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POLAND

An Illustrated History

The first Polish constitutional law of 1505, entitled Nihil Novi or Nothing New About Us Without Us.

Passed in Radom by the Seym or the Lower House of the Polish Parliament, which was the supreme power in Poland until 1795. The Polish Parliament became

bicameral in 1493.

POLAND

An Illustrated History

Iwo CYPRIAN POGONOWSKI

Hippocrene Books. Inc.

N~ York

Second priming, 2003

Copyright© 2000 Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski

ISBN 0-7818-0757-3

To my wife Magdalena and to our daughter Dorora

For information, address:

HIPPOCRENE BOOKS. INC. 171 Madison Avenue

New York. NY 10016 www.hippocrenebooks.com

Cataloging-In-Publication Data avail4bk from th« Library o/Congrm

Printed in the United States of America.

Contents

The Middle Ground of Europe: The Stage for the History 9

of Poland

Poland in European History: An Overview 11

The Slavonic Age J 9

Hereditary Monarchy-The Piast Dynasty 23

Evolution of the Constitutional Monarchy 38

The Formation of the National Bicameral Parliament 49

A Constitutional Monarchy in Early Modem Europe 55

The First Polish Republic 77

Crisis of Sovereignty of the Polish Nobles' Republic 117

Struggle for Full Sovereignty of Poland through Reforms 125

The Bar Confederacy: War of the First Partition of Poland 128

Resumption of the Struggle for Sovereignty 131

War of the Second Partition 143

War of the Third Partition-The Kosciuszko Insurrection 144

The Destruction of the Polish State and the Grand 148

Duchy of Warsaw

Constitutional Kingdom of Poland within Russian 152

Absolutist Empire

Kingdom of Poland within the Russian Absolutist Empire 162

The Second Republic, 1918-1945 197

World War II 217

Polish People's Republic, A Part of the Soviet Bloc 225

The Third Republic of Poland 245

Nobel Prize Winners Born in Poland 254

Chronology of Poland's History 255

Index 261

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Maps and Diagrams
740 Success of Slavic Miliwy Democracies 3
880 Area Settled by Slavic Volunteer Armies 3
1004 Polish Empire Within Western Christianity 4
1201 Fragmented Feudal Poland 4
1493 Polish Jagiellonian Realm 5
1618 Republic of Poland 5
1717 Republic of Poland in Crisis of Sovereignty 6
1922 Poland as the Main Barrier Against Communlsm 6
1986 Polish People's Republic within Soviet Bloc 7
2000 Poland Within NATO 7
600-2000 Tirneline of the History of Poland 8
1454-2000 Poland's Eastern Frontiers with Russia 14
1920 Soviet Invasion of Poland 17
1464 Incorporation of Prussia into Poland 54
1650 Polish Rocket Technology 115
1795 Obliteration of the Republic 147
1936-1939 Hitler's Planned "War of the Motors" 215
1939--1943 Hitler's Lost "War of the Motors" 215
1939--1945 Germany's Wartime Death Machine 216
1944 Polish National Uprising in Warsaw 222
1944-1948 Soviet Eviction of Jews from Eastern Europe 224
Table of the JagieUonian Dynasty 256
Table of the Piast Dynasty 258
Map of Poland 260
Note: This book includes an additional ninety iiiustrations. A.D .. 740 SUCCESS Of SLAVIC MILITARY DEMOCRAClI!S·

A.D. 1493

A.D. 1004

POLISH EMPIRE WITHIN WESTERN CHRISTIANITY

POUSH. JAQlEUDNlAN REALM

lHE SHIELD OF TERN CHRISnANl

O.5M O.75M O.SM

2.5M

Uthu.!nian. O.SM

'.5M

A.D. 1986

POLISH PEOPLE'S REPUBUC WITlIrNTHE .

SOVIET BLOCK,

EUROPE: 2000 A.D, POLAND ON OF NATO MEMBER STATES STAAttGIt I'ROtII1ES fY' tI..Q.UII_~

U&II TTP£ RIIIlSII

.... ·1 II1II TO CJIClN) .... _ 3

..._~ "'ARII-TO~ ''''"'~

to>.' aIOIIoOTO QIOClH) no.. I

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Timeline of the History of Poland

1989- T1'III ThIn! Pdish Republil;

1944.19119 People" PoIwId In SovIeI Bloc

1920 081681 ortllll Soviell,.,.....a. 1918-111<15 The Secood Polish Republic 1905-1907 R~utIon ~l r .. rIsI Rusai8 1 ero.l864 Upr!sIni &gei""tlWNl.e 1830-1832 Wer with Ruul.e

1795-1918 O;oJpatlon by Austria, Geomany, ond ~

1791 Modam Constitution (Fnlln Europe)

1 nZ·1795 The Crime ol!ha Three PerlJt;,,,,, of Poland 1768-1711<1 W"", of !he Th .... Panitions of Poland 1717.1788 lmpol.ltion of !he Ruul.en PrtIl.ecl«8la 1697-1717 Subveralon 01 Poland's Oeiensas

1883 Polish Vlaory al VillMil

164 8-1668 Deluge of Inwsicn!l 16(14.1195 Oligarchy 01 Land Magnales

1513 ...... of Genaral E'lcIo;tloos Ind. F DI1I~ n Candidales

1569-1648 Greal Power status of the Flf$t Republi: 1669-1795 Tho 1'11111. Republic of Poland·Ulhuanla

1505 CoMIilullonailaw: ·Nothlng AbDul Us Wlihoul U.-

1 ~ 93-1568 Golden Agoe cI PdMd

1493-1589 CoNtilullonal Mcw\8ldly

1422-1431 CfyjI ~h" and tho Ove I'roc:a55 under the LIIW

1410 Deleel of German Monaallc: Sial<! In Pru .....

1385-1572 The Soccnd ~ly. The J&gO)iID<1lsns 137()'1.Q3 EIIduIlcn of lhII ConslilullDnal Monarchy 1308-'370 F~ of PermBtHlll1ln,1iIulb:ts '295-1370 Rea18bllsh"""", 01 the I Po lish Kingdom

1138-1227 Feudlll Fregmenlali:ln under 8 Sen .... Prince

992.1031 Pollsh Emp.8 01 the King BoIel.lew I

9Il6 eon ...... ion 01 Poland to Christianity

&4().1370 The First Dy",uly - The Pia5l! (p)'llSLS)

&41).11311 Pleal Suc.;esslon In 0 DO'&cIlino

14 0 - The H<!~hl oIlho Ex""",,,,n 01 SIa"c M~itaty Dc mocracius from lila Alp. to IhII Upper Volga RMtr and from the Gulf of FU'Iland lO Craie

6()().8.40 Beglnn~s of Ihe PoIonlDn Siaia

THE MIDDLE GROUND OF EUROPE:

THE STAGE FOR

THE HISTORY OF POLAND

The Republic of Poland is located at the physical center of the European continent. Warsaw is midway between Paris and MosCOW. Poland lies on the open, relatively flat northern European plain between the Baltic Sea in the north and the Sudety and Carpathian Mountains in the south. The present area of Poland is 120,665 square miles, about the size of New Mexico. The maximum distance in Poland from east to west is 405

The White Eagle on a Red Field. miles, while from north to south it

is 430 miles. lIS Baltic coast is 310 miles long.

The country's lowest elevation is sea level in the north and the highest is Rysy Peak, which rises to a height of 8,212 feet in the south. Most of Poland is flat or gently rolling with the countryside rising gradually toward the mountains in the south.

Poland's main river, the Vistula, flows north through the capital city of Warsaw to the port of Gdansk, Its basin drains four-fifths of Poland. The second largest river is the Odra (Oder). Canals link the two main river systems.

The current estimated population of Poland is about 40 million, or some 330 persons per square mile. Over ninety-six percent of its people are ethnic Poles. The largest of the ten minorities are the German population of more than 550,000 persons; the Ukrainian of 400,000; and the Belorussian of over 250,000.

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The country's climate results from its location on the border between the Atlantic moist and east European continental climates. The typical Polish meteorological configuration consists of a bar:ome~c high over the Azores and an Icelandic low. In winter a Eur-Asian hi~h often dominates the climate of Poland. However, the temperature m January averages 30 degrees F; in July it averages 70 degrees. Sixty percent of days are windy, with winds blowing from the west. Most of Poland has twenty to thirty inches of rain per year.

A third of the Polish population earns its living in agriculture.

Poland grows more rye and potatoes than any other country in Europe. Other important crops are sugar beets, oats, wheat, barley, and flax. Besides farmland Poland is rich in resources. After World War 11, Poland was one of the leading coal, lead, and zinc producers in Europe. Copper, iron ore, potassium salt, rock salt, and sulfur are also mined.

Polish industries are still adjusting (0 the market economy and the privatization process. They are coping with th~ problem posed to ~ post-communist stales by the survival of economically usel~ss but politically powerful stale enterprises-the legacy of a comm~s~ co~and economy. The main industries undergoing this reorgaruzauon include shipbuilding, steel mills, the manufacturing of heavy machine.ry, ~d the building of locomotives and fann equipment. The same Situation exists in Poland's chemical industries, as well as in its cotton, wool, and

silk textile mills.

Electric power is generated in hydroelectric plants and in steam

plants fueled with coal. Oil is imported and refined in Poland to fuel the ten million cars and trucks that travel its roads.

Recently the tenth anniversary of the democratic revolu~on was celebrated in Poland and in other former Soviet Bloc countries. The results of this revolution are easily seen in Warsaw, the capital of Poland. Its shops resemble stores in the United States, full of imported goods, of meat, and exotic and domestic fruit. S~ny sk~scrapers, shopping malls, cinemas, expensive hotels, and luxunous pnvate homes are becoming commonplace.

POLAND IN EUROPEAN HISTORY:

AN OVERVIEW

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Poland's Culture and Slavic Roots

Poland acquired the traits of Western Christianity more than one thousand years ago and became a land of many diverse forms of art, architecture, and styles. It provided a home for many foreign influences, as did all the other countries of Europe; in fact, each national culture, to a considerable extent, became a cosmopolitan conglomeration. So despite all of its originality, the culture of Poland is a part of a commonly shared European culture to which its citizens have made a permanent contribution.

The originality of Polish culture is tied to its language and to its Slavonic roots. Linguistic studies indicate that as late as 4,000 years ago the early Balta-Slavic languages were part of the Arian or the Eastern Indo-European languages. Over 3,500 years ago the languages of the Ballo-Slavs separated from the Arian languages; some 3,000 years ago the Baltic and Slavic languages separated from each other; for the next 1,500 years the Slavic languages evolved parallel to the Greek, Latin, Celtic, Germanic, and other languages. The evolution of the Polish language occurred during the following 1,500 years.

Polish language reflected the intellectual and material culture in spoken words and later in literature. Early Polish vocabulary contained much earlier cultural information than did written records. The adoption of foreign words grew with the passage of time. During the present information age, new European and American terms related to fashion, sports, arts, politics, and technology are being adopted by the modem Polish language. Unabridged Polish dictionaries presently contain some 200,000 entries; one-third of these are foreign adaptations, while about one-fourth are still close to Old Slavonic words.

Travelers to Poland can visit many representative sites of the twelve historical periods of Polish culture:

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1. The Prehistoric Period (700 B.C. to 966 A.D.)

2. The Middle Ages:

a. Romanesque (1040-1200)

b. Gothic (1200-1500)

3. Renaissance (16th century)

4. Baroque (17th century)

5. Enlightenment (18th century)

6. Romanticism (early 19th century)

7. Positivism (late 19th century)

8. Young Poland Movement (tum of the 20th century)

9. Inter-war Modernism (1918-1939)

10. German-Nazi Devastation (1939-1945)

11. Social-realism (1945-1955); Modernism (1956-1989)

12. Post-Modernism (1989-present)

The Rise of a Center of Civility

The country of Poland was an early outgrowth of Slavic or Slavonic civilization in Europe, which at one time encompassed the eastern two-thirds of the European continent, From ancient times the Slavs governed themselves in self-ruling communities, They often formed large volunteer armies led by elected commanders who had conquered most of central Europe by 740 A.D. and had started forming individual Slavic states. One of those states, Poland, was formed c. 840 A.D. when a leader named Piast established the first royal dynasty, which would rule Poland until 1370.

During the time of the Piast Dynasty, the Polish state evolved into a great civilizing entity whose influence spread widely beyond its borders. It established Western Christianity as Poland's official religion in 966 A.D., an affiliation widely accepted and devoutly followed by its people. The University of Krak6w was founded in 1364. One of its future professors, Paulus Vladirniri (pawet Wlodkowic, 1370-1435), formulated the first modem rules of international law in 1413, and defined the Prussian Heresy as a violation of the principle that "the license to convert is not a license to kill or expropriate." Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikolaj Kopemik), who would graduate in astronomy at

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the University of Krak6w, founded modem astronomy in 1543 by establishing the theory that the earth rotates daily on its axis, and that the planets revolve in orbits around the sun.

In 1385, Poland formed a voluntary union with Lithuania, forming a huge commonwealth that extended from the Baltic to the Black Sea-the largest united territory in Europe at the time. Poland-Lithuania defeated the Nicolaus Copernicus (1470-1543)

attempt to impose German political and economic domination on east~entral Europe in the crucial battle at Tancenberg-Gmnwald-Dabrownc 1Il 1410. At stake also was the permanent loss of Polish coastal provinces and Poland's access to the Baltic Sea. Victorious Poland subsequen~y undertook a great civilizing role in Balto-Slavic Europe, and the P~lish language became known as the language of civility, elegance, and diplomacy throughout the entire region.

The country itself became a land of innovations in law and tolerance among its peoples. It was the rust European state to adopt the concept of due process under law, nearly three centuries before England would do so. Private property was protected by law. Poland established the principle of habeas corpus, in which a person detained by the state has the nght ,10 a prompt trial at an official court of law. Its people accepted, the Idea,of "No taxation without representation" long before the English colorues were founded in North America. Poland provided a h?meland for the Jews who grew in number and thrived, eventually saving the~ from extinction in medieval and early modem Europe, when Jewish people were persecuted, evicted, and killed in other ~urop_ean countries. At one time, over 80 percent of all Jews worldwide lived in Poland.

Although Polish was the national language of Poland, the influence of the Roman Catholic Church introduced Poland to Latin-th.e lingua

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franca of western European culture. Polish translations of Latin texts and other Polish publications were the only source of the eastern Slavic peoples' knowledge about Western civilization. Thus nearly all ruling members of the Russian Romanov Dynasty (1613-1917) were fluent in Polish.

(CI'.'''' __

Changes in the Eastern Frontiers of Poland

Poland's second dynasty, the Jagiellonian (1386-1572), originated in Lithuania and required parliamentary approval of each royal succession. During their reign, traditional Polish regional legislatures, or sejmiki, established the first national parliament in 1454. A bicameral national parliament was constituted in 1493, in which the king presided over the Senate. and the marshal presided over the Chamber of Deputies. The first Polish constitutional law, famous for its democratic motto "Nothing new about us without us," was passed by the parliament and instituted in 1505. This law made the Chamber of Deputies the supreme power in the commonwealth.

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The Polish Renaissance of the 16th century was the country's "Golden Age." Its culture and arts blossomed while the Polish population was among the best fed and healthiest in Europe.

The First Modern Republic in Europe

The law of 1573 guaranteed religious freedom. The civil rights of free citizens lay at the root of religious toleration in Poland. Paradoxically, the desirable qualities of democracy such as liberty and acceptance of diversity contained the seeds of weakness in the face of absolutist neighbors. After the Jagiellonian Dynasty, Poland proclaimed itself to be ''The Republic of Good Will ... Free Men With Free ... Equals with Equal .... "

Thus did it pioneer the first modem European republic. There was a widespread pride in Polish citizenship throughout the new republic. Of its ten million inhabitants, one million were full-fledged citizens; among them all males could offer themselves as candidates in general elections for the office of the head of state--a unique situation in Europe in 1573. The head of state kept the title of "king." but in reality he functioned as a chief executive with legal limits on his powers. The motion by the Chancellor Jan Zamoyski to restrict the candidacy to natives of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was not acted upon. Thus, since Polish law permitted acceptance of foreign candidates for the throne, Polish general elections (called viritim because the electorate had to appear in person) generated anxiety in neighboring countries. None of them wanted an unfavorable change in the European balance of power that might result from the elections in Poland. Taking advantage of the legality of foreign campaign contributions, bribery and subversion were used by foreign governments to promote their interests in Poland.

The Polish democratic process further suffered al the hands of the strong political machines formed by the wealthiest landowners. These political machines caused Cossack uprisings for civil rights in 1594, 1648, and 1768; they also introduced the first use' of the liberum veto that, after 1652, often paralyzed parliamentary proceedings with the vote of a single dissenting deputy. Foreign agents paid huge bribes to prevent the removal of the liberum veto by the Polish Seym.

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The Allied Christian Armies under the command of the king of Poland. John m Sobieski. saved Europe from invasion by the Muslim Turks in 1683 at Vienna. The comfort of this victory was short-lived, however. Fourteen years later a serious calamity was inflicted on the Polish Nobles' Republic by Peter the Great of Russia; he militarily engineered the fraudulent inauguration of a Saxon candidate, as King August IT, who had lost the general elections in Poland in 1697. This event started a twenty year period of decline in the early 18th century and ushered in the beginning of the "Saxon Night," which was a low point of education and civil virtue in the republic. Capped by the ru~ of Poland's defense establishment. it was the most wretched and humiliat-

ing time in Polish history.

A reestablished Polish leadership then started a campaign of

reforms. Europe's first Ministry of Education was established in Warsaw in 1773, through which Poland's school system was modernized. Poles voted to institute the first modem constitution in Europe in 1791, and started to rebuild their army,

The reforms in Poland alarmed me neighboring absolutist regimes and led them to fight three wars of partitions. The rulers of Russia, Prussia, and Austria committed the international crime of annexing the entire territory of the republic in the years from 1772 to 1795. Criminal destruction of the Polish state converted its provinces into bones of contention in a European search for a balance of power and for the creation of new empires. The robbery of Polish provinces made Prussia the largest among the 350 German states and principalities, putting it in a position to unify Germany one hundred years later in the 1870s, and to organize a short-lived German Empire.

Poles reacted by organizing an army on lhe side of Napoleon of

France, who thoroughly exploited them militarily and financially. After Napoleon's defeat, the 1815 Congress of Vienna established a much smaller constitutional Kingdom of Poland with the tsar of Russia as its king. The Polish constitution was frequently violated by the Russians, leading the army of the Kingdom of Poland to rebel against the absolutist Russian Empire in a bid for national independence (1830- 1831). Polish veterans emigrated and fought in most struggles for

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national freedom in Europe and in America. During the next Polish uprising, in 1863-1865, some 1,230 partisan battles were fought throughout the Polish lands annexed by Russia.

The Second and Third Polish Republics

After World War I the Poles declared their independence on November II, 1918, thereby creating the Second Polish Republic. To keep its independence, the new republic had to win six borderland wars. By far the most important was the Polish victory, led by Marshal J6zef Pilsudski, over the Red Army in 1920. Lenin had attempted to overrun Poland and form a Moscow-Berlin alliance in order to proceed with the communist world revolution. Many Germans had been ready to accept a communist government in return for the acquisition of western Poland

TI-lE GERMAN MILITARY PERMITIEO TI-lE RED ARMY. DEFEATED AT WARSAW. TO CROSS EAST PRUSStA AND TAKE PART IN TI-lE BATILE Of' UDA.

. ...

POI..GH ~ FORCES

SOVIET IHVASIOH DEfEATED. lENIN SUED FDA ~CE; HIS ..,DVANCE WEST STOPI' EO.

1,800.000 IJEN FOUGHT CZECHOSLOVAKIA A UFEAND DEATli srRUGG.E FOR THE SURVIVAL OF THE SOVIET RE\'OUJTlON AND THE REPUBUC OF POlAND.

.o\USTIIL\ T1E ROUT Cf' SCMET .lIMES INTtE PoOIIIl.e 6O'o1ET. POUSH WOR: ICI ,11tI_ C)p1 .. ~

MIKHAIL TUHHACHEVSKY'S ORDER OF JULY 4. 1920; 'W TI-lE WEST OVER TI-lE CORPSE OF WHITE POLAND. ON TI-lE ROAD TO TI-lE WORLDWIDE CONfL.O.ORATION.··

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and the Gdansk Pomerania region, once those lands were occupied by the Soviets. The Polish victory destroyed Lenin's hope for world revolution and resulted in retaliation against the Polish minority within the Soviet Union. Twenty years later the Soviets would avenge this defeat.

From October 25, 1938, to January 27, 1939, Germany pressed Poland to join the Anti-Cornintem Pact. The Germans wanted 3,500,000 Polish soldiers to join with Germany and Japan in me conquest of the USSR and its oil and fertile lands. When Poland refused, Hitler and Stalin became allies and invaded Poland (September 1 and September 17, 1939, respectively), thereby starting World War II. Poland mobilized nearly one-and-a-half million soldiers in 1939. During the six-year war over twenty percent of its citizens were killed, nearly half of them J~ws. Poland was the only country to organize an underground slate WIth a Armia Krajowa (Home Army) of 400,000 soldiers. Polish resistance mggered a more vicious response by the Germans than was visited u~~n any other nation; it resulted in massive manhunts, torture, and the killing of ordinary citizens by the Gestapo. Poland had 200,000 soldiers, sailors, and airmen fighting against the Germans on the Western front in Norway, Italy, and Africa. Polish pilots played an important part in the Alli~ victory in air battles over Great Britain. AboUl400,OOO Poles served m two

, armies of the new People's Poland. They were recruited and controlled by the Soviets and fought the Nazis on the Eastern front in 1944-1945. .

Despite large Polish contributions and sacrifices for the Allies's victory, Poland was betrayed by Roosevelt and Churchill at Yalta: ~t was handed over to become a Soviet satellite slate, after a ruthless pactfication by the communist terror apparatus.

The Pope from Poland, John Paul II, helped in the Polish Solidarity's effort to start unraveling the Soviet communist cloth in 1989, bringing independence to Poland and other satellite states that had

been part of the Soviet Bloc. .

The Third Polish Republic, created after the elections of 1989, embraced the free market in the 1990s, and became a member of the NATO alliance in 1999. Poland has been lauded for the rapidity of its reforms, compared to many other countries attempting to rise from the rubble of their SUbjugation by the Soviets.

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THE SLAVONIC AGE

The Prehistoric Period

Early Slavonic History

The Slavs of antiquity were called "Scythian farmers" by Herodotus in the 5th century B.C. About 550 A.D. ecclesiastic and historian Jordanes wrote that the Slavs were of "one blood" and lived in three groups:

Venedic (western), Antic (eastern and southeastern), and Sklavinian (southern). Slavic volunteer armies led by elected commanders were described by Byzantine historians after the Slavic victory over Byzantine forces at Adrianapolis in 551 A.D. The western Slavs pressed the Germanic tribes out of the basin of the Elbe River after 512 A.D.

In the 8th century, Slavic agriculture was based on ploughing with horses; the area between the Rhine and the lower Elbe River became Christianized; and the Teutons, benefitting from improved organization and discipline, started "the push to the East to conquer Slavic lands." This would be known as the Drang nach dem Slawischen Osten, or simply as the Drang nach Osten, and would become a German tradition. Its best known recent exponents were Frederic II, King of Prussia, and Chancellors Bismarck and Hitler.

In the 9th century, the "Bavarian Geographer" wrote the earliest known report about western Slavs. He described the Slavic area (c.844) north of the Danube River, and east of the Elbe River and the upper Main River, including the Polanian or Polish language area. The Polanians spoke Old Polish, a part of the Lechitic language group that extended from the lower Elbe River to the Bug River. Polish cultivated fields were fertile clearings created by burning of forests.

The name of Poland, in Polish Polska, originated from the name of Polanians. Linguistic data of the highly diversified early Slavic vocabulary proves familiarity with elaborate abstract ideas. In Slavic self-perception the ethnic meaning of the word "Slav" or Slowianin (swo-vyahneen) in Polish is derived from the term for the spoken word, or siowo (swo-vo), Thus, to the Slavs, their name testified to their mastery over

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spoken words, in contrast to others, whose languages they did not understand. Even in modem Polish vocabulary, Germany is called Niemcy or the land of the mute or dumb.

Prehistoric Structures in Poland

Thousands of Neolithic flint mine shafts still exist in Central Poland. Flint, amber, and cattle were then used for barter trade.

During prehistoric times, wood-often combined with soilserved as the main building material. Characterized by logic and simplicity, ancient dwelling constructions were dug into the ground. Modem Slavic languages have kept many construction terms from that

Blskupin Fortified Island, 650 B.C., soil and wood constrLlc/ion.

Lusatian-Proto-Slavic culture.

period. In Polish, for example, a wall is called sciana (§hchah-nah), meaning "a cut ground face"; stairs are schody (skho-di) meaning "the steps down"; a floor is pod/oga (pod-wo-gah), meaning "a layer laid under"; a ceiling is powaia (po-vah-wah), meaning "a layer tiuown over

on the ground."

Biskupin provides an example of a fortified proto-Slavic or

Lusatian village built of wood and soil c. 650 B.C., during the Bronze

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Age in the region. It includes about 100 houses of similar size and contains no large house of 0. chief, a fact indicating communal self-government. This type of functional wood and soil construction was used in Poland until the 11 th century.

The Indigenous Slavonic Pagan Religion

Before their conversion 10 Christianity, Slavs believed that the god of the thunderbolt and war called Peron lived in the sky. The cult of Peron (pe-roon) dominated during wars and migrations. The god of peaceful life, work, and home was Wolos (vo-wos), a word that meant hair or furs and related to the idea of warmth and protection from the cold. Swarog (sfah-rog) was the god of fire and father of Darzbog (dahzh-bog), the sun-god. The name Swarog contains the root word "war" (lIohr), which meant heat or fire. Countless modem Polish words ~ontain this root word; they range from cooking to quarreling and fightmg. The name Darzbog was derived from the verb darzyc (dah-hzieh) which meant to grant, bestow, or provide. The sun-god's name described him as the source of the life-giving rays of the sun.

There were also tribal gods such as the other son of Swarog, Swarozyc (sf ah-ro-zhlts) , a deity of the Elbe River Veleti. The Rugian Slavs worshiped Swi~lowid (~vyan-to-veed),' whose statue with four faces faced the four directions of the world. The name Swi~lowid meant giving a "holy look" or "blessing the world," and he occupied the temple, in Arkona on the Baltic Rugian Island.

'Each family, clan, tribe, and region had its own guardian deity. The dead were cremated and their ashes were buried in urns in cemeteries along with cremated objects to be used in the afterlife. According to the Slavonic religion, the deceased were forever united with the eternal fire of the sun-god Darzbog through the fire of cremation. The souls of ancestors were also worshiped.

Generally, the statues of gods were made out of wood; occasionally, also out of stone. Many of them can be seen today in museums in Poland and neighboring countries.

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Romanesque sculptured columns in Strzelno, 12th century.

Romanesque door in Tum, 12th century.

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Romanesque rotunda in Strzelno, 12th century.

Romanesque door in Olbin, 12th century.

HEREDITARY MONARCHYTHE PrAST DYNASTY (C. 840-1370)

The Middle Ages:

Romanesque (1040-1200) and Gothic (1200-1492) Periods

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Romanesque rotunda in Cieszyn, l lth century.

Conversion to Western Christianity

Mieszko I (c. 921-992), the fifth member of the Piast dynasty, established Western Christianity as Poland's official religion in 966, Mieszko's alliance with'the Czech ruler, Boleslaw I the Severe, resulted in his marriage to Czech Princess Dobrawa, a union that facilitated this conversion. German Emperor Otto I declared his support and COnfinned the appointment of Jordan as the first bishop. The new diocese was, however, directly subordinated to the Pope of Rome. Bohemia, still without a bishop of its own,

helped the Poles to translate the Church terminology into Slavic words. By 989; Mieszko's dominions includ, ", ed about the same lands as modem Poland. In the same year neighboring ,. Slavs of Kiev converted to Byzantine Christianity.

Mieszko's decision to convert to Western Christianity was of fund a- mental importance to the eventual fate of Poland as a shield of western civi; liZation, as well as a religious and cultural middle ground between the Slavs and the Germans; the western and eastern Slavs; western and eastern

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Christianity; Christians and Muslims; and between the ~?man ~d Greek alphabets. In 991, Mieszko issued the oldest survlVlng Po~h state document, which describes Poland for the purpose of concluding Bl1 alliance with the Pope against the German emperor of the Holy

Roman Empire. It was entitled the Dagome Iud ex.

St. Adalbert and the Spread of Christianity

S1. Adalbert (Swic:ty Wojciech) was one of the surviving me~bers. of the abolitionist Slawnikowics-a Czechian f~y who fled their native land for Poland. after losing a power struggle wifh the slave~ adv~ate, Boleslaus II. As bishop of Prague, St. Adalbert wrote a treatise enntled

"lnfelix Aurum," which condemned slavery and the slave trade.. .

He baptized the population of Gdansk in 997, and the~ ~amed his eVWlgelica1 mission to the Balto-Slavic Prussians. The mission e~ded two years later in his martyrdom-a sacrifice ~at would be recogruzed with his election as the patron saint of Poland 1D the. ll~ and 12~ ce~turies. His popular Latin biography marked the beguuung of Polish lit-

erature written in Latin.

11th Century Polish Empire

A friend of St. Adalbert, Boleslaw Chrobry (Boleslaus the Brave. 967-1025), also called the Great in early chronicles: was th~ oldest son of Mieszko I. He created the short-lived Polish Emp}!e--B. kingdo~ that included Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia, Lusatia,. and Milsk~ (Milzenland). In 1018 Boleslaus I Chrobry conquered Kiev and sent tnumpbant letters to the Byzantine and Roman emperors. The same year he signed a peace treaty with the German Emperor Henry n (1~2- 1024) who recognized the western Slavic provinces ofLui.yce ~usatla) and Milsko (Milzenland) as a part of Poland, thus formally fixing the

furthest' western border of Poland in history.

