Mongolia–Russia relations

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Mongolia–Russia relations
Map indicating locations of Mongolia and Russia

Mongolia

Russia

The bilateral relations between Mongolia and the Russian Federation (Mongolian: Монгол Оросын харилцаа; Russian: Российско-монгольские отношения) have been traditionally strong since the Communist era, when the Soviet Union supported Mongolian People's Republic. Mongolia and Russia remain allies in the post-communist era. Russia has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar and two consulate generals (in Darkhan and Erdenet). Mongolia has an embassy in Moscow, three consulate generals (in Irkutsk, Kyzyl and Ulan Ude), and a branch in Yekaterinburg. Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (Russia is a participating state, while Mongolia is a partner).

According to a 2017 survey, 90% of Mongolians have a favorable view of Russia (38% "strongly" and 52% "somewhat" favorable), with 8% expressing a negative view (2% "strongly" and 6% "somewhat" unfavorable).[1]

Background[edit]

Group of Russian and Mongolian officials, photo taken after the signing of the Russo-Mongol agreement in Urga in November 1912. Russia cautiously recognizes the autonomy of Mongolia and obtains trade concessions.

Russia and Mongolia share a 3,500-kilometer border.[2] When Chinese forces attacked Mongolia in 1919 to negate its independence from China, the Soviet Red Army helped Mongolia ward off the invasion. The Mongolian People's Republic was established in 1921 with Soviet military support and under Soviet influence.

Embassy of Mongolia in Russia
Embassy of Russia in Mongolia

Communist era[edit]

The Soviet Union supported the revolution which brought the Mongolian People's Party (later the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) to power[3] as the ruling party of the Mongolian People's Republic (MPR), established in 1924.[4] Over the next seventy years, Mongolia "pursued policies in imitation of the devised by the USSR" as a Soviet satellite state.[4] Mongolian supreme leader Khorloogiin Choibalsan, acting under Soviet instructions, carried out a mass terror from 1936 to 1952 (see Stalinist repressions in Mongolia), with the greatest number of arrests and executions (targeting in particular the Buddhist clergy) occurring between September 1937 and November 1939.[3] Soviet influences pervaded Mongolian culture throughout the period, and schools through the nation, as well as the National University of Mongolia, emphasized Marxism-Leninism.[3] Nearly every member of the Mongolian political and technocratic elite, as well as many members of the cultural and artistic elite, were educated in the USSR or one of its Eastern European allies.[4] The Mongolian economy was heavily reliant on the Soviet bloc for electric power, trade, and investment.[4] The MPR collapsed in 1990 and the first democratically elected government took office the same year, leading to "a wedge in the previously close relationship between Mongolia and the Soviet bloc."[4] After 1992, Russian technical aid stopped, and Russia made a request to Mongolia to pay back all the aid which it had received from the Soviet Union from 1946 to 1990, a figure which the Soviets estimated at 11.6 billion Soviet transferable rubles (disputed by the Mongolians).[5]

The communist regimes of Mongolia and the USSR forged close bilateral relations and cooperation.[2][6] Both nations established close industrial and trade links, especially with the Soviet republics in Central Asia and Mongolia consistently supported the Soviet Union on international issues.[6] Mongolia sought Russian aid to allay fears of Chinese expansionism and a large number of Soviet forces were permanently deployed in Mongolia.[7] In 1986, both countries signed a treaty of peace, friendship and cooperation.[6] Mongolia sided with the Soviet Union following the Sino-Soviet split in the 1950s. Following the example of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of improving ties with the West and China, Mongolia improved its relations with the United States and China.[6] In 1989, Mongolia and the Soviet Union finalized plans for the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Mongolia.[6]

Modern era[edit]

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, Mongolia's trade with Russia declined by 80% and China's relations and influence over Mongolia increased.[7] However, Russia has sought to rebuild strong relations with Mongolia in recent years to enhance its standing as a regional power.[7] In 2000, the Russian President Vladimir Putin made a landmark visit to Mongolia—the first by a Russian head of state since Leonid Brezhnev in 1974[8] and one of the first of Putin's presidency—and renewed a major bilateral treaty.[2][7] The visit and improvement in bilateral relations was popularly welcomed in Mongolia as countering China's influence.[7] Russia lowered prices of oil and energy exports to Mongolia and enhanced cross-border trade.[7] The Russian government wrote off 98% of Mongolia's state debt and an agreement was signed to build an oil pipeline from Russia to China through Mongolia.[2]

State visits[9][edit]

From Russian leaders to Mongolia[edit]

From Mongolian leaders to Russia[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pre-Presidential Election National Survey of Mongolian Public Opinion" (PDF). iri.org. July 23, 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d Blagov, Sergei (May 2005). "Mongolia Drifts Away From Russia Toward China". China Brief. The Jamestown Foundation. 5 (10). Archived from the original on March 22, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
  3. ^ a b c Balazs Szalontai, "From the Demolition of Monasteries to the Installation of Neon Lights: The Politics of Urban Construction in the Mongolian People's Republic" in Sites of Modernity: Asian Cities in the Transitory Moments of Trade, Colonialism, and Nationalism (ed. Wasana Wongsurawat), pp. 165-66.
  4. ^ a b c d e Morris Rossabi, Modern Mongolia: From Khans to Commissars to Capitalists (University of California Press, 2005), pp. 31-37.
  5. ^ Alan J. K. Sanders, "Russia: Relations With Mongolia" in Historical Dictionary of Mongolia (3d ed.: Scarecrow Press, 2010), pp. 616-23.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Mongolia — Soviet relations". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2008-06-17.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Russia Seeks To Restore Position in Mongolia As Most Favored Neighbor". Eurasianet.org. 2000-11-17. Archived from the original on 2017-08-31. Retrieved 2008-06-17.
  8. ^ Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, Foreign Service Office of Montsame News Agency, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 55
  9. ^ http://embassymongolia.ru/?page_id=1875
  10. ^ https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/117701
  11. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1974/12/14/archives/soviet-helps-mongolia-shed-feudalism-buildings-mean-progress.html
  12. ^ "Foreign heads of state, governments and international organisations participating in the celebration of the 65th Anniversary of the Victory". Presidential Press and Information Office. 9 May 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2010.[dead link]
  13. ^ Lucy Westcott (May 9, 2015). "Russia flexes military might as foreign leaders stay away from V-E parade". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved May 10, 2015.

External links[edit]

Diplomatic missions[edit]