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Handbook to Christian 



•Y '•.!.•■> 



Ecclesiastical Rome 



MonasticisminRome 
Ecclesiastical Rom 



HANDBOOK TO CHRISTIAN 

AND 

ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



PART I. 
THE CHRISTIAN MONUMENTS OF ROME 



PART II. 
THE LITURGY IN ROME 



HANDBOOK TO CHRISTIAN 

AND 

ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



BY 

M. A. R. TUKER 

AND 

HOPE MALLESON 



MONASTICISM IN ROME 

Part IF. 
ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

ILLUSTRATED 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

LONDON: ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK 
19OO 

All rights reserved 




Copyright, 1899, 
By THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 



Xorfaooti $«83 

J. S. CuahinK & Co. - Berwick 4 Smith 
Norwood Mass. U.S.A. 



ERRATA 

Page 33, last line, for pp. 92, 175, read pp. 92, 176 ; 
for pp. 175, 197, read pp. 176, 196. 

Page 60, first line of note, read Pt. IV., p. 482 ; last 
line of note, for p. 482, read p. 217. 

Page 212, third line of notes, for pp. 86-7, read p. 86. 

Page 215, line 11, insert ancient before Holy; line 12, 
for possessed, read held. 

Page 221, line 4, for p. 246, read p. 289; line 10, 
for 3, read 2. 

Page 253, line 21, for College, read College. 

Page 356, line 12, for officers, read Serjeants. 

Page 499, line 27, for Sagristia, read Sagrestia; second 
line from bottom, for Piazzo, read Piazza. 

Page 501, line 21, for adopt, read adapt. 

Page 508, line 3 of note, for dispositonis, read dis- 
positionis. 

Page 521, second line of note, for De Velandis Vir- 
ginian, read De Virginibus velandis. 

Page 547, first line of third note, for Papa;, read Papa. 

Page 555, line 20, date 329-389, before Gregory. 

Page 556, line 13, for is read its. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART III. 
CHAPTER I. 

ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM. 

TAGE 

Asceticism — causes within the Church — causes without — 
Therapeutoe — the solitaries and anchorites — life in the 
desert — the penitents — the Stylitai — cenobitism — 
spread of monasticism — monks as a lay body — Virginity 

— the Roman matron — Athanasius — Reception of mo- 
nasticism in Rome — Marcella — Jerome — Early monas- 
ticism in the West — S. Martin of Tours — Early Rules 

— First houses in Rome — double monasteries — dress 
of monks — names for monks — vows — enclosure — 
property and dowry — government of Orders — number 
of Religious houses in Rome — style and titles of monks 

— number of monastic Rules . . , . . . 1-5 1 

CHAPTER II. 



Benedict and the Benedictines: — The monastery, 
how built and governed — Rule of S. Basil — Basilians 
and Antonians — the Rule of S. Benedict — the noviciate 
— lay brethren — oblates — Greatness of the Benedic- 
tines — Benedictine nuns — Benedictine canonesses — 
the la us per amis — The Black Benedictines — Branches 



vi TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGK 

of the Benedictines: Cluny, Cistercians, Camaldolese, 
Vallombrosans, Carthusians, Sylvestrians, Olivetans, Ob- 
lates of S. Francesca Romana, Trappists, Bridgettines — 
Extinct Benedictine Congregations — Saints of the Order 
and their Emblems. Consecration of an abbat and ab- 
bess — profession of nun and monk . . . 52-139 

CHAPTER III. 

FRIAKS. 

The Mendicant Orders: — S. Francis and the Franciscans 
— S. Dominic and the Dominicans — S. Theresa and the 
Carmelites — The Servites — The Minimites — Fratelli 
della Penitenza — Hospitallers of S. John of God . 140-202 

CHAPTER IV. 



Augustinian Canons and Augustinian Friars : — Ma- 
tricularii — the clergy in the bishop's house — Augustine 
and Eusebius of Vercelli — Chrodegang — Chapter of 
Aix-la-Chapelle — Yvo of Chartres — canonesses — Con- 
gregations of Regular Canons — Habit of canons — Au- 
gustinian Hermits — Augustinian Nuns — Rule of S. 
Augustine — S. Jean de Matha and the Trinitarians — S. 
Peter Nolasco and the Order of Ransom — Order o 
S. John of Jerusalem, or of Malta — Hermits of S. Jerome 
— of S. Paul the First Hermit — Romites of S. John 
Baptist — Oblates 203-248 

CHAPTER V. 

Section I 

THE SISTERS OF CHARITY. 

The Coming of the Sisters of Charity : — Sisters of 
Charity of S. Vincent de Paul — Mary Ward and the In- 
stitute of Mary — Filles de la Sagesse — the Petites 



TABLE OF CONTENTS vii 

PAGE 

Sceurs des Pauvres — Bon Secours de Troyes — Sisters 
of Charity in Rome — Nursing Sisterhoods — Teaching 
Sisterhoods — Missionary Sisterhoods — Congregations 
following the Jesuit Rule — semi-enclosed Congregations 

— dress of the active charitable Congregations . 249-294 

Sectton II. 
CLERKS REGULAR. 

Theatines — Somaschi — Barnabites — Jesuits — Clerks Minor 

— Ministers of the Infirm — Clerks of the Mother of God 
and of Pious Schools — Ecclesiastical Congregations — 
Religious Institutes. Missionary work. Confraterni- 
ties 294-329 



PART IV. 
CHAPTER I. 



The titles, dress, and insignia of the pope — sedia gestatoria 
— state carriages — cavalcata — papal orders and titles 
of the Holy Roman Empire — Peter's pence — Law of 
Guarantees — Pope's Court and Household — papal 
troops — diplomatic corps — Nuncio — Legate — papal 
offices of State — Bull — brief — encyclical — vicariate of 
Rome — palatine offices 333-363 

CHAPTER II. 

PAPAL CEREMONIES. 

Election of the popes — Conclave, history and rules of — 
funeral of the pope — ordination of the pope — Consis- 
tory — cappella papale — beatification and canonisation, 
process and ceremony — the Roman Carnival . 364-389 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER III. 



PAPAL PALACES. 



Vatican palace — Sistina — Paolina — Chapel of S. Lorenzo 
— Borgia apartment — Stanze of Raphael — Museums — 
Vatican library — Archives — Mint — Pope's gardens — 
Roman libraries, Collegio Romano, Alessandrina, Casa- 
tenense, Angelica, Vallicelliana — Papal palaces and 
villas — Dataria — Cancelleria — Castel Gandolfo . 390-444 



CHAPTER IV. 

CARDINALS. 

Cardinals, their origin, their titular churches, dress, ceremo- 
nial regarding, the three grades of cardinals, list of car- 
dinals — Sacred congregations, Inquisition, Index, etc. — 
Patriarchates — Bishops — titular Bishops — episcopal 
insignia and dress — visit ad limina — Prelates and 
Monsignori — Canons — Priests — origin of ecclesiastical 
dress — style and titles of ecclesiastics — Seminaries and 
seminarists 445-499 



CHAPTER V. 

ECCLESIASTICAL ORDERS. 

Seven orders of the Hierarchy — origin of titles episcopus, 
presbyter, etc. — Office of the bishop — of the presbyter 
— of the deacon — of the widow and deaconess — of the 
sub-deacon — of the acolyte — of the lector — of the exor 
cist — of the ostiarius — chorepiscopi — celibacy — eccle- 
siastical endowments and immunities . . . 5°°-535 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



APPENDIX. 

PAGE 

List of the Popes and anti-popes — Arms of the Popes — 
List of the Fathers and Doctors of the Church — Coun- 
cils — Pontifical Academies — Roman books : — Liber 
Pontificalis, Sacramentaries, Ordo Romanus, Pontificale . 

536-5 62 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



COLOURED ILLUSTRATIONS. 
PRINTED separately from the Text. 

PLATE FACING TAGE 

I. Benedictine in the Cuculla, Benedictine, Cistercian . . 92 
II. Camaldolese, Carthusian 108 

III. Poor Clare, Franciscan Minor, Franciscan Conventual, 

Capuchin 158 

IV. Dominican, Carmelite . . . . . . .176 

V. Franciscan Tertiary, Servite 196 

VI. Canoness of the Lateran . . . . . . .212 

VII. Augustinian Romite, Trinitarian ..... 225 

VIII. Sister of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul . . . . 25 1 

IX. Petite Sceur des Pauvres, Passionist, Pere Blanc, Con- 

cettino 261 

Ground Plan of the Vatican Palace ...... 442 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 
Printed in the Text. 

FACE 

Diagram of the Abbey of St. Gall 55 

Carthusian Cell 1 1 1 

Badges of the Religious Orders I 37 _I 39 

Seal of the Sede Vacante 372 

Cardinal's Hat and Shield 449 

Badge of a Chapter of Canons 484 

Arms of the Popes 549 _ 554 



PART III. 

MONASTICISM IN ROME. 



PART III. 

MONASTICISM IN ROME. 



CHAPTER I. 

ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM. 

Asceticism — causes within the Church — causes without — Thera~ 
peutce — the solitaries and anchorites — Life in the desert — the 
penitents — the Stylitai — cenobitism — spread of Monasticism — 
monks as a lay body — Virginity — the Roman Matron — Athana- 
sius — reception of Monasticism in Home — Marcella — Jerome 
— early monasticism in the West — S. Martin of Tours — early 
Rules — first houses in Rome — Double monasteries — Dress of 
monks — names for monks — vows — enclosure — property and 
dowry — government of Orders — number of Religious houses in 
Rome — style and titles of monks — number of monastic Rules. 

Though monasticism proper does not make its appear- 
ance till the rv. century of our era, it was the outcome of 
a still earlier form of Christian dedication, anchoritism ; 
which again had its prototype in the asceticism common 
to all religious philosophies. 

Asceticism, ao-KT/cn.?, [exercise, the exercising oneself in Asceticism, 
any kind of discipline] a word by the m. century denot- 
ing moral discipline only, existed from the first among 
Christians : the Christians as regarded the world around 
them were ascetics, men who followed the rule expressed 
so well by S. Bernard noo years later in the words sus- 
tine, abstine, who for the sake of a greater good and 
because of a clearer light both bore and abstained from 



CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Employ- 
ment of 
the term 
" ascetic. 1 



Causes 
within the 
Church. 



many things. Clement of Alexandria, while representing 
Christianity itself as an asceticism, mentions the ' ascet- 
ics ' as those "more elect than the elect." He terms the 
Patriarch Jacob an ascetic. Cyril of Jerusalem applies 
the term to the prophetess Anna and those like her; 
Kpiphanius to Marcion who abstained from marriage, 
Jerome to one who chose voluntary poverty. In the m. 
century it is applied to a confessor of the Faith suffering 
imprisonment ; while Eusebius says ascetics are devout 
persons who ministered to the poor, and with Basil, and 
in the ' Life of Antony ' attributed to Athanasius, it 
designates the monks.* 

"Si la vie monastique n'apparait que vers la fin du 
iii'T* siecle," writes Renan, " c'est que, jusque la Peglise 
est un vrai monastere, une cite ideale, ou se pratique 
la vie parfaite." The Christian was "par essence, un 
etre a part, voue a une profession meme exterieure de 
vertu, un ascete enfin." But the profession of asceticism 
in addition to the Christian profession was brought about 
by well-defined causes both within the Church itself, and 
exterior to it. The primitive Church did not recognise 
the possibility of a Christian falling into grave sin, and 
the earliest factor in asceticism, acting within Christianity 
itself, was the gradual weakening of this presumption. In 
220 Callistus had affirmed the principle that even men 
stained with the deadly sins might be restored to the 
Christian communion. In 252 Novatian had rejected 
the election of Cornelius because the latter accepted the 
principle that the Church was a mingling of the good and 
the bad, and, taking his stand on the contrary principle, 
had become the first anti-pope. Peter once doubted 
whether Christ had called any but Israel (Acts x.) ; No- 



* The earliest reference to what later Christians meant by an 
ascetic life — as when the laity of Alexandria declared Athanasius 
to be ' a pious ascetic Christian ' — is to be found, perhaps, in Poly- 
crates' allusion to the Apostle Philip's daughter who " lived accord- 
ing to the Holy Spirit." With much probability this signified the 
combination of asceticism and virginity based on Matt. xix. II, 12, 
20,21. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 3 

vatian now objected to Peter's successor that the sheep 
and the goats were never intended to feed side by side in 
communion with the Church. A little later, in 340, the 
Council of Gangres declared that the maxims of the Gos- 
pel, concerning poverty and the like, were not meant for 
the simple Christian : and it is then, though not till then, 
that in Renan's words " les parfaits se creeront des lieux 
a part, oil la vie £vangelique trop haute pour le commun 
des hommes, puisse etre pratiquee sans attenuation . . . 
pour que les conseils de Jesus soient pratiques quelque 
part" And the monastery was nothing else but the life 
of the counsels. It is when the Church ceased to be 
"un vrai monastere," that the sentiment thrust itself 
upon the Christian conscience and imagination with im- 
mense force, that to be " kept from the evil " the Chris- 
tian should be " taken out of the world." In the iv. 
century this seemed still more clear — for the Christian 
was no longer an elect and proved man, all men by right 
belonged to the great Ecclesia fratrum ; the world was 
baptised. 

To these internal causes were added others drawn Causes 
from the state of society at the time. The apathy and with °ut. 
indifference of the Christian population towards the State 
had become complete ; the imperial system afforded no 
role for the individual citizen, who suffered perforce the 
curse of idleness, and saw round him a world steeped in 
the corruption and servility of the later Empire, the vic- 
tim of those great and tragic misfortunes which then 
befell men. Men's faculties could not be employed, could 
not develop, happily or harmoniously, human nature was 
thwarted and hence warped. Desolation of spirit, disgust 
at an enervating inactivity, thrust Christians into the path 
of asceticism — at once something strenuous and some- 
thing individual — and emphasised in the imagination 
those special characteristics of the Gospel which lent so 
sacred a sanction to the conception of life as a renuncia- 
tion, as figured in the death of the Cross. 

The contrast of the claim made by Christianity with the 
condition of the world around, brought about a religious 



4 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

exaltation, and decided for thousands of Christians a 
vocation, the call to the desert. The ideal of life became 
mystic contemplation, " Repelled by a world grown inef- 
fably corrupt, the Christian . . . descended into the 
depths of his own personality, and cultivated the inner 
world of moral freedom " neglected by Roman paganism.* 

But there was a philosophic influence at work, cooper- 
ating with the internal and external causes which deter- 
mined the rise of monachism — the traditions of the East 
and the teaching of the Schools of Alexandria. The 
eternal war of mind and matter, flesh and spirit, belonged 
above all to the East; the Neo-Platonic schools sanc- 
tioned and organised the aspiration after a life abstracted 
from the external and material. It is when Christianity 
comes into contact with this school of thought, that 
its inherent asceticism develops. The asceticism to be 
found among the later Jews especially, forms a further 
factor in the result — an asceticism of which they pos- 
sessed the type in Elijah, which was imitated by John 
the Baptist, and systematised in the sect of the Essenes 
that so profoundly affected nascent Christianity, and in- 
spired the apocryphal Gospel of the Egyptians. 

For Egypt is the classic land of monachism, Egypt the 
country subject to the dual influence of Judaic and Pla- 
tonic thought. It is Egyptian Judaism which presents 
us with those precursors of Christian monachism, the 
TheThera- Therapeutse, whose mode of life so strikingly resembled 
peutse. w ^ at christian monachism later became, that it has been 
commonly believed that these people were indeed not 
Jews but primitive Christians. 

The Therapeutae are described by Philo in the VI'! 1 
book of the Treatise concerning Virtues. They are, in 
contradistinction to the Essenes, ascetics who cultivated 
the contemplative life. The word therapeutse, Oepa- 
7r£vrat, means either 'healers,' or 'worshippers.' "They 
are most fitly called healers, male and female," writes 
Philo, "... by reason of their professing an art of heal- 

* Gregorovius. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 5 

ing more excellent than that which is found in cities ; " 
for their art heals the soul. Perhaps, however, their 
name signifies ' worshippers,' " because they have been 
educated by nature and the holy laws to worship the 
true Being." They dwell in solitary cots, outside the 
towns, having left all, country and kindred, and are to 
be found throughout Egypt, but more especially in Alex- 
andria. They pray twice every day, about dawn and 
about eventide, at sunrise praying " for that day which 
is really fair, that is, that their minds may be filled with 
celestial light ; " but at sunset " that the soul may be 
wholly relieved of the disorderly throng" of sensible 
things. They do not eat or drink till sunset. On the 
7th day they come together, in solemn assembly, re- 
maining in complete isolation for the rest of the week. 
Though the ascetic life was alien to Judaism as a system, 
especially in its earlier stages, the Jews became influ- 
enced by their environment when they settled in Egypt. 
Behind this Egyptian Judaism, therefore, there lies the 
Egyptian mythology : celibate communities were attached 
to the Egyptian temples, dedicated to philosophy and 
the cultivation of divine knowledge, observing a strict 
rule of abstinence, eating no flesh, drinking barely any 
wine. These religio-philosophic societies, which under 
the names of Oriental Fakir, Buddhist Bhikshu, the 
Egyptian celibate, were comparatively feeble institutions, 
sprung up, at the touch and shock of the great vital 
force of Christian spirituality, into a world wide power. 

Thus asceticism became the " adopted child " of the 
Christian Church. 

The solitary life, the combination of asceticism with The Soli- 
isolation, was the earliest definite form of this ascetic tanes - 
life among Christians. " La solitudine fu sempre un' de' 
bisogni del Cristianesimo," writes Dandolo. That self- 
dependence and sense of personal responsibility, for 
which there was no place in the old Roman system, had 
become paramount facts for the Christian : with him a 
new art had been born into the world, " the art of self- 
direction," and inevitably he ^vas led to another new 



CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Paul the 
first hermit, 
228-341. 



Antony, 
251-356. 



thing, the experience of himself as an individual ; and it 
is in this aspect that the monastic life first presents itself 
to us : a wonderful, an overwhelming, an extravagant 
experience. 

The solitary was called anchorite. Until the middle 
of the m. century the ascetics did not separate them- 
selves from civil life ; Tertullian emphatically declares 
that Christians are not men living in woods, or exiles 
from life — silvicolce, and exules vita. It is when they 
fled to the deserts and forest fastnesses that they became 
hermits, anchorites (^p^/xos, a solitary, a desert ; avaxw- 
piu>, to retreat or withdraw from the world). 

Paul the First Hermit is the patriarch of Anchorites. 
His country was upper Egypt, near Thebes. He fled 
to the desert at 23 years old, having been warned by 
his sister during the persecutions of Valerian that her 
pagan husband meant to denounce him as a Christian. 
When the Emperor was taken prisoner by the Persians, 
the fugitives to the desert returned, but Paul remained. 
For 90 years he abode without seeing a human face 
or hearing a human voice. Then, the story tells us, 
Antony, " the Great Monk," at 90 years old went forth 
to see an anchorite more perfect than himself. Paul 
hearing the footsteps bars his door, and Antony from 
daybreak to midday begs for admittance. Paul, who 
had been fed for 60 years by a raven who brought him 
half a loaf each day, had received a whole loaf on the 
day of Antony's visit, and as neither would accept the 
honour of breaking the bread, each held his piece of 
the unbroken loaf till evening, so engaged in holy con- 
verse that they forgot to eat, and spent the entire night in 
prayer.* Paul then dying at 113 years old, is buried by 
Antony, who returned to tell the story of his life. 

Antony had himself been born of Christian parents 
in upper Egypt in 251, the same year that Paul fled to 

* Paul was in fact, it is said, provided with food and raiment 
from a palm tree near his cave. The raven is a hermit's emblem, 
and according to saint-lore would be made the subject of a legend 
later. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 7 

the desert, and while Laurence lived in Rome, and 
Cyprian at Carthage. His parents dying when he was 
18, leaving him with a little sister and some land, he sold 
all his property, provided for his sister, and fled to the 
desert. Here he sought the advice of other solitaries, 
and attained to a great penance. He was the model 
solitary, and the Father of monachism, teaching the 
ascetic life to others, when he believed that he ought no 
longer to refuse " this spiritual alms." He died in 356.* 
It is at this time that communities of anchorites arose, 
grouped together in what were known as Lauras, a word of Lauras, 
uncertain origin. The Laura was a collection of huts, and 
is thus a link between the desert and the monastery. The 
causes of this rapprochement of the solitaries is untraced.f 
The huts were very poor, but afforded shelter, and were 
not placed near each other "as in cities," but dotted 
about at a distance, the very description which Philo 
gives of the dwellings of the Therapeutse : it is moreover 
in the Egyptian Thebaid that lauras were principally 
found, and they continued longer in the East than in the 
West. 

It is difficult to realise the vast change which ancho- Life in the 
ritism produced. The motives and causes which we have Desert - 
described led to an incredible ' flight for the desert ' ; 
it became, one may say, the fashion to spend some years 
in the desert, as it was later the fashion for young men to 
go to the Universities. The far larger number of hermits 
lived their whole lives away from the public worship of 
the Church, and many received the Eucharist only when 
they came to die, and then often, as the legends relate, 
by miraculous means. Solitaries who lived near towns 
used to enter the town on Sunday to assist at the Liturgy, 
reserving the Eucharist, with which they were accustomed 
to communicate themselves in the desert. Basil tells us 
that this was the universal custom throughout Egypt in 

* " The Egyptian peasant respectfully declined a respectful in- 
vitation from the Emperor Constantine," writes Gibbon, 
t But cf. Therapeutse. 



8 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

his time ; nor did it cease among the solitaries till the 
xii. century.* 

Naturally the untutored imaginations of the solitaries 
led them into all sorts of excesses, and nowhere was 
materialism more rife. Serapion, an Egyptian monk of the 
iv. century, on hearing that " God is a Spirit " cried out : 
" They have taken away my God ! Who is there now to 
worship? "f This tendency of the monks to anthropo- 
morphism is alluded to both by Rufinus and Cassian. It 
is easy to understand, from this, the fact that the monks 
were always on the side of superstition. From the time 
of Antony till Benedict rescued monachism everything 
was exaggerated ; a literal interpretation of precepts was 
insisted on, undisciplined impulse governed. It was an 
orgy of anthropocentric theology, of a blind besotted mis- 
taking of means for the end, of that literal interpretation 
which kills. 
The Peni- We gain another picture of the desert from the stories 
tents. f the penitents. For it was not only the young flying 

" with their youth in their hands " to the safe refuge of 
the desert which created the ascetic life, it was also the 
passion of repentance. 
Thais. One of these wonderful examples of sorrow was Thai's, 

a woman of sinful life but of rich endowments who lived in 
Alexandria. The story runs that when Paphnutius heard 
of her he longed to help her, and putting on worldly 
dress he went to the city to try to win her soul. In that 
age, and in those surroundings, no one sorrowed, no one 
enjoyed, by halves : Thai's spent 3 years in solitary 
penance ; at the end of which time Paphnutius takes the 
advice of Antony, desiring that Thai's should live in this 
austerity no longer. Antony and all his disciples prayed 
for light, and Paul the Simple sees a magnificent couch 
in paradise and exclaims "This must be for my father 
Antony ! " " By no means," he hears a voice answer 
him, " it is for Thai's the penitent." Paphnutius then 

* Martene, De Antiquis ecclesiae Ritibus. 
f Cassian, Collationes. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 9 

went to her, and she most unwillingly left her retreat, 
dying two weeks afterwards. 

In the middle of the v. century an anchorite on Mount Peiagia. 
Olivet excelled all others by his great austerity and holi- 
ness. He occupied himself in prayer, in reciting the 
ecclesiastical office, in the singing of psalms. Brother 
Pelagius sung these sweet hymns also in the night, and 
it appeared to those who heard him as a choir of angels. 
One day they burst open the cell of the holy anchorite, 
to find her dead ; for she was really a woman, and this 
is the wonderful story that the desert then heard about 
her : — Peiagia had been the chief singer at the theatre 
of Antioch. Nonnus the bishop who was preaching as 
she passed the church one day, ceased his discourse and 
gazed on her with the rest as she passed. Then he fin- 
ished his preaching, and asked the other fathers if they 
had not observed her extraordinary beauty : " I looked 
upon her wondrous beauty with the greatest attention, 
for God will set it before our eyes when He calls us and 
our flocks to account on the great day of judgment." 
When he returned home the good bishop threw himself 
on the ground, and wept that he should take less pains 
for his soul than Peiagia for her body : " I am naked 
poor and hateful before Thee and men ; " and so he 
wept all that day and night with his deacon. 

On the next Sunday Peiagia is present at the mass of 
the catechumens, and Nonnus preached. She writes to 
him wishing to become a Christian, and when Nonnus, 
surrounded by the other fathers, speaks with her, she 
asks for baptism. The archdeaconess Romana is then 
sent for, who instructs her and assists at her baptism. 
After staying with Romana for some time, she is supplied 
by Nonnus with a man's dress, and she departs to the 
desert. When she dies, the solitaries praise God, and 
the holy women crowd to see their sister " in whom God 
had concealed such vast treasures of grace." On Mount 
Olivet there existed a church dedicated to her. 

But the great forces which had formed the original 
impulse of anchoritism, were unable to direct the result- 



io CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL HOME 



The Styli- 
tai, 388- 



Cenobi- 
tism. 



Pachomius 
and a rule. 



Pachomius 
and Syn- 
cletica. 



ing avalanche ; u sweetness and light " were soon de- 
stroyed, asceticism developed on its materialistic side 
not its contemplative, the desert ended in being a pro- 
test against the humanities rather than a vindication of 
the spiritual nature, the spiritualities. 

This spirit culminated in Simeon Stylites, of Antioch, 
so called from his self chosen torment which was to live 
for 37 years on a pillar {stylos) some 3 feet across, and 
raised by him in 430 to a height of 40 cubits (60 feet). 
A group of ascetics, known as stylitai, followed this ex- 
ample. Even in the West and as late as the vi. century, 
Gregory of Tours has left an account of a visit he paid 
to a monk who having ousted a huge statue of Diana 
from its column, lived for some time in its place. The 
bishops had descended on him, and pointed out that 
he was an audacious fellow to think he could imitate 
the holy Simeon of the Pillar ! And in this able fashion 
the scandalous piety was banished from the West, and 
from an age which had outgrown it. Stylitai are found 
in the East up to the xn. century. Other exaggerations 
penetrated from the East : S. Senoch, a barbarian in 
origin, had himself walled up at a spot near Tours, in 
such a position that he could not move from the waist 
downwards, and in this way he lived for several years, the 
object of popular veneration. 

The next step in the organisation of asceticism was 
cenobitism, the monastic life led by a group of men or 
women under one roof, and one control. The dwelling- 
house was called a coenobiiim (koivo/?iov). It was now 
that Pachomius gave a rule for ascetics, and became 
probably the first monastic lawgiver. From him dates 
the monastic life proper. He was followed by Hilarion 
(300-371) and Macarius.* 

Pachomius (born 292) had enrolled himself as a cate- 
chumen on his return in 313 from the campaign against 
Maxentius. In 325 he founded the famous ccenobium 
of Tabenna, a territory in the Upper Thebaid, and be- 

* The so-called Egyptian " Rule of Macarius " was followed by 
some monks in Burgundy. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM u 

came its first Abbas or father. He successively estab- 
lished 9 religious houses, and ruled 1400 brethren. A 
similar great work was performed by his sister Syncletica 
of Alexandria who founded the first house of nuns. 

The spectacle of a life of sacrifice and liberty, of Spread of 
enthusiasm joined to austerity, affected the popular imag- Monasti- 
ination, and the deserts were literally peopled with these Fourth 
ascetics. Fifty thousand, it is said, would gather round century. 
Pachomius at Easter. Antony's contemporary, Amnion, 
"The Father of Egyptian Monachism," formed hermit 
settlements on or near Mount Nitrius, a part once inhab- 
ited by Therapeutae ; Rufinus, who tells us that as many 
persons lived in the desert as in the cities, speaks of 
10,000 religious women, and twice as many men, estab- 
lished at Oxyrynchus, the spot where the " logia of Jesus " 
were recently found, and Ambrose and Chrysostom both 
speak of communities of Virgins abounding in the East, 
in Alexandria and throughout Egypt. In the v. century, 
Palladius still describes them as settled at Tabenna and 
in other parts of Egypt. In Africa the great number of 
recruits, writes Augustine, came from the poor. Five 
and ten thousand would reside in one district, while 
fanatic hordes of monks roamed through Mesopotamia 
and Armenia, peopling the deserts of the Holy Land, 
Lebanon, and the Upper Thebaid. 

The monks were a lay body ; Antony, Amnion, Hilarion, Monks as a 
Pachomius, Benedict, were laymen. The rules for ceno- la y bod y- 
bites were all rules for laymen, and no member of 
Pachomius' community might be ordained. To-day the 
term " regular clergy " which is given to monks seems 
to imply that these were in origin a clerical body, but 
nothing is less true. Monks bore no office in the Church, 
and were therefore in sharp contrast with those who did. 
There is no vaster difference between the monasticism 
of to-day as compared with the original institution than 
this, that while the ancient monastic rules were dictated 
for laymen, and dictated by those who were anxious to 
keep monasticism lay, to be a monk or friar is now 
tantamount to being a priest, 



12 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

How this has modified monastic life in modern times 
cannot easily be realised. Now, the career of a priest 
has taken precedence of the career of a monk, and what 
would not be allowed to the latter is allowed to the 
former : in some Orders the monastic life would appear 
to be suspended in favour of the duties of a parish priest 
or other pastor, leaving of the monk or friar nothing but 
the dress. The change was gradual : Benedict would not 
suffer a priest to bear rule in a monastery ; S. Gregory for- 
bade a man to follow the double vocation of monk and 
presbyter, and denied that it could be properly discharged 
by one man, and in Cassian's eyes to desire orders is a 
The monks temptation of the demon. But when monasticism had 
rank as won uruv ersal admiration, when it was judged to be con- 
separate version from the secular and semi-pagan world without, 
from the when the profession of monasticism was recognised as 
itself the profession of ' religion,' the monks desired to 
be considered as separate from the laity. It is possible 
that while on their side the influence and independence 
they enjoyed ceased to satisfy, and they coveted the 
privilege which could only come from the clergy, the fear 
that by their preaching and other acts the monks while 
still laymen were usurping the powers of the presbytery 
induced the latter to ordain them, and there are not 
wanting instances of bishops ordaining monks by force.* 
The general tendency is shown in the warnings given 
by solitaries and abbats against ordination, and in the 
emphasis laid by Cassian on the ' rule of the Fathers ' 
that a monk should avoid the society of bishops and 
women — of the former lest they should ordain you. 
His story of the solitary discovered conducting the mass 
of catechumens alone in his cell, shows how the role of 

* It is by no means impossible that the poor monks sought orders 
as the only means of preserving any rights and influence in a society 
which soon regarded the " Church " as chiefly, even exclusively, the 
clergy. But the point must not be too much pressed : as a lay ascetic 
body their power lay in the hold they had on the imagination of the 
people ; and it is after the monks fell like parish presbyters under 
the complete power of the bishops, that we hear them spoken of in 
a Council held in 633 as " reduced nearly to slavery." 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 13 

the deacons and priests in the churches had affected the 
imagination of the monks. In the vi. century it was 
necessary to prohibit them from wearing the clerical 
orarion, and buskins in place of sandals, but from this 
time, the transformation might have come more quickly 
had it not been for the strongly lay character of Bene- 
dict's Rule. The repugnance of the early monks to 
clerical orders, which the greater number regarded as a 
worldly life, no longer existed ; and to Benedict this 
change was an evil to be strenuously guarded against. It 
was not, indeed, possible that monasticism should lack 
episcopal patronage ; the monks were a weapon to hurl 
against heresies on the one hand, a bulwark against pagan 
manners on the other. In the Eastern Church, where 
the spiritual affinity of monk and cleric was early utilised, 
the monks became a disorderly and fanatic horde always 
ready to support an episcopal doctrine, and to throw 
themselves on the side remote from moderation and 
peace. Such a gang existed in the iv. century, and was 
characterised by a Pagan on-looker as " swine in human 
form," and such a gang was ready to do yeoman service 
to Cyril of Alexandria in the murder of Hypatia, done to 
death by his monks with incredible barbarity in a Christian 
church. The Christian Father Chrysostom, on the con- 
trary, earned their enmity, and the scandals they reported 
of him were sedulously gathered up by Bishop Theophilus 
of Alexandria, who calls Chrysostom an unclean demon, 
and says he was sold to the devil. Jerome took care to 
translate this scurrilous diatribe into Latin, and to intro- 
duce it to the West. Such were the amenities extended 
by bishop to bishop, and propagated by one Father of the 
Church concerning another, with the help of the monks. 
Though all the Fathers of East and West without ex- 
ception praise monasticism, its early history in the West 
shows that the immense influence of S. Benedict pre- 
vailed, and that early Western monks were as a rule not 
only laymen but laymen who regarded their profession as 
separate From, not an appanage to, that of the cleric. 
Even as late as the x. century, among the 500 monks at 



14 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

S. Gall, 52 only were priests, and 39 deacons. But the 
change, though gradual, was everywhere sure ; first the 
monks wanted a church and service of their own, in place 
of that attendance at the city basilica which had been 
their rule and which formed a prominent feature of the 
Divine office in the iv. century.* The priest for the" ser- 
vice of this church introduced the clergy into the monas- 
tery ; but it was the creation of a class of hieromonachi, 
priest-monks, ordained to perform the requisite sacerdotal 
functions, which, as has been well remarked, by intro- 
ducing a distinction between the monks, destroyed the 
homogeneity of monasticism. The general law which 
makes men covet the privileged office succeeded in sink- 
ing the monk in the priest, while the belief that monasti- 
cism was preeminently the highest Christian life, ended 
in the declaration of Boniface IV. that monks are more 
than competent 'to the exercise of all clerical functions : the 
change was complete ; henceforth the monks were regular 
clergy and all other priests ranked as merely secular clergy. 
It has not been generally realised that monasticism 
among women possessed still earlier an ecclesiastical 
character ; for the nun represents not only the cenobite 
ascetic, but the Ecclesiastical Virgin who as such took 
rank among the clergy .f This fact receives confirmation, 
as we shall see, from the rite of profession of a nun in use 
to-day ; the great episcopal rite performed by Liberius in 
Rome, by Ambrose in Milan, by Nectarius in Constanti- 
nople, and which bears no relation to the rite for profess- 
ing a monk, is still observed in the profession of a nun. 

Virginity. Athenagoras (11. century), Justin Martyr (103-165), 

Minucius Felix (late 11. century), and Clement of Alexan- 

* See Silvia's Peregrinatio for the attendance of the monks at all 
the Canonical Hours. 

t To this day it is as a consecrated virgin, rather than as a mon- 
astria or nun, that members of the old Orders enjoy whatever little 
distinction between themselves and the laity remains to .them, since 
the day of the power of the great abbesses. For the Canonical 
Virgin see Part IV., p. 526. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 15 

dria (nat. 150-60), all cite the fact that the Christians 
numbered among them many virgins of both sexes, as the 
peculiar glory of the Faith, and " Virgins of both sexes " 
are enumerated by Tertullian as a grade having rank in 
the Christian Ecclesia.* The primitive Church sanctioned 
and encouraged perpetual virginity, following Matt. xix. 
11, 12, but this Catholic institution was objected to by 
the Arians, who likewise condemned monasticism. The 
Eastern bishop Methodius (circa 300) is the first ecclesi- 
astic who extolled virginity as the special means of mystic 
union with the divine Being, as the destined end of the 
Incarnation. He taught that the old mankind was Adam ; 
the new mankind as a whole is a type of the Second 
Adam. Everyone should become Christ, and this comes 
to pass through virginity and asceticism. The cult of 
virginity was one of the most startling of all the unlike- 
nesses between the new Christian and the old Pagan 
society : Gibbon, in his 15*!' chapter, refers to the difficulty 
which was experienced in recruiting 6 vestals for the service 
of Vesta — among the Christians, however, first in Africa 
and the East, then in the West, groups of voluntary com- 
munities of virgins established themselves from very early 
times, f Antony when he fled to the desert in 270 left 
his sister in a House of Virgins, irapOivwv, and there he 
found her several years after ruling the same community. 
In Africa, especially, they were held in honour, and Am- Ambrose 
brose laments that what was so honoured there was hardly 
known in Europe. At the request of his sister Marcellina 
he wrote the treatise "On Virgins," and preached this 
institution in the West with so much success that during 
3 solemn days 800 virgins were consecrated by him at 
Milan. 

* Cf. also TertulHan De Velandis Virginian x., and the Ignatian 
Ep. to Polycarp, ii. q. 

t Though the Jews at no period of their history honoured virginity, 
the Therapeutic under Egyptian influence boasted of women who 
had " embraced chastity not out of necessity but out of a desire for 
wisdom and an immortal offspring, such as the God-loving soul can 
bring forth unaided." The celibate communities attached to the 
Egyptian temples were of both sexes. 



and Mar- 
cellina. 



16 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

The rank of ecclesiastical virgin was an hierarchical 
grade, but its subsequent history belongs rather to mon- 
asticism, because it is certain that a nun is the lineal 
descendant of the Ecclesiastical Virgin, and that this rank, 
which originally was shared by both men and women, exists 
nowhere to-day but in the consecrated nun. To trace the 
causes which joined these two vocations in one would be of 
great interest — but whatever the cause, the earliest of all 
Religious Houses were not those of hermits or ascetics, but 
those of virgins, of women professing canonical virginity. 
As such, these communities were communities of regular 
clergy, and these women were canonesses * rather than 
nuns. 

The social forces at work in the Empire and in the 
Church must be taken into account in order to rightly 
place, not the woman hermit, but the ecclesiastical virgin 
of Asia Minor and Africa, and the first nuns of the West. 
Christianity irresistibly suggested a new life for women, 
a new place for women. The belief of barbarous peoples, 
and the general belief of pagan peoples, was, and is, that 
women have no place or dignity outside of marriage. It 
was the profession of virginity which first destroyed this 
conception. The life of the ecclesiastical virgin led 
publicly before the Church f differed in importance and 
significance from that ascetic life, that orgy of individual- 
ism and solitary liberty in which, from the first, women par- 
ticipated like men. One striking exception, that of the 
Vestals, had been offered by imperial Rome to the absence 
of all role for unmarried women : but, it was the coexist- 
ence in early Christian society of the new dignity borne by 
the ecclesiastical virgin with the social preeminence of the 
Roman Matron, which defined in Rome and elsewhere 
the freedom and importance of women in monasticism. 
The The Roman Matron was neither wife nor single ; she 

was a lady who had entered into a free contract with her 
husband, which reserved to her her own independence, 
her own property, and her own name. According to 

* See p. 203. t See Part IV., p. 526. 



Matron. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 17 

Roman jurisprudence the only valid Patrician marriage 
was the confarreatio which made of the wife a chattel in 
the hands of her husband, whose adopted child she 
became : " a fiction of the law neither rational nor 
elegant bestowed on the mother of a family the strange 
characters of sister to her own children and of daughter 
to her husband or master, who was invested with the 
plenitude of paternal power." * To evade this state of 
things, the women of great and wealthy families "declined 
the solemnities of the old nuptials," and, after the Punic 
wars, adopted the title of Matron, previously used to 
designate a lady or woman, but seldom a married 
woman, and ceased to be a mater familias, who was a 
wife in manu. Moral and social dignity soon attached 
to the word,f and it will be remembered with interest 
that it was such summates matrons, exalted matrons, 
who helped to establish Christianity in Rome ; that the 
great names of Christian history, Lucina, Priscilla, 
Cyriaca, Proba, Marcella, Paula, belonged not to those 
in the servile position of the legal wife of that time, but to 
women enjoying an absolute and complete independence. 
How they used this independence the story of the prim- 
itive Church shows ; they eagerly accepted the new Faith 
which held out hope of a better and purer world, they 
dedicated to it their fortunes and their social pre- 
eminence, they educated their children to love and follow 
the new light. 

Athanasius, who had best understood the spirit of the Athana- 
great monk Antony, must rank as the "Sponsor," the j^ Mar ~ 
spiritual father of monasticism, which he lifted into the Jerome; 
public life of the Church. He desired to save Christianity reception 
from the secularisation that would have ensued had it ^ c j S m in " 
merely represented one of those philosophical systems Rome, 
which strove for the predominence in his time ; and he 
doubtless saw in monasticism a means of establishing that 

* Gibbon, Chap. XLIV. See also Maine, Ancient Law, 
Chap. V. 

t By decree of Aurelian 270-275, purple dalmatics, an imperial 
privilege, were extended to all matrons. 



CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Marcella. 



Founds 
the first 
monastery 
in Rome. 



religious piety, that birth of the world to the redemption 
of a divine life, which he cared for as the true riches 
brought by Christ. 

The Roman temperament has never been ascetic. The 
life of the Eastern solitaries was not only distasteful to 
the Roman, it was loathsome and immoral. " When will 
this detestable race of monks be hunted out?" asked the 
Roman Christians on the death of the young Blesilla in 
384 of overmuch fasting and austerity; while a pagan 
poet of Gaul tells of a Christian friend so unhappy as to 
believe that he would feed on celestial joys in the midst 
of his voluntary filth. Jerome himself tells us that in the 
African cities, and in Carthage especially, if a monk be 
seen he is overwhelmed with curses. If one come into 
the town to accomplish some pious work, the people 
pursue him with outrage, bursts of laughter, detestable 
hissing. 

The conditions indeed of the Christian West differed 
profoundly from those of the Christian East. The general 
habits of life of the West had not been modified by 
Christianity ; in the East, on the contrary, one aspect of 
the Faith had been favoured by the temperament of the 
people to the exclusion of all others ; the dishevelled and 
dirty Eastern solitary who was at home in Syria and Egypt, 
was for centuries a monster in Western eyes. When 
Monasticism invaded Rome it portended the invasion of 
Western society by those manners which had come to be 
honoured as distinctively Christian. 

But if the account of Monasticism brought by Athana- 
sius and the monks of Pachomius (in 340 and 374) was 
ill received in Rome generally, it was eagerly listened to 
by Marcella, whose ear they gained, and who determined 
to put this life into practice. The first example of 
monastic life in Rome occurred when she converted her 
house into a monastery ; and Jerome writes of " Rome 
become Jerusalem," Romam factam Jerosoly?nam, under 
the influence of Marcella. It was not till late in life, 382, 
that she made the friendship of Jerome, whom she sought 
on his arrival, and who became thenceforth her constant 



ORIGIN OF M ON A STIC IS At 19 

companion. "Jerome found himself in the presence of 
a judge rather than of a disciple." * He wrote for her 
some 15 treatises on different biblical questions and 
ecclesiastical history. Of this learned woman Jerome Her learn- 
writes : " All that I learnt with great study and long in S- 
meditation the blessed Marcella learnt also, but with great 
facility and without giving up any of her other occupa- 
tions or neglecting any of her pursuits." " As often as I 
set before myself her diligence in holy reading, I cannot 
refrain from condemning my own slothfulness." Diffi- 
culties of interpretation and translation were referred to 
her, and Jerome tells us that when they were not unani- 
mous on any question " we consulted Marcella by word 
of mouth or letter, and always had occasion to admire 
the correctness of her decision." When Jerome left 
Rome bishops and priests came to her with dubious 
passages of Scripture for explanation : Sic ad interrogate/, 
respondebat, ut etiam sua, non sua dieeret, sed vel niea, 
vel cujuslibet alterius, ut in eo ipso quod docebat se dis- 
cipulam fateretur . . . ne virili sexui, et interdum Sacer- 
dotibus, de obscuris et ambiguis sciscitantibus, facere 
videretur injuriam.\ Which means to say that being thus 
questioned Marcella answered in such a way that though 
her arguments were her own, she called them Jerome's or 
some one else's ; so that where she was actually the 
instructor she pretended to be the disciple, in order that 
in thus enquiring of her about obscure and ambiguous 
subjects, the virile sex and bishops should not appear to 
suffer injury. Jerome might have spared us this ludicrous 
spectacle of the strong woman sustaining the self-respect 
of her interlocutors by means so childish. 

When Origen's Principia, translated by Rufinus, reached Marcella 
Rome, Marcella in concert with Jerome combated his and0l 'g en - 
theories ; and it is an unpleasing incident in her life that 
she procured his condemnation. Pope Siricius had fa- 

* She rebuked the invectives in which Jerome habitually indulges 
when stalking a theological adversary, but was not herself free of 
the odium theologicum. 

t Jerome, Marcella ad Principiam, Epist. 127. 



ao CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

voured Origen, and his successor Anastasius hesitated to 
condemn him ; but Marcella went to him and pointing 
out the passages she urged were erroneous, became in 
Jerome's words " the cause of the condemnation of here- 
tics " {damnations hceriticorum Marcella principiumfuii). 
She is connected with another doctrine : she invited the 
pope to declare the perpetual virginity of Mary, against 
which Helvidius had written ; since which time it be- 
came the usage to recite : " Post partum virgo inviolata 
permansisti." 
Marcella in During the sack of Rome in 410 Marcella was thrown 
the Sack of t th e ground and beaten in the barbarians' efforts to 
discover hidden treasure. She clasped her tormentors' 
knees, showing them her humble monastic dress, and be- 
sought them to spare the virtue of her adopted daughter 
Principia. The Goths, often magnanimous, thereupon 
led the two women to S. Paul's, but Marcella died in 
Principia's arms a few days later, leaving all she had to 
the poor. 
"The Marcella was not only at the head of all works of 

tero°rne° f religion and charity, but also chief of the society of able 
women who in the Rome of her day effected so much, 
and which owed its existence to Jerome. The names of 
these women, of most of whom Jerome wrote a life, and 
whose fame he declared could never perish, are Paula, 
with her daughters Eustochium and Blesilla ; the great 
Proba's daughter Lceta, and granddaughter Demetrias. 
Marcella's sister Asella, and friend and adopted child 
Principia. Fabiola, Lea, Melania, Albina, Turia, So- 
Paula. phronia, Salvira, Piniana. Paula, the most distinguished 

of these, came to know Jerome through Epiphanius who 
had visited Rome when Damasus in 382 summoned the 
bishops thither. On the death of her husband Julius 
Toxotius she retired broken hearted to Marcella's house 
on the Aventine. She was one of the most learned women 
of her age, a Hebrew scholar, and Jerome's referee for 
the difficult points arising in his translation and com- 
mentary of Ezechiel. Daughter of the Gracchi and the 
Scipios, of the line of Agamemnon, her possessions in- 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 21 

eluded the city of Necropolis built by Augustus. This 
great wealth she despised, and eventually, urged thereto 
by Jerome's description of the beauties of the solitary 
life, she founded a monastery at Bethlehem, and a second 
where Jerome himself died. Born in 347 she died in 
Bethlehem in 404, in her 57* year; and to Jerome's 
question: "Why do not you speak, are you troubled?" 
answered: "By no means, all within me is peaceful." 
Eustochium, the most gifted of Paula's daughters, was the 
recipient of some of his most interesting letters, and of 
his complaints against the clergy of Rome, old and young. 
She is sometimes represented in art learning at his knee. 
Blesilla was a widow at 19, her austerities, which led to 
her death, did not prevent her being, with her mother 
and sister, a Hebrew scholar, and Jerome who recounts 
her unusual talents says she had great grace in speaking. 
Lceta was Paula's 'daughter-in-law, and shared Proba's 
exile in 410 ; she founded a monastery. Demetrias ded- 
icated herself to the religious life while quite young, giv- 
ing up everything with which this world had endowed 
her ; she became a " prodigy of sanctity " ; she, also, 
shared her grandmother's exile in 410.* Asella was 
made the head of a Religious house, and spread Christian- 
ity in Rome. Fabiola Jerome calls the " wonder of all 
ages." She was the first person to found a hospital for 
the sick in Rome, and was its chief nurse. She did much 
to further Western monasticism, travelling through Italy 
and seeking out the solitaries and the new monasteries. 
The dramatic scene outside the Lateran on Easter Eve in 
390 when Fabiola stood in the porch of the basilica with 
tears and cries, barefoot, bareheaded, and in torn gar- 
ments, as a public penance for the divorce of her first 
husband, filled Rome with wonder. In 395 she joined 
Jerome and Paula at Bethlehem ; but died in Rome. 
Jerome describes her death and her burial, at which all 
Rome gathered, and which was " grander than had been 
the triumphal processions of her ancestors." Lea a 

* Augustine dedicated his book on Holy widowhood to her 
mother Juliana, and the book on Prayer to Proba. 



22 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Roman Matron, was also head of a Religious house. 
Melania (nat. 350) had a convent of 50 virgins on the 
Mount of Olives, where she reconciled heretics. She 
knew Jerome and Paula in Bethlehem, and on her return 
to Rome in 397 was received by Paulinus of Nola with 
great honour ; and was the bearer of his letter to Augus- 
tine in 400. She was the friend and supporter of Rufi- 
nus ; and Palladius stayed at her house when he came to 
Rome to plead the cause of Chrysostom. Her son Pub- 
licola married Albina, and their daughter Melania the 
Younger was married to Pinianus. She died in 410. 

Thus the principle of the monastic life was introduced 
into Rome through the labours of these gifted women, in 
the midst of the corruption of clergy and laity. In that 
gorgeous society, and possessed of immense wealth and 
social importance, they offered the spectacle of a com- 
plete contempt for such things, a voluntary renuncia- 
tion of pleasures. Ardent searchers of the Scriptures, 
lovers of learning and of education on the very eve of 
the decay of learning, we find Jerome writing for them a 
work on the education of girls. Lovers of purity, poverty, 
solitude, and study in a period of vice and splendour and 
distraction, it is such people who adapted the asceticism 
of the East to meet the evils around them in the first 
Christian city of the West. 
Jerome. From the date of his arrival in Rome Jerome became 

the sponsor of Roman monasticism. Eusebius Hierony- 
mus Sophronius, or Jerome, is of all the Latin Fathers 
the most popular and the most often represented in art. 
He was also the most learned. Born at Stridon in Dal- 
matia, 340-342, the son of rich parents, he was sent to 
Rome to study, and there, led astray by bad companions, 
was saved by his love of virtue and of learning. He then 
studied law becoming famous as a pleader. Between his 
visits to the schools of Gaul and to the East (373) he 
was baptised, some say in Rome. It is of 4 years 
passed in a desert of Chalcis, that he gives us such a 
vivid description, when his companions were scorpions 
and wild beasts, and awful temptations assailed him. He 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 23 

became a great Hebrew scholar, drawn to that language by 
his Christian interests, but having to overcome the strong 
disgust the study caused to a lover of Plato and Cicero. 
After 10 years absence he returned to Rome, wearied 
by the religious controversies which then as since agi- 
tated the East. In Rome he upheld the practice of 
penance and the virginity to which he had vowed him- 
self at his baptism. He vehemently reproached the eccle- 
siastical world at Rome for its vices, and was repaid by 
the undying enmity of the Roman clergy, who had no 
names too bad for him. At this juncture, when Valen- 
tinian had issued laws against the greed of the clergy, 
Damasus made Jerome his secretary, and the latter com- 
posed the Letters by which the pope sought to redress 
their excesses. He induced the band of noble and 
learned women known as his ' School ' to adopt his 
views regarding a life of penance, chastity, and solitude, 
which were indeed the moral passions of Jerome's life, 
despite the scandalous reports of the Roman clergy, 
which eventually led to his being sent out of Rome by 
Pope Siricius, who did not view him with favour. He 
died at a great age ; the picture now in the Vatican rep- 
resents his last communion in the Chapel of Bethlehem 
shortly before he breathed his last, a.d. 420. His body 
was moved from Bethlehem to S. M. Maggiore. His 
great work is the translation of both Testaments into 
Latin forming the " Vulgate." Besides lives of the elder 
Christian fathers, and of members of his ' School,' and 
Commentaries on books of the Old and New Testament, 
he has left some 150 letters. 

While the other three Latin Fathers are represented in Art 
two as bishops and one as pope, Jerome is depicted 
either half-clad as a penitent in the desert, or long- 
bearded and mantled, holding a church or a book. A 
lion is also his proper and ancient emblem, as a solitary, 
and in allusion to his fiery temperament. It is also 
usual to represent him with a cardinal's hat on his head As a Car- 
or at his feet, and even a scarlet mantle. There were no dinal - 
cardinals in the present sense in Jerome's time, but it 



24 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

is alleged that he fulfilled during the 3 years of his 
second sojourn in Rome the offices which fell to the 
pope's first deacon, and hence work similar to that of the 
future cardinals of the Roman Church. But Jerome had 
no ecclesiastical dignity. He had indeed acceded about 
the year 380 to the wish of Paulinus, and become a 
priest, but he steadily refused all rank and his presby- 
terate never affected the layman and the monk which 
Jerome always remained.* He was in fact the first in 
the line of lay apostles of Christian Rome — Jerome, 
Catherine of Siena, Frances of Rome, Bridgid of Sweden, 
ending with Philip Neri ; all of whom the Roman Church 
has canonised. No one lashed the Church harder or 
loved it more — he is represented with a church in his 
hand as its luminary and upholder — and in nothing 
surely has Rome been greater than in her reception of 
such apostles, and her exaltation of them. In the worst 
ages these are the men she has held up before her chil- 
dren, not the panderers to her vices, and the fact has 
hardly been sufficiently remarked. 



Early Mo- 
nasticism 
in the 
West. 

S. Martin 
of Tours, 
316-397- 



The earliest monastic communities in the West were 
founded by Martin of Tours, first at Milan before 371, 
and then in Gaul. S. Martin is one of the greatest of 
the early saints. He was mainly instrumental in over- 
throwing the remnants of paganism, and no contemporary 
exercised a greater influence on his age.f 



* He never consecrated the sacrament, or performed any other 
office of a presbyter. 

t He was born in Hungary of pagan parents, his father being a 
Roman tribune. At 15 he was moved to become a catechumen, 
but before his baptism he was sent into Gaul with a cavalry regi- 
ment, where he was the admiration of all men for his boundless 
charity and the mildness of his manners. He was in army quarters 
in Amiens in 332 when the cold was so great that people died 
in the streets, and it was then that meeting a naked beggar he 
shared his cloak with him; and that night he dreamed of Jesus 
Christ. He now hastened to receive baptism. At 40 years old 
he left the imperial army, and spent many years in retirement, until 
in 371 he was elected bishop of Tours by acclamation of the people. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 



25 



Cassian followed S. Martin as a creator of Western 
monachism ; he had visited the monasteries of Egypt 
and Palestine, a sack on his back and a staff in his hand, 
and on his return described the practices of the Eastern 
monks, about which there was a growing curiosity in the 
West ; publishing at Marseilles in 420-440 his two works, 
the Institutes and the Conferences or Collations.* The 
Eastern customs were adapted for Western monasteries, 
Cassian himself recognising the modifications necessary. 
From now onwards the chief monastic centre was Gaul. 
At the beginning of the v. century the principal monas- 
teries were erected ; but the great impulse was given to 
monastic life by the Rule of Csesarius in 508. Csesarius, 
Bishop of Aries, the most illustrious of the bishops of his 
time, was born in 470 and died in 542. He first founded 
a convent of women with his sister Csesaria at their head. 
Her rule joined with that of Csesarius was adopted by 
Radegund, Queen of Clothair I. and abbess of Sainte- 
Croix, Poitiers. It was sent to her by Caesaria Junior | 
in an epistle which has been declared to be one of the 
ablest literary monuments of the age. In it she insists 
on learning and on a knowledge of literature ; and while 
recommending pious lections and fidelity to all duties, 
counsels great moderation in austerities and fasts. Rade- 
gund Abbess of S'. e Croix was a still more remarkable 



Cassian, 

350-447- 



Monastic 
activity in 
Gaul. 



Caesarius 
and Caesa- 
ria of Aries. 



Radegund, 
5I9-587- 



Desiring to escape their importunities and veneration, he after- 
wards retired to a cell near Tours, where he built the Abbey of 
Marmoutier and gathered Religious round him. He is not only a 
great saint in France, but was venerated very early in Rome, and 
by Benedict himself. He is the Patron of soldiers. In Art he 
appears either habited as a bishop, an abbey-church in his hand ; 
or as a soldier on horseback, halving his cloak with a sword, a 
beggar at his feet : sometimes he is clothing a poor man with his 
sacerdotal robe. His feast day is November 11. 

* There were as many rules in the East, he said, as monasteries 
or even as monks' cells. Cassian was made a deacon by Chry- 
sostom. He founded the Abbey of S. Victor, in which the Uni- 
versity of Paris may be said to have taken its rise; that great 
abbey-school where Abailard and William of Champeaux held their 
controversy. The site is now the Halles aux vins in Paris. 

t Caesaria's successor. 



26 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Donatus, a 
disciple of 
Caesarius, 
Ferreolus, 
Aurelian of 
Aries. 

Patrick, 
Bridget, 
Columba. 



nun.* Her great talents had been fostered at the royal 
villa of Aties where she received her education. In her 
monastery study came next to prayer ; even at night a 
lectrice read to her. Each day, writes one of her chil- 
dren, she gave them lectures, showing great solicitude 
that they should understand and that none should have 
an excuse for pleading ignorance. The poet and bishop 
Venantius Fortunatus was a monk of the double monas- 
tery she governed, and has recorded how richly her spirit 
was stored with knowledge, so employed, that a promi- 
nent place in the literary history of the vi. century must 
be assigned to her. 

Donatus of Besancon introduced the Rule of Caesarius 
into his diocese in 532, combined with that of Benedict; 
and the Rule spread rapidly in Gaul. Other legislators 
were Aurelian of Aries (499-553), and Ferreolus Bishop 
of Uzes in Languedoc (521-581). 

But the Celtic people were not behindhand ; Patrick 
founded monasteries in Ireland and Scotland in the v. 
century, and Bridget (Abbess of Kildare) founded and 
ruled nouses in Ireland at the end of the v. or beginning 
of the vr\ h . Columba founded Iona in 563^ 

But it is Columban who for some time rivalled Benedict 
as a monastic legislator : born in Leinster the year of 
Benedict's death, 543, he devoted his life to an uncom- 
promising reform of manners, and met with opposition 
on all hands. He founded a monastery at Bangor in 
Wales, and in 585 crossed to France with 12 monks, 
founding Luxeuil in 590, and Bobbio in Lombardy later. 
At both these great monasteries his Rule was afterwards 
combined with Benedict's. Columban also founded 



* Radegund and Agnes of Poitiers, and Ingetrud of Tours were 
the first rulers of Frankish nuns. The former was ordained a 
deaconess by S. Medard. 

t Columba is the Columkille of Oswy's dispute between the 
Scottish Church and Rome, held at the instigation of Wilfrid of 
York. There is a distich about the 3 Irish apostles which runs : 

" Three saints one grave do fill, 
Patrick, Bridget and Columkille." 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 



*7 



houses in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isles, and one in 
England in 563. In England, in the next century Hieu, 
followed by Ilild, or Hilda, governed a double monastery 
of men and women at Whitby in Yorkshire : John of 
Beverley and the most remarkable bishops of her time 
were among Hild's scholars here, and it is she who took 
the peasant Caedmon into the monastery, and made of 
him the first English poet. It is from this monastery 
also that Wilfrid of York went forth. The monasteries 
and schools of Whitby, under Hild's rule, were an exam- 
ple of the Celtic clan system ; the Benedictine rule was 
not adopted till later. In the vn. century Isidore of 
Seville, and Fructuosus, Archbishop of Braga, legislated 
for Spanish and Portuguese monasteries. Monasticism 
in Germany was introduced entirely by the English Bene- 
dictines in the vm. century. 

When the great impulse towards monasticism began 
in Southern Gaul Eastern monasticism was already fully 
developed, and its evil tendencies served as an object 
lesson for the West. Indeed the motive power of monas- 
tic activity in the West was the very opposite of that in 
the East — it was not the desire for isolation but for com- 
bination. The men of peace and of ideas felt the need of 
conversation, intellectual and religious : the age offered 
no facilities for this ; and the monastic life, by drawing 
men together, defined their thoughts, and afforded mut- 
ual support and edification. Not isolation and repres- 
sion, but combination and an instinct of civilisation 
therefore lay at the root of the Western movement. 
The Rules indited at this period give evidence of this : 
— The Rule of Caesarius for nuns, the earlier rule, 
remains one of the most important monuments of early 
monastic discipline. It embodies the rule of Augustine ; 
there is to be no property, the keeping of waiting women 
is prohibited even to the abbess, and all save the abbess 
must employ themselves, in rotation, in the labours of 
the house. The nuns are required to study 2 hours 
each morning, and a nun is to read aloud during work 
until 9 a.m., and also during meals. One of the depart- 



England 



Spain and 
Portugal. 



Germany. 



Differences 
between 
Western 
and East- 
ern Mo- 
nasticism. 



Early Mo- 
nastic 
Rules in 
the West. 



28 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

ments of the monastery is the MS. room. The nuns are 
to be lettered, and though little girls of 6 and 7 may be 
received and educated, no child is to be admitted who 
cannot already read. Those outside the convent are not 
to be entertained, and banquets to distinguished women 
visitors, to bishops or abbats, must be very rare. With 
this exception, neither Churchmen nor laymen were al- 
lowed inside. Silver plate was to be used in the oratory 
only. Thus the life of these Religious, none of whom 
might be there unless of her own free will, was passed in 
mental and manual work, in educating, in listening to 
reading, in chanting the divine praises. The Rule for 
monks forbids presents to be received, directs that there 
should be community of goods, and that the tasks are to 
be chosen by the Superior. One of the penalties is for 
late comers to service, who are to be caned on the hand. 
The Rule of Columban (543-615) is one of the most 

OfS. Isi- austere of Western rules; that of Isidore of Seville (ob. 

dore of 5^5) j s one f t he mildest. It is chiefly interesting for 
its list of officers : under the abbat are the provost, 
dean, sacrist, doorkeeper, cellarer, hospitaller, hebdoma- 
dary, schoolmaster. The monks sleep 10 in a room, in 
charge of the dean ; a monk with administrative ability 
is to be hospitaller, and have charge of the sick ; another 
is to be set apart to teach the boys. The monk's dress 
shall be neither splendid nor mean, but sufficient for 
warmth ; he must not wear linen, which was costly in the 
West ; he is to have 3 tunics, 3 capes (pallia) and a 
hood, hose and shoes. Meat is allowed on festivals ; but 
baths are permitted only to the sick. Absence from the 
convent is prohibited, except with the license of the 
Superior. 

Mabillon cites a law that no bishop, even if invited to 
do so, was suffered to enter the more private portions 
of a nuns' monastery, or to interfere with the abbess in 
her correction. The rule of Caesarius orders that con- 
fessions to the bishop must be made through the abbess ; 
and Marcella made a rule never to have speech with 
bishops, clergy, or monks without having in her company 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 29 

" grave women, virgins and widows." Bishops and priests 
were the persons principally excluded from the first mon- 
asteries of women. 

In 397 when Martin of Tours was followed to the Earnes. 
grave by 2000 monks, Jerome was writing to Pamma- ^nobia 

1 • ■ -n \ 1 ^- .1 -^ in Rome, 

chius in Rome, congratulating the city on now possess- before 
ing the monastic life of which till then it had been in Benedict, 
ignorance. It is certain that until the closing years of 
the iv. century the only monks known in Rome were 
men of the type of vagabond-monk * like Rufinus, Pela- 
gius, and Jerome himself. But communities of con- 
secrated virgins dwelt by the Roman basilicas earlier 
still. It is not known where Marcella retired when she 
left her mother's palace on the Aventine in 387. Jerome 
says she went outside the walls, and it has been surmised 
that she retired to the Ager Veranus (Basilica of S. 
Lorenzo). As she and Principia were found near the 
basilica of S. Paul during the Sack it appears likely that 
this was the site of her monastery. A community of 
Virgines sacrce was to be found beside S. Lorenzo in the 
iv. century, and another in the latter half of the v th . 
Similarly early ccenobia were to be found by S. Agnese; 
and in the v. century Basilian monks lived by S. Paul's, 
and by the Lateran; Leo I. built the monastery of S. 
Peter by that basilica and Sixtus III. erected one by 
S. Sebastian. The Aventine, f the Ager Veranus, the 
Nomentana by S. Agnese, the Appia by S. Sebastian, 
the Lateran, and the Vatican, are therefore the 6 earliest 
monastic sites in Rome. % In the Campagna, Paulinus 
of Nola built a " monastery " in the early v. century. 
By the end of the vi. century S. Gregory the Great 
speaks of the 3000 nuns of Rome. 

The system of double monasteries in which the abbess Double 
was Superior of related houses of nuns and monks, rose ™° naster - 
almost contemporaneously with monasticism. In the 
vi. century the Frankish Radegund ruled the first such 

* Called by Cassian circumcelliones. 

t See p. 20. % Cf. Chap. II. p. 65, 91. 



3o CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

double monastery at Poitiers, the Irish Columban propa- 
gated them in Gaul, Hild in the early vii. century ruled 
a related house of men and women, and the Anglo Saxon 
nunneries were nearly all instituted on this principle, 
which was introduced with Christianity into Germany 
and Belgium.* The Gilbertines, the only Order of Eng- 
lish origin, were founded on this system. S. Fructuosus 
in the vn. century introduced it into Spain. Muratori 
says that there were never double monasteries in Italy ; 
but Bede mentions one in Rome itself in the vi. century, 
when a monk " from the monastery of virgins " was one 
of the persons selected as archbishop of Canterbury 
before the election of Theodore.f The case of Paulinus' 
and Terasia's monastery would seem to be another in 
point. They were however never in vogue. The last 
double monastery was Fontevrault.J 

The problem of double monasteries is obscure ; Mon- 
talembert drops a hint of its meaning when he speaks of 
maternity as " the natural form of authority." No doubt 
the fact that this is so, that the father's authority is de- 
rived from the law, is created by the law, partly accounts 
for primitive matriarchy. But barbarous tribes and ancient 
civilisations as well as modern have experienced the powers 
of administration possessed by female sovereigns, and 
it may fairly be supposed that this formed a further excuse 
for all matriarchal institutions. It is a fact that may be 
noted every day in mixed societies of men and women, 
that whether it be for a game or for work of more im- 
portance, a woman is a more successful leader of men 
and women than a man ; that she can bring out, knit 
together, and employ the elements distributed in a mixed 
society, as men cannot do. Given then an initial advan- 
tage in dual monasteries, the origin of the rule of the 
abbess is not far to seek. Lastly if one system was tested 

* The Anglo Saxon nuns had found it prevailing in the Gallican 
monasteries where they received their education, and which had 
been under the influence of Columban — such were the abbeys of 
Chelles, Faremoutier, Jouarre. 

t Hist. Eccl. iv. I. \ vide p. 119. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 31 

with success, the opposite system met everywhere with 
failure. It is certain that communities of women gath- 
ered round religious founders, or round some saintly per- 
sonage, in Egypt, in Ireland, and elsewhere ; but if, as is 
suggested, double monasteries at first existed as a meas- 
ure of safety in lawless times, and the abbat was given 
the principal authority, no such communities flourished 
or survived. In the present day the government of 
female Orders by male Orders has been found an obstacle 
to the due development of the former, and relief from it 
is frequently sought of and granted by the Holy See. 
There is a further confirmation of a rule so consistently 
operative. At Messines the Abbess and her community 
of Benedictines went in state on certain days to recite 
the Divine Office in the Capitular church of the town : 
all the canons were not only appointed by the Abbess 
but subordinate to her, and occupied the stalls to the 
left, the nuns the stalls to the right. In secular Chapters, 
also, where there were often joint choirs of canonesses 
and canons, the canons were subordinate j nor did the 
canonesses always desire to retain the double choir ; for 
instance at Mons they dismissed the canons retaining 
themselves the Collegiate church, the canons only nomi- 
nally retaining their prebends. 

DRESS OF MONKS. 

The garb adopted by the first solitaries indicates the Dress of 
2 influences acting in Egyptian monachism : for while monks - 
some assumed a mantle of goat's hair or sheepskin, called 
the melote, in imitation of a hermit of the type presented 
by the Baptist,* others wore the philosopher's pallium. 
In the West close cut hair and the pallium, or mantle, Dress of 
mentioned by Jerome, were the distinguishing badges. ^,^5 
The Eastern monk's "little frock or thin mantle of goat- andmonks. 
skin " were fitted to cause laughter rather than edifica- 
tion in the cold climate of the West, writes Cassian. 

* C/.l. Clement to the Corinthians 17. 



32 



CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



This " little frock " was the sleeveless tunic called colobio or 
tonaca mozza. S. Martin of Tours wore a " dark tunic " ; 
and such a tunic to the ankles with a mantle of some 
dark colour (sometimes of skins) appears to have been 
the usual dress of monks from the iv. century to the time 
of Benedict, and is mentioned in the v. century as " the 
habit of religion." It was, like the pallium, the simplest 
and least fashionable dress of the time.* We find several 
allusions to the shabby simplicity of monastic dress : 
Syncletica's nuns wore " a poor habit " ; in the iv. century 
the monk is described as " barefoot and in a dirty black 
habit," while the Roman nun of the same period is de- 
scribed as wearing " an ample tunic " which, says Jerome, 
was dark and coarse. With cenobitism a new item of 
costume appears, the cowl, cucullus, a cape or hood, 
with which at will the face could be concealed. It was 
worn by peasants and infants, and was intended to teach 
the monk humility and perhaps custody of the eyes. 
The monks of Tabenna wore it at the Liturgy. Cassian 
speaks of it, as a hood reminding the monk of a child's 
simplicity. The cowl plays an important part in Bene- 
dictine dress ; with them it is a very ample cloak, reach- 
ing to the ankles, with wide sleeves, and is always worn, 
according to the founder's direction, in choir. To the 
v. century outfit of the Egyptian monk mentioned by 
Cassian, colobio,t melotej, hood, girdle,§ and sandals, 
which were only however to be worn as a luxury and not 
at divine worship,! Benedict added a special item of 
TheScapu- monastic costume, the scapular, to be worn when the 
monk was at work. The scapular is a long strip of cloth, 



Cucullus 
or hood. 



The Bene 
dictine 
cowl, or 
mantle. 



lar. 



* Tertullian, De pallio, v., vi. 

f Signifying self-mortification, it was of linen. 

J Cassian condemns the wearing of the melote outside the dress, 
as too conspicuous; he would have it worn round the waist and 
thighs, as it may be seen to this day on peasants of the Roman 
Campagna. 

§ To remind the monk that his loins must be girded up as a 
good soldier. 

|| The melote and girdle which the monks of Pachomius wore 
over the tunic, were both removed to receive the Eucharist. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 



33 



generally of the colour of the habit, which is passed over 
the head and hangs down the whole length of the habit, 
back and front. It may be regarded as an apron to pro- 
tect the monk while working, extending the length of the 
dress behind and before ; or as a mutilated tunic, of 
which the sides and arm-pieces are wanting. This work- 
a-day item has become the sacred garment of Western 
monachism, a parable of the dignity of work which its 
founder would have loved, a continual remembrance that 
" to work is to pray," laborare est orare. S. Benedict 
also required his monks to wear stockings, an item un- 
known to Egyptian monachism. He forbade the wear- 
ing of skins. The habit worn by the first Benedictines 
was of unbleached wool, though they later became known 
as " the black-robed monks." All Benedictine reforms 
have, however, adopted a white habit, and it is probable 
that the habit of S. Benedict resembled that of the Cis- 
tercians, a white tunic and cowl and a dark scapular 
for work. In contradistinction to previous directions, 
S. Benedict prescribed the wearing of the more decent 
and dignified of the monks' garments in church and at 
the Liturgy ; the ample cloak was intended to cover the 
semi-nudity of the sleeveless tunic, and to provide a clean 
and special garment for the opus divinum, the Divine 
office in choir. 

In addition to the tunic, girdle, scapular, and, on occa- 
sion, cowl, the Carthusians and Camaldolese wear a cloak 
out of doors (the colour of the habit) which is called by 
Italians capperuzzio. The Franciscans and Carmelites do 
the same. The cappa is now distinctively Dominican 
(see p. 1 75). The ancient sleeveless tunic has developed 
into a garment with wide sleeves, used as pockets. The 
hood, which all monks and friars wear, is attached to a 
shoulder-cape called the capuce {caputium) * 

The scapular is worn by all Western monks including 
Western Basilians, and by all friars except the Franciscans. 

* See Mozzetta, Part IV., p. 335. The shape and size of the 
hood and the length of the cape attached, vary. For figures of the 
scapular see plates at pp. 92, 175, and of the capuce pp. 175, 197. 
D 



Colour of 
the Bene- 
dictine 
habit. 



The cloak. 



The later 
tunic and 
hood. 



By whom 
the scapu- 
lar is worn. 



34 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Shoes and 
sandals. 



Rosary. 



Hair. 



Dress of 
Nuns. 



The crown. 



Ring. 



All Benedictines, Canons, and Dominicans wear shoes 
and stockings. There are both ' discalced ' and ' calced 
(barefoot and stockinged) Carmelites and Augustinians ; 
but all Franciscans except the conventuals are 'dis- 
calced.' Discalced friars and nuns wear sandals, either 
of wood or hempcord, strapped over the foot. The Men- 
dicant Orders wear a rosary, and so do the lay brethren of 
monastic Orders. For the hat see p. 485. For the dress 
of Clerks Regular and of the modern active Orders of 
women, see Chap. V. 

All monks and friars now wear the Roman or coronal 
tonsure ; in the iv. century the monk used to have his 
hair cut short, it was Paulinus of Nola's custom in the v'. h , 
and hair cut short on one pattern is ordered in Isidore of 
Seville's vn. century Rule. For the rule as to the beard 
of monks and friars see Part IV., p. 489. 

The women solitaries certainly dressed in much the 
same way as the male hermits ; but the ecclesiastical vir- 
gins had apparently from the first distinguishing points of 
dress, quite distinct from that of the ascetics. The pres- 
ent nuns' costume is the heir of both of these. All nuns 
wear a robe or tunic, called the habit, tied with a girdle. 
Over this is generally worn a scapular. On the head is a 
veil worn over the whimple (or guimpe) , which is a close- 
fitting linen cap encircling the face and chin, and termi- 
nating in a bib ; with a piece for the forehead, called the 
fillet (or bandeau) . The veil is most usually worn over 
an under veil, called the veilette. When the nun makes 
her final profession she is given a ring which she wears 
always, and a crown which she now wears only on the day 
of her profession. Of these items of costume the tunic, 
girdle, and scapular are monastic, the crown, ring and 
veil belong to the canonical virgin. 

In Rome the earliest mark of the consecrated virgin 
seems to have been the crown, a gold fillet symbolising 
the crown of virginity, or as Optatus says, of victory. 
This earliest headdress was called mitra or mitella. At 
a much later date a ring and bracelet were added, emblems 
of betrothal to Christ. From the in. century, at least, it 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 35 

was the custom in some places to give a white veil to vir- Veil. 
gins ; Athanasius says it is the sign of belonging to Christ 
alone, and this is the meaning given in the rite of conse- 
cration to-day.* The Church of Africa did not think it 
fitting to veil a virgin who was the glory of the Church in 
which she held a preeminent place, and Tertullian wrote 
a Treatise " concerning the veiling of virgins," in which he 
attempted by quaint arguments to persuade that Church 
to veil Ecclesiastical Virgins.f The custom introduced by 
S. Paul, and advocated by Tertullian, was not accepted 
by large bodies of Christians, but it met those views of the 
Gentile world which suffered a constant infringement by 
Christian manners and the Christian worship, to the point, 
probably, in a dissolute city like Corinth, of thereby seri- 
ously endangering the success of the Gospel. 

It must however be remembered that the principle of 
veiling the face of women — which has prevailed in Mus- 
ulman countries — though repugnant to the Christians 
who hoped to forge a better world with quite other weap- 
ons — was not wholly absent even in the primitive Church, 
large numbers of whose converts were heirs of the corrup- 
tion of Greece and Rome. " Dans certaines parties de la 
communaute chretienne, on vit paraitre a diverses reprises, 
l'idde que les femmes ne doivent jamais etre vues, que la 
vie qui leur convient est une vie de reclusion, selon l'usage 
qui a prevalu dans l'Orient Musulman. ... II s'agissait 
de savoir si le Christianisme serait, comme le fut plus tard 
l'islamisme, une religion d'hommes d'ou la femme est a 
peu pres exclue."J Now, the veil takes the place of the 

* Jerome calls it fiammeum Christi ; the flammeum was the red 
veil of the Roman bride. 

t In the mosaics of S. Zeno in S. Prassede the distinction approved 
by the African Church is made : the virgins are crowned with the 
mitella, while the Madonna and Theodora are veiled as matrons 
{niulieres). 

X Renan, Marc-Aurele et la fin du Monde Antique. A pa- 
gan lady veiled herself as a sign of distinction, of apartness — 
the veil being a fiction which enabled her to be in the street and 
yet never be in the street. Amongst her peers she was always 
unveiled. At the inception of Christianity the uses of the veil in 



36 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

monk's hood which when worn over the head has a very 
similar appearance. Irish sisters of Mercy wear the veil 
down over the face in the streets, and regard it as a sign 
of retirement from the world. In this sense the monk's 
cowl has always been used, at prayer and meditation. 
Hair. The consecrated virgin, unlike the Roman bride who 

wore her hair loose, had her hair gathered up and tied. 
Ambrose, Optatus, and a Council held in 325 prohibit 
shaving the head, but Jerome and Augustine both speak 
of it as the custom. It was done in Egypt and Syria for 
cleanliness, but amongst the Teutons was not viewed with 
Present favour, as it was their custom to shave an adulteress. To- 
day- day a nun's hair is cut off with the same ceremonies as 
tonsure at her " clothing." To be both shorn and cov- 
ered, as nuns are to-day, appeared, it will be remembered, 
a self-evident anomaly to S. Paul.* 

The habit of monks and nuns and of the Superior or 
other officers in a monastery, is the same in all respects : 

the civilised world all suggest apartness or dedication — the taking 
part in something which for the moment or permanently separates 
you from others. Thus the Roman Emperor was veiled when he 
offered sacrifice as Pontifex Maximus, a veil was placed over the 
new bride and bridegroom, the Vestal Virgins were always veiled, 
while women of the upper classes in Greece and Rome did not ap- 
pear in the streets unveiled. But the fact that " not many mighty, 
not many noble " were to be found in the first Christian assemblies 
(I. Cor. i. 26) made such a custom the less natural and welcome to 
them. Nevertheless the very fact that it imposed a sort of distinc- 
tion on the women of the poor Ecclesia Fratrum not possessed by 
their sisters outside the Ecclesia — a distinction which would have 
been valued by them as a moral not a social one — may have insured 
its permanence. 

With the Jews the veil was a praying veil, and as this scarf or as 
a mantle — for it is called the virgin's pallium long before it is 
called velamen — the veil may have originated. It may be pre- 
sumed that the first Christians refused to adopt the veil in the sense 
of the pagan world around them; that they neither veiled the face 
of the Christian virgin as did the vestals, nor adopted for presbyters 
the sacrificial veil of the Roman priest. 

* Tertullian also violently objects to cutting the Virgins' hair short, 
and intelligently proposes it as a work " of the world, the rival of 
God ! " 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 37 

there is no difference of dress except sometimes between Dress of 
choir and lay brethren, and that between professed Reli- R^[g"^ 
gious and novices ; and this latter distinction only exists and 
in convents of nuns. The monastic dress was not rigidly novices, 
adhered to in early times. When Charlemagne made 
inquiries regarding monastic costume, it was found that 
neither cuculla nor scapular were worn at Monte Cassino. 
The former was, however, in use among the French 
Benedictines, but the Cassinese wore instead a cappa 
over a melota. At the close of the x. century the sainted 
Abbess Etheldrytha is represented in splendid coloured 
robes, and her veil and shoes are cloth of gold. At this 
time the dress of nuns in nowise differed from lay costume ; 
the dress of the Anglo-Saxon royal nuns was often gor- 
geous, and caused Bishop Aethelwold when he saw 
Abbess Editha at the court of her father King Edgar to 
thus accost her : " Daughter, the Spouse whom you have 
chosen delights not in external pomp. It is the heart 
which He demands." " True, Father," she replied, " and 
my heart I have given Him. While He possesses it He 
will not be offended with external pomp." 

For the ceremony of Clothing monks and nuns, see 
P- 135- 

The earliest names for the monks show, like their Names for 
dress, the combination in the early ascetic character of monks ' 
disciple of the Alexandrian Schools, and descendant of 
the Hebrew prophets. They were known not only as 
1 philosophers ' and ' Friends ' or ' Lovers,' ' of God ' but 
as Servants of God,* and Seers. ' Renouncers ' and 
'athletes of Christ' betoken their character of ascetic, 
which is Basil's name for them. From the iv. century 
they were known as monazontes, monachos, asketes 
(monk, ascetic) in the East. In the West in the iv. and 
v. centuries an isolated monk was known as a confessor, 
and the term religiosus was introduced. This term as Religious. 
confined to monks and nuns is an outcome of cenobitism ; 

* Jerome. 



38 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

admission to a monastery was called conversion, and in 
the in. and iv. centuries religion came to mean the pro- 
fession of monasticism, and hence the monks became par 
excellence the religious. From the v. century the names 
Nun. nonna and nonnus appear,* grandmother and grand- 

father, as a title of respect, still retained in the word nun. 
Much earlier, religious women were designated by the 
various titles for consecrated virgins (Part IV. p. 526). 
A very usual name was monastria, the inmate of a monas- 
tery ; then we find velata, sanctimonialis,\ castimonialis, 
and the later abbreviation monialis. In the beginning of 
the vi. century nuns were known as asketriai (da-KijTpica), 
and asceteria ; and their houses were called ascitaria. 
New name All monks and nuns take a new name on their profes- 
on piofes- s } ori) that of some saint, usually of their Order, and some- 
times with the prefix S. The Benedictines retain their 
surname after this saint's name, so do Canons Regular, 
Basilians and other Eastern Orders, Augustinian Romites, 
Dominicans, Servites, all Tertiaries, and nearly all modern 
Congregations of women. Carmelites lose the surname, 
and, like the discalced Augustinians and Trinitarians, 
add a saint's name to their own Christian name only. 
Franciscans though they retain the surname are usually 
called by the saint's name. 

Vows. Three vows are taken in every Religious Order and 

Congregation, and the • profession of Religion ' primarily 
means the profession of these 3 vows. They are pov- 
erty, chastity, and obedience. Poverty is understood 
to mean the renunciation of all personal property, but 
among Franciscans corporate poverty also is intended. 
Benedict added as a 4 th vow stability ; and many religious 
congregations add a vow, expressing the special scope of 
the Order, as hospitality, care of the sick, the redemption 
of captives, missionary work. 
The vow of Although the obligation of obedience now looms so 
obedience, i ar g e j n t h e monk's horizon, it is the latest of the x 
and order. ° ' * 

* Palladius, vbvu. t The term used by Gregory the Great. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 



39 



in order of time ; the primitive ascetic rule being confined 
to a life of poverty and chastity. The cohesiveness and 
orderliness brought by the vow of obedience into monas- 
ticism, has been said to be the result of the influence of 
the clergy ; but it seems more natural to assume that it 
was simply because the great lawgivers distrusted the law- 
lessness of anchoritism that the observance of a rule under 
vows which is in fact the characteristic not of the clergy 
but of the monks, was introduced by them.* The 
observance of a rule by the clergy — the true principle of 
regular clergy — was rather borrowed from monasticism 
than vice versa. The organisation which existed in the 
hierarchy of the iv. century was something entirely distinct 
from that brought about by the vow of obedience imposed 
on monks : nor did any vow form part of primitive 
ordination. Religious obedience was insisted on by 
Benedict partly as a bulwark against the fanatic lawless- 
ness of the Eastern monks, but perhaps partly also as a 
contribution to monachism of the Roman sense of law 
and order by the great Western legislator. 

The distinction now recognised between simple and 
solemn vows, is not original. Solemn vows are vows 
taken publicly, coram ecclesia ; but the form in either 
case is the same. The theory at the present day is that 
only nuns with papal enclosure, and who have renounced 
their power of inheriting property, may take solemn vows. 
This obviously implies the concurrence of the civil and 
ecclesiastical powers, such as is implied in canon law but 
exists nowhere in modern States. Monks may and do 
take solemn vows without any of these disabilities. 

Solemn vows are perpetual ; so are simple vows unless 
the contrary is expressed. Several modern congregations 
take the vows for one year, renewing them on the same 
day annually ; these are called temporal vows. 

It used to be very difficult to obtain a dispensation 
from perpetual vows ; but at the present day it is not so 

* On the other hand at the beginning of the iv. century Cassian 
represents obedience as the chief virtue among the Egyptian monks; 
certainly among them a principle of servility not of orderliness. 



Benedict 
and obedi- 
ence. 



Simple and 
solemn 



Renewable 
and per- 
petual 
vows. 

Dispensing 
vows. 



4Q CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Irrevoca- 
bleness of 
the vow of 
Virginity. 



Relation of 
the civil 
power to 
the vows. 



difficult. The vow of Chastity, however, is never dis- 
pensed, and no one who has taken perpetual vows may 
ever marry, even though he be dispensed from the other 
two, and so cease to be monk or nun. 

S. Basil regarded the marriage of a nun as adultery ; in 
Southern Gaul the married nun was sentenced to a long 
excommunication. But Epiphanius draws a distinction 
between marriage and profligacy ; in the former case, he 
declares, the excommunication should be removed after 
penance done. Leo I. allowed of no reinstatement ; 
S. Augustine says that though marriage is very culpable, 
it is not invalidated by her profession ; * and the council 
of Chalcedon recommends the married nun to mercy. 
The Theodosian Code allowed the ecclesiastical virgin to 
return to the world any time before she attained 40 
years.f It is not till Benedict's rule was completely 
established that the vow of virginity was finally regarded 
as irrevocable. { 

No modern government, Catholic or Protestant, recog- 
nises any of the vows as binding ; and by the civil law of 
all countries no one can be " enclosed," everyone may 
legally marry, and no one may legally divest himself of 
the power of inheriting. The vows are therefore volun- 
tary and in the strictest sense religious only. 

Vows are always taken in the hands of the Superior. 
The ceremony of profession differs in different Orders 
and Congregations : sometimes it takes place privately 
in the Chapter Room, sometimes in church during mass, 
in which, after the vows have been taken, the newly pro- 
fessed person communicates. [See pp. 130, 134, 173.] 



All nuns living under solemn vows are now enclosed; 
that is, they can never leave the precincts of the monas- 
tery where they live. Enclosed nuns do not ever speak 



* De bono viduatate, viii. 9, 10. 

t Cf. p. 63. 

\ S. Gregory alludes to one of his three aunts who abandoned 
her profession and married, in the words oblita consecrationis sui, 
" forgetful of her consecration." 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 41 

with the outside world, except through a grate, called in 
French the grille* A double grille, used by Dominican 
nuns, and even in some modern Benedictine houses, 
consists of two gratings set a few feet one from the 
other; the nun stands behind the further grating, and 
sometimes speaks with her veil drawn over the face, 
or with the grille curtained. Enclosed nuns have no 
locutory or parloir, the room set apart in other religious 
Orders in which persons from outside are received. 
Letters or other objects delivered at an enclosed monas- 
tery are placed on a revolving cylinder, called the 
tourelle. The grille is Dominican, and was introduced 
by S. Dominic. What is described above is papal eti- p apa i en- 
closure. It is however certain that the custom is not closure, 
ancient ; indeed it was never ordered till Boniface VIII. 
issued the Bull Periculoso ordaining the enclosure of 
nuns. The order was however systematically evaded, 
and the custom was finally established in 1545 by the 
Council of Trent (Session 25). Both Boniface and the 
Council of Trent appealed to civil magistrates to compel 
enclosure by force, under pain of excommunication if 
they refused. Historically, however, enclosure formed 
no part of the life of the canonical virgins in the primi- 
tive Church, or of the first cenobites, or of the great 
nuns after Benedict; indeed the life led by all- these 
made such a custom utterly impossible. It is, in fact, 
precisely in those Orders for women which did not arise 
till the xiii. century, that enclosure was accepted "with 
most fervour. f In German Switzerland it may be said 
that papal enclosure has never existed in Benedictine 
abbeys, 4 of which still exist without it ; and in Aus- 
tria it has never been accepted by some of the great 
abbeys. In so celebrated an abbey as S. Pierre at 
Rheims there was no enclosure till 1 602-1 626, when the 
then abbess restored it " according to the norm of the 

* There may be a grate without papal enclosure, but not vice" 
versa. 

t See Franciscans p. 149. Dominicans p. 173. Carmelites p. 
189. 



4* 



CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Nunsgoing 
forth. 



Enclosure 
and the 
canonical 
virgins. 



sacred canons." In the new world, America and Aus- 
tralia, Benedictine enclosure is non-existent. 

Though a French Council in 755 says that "nuns 
must not go forth," the whole authoritative history of 
nuns shows us that they did go forth.* At the end of 
the vi. century, the order for the procession during the 
great plague runs : All the Abbesses with their communi- 
ties (to start) from the church of SS. Peter and Marcel- 
line, with the presbyters of the first region. In 800 
Pope Leo III. was met on his arrival in Rome, " by the 
nuns and deaconesses," and Cancellieri remarks that 
virgins had then no enclosure. In n 12, Paschal II. sent 
the nuns to meet the Emperor Henry V. Chaucer shows 
us Prioresses and nuns joining the common pilgrimage to 
Canterbury in the xiv. century, as they had pilgrimaged 
to Rome in the vm 1 ! 1 . Until the last few years a vestige 
still remained of the old usage ; for on the Feast of Cor- 
pus Christi, the nuns of Nonburg used to walk in the pro- 
cession ; a custom which emulated in the xix. century the 
vi. century procession of S. Gregory, to honour a festival 
which was entirely due to a Benedictine nun of the xm^. 

As enclosure attaches to nuns in their character of con- 
secrated virgins, it is interesting to see that in the early 
Church* the consecrated virgins lived at home. The 
Council of Carthage in the iv. century still speaks of them 
as living with their families ; S. Jerome says some con- 
tinued to dwell at home, and some left. 

It must be remembered that at the time when enclosure 
was enforced by the Council of Trent none of the modern 
teaching and charitable Orders existed, and when Mary 
Ward in the xvn. century proposed to institute an Order 
without enclosure, the reason the pope gave when con- 
demning it, was that she had undertaken a matter beyond 
the powers at the disposition of her sex. It may be 
safely affirmed that no action initiated by Catholics since 
the Reformation has done so much to show the resources 
and spirit of Christian charity, or to win respect for 

* Similar decrees say that abbats must not go forth, and they 
must not be taken as implying enclosure in the modern sense. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 43 

Catholicism, as the institution of the unenclosed congrega- 
tions for women. It is indeed in part because the hands 
of the nuns of the West were tied by enclosure, that the 
modern congregations multiplied apace. 

Among monks the Carthusians and Trappists are en- Enclosure 
closed, and never leave the precincts of the monastery amon e 

, 1 i • r i men. 

except when ordered to journey from one monastery to 
another. Otherwise enclosure among men principally 
refers to the absolute prohibition to receive members* 
of the other sex into the monastery. Men can easily 
obtain permission to visit the monks in the enclosed 
portions of the house. 

Every religious house is enclosed ; that is persons from " Episcopal 
outside may not enter certain portions, which are the enclosure - 
dormitory and refectory, with their precincts, and the 
choir, without permission from the competent authority. 
This enclosure is a disposition made by the Diocesan. 
But the only canonical enclosure* is the papal enclosure 
described above, which brings the subject of it under 
canon law. 

Against princes and princesses of the blood there is no 
enclosure. 

A ■ canonically erected house ' means one that is Canonical- 
recognised by the Church as under an acknowledged ^^5^ 
rule. 

Where there is no enclosure, nuns and monks may go Monks and 
out when necessary, and in obedience to the superior. nuns with " 

For the form of strict enclosure which has always existed closure. 
in hermit Orders, see p. 102. Hermits. 

The rules regarding the property of intending monks p roper ty 
and nuns vary slightly : all make a will before their final and dowry, 
profession, and they may leave their property as they like. 
But by canon law a nun is bound to bring a dowry with 
her to the monastery. In England the sum usually re- 
quired, but with so many exceptions as not to form a rule, 
is ;£iooo, in Italy 5000 francs, or even so small a sum 
as 1000 francs (^40) is accepted. The rest of her prop- 
erty she may dispose as she likes, but in many cases the 
natural interest of monk or nun in their monastery leads 



44 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

them to bequeath all they have to it. At first, neverthe- 
less, when a monk and nun divested themselves of their 
property, it usually went to benefit their relations or the 
poor. 

No dowry is required of men, and the dowry for women 
is designed as a means of support for the enclosed nun. 
In self-supporting congregations, such as tuitional Orders, 
no dowry is necessary, the work of the Religious is the 
dowry she brings to the House. Poverty is not, however, 
a barrier to the admission of a Benedictine nun. 

Govern- The earliest form of government is that by an abbat, 

ment of ^g ru ] er Q f a house of monks ; the Rule of Benedict did 
not contemplate an abbat ruling in chief over several mon- 
By an asteries. Benedictine Congregations are now governed 

Abbat. by an abbat general, separate abbeys by an abbat. Each 

congregation, until recently, was divided into provinces, 
all the houses in a province being under a Provincial. 
Benedictine nuns are ruled by an abbess, each house being 
entirely independent, even though possessing identical 
statutes ; there are no Provincials. 
By a Carmelites, Franciscans, and Dominicans have always 

General. been governed by a Father General, who is superior in 
chief over the whole Order ; the Order being divided into 
provinces under Provincials. Modern congregations, like 
the Jesuits, are also governed by a General. A " Mother 
General " is a modern title ; nearly all modern congrega- 
tions of women, including regular Tertiaries, are governed 
by a Mother General. The head of the separate houses of 
unenclosed communities are called Superiors. Augustin- 
ians (men) are governed by a Prior General, or other 
Superior General; the nuns are ruled by an abbess, a 
prioress, or a Superior. Regular Canons are ruled by a 
Prior General and Provincials. As a general rule, there- 
fore, monks and nuns (Benedictines) live in abbeys ; friars 
and Canons Regular (men and women) in priories. But 
there are abbeys of Franciscan and of Augustinian nuns ; 
and there are no Franciscan priories. The houses of Terti- 
aries and Oblates have, properly, no designation. 



ORIGIX OF MONASTICISM 45 

A certain amount of control has always been exercised Episcopal 
over the abbat or other superior and over the monastery, contro1 - 
by the bishop. Hormisdas (514) restricted their power 
to that of simple visitation* The attempt to consolidate 
episcopal jurisdiction over the monks was made during 
the v. and VI. centuries. In the vn. century there was a 
settled formula of compact with the bishop, designed to 
limit his interference and cupidity : the bishop was to be 
anathema and excommunicate for 3 years if he broke the 
compact. S. Boniface was one of the first to remove a 
monastery, that of Fulda in Germany, from episcopal con- 
trol, and place it under direct papal jurisdiction.! Char- 
lemagne's policy was to diminish ecclesiastical authority, 
and he substituted the emperor for the pope in final 
appeals. In England the bishop's authority was never 
more than nominal. The exemption of the religious Orders 
from episcopal control in the late middle ages caused 
much heart burning. Especially were the Mendicant 
Friars free of this control. 

In the West the centralising authority of the papacy 
took the place to a certain extent of that episcopal con- 
trol which was lacking in both East and West. Certain 
Benedictine Congregations are exempt from the bishop's 
authority, a distinction noted in the form of the vow. 
Benedictine nuns are under the supervision of the Diocesan 
unless exempted. The example of S. Boniface has been Papal juris- 
frequently followed since, and adopted by many congre- dlctlon - 
gations ; so that over some the bishop has only the right 
of simple visitation, and the congregations are directly 
subject to the Holy See. 

Abbats, but not Abbesses, are bound to pay the visit AWwt's 
ad limina. The Abbat of S. Alban's in the time of Inno- YTmnii 
cent III. had to pay this visit every 3 years, which en- 
tailed much disorder and expense on the monastery. 

Orders are governed not only by the Superior General, Chapter. 

* This exemption was obtained by S. Cesarius for the Nunnery 
at Aries. 

t A double monastery at Yienne obtained exemption in the middle 
of the vii. century. 



46 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Generals 
to reside 
in Rome. 



Legal 
status of 
the monas- 
teries. 



but by means of General Chapters. The first Chapter 
General was held at Citeaux in 1119. The Carthusians 
in 1 141 held one in imitation. In 12 15 the Lateran 
Council made the convocation of Chapters General obli- 
gatory on all Orders. They are generally held at the 
Mother House of the Order. 

E/ery integral Order has a Procurator General who 
represents its interests, and resides at a Procura of his 
Order in Rome ; and a Secretary General for the affairs of 
the whole Order. The present pope has required the 
Generals of men's Orders to reside in Rome ; but this 
does not include all the Clerks Regular, or the Generals of 
Ecclesiastical Congregations. 

On June 19, 1866, the Chamber of Deputies at Flor- 
ence (which was then the capital of United Italy) passed 
a law suppressing the monasteries. By this law every 
monastery in Italy was to cease to exist as a corporate 
body, all its property was confiscated, the more celebrated 
houses were declared national monuments, * and others 
were to be converted into hospitals, infant asylums, and 
schools. If they were not so appropriated at the expira- 
tion of one year, their revenue was to form part of the 
fondo per il culto, or fund for public worship. The monks 
and nuns were in many cases allowed to remain for a 
term of years, or until they dwindled to a specified num- 
ber, f on condition always that no new novices were 
accepted ; a law which was evaded by sending for Re- 
ligious from other houses. The monks and nuns, whether 
turned out from their monasteries or remaining there 
conditionally were to be pensioned at rates varying from 
150 to 600 francs (^6-^24) a year : the lay brethren of 
Mendicant Orders receive 150, priests 300 ; lay brethren 
of monastic Orders 300, choir monks 600. Nuns in en- 
closed Orders 600, lay sisters 300. The pensions only 

* No voice was raised to preserve even Monte Cassino, or the 
Certosa at Pavia. 

t Since the suppression some 300 have been abandoned, in 
many cases by concentrating the Religious in one monastery. 






ORIGIN OF M0NAST1CISM 47 

apply to those who were in the convent before 1870 ; and 
are therefore a continually diminishing sum.* The entire 
revenues escheated to the Crown, part going to form the 
1 Fund for public worship ' out of which the pensions of 
monks, income of incumbents, revenues of diocesans, 
repair of ecclesiastical fabrics, and similar expenses are 
paid, f Exemption from confiscation was urged, but in 
vain, in favour of the historic Camaldoli in Tuscany, the 
Sisters of Charity, and the Fate-bene-Fratelli. By this 
law " Religious Orders, corporations, and congregations, 
regular and secular, as also conservatories and asylums 
which maintain the community life, and have the ecclesi- 
astical character, are no longer recognised in the State." 
They have no legal tenure, it is illegal to profess a monk 
or nun in any House which falls under this law, and new 
monasteries can no longer be held in the name of the 
community. X Some Religious stay on in charge of 
schools and asylums, others as custodians of Houses 
declared national monuments. The Archives however 
have been removed to the public libraries. 

Religious communities have multiplied enormously increase of 
since the Suppression. There is scarcely a street of im- Re'igious 
portance in Rome without a convent, and this applies to ties"!™ 1 " 1 
the new quarter as well as to the well known monasteries Rome. 
in the old quarters. The number indeed is a constantly 
increasing one. 

The old Orders have some 100 monasteries, 72 of men, Numbers. 
and 28 enclosed houses of nuns. § The active Sister- 

* These pensions amount (1899) to 4,412,000 francs a year; 
distributed among 13,875 Religious. 

t This Fund is disbursed through the Ministry di Grazia, Gius- 
tizia e Culio. 

\ They are therefore always purchased in the name of a private 
person. 

§ Men: Benedictines ('White' and 'Black,' Monks and Her- 
mits) 16. Canons 4. Eastern Monks (3 Basilian) 5. Francis- 
cans 23. Dominicans 11. Augustinians 5. Carmelites 8. 

For Enclosed nuns, refer to Chaps. II., III., and IV. For 
the semi-enclosed communities, refer to Chap. V., p. 285 and 
p. 286; and Chap. IV., Oblates. 



monastic 
Rome 



48 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

hoods, with Franciscan and Dominican Tertiaries, have 
130 houses, including their residences at 8 public 
hospitals of which they have the charge ; while semi- 
enclosed Communities and Oblates have 18 houses 
more. Regular Clerks and other ecclesiastical congre- 
gations have 70 houses in Rome. A total of some 
336. These 336 represent 191 monastic and Religious 
congregations, and 175 Orders,* 100 of women and 75 
of men — or 175 different Religious habits to be dis- 
tinguished in the streets. Some 18 of these are 
however never seen, because they are worn by strictly 
enclosed nuns ; and some 34, being Congregations of 
Clerks, wear a dress hardly distinguishable from that of 
ordinary secular priests. Fifteen more, observing a semi- 
enclosure, virtually never go out f — thus leaving about 
108 habits constantly to be met with in the streets of Rome. 
Comers of Of the monasteries in which the historic Orders live, 53 
of the old Houses are still occupied by monks and friars ; 
and the nuns have 19 old monastic sites, most of which 
date from the xvi. century. The rest are new. Several 
Communities of women, also, occupy one ancient build- 
ing : S. Pudenziana 3 ; S. Bernardino da Siena 3 ; S. 
Cecilia 2 ; SS. Quattro Incoronati 2. 

Some of the old quarters of Rome are nests of monas- 
tic dwellings — such is the Suburra, between the slopes 
of the Quirinal and the Esquiline ; some portions of Traste- 
vere, and the Celian hill : while clusters of monasteries 
were grouped round the Lateran, S. Maria Maggiore, and 
the Vatican, many of which still remain. As a rule noth- 
ing conveys to the visitor their monastic importance ; a 
small unpretentious door, in a narrow vicolo, is often the 
only entrance to one of these old busy centres of life. 
If you are privileged to ring the bell, the door is jerked 
open from above, and you find your way upstairs to the 
tourelle, and thence after inquiries made, to the grille. 

* There are 34 congregations of enclosed nuns, living in 28 
monasteries, and representing 18 Orders, though the congregations 
are not interdependent. See pp. 90, 216. 
t See footnote § to the last page. 



OKIGIX OF MONASTICISM 49 

The initials of the Benedictine Order are: — Black Initials of 
Benedictines O. S. B. {Order ofS. Benedict) ; Cistercians gongre^ 
O. Cist. ; Trappists O. C. R. (Order of Reformed Cister- tions. 
cians). Other monks write the first letters of their Order, 
as Cart. Carthusian ; Vail. Vallambrosan. Franciscans : 
O. M. {Ordo Minor um, recently changed from O. S. F.) ; 
Capuchins O. M. Cap. (from O. S. F. C.) ; Conventuals 
O. M. Conv. Dominicans : O. P. ( Order of Preachers, 
Ordo Praedicatorum) and O. S. D. (the latter usually 
for women) ; Carmelites : Carm. Calc. and Carm. excal. 
(' Calced ' and ' Discalced ') ; Augustinians : O. S. A. ; 
Servites : O. S. M. (Order of the Servites of Mary) ; Lat- 
eran Canons Regular : C. R. L. ; Premonstratensian Can- 
ons : C. R. P.; Jesuits: S. J. {Society of Jesus, Societas 
Jesu) ; Redemptorists : C. SS. R. (Congregation of the 
Most Holy Redeemer) ; Passionists : C. P. (Congregation 
of the Passion) ; Marists : S. M. {Societas Mariae) ; Ob- 
lates of Mary Immaculate : O. M. I. Congregation of 
the Mission (Vincentians) : CM.; Sulpicians : P. S. S. 
(priest of S'. Sulpice) ; Pious Society of Missions (Pal- 
lottini) : P. S. M. ; Rosminians : Inst. Ch. (Institute of 
Charity). Several congregations add the entire word to 
their name, ex. gr. ' A. B. Barnabite.' 

A consecrated Abbat or Abbess is addressed with the Style and 
episcopal style of Right Reverend. Abbats and Abbesses tltles of 
elected for a period are Very Reverend. A consecrated Religious. 
Abbat is Lord Abbat, but some abbats prefer the title 
Father. A consecrated Abbess is Lady Abbess (Madame 
l'Abbesse) ; an abbess elected for a period and Franciscan 
abbesses are Mother Abbess. An abbat elected for a 
period is Father Abbat. 

A Prioress of Dominican nuns is Lady Prioress (Sig- 
nora Priora), oftener Mother Prioress (Madre Priora) ; a 
Prior is Father Prior. Other Prioresses are Mother 
Prioress. 

The Superior General of any Order or Congregation is 
Very Reverend ; but in Italy he or she is Rcverendissi- 
mus, a, Most Reverend, a distinction not rendered in 



50 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Dom and 
Dame. 



Fra. 



English. The style Molto Reverende, Very Reverend, is 
that of superiors below the Superior General, as the 
Superior of a house, Prior under an abbat, etc. The 
Franciscans have an intermediate title Molto Reverende 
Molto. All these titles apply to both men and women. 

Benedictine monks are always addressed as Dom, 
Benedictine nuns as Dame (Italian Donna), in all houses 
ruled by an abbess. Domnus, Domna, used to be the 
title of the abbat and abbess only, later of all monks and 
nuns ; and this prefix, an abbreviation of Domnus, is the 
proper and exclusive title of all Benedictines, the only 
monks of the West. In Gregory the Great's letters he 
styles laymen domnus, and women domna. All friars 
and monks in ecclesiastical orders are Reverend. The 
proper style of Augustinians, Franciscans, Dominicans, 
Carmelites, Trinitarians, Servites — of all Mendicants* 
— is Fra ; but the fact that the friars are nearly all 
priests has made it usual to call them padre, Father, 
and to retain fra for lay brethren. All simple nuns, 
other than Benedictine, as Franciscans, Carmelites, Do- 
minicans, Augustinians, Servites, as well as the Sisters of 
all other Congregations are called Sister (Suora). Friars 
of the above 5 Orders, are Brother {Fra), but if priests, 
Father. And Father is the proper title of all Clerks 
Regular. In some modern Congregations not only the 
Superior, but all the Religious, have the title of Mother; 
this is the case especially in Congregations having the 
Jesuit Rule. 



Prelate- 
deputy of 
the Roman 
monaster- 
ies. 



The monasteries have a deputato ecclesiastico, not a 
member of their Order, who represents them at the 
Vatican. Any prelate may be nominated to represent 
one or more Religious houses. The larger number of 
Roman monasteries were represented by Monsignor Ac- 
coramboni, Archbishop of Heliopolis and Canon of the 
Lateran, who died in May, 1899. 



* Of all, that is, described in Chap. III. and in Chap. IV. from 
p. 214. 



ORIGIN OF MONASTICISM 



5* 



Every great Order of men has its Secretary General for Officers for 
the affairs of the whole order, its Definitors who form the th ee xter n al 
Council of the Superior General, and its Postulator who Orders. 
1 postulates ' the cause of its saints, and whose special 
field therefore is its hagiography. 

An Order has besides its Procurator, who upholds its Procurator, 
interests in Rome, where each Order has a General Pro- 
cura, the residence of this officer. 

Every Order of men, except the Black Benedictines, 
has a Superior General who rules the whole Order: most 
great Orders are distributed in Provinces, or national 
centres, ruled by Provincials. 

Cloistered nuns, as the Franciscans, Carmelites, and 
Dominicans have no Superior General, and in conse- 
quence no Mother-house : in the case of the Dominicans 
the nuns are under the Order of Friars Preachers; in the 
case of abbeys of Black Benedictines and of Cistercians, 
the houses are each separate and independent; the 
abbess being the sole Superior. 

There are only 4 Rules in the Church : (a) the Rule The Rules 
of S. Basil, (b) of S. Benedict, (V) of S. Augustine, (d) of ° f h *e h 
S. Francis. All Religious Orders must follow one of these 
four rules. The 5 great Orders in the Western Church 
(excluding the* Basilians) are: (1) The Augustinian, 
(2) Benedictine, (3) Carmelite, (4) Franciscan, (5) Do- 
minican. These are divided into an Order of Monks and 
Orders of Friars, or Monastic and Mendicant Orders. 
The only Monastic Order of the West is the Benedic- 
tine. Since the Council of Trent there have been no 
new Orders, all other religious bodies being simply Relig- 
ious Congregations. But there are other Foundations 
long previous to the Council of Trent, which are also 
Orders, and are affiliated to 1 of the 4 great Rules : 
Thus there is the Trinitarian and Servite Order. The 
divisions of great Orders like the Benedictine, Augustin- 
ian, Franciscan, are also Orders : ' The Cistercian 
Order,' ' Order of Capuchins,' ' Order of S. Clare.' 



CHAPTER II. 

MONKS. 

s. Benedict and the Benedictines— the Monastery, how 

built and governed — Rule of S. Basil — Basilians and Anlo- 
nians — the Rule of S. Benedict — the noviciate — lay brethren 

— Oblales — greatness of the Benedictines — Benedictine nuns 

— Benedictine canonesses — the laus perennis — the Black Bene- 
dictines — Branches of the Benedictines : Cluny, Cistercians, 
Camaldolese, Vallombrosans, Carthusians, Sylvestrians, Olivet- 
ans, Oblales of S. Francesca Romana, Trappists, Bridgettines 
— Extinct Benedictine congregations — Saints of the order and 
their Emblems. 

Consecration of an abbat and abbess — Profession of nun and monk. 

