptors formed around the fortnightly A

TETT

('Action'), edited

by Lajos Kassk

in

191 5-16

and banned by the Austro-Hungarian


authorities because of its anti-war stance. A
second periodical with the title
('today' or
'present age'), issued in 1916 19 in Budapest,
was characterized by an Expressive-Cubistic
tendency (*Cubism) in literature and in graphic
art and influenced also by the dynamism of the
Futurists.
Great technical achievements in
architecture were admired in the poems of Lajos
Kassk, Erzsi Ujvry and other poets of the
group. After the failure of the 19 18-19 revolutions and the Hungarian Republic of Councils,
all the members of the
group were forced
to emigrate.
was published in Vienna from
1920 to 1925, during which time the Activist

MA

MA

MA

movement became more

closely related to the

problems of contemporary architecture. The Dadaist Merz-building of Kurt


Schwitters, the Constructivist architecture and
art of Theo van Doesburg,
J. J. P. *Oud and
Pamo en Hardeveld appeared in MA, together
with the 'engineer's architecture' of Viktor
Servrankx, the utopianism of Raoul Hausmann
and the constructions of Naum Gabo, Vladimir
*Tatlin and the 'Prouns' of El *Lissitzky.
In 1922 Lajos Kassk and Laszl MoholyNagy published in Vienna their Buch neuer
Knstler,
picture-book of new art and architecture where industrial buildings, such as
*Bonatz's railway station at Stuttgart and
*Poelzig's water-tower at Poznan, were reproduced along with buildings of Hardeweld,
Oud, Kurt Schwitters, Tatlin and Huszar. Of
the architects at the Bauhaus, Walter *Gropius
was included in
and his Hungarian comtheoretical

a.

MA

panion Farkas Molnr published some woodcuts of his house-design, although his utopistic

Red Cube House


the Activist paper

the

title

Az UT

was to be published in
Novi Sad (Yugoslavia) under
('the way'), along with the

(1921)

Hungarian Activism. Red Cube House


(1921)

design

by Farkas Molnr

manifesto

'KURI'

('constructive,

utilitarian,

which was signed by a


great number of the younger members of the
rational, international')

Bauhaus.
In 192

Laszlo

Moholy-Nagy edited a special

of MA, in which his 'railway pictures' and


graphics were published (together with an
article by Peter Mtys, which was the very first
published interpretation of Moholy's art.) On 1
May 1922 his 'Glass architecture' appeared on
MA\ cover, a coloured woodcut variant of his
pellucid paintings with the same title. These
were based on the Expressionist ideas of Scheerbart and the *Taut brothers. Moholy published
issue

on modern architecture in the


Ember ('Hanged Man'),
where Ernst Kllai also published in 1922. Both
men declared a deep belief in the functional and
his first article

Dadaist

Akasztott

aesthetical values

of

new

constructive archi-

which might create a new social harmony. Taking up the pictorial and theoretical
approach to the principles of modern architecture, Lajos Kassk himself became a founder of a
tecture

new

trend in graphic

art,

painting and plastic

art, labelled Bildarchitektur (pictorial

He

architec-

manifesto under
the same title in Vienna in which he declared:
again bears his art with
'The artist of today
ture), in 1921.

published

Not

his view of the world,


but the essence of the world. Architecture.
ConstrucThe synthesis of the new order

him

as a

tion

is

manifesto.

architecture.

Bildarchitektur.

The

absolute picture

Art transforms us and

we

is

be157

India

come
ings.'

capable of transforming our surroundKassk's Bildarchitektur took the form

of painted watercolours of a collage or of


composed of geometrical elements.
group Lszlo
Among the members of the
Moholy-Nagy and Lszlo Peri dealt with a
special type of sculpto-architecture in graphic
either

linocuts

MA

(Moholy-Nagy's Kinetic-constructive system, 19228; and Peri's Linolschnitte published


by Der Sturm, Berlin 1922). In March 1923 there
was published a statement of Alfred Kemeny,
Ernst Kallai, Lszlo Moholy-Nagy and Lszlo
Peri, which appeared in the periodical of the
Hungarian leftists separated from the
group. This periodical was called Egyseg
('Unity') and the statement of 1923 proposed a
synthesizing of ideological and functional goals.
In his series of Bauhausbcher Moholy-Nagy
art

MA

continued the Activist-Constructivist urge to


transform the face of the whole world into a
visual revolution,

summarized

in his

Von Ma-

zu Architektur (1929).
The reproductions and articles published in
had a deep influence on such architects as
Farkas Molnr, Marcel *Breuer, Alfred Forbt
and Andor Weininger, and on such artists as
Moholy-Nagy and Peri. Its editor, Lajos Kassk, attempted a Constructivist Gesamtkunstwerk in his programmes and publications. JS
D The Hungarian Avant Garde, The Eight and
terial

MA

the

Activists

(exhibition catalogue),

London,

Gallery 1980; Szabo, Julia, A magyar


aktivizmus muveszete ('Art of Hungarian Activ-

Hay ward
ism'),

Budapest 198 1.

I
India. Before independence and the partition of
India in 1947, architecture in the sub-continent

was dominated by European


architects.

Although,

styles

and

British

in the 19th century, tradi-

building crafts survived in domestic


architecture, public buildings, churches and
tional

even the palaces of native princes became the


responsibility of British architects and engineers.

At

first,

engineers directed the construc-

tion of public buildings but, in the

mid- 19th

century, the

came out

first

trained architects

from Britain or buildings were executed locally


from designs prepared in London. The results
thus reflected architectural developments in

158

Britain: Bombay became dominated by the


Gothic Revival while Calcutta remained loyal
to the Classical tradition. In both cities, talented

were in practice by the 1860s:


Walter Granville in Calcutta and F. W. Stevens
local architects

in

Bombay.

By

number of British
began to have doubts about the
wisdom of imposing Western styles on an Asian
culture. Inspired by the ideals of Ruskin and
*Morris, Lockwood Kipling encouraged the
employment of native craftsmen and sculptors
in new building works, while a number of
architects, notably Robert Chisholm, William
Emerson, Swinton Jacob and Major Mant,
grafted Mughal features onto Gothic Revival
compositions, producing the picturesque and
the 1870s, however, a

architects

adaptable style

By

known

as 'Indo-Saracenic'.

the early 20th century, however, the

reaction against Victorian eclecticism also af-

and the revived Classicism of


'Edwardian Baroque' manifested itself in such

fected India,

Memorial in
by Emerson. The appoint-

buildings as the vast Victoria


Calcutta, designed

ment of the first Consulting Architect to the


Government of India in 1902 (James Ransome,
who was succeeded by John Begg in 1908)
brought

new

professionalism and sophistica-

but the most significant event was the


decision to move the capital from Calcutta to
Delhi in 191 1.
The building of New Delhi between 19 12
tion,

and 193 1 and the appointment of Edwin


*Lutyens and Herbert Baker as its architects
brought European architecture to India into the
avant garde for the first time. New Delhi was
important both as an English garden city carried
out on a grand, imperial scale, and for the
development of Lutyens' monumental Classical
manner, fused with Mughal and Buddhist
elements. Viceroy's House, now Rashtrapati
Bhavan, is both one of Lutyens' finest achievements and the climax of British architectural
enterprise in India *Le Corbusier later praised
New Delhi for being built 'with extreme care,
great talent and true success'.
Lutyens dominated the remaining years of
British architecture in India. Although princes
and maharajahs sometimes employed 'Art
Deco' and other moderne styles for their palaces,
most official commissions were strongly influenced by the Lutyens style. This is particularly
evident in the work of the last two Chief
Architects to the Government of India, R. T.
.

India

India. Viceroy's

New

House (now Rashtrapati Bhavan),

Delhi (1912-30), by Sir

Edwin Lutyens

N. A. N. Medd. One building


designed by Lutyens' assistant, A. G. Shoosmith, St Martin's Church, New Delhi (1928Russell and

30), is remarkable as an essay in abstract


geometry in brick, the Lutyens manner of
composition being fused with both the modern
industrial aesthetic and the resonances of tradition. This single church is one of the finest
British buildings of the 20th century.
Another Lutyens assistant, Walter George,
carried the legacy of Lutyens past independence
in 1947 and his influence and importance
resulted in his twice becoming President of the
Indian Institute of Architects. However, the

waned in
when a new

India. High Court Building, Chandigarh (19506),

by Le Corbusier

British imperial tradition inevitably

potency although,

ironically,

regional capital at

Chandigarh was planned by


the Indian government in 1950, a European
architect was chosen, Le Corbusier, assisted by
an Englishman, Maxwell *Fry. India has continued to be dominated by Western cultural

imperialism by

hot climate. Only in recent years has a more


basic modern architecture, more appropriate to
Indian conditions, been promoted by Indian
architects such as Charles Correa, recipient of

GMS

the

RIBA's Gold Medal

Nilsson, Sten, European Architecture

London

in

1984

The

in

India

New

Cap-

its acceptance of the *International Style, regardless of the fact that it


requires sophisticated services and continuous

of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, Lund 1973;


Tarapor, Mahrukh, 'John Lockwood Kipling

energy consumption in order to function in

and British Art Education

17501850,

1968;

itals

in India',

Victorian

159

International Style

(Indiana

Studies

Autumn
tecture:

Indian

University),

xxiv,

no.

i,

1980; George, Walter, 'Indian Archi-

The Prospect
Institute

before Us', Journal of the


of Architects, January-March

Shoosmith, A. G., 'Present-Day ArchiThe igth Century and After, cxx,


London 1938; Stamp, Gavin, 'British Architec195

1;

tecture in India',

ture in India, 1857-1947',

198

'India:

JRSA,

The end of

cxxix,

May

the Classical

Tradition', Lotus International (Milan), 34, 1982.

Hitchcock's generic designation. The term was


used more assertively and was given slightly

wider application

conjunction with

contemporary buildings.
In his book Modern Architecture, Romanticism
and Reintegration (1929), Henry-Russell Hitch-

cock argued that

'the international style

of Le

Oud, Gropius, of Lurcat, Rietveld


and Mies van der Rohe' was a separate strain of
modern architecture. (Hitchcock had first writCorbusier,

ten about the international style the year before

magazine Hound and Horn; but the more


widely circulated book thoroughly discussed
the architecture, placing it in a line of historical
development.) Basing his analysis on formal
characteristics, Hitchcock claimed that a moderately modern architecture of the 'New Tradition', as he designated it, was distinguished by
a historical continuity with earlier work, simplified mass, emphasis on surface texture, and
reduced and abstracted ornament. On the other
hand, the 'New Pioneers' - for him the European practitioners of the International Style,
influenced by the aesthetic vision of Cubist and
in the

Neo-Plasticist painting

- deleted all reference to

emphasized volume and plane


rather than mass, and avoided ornament, employing the machine as an 'art-tool'. The latest
past architecture,

advances in engineering that

made

this

work

possible lent it a 'technical beauty', although


advanced technology was not of primary im-

portance in these structures.

By

193

1,

the enthusiastic advocacy of Philip

*Johnson - then a recent graduate in classics and


philosophy who, though not yet an architect,
had voluntarily taken up the cause of the new
architecture - led him, and other critics following his lead, to define this architecture as the
International Style, thereby capitalizing on
160

it,

Architecture since 1922,

The International Style:


both by Hitchcock and

Johnson, presented an International Style architecture based on a specific set of 'aesthetic


principles':

International Style. The phrase 'International


Style' was one among many terms used in the
1920s to denote modern architecture. Introduced by an American in order to characterize a
particular kind
of European architecture
(*Rationalism), the term became generally
applied in later decades to a broad range of

in 1932. In that year, the first

show of architecture at the Museum of Modern


Art, New York - 'Modern Architecture: International Exhibition' - and a book published in

volume

(space enclosed

planes) rather than mass; regularity as

by

thin

opposed

symmetry; elegant materials; technical perand fine proportions in place of applied


ornament. Related to these principles was the
precept of flexibility, especially in plan.
to

fection

The notion of an architecture as international


was in all likelihood derived from Germany,
where the term had been used from the mid1920s on. In 1925, Walter *Gropius published
Internationale Architektur, the first in a series of
Bauhausbcher; two years later, Ludwig *Hilberseimer brought out his Internationale neue
Baukunst; and in 1927, in conjunction with the
Weienhof housing exhibition, an 'Internationale Plan- und Modell-Ausstellung neuer
Baukunst' was held. All illustrated an architecture that Hitchcock had initially considered the
'International Style'. However, in this Euro-

pean context, international meant architecture


that expressed the spirit of the times, one that,
like the burgeoning technological culture of the
20th century, would spread throughout the
West: the machine was international and to the
Europeans this architecture was derived from
the processes and products of the machine. In
addition, the designation was infused with
social and political ideology: international alluded to the socialist and Bolshevik Internationals, and an international architecture was
seen as a catalyst in the transformation of society
as *Mies van der Rohe put it in 1927 in

new efforts at housing,


the
new dwelling is but part of the
larger struggle for a new social order.'
None of this technical or social import was
relation to

'.

struggle for the

American use of the phrase


Here the emphasis on formal properties overwhelmed concern for functional considerations that were crucial to
European practitioners. Hitchcock andjohnson
claimed that it was 'nearly impossible to organize and execute a complicated building without making some choices not wholly deterassociated with the

International Style.

International Style

mined by technics and economics. One may


refuse to admit that intentionally

therefore

functionalist building [*Functionalism]

without

a potential aesthetic element.'

is

quite

And by

employing the adjective 'international' the


socio-political content of the term as used in
Europe was drained away, and 'International

became another

Style'

art-historical category,

1920s, submitted a modern design in the League


of Nations competition (1927-8), published
another modern project as 'The Future American Country House' (in Architectural Record,
1928), and built the nursery at Oak Lane
Country Day School near Philadelphia (1928).
Rudolph ^Schindler, trained by Otto * Wagner

and an emigre from Austria

in

19 14, lent a

Gothic

heroic appearance to his beach house for the


Lovells (Newport Beach, Cal.; 1925-6) by

The Museum of Modern Art exhibition

using assertive, reinforced-concrete cantilevers,

similar to a rubric such as 'International


Style'.

United
States, and a more portable version of it
circulated for six years. While the latter was still
making the rounds, three popular and influential statements on the new architecture heightened its meaning. In his Pioneers of the Modern
Movementfrom William Morris to Walter Gropius
(1936), Nikolaus Pevsner examined English
19th-century reform efforts in the arts and
architecture (*Arts and Crafts), and saw them as
leading to the Modern Movement, initiated by
1914 m Germany on the basis of Gropius's Fagus
Factory and through the agency of the
travelled to eleven other cities in the

^Deutscher Werkbund;

new

architecture

this

suggested that the

was the main stream of

development. The following year,


Walter Curt Behrendt - in Modern Building, Its
Nature, Problems, and Forms equated European
modern architecture with the work of the
Modern Movement, as the architecture of the
times. Then in 1938-9, Sigfried Giedion delivered the Norton Lectures at Harvard, subsequently published as Space, Time and Architecture. The Growth of a New Tradition (1941), in
which the new architecture was depicted as

historical

windows, and flat roof. Richard *Neutra,


compatriot of Schindler and in America from
1923, began the Lovell House in Los Angeles in
strip

1927; in this a thin steel frame,

window

walls,

of stucco wall, flat roof, and open plan


were arranged with the intention of providing a
healthy living environment. Several other
emigres were also building in America, such as
Albert Frey, Frederick Kiesler, and Oscar
Stonorov.
flat strips

More

visible (and

more

specifically associ-

ated with America) were skyscrapers, of which

two or

three

were drawn

into the International

Style orbit.

Raymond *Hood's

Building

New York

Daily News
City was a tall block
composed of asymmetrical setbacks, and ornament played no role in larger views of the
structure; but in other ways the building was
'less pure in expression', according to Hitchin

cock and Johnson.


displayed in Hood's

different attitude

was

McGraw-Hill Building:

International Style. Lovell Beach House,


Newport Beach, Cal. (1925-6), by Rudolph
Schindler

and as a development of
progressive design. The cumulative effect of
this activity was to establish International Style
as the cutting edge of contemporary building.
When Time magazine, in its issue of 8 February
1937. greeted the arrival of Gropius in the
United States, he was celebrated as 'one of the
founders of the concrete-pipe-and-plate-glass
school of architectural modernism known as
inevitably of the time

the International Style.'

According to Hitchcock and Johnson's realmost none of the architecture in the United States up to 1932 was
International Style, and of the little that existed
most was on a small scale, and virtually none
was by Americans. William *Lescaze, trained in
Zurich by the first-generation modernist Karl
*Moser, and settled in America since the early

strictive definition,

161

International Style

the horizontal, volumetric quality of the ex-

Johnson, such

was the result of considering each floor a


continuous open space. On the other hand, the
symmetrical arrangement of setbacks suggested
traditional methods of composing a tall build-

projects

terior

ing.

third high-rise related to the Inter-

was the PhilaFund Society by Howe and


Lescaze, for which designing began in 1929.
Smooth, hard, machined surfaces were used
inside and out, and the floors of offices were
national Style of these years

delphia Saving

vertically

stacked

as

single

slab

as

the glazed and volumetric

by Norman Bel Geddes, like that for


Toledo Scale Company factory (1929) or

the

Albert *Kahn's factories, beginning even be-

World War with

I
the Packard Motor Car
Forge Shop, Detroit (191 1), and
fully realized by the time of the Ford Glass
Plant, Rouge River (1922), where steel frame,
sheets of glass, and precise detail were used in a
manner that was similar to International Style

fore

Company

design.