In 1025 Boleslaw I Chrobry was formally crowned and became the

first king of Poland shortly before his death. His son, Mieszko n (990- 1034) then succeeded to the throne. Six years later (in 1031) he was defeated by the coalition of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and Kievian Ruthenia. The Polish state recovered under the son

24

of King Mieszko II, Kazimierz Odnowiciel (Casimir the Restorer, 1016- 1058), who rebuilt the early medieval monarchy. At that time Poland was entering a period of economic, social, and political transformation. The political center of Poland shifted from Poznan to Krak6w.

The Arts in Medieval Romanesque and Gothic Periods

, Upon the arrival of Christianity. Polish builders used limestone, sandstone, and brick masonry in fortified sacral construction. Master builders determined that the flying buttress construction popular in western Europe was not practical in Poland. For this reason Polish Gothic or Vistula Gothic architecture included buttresses buill into the walls of the structures. A number of original Polish-style arrangements of bricks were used in these early masonry walls. Monumental Gothic cathedrals, huge ecclesiastical buildings, and ornate town halls were built throughout Poland, as well as defense castles and some of the largest fortified complexes in Europe.

The stone Rotunda of Our Lady was buill on Wawel Hill in K.rak6w before 1040 A.D., when a large Benedictine monastery was built in nearby Tyniec. Romanesque architecture blossomed in Poland in the 12th century. It included ornamental sculptures in stone and in wood. The Dominican church and monastery built in 1277 in Sandomierz showed

" the first Gothic tendencies in form of pointed arches. The high Gothic period in Polish architecture occurred from 1320 to 1500.

. Craftsmanship attained a high level very early in Poland. Goods

, included ~ttery, ce~cs, woven linen and woolen fabrics, silver jew': elry, furniture and tailored fabrics.

Early Polish festivities were accompanied with music. Polish musi, ., cal instruments included bagpipes. called dudy (doo-di) and the four, string gfs/e or skrzypce, the forerunner of the modem violin. The latter ,means "s~ueake~"-a term indicative of the instrument's poor sound box. Ancient regional dances were a part of Polish folklore. Centuries many of them would inspire the compositionsofFrederic Chopin

10-1849) and other modem composers. '

. , The earliest written polyphonic religious music by anonymous Polish composers can be traced back to the 12th century.

25

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\'

)

Gorhic painting of St. Maciej Trzebinia.

Gothic painting of St. ladwiga Trzebinia.

Schools and Old Chronicles

. d ed by the for-

The growth of Polish intellectual culture was ~VI en~ d of the

mation and development of ecclesiastic~ educabon at e en

10th and during the 11th and 12th centun;:liSh cathedral schools taught the seven Liberal Arts: G~. Rhetoric, Dialectic. ArithmetIC. Geometry, Music. and Astronomy. In addition to these subjeclS Theology and Canon Law were taught in Gniemo. Poznan. Wroctaw. Plock, Sandomierz. and Krak6w. The year 1136 marke? the beginning of the literary period of the Polish language. when the

al Bull of Gniemo included

pap I -

over 400 names of Polish peep e

and places in a description of .the estates belonging to the archbtsh-

26

opric of Gniezno. At the beginning of the 14th century. the Swililtokrzyskie Sermons (kazania Swi~tokrzyskie) were written. They are the oldest Polish medieval texts, They served as a basis to estimate that the Polish of the time consisted of approximately 15.000 words.

Polish literature and state documents written in the Latin language by priests date from the end of the 10th century until the beginning of the 15th. and include diplomatic and legal correspondence.

Gallus Anonymous (1lth- 12th centuries) wrote the oldest chronicle that presents the political. social. and economic situation of Poland starting from the beginning of the Polish Slate.

Wincenty Kadlubek (c.1150- 1223) wrote a chronicle in the contemporary style. Though it was less factual than Gallus's, it served as a textbook for the teaching of eloquence.

The chronicle of the Cistercian abbey at Heruyk6w (1227- Boleslaw II the Bold, or Generous

1310) includes the oldest preserved (1058-1079) (Jan Matejko}.

sentence written in Polish.

European Feudal Fragmentation Reaches Poland Boleslaw SmiaJy (Boleslaus II the Daring, c.l040-1081). son of Casimir the Restorer. allied with Pope Gregory vn. revived Poland's military strength and crowned himself as king of Poland in 1076. Thus ended the direct line of succession to the Piast throne.

King Boleslaus n the Daring faced a conspiracy which involved his brother, Wladyslaw Herman (1040-1102). and the bishop of Krak6w. Stanislaw of Szczepan6w. The king sentenced the bishop 10 death and later had him executed. With the support of the Church. Duke Wladyslaw Herman then ruled Poland. However, under German pressure. he had to surrender his claim to the royal crown and pay a tribute for Silesia 10

27

Bohemia, which was included in the German imperial sphere of interest.

More successful was Herman's son, Duke Boleslaw m Krzywousty (Boleslaus the Wrymouth). He extended his rule to Western Pomerania and Rugian Island, once the center of Slavic pagan religion. In 1135, however, he had to pay a tribute for these territories to the Emperor Lothair Ill,

Recurring European crises of feudal fragmentation soon reached Poland. After the death of Duke Boleslaus ill, the feudal disintegration was formalized by his will, in which he divided Poland into duchies that were inherited by his sons. The oldest son was to be the General Duke in charge of foreign policy, friendly relations with the Church, and resistance to German expansion.

Boleslaw /II, the Wrymouth (1102-1137) (Jan Matejko).

Act of Cienia Similar to the Magna Carta

The 12th and 13th centuries were marked by the evolution of settlements, economic growth. and social transition as Poland became consolidated and fully Christianized. In 1228, the Act of Cienia was issued by Duke Wladyslaw ill (Ladislas m. 1161-1231). The duke promised to preserve "just and noble laws according to the council of bishops and barons," in return for succession to the throne of Krak:6w. It was an act similar to and contemporary wilh the Magna Carta of 1215 (issued by the King of England, John Lackland of Anjou of the Angevin or Plantagenet Dynasty, after he lost the Duchy of Normandy).

Economic Growth and Social Transition

New settlements were established on the basis of the customary Polish law of the right of free settlers, which strictly defined a rent in

28

The market place of Krakow.

kind or money. Generally, the position of knights who owned land was strengthened. However. in areas exposed to foreign invasions, such as Mazovia, it was necessary to organize a permanent defense force of a large number of knights of lesser rank. who did not own serfs.

Class differentiation began to develop and slowly take the form of feudalism. However, in the Slavic tradition, every descendant of a nobleman was himself considered a nobleman and all his children were entitled to an equal share of the family inheritance. Thus, Polish nobility became more numerous than in other countries. Eventually, it reached 10 percent of the population and became the political nation of Poland.

Early Stage Plays and Science

At the beginning of the 13th century, municipal schools were founded in parishes and collegiate churches. School theaters started to form shortly thereafter-a development that marked the beginning of the Polish stage. In 1207, Pope Innocent ill issued an edict critical of Polish Catholics who were staging unholy theatrical performances in churches. The earliest Polish text for staging the Visitation of the Tomb by the Three Marias originates from Krak6w in the middle of the 13th century.

In this period many Poles studied and worked abroad. Paris attract-

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German Aggression in the Baltic (13th and 14th centuries)

In 1201, German monastic orders began an aggressive campaign to establish missionary enclaves on the southern and eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea near the deltas of the Rivers Dvina, Memel, Narva, and Vistula, They did so to monopolize the trade on these rivers and eventually dominate and Germanize the entire region. They became the richest Hanseatic grain merchants, who used rivers as the highways of transport and trade. The conquest and conversion of Lithuanians, Latvians, and Prussians would lead to the eventual creation of a dominant German monastic state in the region. In 1228, armed German monks of the Teutonic Order of the Cross (or Krzyiacy) succeeded in obtaining the Act of Kruszwica from Duke Konrad I of Mazovia, who gave them a temporary fief of Chelmno, The temporary fief was established for the time needed to convert the Balta-Slavic Prussians to Christianity.

By 1233 German aggression in East Baltic had spread yet further.

The unification of the armed monks of the Order of the Knights of the Sword of Riga, with the Monastic State of the Teutonic Order was com-

I:

I·'

"

I;

,

~ I

Przemyslaw n. Five years later, Waclaw II (1271-1305), king of Bohemia and Hungary, was crowned king of Poland. The following year, King Wladyslaw I Lokietek (Ladislaus the Short, c.1260-1333) ascended to the throne, from which height he consolidated the Polish State and restored the process of Poland's unification. His son, Kazirnierz III Wielki (Casimir III the Great, 1310- 1370), the Builder. was the last king of the Piast dynasty (c. 840-1370).

,

I' I'

ed theology students, and Montpelier medical students, while Bologna and Padua attracted law students from Poland. From 1275-1314, twelve Poles served as presidents (rectors) at the University of Bologna.

An eminent Polish mathematician and physicist, Witelo of Silesia (c.1230-I314), published an important work on optics entitled Perioptike in 1270. Polish astronomer Franko of Poland authored a 1286 treaLise on the newly invented inStar Compass, the torquetum of Jan

strurnent, the torquetum. Marcin Bylica, 1493.

Polak became famous by pub-

lishing a compendia of law and history. Western knowledge of geography and the ethnography of Eastern Europe and Asia was advanced by the writings of Benedykt Polak, who was sent on a diplomatic mission to Mongolia in 1245-1247.

, "

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New Town Law and the Rule of General Dukes

German town law was introduced in the 13th century as the immigration of Germans, Flemings, Walloons, and Jews increased. The immigrants were allowed to prosper and to preserve their languages. Free peasants settled in villages founded on the principle of the rent law and became trading partners of the burghers. The peasants supplied grain, cattle, and pigs in exchange for articles produced by the artisans. The towns conducted trade on a local and regional scale and tried to obtain total or partial exemption from customs duties. Early ramparts and town walls provided adequate room for new construction. As trade increased the Hansa Trade Organization was established (c. 1241), first in German ports and then in other Baltic ports.

The General Dukes ruled until the 1295 coronation of King

Konrad I of Mazovia (1187-1247) (Jan Matejko).

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The castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork, 14th century, the largest Gothic fortification in Europe.

to pay damages to Poland and evacuate all of Pomerania. This order, however, was not obeyed.

In 1325, the first common defense treaty between Poland and Lithuania against the Teutonic Order was concluded. It led to the marital alliance of the Crown Prince of Poland, soon to be crowned as King Kazimierz ill, and the Lithuanian Princess Aldona, daughter of the Grand Duke Gedymin.

The Brethren had an ally in King John Luxembourg of Bohemia, who invaded Poland and occupied most of Silesia, taking advantage of the war between Poland and the Armed Monks of the Teutonic Order (1327-1332). Despite a Polish victory in the battle of Plowce, the Brethren occupied the provinces of Kujawy and Dobrzyil. In fact, Poland was engaged in a life-and-death struggle with Germans encircling the country from three sides: the Teutonic Order from the north, Brandenburg from the west, and German-dominated Bohemia from the south.

Invasion by the Mongol Empire

A new disaster simultaneously loomed in the southeast of Poland.

While the Teutonic Order created a serious problem for Poland, the Tartar invasion was a more devastating calamity for both eastern and central Europe. The Mongol Empire captured Kiev and conquered Ruthenia in 1240. The invasion of Poland by the Mongol Empire in 1241 was short but devastating. The battles of Chmielnik and Legnica were lost by the Poles. Henry the Pious, Prince of Silesia and the Polish commander of assembled Christian defense forces, died on the battlefield. The main defense force consisted primarily of Polish knights of Silesia and Greater Poland, the miners of precious ores, and the peasants of Silesia with minor detachments of knights of the Templar, Joannite, and Teutonic Orders.

During these battles the Mongols used rockets with incendiary warheads as well as sulfuric fumes which choked both men and horses. The margrave of Berlin in Brandenburg took advantage of the Mongol invasion and occupied the Polish province of Lubusz.

In 1259, the second Mongol invasion devastated and burned the towns of Lublin, Sandomierz, Krak6w, and By tom. In 1287, only the

pleted in 1237. The Monastic State annexed the Brethren of Dobrzyfi in 1235.

The towns of Toruri and Chebnn.o were founded by the German Brethren on the Magdeburgian model and built as Gothic fortresses. The Teutonic Order thus became a growing threat to Livonia, Lithuania, Novgorod, and Poland.

Duke Konrad of Mazovia's temporary grant was falsified in 1234 by the German Armed Brethren to read as "permanent," and thus became the "legal" foundation of the independent German Monastic State in Prussia. This forgery resulted in protracted internarional legal and military conflict between Poland and the German Armed Brethren.

The Massacre at Gdansk

In 1308, German armed monks committed the mass murder of Polish people and knights after a treacherous entry into Gdansk and Tczew, Pope John XXII appointed inquisitors in Poland in 1318, but they were inactive. However, a Church court held a trial in 1320-1321 in Inowroclaw, and ordered the Armed Brethren of the Teutonic Order

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fortified towns of Krak6w and Sandomierz resisted the Mongol invaders. Prussians (also called Pruthenians) and Lithuanians joined in pillaging the frontier lands of Poland. The trickle of German immigralion became a flood into depopulated Poland.

Codification of Laws and Progress in Civil Rights CodIfication of the Polish Conunon Law, the first in Europe, was accomplished in 1346-47 by Casimir the Great. In addition, the king uniformly extended Jewish liberties throughout Poland; he recognized the Jews as a distinct legal, national, religious, and cultural group.

Jewish refugees continued 10 arrive from Germany. Gradually, the Jews created the world's largest Jewish community in Poland, as the country's law protected them. Punitive fines for towns were established in case of anti-Jewish activities; half of the money was used to pay for damages to !he Jews and half went to the state treasury. The new law also banned the accusations of ritual murder against the Jews; these accusations were brought to Poland by German immigrants.

The Polish economy became capable of supporting a rapidly growing population and provided a steady surplus for trade. It should be noted that such a situation was not reached in central Russia until the middle of the 19th century.

Further limitations on the power of the throne were promised in the 1355 Act of Buda. It was issued as a part of dynastic politics of Ludwik I, Louis I of Anjou, king of Hungary (1326-1382). The Act of Buda confinned all previous constitutional acts and privileges in order to secure Louis's succession to the Polish throne. and to overcome the weakness of his female connection to the Piast dynasty. A Polish succession treaty between King Ludwik I of Hungary and King Casimir the Great was

administration, currency reforms, codification of laws, protection of peasants from exploitation, and strengthening of the country's defenses.

The first Polish invasion of Halicz in Ruthenia (1340) was conducted in competition with Lithuania during Poland's war with Bohemia over Silesia (1341-1345). In the Treaty of Namyst6w (1348). Poland ceded Silesia to Bohemia in exchange for Bohemia's renunciation of its claims 10 the Polish throne. German inunigrants in Silesian towns supported the Bohemian claim.

In 1349. King Casimir me Great annexed the two Ruthenian principalities of Halicz and Vladimir, thereby extending Poland eastward to modem-day Ukraine.

The Reign of the Builder-King, Casimir m the Great

After the 1333 coronation of King Kazimierz III Wielki (Casimir III the Great, 1310-1370), the papal Nuncio conducted a trial of me Teutonic Order in Warsaw. The Teutonic Brethren were again ordered to evacuate all Polish lands, including Pomerania, and pay damages to Poland.

The Brethren unsuccessfully appealed the sentence of the Warsaw Tribunal to the Vatican. The Treaty of Kalisz followed in 1343. in which the monastic state of German Brethren recognized the king of Poland as its founder, and returned Kujo.wy and DobrzyiJ. to Poland.

King Casimir III the Great is known as the builder-king. He built some eighty major castles, two hundred commercial and sacral buildings for all rites, and city wall fortifications with ornate gates. These structures were built in the Vistula Gothic style combining stone and bricks adorned with stone sculptures. These were splendid examples of Gothic architecture. During the reign of the builder-king lhe high quality of Polish art was due to the fact that in late medieval Poland, craftsmen as well as painters and sculptors had to include a trip abroad as an obligatory elerneru of their apprentice education.

Prosperity under King Casimir the Great reached its peak thanks to his brilliant

The seal of King Casimir III the Great (1310-1370).

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35

!

I

r

"

.:

concluded. At the same time in 1356, the Supreme Court for Urban

Affairs was founded in Krak6w by King Casimir ill. .

In 1364, King Casimir presided over the Congress of Krak6w 10 which the emperor, the kings of Denmark and Hungary, and the dukes : of Silesia and Western Pomerania reconciled their differences and pro- ,,' moted II. crusade against the Turks headed by Peter of Lusignan, the

king of Cyprus.

The founding of the university in Krak6w strengthened upward , mobility in Polish society. Prior to its founding, a bright child of a poor :, peasant could hope to obtain an education sufficient only for the ranks ',of the clergy; but the university gave him a chance to become a scien" tist or a university professor. Often clerical and university careers were 'combined and resulted in the powerful political position of a bishop, or even the Primate Bishop of Poland.

The First Polish University

In 1364 the first Polish university was founded in Krak6w by Casimir the Great. The king was helped by Poles who taught at the University of Prague such as Mateusz of Krak6w, II. theolog~an who, later served as president of the University of Heidelberg and blS~O~ of Worms. It followed the Italian model, in which law was the principal subject. The university included colleges of liberal arts, medicine, ~" law. The Law School was to be especially strong because of Poland s . legal entanglements with Germany and the German Armed .Bre~n. over Prussia. Reforms in 1400 followed the models of the Universines of Paris and Prague, and the study of theology was added. The school of astronomy and mathe-

matics was added in the LlLI .

of the 15th century. Many trious Polish scholars

First Diaries and Newsletters

The chronicle of Jan ofCzamk6w (c.1320-1387) is regarded as the '~t diary in Polish literature. It describes the social problems current at time. Around 1400, etiquette instructions were published in poetic by II. man named Slota. The poem is didactic in nature, providing 'lessons on good table manners and on showing due respect towards .women.

Latin was the international language of law and science, and influPolish legal and scientific vocabulary. Czech literary language more advanced at the time, and also influenced Polish literary sions, Generally people spoke Polish; however, German and iddish were spoken in enclaves. Some borrowed German terms were sed in trade. German and Latin were used in Poland in 15th century letters called "ephemeral letters," which contained news, notifica,reports, communications, and stories that described wars, internaconflicts, famous court cases, commercial news, religious celeand visits of foreign dignitaries. Most Polish newsletters origin Krak6w and were delivered handwritten to subscribers. They considered to be the origin of the press in Poland.

Casimir the Great (1310-1370) (Jan Matejka).

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37

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WaweI---Poland's Pantheon, the royal castle in Krakow.

EVOLUTION OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY 1370-1493

Five hundred years of rule by the Piast dynasty ended. " ... [T] Kingdom of Poland was set fair to found one of the most original lizations of early modem Europe, which, in union with spread out from sea 10 sea, and lasted for more than four hu years." (Norman Davies, God's Playground, A History of P Columbia University Press, New York, 1982, p.I05).

An Electoral Monarchy

The death of King Casimir the Great ended the period of hereditary monarchy in Poland under the Piast Dynasty. For over two hundred years, the succession to the Polish throne was negotiated. Poland became an electoral monarchy between 1370-1572. A constinnional monarchy evolved in this period (1370-1493). During this evolution, due legal process was established in Poland; Polish became a of elegance, diplomacy, and civility in east central Europe, as Pol acquired a civilizing role between the Baltic and the Black Seas.

on the borders with Western Pomerania and Brandenburg as the Polish state grew more powerful.

Christianization of Lithuania

The leadership in Krak6w perceived a great historic opportunity in, arranging a peaceful conversion of Lithuania to Christianity. The hoped that the union of Polish and Lithuanian Christian forces put an end to the invasions and pillage of the Teutonic Order. conducted the predatory wars under the cover of missionary acti Poles were about to achieve the greatest missionary deed of the Middle Ages by peaceful means and adroit diplomacy. Thus, as relations with Lithuania became closer, the foreign policy of Poland

to focus on the problems in the North and the East. Poland's

Concessions in the Act of Koszyce

The first personal union between Poland and Hungary lasted for ve years (1370-1382) during the reign of King Ludwik I, the sueof Casimir the Great. Ludwik I of Anjou, king of Hungary and issued the Act of Koszyce in 1374, which further limited the

power by giving taxing authority to regional legislatures, reducing , and promising 10 nominate local people to territorial offices. that point on the royal succession was possible only with the of the entire nobility, which was represented by the regional leg-

. The act of 1374 limited the obligation of military service and procompensation to soldiers for injuries suffered outside the nationterritory. It also guaranteed the inviolability of the territory of Corona Poloniae, as the Kingdom of Poland was known in Latin. All of

was granted by King Ludwik in return for his and his daughter's

39

Queen of Poland Jadwiga I of Anjou (1374-1399).

King Wladyslaw 11 Jagielk: -, (c. 1350-1434).

the sixth century A.D. There was no college of arms and sometimes imposters abused the rights of nobility. The class identity of Polish nobility, the backbone of the armed : , forces, evolved during a struggle with , the Crown based on the principle of "no taxation without representation," and during the subsequent develop, ment of a full-fledged parliamentary system.

In 1381, Ludwik I signed the Act of Kra.k:6w, in which he reduced ',Church land taxes in return for the acceptance of the succession of his daughter to the Polish throne. The reign of Jadwiga d'Anjou, queen of : Poland, followed from 1384 to 1399.

right of succession to the Polish throne. The Act of Koszyce started ~.e country on the path to becoming the main scene of development of Civil: liberties in Europe, especially when England drifted in the direction of absolutism, and the Magna Carta Libertatum became ineffectual several centuries.

The power of regional legislatures called Sejmiki (sey-mee-kee) was also strengthened; the noble estate of about 10 percent of the po~ ulation was defined; and the estates system was crystallized. Thus, the; , Polish parliamentary system was reconfirmed in the form of legislatures based on the indigenous democratic process. Immunities nobles were granted in exchange for military service in the defense the country.

Polish nobility had the function of a warrior caste known as SZlflCIII·;,

to (shlahkh-tah). The coats of arms were held in common by clans whose heraldic designs were unlike those of western chivalry. Many of them originated from property markings, the

of the Sarmatian Alans, who were assimilated by the Polanian Slavs

The emblem of the kingdom of Poland-Lithuania.

Unions of States for the Common Defense

The aggression by the orders of German armed monks on the Baltic , coast caused the formation of two unions of slates: in the south, Poland and Lithuania united at Krewo in 1385; and in the north, all of , Scandinavia united at Kalmar in 1397.

In the Union ACI of Krewo, Jogaila or Jagiello, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, committed himself to convert Lithuania to Latin Christianity

'- and to unite all Lithuanian and Ruthenian lands with Poland. He also .promised to recover Polish territories lost to the Germans, in exchange both his marriage to Polish Queen Jadwiga of Anjou, and his coro~::'DaU(m as the Catholic king of Poland. Before his coronation in 1386, Wladyslaw Jagiello, (Ladislas Jogaila, c.1350·1434), confirmed the 1374 Act of Koszyce,

The Union of Kalmar was concluded during the coronation of Polish Prince Eric Pomorski (c .1382-1459), great-grandson of Casimir ,'the Great, as king of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway in 1397. King Eric

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VII fought against German expansion in the Baltic. He concluded an alliance with Poland against the Teutonic Order in 1419.

During the reign of King Wladyslaw Jagiello (1386-1434), Polish missionaries converted Lithuania to Roman Catholicism. The Act of WOOo followed in 1387. In it King Wladyslaw Jagiello bestowed hereditary ownership of land and freedom from taxation on the local, ~rinces of the newly converted Catholic Lithuanian nobles. Moldavia also became a fief of Poland. In the 1388 Act of Piotrkow, King Wladyslaw J agieUo increased the civil rights of the nobility and clergy, further limiting the royal power in Poland. In 1400 the king assigned an important role in the conversion of Lithuania to Christianity to the University of Kcak6w, which in the 15th century attained a high standard.

The union with Lithuania opened new political, economic, and cultural prospects for Poland. The territory of the Polish-Lithuanian state had an area three times larger than Poland had before the union, making it the largest state in Europe with a population of about 10 million, twice that of England. The union also turned a homogenous nation into a multinational state; it changed Poland's orientation from West to East.

The tyrannical rule of the German monastic orders resulted in the founding of the "Salamander Society" or "Reptile Association" in 1397. It was a forerunner of the Prussian Union that would be organized for the overthrow of the rule of the Teutonic Order, and for the unification

in freedom of Prussia with Poland.

In 1401, in the Union Act of Wilno and Radom, the Lithuanian knighthood received the same civil rights as were enjoyed by Pol.ish szlachta, Poland guaranteed the safety of Lithuania against aggression by the Armed Brethren of the Teutonic Order in 1409.

-.

Victory and a New Union Act

The Great War against the Teutonic Order by Poland and Lithuania lasted two years (1409-1411). On June 30, 1410, a decisive victory in the battle of Tannenberg-Grunwald was won by the Polish and Lithuanian forces with the assistance of Czech Hussites and auxiliaries from Smolerisk. The chief of the Teutonic Order, Eric von Jungingen, was killed on the battlefield.

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A second victory on October 10, at Koronowo,led to peace negotiations. The terms of the Peace Treaty of Toruri included the return of the Dobrzyii province to Poland, the province of Zrnudz to Lithuania, and payment to Poland in the amount of 6,000,000 groszes by the Teutonic Order. The victory transformed the Polish-Lithuanian union into a great power and put an end 10 the expansionist plans of the Teutonic Order and the Luxemburgers, the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire; it also stopped German aggression in the Baltic area.

The Union Act of Horodlo (1413) was concluded by King Wladyslaw Jagiello, following the victory over the German Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights in 1410. It was a personal union of Poland and Lithuania in which the two were to remain separate states. The king established the territorial office of wojewoda (vo-ye-vo-da), or provincial governor, and initiated new administrative and defensive organizational models, which were followed in central and eastern Europe. Polish noble families extended the use and privileges of their coats of arms to the Lithuanian and Ruthenian nobility.

The frontiers of Western civilization were shifted considerably to the northeast, and Polish social and political institutions penetrated Lithuania, Belarus, and Kievian Ruthenia. New towns were founded and granted a wide measure of self-government. Considerable prosperity was achieved by Polish towns in the 14th and 15th centuries. Those that were members in the Hanseatic League shared in the profitable Baltic and Levantine trade.

The European balance of power changed as a result of Poland and Lithuania's union. Bohemia started to cooperate with Poland. Moldavia became a Polish fief as the Turkish empire became a threat to Balkan Slavs and Byzantium. Thus, Poland had to reorient itself to the problems of the Lithuanian-Ruthenian Empire.

A License to Convert is Not a License to Kill

The military triumphs of the union of Poland and Lithuania were soon paralleled by successes in diplomacy. After their defeat by the Polish king, the armed monks of the Teutonic Order.accused Poland of killing German missionaries and allying itself with pagans. These accu-

43

sations were to be investigated at the Council of Constance (1414- 1418), one of the great diplomatic conferences of the Middle Ages. Pawel Wlodkowicz, (paulus Vladimiri) of Brudzewo, was the Polish Ambassador at the Council of Constance. It was there that he proposed the first seventeen basic theses of international law founded on justice and tolerance. His proposal was based on natural law , the premise that the license to conven is not a license to kill or expropriate, and that only voluntary conversion is valid. He defined the principle of national self-determination, the international society, its functions, organs, and laws. He began to formulate these laws for use by an international tribunal, which he proposed. He justified only purely defensive wars. Wlodkowicz advocated international mediation and arbitration, and an international tribunal for the peaceful solution of conflicts among nations. He argued that the Teutonic Order of armed monks lost its missionary character by committing mass murders and pillage. Therefore, in reality, the German Order constituted a "Prussian heresy." The Council of Constance accepted the arguments of the Polish ambassador.

The coat-of-arms oj Paulus Yladimiri-Pawel Wlodkowjc.

Establishment of Due Process and Royal Elections

In 1422, King Wladyslaw Jagiello issued the Act of Czerwifisk, which provided for a permanent ban against the confiscation of private property, known as the law Nee Bona Recipiantur, This act promised not to allow the confiscation of privately held property without a court sentence based on a written law; it also excluded officials of the crown from judgeships and made the refusal to answer a call to arms punishable by

44

the co~scation of property. The Act of 1422 was the beginning of the formulation of due process under Polish Jaw. In 1423 in the Statute of Warka, King Wladyslaw Jagiello extended the Act of Czerwifisk of 1422 t? include ~~rghen: and free peasants; he also abolished the hereditary rights o~ bwllf_fs. King Wladyslaw Jagiello spread uniform civil rights to all provinces m the Act of Brzesc of Kujawy (1425) in return for the recognition of the succession right of his Sons to the Polish crown.

A fundamental law in the Act of Jedlno of ]430 was known as Nen~;nem_ cap(;vab;mu~ nis! jure victum. It was a guarantee against illegal lffip~sonment equivalent to the English act of Habeas Corpus of 1679. ~g Wladyslaw: Jagiello further strengthened the civil rights of ~e nobility and clergy m return for a promise to elect one of his sons as kin~ of Poland and to incorporate the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into the Polish Commonwealth. The provincial government of Podolia was organized at Kamieniec Podolski.

In 1432, the Union Act ofGrodno was concluded. The Grand Duke Zygmunt Kiejstutowlcz was recognized as the ruler of Lithuania for life. After his death, Lithuania (including Belrus and Kievian Ruthenia) was to be incorporated into Poland.

King Wladyslaw Jagiello guaranteed the personal freedom of citizens under protection of the courts in the ]433 Act of Krak6w; it was thus a reconfirmanor; of the protective law against illegal imprisonment.

