Dictator

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Dictators often accused of ruling totalitarian regimes, from left to right and top to bottom in picture, include Joseph Stalin, former General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; Adolf Hitler, former Führer of Germany; Mao Zedong, former Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party; Benito Mussolini, former Duce of Italy; and Kim Il-sung, the Eternal President of North Korea
Benito Mussolini, the Italian dictator from 1922 to 1943[A] and Adolf Hitler, the German dictator from 1933 to 1945

A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A dictatorship is a state ruled by one dictator or by a small clique.[2] The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (see Roman dictator and justitium).[3]

Like the term "tyrant" (which was originally a non-pejorative Ancient Greek title), and to a lesser degree "autocrat", "dictator" came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive rule. In modern usage the term "dictator" is generally used to describe a leader who holds or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power. Dictatorships are often characterised by some of the following: suspension of elections and civil liberties; proclamation of a state of emergency; rule by decree; repression of political opponents; not abiding by the rule of law procedures, and cult of personality. Dictatorships are often one-party or dominant-party states.[4][5]

A wide variety of leaders coming to power in different kinds of regimes, such as military juntas, one-party states, dominant-party states, and civilian governments under a personal rule, have been described as dictators. They may hold left or right-wing views.

Etymology[edit]

Bust of Julius Caesar, first lifetime dictator of the Roman Republic, who through a series of legal maneuvers transformed the state into a legal autocracy. Within 20 years, Julius Caesar outmaneuvered his opponents and the legal instituitions of Rome to install himself Dictator for life.

Originally an emergency legal appointment in the Roman Republic and the Etruscan culture, the term "Dictator" did not have the negative meaning it has now.[6] A Dictator was a magistrate given sole power for a limited duration. At the end of the term, the Dictator's power was returned to normal Consular rule whereupon a dictator provided accountability, though not all dictators accepted a return to power sharing.

The term started to get its modern negative meaning with Cornelius Sulla's ascension to the dictatorship following Sulla's second civil war, making himself the first Dictator in Rome in more than a century (during which the office was ostensibly abolished) as well as de facto eliminating the time limit and need of senatorial acclamation. He avoided a major constitutional crisis by resigning the office after about one year, dying a few years later. Julius Caesar followed Sulla's example in 49 BC and in February 44 BC was proclaimed Dictator perpetuo, "Dictator in perpetuity", officially doing away with any limitations on his power, which he kept until his assassination the following month.

Following Julius' assassination, his heir Augustus was offered the title of dictator, but he declined it. Later successors also declined the title of dictator, and usage of the title soon diminished among Roman rulers.

Modern era[edit]

Country ratings from Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2017 survey concerning the state of world freedom in 2016[7]
  Free (86)   Partly Free (59)   Not Free (50)
2017 Democracy Index by The Economist in which countries marked in different shades of red of are considered undemocratic, with many being dictatorships.[8]

As late as the second half of the 19th century, the term dictator had occasional positive implications. For example, during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the national leader Lajos Kossuth was often referred to as dictator, without any negative connotations, by his supporters and detractors alike, although his official title was that of regent-president.[9] When creating a provisional executive in Sicily during the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi officially assumed the title of "Dictator" (see Dictatorship of Garibaldi). Shortly afterwards, during the 1863 January Uprising in Poland, "Dictator" was also the official title of four leaders, the first being Ludwik Mierosławski.

Past that time, however, the term dictator assumed an invariably negative connotation. In popular usage, a dictatorship is often associated with brutality and oppression. As a result, it is often also used as a term of abuse against political opponents. The term has also come to be associated with megalomania. Many dictators create a cult of personality around themselves and they have also come to grant themselves increasingly grandiloquent titles and honours. For instance, Idi Amin Dada, who had been a British army lieutenant prior to Uganda's independence from Britain in October 1962, subsequently styled himself "His Excellency, President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor[A] Idi Amin Dada, VC,[B] DSO, MC, Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular".[10] In the movie The Great Dictator (1940), Charlie Chaplin satirized not only Adolf Hitler but the institution of dictatorship itself.

A benevolent dictatorship refers to a government in which an authoritarian leader exercises absolute political power over the state but is perceived to do so with the regard for benefit of the population as a whole, standing in contrast to the decidedly malevolent stereotype of a dictator. A benevolent dictator may allow for some economic liberalization or democratic decision-making to exist, such as through public referenda or elected representatives with limited power, and often makes preparations for a transition to genuine democracy during or after their term. It might be seen as a republic a form of enlightened despotism. The label has been applied to leaders such as Ioannis Metaxas of Greece (1936–41), Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia (1953–80),[11] and Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore (1959–90).[12]

The association between a dictator and the military is a common one; many dictators take great pains to emphasize their connections with the military and they often wear military uniforms. In some cases, this is perfectly legitimate; Francisco Franco was a lieutenant general in the Spanish Army before he became Chief of State of Spain;[13] Manuel Noriega was officially commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces. In other cases, the association is mere pretense.

Some dictators have been masters of crowd manipulation, such as Mussolini and Hitler.[citation needed] Others were more prosaic speakers, such as Stalin and Franco. Typically the dictator's people seize control of all media, censor or destroy the opposition, and give strong doses of propaganda daily, often built around a cult of personality.[14]

Mussolini and Hitler used similar, modest titles referring to them as "the Leader". Mussolini used "Il Duce" and Hitler was generally referred to as "der Führer". Franco used a similar title "El Caudillo" ("the Head")[15] and for Stalin his adopted name became synonyms with his role as the absolute leader. For Mussolini, Hitler, and Franco, the use of modest, non-traditional titles displayed their absolute power even stronger as they did not need any, not even a historic legitimacy either.

The usage of the term "dictator" in western media has been criticised as "Code for Government We Don’t Like". Leaders that would generally be considered autoritarian but are allied with the USA such as Paul Biya or Nursultan Nazarbayev are rarely referred to as "dictators", while leaders of countries opposed to US policy such as Nicolas Maduro or Bashar Al-Assad have the term applied much more liberally.[16]

Modern usage in formal titles[edit]

Giuseppe Garibaldi proclaimed himself dictator of Sicily in 1860.

Because of its negative and pejorative connotations, modern authoritarian leaders very rarely (if ever) use the term dictator in their formal titles, instead they most often simply have title of president. In the 19th century, however, its official usage was more common:

Human rights abuses[edit]

Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq (1979–2003). Under his Ba'athist rule, numerous human rights violations occurred, with Iraq being falsely accused of stockpiling weapons of mass destruction by the USA as justification for its invasion.
Mohammad bin Salman, Crown Prince and de facto dictator of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is said to have used torture against his political enemies at home,[22] whilst the bombing of Yemen under his decree has caused a famine.[23]

Over time, dictators have been known to use tactics that violate human rights. For example, under the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, government policy was enforced by secret police and the Gulag system of prison labour camps. Most Gulag inmates were not political prisoners, although significant numbers of political prisoners could be found in the camps at any one time. Data collected from Soviet archives gives the death toll from Gulags at 1,053,829.[24] Other human rights abuses by the Soviet state included human experimentation, the use of psychiatry as a political weapon and the denial of freedom of religion, assembly, speech and association.

Pol Pot became dictator of Cambodia in 1975. In all, an estimated 1.7 million people (out of a population of 7 million) died due to the policies of his four-year dictatorship.[25] As a result, Pol Pot is sometimes described as "the Hitler of Cambodia" and "a genocidal tyrant".[26]

Equatorial Guinea's President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo. According to the BBC, Obiang Nguema "has been described by rights organisations as one [of] Africa's most brutal dictators."[27]

The International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for Sudan's military dictator Omar al-Bashir over alleged war crimes in Darfur.[28]

Robert Mugabe, former dictator of Zimbabwe (1980–2017)

In game theory[edit]

In social choice theory, the notion of a dictator is formally defined as a person who can achieve any feasible social outcome he/she wishes. The formal definition yields an interesting distinction between two different types of dictators.

  • The strong dictator has, for any social goal he/she has in mind (e.g. raise taxes, having someone killed, etc.), a definite way of achieving that goal. This can be seen as having explicit absolute power, like Sulla.
  • The weak dictator has, for any social goal he/she has in mind, and for any political scenario, a course of action that would bring about the desired goal. For the weak dictator, it is usually not enough to "give their orders", rather he/she has to manipulate the political scene appropriately. This means that the weak dictator might actually be lurking in the shadows, working within a political setup that seems to be non-dictatorial. An example of such a figure is Lorenzo the Magnificent, who controlled Renaissance Florence.

Note that these definitions disregard some alleged dictators who are not interested in the actual achieving of social goals, as much as in propaganda and controlling public opinion. Monarchs and military dictators are also excluded from these definitions, because their rule relies on the consent of other political powers (the nobility or the army).