Despite the severe economic conditions of

without

But in other ways the building was


more complex and structural: piers were placed
outside the slab, a narrower slab was set at rightangles to it for stairs and elevators, and recessed
mechanical floors at the base separated it from
the larger volumetric ground floors that contained retail stores and public banking spaces.
The result was a complex design emphasizing
function and structure, quite different from the
contained volumes illustrated in Hitchcock and

the 1930s,

Johnson.

a broad
range of issues started to emerge within the

setbacks.

The

tightness

of definition created other

problems when International Style was applied


to America. The towering figure of Frank
Lloyd *Wright was largely excluded. His work
confirmed aspects of the International Style: he
replaced enclosing, solid walls with freely
arranged planes, his plans explored open, continuous space, he advocated the use of advanced
building technologies. Yet he maintained a
separate and unique position in regard to

as

some

throughout the United States. Several architects maintained their practices for a time, such
as Neutra and Howe & Lescaze, and others for a
time brought theirs into being: Gregory Ain,
Philip L. Goodwin, Vincent G. Kling, Edward
Stone, William Wilson Wurster, Franklin and
Kump, Keck & Keck, A. Lawrence Kocher and
Albert Frey.
Also during the 1930s, however,

American architectural profession, shifting the


complexion of modern design. Vernacular architecture began to be assessed for its direct use
of materials and sensitive adaptation to climate
and site; fifty years of redwood architecture in
California was examined for similar lessons.
The impact of different climates on design was
seen as an issue to be explored. Interest

laminates and

'ready-made culture' of the 'internationalists',


and employing warm materials and earthhugging designs that had little to do with the

wood and

machined perfection promoted by


other exponents of modernism.
Also excluded from this definition were the
plentitude of 'modernistic' skyscrapers erected
in

American

cities

throughout the 1920s and

Van Alen; Harvey


Wiley Corbett; John Mead Howells; Jacques
Ely-Kahn; Miller and Pflueger; Morgan, Walls
and Clements; and Vorhees, Gmelin and Walker. These buildings were based on vertically
composed mass, symmetrical setbacks, and
ornament (which, however, was selectively
used and abstracted, because it was considered
to be both for and about a modern, technological society). Other work, for which a strong
International Style argument could have been
made, was passed over by Hitchcock and
1930s by the likes of William

162

grew

in

the nature of materials used in construction:

International Style architecture, attacking the

weightless,

architecture that could be seen

International Style continued to be built

plywood

as stressed skin,

ply-

and metals in moulded


shapes. Prefabrication was evaluated afresh as a
means 'to set a depressed economy on its feet'.
More varied types of construction opened the
possibilities for new forms - the 'free curve', the
diagonal, the hexagon - and for a new freedom
in comprising roofline and wall arrangement.
Standardized equipment introduced the potential of greater design flexibility. It was felt that
the open plan had not grappled with the
individual's needs for privacy and quiet, so that
assumptions about plan arrangements were
challenged. Issues of city and neighbourhood
planning grew in importance, and the question
of monumentality was raised, the ability to
plastics

achieve an architecture that


social ideals

and

would 'symbolize

aspirations'.

These deliberations were given unexpected


late 1920s. The rise of

confirmation in the
National Socialism

in

Germany prompted

International Style

major designers and theorists to emigrate to the


United States, where many assumed teaching
positions and eventually established careers,
among them Behrendt, *Breuer, Gropius, Hilberseimer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Mies van der
Rohe, and Martin *Wagner. In their teaching,
through publications and exhibitions, and by
means of their architecture, they advanced a set
of propositions about the built domain that
were similar to the issues already being
broached in America. Thus they confirmed
changes underway in architectural education,
and the discipline that emerged was the one
under which many architects practising into the
late

1970s were trained.

After

World War

II,

when

the explosively

expanding American economy provided unequalled opportunities to build, International

was given new prominence by being


were
composed of right-angles and parallel lines in
machine-like, unornamented precision, using
technical materials and glass walls, and favouring open interiors. In a 1947 exhibition at the
Museum of Modern Art devoted to Mies van
der Rohe's work, and in the accompanying
monograph by Johnson, the tenets of the
International Style were reiterated; Johnson,
now an influential architect and critic, would
Style

generally associated with buildings that

continue to refer to these principles in various


statements, but

by the mid-1960s he had modi-

fied the definition

of the International Style

to:

modular
rhythms; clarity, expressed by oceans of glass;
flat roof; box as perfect container; no ornament.' The change was indicative of the popular but simplified use of the term that had by this
'structural

honesty;

come into
The shift was

time

general use.
already

underway by

the early

When

Rohe

repetitive

Hitchcock wrote about 'The


International Style Twenty Years After' (Architectural Record, 195 1), he could claim that 'the
establishment of a fixed body of discipline in
architecture', i.e. the International Style, had
been 'successful' in America, and that this work
was 'probably the major achievement of the
20th century'. Now generally associated with
notions of an industrial, technological society,
new building in steel and glass became, as Colin
Rowe noted, '.
a suitable veneer for the
corporate activities of an "enlightened" capitalism.' The early phases of this connection can be
1950s.

International Style. Lake Shore Drive


Apartments, Chicago (1948-51), by Mies van der

and-steel slab in Portland,


"^Harrison's

Oregon; Wallace

WFY broadcasting studios, Schen-

ectady, N.Y.;

New

York University-Bellevue

Medical Center, New York City, by *Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM; begun 1945),
and Nathaniel Owings' Office Building Project
for the Building Managers Association (1947).
But it was Mies van der Rohe's Lake Shore
Drive Apartments in Chicago (1948-51) that
provided the model for the steel-framed highrise that was to proliferate throughout American cities during the next decades: a rectangular
tower or slab sheathed in sheets of glass that in
turn were held in place by thin metal frames set
in

reticulated

pattern,

the

whole

sparsely

elegant and conveying the impression of being

product of a highly technical society.


Simultaneously, Harrison, as Director of Plan-

the

seen in Pietro *Belluschi's Equitable Life Assur-

ning of an international Board of Design

ance Building (1944-7),

Consultants, produced

twelve-storey, glass-

a similar

proposal for
163

Isozaki

(1946-55); and for more than two


decades, other corporate centres - located on

Mich.

park-like suburban tracts or in generous, land-

scaped plots along urban outer ring roads these lines, such as the
Connecticut General Life Insurance Company,
Bloomfield, Conn. (1954-7), by SOM. Other
architects used the steel-and-glass box in smaller, domestic designs: Gregory Ain, Edward
Larrabee *Barnes,John *Johansen, Philip John-

were constructed along

The importance of this type of dwelling at


is shown in the West Coast 'CaseStudy' houses: Charles *Eames pieced his

son.

the time

together in 1949 using standard, factory-pro-

duced elements in order to achieve maximum


enclosure with minimal means; Raphael
Soriano's project, sponsored by Arts and Architecture, was developed from Mies's work, but
on the basis of available building techniques and
hand-crafted components. Gropius, together
with Breuer, built several houses in the Boston
suburbs in a manner reminiscent of the volustucco-surfaced houses at the 1927
Weienhofsiedlung, Stuttgart, and both adapted enlarged versions of these designs to academic buildings: Harkness Commons dormitories, Harvard (1949) by Gropius; and Ferry
House dormitory, Vassar (1948-51) by Breuer.
In this setting, the term International Style
had come to assume a double meaning. On the
one hand, it was compressed to refer to a select
architectural repertoire of the 1920s, on the
other expanded as the implied basis for any of
metric,

International Style. Lever House, New York


(195 1-2), by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill

the United Nations Secretariat Building,

York City

(194750).

SOM,

The

New

rapidly expanding

under the impetus of


head designer, began to
apply the concept to a series of corporate
structures: Lever House (195 1-2) and Manufacturers Hanover Trust (1953-4), both in New
York, and Inland Steel, Chicago (1956-8), are
notable instances. Mies van der Rohe himself
created the 'impeccable image of power and
prestige' (Frampton) in the genre with the
firm of

chiefly

Gordon Bunshaft

bronze-clad

as

Seagram Building,

New

York

the innumerable corporate or institutional


buildings that were transforming American
cities

everywhere

in

the 1950s. Yet in both

instances, the historical circumstances

of the

1920s that had lent meaning to the architecture


in Europe were left aside, and the International
Style came to designate an approach to design in
formal terms, a European theme and its AmeriCFO
can variations.
D Power, Richard (ed.), 'Revising Modernist
History',
(special

Art Journal (USA),

number);

see also

Summer

works

1983

cited above.

(1954-8).

Mies van der Rohe also worked on an


analagous design strategy in low, horizontal
buildings, whether in an academic (Illinois
Institute of Technology, Chicago, 1939 on) or
domestic (Farnsworth House, Piano, 111., 1946
50) context. Eero *Saarinen matched these
corporate client with his vast
General Motors Technical Center, Warren,

efforts for the

164

Isozaki, Arata, b. Oita, Kyushu 193 1. Studied


under Kenzo *Tange's at the University of
Tokyo (1950-4) and later joined Tange's team
(1954-63) prior to leaving to establish his own
Tokyo in 1963. During the ten-year

practice in

period with Tange, spanning what must be


considered Tange's most creative phase, I.
actively contributed to the design of the Ka-

Israel

replace with

Isozaki. Fuji

Country Clubhouse, Oita

(1972-4)

gawa
8),

Prefectural Offices in

Takamatsu (1955-

the Imabari City Hall (1957-8)

and the
had left his
Tange continued to employ him on such

Tokyo
office,

Plan (1959-60). Even after

I.

a neo-mannerist aesthetic that


abrogated the tenets of orthodox modernism.
His mannerist approach emphasized fragmentation, dissonance, debasement of the skeleton
and compositions based on a heterogeneous
assemblage of parts accompanied by an extensive use of metaphor. The most outstanding of
his cubic compositions are: the Gunma Prefectural Museum of Modern Art in Takasaki
(197 1-4); the Kitakyushu City Museum of Art
(1972-4); and the Shukosha Building in
Fukuoka (1975). Notable examples of the semicylindrical vault type are the Fujimi Country
Clubhouse in Oita (1972-4) and the Kitakyushu
Central Library (1972-5).
Towards the end of the decade there was a
further shift in emphasis in I.'s taste towards a
more austere neo-classical form in such projects
as the Tsukuba Civic Centre (1979-82) and his
competition project for a recreation and residential complex by Lake Tegel in West Berlin

PD
Drew, Philip, The Architecture of Arata
Isozaki, London and New York 1982.
(1980).

projects as the reconstruction plan for Skopje,

Yugoslavia (1965-6), and the Festival Plaza at


'70 in Osaka (1966-70). In the 1960s I. was
identified with the ^Metabolism movement,
even though he eschewed any direct commit-

Israel.

At the beginning of

this

century the

Expo

architecture of the land of Israel, then part of the

ment to its principles. In 1973 he married the


prominent Japanese sculptor Aiko Miyaki and
this led to an extension of his interests in
Dadaism. An increasingly historicist (*historicism) emphasis in I. 's architecture during the
1970s led to the assimilation of motifs derived
from such architects as Giulio Romano, Andrea

Ottoman Empire, consisted of the monuments


of the successive masters of the Holy Land, set in
a context compounded of European *eclecticism and a prevailing Arab vernacular. In a
seemingly timeless landscape, the only obtrusions of the machine age were the railway, the
brickworks outside Jerusalem, and those monuments to the functional tradition, the wineries
in the newly established Jewish settlements of
Zichron Yaakov and Rishon Lezion. Only a
few architects, such as Alexander Baerwald, in

Palladio, Etienne-Louis Boullee

and Claude-

Nicolas Ledoux.

of his first manner, I.'s


on an exaggerated trabeated

In the 1960s, the period

architecture took

members not
Tange, but with a stronger
and gigantism of scale. The

expression of reinforced-concrete
dissimilar in style to

conceptual bias
Festival Plaza for the Osaka
stylistic crisis in his

the beginning

Expo

'70

marked

architecture that heralded

of his second manner:

in this his

work shows a much greater reliance on European and American models and is typified by
highly abstract

compositions using additive


constructions of cubes or arbitrarily bent semicylindrical vaults.

new

style grew from his determination


away from the rationalistic principles
of modern architecture which he sought to

This

to break

Israel. Technion, Haifa (1912-24),

by Alexander

Baerwald
165

Israel

Technion building at Haifa (1912-24),


sought an indigenous style in a synthesis of East
and West. After World War I, in what was now
the British-mandated territory of Palestine, the
foundations were laid for orderly urban planning and a civic architecture of considerable
quality, by visiting consultants such as Patrick
the

Geddes and,

later,

Patrick Abercrombie, and

and planners of the


Robert *Ashbee.
Austen St Barbe Harrison and Clifford Holliday. By the 1920s Erich ^Mendelsohn had
paid his first visit to Palestine, and left, in his
unrealized but influential projects, an important
legacy. His vision of a regional mutation of the
resident British architects

professional calibre of Charles

international Style, responsive to the climate


and culture of the Middle East, was realized, not
only in his later work in the country, but by
other European architects, most notably by

Alexander Klein, who


Technion in Haifa; Johanan
Ratner; and Adolf Rading, practising in Haifa,
Haifa,

1936;

taught

who

at

1936);

the

later joined the

Haifa Municipality. These


and many others transformed entire
areas of Tel Aviv and Haifa into unique
homogeneous zones of 'Bauhaus vernacular',
unrivalled except by the Siedlungen (estates) of
Berlin or Frankfurt. The outbreak of war
brought a halt to construction, which was not
architects

significantly to

ment of the

recommence

until the establish-

of Israel in 1948, Then, with


the flood of immigrants, first priority was given
housing,
and
mass-housing
projects
to
State

sprang up across the country.


existed, of course, a tradition of
social housing, in co-operative workers' housing schemes, by Sharon and others, in the 1930s.
In the new housing, quantity, speed, economy,
were the prime considerations, uniformity and
('shikunim')

There already

Richard Kaufmann, who was also to make his


mark as a planner of Israel's pioneer communal
settlements, the 'kibbutz' and the 'moshav'.
With the exodus of progressive architects from
Nazi Germany in the 1930s, the group of
architects in Palestine imbued with the spirit ot
the Modern Movement were strongly reinforced. Of this group some, such as Arieh
Sharon and Munio Weinraub, were direct
products of the *Bauhaus. Others, like Dov
Carmi and Ze'ev Rechter, who had studied in
Europe, reflected the new spirit more indirectly. They, together with talented architects such
as L. Krakauer, J. Neufeld, G. Averbuch, Max
Loeb, to name just a few, constituted a cadre of
modern architects. They were joined by architects of international repute: by Mendelsohn,
who set up office in Jerusalem, to build several

of prefabrication, house types were


and the approach to neighbourhood
planning became more comprehensive, with an
enhanced sensitivity to locality. From the
model neighbourhood of Beersheva in the
1960s to the Jerusalem satellite communities
East Talpiot, Giloh and Ramot in the 1970s,
there is a whole range of interesting experiments in housing form. On a larger scale of
regional planning, it should be noted, pioneering work was done, especially by Arthur
Glikson. In addition to housing peripheral to
existing cities, there was also a bold New Towns
programme, from Carmiel in Galilee to Arad in

outstanding

the

Weizmann,

houses
(Schocken,
1936;
1935/36) and hospitals (Mt Scopus,

austerity the result.


to

By the

tion techniques

more

larger, construc-

sophisticated; with exten-

sive use

diversified;

Negev. At the same time, more venerable,


- Jaffa,

history-laden, and picturesque centres


Safed, and, after 1967, the

Apartment- buildings, Tel Aviv (1939), by


Arieh Sharon

Israel.

1960s standards were

improve. Apartments were

Old City ofJerusalem

(and especially the ravaged Jewish Quarter)


underwent a process of restoration and creative
It was in, or adjacent to the old city,
some of Moshe *Safdie's most exciting
projects were located. The centres of the cities
developed in Israel, as elsewhere: comprehen-

renewal.
that

shopping centres, high-rise office towers,


luxurious hotels. These buildings are
generally of a high standard of architectural
competence, but are stylistically cosmopolitan.
It is in the field of institutional buildings that the
more significant contributions lie. There are
several fine university campuses, of which those
at Beersheva and Jerusalem both in its old
sive

many

66

Israel

Museum, Jerusalem (1959), by AI


Mansfeld and Dora Gat

Israel. Israel

Israel.

(1969),

Convalescent home, Zichron Yaakov


by Yacov Rechter

Jerusalem (1959), whose elegant pavilions predicate a cellular plan capable of growth, and the
Tel Aviv Museum by Dan Eitan and Itzhak
Yashar (1971), an exciting spatial exercise, but
in

campus

Givat Ram, and its new and highly


controversial megastructure on its original Mt
Scopus site - are architecturally the most
at

challenging.

A new

round of major

hospitals,

ranging from the Carmel Hospital (1969-75),

compact and monumental, on Haifa's skyline,


to the giant organism that is the new Tel
Hashomer hospital in the making: the former
by Yacov Rechter and Moshe Zarhi, the latter
by Zarhi alone. Of all the concert halls, the olde'r
Mann Auditorium in Tel Aviv (1953-7) by
Dov Carmi and Ze'ev Rechter still dominates:
serene, monumental, functional. Two fine museums, different in concept and expression, are
Al Mansfeld and Dora Gat's Israel Museum in

more

finite terms. Israel

is

rich in

museums

and memorials because, for the Jewish people,


memory, a human and national resource, is
thus appropriately institutionalized.
Arieh

Yad Vashem in Jerusalem (1959-64)


both a container of historical documentation
and a powerful evocation of the tragedy of the
Holocaust. These institutionalized buildings are
Elhanani's

is

usually

in

beton

brut

(exposed concrete),

material handled with great virtuosity and

by

Israeli

architects.