The word monastery * rightly denotes the dwelling house 
of monks and nuns, the word convent the community 
itself. In Italy nunneries are always called monasteria, 
while convent is more usually employed for the dwellings 
of monks ; the reverse is the case in France and Eng- 
land. The idea of a Benedictine monastery is that every- 
thing essential should be contained within its enclosure ; 
well, mill, bakehouse, workshops. One great wall sur- 
rounded the buildings, and one gate gave access to them. 
The first consideration of a monastic dwelling was, and 
is, the church, which lay to the north and protected the 
cloister built on the south side. Round the church were 
grouped the monastery buildings. These consisted of a 

* The abode of a solitary; /jJtyot, alone. Among the Therapeutae 
it was the name of each solitary cell; and Cassian records this 
meaning. Ccenobium on the contrary is the name for the dwelling 
of several monks or nuns, and denotes the manner of life, while the 
former word signifies the place only. 

52 



MONKS 53 

dormitory, refectory, cloister, chapter house, and grounds, 
with other rooms and offices ; the cellar, wardrobe, infirm- 
ary, and guest house, all of which are mentioned by S. 
Benedict. 

The dormitory was a long room in which all the Relig- Dormitory. 
ious slept. It was not till the xiv. century that separate 
cells were generally introduced, and a dormitory now 
consists of a wide corridor on either side of which open 
the cells of the monks. Separate cells were adopted at 
Lerins as early as the vi. century ; but the Cistercians 
have a common dormitory to the present day. 

The refectory is the dining hall ; narrow wooden tables Refectory, 
run along 3 sides of it, the parallel tables for the Religious, 
the transverse table for the superior, his or her abbatial 
or episcopal guests,* and perhaps the Prior or Prioress. 
A pulpit placed on one side serves for the lector who 
reads during the refection. 

The cloister is a quadrilateral roofed portico, built Cloister, 
round an open space, or grass courtyard, in the centre 
of which is the convent well. The original courtyard 
was utilised by roofing in this running portico, thus 
affording space, light and air, where the monks could 
see to work, and where exercise could be taken in bad 
weather. The life of the monastery centres in the clois- 
ter, it is the common workroom, and work is the great 
business of the monk. Here was carried on the studious 
activity of the later middle ages, here MSS. were copied, 
repaired, and studied, and here the wonderful examples 
of illuminated vellums were wrought. Important as it is, 
the cloister did not appear till late; /Ethelwold's Con- 
cordia (x. century) says monks are to sit here and read 
after terce and mass ; but in Rome the earliest are of the 
xii. century. The work of a monastery before this was 
done in the monks' common room, in the scriptorium scripto- 
attached to every abbey, or in the codex-room or library, rium. 
which is mentioned as part of a iv. century monastery in Library. 
Africa, and as part of a vi. century monastery in Gaul.f 

* At an abbess's table, none but another abbess. 

f See pp. 28, 217. • 



54 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

The cloister was often beautifully decorated with twisted 
pillars, inlaid with mosaic work, forming arches or 
unglazed windows, underneath which ran a continuous 
stone seat. It is these lovely cloisters which can still 
be admired all over Europe, in Spain at the Escurial, 
in Rome at the Lateran and S. Paul's outside the 
walls. 
Chapter The Chapter house is a room or hall — not to be con- 

house, founded with the chapter house of secular canons adja- 

cent to their cathedral, though their origin is the same — 
in which the Rule is read, and where the community 
assembles to transact all monastic business, such as nomi- 
nations and elections.* The martyrology and rest of 
Prime is recited in the Chapter house. Here, too, the 
monks meet once a week for the ' Chapter of faults ' ; a 
painting over the abbat's seat in the Chapter house of 
Mont' Oliveto alludes to this in the scene of Christ's judg- 
ment : " Let him that is without sin among you first cast 
a stone at her." 

Besides these rooms, there is a common room for the 
monks, apartments for the abbat and past-abbat leading 
from the dormitory, a room Where guests are received 
called locutory or parlour, the wardrobe, mentioned by 
both Augustine and Csesarius of Aries, the offices — 
kitchen, pantry, and cellarer's offices — and, not least 
important, the wing set apart for guests, called in Italy 
the foresteria. 

Early Western monasteries were far less magnificent 
and complete than those in the East : it is said that the 
' monastery ' built by Paulinus of Nola in the early v. 
century had its walls decorated with biblical subjects, but 
in England Wearmouth and Jarrow were probably the 
first monastic houses built of stone, and with sacred art 
adornments ; and the first glass introduced into England 
was sent for to Italy by Benedict Biscop to decorate these 
monasteries.! 

* The election of life abbats and abbesses, however, takes place 
in the choir of the church. 

t Wearmouth : " the monastery of Blessed Peter the Apostle, by 



MONKS 



55 



Very different was the great monastery of Etchmiadzin, 
founded in 302 by Gregory the Illuminator, the Apostle 
of Armenia, and surrounded by a battlemented wall, one 
mile in extent. It formed a veritable township of work- 
shops, and included a bazaar where the monastic produce 
was sold. The Armenian Patriarch and other dignitaries 
had apartments, each monk his cell, and a guest house 
opened on a separate courtyard. The summer and winter 
refectories were constructed with a long narrow table 



Guest House 



School 



Abbat's Lodging 



* 



Dormitory 



Great 
Court 



Over it 
Vestiarium. . 

or Wardrobe. 



which ran between 2 stone benches ; a throne for the 
Patriarch, a pulpit for the reader.* Ancient monasteries 
on the Nitrian Lake still show us high walls of immense 
thickness, with only one entry, and no windows, enclos- 
ing gardens, orchards, and several churches. The Day'r 
Antonias, or Monastery of S. Antony, built over his cave, 
is the largest in Egypt, and contains 4 churches; the 
refectory is arranged as at Etchmiadzin. 

In the West a perfect specimen of early monastic 
architecture was the monastery of S. Gall as it existed in 
the ix. century. Its arrangement can be seen from the 
annexed diagram. On the further side of the church 

the mouth of the river Wear ; " Jarrmo : Bede's monastery. Both 
vii. century foundations. 

* The antiquity of the custom of observing strict silence during 
meals — enforced by another custom, the pious lection — is shown 
by these early refectories, and is mentioned by Pachomius, Augus- 
tine, and Cassian, who traces it to Cappadocia. 



56 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

was the school, on either side of which were the abbat's 
lodging, and the guest house. Dom Pitra has shown 
that besides the school for externs, there was a second 
school within the monastery for the young monks. The 
principal duty of monks and nuns being the recitation of 

Monastic the Divine office, the necessities of the monastic choir 

church modified church architecture to a considerable extent. 

ture.' teC * The choir is much longer in proportion to the nave ; an 
arrangement which resembles the ancient basilical divi- 
sion of the upper end of the church into bema and 
schola.* In a Gothic church the monks' stalls extend 
along each side of the presbytery, but in many basilicas 
these stalls are placed behind the high altar. In the 
Abbey aux Dames at Caen the church is divided into 
two by the great altar, the nave stretches in front, the 
choir of the nuns behind.f The word Chorus is hung 
up, in alternate weeks, on one or other side of the choir, 
and indicates which side the hebdomadary sits, and the 
Office is to commence. 

The abbey. The abbey is special to Benedictine foundations, the 
abbeys of Franciscan and Augustinian nuns being named 
in imitation of these. The life of the convent, it must be 
remembered, was substituted for that of the family, and 
the convent is God's family. The monastery is the house 
of God, and even its commonest utensils are holy things. 
The head of the religious family is the abbat {Abba, 
father, Latin abbas). \ Under him is the Prior. The 

Its officers, other officers are the subprior, master of novices, cellarer, 
gate keeper, and sacrist. Each of these officers, even 

* According to Ducange it is the narlhex which has been differ- 
ently treated in monastic churches. Here, he says, the church was 
divided into a screened-off bema ; a nave, again railed off as the 
monks' choir; and a narlhex which was within the portals of the 
church, and intended for the people. 

t Dominican churches are distinguished by the width of the nave 
and the smallness of the transepts; to admit of large crowds assist- 
ing at the oratory of the Friars Preachers. 

% An abbat may also be Abbat-general of a Congregation and 
its branches, or of an abbey and its dependencies. See p. 44. 
The dependencies were sometimes called cells of an abbey. 






MONKS 



57 



as early as the vi. century, received the keys of their 
department on the Gospels. 

Though Antony and Pachomius were both called abbat, The abbat. 
the final form of the office was impressed on it by Bene- 
dict. The abbat is elected by the community, who there- 
after owe him absolute obedience. He is himself the 
subject of the Rule which he in common with his monks 
professes. Where the rule does not provide, the abbat 
himself is the rule ; he is also the arbiter of the daily life 
of each single monk — where he shall go, how long he 
shall remain, in what occupations he shall be employed. 
As the office grew in importance, further powers were 
exercised. The abbat excommunicated (a) from the 
table (o) from the church. He conferred minor orders 
not only on his monks but on laymen ; and faculties 
for conferring minor orders were confirmed to abbats 
by the Council of Trent. It is about the time that the 
latter function was first exercised, that a Roman council, 
827, requires the abbat to be in priest's orders. Abbats 
were not only convoked to ecclesiastical synods, but in 
the ix. century were the predominating element. The 
first abbatial signature to a church council is of a.d 653.* 
In some places the abbatial dignity carries with it episco- 
pal jurisdiction : the abbat of Monte Cassino is ex officio 
Bishop of Monte Cassino, though he receives no episco- 
pal consecration. He has the style, dignity and jurisdic- 
tion of a bishop, but cannot confer the major orders. 

Like the abbat the abbess is the first subject of the The 
Rule, and is expected to be its most literal exponent. abbess - 
Her will is law ; and after she is elected, there is no 
appeal from her within the community. She however is 
expected to seek the counsel of her nuns, a provision 
already made by S. Benedict for abbats. In the vn. vm. 
and following centuries abbesses attained a very eminent 
position. They attended ecclesiastical synods and at- 
tested their decrees. The first of these synods at which 

* Abbats having episcopal jurisdiction are still summoned to 
oecumenical Councils. For abbatial signatures cf. also infra p. 58, 
footnote. 



58 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

abbesses assisted is said to have been Beckenham in Kent 
in 694.* They were summoned to the diet of their 
country, as holders of baronial fiefs and " Lords Spirit- 
ual " ; t and that they usually performed this duty in 
person results from a clause in an vm. century Frankish 
council which says that the abbess shall not quit the pre- 
cincts of the abbey, except once a year when summoned 
by the sovereign. In the vn. century they issued sen- 
tences of excommunication ; and the prohibition made 
by Charlemagne at the end of the vm'! 1 shows that some 
abbesses then ordained, and imparted the blessing. Some 
Spanish abbesses claimed to hear, and habitually heard, 
the confessions of their subjects. The jurisdiction of an 
abbess at times extended over as many as 12 other mon- 
asteries, and in such cases she convened and presided 
over General Chapters. In England she was present at 
all national solemnities ; and abbat and abbess shared 
alike with the King the wer of the murdered foreigner. 
In the x. and xi. centuries the abbesses of the great 
Anglo-Saxon houses were not only in constant contact 
with the Court but exerted their influence on the politics 
of the country. Indeed the power of the abbesses was 
almost regal ; they treated with kings as equals, and " had 
an authority rivalling that of the most venerated bishops 
and abbats."J At the same epoch the abbess of Qued- 
linburg held for some time the reins of government for 
her nephew Otho III., and summoned a diet of the 
kingdom in the year 999. 
Conse- A consecrated abbat or abbess is thereby constituted 

mitred and SD abbat ° T abbeSS for life ' the y haVe the St >' le Snd titular 

abbats. privileges of bishops. They wear the episcopal cross and 

* Montalembert cites the signatures attached to these decrees, 
which guarantee the inviolability of the property and liberties of 
the Church: the King, Queen, Archbishop, bishops, 2 nobles, and 
7 priests, with 5 abbesses, sign ; there are no abbats. The abbesses 
are Mildred, Etheldrid, Aeta, Wilnoda, Hereswida. 

t In England the 4 abbesses of Barking, Shaftesbury, Winchester, 
and Wilton, were summoned to Parliament as Peers in the reigns of 
Henry III. and Edward II. 

J Montalembert. 



MONKS 



59 



ring, and cany the pastoral staff. The staff is borne with 
the crook turned inwards instead of outwards, to signify 
that their jurisdiction extends only over their own flock. 
Any abbat may wear a mitre, but a mitred abbat, or abbas 
de mitrd, technically means an abbat with episcopal juris- 
diction.* It is disputed whether there were ever mitred 
abbesses, but as at the time when mitres were first worn 
the Countess Matilda and other great personages wore 
them, it is more than probable that the great abbesses 
did also. A mitre was first granted to the Abbat of 
Cluny by Bull of Urban II. in io88.f In 1049 the Abbat 
of Monte Cassino wore dalmatic, buskins, and gloves, at 
solemn mass, and this was also the rule at Cluny for the 
5 great festivals of the year. The privilege of the buskins 
is still confined to certain abbats. An abbat or abbess, 
though not consecrated, may have the crozier, cross and 
ring. The office is generally triennial in the case of non- 
consecrated abbats and abbesses. 

The prior is appointed by the abbat, whose lieutenant 
he is ; he rules the house as the abbat rules the com- 
munity. He watches over the conduct of the monks, 
and has charge of their temporal concerns ; he superin- 
tends their field labour and recreation, and can enforce 
the lesser excommunication ' from table.' He is the first 
to rise, the last to retire to the dormitory. The claustral 
prioress had to whip disobedient nuns. The conventual 
Prior or Prioress is an officer of later date than the last- 
named : he or she is the independent ruler of a priory, 
or branch house founded from an abbey. Under them 
is a subprior or subprioress, appointed by themselves, who Subprior. 
acts as their lieutenant. The title of Prior succeeded that 
of Provost (Praepositus, Praeposita) , and was not used 
before the time of Celestine V. (1294). 

For the Master 0/ Novices see infra p. 76. 

Next in importance is the cellarer, who not only has Cellarer, 
charge of the pantry and cellar, but controls all secular 
affairs, under the abbat. J The gatekeeper's business is 

* See p. 126. f See mitre, Part II. p. no. 

X The cellarer is mentioned in the iv. century by Augustine. 



Prior and 

Prioress 

(claustral). 



Conventual 
Prior. 



Gate- 

keepet. 



6o CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Sacrist. 



Hebdoma- 
dary. 



The simple 
monk and 



Food. 



to prevent monks issuing forth, and to admit strangers. 
S. Benedict says he is to have his cell by the gate. He 
was the link between the monastery and the world, and 
was a personage always carefully chosen. Curiously 
enough in the Thebaid this lowly and semi-secular office 
was filled by a presbyter ; it is now held by a lay brother. 
Among nuns the gatekeeper was called the ostiaria. The 
Sacrist has charge of the church vessels and vestments, 
prepares the church, and sees that the bell is rung for 
the Offices. He also superintends the tailors and indoor 
workpeople, and sees to the repairing of the monks' 
clothes. A periodical officer, the hebdomadary, is ap- 
pointed for a week, and his charge is to prepare the 
books for the Divine Office and commence the Office 
each day. The monk who took his turn as cook for a 
week, had the same title. In the vi. century Rule of 
Ferreolus the abbat himself is required to cook the dinner 
on Christmas day, Pentecost, and the Founder's day. 
The lector who reads during meals is also called heb- 
domadary ; in fact this is the name of all offices dis- 
charged for a week in rotation. 

Besides these offices, there are also those of infirma- 
rian or hospitaller, and of Dean; in the great feudal 
monasteries the granatarius received the yearly corn 
harvest and kept the farm stock.* 

The monk having freely elected his superior falls com- 
pletely under his will. He possesses nothing of his own, 
not even his clothes, which are given out to him by a 
monk set over this duty. The Rule of Columban orders 
6 lashes for the offence of calling anything meum or tuum. 
The monk may receive no presents, the letters he receives 
are presented to him open, and he places the letters he 
writes open into the monastery postbox. The superior, 
however, is bound to be the recipient of his complaints 
and to transmit these to the ecclesiastical superior, to 
whom also the monk may always address a sealed letter. 
The diet of monks is chiefly vegetable, and two meals a 

* See p. 28 and Pt. IV.; for Provost pp. 28, 206; and for the 
monk or nun set over the wardrobe p. 482. 



MONKS 6 1 

day are allowed. The early solitaries probably ate one 
meal only, a rule of the Therapeutse and of Pachomius. 
In the /auras bread (really a biscuit cake) and water was 
the sole diet.* Most Rules forbid flesh meat, some ob- 
serve a fast the greater part of the year, and some fast 
the whole year round. As a rule no meat may come into 
the refectory. Benedict sanctioned a better diet, and 
both he and Basil permit the use of wine. Benedict of 
Aniane's reform in the vm. century prescribes that only 
uncooked food, as fruits and salad, be eaten. 

As the use of the bath was habitual at the time when Washing, 
monachism had its rise, it must be supposed that the as- 
cetics from the first set themselves against cleanliness, and 
the great nun Sylvia (sister of Rufinus the minister of 
Arcadius) expresses a general state of things when she 
tells us that she had not washed for 60 years, except the 
tips of her fingers in order to take the Eucharist. In the 
middle ages the extravagances of the cult of dirt abound, 
and Isaac Disraeli has some quaint instances in the " Cu- 
riosities of Literature." In the last century S. Benedict 
Joseph Labre sublimated the cult, was in fact dirty in 
an heroic degree. Bathing for women is denounced by 
Jerome, doubtless at a time when such a practice had long 
been unfamiliar to monks ; at the same date S. Augustine 
mentions a bath once a month as customary for nuns in 
Africa. By Benedict of Aniane the matter is left to the 
discretion of the prior ; while by other Rules it is only 
permitted to the sick. But Radegund is said to have built 
baths at her monastery of S* Croix in the vi. century. 
The only Order which enforces cleanliness is the Carmel- 
ite, S. Theresa having enjoined it in her Constitutions.! 
It is remarkable that none of the great founders, save her- 

* Hilarion declined to eat a fowl at the table of the Bishop 
Epiphanius, because he had never tasted aught with life. "And 
I," said Epiphanius, " have never suffered anyone to retire to rest 
with aught against me in his heart, or laid down to sleep in discord 
with anyone." " Forgive me," said the great solitary, ". . . thou 
hast followed a better rule than I." 

t It is not however the Carmelites who are foremost at the present 
day in its practice. 



62 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

self, recognised the civilising effects of personal cleanli- 
ness, and its value as a tutor of self-respect ; the paralysing 
relation between early monasticism and manichaeanism 
led them astray, and they never advocate such a treatment 
of the body as should teach it to be, not the unworthy 
slave, but in S. Catherine's words, " the disciple of the 
soul." 

The usual penalty for default was flogging, the ex- 
treme penalty expulsion. Columban orders ioo lashes 
for comparatively small offences. Imprisonment in the 
cell and fasting, and a slap or buffet were penalties for 
both men and women. The Rule of Ferreolus orders 
30 days' silence for the sin of railing ; and idleness, 
thoughtless words and murmuring are punished with 
imprisonment and stripes. Cassian says that for slight 
offences, as being late, the monk is to prostrate or make 
genuflections till ordered to stop. The prostration, or 
venia, is the most frequent penance now. 

Monks and nuns have grown up, and are no longer 
slapped and beaten ; but about the xi. century voluntary 
scourging as a part of monastic discipline, was introduced, 
it is said by Peter Damian. From the constant use of the 
scourge, discipline came to mean flogging, and to " take 
the discipline " still has this meaning. 

The monks, curiously enough, enjoyed in an extra- 
the loosing ordinary degree the loosing power. John Damascene 
power. .^ ^ ^ cen t ur y had maintained that ' high priests ' 

{i.e. bishops) had alone possessed the power to bind and 
loose, in succession from the apostles ; but as time went 
on " the power descended to the elect people of God, 
I mean the monks." Hence Mabillon cites instances of 
monks excommunicating lay persons ; and in Chaucer's 
time reserved cases* were in the hands of monks and 
friars in England. 

" For he had power of confessioun, 
" As seyde himself, more than a curat, 
" For of his Order he was licenciat." 



The disci- 
pline. 

Monks and 



See Part II., 



MONKS 



63 



The age at which monks and nuns could be received Age for 
varied. In the vi. and vn. centuries children under 10 P rofession - 
and 12 were admitted. Leo IX. required that the monk 
be of years of discretion, and Urban II. forbade a man 
to be professed under 20 years of age. S. Basil does not 
allow a nun to be professed till she is 16 or 17. Bene- 
dictine monks in the xm. century could be professed at 
15, but the age was raised later to 19. The age for both 
nun and monk now is 16. Old age is no barrier; except 
in some of the active Orders. 

A provision of the Theodosian code shows that it was Veiling by 
not unknown for parents to compel a child to vow virgin- force - 
ity ; the code allows her to return to the world any time 
before she is 40 years old. The forcible enclosure of 
nuns in later times was unfortunately not an imaginary 
evil. An vm. century council held in the presence of 
Pepin forbids the veiling of a woman against *her will. 
Justinian requires the degradation from his civil rights of A monk 
a monk returning to secular life, and he is to be sent back, f^g his°"~ 
with his property, to the monastery. If he desert again, profession, 
he is to be enrolled as a soldier ! 



S. Basil, one of the 4 Greek Fathers, belonged to a 
family of saints, of whom the best known are his sister 
S. Macrina, and his brother S. Gregory of Nyssa. In the 
Eastern Church he is known as " the Great," and ranks 
after S. John Chrysostom. Born about 329 in Cappado- 
cia, his first education was received from his grandmother 
the elder Macrina, a woman of great attainments. At 
Athens, where he studied, he made the lifelong friendship 
of S. Gregory Nazianzen. There too he was acquainted 
with Julian afterwards the Apostate. His great eloquence 
and success were filling him with pride, and withdrawing 
him from heavenly things, when his sister Macrina turned 
his thoughts entirely to religion ; and at about 28 years 
old he retired to the hermits of the desert, where he 
permanently enfeebled his health. In 362 he was or- 
dained a priest by Eusebius of Caesarea, and in 370 was 
chosen his successor in the archbishopric. He continued 



S. Basil 
and the 
Basilian 
monks. 



CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Rule of S. 
Basil. 



Eastern 
habit. 



the controversy against the Arians, but tempered with 
charity ; and led the frugal and humble life as a bishop 
which he had led in the desert. S. Basil died January 1,379. 

S. Macrina Thecla was the elder sister of S. Basil. 
Beautiful and capable from a girl, she brought up 9 
younger brethren after her father's death in 342, and 
managed large estates in Pontus, Cappadocia, and Lesser 
Armenia. She founded monasteries on her own estates 
in the desert region of Pontus, and here Basil joined 
her and wrote his Rule for men. Her influence over her 
brothers determined their great career ; it was she who 
when Basil was 26 years old awoke him "as out of a 
deep sleep to the true light of the Gospel." Her brother 
Gregory wrote her life and describes her death : she 
spoke to him, he says, of " the dignity and destiny of 
the soul," and his treatise on the " Soul and the Resurrec- 
tion " was" composed from her words. When they had 
buried her body, he tells us, he kissed the earth of her 
grave. She died 19 July, 379. 

The Rule of S. Basil enjoined for the first time those 
3 vows which have been common to every religious Rule 
since, and it is the chief Rule obtaining throughout the 
East at the present day. Gregory Nazianzen says : " The 
solitary and the social life have each their advantages and 
disadvantages. . . . Basil found the way to unite them, 
to mix them, placing ccenobia near to habitations, so that 
the contemplative life should not bring about removal 
from all communication with men, nor the active life 
impede contemplation." The Rule is twofold : the 
Greater Rule containing 55 parts, the Little containing 
313 decisions in the form of replies to questions. The 
division of the day among Basilians closely resembles that 
of Western monks. The Eastern Basilians wear a black 
habit, more ample than that of the West, with no scapu- 
lar ; and a cape marked IC. XC. NC. Jesus Christ con- 
quers.* All the monks wear beards, but the head is 

* It is said that the Armenian bishop Eustathius, a contemporary 
of Basil, was the first to introduce a special form of dress for monks 
— the robe was black. Basilian monks and nuns are known as 
Caloyers, perhaps derived from /cdXos ytpuv. 



MONKS 



(>$ 



completely shaven. The Armenian Basilians however 
wear a black robe with ample sleeves over the tunic and 
girdle, a mantle with a pointed hood, and a turban. 
Basilian nuns in the East dress like the monks, with 
the addition of an ample robe covering them from head 
to foot. They have no veil, bandeau, or guimpe.* The 
ruler of the monastery is called Archimandrite j the original 
dwellings of monks in the East having been termed sheep- 
folds, and this title signifies ' Ruler of the sheepfold.' 
Hegumenos, Hegumene, abbat and abbess, more properly 
designate conventual priors. Later, a superior-General 
ruled over monks, and was called the Exarch. 

The Rule of S. Basil was translated into Latin by Ru- 
finus, and after Cassian made it known in the West it was 
very generally adopted j so that he speaks of it as the 
prevailing Rule in Italy. The Monothelite persecutions in 
the vii. century and the iconoclastic disputes in the vm th 
and ix th brought many Eastern monks to Europe ; and 
companies of Basilians settled among the Greek popula- 
tions of Sicily and South Italy. The monks lived in clus- 
ters of cottages round the church, resembling the eremo at 
Camaldoli ; f but from the v. century monasteries began 
to be built within the city also. In Rome the monastery 
built by S. Leo at S. Peter's, and the monastery by 
S. Paul's were both Basilian. Basilian nuns had a cele- 
brated convent in the Campus Martius, where they arrived 
in the vm. century bringing with them the body of Gregory 
Nazianzen.J S. Silvestro in Capite was in their hands till 
the xin. century. S. Sabba on the Aventine was theirs, 
until it passed in 1 141 into Benedictine hands, and counted 
as one of the " 20 privileged abbeys " of Rome. On the 
same hill S. Prisca was Basilian from the vm. century till 
106 1 ; and S. M. del Priorato, another of the privileged 
abbeys, belonged to them till 1320. S. Alessio they held 
conjointly with the Benedictines from the x. century. 
Paschal I. placed Basilians at S. Prassede, where they 
remained nearly 500 years. § They were established at 



Ancient 
Basilian 
sites in 
Rome. 

Outside the 
walls. 



On the 
Aventine. 



* See p. 1 36 footnote. 
t See infra, p. 1 02. 



% Cf. Part I., p. 272 and p. 79. 
§ Part I., p. 319. 



66 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



On the 
Equiline, 
Palatine, 
and Celian. 
On the 
Appia. 

Basilian 
Salvatori- 
ani (Greek- 
Melkites). 



Basilian 
nuns in 
Europe. 



Western 
Basilians. 



Habit. 



Habit of 
the nuns, 
and pro- 
fession. 



S. Cesareo on the Palatine, and S. Anastasia at its foot. 
In the xiv. century Basilian monks still served the Sancta 
Sanctorum, the Lateran chapel of the popes. In the 
viii. century S. Apollinare was Basilian, and on the Appia 
they possessed S. Cesareo.* 

The Eastern Basilians are to be found among the 
Greek-Melkites, Armenians, and Georgians. The prin- 
cipal Congregation, that of the Most Holy Saviour (in- 
cluding both monks and nuns) is divided into the 
Aleppine and Baladite Communities, whose members are 
chiefly Meikites. Their chef-lieu is Mount Lebanon. 
The true Basilian nuns, however, are not to be found 
either on Mount Lebanon, or in Armenia — there are no 
nuns either among Uniat or Orthodox Armenians — but 
may still be found in Europe, in the Greek colonies in 
Sicily and in Poland. The great monastero reale delle 
religiose di S. Basilio at Palermo used to admit ioo 
nobles. Alexander vi. dispensed them from reciting the 
Office in Greek, and the Greek rite was only preserved 
by the nuns at Messina. The Rule of S. Basil had been 
abridged by Cardinal Bessarion, and in 1579 the Pope, 
Gregory XIII., organised the Western Basilians. The 
lay brethren who were to form f of the Order now number 
less than f . The monks may not ask alms, preach out 
of their churches, hear the confessions of seculars, keep 
schools, or send their students to the universities. Their 
habit is a black serge tunic and a wide scapular, to which 
a pointed hood is attached, a leathern girdle, shoes, and a 
simple mantle without plaits or hood. A beard is gener- 
ally worn. They are not entitled to the cowl. The nuns 
dress like the monks, without the scapular, but with the 
addition of a mantle reaching from head to foot, and a 
cowl worn at ceremonies. They wear a black linen 
guimpe. They are established at the papal Palace of 
Castel Gandolfo. They have 2 or 3 months noviciate 
in the secular habit j after which they take the habit and 
make the profession at one and the same time. This, 



Cf. Part I., pp. 183, 213. 



MONKS 



which is the ancient rule, is observed throughout the 
East, and in the West it is only among nuns that both 
are public ceremonies. Many Italians in the Greek 
colonies of Sicily are born and baptised in this Greek 
Rite, and speak the Albanian language.* 

Another Rule, that ' of S. Antony,' is followed by the Antonian 
Maronites, Copts, and a few Armenians. The Rule is monks - 
beautiful though not authentic. The Antonians cannot 
quit their monastery, but the Basilians are free to do so. 
The nuns inhabit Mount Lebanon. They dress like the Antonian 
monks, the usual Antonian habit consisting of a brown £" " s n ° n 
serge tunic, black leather belt, and a coarse goat's hair -Lebanon, 
mantle, with no hose. The monks wear a black hood, Antonian 
the nuns the large mantle reaching from head to foot, habit. 
The habit of the Armenian Antonians is coarser than that 
of the Armenian Basilians, and consists of one tunic with 
narrow sleeves, and a mantle. 

There are 5 Congregations of Antonians, I the Chal- 
daean of S. Hormisdas,f II the Aleppine Maronite, III the 
Baladite Maronite, IV the Congregation of S. Isaiah,j 
V the Congregation of S. Ephrem.§ The Maronite nuns 
of Aleppo live in their families, observe the Franciscan 
Rule and wear the Capuchin habit. 

Many Eastern nuns do not live in monasteries, but are 
mendicant ; they may be seen in Jerusalem, where a blue 
linen cloth round the head replaces the hood. In Persia 
and other places the habit and hood of monks and nuns 
are precisely similar, and only the beard of the former 
distinguishes them. 

* The liturgical vestments resemble the Latin, they consecrate in 
unleavened bread and add thzfilioque to the creed. 

t An ascetic of Malabar; he was to India what Antony was to 
Egypt. Helyot says that all the Ethiopian monasteries obeyed the 
Rule ' of Antony,' the Ethiopian Antonians being reformed byTekla- 
Haimanoth in the vn. century. The " Rule of Antony " was fol- 
lowed by some monks in Orleans. 

X Isaiah, a Syrian abbat. 

§ Ephrem, " the Teacher," one of the Syrian solitaries, circa 
308-373, deacon of Edessa (Orfa/i). He was called "the Harp 
of the Holy Spirit," and was the greatest orator and poet of the 
Syrian Church. He was persuaded by Basil to accept the diaconate. 



68 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Antonians 
in Rome. 



Basilians 
in Rome. 



• Grotta- 
ferrata. 



Badge of 
the Basil- 
ians. 



The Antonian (Maronite) monks of the Aleppine Con- 
gregation reside at S. Antonio, piazza S. Pietro in Vincoli. 
They moved here from SS. Marcellino e Pietro near the 
Lateran, which had been given to them in 1707. The 
Syrian Congregation of S. Ephrem (from Mesopotamia) 
are in Via della Consulta n. The Salvatorians (Greek- 
Melkites) have their monastery and Procura at S. M. in 
Carinis, Via del Colosseo 62. The Aleppine and Bala- 
dite Congregations are at S. M. in Domnica on the 
Celian ; where each has a resident Procurator-general. 
The Basilians of the Greco- Sicilian Congregation live in 
Via di S. Basilio 51 A ; they are united to the Congrega- 
tion at Grottaferrata, where they reside in summer. This 
monastery near Fascati is a little castellated township, 
founded by S. Nilus in 1004. It has the pure Greek Rite, 
and is celebrated for its paintings by Domenichino, who 
was the guest of the monks. The history of the Calabrian 
abbat Nilus is bound up with that of mediaeval Rome. 
He lived at S. Alessio and was the friend of John XVI. 
But the horrors perpetrated in the city during the pon- 
tificate of the German pope Gregory V., caused him to 
retire to Grottaferrata, where he died.* The Basilians 
have as a device a white column in the midst of flames, 
on a blue field, with the motto : Talis est magnus Basilius. 



S. BENEDICT AND THE BENEDICTINES. 



S. Bene- 
dict. 



Benedict of Nursia in the Duchy of Spoleto, was born 
of noble parents in 480. As a boy he was sent to Rome 
to study, and there stayed, it is believed, at his paternal 



* Nilus had demanded mercy for Philagathus, who had been put 
forward by Crescentius as antipope to Gregory. He was to be 
given up to the saint on condition that Nilus resided at S. Anastasia; 
but after the compact, the pope had the unhappy man dragged 
through Rome sitting backwards on an ass, and in torn papal vest- 
ments, his eyes and tongue torn out and his nose cut off. Nilus 
wrote to the pope: "As you have had no mercy on him whom God 
delivered into your hands, your heavenly Father will have no mercy 
towards you for your sins." Philagathus was Bishop of Piacenza. 



MONKS 



69 



house, the site of the present little church of S. Benedetto 
in Piscinula. Repulsed by the corruption he saw in 
Rome, Benedict fled to Subiaco, and took refuge in an 
inaccessible ravine where he was fed for 3 years by a 
monk called Romanus. This spot, above Subiaco, is 
known as the Sagro Speco. After his discovery by some 
shepherds, his solitude ceased ; and he was besought by 
some monks to come and rule them. His efforts at 
reform, however, were so displeasing to them that they 
attempted to poison him : Benedict discovering it, left 
them without rancour and returned to his solitude. But 
his fame had spread, and in 528 he gave his Rule, and 
undertook the foundation of the Monastery of Subiaco Subiaco. 
with 12 others in the Sabine hills, near Rome. After 
many persecutions he removed with a few monks to 
Monte Cassino, situated between Rome and Naples, Monte 
where the Mother-house of all Cassincse Benedictines Cassino - 
still exists. Benedict found there a temple dedicated to 
Apollo, the last stronghold of paganism : on this site he 
erected two oratories, one dedicated to the Baptist, the 
other to Martin of Tours. He died " standing," a spiritual 
conqueror, in 543. 

The spirit of S. Benedict is important because his great 
personality has impressed itself on the greatest religious 
society of Christendom : it was large and serene, but he 
never lost sight of the moral value of stable resolve, and 
the importance of a disciplined spirit to fulfil this ; and 
in himself were united greatness of soul and the spirit of 
discipline. He loved peaceableness and charity — the 
watchword of his children is Pax — he loved diligence, 
the spirit of service. He loved the spirit of work — he 
honoured work for its own sake, work with the hands, 
work with the head. He loved goodness, the adhesion to 
charity, the dismissal of self; he had the scorn of petty 
and personal revenge, the reverence for broad lines, 
strong lines, lines founded in charity. No verse of the 
Psalms he so loved could fit his temper better than this 
which he often repeated at the third hour : " Teach me 
goodness and discipline and knowledge." 



70 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

And the history of his Order has, on the whole, fulfilled 
the promise of the Founder in its influence on Europe : 
it has been what all great ideas are, missionary ; what all 
broad things are, tolerant ; it has cared for the essential 
rather than the detail, has understood Benedict to require 
strenuousness rather than self-annihilation, has not been 
afraid of the liberal arts — in the same spirit in which he 
in more than one particular deliberately chose accessories 
of civilisation and health which would make his monks 
workers before all else ; chose things, even, just because 
they were seemly. 
The Rule. Benedict had before him the Rule which he was ac- 
customed to call ' the rule of our holy Father Basil,' when 
he indited his own. The Benedictine Rule well called 
by Councils " the holy rule," and by S. Gregory the " first 
and foremost in discretion," superseded every other, 
and became, as it is to-day, the sole monastic rule of the 
West. It was received, says Milman, not as a rival 
" but as a more full and perfect rule of the monastic 
life." The Council of Aix in 862 requires it to be uni- 
versally adopted. 

The Rule is divided into 72 chapters, with a prologue 
and epilogue, and opens with the words : Hearken, my 
son, to the words of the teacher, and open the ears of 
thy heart to them. After a beautiful and moving pro- 
logue, Benedict tells them that there are 4 kinds of 
monks : the cenobites, anchorites, sarabites — monks 
who do the works of the world, live at their own house, 
follow their own will, and belie their tonsure before God 
— fourthly, the wandering monk, in every way worse than 
the disreputable sarabite, who passes three or four days 
in different monasteries, roaming from land to land, always 
vagabond and never stable. Leaving these 3 aside, 
he will with the help of God regulate for them the 
strong type of cenobite monasticism. 
The vow of The life of the solitary had been the apotheosis of inde- 
Stabihty. p en d enc e ; even the Basilian who took the 3 vows did 
not escape from a species of vagabondage, for he was 
free to go and come, he did not settle in one place, no 



MONKS 71 

one could lay on him settled duties — Benedict made 
the monastic life the school of obedience, and the school 
of order ; and he brought this about by adding the vow 
of stability, the promise to remain in one monastery. Of 
the 72 Chapters, some 46 are devoted to regulating com- 
munity life, to discipline, the duties of the abbat and 
other officers. For slight offences the abbat is to excom- Excom- 
municate the monk from the common table ; for grave mutucatwn. 
offences he is to be excommunicated from the services 
of the church, and to do all his work alone. The abbat 
is to have special care of these excommunicated children, 
for " those that are whole need not a physician, but those 
that are sick." He is to send to them as so many 
"secret consolers" the wisest brethren, that heavy sad- 
ness may not oppress them. The 2>2> r * Chapter abolishes Benedictine 
all private ownership ; the 34^ provides that every one ^ e ^ n£e 
should be given equally all necessary things. Silence is 
enjoined "at all times," but it is absolutely forbidden to 
speak after compline of one day till the next. Idleness, Manual 
says the Rule, is the enemy of the soul, and the brethren work - 
are to do some kind of manual work every day. Twelve 
chapters of this great Rule refer to the Divine office, the 
order of which is minutely described. S. Benedict's rule The Divine 
raised the quota of prayer and praise which had always office. 
been given by the solitaries and cenobites, to the work 
par excellence of the monk, the "work of God," opus 
Dei. Hence in Benedictine houses the Office in choir is 
performed with great solemnity, and occupies several 
hours a day. The same Office is said which their founder 
prescribed for them 1350 years ago. After treating of 
the Office, which with reading and manual labour is to 
form the monk's occupation, Benedict treats of the 
reverence to be observed at prayer : " We believe that Prayer. 
God is present everywhere, and the eyes of the Lord 
seek in all places the good and the evil. But without 
doubt we should believe that this is especially so when 
we assist at the divine office." Our mind then must 
agree with our voice, and we must remember the words 
" Serve the Lord with fear " and " I will psalm Him ii\ 



72 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



the sight of the angels." In prayer he recommends 
" purity of devotion," and " humility "; he wishes prayer 
to be brief; purity of heart and compunction of spirit, 
and not much-speaking, being heard by God. 

Theabbat. May God forbid, says the Rule, that the abbat should 
teach establish or command aught but what agrees with 
the precepts of Christ ; but rather should his teaching 
be sown in the minds of his disciples like a leaven of 
righteousness. " Let the abbat know that all the Divine 
Paterfamilias shall find lacking in the lambs will be 
ascribed to the shepherd." He is to be the example of 
all in word and deed. "Thou who didst see the mote in 
thy brother's eye, how is it that thou didst not see the 
beam in thy own ? " He is to treat and to love all equally ; 
the bond and free are all equal in Christ ; ' the only dis- 
tinction between us,' he says, ' before Thee, consists in 
some of us being found better and more humble in our 
lives.' The abbat is to be careful not to care too much 
about transitory things, having taken on himself to rule 
souls. When they suffer poverty he is to remember the 
words "Seek first the Kingdom of God and His justice " ; 
and " Nothing is lacking to those who fear God." It 
belongs to the abbat rather to help than to dominate. 
He is to be elected by ail the brethren, or by those of 
the community whose counsel is better. He is to be 
elected whose life is holiest and wisdom greatest, even 
though he should be the least in the convent. When 
anything of moment is to be considered, the abbat is to 
convoke the whole community, and having heard the 
counsel of his brethren, he is to think the matter over, 
and act as he shall deem most prudent. With that 
wonderful liberty of spirit which characterises the whole 
of this remarkable rule, united with the strongest appro- 
bation of order and ready obedience, he adds : " But we 
said all should be called to the council ; for the Lord often 
reveals to the youngest what is best." In matters of minor 
moment the abbat is only to consult the elder brethren. 

Hospitality. "All the guests who come to us shall be received as 
Christ the Lord Himself; for one day He will say to us 



His elec- 
tion. 



His Coun- 
cil. 



MONKS 73 

1 1 was a stranger and you took Me in.' " When a guest 
is announced, the superior or the brethren shall go to 
meet him with every expression of charity. The holy 
Scripture is to be read " to give him edification," and 
then he is to be treated " with all possible humanity." 
The Superior is to break a fast day to keep his guest 
company ; he gives him water to wash his hands, and al! 
the brethren with their abbat wash his feet. But when 
the guests are poor or are pilgrims, Christ is more espe- 
cially received in their persons. While he abides with 
them the brethren who meet a guest ask for his blessing. 
If the guest is a monk he shall be entertained for as long 
as he desires, so that he contents himself with what he 
finds, and does not mean to disturb the community. If 
reasonably, and with charity and meekness, he should 
find fault with anything, the abbat " shall ponder well if 
perhaps the Lord had sent him for that very purpose." 

Of obedience Benedict says "it is the first grade of Obedience, 
humility," and is to be rendered with a good will " for 
God loves a ready giver." The brethren are also to 
obey each other. And as " there is an evil zeal of bitter- 
ness which separates from God, so there is a good zeal 
which separates us from vice, and leads to God and eter- 
nal life." This zeal, in charity for each other, and pa- 
tience, and honour given to each other, and preference 
of their good to one's own wishes, the monks are to 
always exercise : " never preferring anything to Christ." 

Priests, it was supposed, lived near their churches and Priests who 
their bishop, attending to their duties of ministering, while ^oJ,° thi 
the monk sought to sanctify himself by retirement from R U ie. 
the world. "If anyone of the sacerdotal order" there- 
fore " should supplicate to be received into the monas- 
tery, he is not to be admitted too readily." But if he 
nevertheless persists in his supplication, he is to observe 
every point of the Rule, that he be not like the man who 
appeared at the marriage feast not having on a wedding 
garment. If the abbat commands him to bless or cele- 
brate mass, he may stand next to him ; but otherwise he 
shall only take the place which belongs to him by senior- 



74 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

ity,* nor shall he ever presume to do any sacerdotal act 
whatever without he is commanded, and in all things he 
must give an example of humility above others. If the 
abbat makes a priest or deacon he shall always keep 
the place he had when he came into the monastery, 
unless the community or the abbat promote him on 
consideration of his good life. If he disobey the Rule, 
he is not to be treated like a priest, but like a rebel. 

Lent Though the monk ought at all seasons to follow a 

Lenten observance, yet as not many are so fervent, the 
days of Lent are to be observed very perfectly, and the 
monk is to repair during this season the faults and defects 
of his life. Each one at this time should offer to God 
" by his own proper will and with joy of the Holy Spirit " 
" something above the measure of what is enjoined " : 
awaiting in this way, with the gladness of spiritual desire, 
the Holy Pasch of Easter. 

Habit. The clothes to be worn are to be suitable to the place 

and the climate. " Let not the monks find fault with 
the colour or coarseness of these things," which are to be 
regulated by the products of the country they are in, and 
by what is less costly. (See Chap. I., p. 33.) 

Mass. The Benedictine Liturgy does not differ from the 

Roman, except that the founder's name is mentioned in 
the confiteor, and that the ' last Gospel ' is not said. 

Rules of S. Benedict in several of the chapters of his Rule 

denounces murmuring and scurrility and other offences ; 
but in his 4^ Chapter he gives 73 short sentences which 
he calls instruments of good works. They consist of the 
10 commandments and the works of mercy ; and contain 
besides the following : — To detach oneself from the works 
of the world. To put nothing before the love of Christ. 
Not to fulfil wrath, or to keep wrath for another time, or 
to have deceit in your heart, or to give a false peace. To 
carry truth in your heart and on your lips. To ascribe 
any good you see in yourself to God, but the evil to 
yourself. To break evil thoughts on the stone of the 

* If any clerics " desire to be admitted among the monks," they 
shall be allotted mediocre places. 



Morality. 



MONKS 



75 



Cross as soon as they spring up. To fulfil every day the 
divine commandments by your acts. Put your hope in 
God, and never despair of His mercy. Such " weapons " 
used by us incessantly day and night, and restored by us 
on the day of judgment, will bring with them the reward 
that has been promised ; since eye has not seen nor ear 
heard nor has the heart of man imagined what God has 
prepared for those who love Him. 

The Epilogue tells us that the Rule has been written The Epi- 
that by its observance in the monasteries, we may show >°g ue - 
that we at least have some righteousness in our manners, 
and as it were a beginning of a good life. But the writ- 
ings of the Fathers and the pages of the Old Testament 
and the Gospel are to be studied if we would go along the 
way of perfection. S. Benedict here introduces a great 
and fruitful principle into Monasticism, the reservation of 
a part of the day to study. Hence we may say of his Rule Summary, 
that to the cenobitism of Pachomius and the vows of 
Basil, he adds (a) stability (o) work and labour (e) the 
organisation of the Divine office (d) reading, in order to 
enrich the religious life. In spite of the degrading spec- 
tacles offered by Monasticism, Benedict saw the power 
and beauty of the religious life, and distrusted for it the 
type of the vagabond idle solitary, with no superior, and 
no stable home or place of duty. Stability, labour, a 
common obedience for a common object, prayer, study. 
This was his Rule. 

Finally, he introduced the Noviciate, a consequence of 
the perpetual vows with the vow of stability, which Bene- 
dict proposed to the new monk. A noviciate is a period 
of probation which the monk must pass through before he 
makes his profession. This period of trial is to be long 
and rigorous.* The applicant is first a postulant, that is Postula, 
one who asks admittance. He may remain a postulant 
for a few days or a few months, after which he is received 
as a novice and clothed. The noviciate lasts for a year Novice. 
and a day, at the end of which the vows are pronounced. 



The No- 
viciate. 



* Rule, Cap. LVIII, 



76 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Novices. 



This is called the profession. Postulants, if men, wear 
a simple black dress and cloak, if women, a black dress 
and cape and a small black veil. Novices, men, wear the 
complete habit of the Order except the cowl, the women 
wear the same with a white veil.* 
Master or S. Benedict said that the novice is to have " some ex- 
v'^jTfe of P ert ren g' ous to l 00 ^ a f ter him." Thus has arisen the 
office of master of novices, an elder monk or nun, whose 
duty it is to train the young religious. He lives in the 
novice's quarter of the monastery, which is called the 
noviciate ; the novice may not enter the enclosure nor 
speak to any professed monk, and the noviciate is com- 
pletely isolated, monks and novices meeting only in the 
church. The Superior and the Master of novices alone 
may have speech with the latter. 

A noviciate is now required in every religious commu- 
nity, its laws being the same as among Benedictines. Each 
Benedictine house of nuns being complete in itself, the no- 
viciate exists in each house ; but in Provinces of Benedic- 
tine monks, and in all Congregations under a General, there 
is one house called the Mother-House, and here the novici- 
ate is established, and the Superior-General as a rule resides. 
Lay brethren frere or sceur converse (in Italian conversi) 
are always attached to Benedictine monasteries, although 
no mention of them is made by S. Benedict, and it is said 
the first to admit them was the founder of the Vallombro- 
sans (1038). They made their appearance early at Cluny, 
and were adopted by Citeaux a few years after its founda- 
tion ; the hired labour being intended to set the monks 
free to discharge day and night the precepts of the Rule.f 
The duties of the lay brother are those of a servant in the 
monastery. He is generally professed after two years' 
noviciate, and wears the monastic habit, but the lay 
sisters wear a white veil, and do not wear the cowl the 
special garment of choir Religious. Some lay brethren 

* For the ceremony of clothing and profession see p. 129 et seq. 

t By their Rule, lay brethren were to be treated in life and in 
death in the same manner as monks, except in what pertains to the 
profession of a choir monk. 



Mother- 
House 
(casa 
madre). 
Lay 
brethren 



MONKS 77 

wear a brown gown, and retain the beard. Lay brethren 
do not assist at the Divine office, but recite the office of 
the Blessed Virgin or the rosary instead. 

The idea of the oblate, or devout layman associated to Obiates. 
the Order, whose objects he assists and in whose prayers 
he participates, appears to have been coeval with the 
Benedictine Order ; for Tertullus the father of Placidus 
was admitted " to the society " of the Order, and King 
Theodoret requested Maurus to inscribe his name in their 
fraternity. In the x. and XI. centuries the piety of the 
great abbats of Cluny drew many, who are alluded to as 
the " faithful poor and rich who ask for brotherly union 
with us." They lived in their own homes, paid a small 
annual sum to the Abbey, and gave their time to its 
business. The intention was to unite the cloister and the 
world, at a time of imperfect civilisation, when those who 
desired to lead a devout and retired life could hardly do 
so without the support, even the shelter, of one of the 
great abbeys. In this way " a spiritual intercommunion 
between the Religious and the laic was established." 
From the time of S. Benedict, indeed, the influence of 
the monastic life was great over all with whom it came in 
contact. By permission of Charlemagne, in whose time 
they were called offerli, the obiates bestowed their prop- 
erty on the monastery and could live under its roof. 
Among nuns the system of obiates was always encour- 
aged, and under the various names of oblate, donat, 
enclosed servant, conversa, familiara, commissa, Deo de- 
vota, Deo sacrata, they were found in England, France, 
Belgium, Italy, Spain. They united themselves with the 
life of the monastery either outside or inside its walls. 
The married, the single, the poor and the rich could all 
offer themselves. In 1091 Urban II. approved of the 
state as holy and catholic, and conformable to the rule 
of the early Church. It was further approved by the 
Lateran Councils in n 79 and 1215;* and obiates are 

* Spicilegium Benedictinum: a collection of unpublished papers 
edited by the nuns of S. Benedict's, Rome. 



78 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

still attached to Benedictine abbeys, according to rules 
determined by each community. 

Greatness For 600 years the Benedictines were the scholars, 
Benedic- tne thinkers, the agriculturalists, the farmers, the irri- 
tines. gators, the librarians, the schoolmasters of Europe. Their 

great monasteries established in large tracts of waste land, 
which they hastened to drain and till, became so many 
centres of light and assistance to the wayfarer and the 
surrounding populations. Wherever the Benedictines 
carry the cross they carry also the plough, was said of 
them. The Benedictine Rule implied that it was part 
of a monk's duty to make himself useful to others : to 
this we owe the reintroduction of learning and the arts 
into Europe. To the habit of reading and conning the 
Fathers, encouraged by Benedict, we owe the literary 
and philosophic activity which prevented the influx of 
barbarians from utterly sweeping away Roman civilisa- 
tion, which preserved for us the classical works of 
antiquity, and resulted in giving to Europe the finest 
editions of the classical and patristic writings. 

Mabillon says with justice that the Benedictine was the 
pioneer of civilisation in England, Germany, Poland, 
Bohemia, Denmark and Sweden. To their missionary 
work in the vi., vn,. vm. and ix. centuries is due the con- 
version of the greater part of Europe to Christianity. 
From the vi. to the ix. century Monte Cassino was the 
one seat of learning in Italy ; and Subiaco alone, it has 
been said, has produced work to rival the results of 
Oxford and Cambridge. The Libraries of Marmoutier, 
Fontevrault, and S' Maur destroyed at the Revolution, 
were but the successors of Monte Cassino, of the vn. 
century library of York, the largest till then seen in 
Britain, of Croyland in Kent which at the close of the 
xi. century numbered 3000 volumes, and of Farfa which 
at the same period possessed a collection of codices which 
has been called the nucleus of modern European history.* 

* Farfa, founded 550, by S. Laurence, afterwards Bishop of 
Spoleto. 



MONKS 



79 



At Subiaco the first printing press was erected ; the 
first press in England was placed in the Benedictine 
abbey of Westminster. Finally, the monks were the great 
schoolmasters. The Schools of the middle ages took 
their rise in a provision of Benedict's enacting that 
should parents offer their children to a monastery, they 
should be accepted : in this way the Venerable Bede 
was brought up by the Benedictines from 7 years old, 
and became the Father of English History.* It was this 
rule which made possible the strange sight of little chil- 
dren 6 and 7 years old inhabiting the great monasteries. 
As late as the xvn. century an Abbess of Montmartre had 
been brought as an infant of 6 months old to a Bene- 
dictine house ; taking her vows at Jouarre at 1 6, and eventu- 
ally becoming abbess. It needed but this provision to 
give to Benedict's rule the final mark of that humane 
spirit, that spirit of education, which enabled his monks, 
Id an age of insecurity and violence, to extend their 
salutary influence toward every portion of the community. 

An Order for women, following S. Benedict's Rule, was Benedic- 
instituted, it is believed, by his sister S. Scholastica ; f tine nuns - 
and nothing could be more distinguished than its history. 
The nuns of Gaul initiated the distinguished career of 
women in Religion. It is under the abbess Cesaria 
Junior at Aries in the vi. century that we first hear of Copying of 
that distinctively monastic labour the copying of precious MSS- 
MSS., which at every period since, in the hands of the 
Benedictines, has preserved for us the great literary treas- 
ures of Europe, classical and Christian. This work was 
carried on in the nunneries with equal care and equal 
ability as in convents of monks. J With the rise of the 

* Cf. the Northumbrian similar custom, p. 27. Bede never left 
Jarrow, a fact useful to keep in mind, as his cell is erroneously 
shown at Subiaco. 

t S. Gregory, Vila S. Benedicii, cap. 33, says she was dedicated 
to (iixl from her childhood. 

X One of the most important liturgical treasures has come to light 
this century as their work — the Ordo Romanus, written by the nuns 
of St. Amand at Rouen in the last years of the VIII. centurv. [Part 
II., p. 82.] 



8o CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Benedictines the greatness of the nunneries was trans- 
ferred from Gaul to England. It is among the Anglo- 
Saxon women that "cloisters rivalling in number and 
influence the monasteries of men, and the most impor- 
tant centres of Christendom," were to be found. The 
nuns of the vii. and vm. centuries cultivated letters as 
did the monks, "peut-etre," writes Montalembert, "avec 
plus d'entrainement encore." Every community of 
women was at once " une £cole et un atelier." They 
were the first, perhaps, to interpret the word work to 
mean study. 

The evangelisation of Europe is in great part the work 
of Benedictine nuns. Mabillon records that they both 
taught and preached. Germany was evangelised in the 
vm. century by the Anglo-Saxon nuns Lioba, Walburga, 
and Berthgytha, chosen by Boniface as his coadjutors in 
the civilisation of the Teutons. One of his biographers 
tells us that these women were profoundly versed in all the 
liberal sciences, and that they " consoled and nourished " 
Boniface's exile, " by the abundance and beauty of the 
books which they sent him." The great work done by 
them, and such as they, makes Montalembert exclaim at 
the fact that an ungrateful posterity remembers but their 
names ! * 

In the same century which saw Hild ruling her Celtic 
monasteries in Northumbria,and consulted by the Bishops 
in their Synods, the great abbess Mildred, at the other 
end of England, founded and ruled the " Minster-in- 
Thanet." Her great fame and popularity "£clipsa celle 
de Saint Augustin dans la contree meme qu'il avait le 
premier conquise a la foi," and the very rock on which 
Augustin landed was known as S. Mildred's rock until 

* Walburga was 27 years a nun at Wimborne, then abbess at 
Mayence, and first Abbess of Heidenheim in Bavaria. She was so 
great as a governor, and so efficient in the work of civilisation, that 
she was called to rule the 2 houses of nuns and monks at Eichstadt. 
Here she died about 778. She was sister to S. Willibald. Lioba 
was consulted by Boniface on all matters of importance, in a corre- 
spondence which continued till death ; and he asked to be buried 
by her. She died about 779. She was the first Abbess in Germany. 



MONKS 8 1 

the xviii. century. Between 683 and 990 there are no 
less than 28 sainted abbesses in the English calendar 
alone. 

In the revival of learning under Charlemagne the nun- At the 
neries again bore a conspicuous part. The continuity of J^rnhig/ 
this tradition of learning among them is most remarkable : 
the Anglo-Saxon nuns of the vm. century in their letters to 
Boniface cite Virgil as Radegund might have done in the 
vi ,h . Under the two Cesarias at Aries at the latter epoch, 
and in Bertile of Chelles,* we are struck with the same pro- 
found and intimate knowledge of the Scriptures shown 5 
and 6 centuries later by Hildegarde and Gertrude. In the 
darkest moment of the middle ages, the x. century, the 
great Abbey of Gandersheim presents us with a nun 
who read Virgil, Plautus, Horace, Terence, and Aristotle. 
Hrotswitha was a lay sister of the Abbey, and lived between 
a.d. 935 and 100 1. She entered the monastery when about 
23 years old, and her tutors were 2 nuns of her convent, 
the Mistress of Novices Richardis and the Abbess Ger- 
berg II. Her dramas were given to the literary world, 
in a French translation, by M. Magnin in 1845, and 
caused profound astonishment. She precedes her 8 
poems with a charming little preface, in which she tells 
us that her only aim in writing had been to prevent the 
few talents the Lord had given her from getting rusty and 
perishing from want of use. Of her prose dramas she 
says that she had wished " to celebrate the triumphs of 
Chastity, especially those in which the weakness of women 
may be seen overcoming the brutality of men : she de- 
sired " to present these feminine victories in all their 
splendour." Her diction, says Rohrbacher, in treating 
of the most delicate adventures is always pure ; and com- 
pares with the language of male geniuses who have treated 
similar subjects ; " For delicacy of sentiments, fineness 
and restraint of language, religious inspiration and moral 
elevation " she is incomparably the superior. While 
Rohrbacher doubts if that century which gave us Hrots- 

* A nun of Chelles who drew large audiences of men and women 
to her lectures on the Scriptures in the VI. century. 



82 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Ganders- 
heim. 



Quedlin- 
burg. 
Hilde- 
garde. 



Her writ- 
ings. 



witha can any longer be dubbed an age of ignorance and 
barbarism, Magnin says similar words, and adds : " Cette 
dixieme muse, cette Sappho Chretienne, comme le pro- 
clamaient a l'envi ses compatriotes, est une gloire pour 
1' Europe entiere ; dans la nuit du Moyen age on signale- 
rait difficilement une £toile poetique plus pure et plus 
eclatante." The Abbey-church was converted into a 
theatre, the choir was the stage, the bishop was present 
on his throne, and Hrotswitha's plays were acted by nuns 
to an audience of nuns. The language ready to her 
hand, half barbarous, half Latin, is so skilfully handled as 
to appear an imitation of her favourite Terence, " and 
the precursor of Racine." Her 6 comedies, says Magnin, 
give her a right to an eminent place in the literature of 
the middle ages ; " ces 6 drames sont un dernier rayon 
de l'antiquite' classique." 

The monastery of Gandersheim, in Lower Saxony (Han- 
over) was the principal seat of civilisation, piety and 
the arts in Northern Europe :* while in the XL century 
it is to 2 Benedictine monasteries, one of nuns and one of 
monks, that we owe the revival of religion — Quedlinburg 
and Clairvaux.f In the xn. century lived Hildegarde, 
Abbess of Mont S' Robert, J perhaps the very greatest of 
the Benedictine women. She was born about 1098 at 
the castle of Bickelheim, Mayence. At 8 years old she 
was confided to a nun named Jutta at the Benedictine 
monastery of S. Disibode of which she became abbess in 
1 136. "Instructor of the people, counsellor of bishops 
and of monarchs, restorer of piety and manners, and oracle 
of the Church, she was among women that which S. Ber- 
nard was among men," writes Rohrbacher. The Scivias 
is her most important literary work.§ It was written be- 

* A chapter of secular canonesses (Lutherans) still have their 
seat at Gandersheim. 

t Harnack, Dogmengeschichte. Quedlinburg, founded 930, ac- 
cepted the Confession of Augsburg in 1539 and became a Protestant 
Chapter. 

% The monastery founded by her near Bingen. 

§ Sciens vias, knowing the ways, or Scientia Viarum (domini) 
the knowledge of the Paths of the Lord. 



MONKS 83 

tween 1141 and 1-151, and is chiefly concerned with moral 
and dogmatic theology, though the last chapters are pro- 
phetic. The effects of the Incarnation, she tells us, are 
three : the re-purchase of the world, the divinising of man, 
the development of virtues especially of humility and 
charity. In Vision 10 of Book III. she declares that the 
Incarnation has developed certain virtues to the support 
of the Christian life : constancy, desire of heaven, com- 
punction of heart, contempt of the world, concord. By 
her correspondence with those who consulted her, she 
accomplished an incalculable work for good in her gene- 
ration ; " Since with that liberty which the Spirit of the 
Lord suggests, she admonished salutarily, and frankly she 
reproved them for their defects . . . the same did she 
with Conrad and with the Pope." In her 2 nd epistle 
she apostrophises Rome, saying " The King's Daughter, 
which is Justice, thou hast loved not with an ardent love, 
but as in the torpor of sleep, so that thou hast expelled 
her from thee." The great means for winning back the 
people to Christian virtue, which she preached to popes, 
superiors, and the bishops, was gentleness, which in her 
allegorical language is " the robe of silk " clothing every 
virtue. 

She wished the monastery to be the great school of re- 
spect. Rather than a great corporal austerity she would 
have a more strict personal humility. The sick and the 
children in her care are her great preoccupation. At the 
request of the monks of Hoeningen she wrote them an 
Explanation of the Rule of S. Benedict. A third work is 
a mystical treatise Concerning the Divine Works of the 
simple man* In this she treats of the 6 days of crea- 
tion, which for her are epochs, and " the evening and the 
morning " are the end and the beginning. In response 
to an embassy from the monks of Willaret she wrote a 
Solution of j 8 questions, forming her 54 th epistle. She 
wrote also an explanation of the Athanasian Creed, Lives 
of S. Robert and S. Disibode, and lastly her Physic, 

* In her writings she often calls herself homo simplex, the simple 



84 



CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Approba- 
tion of her 
writings. 



Hildegarde 
as a 
preacher. 



Relinde 
and Her- 
rad. 



Helolse. 



'• of the subtilties of divers created natures," which is a 
summary of the medical knowledge of the middle ages. 
At the instance of S. Bernard and of many bishops, Eu- 
genius III. publicly approved her revelations and spirit at 
the Council of Treves. The reading of the Scivias, elu- 
cidated by Bernard and her friend the Abbat Lewis, caused 
the Fathers of the Council to praise God for his creature. 
They prayed Eugenius to write to her, and his letter runs : 
" We marvel, O daughter, we marvel more than you can 
believe, that God shows new wonders in these our times, by 
so penetrating you with His Spirit that you are able to see 
many hidden things, and seeing them to comprehend, and 
impart them." 

From all parts, say her biographers, people of every 
condition thronged to the monastery " as once the He- 
brew people thronged to the Baptist in the desert," to 
hear her and take counsel with her. In the words of the 
Theatine father Ventura she " obtained an immortal name 
by her glorious apostolate in France and in Germany." 
One of the most charming pictures which the middle ages 
present to us, an age of great personalities and therefore 
of great friendships, is the French monk to whom the 
Lord's Mother was so prominent a Christian ideal, urging 
the pope to emphasise the teaching of this woman apostle 
of two countries, and so enforce it on the manners of the 
time. Hildegarde died 17 September, 1179. 

Among famous Benedictine nuns must be counted 
Relinde (or Kilinde) Abbess of Hohenbourg, a woman 
of great qualities of mind and heart, chosen to this post 
by Barbarossa when Duke of Suabia and Alsatia. Relinde 
re-established discipline in the monastery through study. 
She herself taught the Religious Latin, and her own verses 
have come down to us. The celebrated Abbess Herrad, 
author of the Hortus Deliciamm, succeeded her in 1 167— 
1 1 80. 

In the xn. century lived another famous nun, Heloise. 
At the Priory of the Paraclete ruled by her, she held a 
school of Greek and Hebrew, and herself taught the nuns 
of most promise, deeming the inspiration of a taste for 



MONKS 



85 



learning among them to be one of her duties. The nuns 
also learnt surgery and medicine " afin de pouvoir se 
passer des hommes." In the next century Gertrude a 
nun of Helfta* and Mech tilde her companion and spir- 
itual mother, illustrated their century by their lives, vir- 
tues and writings. " To the knowledge of humane letters 
she joined the science of divine things " says the Roman 
Breviary of Gertrude. This Saxon nun was brought to a 
Benedictine house at 5 years old. " She shone with the 
gift of prophecy and the revelation of divine things ; " 
indeed both she and Mechtilde are called in their Lives 
Prophetesses. She died in 1302, being 46 years old. 
(Canonised xvn. century.) 

The learned Ellena Cornaro-Piscopia, Doctor of the 
University of Padua, was a xvn. century Benedictine 
Oblate. Enough has been said to show that the nunner- 
ies were centres of learning and intellectual activity. A 
school of letters and a school of mysticism existed in 
each abbey, and the nuns were divided into 2 classes, 
' Teachers ' and ' Mystics,' i.e. schoolmasters or masters 
of the contemplative life. It is said of the French Abbey 
of Ronceray at Angers, that girls were sent there in order 
to a higher education, maturiores doctrince. causa. He- 
loise was educated at such a school at Argenteuil. But 
in the time of Louis XIV. it was thought a strange thing 
by the sons of such spiritual mothers that a " nun " should 
understand her Latin office, and Angelique Arnauld was 
a prodigy. Since the xvi. century, when the nuns were 
finally enclosed, there have been no great names to 
record, and there has been a complete dearth of all 
learning. No one deplored this change more than Du- 
panloup who urged, in vain, that learning had always 
been the support of the religious life, the handmaid and 
earnest of piety. 



Gertrude 
and Mech- 
tilde. 



Learning 
in the nun- 



Another example of the illustrious position held by Benedic- 
Benedictine nuns is to be found in the formation of g S n S g S canon ' 



* She has been erroneously styled and represented as its Abbess. 



86 CHRISTIAN AND ECCIESIASTICAL ROME 



Laus 
perennis. 



Chapters, which was an ecclesiastical feature of the later 
middle ages. A large number of convents formed them- 
selves into Chapters of canonesses, and assumed the 
canons' dress. Some of these remained monastic, others 
became secular Chapters. Among the former were Fon- 
tevrault, the. countess-canonesses of Bourbourg, and the 
canonesses of S. Peter of Rheims, who assisted in proces- 
sions with the canons of the cathedral, walking rank and 
rank. Among the latter was Remiremont. At Nivelle 
there was a Chapter of both sexes, " in which the Virgins 
obtained the greater dignity" (digniorem locum). All 
these Chapters ceased at the time of the French Revolu- 
tion. Some wore the rochet over a white habit, others 
over a black. Thus at Fontevrault and at S. Pierre de 
Rheims, though both Black Benedictine houses, the habit 
worn was white. 

The formation of Chapters within the monastery was a 
result of the large part played by the divine office in 
Benedictine life ; which had already brought about the 
laus perennis, or perpetual praise, accomplished by alter- 
nate choirs who chanted the Hours in succession. Thus 
at Remiremont, then the largest nunnery in Gaul, 7 choirs 
alternated the Perpetual Praise in 7 chapels. 



Friend- 
ships of the 
cloister. 



The middle ages have been called magna parens vi- 
rum ; the defects of the age left untouched some of the 
greatest character-making qualities, and among these we 
may count magnanimity — in that period what is mean 
and weak finds no place. Round these great characters, 
especially in the cloisters, gathered the great historic 
friendships, and their possibility must have made life 
more " pleasant," in David's sense, despite the violence 
and corruption around, than we easily realise who live 
out smaller lives in what, in our sense, are far more 
' pleasant ' surroundings. Lacordaire has beautifully said, 
" That which ruins love is egoism, it is not the love of 
God," and exclaims it would be strange if a religion 
based on the dual love of God and man should have 
been closed to instances of the latter love. 



MONKS 87 

Gregory the Great tells us of one of the earliest of 
these friendships in Rome, that of the noble Roman 
Galla, a nun in a monastery by S. Peter's, who prays that 
her friend Benedicta may die with her. Another was 
that between Ambrose and his sister Marcellina, whom 
he addresses as " Lady, Sister, preferred before eyesight 
and life itself." * In Gaul the friendship of Radegund, 
Agnes, and Fortunatus is historic. In England Bede 
records the friendship of Hild and another nun " who 
loved her with an immense love." The tender friend- 
ship between Ethelburga of Barking and Torctgyd, who 
knew not how to survive her, is preserved by Bede also : 
Torctgyd after being speechless for 3 days and 3 nights 
sees Ethelburga in a vision, is greeted by her, and is 
called to join her. In the correspondence of Boniface 
and Bega, Montalembert notices " le besoin d'exprimer 
la tendresse, on dirait volontiers la passion qui les 
anime." Bernard never lost the tender love of Peter 
the Venerable, though he was obliged to attack the 
abuses of the illustrious community of Cluny which the 
Abbat Peter was vainly endeavouring to reform ; and Peter 
writes to him : " If it were permitted to me, my dear Ber- 
nard, and if God willed it, I should prefer to live near 
you, and be attached to you by an indissoluble tie, than 
be first among mortals, or sit upon a throne ; for must 
not one prefer to every earthly thing the happiness of 
living with you?"f The friendship of Abailard and 
Heloi'se, in the same century, and in the next, of Ger- 
trude and Mechtilde, S. Dominic and Cecilia ; in the 
xvi 1 ! 1 of Teresa and Anne of S. Bartholomew, carry on 
the same tradition. 

Montalembert speaks of the "joyous presentiment of Deaths of 
death " among the early Religious, and it is worthy of r 6 ^ 1 ^ 
notice as a testimony to the beauty and peace of their ° 

* Domino. Soror vita atque oculis praeferenda. See Chap. I., 
p. 15. 

t Peter is memorable for his wise and moderate spirit; he gave 
asylum to Abailard when he was persecuted by Bernard, and a beau- 
tiful letter of his to Heloise on the death of her husband is extant. 



88 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

lives. We have seen how Paula in the iv. century, one of 
the first Roman nuns, died saying "all is peace within 
me." Bede tells us that Hild "looked cheerfully on 
death" and died: laeta mortem vidit. Above all, says 
Montalembert, " among the savants of Barking " death 
appeared " douce et radieuse." 



Black 
Benedic- 
tines. 



National 
Congrega- 
tions. 



Reforms. 
Benedict of 
Aniane, 

VIH.-IX. 

centuries. 



THE BLACK BENEDICTINES. 

The 'Black Benedictines,' so called from the black 
habit, scapular, hood and cowl which they wear, not only 
form the larger part of the Order of S. Benedict, but have 
always held the original Benedictine sites, Monte Cassino 
and Subiaco. The original Congregation of Black Bene- 
dictines is that of Monte Cassino, whose abbat was known 
as the ' abbat of abbats,' and to whom all Cassinese 
Benedictines owe obedience. They have 14 monas- 
teries. The reform called the Cassinese Congregation 
of the Primitive Observance has 27 monasteries and is 
governed by an Abbat General resident at S. Scholastica, 
Subiaco. All other Black Benedictines are formed into 
National Congregations under Abbat Presidents. These 
are, in order of seniority, the English, Swiss, Bavarian, 
Brazilian, French, Prussian Congregation of Beuron, 
Helvetio-American, and the 2 Austrian Congregations 
of a The Immaculate Conception and b S. Joseph ; added 
to these is the ancient Hungarian Arch-Abbacy of S. 
Martin, while Australia, Scotland and Poland have each a 
detached Benedictine monastery.* 

The first Reform of the Benedictines was undertaken 
by S. Benedict of Aniane in Languedoc, by origin a Goth, 
who had been page to Pepin, and a commander under 
Charlemagne, t He wrote a Commentary on the Rule in 



* The French and American Congregations and the Hungarian 
Arch-abbacy are affiliated to Monte Cassino. The latter was 
founded in 987. The English National Congregation was founded 
in 1300, and restored in 1602; the Swiss and Bavarian are XVII, 
century, the remainder were all founded in the present century. 

t Born 751; in 774 became monk in the Abbey of Saint-Seine. 



MONKS 89 

817. This first attempt at reforming Western monasticism 
was all in the direction of petty definitions and restrictions, 
which had not come within the large purview of Benedict, 
whose reform of monasticism has been well described as 
"a la fois large et passionee."* This Reform was intro- 
duced into England by S. ^Ethelwold bishop of Win- s. ^Ethei- 
chester, who translated the Rule into Saxon in the Liber wold - 
Eliensis, or Winchester Book, and added the work called x " cen ury ' 
the Regularis Co7icordia.\ A mitigated rule appears to 
have obtained in England from the time of Charlemagne 
(viii.) to that of Edgar and Dunstan (x. century). In 
the xv. century the Benedictines of the Presentation, a Melk, xv. 
Reform of the great abbey of Melk on the Danube, were century. 

c v • e j *i St - Vanne 

of brief duration. anc j gt. 

In 1550 the Reform of S. Vanne, and in 1621 the Maur, xvi. 
similar Congregation of S. Maur for Lorraine, were estab- XV11 ' 
lished. S'. Germain des Pres was one of the latter's 
great abbeys, and Mabillon, Martene, Ruinart, Menard, 
d'Achery, were among its monks : to them we owe the 
Annals of the Order, the work "l'Art de verifier les dates " 
and the " Histoire litteraire de la France." Among the 
nuns, Santuccia Terrebotti of Agobbio, a Servite, was Reforms 
called by the pope in 1293 to reform the Benedictine am ong 



nuns. 



Santuccia, 



nuns, and created, by Brief, Abbess-General, with power 
to visit all Benedictine houses in Italy founded by herself. x 
Her nuns were called Santuccie. This great servant of tury. 
God died in Rome in her church of S. Maria in Julia in 
1305. Besides S. Maria in Julia (now S. Anna dei Fale- 
gnami) she had a monastery at S. Maria Liberatrice on 
the Forum, and one on the island of the Tiber already 
destroyed in Bruzio's time. In the xvn. century Catherine Catherine 
de la Barre instituted the Benedictines of the Most Holy deiaBarre. 
Sacrament for the Perpetual Adoration : thus uniting, turv / ct 
with more zeal than knowledge, this modern devotion 
with the ancient Benedictine Rule. The nuns wear a 
monstrance on the black habit. 

* Guizot. 

t Often attributed to Dunstan, who took much interest in this 
revival of monasticism under Edgar. 



90 



CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



S.Anselmo 
and the 
Abbat- 
Primate. 



Benedic- 
tines in the 
East. 



Armenian 
Benedic- 
tines. 



Benedic- 
tines in 
England. 



Monasteries of Black Benedictine nuns have always 
existed as separate communities, and the nuns have at no 
period formed themselves into congregations or provinces. 
In this they follow the original design of S. Benedict. 

The various independent abbeys and congregations of 
Black Benedictines presented such diversity that it was 
possible to see the Viennese monks driving a carriage 
and pair of horses, and the monks of Subiaco living in 
the utmost poverty under the same rule. Leo XIII. de- 
siring to bring about greater uniformity of usage and life 
has recently erected a large Benedictine House on the 
Aventine hill, which is to serve as a college for ' Black 
Benedictines ' of all nations, every monastery sending 
monks to study there. An Abbas Primas, or Abbat 
Primate, has been nominated by the pope for 10 years 
and resides at this new Aventine monastery of S. An- 
selm. His position, however, does not give him an 
authority superior to that of the Heads of Congregations. 
The first man to fill this difficult post is a Belgian monk, 
the Abbe" Hemptinne. 

The renown of the Benedictines has always been great 
in the East. In the days of the Latin Empire Sancta 
Sophia was served by Benedictines, and in the middle 
ages many important posts on the other side of the 
Mediterranean were in their hands, and their Liturgy and 
the tradition of their learning have not been forgotten. 
Leo XIII. has now opened an international Benedictine 
College at Constantinople adjoining the church of S. 
Pulcheria ; and has also placed the Greek College in 
Rome in Benedictine hands. 

In 1 703-1713 Mechitar, an Armenian, founded a Con- 
gregation of Black Benedictines for men of Armenian 
nationality. They are settled at the island monastery of 
S. Lazzaro at Venice, and have done great service to their 
nation. They are called Mechitaristi, and are divided 
into the 2 Congregations of Venice and Vienna ; they 
have a house at Constantinople. 

The Rule of S. Benedict was introduced into England 
by S. Augustin of Canterbury, according to Mabillon, but 



MONKS 91 

according to others by Benedict Biscop.* The principal 
seats of the Benedictines, before the rise of the Branches 
of the Order, were Westminster, Glastonbury, Reading, 
Colchester, for monks — the two last supplying the martyrs 
whose heroism we read of at the time of the Reformation 
— and S. Alban's, which was preeminent in the time of 
Henry II., and to which Matthew Paris belonged. The 
nuns had Whitby, Wimborne,f Barking, Winchester, Cold- 
ingham. The nuns of Barking owned large property in 
London still recorded in the name " All Hallows' Barking." 
The nuns of Coldingham, the first Scottish nunnery, were 
famous for having mutilated their faces on the approach 
of the Danes, who thereupon put them and their Abbess 
Ebba II. to death (Martyrology, August 25, 867). Her 
name is preserved in S? Abb's head and Ebchester. The 
first Benedictine House in Ireland was erected at Kildare, 
and in Scotland at Ripon, Wilfrid of York being its abbat. j 
For the Order in France, see the references to the great 
French abbeys, Marmoutier, Sf Victor, Luxeuil, Lerins, 
Fleury, Sf Maur, S' Amand, Fontevrault, Remiremont, 
Jouarre, Chelles, Faremoutier, and pp. 26, 88, 93, 124. 
For its introduction into Germany, see pp. 27, 78, 80, 
82. In Italy as we have seen Monte Cassino and Subiaco 
led the way (see pp. 69, 78). In Rome, one of the in Rome, 
earliest monasteries to accept S. Benedict's Rule was that 
settled at S. Paolo fuori-le-mura, of whose monks Procopius 
speaks as early as 531. The basilica and monastery have vi. century, 
remained in Benedictine hands ever since. In the x. 
century the House was given to the Order of Cluny, and 
Hildebrand is believed to have been monk and abbat 
there. When Monte Cassino was destroyed by the Lom- 
bards in 580 the fugitive monks founded the monastery 
of S. Pancratius by the Lateran basilica ; and about the 
same time Gregory the Great bestowed on them his house 



* See p. 54 and cf. pp. 27, 89. f See p. 80 footnote. 

% The last survivor of the English Benedictines was Siegebert 
Buckley a monk of Westminster. Eventually the Abbat of Castile 
ordered every monastery in that province to receive one English 



92 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

on the Celian.* In Charlemagne's time there were 44 
monasteries in Rome. In the x. century there were 60, 
all Benedictine, 40 for men, 20 for women. There are 
now only 6 : the Cassinese Congregation reside in winter 
at S. Callisto in Trastevere, being removed there from 
S. Justina on the Quirinal in the pontificate of Paul V. 
In summer they reside at S. Paolo. The Cassinese of the 
Primitive Observance have their monastery and procura at 
S. Ambrogio de' Maxima in Piazza Mattei. In summer 
they reside at Subiaco. A third Benedictine residence is 
the new monastery of S. Anselmo on the Aventine. The 
nuns have also 3 houses in the city : ' S. Maria in Campo 
Marzio, which became Benedictine in the xm. century 
and was restored to them by Pius VII. after its desecra- 
tion.f 2 S. Cecilia in Trastevere, which has been Benedic- 
tine since the time of Paschal I. (817) and passed to the 
nuns in 15 30. % 3 S. Benedict's in Via Boncompagni, a 
community of Black Benedictines under an English conse- 
crated abbess. Their house was canonically erected as a 
monastery in 1897, although these nuns are not enclosed, 
but according to the ancient Benedictine usage, go out 
when there is reason or necessity to do so. The Mechitarist 
Benedictine monks of the Vienna Congregation have a 
Procurator General resident in Via Giulia 63. 

The Habit of the Benedictines is a long black tunic, 
scapular, and hood, the tunic tied with a stuff or leather 
belt ; in choir and at solemnities they wear over this the 
cowl. In the street a priest's hat. The nuns wear a long 
black tunic and leather belt, black scapular, wimple and 
fillet of unstarched linen over which is worn a white veilette 
and the black nun's veil. The cowl in choir and at solem- 
nities. 

The badge of the Black Benedictines is 3 hills, the 3 
evangelic virtues, surmounted by the cross and the word 
PAX. 

* For a list of other ancient Benedictine houses in Rome, see p. 94. 
t See supra p. 65. and Part I., p. 272. 
X See Humiliati, p. 121. 



MONKS 



93 



The number of Benedictine monks is about 4295 ; lay 
brethren 952 ; novices and postulants 464. The number 
of monasteries 119. The present ruler of the Cassinese 
Congregation is the 294 th abbat. Benedictine nuns num- 
ber 8000, with considerably over 250 monasteries. 

BRANCHES OF THE BENEDICTINES. 

The first branch, the first great reform, of this great 
Order was made in 910 at Cluny in the diocese of Macon, 
by William the Pious, Duke of Aquitaine. Berno became 
the first abbat of what was thenceforth known as the Clu- 
niac Congregation, which for 200 years was the centre 
of Benedictine activity, and boasted a series of holy and 
famous abbats. Its greatest glory was reached under 
the 9 th Abbat Peter the Venerable, who governed no less 
than 2000 monks. The new reform of manners spread 
from France to Italy ; and the first English house was 
founded by a companion of the Conqueror at Lewes in 
1077. Cluny was celebrated for its schools and the splen- 
dour of its religious services. It is said that the obscurely 
born youth under the care of abbat, prior, dean, masters, 
singers, librarians, chaplains, sick-nurses, was trained as 
the son of a king. The splendour of its church services 
has never been rivalled ; the monks assisted in the choir 
all vested in copes. The Cluniacs wore the black habit.* 

In 1098 Robert Cluniac Abbat of Molesme founded a 
community in the desert of Citeaux, Beaune, for the pur- 
pose of restoring the strict rule of S. Benedict. He died 
in 1 1 10, and his successor with a Chapter-General pub- 
lished their statutes in a document called the Charta 
Charitatis, in n 19. Thus arose the Cistercian Order. 
S. Benedict had decreed that the moment of the founda- 
tion of a monastery was the day that an abbat and 12 
brethren — an apostolic nucleus — took possession, and 
this rule has always been followed by the Cistercians and 

* The great Church of Cluny, built by Abbat Peter, and conse- 
crated by Innocent II. in 1131, was pulled down by the town of 
Cluny during the Revolution. 



Summary 
of the 
Benedic- 
tine Order, 
present 
day. 
(Black 
Benedic- 
tines.) 



Cluny. 



The Cis- 
tercians. 



94 



CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Ancient 
houses ol . 
the Bene- " y 
dictines in 
Rome. 



HOUSES HELD BY THE BLACK BENEDICTINES. 

Monks : — 

Ara Coeli. Probably from IX. century till 1250. 
S. Agata de' Goti. 

S. Alessio. Joined with Basilians till 1231. 
S. Balbina. 

S. Biagio. One of the largest abbeys in Rome. 
S. Cecilia. (Monks, then the Humiliati, and since 1530, nuns.) 
S. Cosmato in Trastevere. One of the richest in Rome. 
S. Crisogono, Trastevere. From viii. to xii. century. 
S. Gregorio al Celio. (See p. 103.) 
S. Giorgio in Velabro. 
S. Justina al Quirinale. 
No longer in existence. 
S. Lorenzo in Miranda. 
S. Maria in Cosmedin. 

From temp. Eugenius IV. till Leo X. 
S. Martino ai Monti. 
w - From ix. to the xm. century. 
£ S. Pancratius, Lateran. 
2 S. Pancrazio. 
5 Monastery of S. Victor, 
u S. Prisca on the Aventine. 
From 1061 to 1414. 
S. Sabba (Cluny, 1141). 
S. Sebastiano on the Palatine. 

In 1352, the Roman residence of the " Abbat of Abbats." Given by 
Alexander II. (1061) to the monks of M. Cassino, in exchange for 
S. Croce in Gerusalemme ceded to them by Leo IX. 
SS. Sergio e Baccho. 
S. Silvestro in Capite. 
xm. century. 

By Nuns : — 

S. Agnese Outside-the-Walls. 

Till 1499. 
S. Giovanni a Porta Latina. 

From temp. Lucius II. to temp. Boniface VIII. 
S. Maria Liberatrice. 

(Santuccie. Cf. p. 89. Once held by monks.) 
S. Maria sopra Minerva. 

Part of the large property of the nuns of Campo Marzio. 
S. Bibiana. , 

S. Ciriaco, via Lata. 
S. Cosimato in the Forum. 
S. Erasmo sul Celio, with S. Scholastica. 
Spirito Santo, at Trajan's Column. 
S. Tecla, by the Vatican. 
S. Veneranda of the Bizocche. 
S. Vito ad Lunam. 

Called " Monastero Maggiore." 



MONKS 



95 



3 • 
o ** 



trq' 3 



SnH 



p 3 
O ^ ; 



3 !»r N> i^ — 



P ° o o =« 

%4& 1 



3 Icn 



? * 

3 O 

a lg.Se 

3 § g 



**1 o 

" 3 " 5 » 
8 | S"S| 



lis 

3 O 



96 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Poverty of 
Citeaux, 
the Cister- 
cian ideal. 



Situation 

of Citeaux 

when 

S. Bernard 

arrived. 



Carthusians. The Abbat of Citeaux was to be called Pater 
universalis. The Cistercians were to profess poverty, not 
only personal but corporate ; they were to be " poor with 
Christ who was poor." They did not uphold learning, 
their ideal was to live by the labour of their hands, to 
exercise themselves in a humble and poor life, and they 
have been called " the Puritans of the monasteries." They 
constantly refused to take tithes. This " importunate pov- 
erty of Citeaux " was a new thing among Benedictines, and 
quickly gave offence. But the greatness of Citeaux is due 
to S. Bernard who arrived at the convent with his com- 
panions in 1 1 13, being then only 22 years old. At this 
time Citeaux was ruled by its third abbat, an Englishman, 
Stephen Harding.* The monks were reduced to great 
poverty, for the abbat had offended the Court of Bur- 
gundy ; and the few monks who clung to the convent 
were decimated by pest. The poor discouraged abbat 
prayed for light, and then adopted the following strange 
test. There was at that day, writes the abbey annalist, 
a brother who was about to receive in another life the 
recompense of his labours ; Stephen, full of the Spirit of 
the Lord, spoke to him in this guise in the presence of all 
his Religious : " Thou seest the affliction we are in : we 
will certainly follow the strait path marked out for us by 
our holy father Benedict ; but we know not if the disci- 
pline we have adopted is pleasing to the Lord, above all 
because the Religious of these parts accuse us of having 
introduced novelties productive of scandal : besides all 
this I am moved to the bottom of the heart to see the 
greater part of our brethren leaving us, so that our cloister 
is now almost empty, and I fear that our institute will end 
with our lives. It is for this reason that in the name of 
Jesus Christ, for the love of whom we have chosen this 
narrow way which He Himself has recommended in the 
gospel, ... I impose on thee the duty of returning to us, 
after thy passing to God, in the way and time that pleases 

* Stephen Harding, a monk of Sherborne, is regarded as the 
second founder of Citeaux. He had been prior under Alberic. His 
feast day, as a canonised saint, is April 17. 



MONKS 97 

Him, to instruct us what we ought to think about our way 
of life." A few days after the monk's death, Stephen, who 
had been working with his monks, retired to pray : and 
then there appeared to him the dead monk resplendent, 
and he heard him say these words : " Pray God that He 
may make thee as happy as I now am from following the 
way of life thou gavest me, and behold I have returned, 
according to thy will, to tell thee that thy way of life is 
pleasing to the Lord : put to flight all affliction and heavi- 
ness, nay convert them to joy, because in a little while 
God will show thee the magnificence of His mercies, and 
thy desert shall suddenly flower again with the seed of 
great benediction." 

A few days later S. Bernard knocked at the door of S. B 
Citeaux to beg for the habit ; he was accompanied by 30 
companions, 5 of whom were his own brothers. There 
had come to Citeaux men of the stamp to be attracted by 
those very " novelties " which deterred others, and on their 
foreheads Stephen read " the predestination of saints." 

S. Bernard was born at the castle of Fontaines in Bur- His 
gundy in 1091. His mother was Aleth, or Elizabeth, of 
Montbarc, who had desired to dedicate herself to religion 
before her marriage at 15 years old. Bernard was the third 
of her children, and she wished to transmit to them the vo- 
cation she believed she had herself received. She was, 
says one of her contemporaries, in all things the model 
of her children ; and Bernard especially wished to live 
like his mother, to pray like her, to secretly imitate all he 
saw her do, her acts of sweetness and charity. S. Ber- 
nard is one of the great doctors of the Church of whom 
Neander notes that they owed their future greatness to 
their mothers. She died when he was 20, leaving him a.d. mi. 
desolate, and deprived of all support. Soon he persuaded 
a band of gay young cavaliers to devote themselves to the 
life of the Gospel ; they retired to Chatillon, and there 
determined to take the Benedictine habit. They decided 
to apply to Citeaux. 

At 25 years old, he was sent from here to found the He is sent 
monastery which he called Claire Vallee, because it should 

H 



mother. 



to found 
Clairvaux. 



98 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

be as a burning furnace of divine light. For his conse- 
cration as abbat he went to the Bishop of Chalons. He 
entered the bishop's presence, emaciated and with death 
written in his face, surrounded by his tall robust com- 
panions. But the bishop never hesitated which he was 
meant to consecrate — he fixed his eyes on Bernard, and, 
says the chronicler, " from that day and hour they had but 
one heart in our Lord." Guillaume de Thierry has left an 
account of his friend Bernard's life at Clairvaux : " Such," 
he concludes, " is this illustrious school of Christian wis- 
dom, over which the holy abbat Bernard presides, such 
is the fervour and discipline in ejus clarissima et carissima 
valle" (in his most bright and beloved valley). Bernard 
united great delicacy and sweetness of nature, evidenced 
in his correspondence, with austerity and fearlessness. 
His strong affection is shown in his friendships : Peter 
the Venerable, S. Norbert (see p. 210) Hugh and Rich- 
ard of the Abbey of S. Victor, and Ermengarde Countess 
of Brittany loved and were loved by him. His austerity 
and bold reproof of evil raised complaints. Some of the 
bishops denounced him because he was a simple monk ; 
even the pope and cardinals reproved him. To the re- 
monstrance from Rome he replies with " a holy bold- 
ness " : " How long will truth be hated, even in the 
mouth of the poor? ... I know not whether I ought 
to congratulate or compassionate myself for being looked 
upon as a dangerous man, because I have spoken accord- 
Influence ing to truth, and acted according to justice." It has 
been justly said of Bernard that while he lived he was the 
real ruler of Christendom. A leader of men, he led them 
where he would ; admonished peoples and kings, recon- 
ciled schismatics, destroyed heresies, decided in favour 
of Innocent II. as against the antipope Anacletus, and 
made France and Henry I. acknowledge him. Educator 
and counsellor of popes, preacher of the Crusade of which 
in 1 146 he was offered the command, he himself despised 
honours — and the archbishoprics of Milan, Rheims and 
Genoa were refused by him. Like S. Catherine he lived 
in an age when the world and the sacred ministers were 



of Bernard. 



MONKS 99 

clothed " in vice as in a garment," simony abounded, and 
of all the great saints who have decried the abuses of the 
clergy, none have exceeded Bernard in the bitterness of 
his reproach. He loathed and scorned the Church's 
blemishes, yet loved, as perhaps none but the saints have 
loved, what was eternal and divine in it ; and with them 
he exalted and upheld that poor " earthern vessel " in 
which man's treasure is hid. His faults were the faults 
of his age, which he represented and summed, his virtues 
were his own. 

When Bernard lay dying, the Archbishop of Treves His death, 
besought him to visit Metz, then the scene of internecine 
war between the nobles and the commonalty. " God " 
says the chronicler, " held his soul between His hands, 
and did with it as He pleased : " S. Bernard actually set 
forth, and stood on the banks of the Moselle surrounded 
by a few brethren, yet so feeble that his voice could not 
be heard. In the middle of that night, however, a depu- 
tation of nobles came to accept his mediation. The next 
morning Bernard heard all their griefs, and a kiss of peace 
passed through the ranks. Thus his death suited with 
his life. He died "warming the hearts of his brethren 
with the sweetest consolations." Their piteous distress 
"moved the maternal heart of the servant of God"; 
Bernard wept, and looking towards heaven with an ex- 
pression of great sweetness said " I know not to which I 
ought to yield — to the love of my children which urges 
me to stay here, or to the love of my God which draws 
me to Him." They were his last words. He died aged 
63 on August 20 at 9 in the morning. 

His writings are numerous, his commentary, and ex- His writ- 
planation in a mystical sense, of the " Canticle of Can- ln S s - 
tides " being perhaps the best known. The special 
devotion of his life appears in his writings in honour of 
the Blessed Virgin, which have become household words, 
and in which he manifests much of the grace and delicacy 
of his mind. Hence in the very beautiful picture in the 
Badia church in Florence, Mary is appearing to him while 
he writes. 



ioo CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL HOME 

He is one of the Doctors of the Church, and has been 
called " the last of the Fathers." His canonisation took 
place 20 years after his death. 

The Cistercians now number among them only monks 
who are at the same time priests, lay brethren, oblates, 
and peasants. 

The periods in the history of the Cistercian order may 
be divided as follows : period of the ' plantation ' of the 
Order, 1098-1134; its golden age, 1 134-1342; its de- 
cadence 1 342-1 700. In the xiv. century 700 monasteries 
obeyed the abbat-general ; S. Bernard himself founded 
no less than 163. At the present day only a few remain, 
and Citeaux itself is a Reformatory managed by secular 
priests. The period of ' plantation ' in England was 
from 1 128 to 1 152. Some of the most splendid English 
cloisters were Cistercian. Waverley in Surrey was the 
first, founded in 1129; and among 100 houses in Eng- 
land and Wales were Whalley, founded by S. Stephen 
Harding, Furness,* Rivaulx in Yorkshire, founded by 
S. Bernard from Clairvaux in 113 1, Fountains in the same 
county, Buckland and Buckfastleigh in Devon, Hailes in 
Gloucestershire, Ford in Dorsetshire, Woburn in Bed- 
fordshire, Tintern in Monmouth. The Mother house of 
Scotland was Melrose, a daughter of Rivaulx ; and the 
Welsh Mother-house was Whitland founded from Clair- 
vaux in 1 13 1. In England the Cistercians were known 
as the " white monks." 

Among Cistercian privileges is that of celebrating 
mass with closed doors in time of interdict, granted by 
Eugenius III., who was himself a Cistercian monk, and a 
pupil of S. Bernard's. Alanus the Schoolman was a lay 
brother of this Order, which also boasts among its abbats 
Joachim of Flora, the founder of the Cistercian reform of 
that name in Calabria (1196). 

The Order for women was instituted in n 25 with the 

* Founded in n 12 from Savigny a French Benedictine reform 
with 13 French and 15 Fnglish dependent houses. All were ab- 
sorbed by the Cistercians in 1 147. 



MONKS 101 

cooperation of S. Stephen at Tart, near Dijon; the nuns 
are known as Bernardines* They have some 60 old and 
54 new Houses, and number some 2800. The Spanish 
nuns had power to hold Chapters-General ; holding the 
first in 1 1 89. 

The Mother-house is in Bohemia. The Cistercian in Rome, 
house and Procura in Rome is at S. Bernardo in the 
piazza of that name. The nuns reside at S. Susanna 
opposite. The Congregation of Italy (with a Procura 
also in piazza S. Bernardo) have the church and part 
of the building of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.| 

On Saturday of Holy Week the nuns' dinner, consist- 
ing of a dish of lentils, is sent them by the monks, and 
the nuns send the monks a dish of beans. 

The Cistercian habit was changed by Alberic, the 
second Abbat, from the dark habit of Cluny to a grayish Habit, 
white. This white dress they regarded as specially be- 
fitting men who had dedicated themselves to the Blessed 
Virgin. Over the white habit a black scapular is worn. 
The lay brethren shave the head and wear a brown dress. 
The Cistercian badge is the escutcheon of Burgundy : Badge, 
bendy of 6 or and azure, a bordure gules. In Spain they 
have used a bar chequey with 2 fleurs-de-lis. 



S. ROMUALD AND THE CAMALDOLESE. 

The next reform of the Benedictines % was made by Camaldo- 
S. Romuald, who was born in 956 at Ravenna and lived lese - 
till 1027. He was a Benedictine abbat, but all the 
houses over which he successively ruled dismissed him, 
not being willing to bear the penitential life he proposed 
to them. In 1012, therefore, he founded a hermitage 
at Camaldoli, in a beautiful Apennine valley not far from 



* Thus the Cistercians must not be confounded with the Com- 
munity on the Great St. Bernard, founded by S. Bernard of Men- 
thon at the end of the X. century. For Cistercian nuns cf. also 
p. 121. (Gilbertines.) 

t The rest is a Barrack. 

J Younger than the Cluniac but older than the Cistercian reform. 



102 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



enclosed 
hermits. 



Arezzo, where each monk lived in a separate dwelling ; 
the settlement being enclosed by a wall 530 yards in ex- 
tent, beyond which the monk could not stray. Romuald 
gave them the Rule of S. Benedict ; they never tasted 
meat and fasted for two Lents in each year. Their con- 
stitutions were committed to writing and slightly miti- 
gated by the fourth Prior in 1102. 
Recluses, or The monks were bound to repair to the church to 
recite together the divine office. But there were from 
the first a class of recluses who obtained permission to 
live in a specially constructed cell, which they never 
quitted, their food being passed to them through hatches. 
If the recluse were a priest his mass was answered by some- 
one in a little room communicating. The hermits and 
recluses continued side by side until the present century ; 
but for the past 30 years there has been no recluse to 
inhabit the cells which may still be seen at the Holy 
Hermitage. The monastery lower down the hill was 
constructed later; all its inmates were monks not her- 
mits, but obeyed the same rule. A large number of the 
hermitages were converted into monasteries, but the 
original Camaldoli retains both. Camaldoli derives from 
ca Mandolo, ca being Tuscan for casa. It gives its name 
to the Order, and every Camaldolese monastery is also 
called a Camaldoli. The great Camaldoli is now sup- 
pressed, a few monks only remaining who officiate in the 
church. The eremo, or hermitage, founded by Romuald, 
lies 2 miles up the hill, and is preceded by a chapel 
dedicated to S. Antony. The fine church is surrounded 
by a little village of separate dwellings, each with a garden 
in front, and by the recluses' cells. 

The Order is governed by a General who is also Prior 
of Camaldoli ; the last general being elected there on 
May 13, 1897. The Camaldolese are divided into 5 
congregations : (1) The Holy Hermitage, at Camaldoli 
(2) The Congregation of Paris (3) The Congregation of 
Turin (4) of the Ancient Convent of S. Michele at Mu- 
rano near Venice (monks) (5) Monte Corona, at Perugia 
(Hermits). 



Camaldoli. 



The 
Eremo 



Govern- 
ment and 
branches. 



MONKS 103 

The Congregation of S. Michele (4) is called the 
Riforma di Camaldoli, (1476) and is now (since 16 16) 
distinct from the Order. The Congregation of Monte 
Corona (5. Hermits) the Tuscan Reform, was instituted 
by Paul Giustiniani in the early xvi. century ; it embraces 
Neapolitans and Poles. The Camaldolese nuns date from Nuns, 
the xi. century also. Some are under the Order, others 
under the Diocesan. 

The Hermits (1) have a Procura where the Procurator in Rome. 
General resides, which is attached to the church of the 
Angeli Custodi in Via del Tritone 184.* The Monks 
(1) are at S. Gregorio, one of the most ancient of Bene- 
dictine sites (Camaldolese since 1573). Here Gregory 
the Great lived, and from here it is believed he sent 
S. Augustin to England. The Congregation of Monte 
Corona are settled at the Camaldoli outside Frascati. 
The nuns used to own the monastery of S. Antonio, now 
the military hospital, by S. Maria Maggiore : it was insti- 
tuted by Angela Francesca Pezza in 1724.1 This was 
taken from them in 1871, and they are now at S. Antonio 
on the Aventine, where they are well known for the cere- 
monial palms which they make up for Palm Sunday, 
which is the industry of the convent. J They have no grille. 

The Camaldolese habit is white with a white scapular ; 
the hood is worn over the head. The scapular of pro- Habit, 
fessed monks is tied by the long white cincture, the 
novices wear it loose. In choir they wear a white 
cuculla with the hood drawn ; and out of doors they 
wear a cloak, caperuccio, with a small hood attached. 
The lay brethren wear leathern belts and beards ; the 
hermits also wear beards, but the monks are clean shaven. 
The hermits at Frascati dress more like frati; they wear 
white tunic and scapular, no cowl ; in the street a long 
hoodless cloak, fastened with a piece of wood, and a white 
hat. The dress of the nuns at S. Antonio is figured on 
plate at page 109. 

* Now (November, 1899) removing to S. Ildefonso, via Sistina, 
cf. p. 217. Their ancient house was the SS. Quattro Incoronati. 
t Cf. Part I., p. 353. % See Part II., p. 249. 



io 4 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Badge. The device of the Order is a cup out of which 2 doves 

drink, representing the 2 classes of hermits and monks, 
the contemplative and the active life ; and signifies that 
both drink of the one cup. The device of the Tuscan 
Reform of Monte Corona is the 3 Benedictine mounts 
surmounted by a crown. 
Guido Blessed Guy of Arezzo, the inventor of the musical 

Aretino. sca i ej was a Camaldolese hermit ; and Peter Damian, the 
" Master of the Sentences," and Gregory XIV., called 
from a hermit's cell to the papal throne, were members 
of this Order. 

S. JOHN GUALBERTUS AND THE VALLOMBROSANS. 

Vaiiom- A Congregation of Benedictines was founded by S. John 

brosans. Gualbertus at Vallombrosa near Florence in 1038. During 
the strife of party factions, S. John's brother had been 
murdered, and he had vowed to avenge himself on the 
murderer. Years after as he was riding down the hill 
that leads from Vallombrosa to Florence, he met his 
brother's murderer alone and defenceless : the moment 
had come for which Gualbertus had waited. It was 
Good Friday, and the hunted man throwing himself on 
his knees, stretched out his arms in the form of a cross, 
and besought the brother of his victim for Jesus' sake to 
spare him. Gualbertus let his arms fall to his side, and 
permitted the man to pass.* But this one act made all 
life look different to him ; he entered the neighbouring 
chapel of S. Miniato and vowed his life to God. The 
result was the monastery and small hermitage which he 
built at Vail' Ombrosa, the "shady valley." He died in 
1073, and lies buried at Passignano near Florence. 
Nuns. Blessed Gualdo the 9^ Abbat-General reformed the 

monasteries especially by recalling the Religious to the 
spirit of poverty. It is then that we first hear of Vallom- 
brosan nuns, for in 1153 he sent S. Bertha de' Bardi, a 
Florentine, to reform the nunnery of Cavriglia. 

* The story is adopted by the author of " John Inglesant." 



MONK'S 



i°5 



In 1226 and 1281 two Vallombrosan monasteries were S. Umilta. 
founded by Rosana, beatified as S. Umilta.* The Order 
for women had much vogue in Italy, and S. Bertha's 
community still exists at S. Gemignano near Siena. 

The Monastery and Hermitage of Vallombrosa are now 
secularised, and the house, like Camaldoli, converted into 
an hotel. 

The Procura is at S. Prassede, which is in charge of In Rome. 
Vallombrosans, and the residence of an abbat. The 
habit, broad scapular, and cowl are black, with a stuff Habit, 
girdle. For nuns the white veil projects beyond a short 
black one. 

The device of the Order is the arm of the founder, in Badge, 
the cowl, grasping a crutch. The field is blue, and a 
white mitre surmounts the cowled arm. 



S. BRUNO AND THE CARTHUSIANS. 

In 1086 Bruno, with 6 companions, founded at Grenoble Carthu- 
the Order of the Carthusians. Bruno (born 1030) was a sians - 
native of Cologne but completed his education at the 
then celebrated episcopal school at Reims. Being much 
persecuted by the bishop he determined to fly the world, 
and S. Robert of Molesme sent him to S. Hugh Bishop 
of Grenoble, who took Bruno and his companions with 
great joy to a desert spot of the Alps 14,000 feet above 
the sea. This was the Grande Chartreuse which has 
given to the Order the name of Carthusians. Here 
Bruno built an oratory, surrounded by separate dwellings 
in imitation of the Lauras. The hermit-monks made 
gardens, dug for minerals, and "vivified the desert places." 
Urban II. who had been a pupil of Bruno's at Reims, and 
afterwards a monk at Cluny, sent for Bruno to Rome to 
aid him in the troubles which then beset Christendom. 
After founding two other retreats in Calabria he died 
there in 1100. 



* Bulfalmacco, the friend of Giotto and Boccaccio, has painted 
scenes from her life. She died 1310, May 23. 



ic6 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

The Rule. For some time the Carthusians possessed no Rule ; 
they observed perpetual fasts, never touched flesh meat, 
ate only bran bread. Their time was spent in praying, 
reading, manual labour, and transcribing books. They 
met together for Matins and Vespers but said the Lesser 
Hours in their own cells. The "Customs" of the order 
had been written down in 1126; in 1259 the "Ancient 
Statutes," in 1368 the " New Statutes," and in the xvi. 
century the " Constitutions " recapitulating the preceding 
Collections and the ordinances of General Chapters, were 
compiled. They were approved by Innocent XI. 

The Statutes are the sovereign Rule for all, from the 
Abbat-General, who is called le Reverend Pere, to the 
last lay brother.* The Order recognises 3 classes, fathers, 
lay brethren, and nuns. Amongst these again are the 
3 usual degrees, the professed, the novices, and the postu- 
lants. Under the Father General, who is Prior of the 
Chartreuse, each house is governed by a Prior, f the other 
officers being the Vicar, Procurator, Sacristan, Coadjutor, 
and Master of Novices. In 139 1 the Pope confirmed 
the exemption of the Order from episcopal control. The 
Prior is by right the spiritual director of his Religious, as 
Benedict directed the abbat should be, but for the sake 
of liberty he nominates other confessors, his Vicar being 
especially deputed to this office. " Dom Procurator " 
governs the temporal affairs, " Dom Sacristan " the church 
functions, while "Dom Coadjutor" is the guest master, 
hears the confessions of externs, and conducts retreats 
for visitors. 

The cell. Each Carthusian lives in a separate dwelling, consist- 

ing of 5 little rooms, and a covered ambulatory, and 
fronting on a little garden. His food is passed through 
a hatch, where the monk receives it at the foot of the 
stairs leading to his rooms. A small passage room with a 

* A copy of the Statutes is to be placed in the cell of every 
monk. For the Chapter-General see Chap. 1., p. 46. 

t The Prior exercises a tempered and paternal authority : " He is 
to be only the first among his equals, and the director and minister 
of equals, not the lord." [Disciplina of the Carthusian Order. ] 



MONKS 107 

statuette of the blessed Virgin, is called " l'Ave Maria," 
from the custom of reciting this prayer on entering. 
Next to this a tiny study leads to the cell proper, the 
cubiculum of the Gospel Matt. vi. 6, with its simple bed, 
priedieu and chair, folding table, and pictures of sacred 
subjects ; for here the monk sleeps, prays, eats, and 
studies. Below these rooms is the monk's workshop, The day. 
and a cellar where he keeps and chops his wood, etc. 
In this little dwelling he is " to occupy himself in an 
orderly and useful way, reading, writing, psalming, pray- 
ing, meditating, contemplating, toiling." At \ to 1 2, when The mid- 
the bell sounds, each monk opens his cell door, and ni S ht office - 
lantern in hand proceeds across the cloister to the 
church, where Matins and Lauds are chanted. There is 
no decoration, no music, and but little light, yet it has 
been said that this midnight office, which is the con- 
solation and support of the Chartreux, realises the 
truth that simplicity does not exclude majesty. The 
Chartreux meets his brethren at 7 a.m. for the con- 
ventual mass ; and at {- to 3 for Vespers. The other 
hours are said in his cell, and the ancient Carthusian 
Office of our Lady, which they call " the Office of the The office 
Blessed one," precedes each canonical hour. On festi- de Beat& - 
vals however all the Hours are chanted in choir, and the 
monks spend 6 or 7 hours in the church. On Sunday 
and feast days also they have recreation in common 
after nones, and eat together in the Refectory. Once 
a week, also, the absolute silence in which the Chartreux 
lives is broken, when the monks take a walk of 3 or 4 
hours' duration, and these walks are notable for the 
' sweet and frank gaiety ' which reigns. Every other 
hour of the 24 is spent by the monk in his cell, which 
he sweeps and cleans, or in his little garden, which he 
cultivates. 