The due legal process guaranteed the inviolability of a citizen's person (who was not caught in the act of committinga crime). It was formulated for the first time in Europe in Poland in the acts of 1422- 1433. Thus due process was the basis of the legal system in Poland when abso.1utism reigned in the rest of Europe. This legal development happened m Poland because the middle nobility, allied with the royal court, :,.on the power struggle against huge landowners. The democracy of nobility was led by the middle nobility, which had acted as "the middle class" of the political nation of free citizens in the Polish Commonwealth. In the 1434 Act of Troki, the Grand Duke of Lithuania ~cluded the gentry of Halicia (Galicia) and Podolia within Polish civil rights, thus further spreading due process under the law.

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Defense of Christianity and the Prussian Union

King Wladyslaw ill (1424·1444) was crowned at the age of ten, and became king of Hungary six years later. The power of the PolishLithuanian union was reflected in the fact that the Hungarian and Czech crowns were offered to the king of Poland. Important political events faced the court of the young king.

An alliance of Poland and Hungary with Pope Eugenius IV against

the Turkish Empire was signed. In 1440 the Act of Confederauon of Prussian Nobility and Towns was concluded in protest against the yoke of the German Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights. Its purpose was the free incorporation of Prussia into the Polish Commonwealth. The confederation was known as the Prussian Union (it was later condemned by papal anathema, which was issued as a result of intrigues of the Armed Brethren of the Teutonic Order at the Vatican).

The Polish.Lithuanian Union was terminated (for six years) in 1440 by the Act of Wilno. It was a short-lived victory for the Lithuanian aristocracy which wanted to establish an oligarchy in Lithuania. At the same time. a personal union of Poland and Hungary (1440·1444) was again established under King Wladysiaw ill. The union was concluded in the face of the threat of the invasion by the Turkish Empire. King Wladysiaw

ill won a brilliant victory over the Turks in Bulgaria, and signed a highly favorable truce. However. a year later, the Pope, fearful about the possibility of the fall of the Byzantine Empire pressed King Wladyslaw ill to break the truce. The Pope, anxious to consolidate the merger of Eastern and Western Christianity, urged an immediate attack on the Turks without proper preparation. Had King Wladyslaw 111 succeeded-freed ConsUlIltinople and driven the Turks King Kazimierz TV Jagiellonczyk into Asia Minor-the union might

(1427.1492) (Jan Matejko). have succeeded. Unfortunately, the

46

king of Poland and Hungary was killed leading the Hungarian army and Polish knights into the battle of Varna (1444). The victorious Turks were now free to conquer Constantinople in 1453, solidify their rule over the

Balkan Slavs, and become a threat 10 central Europe. :

The Incorporation of Prussia

The interruption of the Union of Poland and Lithuania ended in 144~, ":,,hen the grand duke of Lithuania was crowned as king of Poland, Kazlmierz IV Jagielloiiczyk (1427-1492), and issued the new Act of Wilno: In .it h~. agreed to reign in Poland and Lithuania as two equal countnes (in a brotherly union") and to confmn the existing civil rights and due process under the law in both countries. In 1447. in the Act of Grodno, the .lOng further insisted on enforcing Polish-type civil rights ~ong the Ltthuanian and Ruthenian nobility in order to limit the political power. of Lithuanian aristocracy. In 1453 the king signed the Act of Co~alIon of Jewish Liberties, first issued in 1264. One year later he proclaimed the Act of Incorporation of Prussia into the Polish Crown during a rebellion against the yoke of the German Monastic State of the ~eutonic Knights. The insurrection broke out after failed tax negotianons between the brethren of the Teutonic Order and the Prussian Confederation of the knights and burghers of Prussia at the time of growing prosperity in Poland.

The Thirteen Years' War fought by Poland against the Teutonic Order ended in 1466 with the treaty of Toruli. Malbork along with the provinc~ of Warmia or Warmland became a part of Poland. while Krolewiec or Koenigsberg became the new capital of the Polish Fief of Prussia. The grand master of the Teutonic Order was obligated to pay homage and taxes to the king of Poland. Ulryk Czerwonka, the Czech mercenary commander of the Malbork garrison, surrendered the main castle and capital of the Teutonic Order to Poland. In the Act of Gdansk (1457). King Kazimierz JagieUoiiczyk bestowed self-govenunent and trading privileges on Gdaiisk, E1bl1l8 (Elbing), and Toruli, cities recently freed from domination by the German Monastic Slate of the Teutonic Knights (or German Armed Brethren), Lithuania was not involved in the Thirteen Years' War against German Armed Brethern.

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THE FORMATION OF THE NATIONAL BICArvlERAL PARLIAMENT 1454-1493

Late Gothic parish church in Gaslawice, built in 1440.

The Indigenous Polish Democratic Process

An original Polish civilization was maturing in early modem Europe. The formation of the feudal republic of Polish nobility started in 1454 with the Act of Nieszawa, which some call the Magna Carta of the masses of Polish szlachta (nobility). King Kazimierz IV Jagielloriczyk officially confirmed the legal power of each Seymik (seymeek) or regional legislature in each district. The regional Seymiks had the power to approve every military mobilization, and the right to nominate four candidates for the local judiciary, of which one would be chosen by the king to fill a vacant post. Thus the power of aristocracy was limited in favor of the middle and lower nobility, It also marked the transformation of unicameral regional legislature with an open attendance into an orderly system of representation in a national parliament. Thus the maturity of the representative fonn of government was achieved in Poland. Starting in 1468, representatives of the Seymiks, which constituted regional assemblies of the nobility (the szlachta), met annually as one parliament, known as the Seym.

The indigenous Polish democratic process was based on Seymiks, or regional legislatures, where ordinary citizens had a dominant voice. The Seymiks themselves evolved from the prehistoric Slavic institution of wiec (vyets), which were the basis of Slavic military democracies and the organization of Slavic volunteer armies. In 740 A.D. these Slavic armies dominated central Europe from the frontiers of the empire of Charles the Great in the west to Byzantium in the east (as illustrated on the first map at the beginning of this book).

Seymiks became platforms for political emancipation; a source of information about the affairs of state for the ordinary citizen; and creat-

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ed the means for mutual consultations through duly elected representatives equipped with a real and clear mandate. It was the beginning of the reshaping of the Polish monarchy into a republic of the nobility. By the 16305, the Polish nobility would number one million citizens. Polish democratic processes would be successful as long as the lower and middle nobility won the power struggle against landed aristocracy.

Economic Expansion and Culture

In the middle of the 15th century, the population density of Poland was estimated at about ten persons per square kilometer, or a total of about two-and-a-half to three million people. The three field system of field rotation was becoming generally used in Polish agriculture. (The peasants paid rent for the fields they cultivated.) Grain was produced in Poland for new and expanding markets, while western Europe suffered an agrarian crisis. The cereal prices were high and the land became more valuable. New deposits of iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, sulphur, and rock salt were discovered and mined. Hundreds of towns were granted municipal charters. Money was in general use in trade involving manufactured goods and farm products. During the 14th and 15th centuries, trade and the use of money reached the highest level of activity dwing the feudal period in Poland. A large number of craft guilds were formed among leather and metal workers, covering all kinds of specialties.

The towns were surrounded with defense Walls. The multi-story artillery bastion called a barbican (in Arabic architectural style) was built in front of S1. Florian's Gate in Krak6w at me end of the 15th century. It was the largest structure of its kind in Europe. Gothic style prevailed in architecture. Monumental cathedrals, huge ecclesiastical buildings, and ornate town halls were built, as well as some of the ' largest fortified complexes in Europe. The city of Gdansk was closely associated with the new burgher architecture exemplified by Antwerp in the Netherlands. Built in 1345-1487, St. Mary's basilica in Gdansk is the largest church in Poland.

Art works such as stainedglass windows, murals. plaques, paintings, sculptures in stone and wood, gold jewelry, and textiles attained perfection in form and design. The monumental wooden altar of St,

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Mary's Basilica in Krakow was produced in 1477-1485 in the Late Gothic style. Cardinal Zbigniew Olesnicki founded the castle of Pincz6w (1426-1454) built in a style which shows the transition from the ~edieval into the Renaissance. Master Benedykt, a Pole, was the'

, a.n:hi~ect .of the arcaded courtyard of the Collegium Malus, a university

, buil~g m Krak6w. The ~olhynian school of Ruthenian mural painting flounshed. The royal capital of Krak6w became an important cultural -and political center in Europe.

One of the oldest relics of Polish prose, known as The Bible 0/ ,_Q~een Zofia (the fourth wife of King Wladyslaw Jagiello), is the translation of the Old Testament into Polish c.1455. Latin texts of statutes were trans~ated into Polish. The first book on Polish orthography was "}"""",,:>,U,",U in 1440. Poetry was written in Polish. Secular music was

, written for one voice, and songs were composed in the vernacular. The song Bogurodzica (The Mother a/God) Was sung before battles with the ·Teutonic Order in 1410. Musical compositions of Mikol:aj of Radom of the first half of the 15th century had high artistic value. Stanislaw of Skalbmierz, a ?rofessor .at the University of Krak6w, developed an "advanced doctrine of the Just war, de bellis iustis, in 1411.

, A hi~tory of Poland was written in 1455-1480 by Jan Dlugosz (1415- 480). ~ work rep~ented an outstanding example of European historstudies of the penod. The twelve volumes of Polish history up to 1480 a monument to the early Polish Renaissance and the best Polish hisw~rk before. the 18th century. Among other historical works by Jan :DiIJEO:SZ IS Banderia Prutenorum. In it, he describes the German banners the Teutonic Knights captured at the battle of Grunwald.

A documentary Polish poem describes the murder of the Castellan

'· .... nlnT"'7"" Teezyriski, in 1461 by rebellious townsmen of Krak6w. I

In 1473. the first printing and publishing firms were established in . The same year Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), the founder of ,--._,--~ astronomy, was born in Toruri, In 1475. the first Polish text was

in Wroclaw by Kasper Elyan. It included The Lord's Prayer, The

Mary, and The Creed in Polish. Polish printers also worked abroad.

Adam of Poland worked in Naples in 1478; and in 1492-1495 two printers, Stanislaw of Poland and Stefan Polak, worked in Seville,

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The archbishop of Lw6w, Grzegorz of Sanok (c.1406-1477), was' the first prominent humanist writer in Poland. He wrote poetry in Polish . and in Latin. He was a his LOri an and a patron of literature. Many schol- '" ars found hospitality in his manor. Among his guests was Filippo Buonaccorsi, who described the life and works of his host as those of an ideal humanist.

In 1474 the wojewoda (governor) of Poznan and doctor of law, Jan, '

Ostror6g (c.1436-1501), published a political program entitled • ,

Repuhlicae Ordinatione" or "On An Orderly Republic (or "

wealth)." In it the author defends the sovereignty of Poland against the :' power of the Pope; supports the right to appeal sentences of ~ocal: ' Church courts; and advocates taxing the Church for the national defense. as well as the improvement of the civil rights of the burghers and peasants. He insists on the limitation power of aristocracy, and the strengthening of the alliance of throne with the middle nobility. ;'.

By the end of the 15th century, national and regional ments became catalysts of and culturalllfe in Poland-a played in the rest of Europe by royal court and the town. The of Krak6w of 1485 regulated standing of Jewish craftsmen the guilds. The first Digest Polish Law was printed in ~-'--"_ in 1488; it included a royal antee against searches seizures. Approximately 1 different Polish words were in the preserved medieval texts;,

Social consciousness strengthened by the expressions

A page of Polish state records. the Metryka Koronna of 1463, with the text of an imernational peace plan similar to the United Nations.

Polish nationalism in Renaissance writings. In addition to works in Latin, for the first time anywhere books were also printed in the CyriUic

n, "". in Krak6w.

The Polish Commonwealth was a social and political union of" ethnic groups, among whom 40 percent were Polish speakers. There was a broad support for the Polish State. Turkish and Tartar threats produced solidarity among all the ethnic groups of the

·'rl', .... " .. nn wealth, as did the belief that the mission of Poland was to as a shield of Christianity.

International Peace Plan of 1462

Polish state records known as Metryka Koronna, include a unique of a remarkable proposal for an international charter for peace, sim-

to that of the United Nations. It was co-sponsored by Poland, , and Bohemia, and was the earliest proposal for an intemationpeace organization in Europe's history. The project was based to a t,Co'OsideI·ablle extent on the works of Pawel Wlodkowicz (Paulus

rIru:llimiiri) , Polish ambassador at Constance (1414-1418). The actual was prepared at the Bohemian court of King Jiri of Podjebrady. It ~ ....... ~U\.~ a General Assembly ruled by a simple majority, and an interlDllllOnai force controlled by its secretariat. It was to follow a procedure

an international judicial arbitration; it did away with the idea of a unimedieval empire and outlawed aggression (especially by the Muslim Turks and the "hornet's nest" of Crimean Tartars who staged , raids in the Ukraine in order to rob and kidnap people for ransom.

activity turned the southern Ukraine into the "Wild Plains.")

The project was to create a new international authority in view of

declining power and the ineffectiveness of both the fragmented Holy Empire and the Papacy. The peace project was a subject ofnegobetween the European states for two years (1462-1464), but was J1IJ.U.U'iI,vlLY wrecked by Papal opposition. King Jiri of Podjebrady of ~ ... u .... ~ ...... named Polish Crown Prince Wladyslaw as his successor. In , the Czech legislature elected Wladyslaw king of Bohemia. When ~ldys;law became king of Hungary (in 1490), Lhe Jagiellonian realm ~tcmdl~ from the Baltic to the Black and Adriatic Seas.

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A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE, 1493-1569

The Bicameral Parliament

During the reign of King Jan Olbracht (1459-1501), son of King

_ IV. the Polish parliament became bicameral in 1493. Thus.

year 1493 marked the maturity of the Polish constitutional rnonar. the Bicameral National Parliament or the Seym WalllY (seym val-

, ,It defined itself as three estates: the king; the senate. consisting of and dignitaries; and the lower house or the Seym proper. It was the lzba Poselska (eez-ba po-sel-skah) or the Chamber of 1i!:'I']..'Ul1';;;:'. It was presided over by a speaker called the marshal, while Ie was presided over by the king. It was an important step in the s Polish development of the representative form of governwhich would last uninterrupted for 300 years.

The year 1493 also marked the beginning of 160 years of successparliamentary activity by the Seym. During this period a proverb

, : coined: Polska nie rzqdem stoi ale cnotq, meaning that the well of Poland depends primarily on the virtue of its citizens. Each to the Seym represented his own region and was theoretically to veto legislative proposals that violated his mandate. When was not achieved, less important matters were postponed

more urgent matters were attended to by persuasion or by form-

a confederation in which the majority ruled.

Muscovy Russia. Ivan the Great consolidated his power by "' ... , ........ );; the independent republic of Novgorod in 1476; and in 1480, mass deportation of 10,000 Novgorodians to the Urals. It

·the maturity of Muscovy political engineering and the beginning of tradition of empire building by coercion, deportations, and

Incorporation of Prussia into Poland after the Polish victory over the

Teutonic Knights; and an international peace plan. "

'It would eventually become the foundation of Russian colonialism proved to be disastrous for Poland.

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Basic Polish Constitutional Law

In 1501, King Aleksander Jagielloriczyk issued the Union Act Mielnik. In doing so he yielded to the aristocracy and assigned to the :

Senate the exclusive right to elect and control the king. If the king; .. should try to establish a "tyrannical rule" in violation of the will of the.. Senate, he could be legally impeached; an election ordinance was also established in the Act of Mielnik. Vigorous action by the members of ' the Seym of Piotrk6w (1504) led to the abolishment of the Union Act: of Mielnik. It was a victory of the middle nobility in us power with the aristocracy. The Seym placed crown estates and orCloelrttes': under the partial control of the Chamber of Deputies. No person was ' hold more than one office. The office of the grand hetman was defined as that of the defense minister and the administrator of the armed forces. ' who also was to serve as the head of the military court.

In 1505, the Constitution Seym of Radom passed the first Polish constitutional law called Nihil Novi or "nothing new about us, us," meaning that nothing new would be decided in Poland without concurrence of the Chamber of Deputies.

The Chamber of Deputies was composed of representatives of provincial legislatures, or the regional or county diets known as Seymiks. The new constitution prohibited the political nation of free izens to occupy themselves with commerce and crafts under the ty of loss of their civil rights.

The first constitutional law of 1505 made the Chamber of the supreme power in Poland. The kings, elected for life, became cessive heads of state and chiefs of the executive branch of the

government. "

Starting in 1507, the laws passed by the Seym were published'

Latin at the end of each session under the title of Constitutions. would replace Latin in the Seym records beginning in 1545.)

Lithuania. Thus, starting in 1512, during the three-year long siege of Smolerisk, they suffered ten thousand dead each season. Russia's blood" iest losses of 30,000 dead. including 1,500 boyars, occurred in the bat-

of Orsza on the upper Dnieper River in 1514. There. the Muscovy : cavalry army of 80,000 fought 20,()(X) Polish regulars and 15,000 Lithuanians. Konstanty Ostrogski won the battle by skillfully using

.artillery and cavalry; for the first time, Husaria (later known as Polish ,winged knights) were used. Despite their defeat at Orsza, the Muscovite look the city of Smolerisk later in 1514.

The king of Poland, Sigismund I the Old, brother of King iAJela,ancler I, met in Vienna in 1515 with Wladyslaw II Jagiello, the of Bohemia and Hungary, and the Emperor Maximilian Hapsburg. Hapsburgs received the guarantee to succeed to the Bohemian and ~.n.'U'~"J.lilU throne in case of the extinction of the Jagiellonian Dynasty

exchange for Hapsburgs' acceptance of Poland's ownership of the

of Prussia. Also facing the loss of Muscovy support, Albrecht von • fanner grand master of the Teutonic Order and recent to Lutheranism, paid homage to the Catholic king of Poland out the Polish fief of Prussia in 1525.

In the same year, the Seym accepted the secularization of the ,M(mru~o.c Stale of the Teutonic Order and committed a political blunder not evicting the remnants of the Teutonic Order hom Prussia. A 116- long series of homages to Poland paid out of the fief of Prussia by Hohenzollems began; they delivered their payment kneeling before Polish throne. Albrecht von Hohenzollern paid the first act of homto Poland in the market of Krak6w and recognized the control of the king over Prussia; it was the fIrsl pact in Europe, tom by reliconflicts, between a Catholic king and a Protestant vassal duke.

The Copernican Revolution

The Polish Renaissance was the Golden Age of Poland. The arrival the Renaissance coincided with the formal establishment of the par(the Seym) as the supreme power in the land.

Among the native leaders of that period was Nicolaus Copernicus 472-1543 )-Mikolaj Kopemik (mee-ko-wahy ko-per-fleek)-the

Political Moves Leading to the First Prussian Homage·,!!

The Hohenzollems of Berlin conspired with the Muscovites Poland. However, the situation changed adversely for the zollems when the Muscovy soldiers fared badly in war against

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1521), while serving as a commanding officer, Copernicus successfully combated an epidemic by designing the world's first epidemiological ,,'study. After discovering that bread was the vector, he ordered that all loaves of bread be coaled with butter at bakeries, so that foreign matter,' 'accumulated during delivery, could be readily detected and discarded. , plague was subsequently checked. This event is known in the history

medicine as the inception of bread-buttering by Nicolaus Copernicus.

Copernicus moved the leadership of western civilization's philothought from the Mediterranean basin into the northern middle of Europe. The philosophical implications of the great discoveries were fundamental. The idea that the Earth is staand a flat central area in the universe, on which the human drama

personal salvation goes on without privacy under the eyes of God and angels, was shaken irreparably. Eventually, it became apparent that on earth is a thin surface-effect on a minor celestial body traveling cosmic space at a high speed.

The age-old human yearning for safety and stability was destroyed

the realization that the Earth was neither immovable nor the largest tial body, central in the cosmos. The Copernican universe brought as no other idea in the history of human thought, the frightening ization that all of existence is in a permanent flux of ever-changing ever-becoming.

In 1523 Erasmus of Rotterdam, impressed by Polish achievements, the following passage: "I congratulate this nation ... which now, in ''''-'''''"'~C''', jurisprudence, morals, and religion, and in all that separates us barbarism, is so flourishing that il can rival the first and most gloof nations."

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father of modem astronomy. His alma mater, the University of Krak6w, bad an excellent college of astronomy, then the best in Europe. There, Copernicus discovered the structure of the solar." system and conceived his heliocentric. astronomical theory about 1504. The" Copernican calendar was subsequently" proven to be accurate within two min·utes of the correct year's length-ari", amazing accuracy considering the coa-:

The Universe o/Copernicus.1543. clition of European science in the early'." 16th century.

The Copernican heliocentric theory-that the earth rotates daily on- ' its axis and that the planets revolve in orbits around the sun-was circu- , lated in Commenlariolus (1510) and published in De Revolu Orbium Coelestium (1543). While,Luther and Calvin condemned this

ory, the Catholic Church approved its development. After three years ,

studying Copernicus' text, it encouraged its publication as early as 153 , Eighty-six years later, however, the Church placed Copernican works

the index of forbidden books, where it would remain until 1828. Church's use of the new Copernican calender, on the other hand, ued uninterrupted throughout this period.)

Copernicus, a true Renaissance man, served in many capacities.

was an administrator of Wannia on the Baltic in northern Poland, a tary commander, and a finance minister; he was also a trained mathematician, economist, lawyer, and medical doctor. Copernicus lished the Monetae Cudende Ratio on the stabilization of currency in 1 There he states the law of currency that "bad money drives the money out of circulation," a law that was later named in England Thomas Gresham. Copernicus then combated fraudulent schemes by German House of Hohenzollems, who were minting debased Polish rency and tampering with the Visrula River grain trade. Copernicus on the legislative committee for the reform of Polish currency.

During the German siege of the Mazurian fonress of Olsztyn (151 ,

Economic Notes

The export prices for Polish wheat were weakening as Muscovites their exports, This situation resulted in the passing of the IlQI.tIIUU::':> of Toru and Bydgoszcz in 1520, which obligated the peasants to one day a week without pay as a form of rent for the use of land. It the beginning of the return. of serfdom to Poland, and was soon accornby a drop in agricultural efficiency. The European price revolution

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reached Poland, bringing towns to the peak of their importance, while inlla- , ' tion grew to 300 percent and wages doubled over the next 100 years.

A further serious drop in grain prices resulted in 1543, due to the, passage of the Act of the Seym that attached the serfs to the land and then" denied their right to free themselves from servitude by cash payments. The serfs were proscribed to the land of their origin, which was 9. form '

of slavery. -

The Act of Monetary Reform in Poland (1526) introduced a based on the Polish unit zloty (zwo-ti), meaning golden coin. The monetary system was adopted in Prussia in 1528 and in Lithuania in

The same year, the Seym ratified the incorporation of Mazovia into

Standardization of Legal Procedures

The codification of the electoral functions of regional legis I was accomplished; a joint artillery and military engineering ,"VI,ULUIlIMO was established. In 1521, the Act of Seym approved a Code of Law Prussia.

The Act of Seym of 1523 formulated the Formula Processus, a that standardized legal procedures in the courts of law throughout Polish Commonwealth. It was the earliest standardization of legal cedures in Europe (in France, for example, such a code was first tuted some 270 years later during the French Revolution). Roman r replaced Gothic, thus, making printing more readable. In 1524, an Act' Seym revised the instructions for tax collection, and one year lo.~~established courts for the mining industry.

Defeat at Mohacz, Hungary

The Polish Jagiellonian realm was diminished and suffered a decline in 1526. The battlefield death of Ludwik II Jagiello (1506-1 king of Hungary and Bohemia, at Mohacz was the second death of, " Jagiellonian king in a battle against the Muslim Turkish Empire. time the victor was Sulejman the Magnificent (c. 1496-1566), expanded the Ottoman Empire to include in its territories the capital Budapest, as well as Belgrade, Rhodes, Tabriz, Baghdad, and Algiers. Poland had to face the threat of Muslim invasion, while. of central Europe was thrown into rurmoil.

In 1527. the reorganization of the Polish defense establishment was , started by: the Decree on Subordination of Hetman Polny, or the field , commander, to the Grand Hetman (defense minister); separate appro-

, priations for the artillery; and the mass production of gun barrels in the : foundries of Krak6w, Lw6w, and Wilno.

Poland Saves Jews from Extinction

Jewish immigrants, persecuted in the west, were permitted to continue to settle and prosper in all parts of Poland. They were allowed to elect their own elders and to administer to their own affairs. It was the of the Jewish people in the Polish i-'Lllffilmonwealth. Thus, Poland saved Jews from extinction, while Polish parliamentary life flourished. The autono!Dy of the Jews was strengthened when Jewish Supreme Tribunal was estabin 1530 in Lublin. It had jurisdic-

tion over the entire European Jewry. The Decree (1549) gave the Jewish ,_ .... " ...... ~" .. .1 the authority to assess and to collect their own poll tax, which was determined in bargaining sessions with

~fficials of the Polish treasury. Maturity Portrait of a rabbi

reached by the autonomous Jewish

[legislati ve institutions in Poland. The Congressus Judaicus (1592-1764) Lublin, was patterned after the Polish parliament. It was unique in the

, , of Jewish Diaspora. The 16th and 17th centuries were the period

spiritual hegemony of Polish Jews over world Jewry.

Codification of Laws Based on a Public Debate

In 1532, a committee of the Seym was formed for the codification ,all Polish common and written laws. It was the earliest such legislaproject in Europe; the codification procedure was based on a pubdebate. Printed proposals were made by the National Seym and sent 'every one of the regional legislatures for examination and evaluation.

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A written report from each Seymik was then sent back to the National . Seym to be processed by the Law Codification Committee.

An act of the Seym prohibited the peasant serfs from moving with-'. out the consent of their landlord; prohibitions included the employment_- .. of runaway serfs and their citizenship in towns, and penalties for run··'" away serfs were specified. However, the runaway serfs were able 10 escape 10 join the Ukrainian Cossacks. The possibility of the escape to Ukraine was a limiting factor in the exploitation of the peasant serfs," The status of free peasants, meanwhile, remained unchanged.

The "Respect for the Law"-a political program known as "execution-of-the-law" movement-was organized (1535-1538) for strict execution of laws and for the reformation and modernization

the government, Related legislation was effective in producing fold results: lords were forced to return illegally held crown lands; tb~, holding of more than one office by one person was again prohibited; a closer union with Lithuania was encouraged; and other nrooosals-' included the establishment of a national church.

In 1537, a Protest Seym was in session during the mobilization a war with Moldavia; demands were made there for adoption of Respect of the Law Program by the king's government. An Act of Seym (1538) ordered the sale of farming properties by the burghers passed taxes for the expenses of the war against Moldavia. In 1540. act of the Seym revised electoral apportionment. Four years later, Seym Act codified the ordinance for courts.

ordinance for the procedure of the Impeachment Tribunal by the Seym. The ecclesiastical jurisdiction was further constrained by the Act of the

Seym (1556). .

Two years later the Seym established the Post Office. In 1560, the " t of Gdansk founded a privateer navy for the blockade of the Russian River grain trade.

The Act of Wilno (1561) ratified the treaty with Livonia that made :n.. ... J<UIU Poland's fief in exchange for protection against Russia and the Terrible. The secularization of the German Armed Brethren of Sword, formerly a part of the Monastic Stale of the Teutonic 'Brethren (or Knights) followed. The incorporation of Livonia into the Commonwealth was accomplished. It was a choice of the :Ll1~onilan leadership to unite in freedom with Poland. The income of estates (demesnes) was earmarked for the defense.

Banning of the Inquisition; the Incorporation of

The reign of the last Jagiellonian king was to bring the final ::>lIaI.lUIJ~', of the republican system of government of the Commonwealth. The King Zygmunt August (1520·1572) was a xenars-r sance man and one of the founding fathers of the Polish Nobles' Rel)ubJlic~:~

In 1552, an Act of Seym suspended the execution of Church sentences by the county chiefs for a year; a resolution against was also passed and the Holy Inquisition was banned from Poland in

its forms. There was no burning at the stake, and Poland was free activities of the Inquisition. In 1553, an act of the Seym established

Renaissance in Literature, Architecture, and Political Science

The first modem description of eastern Europe was published in 7 by a professor at the University of Krak6w, Madej of Miech6w

. 457-1523), called Miechowita, under the title Tractatus de duabus :.".rrn,ruI1S. Miechowita was an historian, physician, and geographer. In 19 he published the first printed history of Poland entitled Chronica ~Pnfnn,'lrll.m which dealt with events up to 1506. Its Polish translation printed in 1535. The best known among Polish burgher writers was \,U'''.IJJ<lL of Lublin (c.I465-1530). His prayer book, The Soul's Paradise, published in 1513. The first leading poet of the Polish Renaissance Klemens Janicki (1516·1543). A peasant's son, he wrote patriotic

~"'L""''''' poems about Poland in Latin. After his death his poetry was ranslated into Polish (1563) and became very popular. Janicki gave the trulhfu1 description of his own life in Polish poetry.

The Reformation in Poland was not primarily a spiritual moveII was used to further the process of intellectual and political ,ep1anc:ipaltiO]fl, which had started long before. The masses of Polish JUUlIlIV_ which were so successful in limiting the power of the throne,

attracted to the ideas of the Reformation, They broke the power of

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Hetman Jan Tarnowski (1488-1561 J.

quantity. Mikolaj Szarffenberg invented a portable "camp-printer" for publication of proclamations and mandates during the king's travel.