List of people described as dictators from the 19th to the 21st century[edit]

Africa[edit]

Asia[edit]

Suharto of Indonesia
A British cartoon of 1923 satirising Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's dictatorship in Turkey.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Europe[edit]

Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire, The Red Sultan, “Le Rire”, Number 134, 29 May, Paris, 1897
Abdul Hamid II

North America[edit]

South America[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mussolini and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means and aspired to create a totalitarian state. Mussolini remained in power until he was deposed by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1943, but a few months later he became the leader of the Italian Social Republic, a German client regime in northern Italy – Mussolini held this post until his death in 1945.[1]
  2. ^ He has been dubbed a kleptocrat and a dictator by several commentators.[29][30][31][32][33]
  3. ^ A Warlord of Manchuria, he captured Beijing in 1926 and proclaimed himself Generalissimo of the Military Government of China, a position he held until his was defeated and exiled by the National Revolutionary Army of Chiang Kai-shek. Assassinated shortly after by the Kwantung Army.
  4. ^ Became leader of the Nationalist government in 1928, establishing a military dictatorship in the Republic of China, serving as Premier of the Republic of China, Chairman of the Military Affairs Commission and Chairman of the Republic of China. He was exiled to Taiwan in 1949, where he served as President of the Republic of China until his death in 1975.
  5. ^ The son of Chiang Kai-shek, he was elevated to Chairman of the Kuomintang after his father's death, later becoming President of the Republic of China in 1978, offices which he held until his death in 1988.
  6. ^ Served as the first de facto paramount leader of the People's Republic of China, as Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party and Chairman of the Central Military Commission until his death in 1976. Served as Chairman of the People's Republic of China from 1954 to 1959, but resigned after the Great Leap Forward.
  7. ^ Served as the second de facto paramount leader of the People's Republic of China, as Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and Premier of the People's Republic of China until his gradual removal from power in 1979–1981.
  8. ^ Served as the third de facto paramount leader of the People's Republic of China, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission and Chairman of the Central Advisory Commission, before resigning in the wake of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests.
  9. ^ Served as the fourth de facto paramount leader of the People's Republic of China, as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and President of the People's Republic of China before his gradual retirement in 2002–2004.
  10. ^ Served as the fifth de facto paramount leader of the People's Republic of China, as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and President of the People's Republic of China before his gradual retirement in 2012–2013.
  11. ^ Serving as the sixth de facto paramount leader of the People's Republic of China, as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party. He has often been described as a dictator[35][36][37][38][39] by political and academic observers, citing an increase of censorship and mass surveillance, a deterioration in human rights, the cult of personality developing around him, and the removal of term limits for the leadership under his tenure.
  12. ^ While Hussein formally ascended to the presidency in 1979, he had already been the de facto leader of Iraq for several years beforehand, with no one year in the 1970s agreed upon as a starting point.
  13. ^ Served as the first Supreme Leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, as General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. In 1972 he became Chairman of the National Defence Commission and ascended from Premier of the Cabinet to President of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. He held these offices until his death in 1994, after which he was posthumously awarded the title of Eternal President of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
  14. ^ Served as the second Supreme Leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, as General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea, Chairman of the National Defence Commission, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and Chairman of the Central Military Commission. He held these offices until his death in 2011, after which he was posthumously awarded the titles of Eternal General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea and Eternal Chairman of the National Defence Commission.
  15. ^ Serving as the third Supreme Leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea, President of the State Affairs Commission and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
  16. ^ Elected the first President of the Republic of Korea in 1948 to oversee the transfer of power from the United States Army Military Government in Korea. Resigned from office in the wake of the 1960 April Revolution, which established the democratic Second Republic of Korea.
  17. ^ Overthrew the Second Republic in the May 16 coup of 1961 as part of the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Formally elected as the third President of the Republic of Korea in 1963, defeating the democratic opposition lead by Yun Posun. Implemented the Yushin Constitution, establishing him as dictator of the Fourth Republic of Korea, an office he held until his assassination in 1979.
  18. ^ Emerged as the de facto leader of South Korea after seizing power in the Coup d'état of December Twelfth of 1979. Formally ascended to the presidency following the Coup d'état of May Eighteenth and established the Fifth Republic of Korea. Rule brought to an end in 1987 by the June Struggle, which established the democratic Sixth Republic of Korea.
  19. ^ Seized power during a period of repression and served as the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Mongolia, until his death in 1952.
  20. ^ Served as the de facto leader of the Mongolian People's Republic, as General Secretary of the Mongolian People's Party. He succeeded Choibalsan as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, a post he held until 1974, when he ascended to Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Khural. After a series of political purges, on 24 August 1984 he was removed from office on the pretext of "old age and mental incapacity".
  21. ^ Previously the Chairman of the Council of Ministers, in 1984 he ousted Tsedenbal from office and seized power. He served as the de facto leader of the Mongolian People's Republic, as General Secretary of the Mongolian People's Party and Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great Khural, until his resignation in the wake of the Mongolian Revolution of 1990.
  22. ^ Installed as Head of State and Prime Minister of Burma by the Japanese invasion of Burma. He declared the independence of Burma, ratified a Treaty of Alliance with the Axis powers and declared war on the Allies. He fled the country ahead of the Allied offensive.
  23. ^ In 1962, he overthrew the democratically-elected government of U Nu in a coup d'état. He served as the de facto leader of Burma, as Chairman of the Burma Socialist Programme Party and President of Burma. He acted as Chairman of the Union Revolutionary Council until 1974, when he re-wrote the constitution and established a totalitarian one-party state. He resigned in 1988, in the wake of the 8888 Uprising, which overthrew his regime.
  24. ^ Seized power in the wake of the 8888 Uprising and served as the de facto leader of Myanmar, as Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council, Prime Minister of Myanmar and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Myanmar. He oversaw the House arrest of Aung San Suu Kyi and repression of the 1990 Myanmar general election. In 1992, he resigned from office due to his ill health.
  25. ^ Served as the de facto leader of Myanmar, as Chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council, Prime Minister of Myanmar and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Myanmar. He oversaw the transition to democracy as well as the suppression of the Saffron Revolution. He stepped down after the 2010 Myanmar general election, which began a period of political reform.
  26. ^ Seized power from the government of Feroz Khan Noon in a coup d'état, imposed martial law and constituted Pakistan as a presidential republic, with himself as the 2nd President of Pakistan. In 1965 he was formally elected as president and oversaw the Second Indo-Pakistani War. He engaged in repression of the political opposition, particularly in the Agartala Conspiracy Case and the reaction to the Six point movement. He resigned in the wake of the 1969 Mass uprising in East Pakistan, handing power to his successor Yahya Khan.
  27. ^ Succeeded Ayub Khan as the 3rd President of Pakistan. He imposed martial law and suspended the 1962 constitution. He delayed the transition of power to the democratically-elected Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, leading to the beginning of the Bangladesh Liberation War. He oversaw the violent suppression of the Bangladeshi rebellion, culminating in the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. He resigned in the wake of the independence of Bangladesh, handing power to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Khan was subsequently placed under house arrest until 1979, and died shortly after his release.
  28. ^ Seized power from the democratically-elected government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in a coup d'état, imposing martial law and re-establishing a presidential republic with himself as the 6th President of Pakistan. He subsequently ordered the execution of Bhutto, oversaw the massacre at Multan Colony Textile Mills and implemented a policy of Islamization in Pakistan. He oversaw the Pakistani involvement in the Soviet–Afghan War, supporting the Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen. After lifting martial law and overseeing non-partisan elections, he accumulated further powers with the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan. He ruled until his death in 1988, shortly after the signing of the Geneva Accords.
  29. ^ Seized power from the democratically-elected government of Nawaz Sharif in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the 10th President of Pakistan. In 2002, he reinstated an amended constitution and oversaw the election of Zafarullah Khan Jamali as Prime Minister of Pakistan. He implemented a policy of "Enlightened moderation", promoting economic liberalisation and banning trade unions, resulting in a rise in income inequality. In 2007, he suspended the judiciary and imposed martial law, but was forced to resign in the wake of the Lawyers' Movement, which reinstated the judiciary.
  30. ^ Seized power in the 1933 Siamese coup d'état and appointed himself the Commander-in-chief of the Royal Thai Army and Prime Minister of Siam, offices he held until his resignation in 1938.
  31. ^ Succeeded Phraya Phahon as de facto leader of Thailand, as Commander-in-chief of the Royal Thai Army, Prime Minister of Thailand and Defence Minister of Thailand. He established a military dictatorship inspired by fascist movements in Europe, promoted a process of Thaification and an Anti-Chinese sentiment, and brought Thailand into the Axis powers. During World War II, he was ousted from power by the Free Thai Movement, which brought about a period of civil government before he again seized power in the Siamese coup d'état of 1948. Consolidated military rule over Thailand in the Silent Coup, until he was overthrown in the Siamese coup d'état of 1957.
  32. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état, served as the de facto leader of Thailand, as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and Prime Minister of Thailand, until his death in 1963.