Its

inherent qualities -

strength, utility, directness

appropriate for

make

skill

arc particularly

pioneering nation trying to

a place for itself in the sun.

'Architecture en

GHe

Palestine',

L' Architecture

d'aujourd'hui (Paris), Sept. 1937;

Canaan, Ger167

Italy

shon. Rebuilding the Land of


1954; 'Planen und Bauen in

Israel,

New

Israel',

York

Baumeister

(Munich), January 1962; 'Architektur, Planung


and Kunst in Israel', Werk (St Gallen), 60 (1973),
no.

1;

Harlap,

Amiram, New

East Brunswick, N.J. 198

Israeli Architecture,

1.

Although an Arts and Crafts exhibition


was organized in 1902 in Turin, which marked
the official entry of Italy into the international
*Art Nouveau movement ('stile Liberty' is the
name usually employed in Italy), in reality the
crisis of *historicism had its beginnings more
than thirty years earlier in the works of Camillo
Boito and Alessandro Antonelli. In the quest for
a rational architecture Boito's contribution was
above all in critical and theoretical speculation,
while Antonelli was given to structural
Italy-

Italy.

(1902)

Main building at the Turin Exhibition


by Raimondo D'Aronco

Italy. Electricity generating station (project, 1914)


bv Antonio Sant'Elia

reflection.

Certainly the most important Milanese ar-

1914 were two pupils of Boito:


Gaetano Moretti and Giuseppe *Sommaruga.
In Moretti's finest work, the Central Electricity
Station of Trezzo d'Adda, the influence of Art
Nouveau is indirect, and it is more a naturalistromantic simplification which characterizes the
formal language. Sommaruga interpreted Art
chitects before

Nouveau

decoration

in

strongly

sculptural

terms, intermingled with Neo-Renaissance influences, as seen in his Palazzo Castiglioni in

Milan (19003) and numerous other houses in


Bergamo, Milan and Piedmont from the same
period.

The

two important representatives of


Nouveau, Ernesto *Basile and
Raimondo *D'Aronco, had different origins.
Basile, who was the son of Gian Battista Basile,
the most important Sicilian architect of the
second half of the 19th century, combined with
other

Art

Italian

extraordinary refinement an Art Nouveau taste


with his Neo-Norman formal approach.
D'Aronco was Venetian and directly influenced

by Otto *Wagner. He was the protagonist of


the Turin Exhibition of 1902 and afterwards

o{ unusually modern
conception in Turkey, including the Santoro

built various buildings

House

in Istanbul (1908).

Ulisse Stacchini (designer of the Milan


tral

Station,

won

in

competition in

Cen-

1906),

Ernesto Pirovano, Giovanni Michelazzi, Pietro


Fenoglio and Annibale Rigatti were, in addi-

most important exponents of the


widespread renewal movement in which the
most important personality of architectural
tion,

168

the

^Futurism, Antonio *Sant'Elia, had


In contrast to

North

Italy,

his roots.

Rome's most

such as Guglielmo
architects,
Calderini or Cesare Bazzani (the creator of the

important

Italy

Museo d'Arte Moderna

architettura razionale',

exhibition of 191

the

built for the major


remained firmly historicist
in approach. The activity of Gino Coppede,
who was one of the most imaginative expo^eclecticism,
also
deserves
nents of late
1)

mention.

The

Futurist episode was, at least in architec-

more diverse and long-lived than


would have it. Between 1909, the year of

ture, rather

legend

du futurisme' and 1914,


the manifesto 'L'architettura futurista'

Marinctti's 'Manifeste

when

appeared,

lie

not only five years, but also

numerous important

events, including the es-

young

through which medium

Rationalists entered into competi-

tion with academic architects for the official

favour of the Fascist regime. A decision was, in


any case, not to be reached until ten years later;
although the academicians, with *Piacentini at
their head, always enjoyed institutional support, the regime did not adopt a repressive
stance towards the Rationalists until 1937
(*M.I.A.R.).
Likewise in 1928, an exhibition held in Turin
to mark the tenth anniversary of victory in
World War I provided experimental possibili-

young

tablishment of the friendship of Sant'Elia and

ties

architects, including

Giuseppe

*Chiattone, both of whom were represented in

Pagano and Levi Montalcini (who

built the

'Nuove Tendenze' (New Tendencies)

the 1914

exhibition. Architectural Futurism

had an

in-

fluence, after this first explosive inroad, on


every exhibition through the 1930s. One should
cite

regard Fillia (Luigi Colombo),


Marchi, Enrico Prampolini, and

in

this

Virgilio

Fortunato Depero (who created the 'futurist'


pavilion at the Monza Biennale of 1927), Nicola
Diulgheroff and Ottorino Aloisio, as well as the
extraordinary Interno futurista of Ivo Pannaggi

of 1925.

The Futurist strain continued as an impetus to


an authentic avant garde which ran parallel to
the concept

common
among

of a 'return to order' which was a


World War I, even

attitude after

the Italian modernists.

Between 1919

and 1926 (the year of the foundation of the


modernist association *Gruppo 7), Italian cul-

for

Gualino

office

building

in

1929),

Alberto

and Lavinia Perona. They all joined


together to form the Group of Six, led by
Edoardo Persico. Moreover, 1928 was also the
year of Terragni's Novocomum in Como, the
Sartoris

significant Rationalist building in Italy.


Until 1936 the cultural scene was tense, due

first

of the moderately modern


and Rationalism. The 1930
exhibition in Monza was dominated by the
Novecento, but the Rationalists were represented by the Casa Elettrica of *Figini, *Pollini,
and Bottoni. In Milan in 1933, the First
to

the

rivalry

Novecento

Italiano

Triennale was held in a building designed by

which the Rationalists and the


were equally represented. Especially to be noted are the graphic arts hall by
Muzio and Sironi and the Press Pavilion by the
Muzio,

in

'Novecentists'

Rationalist *Baldessari. In 1932, the Roman


'Mostra della rivoluzione fascista' was put on in

- from the literary journal La


Ronda to Valori Plastici, the magazine of the new
visual culture - revealed a tendency to regard
the romantic avant garde of the pre-war years as
obsolete and to' rally behind a new nationalistic

an exceptional pavilion by Sironi and Terragni,

*neo-classicism.

(1933)

ture in general

Italy. Press Pavilion at the First Milan Triennale

by Luciano Baldessari

The Milan architects Giovanni Muzio,


Arpago Novello, Giuseppe de Finetti and Gio
*Ponti especially worked in this direction,
although with different accents. In 1923 Muzio
built the Ca'briitta in the Via Moscova in Milan,
a building which in formal terms paid homage
Giorgio de Chirico's 'Pittura metafisica'.
Also in Milan, in 1925 Finetti designed the Casa

to

della

Meridiana,
a
reminiscenees of *Loos.
In the

same period

Alessandro
sought the

in

Limongelli

way

building

Rome,
and

rich

in

Pietro Aschieri,

Gino

Capponi

to a hesitant renewal. In 1928,

Adalberto *Libera and Gaetano Minucci orgain Rome the first 'Esposizione dell'

nized

169

Italy

and in 1934 the Salon of Air Travel presented


one of the most brilliant products of Rationalism: the Hall of the Gold Medals by Persico
and Nizzoli. The Second Milan Triennale of
1936, directed by Ponti and Pagano, was the
great Triennale of Rationalism.
Between 1932 and 1936 the most important
buildings ot Italian Rationalism were erected:
the buildings for Olivetti by Figini and Pollini
(who, along with Terragni and Libera, were the
only members of Gruppo 7 to remain true to
the principles of modernist architecture); the
Parker Company by Persico and Nizzoli; the
first of *Albini's refined buildings; the works of
the Como group (Pietro Longeri, Cesare
Cattaneo and Gianni Mantero); and above all
the important works of Terragni. In 1934,
*Michelucci's group won the competition for
the Santa Maria Novella Station in Florence.
Only a few noteworthy Rationalist buildings

were

realized in

Rome

Post Office in the Quartiere

before 1936: the

Nomentano

(1932)

and the House in the Via Valentino by *Ridolfi,


as well as the Justice Building by Quaroni and
Muratori; in addition there were the urban
planning projects for the new towns of Pontima
(1933) by Piccinato and Sabaudia (1936) by
Quaroni.
The general atmosphere worsened after 1936
and the academicians (of whom many were
members of the exhausted Novecento movement) again gained the upper hand.
Italy. Santa
(

93 36),

Maria Novella Station, Florence

by Giovanni Michelucci and others

In the Rationalist

camp

the

*BBPR

group

(*Banfi, *Belgiojoso, *Peressutti and *Rogers), as well as *Gardella and Mollino, effected a
sort

of

critical

Rationalism which showed

great sensitivity to problems of history and local


tradition. In 1937, Adriano Olivetti (the clearsighted industrialist of great importance in the
history of Italian architecture, design and ur-

banism) entrusted the BBPR group, together


with Bolloni, Figini and Pollini, with the
planning of the Aosta valley. In 1938, the Milan
Rationalists prepared the plan for the model
quarter Milano Verde. Muzio built the Bonaiti
and Malugani houses in Milan (19356) in
which he introduced Italy to the taste of
*Bonatz and *Fahrenkamp, while in his building for the Montecatini Company in Milan.
Ponti turned to a moderate Rationalism. The
airline terminals at Orbetello were realized by

*Nervi

in 19403.
After the government ordered the journal
Casabella-continuita - the most important organ

Italian Rationalism - to cease publication,


nearly the entire group of Rationalistsjoned the

of

political

underground. Raffaello

Giolli.

Gian

Luigi Banfi and Giuseppe Pagano were arrested

and deported to German camps, where they


died in 1945: what had seemed a 'question of
style' became a question of freedom and death.

The

reconstruction

after

World War

II

around a policy of
strong continuity with pre-war tradition. In
Milan, BBPR built the memorial for the
victims of the concentration camps (1946). The
Seventh Milan Triennale and the experimental
united the

Rationalists

Italy

Italy. Aircraft hangar, Orbetello (1940-3),

by Pier

Luigi Nervi

residential quarter

with

QT8,

built in conjunction

of the hopes of those


and the inclination to a new relationship
between Italy's architectural culture and the
realities of the day. The architectonic neorealism of the following years developed in
reaction to the disappointment of the left's
defeat in the provincial elections of 1948 and the
cultural bureaucratization of the Italian Communist Party, which screened itself from contemporary avant-garde culture. This found
expression in the work of Mario Ridolfi in
Rome, the ideology of the 'commune' and the
new interest in spontaneous architecture, in
Scandinavian neo-empiricism and in the contradictions of the 'milieu'.
it,

are representative

years,

The INA-Casa Tiburtino quarter in Rome


sort

(a

of manifesto of architectural neo-realism),

the 'Case a torre' in the Viale Etiopia, also in

Rome, by Ridolfi, the village of La Martella


near Matera by Quaroni, and the Borsalino
houses in Alessandria by Gardella were all

Italy.

realized in the 1950s, In addition to his beautiful

by Mario Ridolfi and others

INA-Casa Tiburtino

quarter.

Koine

(1950).

Italy

Genoa, 1954-6; and La Rinascente Department


Store in Rome, 1957-62) and finally by the
BBPR group (the Torre Velasca in Milan,
1954-8).

At the same time a middle generation (Marco


Vico Magistretti, Gigi Chessa,

Zanuso,

Vigano, Ezio Segrelli, Marcello


D'Olivo, Angelo *Mangiarotti) developed an
interest in industrial production and its ideological and practical implications for buildings.
Luigi Cosenza built a noteworthy industrial
complex for Olivetti (1955) in Naples. *Nervi,
*Morandi and Zorzi also offered interesting
Vittoriano

The
by Gio Ponti and

constructional experiments.
scraper in Milan

Pirelli

sky-

others, built

(likewise 195

was typical of a modernistic formalism which had become rather widespread.


The end of the 1950s was characterized by a
double crisis. On the one hand a new interest in
urban problems developed, especially with the
book L'urbanistica e Vavvenire della citt ('Urbanlsm and the future of the city', 1959) by
*Samona (the founder of the architectural

school in Florence).

in 1956-8,

Italy.

Museo

del

Tesoro

interior design (19546)

di

San Lorenzo, Turin:

by Franco Albini

museums

(Palazzo Bianco in Genoa, 195 1),


Franco Albini built the INA Building in Parma
1) which for twenty years served as
model for the architecture of the region.
The discussion of the internal conflicts of

Rationalism, and especially

its

relationship to

was opened in the second half of the


1950s, first by young architects (Roberto
Gabetti, Vittorio *Gregotti, Aimaro Oreglia
D'Isola, Giuseppe Raineri), then also by
tradition,

Gardella (Casa alle Zattere in Venice, 1957),


Albini (Museo del Tesoro di San Lorenzo in

On

hand there
between ideological obligation and language in favour o{ a
greater concentration on questions specific to

was

the other

a shift in the relationship

architectural discipline.

The competition
ter across

for the

San Giuliano quarin 1959, and

from Venice was held

Quaroni submitted a project based on the


problem of hierarchies in the planning of the
city.

The

1961 competition for the administraof the city of Turin elicited many

tive centre
Italy. City centre, Turin (project, 1963),

Lodovico Quaroni

172

by

architecturally important

and engaged contri-

butions, as did the later competition (1967) for

Italy

the extension

of the Chamber of Deputies

in

Rome.
The important protagonists of the 1960s
were Leonardo Ricci, who worked with the
theme of informality, Maurizio Sacripanti with
his interest in the expressive means of advanced
technologies, Giovanni *Michelucci, who built
the Church of San Giovanni Battista (1960-3)
on the Autostrada del Sole (motorway) near
Florence, and not least Carlo *Scarpa, who had
already realized his famous pavilion at the

Italy. Zanussi administration building,


(1961),

Pordenone

by Gino Vallc

House

Borgo, Ticino (1973), by Aldo


Rossi and Gianni Braghieri

Italy.

at

Venice Biennale in 1956 and now continued


with his exceptional remodelling of museums
(Palermo, Verona, Venice). Several younger
architects were also confirmed in the 1960s:
Gino *Valle, who created a series of industrial
buildings in Pordenone (1961), *Aymonino,
Vittorio Gregotti, Gae Aulenti, *Rossi and

Guido Canella.
The Triennale of Free Time, held in Milan in
1964, once again took up problems of architecture after three successive Triennales

had fo-

cused on questions of design.


In 1966 two books were published which
were to have considerable influence: // territorio
dell'architettura

L'Architettura

by
delta

Vittorio
citt

by

Gregotti

Aldo

and
Rossi

(*Rational architecture).

173

Jacobsen
confidence in

Earlier

progress

limitless

ended with the onset of the world-wide economic crisis of the late 1960s and with the crisis
of ideals which culminated in the movements of

Giorgi, G., Muntoni, A., and Pazzaglim, M.,


dihattito architettonico in Italia

19451975,

77

Rome

1977.

1968.

The

of the 1970s sought to


of answers to this deep crisis. On
the one hand there developed a new avant garde
(*Superstudio, Archizoom, Ettore Sottsass)
which rejected Rationalism and advocated a
new creativity, while on the other hand a group
of young architects in the circle of the Istituto
Universitario di Architettura in Venice proposed a reconsideration of the traditional principles of urban form.
Aymonino, Rossi,
Polesello, and Semerani were its most important proponents. A further group maintained a
strong urban planning position which concentrated essentially on the management and conservation of the existing urban fabric.
Important testing grounds for these various
tendencies were offered in the great competitions for new university complexes which were
architecture

provide

a series

held in the early 1970s (Florence, 1971; Cagliari,


1972; Cosenza, 1973).

*De

Giancarlo

Carlo has assumed

a special

He

position in recent Italian architecture.

has

concentrated his efforts principally on the city

of Urbino, whose development he has determined not only as a planner but also with built
work of a noteworthy standard of architectural
quality.

Among

the youngest architects one should


Emilio Battisti, Franco Purini, Pierluigi
Nicolin and Emilio Puglielli, whose grounding
is the school of Gregotti, as well as Massimo
Scolari, Giorgio *Grassi, Umberto Siola and
cite

Salvatore Bisogni,

who

take Rossi's

work

Kidder Smith, G. E.,


Pagano, Carlo,
1955;
oggi I Italy's

VG
London

Architettura

italiana

Today,

Architecture

Milan

greatly admired, in particular those buildings

by Nicolai Abildgard. However, J.'s first encounter with the architecture of *Le Corbusier
and *Mies van der Rohe in exhibitions in Paris
(1925) and Berlin (1927-8) was important both
for himself and for the whole development of
Danish architecture.
Trained in the architectural school of the
Academy of Arts, Copenhagen, from which he
graduated in 1928, J. later taught there (1956
71). While still a student, he built the first of a
long series of single-family houses, reminiscent
externally, with its yellow bricks and tiled roof,
of the period around 1800. The flexibility of his
talent enabled him, however, at the same time
to try his hand at the cuboid forms of the

as a

Italy Builds,

starting point.