This is the only Order which has uniformly observed Order 
its Rule, and has never been reformed. It is also the never 
only Order for which members of the Mendicant Orders re ° rme 
may exchange their own j but once a Carthusian always 
a Carthusian. Thus is recognised the perfection at which 



io8 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Present 
day. 



the Rule aims. The xv. century was the period of the 
Order's greatest fame; there were then 191 houses of 
monks and 6 of nuns. 
The Order The Order reached England in 1 178, where its Houses 
in England. were called Charter-houses, as they are called Chartreuse 
in France and Certosa in Italy. The London Charter- 
house was built in 1371. S. Hugh of Lincoln was a 
Carthusian, and the conduct of the London monks during 
the Reformation under Henry VIII. has been described 
by Dr. Gasquet in his " Suppression of the Monasteries." 
The Order is divided into 5 Provinces, France, Provence, 
Burgundy, Lombardy, and Geneva. France remains the 
principal centre of the Order : there are 1 1 houses there, 
5 of which, including the Great Chartreuse, are noviciate. 
There is one house in each of the following countries, 
Spain, Switzerland, Germany, and England (in Sussex). 
In Italy there are 6, including the well known Certosa 
outside Florence, and the residence of the Procurator 
in Rome, where there is no monastery. In all there are 
2 1 monasteries of monks and 3 of nuns. 

In 1 145, the year of the first Chapter-General, the 
nuns of the Abbey of Prebayon in Provence, a founda- 
tion of the vii. century, asked to be incorporated with 
the Order. S. Anthelm its Abbat-General consented, 
and the incorporation was approved by Eugenius III. 
Since that time there have always been Carthusian nuns, 
who have at present 3 houses, all of which are in France. 
Their life is the same as that of the monks, except that 
the various little dwellings open on to the wide corridors 
of the monastery instead of being built round a cloister, 
and that all eat in a common refectory. 

These nuns still retain the Sacre or Consecration which 
takes place 4 years after the profession, and is the ancient 
Christian rite of Ordination of deaconesses. It is not as 
Carthusians, but as a reminiscence of their first Rule 
which was that of S. Cesarius of Aries that they preserve 
this rite, though all other nuns have long since lost it. 
It is performed by the bishop, surrounded by his chief 
clergy, and is joined to the rite of the Consecration of a 



Reception 
of a Car- 
thusian 
nun. 





Camaldolese. 



Carthusian. 



habit. 



MONKS 109 

Virgin described later on pages 129, 133.* The recipi- 
ent must have completed 25 years. She presents herself 
for Ordination in the white Carthusian habit and scapular 
and a white veil, which is exchanged in the ceremony for 
a black one. She receives the gold diadem and the gold 
ring of the Consecrated Virgin, and the stole and the 
maniple of the deacon. The maniple is worn on the 
the right arm. The rite begins with the Veni Creator, and 
Litany of the Saints,f and terminates with the Te Deum. 
The nun chants the Gospel of the Mass vested with the 
stole. At the daily conventual mass one of the conse- 
crated nuns still chants the Epistle, and, in the absence 
of a priest, % she still reads the Gospel at Matins, vested 
with the stole. 

The Carthusian habit, consisting of white tunic and Carthusian 
scapular, the cuculla for ceremonies, and a cloak for out 
of doors, differs from the Camaldolese in one point only, 
the front and back of the scapular is joined by a piece of 
white cloth. Their habit, says Peter the Venerable, was 
more scant than that of other monks, and they wore a 
hair shirt next the skin. The tunic of the Carthusian 
and Camaldolese nuns is still shorter than that of the 
'long-robed Black Benedictines.' The nuns wear a 
scapular, called by Carthusians ' cuculle] and for com- 
munion and certain other solemnities they wear the cowl, 
which they however call a 'large white mantle.' The 
scapular of the professed nun differs from that of the 
novice, and the veil of novices and of professed nuns for 
the first 4 years is white. The monks cover their heads 
with the hood in church, and the nuns' veil is constructed 
so as to cover the face if required. 

The famous liqueur of the Chartreux monks is not made 

* She does not take the vows, as these have already been taken 
by a Carthusian 4 years previously at her Profession. In the case 
of other Benedictine nuns the monastic profession is joined to the 
old Consecratio Virgittum forming one ceremony. 

t Cf. Part II., pp. 179, 282. 

X A Father Vicar, representing the Order, ordinarily assists out- 
side the nuns' choir at the Offices, and he resides at the monastery 
in a Chartreux's cell. 



no CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



The 

Chartreuse 
liqueur. 



Badge. 



Carthusian 
mass. 



Procura in 
Rome. 



by themselves, but by paid operatives in the Dauphin^ 
Alps ; the village population gathering the herbs required. 
The liqueur originated in a medicinal elixir which was 
only distilled at the Grande Chartreuse, but since 1835 
the liqueur known as Chartreuse has superseded it. 

The ancient Carthusian device is a monogram of the 
letters C. A. R. T. (Cart/iusianum) ; but the more gener- 
ally adopted badge is a globe surmounted by a cross 
and stars, and the legend Stat crux dutn volvitur 
orbis. 'The cross stands immovable while, the globe 
revolves.' 

The Carthusians do not say the relic prayer (oramus 
te Domine) on ascending the altar ; but recite here the 
Pater and Ave. Like the Carmelites, Dominicans, and in 
the use of Sarum the arms are extended at the Preface 
and the Anamnesis (Unde et memores). They omit not 
only the prayer Placeat but the priest's blessing at the end 
of mass. A record of this more ancient usage is still 
retained to-day, as we know, in the requiem mass, where 
no blessing is given. 

The Grande Chartreuse is in the D^partement de ITsere, 
France. The Roman Procura is in the Via Palestro 39. 



S. SYLVESTER GOZZOLINI AND THE SYLVESTRIANS. 



In Rome. 



Another small but ancient Benedictine Congregation is 
the Sylvestrian, founded by Sylvester Gozzolini, the her- 
mit of Osimo, in 1230. The Rule is wholly Benedictine ; 
and the Order received its final organisation at the Chap- 
ter of Monte Fano, a Chapter which was epoch-making 
in the development of constitutionalism among Bene- 
dictines. Like the Vallombrosan the Sylvestrian has 
been a purely Italian Order, and is to be found in Umbria 
and the Marches. The Sylvestrians have also had a mis- 
sion station in Ceylon for the past 100 years. Like the 
Olivetans this is an Order for monks only. The Mother- 
house and Procura of the Order is in Via S. Stefano 
sopra Cacco 26, the residence of the Abbat-General, 






112 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Habit. given to the Order in 1568.* The habit is the Bene- 

dictine, but in dark blue. Both rule and habit were 

Badge. given to S. Sylvester by Benedict in a vision. The badge 
is the three green hills on a blue ground, surmounted by 
a gold crozier, with two rose branches in flower at its 
sides. 

S. BERNARD TOLOMEI AND THE OLIVETANS. 

Olivetans. The Olivetan monks were founded by Blessed Bernard 
Tolomei of Siena, born in 1272. At the time of the 
foundation the pope who was at Avignon, bade the Bishop 
of Arezzo give the Rule and habit of S. Benedict to the 
new monks. The bishop sent for the Camaldolese, who 
inaugurated the Order under the name of " Congregation 
of the Blessed Virgin of Monte Oliveto." It was con- 
firmed in 1 3 19. 

Mont' Their great abbey, 16 miles from Siena, has been de- 

Oiiveto. clared a national monument ; f the cloister is celebrated 
for its scenes of the life of S. Benedict painted for the 
monks by Sodoma. The last Abbat, di Negro, of the 
family of S. Catherine of Genoa, was allowed to remain 
there in secular dress in charge of the monument. He 
died in 1897. His courteous reception of all strangers, 
the charm of his goodness, simple piety, and serenity 
under loss and trial, will be remembered by all he wel- 
comed, and have been recorded by M. Paul Bourget in 
his books " Cosmopolis " and " Un Saint." The Abate 
di Negro remembered the now empty cloister and choir 
filled by 50 white robed monks. The Mother-house is 
now at Settignano, near Florence. 

in Rome. The Procura is at S. Francesca in the Forum, which is 
in the care of the Olivetans (since 1352), though the 

Habit. monastery is suppressed. The habit is the white robe, 

* The original church of the Order was S. Giacomo alia Lungara 
(founded by Leo IV.) given to Saint Sylvester himself by the 
Chapter of S. Peter's. The property however was not freehold, 
and the Sylvestrians later on accepted their present church. 

t At the Suppression, there were 34 inmates, 14 of whom were 
priests, the rest novices and lay brethren. 



MONKS 113 

scapular, and cowl of the Camaldolese, with a black 
cloak in winter out of doors. Novices and lay brethren 
wear a rosary. Their badge consists of the 3 Benedic- Badge, 
tine mounts surmounted by a cross, with 2 branches of 
olive denoting peace. 

BENEDICTINE OBLATES OF THE ORDER OF MONT' OLIVETO. 

A society of oblates, living in community, was founded s. Fran- 
by S. Francesca Romana, who is not only the greatest cesca Ro " 
saint in the Olivetan calendar, but one of the holiest of 
those who have trodden the streets of Rome, " the city of 
the soul." Born in Rome in 1384, of Jacobella and Paolo 
Bassi, she was married against her will to Lorenzo Pon- 
ziani, with whom however she " lived in the most blessed 
union." Every day she would leave the Porta San Paolo, 
clad in coarse wool, and gathering firewood for the poor 
bring it home on her head, to distribute. Even during 
Lorenzo's lifetime she had collected together some good 
women dedicated to a life of charity under the Rule of 
S. Benedict, but without irrevocable vows. On his death 
she became their Superior, a.d. 1425, and eventually 
founded the Oblates of Tor de' Specchi, a convent near 
the Capitol. Pastor says of her time : " Francesca Romana 
was now filling Rome with the splendour of her holiness " ; 
and it is she indeed who began the great work of regen- 
eration which was continued by Philip Neri. She had 
that exquisite charity which willingly " leaves Christ for 
Christ " ; and it is said that being once called away 4 
times as she was beginning the same verse of the Office 
of our Lady, she found this verse written on the page in 
letters of light by her guardian angel. 

The Oblates, or nobili dame, of Tor de' Specchi still re- Tor de' 
side in the street of that name at the foot of the Capitol. |«*^hi, 
They have no enclosure, but may occasionally be seen 
driving in a closed carriage of the large old Roman type, 
such as cardinals use. They do not take perpetual vows, 
and are free to leave and marry. Their convent may 
be visited at the periodical Sale of their work for the 



Rome. 



114 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

poor. It used to be open all day on the feast of S. 
Francesca, and may generally be seen even now on the 
Octave. On Holy Thursday their chapel is open for the 
Habit. visit to the sepulchre. The habit is a black dress, with a 

simple white gauze veil, very ample and long, no scapular 
and no whimple. Their Superior is called Presidentessa. 
S. Francesca died at the Ponziani palace in 1440 while 
on a visit of consolation to her son ; the site is now 
marked by the little chapel in Via Vascellari. This and 
Tor de' Specchi are the two special spots in Rome, all 
of which is hallowed by her presence, which are con- 
nected with her life, her prayers, her ecstasies and her 
trials. The feast day is March 9. On it, unfortunately, 
her skeleton is exposed at the church in the Forum, under 
the high altar. 

The Abbe de Rance and the Trappists. 

The Trappists are a branch of the Cistercians. Their 
founder Abbe de Rancd was born in 1626, and after a 
series of events which impressed on him the valuelessness 
of all for which he had been living he quitted the world in 
LaTrappe. 1660 and retired to his abbacy of La Trappe near Se6z, 
giving his patrimony to the Hotel Dieu in Paris. La 
Trappe was an ancient Cistercian monastery, founded 
in 1 140* by Eugenius III. In course of time it was in- 
herited by Armand de Rance as one of his many lay bene- 
fices, t Here he inaugurated the "Strict observance of 
the Cistercians," J and finally the discipline of La Trappe. 



* It was affiliated to Citeaux, as one of the Savigny Houses, at 
the Chapter General of 1 147. See supra p. 100 footnote. 

t See Part IV., p. 491. He had been ordained priest by his 
uncle the Archbishop of Tours in 1651, but even as a child had 
been loaded with preferments according to the abuse common at 
that time. 

% It must not be supposed that the " importunate poverty of 
Citeaux " continued. Before the xm. century the ' white Cistercian 
monks' are called Aiarice, from their evil cupidity; Avarice's 
sisters being the Pride of the Templars, and the Luxury of the 
priests and prelates. 



MONKS 115 

La Trappe thenceforth became famous as the scene of a 
strangely mortified mode of existence, in which Ranc6 
was joined by others disillusioned with what life has to 
offer, who found there with him peace and happiness. 

Every Trappist monastery is called ane Trappe. The Discipline 
silence observed is absolute, no monk may speak to ° fLa 
another on any occasion. The only exceptions are for 
the abbat and the guest-master. The rule which pre- 
scribed 2 meals in the course of the day (inane accipiant 
mixtum . . . et ad seram coeneni) has been mitigated 
since 1894, and from Easter to September 14, 3 meals 
are permitted, the dinner being at n. The diet consists 
of vegetables only. From September 14 until Lent the 
one meal is taken at 2.30. But in Lent the one meal is 
not taken till 4, with a very slight refection later. In 
summer the monks retire to rest at 7, in winter at 8. The day. 
They rise at 2 a.m. to recite Matins and Lauds to which 
they add " the Little Office " and half an hour's medita- 
tion, which lasts till 4.30. Then they rest in their cells 
till Prime at 5.30; but in winter they read to themselves 
in a common room. At 7 they begin manual work, dig- 
ging, stone carrying, etc., the abbat often taking the more 
lowly employment. In bad weather they work at car- 
pentry, copying, book- binding, sweeping, or do other useful 
labour. At 8.30, Terce is said followed by Mass. Sext 
follows, and an interval of private reading each in his own 
cell. After the midday repast they work again for about 
2 hours, and, on the signal being given, each monk takes 
off his sabots, puts his tools away, dons his cowl, and 
meditates and reads in his cell till Vespers at 4.* The 
collation of dry bread, fruit, and a little cider is taken at 
5 o'clock, from Easter till September 14. An interval is 
allowed after this, which each spends in his cell, and then 
the monks listen to spiritual reading in the Chapter-house 
till 6. They sleep on straw palliasses, and in their clothes. 

La Trappe is rather an outcome of S. Bernard than 
S. Benedict, and interprets the rule of the latter ' according 

* In Lent Vespers follow Mass. Cf. Part II., p. 144. 



u 6 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



i-x Trappe 
and the 
Revolu- 
tion. 



Subse- 
quent Con- 
gregations. 



Re-acquisi- 
tion ot 
Citeaux. 



to the letter rather than the spirit.' The Abb£ de Ranee 
emphasised the dignity which Benedict had bestowed on 
manual labour at a time when such labour was relegated 
to slaves ; * Mabillon, following the Black Benedictines, 
insists rather on the founder's care for study. 

During the life of the Abbe de Ranee none but the 
nuns of Clairets attempted to follow his Reform. La 
Trappe itself was suppressed during the Revolution, in 
1 790, despite the people of the neighbourhood who desired 
these useful toilers to remain. The 53 monks then resi- 
dent were questioned, 42 declaring their wish to live and 
die in the observance. One of the monks retired to the 
Canton Fribourg, and here both Trappists and Trappis- 
tines settled, the Order spreading thence to Belgium, 
Piedmont, Spain, Ireland, England, and America. La 
Trappe was again constituted Mother-house in 18 15. 

From 1847 till 1893 there existed 3 Trappist com- 
munities, which were placed under the Cistercian Order 
(#) the Cistercian Trappists, who followed the Constitu- 
tions of Citeaux (b) Trappists who followed the Cistercian 
Rule as modified by Ranee (c) The Belgian Congrega- 
tion, a modification of (£). By a Brief of 1893 these 
Congregations were reunited, the Abbat-General of the 
United Trappists (Trappistes reunis) residing in Rome. 
The official style of the Order became : " Order of 
Reformed Cistercians of our Lady of La Trappe, f and 
the monks live the life of xn. century cenobites, to which 
is added perpetual silence. 

In 1898 Citeaux was re-acquired by purchase ; and this 
will henceforth be the Mother-house of the Order, the 
Abbat-General being ipso facto Abbat of Citeaux. The 
style of the Order has since been changed to " Order of 
Reformed Cistercians, 1 ' without further addition. 

The 55 Trappist houses existing in 1893 have increased 
to 104 in 1899, 46 of which are nunneries. They are 

* At the abbey of S. Gall, monks and priests all worked in the 
fields with the slaves. 

t Or "Congregation Cistercienne de Petroite observance de la 
Trappe." 



ii7 



scattered in the 5 quarters of the world, 38 however 
being in France. The Cistercian Order, including those 
of the 'Common ' and those of the 'Reformed ' (Trappist) 
Observance, numbers 4150 monks, of which 3200 are 
Trappist. There were about 900 Trappist nuns until last 
year, when 29 Cistercian Convents, 25 of which are 
Spanish, sought admittance among them. ( Cf. with page 
101 supra.) 

It will be noticed that every step in the history of the 
Cistercian Order, Cluny, Citeaux, Clairvaux, La Trappe, 
has been of exclusively French origin. The site of Tre 
Fontane, near the basilica of S. Paul's, was bought and 
given by a Frenchman to French Trappists in 1865;* 
and recently the charge of the catacomb of Callistus on 
the Appia has been confided to them. It is to be hoped 
that visitors will not judge of Trappists by the monks, 
who, absolved from their vow of silence, afford tourists 
of all nations every opportunity of judging of them as 
ciceroni of one of the greatest of Christian sites. The 
late Mother-house and present Procura is in Via S. 
Giovanni in Laterano 95. All Trappist houses are dedi- 
cated to Notre-Datne. 

The Trappist habit is the same as the Cistercian ; 
white, and a black scapular with the girdle over it. The 
lay brethren wear a brown habit with the black scapular, 
shave the head, and wear a beard. 

The badge is the escutcheon of Burgundy on the Badge 
fleurs-de-lio shield of France (p. 101). 



Mother- 
house and 
Procura. 

Habit. 



Bridget- 
tines. 



S. BRIDGET AND THE BRIDGETTINES. 

The Order founded in 1344 by Bridget of Sweden is 
reckoned among Benedictine Orders, because though the 
founder gave them a Rule herself, she ordained that 
whatever " was wanting to it " should be supplied by 
Benedict's Rule. 

Birgitta or Bridget married Ulpho Prince of Norica, s. Bridget, 
converting him by her example and "efficacious words" 
* See Part I., p. 123. 



u8 CHRISTIAN AXD ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

to a holy life. Shortly before his death he became a 
Cistercian, and then Bridget instituted a monastery on 
her estate of VVastein, Lincopen, " under the rule of the 
Holy Saviour " which she had received from Him. The 
Order was a double one for men and women. " In honour 
of our Lady " the men were subject to the nuns of the 
related House. Her first community consisted of 60 
women and 24 men, representing the 12 apostles and 72 
disciples. The Breviary tells us that she then " came to 
Rome moved thereto by God," and there she brought 
many to holiness. She reproved the clergy with severity 
for the profane life they led, and freely announced to 
Gregory XI. the reform which God desired of the Church 
and Roman court, threatening his near death and judg- 
ment at the tribunal of Jesus Christ if he should not obey. 
It is a very remarkable fact that in one century Rome 
should have seen three such women as Catherine, Bridget, 
and Frances of Rome. S. Bridget is known for her reve- 
lations, extraordinary visions and insight of which she was 
the subject, often of great truth, always forceful. She was 
canonised by Boniface IX. Her daughter Catherine of 
Sweden is also among the saints.* 

Zion House — all S. Bridget's monasteries are so called 
— in Brentford was one of the first monasteries sup- 
pressed by Henry VIII. and is now the property of the 
Dukes of Northumberland. It had been founded by his 
father Henry VII. The Bridgettines from there retired 
to Lisbon, whence they returned a few years ago to Zion 
House, Chudleigh, Dorsetshire ; but there are no double 
houses. The Bridgettines are ruled by an abbess. A 

In Rome, community of Carmelite nuns have recently been placed 
at S. Bridget's in Piazza Farnese, which was the ancient 

Habit. Bridgettine house. The habit is black, the veil white 

and marked with a cross-shaped red band. 

* See Part I., Saints' rooms, p. 353. The Order was not sup- 
pi essed in Sweden till 1595. 



MONKS 119 



EXTINCT BENEDICTINE CONGREGATIONS. 

The most important and longest lived of those Bene- Fontev- 
dictine Congregations which have ceased to exist is the rault - 
Order of Fontevrault, founded by Robert of Arbrissel at 
the end of the XL century. Coeval with Citeaux and 
anterior to all the other great reforms, except Vallom- 
brosa, Fontevrault was for 600 years a unique instance 
of uniformly remarkable government and of splendid ad- 
ministrative ability. " Fontevrault," says Ernest Legouve, 
" nous montre, si Ton peut parler ainsi, toute une st^rie 
d'hommes eminents dans la succession de ses abbesses 
superieures." Under its 32 abbesses each rule and privi- 
lege, in turn attacked, was defended and maintained ; 
and no religious congregation has attained to greater 
eminence and prosperity : " aucune Congregation ne fut 
plus riche et plus illustre." 

In 1099 Robert d'Arbrissel having instituted the first Constitu- 
" penitentiary," made the restoration of women of evil jg°" ° u f if° n " 
life the special care of the nuns of Fontevrault. The 
Rule was Benedictine, with constitutions special to it. 
The Order was a double one ; the Abbess was General 
of the Order, its spiritual and temporal Superior.* She 
administered the property of the community, adjudged 
the ecclesiastical and civil penalties in each case, chose 
the confessors for her houses, whether of women or men. 
No novice could be received without her permission, and 
each monk, as each nun, made his profession in her 
hands, and swore obedience to her. The monks tilled 
the fields, and the nuns received the fruits, even the 
broken victuals were returned to the nuns' abbey for 
distribution to the poor. " Partout ... la superiority 
feminine ; " " Les prieures commandaient aux prieurs, et 
les r^ligieuses aux religieux, comme l'abbesse a 1'abbeV' 
This subordination had been decreed by the founder, 
who placed the Order under the protection of the 
Blessed Virgin and S. John, wishing that the author- 

* She was exempt from the authority of the Ordinary. 



120 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

ity which Christ gave to Mary on the cross should be 
" the model of the relation which he established between 
the men and the women of his congregation" ; he him- 
self being the first to set the example.* Matilde of Anjou 
was its second abbess ; and one of its latest Grandes- 
Prieures was Ren£e of Lorraine, daughter of the Duke 
of Guise and sister of the Cardinal, afterwards for 60 
years abbess of St. Pierre de Rheims (1542-1602). This 
illustrious Congregation ceased to exist when Fontevrault 
was desecrated by the Revolutionists, and its library dis- 
persed, together with those of Marmoutier, St. Maur, 
and other historic abbeys. Henry II. of England and 
Richard Coeur-de-Lion lie buried there. The nuns of 
Fontevrault wore the white habit and rochet ; with a 
black cowl.f 



Grand 
Montains. 



In 1076 S. Stephen of Muret and his companions 
founded the Congregation afterwards called of Grand- 
mont. Their houses in Normandy and Anjou were richly 
endowed by the English Kings. They wore the black 
habit with a large scapular. The Congregation ceased 
to exist in the last century.J 



Congrega 
tion of 
Monte 
Vergine. 



Abbat William, whose statue appears among the found- 
ers of Orders in S. Peter's, founded the monastery of the 
Virgin on Monte Vergine (1119) and died in 1142. Of 
his Rule it has been beautifully said that he made it from 
the precepts and counsels of the Gospel, from the Rule 
of Benedict, and with his own holy life and example. 
The nuns of the Order, like the hermits, wore the white 
habit, and over this the former wore a rochet. The 
device of the Order is the three mounts, surmounted by 
a cross and circle, and the letters M.V. 



* Helyot, vol. ii. pp. 299, 303, 307. 

t Pieces stir Fontevrault. There were 60 Priories with 4 Prov- 
inces in France, and 2 in England. 

% S. Stephen denied that his Religious were monks, canons, or 
hermits ! Mabillon ranks them as Benedictines, others among 
Augustinians. Helyot denies both assertions. 



MONKS 



In the xn. century, in the reign of Stephen, Gilbert of 
Sempringham in Lincolnshire founded an Order of nuns, 
lay sisters, and lay brethren, with the Cistercian Rule.* 
With them he associated later an Order of Canons, who 
followed the Rule of Augustine. These 4 classes formed 
4 separate Congregations, each under a Superior chosen 
from among themselves. The monasteries were double. 
Though the life led was austere and frugal S. Gilbert 
required them to be warmly and comfortably clad ; the 
habit consisted of a white tunic and cowl, a cape and 
hood {capuce) lined with fur, and a sheepskin pelisse. 
The canons wore a mantle in place of the cowl. The 
lay sister's tunic was black. The nuns had five changes 
of tunic, and the canons three. The Order existed till the 
dissolution at which time there were 25 houses in Eng- 
land and Wales. The Order of Canons has lately been 
revived by a Lincolnshire priest at Spetisbury in that 
county, and the old white habit has been restored by 
the Premonstratensian Canons. S. Gilbert was born in 
the time of William the Conqueror (1083) of a Norman 
father and Saxon mother. He was present at the Chap- 
ter-General of Citeaux, and took counsel with S. Bernard. 
S. Thomas of Canterbury was received by him and his 
Order with great charity on his way to France. His 
feast day is kept in England on February 1 1. {Ob. 1189. 
Canonised by Innocent III.) 



The Eng- 
lish Order 
of Gilber- 
tines. 



The Humiliati were an order of White Benedictines. Humiliati. 
They arose in the time of Barbarossa, 1201, among those 
Milanese nobles whom he had taken prisoner, and who 
had to endure every kind of misery in a foreign land. 
These men made a vow that if they ever saw their coun- 
try again, they would spend their lives in good works. 



* He urged the Cistercians to affiliate them to the Order, but this 
was refused. Indeed the Chapter-General held in 1228 emitted a 
decree that " no monastery of nuns should be constituted or asso- 
ciated to the Order." At the same time they would not forbid 
nuns adopting their Institutions; they only refused to undertake 
the care of souls in such a monastery, or to send a Visitor there. 



Celestin- 
ians. 



122 . CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

On their return they made a common fund of what re- 
mained of their patrimony, and formed themselves into a 
Community under the Rule of S. Benedict. They elected 
to live a common life together, and were called the Hu- 
miliati ; they were also known as Berrettini on account 
of the Phrygian cap which they wore in place of a hood. 
The Order at first illustrious became infamous. Its Prov- 
osts lived like petty princes, the great wealth of the 
houses was not even spent on the church services, the 
successors to the honours and titles of Provosts were 
their own sons, and intrigues, murders, and all kind of 
iniquities prevailed in the wretched community. S. 
Charles Borromeo who was made Visitor of the Order 
did all in his power to reform them, and to convene a 
Chapter of the Provosts who were the head and front of 
the offending. This led to the final scene in the drama, 
their machinations to murder S. Charles. They were 
suppressed utterly by Clement VII. Their monastery in 
Rome was S. Cecilia, now occupied by Black Benedictine 
nuns, who however wear the white habit as a record of them. 

Peter Morronethe hermit — afterwards Celestine V. — 
founded the Order called after him about 1254. The 
Rule followed was wholly that of S. Benedict. After the 
abdication of their founder, these Pauperes heremihe 
domini Celestini had to fly to Greece to escape the per- 
secution of his successor Boniface VIII. The Order per- 
ished in Germany at the time of the religious Reformation, 
and in France in 1 766, but survived longer in Italy. Their 
device is a black serpent wound round a white cross. 
Celestine, though canonised in 13 13, is one of the popes 
whom Dante places in hell, for 

per villa te fee e il gran rijiuto. 



Feuiiiants The Feuillants,* an Order for men and women, were a 
and Feuil- R e f orrn c f the Cistercians, founded by Jean de la Bar- 

lantes. ' J 

* Feuillans was, like La Trappe, an ancient French abbey, of 
which la Barriere was abbe commendataire at 18 years old. 



MONKS 123 

riere, an austere man and an eloquent preacher, the con- 
temporary of S. Francis de Sales. Cardinal Bona was a 
member of this illustrious and industrious Congregation, 
which was established in Rome at S. Bernardo and S. 
Pudenziana. The Italian Congregation were known as 
Bernardoni, and enjoyed the quaint privilege of mould- 
ing the little wax lambs called Agnus Dei to be blessed 
by the pope. 

We have referred to the Black Benedictine Congre- St. Maur. 
gition of St. Maur, which was suppressed in 1792, on 
page 89. The device of this illustrious community is 
the word PAX between a fleur-de-lis and the 3 nails of 
the cross, and surrounded by the Crown of Thorns. 

For Cluny, see p. 93 ; and for Flora in Calabria, 
which persisted till the xvi. century, p. 100. 



BENEDICTINE SAIOTS AND SAINTS EMBLEMS. 

S. Benedict, S. Scholastica, S. Maur, S. Placid, SS. Ger- Benedic- 
trude and Mechtilde, S. Bernard and the other great " "^ la'^ts 
founders, are most often represented in art. In churches Emblems. 
of Black Benedictines SS. Benedict, Scholastica, Maur 
and Placid, and other saints common to the whole Order, 
as S. Gregory the Great, wear a black habit, and in 
churches of White Benedictines a white habit. The cowl 
being the dress of ceremony among Benedictines, founders 
and monks appear dressed in it in all the great pictures ; 
S. Romuald in the Vatican Gallery, S. Bruno in S. Maria 
degli Angeli, S. Bernard at the Badia in Florence, SS. 
Bernard and John Gualbertus in Perugino's crucifixion 
at S. M. Maddalena dei Pazzi, S. Benedict in the beauti- 
ful relief over the entrance to Mont' Oliveto, the great 
figures of Gertrude and Scholastica, all wear the cowl. 

To determine what patrons or monks are designated 
in a Benedictine church, one must bear in mind to what 
Congregation it belongs : in a Cistercian church S. Ber- 
nard, Robert of Molesme, Stephen Harding, and the 
great Cluny abbats, Odo, Odilo, or Peter the Venerable, 



124 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



S. Benedict 
and Scho- 
lastica. 



SS. Maur 
and Placid. 



will appear. In Carthusian, Trappist and Camaldolese 
churches, the founders ; in Vallombrosan churches the 
founder and S. Umilta ; in Olivetan the founder and S. 
Francesca Rom ana. Abbats and Abbesses bear the cro- 
zier. In France S. Bernard and S. Maur are most fre- 
quently met with ; in Sicily S. Placid ; in England S. 
Gregory, S. Augustin of Canterbury,* Benedict Biscop, 
Bede, Wilfrid of York, Ansehn (1033-1109), Boniface, 
Willibald and the great Saxon abbesses, Mildred, Wal- 
burga, Editha, Etheldrytha, Ebba ; in Germany Wal- 
burga, Lioba, Berthgytha, Gertrude and Mechtilde, 
Boniface. f 

ss. benedict and scHOLASTicA are often represented together 
in the beautiful scene of their last meeting : S. Benedict 
stands about to depart for his monastery, S. Scholas- 
tica bows her head on her hands, having vainly besought 
him to spend the night in holy converse, and at her prayers 
a great and sudden storm arises, so that he cannot return. 
When represented alone S. Benedict has a raven at his 
feet, emblem of the solitary life at Subiaco, but accounted 
for by the legend that a raven fed him. He also appears 
enthroned as Patriarch of Monasticism. His other em- 
blems are an open book with the opening words of his 
Rule Ausculta fill verba magistri; the asperge, emblem of 
exorcism ; the broken cup or pitcher which his nurse 
broke and he restored miraculously ; a raven with a loaf 
of bread ; the thorn bush in which he rolled himself as a 
penance to the flesh. At Scholastica's feet is her emblem, 
a dove, in her hand a lily. Both Benedict and Scholastica 
of course have the crozier. S. Benedict lies at Fleury, 
hence called " the head of all the monasteries." (March 
21 ; Feb. 10.) 

ss. maitr and placid usually appear as children at 
Benedict's feet, with censers in their hands, but in France 
and Sicily they appear as founders ; sometimes with mar- 
tyrs' emblems. These were Benedict's first disciples. 
The story that S. Maur established the Order in France, 



See p. 90. 



t For Hildegarde, cf. Fart IV., p. 385. 



MONKS 



125 



and that S. Placid laboured in Sicily, and that both suffered 
martyrdom, is denied by modern criticism. (Jan. 15 ; 
Oct. 5.) 

gertrude and mechtilde are often represented together, 
in the black cowl, and both holding croziers. As Abbess,* 
Gertrude is also represented alone, seated, a pen in her 
hand, a book on her knee, and her special emblem the 
stigmata impressed on her heart, in allusion to the story 
that at the end of her life it was transfixed with a mystic 
arrow, and retained the marks of the Passion. (Nov. 15 ; 
Oct. 26.) s. bruno is represented in meditation; or he 
is leading his monks to the Great Chartreuse. (Oct. 6.) 
s. Bernard appears in the habit of his Order, the demon 
or a fettered dragon chained behind him, representing 
heresy; or he kneels before the Madonna. His other 
emblems are the 3 mitres, which stand beside him on 
a book, alluding to the 3 Sees he refused ; a bee-hive, 
as the Doctor Mellifluous ; a book and writing imple- 
ments. (Aug. 20.) s. Bernard tolomei. in the Olivetan 
habit, holds, or receives from the Blessed Virgin, a palm. 
(August 21.) s. francesca romaita appears in the black 
oblate's dress and white gauze veil. Her guardian angel, 
who, like another Roman, Cecilia, " ever accompanied 
her," is by her, or writes in a book: "Thou hast held 
me by my right hand and by thy will thou hast con- 
ducted me, and with glory thou hast received me " ; 
(Psalm LXXII.) or she is kneeling before a pyx, the 
rays from the host falling on her breast, an allusion to the 
name oblate, offered. She is represented of middle age. 
(March 9.) romuald sometimes carries a crutch and 
is depicted as an old man with a long beard. The habit 
of course is white. (February 7.) gualbertus some- 
times wears a cope over his dark habit, and carries a 
crutch and carved cross. (July 12.) bylvester gozzolini 
(ob. 1261). (November 28.) s. Bridget is represented 
in the Bridgettine habit. She carries the pastoral staff, or 
a pilgrim's wallet in allusion to her travels. (Oct. 8, Feb. 1.) 



SS. Ger- 
trude and 
Mechtilde. 



S. Bruno. 
S. Bernard. 



S. Bernard 
Tolomei. 

S. Fran- 
cesca Ro- 
mana. 



S. Ro- 
muald. 

S. John 
Gualbertus. 

Sylvester 
Gozzolini. 
S. Bridget. 



See p. 85 footnote. 



126 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Patron The Patron saint of the Cassinese Congregation is S. 

J_ a !"od f Justina ; the special Patron of the Cistercians and Trap- 

pists is the Blessed Virgin. 

The Order had given to the Church up to the time of 

Baronius, 40 popes, 12 emperors, 4 empresses, 87 kings 

and queens, 200 cardinals, 5616 archbishops and bishops ; 

and counts 3600 saints.* 



BENEDICTION OF AN ABBAT AND ABBESS. 

Benedic- The rite of the Benediction of an abbat is performed 

Ahh°t f an on a Sunday or holy day, both the officiating bishop and 
the Abbat-elect fasting the previous day. Two altars are 
prepared, as at the consecration of a bishop. The bishop 
sits on a faldstool,f the elect with two assistant abbats on 
three high stools. For a mitred abbat, J pontifical, for a 
non-mitred abbat sacerdotal vestments are prepared, with 
a white cope added. The assistants wear a stole, cope, 
and linen mitre. [If the Benediction is by Apostolic 
Mandate, in which case the abbat is exempt from the ju- 
risdiction of his Ordinary, the pontifical notary now reads 
the Mandate. If otherwise, the rite begins with Psalm 67 
(68), followed by some versicles and two short prayers; 
after which the abbat is presented to the bishop to be 
interrogated.] The elect now reads the form of oath, 
which in the case of an abbat consecrated by Papal 
Mandate is word for word that made by a bishop at his 
consecration — with the sole -difference that while both 
promise to come to a Council when called, the abbat does 
not promise to make the visit ad limina, and that the latter 
promises not to alienate the goods of the monastery with- 
out the consent of his convent, and the former not to 
alienate his diocesan revenues without the consent of his 

* The saints' days are given as a guide to the feasts in the churches 
of the various Orders. If the date of a saint's canonisation is much 
later than the date of death, the former is also given, as no saint is 
represented in ecclesiastical art before beatification or canonisation. 

f In his own diocese, on his throne. 

% Abbas de mitra, see p. 59. 



MONKS 127 

Chapter. After reading the oath, he touches the Gospels 
open on the bishop's knee, and says : " So help me God, 
and these holy Gospels." Then follows the Interrogation 
as to his keeping of the Rule, his manners, and his obedi- 
ence to the Holy Roman Church. [If consecrated with- 
out Papal Mandate, he is asked also if he will obey his 
Ordinary.] 

The bishop now says the Confiteor of mass, to which From the 
the elect, at his left hand, replies ; and mass proceeds as Sequence. 
far as the Sequence before the Gospel. The mass may 
be a solemn or a low one. The elect says his mass as far 
as the offertory, supported by his assistants ; but from the 
offertory onwards he reads it from the missal, kneeling at 
a stool before the altar, and omits the words of consecra- 
tion.* 

The bishop now kneels at his faldstool, the elect pros- 
trates on his left, and 7 psalms are chanted, followed by 
the Litany of the Saints (as in the ordination of priests), 
versicles and 2 prayers. The elect then kneels before 
the bishop who intones a Preface, proceeding, after the 
vere dignum etjustum est, thus : — 

" Graciously pour on this thy servant, through our 
prayers, the overflowing spirit of thy benediction ; " 
(he imposes his extended hands on his head, saying :) 
" That he who by the imposition of our hands is this day 
constituted abbat, made worthy by thy sanctification, may 
remain by thee elect, and never, as unworthy, be here- 
after separated from thy grace." 

At the end of the Preface, 2 short and one long prayer 
are said. The bishop, sitting, then delivers the Rule into 
the new abbat's hands : " Receive the Rule . . . Receive 
the flock of the Lord . . . lead it to the pastures of heav- 
enly heritage, Jesus Christ helping thee." He blesses 
the pastoral staff (if this has not been already done) the 
words being the same as for a bishop's, and gives it to the 
abbat : " Receive the staff of thy pastoral office, that thou 

* Up to the offertory he celebrates like a bishop-elect, and after- 
wards recites the mass like priests-elect, but does not concelebrate. 
See Part II., p. 289. 



128 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

mayest be piously severe in correcting vice ; and when 
thou art angry, remember mercy." Similarly a ring is 
blest and given : " Receive the ring, the seal of faith, and 
as the Spouse of God, that is Holy Church, adorned by an 
unshrinking faith, keep it untarnished." Then the new 
abbat receives the kiss of peace. 

The mass continues to the offertory, when he offers 2 
lighted torches, 2 loaves, and 2 barrels full of wine. After 
the first Communion prayer, he goes to the bishop's right 
hand, and receives the Kiss of Peace. At the Communion 
he receives kneeling, and in one species only. He is sol- 
emnly blest at the end of mass [If he is de mitrd the bishop 
here blesses and imposes mitre and ring] ; and then placed 
in the Chair of his predecessors, the pastoral staff in his 
hand ; the bishop saying : " Receive full and free power 
to rule this monastery and Congregation, and all things 
which are known to pertain to its direction, within and 
without, spiritually and temporally." 



Rite of 
Benedic 
tion of an 
Abbess. 



The Cere- 
monial 
Veil. 



The Benediction of an Abbess is mentioned by Pope 
Zacharias in 748 as a ceremony pertaining to the Diocesan 
Bishop alone. 

The abbess-elect hears mass from her stall in the choir 
as far as the Sequence, then comes before the bishop, 
holding the form of oath sealed by her seal (the oath dif- 
fering as in the case of an abbat), and swears it on the 
Gospels. The Litany of the Saints with the same versi- 
cles and prayers as in the Benediction of abbats, follow. 
The same Preface and imposition of the hands, with two 
short and one long prayer, are succeeded by the tradition 
of the Rule as in the case of abbats. 

Here, if the abbess-elect be not already a professed 
nun, she receives the veil. She is always, however, given 
an ample gauze veil, worn by her thereafter as a ceremo- 
nial item ; it is a record of the veiling which used in most 
cases to follow here.t 

* The presumption used to be that the abbess-elect was not a 
nun, and the abbat-elect not a monk. In his case his profession 
precedes the Benediction in the Pontificate. Abbats, but especially 



MONKS 129 

At the offertory, accompanied by two matrons, and pre- 
ceded by two servants bearing two lighted torches, she 
presents these to the bishop as an oblation, and returns to 
her place. The washing of the hands after receiving these 
gifts, in an ordination mass and here, reminds us of the 
original meaning of this custom in a bishop's solemn 
mass. 

The abbess communicates ; and at the end of mass is 
enthroned by the bishop who says the Ac cipe plenum po- 
testatem (Receive full power), p. 128. Then standing 
on the right of the new abbess he intones the Te Deum. 
Her crozier and ring are blest and imposed in the same 
words as for an abbat. 

Accompanied by the matrons, she is met at the door 
of the monastery, and led to the choir ; where all the nuns 
kneel and salute her, and she embraces them. The rite 
ends with the Confirma hoc, Dens, quod operatus es in 
nobis, with the versicles that follow, and a prayer. 

CONSECRATION OF A BENEDICTINE NUN. 

The rite of the consecration of a Virgin is one of the 
oldest rites, as it was one of the most important in the 
primitive Church. It could only be solemnised by a 
bishop, and is described in every Pontificate, even the 
Leonine. S. Ambrose says that the sacred Virgins are 
veiled at Easter-tide when the mysteries of baptism are 
being celebrated throughout the world. Gelasius forbids 
the ceremony to take place except at Easter, the Epiphany, 
and the feasts of Apostles ; and Egbert in England renewed 
the prohibition.* Hospinian supposes that the rite is not 
anterior to Constantine, but the Patriarchs of East and 
West celebrated it in the iv. century, and the Council of 



abbesses, were often elected to convents because of their station, as 
in the case of royal princesses. In the same way the consecration 
of the pope always supposed him to be in deacon's orders only, and 
therefore included his episcopal consecration. See Part IV., p. 374. 
* Pontificate of Egbert of York. 
K 



130 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



The cere- 
mony. 



the new 
nun 



Carthage at the end of the century forbids presbyters to 
solemnise it.* 

This ceremony is still performed at the profession of 
a Benedictine nun ; the two forming one ceremony. It 
takes place in solemn mass, which is proceeded with as 
far as the Alleluia or Sequence ; the following collect 
Collect for being said for the new nun : Grant we beseech Thee 
O Lord a perfect effect to the work ncnv begun by Thy 
servant, whom Thou art pleased to decorate with the 
honour of virginity : and that the gift she offers may be 
complete in fulness, grant her to bring the things noiv 
begun to their consummation. 

At the last verse of the Sequence, the bishop seats 
himself on a faldstool before the altar ; the nun (or nuns) 
to be professed, accompanied by two matrons (usually 
relatives), arid without veil or cuculla proceeds from the 
monastery to the church. The archpriest vested in a 
cope, intones the antiphon : " O prudent virgins, whose 
lamps are prepared, behold the Bridegroom comes, go forth 
to meet him." The nun lights her candle, and goes 
towards him, and the archpriest presents her for conse- 
cration, and replies to the question " Knowest thou if 
she is (they are) worthy?" The bishop then declares 
to the assembly that he intends to bless and consecrate 
her. 

He now calls the new nun : Veni (or Venite) " Come." 
She responds : El nunc sequor, " and now I follow." 
The call is repeated, and she again rises and answers 
" And now I follow with my whole heart," and goes 
towards the centre of the choir. For the third time the 
bishop chants, in a higher tone, " Come, daughter, give 
heed to my voice, I will teach you the fear of the Lord ; " 
and rising from her knees she sings the antiphon : " And 
now behold I follow with my whole heart, Thee I fear, 
Thy face I seek to see : O Lord Thou shalt not confound 
me, but do to me according to Thy loving kindness, and 
according to the multitude of Thy mercies." 



Profession 
as a nun. 



Cf. the in. century fresco in S. Priscilla, Part I., p. 487. 



MONKS 131 

The matrons, if there are many nuns to be professed, 
now range them in a semicircle round the bishop, who 
after publicly exhorting them, interrogates them twice as to 
their resolution to persevere in virginity. The nun places 
her joined hands in the bishop's hand, and says Promitto, 
11 1 promise " ; to which he replies Deo gratias, "Thanks 
be to God." She now signs her profession as described on 
p. 134. She then enters the sanctuary, and sings the — 

Suscipe me Domine, secundum eloquium tuum et vivam ; 
et non confundas me ab expectatione mea* 

The words prescribed by S. Benedict to be said by the 
monk at his profession. The first words are chanted 
standing, the hands and eyes raised ; the second half 
kneeling, the arms crossed. 

The Litanies follow, with the usual petition, as in the 
ordination of bishops and priests, which the bishop rises 
to intone turning towards the newly professed. He now 
removes the mitre, and blesses the nun's cowl ; in the 
case of a lay sister her scapular. The Veni Creator is 
then sung. At its close, the bishop assisted by the 
matrons vests the new nun in the cowl ; who chants an 
antiphon from the martyrology of S. Agnes (Roman Consecra- 
Breviary January 21). The pontiff proceeds to bless t *? n as a 
the veil, the ring, and the crown.f lrgin * 

If many, the new nuns now form a semicircle a second 
time round the bishop, a short prayer is said, and then 
follows the Eucharistic "Prayer or Preface proper to the The 
rite. This beautiful prayer contains the following : " May Preface, 
there be in her a prudent modesty, a wise benignity, a 
grave mildness, a chaste liberty. . . . May she live 
worthy of praise, not desiring to be praised. In holiness 
of body, in purity of soul may she glorify Thee. Be 
Thou to her honour, Thou her joy, Thou her will ; in 
grief her solace; in doubt her counsel; in injury her 

* " Receive me O Lord according to thy word, and I shall live, 
and thou shalt not disappoint me of my hope." 

t See Chap. I., p. 34. First the monastic habit is blest, then the 
symbols of the ecclesiastical virgin. 



132 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Giving the 

veil. 



Espousals 
with the 



ring. 



Crowning 
the virgo 
sacra. 



Anathema. 



defence ; in tribulation patience ; in poverty her abun- 
dance ; in fasting meat ; in sickness medicine. May she 
find all things in Thee, whom above all things she has 
desired to love." * 

The bishop intones the antiphon Veni electa mea, which 
is continued by the choir. He sits on the faldstool, and 
the new nun kneels before him, singing Ancilla Christi sum. 
Now follows a second interrogation : " Will you persist in 
holy virginity, which you have professed?" "I will." 
He now places on her the black veil, and she sings the 
antiphon : Posuit signum (" He has placed a sign "). 

After a short prayer, the bishop, resuming his mitre, 
calls the new Virgin, intoning the antiphon: "Come, 
beloved to thy espousals : the winter is past, the voice of 
the turtle is heard in our land, the vines in flower yield 
their sweet smell." He places the ring on the ring finger 
of her right hand, saying : " I espouse thee to Jesus 
Christ . . . receive therefore the ring of faith, the seal of 
the Holy Spirit, that you may be called the spouse of God 
... in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the 
Holy Ghost. Amen." She responds with an antiphon. 
Then kneeling in her place, she stretches forth her right 
hand and sings another antiphon. Then the pontiff 
blesses her. 

Again he calls her, by chanting the antiphon Veni, 
Sponsa Christi, " Come, bride of Christ, receive the 
crown, which the Lord has prepared for thee for ever." 
He sits, and places the cro\Vn on her head ; and she 
responds with a chant as always. Then he says a prayer 
over her, standing ; and a second prayer over her kneel- 
ing. The new nun sings one more antiphon from the 
Matins of S. Agnes, and then the pontiff solemnly blesses 
her, she meanwhile standing. She then kneels, and he 
pronounces a second blessing. 

An awful anathema is then usually pronounced against 
all who abduct her from the divine service, or appropri- 
ate her goods. 



* This passage occurs in the Leonine Sacramentary. 



133 



Then the Alleluia, or the last verse of the Sequence of 
mass is finished, and the mass proceeds, the new nun 
offering a lighted candle at the offertory, and communi- 
cating at the highest step of the altar. Before returning 
to her place, she chants a short antiphon, kneeling as she 
is at the altar. 

The mass ended, the bishop gives a breviary into the 
nun's hands : " Receive the book, that you may begin 
the Canonical Hours, and read the Office in the Church. 
In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the 
Holy Ghost. Amen." The Te Deum follows. At the 
gate of the monastery the bishop presents the new nun 
to the abbess, in a few words either said in Latin or in 
the vulgar tongue. He then returns to the church, and 
recites the last Gospel. 

If this ceremony be performed by a simple priest, cer- 
tain differences are observed. Widows can take part in 
it if professed with Virgins, and receive the cowl and 
veil, sign the profession, and sing the Suscipe, with the 
others. The Virgins' antiphons, and the Desponsatio are 
alone omitted in their case. 

This long and elaborate ceremony bears evidence of 
its great antiquity. The publicity, the presenting of the 
Virgin to the bishop on the testimony of an archpriest,* 
the episcopal declaration to the people assisting, the 
solemn liturgy, the tradition of the breviary, all mark it 
off as a ceremony creating a public officer of the Ecclesia. 
The profession of a sanciimonialis, or nun, is here joined 
to the consecration of a Virgo sacra, or canonical Virgin, 
while in the tradition of the breviary a portion of the 
ordination of deaconesses appears. The rite is full of 
unction, and preserves much of the joyous insistence of 
the primitive Church, — it appears at times as if the 
Church could not make up its mind to be done with the 
sacred and mystic act. It is full also of another ancient 

* It will be remembered that in Jerome's time it was urged as a 
sign of the priest's inferiority that he was presented to the bishop 
on the testimony of the archdeacon. This is still so in the ordina- 
tion of priests to-day. Part II., pp. 286, 287. 



The mass 
continued. 

Offertory 
and corn- 



Tradition 
of the 
Breviary. 



Presented 
to the 
Abbess. 



134 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

element, mysticity — not always wholesome — indeed there 
is a floridness and inappropriateness in some of the anti- 
phons which in this order of sentiment betray the man's 
conception of the woman's feeling. Altogether, it is 
stamped with the modes of thought prevalent in the 
Christian Church and the Christian hierarchy since the 
in. century. 



Profession 
of a Monk. 



Signing the 
profession. 



At the end of his year's noviciate, the Benedictine 
monk is professed with a ceremonial much inferior in 
interest to the Profession of a Benedictine nun. A pro- 
cession is made to the church, the choir singing Psalm 
125 (126). After the offertory of mass, the abbat, seated, 
asks the new monk if he will renounce the world and 
its pomps? Undertake the conversion of his manners, 
and place the love of Christ before affections for kin? 
Proffer obedience according to the Rule of S. Benedict, 
renouncing his own will? Persevere in the holy Order? 
To each he answers volo, and to the last volo et cupio (I 
will and I desire to do so) . Abbat : May the Lord help 
you. R. Amen. After 4 prayers the new monk reads 
his profession in a clear voice, and then taking it, held 
before his breast, to a credence table, he signs his name 
and surname to it, kneeling. Then he stands, arms and 
eyes uplifted, and sings the Suscipe me (p. 131). This is 
followed by Versicles and a prayer, concluding with : — 

May he be wise and humble. R. Amen. 

An example of obedience. ~) 

In buffets immovable. 

In suffering most holy. 

In temptations strong. }- Amen. 

In injuries patient. 

Fixed in peace. 

Frequent in prayer 
And may he not be unmindful that he 
Must be judged by Thee according to his works. 

A proper Preface follows, the whole convent standing. 
His habit is blest, aspersed, and incensed, and the Veni 
Creator sung. The novice's scapular is exchanged for a 



MONKS 



*35 



professed's scapular, and he receives the cuculla [a lay 
brother receives a mantle]. The abbat kneeling intones 
" Confirma hoc, Deus" with Alleluia. Then a prayer 
and a short allocution are followed by the kiss of peace : 
the new monk kneels, saying, in Latin, first to the abbat, 
then to the whole convent in turn : Pray for me, father 
(or brother); the reply being Proficiat tibi,f rater. May 
it be well with thee, brother. Psalms 132 (133) and 47 
(48) are meanwhile sung. 

At the offertory the new monk is led to a pall placed The pall 
upon the ground, where he lies prostrate till the Com- 
munion ; a pall is held over him, a lighted taper is 
placed at his head and feet, and the bell tolls. The 
deacon, after the censing of the altar, incenses this 
" mystic sepulchre." 

Before the Communion, the deacon comes to him and 
intones : " Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the 
dead, and Christ shall enlighten thee." After receiving 
Communion the new monk takes an ablution. 

The same ceremony is observed for a lay brother, who 
wears his cappa for 3 days, except during work ; and on 
the day of his profession dines at the abbat's table which 
is decorated with flowers. The new monk does the 
same and wears his cuculla for 3 days. The above cere- 
mony varies in different Congregations. 

The Benedictine vows are 3 : Stability, conversion of 
manners, and obedience ; and in this form the vow of nun 
and monk is recited and signed at their Profession. 



The Bene- 
dictine 
Vows. 



THE CLOTHING. 

The Clothing of a nun is now an important ceremony, 
but originally clothing and profession formed one rite, as 
they do in the Pontificate ; and they still form one rite 
in the East. In the West nuns are clothed when they 
enter on the Noviciate, and it is a public ceremony. A 
monk's clothing takes place in the Chapter-house. 

After Vespers, the girdle, scapular, a white veil, scissors Clothing 
and a basin, are prepared on a credence table in the ofnuns - 



136 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

church, and are covered with flowers. The tunic and 
head linen {pro capite et collo), also covered with flowers, 
are placed in a convenient room adjoining. The proces- 
sion enters from the monastery, the postulant being 
dressed in rich robes, and the hymn Jesu Corona Virgi- 
num is sung. She goes from the prie-dieu prepared for 
her to the officiating prelate, who is seated on a faldstool ; 
and he asks: Quid petis? ("What dost thou ask?") 
Answer : " The mercy of God and the grace of the Habit." 
The Veni Creator is now sung. The officiant having 
asked the prayers of the audience, says a short prayer ; 
and the choir nuns sing Tu es Domine qui restitues hcered- 
itatem meam mihi. (" It is Thou, O Lord, who dost 
restore to me my heritage") with Psalm 15 (16). The 
postulant meanwhile, assisted by her matrons, goes up to 
the officiant, who cuts off all her hair. [The same rite as 
the tonsure of clerks being used.] 

The postulant is then taken to change her rich clothes 
for the religious habit. On her return the officiant, seated 
(and, if a bishop, in his mitre), helped by the matrons 
places on her the girdle, scapular and white veil ; the last 
with the words Accipe velum candidum* He then gives 
her a lighted candle, saying : " Receive this light in thy 
hands, that when the Bridegroom cometh, going forth to 
meet Him with thy lamp trimmed, thou mayest be admit- 
ted to the heavenly nuptials." "Amen." 

The new novice rises, and being conducted by the 
matrons to her place, puts the candle on a candelabrum. 
The officiant facing her recites some versicles and two 
prayers. Then he asperses her, making a short discourse. 
After which she kisses his hand, and the Te Deum is 
intoned. The procession returns to the door of the 
monastery, which is found closed, and there is a beautiful 
ceremony of entrance. 

* Originally the words were " Accipe, puella, pallium" To this 
day Eastern nuns do not wear a veil or head linen like their Western 
sisters, but a long mantle reaching from head to ankles. Jerome 
speaks of the tunic and pallium, and there is no doubt that a long 
mantle was originally used. For the uses of the veil see Chap. 
U P- 35- 



Badges of the Monastic and Mendicant Orders; of the Lateran 
and Borgo Canons; and of the Jesuits and the Oblates of S. Charles 
Borromeo — frequently seen on buildings and in churches. 




Benedictine. 



Cistercian. 




I 




Vallom b rosan. 




AUGUSTINIAN ROMITES. 





\2- 2U / 




Olivetan. 



i I- 

- 



'^t 



Franciscan. 




Dominican. Carmelite. 

138 






'« 



fa 





Jesuit. 









Oblates of St. C. Borromeo, 



~ 


-*■-£-- 


i 


1 H 




i 


r 









I.ateran Basilica. 



Canons OP S. SPIRITO in Bo 

'39 



CHAPTER III. 

FRIARS. 

THE MENDICANT ORDERS : — S. Francis and the Franciscans 

— S. Dominic and the Dominicans — S. Theresa and the Car- 
melites — the Servites — Minimites — Fratelli delta Penitenza 

— Hospitallers of S. John of God. 

The Men- The Church recognises but one great Rule after those of 
Friars. Basil > Ben edict, and Augustine — the Rule of S. Francis. 

From the days of Benedict no original rule had been 
seen in West or East till Francis instituted the Mendi- 
cant Friars. The Rule was popular ; he had not in- 
tended to found an Order. It was a lay Rule ; S. Francis 
was himself a layman, and there was only one priest 
among his first 12 disciples. It was not a monastic 
Rule, but one for Friars, f rati. As opposed to monastic 
exclusiveness and privilege, the Friars of St. Francis bore 
the familiar peasant character. Instead of dwelling in 
great monasteries, they were to live familiarly among the 
people ; S. Francis desired neither the cloister nor the 
desert 

Bernardus Valles, 

Colles Benedictus amabat, 

Oppida Franciscus, 

Magnas Ignatius urbes. 

" Bernard sought valleys, Benedict the hilltops, Francis 
loved the villages, and great towns Ignatius." By his law 
of mendicancy he forced his brethren to be dependent 
on their hearers, and to win their bread as the recom- 
pense of their apostolic labours. (Matt. x. 9, 10.) 
Forestalling one point of the rule of Ignatius — doing 
for the villages what Ignatius did for the towns — he re- 
140 



1'JtIAKS 141 

jected the monastic ideal of perfection, that seeking of 
personal salvation through a life of the counsels, and in its 
place desired to carry the homely lovely Christian exam- 
ple round the country side. The idea is the outcome of 
Francis himself, it was the most striking innovation on 
preceding notions of the Religious life which the world 
had seen. It is nearly as striking that the Church should 
have found a place and scope for the new Order, that it 
made the homely peasant's gown into an ecclesiastical 
uniform, and blest the peasant evangelist. 

Amongst the gifts with which Italy has enriched the The Fran- 
Christian Church, three stand out preeminent, the co- c J" scansan d 
ordination of Christendom through the See of Rome, 
and the Benedictine and Franciscan Orders. And as the 
Benedictines have carried in their history the character 
impressed on them by S. Benedict, so have the Fran- 
ciscans borne the impress of their founder. No Order 
had had a less theological origin than that of Francis : 
loyal son of the Church, he expressly avoided all points 
of collision between his apostolate and the ideas and 
practices of current theology; but the Franciscans always 
preferred the Christian virtue to the doctrinal accuracy 
— their Rule being nothing else than the text of the 
Gospel as recorded in the 4 Evangelists — and while 
they left theological subtilty to the older Orders, they 
often showed a holy immoderation when the essential 
points of evangelic conduct were at stake. Hence it is 
among the Franciscans that the sectaries of the xiv. and 
xv. centuries are to be found. Franciscan friars openly 
denounced John XXII. from their pulpits as a heretic, 
when he denied the obligation of evangelical poverty, 
and several companies of Franciscan Tertiaries were dis- 
banded by authority and proscribed as heretical.* 

The founder of the Minor Brethren, or Franciscans, s. Francis 
represented in his person in an almost unique degree the and th . e 

* The Third Order of Penance itself was classed with the Fra- cans - 
ticelli and Beghini as heretical; fraticello and beghino were syn- 
onyms for hypocrite in the xiv. century. 



I 4 2 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

spirit of the evangelical counsels. Born in 1182, Fran- 
cesco d'Assisi, the son of Pica a good and holy woman 
and of Pietro Bernardone a rich merchant of Assisi, was 
called at his baptism John, but Francesco, " the French- 
man," by his companions, because he loved the French 
and loved to sing French songs. He was gay and brave 
and abhorred sordid pursuits, and his father's business 
irked him, so that he went about with his companions 
until 24 years old, a chief figure of joyous and high cour- 
age, gracious and meek with all men. At this time he 
had a long illness, during which he determined to quit 
worldly pleasures. Believing he had been warned to do 
so, he purchased arms and started for the Holy Land ; but 
on the way he saw Jesus crucified, and understood that 
he was henceforth to bear implacable enmity not to the 
Saracens but to all vices. Uopo e che tu quindinnanzi 
ami tutto cib che abborristi e odii tutto cib che ti fu caro ; 
" Henceforth thou must needs love all which thou hast 
abhorred, and hate all which has been dear to thee." 

As he was reciting the divine office, one day in 1 208, he 
was struck with the words " Get you no gold nor silver nor 
money in your purses ; no wallet for your journey, neither 
two coats nor shoes, nor a staff," and Francis parted with 
everything, even his shoes, and wore a cord over his poor 
garment in place of his leather belt. From this time he 
began to preach, beginning always with these words : 
" May God give you His peace," his speech simple and 
Origin of moving. It was now that he counselled two men, Ber- 
the Order, nardo Quintavalle and Pietro da Cortona, who wished to 
follow him in his way of life, to consult the Gospels, 
which they therefore opened at hazard, and read : " If 
thou wilt be perfect, sell all which thou hast," and : " If 
any man will follow me, let him deny himself and take 
up his cross." On this S. Francis exclaimed " You hear 
my brothers what our Rule has to be?" And thus was 
founded the Order of Friars Minor, on April 16, 1209, 
Francis being in his 27'!' year, two years after he had begun 
his life of penance. To these two first disciples were 
added Egidius, a gentleman of Assisi, Filippo, Ruffino, 



FRIARS 143 

Sabadino, Silvestro ; whom Francis sent forth, North 
South East and West, with " no other provision for their 
journey than their poor habit and their confidence in 
God." And thus the people round Umbria became ac- 
customed to the dress and way of these simple evangelists. 
The little company soon grew to twelve persons. Their 
name was to be the Lesser Brethren, Fratres Minores. 
Their first Rule merely took the Gospel as the founda- 
tion, adding a few directions to insure some conformity 
in the common life. The brethren took the three vows 
of religion. Poverty and chastity were the two great 
precepts. Poverty, " the Bride of S. Francis " obliged 
them not to touch money, even by the intervention of a 
third person. None was to be " Prior " among them, 
for all were " Lesser" ; so the Superior was to be called 
the Guardian, Custos. The brethren are to be always 
cheerful, to be ready to serve friends and enemies, and 
to treat with equal kindness those of good and evil re- 
port, and all vituperation is to be suffered with resignation. 
"My brother, why this sad face?" S. Francis asked a 
novice. " Have you committed some sin ? That regards 
only God and thyself. Go and pray. But before me and 
thy brethren always show a holy joy, for it is not meet 
when one is employed on God's service to have a sad 
countenance." 

" II fit de la joie une obligation canonique." " Cette 
gaiety religieuse fut l'une des forces de son apostolat. II 
charma ses freres, et ceux-ci, a leur tour, charmerent 
l'ltalie par la s6r£nite riante avec laquelle ils accueillaient 
les grandes miseres, les petites tribulations et les humbles 
douceurs de la vie." * To appreciate the quaint naive The 
but always touching ways in which Francis exercised Fl0rettl - 
himself and others in humility of heart, poverty of spirit, 
and content with little and mean things, the Fioretti or 
" Little Flowers of S. Francis " should be read. In 
these his followers have recorded the charm, the uncouth- 
ness, the tenderness, the naivete, the spiritual beauties 

* Gehhart, Vltalie mystique. 



144 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

inseparable from this grand and simple effort made in the 
xiii. century to follow a Gospel which said : "The disciple 
is not above his master ... it is enough for the servant 
if he be as his lord." " If God doth so clothe the grass 
of the field, which to-day is and to-morrow is cast into the 
oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little 
faith?" "Learn of Me for I am meek and humble of 
heart, and you shall find rest to your souls." 

Indeed there was no precept of the Gospel which was 
not for S. Francis one of those realities for which a man 
did well to " sell all," to leave all. His spiritual insight 
equalled the brave quality of his virtue, and he had a full 
measure of that wisdom shown by all great saints. So it 
is told of him that at one of his early chapters he ordered 
the little chains and disciplines which the people had 
been using to be brought to him, and made a bonfire of 
them. S. Francis belongs to Christendom ; so perfectly, 
indeed, that he can hardly be said to belong first to the 
Franciscans. 
TheStig- In 1224 occurred the mysterious experience, so often 

mata. represented in art, known as the impression of the stigmata 

on S. Francis. It happened at La Verna in Tuscany, on 
September 1 7, during the Michaelmas Lent, one of the 
three yearly Lents observed by him. There, while medi- 
tating on the Passion, and asking for grace to realise in 
his body and soul the Lord's pains, and to have his own 
heart filled with some measure of that love which made 
his Master ready to endure the torment of the Cross ; 
there appeared to him the figure of one of Isaiah's 6-winged 
Seraphim bearing between its wings the image of the 
Crucified. And while he cast about to understand the 
vision, " there began to appear in his hands and feet 
signs of nails such as he had just seen in the holy Cruci- 
fied One who stood over him." From thenceforth Francis 
was marked with the 5 wounds of the Passion.* Celano 
tells the story 3 years after the saint's death, and Bona- 
venture tells us he heard it from the lips of Alexander IV. 

* Cf. Gal. vi. 15. The feast of the Stigmata of S. Francis was 
instituted in 1304. 



FRIARS 



"45 



The Rule 
and Inno- 
cent III. 



who had seen thern ; after his death, we are told, they 
were seen by S. Clare. Francis died in 1226, being 44 
years old. He was the first Italian poet, his Song of 
Creatures ( Cantico delle Creature, or Cantico del Sole) 
is the first attempt at metrical Italian. To him nature 
was a bond " connecting his soul with all created things" ; 
he talked to birds and beasts, and understood that they 
too were praising God in their own manner. He loved 
poverty, as our Lord loved it, as first poverty of spirit. 
He is called " Seraphic," and Francis was seraphic if a 
love for God and a love for men which consumed his 
life could make him so. 

The first Rule of the Order was submitted to Inno- 
cent III. in 1 2 10; this prima regula, written the previous 
year, was afterwards lost. The second Rule was written 
in 1221, and finally approved by Honorius III. in 1223 ; 
the delay in confirming it being the result of the decision 
to create no new Order just arrived at by authority.* It 
was only owing to Pope Innocent's dream that the Rule 
received a provisional approval. He dreamed that he 
saw a poor man in a brown frock upholding the falling 
Lateran, and understood this to mean that Francis should 
uphold the Church of God. It is strange to compare this 
dream with one the saint had in his youth : he heard the 
words : " Go rebuild My house which as you see is fast 
falling to ruin." He supposed he had received an in- 
junction to build up the ruinous Church of S. Damian at 
Assisi, and began the task at once. 

The Benedictine abbat of Monte Subasio gave to 
S. Francis the Church of S. Maria degli Angeli in the 
valley below Assisi ; S. Francis restored it with his own 
hands, and it was thenceforth known as the Porziuncola, 
or little heritage. Here in 12 19 the first Chapter of the 
Order was held, called the Chapter of Mats because there First 
was no room to house all the brethren. The " indulgence Chapter 
of the Portiuncula" was granted in 1223, and the day is 
kept on August 2 in each year. 



Portiun- 
cula. 



Lateran Council 12 15. 



i 4 6 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Division 
of THE 

First 
Order. 



Conven- 
tuals. 



Observ- 
ants. 



Recollects 
or Re- 
formed. 



Custodia of 
the Holy 
Land. 



Alcanta- 
rines. 



Reunion 
of the 
branches 
of the Ob- 
servants. 



One of the first disciples of S. Francis, Elias of Cor- 
tona, who succeeded him as " Minister " or custos, began 
to oppress those who followed the strict Rule of Poverty, 
and who observed the fasts and austerities of the Order. 
This led to its division into 2 branches (a) the Conventu- 
als and (i>) the Observants. The Conventuals, called in 
Italy the " Signori " live in commodious buildings, and 
follow a mitigated rule. Their government has been 
entirely separate from that of the Observants since 1446. 
The Observants (Osservanli) live in mean houses, and 
observe all the fasts. S. Bernardino of Siena was their 
great propagator in Italy, and their Vicar General. In 
France they were known as Cordeliers, but later as Recol- 
lects, the name given to a convent of the " Strict Observ- 
ance " on its introduction into France. This latter reform 
was instituted in Spain by a Spanish /rate (John de la 
Puebla) about 1484 ; its members being there called 
Discalced Friars, or Friars of the Capuce. In Italy they 
are known as the Riformati. These friars are the guardi- 
ans of the Holy Places at Jerusalem, a charge first com- 
mitted to the Franciscan Observants in 1342. They are 
hence styled E custodia Terra. Sanctce, or Franciscains 
de Terre Sainte, and they wear beards like the Capuchins. 
The Alcantarines form another division of the Observ- 
ants. S.- Peter of Alcantara, called the greatest of the 
contemplatives since the fathers of the desert, joined the 
Franciscans ; but desiring a more austere life he added 
some rules to which he gave the form of a new institu- 
tion of the Order. Between S. Peter and S. Theresa 
there existed the strictest friendship. In Italy his friars 
are called the Riformati Alcantarini. These branches 
of the Observants continued to exist until 1897, when 
Leo XIII., following his predecessor Leo X. whose desire 
had been to unite all Observants, issued a decree abolish- 
ing the names, habits, and separate administration of 
these various reforms, and gathering the Observants, 
Alcantarines, Recollects, and Reformed into one Order. 
These famiglie riunite have now one Procura, one 
Secretary- General, one noviciate, one set of laws, one 



FRIARS 



147 



habit. The Order is called simply the Order of Minors, 
Ordo Minorum. The Father Guardian, or minister- 
general, is assisted by a council, consisting of a Procurator- 
General and 12 Definitors-general, representing the 12 
Circumscriptiones into which the various Franciscan 
Provinces are divided. The Order consists of professed 
laics as well as clerks, chierici professi and laid professi. 

The Conventuals and Capuchins still form separate 
Orders, and none of the Franciscan women are included 
under the decree of reunion. 



Govern 
ment. 



The Capuchins, Cappuccini, represent another Fran- Capu- 
ciscan reform, originated in 1526 by an Italian Observant CH1NS - 
friar, Matteo di Basso of Urbino, who gave his followers 
a long pointed hood {cappuccio, capuche) which he be- 
lieved to be the shape of the hood worn by S. Francis. 
Originally they were a company of hermit friars devoted 
to the contemplative life. They were not to chant mass, 
hear confessions, or even to preach, except as missionary 
evangelists. In 1528 their hermit mode of life, and 
the wearing of a beard, were approved. They remained 
under the Observants until 161 7, and presented them- 
selves at their annual Chapter. Now they are a separate 
Order, governed by a General, and they perform the 
same clerical offices as the Observants. Among them, 
however, there is still a large proportion of friars not in 
priest's orders. 

This popular Order, whose very chalices are to be of 
pewter, whose churches are not to be decked with any- 
thing precious, which is to subsist entirely by alms, and 
to rise for Matins at midnight, numbered at the begin- 
ning of the xvm. century no less than 25,000 /rati, with 
1600 convents. 

There are also several congregations of Capuchin Cappuumc 
women. These were founded in 1538 by Maria Lorenza 
Longa, a Neapolitan, who was directed by the pope to as- 
sume the position of perpetual abbess. The hospital for 
Incurables at Naples is due to her. The Order was at first 
under the Theatines, but was subsequently placed under 



148 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

the Capuchins. Their well-known monastery of the Cor- 
pus Domini opposite the Quirinal palace (sequestrated in 
1888) was founded in 1575, together with a house in 
Paris and two in Milan. 



Second 

Order 

(Povere 

Donne) 

(Clar- 

isses). 

S. Clare, 
1 193-1253. 



Urbanists. 



The Second Order of Franciscans is that for women. 
In 1 21 2 S. Clare (Chiara) founded the Ordo Dominant m 
pauperum, Order of Poor Ladies, later called Ordo 
Sanctce Clarce, and in France Clarisses. In this Second 
Order S. Clare carried out perfectly the spirit of S. 
Francis. She was but a girl when she heard and was moved 
by his preaching, " for his words penetrated like glowing 
fire to the inmost depths of the heart," says Bonaventure. 
Francis placed her at S. Damian's outside Assisi, and her 
holy life and wonderful prudence and wisdom are the 
first glory of his Order. She was importuned to modify 
the strict poverty of her life, but replied that while she 
earnestly desired absolution from her sins, she desired 
none from following the counsels of Christ. S. Clare 
died in 1253 ; and in 1264, at the request of Isabel of 
France, sister of St. Louis, Urban IV. mitigated the Rule. 
Those who followed the mitigated Rule are called Urban- 
ists, while those who preferred the old Rule are called 
Clarisses - . 

S. Clare and her community at first lived under the 
Rule of S. Benedict, with special constitutions added ; 
hence Franciscan nunneries are called abbeys, and the 
Superior the Mother Abbess. In 1224 Francis wrote 
a Rule for them which was confirmed in 1246. It is di- 
vided into 12 Chapters. All goods are to be given in 
alms before entering the monastery. The profession takes 
place after one year's noviciate. The Rule of S. Clare is 
more austere than that of the friars, the nuns fasting all 
the year round except Christmas day, while the friars fast 
on Friday only. Nothing can either be received or held 
as property by the community, which subsists entirely on 
alms. S. Francis enjoined on the nuns as on the friars 
the recitation of the Divine Office. The Order was at first 
superintended by a Cardinal Protector. S. Francis him- 



FRIARS 



149 



Vicaress. 
Locutory, 
and grille 



self never permitted any of his friars to go to the monas- Govem- 
tery of the Clarisses, and in a letter to Cardinal Ugolino ™ en * of , 

3 , . ,. ' , , , . - . , , . ° ,. the Second 

expresses his disapproval that his frati should governarh : order. 
" Cerca tu di liberare i miei Religiosi da cosiffatte sovrin- 
tendenze." At the present day some communities of 
Clarisses are under Franciscan management, others are 
under their Diocesan, who is their Visitor, while the Nea- 
politan Congregation and a few more are directly subject 
to the Holy See. The Abbess is to strive to be the supe- Abbess, 
rior of the others rather by her virtues than by her office. 
Next to her is the Vicaress. No nun can go to the " locu- 
tory" to speak with extems, without leave ; and then not 
during the " Lent of S. Martin" (from All Saints to Christ- 
mas) orin the second Lent from Quinquagesima to Easter. 
She must be accompanied to the grille, which is curtained, 
by two sisters; and this rule applies even to the abbess. 
The nuns therefore neither see nor are seen by others. 
Doctors, workmen, the priest who brings the Viaticum, 
the bishop, and the Franciscan Visitor, are the only per- 
sons allowed to enter the enclosure. 

The day is spent as follows : — They rise at 4.30, and The day. 
the Way of the Cross is followed by Prime, Terce, the 
Little Hours of the B. V. M., Litany of the Saints, and 
other prayers. At 7, after a preparation, Mass and Com- 
munion and an hour's thanksgiving : then the entire Rosary 
is recited aloud. After this all the sisters do some manual 
work in a common room. Sext, Nones, and the Angelus 
are followed by dinner at 12. This is the first meal taken 
in the day ; it is followed by prayers, and then by work from 
1.30-3.30. 3.30 till 5 is employed in prayers and the 
Office, with Vespers at 4 and the Office of the Dead at 
4.30. 5-6 a meditation. At 6 the collation, consisting of 
a few ounces of bread. At 6.30 Compline and prayers. 
From Compline till 9 the next day strict silence is ob- 
served by all. At 7.30 the nuns go to their cells, at 8 they 
are in bed, and at 1 1 they rise for Matins, Lauds, and other 
prayers, and an hour's meditation. At 2 they go to bed 
again till 4.30. 

By 1 220 the nuns were to be found in France and Spain, 



150 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

and 14 years later in Bohemia and Germany. In England 
they were known as Minoresses, and so gave their name 
to the district outside Aldgate called the Minories. Their 
monastery there was founded as early as 1 293. Later they 
were known as Poor Clares, a name compounded from the 
original and later style of the Order. In the xvm. century 
they numbered 25,000, and are still numerous in Belgium. 
Coiettines. In 1436 S. Colette restored the First and Second Order 
in France and Belgium. Communities of women reformed 
by her were styled Clarisses -Coiettines, the men Coletans ; 
and Colettine is still the name for the Spanish nuns. 

There are therefore 3 Rules now observed (a) the orig- 
inal rule of S. Clare confirmed by Innocent IV. {b) the 
Urbanist mitigation (e) S. Clare's Rule joined to S. Co- 
lette's Constitutions. Some of the Poor Clares-Colettines 
are governed by a Mother-General who has power to re- 
move them from one monastery to another : but the Gen- 
eralate form of government is quite optional. Colette's 
Constitutions, in 15 Chapters, provide that unmarried 
women and widows may be admitted, but those over 40 
are only to be received under special conditions. She 
would suffer no one to enter who wished by doing so to 
avoid some misery, or who was constrained by parents. 
The Abbess and Superiors are to share like the sisters. 
The Superiors under the abbess are the Vicaress, Novice 
Mistress, 2 porteresses, and 8 ' Discreets ' forming the 
Council. The officers are elected by the Sisters in Chapter ; 
and the abbess can be deposed on account of health or of 
grave default. The nuns perform some kind of manual 
labour daily. Their buildings are poor and mean — in- 
deed poverty is the watchword and raison d'etre of the 
Franciscan nun. There are two convents of Coiettines 
in England. 

As Franciscan nuns often conduct schools nowadays, it 
is not possible to observe the full austerity of the Rule. 
Extern sisters conduct the out of door business of the 
community, and beg for it ; and in some instances 
"Extern Sisters of the Poor Clares" are the school- 
mistresses. 



FRIARS 151 

The so-called Sepolte Vive, or Buried-alive nuns, follow Sepolte 
a rule which is an austere modification of the Franciscan. Vive * 
They were founded in 16 18 by Donna Francesca Farnese 
and are hence called Farnesiane. They keep perpetual 
silence, and when one nun meets another she says : 
1 Remember, sister, that we all have to die.' They have 
no less than 3 grates with a curtain between, and it is 
only on the rarest occasions that they go to the grate to 
speak with externs, and even then they are never seen. 
We have heard of a visit which an exalted lady paid 
them with the Cardinal Vicar's permission ; the door 
closed on her, and she found herself in the midst of the 
nuns, and the first thing that greeted her ears was a gen- 
eral burst of laughter : it was 20 years since the sisters 
had seen the full beauties of modern costume. On 
another occasion a niece of one of the inmates, brought 
her new born baby to the well-known tourelle, or revolv- 
ing cylinder, at the top of the old steps in the Rione 
Monti, and signified that she had something to send 
round in it : when it stopped at the nun's end, and the 
baby was seen, the aunt and nuns were at first scan- 
dalised; then, overcome by the little one's visit, they 
caressed and fondled it with many signs of delight. The 
habit is a rough gown of dark maroon, with a coarse 
white veil which is kept over the face. Only a few 
Religious now remain. 

The Friars came to England, and Oxford, in 1220; Francis- 
the Minoresses before the end of the century. The Order ?? ns 1 in d 
arrived in France in 1 260. Very young men are recruited and & 
for the Franciscan Order, but they cannot be professed France, 
under 19 years old, after a year's noviciate and 2 years 
of simple vows.* Among the nuns, widows are received, 
and no one is professed under 19 years, with the same 
noviciate as the men. The Friars Minor number 16,000, 
the Conventuals 2000, the Capuchins 8000, the Clarisses 
2000. In 1897 there were 489 Capuchins in missions. 
For Franciscan missionary work see page 323. 

* Young men in Italy who are called as soldiers take their 
solemn vows still later. 



152 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Terti- Another great originality of the Order of S. Francis 

aries, the was tne creation of the Third Order or Tertiaries. It 
Order.or did not suffice for the /rate to carry about with him the 
Order of sweet Christian virtues, he wanted to leave the leaven he 
Penance. ^ a( j b roU gi lt Francis responded to the desire of many 
families who wished in some way to follow his Rule, by 
instituting what he called a Third Order, an Order of 
Franciscans who were living a family life ; men and 
women, wives and husbands, parents, children, and ser- 
vants, who having chosen their life duties could not 
"leave all" in the literal sense, but could be Franciscans 
— evangelicals in the beautiful sense of the term — in all 
" the weightier matters of the law." The Third Order 
brought home to Christians in the xm. century what 
S. Paul could solemnly assert in the i 8t , that all are 
"called to be saints." 

This Third Order differed from the system of monastic 
oblates in precisely the same way as the friar differed 
from the monk. The tertiary was not the servant and 
co-worker of a great Religious house, not a donat of prop- 
erty for its objects, not an individual electing for himself 
the narrower way. He was a member of a community 
in the world, whose work was in the world, preferably a 
member of a family of tertiaries. The Tertiaries were 
a little nucleus of the Kingdom of God, and the Francis- 
cans were their evangelists. 

It has been justly said that the original intention of 
S. Francis was to form a species of Third Order, the 
Institution he proposed being really more akin to a 
' Third Order ' than the rival of previously existing Rules. 
The Tertiaries were instituted under the title of Tertius 
ordo de poenitentia or 7er/iarii, in 1221, and Benedict 
XIII. speaks of them as forming "a true and proper Order, 
uniting in one seculars scatttered all over the world and 
regulars living in community." The present pope has 
entirely reconstituted the Third Order for seculars, abol- 
ishing all previous rules, obligations, and indulgences, 
and approving and granting new ones. 

Tertiaries are received by a Franciscan; they are 



FRIARS 153 

subject to the visitation of a Franciscan "Visitor" ; they Obliga- 
observe more fasts, dress soberly, hear mass more fre- " ons . of . 
quently, attend the sacraments oftener, abstain from all 
vicious or very worldly amusements ; and recite every 
day the Little Office of our Lady, or the Lord's Prayer, 
Angelical salutation, and Gloria Patri 12 times. Secular 
tertiaries are entitled to the habit of the Order, and 
though they never wear it in everyday life, it is the 
custom to be buried in it. They wear underneath their 
clothes a miniature scapular. 

As time went on, many Tertiaries desired to live in Conventual 
community, and convents of Tertiaries, men and women, Ten^i 1 '^ 
rose in Lombardy, Spain, Portugal, Sicily, and France. 
Rules were prescribed for them by Nicholas IV. and 
Leo X. They live the usual religious life, and take the 
3 vows of Religion, but do not take "solemn" vows. 
There are a great number of separate foundations of 
Regular Tertiaries, founded by individuals for various 
works of charity and piety, missionary, tuitional, nursing, 
etc. The number of such congregations cannot be given 
with any precision. New Communities are continually 
being formed, of which the larger number are Diocesan 
Tertiaries, enjoying a simple approbation from the bishop ; 
and many of these never receive the final conferma. 

Unlike Secular Tertiaries, Regular Tertiaries do not Govern- 
usually depend from the Franciscan Order. There are ™£ntofthe 
however some 18,000 or 20,000 Tertiary Sisters who do order, 
so, and who are to be found in all the Franciscan mis- 
sions. The government of Tertiaries also varies : some 
congregations are under a Father or Mother-General, 
while certain Communities of women are ruled by an 
abbess, and are enclose 1 ; a result sometimes of their 
foundation and training by Clarisses. The first house of 
enclosed Tertiaries was founded at Foligno in 1397 by 
B. Angelina di Corbara, a Neapolitan. 

There are the following Regular Tertiaries* in Rome : 

* It is customary to distinguish regular from secular members of 
the III. Order by calling the former 'Third Order' and the latter 
Tertiaries ; but there is no historical warrant for this. 



154 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

I. Third Order of S. Francis (Riformati Fathers) , which 
n originated in those companies of secular priests who in 
every country joined the Tertiaries, and who after form- 
ing themselves into national Congregations, decided to 
take solemn vows. All its members are therefore priests. 
They were placed under the Friars Minor, with the excep- 
tion of the Italians who have always had their own Gen- 
eral. All the Italian provinces were subjected in 1476 
to the one General, and in 1602 Clement VIII. united 
with them the Dalmatian Congregation of Priests of the 
Third Order, who are represented in Rome at the present 
time by three of their number.* The Mother-house and 
Procura are at the church of SS. Cosma and Damiano, 
Via in Miranda 2, where the Fathers have resided since 
1400 ; part of the annexed monastery being still left to 
them as parish-priests' house, the church having been 
parochial since 1862. They have another house at 
S. Paolino alia Regola, Via delle Zoccolette. The orig- 
inal gray habit was changed in the time of Nicholas V. 
to the present black one, resembling the Minor Conven- 
tual's. The Third Order have, however, a white tassel 
at the end of the cord, and no rosary, with the priest's 
II. tonsure, and clerical collar. II. Frati Bigi della Carita, 
Gray Friars of Charity, founded by Don Casoria in 1859 
as a community of Recollects, for all works of charity, 
especially for the aged, afflicted, and orphans. They at 
first depended from the Order, but are now a separate 
' Ecclesiastical Congregation.' They wear a gray tunic 
with gray cord and rosary ; a long cloak, and priest's hat 
out of doors. Address : Viale Manzoni, at the corner of 
Via Tasso, where they conduct the Pio Istituto deW 
Immacolata. There are Gray Sisters of the same Con- 
III. gregation. III. A French Congregation of Missionary 
Tertiaries, whose Mother-house is at Albi, France, have 
charge of the church of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina. Like 
the above they take simple vows. They wear gray, and a 
shortened scapular reaching only to the waist. 

* Of the 14 Provinces some were dispersed by Napoleon, and 
some in 1870. 



FRIARS 155 

I. The Franciscan Alcantarines* founded by Padre 
Sempliciano (ob. 1898), who placed his work in charge 
of the Franciscan Order, direct the " Hospice of Rehabil- ( w ° men ) 
itation and Work," founded by this good man at S. Bal- 
bina. They are called Marghereiine after the Tertiary 
S. Margaret of Cortona. Their habit is gray with a 
scapular and cloak ; a black veil over the stiff white fits 
round the head. The novices wear a black dress and cape, 
lace veil on the head, and the white cord of S. Francis. 
II. The Francescane Missionarie di Maria, Franciscan n. 
Missionaries of Mary, were founded recently in India by 
a Bretonne. Like the above they are under the Order. 
They number some 2500, and as missionaries devote 
themselves to every kind of work, hospital creches, ref- 
uges, dispensaries. They catechise and baptise in mission 
stations, and earn the means of sustenance by undertak- 
ing all kinds of needlework, painting on silk, embroider- 
ing, printing, and other industries. Mother-house, Via 
Giusti 12, 14. Here there are some 115 Religious of all 
nations, 13 languages being spoken in the house. At 
Grottaferrata they may be seen tilling the fields, in large 
straw hats. Their dress, suitable for Indian missions, is 
all white, habit, scapular, cord, veil, shoes, and crucifix. 
Out of doors, in Europe, they wear a light gray cloak 
and a black veil. III. The Franciscans of the Immacu- HI. 
late Conception (called 'the American Franciscans') are 
missionary Tertiaries for Africa, founded in Rome a few 
years ago. Here they have a technical girls' school, 
where house-work, the making of lace and other indus- 
tries are taught gratuitously. Address : Via Goffredo 
Mameli 21 ('• Scuola S. Antonio") near piazza S. Pietro 
in Montorro. Habit, a maroon friar's dress and white 
cord, black veil with sniall bandeau and guimpe. IV. The IV. 
Grauenschwestern or Gray Sisters \ of S. Elizabeth (Eli- 

* There is a well-known Community of Alcantarines at Naples; 
see p. 146 and p. 160. 

t Not to be confused with the " Gray Nuns " in Canada, founded 
in 1 730-1 753 by Marie du Frost de la Jemmerais, Madame d'You- 
ville, for hospital work. 



156 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

sabettine) are among the most ancient of these Com- 
munities. They are here classed among the daughters 
of Francis, because though they follow a special Rule 
which is not his, they are in all respects the outcome of 
his Third Order* The Sisters of S. Elizabeth, like their 
holy patron who went about doing good, have no enclos- 
ure, but spend their time in works of mercy. There are 
several communities in Austria. In Rome the Austrian 
Sisters of S. Elizabeth have a house in Via dell' Olmata 9 
(by S. M. Maggiore) where they have the German Insti- 
tute for teaching tailoring, plain sewing, embroidery, and 
similar work. German is also taught ; and the Sisters 
charge themselves with the care of German servant-maids 
out of employment. The teaching is gratuitous. The 
indoor dress is a black gown and cape, a close-fitting 
black bonnet, over a white cap with starched frills. Out 

* The care of hospitals was early committed to members of the 
Third (Secular) Order of S. Francis, men and women; and thus 
arose the Tertiary Hospitallers of both sexes. Hence the Third 
Order forestalled the 'active orders.' At the same time, though 
hospitaller and teaching Tertiaries abounded, work like that de- 
scribed in Chapter V. was never performed by Religious till much 
later. 

The institution so well known as the Begninage now resembles 
a Third Order.- Its origin is however far more remote. Thomassin 
tells us that the Beguines were canonesses or beneficiaries, known 
as early as the end of the vu. century : their name is derived from 
S. Begghe (ob. 689) who founded the Canonesses of Andenne. 
Others derive it from Lambert de Begue, priest of Liege, in 1 177. 
Again beggen means to pray, hence our word to beg. Some place 
the foundation at the beginning of the xn. century, in the Nether- 
lands and Germany. The Beguines were eventually affiliated to the 
Third Order of S. Francis. Women who bring with them good 
repute and 100 francs may be enrolled, and after 3 years are 
entitled to a little 2 or 3 roomed house, where they may take a 
friend or relative to live with them. No vows were ever taken by 
the Beguines, who assist in choir 3 times a day. They now only 
exist at Ghent, where they number several hundred. The Superior 
is called La Grande Dame. The Beguines were early connected 
with the Dominicans, and were among the first to use the Rosary : 
indeed they would appear to have more affinity with these canon- 
mendicants than with the Franciscans. See word Beghino, p. 141, 
footnote. 



FRIARS 



157 



of doors they wear a long gray cloak, and a black veil. 
For the Third Regular Order of Women, enclosed, see 
infra p. 158. 



cans in 
Assisi. 



The Mother-house of the Franciscan Order is S. Maria Francis- 
degli Angeli at Assisi, which was given by the Benedic- 
tines to S. Francis on condition that it always remained 
so. But each branch of the Order, except the Second 
Order, has a Casa Generalizia, the residence of their 
General. At Assisi itself the sacred sites are divided 
among the Order as follows : The Sagro Convento, where 
S. Francis lies, belongs to the Conventuals, and so does 
Rivotorto where he established himself with his brethren 
on his return from Rome. S. Maria degli Angeli belongs 
to the Observants (now Friars Minor simply) . The Car- 
ceri, where S. Francis used to retire for prayer, belongs 
to the Capuchins. S. Damian's, S. Clare's monastery, 
has been recently given to the Observants by Lord Bute, 
to whom the property belongs. The Church of S. Chiara 
in the town, where S. Clare lies, belongs to her own com- 
munity of S. Damiano. La Verna, in Tuscany, the scene 
of the Stigmata, is in the hands of ' Observants.' 

In Rome the Friars Minor (up to 1897 called Observ- 
ants) have the following houses : S. Antonio, the new 
Mother-house and church in the Via Merulana by the 
Lateran, is also the Noviciate, residence of the Minister- 
General, and Procura of the Order ; Aracoeli, which passed 
from the Benedictines to the Franciscans in 1250 ; S. Bar- 
tolomeo all' Isola (since 1536) ; S. Bonaventura on the 
Palatine, a house of Alcantarine friars ; S. Sebastiano on 
the Via Appia, given by Gregory XVI. to the Franciscan 
Observants of the Roman province ; S. Isidoro, in origin 
a house of Irish Recollects for missionary work, founded 
by Luke Wadding the historian of the Franciscans in 
1625; S. Pietro in Montorio ; the church and convent 
of S. Francesco a Ripa, where S. Francis stayed, founded 
in 1229 ; SS. Quaranta, Via di S. Francesco ; and a house 
in Via di S. Prisca on the Aventine. The penitentiaries 



In Rome, 

Friars 

Minor. 



[58 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Conven- 
tuals. 



of the I^ateran are Franciscan Friars Minor, formerly 
Riformati. 

The Conventuals have their Mother-house at the 
SS. Apostoli in the piazza of the same name ; and also 
possess S. Dorotea. They are the Penitentiary priests of 
S. Peter's, where they replaced the Jesuits on the sup- 
pression of the latter. Clement XIV. who placed them 
there was himself a Conventual. 
Capuchins. The Capuchin Mother-house and Procura is now in 
Via Boncompagni 160. Their churches are: S. Maria 
della Concezione, known as the Cappuccini, in Piazza. 
Barberini ; the Basilica of S. Lorenzo outside the walls ; 
and they have also the College of S. Fidelis for Missions, 
in Via dei SS. Quattro, founded in 184T. (Women) 
Capuchins " of S. Urbano," * Via Agcstino Depretis 81 A ; 
and the Capuchins of the Corpus Domini Monastery 
(Quirinale) Via Galilei 21. The Clarisses u of S. Lorenzo 
in Panisperna " are at S. Martino ai Monti (Via Giovanni 
Lanza). The Sepolte Vive are in Via Merulana 123, 
where they removed from their old monastery in the 
Rione Monti pulled down some years ago. Third Regular 
Order (enclosed) : Franciscans "of S. Bernardino," at 
S. Bernardino da Siena, Via Panisperna ; from S. Croce, 
Monte . Citorio (they wear the black habit and are 
ruled by an abbess) ; Franciscans " della SS. Purifica- 
zione " (from the same house) now in Via Sforza 14 ; 
Franciscans " of S. Cosimato "f just removed to S. Gre- 
gorio on the Celian. The Franciscans " of S. Silvestro in 
Capite " I (the present Post-office) now share the Bene- 
dictine monastery of S. Cecilia. For houses of the Third 
Order, unenclosed, refer to pages 155-6. 

The Franciscan habit is the coarse woollen gown and 
hood of the xm. century peasant or shepherd, tied with 
a cord. The Friars Minor wear a maroon gown and 

* It is a Roman custom to call monastic communities by the name 
of their monastery; or of their original monastery. 

t S. Cosimato has been given to the Soeurs de S. Vincent dc 
Paul. 

X See p. 220. 



Clarisses. 



Third 
Order 

(enclosed) 



Habit of 
the Fran 
ciscans. 



FRIARS 



'59 



' Cord of 
S. Francis.' 



white cord, a little hood attached to a neck piece, 
called the cappuccio, and in winter a cloak reaching below 
the knee. They wear a rosary, and are barefoot and 
bareheaded. The " Cord of S. Francis " is the distin- 
guishing mark of all branches of the Order. 

The Minor Conventuals wear a black gown and cape, 
a white cord, and a rosary ; they are shod, and wear the 
usual clerical hat in the street. 

The Minor Capuchins wear a coarse brown frock, tied 
with a knotted white cord ; they have a long pointed 
hood and wear a rosary. They are barefoot and bare- 
headed. In winter they wear a short cloak. They wear 
beards. 

The Poor Clares or Clarisses, and Clarisses-Colettines 
wear a coarse brown gown tied with a white cord, a brown 
cloak, and a black veil. They are barefoot, and wear 
sandals in the garden and in winter time. 

Capuchin women are barefoot and wear the same habit 
as Capuchin friars ; but in choir they wear a thick black 
mantle over the head. The First and Second Order 
wear no scapular. 

Congregations of the Regular Third Order wear the 
cord of S. Francis, but the colour of the habit may be 
gray, brown, white, black, or blue. In spite of this 
Franciscan Tertiaries are usually called soeurs or freres 
gris. A scapular is usually worn, which in the case of 
men is often shortened. See pages 155, 158 and, 154, 199. 

It is disputed whether the original habit of S. Francis Ancient 
was brown or gray. That gray was at one time worn is habit - 
recorded in the English name for Franciscans — Gray 
Friars. Every one knows the story of the perplexed artist 
who desiring not to give offence by his picture of the 
saint, represented S. Francis in bed, with black, brown 
and gray gowns waiting for him on hooks round the walls 
— he left to S. Francis the onus of choosing the colour. 
Before the reunion of the Observant Franciscans, the 
habit differed. Some wore brown with a cloak of varying 
length. The Alcantarine habit was maroon, with a strip 
of gray cloth sewn in front : this is the present habit of 



160 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

the Alcantarine nuns at Naples. The Recollects wore 
gray. 

Franciscan s. francis. — Emblems : represented in gray, brown, or 

their* and black gown and cord. He is known by the pointed mea- 

emblems gre face, short sparse beard, solemn eyes ; the face of 

in art. t h e enthusiast and religious mystic. He has the stigmata 

in hands, feet and side ; and his other emblems are a 

skull and crucifix, the lamb emblem of meekness, the 

lily of purity. (October 4.) 

8. clare, in early pictures, gray, in later brown gown 
and cord, black veil. Her special emblem the pyx, in 
allusion to her dispersion of the Saracens who assailed 
the monastery, by appearing on the loggia of S. Damian's 
with the Host in her hands; lily ; palm alluding to the 
palm brought to her by the bishop from the altar, which 
flowered in her hands in the Procession of Palm Sunday ; 
" onde corse a Francesco," whence she fled that evening 
to Francis to ask for the habit of the Order. As Founder, 
she also appears with crozier and book. (August 12.) 

s. antont of padua, the " eldest son of S. Francis," 
1195-1231. A Portuguese, who, moved by the story of 
the martyrdom of 5 friars in Morocco, whose remains 
had been brought to Lisbon, determined to enter the 
Order, and there find death for Christ. Seized with ill- 
ness on the way to Morocco, he was obliged to return, 
and was driven by contrary winds to Italy and S. Francis. 
Being learned, he taught in the universities of Paris, Bo- 
logna, and Padua, and was famous as a preacher. None 
could resist his eloquence. Like S. Francis, he preached 
" to every creature," and made a sermon for the fishes as 
Francis had done for the birds. Everywhere in the dis- 
traught and tyrant-ridden north of Italy he preached hu- 
manity and peace, " the peace of justice and the peace 
of liberty " he said. He died in Padua, where he is en- 
shrined in the churches and the affections of the people. 
Emblems : flame of fire ; book and lily ; lily twined round 
the crucifix ; the infant Christ — who appeared standing on 
his book while he preached of the Incarnation — on a 






FRIARS 161 

book or in his arms ; a mule kneeling, in allusion to the 
legend of the unbeliever who required a miracle in proof 
of the Doctrine of the Sacrament. When the Host passed 
him, his mule knelt in adoration, in spite of the sieve of 
oats with which its master hoped to distract it ! (June 
13.)* 

s.bonaventura t (Cardinal), 1 221-1274; the "Seraphic 
Doctor." The only monk or friar represented in a hat. \ 
He is beardless, and sometimes wears a cope over the 
habit ; mitre as bishop of Albano ; the Host, referring to 
his having been communicated by an angel, when too 
humble himself to approach the holy table. He was 
buried at Lyons, but his ashes were dispersed by the 
Huguenots. He is specially interesting to Englishmen 
from his refusal of the archbishopric of York offered him 
by the pope in 1265. He is the biographer of S. Francis. 

(July I4-) 

Bernardino of siena, 1380-1444. The great preacher, who 
first gave the name of" Franciscans of the Observance " 
{Obserwints) to his reform of the Order. He is repre- 
sented in his brown gown, holding in his hand the device 

* In churches there is often an alms box marked " S. Antony's S. Antony's 
bread." Six years ago a woman of Toulon could not enter her bread, 
baker's shop, the lock of which was damaged, and she promised S. 
Antony a little bread for his poor if the door could be opened. A 
key was now tried, and the door opened immediately. Hence it has 
become the custom to accompany every petition to S. Antony with 
a promise of bread for the poor. As S. Antony is the finding saint, 
and is, unhappily, invoked to restore every lost article, the alms box 
receives the donations of those whose petitions have been heard. A 
list of poor institutions and orphannges is kept, and these send in 
turn for the bread, which is distributed to each according to the 
number of inmates. . Antony is also patron of firemen. 

f Christened Giovanni, but when brought as a little child to S. 
Francis, his mother begging him to save his life by his prayers, the 
saint exclaimed, O buona venlura ! O happy future ! and hence the 
great doctor's name. 

X The Cardinal's hat is sometimes hanging on a tree, in allusion 
to the story that when it was brought to him he was washing up the 
plates after the convent meal in the garden of a Franciscan friary, 
and begged the ambassadors to hang the hat on a tree until he was 
able to take it. 



i62 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

I. H.S. I. H. S. surrounded by a glory. This is the laudabile 
nomen Jesu which he designed, and used to show to the 
people after his sermons. It is preserved in his church 
at Siena.* He also bears the 3 little green hills sur- 
mounted by a cross, or by a flag on which the dead Christ 
(Pieta) is figured, in allusion to his founding the monts- 
de-piete. (May 20.) 

s. loots of feance, Third Order : holds the crown of thorns, 
and a sword, or the sword and sceptre are at his feet ; a 
crown on his head or at his feet. In French pictures he 
is beardless. (August 25.) 

s. loots of Toulouse, ob. 1 297, royal saint. Young and 
beardless ; wears episcopal robes over the habit, with his 
bishop's crozier, mitre, and book ;- sometimes at his feet 
a crown and sceptre, in allusion to the crown of Naples 
which he refused. (August 19.) 

s. Elizabeth of Hungary, 1207-1231. (" Mother of the 
poor" Mater pauperum. Die liebe Frau Elizabeth). 
Royal saint, Third Order. Daughter of Andreas II. of 
Hungary ; betrothed at 4 years old to Ludovic son of 
the Landgrave of Thuringia, she was married at 15, her 
husband being then a lad of 20. After barely 6 years 
of a tender union, blended in his case with a supernat- 
ural awe and veneration for his holy wife, he left for the 
Crusades, and dying on the way in the arms of the Patriarch 
of Jerusalem, entreated his companions to protect Eliza- 
beth, left exposed to the scorn of courts and the persecu- 
tion of her relatives. These friends eventually forced 
the latter to yield to Elizabeth her own city of Marburg, 
whither she retired : and here she lived till her death t>\ 
years afterward. Conrad of Marburg (afterward assas- 
sinated for his persecuting schemes) a priest and later 
bishop of the city, was Elizabeth's confessor, and cloked 
the instincts of a butcher under the semblance of spiritual 
direction. He took away her infant daughters, forbade 
her to give alms because he saw how sweet a consolation 
it was to her, forbade her even to beg, till as she became 

* See Jesuits, p. 303. 



FRIARS 163 

weaker and earned less (for she had adopted the poverty 
with the cord of S. Francis) her patched raiment made 
the very children pursue her through the streets. Two 
faithful women who were left to her, he substituted with 
creatures of his own, in order to add to the indignities 
she suffered. At last she whose coming had made the 
world more fair — for wars and violence ceased and a 
plentiful harvest had greeted her birth — yielded up her 
spirit, aged 24. If we take away the excesses partly 
chosen, partly borne by her, wondering how best to 
please her heavenly spouse, and desiring always " the bet- 
ter gifts," there emerges to the light one of the great 
figures of hagiography ; an image of purity, real good- 
ness, and spiritual worth, of gentleness, love, pity, and 
humility of heart proof against all self-seeking. The 
scenes from her life are familiar to us in art : she appears 
usually in regal clothes, crowned, performing some act of 
compassion, or with the roses of the legend in her lap : 
for when Ludovic asked her what she carried, she, 
anxious to conceal her constant almsgiving, pressed her 
burden closer to her ; but when he drew aside the cloak 
he saw nothing but roses — "les plus belles qu'il eut 
vues de sa vie." 

s.colette, ob. 1447, tne Reformer of the Franciscan 
Order was born at Corbie in Picardy, her father being the 
master-carpenter of the great Abbey ; her mother, twice 
married, was aged at the time of her birth: 'Colette' 
(Nicole Boilet) was born the year that Catherine of Siena 
died. At her request the anti-pope Benedict XIII. gave 
her the Clarisse habit with an obligation to observe the 
strict Rule. She had faculties to reform the Franciscan 
Order, one of its two generals remitting his own authority 
into her hands. She was remarkable in power, tiny in 
stature. (March 6.) 

s. Catherine of bologna, 1413-1463, a Clarisse nun, and 
an artist, maid of honour to Princess Margaret d'Este. 
Her body is shown, seated in a chair, at Bologna, where 
she is known as "La Santa." No special emblems. 
(March 9.) s. peter of alcantaea, 1499-1562, (canonised 



164 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

1669). He is represented walking on the water, through 
faith ; or with the Dove above his head, emblem of inspi- 
ration in prayer. (Oct. 19.) s. pasqtxal babylon, ob. 1592 
(Aragon). A shepherd in his youth, then an Observant 
friar. There is a church in Rome dedicated to him. 
(May 17.) s. john capistran, ob. 1465 (canonised 1690). 
Sent by the popes to preach a Crusade after the capture 
of Constantinople by the Turks. Canonised in com- 
memoration of the deliverance of Vienna from the Turks. 
Emblems : Crucifix, standard and cross. (October 23.) 
s. peter regalato (Valladolid), ob. at Osma 1456, canon- 
ised 3 centuries later. (March 30.) 

Capuchin Saints : s. pelix op cantilicio, i 5 1 3, lay brother 
who begged for the convent in Rome for 45 years. Ob. 
1587, buried at the Cappuccini. Emblem : beggar's 
wallet. (May 21.) s. diego, Spanish lay brother, 1463 
(November 13). s. pidelis op sigmaringen, ob. 1622, first 
martyr of Propaganda Fide. Emblem : in the habit, 
with a wound on the head. (April 24.) 

Besides S. Elizabeth and S. Louis of France there have 
been a large number of canonised Tertiaries. The fol- 
lowing royal Tertiaries : s. Elizabeth op Portugal, ob. 1336, 
canonised 1625. Grandniece of S. Elizabeth of Hun- 
gary. (July 8.) s. isabelle op prance, sister of S. Louis : 
she is represented distributing alms. s. margaret, widow 
of S. Louis, s. anne op bohemia, who refused the hand of 
the Emperor Frederick II., and wrote telling S. Clare 
that she wished to embrace poverty with her. ss. eleazar 
and delphine, his wife (1300), they appear together, richly 
dressed, s. Bridget op sweden, and her daughter Cather- 
ine. Other Tertiaries are : s. rose or rosalie op viterbo, ob. 
1 26 1, patroness of that city, her emblem a chaplet of 
roses. (September 4.) s. roch, ob. 1327, advocate against 
pest. Points to plague spot on his leg. Pilgrim's staff 
and gourd ; dog. (August 16.) s margaret op cortona, the 
penitent, ob. 1297, has a dog at her feet. (February 22.) 
s. Ives op Brittany, 1253-1303. Alleged to have been a 
Tertiary. Patron of lawyers, and appears in lawyer's robe 
and bonnet. The cult of this saint was introduced to our 



FRIARS 165 

Southwest shores through commerce with Brittany ; hence 
S. Ives in Cornwall. The church of the Sapienza univer- 
sity in Rome is dedicated to him. (May 19.) It will 
be noticed that nearly all these great saints lived in the 
xiii. and xiv. centuries. Tertiaries are often not repre- 
sented in the habit of the Order, but sometimes have 
the cord of S. Francis to distinguish them. 

There have been 7 Franciscan popes : Gregory IX. 
(Cardinal Ugolino, see p. 148-9), Nicholas IV., Alex- 
ander V., Sixtus IV., Julius II., Sixtus V., Clement XIV. 
(Conventual). 

And among the great men of the Order are the School- 
men Roger Bacon, the "Admirable Doctor" (1214- 
1292); Duns Scotus, the "Subtile Doctor"; William 
Occam, the " Invincible Doctor " ; and Alexander Hales, 
the " Irrefragable Doctor." 

The badge of the Franciscans is the crossed arms of Badge. 
Christ and S. Francis, the latter draped in the sleeve of 
the habit, with a cross between them. The Alcantarines 
(now merged in the Ordo Minoruni) bore a green cross 
patonce on a white field. The Capuchins erect a cross, 
to which are suspended the instruments of the Passion, 
outside their friaries. 



166 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



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168 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



TO DISTINGUISH THE WHITE HABITS OF ORDERS. 



White Habits (Monks and Friars). 



Monastic : 



Cistercian 
Trappist . 



f Carthusian . . 

Camaldolese . 
Olivetan .... 



. The scapular is black. (Hat.) 

. The black scapular is tied with the girdle. 

(Hat.) 
. The two sides of the scapular are joined by 

a piece of stuff. 
/ White cloak, with small hood, out of doors. 
\ Professed monks have the scapular tied 
t with the girdle ; novices have it loose. 



Mendicant : White indoors O! 

Dominicans . 

Trinitarians . 
White always: Mercedari . . 