A political program, republican in nature and advanced for its lime, was published in 1551 under the title of Commentar-

. iorum De Republica Emendada by Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski ," (1503-72), called the father of Polish democratic thought. Modrzewski's work is composed of five books: On Customs, On,

, Laws, On War, On the Church, and On Schools. In them he called for the legal equality of all; for ending the oppression of the serfs and the inadequate laws that protected them; and an opposition to .all wars and schemes of aggres-

sion. Modrzewski advocated a strong central government, strict, Iy controlled by laws; an efficient administration; and an independent court system to guarantee

'social justice. He also advocated high quality education inde':'pEmdentfrom the Church. He was

City hall in Po'znan. '

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the Church. The Reformation helped to crystalize the absolute primacy of personal freedom in the Polish Commonwealth. Thus, neither the throne, nor the Church, could take precedence over the sacred right of citizens to personal liberty. Hetman Jan Tarnowski said, "It is not a question of religion, it is a question of liberty." An excellent biography of Hetman Jan Tarnowski was written by a political writer, Stanislaw Orzechowski.

In Calvinism, szlachta found the' confirmation of its superiority over' the crown and its administration as ' Calvinism gave the leading position in Church matters to lay elders ' rather than to the reigning monarch. Polish nobles treated the Co.lvinist ' ministers as tools and never as equal partners in Church affairs. Lutheranism, on the other hand, because of its allien national character .. and its submission to the throne, did not appeal to Polish nobles. ~ .:, Lutheranism in Poland remained predominantly the religion of the: burghers. The Reformation did not improve the situation of the peasants. ' and very few of them adhered to'.',

the new creed.

The Renaissance brought with, it an interest in history, geography..: and customs. It influenced the 1551. publication of the Chronicle of the. World by Marcin Bielski (1495-., 1575), which became the first book of world history written in .. Polish. During the Renaissance and; up to the Enlightenment, Krakow was the leading center of printing Inside of the city hall in Poznan. in Poland, both in quality and

i, I

The fortress of Kamieniec Podolski. Etching by Napoleon Orda.

Western Europe exerted the main cultural influence on Polish architecture. Renaissance architecture blossomed. Old buildings were, embellished in the Renaissance style. Residences of the elite Polish nobility had a form derived from medieval castles. Eventually, the development of artillery brought predominance of magnate residences in the fonn of a palace surrounded by bastion fortifications. These palaces were often built by Italian architects.

In Poland, the royal castle of Krak6w is the prototype of ' Renaissance architecture, as it was before with the Romanesque and ' Gothic styles. Sepulchral chambers on Wawel Hill were built in the Italian Renaissance style in 1502. Gothic structures, like the castle of' Pieskowa Skala, were easily remodeled in the Renaissance style. which was soon followed by Mannerism and its delicate garden structures. The,' first ecclesiastical building in Poland based on the new architectural style in the age of humanism was the Sigismund Chapel (Kapiica:

Zygmuntowska) in the Wawel Cathedral. It was designed according to

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the "perfect temple" of Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472). It won universal acclaim and influenced later sacral architecture in the country. Renaissance-Mannerist style blossomed in the architecture of town halls, town houses and fortified residences, castles, and manors. '

Polish painters were influenced by Flemish realism. Jan Albert executed sacral paintings with landscape backgrounds in 1501-1506; Erasm Ciolek included an aerial perspective in 1515. A high quality , guild book. the 1505 Code of Behem of Krak6w was illustrated with , .twenty-seven scenes from the lives of the guilds and burghers, painted , . _ with realism all in beautiful color. Stanislaw Samostrzelnik, a monk,

. 'fresco and portrait painter, miniaturist. and illustrator, was an outstanding artist who worked in 1519-1541 in the Polish Mannerist style. .Portraits of dignitaries and university professors were also painted in the second half of the 16th century. Marcin Kober from Wroclaw paint__ ed a number of portraits of King Stephen Batory in 1563-1583.

The huge Siglsrnund Bell of Krak6w is a masterpiece of Polish craft of the first half of the 16th century. It was made by Hans Beham in commemoration of the Polish-Lithuanian victory over Muscovy in 1514. Ornamental metal works were also executed in this period including the beautiful Cock of the Krak6w Marksmen's Fraternity. Polish kings commissioned a large collection of Arrases to be made in Brussels for the walls of the royal castle. Ornamental metal works including coffins were made in this period in Gdansk and in Nuremberg. Polish manufacturers produced elegant dress sashes of oriental design used as a part of the costume of Polish noblemen. Fine richly decorated wooden altarpieces were produced in southern Poland.

Polish Theater in the 16th Century

Early Polish theater had a form of mystery plays staged in the 15th century. On January 12, 1578. in Jazd6w, a very carefully prepared pro, '_ duction of "Odprawa Poslow Greckich" ("The Dismissal of the Greek Envoys") was staged by Jan Kochanowski in the presence of King , , Stephen Batory. It was a political play that forced the audience to make a personal judgement of the events shown on the stage--a novelty in Polish stage plays.

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In 1580, Mikolaj of Wilkowiecko wrote the oldest dramatic text, that still plays an important role in contemporary Polish theater. It con-, tains numerous stage directions for actors as well as descriptions of tho costumes. It was used on Warsaw stage in Ihe mid-20th, century. ' :

The satire of everyday life' has a long tradition in and il was the origin of comedy. Satirical performances, started with medieval and were also used lengthy interludes within

tery plays. Some humanist

ers attempted to write patterned after the works. One such example Potrojny (Treble), written-

Piotr Cieklifiski and about 1595 at the castle of Stanislaw Tarnowski against a U''' ..... J<.JL ...

of painted scenery.

Western dramas with mythological themes were staged at,

beginning of the 16th century by the students of the University, Krakow under the direction of their professors. The first perform of the humanist theater staged at the royal court were in Latin, soon be replaced by Polish. These plays were commissioned by .' burghers. The tickets were sold at a price equivalent to the value, twelve geese. At the same time, the secular popular theater flouri

Jan Kochanowski (1530-1584-).

Music in 16th-Century Poland

Polish Renaissance music blossomed in the 16th century, Krak6w as its principal center. Polish composers wrote mainly phonic music for liturgical texts. Jan of Lublin compiled a Book Organ Music (c. 1540), thai evidences a high artistic level and a varied musical repertoire in Poland at the time. In 1580, puuu.::,u~'_~

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psalms were composed by Mikolaj Gom6lk.a to a text written by Jan Kochanowski. A long list of Polish composers who studied the theory of music at the University of Krak6w is well documented in the university library, which has many handwritten treatises on music and their first printed editions. Music for the lute was widely played. It was composed for preludes, fantasias, dances, love songs, and other vocal ,pieces. Valentine Nakfark (1507-1576) was the best known lutanist at royal court in Kra.k:6w. His compositions were printed in Lyons (1552), Paris (1564), Krak6w (1565 and 1568), and Antwerp (1569).

other well known com- '

were Wojciech Dlugoraj,

Jakub Polak (also known as de Reys). Secular music by artists dealt with histhemes and was composed

commemorate victorious batevents at the royal court, as as to uplift the morale of the ple.

The four-string violin is men, ioned in Polish records in the sechalf of the 15th century, some years earlier than in Italian . Marcin Groblicz (c.1530-

10) apparently adopted the box of the 15th-century seven-string /ira da braccio ,the Polish four-string ge§le and one of the first violins in . He made a new type of with four pegs for his instru-

1. The head itself was sculpin the shape of a lion head.

, Groblicz's violins sell for more than $50,000.

The head of the first violin in Krakow by Marcin Groblicz,

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Miechowita, and Wapowski. The second was an encyclopedia pub--lished in Latin in 1577, containing information about the Polish form of government, army, clergy, villagers, townsmen, customs, climate, flora,

- fauna, and natural resources. It was reprinted many limes in me West: and translated into German and Spanish.

Jan Maczyriskl published me first extensive Latin-Polish dictionary Lexica Latino-Polonorum in 1564. A pioneer of cardiology, a professor -of medicine and philosophy, J6zef Strus (1510-1568) published a 1555 treatise on the pulse entitled Sphygmicae artis libri quinque. In 1583, 'Andrzej Patrycy Nidecki edited and published the partially preserved writings of Cicero. His Fragmentorum M. Tulli Ciceronis was very ,popular among European humanists.

, Printing houses were also opened in provincial areas. Polish orthography was standardized chiefly by printers who helped me devel, of the Polish language by encouraging the publication of Polish ': books and dictionaries. A Polish grammar book for foreigners was

. in 1568 by Piotr Stratotius-Stojeriski; his book was in French.

-During the first one hundred years of Polish printing some three-and-ahalf million books were printed. By 1550, printers in Krak6w had

i reacned the highest European level. Widespread polemics on the

religious questions often resounded Ull',",UI;::II\,l'Lll Europe. Protestants conto the wider use of the language. Mikolaj Rey, called father of literature in the Polish ~LWLl6""6"" first wrote moralizing dialogues published in 1543. In them he ',criticized overspending, luxury, and unxenness. He wrote the best 16thPolish satire and gave an :,ex4::ellent picture of everyday life in His Life of an Honorable gave a vivid picture of the cusof Polish country squires.

Jesuits and Polish Rationalists

During the 16th century fine arts and learning flourished in Poland. -, Poles were widely recognized for their advancement in legislation. reli-' gious tolerance, science, and their contribution to European culture. The' " University of Kr6lewiec (Koenigsberg) was founded by an act of the-' King Zygmunt August in 1544. It played an important role in the Polish' " and German culture.

Twenty years after the Copernican revolution, the rationalist philos-ophy was founded in Poland in 1562. It was spread by Polish Brethren: also called Arians, Anti-Trinitarians, or Socinians, They were pacifists opposed to all forms of serfdom, to the possession of wealth, and to the ' use of money, as well as to the tenure of any civic office. The Polish', Brethren contributed to the rise of the educational and cultural level inPoland. Their largest educational center in Rak6w had an attendance of ,"

1,000 students per year. Their literature also reached a high '

The Church responded by bringing the Jesuits to Poland in 1564, and using the political argwnent that the multinational commonwealth needed , the Church to unite it. Jesuits equated Catholicism with Polish reasons of ' state and the interests of the political nation of the nobility.

Tbe Popularization of Printing in Poland

Printing was done on a large scale, which fact helped the gradual, Polonization of the leadership communities of Lithuania, , Belarus, and the Ukraine. Polish continued to be the language of civili- , ty, elegance, and diplomacy in Slavic Europe. The number of schools increased. New academies and universities were founded. Progress was' made in geography and cartography. A map of Poland was prepared by_, , Bernard Wapowski in 1526 using the scale of I: 1,000,000. It was print-. ed under the title of Map of Sarmatia because it was fashionable during the Renaissance to use Roman geographic names. Wac1aw Grodecki (Grodecius) published a map of Poland in 1558; it was included in Atlas of Ortellus of 1570. Two important works for the propagation the knowledge of Poland abroad were wriuen by Marcin Kromer (1512,-, 1589). The first, published in Latin in 1555, was entitled De origine if rebus gestis Polonorum, It was an adaptation of the works of Dlugosz, '

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Mikolaj Rej (Rey) z Naglowic (1505-1569).

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The level of financial sophistication in Poland (c.1540) is evidenced by an engraving entitled "The Lament Over The Death of _ Credit." It also shows a letter of credit and a traveler's check, as well as the clothing used in 16th<entury Poland. Polish culture was greatly influenced by humanism, the Reformation, and the republican rnove-. ment of the masses of Polish nobility which contributed to the rapid, ' development of political prose.

gave the name of Polonius (a Pole in Latin) to the chief counsellor of , Hamlet, a man who tried very ineptly to follow Goslicki's program. One hundred and filly years later The Counselor was highly praised by Sir Robert Walpole.

Calvinism kept spreading among the nobles, and Lutheranism , among burghers. The perfecting of Latin poetry continued as a long tra- dition in Poland. Plebeian humanist comedy about soldiers, beggars, , .etc, was popular because of its humorous, lively, and natural language.

The Flowering of Polish Literature

Polish literature was flowering. Some of the greatest poetry of all ' times was created by Jan Kochanowski (1530-1584). He was the first use a sophisticated and artistically perfect language. He reached perfection in a collection of 300 poems of various length. He wrote on

political subjects suited to the limes. ,

Prose was written in beautiful Polish by Lukasz G6micki (1521- " 1603). In 1566, he published Dworzanin Polski (The Polish Courtier); an adaptation of an Italian work by Baldassare Castiglione,' II Cortegiano (1528). G6micki also wrote a critical political dialogue; Rozmowa Polaka z Wfochem (A Dialogue between a Pole and an Italians. In it he criticizes the notion of Polish "Golden Freedom."

Polish was made into a medium of refined literary expression. writers also contributed to reforms in orthography. Republican po:liti(~at writings in Latin continued. However, starting in the middle of the century, Polish displaced Latin in public life. The majority of sermons'; were delivered in Polish; religious polemic was conducted in and Polish Protestants used Polish in their schools to a much ........ ,0 ... '.'' extent than did the Catholics.

In 1568, Wawrzyniec Goslicki (1530-1607) published De Senatore, a program for a Polish republican system based on a PllJlIWlB.' tic society with perfect equilibrium between power and liberty.: defined the responsibility of the king as a head of state and a chief uLive officer. He wrote about people's right to the pursuit of happinessr:

His work was translated and published three times in England staJrtiillii in 1568. Its English title was "The Counselor Exacrly Portraited" printing was summarily banned and confiscated; William

Prosperity and "The Sarmatian Roots"

A unifying "low brow" Sarmatian myth explained that the noble citizens of the Polish Commonwealth descended from the Sarmatians

, ' the legendary invaders of Slavic lands in antiquity. Roman maps, fash-

, ionable during the Renaissance, had the name of Sarmaria written over

. most of the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and thus "justified" interest in "Sarmatian roots."

,- _. In the 16th century, Sarmatism was visible primarily in manners .and taste. The Sannatian myth of the "noble warriors" was much more familiar to Polish nobility than were western European traditions of chivalry such as vassalage, homage, service, and humility. Sarmatism .eventually became a form of culture typically Polish. It radiated in the . area of East and Central Europe from the Baltic to the Black Sea .and to the North Balkans. Gradually it became not only an all-embrac-

ideology but the essence of the Polish culture, Polish lifestyle was extravagant. Horses were symbolic of the Polish warrior tea, '~tion. Fine horses dressed in beautiful trappings were a status symbol 'In Poland, as well as ornate weapons and expensive clothing influenced by eastern fashions and suitable for the cold Polish winters.

The rediscovery of ancient Rome and its cultural and political legafascinated the Poles who noticed the similarity of their own institutions to those of the ancient republic. Polish political and scientific , included many Latin terms, The masses of Polish nobles ~_tb()llglht of themselves as heirs of the Roman civilization. Everyday language became full of Latin expressions.

Poles benefitted from the rising cost of Polish agricultural products

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tf

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.,

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,,1\ : :; Ii

which went up more than three hundred percent during the 16th century. Increasing numbers of Poles studied in western European universities and brought back new ideas. Intellectual life was enriched. There was a flowering of music and the arts. Polish editions of classics of European literature introduced western culture to the eastern Slavs who were outside the influence of Latin Christianity.

Legislative Activity and an OtTer of Emancipation

In 1562, the Act of Seym made the Respect for the Law Program into a law. Consequently, all the lands illegally held since 1504 were returned to the state; the gentry was exempted from the jurisdiction of Church courts; and the execution of sentences of the bishop's court by, territorial officers was prohibited.

Laws passed in 1563 defined the control of town administration and prices charged by territorial officers of the government; separated the defense treasury from the royal treasury; and compelled the Church and peasantry to pay the land tax and to contribute to the costs of a national defense.

A major political blunder was cornmiued by the king of Poland _when he granted, by an executive decision, the right of succession in.:

Prussia to the Brandenburgian branch of the Hohenzollerns, It was dono " in return for promises of support in the war against Muscovy. It was one of the most unfortunate executive decisions in Polish history, as the. ' Hohenzollerns of Berlin eventually initiated the crime of partitions and the destruction of Poland.

The Seym passed an act in 1565 on the codification of commerce regulations. It exempted the gentry from custom duties, terminated thetowns' privileges to store goods, and prohibited the free export of goods from Poland by local merchants, while no limitation on imports was enforced. nus was exactly contrary to the prevailing European policy of mercantilism, under which exports were encouraged and custom. duties were imposed on imports. The large landowners who also owned _ private towns were in conflict with burghers and operated their business in alliance with Jewish financiers who benefitted from the sale of imports, alcoholic beverages, land leases, etc. The landowners had a '

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monopoly on alcohol production and marketed vodka _ through Jewish agents (who, in tum, were accused of encouraging drunkenness),

In 1568, the Act of

" Gdansk was passed. It founded the Maritime Commission under the authority of the central government. It was to control maritime commerce, , shipbuilding, coastal defens, es, and enforce the maritime blockade of Russia. Soon the "first Polish warship was .Iaunched,

A royal decree on the : incorporation of the Ukraine :-into Poland was confirmed in , 1569 by the Act of the Seym .eonvened in Lublin. (Ukraine was previously a part of the

.Grand Duchy of Lithuania). The admission of Prussian senators and !deputies into the Polish parliament was accompanied by an offer of :emancipation to the Armenian. Moslem, and Jewish minorities without lobligation to convert [0 Western Christianity; the offer was accepted by

, Armenians and Moslems.

The offer of emancipation was rejected by the Jews, however, who '.were satisfied with an autonomy governed by Talmudic Law. The Jewish population preferred to continue to speak Yiddish and to pre_serve its separate Judeo-Germanic subculture based on the Yiddish Ian-

.guage and Jewish ethnic and religious tradition. Thus, the modem legal, governments], and educational system as well as philo, .. ,,'v .... J."'_.~l concepts and religious beliefs, evolved in Poland between the and 18th centuries. Any Jew who chose to convert to Catholicism

Chancellor Jan Zamoyski (1542-1605)

75

was free to join the noble estate of the szlachta (shlahkh-tah), The 16th century brought the final Polonization of the urban population of the Polish Commonwea1lh including immigrants from Germany, Armenia, Scotland. and other countries.

The political nation of szlachta included, besides the elhnic Poles of all denominations, ethnic Lithuanians, Ukrainians, and Belarussians, as well as Prussian and Baltic gentry of German descent. Frenchmen, Scots. Swedes, Muslim Tartars. Armenians. and other foreigners were often granted the status of nobility, usually for military merit.

, I

Disputation of Cardinal Hosjusz with Protestants, 16th·century etching.

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THE FIRST POLISH REpUBLIC

Late Renaissance Period

Modern Ideas in 16th-Century Poland

The founding of lite formal Polish Nobles' Republic took place in 1569 at the conclusion of lite Union of Lublin. It was viewed as a neeessary development in view of lite approaching end of lite heirless Jagiellonian Dynasty. The new republic was called Rzeczpospolita (zhech-pos-po-lee-tah), though it is now often referred to as the First Polish Republic (1569-1795).

The ideas introduced in lite middle ground of Europe in the 16th century by citizens of lite Polish Republic were modem even by lite standards of the 20th century. They are fundwnental to contemporary political theory:

general elections by all citizens

social contract between government and lite citizens lite principle of government by consent

personal freedom

individual civil rights

freedom of religion

the value of self-reliance

lite prevention of the growth of authoritarian power of lite state lite prevention of the rule by any form of oligarchy

Making One Out of Two States

The Union Act by the Seyrn of Lublin (1569) formally made Poland and Lithuania one country, which was to elect one head of state and chief executive with the title of lite king crowned in Krak6w. The supreme political power was to reside in one national parliament, the Seym Walny, meeting in Warsaw. The united country was to have one currency and one foreign policy; Poles, Ruthenians, and Lithuanians were to be free to settle anywhere in lite republic. However, identical but separate territorial offices, treasuries, and armies would remain. On

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While the Senate was 10 call for the Convocation Seyrn 10 conduct the elections. emergency (hooded) Courts were founded in 1572 to maintain law and order during preparation of lhe elections.

The Convocation of Seym in Warsaw passed the constitutional amendment that established general elections called viritim, the first in Europe. Every member of the political nation of nearly one million citizens had the right not only to choose his head of state but also to offer

" himself as a candidate for the crown. The title of a king was preserved, , while the Icing's official function was that of a lifelong head of slate and .'. chief executive of the Polish Nobles' Republic.

The Primate Bishop of Poland was appointed as a temporary head , of state for the period between the death of an elective king and the election of the next. The bishop was to call for the new session of the parliament; to preside over the Senate; to establish the candidates approved by the Seym for the next royal election; to Dame the king-elect; and to

perform the act of coronation. The formal public statement 'naming the king-elect was made by the grand marshal of the Crown. Warsaw was to be the election site, where each member of the political nation of free citizens could cast his vote. Elections were to be decided by a simple majority.

: The Social Contract between the royal candidates and the electorate was fonnulated in the Articles of Agreement, was accompanied by the of Impeachment. A

"watchdog" senatorial com-

July 1. 1569, the formal proclamation of the Union Act was made by King Zygmunt August Jagielloiiczyk. The conclusion of the union represented a unique act on the European scene. It resulted in peaceful and voluntary federation. which made one out of two separate states. The - ' role of the Seym's became that of a "guardian of freedom," supervising,' the actions of the king, who was to be elected to serve as the chief executive of the Republic. The Seym was made up of three estates: the deputies representing the masses of the nobility and the major towns. the senate composed of the senators ex-officio, and the elected king.

Reaction of Ivan the Terrible

Muscovy Tsar Ivan IV 'The Terrible" earned his nickname because of his reaction to the news of the founding of the Republic of PolandLithuania. In 1569 in Novgorod, the most civilized city in Russia, he ordered the torture of suspected sympathizers of the Polish Republic. , and then systematically had them killed daily in batches of 500 to 1,000 men for five weeks. Ivan's atrocities also engulfed hundreds of Moscovites for the same reason. In one of his rages he tortured and " killed his own son. Ivan IV created his own terror apparatus out of a' force of his own bodyguards. In the tradition of the Mongol Empire, b~ enforced the principle that all forms of property within his domain belonged to him, and therefore that any of it could be used unconditionally on state service. Even though the Muscovy Tsar Ivan IV was defeated by Poland in the war over Livonia, he was a candidate in th~', general elections for the king of Poland-Lithuania in 1573. No one il:l.

Poland took his candidacy seriously. -

Religious Freedom, General Elections, the Social Contract

In lhe atmosphere of religious toleration. a Protestant Church of, Poland was founded by Lutherans, Calvinists, and Czech Husite Brethren in 1570, in Sandomierz. However, the Anti-Trinitarians or' Arians were excluded because of their rejection of the Holy Trinity. ' They published an anti-Trinitarian translation of the bible in Polish called the Bible of Nieswiez,

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Manor in Poddebice, built in 1610-1617.

79

mittee was also confirmed. The General Election Law was accompanied by judicial refonn. Elected judges were independent of the executive branch, Courts of Appeal were established,

"The Republic of Good Will .•. Equals with Equal" The transformation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth into a , formal republic by the Union of Lublin was characterized as bringing " "The Republic of Good Wiff ... Free Men with Free. Equals with Equal - ..;" There Was a pride in Polish Citizenship throughout the new Republic among its political nation of free citizens, which soon numbered one million people. After the incorporation of Lithuania the republic had 815,000 sq. km and a population of 7.5 million in 1569. The Seym was elected on a two year schedule. A law was passed abolishing nobility titles and giving equal rights to all the nobles, including the large number of citizen-soldiers who lived in fortified vil'lages called "zascianki" (zah-shchahn-kee), Throughout the huge terrilory of Poland-Lithuania, every Polish noble, no matter how small his ~·h(>1dingis, was proclaimed equal to a provincial governor.

Among the founding fathers of the Polish Nobles' Republic was Jan Zamoyski (1542-1605), who served as the chancellor of Poland Until 1578, as well as a defense minister (Grand Hetman). He was one of the most important and talented political leaders of the Polish . In 1595, he founded the famous Academy of Zamosc,

Poland created a unique civilization, which was in many respects advanced than medieval and early modem Europe. It became a center of development of civil liberties and a pioneer of the representative form of government. The Polish Republic was by far more republican both in structure and in spirit than the constitutional rnonar-

'ebies of England and Sweden. She was the vel}' opposite of the absosystems of Russia, France, Austria, and Spain.

Foreign Candidates for the Polish Throne

The parliamentary motion of Chancellor Jan Zamoyski (1542- _ 1605) to limit general elections 10 the native citizens of the Polish :_' Commonwealth was, unfortunately, tabled and never acted upon. The . acceptance of foreign candidates for the Polish throne eventually proved to be disastrous for the Polish-Lithuanian State. The Polish Commonwealth was the largest territory in Western Christianity. It faced the rest of Europe with the possibility of a sudden switch in mil- , itary alliances depending on the unpredictable outcome of Polish gen-era! elections. This possibility generated anxiety in some of the major .powers of Europe. They feared an adverse change in the European , balance of power. Soon government lawyers in such capitals as Berlin, Vienna, St. Petersburg, etc, had to become experts in Polish, constitutional law in order to organize effective (and expensive) cam- : paigns in Polish elections. This caused a penetration of the open gov- : emrnent of Poland by foreign-financed subversion and corruption, and eventually led to the destruction of the First Polish Republic. The admission of foreign candidates legalized foreign contributions t~ their election expenses. This also had a demoralizing effect on those_ Polish citizens who wanted to run for an office but did not have" enough money for the election campaign. Naturally some looked ui , foreigners for campaign contributions, which were given in exchange' for support of the interest of foreign powers. (When the Founding' Fathers of the United States restricted the office of the president '~(!.. people born in the United States they' did not repeat the same mistake, " in America-perhaps because of the familiarity of some of them with: the experience of the Polish Nobles' Republic. Poland, by the time" they were writing the American constitution, was treacherously, assaulted and dismembered by the greedy absolute monarchies surrounded it.)

The Toleration Act

During the Reformation, Poland was a "haven for the heretics." _ principle that no one could be persecuted for his religious belief had .always been recognized in Poland as a basic civil right. It became a law .when the Toleration Act of Warsaw was passed in 1573 by the Seym. The article on religious toleration represented an important element in , Polish political culture of the period. It was based on the belief that

honest agreement and mutual respect were fundamental for success-

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ful political action. The Seym continued to be the main forum for polit-: ' ical dialogue in the Polish Republic. This dialogue included the confrontation of views between Catholics and Protestants. Unlike in em Europe, the law in Poland did not allow the landlords to force own religion on their serfs. In this spirit Polish diplomacy secured Postulata Polonica, or concessions in favor of Protestants persecuted in;

France.

Elections and the Winged Cavalry

, The general elections of 1575 were the first in Europe. King Stefan , Batory (1522-86) of Transylvania was elected as the head of state and , .chief executive of the Polish Nobles' Republic. The Seym's ratification of the royal election was followed in 1576 by the act of renewal of the rights and laws of the Jews. The victory of counter-reformation in Poland was secured by the Catholic clergy's acceptance of the limita.tion of each priest's income to one source.

During Batory's reign, Polish Husaria replaced heavily armed , medieval mounted spear-men. The Poles adopted light laminated armor - with an opened helmet, wings in the oriental style and decorations of the . furs of tigers, leopards, and wolfs. Polish lances were up to sixteen feet

hollow inside for lightness, and designed to be crushed upon ~,·llIlUii1~L. The lances were provided by the government in order to control , their quality and length. The sabers were owned by each cavalryman , and especially fitted to each owner's hand. The 17th-century Polish

became the European and American standard until the Second

'World War.

Poles developed very successful cavalry tactics. Polish hussars , attacked in full gallop moving up to 30 m.p.h. and upon driving home the iron head of their spears, they inunediately discarded the snapped of their lances and continued the attack with sabers, estocs (kon-

or large thrusting swords up to five feet long), war hammers, and Husaria approached the enemy formation on a widespread front in order to minimize the effects of the gunfire, then irnme".:>:-.- ,,_. before impact they formed tight formation, "knee to knee. ~~ The

\cClllshin$! blow by the concentrated weight of horses, men, and weapons devastating on the battlefield to all European military formations ding Swedes, Muscovites, Turks, and Tartars.

" A rebellion in Gdansk was put down by Hetman Jan Zborowski in ,577, and a penalty of 200,000 zlotys was collected from the city. The year, an Act of Seym created the peasant elite infantry with one man oc;JI~U:U per 823 acres. It was known as Piechota Wybraniecka (pye-khovi-bra-riets-ka) and soon became renowned for its patriotism.

A New Republican Era and the Social Contract of 1573

Upon the death of King Zygmunt August in 1572, the Jagl"'II'~J1"''''''' Dynasty came to an end. The 1573 election of Henryk de Valois, of Anjou (1551-1598), as the king, head of state, and chief p.'fp.~ntiivl'.'; of the Republic started a new republican era. Under oath, he swore uphold the social contract composed of the Pacta Con lien to Henrician Articles guaranteeing the preservation and enforcement

the Polish Bill of Rights and Constitution. It was the first formal elusion of a comprehensive Social Contract in Europe. The terms of Social Contract were as follows: calling parliament into session two years; maintaining I!. continuous supervisory council of senators as a "watchdog" commission over government acti declaring of war only after approval by the Senate; new taxation mobilization for war only after approval by the Chamber of De,puties:::f:

In case of a breach of the Social Contract by the king, the impeach-x ment procedures were to be started with the release from civil ence (de non prestanda obediencia) of the political nation of free

zens. Another part of the Social Contract called Pacta Conventa ed specific agreements with each king-elect; in the case of Henry Valois these included an "eternal alliance with France," construction the Polish navy on the Baltic, and payment of the debts of the administration. However, in 1574 Henry de Valois secretly departed Paris to succeed the deceased king of France, Charles IX. Henri Valois became Henri ill, king of France (1574-1589), the last of

Valois Dynasty.