  33. ^ Succeeded Sarit Thanarat as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, Prime Minister and Defence Minister of Thailand. After the beginning of the 1970s peasant revolts in Thailand, he seized further power from his own government in the 1971 Thai coup d'état, taking on the role of Minister of Foreign Affairs. He was overthrown and exiled during the 1973 Thai popular uprising, which reinstated civil government.
  34. ^ Seized power in the October 1977 Thai coup d'état, served as de facto leader of Thailand, as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, Prime Minister and Defence Minister of Thailand, until his resignation in 1980.
  35. ^ Succeeded Kriangsak Chamanan as de facto leader of Thailand, as Commander-in-chief of the Royal Thai Army, Prime Minister and Defence Minister of Thailand. He defeated the Communist insurgency in Thailand and oversaw the transition to democracy, before stepping down in 1988.
  36. ^ Seized power in the 1991 Thai coup d'état, which deposed the democratically-elected government of Chatichai Choonhavan. He served as the de facto leader of Thailand as head of the National Peace Keeping Council, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, Commander-in-chief of the Royal Thai Army, Prime Minister and Defence Minister of Thailand, until 1992 when he resigned in the wake of Black May.
  37. ^ Seized power in the 2006 Thai coup d'état, which deposed the democratically-elected government of Thaksin Shinawatra. Served as the de facto leader of Thailand, as head of the Council for National Security, Commander-in-chief of the Royal Thai Army and Prime Minister of Thailand. Oversaw the dissolution of the Thai Rak Thai Party and the creation of the 2007 constitution of Thailand. Rule brought to an end by the 2007 Thai general election.
  38. ^ Seized power in the 2014 Thai coup d'état, which deposed the democratically-elected government of Yingluck Shinawatra. Serving as the de facto leader of Thailand as head of the National Council for Peace and Order and Prime Minister of Thailand. He implemented the 2014 interim constitution of Thailand, which dissolved the existing constitution, granted himself emergency powers and amnesty. In 2019 he formally dissolved the NCPO and transferred its powers to the Defence Ministry, an office that he then took control of. Oversaw the dissolution of the Future Forward Party, which caused the 2020 Thai protests.
  39. ^ Served as the de facto leader of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, as Chairman of the Workers' Party of Vietnam, the 1st President and Prime Minister of Vietnam. In 1945, he proclaimed independence for Vietnam, but was forced to relocate to Hanoi after the partition of the country. He led the northern effort of the Vietnam War until his death in 1969.
  40. ^ In 1955, he took power as the 1st President of South Vietnam and served until 1963, when he was arrested and assassinated.
  41. ^ Seized power in the 1963 South Vietnamese coup and served as the 1st Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Council until he was himself ousted in a coup.
  42. ^ Seized power in the January 1964 South Vietnamese coup and served as the 2nd Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Council and the 8th Prime Minister of South Vietnam. He later consolidated power in the December 1964 South Vietnamese coup, which dissolved the High National Council. He was ousted from power in the 1965 South Vietnamese coup and forced into exile.
  43. ^ After the 1965 South Vietnamese coup, he became Chairman of the National Leadership Committee and was later elected the 2nd President of South Vietnam. He oversaw the Tet Offensive and was re-elected unopposed. He was ousted from power in the 1975 Spring Offensive, which resulted in the end of the Vietnam War and the reunification of Vietnam.
  44. ^ Seized power from the government of Fan Noli in a coup d'état, establishing the parliamentary Albanian Republic and granting himself dictatorial powers as the 1st President of Albania. He oversaw the repression of the political opposition, the suspension of civil liberties and the suppression of the free press. He strengthened relations with fascist Italy and re-asserted feudalism, before dissolving parliament and establishing himself as the King of Albania in 1928. He was deposed in 1939, with the Italian invasion of Albania.
  45. ^ Took power during the Italian invasion of Albania, establishing himself as the Prime Minister of Albania. He oversaw the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship, with the Albanian Fascist Party as the country's sole legal party. He remained at the head of the government until 1941.
  46. ^ Succeeded as the Prime Minister of Albania and oversaw the Albanian involvement in the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia, during which he ordered the ethnic cleansing of Serbs from Kosovo. In 1944, he fled the country during the German occupation of Albania.
  47. ^ Seized power with the German occupation of Albania, establishing himself as Prime Minister of Albania, as a member of the Balli Kombëtar. He continued the ethnic cleansing policies in Kosovo, but was overthrown in 1944 by the Albanian resistance, ending the war in Albania.
  48. ^ Seized power as part of the Albanian Resistance of World War II, establishing a totalitarian dictatorship with the Party of Labour of Albania as the sole legal party and himself as the first de facto leader of Albania, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania and Prime Minister of Albania. He oversaw a campaign of political repression, including the establishment of forced labour camps and the secret police known as the Sigurimi. In 1954 he was succeeded as Prime Minister by Mehmet Shehu and in 1955 the Soviet–Albanian split took place. In 1972, the Sino-Albanian split took place and in 1976 Hoxha promulgated a new constitution. In 1981, Hoxha ordered a political purge, in which many party and government officials were executed, reportedly including Mehmet Shehu. In 1985, Hoxha died in office.
  49. ^ Succeeded Enver Hoxha as the second de facto leader of Albania, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania and Chairman of the Presidium. He oversaw the fall of communism in Albania and was himself democratically elected as the President of Albania, before stepping down following the first parliamentary elections of the new Fourth Republic of Albania.
  50. ^ After ascending to power during a political crisis, in 1933 he eliminated parliament and assumed dictatorial powers, with which he suppressed the Austrian socialist movement during the Austrian Civil War. He wrote a new constitution, establishing the clerical-fascist Federal State of Austria. He served as Chancellor of Austria until his assassination during the July Putsch.
  51. ^ Assumed power after the death of Engelbert Dollfuss, served as Chancellor of Austria until his removal from power during the Anschluss.
  52. ^ Seized power during the German occupation of Byelorussia, establishing himself as President of the Byelorussian Central Council, in collaboration with Nazi Germany. He was ousted from power during Operation Bagration, which restored the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.
  53. ^ Following the 1934 Bulgarian coup d'état, the king orchestrated a counter-coup, ousting Kimon Georgiev and assuming power as an absolute monarch. Boris brought Bulgaria into the Axis powers and implemented the anti-semitic Law for Protection of the Nation. He died in 1943 and his government was ousted by the Bulgarian resistance in the 1944 Bulgarian coup d'état.
  54. ^ Became General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party after the death of Georgi Dimitrov, served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria and oversaw the transformation of Bulgaria from a socialist republic into a Marxist-Leninist one-party state, before resigning from office during the Khrushchev Thaw.
  55. ^ Became General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party after the resignation of Valko Chervenkov. He initially appointed Anton Yugov as Prime Minister of Bulgaria, but expelled him from the BCP in 1962, assuming the office himself. He served as thirty-sixth Prime Minister of Bulgaria until 1971, when he implemented a new constitution and ascended to Chairman of the State Council of Bulgaria, an office he held until he was ousted during the Revolution of 1989. His successor Petar Mladenov oversaw the country's transition to democracy.
  56. ^ Came to power with the Invasion of Yugoslavia and proclaimed himself Poglavnik of the Independent State of Croatia. Oversaw the Holocaust and Genocide of the Serbs until the end of the war, when he fled the country from the Bleiburg repatriations.
  57. ^ Previously having served as the President of Czechoslovakia, he was appointed as the State President of Bohemia and Moravia during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia. He established a totalitarian dictatorship in collaboration with Nazi Germany, constituting the National Partnership as the country's sole legal political party. Hácha was desposed during the Prague Offensive and subsequently arrested, dying in prison soon after.
  58. ^ Seized power in the 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état, served as the first de facto leader of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, as Chairman of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and the fifth President of Czechoslovakia, until his death in 1953.
  59. ^ Served as the second de facto leader of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and the sixth President of Czechoslovakia, and ratified the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia. He resigned in the wake of the Prague Spring of 1968, being replaced by the reformer Alexander Dubček.
  60. ^ Served as the third de facto leader of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and the ninth President of Czechoslovakia, until 1989 when he resigned in the wake of the Velvet Revolution.
  61. ^ On 12 March 1934, he seized power in a self-coup, establishing the Patriotic League as the country's sole legal party. In 1938, he ratified the Third Constitution of Estonia and served as President of Estonia until 1940, when he was ousted from power by the Soviet occupation of Estonia.
  62. ^ On 28 January 1918, during the Finnish Civil War, Manner was appointed Chairman of the Finnish People's Delegation. On 10 April the same year, Manner was appointed commander-in-chief of the Red Guards as well as head of state of its short-lived government, "The People's Deputation". He was given dictatorial powers.
  63. ^ Assumed dictatorial powers during World War I as commander of the third Oberste Heeresleitung, lost power with the collapse of the empire and ratification of the Weimar Constitution during the German Revolution of 1918–1919. After the death of Friedrich Ebert, the 1925 German presidential election resulted in Hindenburg assuming the office of President of Germany. In 1930, he assumed emergency powers, dissolved the social democratic government of Hermann Müller and transformed Germany into an authoritarian presidential republic, which he presided over until his death in 1934.
  64. ^ Appointed Chancellor of Germany by Paul von Hindenburg, implemented the Reichstag Fire Decree and Enabling Act of 1933 which abolished civil liberties and established a one-party totalitarian dictatorship. With the death of Hindenburg, he ascended to become the de facto Leader of Germany as he combined the role of president and chancellor. In 1935 he enacted the racist and anti-semitic Nuremberg Laws, as part of the Gleichschaltung. He oversaw the remilitarization of the Rhineland, German involvement in the Spanish Civil War, annexation of Austria and occupation of Czechoslovakia, which eventually culminated in the beginning of World War II with the Invasion of Poland. In the first years of the war, Germany subsequently invaded and occupied Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Greece, Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. From 1941 onwards, Nazi Germany enacted a policy of genocide with The Holocaust and Generalplan Ost, which worked to death, imprisoned and exterminated millions of people. With the Allied victory in Europe, Hitler committed suicide, Germany surrendered and the Allies pursued a process of Denazification in Europe. Germany was partitioned between the Federal Republic of Germany and German Democratic Republic.