Jacobsen, Arne, b. Copenhagen 1902, d. Copenhagen 1 97 1. In his work J. was to a notable


degree open to new impulses without losing his
attachment to the Danish architectural tradition. The same sense of order, modular
rhythms and natural proportions characterizes
J.'s architecture. When he was a student, *neoclassicism was still dominant in *Denmark and
the architecture of the period around 1 800 was

1955;

Meeks, Carroll L. V.. Italian Architecture, 17501914, New Haven, Conn., and London 1966;
Galardi, Alberto, Neue italienische Architekturc,
Stuttgart 1967; Fanelli, G., Architettura moderna
in Italia

1900-1940, Florence 1968;

'Italia',

Zodiac

(Milan), no. 20, 1970; Cresti, Carlo, Appunti


1900 ad
Luciano,

storici e critici sull' architettura italiana dall

oggi,

Florence

Patetta,

1971;

L' architettura in Italia 1919 1943. Le polemiche,

Milan 1972;
razionalismo
fascismo,

174

Patetta,
e

and Danesi,

L.,

V architettura

Venice

1976;

in

Italia

Conforto,

S.,

//

durante

C,

il

De

Jacobsen. Bellavista

estate,

Copenhagen

(193.

Jacobsen
modernist

style.

Together with

Flemming

Lassen, he created a sensation at an exhibition in

1929 with a circular 'house of the future',


complete with helicopter landing-pad on the
roof. In 19305 he created a harmonious group
of buildings in the Bellevue beach area near
Copenhagen, beginning with the baths, whose
cabins and kiosks were designed with elegance.
These were followed by the three-storey
housing
development,
with
Bellavista
staggered facade

features.

Finally

came

the

Bellevue Theatre, which was thought of primarily as

summer

a sliding ceiling to

theatre and therefore given


allow the night sky to serve as

a roof.
It was through his close friendship with the
Swedish architect Gunnar *Asplund that J.
learned to work at a building, both technically
and architecturally, and to respect detail.

influence shows clearly in the


House in Copenhagen (1937) and the
town halls of Arhus (1937) and Sollerod (1940-

Asplund's
Stelling

designed in collaboration with Erik Moller


and Flemming Lassen respectively.
After a period of enforced isolation during
World War II, J. regained his position among
the leaders of Danish architecture with his
Soholm housing scheme (19505). In the
Munkegrd School at Gentofte (1952-6), a
single-storey construction with numerous bays
and courtyards, he combined a sense of total
unity of design and quality with an atmosphere
of intimacy. In a series of buildings he adopted
the largely American-developed principle of
construction with internal supporting columns
and curtain-wall facades, to which he brought a
high degree of refinement, as in the Jespersen

2),

Jacobsen. Jespersen

office building,

Copenhagen

(1955)

Jacobsen. City Hall. Mainz (1970-3; completed


by Hans Dissing and Otto Weitling)

building
in
Copenhagen
(1955);
Rodovre town hall (1955); and the SAS Building in Copenhagen (1958-60).
Among his industrial buildings, special mention must be made of. the Massey-Harris
exhibition and works building,
Glostrup
office

^1952); and the Carl Christensen factory in


Alborg (1956). In his later years j. also designed
a number of buildings abroad, including: St

Catherine's

College,

Oxford (1960-4);

the

main
administration
the
building
of
Hamburgische Electricitts-Werke, Hamburg
(1962-70); and the City Hall, Mainz (1970-3;
completed by his colleagues Hans Dissing and
Otto Weitling).
At home J. 's last major work was his design
for the Danish National Bank in Copenhagen
175

Japan
961-71). Here, the simple, monumental mass
of the building and reflective surfaces were
conceived to blend well with the old warehouses near the harbour. J. in fact never wanted
to be a specialist. In addition to being an
architect he also was an influential designer of
silverware,
furniture and fabric patterns.
Although these were mostly undertaken for
particular buildings, they were never of such an
individual nature that they could not be put to
general use, and many were in fact subsequently
mass-produced.
TF
(

Faber, Tobias, Arnejacobsen, Stuttgart 1964;

Shriver, Poul Erik, Arnejacobsen,

Copenhagen

This kind of

'functionalism' derived

Taisho period (1912-26), immediately following the Meiji era, was marked by the pursuit of

new architecture by the younger generation. In


1920, several students of Tokyo Imperial
University formed the 'Japanese Secession',
declaring their detachment from the architec-

and generating stimulative


manifestos and exhibitions of their 'fantastic'
ture of the past
projects

1972.

literal

from the concept of 'architecture for the


nation', combined with the eclectic style chiefly
derived from Victorian architecture in *Great
Britain, gradually came to be regarded in the
eyes of young students as oppressive. The

which were undoubtedly

affected

by

German *Expressionism.
Among the founding members of the Secessionist movement were Sutemi Horiguchi,
Mayumi Takizawa, Mamoru Yamada and
the architecture of

long tradition of expanding


by absorbing elements of
foreign cultures and then modifying them in its
own idiom. Even Japanese traditional architecture was a mixture of older indigenous building
methods and the Buddhist temple style imported from China and Korea. Likewise, the
'modernization' of Japanese architecture was

Japan. Japan has


its

own

culture

synonymous with 'westernization';


phenomenon occurred not only
architecture but in the whole of Japanese

essentially

in practice, this
in

downfall of the feudal


system of the Tokugawa Shogunate (16031867) and the emergence of the new Meiji era
(1868-1912). Even prior to this era of westernization, a few instances of the transplantation of
Western domestic architectural styles had occivilization after the

curred.

However,

after the Meiji restoration,

process became one of the


most important components of the national
policy for the modernization of the whole
this transplantation

nation. In accordance with this policy, the Meiji

government

invited

many

specialists

of the

building industry to expedite the task of construction of public buildings and to establish a

modern system of architectural


British

among

education.

The

Josiah Condor, who was


these foreign specialists, made a great
architect

contribution to Japanese architecture as a lecturer at the Tokyo Imperial University.


Since the architecture of the Meiji period was

patronized by the government and the academic establishment, acting as motivating


forces,

its

development

commitment

to

reflected

technocracy

and

definite

attached

greater importance to structural engineering

and building economy than to the creativity of


the individual architect.

176

Kikuji Ishimoto. As the Meiji 'modernization'

phenomenon and its


nothing new by
Western standards, this new movement was
virtually the first expression of modern architecture in Japan. In the ensuing years came a
number of examples of 'new' architecture,
was

a specifically

Japanese

architectural style

was

in fact

competing with the eclectic works of the older


generation of architects. If the first buildings,
like the early projects of the Secessionists, still

- for example,
Telegraph Office by Yamada
(1926) and the Asahi News Press Building
(1927) by Ishimoto, both in Tokyo there was
soon a movement towards the purer inter-

showed
the

Expressionist features

Central

national Style.

Of particular

that this revolutionary

interest

change

is

the fact

in the 'architec-

was reflected in the work not


only of independent architects but also of those
working for official organs such as the Building
Department of the Tokyo Metropolitan Office
(which produced several notable school buildings), the Dojunkan Housing Corporation and
the Teishin-sho (Communications Services
Corporation). In particular, the Teishin-sho
staff included a number of talented architects
such as Roku Iwamoto, Mamoru Yamada
(former Secessionist), Tetsuo Yoshida and
Hideo Kosaka. Yamada's Teishin hospitals in
Tokyo (1937) and Osaka (1941) and Yoshida's
General Post Office in Tokyo (193 1) could be
counted among the most successful examples of
the Modern Movement in pre-war Japan.
Although Japanese architects had already
demonstrated in this period that their abilities
tural language'

Japan

Japan. Central Telegraph Office,


bv Mamoru Yamada

Tokyo

(1926).

Japan. General Post


Tetsuo Yoshida

Office,

Tokyo

fourth prize in the competition for the theatre of

Kharkov, USSR), some noted Western masters


a profound influence of the architects of
Japan. Two of these masters, Frank Lloyd
*Wright and Bruno *Taut, were active there
for several years. Wright built the Imperial
Hotel (1915-22) as well as the Jiyugakuen
Kindergarten (192 1), both in Tokyo, and some
residences. Taut's most significant works were
writings on Japanese architecture and culture in
general. Ultimately, however, Taut's works
proved to have a greater direct influence on
exerted

Japanese architects than did Wright's buildings.


Wright's works, in spite of their prominence,
were too individualistic and unique to serve as
models for Japanese architects who were just
beginning to establish their own modern idiom.

For

this

reason, aside

works by such

from

several imitative

architects as Shin

influence of the

and Endo, the

American master remained

rather peripheral, excepting the fact that

of

his collaborators

contributed

much

some

to the

development of Japanese architecture.


Antonin Raymond, a Czech architect who
came to Japan together with Wright, remained
in Japan until his death (except during the war
years) and produced a number of excellent and
future

modernist buildings such as the


(1932) and the Akaboshi
residence (1935). Kameki Tsuchiura, who had
earlier been one of Wright's assistants, designed
his own house (1935), a notable work having a
genuinely

Japan. Asahi News Press Building,


by Kikuji Ishimoto

Tokyo

(1927).

were not inferior to those of most Western


(a typical example is 28-year-old
Renshichiro Kawakita's project which won

architects

Tokyo Golf Club

ofJapanese residenBut neither of their styles

special place in the history


tial

architecture.

177

Japan
contained any important features reminiscent
of Wright.
The lessons of the 'New Architecture' were
also introduced into Japan by young Japanese
architects who had gone to Europe to study
under the leading figures of the Modern Movement. Kunio *Mayekawa and Junzo Sakakura
worked under *Le Corbusier in Paris, and
Bunzo Yagamuchi worked under *Gropius in
Berlin. Yamaguchi's remarkable Constructivist
annexe to the Tokyo Dental School (1934) and
Sakakura'sjapanese Pavilion at the World's Fair
of 1937 in Paris exhibited the skill of the
younger generation of Japanese architects.
In the late 1930s and early '40s, however, this
new international language had to confront a
new situation, a call for a 'national style'. This
problem had already been discussed in the
Japanese Architectural Academy as early as
1920, a fact which revealed the Japanese architects' awareness of their own national identity.
This issue had been raised during the long
planning process for the National Parliament
Building, which was ultimately completed in
1936 in a classic *Art Deco style. The rise of
Japanese militarism accelerated this call for a
'national style' and gave birth to a strange
stylistic mixture of European Fascist architecture,

which became known as the 'ImperialStyle'. Hitoshi Watanabe's winning

Crown
project

in

Imperial

the

competition

Museum

(193

Japan. Tokyo Imperial

Watanabe

178

1,

for

the

built in 1938),

Museum

(1938)

Tokyo
which

by Hitoshi

was chosen in preference to Mayekawa's entry


manner of Le Corbusier, was among the

in the

earliest typical

examples of

this

hybrid

style.

Kenzo *Tange's sensational debut in two


competitions was also marked by a definite
tendency toward the nationalistic style. In this
difficult period, Japanese architects who were
opposed to vulgar nationalism formed the
Kosaku Bunka Renmei (based on the idea of the

Deutscher Werkbund) to defend the ideals of


modern architecture, but the movement soon
lost its momentum. During the years of economic recovery after World War II, Japanese
architects advocated 'architecture for demoRyuichi Hamaguchi's
and the N.A.U.
(New Japan Architects Union) was formed in
1947 to further this goal. Mayekawa, Sakakura
and other modernists held the leadership in this
cracy', as represented in

book

Architecture of Humanism,

movement
1949,

for the next

Tange reappeared

younger

architects after

tion for the

two

decades.

And

in

champion of the
winning the competias a

Hiroshima Peace Centre. After

short period of optimistic belief in Functional-

was introduced to re-evaluate the problem of a national


or regional architectural language. During the
1950s, Mayekawa and Tange, among others,
ism, a theory of Socialist Realism

showed

their

ability

to

synthesize

modern

technology and 'Japanese character' strongly


influenced by the late work of Le Corbusier. In
the 1960s the major concern of Japanese architects lay in developing a systematic planning
methodology applicable both to building design and construction and to urbanism. Tange,

Japan

Japan. Plan for

Tokyo

(1959-60) by

Kenzo Tange

systematic designs of the


stream.

his Tokyo Plan (1959-60), became once


again the leader in this phase, and younger

with

architects

under

his

formed the Metabolist movement


influence

(^Metabolism). Typical

works of this period included several of Tange's


public buildings, such as the Kagawa Prefectural Office Building, Takamatsu
(1955-8), and

Tokyo National High School (1961-4), as


Tokoen Hotel,
Yonago (1964), Fumihiko Maki's buildings for
Rissho University in Kumagaya (1967-8) and
Sachio Ohtani's Kyoto International Conferthe

well as Kiyonori *Kikutake's

ence Hall (1966). Concurrently with the


growth of the movement of Metabolism, a
number of architects (including some of the
older generation) produced highly individual

works,

as

if in

reaction against the rigidly

Togo Murano's

Metabolist

main-

Nissci Insurance Build-

(1964) and Martin Luther Theological


School (1970) and Seiichi Shirai's Shinwa Bank,
Sasebo (196877), were among these works.
The Osaka World's Fair of 1970 represented
the culmination of the Metabolist mainstream
movement after a decade of growth supported
by the great Japanese economic boom of the

ing

1960s. Among the works presented at Expo '70


were Tange's huge space-frame, the novel
metabolic capsules of Kikutake and *Kurokawa, and various pneumatic structures. In the
wake of this Metabolist 'orgy', optimism about
the future value of Metabolism evaporated, and
the architectural profession was polarized between the 'professionalise majority and the
'conceptualist' minority. Arata *Isozaki. with
his

neo-platonic

aesthetic,

and

Kazuo
179

Japan

"

H
iL

3|

li;;;

In

H8!t!^

Hin!

*Shinohara, with his intensive symbolism, be-

came

new

the

leaders

of the 'conceptualists'

in

the 1970s and continue in these roles. Young


Japanese architects today are even more radical

and more individualistic, as young artists have


tended to be.
HY
D Kulterman, Udo, Xew Japanese Architecture,
London i960; Boyd, Robin, New Directions of
the

Japanese

Tafuri,

Manfred,

Giappone,
180

Architecture.

Rome

New

L'architettura

York 1968;
modema in

1964; Ross, Michael Frank-

Japan. International Conference


(1966), by Sachio Ohtani
Japan.

Gunma

Prefectural

Hall,

Kyoto

Museum of Fine

Arts,

Tagasaki (1971-4), by Arata Isozaki

Beyond Metabolism, New York 1978;


Hajime, 'Architecture in Urban
Desert', Oppositions (Cambridge, Mass., and
London), 23
lin,

Yatsuka,

Johnson

Johansen, John M(acLane), b. New York


1916. Studied at Harvard University under
Walter *Gropius and Marcel *Breuer and
worked in the offices of Breuer and *Skidmore,
Owings & Merrill. From 1948 to 1970 he had
his own office in New Canaan, Conn.; in 1970
he entered a partnership in New York with
Ashok M. Bhavnani. In 1976 he became a
professor at the Pratt Institute in New York. J. is
keenly interested in structural experiments:
designs for a holiday house with a reinforced-

Johnson,
philology

was the

Philip, b.

Cleveland 1906. Studied

Harvard University, 1923-30, and

at

director of the Architecture

first

De-

Museum of Modern Art in


New York (MOMA), 1930-6. He later repartment of the

turned to Harvard to study architecture under


*Gropius and *Breuer, 1940-3, and had his

own

Cambridge, Mass.,

architectural office in

19426. In 1946 he again became Director of the


Architecture Department of the Museum of

Modern

Art, and since 1954 has practised as an


York (1964-7 in partnership

New

concrete shell and a 'streamlined house' with

architect in

walls of sprayed reinforced concrete. His design

with Richard Foster; since 1967 with John

for the U.S. Embassy in Dublin (1964), a


rotunda with circular courtyard and a facade of
prefabricated, reinforced-concrete frames, is
based on the Irish round-tower tradition.
In the Oklahoma Theater Center in Oklahoma City (196670) the various elements building volumes, services, pedestrian ramps -

Burgee).

are expressively articulated

and combined

in a

composition of dynamic movement. This is at


once a revival of the approach of Russian
^Constructivism and an attempt to realize a
'kinetic' architecture for the electronic era. G Ha
D Heyer, Paul, Architects on Architecture, New
York 1966; Johansen, John M., The New Urban
Aesthetic,

New

York

1972.

His attention was first directed to European


avant-garde architecture as early as 1927 by an
essay

by

most

Henrybecame one of the

the architectural historian

Russell Hitchcock, and


influential

J.

American propagandists for


He arranged for *Mies

the style in the 1930s.

van der Rohe's

first trip

the latter redesigned

J. 's

to

New

York (where

apartment),

as

well

as

of *Le Corbusier, and in 1932 published


with Hitchcock that most influential book, The
that

which defined the Modern


formally determined stylistic
tendency with no reference to ideological or
sociological principles and thereby coined the
widely used term *'International Style' (the
suggestion originally came from Alfred Barr,
International Style,

Movement

as a

then director of MOMA).


In the 1940s J., inspired by his own activity as
a publicist, himself turned to active architectural practice. His first work, realized in 1942,
was his own house in Cambridge, Mass. In 1949

House' in
Canaan, Conn.; for all the unmistakable
influence of Mies van der Rohe's Farnsworth
he

built, also for himself, the 'Glass

New

House

in Piano,

111.

(designed 1945), J. 's elegant

independent work. Its


landscape and its
relationship to the neighbouring guest house
and the ornamental pond set before it bear
prism
placement
glass

is

a decidedly

in

park-like

witness to an individual sensibility.

bathroom core

Johansen. Oklahoma Theater Center, Oklahoma


City (1966-70)

reveals

new

The

circular

interest

in

elementary geometrical forms and Mies van der


Rohe's striving to make the constructive frame
of a building legible takes on a formal-decorative aspect inj.'s equal concern for perfection of
details. He drew not only on the German master
of ^Rationalism, but also on those architects
whom Hitchcock had labelled 'romantic classicists', such as Ledoux and Schinkel. A whole
series of smooth and tasteful buildings was to

Johnson

hedonistic nonchalance in a context of equally


refined and fickle *historicism.