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The Independent Judicial System

The Supreme Court of Appeals was created by the Seym independent from the executive branch of the government. lis freely <>L ........... ·' judges pronounced final decisions in civil and criminal cases previous-. ly tried in lower courts-a unique development in generally absolutist Europe where a king was the supreme judge, whose authority couldnot be challenged, This was an important step in the division of power in-' Poland into legislative, executive, and an independent judiciary. development in Poland preceded similar proposals in France and in United Stales by 200 years.) The territorial branches of the SUI)reIlD.C-,~ Court of Appeals were established by the Seym in 1581. Lithuania's branch held sittings, at first in Nowogr6dek and Minsk, and then ,Wilno and Grodno. An additional branch of the Supreme CourtAppeals for Prussia was created in 1585. It was known as the SIlDllem~I", Tribunal of Civil Law of Prussia.

The supreme parliamentary court of the Seym was convened dealing with high treason. It was punishable by deprivation of

rights and honor, as well as exile from Poland. The new University in Wilno helped train the needed lawyers.

European science with the splendid discoveries of Copernicus. Polish , writers Were among the leading European political ideologists. Jan Kochanowski (1530-1584), the greatest poet of the Polish Renaissance .is considered equal to Pierre de Ronsard, the father of lyric poetry in France: Kochanowski is recognized to be as good as the best poets of the Elizabethan period in England. Poland, the largest territory in , Western Christianity, was perceived as a powerful and cultured coun, try, impressive in its wealth and size.

. Adversities Brought by the Third General Elections

, The next general election in Warsaw was Won in 1587 by King

"Zygmunt III Vasa (1566-1632), the Swedish candidate. He was spon-

by Chancellor Jan Zamoyski, who at first advocated election of a

, . Pole: but then supported the nephew of the last Jagiellonian king

, With the Yam hope that a union with Sweden would be a voluntary one , for peaceful cooperation and security, Instead, Poland became entangled. in the wars of Swedish succession. In fact Poland became exposed to 'hit, rob, and run invasions by the Swedish opponents of the Polish Vasas, The Swedes could do extensive damage to Poland without exposing their own country to similar devastation. During the elections, the Church gave secret support to the Habs burgs , and successfully opposed Z~oyski's plans for the elimination of the Habsburgs as candidates for the Polish throne in favor of native Poles or Slavs. Zamoyski foresaw that an unrestricted access of foreign LcaJrldilcla~es would legalize foreign campaign contributions and turn the

. elections into a vehicle of foreign subversion and corruption of Polish Nobles' Republic. Ironically, the chancellor fostered the very " .... u .. ;;.u's he was warning about,

The Last Years of the Golden Age,

A Muscovy aggression against the Polish Fief of Inflanty ILljllVltlE was defeated by Poland with three Polish invasions of Russia, all the leadership of King Stefan Batory, After the loss of 300,000 sollwex:l(l from 1579 to 1581, Ivan the Terrible sued for peace. A ten-year favorable to Poland, was signed at Jam Zapolski. Unfortunately, Batory's death marked the end of Poland's Golden Age in politics

at war. The era in which the influence of the Polish middle provailed and produced striking cultural achievements was now

ing to a close.

Poland was, in every respect, far ahead of northern and Europe and equaled the West not only in economic development, political power but also in SCholarship, arts, and literature. The simultaneously broadened its horizons by discovery of the New and Poland, a powerful and cultural country which contributed

The New Law of Seniority

~olish law~ did not restrict the size of land ownership; though, the ional SlaVIC custom of dividing the inheritance equally among all . ~sulted in the majority of landed property being of small or tum SIze. The nobles who owned these plots represented the equivof the modem "middle class" in the parliament. DUring the

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Golden Age of Poland in the 16th century, this relatively mo~erate· "middle class" was in control of Polish politics. There was a feeling of stability and security that upward mobility was encouraged in the. '

Polish society. .. .

A major blow to this state of affairs occurred when the po~ncal machines of land magnates succeeded in passing the Law of Entails. ~ the seniority succession law, in 1589. The Seym passed it under ' excuse that it was needed to prevent disintegration of large estates were to be inherited in full by the senior male; the Law of Entail WIIS truly meant to preserve economic strength and military potential ~f the, , holdings of huge landowners, who unforruneiely had the potential turning the republic into an oligarchy. Fortress repair, the upkeep garrisons, the winter quartering of troops, and the maintenance of. fixed quota of regiments in time of war were among the legal tions of such landowners.

The dynamic growth of new land potentates was accompanied bY.,',

me transformation of former knights who owned land into J;:t:;IIU'"'IU,"'II,., farmers who prospered on the grain trade. The new law weakened stabilizing effects of Polish law of succession according to which, family property was divided among sons and daughters alike. The law did not provide safeguards against eventual damage to the cratic process by the political machines of huge landowners who" , times, accumulated more land than all of Great Britain, B Holland, or Ireland. While the 1510 Act of Seym prohibited bequests

property to the Church in last wills and testaments in order to' "

political and economic power of the clergy. no similar law was to limit me size of estates of land magnates. Political threats to, Polish democratic process by the political machines of huge esll~1eIl'l'; later known as latifundia, seriously increased with the passage of Law of Entail. The new law helped to make the 17th century "Golden Age" of land magnates.

In the meantime, democracy was practiced. The returning from a session of the National Seym were obligated t~ "report-back" meetings in their regional legislation in order to grv formal report on the achievements of the national parliament. The

sessions, observed by the public, also served to shape opinions on cur. rent affairs in every constituency.

Union of the Greek and Catholic Churches

The Synod of Brest of 1595-1596 created a union of the Catholic . and Greek Churches. The Greek Uniates adhered to the Eastern rite and , but submitted to papal authority. Creation of the Uniate Church was an attempt to heal the schism, and bring equality to the Orthodox citizens of the Republic; but instead it produced bitter controbetween Uniates and Dis-Uniates, However, it tied the Ukrainian

more closely to western civilization and the Polish political tradibased on the opposition to all forms of autocracy. The Union also roots to Ukrainian nationalism under the leadership of the Uniate . Sustained and bitter railing and condemnation by the Moscow ate (created in 1586) soon resulted in violence. Ethnic cleansin the Ukraine resulted in the murders of some 200,000 Catholics and

in 1648. These atrocities were repeated on the same scale in 1768· during the Koliszczyzna uprising. (More recently, in 1942 in UU'VIl",,_ under the German occupation, the Uniate Fascists allied with Nazis murdered about 100,000 unarmed Polish civilians.)

Political and Military Developments

In 1596, after King Zygmunt III moved the capital of Poland from to Warsaw, the Seym reformed the State Treasury and estaba separate Royal Treasury for the upkeep of the royal court in arsaw.

- The war theater stayed busy. Vasa succession struggles brought the wedish invasion of the Polish fief of lnflanty (in Latvia) in 1600. The invaded Valachia (Romania) in order to strengthen the southern and establish a Polish fief there in competition with the Turkish Empire. The Seym passed taxes for the war with Sweden in

1. Polish victories over Sweden occurred at Kochenhausen, and then

Bialy Kamieri in 1604. The following year, a Polish victory over the in the battle for Riga at Kircholm resulted in the complete _.." • ._,.~.,. of Inflanty. Polish forces took the town of Pamawa and

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Polish naval victory over the Swedish navy at Oliwa in 1627.

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Hetman Jan Karol (1560-1621) defeated Swedes a!; Bialy Kamieri and Kircholm. ':

, Hetman Stanislaw Koniecpolski 590-1646), defeated the Swedes Trzciana and the Tartars at Rog.

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Hetman Stanislaw Ulkiewski (1547-1620), took the Kremlin in 16/0.

Poland's warships destroyed a squadron of the Swedish navy in

Baltic port of Salis. .. '.-' "

Meanwhile Polish-Ukrainian magnates interfered in the RUSSian succession in 1604-1606, and conducted the first, short-lived occupation of the Kremlin in Moscow. It ended in disast~r and proclamation by the boyars of Vasili Shuiski as tsar of RUSSIa,

handedly veto any decision of the Seym Walny. Such action would have been considered irresponsible and verging on treason, There was a procedural rule that canceled any motion if its initiator was not present ,thr,oughout the res_ulling debate. Thus, the very absence of the represen.tative who would introduce a debated motion would cause such a motion to be declared null and void. Unfortunately the opposition to reforms

, as the electorate feared that any strengthening of the machinery of

government would bring absolutism to Poland,

Arguments about Reforms

The Seym issued the Act of General Amnesty for those wh~ rose

to protest violations of the Social Contract and la~k of reforms ~ 1 They were led by the governor of Krak6w, Mikola] Zebrzydow.ski., ' government reform project included an increase and ~rg~bon the armed forces and a definite abandonment of the principle of

nimity in favor of majority rule; it also included a general \,oV.lJ,llJJ ..

of the civil rights of citizens and inviolability 0: ~e general , They justly complained that the principle of unanimity resulted m and the postponement of motions, which did not have the I,LllcUWlJ,U' .... support of all representatives. However, no one had yet dared 10

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The Second Polish Occupation of the Kremlin

The second Polish occupation of the Kremlin (1610-1612) folthe Polish victory at Kluszyn near Moscow. Polish commanders tactical brilliance; using relatively small forces they were sueon the battlefield. However, the funding of the army was inadebecause of the fear of the deputies that the armed forces could the king to assume absolute power.

Th~ P?lish Crown Prince WJadystaw was accepted as the new tsar RUSSIa in 1610 amidst objections by his father King Zygmunt III,

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who wanted the Russian crown for himself, and intended to convert Russia to Roman Catholicism. A Polish garrison subsequently occupied ' the Kremlin for two years. finally ending in surrender after a long Mikhail Romanov was proclaimed the new tsar of Russia, starting Romanov Dynasty. The alliance between the Pope and the Hapsburgstook advantage of the Church's freedom in Poland to press for alliance with Austria and for missionary expeditions against Russia. :

Reacting to the ineptness of King Vasa in Moscow, the 1611 further specified the conditions for impeachment and the refusal of obedience to the king's government; it also banned UW, ... U1""'Yi es of landed estates by the burghers. In 1613, the Seym established Tax Court of the Treasury. The same year. Polish forces took the of Srnolefisk after a siege. The Seym authorized an agreement with Cossacks and ratified an armistice with Russia that ended Polish to conquer Russia. The territory of the Polish Nobles' Republic 1,060.000 sq. km, (1618) included the fiefs of Livonia and Prussia. peace treaty with Russia confirmed the new borders in 1634.

In spite of the protest by the Prussian population, an inept ment was made by the king's government on the succession rights of Berlin line of the Hohenzollems to the Polish Fief of Prussia (in for Brandenburgian neutrality during Polish conflicts with Sweden Russia). This was the first step in the eventual achievement of Berlin' hegemony over the rest of Germany that, at the time, wa~ . into some 350 independent principalities; though the Berlin line Hohenzollems continued to pay taxes and homages to Poland, kneeling before the Polish throne.

·-Troubles on the southern border led to the 1622 Armistice at Mitawa. The Swedes occupied Riga and Pamawa and controlled the rest of .Inflanry. In 1623. the Seym promulgated the Ordinance for Commerce. hostilities with Sweden broke out two years later over the control

the Vistula River Delta and the economic freedom of Poland,

Adversities on the Turkish and Swedish Fronts

During the war with Turkey (1620-1621), Polish forces defeated at Cecora and their commander, Helman Stanislaw LJ,JllU'~YO.l ski. was killed. The second wave of the Turkish invasion was successs fully stopped by the Polish defense at the castle of Chocim, The with Turkey established a new border on the River Dniestr. The reiterated military duties of the citizens of the Republic

Economic Strife and the Counter-Reformation

The expansion of manorial farms employing serf labor involved the of peasant holdings while the landlords obligated the peasto buy vodka and beer in bars owned by the manor. Southern . became sanctuary for peasants fleeing manorial oppression. , the chance of a flight to the Ukrainian Cossacks helped to the pressure on the peasant serfs who suffered the most severe on the huge Ukrainian estates. Peasants and towns suffered when 'conflicts between the land magnates sometimes resembled small civil

As a result, the impoverished peasants bought less from the u~ban , craftsmen in small towns. Larger cities grew in importance as grain

exports expanded. At the same time private towns located on huge were subject to severe exploitation.

The economic crisis paralleled difficulties in social, political, and 'religious life, which was related to the progress of Counterenhanced since the arrival of the Jesuits in 1565. The of Catholicism marked the Polonization of Belarus and

UAJltllIJLlilll nobles. Catholic Poland faced Protestant Sweden, Orthodox _.".~~ •. ~, and Islamic Turkey. The exponents of the Counter-Reformation ~demand(~ the reduction of serf labor, a stabilization of rents and Taxes kind. and the right of serfs to leave manorial land . Catholic lords were :·'enlcOllraJ~ed to compel their serfs to convert to Catholicism. Religious als brought the destruction of many Protestant churches.

The Catholic party attempted to block the enforcement of the pros on toleration established by the Confederation of Warsaw. A edict forbade the Anti-Trinitarian Polish Brethren to operate printhouses and schools. The enforcement of the edict was weak. but the (.Pz,otestants were accused of high treason if they looked for assistance

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from Sweden or other Protestant countries. The traditional anti-<:Ieric~-ism of Polish nobles outlived the efforts of the exponents of the Counter-Reformation. The citizens of the Republic at peace enjoyed" their freedoms. privileges. and wealth while the Thirty Years' War was raging in fragmented Germany. The Poles did not attempt to regain Silesia and Pomerania despite requests to do so by John Christian, tho, Piast Duke of Silesia. The development of Ukraine with its huge ed estates was an important factor in drawing Poland to the east at the expense of efforts to regain ethnic Polish provinces in the west th~ controlled by Germans. . ,

villages were founded using serf labor. The financing of pre-paid leases had a built-in incentive for severe exploitation. These were concluded between noble estate owners and Jewish finan-

active among Polish Jewry-almost one million strong and underan ever increasing differentiation.

The Kahals, responsible for Jewish debts, controlled the granting of and performed the function of banks. These banks were dominatby a wealthy elite in charge of considerable capital, deposited with at interest by the gentry and clergy. Jewish concentration of usu-

s and commercial capital waslarge enough to reach beyond the borof Poland. However. the majority of Polish Jews lived in extreme in self-contained Jewish communities, where trade and sex OUlof marriage were the only links with gentiles.

New Laws and Gains of the Land Magnates

At the time of King Wladyslaw IV Vasa's ascent to the throne. 1632, the Seym ratified a series of new laws, and passed instructions the Custom Service as weU as the Law on Taxation. The following year; the Seym took over control of the mint, increased the serfs' labor rent' for land, and specified penalties for runaway serfs. The import, and distribution of anti-Semitic literature was made illegal.

In 1637, however, the spirit of the Polish democratic process violated by a Seym dominated by huge landowners in Ukraine. enacted the "severe" (undemocratic) Cossack constitution that serfs of the Cossacks ineligible for territorial defense; abolished mand by the atarnans: and nominated its own commissioner who directly responsible to the grand hetman.

In 1638 the Seym banned the use of titles other than !l..l1I~1I~IIUU,,","" with the exception of six Lithuano-Ruthenian princes' families, could use their traditional titles stripped of all legal privileges.

In 1641 the Seym enlarged the Senatorial Watchdog '_V.ILLLLL1L"'~ regulated the issue of coinage, and established the Taxation Register, Prussia. The Seym specified maximum rates of interest on loans 1643. The same year the Elector of Brandenburg, Frederick William Hohenzollem (1620-1688), paid Prussia's last homage to Poland.

In Ukraine the "golden decade" of peace (1638-1648) and nomic expansion of landed estates blossomed. Numerous new

Struggle for Cossack Civil Rights

Plans and preparations were made in 1644-47 by the government of Wladyslaw IV to eliminate the Crimean Tartar "hornet's nest" of "_ ..... rii" ...... and to free Balkan Slavs from the Moslem yoke.

As the lower and middle nobility were in favor of winning the !-o:U:~:,WL,;J!,.:) a greater stake in the Republic as citizens, the Cossacks were :IIL""UU~O>U full civil rights and a gradual inclusion in the political nation. ~.ilU'...uJ.luy the harsh exploitation by Jewish holders of short-time leaswas to be lessened by banning the collection of such payments as fees for funerals, weddings, baptisms, etc. The capital punish-

for disobedience to a lease holder was to be eliminated. The IWiSS~CKll furthermore opposed the Jesuits' pressure on the Orthodox to to Rome's authority.

In 1648 the Seym, dominated by huge landowners, simultaneously led crusade plans and Cossack demands for civil rights and for the lion of Jesuits and Jews from southern Ukraine, as well as the !"" ...... .13 for a guarantee to nominate only orthodox officials there. It a major defeat for the govenunent and the lower and middle nobil-

, at the worst possible time.

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The End of the Great Power Status of Poland

Cossack uprisings under Bohdan Chmelnytkyj (c.1595-1657) , occurred as the political strength and greed of land magnates increased Simultaneously, the pauperization of lower and middle nobility widened. It was the beginning of a deluge of invasions that ended the great status of Poland. Growing masses of landless nobles, known as r .. I",.J.I',,' golota (shlakh-tah-go-wo-tah) Or holota (kho-wo-ta), soon 1I1t;;i1IW~.I: "mob" or "rabble," became corruptible by bribery and easily maniplulat:; ed by the political machines of huge landowners. Foreign financing Polish political campaigns was openly conducted by the RUi;Siaj~:i French, Austrian, Swedish, and Brandenburgian "parties." The old ing that virtue was the basis of Polish parliamentary government was castically changed to Polska nierzqdem stoi, meaning that Poland on anarchy and weakness so that no country feels threatened by it.

Sarmatism grew into an all-embracing xenophobic ideology of szlachta, while it was still fashionable among the land magnates

claim descent from Greco-Roman heroes. '

5,000 elite troops to the Tartars with the promise that the captives could be. exchanged for a ransom. Cossack Hetman Bohdan Chmelnytkyj paid the ransom of 100,000 gold talars, and then he ordered the execution of the 5,000 prisoners.

, The killing of the prisoners and the massacres of Catholics and later prevented Chmeinytkyj from backing out of the unification

Ukraine with Russia, when the Muscovy tsar refused to recognize the Cossack freedoms and elective system which they had enjoyed for ,,,,,,HII,np.,, within the Commonwealth. Thus, Cossack councils at Pereieslaw voted for the unification of Ukraine with Russia (1654). The Polish-Russian war of 1654-1656 ended when the Swedes invaded A two-year armistice was signed with Russia without territori-

changes. The Seym authorized devaluation of coinage, as Warsaw to repair the damage caused by the political machines of the I~~'n'~n magnates.

T_he recognition of Kievian Ukraine as an equal partner of Poland Lithuania was spelled out by the Seym in 1659 in the ratification of Treaty of Hadziacz signed with the Cossacks. It was a belated effort make Poland a republic of the three nations of the Poles, Ukrainians

Lithuanians (who included the Belarussians). '

Chmelnyckyj at the Point of No Return

The Ukrainian Cossack uprising of 1648 was exploited' Muscovy Russia, Sweden, Brandenburg, and the Ottoman ' marked the beginning of the political and military disintegration of ' Polish Nobles' Republic during the next 147 years. As noted ' some 200,000 Catholics and Jews were murdered across Ukraine. Uniates were forcibly converted to the Orthodoxy. In 1648, the guered Poles of Lw6w rejected Chmelnytkyj's offer to lift the the city on the condition that all Jewish inhabitants of the besieged be handed over to the Cossacks for slaughter.

In 1651, the Poles achieved a victory in the battle of Beresteczs against a Cossack anny abandoned by Crimean Tartars. (TIle apparently, were ordered by their Turkish masters to withdraw than further weaken Poland and bring about an outcome t"v,", ""h I." Russia). The armistice signed at Biala Cerkiew was favorable Poles. On July 2-3 of the following year, however, the battle of was lost by Hetman Marcin Kalinowski. There he surrendered

The Constitutional Crisis of the Veto

A constitutional crisis broke out when the session of the 1652 Seym declared null and void by a precedent-setting illegal admission of a vote of protest known as the Liberum Veto. The first veto cast by

Siciriski was formally registered shortly before Siciriski fled the

, His early departure should have caused an inunediate rejection of

motion. However, the speaker (Marshal) Andrzej Maximilian Fredro accepted it, thus violating Polish parliamentary rule, which the presence of the author of any motion dwing the resulting The unusual event of disruption of the session appealed to Fredro

authored the Paradoxical Philosophy of Anarchy. Attempts to legalFredro's unfortunate decision were paralyzed by foreign subhis ruling was immediately supported by agents of Moscow and Siciriski acted on orders of Janusz Radziwill, one of the wealthi-

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est magnates in Lithuania and a leader of dissidents, who later (in 1655):' committed high treason and signed allegiance to the king of Sweden.· '

The Polish parliamentary principle of voluntary agreement det:em>-::,~ rated into a rigid and formal requirement of unanimity. For the next hundred years, it virtually paralyzed the Seym (until 1764).· The' , Liberum Veto, together with the misconceived Golden Freedom and th~' admission of foreign candidates for the royal elections, became main tools for the subversion of the open Polish government by boring absolutist regimes.

The erosion of the Republic began when a deluge of invasions

the 17th century ruined the economy and shifted political power the lower and middle gentry to the owners of rapidly expanding estates. This paralyzed the progress of reforms necessary for UPUItlWIII,' constitutional acts (of 1505 and later). Instead of broadening the cratic process, reverse trends were set in motion. The condition of peasant serfs worsened. A number of rebellions broke out for crverse, reasons, ranging from the civil rights of the Ukrainian Cossacks to opposition to constitutional reforms.

The magnates, whose political machines were promoting their garchical control over the Republic, often became tools of foreign version. The Russian autocracy used them.

Polish Unitarians. The official reason for this expulsion was the refusal by the sect to bear arms in defense of Poland; in fact it was an act of intolerance breaking with the Polish tradition of toleration-a result of

,'the political victory of the Counter-Refonnation and the loss of politi-: cal power by the middle gentry in favor of the land magnates.

As a result of the multiple wars fought in Poland, the population of ,Warsaw dropped precipitously from 18,000 just a few years earlier (0 6,000. Polish armed forces entered Denmark to assist their Danish allies ,',in the war against Sweden. The final terms of the peace treaty with .Sweden in 1660 included King Jan Kazirnierz Vasa's resignation of the

rights to the Swedish throne, and the loss by Poland of most of Inflanty , . except the southern region. Thus ended Polish involvement in the polit~)callife of Sweden.

The country's battles with Muscovy Russia, however, raged as fiercely as ever. Thanks to Polish victories over Muscovy at Palooka and Cudnowo, the Muscovites were forced to evacuate Wilno and :Lw6w in 1661. Poland's independence was preserved by the self-sacri,ficing military effort of its population.

Rebellions and Gains by Muscovy

In 1662, the Seym prohibited royal elections vivente rege (while , 'the king was still alive). The soldiers, unpaid for years, rebelled and -formed unions-the "Holy Alliance" and the "Pious Alliance"-tJying get back pay. In 1665-1666, the Seym faced a rebellion by the Grand Marshal and Army Commander Jerzy Lubomirski (1616-1667), who

, claimed that he was upholding the Social Contract and the Constitution of the Republic. The rebellion degenerated into high treason and weakthe Republic, making the necessary political and social reforms [(i1np'oss.jble. It also prevented the armed forces' recovery of Eastern ~'.U'JU'lllL';;, which was lost to Russia after the Cossack uprising in 1648,

obstructed an effective defense against the Muscovites.

The 1666 fratricidal battle of Matwy was won by Lubomirski against the loyal troops under Hetman John Sobieski. Some 2,000 elite cavalrymen perished, which weakened the Republic's ... • .... 1111<:11 forces, needed on the Russian frontier. The central government

The Loss of Prussia

The military and political successes of the Swedes ended at sieges of Czestochowa and Gdansk, The tide of war turned under leadership of Hetman Stefan Czarnecki. However, in 1656, the S was notified that Frederick Wilhelm Hohenzollem of Berlin had himself as a vassal of Sweden out of the Polish fief of Prussia. The year the Seym passed the Excise Tax Law and issued the authorization to use copper coinage. The Seym also ratified the Treaty of BVd~{)szc:t! and Welawa, relinquishing the Polish fief of Prussia in exchange for

mination of the Hohenzollerns' association with Sweden. '

A permanent representation of the burghers of Lw6w was to the Seym in 1658. Under pressure from the Catholic Church, at same time, the Seym expelled the (anti-Trinitarian) Arian sect of

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of Poland was also weakened. while foreign interference and sLlbver-" , sion, aimed at fostering anarchy in the Republic, grew in strength, espe-,: :, cially after the Muscovites were able to seize control of Ukraine. The truce of Andrusz6w was signed in 1667, and with it the end of the Polish expansion eastward. It was, in fact. the be!~inlrlln,g·,1' of Russian expansion westward.

Poland still might have regained the upper hand. However.

exhausting war with Turkey drove Poland to give critical territorial cessions to Russia in 1688 in return for 146,000 rubles and a ll.lLL=I~"'1'7J-.i able) alliance against the Turks and the Tartars.

The Seym ratified the truce concluded with Russia at and accepted the loss of Eastern Ukraine to Russia. as wel~ as Kiev. two years, when a ransom was to be paid. It was never paid '. and Ki~V . was permanently lost, Thus the ceded territories gave MUSCOVItes a. cntical advantage over Poland. The land on the eastern bank of the ~eper- , River represented the most important element in the transformation of Muscovy into the great Russian Empire. Moscow could ~us proceed t~ . fill the power vacuum created in northern and central ASIa by the earlier disintegration of the Mongol Empire.

Scale armor of Hetman Stanislaw Jablonowski (1637-1702). It was used at Vienna and Parkany,

~·.dii~l1.riace throughout the republic. causing the Seym to immediately bolster the defense budget.

War with Turkey and Territorial Losses

The aforementioned war with Turkey was authorized by the Seym .. in 1667 because the Cossack Hetman Pyott Doroshenko made Southern, Ukraine a Turkish fief. Despite a Polish victory under the leadership Hetman Jan Sobieski over the Muslim forces at Podhajce, the temtorv., of the Polish Nobles' Republic shrank to 774,000 sq. km. due to UI~'~U""'~' of 286,000 sq. km of Eastern Ukraine to Russia and 20,000 sq. km. eastern Prussia to Brandenburg. The population of the republic thus,

decreased to some six million.

The Seym ratified the abdication of King John Cas~ir V~a in " 1668, clearing the way for a weak six-year reign of King Micbal:

Korybut Wisrnowiecki. Under his reign the 1672 Treaty of Buczacz . (boo-chach) was signed, which ceded Southern Ukraine to Doroshenko.: as a Turkish tief-a fief that included podolia and Kamieniec Podolskij: as well as an annual tithe of 22,000 ducats. The treaty was considered

Victory Over the Turks by King John III

John ill Sobieski was elected and crowned in 1674, one year after victory over the Turks at Chocim (kho-cheem), He had the support campaign contributions from France. In 1675, the Treaty of Jawor6w

was concluded between Poland and France against )Br'anejenlbur.l! and Austria. Its purpose was to re-establish Polish overover Prussia and to recover all of Silesia. The treaty was 'lh' .. " ...... r1 in 1681, however, when the Seym was dominated by promagnates. At the same time, the Pope was worried about the e of Austria and the resulting Turkish threat to Italy. Thus the also opposed the Treaty of Jawor6w.

A Polish victory over Turkish forces at Lw6w in 1676 resulted in Treaty of Zurawno. TUrkey returned two-thirds of Ukraine, leaving other one-third under Doroshenko as a Turkish fief. The matter of 'l1 ... ,..lnl;~ was left open for further negotiations. The Seym ratified the

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treaty and revised the operations of the treasury in order to have more money for the defense. In 1677 the Seym specified the rates of Church - taxes to be paid to the treasury. The same year a secret agreement with , Sweden was finalized in Gdansk by King John Sobieski. It supported' the 1675 Treaty of Jawor6w, and was directed against th~ Hohenzollerns of Berlin. Diplomatic means were used one year later iII. ' an attempt to restore Kiev to Poland.

In 1681-83, the Seym rarified an anti-Turkish treaty with Austria that was meant to prevent Turkish advances along the southern border of Poland into Austria and to reduce the threat to the Vatican. Sub-: sequent preparations were made for a life-and-death struggle with th~, Turks, who were at the zenith of their territorial expansion in Europe> King John m Sobieski was to be the supreme commander of the Allied Christian armies. In this capacity. he won crucial battles at Vienn~' (September 12. 1683) and at Parkany (October 7-9. 1683). which effectively ended Turkish expansion into Europe.

The "Holy League" of Poland. Austria, Venice. and the Papal State: was founded against Turkey in 1684; though only Poland and Austria ' continued the war against Turkey. Poland and Turkey exhausted other and gradually became the "sick men" of Europe, while

power grew. ,

Poland was a bastion of Western Christianity during the struggle against its two enemies: the TUrkish Moslem Empire and the Orth<>dot, Russia. especially after the strengthening of the Russian absolute chy by Peter I. Poland stopped Turkish expansion into Europe, but not able to prevent Russian subversion, while Russia benefitted from, Polish victory over the Turkish Empire. In 1687, the Seym refused to ify the Krzysztof Grzymuhowsk..i Peace Treaty with Moscow, offered to relinquish Eastern Ukraine, Kiev. and Smolefisk.It was a

ing poinL Muscovy Russia for the first time had an upper hand, Poland. The Seym had to recognize Russia's interest in preserv the Orthodox Church in Ukraine and Russian action against the Ulll ...... "'.:;,li Thus the tsar was given a strategic opportunity for subversive against the republic in its eastern borderlands.

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Polish Science during the Baroque Period

After the "Golden Age" of the Polish Renaissance came the II Silver Age" of the Baroque. which was characterized by: population losses; a fall in farm production. as arable land reverted to waste; livestock reduction; and a drop in yield per acre. The large estates expanded at the expense of middle nobility. The revenues of the treasury fell and a monetary crisis grew. Devaluation spread and towns declined economically. Many towns lost half of their population. Urban trades and crafts declined. Poland's foreign trade suffered as the center of international trade shifted to the Atlantic and the colonies.