  65. ^ Served as the first de facto leader of the German Democratic Republic, as First Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. He oversaw the dissolution of the States of East Germany, the constitution of the National Front of the German Democratic Republic as the sole legal political organization and the establishment of the secret police known as the Stasi. He ordered the closure of the Inner German border, the suppression of the East German uprising of 1953 and brought the country into the Warsaw Pact. In 1960 he became Chairman of the National Defense Council and, after the death of Wilhelm Pieck, also Chairman of the State Council. During the Berlin Crisis of 1961, he ordered the construction of the Berlin Wall. He introduced the New Economic System, which constructed a centrally planned economy, before being removed from power in 1971.
  66. ^ Served as the second de facto leader of the German Democratic Republic, as General Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Chairman of the State Council Chairman of the National Defence Council. He implemented a policy of "consumer socialism", normalized relations with the West and brought East Germany into the United Nations. Removed from power during the Peaceful Revolution, which eventually resulted in German reunification.
  67. ^ After the assassination of Ioannis Kapodistrias, the Hellenic State was dissolved and Otto was declared the new King of Greece. He ruled as absolute monarch until the 3 September 1843 Revolution, when a constitutional monarchy was established.
  68. ^ On 4 August 1936, Metaxas suspended the Greek parliament and implemented a totalitarian dictatorship, where he served as Prime Minister of Greece until his death in 1941.
  69. ^ Seized power during the Battle of Greece in collaboration with Nazi Germany, establishing himself as Prime Minister of Greece. He oversaw policies that led to a famine and after proclaiming a mandatory work service for all Greek citizens, he was removed from power and replaced with his deputy. He was captured after the end of the war and later died in prison.
  70. ^ Succeeded Tsolakoglou as prime minister of the collaborationist Greek government. After he protested against the policies of the Axis occupation of Greece, he was himself removed from power. After the war he was captured, tried and convicted, being released from prison in 1951.
  71. ^ Succeeded Logothetopoulos as prime minister of the collaborationist Greek government. He established the Security Battalions, a paramilitary group dedicated to the persecution of the Greek Resistance. He was deposed after the German withdrawal from Greece and later died in prison.
  72. ^ Seized power in the 1967 Greek coup d'état and served as the de facto leader of the Greek Junta as Prime Minister of Greece. He enacted the Greek Constitution of 1973 and abolished the monarchy, becoming the President of Greece. He held these offices until 1973, when he was removed in a coup following the Athens Polytechnic uprising.
  73. ^ Seized power in the 1973 Greek coup d'état and served as the de facto leader of the Greek Junta. In 1974, the Turkish invasion of Cyprus triggered a political crisis that removed him from office and established the Third Hellenic Republic.
  74. ^ Took power during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, served as Governor-President of Hungary and Prime Minister of Hungary. Deposed by Artúr Görgey, who suppressed the revolution and reestablished the absolutist Kingdom of Hungary.
  75. ^ Served as Regent of Hungary until 1944, when he was overthrown during Operation Panzerfaust.
  76. ^ Seized power during Operation Panzerfaust, established himself as Leader of the Nation and Prime Minister of Hungary. He was overthrown by the High National Council in 1945 and sentenced to death for war crimes and high treason.
  77. ^ Served as the first de facto leader of the Hungarian People's Republic, as General Secretary of the Hungarian Working People's Party and Chairman of the Council of Ministers.
  78. ^ Seized power from Imre Nagy following the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Served as the second de facto leader of the Hungarian People's Republic, as General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party and Chairman of the Council of Ministers, implementing a policy known as Goulash Communism. His resignation in 1988 precipitated the end of communism in Hungary.
  79. ^ Deposed as the prime minister of Italy in 1943, but remained dictator of the Italian Social Republic until his assassination in 1945.
  80. ^ Seized power in the 1934 Latvian coup d'état and served as both Prime Minister and President of Latvia, until he was ousted in 1940 by the Soviet occupation of Latvia.
  81. ^ Seized power in the 1926 Lithuanian coup d'état and served as the President of Lithuania until he was ousted by the Soviet occupation of Lithuania.
  82. ^ Seized power during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands, establishing a collaborationist government with himself acting as Leader of the Dutch People and constituting the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands as the country's sole legal political party. After the German surrender, he was put on trial and executed by the re-established Dutch government.
  83. ^ Seized power during Operation Weserübung in collaboration with Nazi Germany, establishing a totalitarian dictatorship with himself as Minister President of Norway and the Nasjonal Samling as the country's sole legal political party. During the legal purge in Norway after World War II, he was deposed and executed.
  84. ^ He abolished the constitutional regime in 1878 after ascending the throne in 1876, and established an oppressive regime. The dissidents were imprisoned or exiled through agents. Newspapers, magazines, and books were censored. He was deposed shortly after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, on 27 April 1909.
  85. ^ The triumvirate of senior officials who effectively ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I: Mehmed Talaat Pasha (1874–1921), the Grand Vizier (prime minister) and Minister of the Interior; Ismail Enver Pasha (1881–1922), the Minister of War; and Ahmed Cemal Pasha (1872–1922), the Minister of the Navy. After the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, these three men became the de facto rulers of the Ottoman Empire until its dissolution following World War I.
  86. ^ All three men concurrently served as dictator of the January Uprising in Poland.
  87. ^ After he led the absolutist April Revolt of 1824, he ascended to the throne and dissolved parliament, proclaiming himself an absolute monarch in 1828. He ruled until 1834, when he was deposed and exiled by constitutionalists during the Liberal Wars.
  88. ^ Seized power in the 28 May 1926 coup d'état, served as Prime Minister of Portugal and President of Portugal until 1933, when dictatorial powers were transferred to the new prime minister António de Oliveira Salazar and the Estado Novo established. Held the role of president ceremonially until his death in 1951.
  89. ^ Appointed Prime Minister of Portugal in 1932, assumed dictatorial powers and established the Estado Novo in 1933. Served as the de facto leader of the Estado Novo, as Prime Minister, until he suffered a stroke in 1968.
  90. ^ Assumed power after Salazar was incapacitated, served as Prime Minister of Portugal until he was overthrown in 1974 during the Carnation Revolution.
  91. ^ Appointed as Prime Minister of Romania by Carol II, briefly established a fascist dictatorship under the National Christian Party, until he was removed from power in a coup and died shortly afterwards.
  92. ^ Seized emergency powers in a coup, signed the 1938 Constitution of Romania, establishing an absolute monarchy in which he served as King of Romania. He abdicated the throne in 1940, transferring dictatorial powers to Ion Antonescu.
  93. ^ Established the fascist National Legionary State and served as Conducător of Romania until his removal in King Michael's Coup.
  94. ^ Came to power with the Soviet occupation of Romania, serving as the first de facto leader of Romania as the General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party. He served as President of the Council of Ministers from 1952 to 1955 and ascended to President of the State Council in 1961. He held these offices until his death in 1965.
  95. ^ Served as the second de facto leader of Romania as the General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party and President of the State Council. In 1971 he appointed himself Conducător of Romania and ruled until his execution during the Romanian Revolution.
  96. ^ Seized power from the government of Nikolai Avksentiev in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the Supreme Ruler of Russia. He was eventually defeated in the Russian Civil War, turned over to the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and executed.
  97. ^ Installed as a puppet during the German occupation of Serbia, he served as Prime Minister of Serbia until the victory of the allied Belgrade Offensive in 1944.
  98. ^ Served as President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997, when he ascended to President of Serbia and Montenegro, an office he held until he was overthrown in 2000.
  99. ^ Declared the independence of Slovakia as a client state of Nazi Germany, establishing himself at the head of a clerical fascist totalitarian dictatorship. Ousted from power in 1945 by the soviet occupation of Slovakia and executed by the Third Czechoslovak Republic.
  100. ^ After the Tumult of Aranjuez, the throne was abdicated by Charles IV and Ferdinand VII to the House of Bonaparte. This resulted in the establishment of Joseph Bonaparte as Spain's absolute monarch, who in turn abdicated the throne to Ferdinand VII, following the Spanish victory in the Peninsular War.
  101. ^ Suspended the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and seized power, establishing an absolute monarchy. Although a liberal revolt briefly reinstated the constitution, the Congress of Verona ordered an invasion of Spain that restored absolutist rule until Ferdinand's death in 1833, after which Spain once again became a constitutional monarchy.
  102. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état, serving as Prime Minister of Spain until his death in 1930.
  103. ^ Seized power in the Spanish coup of July 1936 and fought the Spanish Civil War to establish nationalist rule, which he did after a period of political repression. He ruled Spain as Caudillo until his death in 1975, after which Spain transitioned back to democracy.
  104. ^ Seized power from the Central Council of Ukraine in a Austro-German-backed coup d'état, establishing himself as the Hetman of Ukraine. He was later removed from power by Symon Petliura, who re-established the Ukrainian People's Republic.
  105. ^ On January 6, 1929, he seized power and established himself as royal dictator of the new Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Driven by Yugoslavism as an ideology, he ruled as an absolute monarch until the ratification of the 1931 Yugoslav Constitution.
  106. ^ Formerly a leader of the Yugoslav Partisans, he served as the de facto leader of Yugoslavia as the President of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, Prime Minister of Yugoslavia and President of Yugoslavia, until his death in 1980.
  107. ^ In 1863, he was elected unopposed as the 4th President of Costa Rica. In 1866, the presidency passed to José María Castro Madriz, but Zamora subsequently overthrew him in a coup d'état. He then served as president until 1870, when he was himself deposed in a coup d'état led by Tomás Guardia Gutiérrez.
  108. ^ Deposed Jesús Jiménez Zamora in a coup d'état, and served as the 8th President of Costa Rica, passing the Costa Rican Constitution of 1871. In 1876, he stepped down from the presidency and appointed Aniceto Esquivel Sáenz, who he later deposed in a coup d'état, in favor of Vicente Herrera Zeledón. Guardia subsequently retook the presidency in 1877 and served until his death in 1882.
  109. ^ Seized power in the 1917 Costa Rican coup d'état and established a military dictatorship, with himself as the 21st President of Costa Rica. In 1919, he was overthrown in the Sapoá Revolution, which reestablished civil government.