Missionary: Peres Blancs 



■ • The Camaldolese dress, with a black cloak 

out of doors, 
in summer: — 

. . (Hat.) Lay brethren, black scapular. 
. . Blue and red cross on breast. (No hat.) 
. . Pendent Augustinian belt, badge round 

neck. (Hat.) 
. . White cloak caught back over shoulders, 
rosary round neck. (Hat ) 



The habit of monk and friar differs in form. The 
monk's scapular is not covered by the broad capuce of 
the friar. ( Cf. Plates I, II, III, IV.) No monk wears 
a rosary ; and only hermit-monks wear a cloak out of 
doors. Cistercians and Trappists are thus easily dis- 
tinguished from Dominican lay brethren ; and the Do- 
minican without his black cappa from the Carthusian 
and Camaldolese, even if the friar's rosary is not seen. 
Those Benedictine lay brethren who wear a brown habit, 
with a beard and rosary, are distinguishable from all brown 
Mendicants, except the Capuchins, by the beard and the 
absence of the capuce, and from Capuchins by the ab- 
sence of the cord. Since the xvm. and xix. century 
Suppressions in Austria, France, and Italy, habits have 
not been commonly worn in the streets. Even in Rome, 
Olive tans, Mercedari, and occasionally Dominicans, wear 
the long priest's coat {greca) over their white habit ; and 
this is also habitually worn by Canons Regular. Hermit 
Orders, whose proper head covering is the cowl, as Carnal- 



FRIARS 169 

dolese, and others, as Carmelites, who go bareheaded, 
often adopt a white hat against the sun. 

S. DOMINIC AND THE DOMINICANS. 

Dominic, a member of the great Spanish house of 
Guzman, was born in 1 1 70 at Calaroga in Old Castile. 
His mother, enrolled in this century among the " Blessed," 
was Joanna of Aza, according to some a Castilian and to 
others a daughter of the ducal house of Brittany. From 
her he learnt his love of prayer, his charity, the modesty 
so remarkable in his whole life, and his exquisite com- 
passion for the poor.* In 1191 during a terrible famine 
he sold everything, even his books commented by himself, 
in an age when MSS. were so rare and precious a treasure. 
When his friends wondered that he should throw away all 
his chance of study — "Would you have me," said he, 
" study off those dead skins, when men are dying of 
hunger? " All his biographers tell us that at this time he 
desired a poor woman who was unable to ransom her son 
taken prisoner by the Moors, to sell him, and to redeem 
her son with the price. 

When he was 25 years old, Dominic became one of the 
new canons regular established at the Cathedral of Osma. 
From here, he left with some companions for Montpellier, 
this part of France being then overrun by the Albigensian 
heresy. He was now in his 33 rd year, and his life had 
hitherto been spent in solitude and retirement ; not the 
least sacrifice of his life was made when he left all this 
behind him, to enter a world of strife and contention. 
His extraordinary patience under this and all other trials 
is the admiration of his biographers. Rome, and the 
great abbey of Citeaux beloved by S. Dominic, were 
visited on the way. Of his labours at this time we have Langue- 
a record in the report presented to the Spanish Cortes in doc, 1203- 
181 2 which led to the suppression of the inquisition in 
that country. It says : " The early inquisitors encountered 

* llcr tombstone is inscribed Sanctic Joanna. 



1215. 



170 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Dominic's 
death. 



His char- 
acter. 



heresy with no other arms than those of prayer, patience, 
and instruction ; and this remark applies more particularly 
to S. Dominic." And the present pope in his encyclical 
on the rosary, writes : " This man, great by the integrity 
of his doctrine, by the example of his virtues, and by his 
apostolic labours, undertook the magnificent task of de- 
fending the Catholic Church, not by force, or by arms, 
but by the sole power of that prayer which he was the 
first to make known under the title of the Holy Rosary." * 

In 1 2 15 Dominic again visited Rome, to attend the 
Lateran Council ; and at this time he met S. Francis. 
After the confirmation of his Order he returned towards 
France, visiting Siena on the way. At Bologna he sickened, 
but refused to spare himself any of the daily duties ; when 
he could work no longer, he lay on sacking on the floor, 
and throughout his sufferings no groan escaped him, " he 
always seemed cheerful and full of joy " and had for all 
" sweet words and a smiling countenance." " You know," 
he said to his children, " that to serve God is to reign ; 
but we must serve Him with our whole hearts. Behold 
my children what I leave to you as a heritage : Have 
charity, guard humility, and make your treasure out of 
voluntary poverty." At the words in the Commendation 
of the dying " offerentes earn in conspectu altissimi " " Help, 
saints of God, hasten angels of the Lord, receiving his 
soul, offering it in the sight of the Most High" Dominic 
stretched his hands towards heaven, and breathed his 
last breath. This was in 1221, on August 6. He was 
then in his 5 i 8t year. His resting place is Bologna, where 
his celebrated shrine is known as the "Area di San 
Domenico." 

S. Dominic was not only a great preacher, but he 
" possessed," as a recent biographer says of him " in a 
very high degree that gift by which certain souls commu- 
nicate themselves to others." Being asked in what book 
he had studied to find the matter for his burning utter- 
ances, he answered " My son, I have chiefly studied in 

* Cf. Inquisition, Part IV., p. 455. Rosary, Part II., pp. 161, 
163. 



FRIARS 171 

the book of Charity, for all things are learnt there." He 
was easily touched, and when he saw from afar the roofs 
of any great town he was approaching " he would melt 
into tears as he thought of the misery of its inhabitants." 
But above all were his spirit of prayer and his serenity 
great ; " the habit of prayer wherein he reposed with 
marvellous and undisturbed tranquillity." " Nothing ever 
disturbed his tranquillity but compassion for others," says 
a biographer, and " if the interior peace lost by Adam 
were to be found restored in any human soul, it was in 
that of the blessed Dominic." As he went along, from 
city to city, always on foot, he prayed ; and he was often 
seen to make the sign of the cross and a movement as if 
he were brushing away flies, as though driving from him 
all disturbing thoughts. To his brethren he repeated the 
words of Judith M The prayer of the meek and humble is 
always pleasing to thee O Lord." 

S. Dominic founded his Order in 1214-1215. At this The Order 
time, we are told, Fulk bishop of Toulouse appointed p fFn f rs 
brother Dominic and his companions " as preachers 
throughout our Diocese." The Order was confirmed in 
1 2 16-12 1 7,* and the brethren then, assembled at Prouille, 
chose the Rule of S. Augustine. This Rule is at the head 
of the Dominican Constitutions, which were based on the 
Statutes of the Premonstratensian canons, and were written 
in 1228, and successively modified till 1252. "The Order 
of Preachers was principally and essentially designed for 
preaching and teaching, in order thereby to communicate 
to others the fruits of contemplation, and to procure the 
salvation of souls." f A special provision was a power of 
dispensing from anything in the Constitutions which would 
impede the members in their active duties, or in their 
first duty the good of souls. So communication with 
seculars was to be permitted even in the interior of the 
convent. A certain number of students were to be sent to 
universities, to take degrees, and open schools. S. Catherine 
writes : " He made it a royal Order, where none were found 

* Hence it takes precedence of the Franciscans, see p. 145. 
t Constitutions, 



1 72 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

under mortal sin ... for enlightened by Me * the true 
Light ... his Order large, joyous and odoriferous is in 
itself a most delightful garden : " " La sua religione tutta 
larga, tutta gioconda, tutta odorifera, e uno giardino dilet- 
tissimo in se." 

Second In 1206 Dominic founded a monastery for women who 

Order. h ac i been converted from the Albigensian heresy, and as 

a refuge for young women exposed to its influence. The 

spot he selected was Prouille, given him for the purpose 

by its noble owner the Chatelaine of Fanjeaux. The 

sisters lived under the Rule of S. Augustine, to which 

Dominic added silence and manual labour ; while those 

who could were to study psalmody. Their dress was the 

same as that worn by Dominic as Canon of Osma. It 

does not appear, however, that the saint projected a 

Second Order until his last visit to Rome, when Innocent 

III. having vainly endeavoured to gather a number of 

Story of nuns into a cloistered community, put the matter into 

the nuns of Dominic's hands. Those who were most hostile to the 

S* Sisto, ^ idea of enforced enclosure were the poor nuns of S. Maria 

and S. ' in Trastevere ; and the Romans took their part. Dom- 

Sabina. j n ic's first visit to them was a complete failure ; they 

would not, they said, be controlled by him, or cardinals, 

or pope. They could not be forced to accept enclosure 

which they had never contemplated in entering their 

state. However the matter was brought about, partly by 

Dominic's persuasiveness, but not without recourse to 

some force and deception. He offered them his own 

convent of S. Sisto, and he himself removed to S. Sabina. 

Forty-four nuns, and the picture of the Madonna painted 

by S. Luke, were brought to the new convent, the condition 

on which they insisted being that should the picture go 

back of its own accord to Trastevere, they should go 

back after it ; and they took their vow with this proviso.f 

* She is speaking as if Christ were reciting the spiritual glories 
of the Order. 

t This picture is now at the high altar of SS. Domenico e Sisto. 
Torrigio wrote its history. 



FRIARS 173 

Sister Cecilia Cesarini, then only 1 7, was the first to beg 
S. Dominic for the habit of his Order, and the other nuns 
followed her example.* The Rule of the nuns is the 
same as that of the Friars, except that meat is never eaten 
by the former, unless with a dispensation from the 
Prioress, f The Second Order has always been enclosed, 
indeed it is S. Dominic himself who introduced the grille, 
or grate. It has also been from the first under the super- 
vision of the Dominican Fathers. The Second Order 
now numbers some 13,000 or 15,000 nuns. Dominican 
Friars and nuns are ruled by a Prior or Prioress, elected Govem- 
for 3 years. Under them is a sub-prior or sub-prioress. ™ ent a ? d 
Dominican houses are Priories. The Order is divided 
into Provinces, under a General resident in Rome, and 
consists, among friars, of priests, novices, and lay brethren ; 
among nuns, of choir nuns, novices, and lay sisters. 
Those who present themselves for admission remain pos- 
tulants for 3 months at least ; the noviceship lasts for a 
year, at the end of which he or she takes the vow for 3 
years, but remains in the noviciate ; and 4 years after 
their admission as novices they take the perpetual vows. 
Lay brethren and sisters begin as simple Tertiaries % for 
3 years after which the noviciate begins, and they are 
only professed at the end of 7 years. The vow taken is 
that of obedience only, and is understood to include the 
others. The profession is made during mass, in the 
hands of the Superior, the newly professed afterwards 
communicating, being accompanied to the holy table by 
his superiors. In the case of nuns, a delegate from the 
First Order is present ; but the profession is made in the 
hands of the nun's own Superior. 

The Dominican Order has proved the most homogene- 
ous of all the Orders. There have been no branches, divi- 



* She was the friend and earliest biographer of S. Dominic, who 
" communicated to her the most hidden secrets of his heart." 

t S. Dominic indeed said that no meat was to enter the Refec- 
tory; so the friars eat meat in a room which is not called the 
Refectory. 

X See p. i$3,foo/>io{e. 



174 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

sions, or " Reforms." This is in part due to the unity of 
purpose in the founder. At the same time among many 
members of the First Order the Rule is kept with startling 
laxity and justifies the remark made by a priest at a retreat 
of nuns of his Order — " the men make the Rule and the 
women keep it." The Order was in fact at first assimi- 
lated to that of Canons, and has always preserved this 
character, though it was enrolled among the mendicants. 
To this day it more nearly combines the Regular and 
canonical traditions than any other community, with the 
exception, in the past, of some Benedictine congregations 
of women. 

Third The date of the institution of a Third Order on the 

Order. lines of the Third Order of S. Francis is unknown, the 

foundation is however assigned to the year 1224, but its 
rules were not made till 1285 by the 7 l . h General of the 
Order, and about the same time it obtained sanction. At 
first styled " Militia of Jesus Christ," the later and present 
name is " Order of Penance of S. Dominic." This Third 
Order became rapidly more Regular in its constitution, 
and now embraces a large number of communities of 
Regulars dedicated to active works of charity and tuition.* 
They take simple vows, and the women are of course 
unenclosed. Neither men nor women are subject to the 
First Order, but depend either directly from the Holy 
See, or from their Diocesan. They are ruled by a Father 
or Mother-General, and in the case of women the Supe- 
rior of the separate houses is often a prioress. The men 
Tertiaries direct the Ecole Lacordaire in Paris. There 
are two communities of women in England, at Stone, and 
Stroud, fully confirmed ; and there are Irish Dominican 
Sisters in South Africa, 2 of whom have just received 
(1898) the Royal Red Cross Order for work done. 
Secular Tertiaries have rules similar to the Franciscan, 
.though somewhat less austere. They wear a miniature 
white scapular and the • belt of S. Thomas.' 

* See infra, S. Catherine, p. 177. 



FRIARS 



1 75 



There is another Dominican Congregation, interesting Domini- 
as being the first attempt to unite the contemplative and p^esema- 6 
active life. This is the Congregation of the Dominican tion. 
Sisters of Charity of the Presentation of the Holy Virgin, 
founded by Mere Poussepin, a Dominican tertiary, and by 
a Dominican father, in 1684. This large community, 
numbering 3300 in France alone, is devoted to all trie 
works of charity ; having creches, schools, invalids, and 
tending the leprous. Their houses are to be found in 
Colombia and Bagdad. They have 400,000 children in 
their care. The habit is the Dominican, with a black 
apron indoors, and the stiff white cap or cornette in place 
of guimpe and veil. Their house in Rome is the Villa 
della Presentazione, Via Milazzo, where they receive 
invalids, and take pensionnaires* 

The Dominican Friars were introduced into England Order in 
in the lifetime of S. Dominic by Gilbert de Fresnoy, to En s land - 
whom he entrusted the formation of an English Province. 
They were there known as Black-friars, and were settled 
in the district near S. Paul's still called after them. In 
France they were called Jacobins. 

The original dress of the Dominicans was that worn Habit, 
by S. Dominic as Canon of Osma Cathedral, " a white 
tunic, and linen rochet, and in choir a black mantle." 
This was slightly changed in the saint's own lifetime, and 
a scapular substituted for the surplice, in obedience to a 
vision of the Madonna with which one of the brethren 
was favoured. So they speak of the Dominican scapular 
as " woven by the hands of the true mulier fortis for the 
members of her household." The tunic, scapular, and 
capuce are white, in shape like those of the Augustinians, 
the cowl is pointed ; over this a black cloak and hood is 
worn, called the cappa. The cappa is now a peculiarly Cappa. 



* This Congregation must not be confused with Mere Rivier's 
Sisters of the Presentation of Mary, founded at Viviers on November 
21, 1796. The Ven. Marie Rivier was called by Pius IX. "the 
apostolic woman." The Congregation is numerous in France and 
Belgium and joins active works of charity and missionary labours to 
the work of education. 



176 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAI ROME 

Dominican garment : it is worn from All Saints' day till 
the "Gloria" on Easter Eve, and by friars, nuns and lay 
brethren for communion, and at all great solemnities. 
This is nothing else but the cappa nigra, a black mantle 
or open cope, worn for centuries by cathedral and colle- 
giate clergy in choir. Hence its use among canonical 
clergy was identical with that of the monastic cuculla. 

The dress of nuns is the same as that of friars, but 
they wear a black veil and whimple in place of the 
capuce. Male novices wear the full habit of the Order, 
but women wear a white veil. Both wear the unblest 
scapular. Lay brethren and sisters wear a black instead 
of a white scapular, the former a black instead of a white 
capuce, and the latter a white instead of a black veil. 
The Third Order wear a habit identical in all respects 
with that of the I. and II. Orders, except that the men do 
not wear a scapular. All Dominicans wear a rosary, 
shoes and white stockings, and the men wear the priest's 
hat. 
In Rome. The General of the Dominicans (Magister Ordinis) 

resides at the Convent of S. Maria sopra Minerva. The 
other Dominican houses in Rome are : S. Sabina ; S. Cle- 
mente ; and SS. Quirico e Giulitta. Outside the walls, 
the Church of the Santo Rosario on Monte Mario ; and 
a vigna on the Via Praenestina which belongs to the Irish 
friars of S. Clemente. The Dominicans are also the 
Penitentiary priests of S. M. Maggiore (with residence at 
the Canonica), and may be seen in the confessionals 
there in the penitential seasons, and during Holy Week. 
The houses of the II. Order are : SS. Domenico e Sisto. 
The nuns moved here from S. Sisto, 161 1 ; S. Caterina a 
Magnanapoli, close by ; * and the Annunziata in the 

* These nuns came from S. Chiara near the Minerva, where the 
original " Suore di S. Caterina " lived. (See Part I., Saints' 
Rooms, p. 354.) They gradually increased the monastery, buying 
the land which includes the Torre delle Milizie, and, after receiv- 
ing the visit of 5 Florentine Sisters of the II. Order, adopted this 
Rule in place of the Tertiary. Napoleon dispersed them, but 
they returned 5 years later. The house is now sequestrated, and 



FRIARS 177 

Piazzetta del Grillo. Third Order : S. Sisto Vecchio : the 
community now restored to this ancient Dominican site 
was founded a few years ago by a lady from Palermo ; 
Nursing Sisters in Via degli Artisti 1 7 and Via Panetteria 
51 (they wear, like Spanish Dominicans, a crucifix on 
the breast) ; the English Dominican Nursing Sisters, via 
Napoli 67 A., who are clothed secular Tertiaries. 
There are no men Tertiaries in Rome. 

s. Dominic. Emblems : Star on the forehead, in allusion Dominican 
to the " certain radiance " on his brow which those saw Saints and 
who looked on him intently, and to the legend that his emblems 
godmother when she took him at the font saw a splendid in Art. 
star descend on him ; the dog and torch ; a lily ; a book. 

s. Catherine of siena. Next to S. Dominic, the greatest 
figure in the Order, the reviver of its spirit in the 
xiv. century, was Catherine Benincasa, S. Catherine of 
Siena, her father being a dyer in that city where she 
was born in 1347. A visionary child, a lover of soli- 
tude and austerity, she rejected the many suitors whom 
her parents pressed her to accept, and in 1362 was 
received among the Mantellate, a company of widows Mantdlate. 
of the Third Order of S. Dominic. It is this com- 
pany which she formed into the Tertiaries afterwards 
called Suore di Santa Caterina.* By the time she was 
24 all called her "Mother," and her confessors styled 
themselves her " sons " as they were her disciples. So 
unlearned that she had never been taught to read and 
write, she became a writer of singular beauty, force and 



when the number of nuns dwindles to 6 will be abolished. The 
sequestrated income of the monastery was 45,000 lire annually 
(,£1800) : each choir nun now receives 50 lire a month {£2) and 
each lay sister 25; an expense to the Government of some .£300 a 
year. Part of the building is converted into a Barrack, but the 
nuns have nothing to complain of on the score of courtesy and 
kindness from the soldiers. 

*See p. 176, footnote. The Institute for decrepit poor by the 
Porta Laterina, Siena, is in charge of Dominican Sisters who wear 
the same dress as S. Catherine. 



178 CHRISTIAN A .YD ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Brings the 
Pope back 
to Rome. 



Catherine 
and the 
reform of 
the clergy. 



distinction. Her letters to nuns, priests, notables, sove- 
reigns, and the pope, were usually dictated, and she would 
dictate three important epistles at a time, walking up and 
down in the midst of her scribes, and never having occa- 
sion to alter the sentences thus written. Her language 
is never that of controversy ; her theological accuracy 
has been the marvel of her critics. As a spiritual guide 
she was preeminent, no mannerism of piety could de- 
ceive her, and like so many great saints she was a dis- 
cerner of spirits. She understood instinctively those 
devices by which souls are won to self-realisation, had 
that delicate touch which awoke in her hearers unreal- 
ised possibilities in themselves.* But not only by preach- 
ing did she fulfil the Dominican ideal of a union of the 
mystical and laborious life. The rebellion of Florence 
against the Holy See, the exile at Avignon which sapped 
the strength and decorum of the Church, drew Catherine 
into that arena of political life in which she played the 
most distinguished part of her century. Catherine went 
to Avignon, and had a remarkable series of interviews 
with the pope and the cardinals. She expressed her 
sorrow to Gregory XI. at finding the Roman court so 
stained with vice ; and when he asked her how she had 
gained in a few days so much knowledge of its manners, 
" Suddenly changing her attitude of profound humility 
and reverence, she raised herself with an air of majesty, 
and said ' To the honour of God I will dare to say that I 
was more conscious of the infection of the sins com- 
mitted in the Court of Rome when I dwelt in my native 
city, than those are who daily commit them.' " | As we 
know, she prevailed on the pope to return to Rome, 
which she entered with him, as he feared his own weak- 
ness and the hostility of his cardinals. 

The Church, declared Catherine, needs no reform ; but 
only its ministers and pastors. It fell to her lot to rebuke 

* " At her voice, nay only looking upon her, hearts were changed." 
For her preaching, with papal faculties, see Part II., p. 186. 

t Narrative of Fra Raimondo, her biographer and confessor, who 
accompanied her to Avignon. 



FRIARS 179 

the scurrilous lives of the priesthood, of men stained 
with every species of vice, swashbuckling priests who, 
dressed in secular costume, went about with a sword at 
their sides, picking up quarrels. These priests are " fiori 
puzzolenti nel giardino della santa Chiesa," stinking flow- 
ers in the garden of holy Church. In her " Dialogue " 
she writes : " My anointed ones . . . have made My Church 
into a stable, and lie there in filth." To them she applies 
the words of Christ's warning against false prophets, and 
calls them wolves in sheep's clothing ; and writing of the 
flock so betrayed, says : " It is no cause of trouble to you 
that the invisible devil should carry them off, you your- 
selves being visible devils, and the means by which they 
are sent to hell." Again, of bad pastors she finely says : 
" They see and understand nothing but the shell of the 
letter." 

Catherine died on April 29, 1380, aged 33 ; having done 
a strenuous work of reform in Italy at the same time that 
Wyclif, who died in 1384, was similarly employed, in his 
own way, in England. 

In Art, her emblems are the lily, a crown of thorns, and In Art 
a book ; and she is the only woman, as Francis is the only 
man, represented with the stigmata, which in her case ap- 
pear as rays of light darting from the hands. Her body 
lies in Rome, at the Minerva ; the head in Siena. Feast 
day, April 30 (canonised 1461). 

Other great Dominican Saints are : s. thomas aquinas, of 
Aquino in the Kingdom of Naples, 1 225-1 274, the "An- 
gelic Doctor." Emblems: sun on breast; books; ink- 
horn and pen ; sacramental cup in allusion to his office for 
Corpus Christi. (March 8.) s. peter martyr, 1205-1252, 
assassinated by two men of the sect of the Cathari whom 
he had persecuted. Gash on the head; or pierced through 
with a sword ; palm. His xiv. century tomb is at Sant' 
Eustorgio at Milan. (April 29.) s. vincent ferrer, 135 7— 
14 1 9, the great preacher and missioner ; endowed with 
the gift of tongues, so that all who heard understood 
him ; born in Spain, died in Brittany. A crucifix; some- 
times wings as a messenger of good tidings. (April 5.) 



i8o CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

s. eaymund of pennafort, 1175-1275 (canonised 1601), to 
whom the Constitutions in their present form are due. 
Borne on the sea, on his black mantle, in allusion to the 
alleged miracle of his return to Spain with his cappa as a 
boat, when James el Conquistador had forbidden any ship 
to leave the port of Majorca. (January 23.) See also 
Part IV., p. 455. s. hyacinth of poland, ob. 125 7 (canonised 
1594). Crucifix; pyx ; also walking on the swollen waters 
of the river Dniester in Russia. (August 16.) s. lewis 
beetrand, 1526-1581, Spaniard, and missionary in Peru. 
Crucifix, as a preacher. (October 9.) s. rose of lima, 
1 586-1 6 1 7, the first American canonised saint. Third 
Order. Crucifix; crown of thorns; shower of roses. 
s. agnes of montepulciano, ob. 1317, aet. 43 ; buried in the 
Dominican church at Orvieto. (April 20.) B. Henry 
Suso the mystic, and S. Catherine Ricci are 2 more 
of this Order's saintliest names. Four popes have been 
Dominicans : B. Benedict XI. ; B. Innocent V. ; S. Pius V. 
(canonised 1712, lies at S. M. Maggiore) ; Benedict XIII. 
Albertus Magnus, Savonarola, and Fra Angelico, are among 
its historic names ; while in modern times Henri Lacor- 
daife took the Dominican habit and was the means of 
re-introducing the religious Orders, at a time when France 
had forgotten the appearance of a habit and cowl. 
Badge. The badge of the Order is the complicated coat given 

on p. 138, and the Cross of the Holy Office,* gyronny 
sable and argent, a cross fleury counterchanged. Motto : 
Veritas. The badge of the dog with the torch in its 
mouth, alludes to the dream of Joanna d' Aza that she 
brought forth a black and white dog with a flaming torch 
in its mouth. The Dominicans are sometimes repre- 
sented in art as dogs, for the zeal of the friars in hunting 
out heresy gained for them the canting name of Domini 
canes, or " dogs of the Lord." 
Dominican The Dominican Order though Spanish in origin was 
Mass. founded in France, and the friars' mass retains the 

peculiarities of the Southern French rite which they 

* See Part IV., p. 456. 



FRIARS 181 

adopted. In low mass the Gifts are prepared before- 
hand, the priest ascending the altar, laying out the cor- 
poral, blessing the water, preparing the chalice, and then 
covering all over with the pall. He opens the missal at 
the epistle side, returns to the centre and puts back the 
amice with which his head has been covered,* laying back 
the hood also : then he says silently the collect : " Prevent 
us O Lord in all our doings," and descends to begin mass. 
The shortened Confiteor f is said on the step below the 
predella, preceded by the Versicle Confitemini Domino 
quoniam bonus. R. Quoniam in sceculum misericordia 
ejus. At the words Adjutorium nostrum he ascends to 
the altar, and does not recite the Oramus te, but the Aufer 
a nobis in its place. The Introit, Gloria and Creed are 
all begun at the centre, the first 2 being completed at 
the epistle, the last at the gospel, side ; and the saluta- 
tion after the Gloria is made from the epistle corner. 
In the creed the priest returns to the centre and kneels 
for the usual words : et incarnatus est. At the Offer- 
tory he lifts the veil and pall from the Gifts and recites 
the words which appear in the Latin rite at the Com- 
munion : Quid retribuatn . . . Calicem salutaris. Then 
he lifts the chalice with the host and paten : Suscipe 
Sancta Trinitas : The Lavabo following, and then, at 
the centre, the prayer : In spiritu. % After the Orate 
fratres he says : " O Lord hear my prayer and let my cry 
come unto thee," then the Secret. At the next variable 
portion of the mass, the Communion, the arrangement is : 
Pax Domini, Agnus Dei, Hcec Sacro-sancta eommixtio. 
He kisses the chalice, and gives the Pax to the assistant, 
holding the pall or the ' pax ' in his hand. Only the 
ante-Communion prayer Do/nine Jesu Christi is said : the 
priest does not beat his breast either in the Confiteor or 
at the Domine non sum dignus. He says in place of 
Corpus Domini nostri, "Corpus et sanguis Domini nostri 

* See Part II., p. 99. 
t Part II., p. 15, Sarum rite. 

% Cf. the arrangement in the Latin rite, Part II., pp. 28-32, and 
with p. 273 ibid. 



1 82 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

. . ." and then communicates silently in both species.* In 
common with the Carthusians, Carmelites, and the Sarum 
rite, the hands are stretched out at the Canon, and at the 
Anamnesis ("unde etmemores"). 

In High Mass the celebrant kisses the Gospel and says 
the words "Per evangelica dicta" after he has intoned 
"Credo in unum Deum;" he finishes the Creed at the 
gospel side, and does not kneel at the et incarnatus est, 
until the choir sing it. He says the Calicem salutaris 
accipiam on receiving the Cup from the deacon. The 
words at the Pax are : Pax tibi et ecdesice sane tee Dei. 
All these particulars occur in the Limoges missal. (See 
Part II., 15, 43, 60, footnote.) 



S. THERESA AND THE CARMELITES. 

The ancient Order of Mount Carmel claims to follow 
the Rule of the prophet Elijah,f and that its friars are 
members of a body of solitaries which had never failed 
since the prophet's day. In the xn. century Berthold of 
Calabria, having made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, 
founded a company of hermits on Mount Carmel, on the 
site marked by tradition as the abode of Elijah. It was 
joined by crusaders and pilgrims, and in 1209 a Rule was 
given by S. Albert Patriarch of Jerusalem, confirmed in 
1224 by Honorius III. 

In 1238 the hermits retired from Carmel to Cyprus, 
thence to Sicily and in 1240 to England,]: and 4 years 
later to France where S. Louis established them. At the 
first Chapter General, held at Aylesford in 1245, Simon 
Stock, an Englishman, was chosen General of the Order. § 
The Rule was altered by Innocent IV. in 1247, and the 

* Cf. ibid., p. 50, and the sentence Quid retribuam omitted here 
in the friar's mass. 

t I. Kings xviii. 19, 20, 42. II. Kings ii. 3, 5, 7. According to 
the legend, Agabus, one of the rejected suitors of the B. V. M., 
retired as an anchorite to Carmel. 

X According to Helyot they came from Syria to England. 

§ Whilefriars without the Temple was then founded. 



of Avila. 



FRIARS 183 

Order was assimilated to the mendicants, under the name 
of Friars of our Lady of Mount Carmel. In the 2 suc- 
ceeding centuries the Order suffered considerably from 
corrupting influences interior and exterior, and its origi- 
nal severity was still further modified by Eugenius IV. 
and Pius II. In 1462 the Venerable Johan Soreth who 1462. 
endeavoured to reform his Order, had the monastery 
doors shut in his face at Cologne, and was eventually 
poisoned at Nantes. It was during this General's rule 
that he applied for and obtained permission to enrol 
" virgins, widows, and beguines," as did the Augustinians 
and Dominicans ; and by virtue of a Bull of Nicholas V., 
circa 1452, the first monasteries of women were founded 
in France ; and it is to a woman's reform of it that the 
strength and preservation of the Order are entirely due. 

S. Theresa is herself the greatest of the many great S. Theresa 
figures of the epoch of the catholic reaction, and the 
greatest intelligence it produced. Her ' reform from 
within ' the Church consisted in rekindling monastic 
asceticism, in restoring the original spirit of the cloister 
throughout Europe. She was born of noble Spanish 
parents, at Avila on March 25, 15 15. Her full name, 
with those of her mother's family, was " Dona Teresa 
Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada (in Religion Teresa 
of Jesu). Left motherless when she was 13, she was 
placed by her father with the Augustinian nuns at Avila. 
Her young mind had been fed on romances of chivalry 
for which there was a veritable passion in the Spain of 
her day. She hated the restriction of the convent and 
was " very uncomfortable," but in 8 days found herself 
much more contented than at home. After a visit to an 
uncle who later became a Religious she decided to force 
herself to embrace the same state, and a long interior 
struggle ensued. At this time she says of reading " that 
gave me life " ; and the Bollandists tell us that she always 
despised books of inferior note. Eventually she asked 
admittance at the convent of the Incarnation outside 
Avila on November 2, 1533. This was a Carmelite 
house. The Mitigated Rule practised here was so lax 



184 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

that it permitted an almost completely worldly life to be 
led by the inmates. She made her profession in 1536; 
and here she lived for 32 years, during the last 3 of which 
only was she Prioress. 

It is difficult in a few words to present an idea of the 
character of one whom Harriet Martineau agreed " with 
Bossuet in thinking one of the most interesting of the 
saints of his Church." She has left herself portrayed in 
one of the two great spiritual autobiographies which have 
been given to the world. We there see her revealed as 
first a human being, a strong great and winning soul, fit 
material for a saint. No one was ever more truthful and 
sincere than Theresa. To her sincerity she added a 
humility as great ; unaffectedly she esteemed herself of 
no account. To these great qualities was added a high 
sense of honour. Lacordaire said that however beautiful 
the name of Chretien, he always prized that of honnete- 
homme ; Theresa would not have expressed this; for 
herself she could not have conceived the absence of this 
character. Her natural droiture was the secret of all her 
triumphs and all her courage. Just before her active life 
began, she had ceased to find any comfort in friends. 
"To converse with anyone is worse, for the devil then 
sends so offensive a spirit of bad temper, that I think I 
could eat people up." " From a stupid and too apparent 
devotion, Lord deliver us ! " exclaimed Theresa : and 
when she began admiring the streets of Madrid, and ask- 
ing trivial questions, the Spanish ladies who had flocked 
to see her decided she was no saint. 

For 16 years Theresa endured a terrible aridity of 
soul ; neither her faith nor the sacraments brought her 
any consolation. She persevered with a great-hearted 
courage, and was rewarded with perhaps more joy and 
consolation in mental prayer — in the words of a 
biographer " a greater weight of grace and glory " — 
Theresa than has fallen to the lot of any other. Theresa is the 
a " d t J^y stl " greatest exponent, the greatest doctor, of mystical the- 
ology, ology. " Its noblest representative," her mysticism com- 
pared with that of her followers is " like a majestic river " 



FKIARS 185 

beside "a rushing torrent or an impoverished streamlet." * 
None of the mystics " attained to her mingled passion 
and simplicity." " La presomption est le peche mignon 
des mystiques, a-t-on dit. Exceptons Ste. Therese : elle 
a trop d'humilite, humility qui procede de sa foi, mais 
aussi d'un rare bon sens." f It escapes the Scylla and 
Charybdis of pantheism and quietism : her realisation of 
the Person of Christ made the one impossible, her prac- 
tical teaching as to life the other. This is how the greatest 
mystic in history speaks to her followers : " God is not 
satisfied with words and thoughts, my Sisters, He requires 
results and actions . . . the love of God does not consist 
in shedding tears, or in that satisfaction and tenderness 
which we ordinarily desire because they are consoling : 
it consists in serving God with courage, in acting justly, 
in practising humility." " Merit does not consist in 
fruition, but in working, suffering, and loving." " Faith 
without works, and both without the merits of Christ, are 
nothing." But the 'seraphic Theresa' is also 'the saint 
of common sense.' This master of mystical contempla- 
tion, this " geographer of the unknown regions of the soul," 
recommends us to be comfortable at prayer, and illus- 
trates " the great moral truth " that " spirituality perfects 
common sense." \ When the Constitutions for the Re- 
form of the Carmelites were being drawn up, she is pre- 
occupied with the question of cleanliness in the Friaries. § 
" For the love of God take care that there be all fitting 
cleanliness in the beds and table linen of the friars, what- 
ever expense it may entail. For lack of cleanliness is a 
terrible thing. I am decidedly of opinion that this ought 
to be ruled by a Constitution, and indeed, being what 
they are, I doubt whether a constitution will be sufficient." 
Not the least of the glories of this woman, is that in a 
hard-featured age she was pitiful : her pity in that century 

* " Life of S. Theresa." Macmillan & Co. 1875. 
t Rousselot, Les Mystiques Espagnols. 

% Cardinal Manning, Preface to the Life of S. Theresa. Hurst 
& Blackett. 1865. 

§ See ante, Chap. II., p. 61. 



186 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

is one of the marks of her greatness. " S. Theresa and 
the Inquisition ! " exclaims Rousselot, " the mind can 
scarcely bring them together or associate them in any 
common action, however limited . . . yet ... it was in the 
classic country of the Inquisition that a teaching like that 
of the nun of Avila was ardently embraced and valued." 
" Her soul was restless," writes her biographer and 
panegyrist,* "her sex weighed on her." She saw the 
great work to be done, and longed to do it. The course 
of the protestant reformation in Spain was checked by 
her more surely than by that inquisition, with which she 
was however herself threatened. Nor were these perse- 
cutions her only trials. About 1560 she made the cele- 
brated vow " never in any action to do that which was 
the less perfect." Though her nature was wonderfully 
free of scruples, the efforts of her confessors to determine 
the most perfect course in all cases, made this vow an 
intolerable burden. The confessors, she says, "did my 
soul much harm." Many of them were convinced that 
her method of prayer was the work of the devil, and it 
was not until the Jesuits, and especially Francis Borgia 
whom she saw in 1557, declared her work to be that of 
the Spirit of God, that any priest was found to under- 
stand her. Indeed her account of the confessors and the 
constant general confessions, leaves the impression that a 
lesser soul than Theresa must have been hopelessly be- 
littled by them. 

On S. Bartholomew's day, August 24, 1562, she opened 
her first monastery of Reformed Carmelites. Before her 
death, in 1582, she had founded 32 houses, 17 for women. 
The first house for men was founded in 1568. She died 
full of joy and peace, in her 68 1 ! 1 year, in the arms of 
her friend and constant companion, Anne of S. Bartholo- 
mew, a lay sister of her convent. In a simple and beauti- 
ful narrative, she tells us that having left the room for a 
few moments, on her return to the saint's bedside " elle 
me regarda en souriant, et me temoigna tant de caresses, 

* Johannes a Jesu Maria. 



FRIARS 187 

qu'elle me tira aupres d'elle, et se mit entre mes bras. 
Je l'y tins quatorze heures entieres." Thus did Theresa 
affirm in her last hours what she expresses so well in a 
letter to a nun: "our human nature looks for a return, 
nor can this be wrong since our Lord looks for it from 
us ... it is an advantage to us to resemble him in any- 
thing, if it be only in this " {i.e. in returning human love).* 
She was beatified in 16 14, canonised in 1622, at the 
same time as Isidore Agricola, Ignatius Loyola, Philip 
Neri, and Francis Xavier. Her body, desecrated and 
stolen by the Carmelite friars, rests at Avila. The Bol- 
landists give more space to her life than to that of any 
other saint ; it occupies 600 folio pages, or more than is 
occupied by the lives of Jerome and Augustine together, 
although the " Confessions " of the latter are appended. 
It fills Volume 54 of the "Acta Sanctorum," while the 6 
preceding volumes for the month of October contain the 
lives of 475 saints. Her works are: The Story of her 
Life (Vida); The Way of Perfection; Story of her 
Foundations (Fotidaciones) ; the Interior Castle (Man- 
siones) ; Thoughts on Divine Love (burnt to please one 
of her confessors) ; Meditations on the Pater Noster ; 
Admonitions to Religious ; Guide for the Visitor to the 
Cloister of Discalced Nuns ; Exclamations of a soul to 
her God, 1579; Letters; Cantici (Glosa); Constitutions 
of the Reform. 

The Rule cf the Patriarch Albert consisted of 16 arti- The Rule, 
cles ; the first 4 treated of the Prior, the cells, and the 
location of the prior's cell ; the 5'!* required the Religious 
to dwell in his cell, and day and night to give himself to 
prayer. Article 6 prescribes the recitation of the canonical 

* Anne of S. Bartholomew had learnt from her this lesson of 
friendship: — "I was afflicted unto death when I reflected that I 
must lose her, and that I must even survive her . . . her presence 
was my whole consolation ... I served her in everything, ever since 
my vesting . . . and although I had the happiness to rejoice in her 
companionship for the space of 14 years, I found in it so great a 
pleasure, that it seemed to me I had not had this joy for longer 
than a day." 



188 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Hours. There is to be no personal property ; an oratory 
is to be built in the midst of the friars' cells. The a'! 1 
article deals with the Chapter and penances ; and the 
10 th and 11 th ordain a fast from Holy Cross day till 
Easter, excluding Sundays, and perpetual abstinence from 
meat. The 12* article speaks of spiritual armour against 
the evil one, the \^> ordains labour with the hands. Si- 
lence is to be observed from after Vespers till Terce the 
next day. The 2 last articles require the Prior to be 
humble, and that the Religious treat him with proper rev- 
erence. This Rule was expanded by the Pope into 28 
Chapters. S. Theresa restored the original Rule, which 
is distinguished among Religious Rules by its simplicity. 
Her own Constitutions breathe her spirit of liberty. Thus 
the Religious are not to be pressed to open their hearts to 
their superior ; all is to be voluntary ; and the government 
is to be by love. The houses are if possible to be without 
endowment, the beds of straw; and each convent was to 
consist of 13 members, this number only to be exceeded 
when fresh foundations were to be made from the house. 
In opposition to the Augustinian Rule, the Religious are 
not to work together, in order that silence may not be 
broken ; and, in agreement with S. Clare's Rule, special 
tenderness is to be lavished on the sick, who are to " sleep 
in linen and have good beds." The love of the Carmelite 
is to be for solitude and retirement from company ; there 
are to be hermitages in the garden, and the nuns are to 
there learn "to go forwards." There are to be no high- 
sounding names for the prioress, who shall share in all 
respects with the others. The day is spent in frequent 
meditation, in the recitation of the Office, and the work 
The day. of the house. The Religious rise at 5 in the summer and 
6 in the winter. After an hour's prayer the Divine Office 
is recited, followed by mass. All then go to their duties ; 
and of these Theresa said : " Know that even if you are 
in the kitchen, our Lord moves among the pots and pans, 
helping us both within and without." A little before din- 
ner, which is at midday, every sister wherever she may be 
kneels down, at a given signal, " and makes her examen 



FRIARS 



189 



of conscience briefly." At 2 Vespers, and an hour's spir- 
itual reading; Compline is said at 5 in winter and 6 
in summer, and absolute silence is kept from then till 
after Prime the following day. At 8 there is an hour's 
mental prayer, and at 9 Matins, Lauds being recited next 
morning with the 4 following Hours. S. Theresa did not 
wish the Religious to rise at night for Matins. All go to 
bed at 1 r. For 2 hours daily the Religious meet together 
for converse after dinner, and after supper. All fast till 
dinner time. Flesh meat is never eaten, and the nuns 
and friars fast three-fourths of the year. The Sisters, 
Theresa tells us, found the Rule light on many points, 
"and so they have other observances, which we have 
thought necessary for the more perfect keeping of it." 
Carmelite nuns are strictly enclosed,* and so keep the Dwelling 
original spirit of the Rule which required the Carmelite in tne cel1 - 
to dwell continually in his cell, one of the rules mitigated 
by Eugenius IV. in 143 1, who however did not allow him 
to wander beyond his enclosure. But no such rule is ob- 
served by the friars at the present day. There is to be one 
monastery in each province, constructed like a Chartreuse, 
and in some solitary place, where the friars may retire 
from time to time. These are the Carmelite hermitages. 
The number of Religious has now been increased to 20, 
in convents subject to the Order, while in those subject 
to the Diocesan there is no fixed number. Theresa or- 
dained that there should be no servants ; but sceurs and 
f re res converses have since been introduced. Her Con- 
stitutions were approved by Pius IV. in 1562. The friars 
are governed by a General ; but many of the nunneries are 
under the Diocesan, and then each house is independent. 
The separate houses are ruled by priors and prioresses. 
When the Discalced Carmelites, or Theresians, migrated 
from Spain to Rome, where Clement VII. had offered them 
the monastery of La Scala, the dissatisfaction in Spain was 
so great that the Order was divided into 2 Congregations, 

* They have a double grille, and in Lent a perforated iron door 
also. They keep their veils down when speaking with externs, ex- 
cept in the case of relatives. 



Govern- 
ment. 



[90 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Calced 
Carmelites. 



Third 
Order. 



an Italian and a Spanish, each under a General. These 
have now been united. Carmelite postulants, after 3 or 6 
months, spend a year, sometimes more, as novices, and then 
make their profession : the vows are made in the Chapter- 
house, and, in the case of women, the ceremony of receiv- 
ing the black veil takes place soon after. In the latter 
case, also, the Noviciate begins with the clothing, when 
the novice comes in richly dressed, and then casting away 
her worldly apparel assumes the Carmelite habit and a 
white veil. Widows are received into this Order, as they 
are also among the Franciscans, Dominicans, and Black 
Benedictines. The form of the vow is: — "I N. (reli- 
gious name) make my profession and promise obedience 
chastity and poverty to God our Lord . . . according to 
the primitive rule of Mount Carmel which is without miti- 
gation ; and this until death." Carmelites add to their 
own baptismal name the name of a Saint, with the prefix S. 
When S. Theresa reformed the Order the largest number 
of Carmelites were to be found in England, "where in Lon- 
don, Darlington, and Chichester there are still friaries and 
nunneries. Later they became numerous in France, the 
nuns, who were introduced there by Madame Acarie, being 
given the Priory of Notre Dame-des-Champs j they were 
known as the Congregation de Ste. Genevieve on account 
of their proximity to that church. To-day they number 
some 2800 in France, and Carmelite nuns are to be found 
besides in Belgium, Italy, Austria, Russia, Spain, the United 
States, and Peru. 

There are 2 Carmelite Generals in Rome. During 
Theresa's lifetime a schism took place among the friars 
which obliged Gregory XV. to divide the Reform, placing 
Theresa at the head of the Barefoot Carmelite nuns and 
Theresian Fathers, while a second Order with a separate 
organisation and distinctive dress existed by the side 
of Theresa's Reform ; and is called " of the Antica 
osservanza." 

There is also a Third Order for men and women ; it is 
governed by the Order and its members wear the Car- 
melite habit. The Regular Tertiaries are engaged in 



FRIARS 191 

active works of charity ; both men and women {Padri 
Terziarii, Fratelli Terziarii, Suore Terziarie, Snore Tere- 
siane) serve as Missionaries in India : there are Tertiary 
Fathers of the Latin Rite, and also Syro-Malabaric Car- 
melites. In Dublin a Congregation of Tertiaries have an 
asylum and school for male blind ; they are under a 
Brother Superior. Carmelite Tertiary Sisters have a school 
at Ripatransone in the Marches, and have recently re- 
ceived from the Italian government the silver medal for 
the " notable benefits " they have conferred on the edu- 
cation of the people. In Mission Stations, the Third 
Order is subject to a Bishop of the Order. Secular Ter- 
tiaries of both caked and discalced Carmelites follow a 
prescribed mode of life ; they wear a girdle under the 
clothes. They can be received in Rome as usual at any 
Carmelite Church. 

The wearing of scapulars by secular persons originated TheScapu- 
with the Carmelites. The scapular consists of 2 little lar " 
pieces of dark cloth, joined by strings, by which it is sus- 
pended round the neck ; * it forms a miniature monastic 
scapular, and must be worn day and night. Those who 
wear the scapular of an Order participate in its prayers 
and in many of its privileges.! It is related that the 
Blessed Virgin appeared in 1251 to S. Simon Stock at 
Cambridge, when the Order was in great trouble, and 

* It usually has a picture of the Madonna del Carmine attached 
to it. 

t The Scapular of Mount Carmel has the exclusive enjoyment of 
a privilege accorded to it by the now famous ' Sabbatine Bull ' of 
John XXII. " Those who have piously worn the sacred scapular 
of Carmel will be liberated by the intercession of Mary from the 
flames of Purgatory on the first Saturday after their death, or as 
soon as possible." [There is naivete in this addition " al piic 
presto possibile."~\ It is claimed that this ' Bull ' is certainly a forgery. 
The scandalous promise is permitted to appear in all the publica- 
tions of the Carmelites, and was confirmed by a decree of the Con- 
gregation of the Holy Office authorised by Paul V. in 161 3, which 
runs : " It is permitted to the Carmelite Fathers to preach to the 
people that they may piously believe . . . that the most Holy 
Virgin, particularly on Saturday, helps their souls in a special manner 
after death." 



192 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Other 
Scapulars. 



Habit. 



Calced 
Carmelites. 



gave him a scapular which she bore in her hands, that by 
it " the holy Order might be known, and protected from 
the evils which assailed it." Later on the Confraternity 
of Carmel was formed. Bossuet says of the scapular 
" you wear it as a visible token that you are yourselves 
Mary's children, and she will be your mother indeed, if 
you live in our Lord Jesus Christ." Benedict XIV. says 
the same, but speaks of the abuse to which these badges 
had given rise by a misplaced confidence in them. Other 
scapulars are given in imitation of the scapular of Mount 
Carmel : the Trinitarians give a white linen scapular with 
a red cross on it ; the Servites one of black wool ; the 
Theatines have the scapular " of the Immaculate Con- 
ception," of light blue, instituted in the xvi. century by 
Ursula Benincasa ; the Congregation of S. Vincent de Paul 
give a scapular " of the Passion," which is red, and was 
instituted in Paris in 1846 by one of the Sisters of that 
Congregation. All scapulars are blest when first given, 
but are renewed without re-blessing. 

The Carmelites originally wore a striped brown and 
white cloak, supposed to resemble the white mantle of 
Elijah blackened by fire as he cast it to Elisha. Hence 
the Carmelites were called in France les Barres. At the 
Council of London in 1281 this cloak is alluded to as a 
carpita : J ( rater professus habeat unam carpitam. It was 
a coarse streaked cloth, and is the origin of the striped 
mantle. In Europe, however, the friars soon changed 
this for a black {now brown) tunic and scapular, with a 
white mantle — the Dominican habit reversed. Hence 
in England their name of White-Friars. The nuns wear 
the same : Brown tunic and scapular, a white mantle in 
choir, a black veil in place of the hood. S. Theresa 
intended her nuns to go barefoot, but eventually ordered 
them " sandals of hemp, and, for decency, stockings, but 
of frieze or hempen cloth." 

The Calced Carmelites wear a reddish-brown tunic and 
scapular, leathern girdle, and a cape pointed like the 
Augustinians. They wear the rosary as do the discalced 
friars, but are shod, and wear the clerical hat in the 
streets. In winter they have a brown cloak. 



FRIARS 193 

The Discalced Friars have their Mother-house in the In Rome. 
Corso d' Italia 39, outside Porta Salaria, the residence of Discalced 
the Provost-General. Their other houses are S. Maria Friars - 
della Vittoria in Via Venti Settembre, the Madonna della 
Scala in Piazza della Scala, and S. Pancrazio outside the 
Gate of that name. This used to be a school of languages 
for Carmelite missionaries, but one /rate only now remains 
there, as custodian of the church. The nuns subject to Nunneries. 
the Order are established at S. Egidio in Trastevere ; the 
nuns of the monastery of S. Theresa on the Quirinal, now 
pulled down, are established at S. Stefano Rotondo : 
while those of Regina Coeli (now a prison) share the 
house of the SS. Quattro Incoronati by the Lateran with 
the Augustinians. Carmelite nuns subject to the Cardinal 
Vicar of Rome are established at S. Guiseppe Capo le Case ; 
and another community, formerly at S. Lucia de' Ginnasi, 
at SS. Pietro e Marcellino Via Merulana. The former was 
founded in the lifetime of Theresa, and the church was 
the first in Rome dedicated to S. Joseph. Part of the 
monastery is now the Industrial Institute, and it is the 
property of the municipality to whom it was transferred 
by the Government. At the latter nunnery is established 
the Association of prayers for the souls in Purgatory in 
relation with the well-known Turin Society. There are 
also Carmelites at S. Brigida in Piazza Farnese, who how- 
ever have the perpetual adoration and are not strictly 
speaking Theresian Carmelites. The Mother-house of Calced 
the Calced Carmelites is at S. Maria Traspontina, in the F "ars. 
street leading from Ponte Sant' Angelo to S. Peter's ; here 
the Prior-General is elected every 6 years. The Noviciate 
for the present is in the Palazzo delle Convertendi in 
Piazza Scossacavalli close by. They also hold S. Martino 
ai Monti on the Esquiline, and S. Nicola ai Cesarini. 
The Calced Carmelite nuns (Barberine) founded by the 
Barberini, now share the Canonesses' Convent at S. Puden- 
ziana, Via Agostino Depretis 80. There are no houses of 
the Third Order in Rome ; S. M. della Concezione by the 
Liberian Basilica and S. Vito belonged to Carmelite Ter- 
tiary Sisters, but the site is now occupied by Maestre pie. 



194 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Carmelite s. ihere3a, second Patroness of Spain with S. James the 
thei'r'em 11 ' 1 Apostle, is often represented kneeling in an ecstacy, her 
biems in heart pierced by an angel with an arrow, signifying the 
Art. fervour of her love. An ugly subject. Or she appears 

writing, the Dove at her ear, symbol of inspiration, as in 
the case of Gregory the Great ; or she is in ecstacy, the 
Dove above her. Sometimes she ministers to a sick 
child. Besides the arrow in the angel's hand, her em- 
blems are the Dove, and writing materials ; a heart with 
I. H. S., the name of Jesus, impressed on it ; a crucifix, 
lily, and crown of thorns. (October 15.) The patriarch 
albert (ob. 12 1 2) is in pontifical robes, and bears a 
palm, because he was assassinated at Acre on his way 
to the Lateran Council. (April 8.) s. john of the cross 
ob. 1 59 1, the disciple of S. Theresa, and mystic, who 
aided her in the reform of the Order of friars, appears 
with her before the Madonna ; he of course wears the 
habit of the Order, and his emblems are the crucifix, 
a pot of lilies, and his books. (Nov. 24.) s. simon stock, 
in the habit of his Order, is usually represented receiv- 
ing the scapular from the Madonna. (May 16.) s. maria 
maddalena de- pazzi 1566-1607, is most often represented 
in Florence, where she lived and died. (May 27.) (Canon- 
ised xvh. century.) s. andrea corsini 1302-1373, Bishop 
of Fiesole, and a Carmelite from his 1 7*?* year, appears in 
a chasuble. (February 4.) (Canonised 1629.) elijah 
appears as Patriarch of the Order. Barbe Avrillot, Madame 
Acarie, known in the Paris of her day as " la belle Acarie," 
introduced the Theresian Reform into France. She with 
her maid lived by a rule in the midst of her life in Paris ; 
and while still " in the world " she had the impression of 
the stigmata. Afterwards becoming a lay sister of the 
Order, this highly born lady, who eschewed all singularity, 
and guided her life by the love of God, was ultimately 
canonised as S. Mary of the Incarnation. Other distin- 
guished Carmelites were Louise, sister of Louis XV., in 
Religion Theresa of the Incarnation, and the nuns of 
Compiegne, who died with triumphant joy at the Barriere 
du Trone during the Revolution j the whole community 



FRIARS 



195 



preceding their Prioress at the guillotine, she herself, 
last and alone, continuing her daughters' song till her 
voice also was quenched in death. So Theresa's children 
have known how to die. 

The badge is a Coat of arms party per pile transposed, Badge, 
white and brown, surmounted by a ducal crown and stars. 
La Madonna del Carmine is often represented, she spreads 
her cloak over the members of the Order, or presents a 
scapular to a Carmelite. Honorius III. styled the Order 
" the Family of the Most Blessed Virgin," and by these 
pictures the legend Decor Carmeli, Ornament of Carmel, 
is often placed ; she has the scapular marked with a 
crowned M, or the badge of the Order in her hand. 
(Feast day, July 16.) 



THE SERVITES. 

In the early xin. century, 7 merchants of Florence Servites. 
used to go daily to an oratory dedicated to the Madonna, 
and there invoke her. The Florentines would call after 
them " Ecco i servi di Maria " ' Behold Mary's servants ! ' 
On the feast of the Assumption 1233 they all felt con- 
strained to give their lives to God, and the foundation 
of the " Religious Servants of the Holy Virgin," or Ser- 
vites, was the outcome of this resolve. The basis of 
their rule was the Augustinian ; and in 1487 Innocent 
VIII. by Bull numbered the Servites among the Mendi- 
cant Orders. 

In 1253 Philip Benizi joined the Order, and became Philip 
its General ; to him is due its great expansion. He was Benizi - 
a Doctor of Medicine at Padua, and spent 32 years in 
the Order in which he was celebrated as a great preacher 
and a great peacemaker ; tender, humble of heart, and 
full of charity. Juliana Falconieri co-operated with Juliana 
S. Philip in the organisation of the Order, and herself Falconieri - 
founded the Third Order of Servites or Mantellate. When 
Philip came to die • He found none, not only amongst 
women, but in the whole Order, more fitted than Juliana 
to be its propagator and moderator, and to her he com- 



196 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

mended it ' : Nulli melius quam Juliana non feminas 
tantum, sea 1 et totum Servorum ordinem, cuius propagator 
et moderator exsiiterat, comniendatum voluit* Juliana's 
mother Riguardata founded the beautiful Servite church 
of the Annutiziata at Florence.f 

The Third Order founded by Juliana is for women, and 
the nuns are strictly enclosed. Towards the end of his 
life S. Philip founded an enclosed nunnery of Servites at 
Porcharia near Narni, but it is no longer in existence. 
There are nuns in Bavaria, France, and Venice who call 
themselves ' Second Order,' but as a matter of fact there 
is no Order for women but that founded by Juliana in 
1306. The Rule she gave them is transcribed in full in 
Martin V.' 8 Bull relative to the Order (1424). After a 
'year's noviciate, the aspirant promises to remain for life. 
In addition to the fasts of the Church the nuns fast every 
Friday, and during Advent ; and at other times may only 
taste meat three days a week. On Sundays and feast 
days, and during Advent and Lent, they rise at midnight 
for Matins. The Servite Order was restored in Germany 
by the Archduchess Anne Catherine Gonzaga (ob. 1622), 
wife of Ferdinand and mother of Anne of Austria : she 
built a House of the Third Order at Innspruck, and gave 
to it special Constitutions which were approved by 
Paul V. 
Unenclosed By the side of the Mantellate there are now also Servite 
™rd Sisters who are engaged in charitable work, orphanages 

and schools, for which they beg. They are called Ser- 
vites of the SS n ! a Addolorata, or Addolorate. S. Philip 
had been the first to found a Sodality of the Seven Dol- 
ours, and hence the name. 

There are also Secular Tertiaries of both sexes, and 
there have always been oblates of the Order, originally 
persons converted by their preaching. The Servites have 
hardly penetrated to France ; in England there are 3 
women's convents (one of which is at Arundel) and 2 

* Roman Breviary, for her feast day. 

t Decorated by Andrea del Sarto at the time that the habit of 
the Order was changed from white to black. 



Order. 







Franciscan Tertiary. 



FRTARS 



197 



convents of men, while a House of enclosed Mantellate 
has just been founded at Bognor. 

The Prior- General of the Servites resides at S. Marcello In Rome, 
in the Corso. The Order is also established at S. Maria 
in Via ; and at the College of S. Alessio Falconieri in Via 
S. Nicola da Tolentino 31, a house for its students. The 
nuns, Mantellate, have moved to Via S. Giovanni in 
Laterano 3, from Via S. Lucia in Selci 96. There are no 
Sisters of the Third active Order yet in Rome. 

The original habit was a white tunic, but after a vision Habit, 
vouchsafed to one of the brethren it was changed to black 
in commemoration of Mary's sorrow and of Christ's Pas- 
sion.* It consists of a black tunic with a leathern girdle, 
a black scapular, capuce and hood, and in winter a black 
cloak. The stock has two small pieces of white stuff laid 
upon it in front. The Servite friars are barefoot and 
bareheaded. The dress of the Mantellate is the same ; 
but the Addolorate, or active Order, wear under the 
scapular on the left side a badge representing the Host 
(see infra, S. Juliana). In Germany the Archduchess 
Anne Catherine prescribed the white veil originally given 
to the Mantellate by Juliana, on which she placed a blue 
star. 

Monaldi, Manetti, Amidei, Lantella, Uguccioni, Sostegni, Servite 
and Falconieri, the original " Sette Servi " were canonised Saints and 
11 / t-« i_ \ tneir em - 

by the present pope. (February n.) s. philip benizi, biems in 

ob. 1285, was canonised in 1671, beatified a century Art. 
earlier. Emblem : the tiara he refused. (August 23.) 
s. jttliana falconieri, 1270-1340, buried at the Annunzi- 
ata, Florence ; canonised in 1693. Emblem: the Host 
on her breast in allusion to her last Communion ; she 
could not communicate sacramentally, and asked that 
the Host should be placed on her breast ; this was done, 
and she received it miraculously, its impress being found 



* In memory of this vision which occurred on Good Friday 1239, 
the Servites perform on that day the ceremony of the ' Burial of 
Jesus Christ,' followed on Saturday by 'the Coronation of the Holy 
Virgin.' Until the time of Pius V. they also celebrated an evening 
mass on the latter day. 



198 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Badge. 



when she died. (June 19.) Fra Paolo Sarpi, the his- 
torian of the Council of Trent, and Ferrari the architect, 
were Servites. 

The device of the Order are the letters S and M sur- 
mounted by a crown with 7 lilies representing the 7 
Founders. 



Privileges 
of the 
Mendicant 
Orders. 



The Servites, as a 5^ Mendicant Order, share with the 
other 4 the privileges granted from time to time to the 
Mendicants. The General of these Orders has a place 
assigned him at the Cappelle papali ; and on the Sundays 
and feasts of Lent and Advent they provide the preachers 
for the Papal Chapel. At the obsequies of Cardinals, 
the Dominicans sing the Requiem Vespers, the Francis- 
cans the First Nocturn, the Augustinians the Second and 
the Carmelites the Third Nocturn ; while the Servites 
chant Lauds. 



Rule. 



S. FRANCIS OF PAULA AND THE MINIMITES. 

S. Francis of Assisi wished his frati to be called the 
Lesser Brethren, S. Francis of Paula called the members 
of the Order he instituted in 1436, the Least, Minimites. 
Paola is in Calabria, here S. Francis was born and gave 
the example of a life of splendid virtue. In his humility 
he thought himself the least of all men ; pure of heart 
and life he denied himself all things, and when he gave 
the Constitutions to his Congregation bound on them as 
a 4 th vow the Observance of a perpetual Lent. Louis XL 
begged him to go to France, where he and his sons were 
held in great honour, and he died at Tours at 91 years 
old in 1507. Leo X. canonised him (15 19). TheOrder 
was approved in 1474. 

The Rule is based on the Franciscan, and the Religious 
are Mendicant friars. They are divided into priests and 
laics. There are enclosed nuns of the Order called 
Paolotte ; their Rule is the same. There is still a con- 
vent of the Order at Fr£jus, Var. The French courtiers 
had called Francis of Paula " le Bonhomme," in derision, 



FKIARS 



199 



and " Bonhommes " became the title of affection given to 
the friars in France. The church of the Trinita de' Monti In Ron- 
was founded for the saint and endowed by Charles VIII. 
of France, as an inscription on the wall of the Villa Medici 
still records. Later the Mother-house was established at 
S. Francesco di Paula near S. Pietro in Vincoli, but the 
monastery is now secularised, and a tew frati only remain 
there. The present Casa generalizia is at S. Andrea 
delle Fratte, where they succeeded Augustinian nuns in 
1585 ; the Minimites also have S. Salvatore in Corte, or 
della Luce, in Trastevere ; and, since the Carthusians left, 
the friars officiate the church of S. Maria degli Angeli. The 
Sisters are at the church of S. Bernardino Via Panisperna, 
entrance Via S. Agata de' Goti. The habit is that of the Habit. 
Minor Conventuals, with a shortened scapular to which 
is attached a small round hood. It is tied with a black 
cord, hanging down the front. The sleeves have a pocket 
in them. The priests wear a hat. The habit of the 
Paolotte is the same, with a black veil ; but lay sisters 
(enclosed) wear a white veil. 

S. Francis is represented very old, generally hooded, Saints, 
with a staff in his hand. He wears a dark tunic and 
cord, and the word Charitas appears near. Sometimes 
he is represented walking on the sea, in allusion to the 
legend that he stretched his mantle on the sea and crossed 
to Messina from Reggio. He has 2 companions with 
him. In 1562 his shrine was rifled and his ashes burned 
by the Huguenots. (April 2.) 

The badge of the Order is the word Charitas in a glory. Badge. 
It signifies the ideal of the frati which is love to all man- 
kind, themselves " the least in the Kingdom of God." 



FRATELLI DELLA PENITENZA (Sca/zetti). 

A second offshoot of the Franciscans is the Order of Frateiii 
Penance, under the invocation of Gesu Nazzareno, hence della Pem " 
the frati are called Nazzareni. It was instituted by 
Giovanni Varela y Flosata, a Galician, in 1752 ; and was 
approved by Pius VI. in 1 789. The (rati are bound, in 



200 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAI ROME 



Habit. 



In Rome. 



Badge. 



addition to the 3 vows, to sustain the dogma of the 
Immaculate Conception.* Their duties are to preach, 
and to render assistance to the dying at the call of the 
parish priest. The Order, which consists of priests and 
lay brethren, is to be found in Spain, Portugal, and Italy, 
and has hermitages in Piedmont. The habit is a brown 
Franciscan gown, tied with a blue cord ; the priests have 
an additional white tassel. In Rome the Fratelli were 
given the church of S. Maria delle Grazie by Porta 
Angelica ; they are very proud of the miraculous picture 
of the Madonna of that name, which was crowned in 
1644. Besides this church, S. M. in Macellum belongs 
to them. 

They are the most recent male Order established in 
Rome with the exception of the Concettini. 

Their device is a Greek cross with I. N. N. R. in the 
corners, Jesus Nazarenus Nostrum Refugium (Jesus the 
Nazarene, our Refuge.) 



S. John of 
God, and 
the Fate- 
bene- 
fratelli. 



HOSPITALLERS OF S. JOHN OF GOD. 

S. John of God, born in 1495, was a Portuguese, who, 
wounded in battle, determined to devote his life to God, 
and on his recovery became the servant of the sick. 
John was not learned or eloquent or powerful, it required 
a vision to reveal to him that there was anything great 
for him to do : for one day seeing a poor man left on the 
public way, pale and death-like, John ran and took him 
in his arms, and carried him to his hospital, where he 
perceived on his feet the print of the Nails ! Then he 
lifted a trembling gaze to the stranger's face, and it seemed 
to him he saw the features of his Master. John fainted 
away, and in his heart heard sweet words of encourage- 
ment and appreciation of his work ; and when he came 
to himself, there was no one there. 

He founded (1538) the institute of the Fate-bene-fra- 



1854. 



The favourite Franciscan dogma, not defined as of faith till 



FRIARS 



telli " Do good-brothers," hospital- frati, originally all lay- 
men, who tend the sick at their convent hospital, and have 
a Pharmacy attached from which they dispense medica- 
ments to the poor. John himself " merited to be called 
John of God." He died in 1550 rising from his bed and 
embracing the cross of Christ " with his hand and with 
his heart," and dying "in osculo Domini'''' was numbered 
by Alexander VIII. among the saints who are publicly 
invoked on earth. 

The Frati are counted among the Mendicants. They 
acquired their popular name from the inscription which 
they placed on the alms box of their church on the Island 
of the Tiber : " Fate bene, fratelli ! " A large number 
of the friars are not in priests' orders. They had no 
Rule till after the founder's death, and no vows till 1570. 
Some 300 are to be found in France and England ; in 
the latter the " Brothers of S. John of God " have an 
asylum for convalescent men and boys. The Superior- 
General and the heads of houses have the style of Prior. 
Youths and men may be received as Brothers of the 
Order from 14 to 30 years old. 

The Mother-house is at S. Giovanni Calibita, a church in Rome, 
dedicated to that Basilian monk on the Island of the 
Tiber (S. Bartolomeo all' Isola 39), and here they have a 
hospital for men affected with acute disease ; one of their 
number is well known for practising gratuitous dentistry. 
S. Giovanni Calibita still belongs to these frati because 
it was bought by three foreigners a few years ago, and 
handed over to their administration. The habit closely Habit, 
resembles the Benedictine : the tunic cincture and scapu- 
lar are of a thick black stuff, the last is very wide and 
has the hood attached ; shoes and hat ; in winter a cloak 
may be worn. No rosary. 

S. John of God is represented in tunic, hood and cloak, s. Juan di 
a beggar at his feet, or the vision of a radiant child with Dios - 
the porno di Granada in his hand. Sometimes the beds 
of a hospital ward are in the background. The badge Badge, 
of the frati, a pomegranate surmounted by a cross, usually 
figures in the picture. (March 8.) 



202 CHRISTIAN AXD ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

The Augustinian Hermits form a 4^ Mendicant Order ; 
the Servites counting as the 5*!\ 

The former are described among Augustinians in Chap- 
ter IV. 

Those companies — hermit or otherwise — which are 
under the rule of S. Augustine, and are reckoned as Men- 
dicants, also find their place among the Augustinians in 
the same Chapter. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CANONS. 
Augustinian Canons and Augustinian Friars — Ma- 

tricularii — the Clergy in the bishop's house — Augustine and 
Eusebius of Vercelli — Chrodegang — Chapter of Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle — Yvo of Chartres — Canonesses — Congregations of Regu- 
lar Canons — Habit of Canons — Augustinian Hermits — 
Augustinian Nuns — Rule ofS. Augustine — S.Jean de Matha 
and the Trinitarians — S. Peter Nolasco and the Order of 
Ransom — Order of S. John of Jerusalem, or of Malta — Her- 
mits of S. Jerome — of S. Paul the First Hermit — Romites of 
S. John Baptist— Oblates. 

The distinctively Western institution of canons is both 
older and younger than Western monasticism, an historical 
nicety expressed in the precedence of monks and canons, 
the latter taking precedence of the monks in processions, 
when they are dressed as clergy in tunic and surplice 
(rochet), but not when they wear the cappa, which ranks 
them, as it were, with Religious Orders. As an Order, 
also, the canons occupy a place midway between the 
manner of life of monks and that of the clergy. 

A list of persons entitled to a fixed allowance from the Matricu- 
common ecclesiastical fund was kept from the first by the 
Christian Church ; this list was called the matricula. It 
included the clergy of both sexes, the consecrated Virgins, 
the old, widowed and poor. The recipients were called 
Canonici or Matriculant. Thus " canons " is one of the 
oldest of the terms applied to the clergy, signifying all 
clerks, presbyters, deacons, deaconesses, lectors, cantors, 
receiving a fixed allowance.* To be " in the Canon " in 

* " Canon " was the name in late Latin for the fixed contribution 
of corn or other produce which the provinces paid to Rome. 
203 



larii. 



20 4 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAI ROME 



S. Augus- 
tine and 
Eusebiusof 
Vercelli — 
the canon- 
ic a or 
episcopia. 



The Rule 
of Chrode- 
gang. 



Bishop 
Chrode- 



time designated legitimate clergy, and was a term pre- 
cisely equivalent to our present use of the word canonical. 

The next step in their history was made by S. Augus- 
tine and by Eusebius of Vercelli, who gathered their 
clergy into a common dwelling house, with a common 
rule of life. The house was called canonica clericorum, 
and sometimes monasterium ; and episcopia as being usu- 
ally the bishop's own house. The inmates were known 
as canonici ; young clerks* — acolytes and lectors — as 
well as deacons and presbyters lived here ; so that the 
life of these " canons " was the first attempt to regulate 
and dignify the life of the secular clergy, a subject which 
had already engaged the attention of Ambrose and Mar- 
tin of Tours. It is still the ideal duty of priests accord- 
ing to Canon law to live near their church and to live in 
common.f 

Three hundred years later Chrodegang made the third 
step in the history of the canons. Struck by the worldli- 
ness and corruption of the clergy, which was the more 
apparent beside the spectacle of rule and order offered 
by the Benedictines, Chrodegang revived the Order of 
canons, which had indeed never quite ceased to exist 
since the time of Augustine, J and in 760 indited a Rule 
on the model of that of Benedict. 

Chrodegang was a Frankish noble, cousin to Pepin, 
who introduced the Roman Easter, Roman ceremonies, 
and the Roman chant into his diocese of Metz. In 
recognition of his services in procuring the safe conduct 
of Stephen II. to the monastery of S. Denis in Paris, he 
received the pallium from that pope in 752. The prin- 
cipal monastery of canons established by him was at 
Gorze, near Metz. He was the contemporary of the 



* And later, youths dedicated to the church. See p. 492, Part IV. 

t Cf. with Clerks Regular, Chap. V. 

j Cf. Canons Regular of the Lateran infra. In 538 canons are 
forbidden secular business. In 633 the II. Council of Toledo re- 
quires that the scholars of schools directed by canons should live 
in the bishop's house. In 724 the house and church of canons is 
mentioned as the canonica. 



CANONS 205 

English Boniface, and Paulus Diaconus wrote a notice 
of his life. He died in 764. 

From this time all canons resident in the bishop's 
house were obliged to adopt the new Rule, and for the 
first time assumed a semi-monastic character. 

In 802 provision had to be made for the case of Bene- Reguiariter 
dictine monks who abandoned their Rule to live as '^y a ^: v f l 
canons, and two manners of life are recognised, that of vivant. ' 
those who live reguiariter, i.e. the monks, and of those 
who live canonice, i.e. the canons. In 816 the Chapter The Rule 
held at Aix-la-Chapelle issued a Rule for canons and chapter of 
canonesses. Aix. 

In the xi. century a 4 th epoch-making step was taken The Rule 
by S. Yvo of Chartres, who wrote a still stricter Rule, and chores' 
inaugurated the Regular Canons whose final formation 
dates from this Rule, and who towards the end of that 
century first style themselves Canons Regular of S. 
Augustine, in contradistinction to the secular Chapters, 
which date from the middle of the century. The accre- 
tion of cathedral chapters in the xn. and xm. centuries 
to the ranks of the Regular Canons, swelled the number 
of these Communities, 8000 of which were spread over 
Europe in the xvi. century; since which date they have 
constantly declined. 

The career of Canons as it differed from that of monks 
is happily expressed by the historian Freeman, when he 
says that while the former existed for the services of the 
church, the abbey-church existed for the spiritual needs 
of the inmates of the monastery. 

Previous to the Chapter of Aix, canpns lived under a Previous 
mixed rule taken from the writings of Jerome, Athana- rules - 
sius, Cyprian, and Caesarius. Chrodegang had not bound 
them either to poverty or to strict obedience.* The 
Rule of 816 also allows them to retain their own prop- 
erty, a procurator being appointed to administer it and 
to defend them in courts of law. They were also allowed 
servants, but this Nicholas II. prohibited, and S. Yvo 
abolished personal property. 

* Differences of rank, too, were allowed within the clergy-house. 



2o6 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Canon- 
esses. 



Canon- 
esses of 
the Holy 
Sepulchre. 



Canon- 
esses in 

Englanld. 



Rule. 



Canonesses are at least as old as canons. It would 
appear that as clergy inscribed on the matriculcz they 
very early formed themselves into communities living 
under one roof; two nieces of S. Basil who were supe- 
riors of convents in Caesarea are styled canonesses, and 
the letter of S. Augustine which embodies his ' Rule ' was 
probably written to a house of canonesses, for a Prior- 
presbyter, as was usual in a canonica, was placed over it ; 
and the titles prioress and provost in place of abbess 
suggest ecclesiastical rather than monastic nuns. Canon- 
esses did not take perpetual vows, though the vows of 
chastity and obedience were taken by them, as we learn 
from the laws for canonesses made in the vm. century by 
Lewis the Pious. They kept their own property. They 
rejected the titles of nun and mother, and their manner 
of life was non-monastic. In later times their special 
work was the education of the children of nobles. To-day 
they are hardly distinguishable from nuns. 

The most important Congregations of Canonesses are 
the Sepulchrines or Canonesses of the Holy Sepulchre, 
and the Lateran Canonesses. The former are mentioned 
by the historian Socrates in the iv. century, as canonical 
women of the clergy, who wore the double cross badge f 
on a linen surplice. S. Helena greatly esteemed them 
and was enrolled a canoness by the Bishop of Jerusalem. 
The Canons of the Sepulchre who wore the same cross 
are now obsolete ; but both formed part of the Military 
Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, incorporated with the 
Knights Hospitallers of S. John in 1484.* 

The Canonesses are established at New Hall in Essex, 
the community having been founded at Liege, in the 
time of Charles L, by two Devonshire women, and having 
removed to England at the time of the French Revo- 
lution.! Their Rule is that originally prescribed for the 

* The cross of the Holy Sepulchre is now given, as a decoration, 
by the Patriarch of Jerusalem. 

t It had been founded in the hope of providing a shelter for 
many English ladies when the penal laws against Catholics had 



CANONS 



207 



Order of the Holy Sepulchre. They rise at 4 for medita- 
tion, Matins, Lauds, Prime. A large part of the day is 
spent in reciting the canonical hours, in reading, and 
meditation. On Sunday and festivals they sing high 
mass and vespers. They work together in a common 
room. The vows are renewed annually. Each house is 
independent and is ruled by a Prioress, and the diocesan 
is their ordinary Superior, with powers limited by the 
Constitutions. The Canonesses, in Chapter, elect their 
prioress for life. They occupy themselves also in teach- 
ing the poor, a work which they are bound to perform 
if called on to do so by the bishop. 

Margaret Pole, niece of Edward IV., beheaded in her 
old age by Henry VIII., was a canoness of this Order,* 
which had several houses in Rome at the end of the xiv. 
century, but is not represented there now. 

The French Hospitaller Canonesses and Canons of Ancient 
Saint-Esprit is another ancient community which having 
been confirmed by Innocent III. in 1198 settled in his 
pontificate at Santo Spirito in Sassia, and served the 
church of this Saxon borough and its celebrated hos- 
pital.f Their device is given on p. 139. They wore 
the double cross of Jerusalem on a white or black habit. 
Clement VIII. founded a monastery of canonesses there, 
dedicated to S. Tecla, in 1600. The President of the 
Community was afterwards styled ' Commendatore di S. 
Spirito,' holding as such one of the first prelacies of the 
Roman Court. 



House of 
Canons in 
Rome. 



The Canons Regular of the Lateran are the most Canons 
ancient Community of canons now extant. In 440 Leo I. Lateran 
ordered Gelasius, afterwards pope, and the friend of 



been somewhat relaxed ; and with this object was to have been 
moved later to England. The Sepulchrine Rule was reconfirmed 
and revised by Urban VIII. about this time, after the canonesses 
arrived in 1620 at Charleville in France. 

* Her feast is kept by the New Hall Canonesses on May 28. 

t Part I., p. 342. 



208 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Augustine, to cause the Lateran clergy to live according 
to the Rule which had been prescribed by the latter at 
Hippo. The disorders of the Roman clergy of this 
epoch are known to us through the letters of Jerome. 
In 1 06 1 these Regular clerks or canons needed reform, 
and Alexander II. brought to Rome for the purpose a 
canon of S. Frediano of Lucca, of which Chapter he 
was himself a member.* The Lateran was declared to 
be the head and chief of its many dependent houses, at 
a Council held two years later ; and all the canons of 
these houses were to be styled Lateran Canons. 

After enjoying possession for over 200 years, the 
canons of the Lateran entered on a period of strife 
which lasted 150 years. Boniface VIII. in 1294 turned 
them out to make room for secular canons. Gradually 
his greed led to their spoliation, they lost all their 
churches in the city, and Grottaferrata which they had 
held was given to the Basilian monks. In 1442 how- 
ever Eugenius IV. reinstated them, but not without con- 
siderable difficulty. It is from then that the present 
■ Lateran title ' Lateran Canons of the most holy Saviour ' dates : 
Canons of Eugenius imposing this name on the Canons of S. Mary 
holy Sav- of Lucca,^ whom he ordered at this time to proceed to 
iour.' Rome and to the Lateran. This order, given while he 

was still at the Council of Florence, failed of effect ; the 
secular canons organised an attack which drove the new- 
comers from the basilica on the feast of Corpus Christi. 
A third company of 30 Canons from Lucca again at- 
tempted in 1443 to gain possession; but the people had 
been told that the pope intended to drive the Romans 
from the Lateran and put strangers in their place, whose 
sole object, moreover, was to purloin the heads of Peter 
and Paul ; so that it was not until January, 1445, that 
they were finally established, under their new name, and 

* S. Francesca Romana in the Forum belonged to these Canons. 

f S. Mary, Lucca, had always been served by clerks living in 
common, who in time became Regular Canons. They had been 
reformed at the end of the xiv. century by Bartolomeo Colonna, 
and had dependent houses at Milan, Verona, and Venice. 



200, 



in the enjoyment of all the benefices, temporalities and 
spiritualities of the Mother of churches. Their troubles, 
however, were not at an end ; the Borgia pope Calixtus 
III. drove them out ; Paul II. brought them back, but 
on his death the secular canons ousted them with an 
armed force; and since that year, 1471, the Lateran 
Canons of the holy Saviour have never gone back. Peter 
Martyr, the heretic, was a Prior of Lucca and Visitor- 
General of this Order. 

Several Congregations of Canons depend from the 
Lateran Congregation : such is the Polish Community of 
Lateran Canons Regular, originally Clerks living under 
the Rules prescribed by the Chapter of Aix, and existing 
in Poland since that country received Christianity (970). 
In 1408 Stefano Cioni of Siena reformed Italian Canons 
by the foundation of the Canons of S. Salvatore of 
Bologna ; who held the 3 important Roman basilicas 
of S. Lorenzo, S. Agnese and S. Pietro in Vincoli. They 
are now united to the Lateran Canons.* 

Many Communities of Canonesses belong to none of 
the great Congregations — but like the Canons they all 
tend to one type and one costume. There is however in 
Rome one house of Lateran Canonesses, called Rocchet- 
tine in allusion to the rochet. In the last century the 
Lateran Canonesses still formed the Community of S. 
Spirito. The Canonesses of S. Peter of Reims f and 
those of N.-D. de la Victoire de Picpus, who sprang 
from them, belong to no special Congregation ; nor do 
the Spanish Canonesses. 

At the end of the xvi. century S. Peter Fourier, him- 
self an Augustinian Canon Regular, undertook the reform 
of the Canons of Lorraine. He first founded, 1598, a 
reformed Congregation of Canonesses of Notre-Dame, 
having as co-founder the Ven. Alix Le Clerc, who was 
born at the historic monastic site of Remiremont ( 15 76— 
1622). Their work was approved by Paul V., Urban 

* They wore a brown serge soutane, rochet, the scarf or bande- 
role, and a brown cappa. 
t See p. 86. 



Canons of 
S. Saviour 
ofBolgona. 



Lateran 
Canon- 



Reforma- 
tion of 
French 
Canons 
and Canon- 
esses. 



2lo CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

VIII., and Innocent X. The Canonesses have several 
flourishing Communities, and devote themselves to the 
education of girls, and the conduct of ouvroirs and 
orphanages. They number 2600 in France, and have 3 
great convents in Paris (Rue de Sevres and Avenue 
Hoche). In 1623, after the death of the Ven. Mother 
Le Clerc, Fourier reformed the Canons, founding a 
Congregation of Canons Regular of Notre-Sauveur of 
Lorraine. This Congregation was dispersed at the 
Revolution. (S. Pierre Fourier, 1554-1640; canonised, 
1897.*) (July;.) 



Premon- 
stratensian 
Canons 
and S. 
Norbert. 



The best known community of canons is that of 
Premontr6, founded by S. Norbert in 11 20. S. Norbert 
was born in 1080 at Cleves. He had been chaplain to 
the Emperor Henry IV., and was converted after a ter- 
rible accident. He began his apostolic labours in 1 1 1 8, 
having faculties from Gelasius II. to preach everywhere. 
Two years later the Bishop of Laon offered him the 
desert valley afterwards called Pr£montr6 {Pre montre, 
Pratum monstratum, the Shown-land), because S. Nor- 
bert saw it in a vision, and here he built a ccenobium, 
the first of 11 foundations peopled with 800 Religious 
who soon gathered round him. All practised the Rule 
of the Augustinian Canons Regular, to which they added 
a perpetual fast, never tasting flesh meat. 

S. Norbert was elected Bishop of Magdeburg, and in 
3 years reformed his diocese, never ceasing at the same 
time the care of his religious family. He died in 1134. 
His remains rest at Strahow, Prague. In art he is repre- 
sented with cope mitre and crozier, or in rochet and moz- 
zetta and bare-headed : in his hand is a pyx, in allusion 
to his incessant exhortations to Christians to frequently 
receive the Eucharist. Sometimes he has the chalice 
with a spider over it, alluding to the story that having 
consecrated the cup with a poisonous spider in it, he drank 
uninjured. Another emblem is the demon bound at his 

* A statue of the saint has just been placed in one of the niches 
for founders of Orders in S. Peter's. See Part I., p. 73. 



CANONS 



feet. He is represented in a stucco medallion over the 
Premonstratensians' old church in Via Agostino Depretis 
52.* (June 6.) Another Saint of the Order is S. Herman 
Joseph, 1236; in art he appears being presented to the 
Blessed Virgin by an angel. (April 1 7.) At one time 
this Order counted 1000 houses of men and half that 
number of women. After the Revolution there were still Existing 
10 abbeys "subject to the Crozier of PremontreY' two of branches of 
which were maintained by the Protestant Kings of Prussia stratens- 
in Prussian Silesia. At the present day there are Houses ians. 
in Austria, France, Bohemia, and Belgium : while in Eng- 
land two Belgian cells in Lincolnshire, with some French 
Premonstratensians established at Storrington by the ex- 
Empress Eugenie, represent the pre-reformation splen- 
dours of Welbeck with its 28 dependent abbacies. The 
Belgian and French Congregations were united in 1897. 

As we see, this Order of Canons is governed by an 
abbat, their houses also are called abbeys, and their mode 
of life is nearly akin to that of monks. From the time of 
S. Bernard there has always been a close bond between 
them and the Cistercians. The Canons were to dedicate 
themselves to prayer, preaching, and the solemnities of 
the divine worship, which in their churches were always 
accomplished with much pomp. 

The Order was founded as a double one for men and 
women. Premonstratensian Canonesses still exist, but 
the monasteries are no longer double. The Canonesses 
are called Norbertines after the founder, and their mode 
of life at the present day is indistinguishable from that of 
nuns. 

The device of the Premonstratensians is two croziers in 
saltire on the fleur-de-lis shield of France. 



A double 
Order. 



Badge. 



The Portuguese Canons of the Holy Cross were founded Canons of 

at Coimbra by Tellon, canon and archdeacon of that place, ^ e Ho| y 
with 1 1 companions, in 1131. This Community became 1. ' 

extinct at the beginning of this century. S. Cruz d; 

Coimbra. 
* Cf. also Part I., p. 174. 



2i2 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL A'OME 



II. 
' Croisiers 
or ' Portes- 
Croix.' 



Thomas i 
Kempis. 



The Canons of the Holy Cross, called Croisiers or Cro- 
ci/eri, are mentioned in a papal Bull of 1 187, and are said 
to have settled 50 years later in Italy where they are now 
extinct. There are however several houses in Belgium, 
with a Mother-house in Brabant, and a few have found 
their way to England. 

Thomas a Kempis was a Canon Regular of Windesheim 
in the Low Countries. 



Govern- 
ment. 



Canons 
and 
Canon- 
esses in 
Rome. 



Habit of 
Canons. 



Canons keep their name and surname like secular 
priests. Originally all canons were ruled by Priors, but 
at the present day two out of the three Congregations — 
namely, those of the Lateran and Pr£montre — are gov- 
erned by an Abbat-General, with abbats over the different 
houses. They wear pontifical vestments at the great cere- 
monials. Canonesses are ruled by a Prioress and have 
no Generals or Provincials. 

The Lateran Canons (Canonici Lateranensi) have 
their Procura at S. Pietro in Vincoli, and their chef-lieu 
in the Macao, Via S. Martino 12 ; they also have the ba- 
silica of S. Agnese Fiwri* The Canonesses (Rocchettine) 
are established at the historic church of S. Pudenziana 
(Via Agostino Depretis 80). 

The Premonstratensians have a Procura in Via Aureli- 
ana ; and the French Canons have a procurator at present 
at Monte Tarpeo 54. They will hold a General Chapter 
in 1902. 

The Canons of the Cross ( Crociferi) are not represented 
in Rome. 

Regular Canons wear a white habit,f over which is the 
ecclesiastical rochet. Unlike monks they wear the ber- 

* See also Part I., p. 288. 

f It will be remembered that the earliest dress of clerks at the 
altar was white. Cf. pp. 86-7, and Secular Canons Part IV., p. 481. 
At Lucca the church of the Canons Regular was called " S. Maria 
jianca" while the Cathedral Canons' church was " S. Maria nera" 
In England however the Austin Canons were known as " Black 
Canons," because they wore the black cappa, in contradistinction to 
the Premonstratensians or "White Canons." These, the later 
arrival, settled in Lincolnshire about 1 140. 




Canoness of the Lateran. 



CANONS 



retta. In the street they wear the priest's long black coat 
(the greea) , and the clerical hat : the linen rochet can be 
seen at the neck. In choir they wear a surplice or cotta 
over the rochet ; * most canons and canonesses have also, 
at some period of their history worn the black mantle 
called cappa, which may be regarded as their distinguish- 
ing dress as an Order.-f 

Another item of their costume is the cape and capuce cape and 
originally used to cover the head, and which in some amess. 
places, notably in Austria and the Low Countries, was made 
of fur — sheepskin or ermine — and called the amess, 
being worn either on the shoulders or the arm. The Gil- 
bertines wore it in England. Both the cape (camail de 
chanoine) and the strip of fur attached to the arm {amess, 
aumuce, almuzia) have still a tiny capuce attached, though 
they no longer serve as headgear. J 

Canons and Canonesses also wore a scarf of white linen, 
4 fingers broad (banderole) , which was placed over the 
surplice in choir, and was probably a reminiscence of the 
orarium.% (See ante, p. 209 footnote.} 

The dress of Canonesses has always been identical with 
that of canons ; rochet, cappa, amess, and scarf being 
common to both. Some Pr£montr£ Canonesses wore the 
amess in place of the veil, and some of the Lateran Can- 
onesses had the camauro for this purpose. 

Cappa, amess, and cape are, however, not worn by 
Italian canons : the dress of the Lateran Canons in Rome 
has always been a white tunic, a closely-plaited rochet 
and a black berretta : the Canonesses wear the same habit 
with a black veil, no whimple or fillet round the face. The 
Premonstratensians combine all the canonical traditions 
in their habit, and by the wearing of a scapular and rochet 
join, as in their name of " Regular Canons," the ecclesias- 



Scarf. 



Of Lateran 
Canons. 



Of Pre- 
monstra- 
tensians. 



* See Part IV., p. 473. 

t Cf. Chap. III., p. 175, and Part IV., p. 481. The black cappa 
in choir is still worn by the Canonesses of St. Pierre-de-Reims and 
N.-D. des Victoires. 

% See Secular Canons, Part IV., p. 481, and pope's camauro, p. 335. 

§ See Part II., p. 102. 



214 CHRISTIAN AXD ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Of Canons 
of the 
Cross. 

Of Sepul- 
chrines. 



tical garment with the monastic. Their habit and scapular 
are white ; out of doors they wear the greca and a white hat ; 
indoors they wear a cape ; in choir they wear a surplice 
and white amess, but in winter a rochet with white cappa 
and white cape. The berretta is white. 

The Canons of the Cross wear white, with black scapu- 
lar and sash, forming a large cross ; on the breast a white 
and red Maltese cross ; a black cape. 

The Sepulchrines wear the white habit, rochet, and 
scapular ; a black veil over a white one ; their proper 
badge is the double cross of Jerusalem. 

For the habit of the Gilbertine Canons see p. 121. 

The badge of the Lateran Canons is the head of the 
Saviour on a shield, which is placed on a spread eagle 
(emblem of John the Evangelist). ( Cf. badge page 139.) 
Another badge, given by H61yot, is the Madonna and 
child, with S. John on her right and Augustine on her 
left, an eagle at her feet, and above her head the Face of 
the Saviour. The Canons of S. Pietro in Vincoli used to 
have as a device the Head of the Saviour crowned with 
thorns, and the legend : Salvator mundi salva nos omnes ; 
and the Canons of S. Saviour of Bologna used as device 
the Saviour holding a book on which alpha and omega 
were inscribed. 



AUGUSTINIAN HERMITS. 



Augustin- 
ian Her- 



The Augustinians, or Austin friars, although now classed 
among Mendicants, are really an Order of hermits. They 
trace their origin to S. Augustine, and to the year 388 in 
Tagaste, when that Father united some friends in a house 
near the church and lived with them according to a Rule.* 
The canons, however, declare that Augustine merely gave 
some rules to African solitaries with a view to regulating 
their life, and the controversy between the canons and the 
hermits as to which were the genuine Augustinians had 
to be silenced by Sixtus IV. 



Ep. 225. 



CANONS 



215 



It is certain, at least, that in 1256 Alexander IV. 
(following Innocent IV.) collected together the numerous 
hermits scattered throughout Europe, and united them 
under the Rule of S. Augustine. In 1567 Pius V. aggre- 
gated them with Mendicant Friars. 

This Order of Romitani di S. Agostino, or Romites, has 
existed at the Vatican ever since the time of Alexander 
VI ; * the position of parish priest of the Vatican being 
always filled by an Augustinian. With him are some 
half dozen friars, forming an Augustinian corner of the 
Palace as the Holy Office forms a Dominican corner.f The 
Friars have also possessed the Priory church of S. Maria 
del Popolo since the time of Alexander IV. It is here 
that Luther, who was a friar of this Order, lived when he 
visited Rome. Augustinians are still in charge of the great 
church of S. Agostino, although their property is confis- 
cated and the monastery suppressed. S. Prisca on the 
Aventine is also Augustinian property, though served by 
Franciscans. The Prior-General of the Order resides at 
the Mother-house and Proacra Via di S. Uffizio I. (col- 
legio di S. Monica) close by the Vatican ; and the present 
Director of the Vatican Observatory is an Augustinian 
Romite. 

There are two great Romite saints : Nicholas of Tolen- 
tino and Thomas of Villanova. Pope Eugenius IV. was 
a member of the Order, and so was Panvinius the historian. 
The habit oi the Augustinian Romites is a white tunic and 
scapular; but out of doors they wear a black tunic, a 
leathern belt, of which a strip hangs down in front, J and 
a pointed cape reaching to the elbow, with a small round 

* An Augustinian Sacristan is found at the Vatican as early as 
1287, John XXII' 8 Sacristan was also a Romite; but the Sacristan 
of Sixtus IV. having obtained the Cistercian abbey of S. Sebastian 
outside the walls and become a member of that Order, the Romites, 
alarmed, begged Alexander VI. to make the appointment perpetual, 
which he did by Bull 1497. 

t Part IV., p. 394. 

% As the Augustinians persisted in dressing like the Franciscans, 
Gregory IX. required their cincture to be " long enough to be seen," 
and the tunic short enough to show the shoes. (1241.) 



The Ro- 
mites at 
the Vati- 
can. 



Other 
houses in 
Rome. 



lans. 



216 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

hood. The white collar of the tunic beneath shows at the 
neck. Augustinians may not wear the white habit out of 
doors in any town where there are Dominicans. The lay 
brethren wear the same black dress without the white 
tunic. At great functions the Romites wear large sleeves 
{maniconi) like the sleeve of the Benedictine cowl.* 

Discalced The Agostiniani Scalzi, or barefoot Augustinians, origi- 
Augustin- na ted as a Reform of the Strict Observance in the xvi. 
century, the reformer being the Ven. Tommaso di Gesu 
a Portuguese. There are nuns of his Order in Spain; 
they were first gathered in a monastery by Philip II. in 
1589; and take a 4 th vow not to speak with externs, 
even though they be relatives. The Mother-house and 
Procura is at the church of Gesu e Maria, Corso 45. 
The Spanish Congregation with an Apostolic Commissary 
General in Madrid, has had since 1619 the church of S. 
Ildefonso, and a Procura in Via Sistina 11. The habit is 
of thick black cloth, with the Augustinian leathern hanging 
girdle, a short Franciscan capuce and hood in place of 
the Augustinian cape, with no scapular. They are bare- 
foot. Their badge is Azure, a heart pierced by 2 arrows 
in saltire. 

AUGUSTINIAN NUNS. 

There are 4 orders of Augustinian Religious, Canonesses, 
Romites, Oblates, and members of the modern active 
Congregations : but there are and have always been Augus- 
tinian communities belonging to none of these divisions. 

Augustinian nuns have always been flourishing commu- 
nities and an important branch of the Religious family : 
the large number of women solitaries were united under 
one discipline and the Rule of S. Augustine at the same 
time as the men ; but the resulting communities to be 
met with in Spain, Italy, France, and Germany offered a 
number of varieties in dress and mode of life. 

* The Irish Augustinians, who tried to establish themselves in 
Rome in charge of the unbuilt church of S. Patrick, left in 1898. 



CANONS 217 

The only " Rule " which can be regarded as contributed Rule of s. 
by S. Augustine is contained in a letter which he wrote to Augustine. 
the nuns of Hippo in 423. He gives them certain rules 
meet " for persons living in a monastery." ( 1 ) All should 
be of one mind, and should have all things in common. 

(2) The Sisters are not to hold their heads high because 
they find themselves equal among their superiors by birth> 
or because they have brought money to the monastery. 

(3) They are to be instant in prayer at the appointed 
hours. (4) The fasts are to be according to their ability. 
(5) Sick nuns are to have better fare. (6) The dress is 
not to be conspicuous, nor the head-dress so thin as to 
show the hair through it. (7) There is to be no forward- 
ness of eye. (8) If a nun does not submit to correction 
she is to be expelled. (9) All clothes are to be left in 
one wardrobe, and to be given out to each according to 
need. (10) The clothes are to be washed, but not too 
often, and the nuns are only to bathe once a month, ' the 
usual interval.' (n) " When they go beyond the monas- 
tery," for example to the Baths, three are to go together, 
and their coiffure should neither be showy nor slovenly. 
(12) The sick are to be under the special care of one 
sister. (13) Quarrels are to be unknown, and forgiveness 
prompt. (14) The Prioress, called Provost, is to be 
obeyed as a mother. And the letter ends with a 
hope that this rule will enable them to be "persons 
enamoured of spiritual beauty," and with an injunction 
that it be read once a week. 

This Letter,* occasioned by the disorderly manner of 
life of its inmates, was written to a community founded 
by the saint, over which his sister Perpetua had presided. 
It was resuscitated under Charlemagne, arranged as a 
Rule in 10 Chapters and adapted to convents of men. 
Thus, directions intended for simple African canonesses 
became the Rule for a great branch of the Religious 
family. It is observed by all Orders and Congregations 
who have not the monastic or the Franciscan rule, as it 

* Ep. 211, in some editions log. 



218 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Congrega- 
tions of 
Augusiin- 
ian nuns. 

In Rome. 



is considerably wider than these, and its absence of detail 
and precision adapt it to endless modification. It thus 
forms the basis of the Dominican, and of all hospitaller 
and military Religious Rules, as well as of all those mod- 
ern congregations whose scope is active work, excepting 
such as have taken the Jesuit Rule. 

Among the many Congregations of Augustinians are 
the Augustinians of the Recollection, Augustinian Hospi- 
tallers de 1' Hotel Dieu, Augustinians of S. Catherine des 
Cordiers, Dames de St. Cyr, Dames Augustines, and sev- 
eral Communities of Oblates (p. 249). In Rome there 
are two Communities of Romites ; one of the oldest of 
all Congregations being that of the Augustinians " of the 
Virgins" (delle Vergini), since become Romites, who 
were instituted by Alexander III. as early as 1 1 77, during 
his sojourn in Venice. It was at the time when the pope 
had just removed the censures against Barbarossa, whose 
daughter Julia became abDess of the new monastery. The 
members were called " Gentildonne " and addressed as 
" Illustrissime." The abbess was elected for life, and her 
obsequies were like those of the Doge. In 1698 Helyot 
witnessed the ceremony which used to take place when 
the papal confirmation of her election arrived, the Doge 
then ' espousing ' the abbess with 2 rings, one being an 
image of the Madonna and the other a sapphire. These 
nuns had a monastery in the Via dell' Umilta, their church 
of S. Maria delle Vergini still recording them ; they moved 
to Via Galilei 3, beyond Piazza Vittorio, some years ago. 

The second Community of Romites is that of S. Marta* 
the name of a monastery by the Collegio Romano which 
was founded by S. Ignatius for women he had converted. 
These afterwards moved to S. M. Maddalena, and in 
1 56 1 S. Marta became an Augustinian House : the mon- 
astery was a large isolated building, bounded by 4 streets ; 
none but princesses and nobles were admitted. Though 
all houses of Augustinians, men and women, are priories 



See footnote, Chap. III., p. 158.* 



CANONS 219 

and ruled by priors, S. Marta by special privilege is an 
abbey. The Convent is now established in Via Pani- 
sperna 260, in the house of the Franciscans of S. Bernar- 
dino. 

The nuns of .S. Lucia in Selci, or in Orfea, are still at 
the church of that name, Via in Selci 82. The nuns of 
S. Caterina de' Funari retain their old monastery, an- 
ciently known as that of Domina Rosa, after S. Rosa of 
Viterbo ; the site, according to the Mirabilia, of the 
Castellum aureum. (Via de' Funari 7.) The site was 
obtained from Paul III. by S. Ignatius, in 1536, and 
Cardinal Cesi built the house. In 1544 some Religious 
whom Ignatius had placed in another building, were re- 
moved here : they consisted of 20 professed Augustinians 
in charge of girls exposed to temptation, who were re- 
ceived from 10 to 12 years old, and kept for 7 years; on 
the death of a nun one of these girls took her place in 
the convent. At present the nuns teach an Elementary 
Girls' School ("S. Caterina della Rosa"). 

The nuns of the Santi Quattro Jncoronati are still at 
this interesting monastery, which they now share with the 
Carmelites. Their origin was similar to that of the nuns 
of S. Caterina : S. Ignatius placed with them girls of hon- 
ourable life orphaned of both parents, and in 1560 the 
Community was placed at the Santi Quattro. The num- 
ber of orphans is 100, and they replace the nuns.* Those 
who marry or enter another convent receive a dot from 
the Confraternity of S. M. in Aquiro, where S. Ignatius 
placed a similar community of orphan boys. The Relig- 
ious used to number about 40. The girls were dressed 
in white serge and a white veil, with a rosary in the girdle. 
It will be seen that the establishments of Augustinian nuns 
in Rome owe much to the charitable zeal and fostering 
care of Ignatius. 

The nuns of S. Giacomo della Lungara are now estab- 
lished in Via SS. Giovanni e Paolo 3 ; the monastery had 
been given to the Reformed Augustinian Convertiie in 

* Such an arrangement cannot now (since the Suppression") be 
put in practice. 



220 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

1630 by the Chapter of S. Peter's. A Congregation of 
Augustinians called Convertite or Penitenti were placed 
by Leo X. at S. Silvestro in Capite in 1520 ; * hence the 
name of the street close by this church. These nuns are 
alluded to by the Council of Trent.f 

Habit of The habit of Augustinian nuns is sometimes white 

Augustin- and sometimes black : the Romites delle Vergini and of 
ian nuns. ^ Marta dress in white in summer and black in winter. 
The Discalced Spanish nuns wear on weekdays a coarse 
white woollen tunic, a white linen veil, falling in front as 
far as the eyes, and over this a cloth ; on feast days they 
wear black ; % they wear, like the discalced friars, cord 
sandals. The nuns of S. Caterina and of the SS. Quaitro 
wear white serge tunic and scapular, the Augustinian 
leathern girdle, and a black veil lined with white linen. 
The usual Augustinian habit is, however, black with the 
leather belt, a black veil and white veilette ; but a white 
habit with a black scapular has not been unknown. 

Sacramen- The Sacramentate nuns, so called on account of the 
tate. perpetual exposition and adoration of the Sacrament in 

their churches day and night, were founded by a Tyrolese 
lady at Innspruck in the present century. They are an 
old-established Congregation in Rome. Their convent used 
to be at the corner of Via del Quirinale and Piazza Monte 
Cavallo, exactly opposite the Palace ; and it was the cus- 
tom among the Romans, and among priests and semina- 
rists, to lift their hats while passing the chapel door with 
its heavy leather hanging. In 1888 the nuns were forced 
to move to allow of the present gardens being laid out, 
and they are now in Via Nazionale 95, on the steps of 
Magnanapoli. They observe strict canonical enclosure, 
and are under the Rule of S. Augustine. The habit is 
white with a red scapular on which the monstrance is 

* This was afterwards a Franciscan house. 

t S. Andrea delle Fratte was built for Augustinian nuns. 

% Helyot says the friars used to do the same. 



CANONS 221 

embroidered : on certain occasions they wear a large 
white cloak and train. 

For the enclosed Community of Annonciades (Augus- 
tinian-Salesian Rule) see Chap. V., p. 246. 



S. Jean de 
Matha. 



S. JOHN DE MATHA AND THE TRINITARIANS. 

At the close of the xn. century arose the Orders for the 
redemption of Captives ; of those miserable ones who as 
prisoners or slaves formed the most pitiable class during 
the rude warfare of the middle ages. 

The 2 Orders now to be described rank among Mendi- 
cants, but as they have nothing in common with the Fran- 
ciscans, Dominicans and Carmelites, they are here classed 
as Augustinians. 

S. Jean de Matha was a native of Provence, and was 
born in 1154 of noble parents, and educated by his 
mother Marine. At the University of Paris he was 
famous both for goodness and learning. Ordained priest, 
he had a vision when celebrating his first mass : an angel 
clothed in white, with a red and blue cross on the breast, 
rested his hands on the heads of two slaves. S. John, 
moved by his vision, sold his goods and prepared for the 
mission of redeeming captives. With Felix de Valois he 
arranged the plan of a new Order, and together they 
went to Rome for the papal approbation. "The Order 
of the Holy Trinity for the Redemption of Captives " or 
Trinitarians, proceeded to redeem slaves and captive 
Christians in Africa, John himself preaching in Spain and 
bringing home large numbers of slaves from Tunis. His 
health being broken down he spent the last two years of 
his life in Rome, where he died of a lingering illness, 
never ceasing to visit the prisons and preach to the p^me 
poor.* 1213. 

The First Order of Trinitarians is divided into Calced Caiced and 
and Discalced Friars. The latter owe their origin to ^iscaiced 
the deterioration which the Order suffered in the xvi. r ians. 



Felix de 
Valois. 



Jean de 
Matha's- 
death in 



* See Saints' Rooms, Part I., p. 353. 



222 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Second 

Order 

(Calced). 



(Dis- 
eased.) 



century, which led to the members resolving on the 
formation of two or three houses in each Province for the 
strict observance of the Rule. As, however, the friars 
were allowed to return, should they so wish, to their 
original Convent, Blessed John-Baptist of the Concep- 
tion, a fervent member of the Order and among the first 
to embrace the intended reform, determined to found 
separate monasteries, the members of which were bound 
to practise the strict Rule. He gained the permission of 
Clement VIIL, but the contumely of his Order and perse- 
cution by the Spanish government. He died at Cordova 
in 1613. (Declared a beato 1819.) * One of the rules 
of the Reform is that the Friars must be barefoot. 

S. John de Matha gave part of the Monastery at Lerida 
to Oblates of the Order, who took vows in the time of 
the 6th General (1236) and originated the Second Order 
of Calced Trinitarians, who have 5 or 6 houses in Spain. 
The Religious were to co-operate in the work of redeem- 
ing captives by their prayers and by their alms, and their 
Rule is not the same as that of the Friars. A reform of 
this Order was made by Angela della Concepcion, called 
the Riforma di Toboso, and numbers also 5 or 6 houses. 
The Discalced nuns originated in 1612, when Francesca 
de Romero who had projected a community of Discalced 
Augustinians asked to belong to the Frati Scahi ; she 
and her companions were received as Oblates, but 6 
years later took solemn vows ; and these nuns are now 
to be found in Lima and Chile, whither they went from 
the original house at Madrid. The nuns observe enclos- 
ure. The body of S. John de Matha, which was stolen 
from the Trinitarian church of S. Tommaso in Rome, is 
now in their Convent church at Madrid. Amongst the 
writers of the Trinitarian Order are inscribed the names of 
Marcella of S. Felix,f the daughter of the Spanish poet 
Lope de Vega, and of a Superior of the same Madrid 

* The ' cause ' for his canonisation is now before the Congrega- 
tion of Rites. 

t Her life was written by an old nun of the Madrid Convent, 
alive in 1S93. 



C1XO.YS 



223 



Third 
Order 

(Caked). 



(Dis- 



Convent, who edited apologetic works under the name 
of Carmen Jimenez, and after becoming a nun wrote arti- 
cles signed " una religiosa Claustral." 

The Religious of the Third Order (all women) were 
instituted at Lyon and Valence in France in 1660, for 
the double work of hospitallers in charge of the Hotel- 
Dieu, and zealous educators of the young. They con- 
tinued to serve in their hospitals during the Revolution, 
and formed a refuge for many expulsed nuns, meeting 
the menaces and persecutions of which they were the 
object with unconquerable courage. They have schools 
in France, Belgium, Switzerland, England, and Algiers — 
over 100 houses.* 

The Third Order attached to the Discalced Congrega- 
tion was founded at Marseilles in 1845 > an d possesses calced.) 
some 15 houses. In 1885 the Third Order was established 
in Spain, at Valencia ; it has 5 houses. Another group 
of Spanish Tertiaries founded some 10 years ago is spread- 
ing fast. Finally, the Third Order was formed in Italy 
in the last half of the xvn. century, and approved in 1828. 

The Superior of the Order is called the Minister- 
General ; and the Heads of Convents Minister, Ministra, 
in allusion to the Gospel Matt. xx. 26. 

The Order for the Redemption of Captives was intro- 
duced into Spain and Italy first, but was established in 
France by S. Felix of Valois himself, who obtained for 
it a convent in Paris by the Chapel of Saint Mathurin, 
hence the French name Mathurins. In England they 
were called Crutched {crossed) Friars, and gave their 
name to a district in the city.t It is said that the Trini- 
tarians have redeemed 900,000 slaves and captives ; J 

* Not to be confused with the Congregation of La Sainte Trinite 
founded in 1829 by Marie Rocher (Mere de la Croix), which de- 
votes itself to education, although this work was not contemplated 
by the founder. 

t They were brought to Thellesford Priory in Warwickshire by 
Sir William Lacy on his return from the Crusades. 

% No documents exist. The discalced friars have a list of cap- 
tives redeemed in their Spanish, Polish, German and Italian pro- 
vinces, between the years 1 625-1 785. Some of this work was done 



224 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



The Co- 
founders in 
Art. 