The

experi-

ments included the Roofless Church in New


Harmony, Indiana (i960), the Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Nebraska
Lincoln (1963), as well as the New York State
Theater (19604), one of the components in
*Harrison and *Abramovitz's Lincoln Center
complex, which fits easily within the tradition
of the *Ecole des Beaux-Arts in American
architecture. The fact that J. could also collaborate at the same time with Mies van der Rohe on
the puritan-spirited Seagram Building in New
York (19548) is symptomatic of his lack of
at

rigid aesthetic convictions.

Johnson. Glass House,


(1949): exterior

New

Canaan, Conn.

and interior

follow, including the Hodgson House in New


Canaan and the Oneto House in Irvington,
N.Y. (both 195 1, built in collaboration with
Landes Gores), as well as the delicately com-

MOMA

posed garden of the


(1953).
With the Kneses Tifereth Israel Synagogue in
Port Chester, N.Y. (1954-6), J. widened radically the spectrum of his ^eclecticism and
announced an entire sequence of ever more
audacious experiments, notable for displaying a
182

This whimsical changeability is also evident


subsequent work. The Kline Geology
Laboratory Tower at Yale University, a heavy,
monumental tower whose historical solemnity
recalls Louis *Kahn, was built in 19624; the
Art Museum of South Texas at Corpus Christi,
completed in 1972, is a white complex composed of elementary stereometric volumes. The
IDS (Investors Diversified Services) Center in
in J.'s

Minneapolis, completed in 1973, was one of the


first combined hotel/office buildings with an
extensive public lobby, a type developed on an

even larger

scale

by John *Portman. The

Pennzoil Place complex in Houston was real-

Kahn, A.
and cultivated-cynical refinement; they are only able to imitate the hollow
masks of his forms in order to make architecture
attractive for patrons who are concerned only
with appearances and to satisfy a noveltyaesthetic sense

VML

craving public.

Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, and Johnson,

Philip, The International Style, New York 1932;


Johnson Philip, Machine Art, New York 1934;
Mies van der Rohe, New York 1947;

Jacobus, John, Jr, Philip Johnson, New York


1962; Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, Philip JohnArchitecture

son:

London
London

1949-1965,

New

York and

1966; Noble, Charles, Philip Johnson,

1972; 'Philip Johnson', The ArchitecForum (New York), vol. 138 (1973), no. 1,
pp. 26-74; Miller, Nory, Johnson/ Burgee: Architecture, New York 1979; Stern, Robert A. M.
tural

(ed.), Philip Johnson, Writings,

New York

1979.

Josic, Alexis, b. Stari Becej, Yugoslavia 192 1.


Studied painting and was active as a film scen-

ographer before turning to architecture. In 1953


he went to Paris where he joined the ATBAT
office (Atelier des Btisseurs). In

Johnson. Pennzoil

Place,

Houston, Texas (1970-6)

ship

1955 a partner-

was formed with *Candilis and *Woods;

since 1963

J.

has maintained his

own

Sevres, near Paris. Like Candilis and

and comprises two crisply-cut,


dark mirror-glass clad administration towers
with an immense public glass hall slipped in
between as a unifying element.
In the 1980s J. 's frivolity combined with his
craving for the spectacular reached a highpoint.
ized in 1970-6,

In

1980 he built the 'Crystal Cathedral" in

Garden Grove near Los Angeles, an immense


glass-enclosed space with breathtaking light

AT&T

Building in New York


(1978-83) is a skyscraper which sports a melange of Gothic, Renaissance, neo-classical, and
* Art Deco elements. Also under construction is
effects.

the

The

PPG

(Pittsburgh Plate Glass) Building in

Pittsburgh, a filigreed complex, which draws


on the neo-Gothic of Sir Charles Barry and

A.

W. N.

Pugin and

refers

with light ironic

reverence to the old (Gothic-inspired) University buildings in Pittsburgh.


J. has had and continues to have a probably
unequalled influence on American architecture.

With

the same elan with which he eased the


penetration of European modernism into the
USA in the 1930s and 1940s, he became
subsequently a precursor of *Post-Modernism.

However, most of

his

epigones lack his sure

made

his

name

principally for his role in the

collaborative planning of the

Toulouse

office in

Woods, he

new town of

Mirail (competition 1962, realization 1964-77). His designs are generally based
le

a three-dimensional modular system which


permits an orderly growth without compromising the original concept. An example is the

on

new town of
Calsat).

Lille-Est (1972-8,

with Francois

AM

See under Candilis.

K
Kahn, Albert, b. Rhaunen, Westphalia

1869, d.

Detroit 1942. Emigrated to the *USA in 1880.


He spent the years 1928-32 in *Russia, working

on an industrial building programme. Early on,


K. paved the way for the precise and finely
delineated cubic forms of the 1950s and 1960s
(*Mies van der Rohe; Eero *Saarinen). Among
the most successful examples of a functionalist
architecture in the best sense - one in which the
restrained architectural language harmonizes
183

Kahn, L.

Kahn, Albert. Rouge River Glass


Motor Company, Dearborn, Mich.

Plant,

Ford

(1924)

with industrial requirements - is his Rouge


River Glass Plant of the Ford Motor Company
in Dearborn, Mich. (1924).
D Detroit Institute of Arts, The Legacy of
Albert

Kahn (exhibition

catalogue),

Detroit,

1970; Hildebrand, Grant, Designing/or Industry:

The

Architecture of Albert

Kahn, Cambridge,

Mass. 1974.

Kahn,

Louis

(sadore), b.

Estonia 1901, d.

on the

Island

of scl,

New York

1974. Studied at the


University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia,

1920-4, within the tradition of the French


*Ecole des Beaux-Arts. After work in various
professional offices (among them that of the
academically oriented architect Paul Cret), as
well as several extended visits to Europe, K.

opened

his

own

office in Philadelphia in 1937.

94 1 he formed a partnership with George


*Howe, one of the pioneers of modernism in
In

the

*USA;

in

1942 Oscar Stonorov joined the

partnership, and continued his collaboration

although Howe left in 1943.


various institutions, including Yale
University, the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-

withK.

until 1948,

K. taught

at

nology and the University of Pennsylvania. He


was a member of Team X (*CIAM).
In 1941-3 Kahn, Howe and Stonorov realized the much-acclaimed Carver Court Housing estate in Coatesville, Pa. In the late 1940s K.
came under the influence of Frederick *Kiesler

and especially of R. Buckminster *Fuller.


Fuller's impact is especially strong in the various
projects based on geodesic principles which K.
184

Kahn, Louis. City Tower Municipal Building,


Philadelphia, Pa. (with Anne Tyng; project, 1957)
for the City Tower
Municipal Building in Philadelphia, in collaboration with Anne Tyng, an ardent disciple of
Fuller. Such experiments with Utopian megastructures led in 1956-7 to the project for the
Midtown City Center Forum in Philadelphia,
which drew on his earlier project for a Rational
City, which had in turn been inspired by *Le
Corbusier's Ville Radieuse (Radiant City) and
in which the geometric-technological euphoria

drew up between 1952-7

is

seen

to

give

way

to

heavy, historical

monumentality.
In 1 95 1-3, in collaboration with Douglas
Orr, he realized the extension to the Yale Art

Kahn,
Gallery in

New

Haven. At

time

when

L.

the

majority of avant-garde American architects, in


the wake of an extreme faith in prosperity and

growth, advocated that elegant technical perfection which had been introduced by *Mies
van der Rohe, K. - although starting from the
aesthetic of the master of German Rationalism
- presented a bold and skilful ruggedness. He
clad the architecture of 'beinahe nichts' (almost
nothing) in an expressive, massive monumentality, thereby creating one of the most
important buildings in the sphere of *New
Brutalism.

Yet the Yale Art Gallery was

much more

than just that: the strong geometric plan, the


simple, clear, prismatic volumes, the visible

frame construction, the smooth brick facades


and the ceiling of concrete tetrahedra were early
evidence of K.'s deep interest in the elementary
and in archetypes in architecture. This interest
would continue through his entire work, and
influence an entire generation.
K.'s preference for stringent adherence to
Beaux-Arts typology received full expression
in the bathhouse for the Jewish Community
Center in Trenton, N.J.: five square rooms rise
on a cruciform ground-plan, each roofed with
cut-off pyramids except the middle element. In
the context of the revivified academicism of the
1950s, the bathhouse is an emblem of classic
simplicity and rational strength.
What had been articulated - still with some
hesitation - in New Haven and Trenton was
brought to a synthesis and a highpoint in the
Alfred Newton Richards Medical Research
Building at the University of Pennsylvania in

The

Philadelphia (1957-60).

Kahn, Louis. Alfred Newton Richards Media


Research Building, University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia (1957-60)

Kahn, Louis. Jonas

Salk Institute laboratory


building. La Jolla, Cal. (195965)

three laboratory

which the two towers of the Biology


Building were added in 196 1-4, are all joined by
connecting elements to an open block and are
'served' by appended towers in which the

blocks, to

and ventilation systems are housed.


Thus the laboratory spaces, square in plan, are
entirely free and unencumbered. The aggresstaircase

sive

the

towers are axially arranged


likewise

axially

blocks; but while the


latter are

in relation to

composed

first

laboratory

are entirely closed, the

extensively glazed. Rationalistic, fu-

and medieval-romantic elements are


here melded into an independent poetic archituristic

tectural language.

In this building K.

had given expression to


of his future architectural
preference for elementary

the principal elements

development:

his

geometric forms and compositions; the overheightened emphasis on function and construction tending towards formalistic autonomy; the
hierarchical, and often dramatically treated,
differentiation between 'served' and 'servant'
185

Kiesler

spaces,

feature

from *Wright's

adopted

Larkin Building; the monumentalization of


secondary
elements,
typical
of
*New
Brutalism; the involvement with the dualism of
'silence

and

light'

by no means

free

of mythic

connotations; and finally the return to the past,

which

is

manifested partly in abstract terms and

partly (particularly in late works) explicitly.

of the Jonas Salk


La Jolla, Cal., built 195965, the
'serving' mezzanine floor below each laboratory level (in which both the supporting structure and the technical/mechanical installations
are housed) permitted an entirely free and
functional organization of work spaces as in the
Medical Research Building. In the (unbuilt)
reception centre, K. developed for the first time
that 'House-within-a-house' principle which he
had already sketched out in 1959 (American
Consulate in Luanda, Angola) and which was
later to become a principal theme of O. M.
*Ungers' work. The Unitarian Church in
Rochester, N.Y., built 195967, was as much a
restrained as an elegantly controlled complex.
The additively conceived Erdman Hall Dormitories at Bryn Mawr College in Bryn Mawr,
Pa., were built in 1960-5. Among his later
important works in the USA is the Kimbell Art
Museum in Fort Worth, Texas (1966-72, in
collaboration with Preston M. Gerne and Associates), and the Yale Center for British Art,
New Haven, Conn. (1969-74).
It was the Third World that finally afforded
K. the opportunity to put his urban planning
and architectural notions into practice on a large
scale: the planning for the government centre of
Dacca began in 1962 and building was underIn the laboratory buildings

Institute at

taken in 1973-6, thus largely after K.'s death.


Like the Indian Institute of Management in

Ahmedabad,

like closed buildings display

metric-decorative types,

Roman

fortress-

numerous geo-

principally

derived

The 'Housemasterfully dem-

models.

within-a-house' principle
onstrated

is

the figurehead of an important transi-

"^International Style

which the

late

of the post-war years was

*New Brutalism, into a new


formalism, the most extreme manifestations of
which are, on the one hand, *Post-Modernism
and, on the other, *Rational architecture.
Supported by a sometimes decidedly cryptic
and metaphysically imbued architectural philosophy, K.'s projects as well as his executed
buildings have influenced the architects of the
succeeding generation in a most decisive manner. His exacting search for architectural form
was for him, in the first place, a spiritual, indeed
mythical, act; it is no coincidence that his most
successful buildings are those of a religious or
symbolic nature. Through his creative involvement with the past, which simultaneously
provided a restraint and an impulse for his
imagination, K. anticipated one of the central
dissolved, via

problems of the architecture of the 1970s and


1980s and thus prepared the way for personalities as diverse as Aldo *Rossi, James *Stirling,
VML
and Mario *Botta.
D Kahn, Louis I., 'Architecture Is the
Thoughtful Making of Spaces', Perspecta (New
'Remarks', Perspecta,
Haven), 4 (1957);
9/ ro (1965); Wurman, R. S., and Feldman, E.
(eds.), The Notebooks and Drawings of Louis I.
Kahn, Philadelphia 1962; Scully, Vincent, Jr.,
Louis I. Kahn, New York 1962; 'Louis I. Kahn',
,

L' Architecture

d'aujourd'hui

no.

(Paris),

142

(February/March 1969); Giurgola, R., and


Mehta, J., Louis I. Kahn, Zurich and Boulder,
Col. 1975; Ronner, H., Jhaveri, S., and Vesella,
A., Louis I. Kahn: The Complete Works 19351974, Basle, Stuttgart and Boulder, Col. 1977;
Lobel, John, Between Silence and Light: Spirit in
the Architecture of Louis I. Kahn, 1979-

India (1962-7, in collaboration

with B. V. Doshi and A. D. Raje), the

from antique

K.

tion in architectural culture, in

is

Kiesler, Frederick,

York

1965.

b.

Studied

Vienna 1890,
at

the

d.

New

Akademie der

Technische
and
the
Knste
Hochschule in Vienna. After a brief collaboration with *Loos in 1920, he was active notably

bildenden

1923 he joined the

Central Building of the


Assembly: the supporting brick walls, into
which reinforced-concrete elements are set and

as a stage designer. In

in

which round and arched elements are cut,


evoke traditional precedents. The formal language attests to an abstracted *historicism,
which seems to strive to fulfil with monumental
solemnity the - deeply American - craving for

nationale

history.

modernes' in Paris (*Art Deco). In 1926 he went


to New York, where in the same year he
formed a partnership with Harvey Wiley
Corbett which lasted until 1928. He was Director of Stage Design at the Juilliard School of

186

in

the

group De
Austrian

artistic

and in 1925 he directed the


section of the 'Exposition interStijl,

des

arts

decoratifs

et

industriels

Kleihues

Music in New York, 1934-47, and Director of


the Laboratory for Design Correlation of the
School of Architecture at Columbia University, 1936-42. In 1957 he formed a partnership
with Armand Bartos, which continued until
K.'s death. His fundamental concern was with
the 'endless', with continuous space, which in
various guises informs his entire work, beginning with the Endless House (1923, revised

- such as
production of Karel Capek's
R.U.R. (also 1923) - and the Endless Theatre
(1924) to the Universal Theater project for the
Ford Foundation (196 1). The Endless Theater
exercised an influence on Walter *Gropius's
Totaltheater of 1927.
AM
repeatedly until i960), via stage sets
that for the Berlin

Frederick

(exhibition

Environmental

Kiesler:

New

catalogue),

Sculpture

York

1964;

by Kiesler', Architectural Forum (New


York), September 1965; Kiesler, Frederick,
'Kiesler

New

the Endless House,


York 1966;
'Frederick Kiesler 1923-1964', Zodiac (Milan),
no. 19 (1969), pp. 18-49; Frederick Kiesler
Inside

Vienna 1975.

(exhibition catalogue),

Kikutake, Kiyonori,
at

the

has

b.

Kurume

Waseda University

had

his

own

in

1928. Studied

Tokyo, where he

office since 1953.

closely tied to Japanese

His career

*Metabolism,

in

is

which

he

played an important formulating role


through his projects for cities in the sea, such as
the

Tower Shaped Community

(1958) and the


Marine Cities (1958, i960, 1963), as well
as the Sky House built for himself in Tokyo
x
( 959)- In the Sky House the interior service

various

Kikutake. Miyakonoyo Civic Hall (1966)


tradition

found architectural expression

in the

Administration Building of the great shrine in


Izumo (1963) and in the Tokoen Hotel in
Yonago (1964). K.'s early conceptions of an
extension of civilization into the sea was in part
realized in the Aquapolis at Okinawa (1975). AM
Kawazoe,
N.,
Kikutake,
K.,
and
Kurokawa, K., Metabolism ig6o. Proposals for
New Urbanism, Tokyo i960; Kikutake, K.,
Taisha Kenchikuran (Metabolic Architecture),
Tokyo 1968; Drew, Philip, The Third Generation: the changing meaning of architecture, New
York 1972; Kiyonori Kikutake. Works and Meth-

ods 1956-1970,

Tokyo

Concepts and Planning,

1973; Kiyonori Kikutake.

Tokyo

1978.

accessories are not united in a central core but

rather disposed

on the periphery of the open

living space. Similarly, in the Pacific

Hotel

in

Chigasaki (1966) the bathrooms are prefabricated units hung on the exterior walls of the
bedroom tower. In both cases the underlying
principle

is

most subject

that the elements

to

change should be so arranged that they can


easily be
replaced, an expression of the
Metabolist conception of life as a continual
developing stream that architecture must follow. This idea was manifested differently in the

Shimane Prefectural

Museum

in

Matsue (1959)

with the division of the building into

a strongly
expressed fixed part in the lower two storeys
and an open exhibition hall above, and in the
Miyakonoyo Civic Hall (1966) where a light,

collapsible

The

ties

roof is raised over

fixed platform.

between Metabolism and Japanese

Kleihues, Josef Paul, b. Rheine 1933. Studied


first at the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart
and then in Berlin, as well as at the *Ecole des
Beaux-Arts in Paris. He worked in the office of
Peter Poelzig

(as

project director for the

new

Kopfklinik Westend building in Berlin-Charlottenburg), 1960-2, and since 1962 has had his
own office in Berlin (until 1967 in partnership
with Hans Heinrich Moldenschardt). He became a professor at the University in Dortmund
in 1973 and was appointed Planning Director of
the 'Internationale Bauausstellung 1984' (IBA)

While his early works reflect a continued involvement with *New Brutalism and
Structuralism, K. developed at the end of the

in 1979.