Many Polish scientists thus emigrated to teach abroad, mainly in Gennany. This "brain drain" indicates the Europeanization of Polish science and a period of weakening of Polish cultural life. Thus. for example, doctor Marcin Chrnielecki and theologian Amandus Polonus taught at Basel; Hebraist Bartlomiej Keckennann at Heidelberg; Calvinist theologians Jan Makowski and Bartlomiej Arnold at Franeker; Wawrzyniec Bodoch, professor of rhetoric and president. at Rostock; Cartesianist Jan Kolaczek Placentinus, professor of mathematics and president. at Frankfurt an der Oder; and Celestyn Myslenta, professor of ' Hebrew and theologian. served as president of the University of Koenigsberg, where Jan Stanislaw Kalinski and Szymon Zywickilec-

, tured in the Law School.

In Poland. Adam Burski Bursius distinguished himself in Hellenic , and Byzantine studies at the Academy of Zamo§~. where he wrote .: Dialectica Ciceronis, together with Grand Hetman and Chancellor Jan 'Zamoyski.

The great scientific dictionary of Polish-Latin-Greek by Grzegorz : Knapski, entitled Thesaurus Polono-Latino-Graecus, was published in .1621. It was an important work for Polish and Slavic lexicography. The first printing shop in Warsaw was established in 1624. Polish dictionar'ies. grammars. and other books were printed in K.r6lewiec (Koenigsberg) in the Polish fief of Prussia.

Important achievements of Polish mathematicians like Jan Brozek . should be mentioned. He supported the Copernican theory and pub-

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ir lished a textbook, Arithmetica Integrorum (1620), and Apologia pro Aristotele ... (1652). Brozek was the first historian of science in Poland. He taught mathematics, astronomy, and geodesy at the University of Krak6w, where he served as president (rector) in 1652. He also wrote papers on the theory of music, on cartography, and on medicine. He wrote a satire on the Jesuits in 1625.

Arrnandy Kochanski, mathematician and physicist, an associate of Leibniz, brought calculus to Poland. He was the author of Analecta Mathematica sive Theoreses Mechanicae Novae published in 1651. Another mathematician, Stanislaw Solski, published the first Polish textbook on architecture in 1690 entitled Architekt Polski.

Advances in astronomy were made by Jan Hevelius, who discovered several constellations and named two of them after Polish kings, Stellae Yladislaviane and Scutum Sobiescii. The royal court in Warsaw supported the linguistic work of Franciszek Mesgnien-Meniflski, who authored a dictionary of oriental languages and published a Polish grammar text entitled Gramatica seu institute Polonicae lingue (1~9).

Polish Unitarians friendly with the Bohemian Brethren established their gymnasium at Leszno near Poznaii. After arriving in Poland from, Bohemia in 1621. Jan Amos Komensky (or Comenius, 1592-1670), a famous Czech educator, taught there and, in 1631. published Janua Linguarum Reserata, which was an innovation in the teaching of lan-, guages. From 1636 on he was a rector of the gymnasium and was elected bishop of the Unitas Fratrum in 1648. He left Poland in 1656 after he wrote Orbis Sensualium PiClUS. He was the first to write a textbook with pictures for the teaching of children. Polish Brethren or AntiTrinitarians or Arians founded their Academy in Rak6w, near Sandomierz. In 1630s it became a center of intellectual life with broad, contacts with the West until the eviction of Polish Unitarians in 1656.

Polish rationalist philosophy (founded in 1562) was published in Amsterdam in the monumental Biblioteca Fratrum Polonorum (1661). This philosophy helped to form the basis of the world view of such philosophers as Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) and John Locke (1632- 1704).

Literature during the Baroque Period

Polish Baroque in the field of literature had three periods. During 1580 to 1620 the influence of the Renaissance still encouraged the creation of new literary forms. The mature period, in which Polish Baroque writings were influenced by the Counter-Reformation.Jasted from 1620 to 1670. The decline of Polish Baroque literature occurred from 1670 to 1730. Valuable works were rarely printed then; instead poetry and prose contained mostly religious motifs presented in a sumptuous and flowery style. Most of this decline was the result of the "Saxon Night" in Poland.

Polish Baroque literature contained a great variety of genres such as the historical epic, memoirs, journalism, religious writings. lyric poetry, poetry of "worldly pleasures." eulogies. historical writings, and voluminous plebeian or picaresque literature.

Metaphysical poetry was written by Mikolaj SIilP Szarzyiiski (c. 1550-1581). Entitled "Wiersze Polskie" ("Polish verses"), the verses were published in 1601 and characterized as "Christian pessimism" due to their treatment of the problems of life and death, evil and sin. They also encouraged the search for everlasting happiness in heaven.

Hieronim Morsztyn (1580-1623) wrote a series of poems about country life entitled "Swiatowa Rozkosz" ("Worldly Pleasures"). He was the first to write fantastic fables in Polish. His poem "Kindhearted Bosnian Princes of Banialuka" gave Polish language the word "banialuki" which means "nonsense."

Love songs about the Ukrainian beauties were written by Szymon Zimorowic (1608-1629). Published in 1654 under the title Roxolanki, these poems, written with an extraordinary artistry, were closely related to authentic folk songs and constitute one of the greatest achievements of early Polish Baroque love lyrics.

Andrzej Zbylitowski (c. 1565-1608) wrote a poem about the idyllic life of a Polish country squire ("Zywot szlachcica we wsf'). His cousin Piotr opposed luxury and effeminacy among country s.quires. as well as new fashions. He also wrote satiric poems: "A Rebuke to overdressed Ladies" ("Przygana wymyslnym strojom btaloglowskim;" 1600); "A Conversation between Polish Noble and a Foreigner" (1600); and "Schadzka Ziemianska" ("Get together of country squires," 1608).

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Burghers' poetry dealt with the Vistula River trade, the Wieliczka salt mines, and ironworks. Sebastian F. Klonowic wrote "Flis" ("A Boatman," 1595) recording boatmen's language and customs. Walenty Rozdziefiski gave the first professional description of metal works in "Officina terraria abo Huta i warsztat" ("Smelter and Workshop," 1612). The poem included the history of metallurgy and miners' legends and tales.

From 1590 to 1655 anonymous plebeian literature had a satirical character. Written mostly by parochial school teachers, it dealt critically with current social problems and advocated disloyalty in an obscene language. Usually poorly printed-addressed to a mass audience-it was quickly included in the index of prohibited books.

Piotr Skarga Paweski (1536-1612), an outstanding preacher, theologian, and biographer, published Zywoty Swi(!tych (Lives of Saints, 1579) and a political treatise entitled Kazania Sejmowe (Sermons in the Parliament, 1597), which condemned the main faults in Polish political and social life. He was also an exponent of the Counter-Reformation that had started with the Council of Trent in 1577.

The Polish translation and adaptation of Torquato Tasso's ":

Gerusaleme liberata (1575) as Jerusalem wyzwolana (Jerusalem delivered, ]6]8) by Piotr Kochanowski made Polish readers familiar with Italian literature for the first time.

By the end of the 16th century, diaries, memoirs, and itineraries, including impressions of foreign countries. became fashionable in Poland. Mikolaj Radziwill's Peregrynacja do Ziemi SWi(!tej (Peregrination to the Holy Land) was written in 1582-1584. It gave an ' interesting description of adventures, nature, architecture, and ethnic and social groups. Marcin Borzymski wrote a poem "Morska nawiga-: cyja do Lubeka" ("Sea Voyage to LUbeck," 1662). Numerous memoirs ' reflected the stormy political and social events of the mid-17th century; ;:" "

Waclaw Potocki (1621-1696) published a national epic, The War ot-' Khochim (Wojna Chocimska, which was based on published diaries of Jakub Sobieski, father of King Jan ill Sobieski ). It was written in beau- ' tiful language with vividness and realism in battle scenes. This poetic chronicle was full of patriotism, chivalric spirit, and the glorification of"

past virtues. Potocki also wrote moralizing religious poetry, novels, short stories, and heraldic verses in Poczet herbow (The Galaxy of Armorial Bearings, 1696).

Wespazjan Kochowski (1633-1700) wrote a poetic rendition of Polish history in the messianic style under the title of Psalmodia Polska. Kochowski took part in the battle of Vienna in 1683 as a royal histori-ographer. He wrote Dzielo Boskie, albo piesni Wiednia wybawionego (God's Work, or a Song of Vienna Delivered, 1684). Kochowski believed that Poland was a chosen nation capable of immortal deeds. He "wrote the three-volume Annalium Poloniae, a valuable Latin work cov,ering Polish history from 1683 to 1684.

Stanislaw Herakliusz Lubomirski (1642-1702) was a perfect stylist, He wrote with equal ease in Polish and in Latin. Among his works was a prototype of a novel developed in the form of a dialogue: Rozmowy Artaksesa i Ewandra (Conversations Between Artares and Evander, 1683). In his Latin work, De vanitate consiliorum (1600), he criticized the political system in 17th-century Poland. A son of a rebel, he was known as an intriguer and a brawler despite the fact that he wrote love poems, moralizing stories, and biblical paraphrases. After his father played a destructive role in Polish politics, he wrote on politics in Latin in the spirit of humanism and Christianity. His work, entitled De unitate , - consiliorum, was a vigorous criticism of the conditions of Polish poli-

- tics in 17th-century. He did not offer a program for reforms and looked

with pessimism on the future of his country, while his family helped to " push Poland towards an oligarchy of land magnates.

In the vast memoir literature of the 17th century, the memoirs of Jan Chrisostom Pasek (1636-1701) are considered a masterpiece. They were written in 1691-1695 in the style of a historical novel, which 'included such events from 1656 to 1688 as battles with the Swedes in Poland and Denmark, and wars with Muscovy. He gives good descriptions of the mentality and lifestyle of the masses of Polish nobility in the , second half of the 17th century, who farmed, debated, dueled, passionately sued one another, and forayed against each other's estates.

The slow decline in Polish literature started at the end of the 17th century. It resulted from the political, social, and economic decline

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Mansion in Radzyii Podlaski, built by Jakub Fontana, 1740-1758.

known as the Saxon Night. Thus, by the tum of the century, mainly theological treatises on the divine grace and free will were published together with vast numbers of prayer books. Baroque writings were full of Latin borrowings and references to Greek mythology. Heretical books were burned as the Counter-Reformation progressed.

The high level of college education declined as theology was gaining over the sciences after the "Deluge" of invasions. Young men preferred to study abroad. Learning became a domain of the urban middle class. The vic tory of the Counter-Reformation broke contacts with the Protestant scholars and forbade everyone to read books placed on the Index of Forbidden Books. Contradictory trends developed in Polandrationalism versus Sarmatian irrationalism, for example. During the "Saxon Night," the "Sarmatian Myth" excluded the lower classes from the legendary Sarmatian links. It served to justify social injustices.

Baroque Architecture in Poland

Early Polish Baroque was influenced by Italian architects who worked in Poland in the first half of the 17th century. The St. Peter and - Paul Church was founded in Krak6w by King Sigismund ill Vasa; il was

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built (1597-1605) in late Mannerist style. In the same style, SI. Mary's Church was buill in Bielany near Krak6w. Sacral architecture in Poland in the first half of the 17th century often consisted of different combinations of late Gothic, Renaissance, Mannerism, and early Baroque. A Mannerist church buill in Sierak6w served as a mausoleum for the Opaliriski family. The church in Klimont6w, built by Lorrenzo Senes with stucco by Faconi, shows the influence of Polish Mannerism. The 14th-century basilica at Jasna G6ra in Czestochowa was altered by the addition of a high lower in 1690. The Roman Baroque Church of the Holy Cross, built during the reign of King John ill, is the most monumental in Warsaw. The University Church of St. Anne in Krak6w, built between 1680 and 1705, is the best example of the mature Baroque in Poland. Rata! Leszczynski, the governor Poznan, employed Pompeo Ferrari of Rome to build the late Baroque Church of St. Mary in Gostyfi and lo finish the palace in Rydzyna integrated with parks and gardens. The typical Baroque city planning had the church located at the end of a street.

The most beautiful examples of the late Polish Baroque are the churches built in the 17th and 18th centuries in Wilno and Lw6w, now in Lithuania and Ukraine respectively (lost by Poland in the Second World War). Italian architects were hired by Poles 10 build the Jesuit Church of St. Casimir; the Church of SI. Peter and Paul in the Antokol district in Wilno; the Church of St. Catherine; the Church of the Missionary Fathers; and the l Sth-century Church of St. John the Baptist. Following their war-lime destruction, most of these churches were redecorated in the rich rococo style.

The royal castles of Krakow, Warsaw, and Ujazd6w, on the other hand, were redecorated in the secular Mannerist style. An example of a palazzo in [ortezza is the castle of Wi§nicz rebuilt by Lubomirski in 1615. It is the work of Maciej Trapola. Elegant shapes were combined with exaggerated stucco decoration and an arcaded courtyard was added. Modem fortifications protected the castle. The castle of Nieswiez, buill in 1583 -1720, has twelve great halls, seven gilt domes, and a peristyle of gilt columns. The defensive castle of Nieswiez as well as the castles of Krzyztopor, Ujazd, Laricut and Podhorce, are examples of Sarmatian megalomania when fortunes were spent on extravagance and display.

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Palaeo in Wilanow of King John JJJ Sobieski.

Painted by Canaletto in 1750.

Baroque Sculptures

The mature baroque sculptures are of open form. picturesque style. and accentuated expression executed in stucco with the rich use of gold illusionist wall paintings. Giovanni Battista Flaconi worked in from 1625-1660. He decorated St. Peter and Paul Church, the .', .... :u .. '1.U ... '~ .. ~.'" Church in Krakow, and the castle in Baran6w, to mention

a·few. A pillared monument of King Sigismund III was erected on the Square in Warsaw in picturesque Baroque. The socle was made

red marble and the figure in gilt bronze. Similarly executed were the of the Jagiellonian kings in the cathedral of Wilno. New tomb ,_ .•• ~_ consisted of a bust cast in bronze set against an ornate wall, a used in the Krak6w Cathedral on the tombs of bishops Marcin

zvszkowski (1631) and Piotr Gembicki (1654).

Baroque figures created by Balthasar Fontana in SI. Anne's Church Krak.6w are in agitated theatrical postures with strong expressions. swirled hair. and draped clothes. A more subdued style was used

the decoration of the Royal Castle in Wilan6w by a Flemish sculptor.

Schlueter. Warsaw sculptures created by Johann Persch are in expressive and dramatic poses in the Saxon Garden. in the Augustinian and in the Cathedral of Warsaw. Rococo style. the last phase of ue, was used to decorate palaces, public squares, and churches.

Knights." made in the rococo style. decorate the St. George's 'ml11V1lny Church in Lw6w. Palace and church architecture flourished in ornate rococo and baroque style. often accompanied by elaborate landscape gardening. The number of Polish architects grew. Woed architec. was replaced by buildings in stone. High quality sculptures in wood

used for the decoration of the interiors. The magnates tried to imiVersailles in their palaces. The splendor of religious services uired an ornate art setting and proper musical accompaniment.

The royal palace in Wilan6w was enlarged in the style of an ltalill;ll .villa by King John ill Sobieski. His victory at Vienna was commemo-' - . rated by Queen Marie Casimire, who founded the church of Benedictine . Sisters. It was built by Tylman of Gameren in Paladine Baroque style: . Tylman built a commercial building in 1695, a shopping center with .. fifty-four stores under arcades on the ground floor and inns on the second floor. Tylman also designed and built the palace of Niebor6w in·' 1690-1695 in the new French style called entre cour et jardin. Pompeo Ferrari of Rome built the late baroque-style Leszczynski palace in Rydzyna. It was integrated with parks and gardens, as was the palace' built in Bialystok by Hetman Jan Klemens Branicki. (It resembled the. French royal palace in Versailles.) A grand hall was added to the royal . castle in Warsaw facing the Vistula River. It was later used by the .' Polish parliament, and then the castle was referred to as the Castle of the . Republic during the reign of King Stanislaw n August Poniatowski. .'

In Radzyn Podlaski, Jakub Fontana built a mansion decorated outside and inside in the late baroque style.

Baroque Paintings

A gallery of paintings in the Wawel Castle in Krak6w were made a combined baroque and mannerist style by Tomaso Dolabella. He features of the Sarmatian culture in dramatic expressions, characteristics. and Slavic facial features. His portrait of

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young Stanislaw Teczynski of 1634 is typical. However. some church paintings reverted to medieval forms with subjects taken from the bible, " In northern Poland. realist Dutch mannerism prevailed.

The nearly fifty-foot roll painting entitled The Entrance of Sigismund 1II 10 Krakow in 1605 was created by Abraham Westerfelt, who also painted The Entrance of J erzy Ossolinski to Rome' in 1633, as well Janusz Radzjwil/' s Entrance to Kiev-all Ir nportant documents of the period.

Paul Peter Rubens influenced Polish painters such as Lekszycki, who in his Crucifixion in the Benedictine Church in Ktak~'w.~ painted Polish plebeian types. Portraits of Polish kings John Casimir Michael Wi§niowiecki (1669) were painted by Daniel Schultz in style. His best portrait is that of Bishop Andrzej Trzebicki (1664).

Polish Sarmatian baroque portraits of King John III Sobieski painted by Jan Tritius or Tretko in 1692 and by Jerzy '''i''",''~ln .... UI~ The latter painted the heroic king in the Battle of Vienna.

Italian painters were hired to decorate a number of churches Poland such as St. Peter and Paul Church in Wilno, the Sacramentiae Church in Warsaw, and St. Casimir chapel in the Cathedral of All of these buildin-gs were decorated with illusionistic paintings expressive and didactic. This style was also used in the monastery. Lubiaz and in many churches in Great Poland and in Silesia, A of King Augustus III in Polish national costume was reminiscent' Sannatian portraits of Polish noblemen. Portrait painting in the brow" Sannatian style was used to show wealth and social standing. was fashionable to have portraits of the deceased painted on comnsi, many of which still exist today.

Szymon Czechowicz (1689-1775), graduate of the Academia San Luca in Rome, painted religious motifs in the idealistic and sive manner of the baroque. Tadeusz Kuntze Konicz, or Polacco (1733-1793), studied in the French Academy in Rome. painted in late Baroque and early classicist style. He decorated es in Poland and in Italy. He painted an excellent portrait of Zahrski, his patron. He introduced Polish Sarmatian types in scenes in the Villa Borghese in Italy.

Polish Theater in the 17th and 18th Centuries

The 17th-century Poles who traveled to the universities in Italy and France noticed the changes brought to the theater by the Renaissance. They observed how in Italy classic tragedy had turned into opera, and comedy into commedia dell' arte. The Italian stage first changed with ,the use of revolving panels, which permitted a rapid change of scenery, and then modem wings. Meanwhile the English had discarded the medieval concept of simultaneous action. These changes were brought

,to Poland by traveling foreign theater companies. The first permanent ~.audlt~[)ri\lm. equipped with the latest stage facilities, was built at the ,royal court in Warsaw in 1638; it was the first theater outside of Italy

. with such modem facilities. The summaries of the librettos of

"~ ......... ign plays were printed in Polish for the local audience.

Minstrel comedies were written and performed by poor parochial teachers. Piotr Baryka wrote a comedy, "Zchlopakrol" (''The ant King"), that was popular in country manors. Most popular. .nowever, was the school theater. The Jesuits ran about sixty school the-

in Poland that staged some 4,000 performances. Eventually, theaters gave way to a permanent Polish national theater that ,""-"~n"~ ... u many talented playwrights.

A new theater was built in Warsaw in 1748. It was called there, performances were put on two or three times a week. ssion was free and invitations were easy to acquire because the

theater had 500 seats and a large standing space. Branickis buill il:1U'''o"u·J W,;o;'lL theaters in Bialystok and the Radziwills in Nieswiez, and Biala, Large auditoria were added to the royal courts in and in Krak6w. There were also theatrical schools at Krak6w

at large magnate courts where actors were courtiers, Some theater 'nuJn",,..., wrote plays in Polish for their own stages.

Music in Poland in the 17th and 18th Centuries

Mikolaj Zielefiski published his compositions in concertante style Venice in 1611; in them, musicians appeared to compete for the of the listeners. The conductors of the choir and music at the chapel in Warsaw, Bartlomiej Pekiel and Jacek Rozycki, also

composed in this style. So did Mikolaj Mielczewski, Damian Stachowicz, Stanislaw S. Szarzyfiski, and Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki-all choir conductors at the chapel of the Wawel Cathedral.

Instrumental music flourished in Poland in the 17th and 18th centuries. Polish composers wrote mostly chamber music for several instruments. Best known among Polish composers was Adam Jastrzebski (c. 1590-1648). He was a violinist, an architect. poet, violin maker, and politician. His compositions. Canzoni et concerti (1621), were played throughout Europe. Other well-known Polish composers of canzoni, _. sonatas, and concerti were Mikotaj Zieletiski, Marcin Mielczewski, and ' Sylwester Szarzyiiski.

The first operas consisted of dramatic performances with music and were staged in Poland in the 1620s by foreign singers, mainly Italians. The first opera house was opened to the public in 1724 in Warsaw. In theaters owned by land magnates, operas and musical comedies were staged in Polish in free translation often describing Polish topics. Usually the plot was a love story set in me country,

The Polish Press in the 17th and 18th Centuries On January 3, 1661. the first newspaper was printed in Poland.

Entitled Merkuriusz Polski (Polish Mercurius bringing the history of ' the whole world to the common people), it was edited in Krak6w and opened the first period of Polish journalism, which ended in the 17405'.-:, It followed a period of newsletters or "ephemeral letters," the distribu- " tion of which started in the 15th century. The newsmen of that time" were called novellatores and were both lay and clerical. Their hand .. ,_' written newsletters were delivered 10 the royal court, to palaces' of-, princes and land magnates, to bishops and wealthy merchants. In 1525;, for example, Hieronim Wietor distributed his newsletter to Krzycki. The distribution of handwritten newsletters did not stop with' development of the regular press. They were commonly used through- ' out the Enlightenment and, in printed form, they continue to be in culation at the present time.

In 16th·century Poland, the copying, distribution, and sale newsletters was the domain of the Piarist monks. who charged the

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scribers as much as 100 ducats per year. These newsletters were popular because they were lively and informative and were not subject to censorship by the Church or anyone else.

The Merkuriusz Polski was published by the royal court from January 3 to July 22. 1661. The paper's chief editor was the marshal of the court, Lukasz Op alinski , who controlled the editorial policy. The newspaper was published because King John Casimir Vasa wanted to legalize the royal election of his successor while he was still alive--a rege vivente election. It was to counteract the participation of foreign candidates and foreign campaign financing-both of which were legal in Poland during the general election of a new king. The law on elections, rege vivente, failed to pass and the publication of Merkuriusz Polski stopped. During the 17th century eight periodicals, including five new editions, were published in Poland.

Sarmatian Crafts and Manufacturing

Polish Sarmatian culture was expressed in the huge production of artistic handicrafts in rich Baroque style. French influence can be seen in Polish Rococo style joinery and in the furnishing of churches and private residences.

A large Armenian community brought Eastern influences to Poland. The Armenian Christians suffered persecution in the form of "ethnic cleansing" by, the Turks. Persian enemies of the Turks permitted Armenians to immigrate and prosper. Armenian tradesmen brought Persian objects of art, richly decorated weapons, precious vessels, clothing, furs, and textiles.

, ~ The Polish climate required warmer clothing than was fashionable

, in southern and western Europe. Thus Poland was exposed to Eastern , influences. The Armenians introduced Persian-style clothes. On the other hand, centuries of wars with the Ottoman Empire exposed the Poles to Turkish clothes and decorations.

Dress fabrics of silk interwoven with gold or silver threads, based - on Persian designs, were made in Poland. So were carpets that imitated the oriental designs. In Poland, the factory at Brody owned by the , Koniecpolskls was best known for production of these items. Polish

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national patterns dominated the weaving of carpets, often combining Eastern and Western influences to create new Polish rococo designs, Of just continuing the traditional folk art. High quality Polish tapestries were produced in Nidwiez. and in Shick,

A casting technique developed in Gdansk was used to manufacture

sacral objects. Peter von den Rennen, for example, wrought the silver coffins of St. Adalbert for the Gniezno Cathedral and of St. Stanislaus for the Cathedral in Krakow; Michal Weinhold wrought the bronze door for the Vasa Chapel at the Krakow Cathedral. High quality carpentry was used to produce such altars as that of St. Catherine Church in Krak6w and to build grand wardrobes in the Gdansk style.

Polish factories produced ceramics in the Dutch style of the city of Delft. A Polish factory at Biala Podlaska produced porcelain with

Meissen motifs.

Early Polish Development of Rocketry

Kazirnierz Siernienowicz (1600-16517), an engineer serving as a deputy commander of Polish Artillery, published a standard textbook on rocketry, Artis Magnae Artilferiae Pars Prima, in 1650 in Amsterdam. He published, for the first time in world literature, the design for multistage solid fuel rocket engines. as well as multiple warhead rockets with steering and stabilizing systems. His designs included fIDS, rotational sta- .' bilizers, as well as rocket launching guide rails. The rocketry handbook, with production specifications, as well as firing and steering instructions, was used in Europe for the next 200 years. (It was translated into Frenchin 1651, into German in 1676, and into English in 1729. A copy of it can - be read in NASA's files of the history of rocketry.)

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J Multiple stage and multiple warhead Polish rockets of 1650.

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CRISIS OF SOVEREIGNTY OF THE POLISH NOBLES' REpUBLIC

Late Baroque

The Destruction of Polish Defense Establishment Peter I of Russia understood that the republican system of government was a legal structure, which he could monally wound if he could poison it at the top of the organization of the Polish slate. In order to accomplish this aim, he "engineered" the "Saxon Night" that lasted from 1697 to 1763. Peter I disbursed 96 percent of slate revenue on the army and built the world's largest armament industry, He mobilized his police-military complex to subvert and overthrow the representative government of Poland. In the process, he pioneered a "5th column" and disinformation methods. He had Russian lawyers schooled in the Polish law and electoral procedures for subversion pwposes. He used bribes to corrupt Polish politicians and manipulated special interest groups to cause confusion in the Polish parliament. After he SUbjugated the " Russian Orthodox Church and made it a state-controlled propaganda , machine under an Oberprocuror, he used it to foment trouble in the , ,', Ukrainian part of the commonwealth. Peter I concluded the process of - - "nationalization" of all forms of property in his domain, including cler" ica1 holdings. Thus any use of land, buildings, or merchandise was the , subject of tig/o (taxation) in the form of money, labor, or military service, etc. He actually perfected the concept of state terror apparatus and - the espionage much more effectively than did Ivan IV the Terrible. The "Saxon Night" occurred during the personal union of Poland .with Saxony. It started with the illegal crowning of August II Mocny .. (1697-1734) in Krak6w, which was occupied by Russian and Saxon armies. August II had lost the elections in 1697. Thus, a deliberate violation of the law and the sovereignty of the Polish Nobles' Republic was

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staged by Peter I. He subverted the Polish Nobles' Re~ublic by imposing an illegal and unstable administration of a Saxon king, who bec~e a Russian puppet, It was the beginning of twenty years of systematic destruction of Poland's defense establishment.

A private treaty (concluded in violation of the constitution of ~e Polish Nobles' Republic) between Tsar Peter the Gr~at and ~g Augustus II was signed at Rawa Ruska in 1698. It embroiled Poland in another war against Sweden. Russia's aim was to break the sea ~ower of Sweden on the Baltic, while King Augustus II fraudulently tned to _ convert the Polish fief of southern Livonia (then occupied by Swed~n) into a fief of Saxony. In 1699 the Seym ratified the Treaty of Karlo~ce signed by Poland and Austria with Turkey,. South'_¥estem Ukraine including Kamieniec Podolski and up to the River Dnieper was recovered by Poland, as Russia now considered Turkey to be a more dangerous opponent than the subverted Polish state.

The New Kingdom of Prussia

The 1701 proclamation of a new Kingdom of p~ssia in -_ Brandenburg, with its capital in Berlin, resulted ~ a new I.ocauon and a

f the name "Prussia." The proclamation was introduced to

new use 0 , hil ..

exploit the difficulties of the Polish Repub~c wi~ RUSSIa, w . e grvmg

a chance to the Hohenzollerns to be Prussian kings of a temtory formally outside the Roman Empire. This move shaped th~ cradle of th,e _ modem German militarism. The name "Prussia" symbolized the continuity of German militaristic tradition by recalling the 13th century conquest and genocide of the Balta-Slavic Prussians by the armed monks of the Teutonic Order.

Foreign Domination of the Polish Throne - "

Poland was still treated as an equal partner at the beginning of the Northern War (1700-1721), despite its subversion by Peter the Great." However the situation changed when the rogue Lithuanian magnates, the .:

Sapiehas, caused a civil war in 1700 by tyrannizing the lower and middle , " nobility, Once defeated, the Sapiehas asked Charles XII for help and took - : , his side in the war, which eventually involved Denmark, Saxony, Poland,

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Russia, Prussia, and Hanover on one side, and Sweden on the other.

The occupation of Warsaw in 1702 by Charles XII, king of Sweden, was followed by the defeat of Augustus II in the battles at Klisz6w and at Pultusk in 1704. The Confederation Seym in Warsaw (1704) impeached King Augustus II and held general elections.

An ally of France and Sweden, Stanislaw I Leszczynski, was elected king of Poland. King Augustus II officially abdicated in 1706. However, as a' result of the defeat of Charles XII by the Russians in 1709 at Poltava, the Seym was forced by Russia to ratify Augustus II of Saxony as king of Poland in 1710. The defeated Swedes were dominated by Peter's terror apparatus after 1709. In 1713, the Seym formally protested the bringing of the Saxon army to Poland.