S. Rade- 
gund. 



but to-day thejr special work has ceased, and the pope is 
anxious to unite the scattered members. A Council 
General will be held in Rome in 1900. The work of the 
Friars is now among the country people. 

s. jean de matha appears in art with fetters in his hand, 
or captives at his feet ; in the background his vision of an 
angel in the habit of the Order with his hands on the 
heads of two slaves. • (February 8.) 8. felix op valois (ob. 
1212) wears an Augustinian hermit's habit, and is repre- 
sented sitting by a fountain at which a hart is drinking, 
in allusion to Cerfroy, cervus frigidus, the site where the 
Order was instituted. (November 20.) The founders 
placed the Order under the patronage of s. radegund; 
S. John Baptist being another Patron. Radegund, in 
pictures painted for the Order, is represented with a 
royal crown over her long veil, a captive at her feet 
with his broken fetters in his hand : the legend being 
that, being unable to help the prisoners whose moans 
she heard as she walked in the gardens of her palace, 
Radegund prayed, and their fetters were burst asunder. 
(August 13.) 

Innocent III. gave to John de Matha the Convent and 
church of S. Tommaso in Formis, by the arch of Dola- 
bella, and placed over the entrance the mosaic which 
records the saint's vision, which is still to be seen there.* 
The houses at present remaining to the Order are how- 
ever the following : S. Crisogono in Trastevere, Mother- 
house of the Italian Province ; S. Carlino at the Quattro 
Fontane, founded in 1609, and the common-house of 
the Spanish Provinces ; S. Stefano degli Abissini behind 
S. Peter's ; and the country parish of S. M. alle Fornaci,f 



in co-operation with the Mercedari; and some further redemptions 
were operated in the middle of the present century by a priest in 
Lower Egypt, whose work was aggregated to the Order. The most 
active and the last to redeem captives in any considerable number 
was the German province. 

* See Part I., Saints' Rooms, p. 353, and ante, p. 221. 

t Originally the • Apostolic College of Propaganda Fede of the 
Trinitarians ' for Missions; dispersed by Napoleon. The Discalced 
friars have however still a mission in Cuba. 





AUGUSTINIAN ROMITE. 



CANONS 225 

outside Porta Cavallaggieri. All these belong to Discalced 
Friars. The Calced Friars were at the church of the 
Holy Trinity in Via Condotti until the death of the last 
General in 1894 ; and there are now none in Rome. 
The Third Order (Italian) has just settled in Rome for 
teaching work, in Via Germanico 85, by Porta Angelica. 

The Trinitarian habit is a white tunic and scapular, a Habit, 
black cloak and lined hood ; on the scapular a blue and 
red cross. Like all Mendicants they wear the rosary. 
The 3 colours signify the Trinity, the blue the Redeemer, 
the red the fire of charity of the Holy Spirit. The nuns' 
habit is the same ; and so is that of the Tertiaries.* 

The device of the Order is the red and blue cross on a Badge, 
shield, surrounded by a captive's chain. In France this 
is placed within a blue bordure charged with fleurs-de-lis. 
The arms have sometimes 2 white harts as supporters.! 

S. PETER NOLASCO AND THE ORDER OF OUR LADY OF 
RANSOM .J 

(Afercedari.) 

S. Peter Nolasque, or Nolasco, had heard John de 
Matha preach the deliverance of captives in Languedoc ; 
and founded in imitation of him a knightly Order for the 
same ends and for the redemption of prisoners for debt. 
Only knights and gentlemen at first belonged to it. The 
Order is now, however, purely religious. Peter Nolasco, 
having spent his life redeeming captives from the Moors 
in Spain and on the coast of Barbary, died in 1258. 

* A silver cross having been offered to the Mother Superior by 
the Prefect of Drome in recognition of the service of the Religious 
during the Revolution, the Valence congregation thenceforth added 
a silver cross on the breast to the habit, according to the request of 
the population. In the xvm. century they also changed the white 
tunic for black, as being more serviceable for nursing. 

t Helyot, following Pere le Paige, classes this Order with Canons 
Regular. The Trinitarians kept their 7th Centenary in Rome in 
1898. The Minister-General of the French Congregation and the 
Superior of Fontainebleau both had the title of 'Counsellor and 
Almoner of the King.' 

% Delia Merccde ; de la Merci. 



226 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Nuns. An Order of Mercedari, or Sisters of Mercy, was 

founded at Seville, and was closely allied to the Order 
of Peter Nolasco ; the Sisters took a 4'!' vow : to prom- 
ise as far as their condition permitted to apply them- 
selves to the redemption of captives, and to give their 
life if necessary. They kept enclosure, and led an 
austere life. Many houses of these Religious still exist 

Tertiaries. in Spain.* About 1265 two illustrious Spanish women in- 
stituted Tertiaries of this Order, in imitation of the 
Franciscans and Dominicans. 

The Mercedari have a province in the Argentine 
Republic. 

In Rome. The house of the Mercedari (men) is by the church 
of S. Adriano in the Forum, which they serve. They 

Habit. have been established here since 1589. The habit and 

scapular are white, with the badge of the Order sus- 
pended on the breast ; the white capuce is pointed 
behind, and they wear the Augustinian hanging girdle. 
The proper dress out of doors is a white mantle, but in 
Rome they wear the greca. 

Saints of s. peter nolasco is represented as an old man with flow- 

the Order j n „ beard ; a common subject in art since his canonisa- 

01 Ransom . ° . .' , J . . , , , 

in Art tion in 1628, represents him carried by angels to the 

chapel to receive the Sacrament. (January 31.) s. ray- 
mund NONNATTis (ob. 1240), Spanish Cardinal, was a member 
of this Order. In allusion to his strange birth he is the 
patron of midwives and of women in labour in Spain. 
(August 31.) Another frequent subject in churches of 
this Order is ottr lady of mercy. She stands crowned 
with stars, on her breast or in her hand the badge of the 
Order, while angels bear the palm, olive, and broken fet- 
ters — victory, peace, deliverance. (Feast day, Sept. 24.) 

Badge. The badge is the coat armour of James el Conquistador, 

4 pallets, and in chief a cross pattee. 



* The Order of Mercy for women is not to be confused with the 
far better known Order of Mercy, the Irish Sisterhood founded in 
1825 by Katharine McAulay. There are also some Suore delta 
Misericordia of Savona in Italy, who have been for over 20 years 
in the Argentine Republic. 



CANONS 227 

HOSPITALLER AND MILITARY ORDER OF S. JOHN OF 
JERUSALEM. 

( Chevaliers de Malte — Cavalieri di Malta.} 

A still earlier instance of semi- monastic chivalry than 
the one last described is that of the Knights Hospitallers 
of S. John, afterwards known as Knights of Rhodes ana 
later still as Knights of Malta. The Orders of Chivalry, 
each, in origin, semi-religious in character as was all the 
enterprise of the middle ages, were an outcome of the 
spirit and temper of the Crusades. A passionate desire 
to actualise, amid the rough and cruel life around, that 
urbanity and courtesy, those gentler manners, necessary 
to the ideal of Christian conduct, assisted in establishing 
these Knightly Orders — Caesar's contribution as it were 
to the common Christian ideal. 

The most illustrious of such associations is the Hos- 
pitaller and Military Order of S. John of Jerusalem, the 
oldest order of Christian chivalry, the model of all sub- 
sequent Knightly Orders. Of the 3 great Communities 
which arose about this time, the Hospitallers, the Templars, 
and the Teutonic Knights, none so nearly fulfilled the idea 
of the frere-chevalier as the Knights of S. John. 

The foundation in Jerusalem which was to become the Founda- 
greatest aristocracy in Europe, was due to some rich mer- tlon ' 
chants of Amalfi who obtained permission from the Caliph 
to establish a Latin hospice for the care of poor and 
infirm pilgrims to the Holy Land (1014-1023). The 
work was placed in the charge of Benedictine monks. It 
was received with enthusiasm by noble pilgrims, by young 
Knights and Ladies ; and its first Rector was one of these, 
a Provencal named Peter Gerard, who moved by the 
sight of its charities joined the nursing band ; while a 
noble Roman called Agnes presided over the women's 
hospice, and was head "of the canonesses of S. John" 
when Godfrey de Bouillon entered Jerusalem in 1099.* 

* Godfrey dowered the Order with estates in France, the first gift 
ever made to it. 



228 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Dedication The Order was dedicated to John the Baptist — "to 
*° th ( ? t our Lady and S. John the Baptist " — perhaps on account 
of the preeminence given to this saint during the first 
1500 years, perhaps because it is recorded of him that 
he was a Voice crying in the desert places : ' Prepare ye 
the way of the Lord, make His paths straight,' and the 
new Order, in its twofold aspect, hoped to fulfil a similar 
mission. It is certain that on more than one occasion 
the popes have saluted the Order as deliverer in the 
words : ' There was a man sent from God, whose name 
was John : ' Fuit homo missus a Deo cut notnen era/ 
Johannes* It is Gerard who proposed that the fraternity 
should constitute itself as a Religious one ; and it is his 
successor Raymund du Puy (1115) who, finding the 
Order now largely recruited by Crusaders, organised it 
as a military body, and became its first military • Master ' 
(" Master of the Hospital of Jerusalem "). Thus its per- 
manent characteristics were traced by the character of 
its work and 'of its members : it became the " Sovereign 
Military and Religious Order of S. John" — 'Sovereign,' 
because as we shall see it actually ruled, and because it 
is the only order which confers the accolade without the 
intervention of a prince ; ' Military and Religious ' for the 
Knights were both soldiers and men professed under vows. 
During a great part of the middle ages this order formed 
the only standing army in Europe. 
The Rule. The new Rule received the sanction of Paschal II. in 
1 1 13. Its precepts are bound on the Knight 'in the 
name of almighty God, Blessed Mary, Blessed John, and 
the Poor.' To the vows of chastity obedience and renun- 
ciation of property, Raymund added a 4 th , to bear arms 
in defence of religion and of the new kingdom of Jeru- 
salem established under Baldwin II. The Knights were 
never permitted to draw their swords in feuds between 
Christian peoples. Their dress was also to be poor, " be- 
cause our masters the poor whose servants we profess to 
be" are meanly clad. 

* The first dedication cf one of the two hospices at Jerusalem to 
S. John the Almoner, the good Patriarch of Alexandria, was soon 
changed for the dedication to the Baptist. 



CANONS 229 

The Knights have had 5 homes, Jerusalem, Acre, Resi- 
Cyprus, Rhodes, and Malta. After the taking of Jem- dences - 
salem they proceeded to Acre which had surrendered to 
Richard of England, and they took a gallant part in its 
defence. Its fall in 1191 drove the Order from Syria, the 
land of its birth, and when Coeur-de-Lion invited them 
to assume the protection of the Island of Cyprus, the 
Hospitallers repaired thither in company with the Teu- 
tonic Knights, a military Order which had been formed 
at the Siege of Acre. Before leaving Palestine they had 
won the admiration of the opponent Knights of the 
Crusades, the pagan and the Christian, Saladin and 
Richard. 

In August 13 10 the Knights, alone and led by their 
Grand Master Villaret, captured the Island of Rhodes, 
and from this coigne of vantage kept the Turk out of 
Europe for 200 years. It was at this moment that 
Othman founded the Turkish, or Ottoman, Empire ; so 
that the order of S. John became an independent Power 
contemporaneously with the rise of that Empire which 
was its hereditary enemy. The Knights now became a 
maritime Power, their galleys swept the Mediterranean, 
and their red standard was the ensign of safety to the 
peaceful traveller, the terror of the infidel. Within their 
stronghold the Knights usually numbered some 500, their 
soldiers from 4000 to double that number. The manner 
in which Rhodes was defended against all comers, the 
almost incredible constancy of devotion and heroism in a 
band of men where treachery and baseness never once 
penetrated, raised the immense reputation of the Knights 
in the West, and after the abolition of the Templars, no 
one contested the right of the Rhodian deliverers to suc- 
ceed to their vast estates.* Men felt that such valour 

* The Templars, a knightly Order similar to that of S. John, had 
a hrief and illustrious career from their foundation in Jerusalem by 
Baldwin II. in 11 18 to their suppression in 131 1. Their tragic end 
was a sort of international auto da fe — stories of black magic rang 
through Europe, princes and bishops collected reports of the opinions 
and conduct of the Knights, the Order was utterly exterminated, and 



230 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

and devotion must be based on real civic as well as mili- 
tary virtues. The men and women, the very children of 
Rhodes, caught the infection of their heroism : A young 
Greek who had borne two children to one of the officers 
defending the ' English Bastion ' in the last Siege of 
Rhodes, saw him killed before her eyes. She ran to her 
children and killed them, then seizing the sabre and vest- 
ments still covered with the blood of him whom she had 
loved, she hastened to the breach and threw herself into 
the thickest of the fight, where after slaying many of the 
enemy, and after prodigies of valour, she herself perished. 
Rhodes was lost in 1522 after one of the memorable 
sieges of history, and while the noble Grand Master de 
l'lsle Adam guided the destinies of the Order.* He died 
in 1534, and his epitaph was written in the words : Here 
rests virtue victorious over fortune. 

The Knights with their wounded now set out on a 
veritable Odyssey ; they embarked for Messina and 
afterwards, landing at Baia, formed a camp near Cumse. 

a large number of the unhappy Templars were done to death by 
slow fire. 

Apparently the Templars had really adopted a species of gnostic 
mysticism, based on the idea suggested by their name. For, in con- 
tradistinction to the church, the House of Christ, the temple carried 
with it the idea of universal religion; the temple was the House of 
the Holy Spirit. They had fallen under the spell of that eternally- 
recurring ideal ' the Gospel of the Spirit,' and had met the usual 
fate of its devotees, the fate of the gnostic and the Spiriiuales 
viri. 

* Six hundred Chevaliers with 4500 soldiers resisted for 6 months 
a force numbering 200,000; the greater number of the defenders 
perishing in the daily assaults. " Nothing has been well lost but 
Rhodes ! " exclaimed the Emperor Charles V. who afterwards be- 
stowed Malta on the Order. 

At Messina the Grand Master and his Knights again became 
Knights Hospitallers: " Leurs freres et lui-m£me les servaient; ils 
ne dedaignaient point de descendre pour euxaux soins les plus hum- 
bles. En ce temps 011 leur valeur venait d'etonner l'Europe et leurs 
ennemies eux-m§mes, ils redevenaient ces freres-Hospitaliers." . . . 
And during the Siege itself, the Chronicle records : " Les Chevaliers, 
selon leur ancienne instruction, pansoient et servoient les malades, 
mesme le grand maistre." 



CANONS 231 

While the wounded were established at Messina, the 
other Knights wandered the high seas in search of a 
home ; stopping at Crete, and finally returning to their 
hospital-camp. The Grand Master then left to arrange 
the future of the Order with the princes of Europe, 
Clement VII. in the meanwhile giving him the town of 
Viterbo, while the galleys of the Knights were anchored 
at Civita Vecchia. Eight years later the possession of 
Malta was negotiated. The Knights arrived there on 
October 28, the bare rock appearing cold and repellent 
to men accustomed to their beloved and fertile island of 
Rhodes, many of whose inhabitants followed them to the 
new home. In 1565, under the Grand Master Lavalette, 
the heroic defence of the Fort of S. Elmo took place, in 
which the Knights surpassed even themselves by feats of 
heroism which have been paralleled indeed but not ex- 
celled in history. Lavalette died in 1568, "leaving a 
name that will never perish " ; a name recorded in the 
town of La Valetta then founded ; while the fortifications 
made after the Siege have rendered the Rock impregna- 
ble. But the glories of the Order were not only, or first, The 
military. The nucleus of every home of the Knights of Hos P ltal > 
S. John was a Hospital : that at Jerusalem, opposite the 
Holy Sepulchre, held 2000 poor pilgrims, and Innocent II. 
says of it " How pleasing to God and how venerable to 
man is at least one spot on earth ! " Gerard had also 
established hospices in many of the maritime ports : and 
when Saladin recaptured the City the Knights spent the 
remains of their treasure in ransoming large numbers of 
Christians who could not pay the 10 crowns demanded 
as the price of their liberty. At Rhodes and at Malta 
the magnificence of the hospital was the theme of travel- 
lers, the wonder of Europe : when a sick man arrived he 
was given the Sacrament of the Body of Christ, after 
which he was carried by Knights to his bed " as though 
they were carrying the Master and Head of all." The 
sick were preeminently the guests of the Order, and the 
Rule required the constant presence of a Knight of Justice 
and of Grace in the wards, a duty taken in rotation. The 



232 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

presiding Knight carried in the first dish, and the patients 
were all served on gold plate. The Knights gave the 
sick all that was in their gift ; they consulted experts, 
and spared nothing : to us their great hospital would 
appear dreary and dirty, but the spirit of the work was 
admirable, and its constancy a unique instance in those 
ages — what it lacked, the sick had yet centuries to wait 
for. 

In 1377 Gregory XI. was brought back from Avignon 
on a galley of the Order with a fleet of 8 of their ves- 
sels. It is said that Heredia, afterwards Grand Master, 
steered the pope's galley himself. In 14 15 the success 
of the Council of Constance which secured the abdica- 
tion of John XXIII. and elected Martin V., was partly 
due to the diplomatic ability of the Grand Master 
Nicholas de Naillac, to whose Order the protection of 
the electors was entrusted. It has been one of the privi- 
leges of the Knights since then to keep the Doors at an 
Oecumenical Council, a duty performed by the Italian 
Knights during the Vatican Council. Another glory of 
the Order was the celebrated League of the Pope, the 
Venetian Republic, and the Knights against the Turk. 

A large and tolerant spirit prevailed from the first 
among these warrior-nurses. They were humanitarian 
before that word was coined, and tolerant before the age 
had come to understand tolerance. The spirit of the 
Order repelled equally what was petty and insolent. The 
offence of a brother is not to be repeated to the Master, 
but the offender is to be spoken to " between thee and 
him alone." The quaint punishment of the original Rule 
was continued among the fiery young Knights at Rhodes, 
and the man who had quarrelled with his confrere ate 
his dinner on the floor, and was forbidden to check the 
dogs and cats who were inclined to share it with him. 
The Knights were a body of laymen : the Grand Master 
and Provincial Priors were laymen as well as the other 
Chevaliers ; and among them priests only served as their 
chaplains. From the first they were more tolerant than 
the Religious Communities around them — the Knights 



CANONS 233 

had always lived among the infidels of Syria and their 
brother Christians of the East, and Godfrey de Bouillon 
could admire the charity which " received Greeks and 
Latins without distinction, and gave alms even to poor 
Musulmen."* At Jerusalem, at Rhodes and Malta, the 
Knights provided a Greek chaplain out of the funds of 
the Order ; and " Greeks " are among those pilgrims to 
the Holy Land entitled to be lodged at its expense. 
Their's is an almost solitary instance of both Churches 
living side by side in entire friendship. " I reign over 
Christians, not over Latins and Greeks." " Here are 
neither Greek nor Latin, for we are Christians, the ser- 
vants of Jesus Christ and of His Blessed Mother ! " ex- 
claimed the Grand Master D'Aubusson. (1476.) Nor 
is there a single record of an attempt made by these 
Knightly rulers and hosts to change the religious faith of 
the hundreds who daily frequented their chef-lieu. On 
this point of tolerance, sentiment remained unanimous to 
the last days of the Order's greatness : Taafe, one of the 
Knights, writing in the xvm. century, declares that the 
basis of the Order is no longer war " but utility in general 
and neutrality between all Christians " ; and tells us that 
when the Confession of Augsburg was drawn up, " a depu- 
tation of our Knights was sent to declare that all Christian 
religions were indifferent to us ; and one of the latest acts 
at Malta was to receive both Protestant Germans and 
Greek Russians into the Order as integral members of it, 
we being not theologians, but soldiers." So unique a 
feature in a semi-Religious Order has not escaped the 
notice of its historians, Abbe" Vertot and Ue Boisgelin. 
" The banner of S. John protected all alike." The com- 
mon foe was heathendom. 

The Crusaders brought back with them a whiff of the and Cos 
East, a whiff of cosmopolitanism : but the chef-lieu and mo P oh - 



* In 1 1 75, jointly with the Templar", they gave burial to ex- 
communicates; the pope Alexander III. thereupon writing a vehe- 
ment letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, bidding him see that 
these Knights disinterred the bodies and cast them forth. 



234 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Ranks 
within the 
Order. 



Langues * of the Hospitaller were so many noviciates of 
cosmopolitanism. 

The Order was divided into 3 classes, Knights, Chap- 
lains, and Serving-men. At a later date, the claims of 
the merchant princes of the Great Republics of Venice 
and Genoa gave rise to a lower degree of Knights, called 
Knights of Grace, men of position but not of birth, from 
whom no pedigree proofs were required. A class of 
Donats was also associated, persons who without con- 
tracting obligations towards the Order, rendered it some 
service. Afterwards, Donats were those who made an 
oblation to the Order. Besides these classes, some 
branches of the Order create Esquires. Of the above, 
only Knights of Justice were in the sovereign grade of 
the Order, or shared in its government. Two of the 3 
original classes were constantly under arms against the 
Saracen. 
Quaiifica- Every candidate had to be of Knightly degree, that is 
K°" S ht r & d ne must have received the accolade ; nothing else was 
Lady. required. Ladies however were required to give proofs 

of nobility, and afterward the same proofs were de- 
manded of men. These proofs varied in different 
Langues : France demanded 8 quarters, England, Spain, 
Italy and Portugal 4, while Germany required i6.f The 
proof of seize quartiers signifies that the 16 great great 
grandparents all bore coat armour, and ladies who could 
prove this enjoyed special privileges at the Court of 
Louis XIV. This proof of noblesse is sometimes called 
nobilty on the paternal and maternal side for 200 years ; 
it is the heraldic or genealogical nobility alluded to by 
the astute King Jamie when he said to a friend who 
begged to have a peerage conferred on him : " I can 
male ye a lord but I canna male ye a gentleman." Titular 
nobility was never sufficient. 



* See infra, p. 235. * 

fNo genealogical proofs were required from Chaplains, i.e. all 

clerical members of the Order : and they are of course not Knights. 

It is still an almost impossible thing in England to prove Seize 

quartiers. 



CANONS 235 

At a Chapter General held in 1331 the Knights were Division 
divided according to nationality, and 7 langues, or Ian- j"*P 
guages, were formed, viz : 1. Provence. 2. Auvergne. rLan- S 
3. France. 4. Italy. 5. Aragon. 6. England. 7. guages. 
Germany. In the next century the 5 th langue was sub- 
divided making an 8* la?igue of Castile and Portugal. 
It will be seen that of the 7 original divisions, 3 were 
French, and this preponderance of the nation which estab- 
lished the Order and gave to it two-thirds of its splendid 
series of Grand Masters, continued to the last. Each 
langue had its Auberge at the chef-lieu, and each was 
represented in its own country, where the property of the 
langue was divided into Cotnmanderies. Of the 1000 
Knights who formed the entire Order, 500 were always in 
residence at the chef-lieu, 500 residing in their comman- 
deries at home. The head of each langue lived at the 
-Convent, i.e. the chef-lieu at Rhodes or Malta, and was 
called Conventual Bailiff; while a Capitular Bailiff, only 
bound to appear there for a Chapter-General, presided 
the langue in his own country, with the title of Grand 
Prior.* There were thus 16 Bailiffs, who with a few 
titular bailiffs were styled the Grand Crosses of the Order. 

Each Knight began his period of service at the chef-lieu 
in his 20 th year, and after 15 years was given a Com- 
mandery, i.e. an estate on which he lived accompanied by 
other Knights, with the title of Knight Commander. It 
is an undoubted fact that some of these Commanderies 
were presided by Serving-Brothers with Knights of Justice 
under them — service and merit never failed to win esteem 
among the White Cross Knights. Each langue paid one- 
third of the income of these estates annually to the chef- 
lieu. There were in Europe some 700 commanderies or 
smaller estates known as Camera. England at the time 
of the suppression in the xvi. century, counted 63 estates 
distributed in 30 English and Welsh counties ; and 69 
Templar Commanderies, chiefly in Yorks and Lincoln- 
shire. The term of residence at Rhodes, or Malta, and 

* In England he ranked as premier Baron of the Realm. 



236 CHRISTIAN AXD ECCIESIASTICAL ROME 



Chevalieres 
of the 
Order. 



The Grand 
Master. 



the accomplishment of a certain number of caravans 
(voyages on board the galleys) were obligatory in order to 
qualify the Knight for any post whatsoever. 

There have always been Ladies of the Order of S. John ; 
it is the only Order of Chivalry which enrolled both sexes 
from the first.* These Ladies lived as Canonesses and 
were so styled. They quitted Jerusalem in 1099, and 
formed 2 Communities in Europe. Bucklands | in Som- 
ersetshire was presented to the Order for their use by 
Henry II. (1180) and here were settled the 5 or 6 
Communities which had previously existed in England. 
Sixena, near Saragossa, was founded for the Dames-Cheva- 
lieres by Sancha the Chaste daughter of Alphonso II. 
Sixty Ladies were established here, and 50 at Buck- 
lands, the latter estate including 3 manors and as many 
churches. For some time the Sixena Community was 
separated from the Order, with which it reunited about . 
1572. The Chevalieres acknowledged the Grand Master, 
and were placed by Celestine III. under the Rule of 
Augustine (1193) to which as we have seen the Military 
and Hospitaller Orders all belonged. The Grand Prioress 
of Sixena had her seat in Chapters next to the Castellan 
of Emposta,J and the Prioresses of S. John had a voice 
at the Provincial Chapters. Religious Communities of 
Chevalieres-Chanoinesses no longer exist ; their last 
house was at Malta itself. The dignity is now conferred, 
like that of Chevalier, on persons offering the necessary 
qualifications and position. Lady Hamilton received the 
Cross of a Canoness of the Order from the Czar Paul 
at Nelson's request ; the ex-Empress Eugenie has the 
same cross from the Italian Knights ; and the late Lady 
Strangford, a Dame-Chevaliere de Justice of the Order in 
England, nursed in the Crimean War. 

The Grand Master, Magnus Magister, of the Order, 
was a sovereign prince, ranking among the other princes 
of Europe, to whose court he appointed envoys. His 

* Except, perhaps, the Garter. 

f It had been a house of Canons Regular. 

j Grand Prior of Aragon. 



CANONS 237 

style was Most Eminent and Most Reverend ; a letter 
of Charles II. is extant in which that monarch ad- 
dresses him as Cousin and most Eminent Highness.* 
His household and officers of State were more imposing 
but not more picturesque than his retinue of 16 pages, 
each of whom had the Cross of a Knight of Justice at 
12 years old. At the death of a Grand Master no vessel 
was allowed to leave the Island, lest the pope should 
attempt to interfere with the new election.f The Grand 
Master was elected for life, from among the Grand 
Crosses, all 3 classes of the Order taking part, and 
deputing delegates from each grade. Thus the Order 
was at once republican — all classes joined to elect their 
Ruler — and aristocratic — only the first class having a 
share in the government. The government was vested in 
the Grand Master and Council, the latter consisting, 
besides the Master, of the Archbishop of Rhodes, the 
Prior of the church of S. John, the Grand Crosses, and 
2 Knights of Justice from each Langue. The church of Church of 
S. John the Baptist at Malta was one of the glories of the s - J ohn - 
Order; it was founded in 1578; out of its two aisles o f r fhe Rehc 
opened the 8 chapels of the Langues, and in the centre Order, 
was the grand nave in which only Knights of Justice 
might walk, the Archbishop of Malta himself having to 
use the aisles. In this great church the Knights pre- 
served their notable relic, the arm of the Baptist, and 
the miraculous image of our Lady of Philermos. The 
church still remains, but shorn of its relics and of its 
splendour. 

The dress of the Brethren of the Hospital was origi- Habit 
nally simple and poor ; the one distinguishing badge was S£ ^ e , 
always the white linen cross of 8 points (" the Maltese nig 

* Charles II. also addressed a letter to the English Knight 
Nicholas Cottoner at Malta with reference to the purveying of 
slaves : the Order at this time purveying slaves to the Kings of 
France Spain and England. The letter is in the Record Office. 

t Paschal II., by Bull, had declared that the election should be 
free of all civil and ecclesiastical control; but the Knights thought 
well to put temptation out of the way of his successors. 



238 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

cross "), sewn on the dress. The 8 points signified the 8 
beatitudes, the 4 arms the 4 cardinal virtues. But in the 
middle of the xm. century a Bull of Alexander IV. de- 
clares that " the love of many Brethren of noble birth, 
who have cast aside the allurements of the world " " has 
grown cold " owing to the absence of any distinguishing 
mark between themselves and the less noble brethren, 
and he therefore assigns to the Knights a black mantle, 
and in place of the ungarnished surcoat over their armour 
the coats and military accoutrements are to be red.* 
From thenceforward Knights and Ladies of Justice wore 
a black mantle. This is the celebrated manteau a bee. 
The Austrian Knights wear it in black velvet, lined with 
white satin, the cross embroidered on the left shoulder, 
the mantle fastened by a clasp in front in the manner of 
a cope. The Ladies of Sixena wore a scarlet robe, a 
rochet and a black mantle, and in choir carried a silver 
sceptre in memory of their royal founder. The red sur- 
coat, with a plain white cross behind and before, can still 
be seen in Rome at great papal ceremonies, when the 
Grand Master of the Italian Knights appears in it. The 
palco of the Order of Malta has its place in the Cappella 
Sistina with that of Royal visitors and of the Roman 
aristocracy. 
Insignia. The Insignia of Knights and Ladies of Justice consist in 

an 8-pointed white cross enamelled on gold, surmounted 
by a sovereign crown in gold. This is one of the hand- 
somest of all knightly insignia. It is worn suspended 
from black watered silk ribbon. Knights and Ladies of 
Grace wear the cross without the crown. Donats and 
Esquires wear a demi-cross, the two upper points being 
cut off. Men wear the order from the neck, women from 
the left shoulder. A miniature cross may be worn in day 
dress. After the establishment of Langues it became 
customary to place a distinguishing device in the 4 

* The naivete of this nevertheless wise provision is enhanced by 
the usual ecclesiastical formula that any one infringing this Statute 
will incur thereby " the indignation of Almighty God, and of the 
Apostles Peter and Paul." 



CANONS 



239 



widest angles of the Cross : thus France had the fleur- 
de-lis, England the leopard, Germany the spread eagle, 
Spain a lion, Castile a castle ; while the Italian Knights 
adopted, according to the State in which their Priories 
were situated, the Eagle of Austria or the Bourbon fleur- 
de-lis. A black watered silk riband woven with the 
emblems of the Passion is also worn ; and a crachat 
consisting of an 8-pointed enamelled cross. 

The arms of the Order are a plain white cross on a red Arms and 
field.* The badge is the 8-pointed cross on a black Bad g e - 
field. All Knights and Ladies of Justice are entitled to 
bear their arms on a mantle, and the 8-pointed cross, 
and to have the shield of the Order in chiefs 

The Order boasts canonised Saints, of both sexes ; in art Saints of 
they are only met with in churches of the Order, where the ° rder - 
the cross on their clothes or as a nimbus easily identifies 
them. Clement VII., nephew of Leo X., a Medici, was 
a Knight of S. John ; and Bosio, the historian of the 
Catacombs was a frere-servant of the Order, his great 
work being published at its expense. The chief festivals 
of the Order are June 24, August 29, and Our Lady of 
Philermos in September. 



When in 1 798 the last and 69 th Grand Master, Von Present 
Hompesch, surrendered Malta to Napoleon without strik- Condition 
ing a blow, the history of the Order under the conditions orden 
described above, ceased. Twenty-two years later Durdent 
writes of the Order as non-existent, and says that should 
its great memories lead to its reinstatement, it would be a 
veritable resurrection. 

Of the 332 Knights resident at Malta when it capitu- 
lated, 200 were French : in 1792 the Directoire of the 
Revolution suppressed the Order in France. But on the 
restoration of the Bourbons, the Knights took heart, and 

* The white shield charged with a red 8-pointed cross is the 
badge of the Medici Order of S. Stefano, and may be seen in the 
church of these Knights at Pisa. 

t The Order coined its own money from the time of its settlement 
at Rhodes, and many of the Khodian and Maltese coins exist. 



Action in 
Paris. 



240 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

in 1814, the 3 French Langues placed themselves under 
De Rohan, Prior of Aquitaine, and formed themselves 
into a Commission in which they declared the govern- 
ment of the Order to be vested. Spain and Portugal con- 
curred, and a papal Bull confirmed their action, which 
was also recognised by Louis XVIII. and by the Italian 
Lieutenant of the Mastery. These Knights now repre- 
sented the Order, and as a step to its re-inauguration in 
England presented the cross to George IV. 
Action in Shortly before the loss of Malta, the impoverished 

burgh German and English Langues had been supplemented 

at the chef-lieu by the formation of 2 new combina- 
tions, the ' Anglo- Bavarian Langue ' and ' Bohemia,' the 
former of which comprised the 2 Priories of Ebersberg 
and Poland. Paul I. of Russia erected the latter into 
a Russian Priory in 1797, incorporating it afresh into 
the ' Anglo-Bavarian ' Langue. This Russian Priory was 
flourishing when the Knights lost their home at Malta, 
and thither several of them repaired, and begged the 
Czar to constitute himself their Grand Master, a step 
the legality of which no one now ventures to defend. But 
the subsequent history of the Order centres round the 
fate of the Anglo-Bavarian Langue and its Russo- Polish 
Priory. Paul I. accepted the honour, constrained the 
actual Grand Master von Hompesch to abdicate, and in 
1799 created a Greco- Russian Priory. His successor 
Czar Alexander, having nominated Count Soltykoff Lieu- 
tenant of the Mastery, directed him to convene a Coun- 
cil and proceed to the regular election of a Master. 
This Council vested the nomination in the Pope, and 
Prince Ruspoli having declined the honour in these 
irregular conditions, Pius VII. nominated the Count di 
Tommasi, who was thenceforth styled in Italy Grand 
Master, residing at Catania. A curious result is that no 
single Catholic Power has accepted the Order so recon- 
stituted. On Tommasi's death in 1805 the pope refused 
to nominate another Grand Master, but Tommasi's suc- 
cessors continued to officiate with the style of ' Lieuten- 
ants of the Mastery.' 



CANONS 241 

In 1826 the Permanent Commission of French Knights, The Order 
decreed the revival of the English Langue. This Langue lnEn g' an d. 
which had always been among the most illustrious 
branches of the Order — " un principal membro come era 
sempre stata la venerabile lingua d'/nghillerra " writes 
Bosio — was suppressed in England by Henry VIIL, but 
restored, with its property, by Mary. Elizabeth again 
despoiled it, without however depriving it of the powers 
of a Corporation with perpetual succession restored to it 
by the Royal charter of 2 April 1557. Its existence at 
the chef-lieu had never ceased, and the Grand Master in 
apprising George III. of the formation of the 'Anglo- 
Bavarian Langue ' explained that the privileges of the 
English Langue had been preserved.* The nephew and 
heir of the last Grand Master von Hompesch was eventu- 
ally received into this revived Langue, as were also some 
Portuguese and Italian gentlemen, Philippe de Chaste- 
lain, a Knight who had been Secretary to the French 
Langues, and Prince Alexander Labanoff. 

Its recent history can be summed in a few words : in 
1888 the Queen by Royal Charter restored the Order 
in England to the position it had occupied before its 
confiscation under Henry VIIL The Prince of Wales 
became its Grand Prior, and the Knights and Ladies 
continue that hospitaller work, in its xix^ century form, 
for which the Order has always been so famous. Classes 
for First Aid to the injured are held for the Police force 
as well as for large numbers of private persons ; the Am- 
bulance Service has reached a high state of perfection ; 
while not the least interesting work is a Hospital at Jeru- 
salem and the provision of convalescent diets for those 
leaving the hospitals in England. In one point the 
Order in England has departed from all historical prece- 
dent : none but royal persons are received at once into 
the grade of Justice, all other Knights and Ladies enter- 
ing in the grade of Grace.f The Order now numbers 

* The Order provided for its representation in Council to the last. 

t The Knights and Ladies of Justice in England no longer wear 

the crown, a traditional decoration recorded only in that now worn 



242 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



The Order 
in Ger- 
many. 



Johanniter. 



Maltese- 
ritttr. 



The Order 
in Spain 
and Portu- 
gal. 



in Italy at 
the present 
dav. 



some 47 Knights of Justice, not being Royal persons, 
and 19 non-Royal Ladies of Justice. 

The German Knights took no part in the revivals 
above described. They only numbered 4 at the chef- 
lieu in 1798, and the German Langue had suffered a 
serious secession in the xiv. century, when the Bailiwick 
of Brandenburg separated from the Grand Priory, and 
became an autonomous member of the Order ; paying 
its responsions to the chef-lieu until the loss of Malta. 
In the xvi. century these Knights became Lutherans. 
This branch of the Order can show a more imposing 
pedigree than any of the others. It includes the States 
of Saxony, Pomerania, and Mecklenburg, and its Grand 
Bailiff is always a member of the Prussian Royal House. 
It rendered notable hospitaller service during the Franco- 
Prussian war. 

The Order of S. John exists as an imperial Order, with 
its own Constitutions, in Austria, and is seated with much 
splendour in Vienna. 

The 33 Spanish and Portuguese Knights present at 
Malta, and their confreres in Spain and Portugal, resisted 
the intention of their Sovereigns to form those Langues 
into Royal Orders. They concurred as we have seen 
with the French Commission in its efforts, first to restore 
the sovereignty of the Order (which failed) and then to 
resist the merging of the Langues in royal orders. The 
French Langues are to-day non-existent, and the Order 
of S. John is bestowed as a decoration by the King of 
Spain. In Russia the Greek Priory remains. 

The Grand Priory of Bohemia (see p. 240) joined its 
fortunes with the Russo-Roman Order, which now has its 
seat in Rome and has severed all connection with Russia. 
It comprises the following Grand Priories : Rome, Lom- 
bardo-Venice, the two Sicilies, Westphalia, and Bohemia ; 
to which has been added a ' British Association ' com- 
posed of English Catholic Knights and Chaplains. Some 



by the Prince and Princess of Wales. The Knights of Grace, for 
distinction, wear the Cross mounted on silver. 



CANONS 243 

years ago the Order followed the example of England in 
" applying this ancient organisation to the needs of our 
own time," and undertook hospitaller work ; * and train- 
ing in its Ambulance Corps dispenses young men from 
their military service. It also retains in its gift some 
commanderies. Its members do not lead a community 
life, but take the vow of celibacy, and if they desire to 
marry must exchange the Cross of Justice for a lower 
grade called the ' Cross of Devotion.' The Palazzo of In Rome, 
the Order is in Via Condotti, and it has re-acquired an 
ancient property in the beautiful old Aventine Villa and 
church of S. Maria del Priorato. 

Thus the Italian and the English Orders are the outcome 
of the action taken after the loss of Malta by the Czar and 
the French Commission respectively. In Spain, Portugal, 
Russia, Poland, England, Austria and Prussia it has ceased 
to be Religious; in Rome, on the other hand, it is only an 
Order of Chivalry on the same terms and with the same 
conditions as any other papal Order. Brandenburg, which 
ceased to be a Religious Fraternity, continued to be a 
member of the knightly Order. As a Religious Fraternity 
the Roman Order alone has any rights ; as the heir of the 
sovereign and knightly Order of Rhodes and Malta the 
Roman Order has no rights at all. 

The Order of S. John always in fact led a double exist- 
ence, one at its chef-lieu, the other in its Commanderies. 
The latter was not only autonomous as regarded the chef- 
lieu, but was absolutely dependent for its privileges prop- 
erty and corporate existence on the pleasure of the prince 
or the laws of the land. The one was a national exist- 
ence, the other an international. The patronage of the 
Order by sovereigns in their own States is apparently the 
modern substitute for the former. The latter has ceased ; 
and in nothing has the old Order so changed its special 

* " Cartulaire General de l'Ordre des Hospitaliers de St. Jean de 
Jerusalem." J. D. Le Roulx. Major General Porter's " History of 
the Knights of Malta" contains a graphic account of the Order 
and its sieges. 



244 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Grand 
Mastership 
in Rome. 



character as in the abolition of its international chivalry, 
of which we augur the restoration. 

Pius IX. having steadily refused to restore the Grand 
Mastership, this was effected by Leo XIII. in 1879, in the 
person of Count G.-B. Ceschi a Santa Croce (elected 
Lieutenant 1872). The pope's brother, Cardinal Pecci, 
was a chaplain of the Order. 



Jerony- 
mites (Ger- 
olamini). 
Spanish. 



Italian. 



In Rome. 
Habit. 



THE HERMITS OF S. JEROME. 

No kind of ascetic has been more tenacious than the 
hermit. When, after the incursions of the Vandals, num- 
bers took refuge in Europe, they found the Benedictine 
Order embracing two hermit branches ; the Carmelites 
were hermits, and a large company of hermits were about 
to range themselves under the Rule of Augustine. In the 
xiii. and xiv. centuries the early anchorites were well rep- 
resented by hermits of both sexes, attached to no Order, 
living in huts or simple dwellings, and known as romites, 
fraticelli, and cellani. Such were Mother Juliana the an- 
chorite of Norwich in the time of Edward III., the Tuscan 
romite Blessed Giovanna of Segni, and the recluse Eva 
who brought about the institution of the feast of Corpus 
Domini. 

The Hermits of S. Jerome were companies of Spanish 
and Italian solitaries formed in the xiv. century, with S. 
Jerome as Patron and model. Gregory XL gave the Span- 
iards the Rule of S. Augustine, these hermits having begun 
as Franciscan Tertiaries. Later on they adopted the Cen- 
obitic life, became an illustrious Order, and built S. Lau- 
rence of the Escurial, and Our Lady of Guadaloupe in 
Estramadura. In the xvi. century Pius V. obliged them 
to take perpetual vows. In 1377 they were established 
in Umbria by Pietro Gambacorti of Pisa, and this branch 
became diffused in Italy and is now represented in Rome. 
These Italian hermits, the " Lombard Congregation," are 
called "Jeronymites of the Observance." They are set- 
tled at S. Onofrio, and at S. Francesco on Monte Mario. 
The original habit was gray, but is now dark chocolate 



CANONS 



245 



brown ; it consists of a tunic, leather belt, and cloak ; with 
"shoes and a hat. The device is a figure of S. Jerome in Badge, 
scarlet, on a shield.* (S. Jerome September 30.) (B. 
Peter Gambacorti June 17.) (S. Honuphrius, hermit, 
June 12.) 

There are 2 Congregations of hermits called after Hermits cf 
Paul the First Hermit. The Hermits of S. Paul in Hun- f^j^ 
gary were founded by B. Eusebius of Strigonia in 1250, Hermit 
and approved by John XXII. The Order, which spread 
to Poland, Austria, Swabia, Croatia, and to Italy, was re- 
formed by Cardinal Petrochino. The sole Italian monas- 
tery of the Order used to be that of S. Stefano Rotondo 
on the Celian,f which was exchanged in the pontificate 
of Gregory XIII. for the little monastery of S. Paolo primo 
Eremito in Via delle Quattro Fontane (now Agostino De- 
pretis). The church was only secularised some 12 years 
ago, and is now the School of Hygiene. The habit, scap- 
ular, cape and hood are white. They no longer exist in 
Rome. 

The second company of hermits of this name was 
founded in Portugal before 1481 the year in which their 
founder Mendo Gomez died. A previous Congregation 
of Portuguese hermits of the desert of Sierra de Ossa may 
have existed since 1186, and to these hermits Gomez 
joined his community in the xv. century. 

Other companies of hermits, in Naples, the Marches of 
Ancona, and in France, have had the same appellation. 

There is a monastery of women hermits also in Rome : Battistine. 
they were founded by the Ven. Jeanne Marie Baptiste Sol- 
imani, under the name of Missionaries of S. John Baptist, or 
Baptists. Born in Genoa in 1688 she made religious vows 



* There used to be women of the Order. The "Apostolic Clerks, 
Gesuati of S. Jerome," founded by S. John Colombino of Siena were 
suppressed by Clement IX. This Congregation embraced both men 
and women. The device they used was the same as that of the 
Jesuits. 

t Helyot. 



246 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



In Rome. 
Habit. 



at 15. Her ascetic instincts were joined to a missionary 
ardour which impelled her to form a Religious community, 
but which the time in which she lived made it difficult to 
translate into active work. The Order was finally formed 
in 1746; the Religious live each in a little cell; Matins 
are said at 1 a.m. ; and no meat is ever eaten. Widows can- 
not join the Order. The founder died in 1 758. She also 
instituted, in conjunction with Domenico Olivieri, a Con- 
gregation of Secular Missionary Priests of S. John Baptist, 
of which Pius VI. was a member. The Ven. Solimani's 
niece came to Rome in 1775, founded a monastery at S. 
Nicola da Tolentino, and was given that fine church, which 
had originally been destined for the Discalced Augustin- 
ians. The present Roman monastery is in Via Varese 9. 
The Hermits {Romite) of S. John Baptist dress da /rate, 
i.e. in brown tunic and cloak ; the girdle is a hair cord, 
and the sandals are made of cord. They wear a dark 
veil, and sleep, as do some other Orders, in their clothes. 
They observe strict enclosure. 



OBLATES* IN ROME. 

Besides the Benedictine Oblates of Tor de' Specchi 
(p. 113), and the Ecclesiastical Congregation of Oblates 
of Mary Immaculate (p. 313), there are several com- 
munities of Augustinian Oblates in Rome. Oblates, as 
the name implies, are not bound by perpetual vows ; 
they offer themselves and their life and work, and the 
offering is perpetual. No Communities of Oblates are 
enclosed ; they are free to quit the Community, and 
in some cases to marry. 

(a) In 1652 Donna Camilla Farnese founded a con- 
o a f n the blatCS g re S at ' on °f Augustinian Oblates of the Seven Dolours, a 
title which up till then had not been assumed by any 
Community.! Though these Oblates take no vows, mak- 
ing a simple offering of their person to the house, they 
promise perpetual stability, with conversion of manners 

* See Chap. II., page 77. 
f Cf. Servites, p. 196, 



Augustin- 



Seven 
Dolours 
(Sette 
Dolori). 



CANONS 247 

and obedience to the Constitutions. The Sisters are 
divided into choir and lay (in maximum proportion of 
33 to 14) ; the former are of noble families. The 
founder ordained that those whose infirmities prevented 
their reception in other Communities, should be received 
into this. The Sisters may go out to visit the 3 great 
basilicas, though they never go beyond the walls of the 
city. For the rest, their house and charming garden, 
Monastero delle Sette Dolori in Via Garibaldi on the 
ascent to S. Pietro in Montorio, content them. The 
habit is black, with a stuff girdle, a square plaited guimpe 
and a white veil. In the street they wear a long black 
mantle from the head to the ankles, the two ends caught 
up in front as far as the knees. 

(/>) The Oblates of the Bambin Gesu are interesting Augustin- 
as a pioneer community of unenclosed women for the ^P^S 
education of girls of the middle class, founded by Anna j e g U g 
Moroni in 1662. Their old and well known house in (Bambin 
the Via Urbana opposite S. Pudenziana is a boarding Gesu )- 
school, and the Oblates prepare girls for their first Com- 
munion. The habit is a loose black robe with the 
Augustinian girdle, a plain coif passing above the ears, 
with a black veilette tied under the chin. 

(/) The Oblates of the Monastery of S. Pasquale, after Augustin- 
which they are called, live in the annexed convent Via jan Oblates 
Anicia 13. They have a gratuitous elementary school for ( ,uaie. 
girls. Black habit scapular and veil, with rosary ; and 
long cloak in the streets. 

{d) The Oblate Filippine have now an institute for Oblates of 
the " education and instruction of young ladies," and S. p . hlll P 
occupy the Monastery of S. Philip Neri in the Via dei 
Quattro Cantoni 50. These Oblates were founded in the 
time of Urban VIII. as the directors and teachers of 100 
poor girls snatched from the temptations of misery and 
poverty. They occupied the old Monastery of the Cross 
on Monte Citorio from 1669 to 1695, when the palace 
projected by Innocent XII. necessitated their return to 
their old home at S. Lucia della Chiavica. Habit, a very 
dark gray, a plaited round guimpe, and a white veil in 



248 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

the house. According to HeUyot they used to wear a 
rochet, tied with a white cord. 
Oblates of («?) The Augtistinian Oblates of the Assumption (As- 
sunzionisti) are an active missionary society founded in 
Paris in the middle of this century, with a mission in 
Constantinople. They enjoy the sinister distinction of 
editing the French Catholic newspaper " La Croix." 
(Paris, rue Francois I. 8.) Procura Piazza Aracoeli n. 
Habit, a black tunic, leathern belt, capuce and hood, a 
rosary, and the priest's hat. 



the As- 
sumption, 



CHAPTER V. 

SECTION I. THE SISTERS OF CHARITY. 

The Coming of the Sisters of Charity.- — Sisters of 

Charity of S. Vincent de Paul — Mary Ward and the Institute 
of Mary — Filles de la Sagesse — Petites Soeurs des Pauvres 

— the Bon Secours of Troyes. Sisters of Charity in Rome 

— Nursing Sisterhoods — Teaching Sisterhoods — Missionary 
Sisterhoods — Congregations following the fesuit Rule — Semi- 
enclosed Congregations — dress of the active Charitable Con- 
gregations. 

SECTION II. CLERKS REGULAR. 

The Theatines — Somaschi — Barnabites — fesuits — Clerks Minor 

— Ministers of the Infirm — Clerks of the Mother of God — 
and of Pious Schools. Ecclesiastical Congregations — Religious 
Institutes. 

Missionary work — Confraternities. 

Few events have so changed and renewed the face of TheCom- 
Christendom as the Coming of the Sisters of Charity, gl^'of 
The ' Coming of the friars ' which Dr. Jessopp describes Charity, 
for us so vividly has stirred to the depths the monks on 
the one hand and the parish priests on the other, but the 
Sisters of Charity have influenced still more profoundly 
the great lay world. Those wider possibilities which had 
opened before the saints of the ' Catholic Reaction ' were 
stultified by the ecclesiastical atavism in favour with 
Pius V. and the Council of Trent ; and it is significant 
that the laws enforcing enclosure were rigorously carried 
out on the very eve of the spontaneous and universal 
movement towards unenclosed Orders, while the Consti- 
tutions for the reform of the clergy, so urgently needed, 
have remained in abeyance to the present day. The 
scandals which had culminated in the xvi. century were 
249 



250 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

ecclesiastical scandals, due in S. Bernard's words 5 cen- 
turies earlier, to " ambition how boundless ! avarice how 
insatiable ! " They had left the laity on one side. That 
wholesome intervention of women in the life of the xm. 
century noticed by Dandolo had given place to the igno- 
rance and ineffectiveness which have been pointed out as 
one of the causes of the success of the Reformation. 
This ineffectiveness was swept away by the torrent of 
workers who now inundated Christendom. A moral 
miracle took place in the uprising of women all over the 
world, forming themselves, at their own initiative, into 
congregations of workers — -those energetic figures whose 
religious dress is identified with importunate activity for 
their neighbour — the "active Orders." 

TheFilles In 1630 S. Vincent de Paul proposed to Louise de 
^ la . . Marillac, widow of M. Legras, the institution of a society 
of Dames de la Charity to visit the domiciles of the poor 
and assist the sick. The work began, but soon outgrew 
the resources of the Ladies of Charity, who appointed 
some women of the peasant class to assist them, their 
duties being at once those of servants of the Dames and 
of the poor. Thus arose those Filles de la Charite whose 
loving simple and holy work has made them the embodi- 
ment of Charity. No one acknowledged these peasant 
women, in peasant's dress, going about by twos and threes, 
at everybody's beck and call. Teresa's Carmelites and 
the new Visitation Order attracted all the respect of the 
religious world. But to-day " the Daughter of France " 
is blest in every country, and follows the flag of every 
Catholic nation going to war. For they are one of the 
glories of France, they are the First Sisters of Charity ; 
the preservation of the religious life without enclosure 
had been for centuries held an impossibility, S. Vincent 
taught his Daughters to find the presence of God in the 
Rules. service of the afflicted. He legislated for them and these 

are his rules: "To quit all things on earth, and not to 
quit oneself," he said, "would be doing nothing:" The 
Daughters of Charity are to have no grille, no veil, no 




Sister of Cmarity of S. Vinceht 
de Paul. 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 



251 



cell, no cloister : " the streets of the city or the houses 
of the sick shall be your cells, your chapel the parish 
church, obedience your solitude, the fear of God your 
grating, a strict and holy modesty your only veil." Pre- 
serving this they will " be better cloistered than Religious." 
He tells them that they are the " First Called," " for such 
a state of life has not been since the Apostles, and now 
simple village girls are called to it." He gave them 
special instructions how they might be kept in peace 
amid the confusion and distraction of their life, the Rule 
remitting all religious exercises when needful for the ser- 
vice of the poor. " Spiritual persons make shipwreck " 
he said " because they seek their own satisfaction in con- 
fession, communion, prayer, and all spiritual conversa- 
tions." 

Their name was to be " Sisters of Charity, Servants of 
the sick poor." S. Vincent had seen the failure of 
S. Francis de Sales' scheme in founding the Visitation, 
and said to his Daughters : " You are not Religious, and 
if ever you become so the society will be at extreme 
unction." The Sisters rise at 4 or 5, and go to bed at 9 Work, 
or 10. They never go to the dormitory, and have no rest 
between these hours, which are spent in unremitting works 
of charity. They recite prayers together morning and 
night, and morning and evening they make half an hour's 
meditation ; besides this they spend half an hour in read- 
ing, hear mass, make two examinations of conscience, and 
recite the rosary. The Mother-house is in Paris, and of 
the 5 years' noviciate required most of the first year is 
spent there. At the end of the first year the habit is 
taken and when the 5 years are completed 4 vows are 
made, poverty, chastity, obedience, and the service of the 
poor. The vows are simply annual, and are renewed 
every year on the day of the Annunciation. The Mother- 
General is elected every 3 years, is Superior of the Mother- 
house, and appoints all other Superiors. She has Sec- 
retaries for all European languages and no religious 
Congregation preserves a more intimate connection with 
the Mother- house and more esprit de corps among its 



Name. 
Profession. 

Govern- 
ment. 
Habit. 



252 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

members. The Superior-General of the Filles de la 
Charity is the Superior for the time being of the Lazarist 
Fathers, and the representative of S. Vincent. Their 
dress was at first and has always remained the French 
peasant's dress of that time, a blue gown and apron, and 
a stiff white cap called the cornette. In Italy they are 
called zoccolette because they originally wore sabots, zoccoli. 
They wear the same dress and keep the same rule every- 
where. The Sisters perform every work of charity, nurs- 
ing in hospitals, teaching in poor-schools, taking charge of 
orphans, tending the sick at their homes, keeping night 
refuges for poor girls, serving on missions. They are 
supposed to number 30,000 ; in France alone there are 
nearly 10,000, who have 800 schools and nurse in 300 
hospitals. The Filles have Missions in China, Persia, 
Turkey, Syria, India, and America. Some 300 or 400 
Sisters reside at the Mother-house in Paris, Rue du Bac. 
It is here that a novice had the revelation of the so-called 
" miraculous medal " of the B. V. M., and in the same 
chapel of the house the "Scapular of the Passion" was 
revealed to another novice.* A greater distinction is 
that Sceur Rosalie, "the Mother of the poor" was one 
of their number. 

Two anecdotes show with what charming liberty of 
spirit and simple piety the Filles de la Charite' have done 
their work. During the Revolution it is said that the 
mob having met some of the Sisters carrying food to the 
poor, stopped them, and declared that if they were good 
citoyennes they must dance. " Very well," they acqui- 
esced at once, " we will dance with all our hearts, but do 
not make us forget the poor ; " and they were allowed, 
laughingly, to pass. In the lifetime of S. Vincent a Sister 
who was dying told him that she had no trouble about 
the past, except perhaps that she had taken too much 
pleasure in serving the poor. He asked her how this 
was, and she replied " When I went to see them I 
seemed not to walk, but to have wings and fly, so great 
was my happiness in serving them." 
* See p. 192. 



THE SISTERS OF CHAR TT Y 



253 



S. Vincent's institution was introduced into Rome by 
Donna Teresa Doria-Pamfili in 18 19, who founded a 
company of Roman matrons, married women and widows 
at S. M. de' Monti, the work spreading to other parishes, 
such as S. Agostino and S. Salvatore in Lauro. Later she 
founded the Hospitaller Sisters described on page 271. 

In Rome the Filles de la Charity have 9 houses : in Rome. 
Salita di S. Onofrio 50; and 35 ; Via dei Bresciani 32 ; 
Via S. Agata de' Goti 24 ; Via S. Nicola da Tolentino 16 ; 
Via delle Zoccolette 16 ; Via della Scalaccia 29 ; Via di 
Porta Angelica 2 ; Via di S. Maria in Cappella 6. 

At the last named house in Trastevere, with its cool 
cloister garden, the Filles manage the Dormitory of 100 
beds, which is one of the charities of the Circolo San 
Pietro. 



S. Vincent was the son of a peasant, and as a lad had S. Vincent 
been sold into captivity by pirates. Here he suffered so de d Pa h ul 
many hardships that he determined to work to alleviate Lazarists. 
suffering wherever he saw it. He was ordained in 1600, 
and being called by the Archbishop of Paris to direct 
the " College des Bons Enfants," the " Congregation of 
the Mission " took shape during the work of catechising 
and confessing performed by him at this time. The 
huge cloister of S. Lazare was given him by its Prior, 
and here he formed the apostles whom he trained to serve 
the disinherited in their spiritual and temporal miseries. 
The Fathers of the Mission* are called Lazarists after Lazarists 
their home, and Vincentian Fathers after S. Vincent. 
They are secular priests, living a community life. Their 
Procura is in Via della Missione 2, and they are in charge 
of the church of S. Silvestro, Via del Quirinale. But these 
two great works do not exhaust this man's genius for charity 
which merited for him the title of " Pere des pauvres." 
The work of rescuing abandoned children resulted in the 
foundation of the first Foundling Hospital (1640). At 

* It has been thought more convenient to notice Congregations 
of men and women by the same founder or founded for the same 
ends, together, in this and the next section of the chapter. 



in Rome. 



S. Vincent 
" Father of 
the Poor." 



254 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Mademoi- 
selle 
Legras. 



S. Martin a Home for Incurables was opened ; and the 
Salpetriere originated in the asylums for work and instruc- 
tion which S. Vincent peopled with beggars (1657). In 
these, and many other works for those stricken with pest 
and famine, the Dames and the Filles de la Charity took 
part. 

On September 25, 1660, being nearly 85 years old, 
S. Vincent breathed his last. Asked why he could not 
conquer his sleeplessness, he answered smiling: "C'est 
le frere qui attend sasceur" — the brother Sleep awaiting 
his sister Death. Surely no human being ever left a more 
wonderful legacy to children than this " Father of the 
Poor's " love for his neighbour ! 

S. Vincent was of middle height, the head well shaped, 
the carriage full of dignity, the glance penetrating and 
sweet, the countenance benign and grave. In his black 
priest's soutane and berretta, a short beard, a poor child 
in his arms, he is unmistakable in pictures. (July 19.) 

Mademoiselle Legras, the first to take the vows, and 
the first Superior of the Dames and Filles de la Charity, 
also died in 1660. Her own great love of poverty she 
would recommend to her Daughters in the words " mak- 
ing your state like that in which our Lord and His holy 
Mother so often found themselves." * 



Sisters of 
S. Vincent 
de Paul. 
Sceurs 
grises. 
Dress. 



The Soeurs de St. Vincent de Paul are distinct from 
the Filles de St. Vincent de Paul, from whom they sep- 
arated at the time of the Revolution. They devote 
themselves to the same works, and have an illustrious 
record of charity. Their Rule was written by Soeur 
Thouret in 1799, and their Protector is S. Vincent. 
Their dress is dark gray with wide sleeves and a black 
apron ; they wear a black veil over stiff white which 
shows beyond it, with a bandeau and a broad guimpe 
divided in front. 

They have 18 houses, hospitals and institutes in Rome ; 
the Mother-house at the Bocca della Verita, Via della 



* Her ' cause ' is before the Congregation of Rites. 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 



255 



Salara 2 ; Via Ferruccio 2 1 ; Arco de' Banchi 3 ; Piazza 
S. M. in Trastevere 23 ; Ospizio Margherita di Savoia 
(orphanage) Piazza delle Terme 15 (the ex-Carthusian 
monastery) ; Vicolo de' Tabacchi 1 ; Via di S. Francesco 
129; Hospital of S. Spirito (Via dei Penitenzieri 13) ; 
Hospital of the Consolazione, near the Forum ; Military 
Hospitals in Via Celimontana, and Piazza S. Croce in 
Gerusalemme ; Hospital of S. Galla, Via Montanara 121 ; 
Hospital of S. Antonio by S. M. Maggiore, for chronic 
cases (ex-Camaldolese nunnery) ; Hospice for beggars 
at S. Cosimato ; Public Dormitory, Vicolo del Falco 6 ; 
Ophthalmic Institute Vicolo dei Riari, Letter D ; Found- 
ling Hospital, Villino Sciarra, S. Pietro in Montorio; 
Disinfecting Establishment, Via S. Sabina. 

The Freres de St. Vincent de Paul, or Vincentian 
Brothers, form a lay Religious institute, dedicated to the 
education of working lads. Their Mother-house is in 
Paris, and their house in Rome is in Piazza Campitelli 3.* 



Freres de 
St. Vincent 
de Paul in 
Rome. 



MARY WARD AND THE INSTITUTE OF MARY. 



While Francis and Dominic were projecting their 
Orders the Lateran Council under Innocent III. passed 
a decree that no new Order should be added to the 
Church. Just before Mary Ward was to form her Insti- 
tute for unenclosed women, and so be the pioneer of 
the great work now accomplished, the Council of Trent 
under Pius V. had passed a decree that every community 
of women should be strictly enclosed. 

Mary Ward, a Yorkshire woman, was born in 1585, and 
keenly aware of the perils of ignorance, formed her Insti- 
tute, a band of strong women who adopting no religious 



Mary Ward 
and the 
Institute 
of Mary. 



* The Conferenza di S. Vincenzo de' Paoli is a lay association 
funned in Paris by S. Vincent himself, with a view to enlisting lay 
aid in parish work. It is established in several Roman parishes, 
and affords permanent help in food doles, and sometimes in clothes, 
to well-attested cases of poverty. The members of the conferenza 
are men, who visit and inquire into each case; and all the work is 
at once lay and gratuitous. 



256 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

habit were to devote themselves to the education of girls. 
But her scheme required two points which in the age of 
the Catholic reaction met with no favour : there was to 
be no enclosure, and the institute was to be subject only 
to its woman superior, under the Holy See. Though this 
is now the prevailing usage, it was then unheard of; and 
Pope Urban VIII. could not understand an Order gov- 
erned by a woman. A Bull was issued condemning the 
Institute, and declaring the reason, which was that "the 
members had undertaken a task beyond the strength and 
resources of their sex." Mary herself was imprisoned in 
a Franciscan convent, as heretic, schismatic, and rebel ; 
and died in 1645. It was not till 1703 that after im- 
mense difficulties the brave band of women who had 
persisted in upholding the design of their chief, were 
approved by Clement XL, who exclaimed " Let women 
be governed by themselves " (" Lasciate governare le 
donne dalle donne ! "). 

The original Mother-house is at Nymphenburg, the 
Bavarian Royal Family having consistently protected 
Mary Ward and her Institute. They are there known as 
Englische Fraulein {Dames Anglaises) .* The Institute 
was again approved in 1877, and is divided into several 
independent branches with Mother-houses in Bavaria, 
Austria, Italy (Lodi), England (York) and Ireland. The 
Irish Sisters in all parts of the world are called Loreto 
nuns, on account of their practice of dedicating all their 
houses to our Lady of Loreto. A division has occurred 
among the English Religious, the York Convent, which 
had been subject to the Bavarian, applying in 1816 for 
the Generalate authority, under the belief that Napoleon 
had dispersed the Sisterhood in Bavaria. This York 
house proceeded to adopt enclosure, which was essen- 
tially opposed to the scheme of the Founder. Hence 
the other English Mother-house at Haverstock Hill is 
subject to the Bavarian Generalate, is of course unen- 
closed, and has been active lately in founding a house in 

* The original Congregation (suppressed) had been miscalled 
Jesuitesses. 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 257 

Rome (1898) ; while the York House has just (1898) 
undertaken a high class school for girls at Cambridge. 
Address in Rome Via Nazionale 87. The Habit differs 
slightly, but the constant features are the black gown 
plaited to the figure and tight sleeves, black veil over a 
white cap, a linen tippet tied in front by 4 small bows of 
tape, and lawn cuffs. 

FILLES DE LA SAGESSE. 

The Filles de la Sagesse, or Sceurs Grises, are among Filles de 
the most widely extended of any community in France, Sa S esse> 
especially in the West. They were founded in Brittany 
in the first years of the last century, the scheme being 
entirely due to B. Louis Grignon de Montfort. The first 
object of the Sisters was to be the nursing of the sick, 
and to emphasise this the community was " born in a 
hospital," the first members being hospital girls. But the 
education of young children was also to be an integral 
part of their vocation, and hence schools were started 
from the first at La Rochelle where the community began 
work in 17 15. 

Louise Trichet, born in Poitiers in 1684, was the first 
to take the gray habit of the community in 1 703 J and 
sne is the actual creator of the Order ; leaving it, after 
46 years of continual work, one of the most flourishing 
in France. The Rule is Augustinian. The community 
passed through the Revolution and was one of the few 
which escaped destruction. They continued to tend the 
sick in face of the guillotine, and many of them suffered 
" with pardon in their hearts, and a song on their lips." 
The Mother-house, in the centre of the war raging in 
La Vendee, became a hospital for the wounded of both 
sides ; and part of the Sisters' work was to save the 
Republicans from the vengeance of the people. They 
were rewarded by massacre and pillage : their convent 
of Saint-Laurent was set on fire, 2 Sisters were mas- 
sacred, and 26 led away, chained in couples, and taken 
before the Republican chief. Nine died in prison, 6 were 



258 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Present 
day. 



Company 
of Mary. 



guillotined at Nantes, Rennes, and Longeron ; one mas- 
sacred at Caron, and another at Le Mans ; while 4 died 
of misery in the prison of the latter place. Several were 
herded together on a barrow on the way to the prison, 
when the Republicans ordered two to get down, and mas- 
sacred them before the eyes of their Sisters. Others 
were saved through the timely death of Robespierre. 
Soeur Eugenie of La Rochelle after a Republican dis- 
cussion which lasted several hours rose up and thus 
addressed them : " C'est assez, Messieurs ; ma parole 
definitive, la voici : La guillotine est en permanence, 
qu'on m'y conduise ; un serment contraire a ma con- 
science, on ne l'obtiendra jamais." Later, she was told 
that all her companions were ordered to prison, but " be 
consoled," they added, "you will not go into exile with 
them." Then Soeur Eugenie supplicated them not to 
separate her, " Save them with me, or exile me with 
them." And she was then led to share their prison. 

The Sisters number 4650, and have 384 houses in 
France and Belgium. Their work is, in Grignon de Mont- 
fort's words, " the consolation of all the wants of the 
poor." They wage war with human misery, in the sick, 
the abandoned, the blind, the deaf-mutes. They have a 
house in England at Bromley, Kent. There is now a 
house in Rome, 31 Corso d'ltalia. The habit is a coarse 
light gray gown and apron, with white peasant's cap, a 
white muslin jfc£*, and sandals ; and a large crucifix stuck 
in the chestpiece of the apron. In winter they wear a 
long black cloak with a hood. 

Grignon de Montfort also instituted a company of Mis- 
sionary priests, under the name of Company of Mary, also 
called Missionary Priests of the Holy Spirit. They were 
approved by Brief in 1853. Their sole work was to be the 
preaching of missions in France ; they were to have no 
schools, no seminaries, no parochial charge. The 3 vows 
were to be taken annually for 5 years, and then made 
perpetual. The Company of Mary and the Sceurs de la 
Sagesse are under the same government. When the con- 
stitutions of the former were re-approved in 1872, it was 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 259 

specified that the members should be recruited not only 
from ecclesiastics but also from youths who had attended 
the preparatory theological classes, in order to replace the 
Seminary "du Saint-Esprit." * All are bound to absolute 
poverty ; in their own words, to an absolute dependence 
on Providence. Lay members were enrolled from the 
first, to attend to the temporal concerns of the com- 
munity ; and from the first these taught infant classes. 
But in 1 82 1 they united with some teaching Brothers 
from Brittany, and became a separate Congregation under 
the name of Freres de Saint-Gabriel. They number some Fibres de 
600 in different French dioceses. Since this time the lay St - Gabriel - 
members of the Company of Mary no longer instruct ; 
they wear ordinary laymen's black dress, with paletot. In 
1 87 1 the first Fathers undertook the mission to Haiti. 
The Company of Mary also received its baptism of blood, 
2 priests and 4 lay brethren being massacred for their 
faith. 

This Company has just settled in Rome in Via Toscana. In Rome. 



PETITES SCEURS DES PAUVRES. 

In the first half of this century, 2 sempstresses, Marie 
Jamet and Virginie Tredaniel, lived at S. Servan, by S. 
Malo in Brittany. Their hearts were full of the love of 
God, and they ardently desired to do something to help 
the aged poor. In the same place there lived a good 
priest, the Abbe le Pailleur, intent oh a similar good work, 
and together they founded a Congregation which has be- 
come one of the best known and one of the most popular 
in the Church. To them was joined Jeanne Jugan, born 
at a fishing village in Brittany in 1792, the first queteuse. 
They gathered together 12 poor women, to begin with, 
but then their little funds would not suffice to feed them.| 

* See p. 309. 

t Their first old woman, 80 years old and blind, was carried to 
the garret in S. Servan, which is the cradle of their Community, in 
1840. 



260 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

It was now that Jeanne seized a basket, and began the 
quite, that begging from house to house for their poor 
which has become a signal feature of charitable sister- 
hoods. But the Little Sisters of the Poor are to be seen 
everywhere ; for Jeanne once saw a great opportunity of 
getting money for her poor at a regatta ; at first she hesi- 
tated, seeing the gay fashionable crowd, then she went on 
bravely, and returned with her bag heavy. From that day 
the Little Sisters have frequented race courses, regattas, 
fetes, hotels. They sail out to meet ironclads, making 
their request always in the same few simple words " Pour 
mes pauvres, s'il vous plait." 

" Whoever heard of making a community of a few poor 
sempstresses ? " said the good people, when they heard 
of it. But the community prospered, a piece of ground 
and part of an ex-convent were at last bought; and to 
purchase it the Abb£ le Pailleur sold his furniture and 
resigned a legacy, and Jeanne gave what remained of 3000 
francs which she had received as the "Prix de vertu." 
For this good woman's name was known throughout 
France as a benefactor, and when the money arrived she 
regarded it as an entirely impersonal matter ; she had 
somehow gained 3000 francs for the poor, and that was 
all she knew about it. 
Object. The object of the Congregation is to provide a refuge 

for the aged destitute of both sexes ; here they are loved 
and tended with maternal and filial care ; the women are 
known as bonnes femmes, the men as petits vieux, and 
no one can have seen one of their houses without com- 
ing away the better for it. But it was not without grave 
difficulty that the Congregation attained to official recog- 
nition. For years the Little Sisters were regarded with 
suspicion by ecclesiastical superiors, and only at length 
did Cardinal Matthieu obtain the Papal sanction. Their 
troubles indeed are rather fresh proof that opposition is 
no sign of ultimate failure in good works, than that au- 
thority should at once concede every new thing recom- 
mended. 

The Rule of S. Augustine was adapted to the new 












& . 


^^^^ 


§F 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 



261 



Congregation, the head of which is called Bonne Mere Constitu- 
Superieure. To the usual 3 vows is added a 4 1 ! 1 , hospi- tlon - 
tality. Le Pailleur was known as " Bon Pere General " 
till he retired in 1890. There is a simple and solemn 
ceremony of reception. No gold or silver ornaments 
are allowed in their churches, even on the altar. The 
Mother-house, where novices are trained, is at Pern near 
Becherel, Ille et Vilaine ; it is called " La Tour St. 
Joseph." The Little Sisters are to be found in Belgium, 
Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Germany, England, 
Africa, America, Australia, and in India, and they have 
houses in nearly every great town. Thes^ number about Number of 
260 ; and there are over 4000 sisters having the care of Houses - 
30,000 old people. They have no invested funds, and 
rely on public charity. 

Every house has 2 large dormitories, lighted by large 
windows ; a pharmacy, a kitchen, and an infirmary. To 
these is added a small chapel, and a walled garden. The 
Sisters came to London in 185 1, and knowing no Eng- 
lish, begged with the simple words " no money, many 
poor." They were prosecuted as mendicants, but the 
Press took up their cause, and declared that every re- 
ligious and charitable institution in fact begged. The 
case was therefore dismissed. It was here that they 
began to leave large sacks and cans for refuse at the 
great commercial houses. The Little Sisters have ma- 
chines for utilising all sorts of scraps. They were ill 
received in Manchester where they arrived during the 
cotton famine j but Protestants and Catholics ended by 
uniting to hold a great bazaar for the expenses of their 
Home. They were received with special respect by the 
colliers of the Black Country through which they trav- 
elled begging. 

Jeanne Jugan died in 1879, aged 86. "Eternal Jeanne 
Father," she said, " open Thy gates to the most abject of J u S an - 
Thy little daughters." It has been said that with her the 
religious life was no sudden experience, but the spiritu- 
alising of a noble nature. The early history of the little 
congregation teems with the miracles of charitable aid 



The 
House. 



In Eng- 
land. 



262 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



In Rome. 



Habit. 



which attended this great ministry of love — flour and 
food would be found set down at the door, when the 
inmates had nothing left to give their guests. In an 
office where she was rudely received Jeanne replied : " I 
am all that you say, but what will you give me for my 
poor?" A Prefect of whom she begged struck her — 
" That is for myself," she said, " now what will you give 
me for my poor?" In fact they won through that irre- 
sistible meekness, courage, and love to which Christ has 
promised victory. It was not till 1893 that "Bonne 
Mere General " (Marie Jamet) died. The Empress Eu- 
genie warmly supported the struggling Community, and 
the Little Sisters always mention her name with gratitude. 
Their house in Rome is in Piazza S. Pietro in Vincoli, 
with a French Superior. Their habit is black, with an 
ample black cloak and hood, gathered at the back of the 
head. 



SCEURS DE NOTRE-DAME AUXILIATRICE OU DE BON 
SECOURS DITES GARDE-MALADES. 

This Congregation was founded at Troyes by a Canon 
of that diocese (Paul Sebastien Millet) in 1840. It is 
the first purely nursing order. The Mother-house and 
Noviciate are at Troyes, and there the Sisters are trained 
as nurses. They not only tend the sick at their own 
homes, but sleep out of the convent, and may take their 
meals with the people of the house where they are nurs- 
ing. They nurse every one without distinction of creed 
or class, and are not hampered by any of those most 
unfitting restrictions with which many religious Commu- 
nities limit the usefulness of so holy a task, but are to 
perform every service necessary for the sick person. 

The Congregation is governed by a Superior-General, 
and is under the Bishop of the diocese of Troyes- Aube. 
The title of the Superiors of houses is Sister-Superior. 
The Sisters accept the necessary hardships of their call- 
ing in place of fasts and similar austerities. The keynote 
of the Community is charity and simplicity ; the charity 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 



263 



which ' leaves Christ for Christ,' and simplicity in the 
conception of their life and duties. One characteristic 
is that this Congregation never begs, never makes any 
charge, though it is unendowed and therefore dependent 
on the generosity of those who can afford to recompense 
the care they receive. 

There are 120 houses in France and abroad, and about 
2000 Sisters. The Congregation was approved by Pius 
IX. in 1877. The Address in Rome is Via degli Artisti In Ron 
38, near Via Sistina, where there are Sisters of different 
nationalities to meet the needs of sick persons in this 
cosmopolitan city. The Habit and veil are black, and Habit, 
under the guimpe a crucifix is suspended from a violet 
ribbon, which serves to distinguish them : they are known 
also for their careful and clean appearance.* 



OTHER ACTIVE CONGREGATIONS, WITH HOUSES IN ROME. 

Although the larger number and the more important 
Congregations of charity are French in origin, the Italian 
and Roman foundations appear first in the following 
descriptions. 

{Sisters of Charity.} the sisters of chaeitt, daughters of 
our lady of mount calvart, are a Genoese Congregation 
founded by Virginia Centurioni Braccelli in 1619. Their 
work is among the blind and deaf-mutes, and all the hos- 
pitals in Genoa are in their hands. They do not take 
vows, but bind themselves to persevere. The Mother- 
house (Casa Generalizia) is at the ex-Premonstratensian 
Convent of S. Norberto, given them by Gregory XVI., Via 
Agostino Depretis 52, 53 ; they have the Asilo Tommaso 
Pendola for deaf-mutes, with a creche and 2 gratuitous 
girls' schools, in Via Napoli 21 B, 21 F; and have charge 
of the blind asylum at S. Alessio on the Aventine, the 

* There is another Congregation with the same name, the Bon 
Secours de Paris, founded in 1810 by Monseigneur de Quelen, one 
of whose principal objects is nursing. They wear a frilled cap, 
and a crucifix on the breast. 



264 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Pio Ricovero for Deaf-mutes in Via del Colosseo 61, and 
the R. Istituto for Deaf-mutes in Via Nomentana. Habit, 
scapular and apron, black ; the black veil falls from the 
centre of the head, showing the bandeau and half the 
white cap ; the guimpe is round. Out of doors they wear 
a cloak. Novices wear a white veil. [These sisters are 
called Norbertine in Rome from their church of S. Nor- 
bert, and Brignoline elsewhere after their Protector Cardi- 
nal Brignoli.j 

the daughters of charity, called Canossiane, were founded 
by the Ven. Canossa of Verona, sister of the aged Cardi- 
nal of that name still living. They have orphanages and 
asylums for the aged poor ; the Missiotie Canossiana at 
Hankow in China employed in combatting the prejudices 
and miseries of the people ; and a mission station in 
Armenia. Their Mother-house is in Milan. Address in 
Rome : Via Zabaglia, corner of Via Alessandro Volta. 
Habit, brown, with a black frilled cap, over which they 
wear a brown shoulder cape and a black veil out of doors. 

sisters of charity of the ven. capitanio, founded by her in 
Milan on the pattern of the Sisters of S. Vincent de Paul, 
with the Augustinian Rule. They work in hospitals and 
schools. In Rome, however, they collect the poor chil- 
dren of the quarter, and teach them. Address : Via de' 
Penitenzieri 45. Habit black, with a black shawl and 
black silk coif, frilled in front ; no guimpe or other white 
about the face. 

daughters of s. maria DEu.* orto, founded by the Ven. 
(Monsignor) Giannelli at Chiavari in 1835, f° r educa- 
tion and hospitals ; the work being entirely gratuitous. 
They have a mission at Montevideo in S. America. 
Address in Rome : Via Quattro Cantoni 45 ; and Palazzo 
De Romanis, Via delle Mura outside Porta S. Lorenzo. 
Habit, black with a black veil, and the bandeau and 
guimpe in one piece. 

daughters of the divine providence, a Roman Congregation 
founded in 1867 for works of beneficence, especially the 
care of asylums and orphans. The Sisters live a labori- 
ous life of charity in great poverty. Address : Via Gal- 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 265 

vani 51 (Mother- house) ; via Coronari 45-47; Piazza 
del Monte di Pieta 30 ; here they have gratuitous girls' 
schools, and conduct the asilo di S. Filippo Neri (creches) 
for children from 3 to 7 years old of both sexes ; Villa 
Gangalanti outside Porta Salaria, where they have a pay- 
ing school ; in Via Mastro Giorgio 70 they direct one of 
the Refuge halls for children of workmen. Habit, black 
with a frilled black coif, a cape, and a crucifix on the 
breast. The lay sisters have the coif white. 

THE PICCOLA MISSIONEAI SORDO-MtTTIABBANDONATI (Little Mission 

to deserted Deaf-mutes), was founded at Bologna in 1872, 
and is one of the many Religious charities existing for 
this end in Italy, where deaf-mutes and cripples abound. 
The founders, Doctor Cesare Gualandi, a priest, with his 
brother (now the head of the institution) and some asso- 
ciates, seeing how large a proportion of the increasing 
number of deaf-mutes in Italy * live without the knowl- 
edge necessary to the moral, civil and religious life, 
established his Piccola Missione comprising 3 classes 
(a) Priests, (b) Laymen, and (c) Sisters. The last class is 
the largest. The deaf-mutes, boys and girls, are kept for 
8 years, the boys paying 35 and the girls 30 lire a month. 
The Association came to Rome in 1883 at the invitation 
of the Cardinal Vicar, and has an establishment in Bologna 
and in Florence. Approbation was applied for in 1888, 
but most institutions undergo a long period of probation 
before this is obtained. A useful feature of this congre- 
gation is that the priests hold spiritual conferences every 
Sunday for all deaf-mutes who wish to attend, and hold 
themselves at the disposition of those who have left the 
institution. Address : Palazzo Bulla, Via dei Gracchi, 
Prati di Castello. Habit (women) black dress, with a 
plain net veil on the head. 

SORELLEDEI POVEKI DI 8. CATERINA DA SIENA. The IstitUtO di 

S. Caterina in Siena was founded by Madre Savina Petrilli 
in 1874. By her energy and charitable zeal 1200 poor 
children were fed, clothed, and taught a trade as far back 

* In Italy they number 20,000. 



266 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

as 1888 ; the Community then numbering some 85 Sisters. 
In this year a branch was established in Rome, and is 
now settled in Via della Lungara 231. Habit, black dress 
with 3 little shoulder capes, a white collar, and the hair 
in a net ; a crucifix. 

buobe di cakita, figlie DELL- immacolata were founded some 
25 years ago by a Calabrese, who is the present Mother 
Superior. They are intended for all works of charity, for 
the care of orphans, and for nursing the sick at home. 
They have 5 hospitals in America. They teach in 3 
gratuitous schools in Rome. Address : Villa Mirafiori, 
outside Porta Pia (paying school) ; Via SS. Giovanni e 
Paolo 4. Habit, light blue, with a broad white girdle, a 
black muslin veil over stiff white. A black cloak, and 
a small silver medal on the breast, and large crucifix in 
the band.* 

the battistine di gesd nazzareno, were founded at Salerno 
in 1877, their object being to collect poor children and 
orphans, who are tended at their creches (Italian asili). 
Address: Via Germanico 85. Habit, black with cloak 
and red pipings, and a black veil. 

Like the 2 just described and the 2 now to follow, this 
Congregation has not yet received its approbation. 

pbotettorato di s. GIUSEPPE (Protectorate of S. Joseph) a 
amnunity founded some 16 years ago by a French- 
woman, to assume the charge of deserted and orphan male 
children. Babies are received, the Sisters conducting 
creches, and the children being housed and fed until 7 
years of age, when they are old enough to be accepted 
by other institutions. The present Superior presides 
over the new house of the Community outside Porta Pia, 
where she has gathered together 400 little ones. The 
church of S. Costanza, which belonged to the Lateran 
Canons of S. Agnese close by up to this year (1899) has 
been given them. Address: Via Nomentana 281-283.! 

* Most of the Sisterhoods, whatever their original scope, keep a 
school or a creche. When the latter is not gratuitous the charge is 
4 sous a day or 4 francs a month, and the children are kept from 
8 A.M. to 5 P.M. f Since the above was written, this lias ceased to 
count among the religious institutes of Rome. 



THE SISTERS OE CHARITY 



267 



Habit scapular and girdle black ; the coarse linen guimpe 
reaches to the waist, with a crucifix attached to a broad 
black string. The black veil is fitted over the stiff white 
under cap. Rosary on the left side. A blue cotton 
apron in the house. 

figlie di s. giuseppe employ themselves in church needle- 
work and teaching Christian doctrine, and live in Via 
S. Salvatore in Lauro 15. Habit maroon gown, white 
frilled coif, crucifix. 



The Sceurs de la Providence originated in France. Soeurs de 
Their work is the education of children living at a dis- j? Provl ~ 
tance from the towns, the assistance of the sick poor in 
country districts, the holding of evening classes, and the 
visiting of the poor and infirm. There are several local 
communities of the name, with separate rules, habit, and 
government. The Sceurs de la Providence founded by 
M. Dujarid, cure of Ru i lie -sur- Loir with the help of 2 
good women, in 1806, became a vigorous institution in 
the hands of Mademoiselle de Roscoat and Marie Lecor, 
a few years later. The French Sisters of Providence in 
county Mayo, Ireland, are well known ; as are the Irish 
Sisters of Charity of Providence founded by Mother 
Aikenhead. The Rosminian Sisters are ' Sisters of Provi- 
dence of the Institute of Charity.' In Rome there are 4 
Congregations of the name : (a) the b<eubs de la providence, French, 
founded in Paris in 1 760 for education and instruction, who 
came to Rome in 1840 ; and are established in Piazza 
Fiammetta 19, where they have a school. Their well 
known Habit consists of a black gown and apron, with a 
starched white cap, turning up at the sides, and a rosary. 

(b) The 8C3TTRS DE LA PROVIDENCE ET DE L'IMMACULEE CONCEPTION, Belgian. 

founded in 1823 at Namur, for orphans. Their founder 
was a priest, afterwards papal chamberlain to Pius IX. 
They have several houses in Rome, and until lately super- 
intended the House of Correction for women. Address : 
Piazza delle Vaschette 101 ; Via Trionfale, opposite S. 
Onofrio in Campagna ; Via Nomentana 261. Habit, 
black, with a large starched fichu ending in a collar, and a 



268 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

wide ribbon waist band ; a full white cap over forehead 
and ears, over which is a stiff coal-scuttle shaped cap, 
projecting beyond the head. A large rosary, and a brown 
cross hanging from a straight black ribbon at the throat.* 
See page 264 and page 274. 

English. poor servants of the mother op god incarnate and the poor, 

founded by Mother Taylor in London recently. These 
Sisters manage Refuges, Asylums for the aged and infirm, 
national schools, preservation Homes, Orphanages, and 
free Hospitals ; and visit the poor. They have houses in 
Paris, London, Rome, Dublin, and 6 in other parts of 
England. Their Mother-house is Via S. Sebastianello, by 
their little church of S. George and the English Martyrs, 
Piazza di Spagna. Habit, veil and cloak black ; a blue 
scapular, and a large black and metal crucifix. 

German. schwestern von der schmerzhapten mutter (Suore della San- 

tissima Addolorata) founded by a German in Rome in 
1885. The scope is the care of the sick and of children. 
Although the Mother-house and noviciate is in Rome, 
the houses of the Congregation are in America, the Su- 
perior going to Kansas in 1898. There they are known 
as Congregation of the Sorrowful Mother. Roman Ad- 
dress : Borgo Santo Spirito 41 c. on the steps of S. 
Michele in Borgo. Habit, gray, with guimpe covering 
the chest, the face framed with the cap and a low 
bandeau ; a black veil, and rosary. The postulants wear 
a black cap with a white frill framing the face. 

The suore del divin salvatore is another German founda- 
tion established at Tivoli 1 1 years ago, and now moved to 
Rome. Its scope, education and hospitals. Mother-house 
Via della Lungara 112 ; Via Gioberti 10. Habit and veil 
black, small guimpe, black woollen cord, rosary. The 
Society of the Divine Saviour (men) is the parent society, 
the present Superior being the founder. Originally in- 
tended for lay workers and the diffusion of good literature, 

* Not to be confused with the Sisters of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion who are the Teaching branch of the Sisters of the Holy Family, 
as the Sisters of Hope are its Nursing branch. See Oblates of Mary 
Immaculate, Section II. 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 269 

it now comprises also missionary priests. Address : 
Borgo Vecchio 165, where there is a printing press. 
Dress, a sack-shaped soutane and a long cloak with a 
pointed cape. 

The suore della sagra famiglia, Rural Sisters (Suore 
Agricole) who devote themselves to the country districts, Outside 
are established at Tor Pignattara outside Porta Maggiore, Rome - 
and have the land under which the catacomb of Peter 
and Marcellinus extends. They direct the Orfanotrofio 
della Sagra Famiglia which receives gratuitously the 
daughters of poor agricultural labourers. 

This charge of the interests, moral and physical, of the 
peasants of the Roman Campagna, is one of the most 
urgent works of charity. With so large a number of 
Congregations, of Sisters of Charity and companies of 
priests, more might be done for Rome in this respect 
than for most other provinces of Europe. There are 
peasants a few miles from the Gates of the City who have 
never heard mass, who never see a priest, and who live 
in a state of moral and religious degradation, little differ- 
ent from animals. The energetic Circolo San Pietro has 
recently taken up the subject. There are many thousand 
masses said daily in Rome, many score of Benedictions, 
many dozen Expositions of the Sacrament : Some of 
these benefits might be applied with more expedition to 
those who need them far more, were the Religious Con- 
gregations to move, than is to be expected from the urgent 
appeals made to individual priests. 

The stjore del buon e perpetoo soccoRso, is an Italian Con- 
gregation founded exactly 50 years ago in Africa, where 
it counts 19 houses. There are also 3 houses in Belgium 
and 10 in Italy. The Roman Address is Via Merulana 
1 70. The Habit is black, with the customary veil, guimpe 
and bandeau ; on the breast a silver heart with the image 
of the Blessed Virgin (of " Good " and of " Perpetual " 
Succour) on either side. The lay Sisters wear a short 
cape tied with three bows of black ribbon, and show 
white sleeves under the sleeves of the habit. 



270 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

For other Sisters of Charity, see Franciscan Tertiaries 
page 155 ; Dominicans of the Presentation and Domini- 
can Tertiaries pages 175 and 177 ; and Section II. of this 

Italian. Chapter. 

(Nursing Sisters.) the figlie di s. ansa or Daughters of 
S. Anna, were founded by Sister Anna Rosa Gattorno, 
the present Superior-General at Piacenza in 1864. Their 
work is to assist the sick at their homes. Each Sister 
takes the name of Anna. They have a house and do a 
good work in Siena. The Mother-house is in Rome, Via 
Merulana 177. They are also attached to the little par- 
ish of S. Maria del Carmine outside Porta Portese, and 
to the Institute of Surgery in Via Garibaldi ; besides hav- 
ing 2 houses in Vicolo del Piombo 7, and Piazza Cola da 
Rienzo. Habit and veil black, the latter without bandeau 
or coif; black cord tassel and rosary right side, large 
metal crucifix left side.* 

Swiss. The shore dei sacri cuori di oesh e maria were founded re- 

cently for nursing the sick poor at their homes gratui- 
tously. They live under the shadow of S. Peter's at Via 
della Sagrestia 10, but, like so many others, have not 
received their approbation. The Habit and veil are 
black, with two red hearts on the breast. 

kreuzschwestern (Suore Delia Croce tedesca) are Sisters 
of Charity founded in 1845 by Father Theodosius, a Capu- 
chin friar, near Lucerne in German Switzerland. The 
first Mother Superior had to contend with many difficul- 
ties and with great poverty while planting her new Com- 
munity. She came to Rome in 1868 and founded a 
Roman house. The Sisters are prepared for every work 
of charity, and have hospitals, orphanages, and poor 
schools, chiefly in Switzerland. But their great work is 
the gratuitous nursing of the sick poor, for which they 
are trained with loving zeal in their own Swiss hospi- 
tals. They now number some 3000, and have about 400 
houses. At Via S. Basilio 8 they have also a pension for 
convalescents. Their simple dress is black with collarette 

* Not to be confused with the earlier Canadian Congregation of 
the same name. 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 271 

and cape ; a very narrow whimple, bandeau reaching to 
the eyes, and a small black and metal crucifix. Indoors 
they wear a blue apron ; and out of doors a long cloak 
completely covering the dress. The white projects be- 
yond the black of the veil. 

GABDE-HA1ADES DE NOTRE-DAME ATJXILIATRICE DE MONTPELLIER French. 

{Auxiliatrices), a nursing institute founded 52 years ago. 
They nurse sick people at their homes, and in Rome also 
receive poor children of both sexes up to 5 years old, 
for the day hours, a work highly useful to the Roman 
poor. Address : Via Principe Amadeo 5. Habit, a full 
black serge gown and cape to the waist, edged with blue- 
green cord, and a cord and tassel of the same colour. The 
stiff coif reaches to the chin and projects far beyond the 
short veil over the face, with no guimpe. A small black 
crucifix tipped with steel is pendent from a black ribbon. 

little company of mart, a Nottingham Institute for nurs- English, 
ing the sick at their homes. Like most of the active 
Congregations they recite the Little Office of our Lady. 
At their house in Rome they also receive infirm ladies. 
Address : Via Castelfidardo 45. Habit, black, tied with 
a red knotted cord, a blue veil indoors, over which a 
black veil is worn out of doors. 

( Hospital Sisters. ) the hospitaller sisters, called sisters of 
mercy who have charge of the hospital of S. Giovanni in 
Laterano, were founded by Donna Teresa Doria 78 years 
ago, as hospital nurses. The Mother-house is at the 
Lateran hospital, and they have, besides, charge of that 
of S. Giacorno in the Corso, and of S. Gallicano in Piazza 
S. Rufina. 

This is a purely Roman foundation. It consists of a 
convent of oblates and one of converse (lay sisters). The 
former wear a black dress and cape and a black frilled 
coif, over which a veil is worn out of doors, no guimpe, 
and in place of the bandeau a black skull-cap. The 
latter wear a double frilled white coif. A blue check 
apron is worn at work. 

The s(eurs de st. charles de nancy for hospital nursing, had 
their rise in the middle of the xvu. century. The Con- 



272 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

gregation was formed as a memorial of the devoted works 
of mercy and charity of Emmanuel Chauvenet of Nancy, 
a young advocate at the Parliament of Metz, who eventu- 
ally died while nursing an epidemic disease at Toul in 
165 1, leaving his money to the poor. His father per- 
petuated his good works by the formation of this Congre- 
gation in 1652, under the direction of Barbe Thouvenin, 
who with others offered her services. But it was not till 
ten years later that the institution became Religious. It 
has spread from France to Belgium, Prussia, Bohemh, 
and Italy, and passed through the horrors of the Revolu- 
tion. The work of the Sisters includes hospitals for the 
sick of both sexes, military hospitals, hospices for the 
aged of both sexes ; Asylums for orphans, beggars, and 
the demented ; and Houses of Charity with ouvroirs, 
girls' schools, and sick visits. The Sisters are also bound 
to nurse in districts visited by epidemics. There are no 
lay Sisters. They take perpetual vows, with a 4 l . h vow of 
"charity." Their Rule is the Augustinian, adapted to 
the work of Hospitallers. In Rome, they have charge 
of the lunatic asylum (manicomio) Via della Lungara 
121 A. Habit, black, a white linen shoulder cape, a stiff 
white bonnet with two short streamers, covered with black 
sarcenet, pointed in front ; two rosaries on the left side.* 
(Teaching Congregations.) maestre pie filippini (Pious 
Filippini Schoolmistresses) the oldest teaching institution 
in Rome, founded by Suor Lucia Filippini of Corneto 
who died in 1732. The pope sent for the new Com- 
munity to Rome where they have ever since had several 
schools. There are also several other houses in Italy and 
three orphanages. At the Roman Mother-house they 
have the Noviciate, and also a school for boarders who 
are taught housework. All the work of these Sisters is 

* Not to be confused with the Sceurs de St. Charles, School- 
teachers, instituted by the Sulpician M. Demia; nor with the 
Religious of S. Charles Borromeo (Germans) whose Mother-house 
is in Alexandria, and who have a house in Jerusalem. All the 
Sisters of S. Charles are called after the sainted Cardinal Arch- 
bishop of Milan, S. Charles Borromeo. 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 273 

gratuitous, and is uniquely for the poor. They hold 
Christian doctrine classes on Sunday, and devote them- 
selves in every way to better the moral and religious con- 
dition of the people. No vows are taken — the sisters 
are all oblates — and there are no lay sisters. Address : 
Mother-house, Via Arco dei Ginnasi 20, and 5 other 
Schools : Via dei Crociferi 33 ; Via Principe Amadeo 
221 ; Vicolo del Cinque 32; Piazza Rusticucci 18; Pa- 
lazzo della Banca Tiberina, Piazza del Risorgimento. 
Dress, black gown and shawl, a black silk coif with a 
frill, and a little white cravat ; no guimpe, bandeau, or 
veil. Out of doors a second silk coif is worn. 

maestre pee vENEEiNi: these Schoolmistresses originated 
at the same time and place (Montefiascone) as the above ; 
Suor Filippini having sent for Suor Venerini to assist her 
in her enterprise. Afterwards they divided, the latter 
preferring to dedicate her Community to the education 
of the well-to-do classes. Mother-house, Via Palermo 
56, with two other institutions, the Conseivatorio delle 
Viperesche,* Via di S. Vito 10, with two free creches; 
and Via del Governo Vecchio 62. Habit, black dress 
and cape to the waist ; on the head a close fitting black 
silk hood, with broad pendent ends, lined with black 
net. 

The figue del sageo CHORE di GEstr, were founded at Ber- 
gamo at the beginning of this century. The scope is the 
education of girl children of noble and civil condition. 
The Mother-house is at Bergamo and the Congregation 
possesses many other houses. Besides schools in Rome,f 
they direct the opera pia of the Casa dei Neofiti which 
was formerly in the charge of seculars. This work origi- 
nated during S. Ignatius's stay in Rome : it is a house 
for receiving catechumens and neophytes, and convert 
Jews of both sexes are entertained there for 40 days. 
Address: Via Cavour 218; Via Madonna de' Monti 40 

* Founded in 1868 by Livia Vipereschi for girls of civil condition 
orphaned of one parent. 

t The school fees are 600 lire per annum, with 12.50 a quarter 
extra for washing. 



274 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

(Casa dei Neofiti). Habit, black, a black frilled coif, 
and a long cape reaching below the waist. 

store mariane, were founded in Rome 50 years ago, by 
an Oratorian, the Mother-house being in the Via della 
Carita where the Oratorians used to be. Address : Via 
della Carita 64 ; Via Arenula 83. Habit and cape black ; 
a black coif with a tulle frille. 

suobe di s. anna e della peowtdenza, founded by the Du- 
chessa Barolo at Turin in 1874. Address: Via Buon- 
. arroti 4. Habit, black with a white handkerchief at the ' 
throat ; a white coif, raised on the top of the head, with 
large flaps projecting beyond the face. 

store marcelline di milano : these Sisters are of the same 
teaching Community as the well-known Marcelline of 
Lombardy and Lucca, an ancient educational Order which 
claims to decend from the House of Virgins established in 
Milan by Marcellina the sister of S. Ambrose. To per- 
petuate her spirit and her revered name these Lombard 
Sisters devote themselves to the work of education. But 
the house in Rome is a separate foundation made a few 
years back. Address: Via Palestro (Mother-house). 
Habit, black, with a white coif covered with black net, 
and a bandeau. 

See also for Italian Teaching Communities Section II., 
pages 306 and 312; pages 283, 289, and Chapter IV., 
page 247. 

French. The CONGREGATION DTI TRES-SAINT SACREMENT (' Most Holy 

Sacrament') was founded in 1715 at Le Vivarais. Their 
founder, M. Vigne, when a young man on his way to 
Geneva to prepare himself for the Protestant ministry, 
was converted by meeting the Holy Sacrament carried 
as the Viaticum. The work of the Religious was to be 
the education of the girls of the neighbourhood, and they 
were to be unenclosed. The work of tending the sick 
poor in the hospitals was added later. Hence their 
name Religieuses itisti tutrices et hospitalieres du tres- 
saint Sacrement. Dispersed during the Revolution, to 
make room for hired labourers, they were re-established 
by the Prefect of the Department of Drome, who placed 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 275 

them at the Abbey of Saint-Just at Romans in 1804. 
This good man had been touched by the number of poor 
and afflicted left without succour, and he determined to 
restore M. Vigne's Congregation to meet the need. 
The Sisters (whose Mother-house is at Romans) now con- 
duct schools for poor and rich in France and England, 
having houses in Leicester Square and Brompton Square, 
London. Address in Rome : Vicolo de' Riari 35-44 A., 
where they have a convent dedicated to S. Zita, patron 
of servant maids, and direct the Institute of that name 
founded in 187 1 for servants and deserted children, and 
where they find places for the girls they train. Here 
also they direct the Conservatorio degli Angeli Custodi 
(Guardian Angels) founded for orphan girls in 1879, and 
the Hospice of S. M. Magdalene Penitent, established by 
the same founder in 1865 for girls led astray. In other 
places the work of these Religious is chiefly educational. 
Habit and veil black, a metal monstrance pendent below 
the wide guimpe.* 

The FttiEs de la Croix, dites Filles de Saint-Andre\ were 
instituted at the beginning of this century by Mademoi- 
selle Bichier des Ages and Andr6 Fournet, Vicar-General 
of the diocese of Poitiers. The Mother-house is at La 
Puy, and they have a celebrated house at Parma founded 
in 185 1. To the 3 ordinary vows the Sisters add a 4 , !\ 
the gratuitous instruction of the ignorant and the care 
of the sick. They retain their private property, but the 
revenues are spent on the work of the Congregation. 
They observe silence, " but without constraint," making 
all yield " to Charity the queen of virtues." All are 
called ' Sister,' including the Superior, and each takes and 
is known by the Religious name only. Their Roman house 
was established by the Principessa Borghese in 1856. 
Address: Via dell' Arancio 63; Via Monte d'Oro 27. 

* A congregation of Missionary Priests of the Most Holy Sacra- 
ment was founded in the xvn. century at Romans, Drome, which 
was destroyed during the Revolution. Another Community, the 
Religieuses du Saint-Sacrement, called Sceurs de Macon, were 
founded as Hospitallers in the middle of the last century. 



276 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL NOME 

(Free and paying girls' schools; a free creche for girl- 
babies maintained by Princess Borghese.) Habit, rough 
black wool gown with wide sleeves, scapular embroidered 
with sacred devices, and a black silk neck-handkerchief; 
a plain starched cornette or coif without bandeau or 
guimpe, covered out of doors with the hood of the ample 
black cloak. This forms a charming poke hood, leaving 
the face free. On the breast they have a large black and 
brass crucifix.* 

The dames de nazareth were founded at Montmirail, in 
the diocese of Chalons, in 1822, by the Duchesse de la 
Rochefoucauld Doudeauville and Mademoiselle Rollat. 
The aim of the Dames is to follow the hidden life of 
Christ, and for love of this divine Man poor and 
annihilated to devote themselves to the solid Christian 
education of poor and rich. The profit of their work 
may not be used to benefit the Community, but is 
employed for the good works maintained by them, which 
are all free. They are served, indoors and out, by extern 
Sisters. The life led is simple with no extraordinary 
mortifications. The Rule is Augustinian, and there is no 
enclosure. In 1853 the Dames established a house in 
Nazareth itself, where they teach the Palestinian children, 
and have a Dispensary. This is one of the earliest of 
the many Communities who have derived their inspira- 
tion from the life at Nazareth, the Holy Family and the 
holy Childhood. This Congregation has a house at 
Ealing. Address in Rome : Via Cola di Rienzo, at the 
corner of Via Adriana. Habit, black gown and cape, 
coif and collar, and a black veil ; a metal and black wood 
cross. Lay Sisters wear a maroon gown with a black 
veil and bandeau.f 



* Not to be confused with the Scaurs de la Croix Tounded by 
Mere Marie Therese in Belgium; or with the Dames de St. Andre 
(Tournay), a well known Teaching Community, with a school in 
Jersey. 

fThis Congregation is to be distinguished from that of N-D. de 
Nazareth, which originated with the ladies of many French towns, 
who dedicated themselves to good works and especially to the 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 277 

dames de la compassion (Ladies of Compassion), founded 
at Argenteuil by Marie-Anne Gaborit, and removed to 
Saint-Denis, near Paris, in 1829. Five years later the 
care of the sick in the hospitals was added to the work 
of education. In 1844 the Community was approved 
by the Government, and in 1849 i ts Constitutions based 
on the Rule of S. Augustine were approved by ecclesias- 
tical authority. Address : Vicolo degli Ibernesi 20, where 
they have Homes for poor orphan girls and for servants 
out of work, the former dressed in gray. Habit, black 
gown, cape, and apron ; wide sleeves piped with red, a 
red cord, pendent on the right side ; on the breast a 
silver heart pierced and surmounted by a cross, attached 
to red cord. The head-dress of the Sisters is a white 
frilled coif under a black veil ; of the lay Sisters a black 
coif with black frill and veil. They wear the Rosary of 
Dolours. 

the dames de sion were founded with the Freres de Sion 
by Bernard Ratisbonne, the brother of the Jew converted 
in S. Andrea delle Fratte, in the middle of this century. 
The Dames are a well known and widely spread Teaching 
Community, and are to be found in Jerusalem, Constanti- 
nople, Smyrna, Cairo, Armenia, Roumania, Austria, and 
in America ; the Mother-house being in the Rue Notre- 
Dames-des-Champs, Paris. Like the Ladies of Compas- 
sion just described they are established in England, where 
they have a training-house for Teachers. The Freres de 
Sion, however, are a dwindling Community, numbering 
some 30 members, settled in the East. The Rule is the 
Augustinian. 

Address in Rome: Via della Mercede 11, where the 
Sisters have a School. Habit and cape black, with a long 
black cloak out of doors. A black veil of light stuff pro- 
jecting beyond the white. A crucifix suspended from a 
steel chain. All their houses are called Sion House. 



education of orphans ; having vows and a semi-enclosure, but 
wearing lay dress : and from little Sisters of Nazareth, an English 
offshoot of the Petites Soeurs des Pauvres. 



278 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

INSTITUTE OF THE HOLY FAMILY OF NAZARETH (NaZZarettine) '. 

This is a Polish Community founded in Rome 25 years 
ago for Education. They have a Mission in London and 
one in America. Address in Rome (Mother-house and 
noviciate, but no school) : Via Machiavelli 18. Habit and 
cloak black ; the black veil is tied behind, no bandeau, 
and a cream-white plaited guimpe. The lay Sisters wear 
a white veil. 

For other Teaching Congregations see Ursulines, page 
286 : Congregations with the Jesuit Rule, page 280. 

{Missionary Congregations.) Sceurs de St. Joseph. 
There are no less than 32 Mother-houses in France alone 
belonging to congregations called after S. Joseph ; the 
modern cult of the Lord's foster-father has multiplied 
these Communities, many of which are devoted to mis- 
sionary work. In Rome, however, — 

the suore di san giuseppe are not French but Italian and 
Roman in origin, having been founded here in 1600, and 
remaining for many years an enclosed Community. On 
adopting the active life they became Missionaries, and are 
one of the largest and most respected Italian Congrega- 
tions. They are governed by a Mother-General and 
Provincials. They have a large school in Rome in Via 
Lucullo, corner of Via delle Finalize. Habit, black, with 
guimpe and bandeau, a black veil, and rosary. The Lay 
Sisters have a small white coif covered with black over a 
bandeau, in place of the veil. 

s. joseph de clttny, the excellent Community for Missions 
and education formed at Chalons in 1807, but practically 
established later in the dioceses of Autun (Cluny) and 
Beauvais. The founder, Anne Javouhey, possessed by the 
desire to convert and civilise aboriginal races, established 
houses in most of the French colonies, her Community 
numbering some 1300 members at the time of her death 
in 1 85 1. In 1822 she established her Congregation on 
the West Coast of Africa. Her scheme was to plant 
Christian civilisation by educating the young ; and to 
girls' schools she added a scheme for educating native 
Africans in France who were to return as laymen or 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 279 

priests. The Congregation undertook in fact the forma- 
tion of an indigenous clergy. In 1828 she went to French 
Guiana, and began the colonisation of its waste forests. 
The French Government now accepted her proposition 
for the abolition of slavery in French Colonies, to be 
effected by giving her all the blacks taken from slave- 
trading vessels, whom she collected together on the shores 
of the Mana. She was to prepare them by education 
for eventual freedom and civilised life. Men now saw 
repeated " dans les forets de la Mana, les merveilles de 
civilisation religieuse oper£es autrefois par les Jesuites au 
Paraguay." * She exercised an extraordinary ascendancy 
over the slave population, and this little colony is still the 
most civilised and Christian in French Guiana. After 
establishing her Congregation in India, Trinidad, Mada- 
gascar, and Tahiti, Anne Jahouvey died after 44 years of 
government, aged 72. 

The work of the Community embraces education, and 
the care of the sick and poor. The Sisters make 2 years 
noviciate, then take the vows for 3 years, after which these 
are either renewed for 5 years or made perpetual. The 
Congregation, which depends directly from the Holy See, 
is divided into Provinces, and is governed by a Superior- 
General elected for 3 years. The Mother-house and Novi- 
ciate is now in Paris, 21 Rue Mechain. Address in 
Rome : Via Buonarroti, Casa di S. Giuseppe di Cluny. 
Habit of choir Sisters is dark blue, with wide sleeves, a 
black cape and wide black scapular ; a large crucifix on 
the breast suspended from a blue cord ; a rosary of large 
beads and a crucifix. The Lay Sisters wear the blue robe 
with a black handkerchief and apron ; a white cornette 
covered with a small black veil ; a crucifix round the 
neck attached to a black cord. 

s. joseph de V apparition, founded in 1832 in the South 
of France by Madame de Vialard, and recognised by the 
State in 1856. This important and interesting society 
settled in Algeria and Australia during the lifetime of its 

* Helyot. 



280 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

holy founder, and its many houses are chiefly to be met 
with in Mission Stations. They undertake all works of 
charity, education, and hospital work. The Mother-house 
was moved to Marseilles in order to facilitate the depar- 
ture of the Sisters for the Missions. In Rome they direct 
the Opera Apostolica, founded to collect offerings of vest- 
ments and church furniture for Catholic missions. 