  110. ^ Served as prime minister of Cuba until 1976, but remained the de facto leader as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba until his resignation in 2011.
  111. ^ Seized power from the Central Government Junta in a coup d'état during the Dominican War of Independence, establishing himself as the first Supreme Chief of the Dominican Republic. He approved and oversaw the Spanish occupation of the Dominican Republic, serving as Captain General of Santo Domingo until his resignation in 1862. Died during the Dominican Restoration War, which established the Second Dominican Republic.
  112. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état that ousted the democratically-elected president Horacio Vásquez and served as the de facto dictator of the Dominican Republic, as President of the Dominican Republic. Oversaw the Parsley massacre, which resulted in the deaths of thousands of Haitians. In 1951, he appointed a puppet president in Héctor Trujillo, followed in 1960 by Joaquín Balaguer, who served as President until the assassination of Rafael Trujillo in 1961.
  113. ^ Overthrew the democratically-elected president Juan Bosch in the Dominican Civil War and elected President of the Dominican Republic in 1966. He oversaw a regime of state terrorism that killed thousands, before finally being defeated in the 1978 election.
  114. ^ Seized power from the democratically-elected president Arturo Araujo in the 1931 Salvadoran coup d'état, establishing himself as the 30th President of El Salvador and creating an authoritarian one-party state with National Pro Patria Party as the sole legal party. He oversaw the brutal suppression of La Matanza, during which the armed forces massacred tens of thousands of people. Forced to resign in 1944, following a general strike.
  115. ^ Elected unopposed as the 31st President of El Salvador, during a period of martial law. He oversaw the suppression of the workers' movement in the country, before being removed from power in 1948 by a coup d'état.
  116. ^ Took power during the 1948 Salvadoran coup d'état, rewrote the constitution and became the 32nd President of El Salvador. In 1952 he implemented the Law on Defense of the Constitutional Order, which suspended individual and collective rights, established the Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification as the country's sole legal party, and intensified the repression of the workers' movement.
  117. ^ Elected unopposed as the 33rd President of El Salvador. He oversaw the repeal of sedition laws, the state control of coffee production and the repression of student protests, before being removed from power in the 1960 Salvadoran coup d'état.
  118. ^ Seized power in the 1961 Salvadoran coup d'état and elected unopposed as the 34th President of El Salvador. He founded the paramilitary death squads known as the Organización Democrática Nacionalista and established the National Conciliation Party as the country's dominant political party.
  119. ^ Succeeded Rivera Carballo as head of the military dictatorship and elected as the 35th President of El Salvador. He led the occupation of Honduras during the Football War, though was forced to pull out after the negotiation of a ceasefire.
  120. ^ Succeeded Sánchez Hernández as head of the military and elected as the 36th President of El Salvador. He oversaw the military occupation of the University of El Salvador and repression of the students' movement.
  121. ^ Succeeded Armando Molina as head of the military and elected as the 37th President of El Salvador. After widespread reports of electoral fraud, he invoked as state of emergency and oversaw the escalation of violence in the country, until he was overthrown in the 1979 Salvadoran coup d'état, which started the Salvadoran Civil War.
  122. ^ Seized power in the 1979 Salvadoran coup d'état and served as the de facto leader of El Salvador, as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and chairman of the Revolutionary Government Junta, until he was removed from power in 1980.
  123. ^ Seized power in the 1979 Salvadoran coup d'état, took over as the de facto leader of El Salvador, as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and chairman of the Revolutionary Government Junta.
  124. ^ Served as the de facto leader of El Salvador, as President of the Revolutionary Government Junta. He oversaw the Salvadoran transition to democracy and, in 1984, he was elected as the 39th President of El Salvador. He oversaw the most violent period of the civil war and continued the violent policies of the dictatorship, until his health deteriorated and he was forced to accept a peaceful transfer of power with the 1989 Salvadoran presidential election.
  125. ^ Appointed President of Guatemala in 1844, he declared Guatemalan independence. He oversaw Guatemalan involvement in the Caste War of Yucatán, led the Guatemalan victory at the Battle of La Arada and ratified the Concordat of 1854. In 1854, he was declared president for life, a position he held until his death in 1865.
  126. ^ In 1898, he was elected as the 16th President of Guatemala. He allowed the entry of the United Fruit Company into Guatemala and granted them numerous concessions, including the violent repression of the workers' movement. He secured his rule through numerous controlled elections, in which he ran unopposed. In the wake of the 1917 Guatemala earthquake, a growing opposition movement began to challenge Estrada's hold on power, leading to his impeachment in 1920.
  127. ^ Seized power from the elected president Carlos Herrera in a coup d'état. He ratified concessions to the United Fruit Company (which Herrera had refused to ratify), continued the practice of strike-breaking and established the Quetzal as the Guatemalan currency. He served until his death in 1926.
  128. ^ In 1931, he was elected unopposed as the 21st President of Guatemala and established a totalitarian dictatorship with the Progressive Liberal Party as the sole legal political party. He was eventually overthrown in the Guatemalan Revolution, which established democratic governance in the country.
  129. ^ In 1954, he seized power from the democratically-elected government of Jacobo Árbenz, in a US-backed coup d'état, which installed him as the 28th President of Guatemala. He established the National Committee of Defense Against Communism to investigate nearly 70,000 Guatemalans, thousands of whom were imprisoned, executed or disappeared. He imprisoned many opposition leaders and rolled back the agricultural reforms of the revolution. He was assassinated in 1957.
  130. ^ In 1963, he seized power in a coup d'état, establishing a military dictatorship with himself as the Head of Government of Guatemala. In 1966, he formed a military pact with the democratically-elected president Julio César Méndez Montenegro and stepped down, having secured the dominance of the pro-military Institutional Democratic Party in Guatemalan politics.
  131. ^ In 1982, he seized power in a coup d'état, establishing a military dictatorship with himself as the 26th President of Guatemala. He oversaw the Guatemalan genocide, which massacred tens of thousands of Mayans. In 1983, he was deposed in a coup d'état and, in 2012, he was formally indicted for genocide and crimes against humanity.
  132. ^ In 1983, he seized power in coup d'état and established himself as the 27th President of Guatemala. He oversaw a wave of political repression and the height of death squad activity in the country, before eventually stepping down and allowing a return to democracy.
  133. ^ Took power as Governor-General before establishing himself as the first Emperor of Haiti. Oversaw the 1804 Haiti massacre and ruled as an absolute monarch until his assassination in 1806, when the country was divided between the Republic of Haiti in the south and the State of Haiti in the north.
  134. ^ Established the State of Haiti and declared himself president for life. In 1811 he proclaimed himself King of Haiti and ruled northern Haiti until his death in 1820.
  135. ^ Established the Republic of Haiti and was elected as the first President of Haiti. Although initially a supporter of democracy, in 1816 he modified the constitution, declared himself President for Life, and suspended the legislature in 1818. Briefly served as dictator before dying of yellow fever.
  136. ^ Succeeded Pétion as president for life of Haiti and reunited Haiti under his rule with the death of Henri Christophe. In 1822 he led the Haitian occupation of Santo Domingo and ruled over a unified Hispaniola as "Supreme Chief of the Nation", until a piquet revolt forced him to abdicate in 1843. The Dominican Republic declared independence soon after.
  137. ^ Seized power after the death of president Jean-Baptiste Riché and established the Second Empire of Haiti, with himself as absolute monarch. Served as the Emperor of Haiti until 1859, when he was deposed in a republican revolution by Fabre Geffrard.
  138. ^ Deposed president Dumarsais Estimé in a coup d'état and elected unopposed as President of Haiti, a position he held until 1956, when he fled the country from strikes and demonstrations against his rule.
  139. ^ Elected president in 1957 and quickly began consolidating power. Established the Tonton Macoute to carry out a campaign of state terrorism and constituted the National Unity Party as the country's sole legal political party. In 1964 he proclaimed himself president for life and violently suppressed an anti-Duvalier uprising, cementing his rule until his death in 1971.
  140. ^ Succeeded his father as president for life of Haiti and served until 1986, when he was ousted from power by the Anti-Duvalier protest movement, which re-established a democratic Republic of Haiti.
  141. ^ In 1932, he was elected as the 24th President of Honduras. In 1935 he began to oversee a series of political repressions: he outlawed the Communist Party, suppressed labor strikes and banned the opposition press. In 1936, the National Party was constituted as the sole political party, presidential term limits were abolished and term lengths extended. He oversaw the reintroduction of the death penalty, reduction of the legislature's power and the revocation of women's citizenship and right to vote. He ruled Honduras until 1949, when he was succeeded by Juan Manuel Gálvez.
  142. ^ Seized power from the democratically-elected government of Ramón Villeda Morales in the 1963 Honduran coup d'état and established a military dictatorship, himself acting as the 27th President of Honduras. After allowing the 1971 Honduran general election go forward, he orchestrated another coup that removed the elected government of Ramón Ernesto Cruz Uclés from power. He served as Head of State until he was deposed in the 1975 Honduran coup d'état.
  143. ^ Seized power in the 1975 Honduran coup d'état and served as head of state until 1978 when he was himself deposed in a coup d'état.
  144. ^ Seized power in the 1978 Honduran coup d'état and served as provisional president, he oversaw the Honduran transition to democracy and stepped down following the 1981 Honduran general election.
  145. ^ After the assassination of rebel-leader Augusto César Sandino, Somoza seized power from the democratically-elected government of Juan Bautista Sacasa in a coup d'état, and established himself as the 19th President of Nicaragua. He established the Nationalist Liberal Party as the dominant party in Nicaragua and amended the constitution so that power was centralized in his hands. After the end of World War II, the liberalization of Nicaragua was encouraged by the United States. Somoza formally stepped down as president, though still controlled the PLN government in practice. In 1950, Somoza was re-elected as President and served until his assassination in 1956.
  146. ^ The son of Anastasio Somoza García, after his father's assassination he became the 22nd President of Nicaragua. In 1963, he stepped down as president, though in practice remained in control of the government until his death in 1967.
  147. ^ The younger brother of Luis Somoza Debayle, with his brother's death in 1967, he took power as the 25th President of Nicaragua. In 1972 he passed the presidency to the Liberal-Conservative Junta, but he effectively remained in power, formally retaking the presidency in 1974. The Somoza regime was finally overthrown by the Sandinistas in the Nicaraguan Revolution, which transferred the presidency to the Junta of National Reconstruction under Daniel Ortega.