1960s an independent architectural language


which, on the one hand, has a certain affinity
with Italian Rationalism and, on the other

187

Klerk

Kleihues. Workshops of the Berlin Sanitation


Service, Berlin-Tempelhof (197083)

for: the

University

in Bielefeld

Sprengel-Museum

(1968-9); the

Hanover

in

(1972);

the

Landesgnlerie Nordrhein-Westfalen in Dsseldorf (1975); and the Park Lenne Quarter in


Berlin (1976-7).
fw

D 'Kleihues',

Das Kunstwerk

(Stuttgart),

^2

(1979), nos. 2/}, pp. 80-9.

Klerk, Michel

Amsterdam

de,

1923.

b.

Amsterdam

leading

1884,

member of

d.

the

School of *Amsterdam, he created, in his


Spaarndammerbuurt housing in Amsterdam
West (19 3-1 9), a fascinating and in part
1

decidedly eccentric type of stage architecture


notable for its almost complete disregard for
constructional and functional considerations. In

Klerk. Spaarndammerbuurt housing, Amsterdam

West (1913-19)

the Amstellaan housing in

Amsterdam South

(1920-2), however, he reverted to closed,

flat

neo-classicism. In addition to the Kopfklinik

of *Berlage.
GHa
D Frank, Suzanne, 'Michel de Klerk's Design
for
Amsterdam's
Spaarndammerbuurt',

Westend building (1960-4, 1962-8), K.'s most


important works include: the Altenclub (Senior

Nederlands Kunsthistorik Jaarboek, 22 (1971), pp.


175-213; Searing, Helen, 'With Red Flags

forms
hand, stands clearly

in the tradition

of Prussian

in the tradition

Citizens' Club) in Berlin-Reinickendorf (1966

Flying: Politics and Architecture in Amster-

main workshops of the Berlin Sanitation


Service in Berlin-Tempelhof (1969-76, 1970-

dam', in: Millon, H., and Nochlin, L. (eds.), Art


and Architecture in the Service of Politics, Cambridge, Mass. 1978.

7);

the

83); the apartment block 270 in Berlin- Wedding (1969-80); and the Hospital in Berlin-

Neuklln (1973,

1976fr).

Of

his

unrealized

works, especially noteworthy projects are those


188

Klint, Peter Vilhelm Jensen,

Denmark

1853, d.

1930.

b.

near Skelskor,
first as an

Worked

Koolhaas
engineer, then as a painter
architect.

He strove in

synthesis

of the brick

and from 1896

his buildings to

style

as

an

achieve a

of northern Euro-

(OMA) was formed in 1975. K. and Zenghelis


were joined by the painters Zoe Zenghelis and
Madelon Vriesendorp, these two artists being
many

pean Gothic churches and contemporary architectural *Expressionism. His best-known work

responsible

Grundtvig Church in Copenhagen (1913,


by his son), with its expressive vertical emphasis on the west front at once
reminiscent of Gothic types and of a great pipe

work of K. and Zenghelis occurred while

is

the

192 1-40, completed

G Ha

organ.

'Den

Kay,

Fisker,

Arkitektur, 7 (1963), special

Koolhaas, Rem,

b.

Klintske

Skole',

number.

Rotterdam

1944. After a

brief career as a copywriter, he left

Holland

in

1965 to study at the Architectural Association

School in London, where he


Zenghelis,
the

who

Office

for

later

became

worked with
his partner

Metropolitan

Elia

when

Architecture

Koolhaas. Housing on Roosevelt Island,


York City (project by OMA, 1975)

New

thereafter

renderings produced by

for

OMA.

The

of

the

first

joint

the

former was still a student. This was a phantasmagoric collage based on the theme of the
Berlin Wall and entitled Exodus (1972). With
the formation of OMA, the work of K. and
Zenghelis assumed a more professional stance,
as in their T975 competition entry for a housing
complex on Roosevelt Island> New York City.
Around the same time, K. designed (in collaboration with Laurinda Spear) the Spear House in
Miami Beach, Florida, a work which was
finally realized in
1979 by the firm of
Arquitectonica. At the same time K. published
his manifesto on Manhattanism, entitled Delirious New York (1978), a study which, aside from
its documentation, was to reflect the evolving
sensibility of OMA, through a series of fantasy
projects for Manhattan.

189

Kramer
formation of their highly chromatic
team have been affected
K. and the
by a number of influences, ranging from the
architecture
of
Ivan
neo-Suprematist
In the

OMA

style,

*Leonidov, to the Continuous Monument,


projected in the 1960s by Adolfo Natalini and
*Superstudio.
In almost

all

of their subsequent work, from

their Parliament extension in

The Hague

(1978,

with Zahar Hadid) to the various designs they


submitted in 198 1 for the Internationale
Bauausstellung 1984 in Berlin,
have
demonstrated a form of unsentimental contextualism, in which the architectural syntax
remains unrelentingly modern, while respondKF
ing to the specific context.
D Koolhaas, Rem, Delirious New York. A
Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan, New York
and London 1978; 'OMA', Architectural Design
(London), vol. 47 (1977), no. 5;
Projects

OMA

OMA

igy8ig8i (exhibition catalogue),

London

198

1.

Kramer, Pieter Lodewijk, b. Amsterdam 1 88 1


d. Amsterdam 1961. With van der *Mey and de
*Klerk, he was one of the triumvirate whose
virtuosity lay behind the School of *Amsterdam's reputation as a stringent opponent of
'objective'

modernism (*Neue

Sachlichkeit).

Like his friend de Klerk, K. had enjoyed no

formal architectural education, but had acquired the essential professional skills through
working in Eduard Cuyper's office. After
collaborating with van der Mey on the latter's
Scheepvaarthuis in Amsterdam (1911-16), K.
concentrated on housing (terrace houses in Park
Meerwijk, Bergen, 19 15-16; communal housing in Amsterdam). Despite their highly cultivated
individuality,
his
buildings
are
nonetheless developed from their particular
urban situation and architectonic context, especially in the case of the Amsterdam bridges
(1918-37). After de Klerk's early death, none of
the Amsterdam Expressionists built with the
degree of fantasy he had incorporated in his
designs. None of the characteristically softly
modelled wall planes of K.'s works surpassed
the corner solution achieved in his housing
complex in Amsterdam South (192 1-3) for De
Dageraad housing corporation. In the De
Bijenkorf department store in The Hague
(1924-5), he applied his treatment to a completely

different

building type.

In

his

later

housing (Amsterdam West, on the Hoofdweg,


1923-5), K. adopted a more restrained style. WP
D Retera, W., P. Kramer, Amsterdam 1927.
Kreis, Wilhelm, b.

Germany 1873, d.
1955. After studies at

Eltville,

Bad Honnef, Germany

Technische Hochschulen of Munich,


Brunswick, Berlin and Karlsruhe, he became
Paul Wallot's assistant and collaborator. Twice,
1902-8 and 1926-41, he was active as a teacher
in Dresden, and 190926 in Dsseldorf. K.'s
career opened with his first prize in the competition for the Battle of Leipzig Memorial (1895)
and with his Burschenschaft Monument in
Eisenach (1899); over fifty Bismarck Towers
throughout Germany were erected to his designs. His first large commissions were the
bridge over the Rhine at Diisseldorf-Neuss
(1904) and the Augustus Bridge in Dresden
(1908). In the numerous department stores
which he completed between 1910 and 1914,
e.g. those in Elberfeld, Cologne, Chemnitz,
Essen and Dortmund, K. in contrast to his
contemporary Alfred Messel - remained largely tied to historical canons and forms. After
World War I, however, a tendency towards
*Expressionism appears in his work, as in the
Rheinhalle at Dsseldorf (1925) built on the
occasion of the 'Gesolei' exhibition; but it was
the

Kramer. Housing

in

Amsterdam South

(192 13)

finally a

more

abstract *neo-classicism

which

gained the upper hand. Under the National


190

Krier
Socialists K. was much favoured, designing
notably the buildings intended for the army
High Command headquarters, situated on the

proposed Berlin 'North-South Axis' planned


by *Speer. He also designed a number of
memorials ('Totenburgen' or Castles of the
Dead), which were intended to be erected on
former battle sites after the war.
FJ
D Kreis, Wilhelm, Soldatengrber und
Gedenksttten, Munich 1944; Stephan, Hans,
Deutsche Knstler unserer Zeit. Wilhelm Kreis,
Oldenburg 1944; Rehder, G., Wilhelm Kreis,
Architekt in dieser Zeit, Leben und Werk, Essen

(1968-70) and then underj. P. *Kleihues (1971In 1974 he opened an office in London,
where he has also taught, 1973-6, at the
Architectural Association School and in 1977 at
2).

the

Royal College of Art. Like his older brother


*Krier, but more radically, he seeks a

Rob

of the pre-industrial European city


through the conceptual tools of ^rational archirestoration

tecture.

He

upon

has seized

early 19th-century

neo-classicism as a valid timeless style, exempli-

with tremendous graphic

fied architectonically

virtuosity in such polemically intended ideal

plans

as

that

for

the

Lycee

Classique

at

Luxembourg (1970), the Royal


Mint Square Project for London (1974), the La

1953-

Echternach,

Krier, Leon, b. Luxembourg 1946. After a


short period at the Technische Hochschule in

Villette quarter in Paris (1976),

Stuttgart,

he worked under James *Stirling

Luxembourg City

and the centre of

AM

(1978).

Krier, L., 'La reconstruction de

Rational

Architecture/ Architecture

la

ville',

Rationelle,

Leon Krier.
1978, pp. 33-42:
Drawings IQ67-IQ80, Brussels 198 1.
Brussels

]];:;:

-/-:

Krier, Rob(ert), b. Grevenmacher, Luxembourg 1938. After study at the Technische


Hochschule in Munich, he worked under O. M.
*Ungers in Cologne and under Frei *Otto in
Berlin and Stuttgart. Since 1975 he has been a
professor at the Technical University in Vienna.
Like his brother Leon *Krier and the Brusselsbased Maurice Culot, with whom he forms the
Belgian-Luxembourgeois line of *Rational
architecture, K. has above all been interested in
re-investing the contemporary city with the
order and form it possessed before the Industrial
Revolution. His reconstruction proposals, such
as that for inner-city Stuttgart (1975), are based
on Camillo Sitte's theses which see urban fabric
as the product of the handling of negative
spaces. In line with this theory, he extracts a
typology of strongly-defined urban spaces
from historical prototypes which in turn he
implants in existing urban contexts. During his
Stuttgart years, K. built the Siemer House at

Warmbronn,

near

draws heavily on
Dickes House

Stuttgart
*Stirling's

at Bridel,

(1968), which
work; and the

Luxembourg

(1974-6),

dominating cubic form.


His most recent building is the block of flats in

entirely enclosed in a

the Ritterstrae, Berlin (1978-80), reminiscent

of Karl *Ehn's Karl-Marx-Hof


Krier, Leon. Reconstruction project for
Luxembourg City (1978)
Krier,

Rob. Dickes House,

(1974-6)

Bridel,

Luxembourg

Krier, R., Stadtraum

Stuttgart

1975;

in

in

Vienna.

FJ

Theorie und Praxis,

'The

Work

Krier', Architecture and Urbanism

of

Rob

(Tokyo), June

1977.
191

Kroll

Kroll, Luden, b. Brussels 1927. Studied at the


Ecole Nationale Superieure de la Cambre, at the
Institut Superieur de la Cambre, and at the
Institut Superieur d'Urbanisme in Brussels. He
was in partnership with the architect Charles

Vandenhove in Brussels from 195 1 until 1957,


when he opened the Atelier Lucien Kroll in
Brussels. Since 1970 he has

been

a professor at

the Ecole Saint-Luc de Saint-Gilles in Brussels.

K.

is

among

the most prominent advocates of

'creative participation' in building, a liberation

of the victims of 'paramilitary' regimentation


and their direction towards the most thoroughgoing self-determination. His most important work is the Student Centre of the faculty of
medicine at the Universite Catholique de
Louvain in Woluwe Saint-Lambert, Brussels
(19707). Future users will to a considerable
degree participate in the continuing elaboration
of the design. Similarly, in the realization of the
project, the architect's formal vision defers in
large measure to that of those who execute the
work. The result is a living formal environment
of 'controlled anarchy'.
AM
D Hunziger, Christian, 'Portrait de Lucien
Kroll', L' Architecture d'aujourd'hui (Paris), no.

183, Jan.-Feb. 1976, pp. 69-80; Williams,


Stephanie, 'Ecological Architecture of Lucien
Kroll', Architectural Review,
February 1979, pp. 94-101.

clxv,

no.

984,

Kurokawa,

Kisho, b. Nagoya, 1934. Studied


Kyoto and Tokyo Universities. After working under Kenzo *Tange he opened his own

at

office

in

Tokyo

in

1961.

key figure of

Japanese *Metabolism, he has played an essential role in this movement, not only through
projects and buildings but also through theoretical writings. After putting forward his
projects for the Wall Cluster (i960), the Helix

City (1961) and his proposal for a house of


prefabricated concrete components (1962), K.
realized for the first time his notions of an
adaptable architecture of high technology on a
large scale in the factory building for the NittoSukushin Company at Sagae (1964). Expo '70
in Osaka offered an unrestricted field of activity
on which to demonstrate his theories. He
designed several exhibition buildings, including
the Takara Beautilion and the Living Capsule.

These ideas were carried further in the Nagakin


Capsule Tower Building in Tokyo (1972) and
again in the

Sony Tower

in

Osaka

(1976).

Reminiscences of traditional Japanese architec192

Kurokawa. Nagakin Capsule Tower, Tokyo


(1972)

Kurokawa. Hawaii Dreamland, Yamagata


(1966-7)

ture are also manifested in his work, for


example the central building of the National
Children's Land in Yokohama (1964-5) and the
Hawaii Dreamland in Yamagata (19667). AM
D Kurokawa, Kisho, and others, Metabolism
ig6o. Proposals for

New

Urbanism,

Tokyo

i960;

Kurokawa, Kisho, The Concept of Metabolism,


Tokyo 1972; Works of Kisho Kurokawa, Tokyo

Le Corbusier
1970;

Drew,

Philip,

The Third Generation:

changing meaning of architecture,

New York

The World of Kisho Kurokawa,

Tokyo

the

1972;

1975.

L
Lasdun,

Sir

Denys,

b.

commonly used textbooks of the period it


was, in addition to Charles Blanc's Grammaire
the

London

1914. Studied at

the Architectural Association School,

Worked under Wells *Coates,


joining the *Tecton group

London.

with interruptions during the war, until

was

its

a part-

1949-50 he ran an office with Lindsey


Drake in London, where in 1960 he founded
Denys Lasdun and Partners, which has worked
since 1978 under the name Denys Lasdun,
Redhouse and Softley. L.'s own architectural
style is characterized by his emphasis on horizontal lines, either through the disposition o{
the building mass itself, as in the block of flats in
Bethnal Green, London (1955), or by means of
platforms, terraces or bridges which serve to
create a sort of built landscape. Particularly
expressive examples of this are the University of
East Anglia at Norwich (1962-8) and the
ner). In

National Theatre in

London

J.

Theme:

London

Le

the

William

(1967-76).

AM

Language and a
Work of Denys Lasdun and Partners,
R.,

des arts,

1976.

Corbusier (pseudonym of CharlesEdouard Jeanneret), b. La Chaux-de-Fonds,


Switzerland 1887, d. Roquebrune on Cap
Martin, South of France 1965. Le Corbusier
(who used this pseudonym from 1920 on as an
author, from 1922 as an architect and in
everyday affairs, and from 1928 as a painter) was
the dominant figure internationally in modern
architecture from 1920 to i960.
In the absence of an academic education, he
developed his practical and artistic skills at the
arts and crafts school in La Chaux-de-Fonds
(training as a metal engraver under Charles
L'Eplattenier), on study trips (Italy, Balkans,
Istanbul, Mt Athos, the Athenian Acropolis),
through his acquaintanceship with Josef *Hoffmann in Vienna (1908) and Henri *Sauvage in
Paris (1908). by apprenticeship with Auguste
*Perret in Pans (winter 1908-9) and Peter
^Behrens in Berlin (1910-n), as well as by
encounters with the leaders of the German arts
and
crafts
reform
movement and the

above

all

Auguste Choisy's

Histoire de

V architecture (Paris, 1899) that influenced him.

Of his early buildings in

1935-7, before

where he was active,

dissolution in 1948 (from 1946 he

Curtis,

Werkbund (Hermann *Muthesius,


Karl Ernst Osthaus, Heinrich *Tessenow), on
which subject he prepared a report for the
school administration of his native town. He
became acquainted early on with the work of
Frank Lloyd *Wright through publications. Of
^Deutscher

it

was

of the

especially the Villa


first

reflects the

La Chaux-de-Fonds
(1916) one

Schwob

reinforced-concrete houses

which

impressions of these formative years

of travel and the work of Hoffmann and Perret.