Address in Rome : Via Margana 18. Habit and cloak 
black, a black veil over a stiff white coif with a second 
ruched coif under. 

For Missionary Communities see also Chapter III. 
Franciscan Tertiaries ; Missionary Salesians of the Sacred 
Heart, page 285, and Section II of this Chapter, Pallottine, 
page 316, and Risurrezioniste, page 315. 

CONGREGATIONS WITH THE JESUIT RULE. 

Theoretically all Congregations of the foregoing type 
are based on the Rule of S. Augustine, described on 
page 216 : those to be now described have adopted the 
Jesuit Rule. The earliest of these Congregations took 
their rise in the beginning of the xix. century to aid the 
restoration of the Jesuits, and keep alive their methods 
of education. But they are not all represented in Rome. 

congregation of the sacked HEART ( Dames du Sacre" Coeur.) 
At the end of the last century a body of men had formed 
themselves into a company of the Sacred Heart (known 
also as Peres de la Foi) awaiting the re-instatement of 
the Society of Jesus, which had been suppressed in 1773. 
Of these Fathers, Pere de Tourn^ly designed a similar 
community of women for the education of girls, a design 
realised by Pere Varin, who chose Sophie Barat, then 
18 years of age, for the purpose. The young girl with 
some companions dedicated herself to the Sacred Heart 
in 1800, and became Superior, under Pere Varin, 5 years 
later. The Religious are " to consecrate themselves as 
much as can be done by persons of their sex, to the 
sanctification of their neighbours, as the work dearest to 
the Heart of Jesus." " When obliged to apply to worldly 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 281 

studies for the sake of teaching them they must be on 
their guard against the vain pretensions of this haughty 
age, and never pass the bounds that humble and wise 
discretion prescribes to their sex." These ladies were 
expected to take up learning with a pair of tongs ; and it 
is to the advantage of Mere Barat's daughters that they 
have in many cases overstepped the limited views of M. 
Varin as an educator. For the whole work of these 
Religious was avowedly education, and they are known in 
all countries for their convent schools for the well-to-do 
classes. 

There is a two years' noviciate, after which the nun Noviciate, 
takes the 3 simple vows ; remaining for five years more 
an 'aspirant,' bound to the Society which is not bound 
to her. At the end of this time, if allowed to make her 
final profession, she makes a second noviciate for six 
months, after which she takes the 4^ vow — ' devotion to 
the education of the young ' — and exchanges the white 
for the black veil. The profession is in the form of a 
marriage service ; her consent is asked, and a ring and 
cross are blessed. The Congregation is governed by a 
Superior-General, resident in the Boulevard des Invalides, 
Paris,* assisted by a permanent council of 3 assistants- 
general. This Superior has also a Procuratrix, a Secre- 
tary-General, and an Admonitrix, or " exterior con- 
science." Lay sisters discharge the external business of 
the convent. The Religious recite the " Little Office." 
All have the title of Mother and retain their surnames. 
Each house is obliged to conduct a school for poor chil- 
dren also. Their large school in Rome is at the Trinita In Rome, 
de' Monti at the top of the Spanish steps, a well-known 
spot associated with them since 1828. They have also 
the Villa Lante on the Janiculum, a house set apart for 
Retreats to outsiders ; and S. Rufina in Trastevere (Lunga- 
retta 92). The dress is black, with a pelerine buttoned Habit, 
in front, over this hangs the silver cross blessed at the 
profession. The cap under the veil is worn over a black 

*The large school is in the Rue de Varennes. 



282 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

skull-cap and is furnished with a frill ; they wear no 
guimpe or bandeau. 

Mother Barat instituted the well-known " Children of 
Mary" (Enfants de Marie). 

the company of NOTRE dame, founded at Bordeaux in 1 605 
by the Ven. Jeanne de Lestonac,* whose mother was 
sister to Montaigne. The Institution was to imitate the 
Society of Jesus, "having the Mother for patron and 
model," as the Jesuits had the Son for their Head. By 
a Bull of Paul V. the new Community was required to 
follow one of the 4 ancient Orders, and hence its aggre- 
gation in 1608 to the Benedictines. The Filles de Notre 
Dame have a School for the better classes, and also one 
for the poor, in all their houses. Address in Rome : 
Nostra Signora in S. Dionisio, Via Quattro Fontane 121. 
The gown and cincture are black, with a black veil over 
the usual bandeau and whimple. A rosary is worn, and a 
crucifix in the cincture. 

An important educational Community is that of jesus 
and mart (Jesus-Marie} (not to be confused with the 
Eudistes) founded in 1818 by Claudine Thevenet at 
Lyon, where she was herself born in 1774. Both her 
brothers had died on the scaffold during the Reign of 
Terror, and she herself had stood by them to the end. 
She adopted for her Congregation " the Rule of S. Augus- 
tine and the spirit of S. Ignatius." Its object was to cul- 
tivate a love of virtue in children, and " train their minds 
to a knowledge of Jesus and Mary." Each Religious 
takes the name of Mary in addition to a saint's name. 
The Congregation was approved by Pius IX. in 1847. It 
is to be found in France, England, Switzerland, Spain 
(introduced in 1850), Asia, America, and in Thibet 
where there are 11 convents doing missionary work. 
They have now a small house in Rome at 8 Via Pales- 
trina, Prati di Castello ; here languages are taught for a 
very small sum. The Habit and cape are black, with a 

* Her cause for Beatification has been introduced at Rome. The 
Congregation is not to be confused with the Institute of Notre Dame 
founded by the Ven. Julie Billiart at Amiens, in 1805. 



THE SISTERS OE CHARITY 283 

rosary, and a black veil falling from a frilled white cap. 
A long mantle is worn in choir. Lay Sisters wear a black 
frilled cap. 

the sisters or s. doeothy {Dorotee) were founded by Suor 
Paola Frassinetti of Genoa, and kept their 50^ anniversary 
some years ago j the Congregation receiving its con- 
firmation in 1839. Its object is especially the education 
of poor and neglected children. Two priests of Bergamo, 
who had there initiated a " Pia Opera di S. Dorotea" "Pia 
designed to influence in each parish and each street of ^ per * d ',? 
a town those exposed to corrupt surroundings, having 
found Suor Paola's work existing in Genoa, asked her to 
support the Pia Opera. This she consented to do, and 
added a vow to co-operate with the work, which is taken 
by all the Sisters. It was not, however, planted with 
much ability by the good Bergamese priests, and is in 
ho sense an integral part of the institute of the Dorotee, 
who however forward the work wherever they are. It is 
attached to some of the Roman parishes, and exists in 
many towns where there are no Dorotee. The latter 
teach the poor children in their care such work as they 
are capable of, and endeavour to make them good and 
industrious citizens. Their houses are chiefly to be 
found in the North of Italy. Mother-house in Rome : 
Salita di S. Onofrio 38 ; other houses, Villa Altieri, Viale 
Manzoni (boarding school) ; Piazza dell' Independenza 
14; Via Ripetta 231 ; Via Garibaldi 88. Habit, black, 
the Mothers wear a coif with a small tulle frill ; the lay 
Sisters a coif with a small cambric frill. Out of doors 
they wear over this a square folded handkerchief. The 
dress is simple and unpretentious. 

the society of mary reparatrice was founded by a Belgian 
on December 8, 1854. Its object is "reparation and 
atonement in union with the B. V. M. for sins and out- 
rages committed against the Divine Majesty." For this 
purpose the Religious have perpetual adoration in their 
Chapel from 7.30 a.m. to 5.15 p.m. — two Religious 
being always present : religious conferences and retreats 
for all classes \ the preparation of young people, poor 



284 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

and rich, for their first Communion ; * and foreign mis- 
sions. To the spirit of reparation, they add a special 
devotion to the Apostolic See. They have convents 
in Belgium, France, Italy, Spain, England, Germany, 
America, and Jerusalem. Each Religious takes the 
name of Mary in addition to a saint's name with the 
prefix S. All have the title of " Mother." Their house 
in Rome is in Via dei Lucchesi by the church of S. M. 
dei Lucchesi. The Habit is white with a blue scapular 
and veil, and a silver heart on the breast ; blue and 
white being the colours of Mary. In choir, where they 
recite the daily Office of our Lady, they wear a long 
white veil and train. They have lay extern sisters, who 
wear the usual black gown and cape, frilled white cap, 
and a metal heart attached to a blue ribbon.f 

THE RELIGIOUS DE L* ADORATION PERPETOEL ET L'ffiUVRE DES EGLISES 

pauvres were instituted by Mademoiselle de Meefis who is 
still alive. The work she originally contemplated was 
aiding poor village churches, and this she began in 1848 
in her own Belgian village. The Perpetual Adoration 
she added later, and eventually formed a Religious 
Community to carry out these objects. The centre of 
the work is now in Rome, at the Church of the Corpus 
Domini just outside Porta Pia.j The Mother-house is 
in Brussels, but the work is also to be found in Holland, 
England, and Germany. The Religious wear a black 
dress and cape, with a black crape cap or bonnet, and 
a silver crucifix. 

The ancelle del sAORo cuore {Handmaids of the Sacred 
Heart) are a Neapolitan foundation, whose object is to 
make Jesus known and loved — the apostolate of the 

* Thus, every month they have a day of retreat for working girls; 
and each year a fortnight's retreat for poor girls just before their first 
Communion, who are the guests of the Religious during this period. 

t Not to be confused with the " Adoration du Saint Sacre 
tnent Reparatrice" founded in Paris in 1848. The dress of these 
Religious is brown with a black veil and guimpe and a crucifix 
suspended from a red ribbon. No bandeau. A black cloak out 
of doors. 

% See Part I., p. 157. 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 285 

Sacred Heart, as a means of combating the evils of the 
age. They were founded by Caterina Volpicelli of whom 
it was said that her mission was to be " pescatrice di 
aniuu in mezzo al secolo." She died at Naples in 1895. 
The Sisters take the 3 vows of Religion, but wear a plain 
black dress, and have no distinctive mark whatever. In 
1 87 1 they adopted the Rule of the last named Congrega- 
tion, with the work for poor churches in Italy. They 
have a school for the poor at N? 4 Via Sallustiana, in the 
Ludovisi Quarter. 

THE MISSIONARY SALESIANS OF THE SACRED HEART Were founded 

by Suor Francesca Cabrini, the present Superior-General. 
Her Rule is based on the Ignatian. At the Mother- 
house in Rome, besides a school, the Sisters have a 
pension for young women from all parts of Italy who 
desire to attend the Superior Schools here. They were 
called Salesians at the request of the Diocesan, and 
because they fulfilled the original intention of S. Francis 
of Sales. The Noviciate is at Codogno. The habit and 
cape are black, the under cap tied at the neck with a 
large bow, and a net veil. A black and brass crucifix is 
tucked in at the band, and professed Sisters wear in 
addition a large silver crucifix. A black check apron is 
worn indoors, and out of doors a cloak as long as the 
dress. Address: Via Montebello 1. 

SOEURS DE LA RETRATTE DANS LE CENACLE (LADIES OF THE CENACLE), 

a Community, founded in France in 1826. Their work 
is catechist, with the preparation of poor and rich for 
their first Communion. Their house in Rome is Via della 
Stamperia 78. Their habit is almost identical with that 
of the Sacr6 Cceur Religious. 

For the Dames Anglaises, see page 255. 

Of the above 10 Congregations, the Rules of the Sacr£ 
Cceur, Notre Dame, the Soci6t£ de Marie R^paratrice, 
and the Ladies of the Cenacle, bind their members to live 
enclosed. This does not imply the Papal Enclosure 
described on page 41 ;• and such Communities are 
therefore rightly called semi-enclosed. 

*See Franciscans, p. 149; Dominicans, p. 173; Carmelites, 
p. 189; and Augustinians, pp. 218, 220, 245. 



286 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



SEMI- ENCLOSED CONGREGATIONS. 

One of the most interesting of the modern semi- 
enclosed Congregations is that of the Ursulines. They 
were instituted by S. Angela Merici of Brescia in 1535,* 
under the name of Company of S. Orsola, their patron 
being Ursula, the British Virgin and Martyr. The Order 
is purely educational, and a school is attached to every 
convent. It is moreover the first educational effort, 
having been projected 75 years before Mary Ward's, at 
the moment of the Reformation, and its success and 
importance have been great from the first. The Ursu- 
lines carried out their plan, and lived in their own homes 
till the time of S. Charles Borromeo, after which they 
formed unenclosed communities. It was not till 161 2 
that, as a result of the Council of Trent, they were 
obliged to accept enclosure. At the present day some 
are enclosed and some unenclosed. There are a large 
number of local Congregations, with separate names 
and government : thus there are the Ursulines of the 
Cross, Ursulines of the Presentation (to be found in 
France and Belgium and strictly enclosed), Ursulines de 
Jesus, dites de Chavagne, Ursulines of the Incarnation, 
Orsoline di famiglia of Milan (unenclosed), Dames de 
S'f Ursula, etc. In the xvii. century the Ven. Mother 
Mary of the Incarnation set out from Tours for Canada, 
and founded at Quebec the first educational house in 
the new world. Ursulines are to be found in Louisiana 
and Texas, and are still settled at Java. In France alone 
they number 7400. In Rome there is a Congregation in 
Via Vittoria 5, off the Corso, who have been there since 
1688, having kept their 200^ anniversary in 1888. They 
are Italians, and occasionally go out in a closed carriage, 
to visit the Pope for instance. The French Ursulines from 
Blois have recently settled at the Villa Maria outside Porta 
Pia, and most of the Roman nuns have moved to that 

* this remarkable and holy woman was a Franciscan Tertiary. 
She died in 1540 (May 31). 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 287 

House. The habit, Rule, and work of both Communities 
are identical. The dress is a full black tunic, with black 
girdle and veil, and a square plaited whimple. The cap 
is fulled round the face. 

The Order of the Visitation de Notre Dame ( Visitan- The 
dines, in Italy Salesiane) was founded by S. Francis de Vls,tatlon - 
Sales with the co-operation of S. Jeanne Frangoise de 
Chantal, in 16 10. The design of the saint was " to give 
daughters to S. Martha," to gather together a band of 
women occupied in works of charity for the poor and 
sick ; and the Community was to take its name from the 
Visitation which Mary made to Elizabeth. But this 
scheme was entirely overruled ; an unenclosed Com- 
munity could not be tolerated, and though the first 
Mothers of the Order visited the sick from 161 1 to 1615, 
the Order has been enclosed since that date. They now 
take solemn in place of simple vows, and even have a 
grille, but uncurtained. Each house was to consist of 33 
Sisters, and these are divided into 3 classes (a) Choir 
Sisters, who recite the Office of the Blessed Virgin to a 
slow simple chant (b) Associate Sisters, consisting of 
those who cannot chant (<r) Lay Sisters, who do the 
work of the house. The Order is governed by the 
bishop, there is no Generalate, and each house is inde- 
pendent. There must be 20 choir nuns, and 2 who are 
called Surveillantes ; the Superior is accompanied by an 
Aide, who receives the complaints of the Community. 
A ' Spiritual Father' is appointed by the bishop.- Though 
the scheme of the founder resulted at once in complete 
failure, one original point remained : the Order might 
accept the aged, the infirm, and widows. With this 
object in view the Rule embraces no corporal austerities, 
no rising at midnight, no toil. The spirit of the founder 
preferred to these things a life of strict obedience and 
abnegation of one's own will, sweetness, simplicity, resig- 
nation. Though this is not an educational Order, the 
Visitandines may conduct schools. The Religious keep 
their name and surname. Their house in Rome is the In Rome. 



288 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

only building on the Palatine, the Villa Mills, built over 
Habit. the site of the House of Augustus. The habit is like that 

of the Ursulines ; full black gown with girdle and veil, no 
bandeau, and a square guimpe pinned down at the 
corners ; under which a cross hangs with the letters i. h. s. 
They number some 2700 in France, and are to be found 
out of Europe in America and Syria ; they have a house in 
Vienna, and one at VValmer, in Kent, where they settled 
from Hanover during the Kulturkampf. Mother Margaret 
Mary Alacoque was a Visitation nun. 
S. Francis S. Francis de Sales, Archbishop of Geneva and a Doctor 
1S67-1622 °f tne Church, was ^e author of the "Vie devote," and 
has been called the Apostle of Sweetness on account of 
his constant recommendation of this virtue, his own sweet 
and serene nature being the result of a victory over an 
originally fiery and irascible temperament. To the end 
of his life, however, he found it hard " to suffer fools 
gladly," he tells us, although he never allowed his impa- 
tience to appear : this reputation of sweetness made his 
commonplace visitors frequently assume that he was not 
a man of intellect, an assumption which he left undis- 
turbed. The greatest contribution he made to the Chris- 
tian life of his day was his urgent vindication of love as 
the sole acceptable motive for good works ; he even 
desired that this should be defined as a truth.* He lived 
in a day full of displeasing religious elements, which 
appear in even his devotional literature, and from which 
none but the greatest could have shaken themselves free. 
He died December 22, 1622. Some of his vestments are 
preserved at the Trinita dei Monti, and shown on his 
In Art. feast day January 29. In art he appears in cassock and 
rochet, or in a cope, bareheaded ; his emblem being a 
pierced heart crowned with thorns within a glory. 

S. Jeanne de Chantal, the grandmother of Madame de 
Sevigne, had been left a widow at 29 years old, and died 
in 1 64 1, after seeing 75 houses of her Order established 

* It is the sole perfect motive : it has been pointed out that 
Christ Himself appealed to fear as a motive for working righteous- 
ness. 



THE SISTERS OE CHARITY 



in France and Savoy. 
1769). 



Feast day August 21 (canonised 



Congrega- 
tions of 
Salesian 
Secular 
priests. 

Salesians 
of Don 
Bosco 
(men and 
women). 



There are several Congregations of secular priests 
formed for pastoral work under the patronage of S. Francis 
de Sales. I. The Congregation of S. Francis de Sales of 
Annecy, founded as missioners for home and abroad in 
1830. II. The Oratory of S. Francis de Sales founded 
in 1864 by Don Bosco at Turin, and hence known as 
" Salesians of Don Bosco." This good priest is only 
lately dead. The object of the Congregation is the edu- 
cation of the young, especially of the poor. They serve 
the church of the Sagro Cuore in the new quarter close 
by the railway station, a church remarkable for its fine 
organ. Their Procura is on the same site, Via Porta S. 
Lorenzo 42-44, where they have a free Elementary boys' 
school, maintained by the Pontifical Commission for 
Primary schools. Their dress is undistinguishable from 
that of other secular priests. III. The Figlie di Maria 
Ausiliatrice, a company of Sisters also founded by Don 
Bosco, for the same ends, attached to the same missions, 
and doing the same good work. Address : Via Marghera 
65. Habit and. cape black, short black veil with nothing 
stiff about the head and face ; a bib-shaped guimpe, and 
a large black and white metal crucifix on the breast. 
Indoors a blue cotton apron.* IV. Oblates of S. Francis 
de Sales. V. Missionary Salesians of the Sacred Heart 
(page 285). 



The Annonciade Celeste is an Order founded by Maria The An 



Vittoria Fornari, a Genoese widow who died in 1617. In 
Italy it is known as the Annunziata and the nuns as 
Ceies/ine, and there is a Community at Turin. They are 
strictly enclosed, devote themselves to prayer, and follow 
the Rule of S. Francis de Sales, though with austere 
additions. The Order was approved in 1601, and is to be 

♦Not to be confused with the Congregation oi Atari e Auxiliatrice 
to be found in France and England, an unpretentious Community 
which devotes itself to the neglected and outcast of the population. 
U 



nonciade 
Celeste. 



290 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

found in Italy, France, Germany, and Denmark where 
there is one convent. The habit is white, but the scapu- 
lar, girdle, cloak and shoes are blue ; they are hence 
called Filles Bleues, and in Rome Turchine. Their 
Roman house is at 13, Via S. Agata de' Goti. 

The Annonciades Celestes are the third Community of 
the name. There used to exist a Congregation of Annon- 
ciades Recluses ; and there still exists an Order of 
Annonciades with some 145 members in France and Bel- 
gium, founded in 1498 by Jeanne wife of Philip XII. 
(Brown, red scapular, white cloak.) 

The Good The Congregation of the Bon Pasteur and Immaculate 
Shepherd. Conception of Angers is one devoted to a great active 
work of mercy, though the Religious are semi-enclosed. 
Madeleine l'Amy having pointed out to the charitable 
Pere Eudes* the sad state of women once fallen, he 
established a Community to seek "the lost sheep of 
their Master's flock." The work was begun at Caen 
in 1646, and the Rule, founded on that of the Visitation, 
was confirmed in 1660. "Our large towns" say the Con- 
stitutions drawn up by Pere Eudes, "are crowded with 
young women who hate the life of degradation in which 
they are plunged, but who are powerless to extricate them- 
selves from it." The Convent receives all : " Neither 
age nor vice nor evil habits nor poverty can exclude 
them from this haven of refuge. Neither their history 
nor their form of belief is asked, their misery and their 
desire to rise are the only passports required." The 
Sisters take simple perpetual vows, adding a 4* "To 
employ themselves in the instruction of repentant and 
wronged girls and women." There are two years' novi- 
ciate. No great austerities or fasts are practised. Until 
1835 there was no Generalate ; but in that year the 
Angers house received permission to establish one, and 
since then all its branches are ruled from there, with 
Provincial Superiors. In 1854 a house for receiving 

* See Euclists, page 308. 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 291 

prisoners was opened at Vienna : the Sisters have left an 
interesting account of their work there, in charge of 
160 criminals whose turbulence it had been the custom 
to quell by calling in the military, before the arrival of 
the Sisters. At Tripoli their work is the rescue of women 
slaves sold in the market. They have also a mission in 
Armenia. The Sisters may take charge of 5 classes : 
(1) penitents (2) prisoners (3) reformatory children 
(4) preservation (5) destitute orphans. To these must 
be added the class called Sainte-Germaine, women who 
wish to remain for life, who go through a little ceremony 
of " consecration," and wear a different dress. There 
is also the order of Magdalenes, women who elect to 
stay as Religious, and who form a separate Community, 
governed by a Good Shepherd nun. It is to these that 
the Sisters turn for their consolation ; they " love much " ; 
they are the crown and joy of their labours. When we 
consider that each of these classes is kept distinct, and 
that the ' Preservation ' class alone at Angers numbers 
some 200 members, we may picture what one of these 
convents is. There is a wash house and laundry, their 
chief employment ; and a workroom : the inmates are 
never left alone, a Sister being always with them while 
they are at work, and in the dormitory. The work is 
accomplished in complete silence ; all are at perfect 
liberty to walk out of the house at will, the doors being 
unlocked. The poor women are called their " children," 
and they call their preservers " Mother." No one can 
see this life of devotion without being moved. 

In Rome they have a house in the Lungara 19, called In Rome. 
'Al buon Pastore,' founded in 163 1 by Pere Eudes; and 
two others in Via S. Giovanni in Laterano 13 and 28, 
where they direct the Pia unione Lauretana delle Dame 
Romane, and are hence themselves known as Lauretane ; 
in the one house girls led astray who wish to rehabilitate 
themselves, in the other poor orphans are received. 
The Sisters lose their own name and take some sacred 
or saint's name in addition to ' Mary.' The habit and Habit, 
scapular are white serge, a blue cord, and on the breast 



292 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

a silver heart with the image of the Pastor Bonus. The 
veil is black.* 

The As- The Congregation of the Assumption was founded in 

sumption, jg^g k v tne martyred Archbishop of Paris, Monseigneur 
Affre, the object being the perpetual Adoration. The 
Rule is Augustinian. The Sisters also give private re- 
treats, and conduct schools. The Mother-house is in 
Paris. They are established at Kensington Square in 
Ixmdon, and at the Villa Spithoever, Via delle Finanze 
in Rome, a French Congregation with a good school.f 
The habit is purple, with a large white flannel cross in 
front ; an ample black veil and a guimpe covering the 
breast. At the Adoration they wear a large white Car- 
melite cloak. The Lay Sisters wear a black skirt and 
cape, the bodice blue, and a white Alsatian cap. 



Suore del 

Divino 

Amore. 



Ancelle del 
Sagro 
Cuore 
di Gesii. 



The Sisters of the Divine Love are an Italian Congre- 
gation founded some time ago at Montefiascone. They 
have no connection with the Missionary society of the 
same name. Their address is Via Mantellate 9, 10 ; 
their habit is a black tunic cut low at the neck with 
white stuff underneath, a black veil over a bandeau. J 

The Handmaids of the Sacred Heart of Jesus were 
founded at Madrid in 1877, and are a Spanish Congrega- 
tion. They have 10 houses in Spain, and one in Rome. 
Their scope is " the Adoration of the Most holy Sacra- 
ment and gratuitous instruction." Address : Via S. 
Lorenzo ai Monti 16 A. by the church of the name, 
called S. Lorenzo della Chiavica or delle Chiavi d'oro. 



* Not to be confused with the Dutch institution of Filles du Bon 
Tasteur founded by Madame de Combe in 1636, for the same kind 
of works. They number some 2700 in France alone, and are to 
be found in America, Canada, England, Italy, and Bavaria. The 
Mother-house is in Holland, and they wear a brown habit, black 
leather belt, and sandals. 

t These Sisters are about to move to the Via Salaria. 

% They are not connected with the Polish 'Missionaries of the 
Divine Love.' 



THE SISTERS OF CHARITY 293 

The habit is a black gown and cape, a frilled cap, with 
a badge of the Sacred Heart on the breast. 

All modern Congregations with the Perpetual Adora- 
tion afford a good type of the modified enclosure adopted 
by the above Communities. They only go out when a 
journey has to be made from one House to another, 
usually travelling in a plain black dress, bonnet and 
shawl : they have a parloir where visitors are received, 
sometimes several rooms devoted to this purpose ; and 
they employ extern lay Sisters. 

The Congregation of the Immaculate Conception of 
Lourdes, founded at that place 35 years ago, received 
ladies and pilgrims there en pension, and do the same in 
Rome. They dress at Lourdes in blue with a white 
cloak ; but in Rome, Via del Tritone 61, they wear a full 
black dress and veil and a very large crucifix attached to 
blue braid.* 

the larger number of the existing Congregations enjoy 
a simple episcopal approbation, and only the better known 
Sisterhoods, the Communities of Clerks Regular, several 
Ecclesiastical Congregations and a few others, have their 
conferma or confirmation. Local communities, tolerated 
or approved by the Diocesan, may exist to-day and be 
gone to-morrow ; and a list complete to-day, even if 
sufficiently important to be interesting, would need 
amendment the day after, for new congregations are 
always springing up. 

The Congregations of women far outnumber those of Dress of 
men : moreover the dress of Clerks Regular, Ecclesiasti- *!? e ac,ive 
cal Congregations, and lay Religious Institutes rarely tionsof ga ~ 
differs from the prescribed priests' dress of the country, women. 
But among women three types are followed : with the 
tact and good sense common to French women, the 

* This Community is placed here, because though unenclosed it 
is not one of the active charitable Sisterhoods. 



294 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

French active Orders nearly all wear a simple stuff gown, 
tied at the waist, and some sort of starched cap : * this 
is the type of the Filles de S' Vincent de Paul. In 
England and Italy, the active Congregations nearly all 
don the monastic dress, scapular, guimpe, and veil. The 
third type is the simple gown and cape with a starched 
cap and veil, such as is worn by Religious of the Sacred 
Heart. This dress — gown, cape buttoning in front (in 
all respects resembling the mozzetta), and a little head 
veil, is also the usual costume of postulants of Orders f 
and of the lay or extern Sisters of Congregations like 
that of Marie Reparatrice. 

Active Congregations of women wearing black (excluding Terti- 
aries and Oblates), pp. 255, 259, 262-279, 282-285, 306, 315, 316. 

Wearing black and blue, pp. 268, 271, 293. 

Wearing black and red, pp. 266, 270, 277, 305, 312. 

Wearing gray, pp. 254, 257, 268. 

Wearing brown, pp. 264, 267, 276. 

Wearing blue, pp. 250, 266, 278. 

For Franciscan and Dominican Tertiaries and Augustinian 
Oblates, see pp. 155, 175, 177, 246-7. 



SECTION II. CLERKS REGULAR. 

There are 8 companies of Clerks Regular, all of which 
took their rise in the xvi. or first half of the xvn. century. 
They are all of Italian origin, except the Jesuits, and all 
except the Jesuits have their Mother-house in Rome. 
Congregations of women, engaged in work similar to that 
of the Clerks, have been attached to five of these Societies. 

Clerks Regular wear the priests' soutane, tied with a 
black sash, and a small white collar turned down over 
the soutane collar. J 

* Sometimes a veil instead of the cap, the type of the Bon 
Secours de Troyes. The starched guimpe is often rather a fichu, 
and is open in front ; sometimes a white handkerchief is placed on 
the shoulders instead. 

f The men wear a dark suit, and cloak. 

J The Jesuits have no special dress. 



CLERKS REGULAR 



295 



Gaetano, or Caetano Tiene, a Venetian patrician, had 
spent some of his early years in Rome, and afterwards 
served in the hospitals of Vicenza and Venice. In the 
latter place he became familiar with Giampietro Carafa, 
afterwards Paul IV., and at that time Archbishop of 
Chieti or Teata. With him he matured the constitution 
of a Congregation of Clerks Regular (1524), which was 
approved by Clement VIII., and the members of which 
were known as Theatines (Teata, Teatini). The Clerks 
Regular are under the Rule of S. Augustine, and may be 
parish priests. The scope of the institution is the form- 
ation of associations of pious and devoted priests who 
live a life in common, abjure all emoluments, follow a 
strict personal poverty, celibacy, and obedience to a Su- 
perior ; and endeavour to teach by the example of a 
good life. To these general ends, each Institution has 
added some special end : thus the end proposed by 
S. Gaetano Tiene, the "patriarch" of Clerks Regular, 
was that his followers should combat for the faith, restore 
the fervour of the laity, and the spirit of self abnegation 
among Religious, with the love of study, and reverence 
for holy things. A revision of the Breviary was also 
designed.* The Theatine Clerks also attempted, in vain, 
to bring back apostolical poverty among the clergy. 
They differ from all subsequent companies of Clerks in not 
undertaking School work. Gaetano died in 1547, having 
seen his Order spread throughout Italy. (August 7.) 
There are Religieuses Theatines also. 

Mother-house and Procura, Church of S. Andrea della 
Valle, entrance Via dei Chiavari 3. 



S. Gaetano 

Tiene 

and the 

Theatines, 

origin of 

Clerks 

Regular. 



Girolamo Emiliani, the friend of Gaetano Tiene, and s. Jerome 

like him a Venetian patrician, was born in Venice in ^Emiiian 

1481. He fought in the war which the Republic waged somaschi. 
*See Part II., p. 139. 



296 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

with Charles VIII., heroically defended the Fort of Castel- 
novo of which he was in command, was captured, and 
thrown into one of the low secret dungeons of the time. 
On his return to his own country, his mind being filled 
only with thoughts of charity, he attached himself to 
Gaetano Tiene and Carafa "ambo solenni Maestri di 
Virtu cristiane." His mind was now turned to ameliorat- 
ing the lot of little children, and he began by filling his 
own house with orphans, or little ones abandoned by their 
parents. Here he tended and educated them. In 1528, 
the year of the great famine in Italy, Jerome gave nearly 
everything he possessed to alleviate the misery ; assisted 
the dying, carrying them on his shoulders to his palace 
until that was full to overflowing, and then to other places 
in the city. He carried away himself those who died in 
the streets, buried them, and prayed over them. But 
the sickness of which they died was contagious, and 
Jerome sickened and was at the point of death. On 
his recovery, he made over to his own orphan nephews 
what remained of his property, and solemnly devoted 
himself to the service of poor orphans. Moved thereto 
by Carafa and Tiene, he eventually gathered all those 
who had helped him in Venice at Somasca on the banks 
of the Adda, and gave them a Rule. The new Congre- 
gation was at first called " Company of the Servants of 
the Poor." These first followers returned to work each 
at his own home, but another company formed round 
S. Jerome later. He died in the little grotto where he 
lived close to his home for orphans, in 1537. (July 20.) 

Mother-house, S. Girolamo della Carita,* Via Mon- 
serrato ; Procura, Piazza Capranica 72, church of S. 
Maria in Aquiro, and here they have an orphanage ; 
S. Alessio, Via di S. Sabina ; and they serve the R. 
Istituto of Deaf-mutes, the Blind Institute at S. Alessio, 
and the Collegio-Convitto Angelo Mai. 

The white collar of the Somaschi is very slightly turned 



* S. Philip Neri's first residence. The Somaschi had S. Cesareo 
also in the time of Clement VIII. 



CLERKS REGULAR 297 



BARNABITES. 



The Clerks Regular of S. Paul Beheaded (S. Paolo S.Antony 
Decollate), commonly called after S. Barnabas which ^The* 
was the dedication of their first church, in Milano, were Barnabites. 
instituted by S. Antonio Zaccaria of Cremona, with two 
other Milanese nobles. (1533.) Zaccaria who died in 
1539, aged 37, was canonised in 1897. (July 5.) The 
first intention had been to unite the exercise of the usual 
ministerial functions with the practice of the old claustral 
Orders ; but the education of the young gradually 
became the real scope of the Congregation, especially 
after the suppression of the Jesuits, whose teaching func- 
tions were assumed by the Barnabites in the north of 
Italy before the rise of that Society. Later, these Clerks 
were diffused throughout Italy and France, and pene- 
trated to Germany. Like most of the Clerks Regular 
they are governed by a Provost-General. The Mother- 
house is in Via dei Chiavari 6, and the Procura at S. Carlo 
ai Catinari (Via Tattagiovanni 20 A). The dress is 
that of the Lombard priests of the xvi. century ; a black 
cassock and sash, the former crossed over in front and 
not buttoned ; the collar upright. 

THE SOCIETY OF JESUS. 

S. Ignatius, a Spaniard by birth, was born in 1491 at S.Ignatius 
Biscay. He was brought up as a soldier, and it was after L °y° la - 
being wounded in 1521 at Pampeluna, that the "Lives 
of the Saints " which he read during his long convales- 
cence, determined him to begin a new life. He saw that 
the saint was the true hero, the ideal complete man. 
Making his confession to a Benedictine of Monserrato, he 
retired to the cave of Manresa. 

It is here that he projected "the Spiritual Exercises," The"Exer- 
the only work of the kind that had ever been attempted. cises -" 
In these exercises Ignatius applies all the faculties of the 
soul to the concepts of religion; the intelligence, as well 
as the affections and the will, are each to undergo a dis- 



298 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



The Con- 
stitutions 
or Rule. 



cipline, are each to be exercised in order to appreciate 
' the beauty of holiness.' He considered that no one 
could pass through this course of meditation and reflec- 
tion, which in its full extent was calculated to occupy a 
month, without being moved to amend his life. At 
Manresa S. Ignatius formed the idea of an Order to 
preach and preserve Catholicism ; and he prepared to 
become a priest. In 1534, being still a layman, he con- 
ducted a retreat for his companions, using the " Exer- 
cises." They all took the vow of the new society on the 
feast of the Assumption : to renounce the world, and to 
preach the Gospel in Palestine within a year after their 
studies, or if not, to offer their services to the pope. It 
was at the moment when Europe was torn by the Reforma- 
tion that this disciplined company offered itself to Paul 
III. and that Ignatius framed his " Constitutions." 

The Jesuit exists not only for his own sanctification but 
for that of his neighbour. For this end he goes from 
place to place, leading the life of those about him. He 
himself is bound to absolute chastity, to a poverty which 
prohibits the possession of any objects of value, and the 
constant preference of meaner things to richer. Thirdly, 
he is bound to obedience, which is valued as the highest 
expression of religious virtue, and differs from previous 
monastic obedience because the latter had always been 
an obedience ad hoc, regulated, more or less, by the 
claims of community life. The Jesuit's obedience 
reaches every moment of the day, and claims even the 
interior adhesion of the judgment and will to what is 
enjoined. A penance imposed for a fault not committed 
must be performed without pointing out the mistake ; and 
Ignatius sums the subjection demanded in the famous 
parallel 'as though he were a corpse or a stick to be 
moved by another.' 

The Jesuit is to dress as other priests in the place 
where he resides, to keep no fasts but those of the Uni- 
versal Church, to be bound to no austerities but such as 
his Superiors may impose for his own advancement. Nor 
is he bound to the recitation of the Divine Office, which 



CLERKS REGULAR 



299 



he only recites as a priest. He must eschew all exaggera- 
tion, pretentiousness, affectation, pride, adulation and face- 
tiousness, in preaching and in society, showing respect 
for those he is with, and a religious maturity ; rules so well 
kept that it may safely be said a Jesuit may be known by 
them. 

Jesuits are divided into : (a) temporal coadjutors, or 
lay brethren (b) Scholastics {c) Spiritual coadjutors 
(d) Professed fathers. The first are the servants of the 
Domus or Jesuit house ; they are not to be taught any 
more than they know when entering, and if ignorant of 
reading and writing they are to remain so. The second 
are young men studying, or teaching in the colleges. 
Nearly all become in time priests. The third are priests 
who take the 3 final vows. The fourth are priests who 
take the 4^ Jesuit vow of ' special obedience to the pope,' 
binding them to go wherever he sends them. The novi- 
ciate lasts 2 years, at the end of which the classes (a) and 
(b) take the 3 simple vows. The final, or solemn, vows * 
of class (e) are taken after ordination, that is after a 
period varying from 11 to 16 years since entering the 
Order. These final vows are not, as a rule, taken before 
a man completes 33 years. The vow runs : " Almighty 
Everlasting God IN... moved by the desire to serve 
Thee, vow before the most sacred Virgin Mary ... to 
Thy Divine Majesty, perpetual poverty, chastity, and 
obedience in the Society of Jesus, and promise that I will 
enter into the same Society for ever to lead my life 
therein, understanding all things according to the Con- 
stitutions of the same Society." 

The Order is ruled absolutely by a General elected for 
life. Each house is governed by a Rector, under whom 
is a Minister, and under him is a Sub-Minister " the 
instrument of the Minister and of the other Superiors." 
He is the superior of such as are not priests, and reports 
on all things to the Minister or Rector. The chief work 
of the Jesuit is the hearing of confessions. They are 

* The Jesuits wished to take simple vows, the complaints of the 
old Orders led to the adoption of solemn. 



4 classes. 



Form of 
the Vow. 



Promise to 
enter the 
Society. 



Govern- 
ment. 



Special 
work of the 
Jesuit. 



30O CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Rules as 
Missioners. 



bidden to go with alacrity into the church when called, 
to be expeditious in hearing them, and not to talk of any- 
thing impertinent to the confession. They may not 
undertake the direction of convents, whether of men or 
women. Nor are they to undertake the correction of 
Religious or of the manners of priests ; their field is the 
lay world, and the Rule supplies many directions regard- 
ing that missionary work which is the Jesuit's other 
activity. Thus, want and injury are to be borne with 
thanksgiving ; the Jesuit is to be superior to success and 
adversity, preserving his holy liberty. He is to pray for 
those ill affected to the work, and also try to give them 
reasons, and satisfy them with modesty, as pleading the 
cause of Christ, not his own. Jesuits are not to take 
political sides, to prefer one nation to another, to engage 
or interfere in temporal business. No money is to be 
received for masses or confessions.* No honours are to 
be accepted, no preferment sought, not even within the 
Order itself. Hence Jesuits do not hold canonries, or 
accept bishoprics, prelacies, or the cardinalate, unless 
ordered to do so by the pope. That is, they hold no 
office except as priests. 

Though the Rule does not rank among the 4 great 
Rules, and types of the religious life, approved by the 
Church, it is nevertheless not only a new rule but differs 
from all its predecessors, as an interior rule entirely con- 
As it affects cerned with the discipline of the spirit. If all others 
the Jesuit. j m ply this, the Rule of Ignatius is nothing else. But the 
mainspring by which this interior machinery is to work 
is not interior but exterior, the religious obedience and 
subjection of the will are to be obtained and preserved 
by external devices — obedience is to substitute for clois- 
ter, Office, habit, austerities, but obedience is attained 
by confession and the ' manifestation of conscience.' The 



Originality 
of the Rule. 



*This absolute prohibition by S. Ignatius, the horror of the prac- 
tice shown by S. Philip Neri, the refusal of payment by the Cure 
d'Ars, and the rules of the Sulpicians are sufficient evidence that 
the latter practice was the custom in the xvi'! 1 and prevailed to the 
present century. 



CLERK'S REGULAR 



301 



Rule begins by directions for the former, and to no sub- 
ject is there such frequent recurrence. It becomes, in 
the Saint's hands, a disciplinary weapon rather than a 
sacrament, an instrument of annihilation rather than an 
expression of voluntariness. Should the Jesuit confess, 
in his absence, to another than his appointed confessor, 
he must repeat the confession. The confession must be 
made every 8^ day, at least. It is not limited to sins 
committed, but includes the ' state of his conscience.' 
He must, besides, make known periodically to a priest 
appointed by his superior his whole state of mind, every 
temptation, every thought about his vocation and his 
superiors, according to a scheme of 14 questions pro- 
pounded to him. Added to this each Jesuit is reported 
on by others, and each is accompanied everywhere by a 
socius, a ' witness,' who notes his deportment, his defects 
and mistakes, and reports them to the superior.* 

No event since the ' flight to the desert ' has so affected As it affects 
the interior life of Christians as the rise of this Order. o h l f ts 7d e rld 
The Ignatian rule was swiftly applied to individuals out- 
side it through the instrumentality of Jesuit confessors. 
From then dates direction, from then the Catholic prac- 
tice of the Retreat, from then an obedience, intended for 
the monastic state, invaded the ranks of the laity. And 
lastly a new fashion of piety arose, and is chiefly the work 
of the Jesuits — being on its beautiful side that deepen- 
ing of the intimate religious life which has always been 
characteristic of the Western, and Roman, Church as 
contrasted with the Eastern, and on its meaner side that 
multiplication of little ' devotions,' which in the case of 
the many do duty for the sustained interior life proposed 
by Ignatius. It is these distortions of Christian sentiment 
and practice, this strained and flowery religion, which has 
alienated French intelligence from the Church. For the 
spirit of the Jesuit Rule, itself in part the outcome of bad 
days, has been interpreted by periods so inferior as the 
xvii. and xvm. centuries, periods which have witnessed 



' This rule has to be modified in some countries. 



302 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Suppres- 
sion of the 
Jesuits. 



Saints of 
tne Order. 



the lowest depths of Christian sentiment — which without 
intellectual distinction or spiritual elevation, or sufficient 
reality to save them from a hopeless falsity of sentiment, 
developed within the Church the views of the Catholic 
Reaction, and did so much to spoil religion elsewhere. 

In the xvm. century, many charges were brought 
against the Jesuits ; they were expelled from all Catholic 
countries, and the Order was utterly suppressed by Clem- 
ent XIV. in 1773. Among the charges brought against 
them were disobedience to the Holy See and laxity of 
morals as directors of conscience. Pius VII. in 18 14 
restored the Order, but other popes including Pius IX. 
refused to restore all its privileges. This has been prac- 
tically done by Leo XIII. The late Pope however 
wished them to wait, saying " in my countries they are 
not willing to tolerate you." S. Ignatius himself said : 
" The Society shall adapt itself to the times and not the 
times to the Society." In the xvii. century the Jesuits 
had their famous controversy with the Jansenists, rendered 
immortal by Pascal's " Lettres Provinciales." Joubert 
has said " The Jansenist tells us we ought to love God, 
the Jesuit makes us love Him." 

At the time of the suppression the Order numbered 
some 20,000 members; it now numbers about 15,000. 
Its great saints have been Francis Xavier and Francis 
Borgia, both contemporaries of the Founder ; Louis 
Gonzaga (1568-1591. Canonised 1726). {June 21.) 
Stanislaus Kotska (1572-1589. Canonised 1727). 
( Nove7?iber 13 . ) Peter Clai <er ( 1 5 80- 1 6 5 o ) , Fra ncis Regis 
(1 597-1640) , John Berchmans (1599-1621) {Aug. 13). 
Xavier was the apostle of India, the first of the line of 
Jesuit Missionaries who, in China and Japan especially, 
have penetrated places where no European had trodden, 
their lives in their hands : the 7 Jesuit Martyrs crucified 
in Japan are sometimes represented in pictures. Borgia, 
Duke of Gandia and grandee of Spain, succeeded Laynez 
as General of the Order, and perfected Ignatius' scheme 
of education : he refused to the last to sanction the In- 
quisition, doubtless in this following the mind of Ignatius. 



CLERKS REGULAR 303 

Peter Claver, a Spanish gentleman of Catalonia spent his 
life among the slaves in America and Carthagena, and 
called himself ALthiopum servus, the slave of the Blacks. 
Francis Regis, born at Narbonne, spent his life as a mis- 
sionary in France ; he was canonised in 1 704. 

Ignatius is represented in a chasuble, usually red, and Jesuits 
with the book of the Rule on which is written "Ad ^An. 
Majorem Dei Gloriam " (A. M. D. G.) ' to the greater 
glory of God ' — the motto of the Society. He has a 
short beard and commanding presence. (July 31.) 
Francis Xavier is in a surplice, with a crucifix or lily, 
sometimes the Martyrs of Japan are behind him holding 
palms. (December 3.) Francis Borgia in the Jesuit 
habit ; the face long and thin, with an aquiline nose, his 
proper emblem should be a skull with a diadem on it. 
(October 10 or n.) Kotska caresses the infant Christ, 
and Gonzaga has a lily ; both habited as Jesuits. In Art 
Jesuits are represented in a flowing black soutane with 
a stiff" collar; but the Society recognises no distinctive 
dress : in England however they wear a sleeveless black 
gown in church ; and in Rome they wear the clerk's 
soutane and sash. 

The Collegio Romano and church of S. Ignatius, the j n Rome. 
Gesu, S. Andrea al Quirinale, and S. Vitale all belonged 
to the Jesuits — the Gesu is still in their charge, and 
S. Andrea al Quirinale is the present Noviciate. They 
have also houses at Borgo S. Spirito 12, Via Gioacchino 
Belli 3, the Instituto Massimo, alle Terme, the Seminary 
Via S. Nicola da Tolentino 8 (moved from S. Machuto 
Via S. Ignazio) ; Via della Ripetta, Palazzo della " Civilta 
Cattolica," of which paper the Jesuits are editors. The 
Pontifical Gregorian University which they used to direct 
at the Collegio Romano, has now its seat in Via del 
Seminario 120. It was founded by Gregory XIII. in 
1582, and is frequented by more than 1000 youths of 
different nationalities. The Procura of the Society is 
here, the Mother-house being at Fiesole, Florence. 

The well-known device of the Jesuits, I. H. S., popularly Device, 
said to mean Jesus Hominum Salvator, is in reality the 



304 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAI ROME 



Bollan- 
dists. 



three first letters, or root, of the Holy Name, IH2-OY2, 
Jesus. It was first adopted by the Franciscan S. Ber- 
nardino of Siena, who had the holy Name painted in a 
gold glory, and would show it to the people after his 
sermons. This tablet still exists at Siena. 

The Bollandists, as the historians of the Acta Sanctorum 
or lives of the saints are called, after their founder Bollan- 
dus in the xvn. century, are always 6 Belgian Jesuits. 



S. Camillus 
of Lellis 
and the 
Ministers 
of the 
Infirm. 



In Rome. 



ministers of the infirm (Camiffini). 

S. Camillus of Lellis in the Abruzzi founded his Order 
in the time of Sixtus V. In youth he had suffered greatly 
from bodily pain, and knew the misery that poverty adds 
to sickness, and the evils that had to be endured in the 
hospitals of those days. In his mature years he gave 
himself wholly to the care of the sick and founded the 
Clerks Regular Ministers of the Infirm, for their assist- 
ance. No disease repelled him, no human affliction but 
received his tender service ; and with this he joined a 
great gift for soothing the last hours of those about to 
die, and it was in order to help them more effectually 
that he was not ashamed when he was 32 years old to 
join a class of little boys, and learn the elements among 
them, in order to prepare himself to become a priest. 

S. Philip Neri used to go to confession to him. Camil- 
lus, says the Breviary, saw Christ in the sick, and with a 
glad and prompt spirit served them. He who had known 
so well how to comfort the dying breathed his last as 
these words of the Commendation of the dying were 
being said : " May the countenance of Jesus Christ ap- 
pear to thee benign and festive," Mitts atque festivus 
Christi Jesu tibi adspectus appareat. He died in Rome 
in 1 6 14, aged 65, and was canonised by Benedict XIV. 
(July 18.) 

A 4 1 ! 1 vow obliges his sons to tend the sick. The 
Mother-house is at the Church of S. Maria Maddalena ; 
other churches are : SS. Vincenzo e Anastasio by the 
Trevi fountain ; S. Giovannino della Malva, Via di Ponte 



CLERKS REGULAR 



305 



Sisto 75 ; and the little branch chapel of the parish of 
SS. Vincenzo and Anastasio in Via Veneto, dedicated to 
S. Camillo. They also serve the Lateran Hospital. 

These Clerks wear a red flannel cross on the breast of 
the soutane. 

The Congregation of Daughters of S. Camillo, called 
Camilline founded long ago, became extinct during the 
last plague in Barcelona, a special obligation of their 
Rule being to nurse in cases of plague. Seven years 
ago they were restored in Rome. Address : Via Giusti 7, 
where they render free assistance to sick women, and 
have a pension for the sick or chronically invalided. 
Habit black, over a white linen tunic which shows at the 
sleeve ; veil, guimpe, and bandeau. A red flannel cross 
like the Camillini, and a rosary. 



Figlie di 
S.Camillo. 



CLERKS MINOR. 

The Clerks Minor ( Chierici Minori) were instituted 
in Naples by S. Francesco Caracciolo of the noble family 
of that name, in the pontificate of Sixtus V. who con- 
firmed the Rule. The founder died in 1608, aged 44; 
and was beatified by Clement XIV. and canonised in 1807. 
(June 4.) The object of the institution was the adora- 
tion of Jesus Christ in the Sacrament. A 4" 1 vow binds 
the members not to seek dignities. The Mother-house 
is at the Church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. 



S. Francis 
Caracciolo 
and the 
Clerks 
Minor. 



CLERKS REGULAR OF PIOUS SCHOOLS (Scolopil) . 

S. Giuseppe Calasanzio, a native of Aragon in Spain, 



S. Joseph 

Calasanc- 

tius and 

the Pious 



and a contemporary of S. Camillus whom he assisted in 
the care of those stricken by the plague, came to Rome 
in 1592. He was already a priest, and had spent eight Schools, 
years in fervent preaching. Later in life he founded the 
Congregation entitled Fathers of the Scuola Pia, cor- 
rupted in Italy into Scolopii. S. Joseph had desired all 
his life to do something for the training of the young : 
his Order is specially intended for the education of the 



ziane. 



306 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

sons of the people, and its object is to supply them with 
all that can develop the intelligence and character. After 
50 years of opposition and persecution, deposed from the 
Generalship of his own Order and an object of general 
vituperation, S. Joseph Calasanctius died on August 25, 
1648, prophesying the spread of his work, which is now 
popular throughout Italy. 

Mother- house, Via della Posta Vecchia 31, by the 
church of S. Pantaleo ; Procura, Via del Nazzareno, 
where the Fathers have the Nobile Collegia Nazzareno ; 
church of S. Lorenzo in piscibus, Piazza Rusticucci ; 
Collegio Calasanzio, Via Toscana 1 2 (elementary school, 
first Ginnasio classes, and half board, gratuitous). 
Suore The Calasanziane Sisters of the Scuole Pie were 

Caiasan- founded in Rome in 1885, and are a Third Order of the 
above institution ; with the same scope, i.e. the education 
and instruction of children (girls) . Address : Via Cavallini 
38, corner of V. Pietro Cossa. Habit scapular and veil 
black, the tunic tied with a sash like the Scolopii ; the 
frill of the coif projects, and a little frill takes the place 
of a guimpe. Round the neck the badge of the Institute, 
an M, attached to a long chain. The neatly kept school- 
children wear the same badge at the throat. 

REGULAR CLERKS OF THE MOTHER OF GOD {Madre di Dio) . 

B. John The Clerks of the Madre di Dio were founded by 

Leonardi. Blessed Giovanni Leonardi of Lucca in 1574, and were 
for some time united with the Scolopii. Scope : Missions 
and Schools. 

The Mother-house and Procura are at the Church of 
S. Maria in Campitelli in the piazza of that name. The 
collar is turned over slightly, and they have a rosary sus- 
pended from the sash. 

ECCLESIASTICAL CONGREGATIONS. 

Ecclesiastical Congregations are congregations of secu- 
lar priests instituted in the last 3 centuries for the pur- 



CLERKS REGULAR 307 

pose of forming good and devoted clergy, and generally 
with some special work as their scope. They have a 
simple papal approbation, but not the Conferma, as in 
the case of Clerks Regular. They have been instituted 
almost exclusively by two nations, the French and Italian ; 
a Sisterhood is attached to most of them, and nearly all 
are engaged in missionary work. Only two of these 
Congregations wear a Religious habit — the Passiomsts 
and the Algerian Missioners ; ordinary priest's dress is 
worn by all the others. 

There are 36 recognised Ecclesiastical Congregations, 
30 of which are represented in Rome. They take pre- 
cedence according to the date of approbation, but are 
here described according to date of foundation. 

the perss de la doctrine cHRETiENNE, called Doctrinaires 
(Doitrinari) were founded at Avignon by the Ven. 
Ct§sar de Bus in 1592 (approved 1597), for the education 
of boys. The Bull of Pius V. ordering the establishment 
of catechist classes of Christian doctrine in every parish 
gave the idea to C£sar de Bus of a permanent Congrega- 
tion of Catechists for boys. This is a very well known 
and active Congregation. The Mother-house is at the 
parish Church of S. Maria in Monticelli and they have 
a second house in Via della Lungaretta, church of S. 
Agata. Dress, a cloak over the cassock, and a rosary in 
the sash. 

There are also Soeurs de la Doctrine Chr£tienne, called Vatelottes. 
Vatelottes, after their founder Jean Vatelot, instituted in 
1 700 to serve the poor and ignorant ; but they have no 
house in Rome. 

sulpicians: The Congregation of S. Sulpice was founded 
by M. Olier (1608-165 7). The Council of Trent had 
ordered the establishment of ecclesiastical Seminaries, 
but none had been permanently instituted* until M. Olier 

"The Seminary for Foreign Missions was established in the 
parish of S. Sulpice a few years after M. Olier's death. No effect 
had been given to the decree of the Council in France for 80 years ; 
and the College des Bons En/ants, founded by the Archbishop of 
Paris and directed by S. Vincent de Paul, failed. 



308 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

founded his Congregation of priests for the following 
objects: (i) the instruction and reformation of the 
people, high and low (2) the introduction of the highest 
Christian maxims into the Schools of the Sorbonne, by 
means of Seminarists who should there proceed to 
the Doctorate (3) the formation of young ecclesiastics 
for all sacred functions. The care of S. Sulpice, in a 
faubourg oi Paris was given to M. Olier in 1643, an( l 
hence the name. Among the rules was a prohibition to 
take fees for administering the Viaticum or for hearing 
confessions. No priest was to be exempt from the lowest 
duties, as carrying the cross at funerals, ringing the bell 
before the Sacrament (which was always to be done by a 
priest), and accompanying the sacred minister to give 
extreme unction. Their method of meditation is that 
adopted by all who do not use the Ignatian method, and 
consists in exercises of the will ; they hold like the 
Fathers of the Desert, that for the converted acts of the 
reason are no longer necessary : nor is there any ' com- 
position of place' as with Ignatius. The Sulpicians 
recite publicly the Canonical Hours. Their proper style 
is simply Monsieur. The Procura in Rome is in Via 
Quattro Fontane 113, where they direct the French 
Canadian Seminary. 

etoists: The Congregation of Jesus and Mary was 
founded by the priest Jean Eudes, an Oratorian, in 1643 
at Caen (page 290). Its object is the formation of 
missionaries and good priests ; the institution resembles 
the Sulpician. Rome : Via S. Giovanni in Laterano 130. 
Dress, soutane with long turned-back cuffs, a wide sash, 
and large cloak. In the house they also wear a Heart on 
the breast. 

the ra operai, or Pious Labourers, is an institute founded 
by Carlo Carafa S. J. in 1 689 at Naples. He wished to name 
it ' DottrinaCristiana,' but the operosity which distinguished 
it induced the Cardinal who examined its Constitutions 
to entitle the new Association the Pious Labourers. The 
object proposed was to comfort the condemned, and to 
save women of evil life : they are a Missionary Congre- 



CLERKS REGULAR 309 

gation. Carafa had to wait till the death of Clement 
VIII., for Paul V. to commend and Gregory XV. to 
establish his institute. The church of S. Balbina was 
originally given them by the Chapter of S. Peter's. The 
Pii Operai, like the Sulpicians, are a small company ; no 
vows were to be taken, but the life prescribed is strict. 
They wear no linen, sleep on a palliasse, and observe a 
severe poverty. Like the Jesuits, nothing with them is 
kept under lock and key. They make 3 yearly Lents, 
and rise at night for Matins. They are governed by a 
General, with a Rector at the head of each house. Dress, 
a black cassock, collar like the Somaschi, black sash and 
rosary, and a cloak. There are no Sisters of this Con- 
gregation. Procura Via della Lungara 45 (church of 
S. Giuseppe). 

S0CIETE POUR LES MISSIONS ETRANGERES DE PARIS (Missions of 

France). This important and far-reaching Association 
was formed at the instigation of the Society of Jesus and 
under the direction of Innocent X., with funds furnished 
by the Dames de la Charite of S' Vincent de Paul, in 
1649. Its work is the formation of indigenous priests 
and an indigenous hierarchy, especially in Japan, China, 
and the Indies. The members are exclusively French. 
Procura Via di S. Susanna 9. (Mother-house and 
Noviciate, rue du Bac, Paris.) 

MISSIONERS OF THE HOLT SPIRIT AND IMMACULATE HEART OF MARY: 

the French Seminary of the Holy Spirit, founded in 1703 
by M. Desplaces a disciple of Grignon de Montfort, for 
African missions and for the conduct of Seminaries, was 
united by Pere Libermann in 1842 to the Congregation 
of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. These now form one 
Society for the same objects as the older institution. 
They conduct the colonial Seminary in Paris, rue Lhomond, 
and the French Seminary in Rome.* The Community 
numbers over 1000. Procura Via di S. Chiara 42 (French 
Seminary) with the private chapel of S. Chiara. 

PAssioNiBTs : this which is one of the best known Ecclesi- 

* See part IV., p. 496, 



3io CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

astical Congregations, bears the impress of its holy founder 
S. Paul of the Cross (nat. 1694, ob. 1775).* The Con- 
gregation of the Passion was projected in 1720, but 
ecclesiastical sanction was long withheld. S. Paul of the 
Cross in whom burnt two fires, the desire to call sinners 
to repentance and a tender and constant memory of 
Christ's Passion, bound on his followers a 4 th vow " To 
do their utmost to keep alive in the hearts of the faithful 
the memory of the Lord's Passion." The Society con- 
sists of priests and lay brethren ; simple vows are taken, 
but a vow of perseverance in the Congregation is made 
on the day of final profession. They rise for Matins at 
night, fast three days in the week and throughout Advent 
and Lent, and occupy themselves in Missions and Retreats, 
especially for persons living in Community. This Con- 
gregation has also charge of those Bulgarian and Rou- 
manian Catholics who adhere to the Latin Rite. They 
are to be found in Italy, France, and Belgium, and have 
penetrated to New South Wales. The Passionists went 
to England in 1843, tne conversion of this country being 
one of the designs of the founder, and it was an English 
Passionist who received Newman into the Church. They 
arrived in America in 1852. Clement XIV. conferred 
on them the church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo ; and 
Pius IX. left his private library to the Roman Passionists. 
Mother-house and Procura, church of SS. Giovanni and 
Paolo on the Celian ; the Scala Santa, of which they 
have charge. Their houses are called Retreats. Habit, 
black cassock and leathern belt, and a heavy black cloak ; 
on breast and cloak (lay brothers on the tunic only) an 
embroidered heart surmounted by a cross with 3 nails 
and the words Jesu Christi Passio, all in white. They 
wear sandals, the usual priest's hat, and 2 Rosaries.f 
There is also an enclosed congregation of Passionist nuns 
founded at Corneto by S. Paul of the Cross himself, with 
the same observances and habit. 

* April 28. In Art he appears in the habit of the Congregation, 
the ascetic face clean shaven; a crucifix in his hand. 
f See Part I., p. 243. 



CLERKS REGULAR 3" 

kedemptorists : The Congregation of the Most Holy 
Redeemer was founded in Rome by S. Alphonsus Maria 
Liguori in 1749. S. Alphonsus was a Neapolitan by birth, 
and remarkable from boyhood for his piety and charity 
and love of study. Refusing to marry, and giving up the 
right to his family estates, he was ordained a priest, and 
showed so much charity in winning souls and fighting 
vice that the institution of the Redemptorists was founded ; 
a company of priests who were to follow their Master by 
preaching the Gospel in fields and villages, by the high- 
ways and hedges. S. Alphonsus preached in simple lan- 
guage, for Christ, said he, " who knew more rhetoric than 
I," had chosen the parable. He desired his priests to 
write their sermons, and then learn them by heart, a 
practice very commonly followed now. The new Con- 
gregation was approved by Benedict XIV. (1 749.) S. Al- 
phonsus accepted, in obedience to Clement XIII., the 
Bishopric of S. Agata dei Goti and the government of that 
church, but continued, under the outward habiliments of 
his rank, to lead that life of utmost simplicity and penance 
which he loved. He suffered many trials being even 
deposed from the generalship of the Redemptorists, and 
turned out of the Congregation, into which however he 
lived to be restored. He died in 1787, at 90 years old; 
was beatified in 18 16, canonised in 1839, and declared a 
Doctor of the Church by Pius IX. He is best known to 
the outside world by the zeal not devoid of extravagance 
with which he wrote of Mary, and by his system of 
casuistry, his system in dealing with cases of conscience 
being that almost universally followed to-day. In 1 75 1 
he published the " Glories of Mary," and after this the 
" Moral Theology." Another well known work of his is 
" On the Love of Our Lord Jesus Christ," and his 
" Visits to the Most Holy Sacrament " appeared in 1 748. 

In art S. Alphonsus appears in bishop's cope and mitre, 
and with a crozier ; usually the monstrance is in his 
hands, in allusion to his devotion to the blessed Sacrament. 

The Redemptorists are established at S. Alphonso 
Liguori, a modern Gothic church in the Via Merulana ; 



312 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Suore del 
Prezioso 
Sangue. 



Suore del 
Preziosis- 
simo 
Sangue. 



at S. Maria in Monterone (Teatro Valle 58 A) ; and 
recently (1898) the Pope confided to them the church and 
cure of S. Gioacchino, which was built partly with monies 
collected from Catholics of all nations, as a homage to 
Leo XIII. whose name is Joachim. They wear an un- 
buttoned tunic with the Clerks' sash and turned over 
collar. The Redemptorists are governed by a Rector- 
Major; they are to be found in North and South America, 
Germany, Holland, Spain, Belgium and England. 

There are also Religieuses Redemptoristines. 

The Device of the Redemptorists is the words : Re- 
demptio7iem misil Do minus populo suo. 

The missionaei del peezioso sAHouE (Missioners of the 
Precious Blood) called Bu/a/ini, after their founder the 
Ven. Bufalo Canon of S. Marco, Rome, who founded 
these missionary priests in 181 5; and afterwards spent 
22 years of active apostolic work in the towns of Italy. 
The Bufalini have several houses in America. Mother- 
house and Procura Via dei Crociferi by the church of 
S. Maria in Trivio. Dress, cassock and sash, a mantle 
in summer and coat in winter. When preaching they 
wear a large crucifix in the sash, suspended by a chain. In 
papal times they preached from a platform in the piazzas. 

Two Communities of women are dedicated to the same 
ends. The Suore del Prezioso Sangue were founded by 
Mother Mary De Matteis in the Roman Campagna in 
conjunction with the Ven. Bufalo ; they employ them- 
selves in the education of little children. According to 
the design of the founder, they are not bound by vows. 
The Mother-house is in Via delle Muratte 70 ; and they 
have another house in Via Veneto 95. Habit, a black 
gown tied with a red sash ; a black cape, and round 
the face a broad white frill over a black skull-cap, and 
covered with a black veil. 

The Suore del Preziosissimo Sangue di N. S. G. C. (of 
the Most Precious Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ), 
decided to bind themselves by vows and separated from 
the above Community. They have a large number of 
schools in Rome, and are a favourite Institution : Mother- 



CLERKS REGULAR 313 

house Via di San Giovanni in Laterano 64 ; other houses : 
Via Alessandrina 104 ; Aracoeli 2 ; Via Brunetti 11 ; Via 
Nomentana, opposite S. Agnes; Via di Porta Leone 82, 
83 ; Via Bucimazza 9. The habit is the same as that of 
the Suore del Prezioso Sangue, with the addition of a tiny 
metal heart suspended by a chain round the neck. 

marists: The Society of Mary was founded for foreign 
missions in 18 16 at Lyon and Belley (approved 1836). 
It consists of (a) Priests (b) a Third Order of women 
for teaching and the care of the sick, and (c) the Little 
Brothers of Mary {Fratelli Maristi), a separate founda- 
tion made in 181 7 by a Marist for the education of the 
young. This last is a Religious Institute (page 351). 
The Marists sent the first mission to New Zealand, and 
one of their number B. Louis Chanel was martyred there. 
They sent a mission to London in 1856; while the 
Marist Brothers, who number 5000, have houses at 
Jarrow and Dumfries. The Society is divided into 2 
branches, with Mother-houses at Lyon and Paris. They 
are governed by a Provost- General. Procura (Lyon 
branch) Via Cernaia 14 A (church of Rosario). A 
wide sash and black cure's rabat are worn ; in Rome, 
a long blue cloak, by all save the Superior. Little Marist 
Brothers (College of S. Leone Magno, founded and di- 
rected by themselves) : Via Montebello, M. Dress, sou- 
tane, double twisted cord, white rabat. 

oblates or mart immaculate : The Oblates are among the 
most interesting of the Congregations of missionary 
priests, and were founded in 18 16 by Charles de Maze- 
nod, afterwards Bishop of Marseilles. They were in- 
tended as missioners for country districts and foreign 
parts, but are prepared ad omnia, i.e. for all other minis- 
terial works. They have missions in Canada, the United 
States, Ceylon, and South Africa — all founded between 
1 84 1 and 1883. The Mother-house is at 26, rue de 
S! Petersbourg, Paris, and they are the Guardians of the 
Basilica on the heights of Montmartre. Their Procura 
is at the College of the Oblates, Piazza S. Pietro in 
Vincoli. They have no determined dress but wear as a 



314 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

distinguishing mark a crucifix round the neck. The Supe- 
rior-General of the Oblates is also Superior-General of 
the large Congregation of the " Holy Family," numbering 
6000 Sisters.* 

congregation of the sacred hearts (of Jesus and Mary) a 
Neapolitan society of priests which ranks after its French 
namesake of Picpus, and before the Institute of Charity. 
Procura Via in Publicolis 48. 

the institute or charitt {Rosminians) was founded in 
1828 by the priest and philosopher Antonio Rosmini. 
The object he put before the Fathers of Charity was " to 
embrace with all the desire of their souls every work of 
charity." The Rosminians were the first to begin, inde- 
pendently in the same week of 1843 as the Passionists, 
mission work in England. The late Father Lockhart was 
Provost- General of the Congregation, which has 9 Eng- 
lish houses, including S. Etheldreda's, Ely Place, the last 
church in England in which mass was said, and the first 
in which it was restored. 

There are also Sisters of the Institute of Charity, com- 
monly called " of Providence." 

Antonio Rosmini (1 797—1855) was born at Rovereto 
in the Trentino ; he was the friend of Popes Gregory XVI. 
and Pius IX. His book " Delle cinque piaghe della Santa 
Chtesa" was placed on the Index. 

Mother-house and Procura Via Alessandrina 7. 

risurrezionisti, the Congregation of Fathers of the Resur- 
rection, a society of Polish priests founded nearly 70 years 
ago for missionary work. The good Fathers have missions 
in Turkey in Europe. Their Mother- house and Procura 
is in Via S. Sebastianello 11, with their church of the 
Resurrection, on the incline leading to the Pincian hill. 
Here about sunset they have rosary and Benediction 
every day and on Sunday with Polish chants. 

*This institution, founded in 1820 by M. deNoailles, a Sulpician, 
was joined to the Oblates in 1850. The ' Soeurs de l'Esperance' 
are its nursing branch, and the ' Sisters of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion ' its teaching branch. They work with the Oblates in their 



CLERKS REGULAR 315 

The rector of the Polish college in Via dei Maroniti 
22, is also a Resurrectionist Father. Their dress is the 
soutane tied with a black cord with a rosary and large 
crucifix on the left side. 

In 1883 a Congregation of Sisters of this Order was Sisters of 
founded to aid and teach the girls in the Turkish and r 'ec U ^n Sur " 
Bulgarian missions. The founders Celine Borzecka and 
her daughter are Polish ladies, and the former rules the 
Congregation. There are no lay sisters. The chef-lieu is 
at Tirnowodjik near the Black Sea : here the Fathers have 
charge of 200 boys and the Sisters of 90 girls. The Greek 
Rite has been adopted, for the first time by Religious 
women of the Latin Rite, an interesting event showing 
the endless adaptability of Catholic missions and charities. 
This is very acceptable to the Bulgarian Christians. 

Address in Rome : Via Veneto 95, where they have 
the Italian noviciate. Habit, black plaited gown with 
the black cord of the Resurrectionists — tied several 
times around the waist and ending in two tassels. The 
guimpe is pointed and plaited ; the black veil fits round 
the head over a narrow bandeau. The novices wear a 
white veil. The distinguishing mark is the Greek cross 
on the breast, given at the Profession, with appropriate 
Christian symbols in front, and at the back the legend : 
" By the Cross and death to Resurrection and Glory." 
In church, the professed wear a large black, and the 
novices a large white, veil. 

the pious society of missions (Pa/tottini) was founded in 
1835 by the Ven. Vincenzo Pallotti, a Roman. The insti- 
tution was called at first the ' Pious Society of the Catholic 
Apostolate ' but was afterwards changed to the Society of 
Missions a word which the good founder could never 
hear pronounced without emotion. The end proposed 
is to exhort Christians of all classes to contribute to- 
wards the reanimation of faith and charity, the forwarding 
of the kingdom of God and of the unity of all peoples in 
Christ. To this end the society consists of 2 classes : 
secular priests who take no vows but are bound to Com- 
munity life under the rule prescribed for them by the 



3 i6 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

founder ; and secondly priests, Clerks Regular or Secular, 
and lay persons of both sexes aggregated to the Society 
and aiding it either by their work, their prayers, or their 
alms. Pallotti placed his institute under the patronage 
of the Blessed Virgin Queen of the Apostles. In 1838 
he founded the Casa della Carita (in Borgo S? Agata) for 
poor girls abandoned by their parents, and gave rules 
for the inmates similar to those of the Filippine — all 
observing the exercises of Franciscan Tertiaries, and 
wearing a kind of habit, the Franciscan tertiary gray robe, 
which used also to be worn by the suore. The apostolic 
zeal, the great patience, and the humility of this servant 
of God recall the work of Philip Neri. In 1844 he sent 
one of his priests to England and proceeded to form a 
mission there, which he intended to join had not the 
approach of death prevented him. He died at S. Sal- 
vatore in Onda and is buried there. (1 775-1850.) 

Gregory XVI. gave him the convent of 6". Salvatore 
in Onda, Via dei Pettinari, the present Mother-house. 
English Pallottini also serve the church set apart for 
English Catholics — S. Silvestro in Capite. 
Pallottine. There is also the community of Pallottine, engaged in 
teaching the young. These Sisters direct the Conserva- 
torio Pallotta established by the Ven. Pallotti in 1883 
for the education of deserted orphans, who are taken 
gratuitously as well as otherwise. Their houses are 
called Pia Casa di Carita. Address : Via S. Agata dei 
Goti 8, Conservatorio Pallotta ; Pia Casa di Carita, Pi- 
azza S. Rufina 22, branch house; and Via Salaria 14, 16. 

Their habit is now a black gown and cape, and the usual 
ugly black woollen frilled coif, the shape of a night-cap. 
An apron is worn indoors. This community is interesting 
as a purely Roman foundation. 

There are also English Pallottine, not connected with 
the Roman Sisterhood, called Sisters of the Blessed Vir- 
gin Queen of Apostles, originally intended as missionaries. 
They now direct the Casa della Providenza Via Salaria 
126, opened for deserted orphans in 1899. Dress, black 
with a guimpe, and a black veil folded outwards. 



CLERKS REGULAR 317 

congregation or the holy ceoss: this society of priests was 
founded in 1839 by Pere Moreau to form missionaries for 
home and abroad, and teachers for the Primary and Sec- 
ondary schools. The priests also conduct agricultural 
colleges and orphanages.* In the following year Pere 
Moreau founded the Marianists or Sisters of the Holy 
Cross, who were to take charge of the establishments of 
the Congregation, and to teach girls. These Sosurs 
Marianistes de la Croix are to be found in France and 
in America, but not in Rome.f 

Two other companies were added : the Salvatorists, Salvator- 
for the evangelisation of country places ; and the Jose- ists an 4 
phites for school work. All these companies form one ^ osep ltes " 
Congregation, the two last being fratelli, not priests, and 
their chief work is the education of boys in town and 
country. The Congregation, whose Mother-house is at 
Neuilly, has invaded Africa, India, and the New World. 
It was approved in 1856 ; is divided into Provinces under 
a single head or Superior- General ; and proposes to its 
subjects a 4 th vow to undertake mission work, which 
vow however is entirely voluntary. Procura Via dei 
Cappuccini 19. Habit of priests, soutane tied with a 
double black cord, cape, and a bronze crucifix. The 
Salvatorists and Josephites wear the same, without the 
crucifix. 

pretres du saint-sacrement, a Congregation devoted to 
the perpetual adoration, were instituted by Pere Eymard, 
" the Priest of the Blessed Sacrament," in 1855, and have 
their Mother-house in Paris. Procura Via del Pozzetto 
160, by the Burgundian church of S. Claudio where 
there is perpetual exposition of the holy Sacrament. 
The priests have a monstrance worked in white silk on 
the left breast of the cassock. 

THE MISSIONERS OF OUR LADY OF THE AFRICAN MISSION, Called 

* Pere Moreau formed the priests of the Cross out of an associa- 
tion called the Patronage of S. Joseph for educating young boys, 
founded by Pere Dujarie the founder of the Sceurs de la Providence. 

t These Sisters must not be confused with the Ecclesiastical 
Congregation of Marianists. 



318 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Algerian Missioners and Peres B lanes, were founded by 
Cardinal Lavigerie the opponent of the African slave- 
trade, in 1868. The Community is exclusively French, 
and numbers some 500 members. Its missions are to 
pagans and Mohammedans, with Procuras in Paris, Mar- 
seilles and Zanzibar. The Superior-General is titular 
Bishop of Pacando, in Cilicia. Roman Proeura, Via 
degli Artisti 22 (where they moved from S. Nicola in 
Agone). Habit white, with a white cloak turned back 
at the shoulders, a rosary round the neck, and the priest's 
hat. As missionaries, beards are worn. 

Cardinal Lavigerie also founded a Congregation of 
women with the same title, called also Saeurs Blanches, 
who fulfil in Africa the work of Sisters of Charity. 
There are two Communities in the French Soudan. 

The following 6 missionary societies, with houses in 
Rome, have been founded by the French and Spaniards 
in the last half of the xix. century : 

missionaires dtj sacre-cozur de Jesus, called " of the Sacr£- 
coeur d' Issoudun," founded at Issoudun, Indre. They 
have an international College for Foreign Missions in 
Rome. Proeura (and College) Piazza Navona, with the 
church of Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore di Gesu, where 
they direct the Petite oeuvre du Sacre-coeur for sacerdotal 
and missionary vocations. (Entrance Via della Sapienza 
32.) Dress, the ordinary priest's dress, and a beard. 

MISSIONARY SONS OF THE IMMACULATE HEAKT OF MART (MissionaH, 

Figli del Cuore Immacolato di Maria) is the title of a 
Spanish Congregation whose Mother-house is in Cervera. 
Proeura Via Giulia 163, with the church of S. Caterina 
da Siena. 

MISSIONARIES OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION OF OUR LADY OF LOURDES, 

founded at Lourdes where the Superior-General resides. 
Proeura Via dei Serpenti 3. 

missionaries of s. joseph (Giuseppini) of Mexico, where 
they were founded in 1862. They have just established a 
Proeura in Rome, Via Sistina 11.* They wear a broad 

* Not to be confused with the Josephites of the Holy Cross 
(P- 317)1 or with the Belgian Josephites founded by Canon Van 



CLERKS REGULAR 319 

sash and rosary. There are Sisters of the same Congre- 
gation, engaged in works of charity. 

PRIESTS OF THE SACRED HEART OF JESUS {Sangliintimi) with a 

Procura, this year (1899), at Via di Monte Tarpeo 54. 
This Congregation was founded 21 years ago at Saint- 
Quentin, and interests itself in the problems of social 
democracy. 

feres marianistes, a Parisian society, having in Rome the 
Collegio Santa Maria, Viale Manzoni 37. 

Ecclesiastical Congregations described elsewhere are : 
Fathers of the Mission, or Vincentians (ranking 4 th ) Sec- 
tion I., page 253. Company of Mary (ranking before 
the Marists), page 258. Augustinians of the Assumption 
(oblates) (ranking after the Resurrectionists) Chapter IV., 
page 248. Saksian Congregation of Don Bosco, page 289. 
Societa dei Frati delta Carita (Franciscan Tertiaries) Chap- 
ter III., page 154. Societa del Divin Salvatore, page 268. 



oratorians. The Congregation of the Oratory is not 
classed among Ecclesiastical Congregations, because its 
members are recruited from priests living in society, and 
no vows are taken. They are not bound to Community 
life, and they retain their property. But the Oratorians 
yield to few Congregations in interest, and to none in the 
lustre shed on them by their holy founder Philip Neri. 

S. Philip was born in Florence in 15 15, and came to s. Philip 
Rome in 1533. Here, as a young layman, burning with ^ Teri ', 
the love of God and the desire to see the Christian virtues oHRome. 
practised among Christians, he began his great apostolate, 
among all ranks of men but especially among the youth 
of the upper classes. 

Living in an artificial age, surrounded by young men 
whose chief temptation came from their fear of derision 

Crombrugghe in 181 7 for the education of boys of the commercial 
classes, which flourishes in Belgium and has a house in Surrey. 



320 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

and want of simplicity, he concocted absurd tasks for 
them, which he often gave as penances ; and by example, 
and precept, by loving interest in them, by a never-failing 
bonhomie, he won them to some of his own " unearthly 
simplicity and spirit of prayer." Every lovely garden and 
hill in Rome preserves the record of his walks and picnics, 
and seems still to echo the mirth, the cheerfulness, the 
holy boldness of S. Philip and his companions. S. Philip 
despised scruples, he measured a man's progress in good- 
ness by his cheerful mien. After receiving the visit of 
an old and a young Religious, and treating the latter with 
contumely and complaining of his manners, the saint ran 
after him downstairs, and throwing his arms round the 
smiling face which all his harshness had not perturbed, 
made him understand that he thought him " not far from 
the Kingdom of God." 

S. Philip was ordained a priest in 1551, and it is he 
who insisted on frequent confessions for those beginning 
to lead a good life : many were the hours of each day he 
spent in his confessional (still preserved at the Chiesa 
Nuova) — but they were chiefly the confessions of men 
he heard, he did not love to hear those of women, and 
he did not think it did them the same good. If no one 
came, he would walk about outside, praying that some 
poor soul he might help should be sent him. As he 
despised pretence and assumption, so he despised great- 
ness ; and the story is told of a cardinal's berretta being 
brought to him from the Pope, and of S. Philip tossing it 
up like a ball in his hands, while he exclaimed : " Vanity 
of vanities and all is vanity ! " He refused the Cardi- 
nalate and all other honours. In Art S. Philip is repre- 
sented either in black cassock and berretta, with the sash, 
and broad turned-over collar (the Oratorian dress), or in 
a priest's red chasuble and kneeling before the Madonna. 
The thin earnest face with gray hair and short close beard 
impresses itself on the memory of all who see it. (May 26.) 
[See Part I., pp. 238, 244, 354. Part II., pp. 155, 196.] 

One of the greatest sons of the Oratory was John 
Henry Newman, who became an Oratorian by the pope's 



CLERKS REGULAR 321 

request after his conversion. Baronius also was an Ora- 
torian, and cook to the new-born Community ; which 
numbers among its members a canonised saint in the per- 
son of S. Sebastian Valfre, a Savoyard priest, and the con- 
fessor of King Victor Amadeus. He died in 17 10 and is 
buried at Turin. 

The churches of this Congregation are called Oratories. 
In Rome it possesses the Cfiiesa Nuova, founded by S. 
Philip when he instituted his society, in 1564. Here the 
saint is buried. At S. Girolamo della Carita he planted 
in 1536 the Congregazione della Carita. The Orato- 
rians are also established at SS. Nereo e Achilleo (See 
Part I., p. 305) and at the church in the Via delle 7 
Chiese outside the walls, mentioned in Part II., page 155. 

The French Oratory was founded by Cardinal de 
Berulle in 161 1 in imitation of the Italian Oratory. The 
institution was short-lived ; its second Superior was the 
well known and saintly Pere de Condren. 

YoxFilippine Oblates (women) see Chapter IV., page 247. 

Another Congregation of priests not classed among the 
above is the stimatini or Sacerdoti delle Santissime Stim- 
ulate, a missionary society founded in Verona and called 
after the 5 wounds of Christ's Passion. Like the Oratori- 
ans they live in common, without vows, and are employed 
in the works of the ministry and in teaching. Address : 
S. Nicola dei Prefetti, Via Prefetti 34 ; S. M. dei Miracoli 
Piazza del Popolo, Via del Corso 531 ; and Via dei Ces- 
tari with the church of the Stimulate (Stigmata of S. 
Francis). 

RELIGIOUS INSTITUTES. 

Congregations of laymen formed for charitable or mis- 
sionary work are called Religious Institutes. The chief 
of the small existing number of such Associations is that 
of the brothers op christian schools (Freres Chretiens, Fra- 
telli delle Scuole Cristiane), founded by Jean-Baptiste de 
La Salle in 1679. He is called the ' Calasanzio of France,' 
and as the contemporary of S. Vincent de Paul, Francis de 



322 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Sales, and Ranee, was one of the four Frenchmen whom 
Rohrbacher calls " 4 streams of life " at that epoch. This 
is a Community of religious teachers, who dedicate them- 
selves to the education of boys. It is ruled by a Superior- 
General, resident in Paris, rue Oudinot 27, who has the title 
of Frere (Italian Fratel*). The 3 Monastic vows are 
taken, but the members are not in priests' orders. Three 
Brothers, at least, must go to form a Community. Dur- 
ing the war in 1870-71 these Brothers nursed the sick. 
They are known as Freres ignorantins, Fratelli ignoranti, 
or Ignorantelli, because they instruct the ignorant. They 
number 14,631, of whom 5227 are novices, and in the 
past year (1898) taught 324,875 boys. They have 1475 
houses with more than 2000 schools ; 10,000 of the 
Brothers are resident in France. 

Procura (and school) Via S. Sebastianello 3 ; Via Sis- 
tina 60; Via S. Giovanni in Laterano 71 (free boys' 
school) ; Piazza S. Salvatore in Lauro 10 (free boys' 
school) ; Via de' Zingari 13 (free boys' school) ; Viale del 
Re 69 ; Via di S. Prisca 8, Istituto Pio IX. of the Little 
Artisans of S. Joseph, for teaching trades to boys ; besides 
which, they conduct 4 other free schools in Rome. They 
wear a black soutane and full cloak, and the French 
cleric's bands at the neck (raoat). 

t La Salle was Canon of Reims ; he instituted the first 
Ecoles Normales, and died in 1719. The decree for his 
Canonisation has just been promulgated (May 1899) 
(May 4). 

There are also sceurs des Ecoles Chreticnnes. 

the brothers of our lady of mercy were instituted by Canon 
Scheppers of Malines, Belgium, for the Christian educa- 
tion of youth. In 1855 they were invited to Westminster, 
and have schools in England. Their Superior is styled 
Frere. German Brothers of Mercy are established in 
Nazareth. The Procura is at Palazzo Pontificio, Piazza 
Pia ; and they conduct the Istituto di Vigna Pia founded 
by Pius IX. for instructing boys in agricultural pursuits 

* See title Era, p. 50. 



CLERKS REGULAR 323 

(outside Porta Portese). The dress is a tunic not but- 
toned down the front. 

THE HOSPITALLERS OP THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION, Called Con- 

cettini, is the most recently formed Congregation of men 
in Rome. They are male nurses, and nurse in the Hos- 
pital of the Baker's Company. Their Mother-house is in 
Via della Luce 46; Via Boccea I, outside Porta Caval- 
leggieri ; and the Ospedale dei Fornaci Foro Traiano. 
They are easily recognised in their blue dress and cloak 
and clerical hat. 

There are only 6 of these lay male Congregations. 
For the Little Marist Brothers and the Brothers of 
Christian Instruction of Ptoermel, see pp. 313, 325. 

MISSIONARY WORK. 

The great missionary work of the Church, accomplished 
by the Benedictine Order in the vm. and ix. centuries, 
was renewed again in the xiv. century by the Sons of S. 
Francis. The Observant and Capuchin Missions have 
been at work since the xvi.-xvii. century; and Mission 
work was reinforced by the Jesuit Missions of the xvi., 
xvii., and xvm. centuries. Congregations founded exclu- 
sively for Mission work have already been described in 
this Chapter : but a large number of other Congregations 
are engaged in it, and this is especially the case with 
the Charitable Sisterhoods. In Franciscan Missions the 
Minors are always helped by Tertiary Sisters, the Capu- 
chins by Capuchin Tertiaries. There are several local 
Communities dedicated to catechising, nursing, and civi- 
lising heathen peoples : the Verona Institute of Sons of In Africa. 
the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus for the Blacks of Central 
Africa, is assisted by a Community of Pice Matres a 
Nigritia, Loving Mothers of the Black People. There is 
the Society of Servants of the Holy Spirit — Sisters who 
educate the natives and effect Christian marriages between 
them ; and the Soeurs de la Delivrande. Another Asso- 
ciation working in Central Africa is the Sodality of Natives 



324 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Chinese 
African 
and Indian 
Native 
Sister- 
hoods. 



Coadjutors of S. Peter Claver, consisting of both men and 
women. The Sisters of our Lady of Missions of Lyons 
work in India ; so do the discalced Carmelites with clois- 
tered and Tertiary Carmelite women, Jesuits, Capuchins, 
Sylvestrian Benedictines, Oblates of Mary Immaculate 
with the Catechist Sisters, the Paris Society for Foreign 
Missions, the Congregations of the Oratory of S. Francis, 
and of the Holy Cross, the Sisters of S. Lewis (Aloysius) 
Gonzaga, and the Xaverian Brothers of S. Francis Xavier * 
with Native Sisters of the same inspiring name ; while a 
Congregation of " Virgins of the Sacred Heart of Jesus " 
baptise dying infants. 

The resources of the Church and its power of adapting 
itself to new and even unique conditions, are nowhere 
shown in a way more worthy and moving than in this 
Native Mission work : in China and Japan, for example, 
there is an " Order of Virgins " — societies of women 
living under prescribed rules, supported by their own 
labour, bound by no vows, who catechise girls and do 
other charitable works. There are Chinese native Fran- 
ciscan Tertiaries (women) who are in charge of orphan- 
ages, and teach catechumens ; certainly a sight to delight 
the heart of S. Francis. One hundred and twenty Euro- 
pean Franciscan Tertiaries (women) live in their own 
families, and assist the Mission of the Friars Minor. 
Here we have a custom of the m. and iv. centuries revivi- 
fied to meet new and urgent conditions. There are also 
some Native Sisters " Helpers of the Holy Souls in Purga- 
tory," and Native Societies of Virgins living at home who 
educate girls. One of these latter Communities is called 
after " the Most holy and immaculate Heart of the B. V. 
M.," another, the " Daughters of S. Joseph," while a 
third observe (at their own homes) a Rule established for 
them at a local Synod. An African Native Sisterhood is 
called " Daughters of the Sacred Heart of Mary," and 
there are also the " Daughters of Mary " ; while in India 
there are " Daughters of Blessed Mary," " Amantes de la 



'The Xaverian Brothers work also in America. 



CLERKS REGULAR 325 

Croix," and native widows living under die patronage of 
S. Anna, with lay native widows to help them who serve 
in hospitals, orphanages, refuges, and schools ; while yet 
another native Congregation " of the 7 Dolours" teaches 
in the native Schools. It must be said that such touch- 
ing titles are well chosen for these disinherited daughters 
of Eve. 

There is one lay Institute of men founded specially for 
missionary work, the Brothers of Ploermel founded in the 
village of that name in Brittany. 

All the Missions of the Catholic world are directed 
from Propaganda Fide, the chef-lieu of the Propagation 
of the Faith, with its seat at the well known building 
facing the column of the Immaculate Conception in 
Piazza di Spagna. A polyglot printing and publishing 
office is attached. (Now Piazza Mignanelli.) (Part IV., 
page 493.) 

CONFRATERNITIES. 

Confraternities are lay associations banded together 
for some pious purpose. They have a specified dress 
and rules, a church, and often a cemetery of their own. 
No country is so rich in Confraternities as Italy. 

^/r//-Confraternities are Corporations to which other 
Confraternities are aggregated ; they have a Cardinal 
Protector who takes possession of the Confraternity 
church with a prescribed ceremonial, and whose arms 
appear outside the church. One of the duties of arch- 
confraternities is to extend hospitality to its aggregated 
societies during Jubilee years. 

These lay Associations arose in the middle of the xm. Origin, 
century, it is said as a consequence of the fervent preach- 
ing of Antony of Padua, whose magical influence drew 
great and small, so that no building could hold the 
thronging crowds, and merchants found it useless to 
expose their wares while he preached. The tears of 
contrition drowned his voice, and thousands of penitents, 
— men, even little children — scantily clothed and in the 
bleakest winter, responded to his call, making the round 



326 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Dress of 
Confrater- 
nities. 



First Con- 
fraternity 
in Rome. 



of the churches, forming long processions by day and 
night along the towns, villages and fields, tapers in their 
hands, a cry for pardon on their lips. The unjust re- 
stored their gains, thieves gave back stolen things, long 
feuds were healed : and all these people, still following 
their own avocations and trades, were exhorted to asso- 
ciate themselves as permanent confraternities for the 
preservation and bettering of their religious life. 

The dress common to all Confraternities is a gown 
completely covering the clothes, with a coarse girdle, 
and a hood which can be drawn over the face, holes 
being left for the eyes. The gown may be of any colour, 
hence the names ' white penitents,' ' blue penitents,' etc. 
The Confraternities are further distinguished by a circu- 
lar badge on the left shoulder with the chosen emblem 
of the association. 

The earliest Confraternity in Rome dates from 1264, 
when one was formed under the supervision of S. Bona- 
venture, the members of which, during the exile at 
Avignon, rose up against the violence of the Roman 
seigneurs, and, having elected a governor of the Capitol, 
thenceforward bore the proud name of Confraternita 
della Gonfalone, i.e. of the Standard of liberty and 
justice. This Confraternity gives a dot annually to 
several poor girls, and maintains a doctor for its sick 
Confreres, as well as supporting the priests for its pres- 
ent church of S. Lucia del Gonfalone in Via Banchi 
Vecchi. Gregory XIII. added to their duties that of 
ransoming captives, and hence their official name of S. 
Maria della Mercede. They used also to have charge 
of the image of the Blessed Virgin painted by S. Luke, 
in S. Maria Maggiore, where the Confraternity was origin- 
ally erected. The dress is white, with a circle on the 
shoulder charged with a cross pattee white and red. 
Among ' white ' penitents are also the Archconfraternity 
of the Angeli Custodi at the church of that name, and 
the Archconfraternity of the B. Sacrament and of our 
Lady of the Snow, near the Colosseum. 

The best known ' Black ' penitents are those of S. John 



CLERKS REGULAR 327 

Baptist Beheaded (S. Giovanni Battista Decollate?) called 
the Misericordia, founded in 1488 by some Florentines* 
in Rome for assisting condemned criminals and helping 
them to make a good end. This was the last of the 
Confraternities to retain the power of annually releasing 
a condemned criminal (a power of which all the others 
were deprived by Innocent X.), and Helyot himself saw 
it exercised by the Misericordia when he was in Rome. 
The endowment of this Association, which has its seat 
near the Piazza Montanara, was confiscated by the Gov- 
ernment on the ground that capital punishment no longer 
exists. Another excellent • Black ' Confraternity is that 
of S. Maria dell' Orazione e Morte (of ' Prayer and 
Death ') at the church of that name in Via Giulia, 
formed to give burial to those found dead in the Cam- 
pagna and in the streets of the city ; members being 
always kept in readiness to go in search of the body and 
carry it to the church. This Confraternity was approved 
by Pius IV. in 1560, and has the Exposition of the 40 
Hours every month. Although one of the most promi- 
nent duties of these Congregations of fratelloni attached 
to the churches and parishes, is to accompany the dead 
and say the Office of the Dead for them, this is the only 
one of the 73 Confraternities in Rome which attends the 
funerals of the poor gratuitously. It also charges itself 
with the burial of the poor of its parish. The shoulder- 
badge is a death's head. The Arch confraternity of the 
Crocefisso erected in S. Marcello in the Corso is another 
1 Black ' Confraternity ; one of whose works was the 
maintenance of the Capuchin Nuns' Monastery of Corpus 
Domini which until lately existed near the Quirinal. This 
body served as the model for S. Francis de Sales' ' Con- 
fraternity of Penitents.' 

The best known ' Gray ' Confraternity is that of the 
Stigmata of S. Francis, erected in 1594 at S. Pietro in 
Montorio, but moved later to the church of the Stimmate 
(Stigmata) near the Gesu. The privileges immunities and 

* They are much better known in Florence, where they carry 
the sick, and the dead, 



328 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

spiritual treasure of the Franciscan Order were granted 
to this confraternity, which consists of gentle and simple, 
assists the orphans and widows of its poor confreres, 
carries the bodies of deceased members, and used to be 
well known for its imposing processions, when some 500 
confreres would visit processionally the 7 Churches and 
other sanctuaries. The gray gown is tied with a stout 
cord, they wear a wooden rosary, and have as a badge 
the arms of the Franciscan Order. 

There are also 'blue' penitents (for example the Sacconi 
Turchini) and ' red ' penitents, for example the Archcon- 
fraternity of S. Ursula and S. Catherine of Tor de' Specchi, 
who wear a green girdle, and the Sacconi Rossi on the 
Island of the Tiber. Sacconi was also the name of a con- 
fraternity of nobles and prelates, founded in 1643 by S. 
Hyacinthe, a Franciscan, and attached to the church 
of S. Teodoro under the Palatine, which used to beg for 
the poor on Friday with large sacks {sacconi) on their 
shoulders ; the Confraternity still exists, but no longer 
begs for the poor. Green is worn by the Confraternity 
of S. Rocco in Via Ripetta. Several of the Confraternities 
wear a gown of one colour and a cape of another : thus 
one of the Confraternities of the Sacred Heart wears 
white with a red cape, and that of the Anime del Purga- 
torio black with a white cape ; the Agonizzanti white and 
a violet cape. Many of these associations are national, 
the Tuscans, Siennese, and Neapolitans have Confrater- 
nities which assist their compatriots ; and there are purely 
religious Confraternities of the different trades — the 
fish vendors, coachmen, carpenters, tailors, booksellers 
(S. Thomas Aquinas and S. Barbara, white with a red 
girdle and black cape) — just as there were still more 
anciently trade guilds for their general interests. 

These Confraternities not only form a company of 
fratelli of the church, who assist at all its processions 
and feasts, but they have certain religious exercises in 
common, and may be seen in many a church reciting 
their office without priest or parson — for instance in 
S. Maria in Trastevere, S. M. Egiziaca, etc. There are 



CLERKS REGULAR 329 

also Sorelle of the churches (as those of S. Croce to be 
seen on Good Friday) but they have no distinctive 
costume. 

No special account of the Catholic charities of Rome 
can be given here. As will be seen (especially in the 
foregoing Chapter) a large number of these are main- 
tained and directed by Religious ; and the Roman monas- 
teries feed 5000 poor a day. Seventeen of the chief Opere 
pie have recently been agglomerated under the title of 
the Federazione Piana. The excellent and enlightened 
Circolo San Pietro* was the first to have economic 
kitchens and dormitories in Rome ; and, among its many 
other useful works, has done most towards improving the 
condition of the peasants of the Agro Romano. Now, 
during the harvest, they have mass celebrated in the 
fields on a wain drawn by oxen : the simplicity of the 
first ages of the Faith is easily evoked by that Roman 
Church whose ritual sits lightly on her, as the shadow of 
a substance. (Seat of the Circolo San Pietro : Palazzo 
Cini, Piazza di Pietra 26.) 

Since going to press the Figlie del Sagro Cuore (Betle- 
mite), an old institution founded in Colombia by the 
Ven. Pietro di S. Giuseppe Betancour, have established 
their mother-house in Rome. They have houses in S. 
America and Q in the Naples district, where their work 
is teaching, with the care of orphanages and creches. 
The habit is black, a large gilt heart is fastened to the 
wide whimple, and the veil fits closely round the head. 
Address : Villa Maria, Via Emilia. 

* Founded 1869 : men serve on it till they are 40 years old, when, 
being an Association of the Gioventu Cattolica, they must retire. 



PART IV. 

ECCLESIASTICAL ROME. 



PART IV. 
ECCLESIASTICAL ROME. 

CHAPTER I. 

THE POPE. 

The titles — dress — and insignia of the pope — Sedia gestatoria — > 
state carriages — Cavalcata — Papal Orders and Titles of the 
Holy Roman Empire — Peter's pence — Law of Guarantees — 
Pope's court and household — Papal troops — Diplomatic Corps 
— Nuncio — Legate — Papal Offices of State — Bull — brief — 
encyclical — Vicariate of Rome — Palatine offices. 

The Pope is Head of the Catholic Church ; Patriarch of Titles of 
the West; Primate of Italy; Bishop and Metropolitan the Po P e - 
of Rome. Cyprian (ob. 258) calls the Roman See " The 
Chair of Peter and principal Church, from whence has 
come the unity of the episcopate."* 

The Nicene Council divided Christendom into 3 Patri- The Patri- 
archates, that of Rome, then, next in dignity to Rome, that archate - 
of Alexandria, and thirdly Antioch. The Bishop of Rome ' ' 325 ' 
presided over the ten provinces of Italy, and possessed 
Patriarchal authority also over Africa and Illyria. In the 
time of Gregory the Great some of the Ligurian, ^Emilian, 
and Venetian Metropolitans asserted their independence 
of the apostolic authority in their Sees, and were opposed 
by Gregory, who urged the supremacy of Peter's suc- 
cessor. 

According to some authorities Rome and the Pope are The See of 
inseparable, but others say that the Pope might be bishop the Po P e - 
of another See, and others again that he might govern the 
Church without a See. 

* Letter to Pope Cornelius : Petri Cathedra atque ecclesia princu 
falls wide unitas sacerdotalis exorta est. 

333 



334 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



' Pope." 



"PP. 
Rom." 



" Pontifex 
Maximus." 



" Holy 
Father." 



Holi- 



" Servus 

Servorum 

Dei." 



The title Pope was used in early times for all bishops ; 
it means "Father." About 510 Ennodius of Ticinum 
employs it to denote the Bishop of Rome exclusively ; 
but it is from the vn. century that it became customary, 
and Gregory VII. (1073-1087) made it the lawful and 
exclusive title.* 

The abbreviation PP. Rom., Papa Romae, pope of 
Rome, belongs to the ix. century, when the word Papa 
was still not exclusively confined to the one Bishop. 

Tertullian (220) in his indignant remonstrance about 
the remitting power, ironically refers to Callistus by the 
title given to the Roman Emperors as high priests, and 
calls the pope " The Pontifex Maximus, that is, Bishop 
of Bishops " ; this Roman title, however, actually signi- 
fied the pope in the days of Leo I. (440-461), and is 
still used to-day. 

The title Holy Father was applied to Patriarchs and 
bishops, and therefore to the pope, from the earliest days. 
That of " Holiness " was a common title of veneration in 
addressing great prelates and others ; Gregory the Great 
employs it when writing to the Bishops of Alexandria and 
Antioch and Augustin of Canterbury ; and S. Augustine 
in a letter to Juliana, the mother of Demetrias, asks 
her whether a certain book has reached " Your Holi- 
ness." In the West the title has been confined to the 
Pope since the time of Johannes Diaconus (vi. century). 

" Servant of the Servants of God " was a title adopted 
by Gregory the Great when John Patriarch of Constanti- 
nople assumed that of (Ecumenical Bishop.\ It be- 
came a usual episcopal title, and Boniface, the English 
apostle of Germany, calls himself " Servant of the servants 
of God " in a letter to Eadburga. It is still employed 



* In a catacomb epitaph we have : Sub Liberio Papa ; his suc- 
cessor Damasus is referred to as sub Damaso episcopo. 

t A title conferred on the Patriarch by the emperors and by a 
synod held in 588. Pelagius Pope of Rome protested against it. 
Leo I. had declined it when offered to him at the council of Chal- 
cedon. Gregory's letters on the subject to John and to Eulogius of 
Alexandria are full of noble words. 



THE POPE 



335 



by the Popes ; and was used by other bishops until the 
style Dei et Apostolus Sedis gratia, was introduced. 
This was first employed by a Bishop of Cyprus who had 
been granted extended jurisdiction by the Holy See. 

Originally the popes styled themselves vicars of Peter, "Vicar of 
and successors of Peter, or "Apostolic." As early as C hnst -" 
202-220, Pope Zephyrinus is addressed as " apostolice " ; 
and Tertullian quotes Matt. xvi. 18, with reference to the 
position of this pope. Innocent III. spoke of himself 
as Vicar of Christ, and, as we see by her letters, this was 
perfectly usual by the time of S. Catherine. This title, 
and not Vicar of God, or vice-regent of God on earth, is 
the proper title of the Popes, the other being an abuse.* 

In Italy the Pope is addressed as Santo Padre, or 
Santita, in French Saint Pere and Saintete\ Vostra 
Beatitudine, Your Beatitude, is also used in documents, 
being a title in all ways similar in origin to Sanctitas 
Vestra, Your Holiness. The popes also place PP. ( Papa) 
or P.M. (Pontifex Maximus) after their names. 

Up to 1566 the pope's dress used to be red, as we can Papal 
see in the pictures of that and previous periods : but in dress - 
that year Pius V., a Dominican friar, was elected pope, Colour. 
and he continued to wear his white Dominican habit. A 
white soutane, called zimarra, has been worn ever since Zimarra. 
by the pope ; but his hat, mozzetta, stole, and shoes are Mozzetta. 
still red. The mozzetta f is a short red velvet cape 
edged with fur, worn in winter over the zimarra ; with 
it is worn a soft red cap of the same colour and stuffs 
resembling the early episcopal bonnet mentioned in Part 
II., page in. This is the camauro, identical with the Camauro. 



* When Leo HI. crowned Charlemagne in 800, it was the 
Emperor who was regarded as God's Vice-regent. The same 
principle was assiduously preached from English pulpits after the 
Reformation, with reference to the Tudors, the Stuarts, and the 
Georges. 

t This cape is worn by cardinals in red silk, and by bishops in 
purple. It is the same piece of costume as the canon's cape: 
p. 213, cf. with priest's dress, p. 486. 



336 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Solideo. 
Shoes. 

Stole. 



White 
worn a1 
Easter. 



Liturgical 
dress. 



Fanone. 



Manto 
pontificate. 



Fa Ida. 



canon's and doctor's cap, which covered the ears, as we 
see it in pictures of Sir Thomas More. 

The pope always wears, except during the more sacred 
portions of the mass, the white silk skull-cap called soli- 
deo * ; and out of doors he wears a red hat. The shoes 
are red, the right shoe embroidered with a gold cross, 
which those who visit him kiss on taking leave. 

Until the xn. century the pope never wore a stole ; 
now he is the only ecclesiastic who wears it as part of his 
ordinary dress, over the mozzetta. He would not how- 
ever wear a stole in private within the Vatican.f 

At Easter the pope's dress changes : after the cappella 
papale of Holy Saturday until Saturday in Albis, the 
mozzetta, stole, and shoes are white, and the camauro 
of white damask. The stuff of mozzetta and shoes 
also varies : when the cardinals wear red they are of silk 
or velvet as described above, but when they wear purple, 
the stuff is wool or ' camlet.' 

The pontiff has two sets of sacred vestments, the one 
worn at mass, the other at non-liturgical functions. At 
pontifical mass he wears in addition to the usual vest- 
ments the fanone, subcincture, and the pallium. The 
former is a kind of double mozzetta, the lower part of 
which lies under the stole and chasuble, the upper part 
(which is placed over the pope's head while vesting) 
falls over the chasuble and has the pallium above it, 
attached with three spilloni. 

At public Consistories, and on similar occasions, the pope 
wears the cope or manto, which is clasped by the for- 
male,% and drags on the ground ; under this he has the 
/a/da, a white taffeta train which hangs from the waist. 

Thus if the pope is carried to the altar to say mass, he 



* Part II, p. in. 

t Ibid. p. 101. The stole is not worn in Rome by ecclesiastics 
when preaching; because, says Macri, the pope wears a stole on all 
occasions, even in the public streets. For the same reason, he con- 
tinues, cardinals, even when preaching in their titular churches, 
wear it under the mozzetta. 

\ Part II., p. 270 and footnote. 



THE POPE 337 

appears in mitre and chasuble ; but when carried to a 
Consistory or to the Sistine chapel to assist at mass he 
wears the manto and tiara. At a Secret Consistory, 
(excepting his first), the pope wears rochet, mozzetta, 
a pectoral cross, and the ring. 

Up to the time of Benedict XIII. the popes wore both Papal 
black and purple vestments ; but since that time red has ht " r g |cal 
been the colour for papal mourning. Red is therefore 
worn in the penitential seasons; and the pope is buried 
in the same colour. The liturgical colours in which the 
pope is seen are always white or red, the stole only being 
sometimes purple. 

A cappa magna * of red velvet and ermine used to be Cappa 
worn by the popes, and Eugenius IV. is represented in ? £ a %' ia ^ n , d 
it at the Council of Florence. The cope was adopted p a pa. 
as less precious and more appropriate during Holy Week 
and for the Matins of Christmas, and there is no example 
of a cappa magna being worn since the time of Pius V. 
But a scarlet or red cloak, called cappa del papa, of vel- 
vet silk or wool, and in winter lined with ermine, is worn 
on November 2 and on Good Friday, as less splendid 
than the manto. The hood is drawn over the head. 
The popes used to wear the hood called Clementina on 
Christmas night and at other solemnities, as the Cardinal 
Vicar does now when he enters the church on Good 
Friday. 

The pope also can wear the pallium on all occasions, Pallium. 
and is the only person who does so. The pallium is a 
long strip of lamb's wool, worn round the neck, and sig- 
nifies " the fullness of episcopal office." As signifying 
the plenitude of jurisdiction, the pallium is sent by the 
pope to archbishops and metropolitans, who must how- 
ever first demand it. Vigilius sent it to Auxanius of 
Aries as to one " acting in our stead." Pelagius to 
another Bishop of Aries as " Vicarius noster." Gregory 
the Great sent it to many bishops includiug Augustin of 
Canterbury. 

* See p. 448. 
z 



338 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



How kept 
and blest. 



Mantle of 
Elijah. 



Symbolic 
meaning. 



Pallia are kept in the Benvenuto Cellini gold coffer at 
the confession of S. Peter in the Vatican basilica. They 
are always called "Pallium de corpore sancti Petri," 
because they come from his tomb, just as the brandea or 
cloths lowered to touch Peter's sarcophagus and kept as 
relics, were called de corpore, " from the body of Peter." 
The pallium is blest on the altar of the confession, and 
then remains there as we see ; but the old usage was to 
leave the pallium there on the night after the blessing, and 
then it was kept on Peter's chair until this latter was 
enclosed. The pallium is always blest on the day of 
Peter's death, June 29. 

For it has been assumed that the pallium represents 
the archaic custom of handing down the upper garment, 
the mantle, of the teacher to his disciples and successors, 
as Elisha received that of Elijah, and as the Patriarch of 
Constantinople when fully vested wore " the venerable 
cloak of S. James, the brother of the Lord." But the most 
striking instance is that of the Patriarch of Alexandria, 
who, having buried his predecessor with his own hands, 
used to take the pallium or mantle of S. Mark and place 
it on his own shoulders, which act constituted legitimate 
occupation of his office ; a custom found in Alexandria 
from the vi. century. This view of the Western pallium 
can only, however, have arisen from the name pallium, a 
mantle. For the Abbe Duchesne has demonstrated that 
the Roman pallium was in fact an imperial ensign, 
accorded to the popes by the emperor some time, he 
conjectures, in the iv. century ; and was never anything 
but a scarf. By the time of Theodosius it was worn over 
the panula by all sorts of functionaries, and the Abb6 
Duchesne describes the manner in which it was worn by 
the Roman Consul. He shows that the popes in the vi. 
century had to obtain the authority of the Emperor to 
bestow it on other than subjects of the Empire. later, a 
beautiful meaning attached to the pallium as symbolising 
the shee'p borne on the shoulders of the Good Shepherd. 
Thus S. Isidore (vn. century) says it is made of wool not 
of linen to represent the wandering sheep of whom the 
Lord went in quest. 