King Stanislaw I Leszczynski (1677-/766).

The Russian Protectorate

The Confederation Seym of Tarnogr6d (1715-1717) protested an attempt to abolish the Constitution and Social Contract of the Republic by Augustus II, when he used Saxon troops to establish himself as an absolute ruler in Poland. It was the last major effort by the citizens of the Nobles' Republic to reestablish a legitimate and orderly democratic process. The sham "mediation" between the Seym and the Saxon administration by Peter the Great was, in reality, the first step in the imposition of the Russian protectorate on Poland. This was made possible by twenty years of systematic crippling of the Polish defense

- establishment conducted by Russians with the help of the Saxons. This .: event led to the Seym session of 1717 being held under the guns of the Russian soldiers. This session of the Silent Seym (Sejm Niemy), in which no deputy or senator was permitted to speak, was 10 legalize

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Polish submission to Russian "arbitration." Thus the Seymiks' taxing power and armed forces control was restricted; a tax to support only 24,000 troops was passed; the first budget was formulated and accepted; and the tsar's guarantee of the status quo was accepted as the basis of Russian protectorate over Poland. Peter the Great turned Poland into a demilitarized and neutral zone. The Saxon army was evicted except for 1,200 bodyguards of Augustus II and six officers of the Saxon Chancery, while Russian troops remained. Under the Saxon rule, Poland had no permanent representatives abroad.

Fifty Years of Terrorism by Berlin and St. Petersburg

Thus began fifty years of Russian and Brandenburgian terrorism and the continued subversion of the Republic of Poland-Lithuania. This period could serve as a classic example of how an open republican government can be paralyzed by ruthless authoritarian opponents. A secret pact between Russia and Brandenburg-Prussia was concluded in 1720. It formulated detailed plans for further fostering anarchy in Poland and for interfering in general elections using military force and bribery. The Liberum Veto and "Golden Freedoms" were used to prevent reforms and the passage of defense appropriations. Russia acquired a free hand in Poland after peace treaties with Turkey (1720), Sweden (1724), and Austria (1726). In 1721, Peter I proclaimed himself the first emperor of Russia. He did not want to partition Poland. His aim was to have a Russian protectorate over a passive, demilitarized, and neutralized country that would make Russia's western frontier safe.

On September 12, 1733. a general election resulted in a war for the Polish throne. A majority elected King Stanislaw 1 Leszczynski. who. was backed by France and Sweden. During his campaign. Leszczynski wrote his political platform in a paper entitled A Free Yore insuring Freedom. In it, he advocated personal freedom for the peasants, cash payments for land use by peasants, limits on the use of Liberum Veto, reforms of the sessions of the Seym, as well as reforms of taxation, and a permanent Army of the Republic of 100,000 men. One month later, an illegal second royal election was staged by Russia and Austria who supported the candidacy of Augustus ill of Saxony. They staged the inau-

guration of their protege during the War for Polish Succession (which ended with the peace treaty of Vienna). The thirty-year reign of August - III Wettin of Saxony (1696-1763) represented the last phase of the "Saxon Night" in Poland. Augustus III was a lazy man who was obedi, ent to Russia. He delegated the business of governing to a former ser. vant, the corrupt Heinrich Bruhl, to whom he gave the title of "count."

The Abdication of King Stanislaw I

In 1726, the Seym established improvements in the procedures of the Supreme Court and ordered the new issue of currency (1732). ,Stanisla w Konarski (1700-1773) published the Volumina Legum, or Volumes of Polish Laws. The year 1733 brought a definite victory of the 'Counter-Reformation as the Seym banned elections of non-Catholics for deputies and senators. In 1734 the Seym passed the voting ordnance for Kurland (Latvia) and the Ordinance for the Post Office.

King Stanislaw I Leszczynski traveled to France, where his son-inlaw, King Louis XV. gave him the Duchy of Lorraine for life. There he reigned as a titular king. King Stanislaw I Leszczynski abdicated the -Polish throne in 1736. The same year, the Seym passed an amnesty for the confederates ofDzikow, the supporters of King Stanislaw I and an , alliance with France. The confederates were defeated by the Russian .and Saxon forces.

The Press and Schools during the "Saxon Night" Cultural stagnation prevailed during the "Saxon Night" in Poland until 1740. Demoralization and drunkenness were widespread. People .were saying: "Under the rule of the Saxon king loosen your belt, eat, drink." Warsaw decayed as the court resided in Dresden.

A weekly "Poczta Krolewiecka" was published by Dawid Cenkier 'in 1718-1719 in Kr61ewiec. It covered local news, the international economy, and currently published books. In 1729. the Piarists of Warsaw won a competition against the Jesuits and obtained the exclusive editorial rights for the press from the king. In 1729-1737, the Piarists published in Warsaw newspaper edited by Fr. Jan Naumariski. The successive titles were: Nowiny Polskie, Kurier Polski, and Gazeta

Polska. Piarist publications concluded me first period of Polish journalism (1661-1740).

In 1740, me Collegium Nobilium was founded in Wassaw by Stanislaw Konarski (1700-1773}.1t was a new type of eight-yeas school for the elite, with Polish as the language of instruction, and the teaching of foreign languages, philosophy (in the spirit of the Enlightenment), mathematical and physical sciences, geography, history, civic virtues, _ public speaking, military sciences, and horseback riding. The Jesuits, faced with new competition, soon similarly modernized their sixty-six colleges throughout Poland.

A 400,000 volume national public library was donated by the brothers Andrzej Stanislaw Zaluski (1695-1758) and J6zef Andrzej Zaluski (1702-1774), who were among the first Polish exponents of theEnlightenment. The library was opened in Warsaw in 1747. Despite the fact that the Zaluski's and others advocated reforms, the low point in :

Polish education was reached in 1750. The program for raising the standard of living of the peasants, entitled The Anatomy of the PolishRepublic, was published by Stefan Garczynski (1690-1755). A broad ' political program, On Effective Counsels (I760), was published by , Stanislaw Konarski, an educator, political writer, playwright, poet, and publicist He advocated the removal of anarchy by the abolition of , Liberum Veto, a reform of the elections by banning the participation of ' foreign candidates, and 0. thorough reform of the Seym.

Threat to the Very Existence of the Kingdom of Prussia

The cost of the Austro-Prussian was for Silesia (1740-1748) rendered Brandenburg-Prussia nearly broke. Berlin flooded Poland with bogus money 10 salvage its finances. It continued to act as an international parasite. On three occasions (in 1656, 1720, and 1733) Berlin pro- : posed schemes for the dismembering of the Polish Republic, The Seym was disrupted by the Liberum Veto in 1744, and the project of treasury' and army reform was killed as a result of Berlin's bribes.

The kingdom of Prussia faced destruction during the Seven Years:' War (1758-1763). Berlin was twice occupied by conquering armies.

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The Austrians occupied it in 1757, and the Russians occupied and burned Berlin in 1760. Russian leadership saw the Hohenzollerns' expansion into me former Prussian fief of Poland and the annexation of the ethnic Polish province of Silesia as a threat. Russia decided to destroy the new kingdom of Prussia, in order 10 prevent it from acquiring the means to unify the 350 independent German principalities into a united Germany with its capital in Berlin.

The Russian plan, as formulated by minister Alexis BestuzhevRiumin (1693-1766), included the

recovery of the fief of Prussia by Poland and also of the province of Silesia, in return for Podolia or Belarus. The Polish parliament could not bring itself to accept the Russian plan, because it would have strengthened the enforcement of Russia's protectorate over the Polish Nobles' Republic. Also, Polish citizens living in the eastern territories did not want lO become subjects of the tsar, The Poles felt that any degree of Russian domination was a disgrace and missed the window of opportunity to get rid of their most insidious German opponent bent on the deslrUction of Poland. No democratic process could cope with the _ situation in Poland because of subversions. Foreign agents continued to deal directly with the owners of huge landed estates and were able to -preserve the Liberum Veto.

Polish refusal to help in the destruction of the new Kingdom of Prussia permitted the Hohenzollerns of Berlin 10 return to their schemes for the partitioning of Poland after a new and weak-minded Tsar Peter

, m (1728-1762) became very acconunodating to Prussia. The situation remained favorable 10 Berlin after Peter III was assassinated with the connivance of his German wife, Catherine II (1729-1796), who usurped the Russian throne by a coup d'etat on July 9, 1762. Thus, saved from

King of Prussia Frederic 1I (1712-1786), the initiator of the crime of the partition of Poland.

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destruction the Prussians were able to provoke a series of PolishRussian wars; each war gave Berlin a chance for robbery of Polish land by annexation.

Parasitic Activities of Berlin and the Problems of Reform

In 1761, the Seym had to pass a universal proclamation on coinage because of the perennial problems of fraud by the Berlin government, which was issuing fake Polish money to fill its coffers. Frederick n Hohenzollem conquered Saxony and got hold of the mint which coined Polish money. Now he could flood Poland with depreciated money. A sharp rise in prices caused chaos in the Polish economy.

The Czartoryski family formed a confederation for the reform and reconsolidation of the Republic, They proposed to replace the veto by a simple majority vote in the Seym. In 1763, they unsuccessfully attempted a coup d'etat against the Saxon king. They naively believed that they could get financial support and arms from "the enlightened Tsarina" Catherine II. It should be mentioned that a nephew of one of the Czartoryski's, Stanislaw Poniatowski (1732-1798), had a three-yearlong affair with Catherine in 1755-1758 in Petersburg (he was 23 years old; she was 26 and married to the Grand Duke Peter). The affair did not help the Czartoryskis and the absolute rulers in St. Petersburg, Berlin, and - Vienna contrived to foster anarchy in Poland.

On April II, 1764. Petersburg and Berlin signed a treaty of alliance despite their differences about Poland's : future. Berlin wanted to annex north- 0 western Polish provinces. while Petersburg intended to dominate all of Poland and have a free hand to act against Turkey and its territories on the Black Sea.

Stanislaw Poniatowski (1676- 1762), castellan of Krakow.

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STRUGGLE FOR FULL SOVEREIGNTY OF POLAND THROUGH REFORMS

The Period of Enlightenment

Reforms and the Election of King Stanislaw II

The Convocation Seym created treasury and army reform in Poland and Lithuania ~ 1764; abolished private tolls; established the majority of customs duties on the borders of the Republic; improved the parliamentary procedures; and established majority rule in the matters of treasury revenues. The same year a National Treasury Conunission was established; the mint was transferred to executive control; and a proposal was made for the emancipation of the 750.000 Jews in Poland (without conversion to Christianity) and for the abolition of the Jewish Seym of the Four Lands. Jewish congregations, the Kakhals, refused and acted as little republics governed by the Talmudic Laws and elective presidents.

_ In 1764, an Election Seym conducted general elections on the Wola

o fields near Warsaw. Stanislaw August Poniatowski (1732-98) was elected ~g on Septembe~ 6, 1764, thanks, to the support of the Czartoryski family and of Cathenne Il of Russia. The new king was highly educated. ~esides h!ghly sophisticated Polish, he spoke fluent French, German,

o Italian, English, and Russian. However, he was of weak and passive

o ~haracte~. ~e. w~uUed Poland 10 reclaim its sovereign status through a 're:ol~lIon m Its government, He rejected qualities of "Sarmatism,"

o ~1.levlflg them to be isolationist, backward, and anarchist. At the same time he was an intellectual with a streak of melancholy and fatalism. He was the opposite of his father Stanislaw Poniatowski (1676-1762), castell an of Krakow, about whom Voltaire wrote (in Histoire de Charles

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Xl!) that "He was a man of extraordinary merit, a man who at every tum in his life and in every dangerous situation, where others can show at the very best only valor, always moved quickly, and well, and with success."

Before the elections, Poniatowski proposed to make Poland a constitutional monarchy ruled by a strongly centralized government. King Stanislaw August felt that the republican system based on general elections and ruled by

the chamber of deputies was so hopelessly subverted that it was not reformable and therefore a step back to a constitutional monarchy was justified to provide stability. He -' went as far as to propose a return of the Saxon dynasty, since he was not married and did not have a heir.

The Coronation Seym signed the Social Contract (Pacta COI/venta), the Bill of Rights, and appropriated money for the Szkola Rycerska, or the Knights' School. The Seym promised political and educational reforms. The reign of King Stanislaw August Poniatowski (1764-1795) started with the formation of a conference for close work by the king with well-qualified government ministers. In parliamentary elections, the king worked with the middle nobility. The Senate, dominated by land magnates supported by Russia, won supremacy over the Chamber of Deputies. The king commanded a majority in the lower house and had to deal with the oligarchical opposition united against any attempts to strengthen the central government. Both the king and the opposition were manipulated by the Russians, so much' so thai people talked about two "Muscovite parties" in Poland:

Russian interference continued under the guise of toleration for dissi-

King Stanislaw II Augusr Poniatowski (1712-1786).

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dents and in support of the Liberum Veto. The Russians meddled in such domestic issues as the exclusion of Protestants from the jurisdiction of the Catholic Church.

Russian Meddling and Terrorism

Russian ambassador Nicolas V. Repnin organized the Radom Confederation in 1767 for the purpose of abolition of the laws passed by the Convocation Seym of 1764. Repnin terrorized the Confederate Seym of 1767. He ordered it to give equal rights to dissidents and to confirm the "Cardinal Laws" of general election with the participation of foreign candidates, the - Liberum Veto, the exclusive right of the nobility to hold positions in the administration of the country, and the unlimited power of the nobility over the serfs. Repnin ordered the kidnapping of senators

_ opposing Russian subversion and

had them deported by Russian soldiers to Kaluga, inside Russia. The terrorized Seym adjourned until the following year.

Russians and Prussians insisted on five "eternal and invariable" principles so that "Poland is kept in lethargy":

Royal reception chamber, Castle of the Republic in Warsaw.

1. Free general elections including foreign candidates.

2. The free veto power of each deputy in the Seym.

3. The right (0 refuse allegiance to the King.

4. Nobles' exclusive right to own land and hold office.

5. Landowners' dominion over the peasants in their estates.

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THE BAR CONFEDERACY:

WAR OF THE FIRST PARTITION OF POLAND 1768-1772

crime of partition. The Poles were slandered by the hostile statements of Voltaire (1694-1778) and other exponents of Enlighterunent who, paradoxically, became paid apologists for the partitioning powers, while ignorant of Polish history and values. It was the beginning of an unending process of the slandering of everything Polish on the international scene by propagandists of the despotic governments of Russia and Prussia (including their 19th and 20th century successors).

Austria annexed 83,000 sq. km. with a population of 2,650,000;

Prussia annexed 36,000 sq. km. with a population of 580,000; and Russia annexed 92,000 sq. km. with a population of 1,300,000 in the first partition of Poland. Poland thus lost about one third of its population of about 12 million. The number of noble citizen-soldiers dropped to 8 percent of the population (as a result of war casualties), while the Jewish community grew to 10 percent. Peasants, both free and serfs, represented 72 percent, while Christian burghers accounted for 7 percent.

Poland was victimized by ruthless colonial policies. It was the beginning of the deportation of hundreds of thousands of Poles, including poor and landless nobility, to serve as slaves in the estates of Russian dignitaries who distinguished themselves in subverting and dismembering Poland. Thousands of young members of nobility, who took part in the Bar Confederation, were deported to Siberia. The Polish ethnic area was crippled by being cut off from the sea in the north and from the natural boundary of the mountains in the south. It was dangerously enclosed by the new frontiers of Prussia, which brutally imposed a sys.tern of an economic exploitation on Poland by means of outrageous cus-

- tom duties. As a result, the exports from Poland decreased twofold while exports from Prussia flooded the Polish Republic.

The Bar Confederacy fought a war against Russia for freedom and national independence. It was led by Roman Catholic conservatives; among its military leaders was the "Eagle of the Bar Confederacy:' Kazimierz Pulaski who later commanded the American cavalry (as an American brigadier general) under George Washington.

Repnin controlled the chief of Polish defense establishment, Helman Ksawery Branicki, and the troops under his corrunand. During Ihe struggle of the Bar Confederacy the Russian government and the Orthodox clergy fomented the Koliszczyzna, a Cossack rebellion in the Polish pan of the Ukraine. It was a repetition of the events of 1648. The Cossack mass murders encompassed thousands of Catholics and Jews. Russian pacification brought about even greater loss of life. The fall of the Bar Confederacy led to the first partition of Poland.

The Turkish Empire declared war on Russia on October 8, 1768. -lt ' demanded the withdrawal of the Russian anny from Polish territory,'. and an end to Russian meddling in Polish affairs as Turkey feared the. growth of the power of Russia

The annexation of Spisz and three other Polish counties by Austria (1769-1770) was enforced during Austrian negotiations with Russia' about the joint partition of Poland.

The Bar Confederacy proclaimed the impeachment of the King' Stanislaw Augustus in 1770. The plight of the Bar Confederacy stimu- ' lated the formulation of new opinions on national independence and_ civil liberty in the West.

A Russo-Prussian agreement on the partition of Poland was co-. signed by Austria in 1772; the government of King Stanislaw August protested throughout Europe against lhe illegality of the inremational

General Kazimierz Pulaski (1747-1779).

128

129

i '

,i

Lazienki Palace of King Stanislaw Jl August in Warsaw (J 772- J 792).

D. Mer/ini etching,

130

RESUMPTION OF THE STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, 1772-1792

Enlightenment in Poland

The Bar Confederacy, defeated by the Russian army, developed national consciousness and sensitivity to the issue of national freedom in the masses of nobility of the political nation of Poland-Lithuania. This experience started to shape modem Polish national identity and stimulated new thinking about civil liberty and national independence.

Despite the first partition and a loss of one-third of its population and one-third of its territory, Poland-Lithuania remained one of the largest states in Europe. The governing Permanent Council was composed of eighteen senators and eighteen deputies elected by the Seym for two years. The Hetman or defense minister was controlled by the Russians, used by them 10 oppose any measures strengthening the Republic. The oligarchy of land magnates opposed the king's efforts to reform the government and the country.

Culture, Press, and the Economy

In 1765, the Szkola Rycerska, or military academy, was opened in Warsaw at the initiative of King Stanislaw II. It was the first slateowned and financed school in Poland. Its program of general education promoted civic virtues and patriotism. It was designed to prepare mainly landless nobles for civil and military service. Army officers taught military science and conducted field exercises. The curriculum included history, geography, law, economics, and modem languages. Many of the 650 graduates were among the leaders in the struggle for the freedom of Poland. The school was closed in 1794.

The second period of Polish journalism which lasted from 1740 to 1820 was strongly influenced by the political, cultural, and educational

131

events. In 1740. the Piarist lost their exclusive right in favor of Jesuits, but were allowed to publish in Warsaw in both French and German: Journal de Varsovie (1756-1758), Gazette de la Campaigne (1758-1764), the Warschauer Zeitung (1757), and the Wochenblalt (1762). The Jesuit papers, the Wiadomosci Uprzywilejowane WarszQWskie and the Kurier Warszawski, soon deteriorated to gossip and sensational society news.

The Polish press became more stable in 1740-1764. The Kuder Polski and Wiadomosci Uprzywilejowane z Cudzych Kraj6w were edited by a secular group until 1760. "Learned" magazines were appearing. The Warschauer Bibliothek started in 1753.

Moralistic journalism started in 1761 with the Patriota Polski edited in Toruri by T. Bauch, who followed bourgeois ideology. The Jesuit Kurier Polski was edited from 1761 to 1774. It merged with the Wiadomosci Uprzywilejowane Warszawskie in 1765 under the title Wiadomosci Warszawskie, soon absorbed by the Gazeta Warszawska. edited by Fr. Stefan Luskina,

The Polish press flourished during the reign of King Stanislaw IT August Poniatowski. The press served as a medium of propaganda for the Enlightenment, modernization, and laicization, Flourishing of the press included scientific, cultural, and economic papers. Political parties used the press for their propaganda especially during the Four-Year Seym. The press benefitted from the dynamic political and cultural life when the people of Poland struggled against the dismemberment of their country.

The publication of the journal Monitor continued until 1785. It was published on the king's initiative and modeled on the English Spectator. It advocated tolerance and development of industry as well as reforms of agriculture and improvement in the situation of the peasants. Ignacy Krasicki and Franciszek Bohornolec wrote for the Monitor regularly. Adam Naruszewicz wrote for the Zabawy Przyjemne i Poiyteczne (Useful and Pleasant Games).

Elzbieta Druzbacka (c. 1695-1765), the first outstanding Polish woman writer, wrote the first Polish descriptive poem, "A Description of the Four Seasons" in 1752. She died the same year that Michal Kleofas Ogiriski (1765-1833) was born. He would become an outstand-

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ing diplomat, mUSICIan, and composer of famous Polonaise dance music. Pulawy of the Czartoryskis competed with Warsaw as a political and cultural center. The competition involved cultural values, the will to serve the country, and the ideals of the Enlightenment. The most prominent poets of the sentimentalist style, Franciszek Dionizy Kniaznin and Franciszek Karpinski, resided in Pulawy.

Waclaw Rzewuski (1706-1779) wrote the first authentic Polish historical dramas, iolkiewski (1758) and Wladyslaw pod Warnq (Lasislaus at Varna, 1760). Rzewuski also wrote the first classicist manifesto in Poland, a rhymed theoretical work, 0 nauce wierszopiskiej (On writing Poetry, 1762). It is the best poetic work of the early Polish Enlightenment.

The Seym of 1766 passed a currency stabilization reform, new coinage, and a revised tax law. Weights and measure were standardized; a general post office was established; and general custom duties were introduced. An economic, revival was in progress. Agricultural production expanded. Work started on the Ogiriski Canal connecting Rivers Neman and Pripet, and the "Royal Canal" connecting the river Pripel with the Bug. These canals were to connect the Baltic with the Black Sea. A number of industrial enterprises owned by stockholders were organized with the government's support in 1767. They failed because of a lack of experts and the inefficiency of the poorly paid serf labor. In 1776-1777, Poland's deficit in the trade with Prussia amounted to a huge swn of 44 million zlotys. Despite these difficulties the grain production increased and agricultural literature helped to make progress in farming techniques.

Architecture during the Reign of Stanislaw II

In the second half of the 18th century there was some return to the architectural forms of antiquity, while classicized French rococo and baroque were often used in alterations of existing buildings. French and Italian architects were contracted for these projects. The "Bath" of Warsaw was made into the Palace on the Water for King Stanislaw II in the style of classicism.

The first commercial buildings were built in Warsaw by Szymon Bogumil Zug (1733-1807) in a new "anti-baroque" style, with shop

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windows on the ground floor for the first time. Zug worked for bankers, landed aristocracy, and clergy. He designed the Lutheran Church in Warsaw in the French style. He extensively used the new neoclassical and pre-romantic style. Zug designed landscape architecture for the Romantic park in Arkadia of the Radziwills. Various garden pavilions were built in different styles. Zug, Fontana, Kamseizer, and many others rebuilt palaces in the French style, some in pure Louis XVI.

A Polish version of the Italian neoclassical style became known as the style of Stanislaw AUgust. It included the splendor of the baroque and flourished between 1780 and 1795, when the first phase of the neoclassical architectural style ended with the fall of the Polish state.

Stanislaw Zawadzki (1748-1806), a graduate of the Roman Academia di San Luca, worked as military architect in Warsaw and, together with Feliks Radwanski, built the Astronomical Observatory in Krak6w in 1788. Wawrzyniec Gucewicz, educated in Rome and Paris, rebuilt the town hall ofWilno in a pure monumental style that he applied to the reconstruction of the city's cathedral in 1777.

The equestrian statue of King John ill Sobieski in Lazienki Park was executed in 1765 in a classical style still influenced by the baroque. Pre-Romantic historical style was used in bronze busts of famous Poles in the Knights' Hall in the Royal Castle in Warsaw. Rococo style was used in executing sacral figures by Michal Filewicz in Chelmno and in Lw6w in 1770. Sculptor Maciej Polejowski also worked in the courtly, sensualist style of rococo.

King Stanislaw Il, a great protector and lover of art, created a school of great historical painting, the Royal Academy of Painting where Marcello Bachiarelli (1731-1818) was the main professor. He combined the tradition of baroque and the elegance of rococo with elements of the new classical style. Besides many official portraits, Bachiarelli painted historical scenes such as The Union of Poland and Lithuania, JOhl1 Sobieski's Victory at Vienna, and The Founding of tile University of Krakow. Bernardo Bellotto-Canaletto (c.I720-1780) became a painter of architecture and monuments in Warsaw. The great accuracy of his paintings was invaluable during the restoration work in Warsaw after the Second World War. A Frenchman, Jean Pierre Norblin de la Gourgaine

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(1745-1830), painted Polish national types in the rococo style including peasants, burghers, and squires in the Sannalian cultural tradition. Daniel Chodowiecki was an excellent illustrator of life and people of Gdansk. Stanislaw Stroifiski, born in Lw6w, was an outstanding muralist who painted in the baroque illusionist style. Franciszek Smuglewicz, professor of the Academy of Wilno, contributed to the development of Polish historical painting. Polish portraitist, Aleksander Kucharski, painted the famous last portrait of the Queen Marie Antoinette. An excellent portrait of General Kossakowski was painted by Kazimierz Wojniakowski. who created many allegorical compositions, religious paintings, and portraits with symbolic motifs-P%llia in Shackles, for example.

At the same time. modem industries were organized in Poland.

Porcelain was produced in Korzec and at the Belvedere in Warsaw. Very fashionable Polish sashes as well as current western-style designs were woven in Stuck and Grodno. Workshops of the Castle of Warsaw produced engraved hardware, vases, and ornaments as well as flooring blocks for the royal residencies. Kolbuszowa became the main center of furniture production. Many aristocrats industrialized their properties.

Polish Theater during the Enlightenment

The National Theater was opened in Warsaw in 1765. It consisted of three troupes: one Polish, one French, and one Italian. The building of the Operalnia was leased for performances that included Polish plays selected by a compelilion sponsored by King Stanislaw n. In two years, eleven Polish plays were staged. The Russian embassy then intervened to close the theater because of the patriotic slogans and propaganda used on stage in reaction to the first partition of Poland in 1772. The first originally Polish opera was staged in 1788; Nedza uszczesliwiona (Poverty Made Happy) was a vaudeville

Wojciech Bogusiawski (1757-1829).

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Teatr Wielki, the Grand Theater o/Warsaw. Engraving by F. Dietrich.

based on a play by Franciszek Bohomolec with music by Maciej Karnieriski,

In 1779, the theater was reopened in a new building with 800 seats.

Wojciech Boguslawski (1757-1829), an author, an actor, and a director became "the father of Polish national theater." The theater company of twenty people performed comedies, operas, tragedies, and dramas. It supported the Patriotic Party for the full independence of Poland and started its: reperto.ire with Powrot Posla (The Return 0/ a Deputy) by Julian Ursyn Niemeewicz, and Krakowiacy i Gorale (Cracovians and Mountaineers) by Wojciech Boguslawski. The music composed by Jan Stefani included m~y folk tunes. ~?lis~ national music was exemplified by works of Michal Kleofas Oginski, who was an officer in the last battles before the third partition of Poland. Before he emigrated to Italy, he composed the famous Polonaise Poiegnanie Ojczyzny (Farewell to the Fatherland).

Permanent theaters were soon established in provincial capitals: in Lublin in 1778, in Lw6w in 1780, in Krak6w in 1781, and in Poznan in 178~ .. Popular support kept Polish theater alive through the century of partitions. It helped the cominuity of the Polish language and culture up until the restoration of the independence of Poland in 1918.

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The First Ministry of Public Education in Europe The Seym voted in the hearth tax and equalized custom duties in 1773. The same year, it established the Ministry of Public Education, the first in Europe. It put education under stale control to a much greater extent than it was in other countries of Europe.

The reorganization of the school system was fmanced (despite protests of the Papal Nuncio) with funds appropriated from the liquidation of the Jesuit Order by Pope Clemens XIV.

Two school provinces were created. The Crown territory included Polish and Ukrainian ethnic areas,

while Lithuania included Lithuanian Hugo Kollqtaj, reformer of

and Belarus ethnic areas. The Polish education (1730-1812).

Universities of Krak6w and Wilno

served as Principal Schools. one for the Crown and one for Lithuania. Below the universities were divisional schools or higher secondary schools, which were above the subdivisional schools or lower secondary schools. Parish schools for boys and private schools for girls were supervised by the lower secondary schools. Hugo Kollataj made a modem university out of the Krak6w Academy by changing the teaching staff and appointing lay professors educated in leading European universities. They included Jan Sniadecki (1756-1830), a talented organizer and an outstanding mathematician, linguist. and astronomer, who published The Theory of Adaptation of Algebraic Expressions to Curved Lines; Jan Jaskiewicz, professor of natural history and the founder of the Botanical Garden; Dr. Rafal Czerwiakowski. anatomist and surgeon; Dr. Jedrzej Badurski, pathologist and clinician; Antoni Poplawski, professor of natural, civil, criminal, and intemationallaw; and Feliks Radwariski, lecturer on mechanics and hydraulics.

The ex-Jesuit professor of astronomy, Marcin Poczobut (1728-

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1809), modernized the Wilno Academy. These universities had regular teaching programs and, in addition, served as learned societies, teachers' colleges, and education offices. They performed an "educational revolution," in which Polish was the language of instrucLion. Mathematics and natural sciences dominated the teaching program, which also included agricultural sciences, Polish history, civic virtues, and paramilitary training. Due to organizational difficulties and lack of funds, the number of students dropped to about 17,000 (they attended 74 schools) in 1781- 1790. The students were supplied with Polish textbooks of a high standard by the "Society for Elementary Books." King Stanislaw IT August served as the "patron" of the Commission, which was presided over by the king's brother, the primate bishop of Poland, Archbishop of Gniezno Michal Jerzy Poniatowski. The Polish Enlightenment became known as the Enlighlenment in Stanislaus' Style in recognition of the cultural merits of King Stanislaw II.