  148. ^ Seized power from the democratically-elected government of Arnulfo Arias, in the 1968 Panamanian coup d'état. Served as the de facto leader of Panama, as the head of the National Guard and "Maximum Leader of the Panamanian Revolution". Negotiated the Torrijos–Carter Treaties that secured future Panamanian sovereignty over the Panama Canal. In 1978, he founded the Democratic Revolutionary Party and oversaw a return to civilian government, though he continued to serve as ruler until his death in 1981.
  149. ^ Displaced Florencio Flores Aguilar as head of the National Guard and served as the de facto leader of Panama until his resignation in 1983.
  150. ^ Consolidated power in 1983 and served as the de facto leader of Panama as commander of the Panama Defense Forces. In 1988 he was indicted for charges of racketeering, drug smuggling and money laundering, he was subsequently deposed during the United States invasion of Panama and the Panama Defense Forces were dissolved, leading to the return of civil rule with the 1989 Panamanian general election.
  151. ^ Took power during the Argentine Civil War as the de facto leader of Argentina, as Governor of the Buenos Aires Province. In 1832, he briefly left power to lead the Desert Campaign against the indigenous Mapuche and Ranquel, resulting in the Argentine subjugation of the Pampas. During this time, the Sociedad Popular Restauradora was created to carry out a campaign of state terrorism. He retook power in 1835 and was granted the "sum of public power", with which he purged his political opponents, suppressed the opposition press and established a totalitarian dictatorship. He led the Argentine involvement in the War of the Confederation, which dissolved the Peru–Bolivian Confederation. In 1839, he suppressed the unitarian revolt of the Freemen of the South. A slave owner himself, Rosas revived the slave trade in Argentina. By 1845 he had secured absolute dominance over Argentina and dissolved the Mazorcas. He attempted to annex Paraguay and Uruguay, which eventually led to Rosas being ousted from power by the Argentine defeat at the Battle of Caseros.
  152. ^ Seized power from the democratically-elected president Hipólito Yrigoyen in the 1930 Argentine coup d'état, he served as the de facto President of Argentina and established a military dictatorship, marking the beginning of the Infamous Decade. He declared martial law and carried out a campaign of repression against left-wing political opponents, having several anarchist leaders executed. He oversaw elections with the Radical Civic Union banned, which transferred power to the Concordancia.
  153. ^ Seized power from the Concordancia in the 1943 Argentine coup d'état, establishing a military dictatorship with himself as President of Argentina. He secured Argentine neutrality in World War II, before resigning in 1944.
  154. ^ Succeeded Pablo Ramírez as President of Argentina, oversaw the Argentine declaration of war against the Axis Powers. He introduced Juan Perón into the government and stepped down from power after the democratic election of Perón as President.
  155. ^ Seized power from the democratically-elected president Juan Perón in a coup d'état, established a military dictatorship and served as the de facto President of Argentina, until he was himself ousted from office.
  156. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état and served as President of Argentina. He repealed the 1949 constitution and restored the 1843 constitution. In 1958, he stepped down after running new elections with Peronism banned.
  157. ^ Seized power from the democratically-elected president Arturo Umberto Illia in a coup d'état, which established a military dictatorship with himself as President of Argentina. He suspended all political parties and brought an end to university autonomy, he also established a corporatist economy with the right to strike suspended. In 1969, popular uprisings in Córdoba and Rosario weakened the position of the government, Onganía was subsequently ousted from office by the military junta.
  158. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état and established himself as President of Argentina. He presided over a protectionist economy and the re-imposition of the death penalty in Argentina. After renewed anti-government riots in Córdoba, he was himself deposed.
  159. ^ Served as the President of Argentina, from which he oversaw negotiations with the Montoneros and the execution of the Trelew massacre. He stepped down from power with the March 1973 Argentine general election, in which the ban on Peronism was lifted.
  160. ^ Seized power from Isabel Martínez de Perón in the 1976 Argentine coup d'état, establishing a military dictatorship with himself as President of Argentina. He oversaw the Dirty War, a period in which the military and the right-wing death squad known as the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance carried out a campaign of state terrorism, which saw the forced disappearance of up to 30,000 people. In 1981, he relinquished power and, after the return of democracy, he was put on trial for crimes against humanity and sentenced to life in prison.
  161. ^ Appointed by Videla as President of Argentina and served until later in the year, when he was ousted from power due to ill health.
  162. ^ Appointed by the military junta as President of Argentina. He oversaw the 1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands and was removed from office after the Argentine defeat in the Falklands War. After the return of democracy, he was imprisoned for his mishandling of the war.
  163. ^ Appointed by the military junta as President of Argentina and oversaw the transition to democracy.
  164. ^ In 1829, he was proclaimed President of Bolivia and established an authoritarian regime in the country, initiating a purge of political opponents, the strengthening of the armed forces and the introduction of a new constitution. In 1835 he invaded Peru, leading to the foundation of the Peru–Bolivian Confederation, with himself as its Supreme Protector. After the Bolivian defeat at the Battle of Yungay, he resigned as Supreme Protector and fled the country, dissolving the confederation.
  165. ^ Seized power from Andrés de Santa Cruz in a coup d'état and proclaimed himself the de facto President of Bolivia. He promulgated a new constitution, repealing the 1834 Constitution, and gave rise to a new Republic of Bolivia. Later that year he was officially confirmed as Provisional President by the Constituent Congress, then finally elected as the Constitutional President by indirect vote in 1840, serving until 1841 when he was removed in a coup d'état. In 1848 he deposed the Constitutional President Eusebio Guilarte and ruled as de facto President for a year before himself being deposed.
  166. ^ Seized power from the Constitutional President José Miguel de Velasco Franco in a coup d'état, acted as de facto 7th President of Bolivia until his appointment of Mariano Enrique Calvo as the country's first civilian president.
  167. ^ Seized power from the civilian president Mariano Enrique Calvo in a coup d'état and served as the de facto 9th President of Bolivia. In 1843, he was confirmed as the Provisional President by the National Convention, and in 1844 he was elected as the Constitutional President in the country's first general election.
  168. ^ Seized power from José Miguel de Velasco Franco in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto 11th President of Bolivia. In 1850 he was confirmed as the Constitutional President by the Constituent Congress, shortly after he adopted dictatorial powers and was himself declared Dictator of Bolivia. In 1855 he resigned from office and his successor Jorge Córdova was elected the 12th President of Bolivia.
  169. ^ Seized power from the elected president Jorge Córdova in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto 13th President of Bolivia. In 1858, he proclaimed himself "Dictator for Life" and began to rule by decree. In 1861, he was himself deposed in a military coup.
  170. ^ Seized power from José María Linares in a coup d'état, established himself provisionally as the 14th President of Bolivia. In 1862 he was formally elected as Constitutional President. After rebellions broke out throughout the country, he invoked a state of emergency and suppressed civil liberties. He oversaw the Yáñez Bloodbath, in which the military massacred dozens of opposition figures. In 1864, he was himself deposed in a coup d'état.
  171. ^ Seized power from José María de Achá in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto 15th President of Bolivia. In 1868 he was elected as the Provisional President by an indirect vote, he was subsequently declared Dictator of Bolivia and used his powers to suppress the political opposition and attack the rights of indigenous peoples. In 1871 he was himself deposed in a coup d'état.
  172. ^ Seized power from Mariano Melgarejo in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto 16th President of Bolivia. He was confirmed as Provisional President by the National Constituent Assembly and elected as the Constitutional President, an office he held until his assassination in 1872.
  173. ^ Seized power from the constitutional president Tomás Frías Ametller in a coup d'état, ending a short period of constitutional rule and establishing himself as the de facto 19th President of Bolivia. In 1877 he was confirmed as Provisional President by the National Constituent Assembly. In 1879 he was deposed by the constitutionalist Narciso Campero, and 40 years of military dictatorship were brought to an end.
  174. ^ After the Bolivian defeat in the Chaco War, he seized power from José Luis Tejada Sorzano in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto 35th President of Bolivia, though he soon resigned due to military pressure.
  175. ^ Succeeded as the de facto 36th President of Bolivia, as head of the military junta, he was subsequently elected as Constitutional President in the Bolivian National Convention of 1938. He later declared himself Dictator of Bolivia and served until his death in 1939. He was succeeded by Carlos Quintanilla, who oversaw a return to democracy.
  176. ^ Seized power from the elected constitutional president Enrique Peñaranda, establishing himself as the de facto 39th President of Bolivia, as head of the military junta. In 1944 he received command from the junta and was confirmed as constitutional president by the National Convention. After adopting repressive measures against the workers' movement, in 1946 he was executed and lynched by an anti-government mob.
  177. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état that annulled the results of the 1951 Bolivian general election and established himself as the de facto 44th President of Bolivia. In 1952, he was overthrown in the Bolivian National Revolution, which began a period of constitutional rule by the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement.
  178. ^ Overthrew the elected constitutional president Víctor Paz Estenssoro and established himself as the de facto 47th President of Bolivia. In 1966 he was formally elected as the constitutional president. In 1967, he oversaw the repression of the Ñancahuazú Guerrilla and the execution of Che Guevara. In 1969 he was killed in a helicopter crash.
  179. ^ Seized power from the constitutional president Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto 48th President of Bolivia. His rule was marked by a power struggle between various military factions, which ended with his deposition.
  180. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto 50th President of Bolivia. A part of the military's left-wing faction, he was himself soon deposed in a US-backed coup d'état and 5 years later was assassinated, as part of Operation Condor.
  181. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto 51st President of Bolivia. He banned all of the country's left-wing parties, closed the universities and harshly reppressed all political opposition. After overseeing the so-called "democratic opening", he resigned from power under military pressure. In 1997 he was elected as a constitutional president and oversaw the Cochabamba Water War, until 2002 when he died in office.