THE POPE 



339 



The pallium is marked with crosses; these were placed The 
at either extremity, but afterwards are found repeated on Crosses - 
the shoulders. The painting of S. Urban in the Church 
of S. Cecilia represents the latter arrangement, one never 
found in mosaic or painting earlier than the x. century. 
In a late x. century representation of Augustin of Canter 
bury there are 3 crosses at the extremity, and 2 on each 
shoulder.* 

There is, nevertheless, no Christian vestment with 
more august and venerable associations than the Pope's 
pallium, as there is none older except the stole of the 
deacon. The pope never used to wear both these vener- 
able vestments, the papal stole till the xn. century was 
the pallium. S. Isidore, already cited, calls \X.,omophorion, 
that is an episcopal stole ; and the first Council of Macon 
in 581 forbade bishops to celebrate mass without it.f 
From ancient times it was taken away when a bishop was 
deposed, it being regarded as the sign of his jurisdiction. 
It is worn over the chasuble, as it was by the ancient 
Romans. The occasions on which it is worn by an arch- 
bishop are — in his own diocese — on the great festivals of 
the year at solemn mass, at the dedication of a church, 
consecration of a bishop, ordination, the principal feasts 
of his cathedral, the anniversary of his reception of the 
pallium, and at any other times named " nel privilegio di 
concessioner For the manner of giving the pallium, see 
Part II., p. 181. 

The special headgear of the supreme pontiff is the 
tiara or triple crown ; but in ceremonies of a purely 
spiritual character he wears the mitre. The tiara is not The tiara, 
mentioned until 708-715, and then as a head-dress cus- ° T J™ re ^~ 
tomarily worn in state by the pope at Rome. { But (triple 



crown). 



* Had. MSS. 2908. 

t " L'usage romain de reserver cet ensigne a certains evSques et de 
le leur envoyer de Rome, paratt etre une modification de l'institution 
primitive." Duchesne, Origines du culte chretien. 

\ KanrikaiiKiov. Later called Regnum ; " the mitre of 3 crowns 
which is called Regnum " — triplicis corona mitra, quie regnum 
dicilur. 



34Q CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

there are no representations of it in art till the xn. cen- 
tury. The forged Donation of Constantine is however 
very explicit; it tells us that Sylvester having refused, 
from humility, the imperial crown offered him by Con- 
stantine, the Emperor placed on his head a Phrygian 
cap, white in colour, that he might wear it in processions 
in imitation of the pomp of sovereigns. It is this conic 
cap which first appears in art — it rests on a gemmed 
crown, of which however the vm. century compiler of the 
" Donation " is ignorant. It is said that Nicholas I. 
(858) was the first to wear such a cap and crown united, 
and that the second circlet was added by Boniface VIII. ; 
the third was added by Urban V., Benedict XII., or one 
of the Avignon popes. In Giotto's contemporary picture 
of the declaration of the Jubilee of 1300, Boniface VIII. 
is represented in the tiara with one crown.* 

The tiara or regnum is white, with three gold circlets 
one above the other. It was and is always worn by the 
Pope on certain great functions, hence called Festum 
Coronce. One of these days is the anniversary of his 
coronation. A regnum was brought from Avignon to 
Rome by order of Eugenius IV. (1431), said to be that 
which Constantine gave to Sylvester; and Nicholas V. 
(1447) was crowned with it. In an Inventory of the 
Apostolic palace in 1297, the regnum sive corona of 
Boniface VIII. is described ; rich with sapphires, rubies, 
pearls, and smaragdi, and surmounted by a large ruby ; 
on the lower part was one enamelled circlet. The use 
of the regnum appears to have gone out of fashion, and 
it was re-adopted by Paul II. (1464). Paul III. (1534) 
made a triregnum with a quantity of jewels which had 
been found under the foundations of S. Peter's. This 
tiara was undone and remade and modernised " con 
corone rilevate . . . . e guarnite di perle orientali," by 
Pius VI. In this precious headgear there were perhaps 
2000 gems. 

The same pope in the following year, 1 790, remodern- 

* See Part I., pp. 94, 99. 



THE POPE 



341 



ised that of Urban VIII., and in 1791, appearing to have 
a veritable mania for arranging tiaras, he undid and re- 
made the tiara of S. Pius V. These were so heavy to 
wear, that Leo X. (15 13), it appears, had a very light 
(tevissimum) tiara made of peacocks' feathers. Inno- 
cent III. had been crowned with a tiara and circlet of 
peacocks' feathers, signifying that the eyes of the pope 
were directed to all quarters of the world, and a similar 
quaint crown was presented by Urban III. to Prince John, 
the son of Henry II., when the papal legate crowned 
him King of Ireland. 

The pope is the only Western bishop who does not The 
make use of the crooked ' crozier ' ; in its place he uses stra 'g ht 
the pedum rectum, straight staff or ' crozier ' terminating 
in a globe and Greek cross. (See p. 470.) 

The pope has 3 rings, for different occasions. That Ring, 
worn every day containing a precious stone. That worn 
when pontificating, hence called pontificate. And the 
historical Ring of the Fisherman, so called from the re- Anulus 
presentation on it of Peter in the act of fishing from his P lscatorts - 
boat. The date at which this was first worn is not known.* 
The first mention we have of it is in a letter of Clement 
IV., in 1265, to his nephew. The pope seals his letter 
with it, and tells his nephew that he does not use the 
Bulla, official seal, but the seal which the Roman pontiffs 
were accustomed to use for their private correspondence : 
non sub bulla, sed sub piscatoris sigillo. In 143 1 the 
then Pope writes sub anulo nostro secreto. It is dis- 
puted whether the pope should in fact use this seal for 
his private letters only, or not. The anulus piscatoris is 
destroyed at the first meeting of the conclave convened 
to elect a new pope. The new pope is immediately pre- 
sented with another, which he returns that his name may 
be inscribed on it. It is customary to kiss the pope's 
ring in the same way as the ring of other bishops. 

The kissing of the foot of dignitaries was a custom of Kissing the 
Oriental origin; it was observed towards emperors and p °P e ' sfoot - 



Mabillon. 



342 CHRISTIAN AXD ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

other personages, and the popes and emperors used to 
reciprocate this mark of veneration. The Gelasian Sacra- 
mentary (vn. century) prescribes that the deacon shall 
kiss the pope's foot before reading the Gospel. Late in 
the middle ages when the salutation was confined to the 
pope, a cross was worked on his slipper to show that the 
honour was done " not to the mortal, but to the Son of 
God." * 



Sedia When the pope assists at a great ceremonial, he is 

gestatoria. borne on the shoulders of 12 bearers on the portable 
throne called the sedia gestatoria. There are many 
pictures in the Vatican, and in the halls which the pope 
passes through in state, which represent his predecessors 
being thus carried. The sedia gestatoria was used in 
France in the v. century, where it was the custom of the 
Gallican church for the new bishop to be carried by all 
the other bishops. According to Bonanni the custom in 
Rome dates from the time of Damasus (366) but with 
much more probability it is to be assigned to the time of 
Pope Stephen, 752.1 
Fiabeiii. On each side of the pope are borne the flabelli, white 

ostrich feathers, on long poles covered with crimson 
velvet, which are carried by two camerieri segreti when- 
ever he is borne on the sedia gestatoria, and also, until 
1870, at the feast of Corpus Christi. 

The history of the flabelli is of much interest. In the 
"Apostolic" Constitutions the Apostle James is repre- 
sented as saying " And I James make a constitution . . . 
let 2 of the deacons, on each side of the altar, hold a 
fan, made up of thin membranes, or of the feathers of 
the peacock, or of fine cloth, and let them silently drive 
away the small insects that fly about, that they may not 
come near the chalices." In the life of Epiphanius the 
flabellum is called Ventilabrum Ministeriorum (fan of the 
ministers). Flabella or muscaria formed part of early 
Western ritual also. S. Udalric in his " Cluny Constitu- 

* Kraus, article Fnsskttss. 

% See the chair of S. Peter, Part I., p. 62. 



THE POPE 



343 



tions " says that one of the two deacons at mass shall 
stand with a fan. Durandus writes : " But lest flies should 
come to spoil the sweetness of the ointment, that is lest 
troublesome thoughts should arise and destroy the devo- 
tion of prayer, they are to be driven away by the fan 
of the spirit. And to signify this, in summer time, a 
material fan should be used while the secreta " (that is 
the private prayers over the oblation) " is being said." 
Cardinal Bona mentions its use in the liturgy during 
summer, in the time of Nicholas V. (1447). It is now 
no longer used in the Roman liturgy proper, but only in 
the pope's transit to celebrate mass. 

Some writers tell us that churches used to be adorned 
for feast days with flabelli on pillars placed in the corners 
of the church ; and marble flabelli still stand between 
the arches of S. Sabina on festivals.* 

For lesser ceremonies, when the Sedia gestatoria is not Portantina. 
used, the pope is carried in a low chair, fashioned like a 
sedan chair, called the portantina. 

From the Ordos of the ix. century we learn that the 
pope used to ride to the Stational church of the day| to 
celebrate the Solemn Mass. Until the xvm. century the 
popes on their election went in state from the Vatican to 
take possession of the Lateran, riding on a white mule. 
This imposing ceremony was called the Cavalcata ; and 
was one of the greatest ever seen in the city. The whole 
college of Cardinals awaited the Pope in the portico of 
the Lateran, vested in white. The Piazza was lined with 
the civic guard, and the Pope was received by the chief 
Senator of Rome. Detachments of all the papal regi- 
ments formed part of the procession which started from 
the Vatican (or from the Quirinal), cannon being fired as 
the Pope left the palace. All the camerieri segreti, eccle- 
siastics and laymen, attended, and the Governor of Rome 
(always a Prelate) rode on horseback attired in lace and 
purple. The Pope's crocifero bore the papal ' crozier ' ; 
the great officers of State followed the Pope, attended by 

* Oriental rites, Part II., Chapter I. 
t See Part II., p. 200. 



White 
mule and 
cavalcata. 



344 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

servants on foot in gala liveries. A brigade of the Pala- 
tine guard and a body of dragoons closed the gorgeous 
procession. Money was scattered among the poor, and 
pensions bestowed on poor students of painting sculpture 
and architecture. The last pope to ride to the Vatican 
was Clement XIV.* Pius VIII. drove in a coach drawn 
by 6 horses, his white mule being led. 
State The State coach of the popes, a splendid vehicle lined 

coach. with red damask, and containing a red velvet chair for 

the pontiff, and a cushion opposite for his attendant, has 
not been used since 1870. It may be seen at the papal 
stables. 

Papal The Pope confers 4 Knightly Orders. I. The first and 

K- rd - ei h ° f most ancient of these is the Order of Christ, founded in 
hood.'" Portugal in 1319 by the King, who having refused to give 
effect to the suppression of the Templars, changed their 
name to that of the Order of Christ : the Order is still 
conferred by the Portuguese sovereign. The insignia, a 
red enamelled Latin cross, charged with a white enamelled 
cross, surmounted by a crown and worn from the neck 
by a red ribbon, are conferred on Italians and foreigners, 
who need not be nobles. 

II. The Order of S. Sylvester is that Order of the Golden 
Spurs whose members were ' Lateran Counts Palatine,' said 
to have been founded by Constantine and sanctioned by 
Pope Sylvester. As a papal Order it probably originated 
in the middle of the xvi. century, and was customarily con- 
ferred on members of the Pope's household during thecav- 
alcata and on the anniversaries of his accession. Gregory 
XVI. re-instituted it as a public mark of honour to be be- 
stowed on those distinguished by their zeal for religion and 
the Holy See, or for civil artistic or scientific merit. The 
badge is a white enamelled Greek cross, with the effigy 

*See " l'ultima Cavalcata," the account given of Clement's pro- 
cession, in Signor Silvagni's Corte e Societa Romana. 

In the middle ages the Prefect of Rome walked beside the pope, 
attired in a red silk dalmatic, a gold-trimmed mantle, a purple vel- 
vet mitre, one of his stockings red and the other gold. 



THE POPE 



345 



of S. Sylvester in the centre, and on the reverse Grego- 
rius XVI. restituit. Commanders wear it round the neck, 
Knights on the breast. The riband is black, striped 
white ; and the uniform is a red military coat, white 
breeches, sword and spurs. 

III. Ordine Piano, so called because instituted in 1559 
by Pius IV., its members being styled Cavalieri Pii or 
Pios. Pius IX., in 1847 restored this Order which has two 
classes for those possessing (a) hereditary or (b) per- 
sonal noblesse. The insignia, an enamelled blue star 
with the words " Pius IX." on the obverse, and the year 
MDCCCXLVII. on the reverse. Knights of the I. Class 
wear a blue riband with red borders from the right shoulder, 
Knights of the II. Class wear the insignia from the same 
coloured ribbon. The uniform is a blue coat with red 
facings.* 

IV. Order of S. Gregory the Great, founded in 1831 
by Gregory XVI. as a reward for zeal and devotion in the 
cause of Catholicism and of papal authority. The insig- 
nia, a red enamelled cross of 8 points with " S. Grego- 
rius Magnus " and the words " Pro Deo et Principe " on 
the sides. The riband is red with yellow borders and is 
worn from the right shoulder. The Grand Cross is worn 
from the neck, other knights wear the insignia from the 
buttonhole ; while a civil service branch has the cross 
attached to a green enamelled olive branch, and the mili- 
tary branch adds gold trophies. The pope also confers 
a medal Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice which was originally 
intended for those who took part in the Jubilee Years 
1887 and 1897. It is now given to those who have 
merited well of the Church or the Pope. It is in 3 classes, 
gold, silver, and bronze, and is given to both men and 
women. 

The Holy See likewise confers the titles of ' Prince ' 
and ' Count ' ' of the Holy Roman Empire.' These were 
conferred by the Emperor only, until the remnants of the Empire. 
' Holy Roman Empire ' were abolished by Napoleon 



Titles of 
the Holy 
Roman 



* Since 1870 these uniforms have not been worn. 



Pence. 



346 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

The titles of ' Prince ' and ' Count ' are hereditary in 
some Italian and Austrian families, and attach also to cer- 
tain dignities. The honour usually conferred by the 
Pope — that of ' Count of the Holy Roman Empire ' — is 
not usually hereditary. 
Peter's petee-s pence. This is a contribution to the See of 

Peter, originating in England, some say with the Kings 
of Wessex or the father of Alfred, some with Offa of 
Mercia.* The penny was paid by every house in Eng- 
land, and collected at Midsummer. This denarius S. 
Petri, or Rom-Scot, dener de la meison, was paid in Eng- 
land till 1534. The Italian name is obolo di San Pietro, 
and this is still paid by all Catholic peoples ; and is a vol- 
untary offering collected periodically in the churches. 

The nunnery of Lucca affords the first instance of pay- 
ments to Rome for its " eminent domain." Their charter 
of 790 requires them to furnish oil for the lights of S. Peter's. 

In the Museo Nazionale of Rome are a quantity of silver 
coins from the time of Alfred the Great to 946. These 
were discovered in the recent important excavation of 
the House of the Vestals in the Forum. At the northern 
corner were found the remains of a private house of the 
viii. or ix. century, under the pavement of which the 
insignia of an officer of the Pope's Household of the time 
of Marinus (943-946) were discovered in a terra cotta jar. 
Of the 835 coins found with it, 830 are English, and musf 
represent the offerings of Peter's pence. 

Even during the age of the persecutions Rome had 
already become the common treasury of Christianity, a 
treasury administered with ability, and which formed a 
fund of propaganda in other Churches, and of relief for 
the suffering confessors in other lands as well as in Rome. 
" Un merveilleux esprit de direction animait cette petite 
communaut£, ou la Jud£e, la Grece et le Latium sem- 
blaient avoir confondu, en vue d'un prodigieux avenir, 
leurs dons les plus divers : " writes Renan.f 

♦i^Ethelwolf, and perhaps Offa, bestowed "royal alms" ; other- 
wise the above conjecture is uncorroborated from authentic sources, 
t Marc Aurele et la tin du Monde Antique. 



THE POPE 347 

By the Law of Guarantees passed by the Italian gov- "Law of 
eminent in 187 1, the pope was to receive a government g ua ™ n - 
subsidy of 3 and a quarter million francs (^£i 30,000) 
annually, which he refused. He is sovereign in his resi- 
dences, into which the Italian guards or officials cannot 
enter. To all these, exterritorialisation applies. He 
can also, by the same law, retain certain companies of 
soldiers to guard his person and residences.* 



THE POPE S COURT AND HOUSEHOLD. 

As early as the vm. century a body of seven ministers 
surrounded the pope and discharged the various functions 
of the pontifical state. They were known as judices de 
clero and judices palatini, and after the restoration of the 
empire, formed a civil court of justice. Later, they be- 
came imperial as well as papal officials. They prescribed 
the ceremony of the emperor's coronation, and gave legal 
form to the papal elections ; two of them acted as chan- 
cellors to the Western emperor, and accompanied him on 
important occasions. These ministers, who were great 
personages in Rome, and lived and journeyed with much 
state and pomp, retained their judicial authority through 
all revolutions, and gradually came to exert an omnipotent 
influence over the votes of the papal electors. 

I. The first of these seven officials was known as the Seven 
Primicerius\ of the Notaries. He was the pope's min- Jpf c t es - 
ister and Secretary of State, and he represented the papal 

office during a vacancy of the Holy See. 

II. The Secundarius of the Notaries, the second in 
importance, was the under secretary of State. He took 
precedence of bishops, and held the pope's hand in pro- 
cessions and during solemn functions. 

III. The Arcarius or Treasurer assessed the taxes, and 
administered the public funds. 

* Legge sulle prerogative del Sommo Pontifke e della Santa Sede 
13 maggio 1871. (Serie 2 tt ). N°. 214. Art. 4. 

t The name is preserved to-day in the President of a confraternity 
who is called the Primicerio. 



348 CHRISTIAN AN'D ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

IV. The fourth official was the Saccellarius or Pay- 
master. 

V. The fifth, the Protoscriniar or Secretary. He was 
the writer of letters, drew up decrees and prepared the 
acts of the synods. 

VI. The Primus Defensor or Advocate of the church, 
administered the patrimonies and affairs of the colonies. 
This office was in existence under Gregory the Great. 

VII. The Adminiculator was minister of Peace and 
protector of wards, widows and prisoners. 

Reverenda The care of the Pope's jewels, his valuables, his books, 
A^stoHca ms war drobe, the church plate and property and the 
pontifical archives, all fell within the province of the 
Reverenda Camera Apostolica. The Camera or Treasury 
took its name originally from the camere or chambers 
built as early as the v. century in the three basilicas of 
S. Peter's, S. Paul's and the Lateran, wherein Leo I. placed 
three individuals to take charge of the bodies and relics 
of the martyrs. Gradually these chambers were used for 
the deposit of money and valuables, and the keeper of 
valuables was known as the thesaurius or Treasurer. 
After the return from Avignon, the offices of the Maggior- 
domo, of the Maestro di Camera, or Steward, and of the 
Treasury were divided from the original Camera, the two 
former remaining distinct from it. 

In a.d. 1278 the Pope's household numbered some 300 
persons of all ranks from the Prefect to the sergeant 
at arms and the grooms. A report of Alexander V.'s 
household, (1409-1410) made after the Council of Pisa, 
gives an account of the different kinds of chamberlains in 
his service ; his honorary chamberlains, his prelates who 
read the Breviary with him, assisted him at mass, and had 
• charge of his jewels and wardrobe ; and his domestic 
chamberlains who waited upon him and slept in his room. 
A Comptroller of the Household kept the keys ; a Steward 
of the Halls attended to the guests. There were squires 
of honour, a Master of works and repairs, an Almoner and 
Confessor, while the papal bakery, the " knives and forks," 
" wines and drinking vessels," " candlesticks and tapers," 



THE POPE 



349 



" tapestries and beds," were under the charge of different 
ecclesiastics. 

During the Avignon exile the pontifical court reached 
to hitherto unknown luxury and magnificence, not only 
the pope but his cardinals also, lived in more than princely 
state and maintained retinues of several hundred persons. 
In 1555 the papal household numbered 734 persons, 
and the revenues amounted to 12 or 18 million francs, 
Clement VII. (1523-1534) spending in one year 6500 
florins on the clothes of his servants alone. Since the 
Italian occupation in 1870, and the pope's permanent 
residence in the Vatican, the pontifical Household has 
naturally been reduced, and many state offices have in 
the nature of things become obsolete. He still however 
keeps up a royal state within the Vatican wherein he is 
supreme sovereign, the Vatican having been rendered 
ex-territorial by the Law of guarantees.* 

The household and retinue of Leo XIII. numbers some 
1 200 persons, but this includes the few companies of sol- 
diers kept for service in the palace. In the pontifical 
court of to-day are found much the same offices as three 
centuries ago, and we meet with the modern descendants 
of the original judices palatini in the four Cardinals Pala- 
tine, and four Prelates Palatine, the great officials of the 
papal court and Household. 

The Cardinals Palatine are as follows : 

I. The Chancellor. Pro (Cardinal Masella) 

Datario. 

II. The Secretary of State. (Cardinal Rampolla) 

III. The Secretary of Briefs. (Cardinal Macchi) 

IV. The Secretary of Memo- (vacant) 

rials. 



House- 
hold of 
Leo XIII. 



Cardinals 
Palatine. 



The four Prelates Palatine are : 

I. The Pope's Maggior- (Monsignor Delia Volpe) 
domo. 

* See ante page 347. 



Prelates 
Palatine. 



35o CHRISTIAN AND BCCLBSJASTICAL ROME 

II. The Pope's Maestro di (MonsignorCagiano de Aze- 

Camera, Steward or vedo) 

Lord Chamberlain. 
III. The Pope's Uditore* (Monsignor Guidi) 

Auditor. 
IV. Master of the Apostolic (Padre Lepidi, O. P.) 

Palace Maestro del 

Sacro Palazzo Apos- 

tolico. 

Originally one lay officer the Maestro del Sacro Ospizio, 
fulfilled the duties of Master of the Holy Palaces, Prefect, 
Maggiordomo, Secretary of Ceremonies, etc., and received 
distinguished guests of the pope. The position which is 
also that of Head of the Lay Chamberlains oiSpada e cappa 
was hereditary in the Conti family, and has now passed 
by descent to Prince Ruspoli who is still Maestro del Sacro 
Ospizio although the office is almost nominal. It is 
interesting to note that the Maggiordomo with three other 
Prelates,! as the Secundarius of old, takes precedence of 
bishops in papal processions. 
Chief The Secretaries of " Briefs to Princes," of " Latin let- 

officers, ters," of" the Embassies," the Under Secretary of State, 
and the Sotto Datario % are all monsignori and important 
officers of the pontifical state. The Pope has a private 
Almoner who is an archbishop (Monsignor Costantini), a 
cupbearer (Monsignor Bisleti), a Master of the Wardrobe 
(Monsignor Merry del Val). His private Sacristan 
(Mons. Pifferi) is always an Augustinian, he is likewise 
a bishop and the parish priest of the Apostolic Palace. 
His Director of Ceremonies (Monsignor Sambucetti) is 
an archbishop ; this officer and the Maestro del S. 
Ospizio would receive royal visitors at the foot of the 
steps and would conduct them to the presence of the 
Pope, they would also have the charge of important 
guests at the Vatican. In old days, when the pope rode 
in the state cavalcata,% or rode and drove about the city, 

* See page 361. % See page 361. 

t See page 476. § See page 343. 



THE POPE 



35* 



his Master of the Horse, cavallerizzo, was the responsible 
functionary. Although the pope no longer leaves the 
Vatican this office still exists, and is held by Marchese 
Serlupi. 

Court ceremonies and processions within the palace 
are under the charge of the Marshal Foriere, Marchese 
Sacchetti. Both these officers, in state processions, walk 
in front of the sedia gestatoria of the pope, and can be 
distinguished by their Elizabethan dress of" black, resem- 
bling that of the chamberlains except that they wear 
a longer tunic with full sleeves, and no cloak. The cav- 
allerizzo wears a blue riband across the breast. 

All the above officers of state, the " Bearer of the 
Golden Rose,"* Count Soderini, the officers of the Noble 
guard, the Swiss and Palatine guards, and the pope's 
lay chamberlains belong to his Household or Faniiglia. 
The chamberlains wear a dress of black silk and velvet, a 
tunic and trunk hose, short black velvet cloak and silk 
stockings. They carry a sword and wear a black velvet 
bonnet, a white Elizabethan ruff and the gold chain of 
their office. These chamberlains di spada e cappa, of the 
sword and mantle, are gentlemen of every nationality. 
About nine are officers in ordinary, and there are about 
486 extraordinary, in two grades. The difference in dress 
between the two grades is however so slight, that they 
cannot be easily distinguished. 

Some hundreds of ecclesiastics also belong to the Pope's 
Household, ex officio, the larger number of whom are not 
in attendance in the Apostolic Palace, many of them 
being resident out of Rome. These are firstly, the so- 
called " College of Assistants at the Pontifical Throne " 
(Collegio degli assistenti al soglio pontificio) composed 
of the 11 Eastern Patriarchs, 53 Archbishops and 93 
Bishops f of Sees in and out of Italy. 

Secondly, the Domestic Prelates, Monsignori di man- 
telletta given on page 475, belonging to the various 

* See Tart II., page 219. 

t All these Prelates swear not to poison the pope, and to inform 
him if they know of such an intention. 



Cavaller- 
izzo. 



Pope's 
House- 
hold 
Faniiglia. 



Lay 
Chamber- 



Ecclesiasti- 
cal mem- 
bers of the 
Pope's 
House- 
hold. 



352 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

departments of the papal court, and the Monsignori di 
mantellone, private chamberlains and honorary chamber- 
lains.* Finally a certain number of personal attendants 

Famigliari. upon the Pope, his Famigliari. Among those are the 
private and honorary chaplains who attend him at his 
Mass, the Apostolic Preacher and the Confessor to the 
Household. 

A large number of ushers, bussolanti, are always in 
attendance in the Apostolic palace and belong to the 
Household ; they wear a purple cassock, sash and so- 
prana. The Pope has a groom of the stole, a personal 
attendant at meals (scalco segreto), a domestic physician 
and surgeon. 

Servants. Responsible servants (scopatori segreti), attend upon 

the Pope and sleep in his anteroom. His grooms and 
bearers are magnificently dressed in crimson doublets 
and hose. The former used to walk beside the Pope's 
white mule, when he rode in processions. The latter 
carry the sedia gestatoria, and when so employed, wear 
an extra surcoat of crimson velvet. 



Urban 
militia. 



PAPAL TROOPS. 

There exists a tradition that Constantine gave Pope 
Sylvester a guard of twenty-five soldiers for the protection 
of his person. We know however that during the Byzan- 
tine rule, the bishops of Rome had no authority whatever 
over the soldiers of the city, who received their pay from 
the Emperor. Later these seem to have passed under 
the control of the popes, and to have received their pay 
from them, owing partly no doubt, to the indifference of 
the Byzantine officials ; and we find Adrian I. (771-795) 
appointing the military commanders himself. Gradually 
this Roman militia began to assume a national and civic 
character, and in the middle ages we find an organised 
schola militium, or defensive guild, beginning to repre- 
sent the political rights of Rome. This body was formed 
of the burgher classes, under a guild captain, and recruited 

* See page 476. 



THE POPE 353 

according to the twelve ancient regions of the city, to 
which Trastevere was added as a thirteenth and the Leo- 
nine city as a fourteenth region. 

In 15 72-1585 this ancient urban militia was re-organ- 
ised by Gregory XIII. who formed from it a pontifical 
guard called capotari, popularly sbirri, a body from which Capotari 
the modern Palatine guard is descended. The capotari or sotrrt - 
remained a militia troop recruited from the citizens of 
the city as before, according to the ancient regions. 
Their special duty was to watch by night, and to ensure 
public safety by day. They had no distinctive dress until 
1740, and in 1775 they were put into a new uniform of 
red and yellow by Pius VI. When Pius VII. was elected 
at Venice in 1800, all other troops being at the time dis- 
banded, the capotari acted as the pope's body guard 
when he entered Rome, and offered their services to 
protect his person in the Quirinal. As a reward for their 
loyalty, they were created a permanent troop, and a 
guard of the " person of the pontiff," with right to be 
stationed in his anterooms, and to be present at papal 
functions. 

Regular troops for the defence of the Papal States Regular 
seem to have been first organised by Gregory VI. in tr °°P s - 
1044. As early as 877, John VIII. had fitted out a papal 
fleet against the Saracens, and had manned men-of-war, Marine, 
quaint ships 170 feet long with a wooden tower at each 
end. A fleet was again put to sea by Benedict VIII. 
(101 2-1024) an d in 1455 Calixtus III. created a pon- 
tifical marine for fighting the Turks. 

Later popes kept regular troops in their service, and 
stores of arms and ammunition. Leo X. (15 13-1522) 
kept arms enough in Castel S. Angelo, and in Ancona 
and Ravenna to fit out 100,000 men. Pius V. (1566- 
1572) sent 4500 horse soldiers and 8000 foot to assist 
Charles IX. of France, and Clement VIII. (1592-1605) 
jealous for the honour of the papal army, instituted 
schools of artillery, and organised a confraternity for the 
members, which he attached to the church of S. Eligio 
di Consolazione ! Urban VIII. (1623-1644) ordered 80 



354 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

pieces of cannon to be cast from the bronze torn from 
the Pantheon roof, and this pope built an armoury in the 
Vatican which was plentifully stocked by Benedict XIV. 
( 1 740-1 758). When this pontiff went in procession to 
the Lateran, he was accompanied by eight companies of 
infantry which formed up in the Piazza for the papal 
benediction. 
Colours. The original papal colours were red and yellow, but 

after the French invasion of 1 798, they were changed to 
yellow and white, the red and yellow cockade having 
been adopted by the French. 
Present Since 1870, the pope's forces have been reduced to 

Papal portions of four regiments ; the noble guard, the Swiss, 

roops ' the Palatine guard, and the police force of carabineers. 
These soldiers are retained for service in the Vatican. 
They keep guard at the palace gates and assist at papal 
functions in the Vatican and S. Peter's. The guards of 
the excise department, which under Gregory XVI. num- 
bered 1600 men, are now of course disbanded. 
Guardia The guardia Nobile or regiment of nobles was origi- 

Nobiie. n ally the pope's body guard, a cavalry troop formed by 
the amalgamation of Paul V.'s lancers with a still older 
regiment. They rode beside the pope's carriage, accom- 
panied him on journeys and attended state functions. 
When the Holy See was vacant, they waited on the car- 
dinals. The present regiment dates from the pontificate 
of Pius VII., and is formed of members of noble families 
who offer their services gratuitously. They are under 
the command of a lieutenant-general. 
Uniform. Since 1 84 1 the guardia Nobile has numbered between 

60 and 70 men. Their full dress, which has not been 
worn since 1870, consists of a scarlet coat braided with 
gold, white breeches and riding boots. In undress they 
wear a black coat with gold epaulets, dark blue trousers 
and steel helmets with a gold crest. A gold band crosses 
the breast, bearing a metal plate with the letters G. N. P. 
Swiss The Swiss guard seems to have been first formed in 1476 

guard. by Sixtus IV. who selected a regiment of this nationality 

on account of its incorruptible loyalty, firmness and trust- 



THE POPE 355 

worthiness. It was not however until 1505 that a defi- 
nite compact was made with the Swiss cantons by Julius 

II. for the regular supply of troops, a document being 
drawn up, embodying all the mutual privileges and con- 
ditions. This compact had to be several times renewed, 
and various treaties passed between the popes and the 
cantons of Switzerland. During the sack of the Vatican 
in 1527 when Clement VII. fled to the Castel S. Angelo 
and remained in hiding, the Swiss barricaded S. Peter's 
and fought with great valour for 6 hours against enormous 
odds until they were utterly destroyed. The Swiss nation 
did not supply fresh soldiers for 21 years. In 1548 Paul 

III. obtained a levy of 200 men, and in 1550 two new 
levies of 120 men were accorded to Julius III. In 1557 
the regiment numbered 3000, but was again almost de- 
stroyed fighting for Caraffa, nephew of Paul IV. 

The duty of the Swiss guard is primarily to protect the Duties, 
pope's person. Their quarters are in the Vatican near 
the colonnade, and here Pius V. built a chapel for them 
which he dedicated to their patron S. Martino. In old 
days the Swiss guard escorted the pope from his apart- 
ments to the palace gates when he went out, and met 
him on his return ; they accompanied him when he went 
in villegiatura, and when the papal court moved to the Quir- 
inal during the summer months, they occupied the ground 
floor. They assisted at all the great church functions ; at 
the consecration of bishops and cardinals, at the vesting 
of a nun, at the taking possession of a titular church. 
During the vacancy of the Holy See, the captain offered 
his services to the Cardinal Chamberlain and to the 
Sacred College, and would accompany the former home, 
and remain at his palace until the election of a new 
pope. 

The Swiss guard of Leo XIII. numbers about 120 men 
including officers, sergeants and drummer. They are 
still chosen from the Catholic cantons of Switzerland, 
and are under the command of a captain who has the rank 
and commission of a colonel, a lieutenant with brevet rank 
of lieutenant-colonel, and a sub-lieutenant with rank of 



356 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

captain. They are on guard day and night at the gates 
of the Palace.* 

Uniform. The peculiar dress of the Swiss guard is said to be the 

ancient doublet and hose of the Swiss national costume, 
modified by designs of Michael Angelo. It consists of 
full breeches to the knee of alternate wide stripes of red 
yellow and black. The stockings are striped yellow and 
black, and they wear low buckled shoes. Their doublets, 
padded at the shoulder and drawn in at the waist with a 
belt, are of smaller stripes of red yellow and black, and 
they wear black helmets with white horsehair plumes. 
Before 1870, they wore steel cuirasses. The officers 
wear breeches of striped red and crimson, black doublets 
with silver bands, crimson stockings and shoes with large 
rosettes. Before 1870, their uniform was far more mag- 
nificent, an example of it can be seen in the great oil 
painting in the Stanza deir Immacolata in the Vatican. 
Officers and men wear a stiff white Elizabethan ruff. 

Arms. The colours of the regiment are those of the reigning 

pope, divided by a white cross with the papal arms in the 
centre. The privates of the Swiss guard carry halberds 8 
feet long, with fine damaskeened steel blades. Eight of 
them are armed with enormous two-handed swords said 
to represent the Catholic cantons of Switzerland, and it 
is the men so armed who walk nearest the pope when he 
is carried on his sedia gestatoria. The swords are said to 
be copies of that worn by Francis I. when taken prisoner 
at Pavia (1525). The origin of the halberds is uncertain ; 
they are probably a Lombard weapon. The small brass 
cannon kept by the Swiss at their quarters, were taken by 
the French in 1798. 

Upon the death of a pope and until the election of his 
successor, all the papal troops wear a black sash across 
their uniform. The ancient mourning uniform of the 
Swiss was black slashed with white. During the solemn 
portions of the mass, the papal troops present, kneel, and 
present arms at the elevation. 

* See May " Histoire Militaire de la Suisse et celle des Suisses 
dans les different services de I Europe" Lausanne, 178J, 



THE POPE 



357 



The Palatine guard is a militia regiment which gives its Palatine 
services in the Vatican only when required to do so. The S uard - 
uniform of the regiment consists of blue trousers, black Uniform, 
coats with crimson facings, and black capots with crimson 
tufts. 

The Pope's carabineers perform police duty within the Carabin- 
Vatican, and can be always seen there by visitors, at the eers " 
entrance to the court of Damasus, the Borgia apartment, 
etc. In undress, they wear blue trousers, black coats with Uniform, 
white braiding and the three-cornered hat, familiar to all 
visitors as that now worn by the Italian carabinieri. In 
full dress they wear white buckskin breeches, riding boots, 
and black bearskins. 

The Pope's firemen, first organized by Pius VII., wear Pompieri 
black with orange facings, and brass helmets. 



or firemen. 



DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS. 

Although the Pope is now sovereign only within the 
Vatican, his diplomatic relations with foreign States are 
those of a sovereign. Thus the following countries of 
Europe are represented by ambassadors to the Holy See.* 

Austria-Hungary. The Embassy is in Piazza Venezia. 
France. " " " Palazzo Rospigliosi. 

Spain. " " " Palazzo di Spagna. 

Portugal. " " " Palazzo Fiano. 



Ministers Plenipotentiary represent 



Bavaria 
Belgium 
Bolivia 
Brazil 



Chile 

Colombia 

Monaco Principality 

Nicaragua 



Peru 

Prussia 

Russia 

San Domingo 



The officers who represent the pope at foreign Courts 
are two, the Nuncio and the Legate ; a third office is that 
of Apostolic Representative. 

♦The English Embassy to the Pope was suppressed by Elizabeth. 



358 CHRISTIAN AXD ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Nuncio. The Apostolic Nuncio is a prelate or bishop acting as 

the Pope's ambassador. He is sent as an ordinary and 
permanent delegate, and is commonly invested with Lega- 
tine powers. Apostolic Nunciatures exist at Brussels,* 
Lisbon, Madrid, Munich, Vienna, and Paris, with inter- 
Nuncios in Holland, Luxembourg, and Brazil. There is 
a Swiss Nunciature, at present vacant. Those accredited 
to Poland, Venice, England, and Cologne f no longer 
exist. The papal nuncio takes precedence of all other 
ambassadors, as well as of all bishops in the country in 
which he is Envoy. The title of an Archbishop inpartibus 
is usually conferred on him. 

Apostolic Representatives of the Holy See are further 
accredited at the following places : San Domingo, Co- 
lombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru. 

Legate. The Apostolic Legate is an Envoy extraordinary, sent 

by the pope as his vicar to treat of urgent or grave 
affairs. He is invested with plenary and extraordinary 
powers. The legate is now always a cardinal, though 
originally the office was filled by some noble Roman lay- 
man, and he has precedence over ambassadors, metro- 
politans, and bishops, and over the Nuncio himself. \ 

Papal Legates are styled Legatus a latere, i.e. sent from 
the pope's side, as distinguished from Legati nati, the 
occupants of certain privileged Sees, who have no mission 
from the pope, but whose dignity carries with it the title 
of Legate Apostolic. 

PAPAL OFFICES OF STATE. 

The great offices of the Papacy can be divided broadly 

into those which are concerned with functions civil and 

public, and those which are purely ecclesiastic. 

I. Cancel- Among the former the chief is the Cancelleria or 

leria. Papal Chancery from which emanate all the public acts 

* The present Pope's old Nunciature. 

t Machiavelli was Nuncio at Cologne, and created cardinal on his 
return. 

X In the VIII. century S. Boniface styles himself legate of the 
Roman Church, 



THE POPE 



359 



of the Pope. This office is concerned with his relation 
to foreign States, and its function is to authenticate all 
papal public acts and documents. Thirty signatures are 
necessary for the authentication of a Bull. 

The present Vice Chancellor is Cardinal Parocchi, and 
the premises of this office are in the Cancelleria Palace. 

Collegio del Prelati abbreviatori del Parco Maggiore. 
These Prelates were called abbreviators because they 
originally transcribed and made a resume of Papal Bulls, 
now they only sign them. The signing takes place in a 
hall of the Cancelleria Palace, the hall of the " ioo days." 
A portion of this, which they alone might enter, is called 
the Parco Maggiore or " greater corner " and is set apart 
for the abbreviators who sit round an immense table and 
sign in turn until the circle is completed. 

In addition to the above, the following secretariats are 
also concerned with the public and foreign relations of the 
Papacy : 

I. The Secretariat of State under Cardinal Rampolla ; 
II. of Briefs under Cardinal Macchi ; III. of Briefs to 
Princes under Monsignor Volpini ; IV. of Latin Letters 
under Monsignor Tarozzi. These offices are in the Vati- 
can with the exception of the second, which is at Palazzo 
Altemps. 

A Bull, so called from the bulla or lead seal anciently 
appended to it, is the document by which papal decrees 
are promulgated. It corresponds to an Edict or Letters 
Patent. A bull is issued from the Cancelleria at Rome ; 
it is written in Latin without lines stops or diphthongs, on 
rough parchment, and in Gothic characters, a remnant of 
the sojourn at Avignon. On one side of the seal Peter 
and Paul are depicted,* on the other the reigning Pope : a 
white string, sometimes a yellow and red one^ is attached. 
Polidorus Virgilius opines that Stephen III. (768) first 
used the seal as the authentic sign of the Bull. 

* A bulla of Clement VII. has the head of Peter only; another 
of the same pontiff has both heads, and the inscription S.P.A. S.P.E. 
ALMA ROMA. Other seals have been inscribed AUREA ROMA, or 
other legend with the name of the reigning pope, and no medallions. 



II. Parco 

Maggiore. 



III. Secre- 
tariats. 



Bulls. 



360 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Bullarium. 



Encyclical. 



Brief. 



A Bull begins thus : " N. * Episcopus servus servorum 
Dei ad perpetuam rei memoriam." Below these words 
comes the text. A Bull is always dated from the year 
of the Incarnation — anno Incarnationis Domini. It 
also bears the date Pontificates Nostri ; the popes how- 
ever never mentioned the year of their own pontificate 
in any document before the end of the xm. century. 
The " year of the Incarnation " is never found up to the 
middle of the x. century. The Bullarium Magnum con- 
tains the collection of all existing Bulls. That compiled 
by Coquelines in 1737 gives the extant Papal Bulls from 
Leo the Great to Benedict XIII. 

An Encyclical is a circular letter in which the pope 
communicates some idea of his to the bishops. It begins 
Venerabiles Fratres. The Letters of the Apostles and 
other early Christian Epistles were addressed to the 
whole Church ; or from one Church to another, as in 
the case of the Letter from the Roman to the Corinthian 
Christians, indited by S. Clement of Rome.f But in the 
middle ages and up to now Encyclicals have always been 
addressed by the pope to the bishops. The present Pope 
however addressed his Encyclical on the Labour question 
and his Letter to the English to the people ; and last year 
(1898) two more such Encyclicals have come from his 
pen, one to the Scotch, and the other to the Catholics 
of Italy. 

A Brief, that is a Letter addressed to a Sovereign, a 
Society, or an individual, begins with the words which 
form the heading of a Bull, but the text immediately 
follows them on the same line. Briefs, like Encyclicals 
and all other papal documents, are dated from the year 
of our Lord's Nativity — anno Nativitatis Domini. Until 
the xv. century all papal Letters were written " under the 
seal of the Fisherman ; " and from the x. to the xv. centu- 
ries the common beginning was N. Episcopus senms 
servorum Dei.% 



Name of the Pope. f Of. also Acts xv. 22, 23. 

t See page 334, ante. 






THE POPE 



36i 



The law courts of the old Papal States still exist in the IV. Rota. 
Pontifical Administration, although their work is now 
little more than nominal, and they are concerned with 
ecclesiastical cases only. The most famous of these is 
the S. Rota Romana, so called from the fact that the 
judges sat in a circle [r<?/a a wheel]. This court had 
acquired European celebrity by the xii. century. It was 
a supreme court of appeal for civil and economic ques- 
tions and was composed of 1 2 judges of different nation- 
alities. 

The Segnatiira Papale di giustizia was a court of V. Segna- 
justice for both civil and criminal cases ; 66 prelates tura - 
belong to this court as referees. 

The Episcopal and Ecclesiastic functions of the 
Papacy are conducted through the following offices : 

I. The Dataria Apostolica. This office takes its name 1. Dataria 
from data a date. It is here that bulls are prepared, graces 
granted, benefices conferred, dispensations obtained. 

About 40 persons are employed in this department, 
which has its offices in the Dataria Palace. The Datario 
is Cardinal Masella. 

II. The Secretariat of Memorials is also concerned with n. Secre- 
graces and benefices, whenever it is a case of obtaining 
them by dispensation in a less elaborate way than through 
the office of the Dataria. The post of secretary in this 
department is vacant. The offices are in Palazzo Migna- 
telli. 

III. The Apostolic Penitentiary. This consists of a ill. Peni 
body of Prelates under the presidency of the Cardinal tent 'ary. 
Penitentiary, S. Vannutelli, whose duty it is to consider 
difficult and referred cases of conscience, the ultimate 
referee being the Pope himself. 

IV. The Pope's Uditore, or Auditor, is practically his IV. Udi- 
counsellor, and the responsible adviser in the selection tono - 
and presentation of bishops. A certain number of prel- 
ates and others work under the auditor. 

The Funds of the Church are administered by the Rev. 
Treasury or Reverenda Camera, under the Vice-Cham- Camera - 
berlain of the Church, Cardinal Oreglia. About 20 



tariat of 
Memorials. 



362 CHRISTIAN AND ECCIESIASTICAI ROME 



Cardinal 
Vicar. 



officials belong to the Treasury, which office is in the 
Vatican. 

An office also exists, under the Pope's Almoner, for 
the distribution of alms and the giving of charity. It is 
the custom for the pope to make a periodical dis- 
tribution of alms in Rome at Easter, Christmas and in 
August. 

The Pope's local functions as Bishop of Rome are ful- 
filled by a vicar, who is also a bishop and a cardinal, the 
Cardinal Vicario. He is assisted by a vice-gerent, 
who is a bishop or archbishop. The regular and secular 
parishes of the city and the suburbs, the seminaries, col- 
leges, schools and lyceums, and an office for the custody 
of relics, are all under the vicariate of Rome. A com- 
mission of Sacred Archaeology consisting of some u 
commissioners with a secretary, has lately been placed 
under the presidency of the Cardinal Vicar. The office 
of the Vicariate is in Piazza S. Agostino 7. 



PALATINE ADMINISTRATION. 

Prefecture. The care of the sacred Apostolic Palaces is confided to 
a Prefecture composed of the various palace officials. The 
museums and galleries are dependent upon the Maggior- 
domo, but separate curators are appointed for the care 

Museums, of the museums, the picture gallery, the Egyptian museum, 
the Sale Borgia, the Loggie of Raphael and the Lateran 
Palace and Museum ; there is also an artistic curator of 
the picture galleries. 

Library. The Vatican Library is under the ' Protection ' of Car- 

dinal Capecelatro who is Cardinal Librarian, assisted by 
a sub-librarian, two prefects, and various scribes in dif- 
ferent languages. The Christian and Profane museums, 
and the Numismatic Cabinet are under separate sub- 
directors. 

Archives. The Vatican archives are under the direction of Car- 

dinal Segna, assisted by two sub-archivists., writers and 
custodians. 



THE POPE 363 

The Observatory is directed by P. Rodriguez, a Romite Observa- 
of S. Augustine, and his assistants. tory - 

The Vatican Printing Press is administered by a lay- Printing 
man, Commendatore Puccinelli. Press - 

An Inspector of Sanitation and Hygiene, and a Direc- 
tor of Police are attached to the Vatican'; and a com- 
mission of Prelates assisted by legal advisers, has been 
appointed to settle all matters of dispute or controversy 
which may arise with reference to the Palatine adminis- 
tration. 



CHAPTER II. 



PAPAL CEREMONIES. 



Election of the popes — Conclave — history and rules of — Funeral 
of the pope — Ordination of the pope — Consistory — Cappella 
Papale — Beatification and Canonisation — process and cere- 
mony — The Roman carnival. 



Election of 
the Popes. 
History. 



In the early ages of the Church, the election of the 
Bishops of Rome (as that of other bishops, of priests, 
and deacons),* was in the hands of the assembled clergy 
and people of the city.f The validity of the election was 
then examined by an official, and was submitted to the 
Emperor for his confirmation, the messenger to the court 
of Ravenna or Byzantium, bearing with him the keys of 
Peter's tomb, to typify the authority of the Emperor over 
the great shrine of Rome. 

The rights of the Roman people we find expressed in 
the v. century by the words " Let no bishop be given to 
those unwilling to receive him ; the consent and desire 
of clergy and people are requisite," and by the statement 



* The archdeacon of Rome, next to the Pope the most impor- 
tant person in the city, was elected by the pope with the consent 
of the clergy and people. Cardinal Moroni writing of the diac- 
onate says : " in the first centuries although the bishops had the 
principal authority, the people joined in it, because the bishops after 
the example of the apostles, proposed them (the deacons) to the 
clergy and the people, took their advice, and heard them willingly." 
After the vi. century, he adds, the people and clergy were deprived 
of this pow'er, and henceforth could only oppose an election if it 
was contrary to the good of the Church. For traces of this usage 
see also Part II. ' ordination.' 

t The three great elective bodies were the clergy people and the. 
military. 

364 



PAPAL CEREMONIES 365 

of Leo I. (440-461) : when the sacerdos, i.e. bishop is to 
be elected, he whom the clergy and people demand is to 
be preferred beyond all others. 

In the vi. and vn. centuries, and earlier, the pope was 
usually selected from the deacons, and at one time it was 
usual for the archdeacon of Rome to be the Pope's suc- 
cessor. Paul I. writing to King Pepin in 75 7 still styles 
himself ' deacon.' Paulus Diaconus et i?i Dei nomine 
electus sanctce sedis apostolicce, " Paul the Deacon, and 
in the name of God, Elect of the Holy Apostolic See." * 

Doubtful elections were decided by the Magistrate or 
the Emperor, f The system was however open to abuse. 
Felix IV. (526) was nominated by Theodoric,J and other 
popes paid for the confirmation of their election, until a 
decree had to be issued (532) forbidding the sale of the 
papal office by the bribery of the electors. 

Even in those early days of the growth of the papal 
dominion, a threefold struggle was beginning between the 
papacy, the rights of the Roman people, and the Impe- 
rium. In 483 a decree was issued, forbidding any elec- 
tion without the co-operation of the king's plenipotentiary, 
in defiance of the emperor, and a synod of Pope Sym- 
machus, in 502, annulled the order that no papal election 
could be ratified without the emperor's plenipotentiary. 
It was also agreed that no secular official should in future 
take part in the elections. 

By the time of Honorius I. (625) the official ratifica- 
tion of the papal elections had probably passed over to 
the exarchs of the Emperor, but the system was irksome 
to the Romans who struggled continuously for indepen- 
dence of the Byzantine court. Boniface II. (530) had 



* Benedict I. created Gregory a deacon " turn ut ad altare min- 
istraret, turn ut in partem pontificalis sollicitudinis succederet." 

t Cyprian in discussing the election of Cornelius (251-254), con- 
sidered as to its validity the suffragium of the people and the 
testimonium of the clergy. 

\ This election of Fimbrius (Felix IV.) nominated to the Senate 
clergy and people of Rome by the king, is termed by Muratori un 
comandamento, an order. 



of the 
Romans. 



366 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

already attempted to appoint his successor, but had been 
forced by the emperor to withdraw his nomination. 
Benedict II. (683-684) obtained a temporary rescript 
allowing the three elective bodies to proceed with the 
election, but it was not until the time of the iconoclastic 
dispute that the Church gained its emancipation from the 
East. 
King Its independence of Byzantium was sealed by a com- 

Pepin. pact with King Pepin. The new Frankish monarchy 

needed the support of Rome, and in return, promised 
military aid in case of need, and ratified to the Church 
the temporal dominion over the Tuscan provinces. The 
Patricius title of Patricius of the Romans and Defender of the 
Church was conferred upon Pepin and his descendants, 
and upon the election of Leo III. in 797, the keys of 
Peter's shrine were delivered to Charlemagne with, for the 
first time, the banner of the city, as a sign that the 
Emperor was its military defender.* 

From this time we find the German kings beginning to 
play the part of the Byzantine Emperors in the papal 
elections, and the Roman people gradually surrendering 
their rights. In 857 the acts for the election of Benedict 
III. were signed by the clergy and people of Rome, and 
presented to the Emperor for ratification, precisely accord- 
ing to Byzantine usage, and in 963 Otto I. exacted a 
promise from the clergy and nobles that they would not 
elect a pope without his consent or his son's. 

The old struggle had only shifted its ground. The 
papal elections grew to be the occasions for the most riot- 
ous outbursts between rival factions in the city, ending 
in free fights and bloodshed. " Freedom of choice was 
overruled by the tumults of a city that no longer owned 
or obeyed a superior," writes Gibbon. According to 
ancient usage, upon the death of a pope all prisoners 
were liberated,! amidst festivities and rejoicings, and the 
palace of the dead pope was given over to pillage by 

* Henry III. was crowned " Patricius" in S. Peter's arrayed in a 
green chlamys and wearing a ring and gold diadem. 
f This practice was continued until 1823. 



PAPAL CEREMONIES 



367 



the populace which again clamoured for bounties upon 
the election of a successor. Not infrequently, rival popes 
were elected by rival factions at the same time,* and the 
city was given over to license and bloody contests. 

It was to avoid all these evils that Nicholas II. (1058- 
1061) acting under the influence of Hildebrand, after- 
wards Gregory VII., enacted a decree forming the College 
of Cardinals into an ecclesiastical senate who should 
undertake the election of the popes. The " assent " of 
the clergy and people was however retained, and a fur- 
ther clause to the effect that this should be enacted 
" saving the honour due to our well beloved son Henry" 
IV. whose imperial house had obtained personally from 
the Holy See the right of confirming the elections. 
Alexander III. (1159-1181) definitely abolished the 
tumultuous vote of the Roman clergy and people, and 
vested the right of election solely in the College of Car- 
dinals, a body which he increased from the original 20 or 
25 to 70 members, to correspond with the number of 
disciples sent out by Christ.f He also decreed that the 
votes of two-thirds of the Cardinals sufficed to decide an 
election. After the death of Clement IV. ( 1 268) the Holy 
See was vacant for nearly 3 years, the conclave sitting in 
Viterbo, while the people of the city rose in tumult and 
climbed upon the roof of the palace to expedite their 
deliberations. As a consequence of this, and to prevent 
its recurrence Gregory X. summoned a council at Lyons 
in May 1274, and for the first time definite rules of Con- 
clave were drawn up. These prescribed that the conclave 
should be held in the palace of the dead pope, where the 
absent cardinals should be awaited. Each cardinal was 
to be attended by one servant only, and the whole college 
was to inhabit one room, all doors and windows being 
boarded up except one, through which food was to be 
passed in. 



Decree of 
1059. 
Election 
by College 
of Cardi- 
nals. 



Council 
of 1 159. 



Council of 

Lyons, 

1274. 

Rules of 
Conclave. 



* Innocent II. and Anacletus II. were elected on the same day 
at S. Marco and at S. Gregorio by rival parties (a.d. 1 1 30). 

f Cf. the 70 Assistants of Moses (Numb. xi. 16), and the 70 mem- 
bers of the Sanhedrim 



368 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

They were allowed one dish at meals after the first 
three days. If after five, no election had taken place, the 
diet was to be reduced to bread and water. No com- 
munication whatever was allowed with the outside world, 
the conclave being watched from without by the secular 
authorities. The secular governor, maresciallo of the 
conclave, used in Rome to inhabit a temporary building 
erected at the foot of the great steps of S. Peter's,* and 
was attended by a detachment of the Swiss guard in their 
mourning uniform of black and white. 

These rigid rules proved very unpalatable, and were 
annulled by later popes and again revived. They did 
not prevent conclaves taking place with irregularities and 
amidst scenes of tumult and uproar, five popes being so 
elected between 1277 and 1294. During the conclave 
which ended with the election of Martin V. (1 281-1285) 
the disagreements between the Roman party and the 
adherents of Charles of Anjou were so violent, that a con- 
clusion was reached, only after the citizens had broken 
into the palace and forcibly removed and shut up two of 
the cardinals. The election of Nicholas III. (12 7 7-1 280) 
was effected after six months of altercation, watched by 
the impatient citizens of Viterbo. 

When Honorius IV. died in 1287, the conclave which 
took place in S. Sabina lasted from the Good Friday of 
one year until January of the following. All the cardinals 
except one, fell ill during the hot season, and six of them 
died of fever, so that the sitting of the conclave had to 
be postponed until the winter months. After the death 
of Nicholas IV. (1292) the cardinals would not submit 
to reclusion,'and the Holy See remained vacant for two 
years, the cardinals assembling at various times in Perugia 
and in three churches in Rome. Finally the election of 
Boniface VIII. following upon the perhaps forced abdica- 
tion of Celestine V. has been open to grave question. 

* The first conclave held in the Vatican and which resulted in a 
schism, was in 1378, for the election of a successor to Gregory XI. 



PAPAL CEREMOXIF.S 



369 



CONCLAVE AT THE PRESENT DAY. 

The rules of Conclave at the present day are virtually Conclave, 
the same as those of Gregory X., although their severity 
has been relaxed. Even of late years * it has been neces- 
sary to barricade the Leonine City during conclave, to 
prevent forcible interference, and troops have been posted 
at various points in the city to maintain order and tran- 
quility. 

Ten days are allowed to elapse after the death of a 
pope, in which to summon cardinals from a distance, and 
to make the necessary preparations. During this interval 
the obsequies take place. Immediately upon the death 
of a pope, the Cardinal Camerlengo (Chamberlain) of the 
Roman Church is summoned to identify the body. He 
comes dressed in mantelletta and mozzetta of violet, and 
kneeling down by the body, calls upon the dead pope Funeral of 
three times by his baptismal name ; he then taps his the Po P es - 
forehead three times with a silver hammer. This old 
ceremony is to assure those present that death has actually 
taken place. The Chamberlain then receives the ring of 
of the fisherman f which is to be broken at the first meet- 
ing of the curia, and the death is announced by the tolling 
of bells ; the penitentiaries of the Vatican meanwhile 
watching by the corpse. After 24 hours, the body of the 
pope is embalmed, and the inside portions are carried to 
the parish church for burial ; when the popes lived at the 
Quirinal SS. Vincenzo e Anastasio a Trevi was the parish 
church. In the case of Pius IX. the Vatican Grotte were 
used for the purpose. On the second day the body is 
carried by night to the Sistine where it is dressed in full 
pontificals, with dalmatic and chasuble of red, the fanone,% 
the pallium and a linen mitre, and at the feet are placed 
two red velvet caps. On the following day, a solemn 
procession is formed ; the Swiss guard preceded by their 
captain, the cardinals two and two, all the prelates reciting 
the prayers and psalms for the dead, and in the centre 



1823. 



t See page 341 



\ See page 336. 



37Q CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

the body, borne by eight priests into S. Peter's, where it 
is laid upon an open bier in the chapel of the Sacrament, 
its feet towards the closed gates of the chapel ; around 
it, innumerable torches, and a detachment of the Swiss 
Lying in Guard. The lying-in-state lasts for three days, at the end 
State. of which period there is another solemn reunion of Car- 

dinals Prelates and Canons in the Chapel. The face and 
hands of the dead pope are covered with handkerchiefs 
of white taffeta by the Maggiordomo, (failing a cardinal 
who is a relative of the late pontiff,) the body is wrapped 
in a coverlet of red, lined with ermine and trimmed with 
gold fringes, and is placed in three coffins one within the 
other which are locked by the canons of S. Peter's and 
Burial. sealed by the Maggiordomo and the Chamberlain. It is 

then buried in the temporary niche in S. Peter's,* near 
the Choir Chapel, where it remains until a permanent 
tomb is prepared for it, or until room has to be made for 
its successor. The canons solemnly swear to produce 
the body so buried whenever called upon to do so. 
Three purses of gold, silver and copper coins, of the 
number of the years of the pope's reign, are buried with 
him. 

On every day of the nine preceding Conclave, a solemn 
requiem mass is celebrated in the Choir Chapel, attended 
by the College of Cardinals who occupy the canons' stalls, 
and by all members of the Cappella Papale. The Noble 
guard assist in their scarlet uniform crossed by black 
sashes and the mace bearers guard the entrance to the 
chapel with maces reversed. After the burial of the pope, 
a catafalque is erected in the centre of the nave,} and 
absolution is given in the usual way by four cardinals 
in black copes. On the last day a funeral oration is 
delivered by a canon of the basilica. 

With the exception of the Cardinal Chamberlain the 
Cardinal Penitentiary and the ordinary chaplains and 
masters of ceremonies, all purely papal offices cease with 

* See Part I., page 82. 

f iooo lbs. of wax are consumed daily in candles round the cata- 
falque. 



PAPAL CEREMONIES 37 r 

the death of a pope, and provisional appointments have 
therefore to be made to last until the election of a suc- 
cessor. On the day after the death, therefore, the College 
of Cardinals, or such as are at the time in Rome, assem- 
ble in the Hall of the Paramenti and after reading 
Gregory X.'s rules of Conclave, they proceed with true 
Italian deliberation to the election of the necessary offi- 
cers, a task which occupies them for nine days. On the 
first day, they elect two prelates to deliver the funeral 
oration and the address of congratulation to the future 
pope, and in old days, they likewise appointed the governor 
of Rome. On the second day they used to elect all the 
officers for the city of Rome. On the third, they elect a Officers of 
confessor to attend the conclave ; on the fourth, two doc- conclave - 
tors and a surgeon ; on the fifth, a chemist, two barbers 
and their assistants ; on the sixth they draw lots for their 
cells during conclave, and appoint the 6 masters of cere- 
monies to be admitted ; on the seventh, the 35 servers and 
servants allowed for manual service ; on the eighth, two 
cardinals to receive the names and appoint those ad- 
mitted ; on the ninth, they elect three Cardinals to super- 
intend the conclave, and to be responsible for the order, 
cleanliness and perfect decorum of all those admitted to 
it. During the whole interval between the death of one 
pope, and the election of another, the cardinals wear 
purple, and during conclave, a purple soutane and un- 
covered rochet. Those created by the late pope wear 
the rochet without lace. With the exception of the 
auditors of the Rota, and the consistorial advocates, all 
prelates wear black, and rochets without lace, during this 
interval. 

During the vacancy of the Holy See the Sacred College 
rules the Church, and possesses jurisdiction wherever, 
either directly or indirectly, the pontiff possessed it. The 
College may appoint legates, and may coin money,* bear- 
ing the seal of Sede Vacante. The Swiss guard places 
itself at their disposal and a detachment accompanies the 

* No money has of course been coined by the popes since 1870. 




372 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Cardinal Camerlengo to his house, and remains on guard 
in his anterooms. Each cardinal is provided with a 
throne which he occupies dur- 
ing conclave, and if he drives 
out, no person of whatever 
rank is permitted to sit by his 
side. 

In old days, as we have 
seen, separate cells were pro- 
vided for each cardinal in 
conclave, within a single hall. 
In the xvi. and xvn. centuries, 
cells were built in the Borgia n 
apartment. In 1484, 26 cells 
were erected in the Sistina, 13 on each side, only a narrow 
passage being left down the centre. At the present day, 
the whole of one floor in the Vatican is given up to the 
Cardinals and their attendants, each being allowed a ser- 
vant and conclavista or personal attendant. This portion 
of the palace is walled up and shut off from the rest, 
being entered by a single door which is locked with three 
keys which are kept by the Maresciallo of conclave without, 
and by the Camerlengo and Maestro di Camera within. 

Groups of officials and ecclesiastics are made respon- 
sible for each of the great entrances to the Vatican, and 
the whole is under the superintendence of the Maresciallo 
of Conclave, who for the time being is secular governor 
of the Palace. Food is brought to the Palace from the 
outside, and is conveyed to each cardinal by his personal 
servant. All communication with the outside world 
ceases, no person is allowed to approach the neighbour- 
hood of the Vatican without a permit bearing the seal 
Sede Vacante, and no one is allowed to enter or to leave 
the palace until a new pope is elected. Should a cardi- 
nal be obliged through illness to leave conclave, he is not 
permitted to return. 

On the last of the preliminary ten days, when it is 
assumed that all cardinals who can attend have arrived in 
Rome, the Sacred College assembles for the last time in 



PAPAL CEREMONIES 373 

S. Peter's to hear the Mass of the Holy Spirit, after which 
a procession is formed, preceded by the Swiss guard and 
an acolyte bearing the papal cross, and while the great 
bell of the basilica tolls three times, the Cardinals pass 
solemnly into conclave. At the entrance to the Paolina, 
the soldiers and ecclesiastics turn back, and the door is 
shut to behind them. 

On each day of the conclave, the cardinals say Mass in Voting, 
the Paolina, six additional altars being erected for the 
purpose. The votes are recorded twice each day in the 
Sistine, in the morning and evening, and two-thirds of 
the total number suffice for an election. Each cardinal 
writes the name of his candidate and his own upon a 
paper which is sealed and placed with the others in a sil- 
ver bowl. If no election takes place, these are put on a 
brazier at the back of the altar, which is connected with 
a chimney passing out beyond the loggia to the facade of 
S. Peter's. Straw is mixed with the burning papers, and 
the dense smoke issuing from the chimney outside, an- 
nounces to the people, and in the old days to the watchers 
at S. Angelo, that no election has taken place. 

If the necessary number of votes are recorded, a bell is Election of 
immediately rung for a master of ceremonies, and the new Pope< 
first Cardinal Deacon in the presence of all, asks the 
chosen member of the college * if he will consent to be 
elected, and the name he wishes to bear, which he then 
announces to the others in a loud voice. The pope-elect 
then proceeds to the sacristy and is dressed in papal 
robes and insignia — three sets of different sizes lie there 
waiting for him — and returns to receive the first homage 
of the cardinals, who kiss his foot, his hand, and then 
receive a double embrace. 

Two cardinals afterwards enter the Loggia of S. Peter's, 
where the tearing down of the boarding used to warn the 
people that a pope had been chosen. The announce- 
ment is then made to the city from the Loggia by the 
first Cardinal Deacon in the following words : Nun Ho vobis 

* It is not necessary, although usual, that the pope should be a 
cardinal; the college may elect any person, lay or cleric. 



374 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

gandiiim magnum : habemus pontificem, eminentissimum 
cardinalem N. . . . qui nomen imposuit N. ..." I an- 
nounce to you a great joy, we have a pope, the most emi- 
nent cardinal N. . . . who takes the name of N. . . ." 
Guns were fired from Sant' Angelo, and later, the pope- 
elect came himself to the Loggia to give his first benedic- 
tion. The new pope also receives a second and a third 
homage from the sacred College, in the Sistina and in S. 
Peter's, all wearing gala dress. France Spain and Aus- 
tria retain the right to veto any candidate for the papal 
throne. This right was put in force in 1846, when Aus- 
tria vetoed, although too late, the election of Pius IX.* 

ORDINATION OR CONSECRATION OF THE POPE. 

Ordination During the first 8 centuries the pope was elected from 
Pope 6 among the Roman deacons, and for nearly 9 centuries 

no bishop was elected pope. The ceremony of ordina- 
tion or consecration followed the election, and resembled 
in all respects that in use for bishops. It took place on 
Sunday, and in S. Peter's. At the introit of the mass 
the pope entered in all his liturgical vestments except 
the pallium. After the chanting of the Litanies, during 
the whole of which the pope remained prostrate, the 
Bishops of Ostia, Porto, and Albano recited two prayers, 
which were followed by the Eucharistic Prayer of conse- 
cration pronounced by the Bishop of Ostia ; the deacons 
holding the Gospel over the pope's head. Cf. Part II., 
p. 179. In this prayer the pope's office is thus ex- 
pressed : " This thy servant to whom thou hast given the 
headship of the Apostolic chair and the primacy of all 
the bishops of the world, and to be doctor of thy uni- 
versal Church, and whom thou hast elected to the min- 
istry of the high priesthood." The last words, only, 
occur in the consecration of a bishop. The Archdeacon 

* Cardinal de Retz gives an account of the conclave for the elec- 
tion of Clement X. at which he assisted. He speaks of the perfect 
amiability and good humour of all present, and the courtesies ob- 
served, as if the conclave had been a drawing-room. 



PAPAL CEREMONIES 375 

afterwards placed the pallium on the pope's shoulders, 
and the latter, ascending his throne, intoned the Gloria 
in excelsis of the mass, which proceeded to its conclusion. 

The ordination of the pope by these 3 bishops was 
already in force at the election of Leo II. in 682 ; the 
Bishop of Ostia always being the consecrator as Dean of 
the Sacred College. After the ceremony the great pro- 
cession to the Lateran, called the cavakata, took place.* 

The election of the pope itself confers on him those 
powers which distinguish him from other bishops. But 
if a pope were again chosen who was not in priest's or 
bishop's orders, he would be ordained with the episcopal 
rite in use to-day. 

All that follows the election otherwise, is the Corona- Corona- 
tion on the Sunday following. The pope proceeding to ,ion - 
a throne in the Portico of S. Peter's, receives the homage 
of the cardinals and canons. Then he pontificates mass ; 
after which he passes to the great loggia, and there in the 
sight of all the people, his mitre is removed by the 
Second Deacon, and the First Cardinal Deacon then 
places the tiara on his head, and proclaims him. 

Alms are distributed in the Cortile of the Belvedere, 
and the Vatican is illuminated. 

The coronation of Leo XIII. took place, for the first 
time, in the Sistine Chapel. See anniversary of the Coro- 
nation, page 379. 

CONSISTORY — ELECTION OF CARDINALS. 

A consistory is the solemn assembly of the Pope and 
his College of Cardinals, and may be either public or 
private. 

When new cardinals are to be created, the Pope sum- Secret 
mons the Sacred College in consistory, and proposes to consistory. 
them the names of those he wishes to nominate, with the 
words : quid quis videtur\ " has any one aught to say?" 

* Page 343- 

t This form is a relic of the ancient custom of asking for the con- 
sent of the people to the election of either bishop, priest or deacon. 



3/6 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Receiving 
the rochet. 



Public 
consistory. 



Each cardinal rises in turn, bows and takes off his ber- 
retta as a sign of consent. The Pope can however if 
he thinks expedient, keep back the name of any candi- 
date he nominates from the college, reserving it in petto 
for a future occasion. Other business is also transacted 
at such a consistory ; bishops are appointed to vacant 
sees, petitions concerning beatifications are received. 
It is usual for the Pope to make an allocution concerning 
these causes, exhorting the cardinals to give their placet. 
He also says a few words in commendation of the new 
cardinals. 

This, the secret consistory is followed by the public 
consistory, sometimes on the same day, sometimes after 
an interval. The new candidate meanwhile receives the 
decretals of his nomination from a master of ceremonies, 
but if he is not resident in Rome, the scarlet berretta is 
sent him by the hands of a monsignor ablegate. New 
cardinals also repair to the Vatican and are presented 
with their rochets by the pope, and they are paid cere- 
monial visits of congratulation by the chief officials of 
the papal court, which they return. 

In old days, a public consistory was the occasion for 
pomp and display. The new Cardinals rode in proces- 
sion from S. Maria del Popolo to the Palace. Their 
horses were richly caparisoned, they were attended by 
mace bearers, soldiers of the Swiss guard, masters of 
ceremonies, a deacon and sub- deacon, and grooms hold- 
ing umbrellas over their heads. 

Now, a public consistory is usually held in the Sala 
Regia. The public is admitted by ticket, and balconies 
are set apart to the left and right for the diplomatic 
corps and the Roman aristocracy. Two small palchi on 
the pope's right are destined for Royal visitors, and for 
the Knights of Malta. 

The Pope is carried from his private apartments 
through the Sala Ducale upon his sedia gestatoria. He 
wears a red cope and a precious mitre which is changed 
to a plain one when he reaches the throne. In addition 



PAPAL CEREMONIES 



377 



to the usual members of his court,* he is accompanied 
by all the cardinals in Rome at the time. He seats 
himself on his throne at the end of the hall, and the 
cardinals are ranged in a semicircle round him according 
to seniority, the cardinal bishops and priests on his right, 
the cardinal deacons on his left. 

Meanwhile the cardinals-elect have been taking the 
oaths in the Sixtine Chapel in the presence of the Cardi- 
nal Vice Chancellor, and the chamberlains of the Church 
and Sacred College. At the appointed time, they are 
led back, each one between two cardinal deacons, into 
the Hall of Consistory. On entering they make three 
low bows, then kneeling on the lowest step of the pope's 
throne, they kiss his foot, his hand, and lastly his cheek. 
Each then retires to a bench at the left of the throne. 

An interval now occurs in which the consistorial advo- 
cates, habited in purple, stand before the pope, and in 
turn read out perorations in Latin concerning some ap- 
proaching beatification or canonisation.f To these peti- 
tions, the pope finally makes answer through his Secre- 
tary of ' Briefs to Princes,' that he will put the matter 
before a future consistory. 

The Preconisation of Bishops also takes place in such 
an interval, the pope proclaiming the new bishops to the 
people, publishing their names, and the See to which 
they are appointed. 

The ceremony now proceeds, the new cardinals re- 
ceiving the embrace of the whole College : accompanied 
by two cardinal deacons the new cardinal approaches 
each member of the College in turn according to seni- 
ority and receives an embrace. He then takes his place 
according to his rank of priest or deacon and puts on 
his berretta. 

After another interval, each new cardinal again kneels 
on the step of the pope's throne. The hood of his cappa 
magna is drawn over his head by two masters of cere- 

* See Cappella Papale. 

t See page 383. The ' cause ' of Joan of Arc was so introduced 
at a consistory held on June 25, 1896. 



Position of 
Cardinals 
in the Hall 
of consis- 
tory. 



Embrace 
of the 
pope. 

Consis- 
torial 
advocates. 



Preconisa- 
tion of 
bishops. 



Giving the 
hat. 



378 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Second 
Secret 
Consistory. 
Closing 
and open- 
ing the 
mouths of 
cardinals. 



monies and the red cardinal's hat is held over it for a few 
moments by the pope, who repeats the words of presenta- 
tion. 

The whole ceremony closes with the papal benediction, 
and the procession is formed again. Arrived at the 
pope's apartments, a brief oration of thanks is made to 
him by the new cardinals. After which the whole college 
adjourns to the Sistina, the new porporati prostrating 
themselves at the altar steps while the verse of the Te 
Deum te ergo qucesumus is sung by the choir. Then 
follow some prayers and an oration recited by the Cardinal 
Dean. 

A final ceremony takes place in another secret consistory, 
held sometimes on the same day, sometimes after an 
interval : before the assembled college, the pope closes 
the mouths of the new cardinals with the words : " I 
close your mouth that neither in consistory, nor in con- 
gregations nor in other functions of cardinals, may you be 
heard." He then opens their mouths with the words : 
" I open your mouth that in consistory, in congregations, 
and in other ecclesiastical functions, you may be heard in 
the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost." 

In the evening of the day on which the consistory is 
held, a cardinal's hat is carried to each of the newly made 
cardinals by a • monsignore of the wardrobe.' If they are 
at a distance from Rome, the hat is sent by the hand of 
an ablegate appointed by the pope, generally a member 
of the noble guard, who also conveys the congratulations 
of the sacred College. The new cardinal in this case 
receives his honours from the hands of the sovereign of 
his country, either in the royal chapel, or in the principal 
church of the capital. 



CAPPELLA PAPALE. 



On the removal of the Papal Court from Rome in 1305, 
it became the custom to celebrate in the Palatine Chapel 
at Avignon certain feasts and ceremonies which had tradi- 
tionally been observed in the different historic basilicas 



PAPAL CEREMOXIES 379 

and tituli of Rome. These functions were known as 
Cappelle Papali because the pope assisted at them, sur- 
rounded by all those dignitaries who have the entre on 
such occasions. After the return to Rome, the custom of 
celebrating these festivals in the pope's chapel was re- 
tained, partly owing to the ruinous state of the Lateran 
and other basilicas, and partly to the unsettled political 
conditions. Nicholas V. built a chapel in the Vatican, 
the predecessor of the Paolina, for the purpose. These 
functions, which included all the great Christian festivals, 
numbered 32 in the course of the year. Sixtus V. en- 
deavoured to revive the ancient stational masses in the 
basilicas, and a few cappelle cardinalizie, functions at which Cappelle 
the College of Cardinals assisted, were instituted by him Cardinal* 
and by Benedict XIV. All these great functions are now 
things of the past, and with them have ceased the elabo- 
rate illumination of S. Peter's,* and the solemn benedic- 
tions from the balconies of this church and of the Lateran 
on Holy Thursday and Ascension Day. Only three cap- 
pelle papali are now (since 1870) observed ; the anni- 
versary of the Coronation of the reigning pope,f March 
3 ; the Requiem Mass for Pius IX., February 7 ; and the 
Consistory at which Cardinals are created. 

Ceremonies of this description, however, occurred in 
S. Peter's on the occasion of Leo XIII. 's sacerdotal and 
episcopal jubilees in 1887 and 1892, when the pope said 
or assisted at mass ;% and again in 1897 for the canonisa- 
tion of the two saints,§ Peter Fourier, Canon Regular, and 
Antonio Zaccaria, Barnabite. This was the third canoni- 
sation during the present pontificate, the last occurring 



* S. Peter's was again illuminated in 1897 ^ or * ne canonisation ot 
two saints. 

t The anniversary of a pope's coronation is a festival of great 
antiquity. Gregory the Great gave yearly gifts of money on June 
29, the feast of the Apostles; on November 30, S. Andrew's Day; 
and on September 3, the day of his own coronation. 

% For an account of Papal High Mass see Part II., p. 80. 

§ For these functions, the doors of S. Peter's were closed, and 
admission was by ticket. 



380 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Persons 
forming the 
Cappella 
Papale. 
Cardinals. 



College of 



Princes 
Assistant. 



Arch- 
bishops 
and 

Bishops, 
Protonota- 



Heads of 
Religious 
Orders. 



Prelates of 
the Rota, 
etc. 



The persons forming the Pope's Cappella Papale are the 
following ; given in their order of precedence : 

Firstly the Sacred College of Cardinals according to 
their rank of Cardinal bishop, priest or deacon, and to 
their precedence in date of creation. 

Secondly the College of Patriarchs, Archbishops and 
Bishops "Assistant at the Pontifical Throne " (see page 
350- 

The Vice-chamberlain of the Roman Church and the 
two Princes "Assistant at the Throne." This latter posi- 
tion is hereditary in the Colonna and Orsini families, and 
the present Prince Colonna recently gave up a Household 
appointment at. the Quirinal, in order to fill his hereditary 
office. The dress of these princes when on duty resem- 
bles the ancient dress of the monsignori; a full black 
tunic, longer than that of the chamberlains, a short cloak, 
and a white lace tie at the throat. 

The Auditor and Treasurer of the Revcrenda Camera 
(see page 361), the Maggiordomo, and the Minister of 
the Interior, now an obsolete office. 

Then follow all the Archbishops and Bishops of Sees 
and the College of Apostolic Protonotaries ; the Com- 
mendatore of S. Spirito * and the Regent of the Chan- 
cery. The latter can be distinguished from other prelates 
by the green cord and tassels that he is privileged to 
wear upon his hat. 

The Abbat of Monte Cassino and other abbats having 
episcopal jurisdiction. The Abbat-General of the Canons 
Regular of the Lateran and S. Salvatore. The Superiors 
of the Monastic Orders and the Generals and Vicar- Gen- 
erals of the Mendicant Orders. 

The magistrate of Rome, an obsolete office, and the 
Maestro del Sacro Ospizio (see p. 350). Then follow the 
Prelates of the Rota, the Maestro del Sacro Palazzo and 
the Prelates of the Rev. Camera, of the Segnatura, and 
of the Parco Maggiore. 

The " Companion " of the Maestro del Sacro Palazzo 



* See Part III., p. 207. 



PAPAL CEREMONIES 381 

and all the Masters of Ceremonies ; the Pope's Almoner, 
his Cupbearer, his Master of the Wardrobe, the Secreta- 
ries of Briefs to Princes, of Latin Letters, of the Embassies, 
the Under Secretary of State and the So/to Datario. 

Then in order of precedence come the Private Cham- Chamber- 
berlains supernumerary, and those in " Violet Habit," lains - 
the Advocates of consistory ; the Private Chaplains and Chaplains, 
the Honorary Private Chaplains ; the Pope's grooms of 
the Stole. 

The Procurators General of the Monastic and Mendi- 
cant Orders ; the Apostolic Preacher, the Confessor to 
the Household, and the Procurators of the Holy Palaces. 

The following are the Sacred Ministers,* etc., assisting Ministers 
at the altar. at the 

The Pope's Sacristan, and the Canons of the three Altan 
Patriarchal basilicas of Rome, to act as Assistant Priest, 
Deacon and Subdeacon in the Mass. 

The papal choristers,! 31 in number; the under sacris- 
tan ; the acolyte light-bearers (the Pope's ordinary chap- 
lains act as acolytes) ; the clerks of the Cappella ; the Acolytes. 
ostiarii or doorkeepers of the red rod ; the bearer of the 
sacred tiara ; the macebearers % and the apostolic mes- 
sengers (cursori). 

On the occasion of a Cappella Papale, the Pope is car- Procession, 
ried in solemn procession from his private apartments to 
the Sistina or S. Peter's or wherever the function is held. 
The halls through which he passes, are lined with soldiers 
of the Palatine guard. The lay chamberlains act as ush- 
ers and organise the accommodation of those visitors who 
are admitted either by ticket or invitation. The Pope 
wearing a rich cope and the famous tiara, is carried upon 
his throne § raised upon the shoulders of twelve sedarii or 

* In their order of precedence they come after the Prelates of 
the Parco Maggiore. 

fThe composer Don Lorenzo Perosi has this year (1899) been 
appointed director of the papal choir. 

% Resembling the Roman lictors ; they wear an Elizabethan 
black dress, and a short sleeveless violet coat. The ostiarii no 
longer carry a rod, but accompany the papal cross bearers. 

§ See sedia gestatoria p. 342. 



382 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

bearers in crimson doublets and trunk hose. Beside him 
are carried the two waving fans * of white ostrich feathers, 
and immediately around him is a detachment of the Swiss 
guard carrying their two-handed swords, the Noble guard 
follow. Close beside him are his Marshal, and his Mas- 
ter of the Horse, and the two Assistant Princes. The 
Cardinals in scarlet, the Prelates di mantelletta in purple 
and the monsignori di mantel/one walk in the Procession 
according to the above precedence, the latter are recog- 
nisable by their long scarlet coats and white fur capes ; 
the heads of Religious Orders wear their distinctive dress. 
On such occasions, the Pope does not as a rule say 
Mass, but assists from his throne, mass being celebrated 
by a cardinal. For the Requiem of Pius IX. the Pope 
gives the final absolution, vested in a red cope and white 
linen mitre. When mass is celebrated in S. Peter's at a 
Cappella Papale, the silver trumpets are sounded from 
the dome at the elevation. 



Beatifica- 
tion and 
Canonisa- 
tion. 



BEATIFICATION AND CANONISATION. 

The custom of specially venerating the memory of 
those who had died for the faith, dates from the first ages 
of Christianity, and we find S. Cyprian in the in. century 
recommending his clergy to keep careful records of the 
martyrs. Such catalogues or diptychs were diligently 
preserved, and, until the xn. century, inscription on the 
local calendar was sufficient to proclaim a saint. Then, 
to check the abuses arising out of a too ready desire to 
publicly invoke any one who had died in the odour of 
sanctity, the Roman pontiffs reserved to themselves the 
power to make this proclamation. 

The papal decree permitting the public cult of some 
individual who has lived a saintly life, is known as canon- 
isation or beatification, according to the degree in which 
he or she is proposed to the veneration of the faithful. 

The decree of beatification is less solemn and complete 



* See flabelli p. 342. 



PAPAL CEREMONIES 383 

than that of canonisation, and the cult of a beatified per- 
son is commonly restricted to the country or to the reli- 
gious Order to which he belongs. He cannot be chosen 
as the patron of a country or city, and his Office has no 
Octave. The diocesan or the Order to which the pro- 
posed saint belongs supplies the preliminary information, 
and this, which is called his "cause" {causa), is sub- 
mitted for the approbation of the pope. If obtained, the 
approbation confers upon him the title of "Venerable." "Venera- 
The process of Beatification is now confided to the Sacred ble - 
Congregation of Rites, which institutes a minute and 
searching examination into the virtues and life, the mer- 
its and reputed miracles of the deceased. This is con- 
ducted in 3 assemblies, the first taking place at an 
ordinary meeting of the Congregation, a second in pres- 
ence of the Sacred College of Cardinals, and a third in 
presence of the pope. In addition to this, though not 
absolutely essential, the Consistorial Advocates, in public 
Consistory, make a series of perorations before the pope 
in favour of the cause. The final stage is reached when 
the pope gives his decision in favour of the beatification, 
and a day is then appointed for the solemn function. In 
former days it was the custom for this first festival in 
honour of the new beato to take place in one of the 
Roman churches, until Alexander VII. decreed that it 
should be held in the Vatican. 

A beatification is now generally held in the great hall Ceremony 
(Sala della Beatificazione) above the portico of S. Peter's. °^ t ? e „ tlfi " 
It is gorgeously draped with coloured hangings, and the 
tribune is a blaze of lights. Among these lights a picture 
of the new saint in glory is placed, between the arms of 
the pope and of the country or Order to which the beato 
belongs : on either side paintings of two miracles per- 
formed by him. 

Two hours before midday, the College of Cardinals in 
purple, and the Chapter of S. Peter's with their Cardinal 
archpriest, enter the hall, and seat themselves on either 
side of the tribune. A Latin oration follows, addressed 
by the advocate of the cause to the Cardinal Prefect of 



384 CHRISTIAN AXD ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Canonisa- 
tion. 



The 
process. 



the Congregation of Rites, begging that the beatification 
granted by the Pope should be publicly announced. The 
Cardinal Prefect then asks leave of the Cardinal Arch- 
' priest of S. Peter's to publish the decree in that church, 
after which the picture of the saint, hitherto covered, is 
unveiled amidst the ringing of bells, and in old days, the 
firing of the cannon of S. Angelo. The Te Deum fol- 
lows, the picture is incensed, and mass, of a confessor or 
martyr according to the condition of the new saint, is 
celebrated. During the afternoon, the pope accom- 
panied by the Sacred College in their scarlet robes, and 
received by the canons of S. Peter's in the same hall, 
pays a visit of veneration to the picture and relics of the 
new saint. 

This act may be followed by canonisation. In canon- 
isation the pope declares, by bull, and ex cathedrd, that 
such a person has died a saint, having exercised the 
Christian virtues in an heroic degree. His intercession 
may be publicly invoked, and his picture and relics vener- 
ated. A proper office and mass are appointed for his 
feast. He is, in popular language, " raised to the altars 
of the Church." 

Up to the time of Alexander III. bishops had occasion- 
ally canonised, the Archbishop of Rouen being the last 
to do so, in 1153.* But in n 59 the pope placed canon- 
isation among the attributes of the Holy See. The pro- 
cess is a highly complicated one, and has gathered in 
complexity since the canonisation of Raymund of Pen- 
nafort in 1595. Benedict XIV. issued Constitutions 
concerning it, and says that while beatification pertains 
to the episcopate, canonisation belongs to the Roman 
pontiff. He endeavoured to restrict the number of 
canonisations, and also to decrease their enormous cost, 
and leaves it on record that a single canonisation cost 



* There is an instance at the end of the XI. century; while an 
instance of the confusion which existed before it was finally vested 
in the Holy See, may be found in the case of Charlemagne, to 
whom a local cultus as a beato has always been extended, and who 
was canonised hy the anti-pope Paschal III. (1164) ! 



tions. 



PAPAL CEREMONIES 385 

14000 scudi.* In 1 741 the Sacred Congregation of Rites, 
under his direction, reduced this expenditure, and de- 
cided that those who postulated a " cause " must deposit 
part of the expenses. Up to the pontificate of Pius IX. 
there had been 115 canonisations. The first act of the 
kind seems to have been relative to S. Swidborg, pro- 
claimed a saint in 752 at the instance of Pepin, although 
the act was not called ' canonisation ' till John XV. de- First 
clared Ulrich bishop of Augsburg a saint " in the Coun- Cano nisa- 
cil Hall of the Lateran " in 993. This was 20 years after 
the saint's death ; but canonisations within a century of 
the death are very rare indeed. Thomas a Becket was 
canonised by Alexander III. 2 years after his murder; 
and Francis of Assisi 12 years after his death, the first 
canonisation accompanied with ritual pomp. 

The elaborate examination is carried out as in the case 
of beatification, which is regarded as a preliminary step ; 
it touches, as we have seen, both the life and the alleged 
miracles of the proposed saint {de fama and de mira- 
culis). At the present day two undoubted miracles are 
necessary, which must have happened since the decease. 
It is supposed that by these post-obital miracles God 
signifies His will that His servant should be invoked. It 
is certain that the power of working miracles has been 
held to be an essential qualification since the time of 
Alexander III. In two of the earliest instances, mira- 
cles are prominent : in the case of Hildegarde, whose 
"cause" was commenced in 1233 and resumed in 1243, 
many years after her decease, the necessary proofs were 
not forthcoming, because the miracles worked at her 
tomb at the time of her death so deranged the Religious 
that they made a complaint to the bishop, who, coming 
to the monastery, enjoined her by holy obedience to 
work no more cures ! It was therefore found impossible 
to proceed with her " cause," this prodigy itself having 



* The cost of the canonisation of 27 persons in 1862 was 
,£600,000, which was defrayed by the religious Orders con- 
cerned. 



386 CHRISTIAN 7 AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

left the good fathers without material.* In the case of 
the hermit- pope Peter Celestine, whose process was begun 
in 1306 and completed in 13 13, a large number of mira- 
cles were propounded, and the two questions put were : 
Whether it be a miracle? and whether it be proved? Of 
the 7 miracles after death, all were doubted by a minority 
of the 18 cardinals investigating, the pope's decision at 
the end of each sitting being final. In this process, 
interesting as being both an early one and fully reported, 
Cardinal James Colonna affirmed that " Miracles after 
death are to be specially investigated. For he who is holy 
at a certain moment, may afterwards become unholy." 
" Miracula vero post mortem facta sunt finalis bonce el 
sanctoz vita propria argumenta." f 

The enquiry is often protracted for years, sometimes 
for centuries. Medical evidence is on occasion sought, 
especially in the case of alleged miracles since the beati- 
fication. One of the examiners, hence popularly called 
" the devil's advocate," places obstacles in the way, and 
contests the facts produced. After the cause has been 
once more discussed in 3 consistories, the first of which 
is secret, the second public,]: and the final one, immedi- 
ately following, semi-public ; and the Congregation of 
Rites and the Sacred College are united in their judg- 
ment, the pope proclaims the result by a Bull, and the 
Ceremony great ceremony of canonisation follows. In old days it 
ofcanoni- W as the occasion of magnificent pomp and display. 
The pope was carried on his sedia gestatoria under a 
baldacchino, round the Piazza and under the Colonnades 
of S. Peter's. His cardinals, prelates, and troops walked 
in procession. The interior of the Basilica was abso- 
lutely covered with red and gold drapery, and lighted 

* John XXII. tried again; but to this day Hildegarde is uncanon- 
ised. See the Bollandists, Tome V. (September) " Actes de l'ln- 
quisition sur les vertus et les miracles de sainte Hildegarde." 

t Analecta Bollandiana, Tome XV., Fasc. 3 and 4. " S. Pierre 
Celestin et ses premiers biographes," with the reports of the process 
edited by Pere Van Ortroy, S. J. 

\ See Consistory, page 377. 



sation. 



PAPAL CEREMOXIES 387 

by thousands of candles. Pictures of the saint and of 
his miracles were hung within and without the church, 
and were carried in the procession. 

The procession is formed with the lay Chamberlains The pro- 
(page 351) preceding. The Canons of collegiate churches cesslon - 
and of the patriarchal and other basilicas in choir dress, 
with the consultors of the Congregation of Rites, and the 
Monsignori numbered 2-5 on page 475, who wear cotta 
and rochet. With the Auditors of the Rota walks the 
Maestro del S. Palazzo, while the last Auditor has his 
place in the midst of the 8 acolytes bearing the incense 
and 7 candlesticks. The pope is carried on the sedia 
gestatoria with the flabelli : after him comes the Dean 
of the Rota,* and the Proto-notaries. After adoring the 
Sacrament, the pope on his throne receives the homage 
of the great prelates : cardinals kissing his hand, patri- 
archs and bishops his knee, mitred abbats, the Commen- 
datore di S. Spirito, the Archimandrite of the monastery 
of Messina (if present) and the Penitentiaries of the 
basilica, his foot. 

The pope having his cardinals in a semicircle round 
him, the Cardinal Procurator of the canonisation, by 
means of the Consistorial advocate standing on his left, 
petitions that the new name may be added to the list 
of Saints. The ' Secretary for Briefs to princes ' replies. 
The Litanies now follow, as far as the Agnus Dei, when 
the petition which had before been made instanter, is 
now repeated with the word instantius ; after which the 
Veni Creator is sung. For a third time, the cardinal 
asks the pope, instantissime petit, to canonise the new 
saint, and the reply being now favourable, the great 
ceremony proceeds, the Pope solemnly pronouncing the 
decree of canonisation from his throne.- Then follows 
the Te Deum, accompanied by a burst of music from the 
military bands, by the ringing of bells, and by the firing Mass of 
of cannon. As the Te Deum ends, the Cardinal Dean Jj° onisa " 
invokes the new saint in the petition : " ora pro nobis, 

* He carries the papal mitre; and two Auditors walk by the 
sedia gestatoria, as bearers of the fatda. 



388 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

sancte N. . . ." Then follows the mass, celebrated by 
the pope, or by a cardinal. The Gospel is chanted in 
Latin and in Greek.* At the offertory an oblation is 
made of wine, bread, candles and doves.f 

ROMAN CARNIVAL. 

The The carnival is a period of amusement and license 

Carnival preceding Lent. Substituting the orgies of the luper- 
calia and saturnalia, two days were kept from the xi. 
century till 1500; viz., the Thursday in Sexagesima 
week called giovedi grasso, and Quinquagesima Sunday. 
Martin V. added a third day, the Saturday, devoted to 
bull fights. The revels were cruel and barbarous. On 
Sunday 13 bulls were killed, while from Monte Testaccio 
6 cars draped in red were precipitated, a live pig in each. 
On the Thursday the games took place in Piazza Navona 
(Agone), and consisted chiefly in masquerades. With 
growing civilisation some of this barbarous revelry ceased, 
and the entertainment was confined to racing riderless 
horses down the Corso \ — the famous Corse dei Barberi 
— the prizes being national stuffs, intended to encourage 
manufactures, but which were paid for by the Jews. 
Clement IX. abolished the custom by which the Jews 
were forced to run races " in the capital of Catholicism," 
commuting this service by a homage — to our present 
ideas equally indecorous — performable in Carnival week. 
During the 8 days of Carnival the great bell of the capi- 
tol announced when the masks might issue forth. On 
giovedi grasso the authorities with Monsignor the Fiscal 
Procurator made the first round of the Corso. On the 

* See Part II., page 81. 

t See Part II., page 180. The oblation of the doves at canoni- 
sation is represented in bas-relief in the chapel near the tribune 
of S. Peter's, and a painting of the same subject is placed over the 
door in the Museo Profano of the Vatican. 

X Hence the substition of the name Corso for that street in place 
of Via Lata, and the name of the piazza " Ripresa dei Barberi" 
where the horses were caught. 



PAPAL CEREMONIES 389 

other days they assisted from their balconies, and 12 
cars representing the 1 2 regions of the city, and followed 
by the papal car in which the pope was represented 
habited in pontificals, paraded the Corso. Paul III. it 
is said threw money from the windows. 

More than one cause in the first half of this century 
hastened the downfall of the old splendours. Sixtus V. 
and Gregory XIII. had abolished the Carnival, and a 
century later Clement X. gave the money collected for it 
in charity. Pius IX. regulated the festivities and their 
duration. It was also the custom to have pious exercises 
in some of the churches during Carnival time, and this is 
the case everywhere to-day. The popes used to attend 
them, and several popes have opposed these revelries of 
carni vale, " goodbye to flesh meat." * That the Romans 
did not welcome involuntary interference with their carni- 
val may be inferred from the pasquinade which appeared 
on the death in that season of Innocent X. : 

Tre mali ci facesti, O Padre Three evils hast thou done us, 
Santo : Holy Father ! 

Accettare il papato, viver Accepting the tiara, living too 
tanto, l° n g> 

Morir in Carneval per esser And dying to spoil our Car- 
pianto. nival. 



* Or on the contrary from Ca ma-aval ; this period was called 
in late Latin the clergy's carnis levamtn ; either derivation appears 
likely. 



CHAPTER III. 

PAPAL PALACES. 



Vatican 
Palace. 



History. 



Vatican Palace — Sistina — Paolina — Chapel of S. Lorenzo — 
Borgia Apartment — Stanze of Raphael — Museums — Li- 
brary — Secret Archives — Mint — Pope's Gardens — Roman 
Libraries — Collegio Romano — Alessandrina — Casatenense — 
Angelica — Vallicelliana — Papal palaces and villas : Da- 
taria — Cancelleria — Castel Gandolfo. 

The Vatican Palace as we see it to-day was not built 
according to any complete architectural plan. Its vari- 
ous portions, palaces, galleries, chapels, courtyards, were 
built at various epochs and in various styles, and were 
gradually merged and joined together to form the present 
enormous rambling pile. Neither can the Vatican boast 
of any architectural beauty taken as a whole, although 
portions are both picturesque and beautiful. Within, are 
some 7000 rooms and over 200 staircases. 

There seems considerable uncertainty as to when a 
palace first existed upon this site. Tradition points to 
the time of Constantine, and Pope Symmachus (498) 
seems to have restored or enlarged some Vatican build- 
ing. It is said that Charlemagne spent the winter before 
his coronation 800-801 in a palace near S. Peter's, and 
here also later emperors stayed on their visits to Rome. 

In the xii. century, the Vatican was a mere fortress. 
The church itself was an entrenched citadel, and cata- 
pults were fired from the tower of S. Maria in Turrim 
which stood against the basilica atrium. This church 
indeed was burnt, and the portico and atrium of ■ S. 
Peter's were destroyed during the fighting against the 
Emperor Frederick in 1167. 
39o 






PAPAL PALACES 391 

Very little is known about the history of the Vatican 
Palace, and very few records exist for its compilation, a 
task which has never yet been undertaken. Eugenius III. 
(1145) and Celestine III. (1191) are often regarded 
as the founders of the modern Vatican ; Innocent III. 
(1198) and Nicholas III. (1277) also restored or en- 
larged it, the latter laying out the gardens and employ- 
ing the Florentine architects Fra Sisto and Ristori. The 
Popes however lived in the Lateran, and the Vatican did 
not become a papal residence until after Gregory XL's 
(1370-1378) return from Avignon. This pope lived in 
it for safety on account of its nearness to the fortress of 
S. Angelo, and later, (1410-1417) the covered way which 
runs along the Leonine wall uniting the palace to the 
fortress was built as a means of communication, and if 
necessary, of escape. 

In 141 7 we find Martin V. inhabiting a palace near the 
church of SS. Apostoli, and at this period the Vatican 
was too ruinous for habitation. It is not until the ponti- 
ficate of Nicholas V. (1447-1455) that it seems to have 
been rebuilt or restored on any large scale. Records are 
very scarce,* and are derived chiefly from treasury ac- 
counts, and inventories, and the diary of one Burchhardt, Palace of 
a master of ceremonies, who lived at the end of the xv. 
century. The buildings of this period are those immedi- 
ately surrounding the court of the Pappagallo (10 of 
plan), and include the Borgian wing, built by Nicholas 
V.; the Sistine chapel, built by Sixtus IV. (1471-1484) 
the Torre Borgia added by Alexander VI. (1492-1503) 
and the Sale Regia and Ducale. This was the palace of 
the popes from the time of Nicholas V. for nearly another 
century. Innocent VIII. (1484-1492) erected another 
building, the Palazzo Innocenziano, against the court of 
the old basilica for the offices of the Cancelleria, while 
at right angles to this, another wing, the Palazzo della 
Camera, was added by Paul II. for the offices of the 

* We are indebted for much of the following information, to the 
work of P. Ehrle and the late Mr. Stevenson, " gli affreschi del Ap- 
partamento Borgia." 



the XV. 
century. 



392 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Reverenda Camera or Treasury. Both buildings perished 
with old S. Peter's. 
Villa of Finally, Innocent built for himself in the midst of the 

Innocent palace garden at some distance from the Vatican a villa 
which was flanked by the Leonine wall, and was fortified 
and strengthened by two towers. The chapel and halls 
of this villa were painted by Pinturicchio and Mantegna, 
and the villa itself was designed by Pollajuolo. The paint- 
ings have all perished, and the villa has been transformed 
into the Belvedere of to-day. It was joined to the exist- 
ing Vatican building under Julius II. (1503-1513) by 
means of two long parallel wings, and in the original de- 
sign, which was Bramante's, the space between was to 
be left free for public games. Two transverse buildings 
were however erected across the open space, joining the 
parallel wings, one containing the great Hall of the Li- 
brary(48),* the other the Braccio Nuovo (72), the for- 
mer was built by Sixtus V. (1585-1590) the latter by 
Pius VII. (1800-1823). The Belvedere garden was 
thus divided into the Cortile delta Pigna (73) and the 
Cortile del Belvedere (58), the latter terminating semi- 
circularly under the Borgian apartment. 

The Cortile of Damaso (4) originally the private gar- 
den of the popes was built under Leo X. (1513-1522) 
while the great wing on its fourth side which now contains 
the pope's apartments was commenced by Sixtus V. 
(1585-1590) and completed by Clement VIII. (1592- 
1605). This wing is the most conspicuous portion of 
the Vatican, as one stands facing S. Peter's. Beyond it, 
one can discern the Loggie upon the court of Damasus, 
and a portion of the Sistine Chapel, while the great mass 
of the palace lies behind, and can only be imperfectly 
seen from the Piazza. 

The usual entrance to the Vatican Palace is through 
the Bronze Gates (103) at the S. Peter's extremity of the 
colonnade to the right as one faces the church. And 
here one leaves the kingdom of Italy behind, and enters 

* The numbers in brackets refer to the plan. 






PAPAL PALACES 393 

all that remains of the papal dominions. Sentinels in the 
uniform of the pope's Swiss guard are on duty at all the 
outer gates, while within, watch is kept by the papal 
carabineers and firemen in dark blue and orange who 
are posted all over the palace. And the visitor whatever 
his views, who penetrates at all beyond the circumscribed 
track of the museums and galleries, cannot fail to be 
struck by much that he sees ; by the scrupulous cleanli- 
ness and order of this huge building, and by a certain 
sober dignity about those employed within it, combined 
with a total absence of offensive officialism. Let the 
visitor come to the Vatican as a student or to seek out 
some friend or acquaintance within its walls, and he 
cannot but be impressed by the precision and regularity 
with which its affairs are conducted, and by the genial 
kindliness of those he appeals to in his quest. And per- 
haps he will be most impressed by what he sees of the 
ordinary daily routine of the Vatican. He sees students 
and scholars of all nationalities coming and going; in- 
numerable officials and employes who live within the 
Vatican precincts, upon their daily rounds ; a continuous 
stream of carriages bearing visitors to the pope or to the 
great officials of the palace. Then the occasional glimpse 
of a papal servant in gorgeous crimson livery, or of 
a detachment of the noble guard marching to relieve 
another on duty in the pope's apartments, only stimulates 
the imagination to picture the varied and active life car- 
ried on within those walls, and to realise the parapher- 
nalia of the great court, where hundreds of persons are 
employed, and important complicated and far reaching 
administrations are conducted under apparently such a 
calm surface. This life and activity hidden behind this 
unpromising exterior is a revelation to the visitor on the 
occasion of his first admittance to a great papal func- 
tion, when he sees the Vatican in gala attire and the 
pope in state surrounded by his troops and his household, 
one of the most gorgeous sights in the world. 

The Bronze gates open into a wide and lofty gallery Entrance 
leading to the Scala Regia, to be described later. Imme- *° tlle 



394 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Bronze 
Gates. 



Court of 
Damasus. 



Pope's 
residence. 



Mosaic 
Factory. 



diately within them, is the guard room of the pope's 
regiment of Swiss and beyond it, to the right, a wide 
staircase leads on the second floor into the court of Da- 
masus, and one realises the hilly nature of the ground 
upon which the Vatican stands. On the first landing of 
this staircase (i) is the apartment of the pope's Maes- 
tro di Camera, on the second, (2) that of his Maggior- 
domo.* 

The court of Damasus, (4) so called because the water 
which supplied the baptistery erected by Pope Damasus 
in old S. Peter's still flows through it, is surrounded on 
three of its sides by the Loggie of Raphael. 

Royal personages and visitors to the pope, enter this 
court by a carriage drive which leads into it by an easy 
and gradual ascent from the Via delle Fondamenta. To 
the left is the entrance into the Vatican Library, for 
readers only. To the right on the ground floor, the 
apartments of the Maestro dei Sacri Palazzi (where he 
fills the position held by S. Dominic in the Vatican) and 
the great entrance (5) to the Pope's private residence.f 
This palace (6) contains some twenty-two rooms, sur- 
rounding a central courtyard (e). The Pope's private 
library (m) faces the Piazza of S. Peter's and its three 
windows, to the right of two of painted glass which light 
the staircase, can be seen above the colonnade. Further 
to the right are the windows of the pope's study (n), his 
present bedroom (0) and his private anterooms. 

Facing the entrance into the cortile, a doorway (8) 
leads into the museum and manufactory of mosaics. The 
factory occupies part of the ground floor below the Gal- 
leria Lapidaria (42). Here a large number of workmen 
are employed in making mosaic pictures, copies of pic- 



* It is to either of these officials that application must be made for 
permission to assist at any of the papal functions, to visit the Vati- 
can gardens, and for audience of the Pope. The application must 
be personal, but ladies are recommended to accomplish this through 
some priest or man friend. 

t The Cardinal Secretary of State lives in the Pope's residence 
on the third floor. 



PAPAL PALACES 395 

tures, and decorations, chiefly for the ornamentation of 
churches.* 

The Scala Regia, a wide and easy flight of stone stairs, Scala 
springs from the gallery within the Bronze Gates. It was Regia. 
designed by Bernini and built in the reign of Urban VIII. 
(1623-1644). The first flight is flanked by Ionic col- 
umns ; the ceiling is decorated with stucco ornamentation, 
the work of Algardi. 

This staircase leads into the Sala Regia f (26) or as it SalaRegu 
was originally called the Aula Magna. This hall was 
designed for the reception of ambassadors from the em- 
peror or from kings. Public consistories were occasion- 
ally held in it, though not invariably as seems the case now. 
In 1506, the stairs leading from this hall were so arranged 
that the pope could, if he wished, ride down them on 
horseback into S. Peter's. Another flight of stairs led 
into the old Paradiso.% 

The Sala Regia measures 36 metres by 16, and is 24 
metres high. The stucco decorations are by Pierin del 
Vaga, da Udine, and Daniele da Volterra. Great frescoes 
representing scenes in the lives of popes, cover the walls. 
On the two longest walls : Paul V.'s League with the 
Venetians by Vasari, and the Battle of Lepanto, Vasari. 

Opposite : The Return from Avignon, Vasari. 

Alexander III. and Barbarossa in Venice, Giuseppe 
Porta. 

On the end walls : Gregory VII. and Henry IV. before 
Matilda, Zucchero. 

The Taking of Tunis and the Night of S. Bartholomew. 

Folding doors lead into the Sistine Chapel, and opposite 
is the entrance to the Sala Ducale. This hall (24, 25) Sala 
which is in two portions was originally known as the Aula Ducale. 

* A Permesso is necessary for visiting the factory and Museo, to 
be had Via della Sagrestia 8. The factory is open daily from 10 
to 2. 

t At present the Sale Regia and Ducale and the Paolina are not 
open to visitors, but new rules for the admission of visitors will be 
made when the present restorations are completed. 

\ See Pt. I., page 56. 



396 CIIKISTIAX AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Minor, and was the reception hall for dukes and princes. 
Less solemn consistories were also held in it and here 
the function of the washing of the feet took place.* At 
the big fireplace in this hall, the members of the curia 
used to warm themselves while they waited for the mid- 
night papal mass on Christmas eve. 

The present decoration of the Sala Ducale was designed 
by Bernini. It is ornamented with arabesques and fres- 
coes, and on its walls are landscapes by Paul Brill. It 
First tier of opens at its further end into the first tier of Loggie. The 
Loggie. wes t branch (20) of this tier is said to have been de- 
signed by Raphael — it contains a bust of Giovanni da 
Udine, who decorated it with stuccoes and arabesques. 
The frescoes of the centre branch (21) are by Roncalli 
and have been recently restored. 

Another door leads from the Sala Ducale up some 

Sale of the steps into the Sala dei Paramenti (23), a hall where car- 

Paramenti, dmals assembled and were robed for great functions. 

and*Audi-° Next to this is the Sala del Pappagallo (35^) where the 

entice. popes are dressed for ceremonies in S. Peter's. Here the 

bodies of Sixtus IV., Alexander VI. and Pius III. were 

laid before their removal in state to S. Peter's. A small 

passage room next to this (35) was originally used for 

private audiences. 

The Paolina Chapel (34) is reached through the Sala 
Regia. The present building replaces a much older 
one, the capella minor built for Nicholas V., and deco- 
rated by Fra Angelico. The Paolina is the parish 
church of the Apostolic Palace, a parish in itself, of 
which the Pope's Sacristan, who is also a bishop, is the 
parish priest. 