Here the *Art Nouveau style of his engraver's
training gave way to an individualist and
classicist reformatory art, although still imprinted with the ideal of handicraft. But in those
same years Le Corbusier had already worked
out a building type adapted to industrial production. As was to be typical throughout his
career, this was endowed with a slogan-like
name: the Maison Dom-ino. The prototype for
series production, it comprised floor platforms
with recessed supports and no load-bearing
walls, and individual units could be joined to
one another in any direction (1914-15).
When he settled (following a sense of mission
nourished by Nietschze) in Paris in 1917 to
make his career, one of his aspirations was
precisely the fabrication of cinderblocks for use
in filling out skeleton constructions. This undertaking was thwarted, however, as were his
other plans, by the needs of the post-war

Le Corbusier.

Vilk Schwob. La Chaux-de-Fonch

(1916)

193

Le Corbusier
reconstruction

and by increasing industrial

mechanization.
However, he rose astoundingly quickly to
the fore among the avant garde of Parisian
painters. The order of the day was *Cubism and

Together with Amedee


Ozenfant, he published the manifesto Apres le
cubisme (191 8) this was followed in 1925 by La
Peinture moderne coined the new artistic
the 'return to order'.

movement *Purism and


reforming

edited the successful

art journal L' Esprit

nouveau (1920-5;

programmatic title came from a formulation of Guillaume Apollinaire). The themes of


his purist paintings were everyday objects and
musical instruments in clear views and analyses,
often with outlines capable of two alternative
readings. The further development of Le
the

and had numerous points of interseccontemporaneous architectural and


urbanistic designs. In addition to canvases, Le
Corbusier produced collages, tapestries, an important mural in the Pavilion Suisse of the Cite
subjects

tion with

Universitaire in Paris, sculptures, as well as


graphics. For a long time Le Corbusier's colour

lithographs were an icon of the

where,

human

figures as its basis. The furniture he


designed from 1929 on with Charlotte Pernand
set standards of taste to an even more marked

degree.

Le Corbusier's aesthetic influence


bly linked to his activity

from 1928 on he introduced - following Fernand Leger's example - the human


figure, objets trouves, and deep spatial effects into

began

From 1932 on, the influence of Picasso becomes evident. In place of


his still-life paintings.

norms, that early celebration of the 'types' of


modern life, the later paintings and graphic
works took his own or traditional myths as

Le Corbusier.

Ville

contemporaine

(project, 1922)

in 1920.

As

nym

is

insepara-

as a publicist,

'Le Corbusier'

which

the pseudo-

being derived from the surname of his


great-grandmother, Lecorbesier, which yielded, through the separation of the predicate, a
punning reference suggested by his facial resemblance to a raven (corbeau) - he published
that series of essays in the periodical L' Esprit
nouveau which later appeared in book form
(Vers une architecture, 1923) and achieved international recognition. Here he formulated the

THE

194

archi-

as a

Corbusier's painting can be anticipated at this


juncture:

modern

guarantee of good
composition, his *Modulor was also used. This
was a system of proportions grounded on the
golden section or the Fibonacci series using the
tectural office

Le Corbusier
famous definition of architecture as 'the mastercorrect and magnificent play of masses
brought together in light'. His comparisons
with engineering constructions and with modern forms of transportation were formulated
ly,

into such

oft-misunderstood postulates

as 'the

house is a machine for living in' and that it


should be as practically constructed as a typewriter. By this he meant not a mechanistic
complete
rather
but
'machine aesthetic'
rationality in plan, capacity for serial-production

and function.

further enunciation of

principles followed in 1926 (printed in Alfred

Roth's Zwei Wohnhuser von Le Corbusier und


with the 'Five
points for a new architecture': the pilotis, roof
terraces, free plan, continuous window strips
and free facade composition were to be the
elements of the new aesthetic
essential

Pierre Jeanneret, Stuttgart 1927)

("^Rationalism).

Of the

other early programmatic writings,

Urbanisme and L 'Art decoratifd'aujourd'hui (both


1925) were assured of an equally strong impact
thanks to their radical proposals. In 1930 the

first

volume of his collected works - theses, projects,


and executed buildings - appeared; these were
to grow to several volumes over the course of

The resulting Oeuvre combeen one of the most important source


books of modern architecture.
the following years.

plete has

The history of this influence derives as much


from the demonstration models and city-planning projects which Le Corbusier, who from
1922 collaborated with his cousin Pierre
Jeanneret, exhibited at the Paris Salon, as

it

did

from his executed work. In 1922, he exhibited


the Maison Citrohan a simple box with
supporting walls on the long sides, in a later

Le Corbusier.
1925):

Plan Voisin for Paris (project,

model

Le Corbusier. Houses

at the

Weienhofsiedlung,

Stuttgart (1927)

version carried on

pilotis

as

well as the "Ville

contemporaine' for three million inhabitants. In


1925 the Esprit Nouveau Pavilion was intended
as a prototype for a mass-produced living unit
with a garden terrace to be incorporated into
multi-storey apartment blocks (as in Le
Corbusier's Plan Voisin for Paris). The executed work included the Villa Besnos in
Vaucresson (1922), the Maisons La Roche and

Jeanneret in Paris-Auteuil (1923), the Maison

Cook
Le Corbusier. Second Maison Citrohan
1922): model

(project,

in Boulogne-sur-Seine (1926), the Villa


Stein at Garches (1927), the two houses at the
Weienhofsiedlung in Stuttgart (likewise

195

Le Corbusier

Sislii? ^

Le Corbusier.

Cite de Refuge, Paris (1932-3)

Le Corbusier.

Palace of the Soviets.

(project,

Moscow

931)

'machine for living in', but not as the


'Existenzminimum' of a social housing design.
The same holds true in the architecture of his
buildings for collective living, in which the
enclosed rooms, or bedrooms as the case may
be, are complemented by generously proportioned circulation areas and communal spaces
a

Le Corbusier.

Villa

Le Corbusier.

Pavilion Suisse, Cite Universitaire,

Savoye, Poissy (1929-31)

Paris (1930-2)

which
Savoye at Poissy (1929-3 1) and
the Clarte apartment house in Geneva (1930-2).
Characteristic of all these buildings - which
have become monuments of modern architecture - are their general independence of terrain
as well as a rich variety of interior and exterior
spaces achieved by means of double-height
rooms, gallery floors, bridges and ramps with
1927), the Villa

views into the interior as well as 'framed' views


looking out, all expressions of a genuine luxury
in architecture which (as so expressively conveyed in the houses at Stuttgart) is conceived as
196

are treated as distinct architectural parts

(Pavilion Suisse in the Cite Universitaire, Pans,

1930-2; Cite de Refuge, Paris, 1932-3).


Le Corbusier also began to concern himself

with the design of large-scale buildings. Thus he


took part in the competitions for the Palace of
the League of Nations in Geneva (1927) and for
the Palace of the Soviets in Moscow (193 1), and
built the Centrosoyus Building in Moscow
(1929 3

1).

Especially impressive

was the design

for the great hall of the Palace of the Soviets, the

roof of which was to be carried

by

a great parabolic arch.

at the stage

end

Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier. League of Nations

Palace,

Geneva

(project, 1927)

As successors of the Centrosoyus came the


and a
skyscraper in Algiers (1938-42), and the construction of the Ministry of Health and Education in Rio de Janeiro (1936-43; executed by
Lucio *Costa, Oscar *Niemeyer and Affonso
Eduardo *Reidy) and of the United Nations
projects for Carthesian skyscrapers (1938)

Building in New York (1947-50; carried out by


Wallace K. *Harrison and Max *Abramovitz).
These latter two buildings especially were
prototypes

numerous

for

office

buildings

throughout the world in the 1950s and 1960s.


The urban planning schemes which Le
Corbusier worked out, first for Paris and then in
the 1930s for several large North African and
South American cities, proceeded from the
assumption that an absolute authority over land
and finances can ignore historical developments
and democratic rights, that traffic takes priority, that the life of a person can be fulfilled by the
planned ordering of places of production,
administration, apartment houses and sports
facilities, and finally that a modern metropolis
of

million

inhabitants

requires

more humanistic

*CIAM

of
in 1933. Much
visions of the future were

presented in Le Corbusier's books La


radieuse

(1935)

and Les

Trois

Ville

Etablissements

humains (1945).
in

That Le Corbusier was hardly involved at all


the post-war reconstruction programme

derived not so
theses

as

much from

from the

prejudice against his

attitude

to

d'Habitation, Marseilles

(1947-52)

visibly

monumental expression. These assumptions


also formed the principles of the *Athens
Charter, which resulted from the conclusions of
the fourth congress

Le Corbusier. Unite

restoration

adopted in Western Europe after World War II:


the belief in a golden future, so dear to the 1920s,
was not reintroduced in any field. Thus Le
Corbusier's programmatic Propos d'urbanisme
(1945) was seen as a renewed vision of a better

world which did not respond to contemporary


needs and hence seemed doubly anachronistic.
However, his post-war work was in no way
inferior in

its

creative

power

to that

of the

pioneering years and was to be even more


influential. The Unite d'Habitation at Marseilles

(1947-52) masterfully

accommodated

in

197

Le Corbusier
a

single, variously articulated,

block - 165

(172 ft) high - a


(540 ft) long and 56
prodigious volume of space (337 apartments),
the technical requirements (the living units are
for

example

for

reasons

of sound-proofing

inserted like individual cartons into the grid

skeleton frame), the internal circulation and

urban daily requirements (shopping

community

all

streets,

services, hotel, recreational land-

scape on the roof, which

is

as large as a

stadium):

it also provides - for some


- the very two-storey living

moreover,

1,800

residents

units

which

Le Corbusier had been elaborating as the modern habitat. Compared with


Le Corbusier's own early horizontally extended
housing at Pessac (1925), the vertical neighbourhood units which incorporated apartments
in a single tower - these included the later
schemes at Nantes-Reze (1952-7), Berlin
since 1922

(1956-8),

Meaux

(1957-9),

Briey-en-Foret

(1957-60) and Firminy-Vert (1962-8) - bear


witness to their usefulness in mass housing.

When compared with conventional apartment


towers, they are of an incomparably greater
sculptural

power and

experential richness; the

analogy to an ocean liner is still perhaps the best.


Characteristic of Le Corbusier's later works is
that they are no longer prototypes for a 'future
architecture' and hence independent of any

Le Corbusier. Maisons Jaoul, Ncuillv-sur-Seine


(1952-6)

Le Corbusier. Monastery of

Ste Marie-de-laTourette, Eveux-sur-1'Arbresle (1957-60)

198

Leonidov
specific site; rather

vidual

creations,

they are unrepeatable, indiif many introduced

even

'motifs' that have since been widely imitated.


Thus the pilgrimage church of Notre Damedu-Haut at Ronchamp (1950-4) is a highly
specific sculptural creation which derives from
its place and socio-religious function and represents a wealth of novel general and particular
aspects. In a different respect, this

claimed for the Maisons Jaoul

at

can also be

Neuilly-sur-

tradition

of the

rationalist

which

creator of forms

enlightenment and a
endure well beyond

will

MB

his time.

Ozenfant, Amedee, andjeanneret, CharlesEdouard, Apres le cubisme, Paris 191 8; Le Corbusier, Vers une architecture Paris 1923 (English
ed.:

Towards

new

Seine (19526), the monastery of Ste Marie-dela-Tourette at Eveux-sur-1'Arbresle (1957-60),

simile editions 1947, 197 1);

and the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts at


Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass.

Paris 1930;

Le Corbusier realized a complete synthesis of


his early programmatic and pioneering buildings and his later sculptural-volumetric architecture

un

etat present de

four

His

*India.

in

buildings

at

Ahmedabad-the Museum

Wool Weavers

ing of the

(1955-6), the buildAssociation (19546),

House (19556) and the Shodhan


combine the precision in plan and

the Sarabhai
Villa (1956)

of the Villas Stein and Savoye with a


freedom which was a harbinger of the architecture of the second half of the century. In these
buildings, a new richly-intoned language is
aesthetic

I'

1937);

1967);

1937 (English
white,

London

don

1947);

Precisions sur

radieuse, Paris

etaient blanches.

architecture et de l'urbanisme,

La Ville
The Radiant

(English ed.:

New York

(1961-4).

London

Architecture,

Urbanisme, Paris 1925 (8th ed. published


in translation as: The City of Tomorrow and its
Planning, London 1929, and reissued in fac,

City,

Quand

1935

London and
cathedrales

les

Voyage au pays

des timides, Paris

When

Cathedrals were

ed.:

the

Sur les quatre routes,


1947);
Paris 1941 (English ed.: The Four Routes, Lon,

Les

Trois

Etablissements

humains, Paris 1945;


Propos d' urbanisme,
Paris 1946;
and Pierrefeu, Francois de, La
,

Maison des hommes, Paris 1942; Boesiger, W.


(ed.), Le Corbusier. Oeuvre complete (8 vols.),
Zurich 1930 ff; Papadaki, S., Le Corbusier.
Architect,

Painter,

Writer,

New

York

1948;

which reinforced concrete is placed in


dialogue with other building materials and with

Choay, Francoise, Le Corbusier, New York


i960; Besset, M., Qui et ait Le Corbusier?, Geneva
1968; Moos, S. von, Le Corbusier: Elemente einer

On a rational engineering technology is

Synthese, Freuenfeld 1968; Jencks, Charles, Le

created in

nature.

now superimposed an

'inexpressible' (the

was coined by Le Corbusier

word

to describe the

Corbusier and the Tragic View of Architecture,


1973; Le Corbusier Sketchbooks (4 vols.),

London

of space at Ronchamp) spatial and


formal experience.
Le Corbusier's active role in Chandigarh, the

Cambridge, Mass. 198 1-2.

new

Russia, 1902, d.

feeling

of the Indian state of Punjab


(founded 1947), remained unfinished in terms
of a 'Gesamtkunstwerk'. He was responsible
only for the general plan (1950-1; with Maxwell *Fry andjane *Drew) and the capitol area
with its government buildings (195264), while
the residential and commercial quarters were
built
by Indian architects. Le Corbusier
achieved spatial creations of the highest quality
in his own modern idiom which, however, in
no way contradicts the historic architecture of
capital

Leonidov, Ivan

Ilich, b.

Moscow

Vlasikh, near Kalinin,


1959.

He worked first

docker and farmhand, until his talent was


first recognized by an icon painter in Tver'; this
recognition enabled him in 1919 to join the
Tver' art school. After developing his skill as a
painter, he gained admission in 1921 to the
vkhutemas in Moscow, where he came under
the influence of Alexander Vesnin and transas a

ferred

from painting

onstrated his

full

^Constructivism

to architecture.

He dem-

mastery of the syntax of


in 1926 with his student

project for the Izvestia printing plant in

India.

Le Corbusier's long period

as a

leading figure

cow. He began

to break

Mos-

new ground with

his

modern architecture - for nearly half ^a


century was unique among architects of his

final-year student project, a design for the Lenin

time and

first

in

endow

is,

at

of his capacity to

architecture with an expression

evokes the

was

finally, a reflection

spirit

once the

of

his

epoch. In

which

this sense

he

'terrible simplificateur' in the

Institute in

OSA

Moscow, which was displayed at the


(Association of Contemporary Ar-

chitects) exhibition held in

With
its

its

Moscow

in

[927.

glass-clad, free-standing structures

elevated monorail,

it

envisaged

and

form of
199

Lescaze

D
1

Magomedov,

902-1959',

in:

S. O. Khan, 'I.
O. A. Shvidovsky

I.

Leonidov

(ed.), Build-

USSR, 1917-1932, London and


1971; Quilici, V., and Scolari, M. (eds.),
Ivan Leonidov, Milan 1975; Koolhaas, R., and

New

ing in the

York

Oorthuys, G., Ivan Leonidov,

Leonidov. Lenin
1927): model

Institute,

Moscow

(project,

continuous open-ended regional development.

mature vision was strongly influenced by


*Suprematism and it was no
doubt this that led him to design a dynamic, yet
L.'s

the imagery of

non-rhetorical, curtain-walled architecture in


the 1930 Palace of Culture projected for the site
of the Simonov monastery in Moscow. In this
characteristically simple yet powerful composi-

he combined into a single complex a


pyramidal sports hall-cum-winter garden; a
hemispherical, transformable auditorium and
an orthogonal research building. Above these
glistening solids hovered an airship attached to a
tion,

light steel-lattice

mooring mast.

As with other Constructivists/Suprematists,


changed decisively after 1932, when
elements drawn from traditional Russian iconography began to influence his later, somewhat baroque manner, as for example in the
rather emblematic monumentality of his entry
for the 1933 Narkomtiazprom competition. It
is one of the tragedies of the pioneering period
of the Modern Movement that L. was to realize
only one notable work, namely, an extensively
landscaped amphitheatre and ornamental stairway built for Ordjohikedze Sanatorium at
in 1932.

York

198 1.

Lescaze, William, b. Geneva, 1896, d. New


York, 1969. Studied under Karl *Moser at the
Eidgenssische Technische
Hochschule in
Zurich. Worked in France until 1920 under
Henri *Sauvage. He emigrated to the USA in
1920, and at first worked in Cleveland for
Hubbell and Benes. In 1923 he went to New
York, where he designed in a succession of
styles, from the Collegiate Gothic of the Edgewood School, Greenwich, Conn., to the 1925
Paris Modern of his interiors for the Macy's
Exposition of 1928. In 1929 he joined George
*Howe to form the Howe and Lescaze partnership in New York.
To Howe's maturity and experience, L.
brought an ability to handle newer modern
forms. His own house in Manhattan (1934) was
the first ^International Style building of its kind
in New York and may be profitably contrasted
with Howe's Speizer House in Philadelphia
(1935). The most significant product of this
partnership was the Philadelphia Saving Fund
Society (PSFS) Building (1929-32). After the
dissolution of the firm, L. designed Unity
House in the Pocono Mountains, Pa., and
Williamsbridge Housing in Brooklyn, N. Y., an
early modern housing development. His Longfellow Building in Washington, D.C., was the
International Style

first

work

in that city;

it

established a trend towards the exploitation of

the cantilever that resulted in unrelieved piles of

horizontal stripped windows.