  182. ^ After the results of the 1978 Bolivian general election were annulled, he seized power in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto 52nd President of Bolivia, before being ousted from power in another coup shortly after.
  183. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto 53rd President of Bolivia. He oversaw the 1979 Bolivian general election, but after no candidate reached a majority, Wálter Guevara was appointed to serve as interim president while new elections were held.
  184. ^ Seized power from the interim president Wálter Guevara in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto 55th President of Bolivia. In the wake of a general strike by the Bolivian Workers' Center, and under pressure by the government, he resigned. Lidia Gueiler Tejada was subsequently elected by the National Congress as interim president.
  185. ^ Seized power from the interim president Lidia Gueiler Tejada in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto 57th President of Bolivia, as head of the military junta. He re-established a military dictatorship that outlawed all political parties, exiled opposition leaders, repressed trade unions and muzzled the press. He oversaw the execution and forced disappearances of over 1,000 people, including Marcelo Quiroga Santa Cruz. His involvement with drug trafficking led to his resignation in 1981, under pressure from the military and the United States.
  186. ^ In 1981 he took power as the de facto 58th President of Bolivia, as head of the military junta, ceding command in 1982.
  187. ^ Took power as the de facto 59th President of Bolivia, as head of the military junta. He oversaw the transition to democracy, as the results of the 1980 Bolivian general election were finally recognized and power transferred to the elected constitutional president Hernán Siles Zuazo, ending 18 years of military dictatorship.
  188. ^ In 1889, he deposed Dom Pedro II in a coup d'état and dissolved the Empire of Brazil, Proclaimed the Brazilian Republic, and reorganized the government around a military regime. In 1891 he was formally elected as the 1st President of Brazil and Brazil was constituted as a presidential republic. After many republics withdrew their support, due to Fonseca's economic policies during the Encilhamento, he dissolved the National Congress and declared a "state of emergency". When he attempted to dissolve the constitution, he was himself deposed in a coup d'état.
  189. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the 2nd President of Brazil. He subsequently refused to call new elections and held on to power through the rest of the presidential term. Opposition to his rule culminated in the Revolta da Armada, which he managed to suppress. He declared a state of siege, taking on emergency powers and suspending many constitutional rights. After the 1894 Brazilian general election, Peixoto stepped down, handing power to the civilian government of Prudente de Morais.
  190. ^ After his defeat in the 1930 Brazilian general election, Vargas seized power in the Brazilian Revolution of 1930, which dissolved the oligarchic First Brazilian Republic and established the Second Brazilian Republic. He subsequently governed by decree as head of the provisional government. After the Constitutionalist Revolution, a new constitution was drafted in 1934, and Vargas was formally elected as the 14th President of Brazil. He oversaw the suppression of the workers' movement in Brazil and, citing a fabricated communist coup, in 1937 he dissolved the legislature and abolished the constitution. He thus constituted the Estado Novo, a totalitarian dictatorship with himself at the center. With the end of World War II and under pressure to democratize, Vargas was removed by José Linhares in a coup d'état and the democratic Fourth Brazilian Republic was established.
  191. ^ Seized power in the 1964 Brazilian coup d'état, which replaced the democratic Fourth Republic with a military dictatorship in Brazil. He was formally elected by the National Congress as the 26th President of Brazil and vested with emergency powers. He oversaw the suppression of the political opposition, abolishing all political parties except two: the militarist National Renewal Alliance and the opposition Brazilian Democratic Movement. He served until 1967, when he was succeeded as head of the military government.
  192. ^ Succeeded as the 27th President of Brazil. After a popular protest against military rule, he enacted Institutional Act Number Five, which gave him the power to dissolve the legislature, rule by decree and suspend civil rights. In 1969 he was suspended from office, due to a terminal illeness.
  193. ^ After a brief period of rule by a military junta, he was selected as the 28th President of Brazil. He presided over a regime of state terrorism that saw the torture and forced disappearance of its opponents. He also oversaw a period of economic growth, before he retired from office in 1974.
  194. ^ In 1974 he succeeded as the 29th President of Brazil and oversaw a period of relaxation of the dictatorship. In 1978, after a wave of strikes and opposition electoral victories, he announced an end to the Institutional Act Number Five, which allowed exiled citizens to return, restored habeas corpus and political rights, and repealed the president's extraordinary powers. He subsequently stepped down in 1979.
  195. ^ Elected as the 30th President of Brazil and continued to oversee the transition to democracy. After the Diretas Já protests, Tancredo Neves was elected as the new president, but never sworn in as he died soon after. José Sarney succeeded as president and oversaw the end of the dictatorship and constitution of the democratic Sixth Republic.
  196. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état, establishing himself as President of the Provisional Junta of Chile. He wrote the country's first constitution and later established himself as the Supreme Director of Chile. He abolished slavery, rescinded the clergy's right to legal immunity, and founded the first state-sponsored school in Chile, the Instituto Nacional. He was deposed after the Chilean defeat at the Battle of Rancagua, when Spain reconquered the country.
  197. ^ After the Andean victory at the Battle of Chacabuco, he proclaimed himself the 2nd Supreme Director of Chile. In 1818, he declared independence and later lead the Chilean victory at the Battle of Maipú. In 1822, he wrote a new constitution, which centralized more power in his office, until 1823 when he was deposed in a conservative coup d'état.
  198. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état that proclaimed him the 3rd Supreme Director of Chile. He abolished slavery, opened Chilean markets and instituted the freedom of press. He subsequently oversaw the transition to democracy and stepped down with the election of Manuel Blanco Encalada as the 1st President of Chile, beginning the Reconstruction Period.
  199. ^ Seized power from the elected president Arturo Alessandri in a coup d'état, establishing himself as President of the Government Junta. He dissolved Congress and assumed dictatorial powers, which he held until he was himself ousted in the 1925 Chilean coup d'état, which established a new Government Junta to oversee the transition of power back to Alessandri.
  200. ^ Seized power from the democratically-elected president Salvador Allende in the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, establishing himself as President of the Government Junta. He established a totalitarian military dictatorship that harshly persecuted the political opposition. The regime committed a litany of human rights violations; executed thousands, tortured tens of thousands and interned up to 80,000 people. In 1974 he declared himself President of Chile by decree. In 1980, he enacted a new constitution, which granted him increased powers and an extension of his term in office. He oversaw radical economic liberalization with the removal of tariff protections, banning of trade unions and privatisation of state-owned industries. This led to an economic crisis, in which the country's GDP fell 14.3% and unemployment rose to 23.7%. Sustained armed resistance and protest movements against his rule eventually lead to his defeat in the 1988 Chilean national plebiscite, after which he subsequently stepped down from office and Chile transitioned to democracy. In 1998 he was indicted and arrested for human rights violations, he was charged but died in 2006 without having been convicted.
  201. ^ During his campaign to liberate New Granada, Bolívar was proclaimed the 1st President of Colombia. In 1826, he was formally elected for a period of four years. In 1828, he declared martial law and assumed dictatorial powers. He eventually relinquished power in 1830, and Congress elected Joaquín de Mosquera y Arboleda as his successor. Rafael Urdaneta y Faría subsequently staged a coup, hoping Bolívar would once again re-take power, but he declined and died shortly after. The presidency was left vacant until the election of Francisco de Paula Santander as the 1st President of New Granada.
  202. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état, established himself as the 7th President of New Granada and ignited a civil war in which the constitutionalists defeated him militarily. He was subsequently trialed, deposed and exiled. The presidency was left vacant until the election of Mariano Ospina Rodríguez as the 1st President of the Granadine Confederation.
  203. ^ Seized power in a coup d’état, establishing a military dictatorship with himself as the 19th President of Colombia. In 1957, he was ousted in the wake of mass protests and a Military Junta oversaw the transition to democracy, bringing about the National Front period.
  204. ^ After the Ecuadorian defeat in the Ecuadorian–Peruvian War, García Moreno formed the Provisional Government of Quito and consolidated his rule over the country in the Battle of Guayaquil. He constituted a dictatorship, with himself ruling as the 7th President of Ecuador and the Conservatives as the country's governing party. His rule ended in 1875, when he was assassinated by Faustino Rayo.
  205. ^ Overthrew the democratically-elected president Antonio Borrero in a coup d'état, establishing a military dictatorship with himself as the 11th President of Ecuador. He ruled until he was himself overthrown by the restorationist forces of José María Plácido Caamaño.
  206. ^ Seized power in the Liberal Revolution of 1895, establishing a dictatorship with himself as the 15th President of Ecuador and the Liberals as the country's governing party. After briefly stepping down, he again seized power from the elected president Lizardo García and again was proclaimed dictator. He was removed from power in 1911, and after a number of failed coup attempts, was assassinated in 1912.
  207. ^ After the resignation of acting president Antonio Pons, Páez was appointed Jefe Supremo by the military and ruled as de facto leader of Ecuador. He oversaw the censorship of opposition press and the repression of political opposition, namely the Velasquistas and Communists. After re-opening diplomatic relations with the Holy See, he reconvoked the National Congress and was granted dictatorial powers, but was subsequently overthrown in a coup d'état.
  208. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état, establishing himself as Jefe Supremo of Ecuador. He passed a number of social reforms, before resigning power to the National Congress, which oversaw the transition to democracy.
  209. ^ Seized power from the constitutional president Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto leader of Ecuador, as chairman of the military dictatorship. He oversaw social reforms as well as the political repression of the Communist Party of Ecuador. The military junta finally resigned power in 1966 and Otto Arosemena was elected the 32nd President of Ecuador.
  210. ^ Having served as the 24th President of Ecuador on four separate occasions, in 1968 Velasco was again elected as president. By request of the Armed Forces, he seized dictatorial powers in 1970 as Jefe Supremo. He subsequently oversaw the repression of political opposition, the media and universities, including the torture of some opposition activists. After re-opening diplomatic relations with Cuba, he was removed from power in a coup d'état.