The present Paolina was built foi Paul III. (1534- 
1550) by Sangallo. It has been always used for the cere- 
monies of Holy Week, and unfortunately the frescoes on 
its walls by Michael Angelo, have been much blackened 
by candle smoke. On the right is the " Crucifixion of 
Peter " by this artist between the " Miracle of Simon 



Paolina 
Chapel. 



*See Pt. II., page 251. 



PAPAL PALACES 397 

Magus " and " the Baptism of the House of Cornelius " 
both by Sabbatini. Opposite, the " Conversion of Paul " 
by Michael Angelo between the " Martyrdom of Stephen " 
and the " Baptism of Paul " the work of Zucchero. The 
roof is painted by the latter artist ; over the door is a copy 
by him of Raphael's " Liberation of Peter." The choir 
has been recently decorated. 

SISTINE CHAPEL. 

On ordinary occasions visitors are not admitted to the Sistine 
Sistina (30) by the great entrance from the Sala Regia, Cha P el - 
but through a smaller door to the left of it, which opens 
directly on to the Scala Regia. 

This rich and beautiful chapel, originally called the 
Capella Magna to distinguish it from the Paolina, takes 
its present name from Sixtus IV., in whose pontificate it 
was built in the year 1473, from designs of the Floren- 
tine, Baccio Pintelli. It is quadrangular, with a vaulted 
ceiling, 147 ft. in length by 50 wide. The pavement is 
fine cosmatesque, restored with marble. A beautiful 
marble screen, the work of Mino da Fiesole and Gio- 
vanni Dalmata, divides the chapel into two portions. 
Immediately within the screen, to the right, is a singers' 
gallery, the marble balustrade of which is also the work 
of Mino da Fiesole, but it has been spoiled by gilding. 
A marble bench runs round the whole length of the 
chapel. The altar, a modern one, and the dais for the 
pope's throne are raised some 6 or 7 steps above the level 
of the pavement. 

The chapel is lighted by twelve narrow windows with 
round arches, high in the walls. Raphael's tapestry (see 
p. 424) was to have formed a dado round the lower portion 
of the walls ; this space is now left bare, and is painted 
to represent silk hangings. Above it, and beneath the 
windows, are the famous frescoes, a series in separate 
compartments, those on one wall representing scenes in 
the life of Christ, those on the other, scenes in the life of 
Moses. 



398 CHRISTIAN AXD ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Series on The series commences to the left of the "Last Judg- 

the left. merit," (as one stands facing it). 

I. Perugino and Pinturicchio.* Moses and Zephorah 
on their journey into Egypt and the circumcision of the 
son of Moses. 

II. Botticelli. Moses watering the sheep of the daugh- 
ters of Jethro ; the Lord appearing in the burning bush. 

III. Piero di Cosimo. The destruction of Pharoah's 
army in the Red Sea. 

IV. Signorelli. Moses receiving the tables of the 
Law, their destruction and the worship of the golden calf. 

V. Botticelli. Korah, Dathan and Abiram and their 
followers destroyed by the miraculous fire. 

VI. Signorelli. The death of Moses. Promulgation 
of the Law. 

This ends the series on this wall. Over the great 
entrance is a much retouched fresco by Salviati, of the 
archangel Michael with the body of Moses. 

Series on The second series begins to the right of the " Last 

right. Judgment." 

I. Perugino and Pinturicchio. The Baptism of Christ. 

II. Botticelli. The Sacrifice of the Leper (Matthew 
viii. 4). The three temptations in the background. 

III. Ghirlandajo. The calling of Peter and Andrew. 

IV. Cosimo Rosselli. The Sermon on the mount and 
the healing of the leper. 

V. Perugino. Christ giving the keys to Peter. 

VI. Cosimo Rosselli. The Last Supper. 

Over the entrance on this side, the Ascension, by 
Ghirlandajo. 

The great wall opposite the doors and above the altar, 
Last judg- is completely covered by Michael Angelo's fresco of the 
" Last Judgment." Three frescoes of Perugino's origi- 
nally decorated this space. The " Last Judgment " was 
begun about thirty years after the ceiling, by command 
of Clement VII. (1523-1534) and was finished under 
Paul III. in 154 1. It took eight years to complete 



nicnt. 



* The date of these paintings is about 1483. 






PAPAL PALACES 399 

and then narrowly escaped utter destruction owing to 
Paul IV.'s (1555-1559) criticism of the nudity of some 
of the figures.* Instead of annihilation however, Vol- 
terra was commissioned to paint drapery to the obnoxious 
figures, for which task he was nicknamed braghettone 
breeches maker, by the Roman people. A similar work 
was given to Pozzi by Clement XII. (1 730-1 740), and 
what with this treatment, damp and candle smoke, the 
painting has suffered considerably. 

A crowd of figures appear in this composition. Christ 
stands in the centre with the Madonna and the Apostles, 
and on either side, the patriarchs and saints, and the 
martyrs with the emblem of their martyrdom. Above, 
are groups of angels with the cross. Beneath, crowds of 
the saved are rising, while the damned are being dragged 
down into hell by devils. Among these groups, is the 
boatman, Charon. The donkey-eared Midas on the right 
is a portrait of Paul III.'s master of ceremonies, who 
offended Michael Angelo by being the first to suggest the 
unnecessary nudity of the figures. He complained to 
Paul III. of being thus located in the netherworld, and 
begged him to give orders that the figure should be 
painted out, evoking the pope's celebrated answer that 
he had " power over purgatory, but none over hell." 

The ceiling of the chapel was painted by Michael Ceiling. 
Angelo at the desire of Julius II. between the years 1508 
and 15 12. Many stories are told of the undertaking History. 
which was as usual not finished without many heartaches 
and outbursts of temper. The necessary scaffolding was 
prepared for Michael Angelo by Bramante, who attached 
it in the usual way to the walls and ceiling. " How," 
Michael Angelo asked, " am I to fill in those holes when 
the scaffolding is taken down ? " He thereupon designed 
a scaffolding himself, which stood upon a base of its own, 
touching neither wall nor ceiling. Bramante adopted 
the model later for work in S. Peter's, where one of the 
same pattern is used to this day. 

♦Already Adrian VI. had called the Sistine " una stufa d'ignudi" 
and had threatened the paintings with destruction. 



400 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Michael Angelo at first asked for the assistance of some 
of the best Florentine artists, but when they had been 
sent for, he grew disgusted with the plan, tore up all their 
designs, and packed them back to Florence again. He 
then shut himself alone into the Sistine, denying entrance 
to everyone, and even refusing to see visitors at his own 
house. As time went on, popular curiosity as to his 
doings increased, and it is said that Julius II., unable to 
bear the suspense any longer, had himself disguised, 
bribed the doorkeeper, and hid in the chapel to watch 
the artist at work. According to the story, Michael 
Angelo recognised the pope, and angry at his intrusion, 
pushed some heavy frames off the scaffolding where he sat 
at work, which fell with a terrific crash on to the pavement. 
Then, alarmed at the pope's probable anger, he fled to 
Florence, and was only induced to return when three 
papal briefs and five couriers had been sent after him. 

When the work was all but finished, mould began to 
appear on the painting where it was not exposed to the 
sun, and once again Michael Angelo in despair, wished to 
throw up the work. Finally Pope Julius grew impatient, 
but to his repeated queries as to when it would be finished, 
the artist merely answered that he would complete it 
when he could. Vasari* relates that annoyed with the 
constant answer " quando potro, Padre santo " (" when 
I can, holy Father") the pope struck Michael Angelo 
with the stick he carried, crying out : " quando potro, 
quando potro, te la faro finire ben io " (" ' when I can,' 
1 when I can ' indeed, I will make thee finish it myself"). 
The painter returned home to prepare for a second flight 
to Florence, but the pope's chamberlain was sent in haste 
after him, with excuses and promises of good will, and 
a present of 500 scudi. 

The ceiling was finished and uncovered on the morn- 
ing of all Saints Day 15 12. Julius then declared that 
the colours should have been gayer, and that there 
should have been more gilding to match the other paint- 
ings in the chapel, to which Michael Angelo replied, that 
* Vasari Vite de y Pittori, Vol. VII., p. 214. 






PAPAL PALACES 401 

the people on his ceiling were not rich, but were saints 
and despised splendour. 

For this great work, the painter received 3000 scudi, 
about p£6oo, having spent about the same sum on the 
necessary materials. 

It is perhaps the whole design of the Sistine ceiling 
which excites one's admiration at the first glance, and it 
is only later that one realises the delicate working out of 
each detail. Unlike so many painted ceilings it pro- 
duces no sense either of heaviness or of incongruity, and 
the general effect is extraordinarily harmonious. This is 
probably due to the decorativeness of the design, the 
whole surface of the ceiling being divided into distinct 
panels by means of painted marble and masonry divi- 
sions which spring from the sides over the vaulted portion 
of the roof and form ornamental frames to each subject 
throwing into strong relief the figures themselves. The Centre. 
centre of the ceiling is painted with subjects from Gene- 
sis, arranged in successive divisions nine in number, the 
alternate divisions being smaller, more heavily framed, 
and decorated with ornamental figures and medallions. 

The series begins at the altar. 

I. Separation of night from day (this subject is sur- 
rounded by heavy framing and four figures, one at each 
angle). 

II. Creation of the sun and moon. 

III. The Almighty separating the earth from the 
waters. (With ornamental figures.) 

IV. Creation of Adam. 

V. Birth of Eve. (Ornamental figures.) 

VI. The eating of the apple and expulsion from Paradise. 

VII. Noah's sacrifice. (Ornamental figures.) 

VIII. The Flood. 

IX. The intoxication of Noah, who is mocked by Ham. 

Next this series, upon the arch of the roof are massive Sibyls and 
sitting figures of the Prophets and Sibyls, one figure at Pl '°P hets - 
each end of the ceiling, and five on either side in the 
following order : 



4 o2 CHRISTIAN AXD ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Scenes in 
the Angles. 



Lunettes 
above the 
windows. 



Jonah — above last judgment 
Jeremiah Sibilla Lybica 

Sibilla Persica Daniel 

Ezechiel Sibilla Cumaea 

Sibilla Erithrsea Isaiah 

J° el Zacharias Sibilla Del P hica 

In the angles of the ceiling are four scenes in trian- 
gular framing. Nearest the "last judgment," on the 
right, the people healed by the Brazen Serpent ; on the 
left, Haman hanged upon the gibbet ; at the other end 
of the chapel David killing Goliath, and Judith with 
the head of Holofernes. 

Over each window in a lunette, are two seated figures, 
or groups of figures, and in the case of the four central 
windows on each side, each lunette is crowned by a tri- 
angular space in which another figure sits. These figures 
are the progenitors of David.* The names of each 
group are painted upon a tablet, but they are difficult 
to read, owing to the great height of the chapel. 
The groups are arranged as follows : 

Altar 
Windows on the one side Windows on the other side 



I 


Aminadab 


Nasson 


2 


Salmon, Booz,Obeth(Obed) 


Jesse, David, Solomon 


3 


Roboam, Abias 


Asa, Josophat, Joram 


4 


Ozias, Joatham, Achaz 


Ezechias, Manasses, Amon 


5 


Zorobabel, Abiud, Elio- 
chum (Eliakim) 


Josiah, Zechonias, Salathiel 


6 


Achim, Aliud (Eliud) 


Azor, Sadoch 



j Jacob 
( Joseph 



Entrance 



Eleazar 
Mathan 



* Matthew i. For the chronological order, they should be taken 
r.cross from one window to the window opposite. 



PAPAL PALACES 



403 



Between the windows are full length figures of the Portraits 
martyr popes, with their names and the years of their of P°P es - 
reigns beneath them. They are in the following order : 



Altar 



On either side of windows 
on the one side 



On either side of windows 
on the other side 



Clement 
Evaristus (Botticelli) 


AnacletUS (Ghirlandajo) 
Alexander (Fra Diamante) 


Sixtus I. (restored) 
Hyginus (Ghirlandajo) 


Telesphorus 

Pius I. (Ghirlandajo) 


Anicetus 

Eleutherius (Fra Diamante) 


Soter (Botticelli) 
Victor I. (Ghirlandajo) 


Zephyrinus (Ghirlandajo) 
Urban I. 


Calixtus 
Pontianus 


Anthems (Fra Diamante) 
Cornelius (Botticelli) 


Fabian 

Voius (Lucius) (Fra Diamante) 


Stephen (Botticelli) 
Dionysius 


Sixtus II. (Botticelli) 
Felix (Ghirlandajo) 



Entrance 



( Marcellus (restored) f Damasus ( ?) (Ghirlandajo) 

\ Eutychianus (Fra Diamante) ( MarcellillUS (Fra Diamante) 



404 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 
APPARTAMENTO BORGIA.* 

History. The block of building which contains the Borgian 

apartment, formed part, as we have seen, of the palace 
of Nicholas V. (1447^1455). Its windows look on the 
one side into the court of the Belvedere, on the other, 
into the little cortile of the Pappagallo. The building 
seems to have been left unfinished by Nicholas, and was 
completed by his successors and by Alexander VI. who 
added the Torre Borgia. The ground floor is occupied 
by the series of halls which once constituted the famous 
library of Sixtus IV. ; the Stanze of Raphael are upon the 
second floor, and the Borgian Apartment is upon the 
first. The rooms of this apartment, with the exception 
of the first, were used as private dwelling rooms by the 
popes of the late xv. century. While Alexander VI. 
lived upon the first floor, Caesar Borgia occupied the 
rooms above. Sixtus IV. preferred the upper floor, 
where he eventually died. Julius II. did the same, and 
during his pontificate, the lower rooms were given up to 
his nephews, and to the Cardinal Secretary of State. 

When Sixtus V. built a new papal palace, the Borgian 
apartment was deserted, and fell into a state of dilapida- 
tion. During the sack of the Vatican in 1527, it was 
greatly injured by Bourbon's soldiers, who scratched 
their names upon the frescoed walls, and blackened them 
with their fires. The frescoes were further mutilated by 
the erection of cells for the cardinals, in the conclaves 
which were held in the Borgian apartment during the 
xvi. and xvn. centuries. Eventually the rooms degener- 
ated into mere eating rooms for the lesser court officials, 
and became more and more ruinous. In 1816 Pius VI. 
used the apartment as a picture gallery, a coat of paint 
being washed over the dilapidated frescoes. In 182 1, it 
was a miscellaneous museum, and in 1838, the various 
collections were moved out, and the printed books of 
the Vatican library were moved in. 

* Open free Tuesday and Friday, but must be entered through 
the Museums, Via delle Fondamenta. 






PAPAL PALACES 405 

It is said that Leo XIII. while Cardinal Chamberlain 
to Pius IX., was fond of wandering about the Vatican 
with an immense bunch of keys, and that he had noticed 
and taken to heart the pitiful condition of this beautiful 
portion of the palace. He planned its restoration upon 
being elected to the pontificate, but it was not until 
March 1897 that his task was completed, and that the 
Borgian apartment was thrown open to the public. The 
printed books were removed to a new library prepared 
for them upon the ground floor. The frescoes which 
remained were cleaned, and the whole was put into 
thorough repair under able direction. The beautiful 
majolica pavement was restored upon the old models, 
that of the first four halls by a firm at Naples, that of the 
other two, by Cantagalli of Florence. The Appartamento 
Borgia is entered by double doors from the first tier of 
Loggie, at the angle where the west and north branches 
meet.* The apartment consists of six rooms, the two 
furthest and smallest being in the Torre Borgia. 

Room I (36) Hall of the Pontifice. This hall, the Room I. 
largest of the series, seems to have been used originally H a11 ' ° f the 
as a private audience hall. Here Julius II. entertained 
six English envoys at dinner on Corpus Christi 1504; 
they having previously given in their sovereign's obedience 
to the Holy See. The frescoes upon the walls of this 
hall' were entirely destroyed, and it has been hung with 
tapestries from one of the other rooms. The ceiling was Ceiling, 
decorated at Leo X.'s desire, by Pierin del Vaga and 
Giovanni da Udine. Among arabesques and wreaths 
appear the twelve constellations of the Zodiac and the 
seven planets, Apollo for the sun, Diana for the moon, 
Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus and Mercury. At the 
four corners the arms of Leo X. are supported by 
cherubs. 

A fine carved stone mantelpiece, which came origin- 
ally from the Castel S. Angelo, has been recently moved 
from this hall to make room for the bust of Leo XIII. 

* Visitors are admitted through the Galleria Lapidaria, on Tues- 
days and Fridays. 



406 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Room II. 
" della vita 
della 
Madonna." 



Ceiling. 



The tapestries represent the story of Cephalus. Stands 
of arms, mostly halberds, swords, and helmets of an obso- 
lete pattern have been removed to this hall from the old 
Vatican armoury. Among them is a coat of mail said to 
have belonged to Julius II., and the suit of armour worn 
by Constable Bourbon when he was killed in the siege of 
Rome in 1527, and which still bears on the leg the mark 
of the fatal shell. 

The following rooms were decorated by Pinturicchio 
between December 1492 and 1495, probably at the 
desire of Alexander VI. The last two rooms were 
finished last, and are decidedly inferior to the others, 
both in execution and design. In every case the general 
design is Pinturicchio's, and in most cases the principal 
figures, but there is evidence that he was helped by other 
artists of his school. The marble carving of cornices, 
door jambs, and window frames is said to be the work of 
Andrea Bregna, a disciple of Mino da Fiesole, who was 
born in 142 1 and is buried in the Minerva. 

Room II. of the Mysteries (37) or as it is also called 
della vita della Madonna. The ancient pavement of 
this room was entirely destroyed, and has been replaced 
by a new one of majolica. 

The ceiling is extremely rich. Its vaulting divides it 
into two portions, which are again divided into four 
triangular spaces, each of which contains a circle in 
which is represented a prophet. In the circles nearest 
the window, are the figures of Joel, Jeremiah, Micheas, 
and Sophonias, (Zephaniah). On the left, Solomon, 
David, Isaiah, and Malachi. The figures are surrounded 
by richly ornamented frames. 

In the lunettes on the upper part of the walls formed 
by the spring of the arches, are the following seven great 
frescoes : 



The Magi The Resurrection 

Nativity (Window) Ascension 

Annunciation (Entrance) 

Assumption of Mary Pentecost 






PAPAL PALACES 407 

The kneeling figure before the Virgin in the fresco of 
the Ascension is Caesar Borgia. There is a fine stone 
mantelpiece in this room, carved with mythological sub- 
jects. 

Room III. of the " Vita dei Santi" (38). The ceiling Room ill. 
of this room is again very rich. In the centre of the "Vita dei 
vaulting of each of its two sections, appear the arms of 
Alexander VI. The ox of Borgia impaled with the arms 
of Doms, an ancestor of the family. Each section is sub- Ceiling 
divided into four, and in each of these eight divisions is 
depicted a scene in the story of Isis and Osiris, framed 
by ornamentation of the most delicate design. In one 
section, Osiris, seated upon a throne, teaches fruit culture, 
he marries Isis, he teaches agriculture and vine culture. 
In the other, the bull Apis appears, and is led in proces- 
sion, Osiris is murdered by Typhon, and Isis finds his 
mangled remains. 

On the arches of the ceiling are small octagonal paint- 
ings amidst the richest decoration. Here we have the 
story of Io and Argus ; Zeus and Io, Hera taking the 
white heifer into which Io had been changed, from Zeus ; 
Hermes putting Argus to sleep, and Hermes killing Argus ; 
in the remaining octagon Argus asleep. 

The frescoes upon the walls are in lunettes as in the Walls. 
previous hall : 

S. Antony visiting Paul the The Visitation 

Hermit in the Thebaid (Window) 

S. Catherine of Alexandria S. Sebastian's martyrdom 

S. Barbara, her flight from S. Susanna and the elders, 

the tower and her the elders stoned in the 

martyrdom background 

The great fresco of S. Catherine disputing with the 
philosophers before the Emperor Maximian, covers the 
whole of the upper part of the wall opposite the window. 
The Emperor is seated upon a throne, S. Catherine is a 
youthful figure wearing a jewelled diadem. Raised stucco 
is introduced into this painting to increase the sense of 
distance. 



4o8 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Room IV. 
" of the 
Liberal 
arts." 



Ceiling. 



The Madonna in a circular frame over the entrance 
door in this room, is said to be a portrait of Giulia Far- 
nese, Alexander VI.'s mistress. Inlaid panelling with seats, 
forms a dado round the walls. 

Room IV. " Of the Liberal Arts" (39). This room 
has erroneously been called Alexander VI.'s bedroom ; it 
is more probable that the room he used as a bedroom, 
and in which he died, was a smaller room at right angles 
to it (390) which with a second (39^) which leads out 
of it, has now been shut off, and given up to the use of 
the Guardia Nobile. It appears however that after his 
death, the body of the pope was moved into the hall 
of the Liberal Arts, to await its transportation to the 
church. 

The carved stone mantelpiece from the hall of the 
Pontifice has been moved into this room, all the rooms 
of the apartment being provided with chimneys, though 
few of them with chimney pieces. In the thickness of 
the wall, a corridor leads into the tower and communi- 
cates with the apartment of the Guardia Nobile. On the 
opposite side of the room, a second passage also in the 
thickness of the wall, leads to the loggie, which at a date 
posterior to the building of the apartment, were added to 
it to enable the popes to watch the games which took 
place in the court beneath. This was probably under 
Leo X. or Julius II. 

The ceiling of this room has been much restored, the 
stucco having fallen away and been replaced by painting. 
In the centre is a large figure of " Justice " with the scales, 
and in the octagon framings, paintings of Lot saved by the 
angels, Jacob leaving Lebanon, and "Justice " again, then 
the widow before Trajan, and another representation of 
Justice. 

The lunettes upon the walls are painted with represen- 
tations of the arts and sciences ; each depicted as a 
seated female figure upon a throne surrounded by 
groups of scholars. The* name of the figure is in some 
cases written beneath the throne. The order is as 
follows : 



PAPAL PALACES 



409 



Arithmetic Music 

(Windows) 
Geometry 
Rhetoric 

(Entrance) 
Dialectic Grammar 



Astrology 



of the 
" Credo.' 
Ceiling. 



Room V. of the " Credo" (40). A few steps lead up Room v. 
into this room which is in the Torre Borgia. It was 
Alexander VI.'s treasury. The ceiling is covered with 
delicate and intricate ornamentation, in which the arms 
of the pope occur and the date 1494. 

The walls are decorated with twelve lunettes, each Walls, 
containing a prophet and an apostle holding a scroll upon 
which is written the contribution of each to the creed. 
(See Pt. II., page 33.) They are in the following 
groups : 

Peter and Jeremiah John and a prophet 

James the Greater and Zacharias Matthew and Osias 
Philip and Malachi Bartholomew and Joel 

Simon and Malachi Thaddeus and Zacharias 

Andrew and Isaiah 

James the Less and Amos 

Thomas and ( ?) 

Matthias and Abdias 

Room VI. " Sala delle Sibille" (40^). This is the last Room VI. 
room of the apartment. Its rich ceiling is decorated " .^. 1 . a t ?, elle 
with arabesques and stucco reliefs, and the arms of Alex- 
ander again appear in its centre. Upon the vaulting are Ceiling, 
eight octangular paintings representing Astrology and the 
seven planets. The planets appear as figures riding in 
chariots, while beneath them are groups of symbolic per- 
sonages which in mediaeval paintings often accompanied 
the planets. Thus under Luna, are persons fishing; 
under Apollo, the pope and great dignitaries, to symbolise 
power ; under Saturn, virtue is represented succouring 
the prisoner. Mars is symbolised by war, Venus by love, 
Mercury by learning, Jupiter by the chase. Astrology is 
depicted by a group of savants with the globe. 



410 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

In each angle of the ceiling, are small circular paint- 
ings, which may represent Isis and Osiris again, but it is 
difficult to determine. 

On the walls are twelve sibyls and twelve prophets 
holding swords upon which are their names. They are 
as follows : 

Baruch and Samo Zacharias and Persia 

Hosea and Delfa Daniel and Eritrea 

Abdia and Libia Isaiah and Ellesponta 

Ezechiel and Cimmeria Aggeo and Cuma 

Jeremiah and Frigia 

Jeremiah and Agrippa 

Micah and Tivoli 

Amos and Europa 

Upon the same floor of the Vatican palace, are the great 
Hall and galleries of the Library (see p. 425). 

STANZE OF RAPHAEL.* 



Sala dell' 
Immaco- 
lata. 



Turning to the left after the first flight of the Scala 
Regia, a second staircase leads to the upper floor of the 
Vatican Palace. Here one enters an anteroom and two 
small rooms containing modern pictures, representing 
martyrdoms and events in the lives of the saints canon- 
ised by Pius IX. In the third room, Sala dell' Immaco- 
lata, are huge oil paintings by Podesti, of the declaration 
of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception by Pius IX. 
In the centre of the room a large gilt case contains 
presents and offerings to Pius IX. The pavement is an 
ancient mosaic from Ostia. 

These open into another series of rooms painted by 



* Permessi, tickets of admission to visit the Stanze of Raphael 
and the picture gallerv {pinacoteca) are given on the Scala Regia 
(1st floor). The admission is free, every day from 10 to 3 except 
Sundays and Feast da vs. Saturdays from 10 to 1. The I.oggie 
of Raphael and the Chapel of S. Lorenzo are open only on Tues- 
days and Fridays. 



PAPAL PALACES 



I. Stanza 
dell' In- 

CENDIO. 



Raphael in fresco, which lead eventually into the centre Stanze of 
tier of Loggie. The Stanze of Raphael as they are now Ra P hael - 
called, were decorated originally by Sodoraa, Perugino, 
Signorelli and others ; but even before it was completed, 
their work was destroyed by order of Julius II. to make 
room for Raphael's. Raphael began his task probably 
about the year 1508, and his idea was to represent the 
Church triumphant in a series of paintings, but he died 
before the work was finished, and much of it is by other 
hands. All the frescoes were much injured during the 
sack of Rome in 1527, when soldiers were quartered in 
the rooms and lit fires on the ground. 

I. The room (on the floor above 39 of plan) first in 
order, though not chronologically, is called the Stanza del? 
Incendio and was painted about 15 17. The ceiling here 
is Perugino's ; four beautiful circular paintings, the figures 
on a blue ground — (1) God amidst angels, (2) Christ 
in glory between Justice and Faith, (3) Christ with the 
1 2 apostles, (4) Christ between the old and the new Law, 
Moses and S. John. 

The wall paintings represent events in the pontificates 
of Leo III. and IV., and illustrate the greatness of the 
Church during the reigns of these popes. 

(1) Opposite the window : the burning of the Leonine 
City checked by the prayers of Leo IV. In the fore- 
ground people are escaping from the burning houses, be- 
hind is depicted old S. Peter's. 

(2) The coronation of Charlemagne by Leo III., partly 
painted by Pierin del Vaga. The heads of the pope and 
of the emperor are portraits of Leo X. and Francis I. 
This painting shows the interior of old S. Peter's. 

(3) Leo IV. defeating the Saracens at Ostia, painted 
by Giovanni da Udine from Raphael's design. 

(4) Over the window, Leo III. before Charlemagne 
justifying himself upon oath from the calumnies brought 
against him. 

Beneath the frescoes are painted marble decorations, 
and huge chiaroscuro figures in shades of brown by Poli- 
doro da Caravaggio. These depict various benefactors of 



412 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



II. Stanza 
of THE 
Segna- 

TURA OR 
OF THE 
"DlS- 
PUTA." 



(i) The- 
ology. 



the Church. On the right, Charlemagne, to the left Lo- 
thaire, King Ferdinand, opposite the window, Godfrey 
de Bouillon and ' Aistulphus ' king of Britain. 

The floor is of Roman mosaic, from an ancient villa ; 
the carving of doors and window is by Giovanni Barile. 

II. The next room (above 38) , designed for the signing 
of papal letters and hence called Stanza del/a Segnatura 
was the first painted, about 1508-15 n. The arabesque 
decorations of the ceiling are Sodoma's, to whom is also 
due its design : figures in four circular frames upon a gold 
mosaic background ; upon the ribs of the vaulting four 
square panels. The figures were added by Raphael, and 
correspond with the subjects of the great paintings on 
the walls. 

The four circular paintings of the ceiling represent 
Theology, Poetry, Philosophy and Justice, the four square 
panels, Adam and Eve in the garden, Apollo and Mar- 
syas, a figure looking at the globe, and the Judgment of 
Solomon. 

(1) Theology the great fresco on the entrance wall rep- 
resents the dispute on the Sacrament. In the upper 
portion, Christ sits enthroned between the Madonna and 
John the Baptist. Above Him the half figure of God the 
Almighty, with hovering angels. Four children hold open 
the gospels, at the feet of Christ is the Dove, and on the 
other side of Him, are rows of seated figures upon the 
clouds. On His right, a figure scarcely seen, then 
Stephen, David, John the Evangelist, Adam and Peter. 
On His left, Michael, Laurence, Moses, James, Abraham 
and Paul. 

On the earth beneath, stands an altar with a Host in a 
monstrance, and around it, a crowd of theologians and 
listeners. On the right of the painting, sit Ambrose and 
Augustine, with Pope Sixtus IV. in front, and behind 
Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventura. On this side also 
are Dante, Savonarola in a cowl, Nicholas of Lyra, and 
Duns Scotus. 

On the left Gregory and Jerome sit, further to the left 
are Fra Angelico and Raphael, Perugino and Bramante. 



PAPAL PALACES 413 

Beneath this fresco are four chiaroscuros, a Pagan sacra- 
flee, S. Augustine, Augustus, and the Sibyl. 

(2) Poetry. In the great fresco above the window, (2) Poetry. 
Apollo sits playing beneath the laurels surrounded by 

nine muses. On his right, Homer is reciting, a young 
man sits watching him, and around him stand Dante and 
Virgil. In the foreground on the same side Sappho sits 
holding a scroll and turning towards four figures, Ovid 
in yellow, Petrarch, Propertius, and Tibullus. On the 
other side of the painting, Pindar is addressing Horace 
and Catullus ; above are Boccaccio and Tebaldero, often 
erroneously called Sannazaro. The chiaroscuros beneath 
painted by Caravaggio from Raphael's designs, represent 
the finding of the sibylline books, and Augustus saving 
the y£neid from burning. 

(3) Philosophy or the School of Athens. This fresco (3) Phi- 
represents groups of philosophers and scholars with the loso P h y- 
temple of knowledge. Plato and Aristotle standing within 

the portico form the centre of the group. Diogenes lies 
on the steps at their feet. On the right of the fresco two 
figures in caps holding each a globe, Ptolemy and 
Zoroaster turn to speak to two other figures Raphael 
and Sodoma. Bramante, as Archimedes, is stooping to 
draw figures on a slate close by, next to him, one of the 
pupils, is the Duke of Mantua, Federigo II. On the 
left of the painting at the back, Socrates is discoursing to 
Alcibiades and others, and in the foreground Pythagoras 
writes in a book ; beside him, the white cloaked figure is 
the Duke of Urbino, Francesco della Rovere. 

The chiaroscuros beneath represent Philosophy, the 
death of Archimedes, and some astrologers. They are 
by Pierin del Vaga. 

(4) Law. Over the other window are allegorical figures (4) Law. 
of Prudence (with two faces) Fortitude and Temperance. 
Below to the left Justinian represents civil law, to the 

right sits Gregory IX. for canon law giving his decretals 
to a consistorial advocate. He is painted as Julius II., 
near him stand the three cardinals, Farnese, Medici 
and del Monte who became popes Paul III., Leo X. 



414 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



HI. 

Stanza 
of Helio- 
dorus. 



(i) Helio- 
dorus. 



(2) Bol- 
sena. 



(3) Leo 
and Attila. 



(4) Libera- 
tion of 
Peter. 



IV. Hall 

OF CON- 
STANTINE. 

.(1) Con- 
stantine's 
victory. 



and Julius III. Beneath are chiaroscuros of Moses and 
Solomon. 

The next room (above 37), the Stanza of Heliodorus 
was painted between 151 1 and 15 14, to illustrate the 
triumphs of the Church. 

The four subjects on the ceiling of this room represent : 
Moses and the burning bush, the Sacrifice of Abraham, 
the Lord's promise to Abraham, and Jacob's ladder. 

( 1 ) The great fresco on the left represents Heliodorus 
turned out of Jerusalem, to typify the Church being freed 
from her enemies. 

The high priest Onias appears in the fresco praying. 
Julius II. is borne away upon his throne, while Heliodorus 
laden with treasure, is being struck down by the miracu- 
lous horse and rider.* Beside these are the two young 
men who appeared to expel Heliodorus, and to the left 
are groups of spectators. 

(2) Over the window is the Miracle of Bolsena. A 
priest disbelieving in transubstantiation, at the moment of 
the elevation, sees the Host bleed.f Behind him are a 
crowd of people and acolytes. Julius II. and Cardinal 
Riario stand beside the altar. 

(3) On the other large wall Leo J. warns Attila against 
entering Rome. Attila and his army fly in terror from 
Leo and the apparition of the Apostles. This fresco is 
supposed to allude to the French defeat at Novara in 15 13. 

(4) Over the remaining window, the Liberation of Peter 
from prison in Jerusalem is painted in three sections. 

The chiaroscuros are small pictures of events in the 
reigns of Julius II. and Leo X. 

These three small rooms lead into the large Hall of 
Constantine (above 36). It was painted after Raphael's 
death by his pupils and others. 

On the largest wall is an immense painting of (1) Con- 
stantine 's victory over Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge, 
designed by Raphael and painted by Giulio Romano. 

* Maccabees II., Chap. iii. 25, 26, 27. 

t The beautiful cathedral of Orvieto was built to commemorate 
this miracle. 



PAPAL PALACES 



415 



(3) His 
Baptism. 



(4) Gift 
of Rome. 



Maxentius' army is flying in disorder, followed by Con- 
stantine. Maxentius himself is driven into the river. 
Pope Sylvester with Faith and Religion, and Urban I. 
with Justice and Charity, appear at the sides of this 
painting. 

(2) On the end wall Constantine explains his Vision (2) H 
0/ the Cross to his soldiers. This is also Giulio Romano's. Vlslor 
On either side of the painting, are Peter with the Church 
and Eternity, and Clement with Moderation and Mercy. 

(3) The Baptism of Constantine by Sylvester is upon 
the opposite wall. Damasus with Prudence and Peace, 
and Leo I. with Innocence and Vanity, are at the sides. 

(4) Between the windows, the Gift of Rome to the 
Pope by Constantine. This painting, which is by Fran- 
cesco Penni, gives another view of old S. Peter's. 

The ceiling of this hall, The Triumph of Faith over 
paganism, was painted by Lauretti. The chiaroscuros 
below, scenes in Constantine's life, are by Caravaggio. The 
old mosaic pavement was found in a church by the Lateran. 
Crossing the Hall of Constantine, a ddbr leads into the 
Sala of the Chiaroscuro (above 35), the old Hall of the Saia degii 
Palafrenieri or pope's grooms. This hall was entirely Chl . aros - 
decorated in chiaroscuro style by Raphael but the paint- 
ings have been retouched and spoiled by Maratta and 
Zucchero. A glass door at the end to the left leads into 
the Loggie, on the right, is the chapel of S. Lorenzo.* 

This beautiful little chapel was built and decorated by 
Fra Angelico as the private oratory of Nicholas V. in 
1447. ^ was walled up in the course of subsequent 
alterations in the palace, and was quite forgotten until 
brought to light again by Pius VII. The frescoes which 
cover its walls are in two series, the upper ones illustrate 
the life of S. Stephen. They are in the following order, 
beginning near the altar: (1) Stephen ordained to the 
diaconate by Peter, (2) giving alms, (3) his teaching 
in Jerusalem, (over the door) (4) being led to his 
martyrdom, (5) the stoning of Stephen. 



Chapel of 
S. Lorenzo. 



Open on Tuesdays and Fridays. 



4i 6 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Lower series : (i) Sixtus II. ordaining Laurence ; Sixtus 
is painted as Nicholas V. (2) Laurence receives the 
treasure of the Church from Sixtus (3) he distributes the 
treasure (4) he appears to be judged before Decius (5) his 
martyrdom, through a little window in the tower he is 
seen converting Hyppolitus. 

On the arch over the altar are Athanasius with Leo L, 
above on the left, Chrysostom, above him Gregory. 

On the arch at the further end Thomas Aquinas and 
Augustine, Bonaventura and above him, Ambrose. The 
four Evangelists with their emblems appear on the ceiling. 
The altarpiece is by Vasari. 



Loggie of 
Raphael. 



Centre 
Tier. 



LOGGIE OF RAPHAEL.* 

The Loggie entered from the Sala degli chiaroscuri are 
those of the middle tier. These Loggie were designed 
by Bramante and finished under Raphael's directions. 
They form open porticoes in three stories surrounding 
the court of Damasus on three of its sides. The lower 
tiers are built with pilasters, the uppermost with columns. 
The whole was enclosed with glass by Pius IX. as a pro- 
tection to the paintings. 

The lowest tier as we have seen, was decorated by Gio- 
vanni da Udine and Roncalli. Of the middle tier 
(above 20) only that branch which faces the city was 
painted by Raphael. This portion is divided into thir- 
teen arcades by decorated pilasters, the ceiling vault of 
each arcade is painted with four subjects from the Old 
Testament, decorated framing dividing the subjects from 
one another. The whole is rich with floral and stucco 
ornamentation of delicate design. The subjects of the 
thirteenth arcade are from the New Testament. 

The series begins at the end furthest from the visitors' 
entrance. 

I. The creation of the world in four subjects. ( 1) The 
separation of light and darkness, (2) the creation of earth 



*Open Tuesdays and Fridays. 



PAPAL PALACES 417 

and water, (3) of the sun and the moon, (4) of animal 
life. 

II. The History of Adam and Eve. (1) The birth of 
Eve, (2) the fall, (3) the expulsion from Eden, (4) their 
toil. 

III. The History of Noah. (1) The building of the ark, 
(2) the deluge, (3) leaving the ark, (4) Noah's first sacrifice. 

IV. History of Abraham. (1) The burning of Sodom, 

(2) the meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek, (3) the 
Lord promises Abraham his seed shall be multiplied, 
(4) the three angels appearing to Abraham. 

V. History of Isaac. (1) The Lord enjoins Isaac to 
sojourn in Gerar, (2) Isaac, Rebecca and Abimelech, 

(3) Isaac blesses Jacob, (4) Esau asking for Isaac's 
blessing. 

VI. History of Jacob. (1) His vision, (2) Jacob at 
the well, (3) Laban receives. Jacob, (4) Jacob departs 
from Laban. 

VII. History of Joseph. (1) He tells his dream, 
(2) Joseph drawn out of the well, (3) he interprets 
Pharoah's dream, (4) Joseph and the wife of Potiphar. 

VIII. The History of Moses (two arcades). (1) The 
finding of Moses, (2) the Lord appearing in the burning 
bush, (3) Moses strikes the rock, (4) the passage of the 
Red Sea. 

IX. (5) The adoration of the golden calf, (6) Moses 
prays that the wrath of the Lord may be turned away, 
(7) Moses receives the Tables of the Law, (8) he pre- 
sents the Tables of the Law. 

X. History of Joshua. (1) The ark of the Covenant 
borne by the Levites, (2) the fall of Jericho, (3) the sun 
stands still at the word of Joshua, (4) the division of the 
Promised Land. 

XL History of David. (1) David and Goliath, 
(2) David triumphs over the Assyrians, (3) David sees 
Bathsheba, (4) Saul anointed by Samuel. 

XII. History of Solomon. (1) Solomon anointed 
king, (2) Solomon's judgment, (3) he receives the queen 
of Sheba, (4) the building of the temple of Solomon. 



418 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

XIII. (i) The Magi, (2) the adoration of the Shep- 
herds, (3) the baptism of Christ, (4) the Last Supper. 

Of these compartments II., III., VII., VIII. and XIII. 
were painted by Giulio Romano from RaphaeFs designs ; 
IV. and V. by Penni. The other two branches of this 
Loggia were decorated, the one (above 21) in the pontifi- 
cate of Gregory XIII. by Sicciolante and Sabbatini, and 
the other (above 22) next the pope's apartments by 
Mantovani and Consoni. The subjects of the first are a 
continuation of New Testament scenes ; the modern deco- 
rations of Mantovani, are chiefly paintings of the improve- 
ments and buildings due to Pius IX. The doors of 
carved wood are of the xvi^ century. 
Third, A staircase leads to the upper tier of Loggie, these 

upper tier. were decorated with landscapes and maps under Clement 
VII. and restored under Gregory XVI. From this Loggia 
a door leads through an anteroom into the Pinacoteca 
or Picture Gallery. 

PINACOTECA. 

Pinaco- This collection of pictures which is a very small one, 

pft °e contained in four rooms, was begun by Pius VII. with the 
gallery. pictures taken from various churches by the French and 
restored to Rome in 18 15. It numbers about 50 pic- 
tures and is smaller than many private collections in 
Rome. The subject and name of the artist is affixed to 
each picture. 
Room I. Room I. contains about 1 7 pictures,* among them the 

" Life of S. Hyacinth " by Benozzo Gozzoli, Fra Angelico's 
"Nicholas of Bari," Da Vinci's "Sketch of S. Jerome," 
and a triptych by Raphael of the " Annunciation," " Pres- 
entation " and " the Magi." 
II In Room II. are three great pictures. The "Com- 

munion of S. Jerome " considered the masterpiece of 
Domenichino, painted for the church of Ara Coeli, but 
transferred to S. Girolomo della Carita until carried to 

* As each picture is ticketed with the subject and name of the 
artist, we do not give a catalogue here. 



PAPAL PALACES 419 

Paris. The " Madonna of Foligno " painted by Raphael 
in T512 and kept at Foligno although originally intended 
for Ara Coeli. The donor of the picture, Sigismondo 
Conti, secretary to Julius II., appears with S. Jerome. 
The "Transfiguration" by Raphael, his last work, was 
painted for the Narbonne Cathedral at the wish of Giulio 
de' Medici, the patron saints of whose family, Julian and 
Laurence, appear in the painting. This picture was car- 
ried in Raphael's funeral procession. Before its removal 
to Paris, it stood in S. Pietro in Montorio. 

Room III., the largest, contains some 17 pictures, in and 
among them works of Pinturicchio, Perugino, Titian. IV - 
This room leads into the fourth and last room, a smaller 
one, containing about twelve pictures. 



VATICAN MUSEUMS.* 

The Vatican collection of antiquities, now one of the Museo 
finest in existence, was begun by Julius II. (1503-1513) Pl °-C |e - 
who placed it in the Villa Belvedere. The collection in 
the Belvedere and the halls immediately around it, still 
forms the most important portion of the whole, and is 
called Pio-Clementino after the popes Pius VI. and 
Clement XIV., its most generous promoters. Pius VI. 
alone presented 2000 specimens to the collection and 
added several halls to increase the accommodation. 
Julius II., Leo X., Clement VII. and Paul III. were also 
contributors. 

* All the Museums used to be free, and it is only of recent years 
that a franc entrance has been charged. They are open every day 
from September I s .' to June i 8t except Sunday and feast days, from 
10 to 3. Admission one franc. On Saturdays the admission is free, 
10 to 1. 

The Etruscan Museum is open on Monday and Friday. The 
Egyptian, Tuesday and Thursday. The Borgia Apartment and the 
Galleria Lapidaria, Tuesday and Friday. The Galleria dei Cande- 
labri and Raphael's Tapestry are visible on Wednesdays only. The 
cabinet of masks and Balcony are visible on Monday, Wednesday 
and Thursday. From June i 8t to September i 8t the Museums are 
open from 9 to 1. Saturdays 9 to 12. 



Greek 
Cross. 
Egyptian 
Museum. 



420 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

The entrance to the Museums is in the Via delle Fon- 
damenta, behind S. Peter's. A wide flight of stairs leads 
Hai^of the directly from the gates to the Hall of the Greek Cross 
(100). From the Vestibule (102) to this Hall, a door 
on the right leads into the Egyptian Museum* (74, 76, 
84, 85, 86). The nucleus of this collection was bought 
by Pius VII. from Andrea Gaddi, and was increased by 
Gregory XVI. It occupies ten rooms.f The pavement 
of the Hall of the Greek Cross is of ancient mosaic, the 
portion with the head of Minerva came from Cicero's 
villa near Tusculum, that representing a basket of flowers 
was found in a villa near the Via Appia. Here are two 
colossal sarcophagi of red porphyry, that of Constantia 
daughter of Constantine, which stood in S. Costanza near 
S. Agnese Fuori (see Pt. I., p. 158) and that of the Em- 
press Helena from her mausoleum at Tor Pignattara ; 
both have been unfortunately restored. They were re- 
moved to the Vatican by Pius VI. 

Rotonda (99). This hall which is circular, as its name 
implies, opens out of the Hall of the Greek Cross. It 
was built by Pius VI. from Simonetti's designs. Its 
mosaic pavement, in which appears the head of Medusa 
and the centaurs, was found at Otricoli. Another portion 
of mosaic, with Neptune in a car, came from the Baths of 
Caracalla. The enormous porphyry basin in the centre of 
the hall is from the Baths of Diocletian. 

The Hall of the Muses follows (98). This hall is built 
with two anterooms and a dome supported upon 16 col- 
umns brought from Hadrian's villa. The mosaic pave- 
ment in its centre is made up of various fragments from 
various places and is also ancient. The head of Medusa 
is a fragment found at the arch of Gallienus, the panther 
comes from Ancona. The specimens in this hall are 
almost entirely from Tivoli. 

The hall of the animals (92), a long gallery in two 
portions opens at right angles from the Hall of the 

* Open on Tuesdays and Thursdays. 

fTo give a detailed catalogue of the contents of the Vatican 
Museums does not fall within the scope of this guide book. 



Hall of the 
Muses. 



Hall of the 
animals. 






PAPAL PALACES 421 

Muses. The pavement is from Palestrina. The collec- 
tion of sculptured animals in this hall is unique, and 
the finest in existence. 

Two halls follow, that of Statues (94) and that of Hall of 
Busts (95) a highly ornate hall in three divisions. The Statues - 
specimens here are nearly all of them named. This por- Bu«jJ s of 
tion of the collection was added by Clement XIV. and 
Pius VI., and it occupies part of the original villa of 
Innocent VIII. 

A small cabinet (97) leads out of the hall of statues. Cabinet of 
Its pavement is an ancient mosaic from the Villa Adriana, masks - 
a good deal restored, representing masks within an 
elaborate border.* 

Beyond is an external balcony (96) also containing External 
marble specimens. balcony. 

The central court (90) of the Belvedere villa, octagonal Court of 
in shape, was designed by Bramante. It is surrounded l ^ e Belve - 
by open porticoes, and at the four angles are small cabi- 
nets. The porticoes contain sarcophagi, bas-reliefs, etc. 
In the first cabinet (R) to the left on entering the court 
from the Hall of the animals, is the Belvedere Antinous Cabinets. 
or Mercury, found near S. Martino ai Monti. Proceeding 
to the second one, (P) Perseus and the two boxers, the 
work of Canova. In the next cabinet, (S) the Apollo 
Belvedere found at Porto d'Anzio in the xv. century and 
one of the first possessions of the Vatican museum. The 
remaining cabinet (T) contains the Laocoon group found 
on the Esquiline and bought by Julius II. 

On the further side of the court from the entrance, Vestibules 
three vestibules open into each other. That of the °j ,he 
Meleager (89) containing the statue of Meleager with the ei c. eager ' 
dog and boar's head ; the round vestibule of the Vase, 
(88) and the square vestibule of the Torso (87) which 
is decorated by Daniel da Volterra with scenes from the 
Old and New Testaments. The "Torso Belvedere" in 
this room was found on the site of Pompey's theatre. 

This completes the Museo Pio-Clementino. A stair- 

* This Cabinet and the Balcony are open only on Mondays, 
Wednesdays and Thursdays. 



422 CHRISTJAX AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Museo 
Chiara- 
monti. 

Braccio 
N T uovo. 



Gallery of 
Christian 
Inscrip- 
tions. 



case (82) leads down from this part of the museum 
through the vestibule of the Torso into the Museo Chiara- 
monti, so called from the family name of Pius VII. to 
whom this extension of the collection is due. 

The gallery of the Museo Chiaramonti (77) is 930 feet 
long. It is divided into 30 divisions in which are arranged 
the sculptures, about 700 specimens. All are numbered. 

The Braccio Nuovo (72) another wing erected by 
Pius VII., opens into the Museo Chiaramonti at right 
angles. It dates from 181 7. The arched roof of this 
hall is supported on Corinthian pillars, and the light 
enters from above. It is 260 feet in length and contains 
about 1 20 specimens. Some ancient mosaics are let into 
the pavement. The statues here also have their names 
upon tablets. A gate at the further end of the Museo 
Chiaramonti divides it from the Gallery of Christian 
Inscriptions (42), Galleria Lapidaria.* The walls of 
this hall, which is 690 feet long, are covered with ancient 
inscriptions, of which there are 3000. Fragments of 
sarcophagi, busts, cippi, are arranged along the walls. 

Nicholas V. had intended to make a collection of 
Christian inscriptions, and already Eugenius IV. and 
Calixtus III. had forbidden their destruction or aliena- 
tion. Eventually Benedict XIV. ordered Mons. Bianchini 
to place all those which had been preserved in the Vatican. 
The actual gallery of inscriptions of to-day was arranged 
by Marini under Pius VI. Since this collection was formed 
at the Vatican, De Rossi has arranged and classified a 
more complete one in the Christian Museum at the Lateran 
(see Pt. I., Chap. V). Christian inscriptions are also 
to be found in the Christian Museum at the Vatican 
(see page 433), in the Museum of the Collegio Romano 
(Kircherian) and at the Roman Seminary of S. Appolinare 
(Pt. I., page 184). Many epigraphs also remain where 
they were first placed after removal from the cata- 
combs, in the porticoes and cloisters of basilicas and 
monasteries ; at S. Paolo Fuori, S. Lorenzo Fuori, S. Marco, 



Open Tuesday and Friday. 



PAPAL PALACES 423 

S. Maria in Trastevere, the remains of " thousands " which 
Marangoni tells us were removed to the latter. Of the 
"seven cart loads" of inscriptions taken to S. Giovanni 
dei Fiorentini, and two to another S. Giovanni, not one 
remains. 

In the gallery of Inscriptions in the Vatican, the wall 
on the left is covered with Pagan inscriptions arranged 
according to the trades and rank of the persons. On the 
right, are the Christian inscriptions (excepting the last 6 
divisions). These are unfortunately not classified. By 
far the greater number are from the catacombs. For 
an account of Christian inscriptions see Part I. of this 
Handbook, Chap. IX. 

To reach the second floor of the Belvedere, one must 
return once more to the original entrance and the Hall 
of the Greek Cross. Here a wide flight of stairs leads to 
a second vestibule and the entrance to the Etruscan 
Museum * immediately above the Egyptian Museum. 
The Etruscan Museum occupies twelve rooms : it was Etruscan 
founded by Gregory XVI. and is commonly known as the Museum ' 
Museo Gregoriano. Haifa flight of steps lower is another 
vestibule from which opens a circular Hall, the Sala Saladella 
della Biga, so called from a marble chariot which stands Blga " 
in its centre. The body of this chariot was long used as 
a bishop's throne in S. Marco, and so much of it has been 
added and restored, that little of the ancient chariot 
remains. Statues named and numbered are placed round 
the walls. 

From this same vestibule, large doors open into the Gallerie 
gallerie delle Candelabra f a fine series of six halls divided j e j le h Can " 
from one another by arched doorways upon marble col- 
umns. The ceiling of the fourth and largest hall has been 
decorated by Seitz. This museum which is situated above 
the galleries of the Library, was first adapted as such by 
Pius VI. It contains chiefly vases and urns, some can- 
delabra, sarcophagi, and smaller statues and fragments. 

The furthest hall opens into the galleria degli Arrazzi, + 

* Open Mondays and Fridays. 

t Open on Wednesdays only. J Ibid. 



424 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Galleria 
degli 

Arrazzi. 



Raphael's 
Tapestries. 



Tapestries 
of his 
Pupils. 



Gallery of 
Maps. 



which is hung with tapestries worked in Flanders under 
the superintendence of a pupil of Raphael's, from cartoons 
drawn by Raphael himself in 15 15, and designed to cover 
the lower portion of the Sistine chapel walls. These tap- 
estries have suffered various vicissitudes, having been car- 
ried off during the sack of Rome in 1527, again in 1798, 
and having been further injured during the fighting in 
1849. They have lately been entirely re- arranged ; all 
the original tapestries from Raphael's designs have been 
separated from a second and later series designed by his 
pupils for the most part, and intended for the decoration 
of S. Peter's during the canonisation of Francesco di 
Paola in 1579. Raphael's tapestries are now in the first 
room ; most of them have been covered with glass by the 
present Pope. They are in the following order. 

Immediately to the right: (1) Paul in Prison, with 
an allegorical representation of an earthquake, (2) The 
Miraculous draught of fishes, (3) Martyrdom of Stephen. 
(4) Conversion of Paul, (5) Coronation of the Virgin, 
(6) Death of Ananias. 

On the left returning: (7) Paul at Athens, (8) Paul 
and Barnabas, (9) The paralytic healed, (10) Peter re- 
ceiving the keys. 

Over the arch into the next hall is a fragment lately 
placed here, of the Emperor Trajan sitting in judgment ( ?) 
The lower part of the tapestry is missing. 

The next hall contains the tapestries designed by 
Raphael's pupils. 

On the right : (1) (2) (3) Massacre of the Innocents, 
in three portions, (4) Christ with the apostles, (5) Christ 
falling under the Cross, (6) Assumption of Mary. 

On the left returning (7) Pentecost, (8) The Resur- 
rection, (9) The visit of the Magi, (10) The Transfigura- 
tion, (n) Adoration of the Shepherds, (12) Presenta- 
tion in the Temple, (13) The Supper at Emmaus, (14) 
Christ appearing to the Magdalene. 

Beyond the Hall of the Tapestries is another gallery, 
500 feet in length, decorated with maps of Italy and her 
possessions in the time of Gregory XIII. They were 



PAPAL PALACES 425 

painted in 15 72-1580. This gallery forms part of the 
papal residence and can only be visited by special per- 
mission of the Maggiordomo. 



THE VATICAN LIBRARY. 

There is no doubt that the collection and preservation 
of Church records and archives dates from a very early 
period. Rome of all the Churches possessed the most 
ancient fasti or tables, her episcopal catalogues dating 
from the 11. century.* Even during the ages of persecu- 
tion she preserved archives and the tradition of archives, 
for Polycarp's disciple Irenaeus, and Hegesippus had 
come to Rome collecting information " in the principal 
Church, where is preserved, for all the faithful, the tradi- 
tion of the Apostles," and had left treatises about what 
they found. During the Diocletian persecutions a.d. 284, 
the Roman archives perished, Eusebius records, and we 
next hear of a Roman archivium or library founded by 
Pope Damasus (366-384) in the basilica of S. Lorenzo 
in Damaso. Later Pope Hilary (461-467) added to 
Damasus' collection " two libraries," and placed the 
whole in the Baptistery of the Lateran. 

We have however no continuous records of a pontifical 
library until the time of Boniface VIII. and the first cata- 
logue of books made by command of this pontiff in 1295 
is a mere inventory in which they are enumerated among 
the articles in the treasury. Books very probably at first 
formed part of the sacristy belongings, and were under 
the care of the Sacristan, and were transferred later to the 
Treasury under the thesaurius or Chamberlain, and were 
carried about with other articles of the treasury when the 
papal court moved from place to place. 

Boniface's collection of books seems to have been 

* The churches of Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem did not 
possess the lists of their bishops until the IV. century, when they 
were published by Eusebius in his Chronicle. The Imperial church 
of Constantinople can boast none more ancient than the decline of 
the vii. century. 



426 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Under 

Boniface 

VIII. 

i 294-1303. 



Under 
John 
XXII. 
1316-1334. 



Under 
Martin V. 
1417-1431. 



Under 
Eugenius 
IV. 1431- 
1447- 



scattered in the xiv. century and did not find its way to 
Avignon.* It was pillaged at Anagni when the pope was 
attacked there, some of it was carried by Benedict XI. in 
1304 to Perugia, and left there when the court moved to 
Avignon ; some went to Lyons for the coronation of 
Clement V. Another portion, apparently on its way to 
Avignon, was entirely destroyed in a Ghibelline rising at 
Lucca in 13 14, and the rest was transferred for safety to 
the church of S. Francis at Assisi. Of this latter portion 
three catalogues were made, one in 1327, and two in 
1339. All efforts to regain possession of these books for 
the papal library failed, a small number were sent to 
Avignon, some fell into the hands of the Ghibellines in 
1 3 19, some were pledged to Arezzo, but the bulk, about 
2000 volumes, remained at Assisi. 

Of the books left at Perugia a catalogue was made in 
131 1, which contains 645 entries, of which 33 are Greek 
MSS. Later they seem to have entirely disappeared. 

John XXII. began the formation of a library afresh at 
Avignon, and in 1369 and 1375, when two inventories 
were made, it numbered 1667 volumes of MSS., chiefly 
of law and theology. Other catalogues were made by 
Gregory XL, the antipope Benedict XIII. (1394), and by 
Gregory XII, but it is doubtful how many of John XXII. 's 
books returned from Avignon with the papal court. We 
find Gregory XL consenting to the sale of books for the 
papal treasury, and many seem to have found their way 
into the possession of Cardinal de Foix, and to have 
been dispersed by him. 

After the return from Avignon, the " Registers of bulls " 
were kept at S. Maria sopra Minerva, and were transferred 
by order of Martin V. to the papal palace of SS. Apostoli 
where a place had been prepared for them, and where 
this pope himself lived. 

His successor Eugenius IV. was a bibliophile, and 
during his pontificate books began again to accumulate. 
He seems to have recovered part of the treasures of 



It was removed from the Vatican it is said, in 3239 cases. 



PAPAL PALACES 



427 



V. 1447- 
M55- 



Avignon, since books are mentioned in a bull of 1441 
among other objects originally carried to Avignon from 
the " Mother City." A catalogue was made by order of 
Eugenius IV. in 1445, and at this time the collection 
included books on scholastic theology, philosophy, canon 
law, and some classics. 

His successor Nicholas V. must however be considered Under 
the real founder of the Vatican library. His aim was to ^ 1( : ho ! as 
collect books " for the common convenience of all learned 
men." This pope was a true lover of books, his delight 
was to walk about among them, arranging and rearranging 
them, admiring the bindings, and dwelling upon the pleas- 
ure of future scholars. His own private collection and 
the papal register series formed the nucleus of his library, 
and he sent all over Europe in quest of books. Many of 
the treasures of Constantinople, then dispersed, came into 
his hands. He is said to have spent 40,000 scudi upon 
books, and even to have run into debt to buy them. To 
this pope are due translations from many Greek authors, 
and although he died before its completion, a translation 
of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew texts had been 
begun by his command. 

Calixtus III. has been accused of wantonly dispersing Under 
many of the valuable MSS. collected by his predecessor. C a,lx,us _ 
He had a catalogue of the library made, and notes upon I45 s. 
its margin show that many books had been alienated and 
lent on perpetual loan to cardinals and others. 
' Under Sixtus IV. we first hear of a separate building Under 
being erected for the reception of the Vatican collection. Sixtm IV. 
Under this pope a great hall was opened for the purpose I47I ~ 14 4# 
with much pomp. It was decorated by the two Ghir- 
landaji and by Melozzo da Forli. Its doors were inlaid 
by Milanese artists, the presses were carved by Dolci, and 
its painted glass windows came from Venice. Platina 
who wrote verses to celebrate the occasion was created 
Librarian, and a great painting in the hall represented 
the whole function. 

Sixtus IV. endowed the Vatican Library with separate 
revenues, and during his reign and those of his sue- 



1585-1590. 



428 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

cessors, it rapidly grew. He also separated the MSS. and 
books from the state documents and archives which he sent 
for safety to the Castel S. Angelo, and he granted every 
facility to borrowers of all ranks and estates, men and 
women, cardinals and members of religious orders ; facili- 
ties curtailed later, owing to the systematic pillage that 
went on. Under Julius II. visitors could read upon the 
library walls the rules for students : that they were not to 
converse contentiously, nor to clamber over the seats and 
soil them with their feet, and that the books were to be 
put back into their places after use. 
Under The Vatican Library grew so rapidly from this time, 

?lol us .X - „ that Sixtus IV. 's hall became too small, and Sixtus V. 
added the present building to the Vatican Palace. The 
great hall of the library, designed by Fontana, bears his 
name and is known as the Sala Sistina. Whole libraries, 
either by gift or purchase, passed into the possession of 
the Vatican, most of which are preserved and catalogued 
separately. What are now known as the " Greek " and 
" Codices " Libraries were acquired by Sixtus IV. At the 
beginning of the xvn. century, a Benedictine collection 
of Palimpsests from Bobbio was added to the Vatican 
collection, followed in 162 1 by the Elector Palatine's 
library seized at Heidelberg, and presented by Duke 
Maximilian of Bavaria to Gregory XV. It is composed 
of 2000 to 3000 MSS. 

In 1658 and in the next century, the Vatican Library 
was enriched by three collections. The Urbino, belong- 
ing to Duke Federigo da Montefeltro, about 1 700 Greek 
and Latin MSS.; the Alexandrian, 2291 MSS. collected 
by Queen Christina of Sweden, and the Ottobuoni, con- 
sisting of 3862 MSS. bought by Alexander VIII. The 
private collection of Pius II., mostly Greek MSS., was 
acquired by Clement XL and in the last century, the 
Marchese Capponi presented about 300 MSS. to the 
library, and 162 were transferred thither from the mon- 
astery at Grotta Ferratta. The whole collection of MSS. 
the finest in the world numbers 30,000 of which 19,000 
are Latin, 2000 Oriental, and about 4000 Greek. 






PAPAL PALACES 429 

The printed books number 250,000 volumes, and in- 
clude the collections of Cardinal Angelo Mai, presented 
in 1855, and of Cardinal Zelada acquired by Pius VII. 

In 1888 Leo XIII. threw open the Vatican Library 
to students of all nations.* 

The Vatican collection of MSS. occupies the Sala yatican 
Sistina built by Sixtus V. and the long gallery which it {^[^ 
joins at right angles opening into the Belvedere at one 
end and extending as far as the Borgia apartment at the 
other. The entrance to the library for readers is through 
the court of Damasus. A door (43) from the gallery 
of inscriptions leads into two anterooms (44 and 45), the 
walls of the first finely panelled by Fra Giovanni da 
Verona. The vaulted ceiling is painted by Paul Brill 
and Faenza, and round the walls are hung portraits of all 
the Cardinal librarians. In this room are desks for the 
convenience of readers. The second room contains 
Domenichino's portraits of Cardinals Giustiniani and Mez- 
zofanti. Beyond are the librarian's room and reading 
room (46 and 47) and the stairs leading to the new 
library of Printed Books. 

The great Hall (48) or Sala Sistina is entered from Great Hall 
the first anteroom. It is 220 ft. long, and down its en- °r Sala 
tire length, great pilasters support the vaulted ceiling, 
and divide the hall into two portions. The walls and 
ceiling are gorgeously decorated in fresco by Cesare Neb- 
bia, and Nogari ; on the walls to the right, are scenes 
representing the councils of the Church, on the left, the 
presentations of the various collections to the Vatican. 
Presses containing the MSS. line the walls and surround 
the pilasters, but as they are all closed, no books are 
visible as one walks through the halls. Between the 
pilasters are tables and various articles of value and 
interest, presented to different popes by the sovereigns 
of Europe. 

Among these, two vases given by Frederick William IV. 
of Prussia to Pius IX. 

* Closed to readers on Thursdays. Open free daily to visitors, 
10 to 3. Entrance in Via delle Fondamenta. 



43Q CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

A malachite urn presented by the Emperor of Russia. 

Two Sevres candelabra given by Napoleon I. to Pius 
VII., and another given by Charles X. to Leo XII. 

A Sevres vase used as a baptismal font for the Prince 
Imperial. 

Two vases given by President Carnot, and two pre- 
sented by Marshal Macmahon to Pius IX. An ala- 
baster urn made from a block given by the Pasha of 
Egypt. 

A huge block of malachite presented by Prince 
Demidoff. 

Some of the most interesting and valuable of the Vati- 

Glass can MSS. are kept in 5 glass cases in this hall for the 

cases. benefit of visitors. These are as follows : 

Case I. Case I. on the left from reading room.* Dante, 

Divina Commedia, an autograph copy with miniatures 

of Giulio Clovio, an "office " of the B.V.M., and a History 

of the Dukes of Urbino, all with miniatures by Clovius. 

Virgils of the rv. vi. and vn. centuries known as the 
' Vaticano,' ' Romano ' and ' Palatine' 
Case 11. Case II. An autograph of Thomas Aquinas. 

A Sacramentary of the v. or vi. century, and one of 
Boniface IX. (1389). 

A Palimpsest from the Mai collection. 

A Life of the Fathers, with the Rule of S. Benedict 
of the xii. century with miniatures. 

History of Dion Cassius. 
Case III. Case III. A Terence, which belonged to Cardinal 

Bembo, of the vi. century, another copy illustrated, of 
the vin. century, but copied from a much older version, 
some say of the iv. century. 

Henry VIII. 's Treaty on the Sacraments, in which he 
is styled " Regni nostri Protector," and a letter of his 
asking the Cardinal of S. Damaso to present his book to 
the pope. It was for this treatise that he received from 
the pope the title Fidei Defensor, still possessed by our 
sovereigns and impressed on all our coinage. 

* Visitors who enter the hall from the other end must take these 
in the inverse order. 



PAPAL PALACES 431 

Palimpsest c-f a portion of Cicero's Republic of vi. cen- 
tury under Augustine's Commentaries on the Psalms. 

Autographs of Tasso and Petrarch. 

Autograph and some miniatures of Michael Angelo. 

Some Letters of Anne Boleyn. 

Case IV. On the opposite side. Greek MS. of the Case IV. 
Old and Nev Testament, known as Codex B. the codex 
Vaticanus Alexandrinus. This is of the iv. century, the 
oldest known. 

A Breviary with miniatures which belonged to Mat- 
thew Corvinus (a.d. 1492). 

A Dante in Boccaccio's handwriting, edited by Petrarch. 

A book on Natural History with illustrations, the silk- 
worm drawn by Raphael. 

A Mexican calendar, recently published in facsimile. 

A sketch by Raphael. 

A ' Menologia ' of a Byzantine Emperor. 

Case V. Four or five folios of a very ancient Bible Case v. 
known as the Codex purpureas. Silver writing upon 
purple parchment, the name of Jesus written in gold. 

Life in verse of Countess Matilda. 

A letter from the Emperor of Burmah to Pius IX. 
enclosed in an elephant tooth. 

In the closed cases in this hall, are a Bible with minia- 
tures by Pinturicchio from the Urbino Collection, and a 
copy of the " Acts of the Apostles " with beautiful minia- 
tures of the apostles, presented to Innocent VIIL* 

At the end furthest from the reading room, the Sala Sis- 
tina opens into the long Gallery mentioned above. In the 
anteroom is the private door into the archives (63). The 
gallery which measures 318 metres from end to end, is Galleries 
lined throughout with closed cases containing MSS., and ° f * he 
is divided into a series of halls by pilasters and pillars. ' rary ' 
The visitor's entrance is in the Via delle Fondamenta (68) 

* In December 1898 the original MS. of Galileo's treatise on 
the tides, was found among some State documents in the Vatican 
library. The MS. is all in Galileo's handwriting: it is dedicated to 
Cardinal Orsino, and ends with the words: "Written in Rome in 
the Medici Gardens, on the 8th of January 1616." 



432 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

and it is therefore simplest to take the halls in that 
order. 

Hall I. Hall I. (67) is called the Museo Profano. It contains 

a fine head of Augustus in bronze, and one of Nero. The 
following halls are decorated with modern paintings repre- 
senting scenes in the lives of the popes. 

II. and Halls II. and III. (66) contain a miscellaneous collec- 

IIL tion of MSS. and some printed books. Here are two 

porphyry pillars from the Baths of Constantine. 

IV. Hall IV. (65) contains part of the Capponi collection 

of MSS., presented in 1 746, and the Borghigiana collec- 
tion added three years ago to the Library. 

v. Hall V. (62). This hall contains the rest of the 

Capponi collection. 

VI. Hall VI. (61). The paintings in this hall represent 
events in the reign of Pius VI. This which is a large 
hall contains the Ottobuoni MSS. 

VII. Hall VII. (60) contains the Alessandrinan Library, 
belonging to Queen Christina of Sweden, and presented 
to Rome in 1690. The paintings, all of which refer to 
Paul V., are by d'Arpino. 

viii. Hall VIII. (59). This hall and the Sala Sistina con- 

tain the so-called Vatican MSS. Over the two doors are 
paintings of the canonisation of Carlo Borromeo and of 
Francesca Romana. Just beyond this hall is the ante- 

IX. room to the Sala Sistina, — and further on the IX. Hall 

(50) which is known as the Sala Bonaventura. Over 
one entrance is a painting of the interior of old S. Peter's, 
over the other, of the ancient church of the XII. Apostoli. 
This and the next hall contain the Urbino MSS. in the 
presses on the right, the Palatine on the left. Here also 
are some specimens in glass cases of xvi. century bind- 
ings from the Palatine collection. 

x. X. (51). Hall of the Obelisk. The frescoes in this 

hall represent at one end the raising of the Vatican 
Obelisk, painted by Fontana, at the other, Michael 
Angelo's design for S. Peter's with the square portico. 

XL XL (52). Hall of Aristides, so called from a paint- 

ing of the orator, beside it one of Lysias. This Hall con- 
tains the Oriental MSS. 






PAPAL PALACES 433 

XII. (53). This Hall is known as the Christian Mu- XII. 
seum. Cases in the centre contain objects found in the 
catacombs, instruments used in the torture of the early 
Christians j the copper ball pendant from a chain was 
found by the side of a martyr. The greater number 
come from the catacomb of S. Agnese. Here also is a 
diptych of the v. century, lamps, medallions, gems, orna- 
ments, and carved ivories. In the last case to the left, is a 
large collection of the ** Vetri dipinti" gilt and painted 
glass from the catacombs.* There are other collections 

of this glass in the Uffizi at Florence, and a small one 
at the Propaganda College ; the Sicilian collection was 
bought by England. 

In this room also are some catacomb inscriptions, 
Byzantine paintings, pictures by Fra Angelico and Vasari, 
some Delia Robbia bas reliefs, and coins by Benvenuto 
Cellini. 

XIII. (54). A small hall called dei Papiri. The XIII. 
walls and ceiling are decorated by Mengs, and on the 
walls are hung contracts, charters, etc., brought from 
Ravenna and dating from the v. to the ix. century. 

XIV. (55). This room contains Christian paintings, XIV. 
some of them Byzantine of the v., viii., xn., xm. and xiv. 
centuries. They are framed and enclosed in glass cases. 
Here also is a Greek- Russian calendar of the ix. century, 
painted on cypress wood, and two tables, one of which is 
made of fragments of marble from the catacomb of Callis- 

tus, the other, with the Good Shepherd, a sheep on his 
shoulders, and the pail, in mosaic, is from the crypt of 
Cornelius in the same catacomb. A door to the right now 
leads into two small rooms. The first (55a) called of the 
" Nozze Aldobrandini " has a decorated ceiling represent- 
ing the story of Samson, by Guido Reni. The floor is 
ancient mosaic from a villa. Upon the walls are six 
ancient frescoes removed from the walls of a house on 
the Esquiline depicting the travels of Ulysses. Another 
fresco discovered in 1606 near the arch of Gallienus was 

* See Part I., Chap. IX., 405-406. 

2 W 



434 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

kept for a long time at the Villa Aklobrandini until 
bought from that family by Pius VII. It is supposed to 
represent the marriage of Thetis and Peleus and is known 
as the Nozze Aldobrandini. The other paintings of the 
unloading of a vessel at Ostia, boys dragging a boat, 
figures of mythological women, are also ancient. In the 
same room are kept a gold vase presented to Pius IX. by 
the king of Siam, and a model of the Strasburg clock. 

The next small room (57) contains a collection of tile 
stamps, and some Delia Robbia plates. 
XV. XV. (56) . The last room of the gallery was the oratory 

of S. Pius V. Here are frescoes by Vasari representing 
Peter Martyr, and a full length portrait of Pius IX. on 
glass, a prie-dieu presented to the pope by the ladies of 
Touraine, and in cases missals and portfolios presented 
to Pius IX. 

Leading out of this room to the left is a small cabinet 
(56a) in the Torretta which used to open into the 
Appartamento Borgia. This room is entirely filled with 
cases containing presentations to Pius IX., books of sig- 
natures, addresses and visiting cards. 



Library of 

printed 

books. 



Biblioteca 
Leonina. 



LIBRARY OF PRINTED BOOKS. 

The printed books of the Vatican collection were kept 
with the MSS. when the library was built by Sixtus V. 
They were afterwards separated from the MSS., and have 
been lodged in almost every hall of the Vatican in turn. 
Until recently, they were kept in the Appartamento 
Borgia, where they were so crowded that they were 
almost entirely unavailable for reference. A new and 
commodius library has now been constructed by Leo 
XIII., who adapted for the purpose the whole of the 
ground floor beneath the Sala Sistina, which was used as 
the pontifical armoury. The level of the small courtyard 
of the Stamperia, situated between the Sala Sistina and the 
Braccio Nuovo, has been lowered to admit more air and 
light into the new halls, and communication has been 
established with the library on the one hand by means 



PAPAL PALACES 435 

of a short flight of steps, and with the Archivium on the 
other. The 250,000 volumes were moved from the Bor- 
gian Apartment into the new library, and it was declared 
open in November 1892. 

The Leonina is divided down its centre into two long 
halls, which are again transversely divided by tall book- 
cases, making altogether eight compartments, 6 smaller 
ones in the centre, and a larger hall at each end. 

The divisions to the right, as one enters from the 
library above, contain (1) the printed books of the Pala- 
tine library, and the earliest of three ancient collections 
made by the Vatican Library and which are known as 
the i rt 2 nd and 3 rd raccolte. 

(2) division, a collection from Ara Cceli, and the 
second raccolta. 

(3) the library of Cardinal Zelada, and the 3 rd raccolta. 
The first transverse hall contains the books presented 

by Antonio Ruland, librarian of Wurtzburg, and all recent 
acquisitions ; the further hall, nearest the archivium, con- 
tains the collection of Cardinal Mai. 

The remaining three divisions on the left are devoted 
to a reference library, founded by Leo XIIL, to which 
many valuable presentations have been made by foreign 
governments and libraries. 

The books in the first hall and in part of the second, 
are classified according to subject. The remainder are 
arranged under the different countries from which they 
come. 

ARCHIVIUM. 

The entrance to the Vatican Archivium is in the Via Vatican 
delle Fondamenta, at the foot of the slope which leads to archives - 
the Belvedere. Before 1880 the papal archives were 
locked away with the most rigid secrecy, and it is only 
since this date that Leo XIIL has allowed students to 
consult the documents. A more convenient reading room 
was also added to the archive library by this pope, which 
is now daily thronged with students, the greater number 
foreigners. A portion of the old papal stables and 



436 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

coach houses was further taken over, and four additional 
rooms were built to receive the documents of the Da/aria* 
bulls and petitions, which were removed to the Vatican 
from the Lateran. From the second of these rooms a 
door leads into the new Leonina library, and thence into 
the reading rooms of the Vatican library. The upper 
floors of the archiviutn are still forbidden to outsiders, 
although MSS. are brought down from them for consul- 
tation. A large reading room, and a small room, where 
the indices are kept, and which serves as the librarian's 
room, constituted the whole of the ground floor of the 
archivium prior to the additions of Leo XIII. On an 
upper floor, a room is set apart for binding MSS., and 
here also are the original cases containing the Castel S. 
Angelo archives, which relate chiefly to the pontifical states. 

The archives are for the most part documents relating 
to the administration of the Holy See and its relation 
with foreign states. Among them are the Regesta of the 
Popes, in two series, the Vatican and the Avignon. 
These are papal annals drawn from the official chancery, 
the acts of which are almost intact from the time of 
Innocent III. (1198). Papal letters and diaries, bulls, 
briefs, letters of princes, of bishops, of private persons, 
documents relating to the nunciature, to licenses, to 
indulgences, to appointments of all sorts, are included 
among the archives. A large proportion is not cata- 
logued ; although the various European nations are now 
beginning to describe and catalogue separately the docu- 
ments relating to their own states. 

A chair of palaeography is attached to the archive 
department, and a lecture upon the subject is delivered 
in the rooms of the archivium once a week to students. 
The archiviutn is under a different cardinal, and under 
quite distinct management from the Vatican Library. 

Archivio Another collection of archives, relating especially to the 

£ el . . Vatican chapter, is kept separately in the residence of the 

♦See page 361. 






PAPAL PALACES 



437 



canons or canonico. This building stands to the left of 
S. Peter's, and is connected with its sacristy by a covered 
passage. The library is upon the second floor and is 
under the charge of a librarian appointed" by the 
canons. This collection consists of some 408 MSS. pre- 
sented to the Vatican chapter by Cardinal Orsini in 1434. 
It has been enriched by various bequests from dead 
canons. 



Close to the Archivium of the Vatican and reached 
through the same doorway, is the small court of the 
Stamperia, into which open the Vatican printing presses 
— which are still in use. 

Here also is the entrance to the Observatory, built by 
Leo XIII., and in which is carried on the astronomical 
work of the Collegio Romano, taken over since the 
death of Padre Secchi by the Italian Government. 

The old Vatican Armoury which has been located in 
many of the halls of the Vatican, and which used to be 
visited from the Belvedere, has now practically ceased to 
exist. The arms of most interest have been moved into 
the Borgia Apartment, and the rest, for the most part 
obsolete guns and swords, have been stored in an attic 
above the gallery of inscriptions. 

Behind S. Peter's, on the rising ground of the Via 
della Zecca is the old papal mint, now under the control 
of, and worked by the Italian Government. In a small 
room upon an upper floor, a collection of coins can be 
visited. These are mostly medals and coins struck 
between the years 141 7 and 1870. Some of them were 
designed by Benvenuto Cellini. 10,000,000 francs worth 
of bullion, destined for medals to commemorate the 
Vatican Council, was found in the mint and fell into the 
hands of the Italians in 1870. 

Higher up in this road are the pope's stables and coach 
houses ; in the latter are kept his state carriages, not used 
since 1870. 

The Via delle Fondamenta or del Giardino ends in an 
arched gateway. Within is the entrance to the Museums, 



Stamperia 

printing 

press. 



Observa- 
tory, 
Specola. 



Armoury. 



Zecca or 
mint. 



Pope's 
stables. 



438 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

and two lateral doorways, to the left into the pope's 
gardens, to the right into the Cortile della Pigna. 
Cortile This court (73) part of the old Belvedere garden is 

Piena. enclosed "by the wings of the library, and of the gallery 

of Inscriptions, and by the Sala Sistina. It takes its 
name from the huge bronze fir-cone at its upper end, 
which once crowned Hadrian's mausoleum, and after- 
wards with the two bronze peacocks beside it, decorated 
a fountain in the entrance court of old S. Peter's.* 
Pope's The pope's gardens f cover many acres of ground of 

gardens. the old Mons Vaticanus. They are bounded to the north- 
west by portions of the old Leonine Wall, two towers of 
which still stand on the high ground. This wall was 
extended by Pius IV. and Urban VIII. to enclose the 
whole. Portions of the grounds are laid out in flower 
beds, portions are planted with fruit trees and vines, in 
which Leo XIII. takes a great interest ; and a large 
portion is left in a wild state. There is a large aviary for 
white peacocks, golden pheasants, etc., and there is an 
abundant supply of water from the Acqua Paola source. 
The present Pope has constructed a winding carriage 
drive through the whole, upon which he drives daily 
with a pair of fast trotting horses. He has also built a 
villa upon the high ground, " the palazzina di Leone IV." 
where he spends the hot months of the summer. Another 
casino nearer the gate was built by Pius IV. ; it is richly 
decorated with paintings by Barocio, Zucchero, and Santi 
di Tito, and with terra- cotta bas-reliefs by d'Agincourt 
and Canova. 

ROMAN LIBRARIES. 

Coliegio The Collegio Romano, or Gregorian University, was 

Romano, founded by Gregory XIII. in 1583 and was directed by 

the Jesuits until 1870. The church of S. Ignazio forms 

part of the same block of building. The college is now 

a secular lyceum. Its observatory to which the Jesuits 

*See Part I., p. 57. 

fA Permesso from the maggiordomo is necessary for visiting the 
gardens. 






PAPAL PALACES 



439 



and Pius IX. liberally contributed was under the direc- 
tion of the well known astronomer Padre Secchi. Since 
Secchi's death in 1879, xX - nas been under the care of 
professors appointed by the Italian government. It can 
be visited on Sundays. 

The library of the Jesuit College has been merged in Bibiioteca 
the Bibiioteca Vittorio Emanuele, itself formed of the Vittorio 
spoils of 74 convents, confiscated in 1870. In 1883 manuee - 
the Eborense Library from Ara Cceli was added to 
the collection which now numbers 880,000 printed books 
and about 5100 MSS. This library is the most complete 
in the city, and the widest facilities are afforded to stu- 
dents for consulting and borrowing books. It is however 
a lamentable fact that there are still whole rooms full of 
books once cared for in convent libraries, which are now 
lying in confusion in heaps upon the floor uncatalogued, 
and apparently given over to rats and moths. The Library 
is open daily, Sundays excepted, from 9 to 3. Via Del 
Collegio Romano 27. 

Attached to the College was the Kircherian Museum Kircherian 
founded in 1618 by the Jesuit Kircher, Professor of Mathe- Museum. 
matics in the College. It has of course now passed into 
the hands of the Italian Government, and has been con- 
siderably enriched of late years. A small portion of the 
museum is devoted to Christian antiquities, among them 
bas-reliefs from the fronts of sarcophagi, terra-cotta 
lamps, a few Byzantine paintings, and inscriptions from 
the catacombs. Here also is the caricature of the cruci- 
fixion found scratched upon a wall of a guardroom or 
schoolroom on the Palatine.* 

The Sapienza, "Wisdom," the University of Rome, was The 
founded by Boniface VIII. in 1303. This pope ordered Sapienza. 
a general course of studies, appointed professors, whom 
he dispensed from taxes, and endowed the university 
with the rents of Tivoli. Clement V. (13 10) created 
professorships of philology, and scientific studies were 
introduced by later popes who further endowed it by 



* See Tart I., p. 24, 



440 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Biblioteca 

Alessan- 

drina. 



Casa- 

natense 

Library. 



Angelica 
Library. 



Vallicellian 
Library. 



charges on the excise revenues. The building as we 
now see it was designed by Michael Angelo under Leo X., 
and completed by G. della Porta. The Library of the 
University is known as the Alessandrina from its founder 
Alexander VII. Large additions were made to it by 
Leo XII. and it now contains 152,000 printed books, 
13,000 of which formed part of the Urbino Library. At- 
tached to it is a small museum of gems and fossils from 
the environs, and marbles and stones from the ruins of 
ancient Rome. The library is open daily from 9 to 3. 
Via dell' Universita. 

The Casanatense is the original monastic library of the 
Dominican friars of S. Maria sopra Minerva, and was 
founded by Cardinal Casanete in 1697. The monastic 
buildings have, with the exception of a small portion, 
been taken over by the Italian Government and are used 
for the Ministry of Public Instruction, and the library is 
under the same management as the Vittorio Emanuele. 
It contains 200,000 printed books and 5000 MSS. It is 
open every day except Sunday from 9 to 3. Piazza della 
Minerva 42. 

The Angelica Library was founded in the convent of S. 
Agostino by Cardinal Angelo Rocca in 1605. The con- 
vent is now the Ministry of Marine. The Library, a 
fine hall with smaller rooms adjoining, contains 150,000 
printed books, and about 2950 MSS., among them col- 
lections presented by Cardinals Barberini and Norris, and 
some Chinese and Coptic MSS. The library, like all the 
monastic libraries of Rome, has been taken over by the 
government, but one or two of the original Augustinian 
librarians from the monastery are allowed to assist in the 
care of the books. It is open for readers from 8 to 1 2 — 
holidays excepted. Piazza S. Agostino. 

The Vallicellian Library was founded by Cardinal 
Baronius in the xvi. century in the Oratorian House of S. 
Philip Neri, to which was attached the Chiesa Nuova. It 
is now managed by the government, and the house has 
been converted into Assize and Law Courts. The library 
contains 29,000 printed books and 2500 MSS., among 



PAPAL PALACES 441 

them some unedited MSS. of Baronius. It is open from 
8 to 12, Wednesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. Piazza 
della Chiesa Nuova. 



PAPAL PALACES AND VILLAS 

In addition to the Vatican and Lateran (for the latter 
see Part I., p. 93 seq.) the following palaces in Rome still 
belong to the pope. 

The Palace of the Holy Office, Via del S. Uffizio outside other 
the colonnade to the left of S. Peter's. th^pTe? 

The Dataria Palace in the street of that name on the e opes ' 
slopes of the Quirinal. 

The Palace of S. Maria Maggiore, conceded to the 
pope in place of the Quirinal. 

The Cancelleria Palace one of the finest in the city was Cancel- 
built in 1495 by Cardinal Riario, nephew of Sixtus IV. lena - 
Fontana designed the fagade, the rest is the work of 
Bramante. It is built of travertine robbed from the 
Colosseum, and the columns of granite supporting porti- 
coes in two stories round the central court, are said to 
have belonged to the theatre of Pompey which stood 
close by. This is the scene of Pius IX.'s Parliament of 
1848 and of the assassination of his prime minister Rossi. 

The above palaces in Rome and the villa of Castel Castel 
Gandolfo were declared extra-territorial by the Italian Gandolfo. 
government in May 1871, and are the only portions of 
his kingdom now left to the pope.* 

The Palace of Castel Gandolfo perched above the Lake 
of Albano and overlooking the whole Campagna, has been 
a summer residence of the popes from the time of Urban 
VIII. (1623) to that of Pius IX. who was a familiar sight 
upon his white mule in the lanes near the town. A 
baronial family of Germanic origin, the Gandulfi, built 

* Anagni was a favourite resort of the early popes. It was the 
property of the Conti, and was used by Innocent III., himself a 
member of this family, as a residence, becoming afterwards a papal 
possession. Several elections took place at Anagni, among them 
that of Robert of Geneva, the antipope Clement VII. (1387). 



442 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

themselves a castle in the little town in the xn. century, 
but in the next, it passed to the Savelli, who for hundreds 
of years held their mountain fortress and waged war upon 
their neighbours. At last their fallen fortunes forced them 
to sell their possessions, and Castel Gandolfo passed into 
the hands of the popes. The palace of Urban VIII. was 
designed by Carlo Maderno, but it was restored and 
finally rebuilt as it now stands by Clement VIII. A 
church designed by Bernini was added to the palace by 
Alexander VII. As the popes have never left the Vatican 
since 1870, the great palace of Castel Gandolfo stands 
empty. To visit it a ' permesso ' from the Maggiordomo 
is necessary. A community of Basilian nuns and one of 
Carmelite nuns have of late years been established on the 
ground floor of this great palace. 



GROUND PLAN OF THE VATICAN PALACE. 



1. Stairs leading to the court 

of Damasus. 

2. Apartment of the Maggior- 

domo. 

3. (a) court of the Rota. 

(l>) position of second 
court of the Rota. 

(<•) court of the Pala- 
frenieri (grooms). 

((/) court of Torrione. 

(<•) court of the Palace of 
Sixtus V. 

4. Cortile of S. Damaso. 

5. Principal entrance to Pa- 

pal Residence. 

6. Apostolic Residence. 

(/) Sala Clementina or 
hall of the Swiss. 

(£) Hall of the Pala- 
frenieri. 

(Ji) first anticamera (ante- 
room). 

(i) second anticamera. 

(J) hall of the secret con- 
sistories. 



(k) room of the Swiss guard. 

(/») pope's library. 

(«) pope's study. 

(0) pope's bedroom. 

(/) pope's small reception 

room. 
(?) P°P e ' s private ante- 
room, 
(r) anteroom. 
(s) private chapel and 

anteroom. 
(t) throne room. 
L. wall of Nicholas V. 
Algardi's fountain. 
Passage leading to the 

studio of Mosaics. 
Stairs. 

Court of the Pappagallo. 
Court of the Portone di 

Ferro. 
Court of the Sentinella. 
Passage and stairs to upper 

floor and library. 
Court of the Maresciallo 

of Conclave. 



5555 
gggn 





Romanl. 



ALACE 



PAPAL PALACES 



443 



15. Court of the Maggiordomo. 

16. Stairs to the court of the 

Maresciallo. 

17. Pedestal of equestrian 

statue of Constantine. 

18. Stairs from the court of 

the Maresciallo to the 
Sala Regia. 

19. Entrance to the I st tier of 

Loggie. 

20. Branch of Loggie by Gio- 

vanni da Udine, under 
Raphael's. 

21. Centre Branch. (Pome- 

rancio.) 

22. East branch. 

23. Hall of the Paramenti. 

24. Sala Ducale. 

25. Sala Ducale, 2 nd portion, 

also called della La- 
vanda. 

26. Sala Regia. 

27. Stairs leading to the Sala 

Regia. 

28. Stairs beneath leading to 

the vestibule of the Sis- 
tina. 

29. Vestibule of the Sistina. 

30. Sistina chapel. 

31. Sacristies. 

32. Stairs leading from the 

Sistina to S. Peter's. 

33. Entrance to the Loggia of 

benediction. 

34. Paolina Chapel. 

35. Galleriola or audience 

room. 
35 (a) Spogliatoio, or Hall of 
the Pappagallo. 

36. Borgia Apartment, Sala 

dei Pontifici, on the 
floor above, Hall of 
Constantine. 

37. Second Borgia room, Sala 

della Madonna, above 
it, Stanza of the Helio- 
dorus. 



38. Third Borgia, Vita dei 

Satiti, above it, Stanza 
of the Disputa. 

39. Fourth Borgia " of the Lib- 

eral arts," above it, 
Stanza of the InccnJio. 

39 a and 39 b. Halls of the 

Guardia Nobile. 

40. Hall of the Credo. 

40 (a). Hall of the Sibyls. 

41. Entrance to the gallery of 

Inscriptions from the 
Loggie. 

42. Gallery of Inscriptions. 

43. Entrance to Library. 

44. Writer's room. 

45. Small reading room. 

46. Room of the papiri. 

47. Librarian's room. 
48 and 49. Sala Sistina. 

50. Hall of the Bonaventura. 

51. Hall of the Obelisk. 

52. Hall of Aristides. 

53. Christian Museum. 

54. Hall of the papiri. 

55. Hall of the Christian paint- 

ings. 

55 a. Hall of the Nozze Aldo- 

brandini. 

56. Chapel of Pius V. 

56 a. Small room of cabinets. 

57. Terra-cotta room. 

58. Court of the Belvedere. 

59. Hall of the Vatican MSS. 

60. Alessandrinan Collection. 

61. Ottobuoni Collection. 

62. Capponi Collection. 

63. Archivium. 

64. Giardino of the Library or 

of the Stamperia. 

65. Capponi and Borghigiana 

Collection. 

66. First two halls of the 

Library. 

67. Museo Profano. 

68. Visitors' entrance to the 

Library. 



444 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 





I" Gates between the Chia- 


91 


69. 


ramonti Museum and 




70. 


the Gallery of Inscrip- 
[ tions. 




71. 


Entrance to the Braccio 
Nuovo. 




72. 


Braccio Nuovo. 




73- 


Giardino della Pigna. 




74 


and 76. Egyptian Museum. 


92 


77- 


Chiaramonti Museum. 


94 


78. 


Door from Chiaramonte 


95 




Museum to the giardino 


96. 




della Pigna. 


97 


So. 


Pine cone and peacocks. 


98 


82. 


Stairs to Pio Clementino 


99 




Museum. 


100 


84, 


85, 86. Rooms of the 


IOI 




Egyptian Museum. 


102 


87. 


Vestibule of the Torso. 




88. 


Vestibule of the Vase. 




89. 


Vestibule of the Meleager. 


103 


90. 


Octagonal Hall. 





Porticoes of the court of 

the Belvedere. 

S. Cabinet of the Apollo 
Belvedere. 

T. Cabinet of the La- 
ocoon. 

R. Cabinet of Antinous. 

P. Cabinet of the Boxers. 
Hall of the animals. 
Hall of the Statues. 
Hall of the Busts. 
External balcony. 
Cabinet of Masks. 
Hall of the Muses. 
Rotonda. 

Hall of the Greek Cross. 
Hall of the Biga. 
Vestibule to Hall of Greek 

Cross and entrance to 

the Egyptian Museum. 
Bronze gates. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CARDINALS. 

Cardinals — their origin — their titular churches — dress — cere- 
monial regarding — the three grades of Cardinals — list of the 
Cardinals — Sacred congregations, Inquisition, Index, etc. — 
Patriarchates — Bishops — titular bishops — episcopal insignia 
and dress — visit ad limina — Prelates and Monsignori — 
Canons — priests — origin of ecclesiastical dress — Style and 
titles of ecclesiastics — Seminaries and seminarists. 

The Pope's College of Cardinals, who compose his Curia Cardinals. 
or Council, are the modern representatives of the ancient 
parish priests of Rome. 

We first find the word applied to the chief among the 
seven deacons, who was called archi-diaconus or diaconus 
cardinalis. Later, owing to the increase of the Christian 
population, it became necessary to appoint two deacons 
to each region of the city, where previously one regionary 
deacon had sufficed ; the first of these was then called 
cardinal deacon. Similarly the presbyters of the ancient 
tituli* of Rome came to be styled presbyter cardinalis -\ 
in distinction to the other priests appointed to the same 
church. { 

* See Part I., Chap. I. 

t In Italian, the words incardinato for the induction to a parish, 
and scardinato when the incumbent is removed from it, are still 
employed. 

% Gregory the Great writing to Liberatus, tells him not to set 
himself above the other deacons, unless he had been made cardinal 
by the bishop. In Charlemagne's 'Capitularies ' a Roman Cardinal 
Deacon is mentioned with peculiar distinction : " Diaconus in car- 
dine constitutus in urbe Roma." 

445 



446 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

These deacons and presbyters formed the council of 
their bishop, and as early as 251-254, they presided over 
the Church with absolute authority upon the death of 
Pope Fabian, just as the Cardinals rule the Church to-day 
when the papal see becomes vacant. At first simply the 
parish clergy of Rome, these deacons and presbyters 
gradually acquired a position of power and importance 
owing to the fact that the papal elections, originally the 
right of the "assembled people and clergy of Rome," 
passed gradually from a variety of causes into their hands. 
Thus in time the office of priest of a Roman titulus 
became merely nominal, while the position it conveyed 
grew to be so much coveted that it was conferred by 
the pope as a title of honour upon foreign and Roman 
personages, ecclesiastics or otherwise. By the xi. century, 
we find the ancient regionary deacons, parish priests, and 
suffragan bishops of Rome developed into the cardinal 
deacons, priests and bishops of the Roman Church. 

It was not however till 11 79 that their prerogative as 
papal electors was actually confirmed and assured to 
them by a Lateran council under Alexander III. In 
1297 a constitution of Boniface VIII. increased their 
dignities, and decreed heavy penalties against all who 
should maltreat them. 
Titular To this day every cardinal is " titular " of one of the 

churches ancient parish churches of Rome,* in which he nominally 
nals? r 1_ possesses jurisdiction. If he is non-resident in the city, 
he must appoint a vicar, generally a prelate as his sub- 
stitute, not necessarily the parish priest. If the cardinal 
be a layman, he must in any case appoint a presbyter as 
his vicario. 

In his titular church, a cardinal does not assist at mass 
or celebrate from a faldstool but from a throne, and this 
he does as titular cardinal, not as bishop. On entering 
or leaving the church, he gives his blessing to the people, 
as a bishop would do in his own diocese. 

* Cardinal Manning was cardinal priest of S. Gregorio on the 
Coelian. Cardinal Vaughan has succeeded him. Cardinal New- 
man was cardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro. 



CARDINALS 



447 



Upon his creation, a new cardinal must take solemn 
possession of his titular church. He arrives at the church 
door in state, dressed in his scarlet robes. He is here 
met by the priest and clergy of the parish, who offer him 
holy water. He enters the church and proceeds sol- 
emnly up the nave, genuflecting three times. Then, 
seated upon his throne, he receives the addresses which 
are read to him by the parish priest. 

To these he replies, after which all the clergy, accord- 
ing to their precedence, come up to receive his embrace, 
those of lower rank merely kissing his ring. Before 1870, 
a detachment of the Swiss Guard used to attend such 
ceremonies. Each cardinal must present a painted por- 
trait of himself to his titular church, which is hung with 
that of the reigning pope in the nave. A painted shield 
with his arms surmounted by a cardinal's hat, hangs with 
the arms of the pope, outside the church, over the main 
entrance. It is a custom for cardinals to bequeath their 
hats at their death to their titular churches, where they 
can often be seen hanging from the ceiling in some side 
chapel. 

It was enacted in a constitution of Boniface VIII. in 
1297 that cardinals should wear the royal purple.* Their 
red hats had been granted to them at the council of 
Lyons in 1145 by Innocent IV., at the instigation, it is 
said, of the Countess of Flanders, who complained that 
she could not distinguish cardinals from abbats and other 
great personages. The red robes have been worn since 
1464 ; the purple is now only worn in Lent and Advent, 
when cardinals can be distinguished from bishops by the 
red skull-cap, stockings and berretta which they retain. 

In ordinary life, a cardinal wears a black soutane and 
short cape over the shoulders, with scarlet pipings buttons 
and button holes, scarlet stock sash and stockings. Out 
of doors, a long black cloak, and an ordinary priest's hat 
trimmed with a red silk ribbon and gold tassels, 15 in 
number. In society, a full cloak of scarlet silk or fer- 



Function 
of taking 
possession 



Portrait in 
the titular 
church. 



Dress. 



Everyday 
dress. 



In society. 



They are called to this day the porporati, wearers of purple. 



448 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



For 

Cappelle 

Papali. 



Cardinal's 
Hat. 



raiuolonc is worn over the black soutane. At court, or 
for state occasions, the soutane would be scarlet, a rochet 
would be worn and a short round cape to the knee, with 
openings for the arms, known as the mantelletta. 

For cappelle Papali,* and other great church or papal 
functions, a cardinal's dress would consist of a scarlet 
soutane with a train, white lace rochet, and great circular 
scarlet silk cloak, made like the ancient Roman paenula,f 
which is drawn up over the arms in front, and spreads 
into an immense ample train behind. This is the cappa 
magna. Attached to it, is a hood having the appearance 
in front of a small shoulder cape, and prolonged behind 
into a point. The hood is of scarlet silk ; from the 
5* of October until April 25 th , it is covered with an 
additional cape of white ermine for warmth. In old 
days the hood used to be drawn up over the head and 
worn under the hat, which is still done when the hat is 
given in consistory. The zitcchetto or small cap, berretta, 
stockings and gloves are scarlet. When dressed in state 
clothes, a long purple cloth cloak with cape and velvet 
collar, is worn out of doors, with a red hat, of the shape 
and texture of an ordinary priest's. These are removed at 
the church door, and the cappa magna and berretta put on. 

For the cardinal's mozzetta see pages 335 and 486. 

The red hat of the cardinal which is given him in con- 
sistory, and which is the sign of his office, used to have a 
conical crown, and was habitually worn with the scarlet 
robes, over the drawn-up hood of the cappa. Its use 
was sanctioned instead of a mitre in 1245. Under 
Paul II., a berretta was allowed on certain occasions 
instead of the hat, and now the hat is never worn at all, 
and has become a mere symbol. Its crown has prac- 
tically ceased to exist, the modern hat having a wide stiff 
brim, hardly any crown, and hanging cords and tassels. 
These tassels or fiocchetti should be fifteen in number 
for a cardinal, and when the hat is represented upon 
the coat of arms the tassels should hang down on 



* See page 378. 



fSee Part II., page 106. 



CARDINALS 



449 




either side of the shield in five rows. The number of 

tassels was however often varied at pleasure, or mistakes 

were made in the number, 

so that it is sometimes 

difficult to distinguish a 

cardinal's coat from an 

archbishop's in sculpture 

or upon tombstones, unless 

the colour is indicated. 

Cardinals who are mem- 
bers of religious Orders 
wear their own dress in 
the colours of the Order ; 
retaining only the red hat, berretta, and zucchetto. Fran- 
ciscan cardinals, however, wear no red. 

The only occasion on which a distinction was made in 
the dress of the three grades * of cardinals, was when they 
assisted at the pope's solemn mass. The cardinal bishop 
then wore a cope, the cardinal priest a chasuble, and the 
cardinal deacon a dalmatic. 

From the xm. century at least, cardinals have ranked 
as princes, and have been treated with royal state in every 
country. In 1523 the household of Cardinal Farnese 
numbered 306 persons, that of Cardinal Cesarini, 275. 
Even now much formality is observed in their regard in 
Rome. In ecclesiastical circles and in the old Roman 
families, a cardinal is received at the foot of the stairs by 
two servants with lighted torches, who escort him to the 
reception rooms and await his departure in the corridors. 
He is accompanied wherever he goes by a gentlemen in 
waiting, his gentiluomo, who sits in his carriage, stands 
near him at church functions, vests him in his buskins,| 
holds his berretta, and gives him the water for the lavabo 



Upon the 
coat of 
arms. 



Ancient 
State. 



Ceremo- 
nial. 



His gentil- 
uomo. 



* See below. f See Part II., p. 78. 

Council of Trent sess. XXV. decrees for the reformation of the 
clergy. Cardinals and all prelates shall be content with modest 
furniture and a frugal table, and are not to enrich themselves or 
their dependants out of the property of the Church. All things in 
their houses to show simplicity and contempt of vanities. 
2 G 



450 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 



Throne 
room. 



Cardinals 
di curia. 



at mass. This gentiluomo is dressed in knee breeches, 
silk stockings and ruffled shirt, and wears a sword and 
cocked hat. In rank this attendant belongs to the good 
borghesia, and usually has some decoration or the title 
of Cavaliere. At church functions, a cardinal would 
probably be accompanied also by a servant and his chap- 
lain. He drives in a sombre and heavy vehicle drawn by 
two black stallions with flowing manes. His servant sits 
on the box, and walks behind him if he gets out of his 
carriage for a little exercise outside the walls of the city. 
In processions, a cardinal's train is held up by a page or 
acolyte. 

Cardinals have a throne room in their houses, but the 
throne is turned to the wall and may never be sat upon 
except when the papal see is vacant. It is then turned 
round for use, as a sign that the cardinals have become 
reigning and temporal princes. Similarly each cardinal 
is provided with a throne for use during a conclave.* 

The cardinals di curia, i.e. resident in Rome, and form- 
ing a permanent court and council round the pope, each 
receive the modest annual sum of 24,000 francs (^960), 
which is called the piatto cdrdinalizio. In addition to 
this the cardinals employed on the different Congregations 
have a special pay. 

Cardinals or Monsignori were at the head of every 
sort of department in Rome in old days; a remnant of 
this may be seen in the inscriptions on marble let into the 
walls in different parts of the city, informing the citizens 
that Monsignore the sanitary Inspector, did not allow 
dust men to throw their refuse in those places. There 
is one of these inscriptions in Piazza di Spagna, another 
on the Convent of the Nuns by S. Croce dei Lucchesi. 



The full number of the Sacred College is seventy.! 
Of the cardinals now composing the College $$ are 

*For conclave and the creation of cardinals in consistory see 
Chapter II. 

fThis number was fixed by Sixtus V. in 1586. See ante, p. 367, 
footnote. 



CARDINALS 451 

Italians, and 26 foreigners. Of these, seven are French, 
seven German, Austrian, and Hungarian, five Spanish, 
four English and American, there is one Pole, a Dutch- 
man and a Portuguese. There are at the present eleven 
vacant hats. 

There are three grades of cardinals. Cardinal Bishops Three 
who seem to have been first heard of ih the time of % ad ? s ?{ 
Stephen III.-IV. (768-777) as the seven bishops who 
officiated in turn in the Lateran, and were called 
" Ecclesiae Lateranensis Cardinales." They were ipso 
facto bishops of the six suburban Sees of Rome, origin- 
ally local suffragans of the pope. Secondly and thirdly, 
cardinal priests and deacons derived as we have seen 
from the presbyteral and diaconal titles of Rome. In 
the latter rank, the cardinal's hat has been sometimes 
bestowed upon laymen. Cardinal Antonelli was a lay- 
man, and Cardinal Mertel who died this year (1899) 
was in deacon's orders. As a matter of fact, however, 
most of the cardinal priests are now bishops, and all the 
cardinal deacons are priests. 



LIST OF CARDINALS WITH THEIR TITULAR CHURCHES. 



See. Cardinal Bishops. Date of Creation. 

Ostia* and Velletri Luigi Oreglia di S. Stefano, Dean of 

the Sacred College t 1873 
Porto and S. Rufina Lucido Maria Parocchi, Vice-Chan- 
cellor and sub-dean of the Sacred 

College 1877 

Albano Antonio Agliardi 1896 

Palestrina Camillo Mazzella 1886 

FrascatiJ Serafino Vannutelli 1887 

Sabina Mario Mocenni 1893 



* Joined to Velletri in 1 1 50. 

t This office has been joined to the see of Ostia and Velletri 
since the xv. century. Before that time there was no mention of 
the title. The oldest cardinal bishop was called Prior Episcoporum. 

% Cardinal Howard was bishop of this see until his death. 



452 CHRISTIAN AND ECCLESIASTICAL ROME 

Titular Churches. Cardinal Priests. Date of Creation. 

S. Agnese Fuori Georg Kopp, Bishop of Breslau 1893 

S. Agostino Antonio Maria Cascajares y Azara, 

Archbishop of Valladolid 1895 

S. Anastasia Andrea Ferrari, Archbishop of Milan 1894 

SS. Andrea e Grego- Herbert Vaughan, Archbishop of 

rio Westminster 1893 

SS. XII. Apostoli Joseph Sebastian Netto, O. M., Pa- 

triarch of Lisbon 1884 

S. Balbina 

S. Bartolomeo all' Johann Haller, Archbishop of Salz- 

Isola burg 1 895 

S. Bernardo Giuseppe Sarto, Patriarch of Venice 1 893 

SS. Bonifacio ed Al- Angelo di Pietro, Prefect of Council 1893 
essio 

S. Calisto Agostino Ciasca. Romite 1899 

S. Cecilia Mariano Rampolla, Secretary of 

State and Arch priest of the Vati- 
can Basilica 1887 

S. Clemente Genaro Portanova, Archbishop of 

Reggio 1899 

S. Crisogono Francesco Cassetta 1899 

S. Croce in Gerusa- Peter Goossens, Archbishop of 

lemme Mechlin 1889 

S. Eusebio Agostino Richelmy, Archbishop of 

Turin 1899 

S. Giovanni a Porta Benoit Lang£nieux, Archbishop of 

Latina Rheims 1886 

SS. Giovanni e Paolo Giuseppe Francica-Nava, Arch- 
bishop of Catania 1899 

S. Girolamo degli Lorenz Schlauch, Bishop of Gros- 

Schiavoni, Wardein, Hungary ^9 3 

S. Lorenzo in Damaso [Lucido Maria Parocchi as Vice- 

Chancellor] 1877 

S. Lorenzo in Pan- Sebastiano Galeati, Archbishop of 

isperna Ravenna 1890 

S. Lorenzo in Lucina Miecislau Ledochowski, Prefect of 

Propaganda 1875 

SS. Marcellino e Pietro 

S. Marcello Luigi di Canossa, Bishop of Ve- 

rona 1877 

S. Marco Pietro Celesia, O. S. B., Archbishop 

of Palermo 1884 

S. Maria degli Angeli Anton Gruscha, Archbishop of Vi- 
enna 1 89 1 

S. Maria della Pace Michael Logue, Archbishop of Ar- 
magh 1893 

S. Maria della Vittoria Giov. Batt. Casali del Drago 1&99 



CARDINALS 



453 



Titular Churches. 
S. Maria del Popolo 



S. Maria in Aracceli 

S. Maria in Traspon- 

tina 
S. Maria in Traste- 

vere 
S. Maria in Via 

S. Maria sopra Min- 
erva 

S. Maria Nuova e S. 
Francesca Nuova 

SS. Nereo e Achilleo 

S. Onofrio 

S. Pancrazio 

S. Pietro in Montorio 



S. Pietro in Vincoli 

S. Prassede 

S. Prisca 

S. Pudenziana 

SS. Quattro Incor- 

onati 
SS. Quirico e Giulitta 

S. Sabina 

SS. Silvestro e Mar- 

tino ai Monti 
S. Silvestro in Capite 



Cardinal Priests. Date of Creation. 

Alfonso Capecelatro, Oratorian, Arch- 
bishop of Capua and Cardinal 
Librarian 1886 

Francesco Satolli, Archpriest of the 

Lateran 1895 

Martin de Herrera y de la Iglesia, 

Archbishop of Santiago *897 

James Gibbons, Archbishop of Bal- 
timore 1886 

Francois Richard, Archbishop of 



S. Sisto 

S. Stefano 
S. Susanna 

S. Tommaso in Parione 
SS. Trinita al Monte 

Pincio 
SS. Vitale Gervasio 

e Protasio 



Paris 
Serafino Cretoni 

Joseph Labour