World War

L. enjoyed tremendous
of commercial space in
New York. His building at 71 1 Third Avenue is
a restatement of the parti established at the PSFS

After

II,

success as a designer

L.'s style

Kislovodsk

New

KF

Building.

Lescaze, William,

On

Being an Architect,

New York

1942; Institute for Architecture and


Studies, catalogue 16: William Lescaze,

Urban
York 1982

New

Lethaby, William Richard, b. Barnstaple,


Devon, 1857, d. 193 1. Studied at the Royal
Academy Schools in London. From 1877
worked under R. N. *Shaw, after 1889 in
independent practice. L., who was strongly

Lissitzky, 1

influenced

by *Morris and *Webb,

design and theory, created

some of

in

the

both
most

noteworthy and original buildings of the *Arts


and Crafts movement, including Avon Tyrell
in Hampshire (1891), the Eagle Insurance Co.
Building in Birmingham (1899) and the church
at Brockhampton, Herefordshire (1900-2). In
his work Gothic Revival theory is developed
and submitted to a regionally oriented symbolism. In 1894 he became the first Director of the
Central School of Arts and Crafts in London,
the first Architecture School with teaching
workshops for the individual crafts and thus a
VML
prototype for the *Bauhaus.

D Lethaby, W. R., Architecture, Mysticism and


Form in Civilization,
Myth, London 1892;
Oxford 1957; Rubens, G., William Richard
Lethaby and His Work, London 1983.
,

Lewerentz, Sigurd, b. Bjrtr near Sundsvall,


Sweden 1885, d. Lund 1975. After graduating
from Gothenburg Technical College (1908) he
worked in Germany under Bruno Mhring in
Berlin (1908-10) and Theodor *Fischer (1909)
and Richard *Riemerschmid in Munich
(1910). He was one of the founders of the
School of Architecture in Stockwhich aligned itself with the
'national realist' tendency (*Sweden). L. established his own practice in Stockholm (1911-17
with Torsten Stubelius; 1917-43 alone), mov-

Woodland Cemetery
where

was responsible

L.

1975', Architectural Review, no. 950, April 1976;

Finnish

Museum of Architecture,

Libera, Adalberto, b. Trento 1903, d. Rome


1963. After studying at the University of
Rome, he joined *Gruppo 7 in 1927, the first
official organization of Italian ^Rationalism. In
1928 he organized the first 'Esposizione
dell'architettura razionale'. As secretary of
*M.I.A.R., launched in 1930, he was engaged
in the polemical debate with the group of
academic architects (who were very strong in
Rome) and sought to have Rationalism
adopted as the official architecture of Fascism.
The attempt ended in defeat, despite efforts put

compromise such

Ricevimenti

ing

subsequently

to

Ekilstuna

(194358),

Skanr (1958-70), and finally to Lund where he


was an influential teacher. The early competi-

Nordic Classi-

cism, Helsinki 1982.

forth for a

9 10,

for the landscape

and poetic approach of *Tessenow's architecture. His late brick churches at Skarpnck
(i960) and Klippan (1966) continue the lyricism
which announced a quiet critique of the functionalist tradition in European *Rationalism.
O Codrington, J., 'Sigurd Lewerentz 1885-

holm

in

design, revealed the influence of the simplicity

separatist Free
in

*Asplund for
Stockholm (1914),

tion designs, such as that with

as the

Palazzo dei

Congressi at the 'Esposizione


Universale di Roma' (E.U.R.) projected in
1938. Numerous notable works of the 1930s
include: above all, his contribution to the
exhibition 'Mostra della Rivoluzione Fascista'
(1932); houses at Ostia (1933); the Post Office in
the Quartiere Aventino of Rome (1938; with
Mario de Renzi); and the Malparte house on
e

Capri (1938). After World

War

II,

various

L.'s

works included the Olympic Village

Rome

in

VG
(1959; with others)
Alieri, A., Clerici, M., Palpacelli, F., and
~

Vaccaro, N. G., 'Adalberto Libera', L'architettura - cronache e storia (Rome), nos. 124-33,

Rome

1966; Aragon, Giulio, Adalberto Libera,


1976.

Lissitzky,

El

(Eliezer

Markovich),

Polshinotz, near Smolensk 1890, d.


first
architecture
Studied
1 94 1.

b.

Moscow
at

the

Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, 1909-14.


In 191 5 he was awarded his architectural diplo-

ma

in

Moscow. The

ration with

taught
at

Skarpnck (i960)

to

first

Moscow Academy

'Prouns'.

He

92 1 and in
and Switzerland, 1922-5; he returned

at the

Germany
Lewerentz. Church

year 19 19 saw his collabo-

*Malevich and the

Russia

in

1928.

in

He worked with van

Lods

*Doesburg and *Mies van der Rohe and was a


co-founder of *Constructivism.
Simultaneously with Tatlin's project for a Memorial to
the Third International, L.'s office designed a
speaker's platform (1920) for Lenin in the form
of a sloping steel structure of great expressiveness. In 1924-5, together with Mart *Stam, he
designed the 'Cloud Props' project, an extensively cantilevered office block on immense
piers. L. was the most important linking figure
between Russian Constructivism and the Western European avant-garde of the 1920s. His
futuristic dynamic conception was not without
influence on the High-Tech architecture of the
1970s.

Richter, H., El Lissitzky: Sieg ber die Sonne.

Zur Knust

Cologne 1958;
El Lissitzky. Life, Letters,

des Konstruktivismus,

Lissitzky-Kppers,

S.,

Texts, London and New York 1968; Frampton,


Kenneth, 'The work and influence of El Lissitzky', Architect's Year Book, 12 (1968), pp. 25368;

Lissitzky,

El,

An

Russia:

Architecture for

World Revolution, Cambridge, Mass. 1970; El


Lissitzky (exhibition catalogue),

Cologne

1976.

Lods, Marcel, b. Paris 1891, d. Paris 1978.


Trained at the Ecole Nationale des Arts Decoratifs and the *Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris
(diploma 1923), and taught at the latter 194864. Collaborated with Eugene *Beaudouin
(1925-40); in private practice
a

member of *CIAM. He

pioneering

work on

is

from

best

1945. L.

known

was

for his

prefabricated housing such

Muette at Drancy, and


Beaudouin on the
Open Air School at Suresnes (1933) and with
Beaudouin and Jean *Prouve on the Maison du
as that in

the Cite de

la

for his collaboration with

Peuple at Clichy (1939). After World War II he


was charged with the reconstruction of one
sector of the city of Rouen. His latter work
includes the

Maison des Sciences de l'Homme in


Deponat and Beauclair).

Paris (1967, with

Lods, Marcel, Le Metier

d'architecte,

Paris

1976.
b. Brno 1870, d. Vienna 1933. An
admirer equally of the logic of Roman architecture and of vernacular architecture, L. was one
of the pioneers of the European Modern Movement. He was one of the first architects to react
against the decorative trends of *Art Nouveau

Loos, Adolf,

and to expound rationalist design theories.


The son of a stone-mason, L. attended classes
at Reichenberg Polytechnic before studying
202

architecture at the Technische Hochschule in

Upon

Dresden.

completion of his studies, he


broaden his outlook; in 1893 he
made a journey to the *USA, where he
remained for three years, working as a mason, a
floor-layer, and even as a dish-washer. During
this time he observed the innovations of the
young *Chicago School: the expressive steelframe structures William Le Baron Jenney

was eager

to

introduced for office buildings,

the

austere

blocks of Burnham and Root, and the uncompromising severity which *Sullivan manifested
his famous Guaranty Building (Buffalo,
N.Y., 1894-5). It was Sullivan who, after
providing American architecture with an original and personal style of floral surface decoration, wrote in 1892 in an essay entitled
'Ornament in Architecture': 'It would be
greatly for our esthetic good if we should
refrain entirely from the use of ornament for a
period of years, in order that our thought might
concentrate acutely upon the production of
buildings well formed and comely in the nude.'
This reflection was to become the central
point of L.'s aesthetic. On his return to Europe
in 1896, he settled 111 Vienna, a cosmopolitan
centre with a culture typified by elegance of
thought and sophisticated manners. In this
milieu, he showed himself forthwith to be an
ardent and aggressive polemicist. In a first series
of articles, published chiefly in the Neue Freie
Presse in 1 897 and 898, he took up arms against
stylistic
the
and aestheticizing tendencies
preached by the painter Gustav Klimt and the
architects *01brich and *Hoffmann who had
founded the Secession movement in 1897.
Basing himself partly on Sullivan's purist arguin

ment and partly on the rationalist doctrine


which *Wagner had expounded to the Vienna
Akademie der bildenden Knste in 1894, L. set
out to show that the type of ornament inculcated by Art Nouveau was not suited to
European culture; that a work divested of
ornament is a sign of pure and lucid thought and
a high degree of civilization; that good form
must find

beauty in the degree of usefulness it


and in the indissoluble unity of its
parts; and that consequently all ornamentation
must be systematically rejected.
L. was to resume and develop this thesis in a
major essay published in 1908 entitled 'Ornament und Verbrechen' (Ornament and Crime).
In order to help spread his theories, he had
founded a Free School of Architecture in 1906.
expresses,

its

Lubetkin

Loos. House

Loos. Krntner Bar, Vienna (190?)

Among his most important works at this time


were the renovation of the Villa Karma at
Clarens, near Montreux (1906); the Krntner
Bar in Vienna (1907); the Steiner House,
Vienna, of 19 10, one of the first private houses
to be built in reinforced concrete and a landmark in the architecture of this century
(reshaping of plan, new method of condensing
and articulating internal space, purity of the
straight line, flat roof, horizontal fenestration,

dominance of solids, cubic style); the commercial block on the Michaelerplatz, Vienna (1910),
where the arrangement of the various levels
looks forward to the complete expression of the
'volumetric plan' achieved in his Rufer House,

*Lurcat,

for Tristan Tzara, Paris (1926)

^Mendelsohn,

*Neutra

Mnz,

and

RLD

^Schindler.
L.,

and Knstler, G., Adolf Loos:

New

Pioneer of Modern Architecture, London and


York 1966; Loos, A., Spoken into the Void:
collected essays,

Cambridge, Mass., and London

1982.
b. Tiflis, Georgia, Russia
90 1. Studied principally in Moscow, Leningrad and Paris. After a brief collaboration with

Lubetkin, Berthold,
1

Vienna (1922).

From 1920 to 1922 L. was in charge of


municipal housing in Vienna, where he drew
up some bold development schemes, such as the
Heuberg model estate. In 1923 he settled in
Paris, where he established contact with the
leading

figures

of

Esprit

Nouveau.

He

also

frequented Dadaist circles and built a house for


Tristan Tzara (1926). After his return to Vienna
in 1928, his buildings include: the

Moller House

Ptzleinsdorf (1928); the Khner House at


Payerbach (1930); and, also in 1930, the Mller

at

House

Prague, which represents a highpoint


It exerted a lasting influence on
the next generation of architects, among them

in his

in

oeuvre.

Lubetkin. Highpoint

I,

HIghgate, London

(1933-5)

203

Luckhardt
Jean Ginsburg in Paris 1927-30 (Apartment
house at 25 avenue de Versailles, Paris; 1927), he
established himself in London in 193 1, where he

Kliemann, H.,

was one of the founding members of the


*Tecton group in the following year and a
pioneering advocate of Continental modernism. In addition to his major architectural
works - the penguin pool (1934) and other
buildings at the Regent's Park and Whipsnade
Zoos and the two north London apartment
blocks Highpoint I (1933-5) and Highpoint II
(1936-8) - L. worked on the planning of
Peterlee New Town, after the dissolution of
Tecton in 1948. In retirement since 1950, he was
awarded the RIBA Gold Medal in 1982.

Lundy,

Furneaux-Jordan, R., 'Lubetkin', Architectural Review, July 1955; Coe, Peter, and Reading, Malcolm, Lubetkin and Tecton. Architecture
and Social Commitment, London and Bristol
1981.

Wassili

Luckhardt,

Tbingen

1973-

at

Victor A.,

b.

New York

1925. Studied

Harvard under *Gropius. His buildings

include timber churches with large curved roofs


(First

Unitarian Church

at

Westport, Conn.,

196 1), and a motel with reinforced concrete


awnings at different heights (Warm Mineral

He

designed

the exhibition pavilion of the U.S.

Atomic

Springs Inn

at

Venice,

Energy Commission,

Fla., 1958).

'pneumatic' structure,

at Seattle (1962).

Lurcat, Andre, b. Bruyeres, Vosges 1894, d.


Sceaux 1970. Studied at the *Ecole des BeauxArts in Paris. In 1928 he was one of the founding
members of *CIAM. His artists' studios, the
Villa Seurat, in Paris (1925-6), together with
the Villa Bomsel in Versailles (1926) and the

Guggenbuhl in Paris (1927), are among


works of the Modern Movement in *France. At the same time he drew up a
number of other (unrealized) projects, at times
Villa

Luckhardt, Hans,

b.

Wiessee 1954. Studied


schule in Karlsruhe.

Bad
Technische Hoch-

Berlin

at the

He was

1890,

d.

member of the

*Novembergruppe
and later of the *Ring. From 192 1 he worked in
*Arbeitsrat fur Kunst, the

partnership with his brother Wassili *Luckhardt. In 1952 he

was appointed

a professor at

the Hochschule fur bildende Knste, Berlin.

Luckhardt,

Wassili, b. Berlin 1889, d. Berlin

1972. Studied at the Technische Hochschule in

Berlin-Charlottenburg. He was a member of


the *Arbeitsrat fur Kunst, the *November-

He worked in
Hans *Luckhardt,
1921-54. After their first works in the spirit of
*Expressionism - project for the- Hygiene
gruppe and

later

of the *Ring.

partnership with his brother

Museum in Dresden
tower

(1921), project for an office

at the Friedrichstrae station in Berlin

(1922) - the brothers turned in the mid- 1920s to


a consistent "^Rationalism. In addition to their

use of precise right-angles

as in their

experi-

the pioneering

dwelling houses. After his theoretimanifesto Architecture (Paris 1929) and the
Hotel Nord-Sud in Calvi (1930), which is a
radical, for

cal

homage

to the intense Mediteranean


became, with his Ecole Karl-Marx at
Villejuif (1931-3), an advocate of the coalition
of new architectural forms and the workers'
movement. On the basis of this demonstration
of architectural and social allegiances, L. was
invited to Moscow in 1934, and remained there
until 1937. There the 'Socialist Realist' debate
renewed his awareness of such traditional values
as monumentality and axiality, and this was
reflected in his post-war buildings (mostly in
Maubeuge and Saint-Denis) and in his ambivirtual

light, L.

tious essay Formes, composition

'Andre Lurcat',

Lutyens,

(1928), the Berlin Pavilion at the 'Constructa'

1869, d.

Hanover

surging forms feature

(195

1)

- dynamically

in their projects for the

rearrangement of the Alexanderplatz in Berlin


(1929), for the Medical College on the Burgberg in Preburg (1933), and for the Freie
Universitt in Berlin-Dahlem (1952).
D Kultermann, Udo, Wassili und Hans Luckhardt, Bauten und Entwrfe, Tbingen 1958;
204

bis d'harmonie

JLC
Architecture,

Mouvement,

Continuite (Paris), no. 40 (1976), pp. 5-38.

mental housing in the Schorlemer Allee in


Berlin (1927), houses on the Rupenhorn, Berlin
exhibition in

et

(Pans 1953-7)-

Sir Edwin (Landseer), b. London


London 1944. When only twenty years

he opened his own office in London,


having worked for two years under the
country-house architect Ernest George (where
he met Herbert Baker, later his colleague in
New Delhi). Influenced also by *Shaw and
*Webb, he began his career with a series of
often opulent country houses (in a style related
to that of the *Arts and Crafts movement),
old,

Lyons

including

Munstead

Wood at Godalming,

Sur-

Lutyens. Deanery Garden, Sonning, Berkshire

rey (1896), for Gertrude Jekyll, a garden designer who had created or rather revived the
English cottage garden, as well as Deanery

exhibition catalogue Lutyens. The

Garden

English Architect Sir

Sonning, Berks. (1 899-1902). The


creative freshness of these early houses soon
gave way to a neo-classical language of forms as
in Nashdom, a country house at Taplow,
Bucks. (1905-9). The plan of New Delhi (1912)
and the Viceroy's House (1912-30) are - along
with the commercial buildings Britannic House
at

(1920-4) and the Midland Bank headquarters in


London (1924-39), as well as the British Embassy in Washington, D.C. (1925-8) - among
the last great
historicist

examples of the continuation of


design principles from the 19th cen-

AM

tury into the 20th.

Lutyens,

E.,

'What

Think of Modern

Architecture', Country Life, vol. 69 (193 1), pp.


775-7; Butler, A. S. G., with George Stewart

(1

899-1902)

London
Lyons,
for

of the

1981.

Eric Alfred, b.

London

19 12, d.

1978. In the 1950s his schemes set a

private-enterprise

Britain,

Work

Edwin Lutyens (1