  211. ^ Seized power from José María Velasco Ibarra in a coup d'état, serving as the de facto President of Ecuador at the head of a military dictatorship, until he was himself from power by the military.
  212. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto leader of Ecuador, as the President of the Supreme Council of Government. He oversaw the transition to democracy and the end of Ecuador's last military dictatorship, with the democratic election of Jaime Roldós Aguilera as 33rd President of Ecuador.
  213. ^ First took power in 1811 as part of a ruling triumvirate, during the May Revolution. In 1814 he was appointed as the country's sole consul, granting him absolute power as Supreme Dictator of Paraguay. His power was consolidated in 1816, when he was appointed the Perpetual Dictator of Paraguay. At first he undertook widespread social reformms, but after the repression of an uprising in 1820, he oversaw the establishment of a police state, outlawing all opposition. He ruled Paraguay until his death in 1840.
  214. ^ Took power with the death of the dictator José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, being elected as First Consul of Paraguay. In 1844, he exiled his co-consul Mariano Roque Alonso and seized dictatorial powers as the 1st President of Paraguay, serving until his death in 1862.
  215. ^ Succeeded his father as the 2nd President of Paraguay, serving until 1870, when he died in the Battle of Cerro Corá.
  216. ^ Seized power from the elected president Eusebio Ayala during the February Revolution, establishing himself as the de facto 33rd President of Paraguay. After implementing some widespread social reforms, he was met with popular opposition following the passage of a decree which would transform Paraguay into a totalitarian state. In 1937, he was himself ousted in a right-wing coup d'état, which returned Félix Paiva to power.
  217. ^ In 1939, he was elected as the 34th President of Paraguay. In 1940, he consolidated power with the dissolution of Congress and suspended the constitution, assuming dictatorial powers in a self-coup. He oversaw the establishment of a corporatist regime in the country, until his death in 1940.
  218. ^ Succeeded José Félix Estigarribia as the 35th President of Paraguay. In a self-coup, he assumed dictatorial powers, banned all political parties and suppressed the press. He established the Guion Rojo as a paramilitary police force with which to repress opposition. After the government victory in the civil war, he was succeeded by Juan Natalicio González as the 37th President of Paraguay, beginning the era of Colorado Party dominance over Paraguayan politics.
  219. ^ Seized power from the elected president Federico Chávez in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the 42nd President of Paraguay. He declared a state of siege, assumed dictatorial powers and suspended civil liberties. A staunch anti-communist, he brought Paraguay into the World Anti-Communist League, participated in Operation Condor and undertook a violent campaign of repression against the political opposition, establishing the Colorado Party as the country's sole legal party. He oversaw the murder of thousands of dissidents and the forced disappearance of hundreds more. After he finally lifted the state of siege, Stroessner was ousted in a coup d'état by Andrés Rodríguez, who was democratically elected as the 43rd President of Paraguay.
  220. ^ Proclaimed Dictator of Peru by Congress, granting him supreme political and military authority over Peru, during the Peruvian War of Independence. After independence was achieved, a revolt ended Bolivar's rule over Peru and Andrés de Santa Cruz was elected President by Congress.
  221. ^ Seized power from Juan Francisco de Vidal in a coup d'état, proclaiming himself the Supreme Director of the Republic. He consolidated dictatorial powers before being ousted in a constitutionalist revolt, led by Domingo Nieto and Ramón Castilla.
  222. ^ Seized power from the constitutional president Juan Antonio Pezet in a coup d'état, proclaiming himself Commander-in-chief of the Republic. He was himself deposed by Pedro Diez Canseco who oversaw the return to constitutionalism, with the election of José Balta as the 30th President of Peru.
  223. ^ Seized power from the constitutional president José Balta in a coup d'état, proclaiming himself Supreme Leader of the Republic. After he ordered the execution of Balta, Gutiérrez was captured and lynched by a mob in Lima. He was replaced by Mariano Herencia Zevallos, who oversaw the election of Manuel Pardo as the 31st President of Peru.
  224. ^ Seized power from the constitutional president Mariano Ignacio Prado in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the Supreme Chief of the Republic. In 1881, he resigned the presidency and Lizardo Montero Flores became Provisional President of Peru, leading to a period of civil conflict.
  225. ^ In the wake of the 1919 Peruvian presidential election, he seized power in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto President of Peru. He suppressed all political opposition and held elections where he ran unopposed. After the Great Depression hit Peru, he was himself deposed in a coup d'état by Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro.
  226. ^ Seized power from Augusto B. Leguía in a coup d'état, establishing himself as President of Peru. He was formally elected as the 45th President of Peru, at the head of the Revolutionary Union. In 1933, he was assassinated by a member of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance and succeeded as president by Óscar R. Benavides.
  227. ^ Succeeded as President of Peru, continuing the work of the Cerro regime. He suppressed the political opposition, outlawing the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance and the Peruvian Communist Party. After the democratic election of Luis A. Eguiguren as president, Benavides annulled the result. He stepped down following the later election of Manuel Prado Ugarteche as president.
  228. ^ Seized power from the elected president José Luis Bustamante y Rivero in a coup d'état, establishing himself as the de facto President of Peru. In 1950, he was elected unopposed on a right-wing populist platform. He restricted civil liberties and repressed the political opposition, but in 1956, he handed power to the democratically elected president Manuel Prado Ugarteche.
  229. ^ Seized power in a coup d'état and annulled the election of Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre. Godoy established a military dictatorship, with himself as the President of Peru. He was himself deposed in a coup d'état by Nicolás Lindley López, who oversaw the election of Fernando Belaúnde Terry as president.
  230. ^ Seized power from the elected president Fernando Belaúnde Terry in a coup d'état, establishing a left-wing military dictatorship with himself as President of Peru. He implemented widespread education and agrarian reforms, but was himself deposed in a coup d'état by Fernando Belaúnde Terry.
  231. ^ Seized power from Juan Velasco Alvarado in a coup d'état, establishing himself as President of Peru. He diverged from the social programs of the previous government and oversaw the re-election of Fernando Belaúnde Terry as President of Peru.
  232. ^ Seized power during the Brazilian invasion of Uruguay, establishing himself as the de facto President of Uruguay. He ruled by decree and brought Uruguay into the Brazilian side of the Paraguayan War. He resigned from power in 1868 and was assassinated shortly after.
  233. ^ Seized power from the elected president José Eugenio Ellauri in a coup d'état, later also deposing his successor Pedro Varela in another coup d'état, establishing a military dictatorship with himself as the de facto President of Uruguay. He oversaw widespread social reforms and was formally elected president in 1879. He resigned in 1880, after losing both political and military support, although military rule remained in place until 1890 under Máximo Santos and Máximo Tajes.
  234. ^ Took power after the assassination of Juan Idiarte Borda, serving as the de facto President of Uruguay. In 1898, he dissolved the General Assembly and seized dictatorial power in a self-coup. He oversaw the repression of two mutinies against his rule and was formally elected president in 1899. He was forced to step down in 1903 and fled to Paris, where he died soon after.
  235. ^ Having been elected as the President of Uruguay, in 1933 he launched a self-coup, dissolving parliament and constituting a dictatorship with himself as the de facto President of Uruguay. He subsequently ruled by diktat and harshly suppressed the left-wing political opposition, including an attempted rebellion against his rule in 1935. He broke off relations with the USSR and Spanish Republic, moving Uruguay into alignment with the Axis Powers. In 1938, he oversaw the election of his successor Alfredo Baldomir.
  236. ^ Having been elected as the President of Uruguay, after the outbreak of World War II he launched a self-coup, dissolving parliament and declaring a state of emergency. He subsequently wrote a new constitution and oversaw the election of his successor Juan José de Amézaga as the constitutional president.
  237. ^ Having been elected as the President of Uruguay, in 1973 he seized dictatorial powers in a coup d'état, dissolving parliament and establishing a civic-military dictatorship. He oversaw the violent suppression of the trade union movement and the left-wing political opposition, including a ban on all trade unions and political parties, and effectively repealed the constitution. After he proposed a new corporatist constitution, with a permanent ban on political parties and the centralization of power in the military, he was himself removed from office by the military in 1976.
  238. ^ Appointed by the military as the de facto President of Uruguay. He outlawed 15,000 people from political participation and held a constitutional referendum to legitimize the dictatorship, which the public largely rejected. He subsequently stepped down from power in 1981.
  239. ^ Appointed by the military as the de facto President of Uruguay. He oversaw the transition to democracy and stepped down from power in 1985, bringing the dictatorship to an end. In 2007, he was indicted for human rights abuses during the dictatorship, he was subsequently convicted and lived the rest of his life in prison, where he died in 2016.
  240. ^ Seized power from the elected president Ignacio Andrade in a coup d'état, establishing a military dictatorship with himself as the President of Venezuela. In 1901 he dissolved the governing council and eliminated universal suffrage and direct elections. After overseeing the Venezuelan crisis of 1902–1903, he consolidated power and again modified the constitution, before he was finally overthrown during the Dutch–Venezuelan crisis of 1908.
  241. ^ Seized power during the Dutch–Venezuelan crisis of 1908, establishing himself as the President of Venezuela. In 1913, he transferred the presidential office to Victorino Márquez Bustillos, though Gómez remained the de facto leader of Venezuela. He formally returned to power in 1922, serving again as President until 1929. He briefly appointed Juan Bautista Pérez as his successor, but returned to the presidency in 1931 and ruled the country until his death in 1935, when he was succeeded by Eleazar López Contreras.
  242. ^ Seized power from the democratically elected president Rómulo Gallegos in a coup d'état, establishing himself as President of Venezuela, at the head of a military junta. He ruled until 1950, when he was assassinated by Rafael Simón Urbina, and succeeded by Germán Suárez Flamerich.
  243. ^ Seized power following the suppression of the opposition victory in the 1952 Venezuelan Constituent Assembly election, establishing a military dictatorship with himself as the President of Venezuela. He established the Republic of Venezuela and oversaw the repression of the political opposition, including the Democratic Action party. In 1958, he was himself overthronw in a coup d'état, which re-established democracatic rule in Venezuela.
  244. ^ 2009 Venezuelan constitutional referendum abolished term limits in 2009.
  245. ^ Disputed with Juan Guaidó since 2019

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