Language of the Early Polish Enlightenment

"The refinement of language helps in the process of public enlightenment" was the motto of Jan Sniadecki who wrote On the Polish Language and On the Native Language in Mathematics. He helped to introduce Polish terminology to mathematics, physics, astronomy, and grammar. Other treatises on Polish language were published by S. Konarski, On The Improvement of Eloquence; by O. Kopczynski, On the Spirit of the Polish Language, and by F. Bohomolec, A Discourse on the Polish Language; They were written in the spirit of the Enlightenment or "the age of reason." The early Enlightenment in Poland started in about 1730 and ended in 1764. After the Saxon Night it was the beginning of Polish cultural revival imbued with patriotism and a renewed sense of civic duty.

Stanislaw Staszic, political writer (1755·1826).

Culture and Technology during the Late Enlightenment The late Polish Enlightenment lasted from 1765 to 1795 when improvements occurred in culture, economy, and politics under the moral and material leadership of King Stanislaw II August Poniatowski.

Political writings by Stanislaw Staszic reflect his belief that the liberum veto and royal succession must be abolished; the army must be reorganized and strengthened; and the work of the Seym should be made more efficient. He was the flrst to publicly accuse the few richest land magnates of causing the decline of Poland. He demanded equal rights for the burghers and substitution of land-use rents for the serf labor. This program was published - by Staszic in Uwagi nad iyciem lana Zamoyskiego (Remarks on the life of Ian Zamoyski, 1787) and in Przestrogi dla Polski (Warningsfor Poland, 1790).

In 1788, Hugo Kollataj published a program for the abolition of serfdom, the introduction of free hiring, and the complete equality of townspeople and nobility. He advocated modem government led by a strong executive under a modem constitution, and proposed an efficient legislative procedure. He organized Kuinica (the Smithy), a center for political propaganda, to shape public opinion by means of political poems, lampoons, and position papers of many writers. Kollataj published Do Stanislawa Maiachowskiego (To Stanislaw Malachowski, 1788-1789), Prawo polityczne narodu Polskiego (The Political Rights of the Polish Nation, 1790), and Rozbior krytyczny zasad historii 0 poczqtkach rodu ludzkiego (A Critical Analysis of the Principles of History 011 the Beginnings of Human Society, 1842). In his last book, he pioneered the concept of the evolutionary development of humanity. Piotr Swilkowski published the Scientific Record of History, Politics, and Economics. It was one of the best scientific publications in Europe.

Among the large number of Polish writers and poets of the late Enlightenment was Adam Naruszewicz, translator of classical Roman authors, poet, and the initiator of the modem Polish historiography in his H istoria narodu polskiego (The History of the Polish Nation, 1780- 1786, and 1824). He condemned the faults of humanity in general and Sarmatian features of Polish culture in particular. He believed that dynastic succession LO the throne was more practical than were the

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Polish general elections that included foreign candidates and allowed foreign campaign contributions.

Another outstanding and very prolific poet and man of letters of the Polish Enlightenment was Archbishop Ignacy Krasicki, a friend of King Stanislaw II. His satiric poetry criticizes uneducated monks addicted to alcohol and idleness, as well as Sannatian fashions and obscurantism combined with moral and educational poverty. His novel Miko/aja Doswiadczynskiego przypadki (The Adventures of Mikolaj Dofwiadczynski, 1776) was the first in Polish literature that combined adventures, morals, and utopian notions with the structure of a popular romance. It included many toplcs he used in his articles in the Monitor and in his fables. Krasicki's humorous presentation of his sharp criticism of his contemporaries was not offensive and became acceptable. He also published an encyclopedic work entitled Zbi6r potrzebniejszych wiadomoici (Compilation of Useful Information, 1781-1783).

Excellent descriptive. political, and philosophical poems were created by the highly educated and talented Stanislaw Trembecki (c. 1739- 1812). Representative examples of his work are Do moich wspolziomkOw (To my compatriots) and Sofi6wka (1806), bo~ w?tten with unparalleled narrative artistry and rich vocabulary consutuung a valuable contribution to the late Polish Eniighterunent. A mock-historic work full of vigor and irony, as well as comic satire on the clergy, Organy (Organ, 1784) was written by the free-thinker Tornasz Kaj~~ W~giersk; (1756-1787). Organy predated sirnilar criticism by Krasl~ki.

Playwright, poet, translator, author of historical novels, memoirs, and political pamphlets, Jan Ursyn Nierncewicz (1758-1841) wrote

Archbishop /gnacy Krasicki, poet and novelist (1735-1801).

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mainly in Poland where he became very popular. He stayed in America from 1796 to 1807.

The leading Polish Jacobin poet, Jakub Jasinski (1761-1794), openly propagated prohibited Jacobin slogans and called for unity when the crimes of partition were conunitted against the Polish state. He wrote To Polish Exiles about Faithfulness in 1793, and one year later, Do Narodu (To the Nation), which was a call to arms to all social classes to fight for the independence of Poland.

The Press and Engineering Feats

In 1786, Tadeusz Podlecki published the Commercial Daily in Warsaw. National and Foreign Gazeue and a magazine, Warsaw Correspondent, were both published in 1791-1792 in Warsaw. National consciousness increased with the spread of literacy. The Polish language was modernized and entered a period of remarkable development. Traditional Polish civil liberties were expressed in the language of the Enlightenment. Criticism took the form of satirical literature. The national costume, the "kontusz" started competing with the French frock as a sign of the return to national customs.

In 1784, Polish engineers completed the canals that connected the Baltic Sea with the Black Sea through lhe Niemen and Vistula River Basins to the Dnieper River.

The Four Year Seym or The Great Seym (1788-1792)

In 1776, five permanent departments of the government were founded: the Department of Defense (limiting the power of the Grand Hetman); the Department of Foreign Affairs; the Department of the Interior; the Department of Justice; and the Department of the Treasury.

In 1788, the Seym set the army complement at 100,000. The following year the Seym set the tax rate at 10 percent for nobility and 20 percent for clergy.

In 1790, the Seym ratified the Treaty of Alliance with Prussia, while desperately trying to strengthen Poland's position vis-a-vis Russia. It fell for the provocation by the kingdom of Prussia, which was only interested in fomenting Polish-Russian war as an opportunity for

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further annexation of Polish lands. However, during the TurkishRussian war of 1787-1791, Poles were able to make more progress in

reforming their country. '

The Seym of 1791 revised the electoral Ordinance for the Seymiks.

It also passed representation of the burghers.

A new Polish constitution was passed on May 3, 1791. II was modem, the first formal constitution in Europe. The constitution was the first to voluntarily grantlhe extension of civil rights held by the political nation of the noble class to the townspeople and, in a more diluted form, to the peasantry. Polish politicians had much in common with their contemporaries in America, such as Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and the other founding fathers of the United States. Poland was the only major country which was a republic (1569-1795) until the founding of the United States of America.

The constitution of May 3, 1791. also created conditions for the rebirth of Poland; and it was perceived as a "death blow" to the Prussian monarchy by E. F. Hertzberg (1726-1795), the Prussian minister, who wrote that it was better than the English and would permit Poland to regain the lands lost in the first partition.

In January 1792, when Russia concluded its war with Turkey and turned its attention to Poland, Prussia was able to safely return to its parasitic activities against Poland and its plans of further partitions.

On April 2, 1792, in St. Petersburg, an act of Confederation was falsely dated and signed as of May 14, 1792, at Targowica. It condemned!he "democratic revolution of May 3." It was signed by a group, " of land magnates who were Russia's henchmen.

Without a significant capacity to produce weapons, Poland was no match for Russia. When, on May 22, 1792, the Seym increased the army to 100,000, Poland was unable to buy arms abroad because of a new Prussian blockade. The Poles were able to only put forth a 37,000 man army to face 97,000 Russian veterans of the Turkish campaign.

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WAR OF THE SECOND PARTITION, 1792

The war in defense of the constitution of May 3, 1791, was fought from May to August of 1792. On May 14, 1792, Catherine II ordered her army, under Alexander Suvorov, into Poland. The Polish defensive battles of Zielence, Dubienka, Krzemiefi, and Brze~c could not halt the continued retreat. The robbery of Polish territory cemented the alliance of Prussia and Russia.

On June 17, 1793, the Seym (dominated by Russia) repealed the constitution of 1791; ratified the treaties of the Second Partition; passed a conservative constitution; and re-established general elections for the king as the head of state and chief executive of the republic.

Prussia annexed 51,000 sq. km. with a population of 1,000,000 people. Russia annexed 250,000 sq. km. with a population of 3,000,000.

Seym working on the Constitution of May 3, 1791. Painting by Kazimierz Wajniakowski.

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WAR OF THE THIRD PARTITION, 1794-1795:

THE KOSCIUSZKO INSURRECTION

The Act of Insurrection was proclaimed in Krak6w on March 24, 1794, by General Tadeusz Kosciuszko, the commander-in-chief. A former American general, the architect of West Point and other river fortifications to block British barge movements, he had saved the American Revolution by engineering the first major American victory at Saratoga, an event without which the French government had refused to join the war against Great Britain.

General Kosciuszko issued the Act of Polaniec (May 7, 1794), known as the Manifesto of Polaniec. In it he provided the first thorough reform of the status of the serfs in the Nobles' Republic; freed the peasants from serfdom who joined the national uprising; upheld the constitution of May 3, 1791, and the Social Contract; and called for regaining independence from Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Poland's first banknotes were printed. Of the 60 million printed, 8 million went into circulation.

The Prussian government subsequently convinced Russia that Kosciuszko's reforms threatened central Europe with "the epidemic of Jacobinism" and offered to take part in the invasion of Poland.

The size of the Polish army swelled to 70,000 men. Through its ranks passed 140,000. Among them was the first small Jewish regiment (all-volunteer), formed by Berek Joselewicz to help in the struggle for Polish independence. Jewish volunteers fought for the preservation of the unique Jewish liberties in Poland and against the anti-Semitic policies of Austria, Prussia, and Russia. The Jacobin Club of Warsaw pressured the criminal court there to sentence to death by hanging several

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collaborators who had signed the Confederation of Targowica. Similar executions were conducted in Wilno.

In the Act of Krak6w (1794), the commander-in-chief proclaimed the Supreme National Council. Land grants were offered to the soldiers fighting in the uprising and to their families. The Polish military campaign faced combined forces of the Germans and Russians. The Poles won the first battle at Raclawice and had successes in the defense of Warsaw. The greatest Polish achieve-

ments were the battles near Warsaw, as well as the fortification and defense of the city, while an insurrection broke out in areas of Poznan and Pomerania annexed by the Berlin government. Thus the Prussians were driven out of the main theater of war. On October 10, 1794, Ko§ciuszko's corps of7,Ooo was destroyed by the Russians in the hardfought battle of Maciejowice; the commander-in-chief was wounded and taken prisoner. At the end, Russian troops carried out a massacre of the civilian population of Praga, a suburb of Warsaw on the east bank of the Vistula River. The massacre of Praga was to be a terrifying example. The war of the third partition ended in November 1794. King Stanislaw Il August Poniatowski, the last head of state and chief executive of the First Polish Republic, abdicated on November 25, 1795. The third partition of Poland and the commitment of Austria, Prussia, and Russia to eradicate the name of Poland and the Polish presence from the history of Europe was recorded on January 26, 1797. It was the final obliteration of the First Polish Republic.

Ruthless colonialist policies were applied to Poland. A total of about 500,000 Poles were subsequently deponed to Russia as serfs. Together with vast landed estates, the prisioners were given by the

An American general, Tadeusz Kosctuszko (1746-1817).

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tsarist government of Russia to the officers and diplomats distinguished in the obliteration of the Polish Nobles' Republic.

Austria annexed 47,000 sq. km. with a population of 500,000; Prussia annexed 48,000 sq. kID. with a population of 1,000,000; and Russia annexed 120,000 sq. kID. with a population of 1,200,000.

Prussia was the big winner, quadrupling its territory and becoming by far the largest of the 350 independent German principalities. It was on its way to acquiring a hegemony over

Germany, despite the fact that over 60 percent of Prussia's population was ethnic Polish and did not speak German.

The territory of 1,060,000 sq. km, held by the Polish Nobles'

Republic in 1618 was divided into the three partitions as follows: the Austrian Empire annexed 130,000 sq. km. or 12.2 percent; the kingdom of Prussia annexed 155,000 sq. krn, or 14.5 percent; and the Russian Empire annexed 775,000 sq. km. or 73.3 percent.

The Polish national catastrophe of partition came at the end of the 18th century. Paradoxically it happened at the Lime of national rebirth and constitutional reforms. In 1795, Poland disappeared from the map

of Europe.

The international crime of the partition and complete destruction of

Poland-Lithuania resulted from the fear of Prussia, Austria, and Russia that the Old Republic was on its way to rebuilding its strength and reclaiming its earlier losses.

Jozef Wybicki (1747-1822), poet, politician.freedom fighter, and the author of the modern Polish national anthem.

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Obliteration a/the Republic in 1795; territorial losses since 1618.

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THE DESTRUCTION OF

THE POLISH STATE IN 1795 AND THE GRAND DucHY OF WARSAW, 1807-1815

Neoclassicism and Romanticism

Polish Cultural Efforts, 1795-1815

The extinction of the largest country in Western Christianity changed the European balance of power and violated. the very princ~ple of legitimacy for which the guardians of the old re~e we.re ~ghung. From then on the "Polish Question" became an embarrassing mtemal 'problem for Austria, Prussia, and Russia, as well as an explosive inter-

national issue.

Polish culture entered a transitional phase between the fall of

Poland in 1795 and the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The towns declined while the masses of Polish nobles plunged into a fervent activity. Pulawy of the Czartoryski' s became an important center of Polish spiritual and artistic life. The universal romantic trend de~eloped strong patriotic and national features under the patronage of Princess .Isabella Czartoryska (1746-1835), who also initiated a collection ~f national ~ treasures that were later exhibited in the Czartoryski Museum in Krak6w. The first museum was housed in the two romantic structures built in the park of the Pulawy palace.

The first scientific society was formed in 1800 in Warsaw thanks to the efforts of Stanislaw Staszic (1755-1826). Polish scientists continued working. The Polish University of Wilno was opened (1802) by ~dam Czartoryski, who befriended Tsar Alexander I and was appointed deputy foreign minister and the curator of the Wilno educational di~trict. There, in 1804-1811, Jedrzej Sniadecki (1768-1838), natural SCientist, physician, and a philosopher, developed the theory of organisms;

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while his brother, Jan Sniadecki, chaired the department of mathematics. The University of Wilno sponsored a network of 400 secondary schools in Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine. In Krzernieniec, Tadeusz Czacki, a distinguished historian of the law, founded an excellent secondary school-a Lyceum that employed teachers recently released from Russian prisons, such as Hugo KoUq_taj and others.

The New Polish State

In 1807, the Governing Commission appointed by Napoleon in Warsaw was presided over by the former speaker of the House of Representatives, Stanislaw Malachowski (1736-1809). He was one of the founding fathers of the constitution of the 3rd of May. Stanislaw Kostka Potocki (1752-1851) served as the president of the State Council and minister of education. He was a writer and a critic as well as the first known Polish archeologist, very interested in the architecture of antiquity, especially the Palladian style.

The Napoleonic Constitution was given to the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. It called for a strong central executive, a position filled by the king of Saxony. In practice, however, the executive functions were in the hands of a prime minister in Warsaw. The bicameral Seym was in charge of the budget and the judiciary only. The privileged classes were abolished, and legal equality was recognized for all. The Seymiks remained as electoral assemblies for the gentry: conununal assemblies were added for burghers and peasants. The peasants were to be free tenants without any right to the land. The Senate was composed of eighteen appointed senators. The chamber of 100 deputies included sixty nobles and forty professionals, burghers, and peasants. The lerritory of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw was 104,000 sq. km, with a population of 2,600,000 in six

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departments: Warsaw, Poznan. Kalisz. Bydgoszcz, Plock, and Lomza, Each department contained ten districts. The territory was made up of the annexations by Brandenburg-Prussia in the second and third partitions of Poland. except the Bialystok region which was ceded to Russia by Napoleon at the Treaty of Tilsit (Tylza, July 7. 1807).

The Treaty of Vienna (1809) recognized the territory of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw to include the additional four departments of Krak6w, Radom. Lublin. and Siedlce-a total of 142.000 sq. km. with population of 4.300,000 in seventy-two districts; the Chamber of Deputies added sixty-six deputies.

Napoleon's Duplicity

Napoleon proposed a joint domination of Europe to the tsar in order to have a free hand in his struggle against England. He even proposed to give the tsar the Polish throne. The tsar declined for fear of antagonizing his Prussian allies. Then Napoleon wanted the Polish State to serve as an eastern rampart of the French Empire, but not as a bone of contention in relation with Russia. Thus. he gave false promises to the Poles about the rebuilding of Poland. while assuring the tsar in a letter of January 18ID that the kingdom of Poland would never be resurrected and thai its very name would disappear forever.

Napoleon chose King Frederic August of Saxony (1763- 1827) to became the grand duke of Warsaw. He issued the decree freeing serfs and giving equality of peasants with burgers. The nephew of King Stanislaw II August Poniatowski, Prince J6zef Poniatowski, reluctantly became the minister of defense.

Polish Light Cavalry charge at Somoslerra, opening the road to Madrid/or Napoleon in 1808.

Painting by J. Suchodolski.

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In 1812. Napoleon appealed to the Poles to join him in the second "Polish War" against Russia. On the eve of the French invasion of Russia, the Seym constituted itself into a Grand Confederation of Poland for the revival of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Polish army of 100.000 became a part of the Grand Army of 500.000 that invaded Russia. During the march, the Grand Army lived off the land and devastated a seventy-mite-wide strip of the country along the road to Moscow. Polish forces entered Smolefisk in a hard-fought battle after suffering heavy casualties. After the battle of Borodino, Napoleon entered Moscow, devastated by fire, During the retreat from Moscow, Poles fought in the rear guard and rescued Napoleon from imminent disaster during the crossing of the Berezyna River. Polish losses in the campaign reached 70 percent in killed, wounded. and prisoners; however, they rescued all their banners and guns. In all of Napoleon's campaigns, including the Polish Legions in Italy under General Jan Henryk Dabrowski, nearly a quarter of a million Poles served with a hope that they were rebuilding an independent Poland.

Napoleon Bonaparte and Jaze! Poniatowski at Liepzig in 1813.

Jose] Poniatowski (1763-1813), Polish general, marshal 0/ France.

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CONSTITUTIONAL KINGDOM OF POLAND WITHIN RUSSIAN ABSOLUTIST EMPIRE 1815-1831

Period of Romanticism

The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) resulted in a new partition of Polish lands of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. At first, Tsar Alexander I intended to create a unified kingdom of Poland joined in a personal union with the Russian Empire. He abandoned this idea in face of English protests and mobilization, as well as a joint threat of war by England, Austria. and Prussia. Thanks to the efforts of Adam Czartoryski, the outcome of the Congress was not similar to the destru~tion of the Polish State in 1795. Lobbied heavily by Adam Czartoryski, the Congress established the "free, independent. and strictly neutral" City Republic of Krak.6w as a joint protectorate of Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Prussia annexed Toruri and departments of Bydgoszcz and Poznan as the Grand Duchy of Poznan; while Austria annexed the Tarnopol region, and the highlands south of Krakow, including the Wieliczka salt mines.

On December 24,1815, Tsar Alexander I, acting as a crowned king of Poland, proclaimed the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland: It was more liberal than the French constitution. It was the only consntutional experiment within the Russian Empire. The governmental functions were to be conducted by the Administrative Council. The tsar would make the decisions on war and peace and retain all executive and many legislative powers. A guarantee of basic civil rights was promised. The bicameral Seym had no right to initiate new laws and was subject to the royal veto. Independent courts were promised. The army of the kingdom of Poland was not to be used outside of Europe. It was to be under the command of grand duke Konstantin, known for his brutal-

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ity and physical abuse of his soldiers. In practice, the grand duke became more important than the government. Russian senator Nikolai Novosiltzow acted as the unofficial supervisor of the Polish government He was a member of the Administrative Council and an "imperial commissioner." Both of these men were opposed to the freedoms promised to the Polish people by the constitution.

Thanks to the efforts of Prince Adam Czartoryski (1770-1861) the Polish bicameral parliament was elected on the broadest social basis in all of Europe. While France was eight times larger, it had a smaller number of voters than the truncated kingdom of Poland. The kingdom of Poland under Ihe tsar had an area of 127,000 sq. km, with a population of 3,300,000.

Culture in the Lands of Divided Poland

Polish scientific publications continued. In 1807-1814, Polish Statistics were published by Stanislaw Staszyc (1755-1826). The first complete dictionary of recent Polish was published in six volumes in 1807-1814 by Samuel Bogurnil Linde (1771-1847), a lexicographer who worked at the Zaluski Library. At that point, the Polish language was as equally developed as the German and more advanced than the Russian: it was one of the major European languages possessing a rich literature and a vocabulary of arts and sciences. The character of Linde's dictionary was historical and not nonnative. It included 60,000 entries.

In 1808, the decree on the founding of the Law School of Warsaw was issued. Izba Edukacyjna (the Department of Education) added 500 new elementary schools. The Jewish population chose to continue their education in Judeo-Germanic tradition in Talmudic schools (unchanged for the last three hundred years).

In 1810 the Board of Directors of the Theater was formed at the suggestion of Wojciech Boguslawski. The theater received a subsidy for its upkeep, for its School of Drama, and a retirement fund for actors. The performances of dramas were most eagerly attended by the public. The structure and popularity of dramas helped evolve Polish romantic theater.

Maria Szymanowska (1789-1831) was a concert pianist and a composer of simple and short mazurkas, preludes, waltzes, polonaises, and etudes-forms later perfected and made world famous by Fryderyk

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Chopin 0810-1849). The best Polish violinist of the time was Feliks J aniewicz (1762-1842), a composer of concertos, sonatas, and music for the violin. He played in London in 1792 and settled in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1815. He was one of the founders of the Philharmonic Society of London and was concert master of its orchestra.

Neoclassicism and Romanticism in Poland were, in a way, a continuation of the Enlightenment. Scientific work was perceived by many Polish scientists as a patriotic duty to preserve and develop Polish culture. The University of Warsaw grew in importance, training lawyers, teachers, and physicians. The Warsaw Institute of Agronomy and Forestry had a university-level learning program as did the School of Mines founded in Kielce. The Polytechnic of Warsaw opened in 1829.

The Ossoluiski Library was founded in southern Poland in the city of Lw6w. Polish patriotic student societies of the Filomats and Filarets were secretly founded in Wilno. Until 1830 Warsaw and Wilno were the most important Polish cultural centers. In the 1840s Poznan was most active, followed by Warsaw in the early 1860s; and Krak6w and Lw6w until the end of the 19th century.

Cultural and Economic Oppression by Prussia

The year 1815 saw renewed colonialist efforts by the Berlin government to eradicate the Polish language and culture in Silesia. As a result, forty Polish villages went on strike in 1817 near Ostr6da and Nidzica in Mazuria, East Prussia. The Germans immediately arrested the strikers,

In 1817 -1823 clandestine Polish students' organizations in Wroclaw (Breslau) proclaimed that Polish national territory covered all areas where Polish was the main language. There were 416 Polish grade schools in the Grand Duchy of Poznan in 1819. J6zef Lompa (1797- 1862) published the History of Silesia in 1821, reminding the readers that Silesia Was and always had been Polish.

The year 1823 saw the beginning of agrarian reform in the Grand Duchy of Poznan. One year later, King Frederick Wilhelm 1II von Hohenzollem proclaimed the Constitution of the Grand Duchy of Poznaii: the executive branch was to be headed by the king; the actual administration was to be conducted by the provincial president; the uni-

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cameral Seym was to be ruled by a two-thirds majority; elective rights were given to Christian males only; appointed judges were to enforce the laws decreed by the king; and the right to demand protection of person and property was granted.

In 1824 an Act of Incorporation of the Gdansk region of Pomerania into a Prussian province with its capital in Koenigsberg (Krolewiec) was issued; the rest of Pomerania was formed into a province with its capital in Stettin (Szczecin), The purpose of the new provincial boundaries was to enforce the Germanization program of the Berlin government.

The Berlin government ordered a massive expropriation of Polish landholders, and an increase in the Germanization pressure on the 416 Polish elementary schools in the Grand Duchy of Poznan. From 1824- 1826,230 Polish landed estates were taken over by new German owners in the Poznan area. Protest marches were organized against the imposition of the German language in church services in Silesia. The arrests of protesters followed.

In 1827, the Polish Seym of the Grand Duchy of Poznan successfully petitioned the government in Berlin to extend political rights and obligations too the Jews; this created favorable conditions for upper-class Jews and led to their eventual assimilation in Germany, after the eviction of the Jewish proletariat to the Polish kingdom under Russia. The successful assimilation of the wealthy Jews who remained in Germany was facilitated by their subculture based on Yiddish, a Germanic language. Jews were among the patriotic supporters of the policies of the Berlin government and made an important contribution to the German culture; thus in politics they often supported the anti-Polish policies of the Berlin government. In 1827 the Seym of Poznan protested the political discrimination against the Poles.

The Most Exploited Provinces of the Austrian Empire

During 1772-1867 Polish provinces annexed by Austria became the most exploited and most cruelly treated parts of the Austrian Empire. Austrian officials organized peasant mutinies against Polish landowners and fomented mutual hatred between Ukrainians, Poles, and Jews. Mass starvation periodically reached catastrophic proportions, claiming up to

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50,000 dead during the worst years of Austrian colonial rule over southern Polish provinces.

Southern or Lesser Poland was renamed by the Austrians in .1772 as Galicia and Lodomeria-names of Ruthenian-Ukrainian provinces at the eastern end of the lands annexed by Austria. This was consistent with Austrian policy [Q eradicate everything Polish and to extend Ukrainian ethnic claims all the wily to Krak6w. A strict censorship was imposed. A huge Austrian imperial bureaucracy staffed with Germans pestered the population with complicated and intricate bureaucratic formalities,

In 1817 the Austrians revived the provincial Seym of Estates in Lw6w, which functioned in 1782-1788 and would function again in 1817-1845. The Emperor Francis I of Austria ruled by decree. He appointed to the Seym of Estates wealthy landowners with aristocratic Austrian titles, two deputies from the city of Lw6w, and the chancellor of the University of Lw6w. The Seym was not a representative body, it was entitled to petitions only.

, " equipment. Industries in Warsaw included silverplating and the production of precision instruments. The capital of Poland had some 40,000 industrial workers. The mining industry started organizing old-age pensions and sick benefits fmanced out of payroll deductions.

Science, Literature, and Music in the New Kingdom of Poland

In 1822, Jan Sniadeckl published The Philosophy of the Human Mind on the theory of knowledge and perception as well as logic. R?m~ticist '. J6zef Gohichowski (1797-1858) taught philosophy at the University of Wi1no. He rejected the Enlightenment idea of the supremecy of human reasoning and stressed the value of intuition. Goluchowski opposed the 18th-century materialistic philosopby " and emphasized the imagination and emotions. Gotfryd Groddeck, professor of Greek and Latin philology at the University of Wilno, published the first synthetic textbook in Europe in 1811 on the ,

history of classical Greek literature. At

· that time, even a popular science maga-

· zine was published in Warsaw. Frederic Chopin first became known in Warsaw as a child prodigy and then as a composer who was able to make the extraordinary wealth of Polish folk music into world masterpieces.

The Economy in the New Kingdom of Poland

The new kingdom of Poland was the most culturally and scientifically advanced territory within the Russian colonial empire. Poland's economy reflected this fact. Thus, the finance minister, Ksawery DruckiLubecki (1778-1846) was able to reorganize the economy of the new kingdom of Poland. In 1819 he obtained the appropriations of funds for the first 1,000 km. of paved roads. In 1821 the finance minister balanced the budget of the kingdom of Poland. When criticized that he did not insist enough on the independence of Poland, he answered: "Poland needs money, schools, plants capable of manufacturing modern weapons." Lubecki founded the Bank Polski in 1828. His policies produced a budget surplus of over 50 million zlotys in 1830, the largest since the times of Casimir the Great in the 14th century.

The textile industry was booming. t.6df became the most important textile center in Poland. Ksawery Lubecki included the mining administration in his Commission of Incomes and Finances and boosted zinc production. The metallurgical industry expanded after the development of pig iron, producing mainly agricultural implements and distillery

Frederic Chopin (1810-1849).

Sketch by George Sand ( 1804-1876).

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Clandestine Patriotic Activity in the Spirit of Romanticism

In 1820 as the spirit of Romanticism spread throughout Poland, a clandestine Polish patriotic society was founded in Warsaw. The session

· of the Seym protested against censorship. Tsar Alexander reacted by closing the Seym for five years and ordering the sessions to be penna:' nently closed to the public.

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The National Masonic Lodge of Poland under Walerian Lukasinski (1786.1868) changed its name to the Polish Patriotic Society and demanded the unification and restoration of Poland's pre-partition frontiers. The tsarist authorities responded to it with a law prohibiting clandestine organizations. Walery Lukasiriski was arrested and sentenced by a military court to len years, which sentence was eventually changed to life imprisonment in the Shlisselburg fortress where he spent forty-six years and died in 1868. His military trial was in violation of the constitution of the kingdom of Poland, which specified parliamentary trial in such a case.

The next year Russian secret police, under Nowosilcow, investigated the patriotic societies in Wilno. Some members of these societies were deported to Russia, where they established contact wilh clandestine Russian democratic societies. Nowosilcow released only lhose who paid heavy bribes. He turned the investigation of Polish conspirators into a source of considerable income. which he used for gambling, drinking parties, and debauchery. After a number of provocations, Nowosilcow replaced Prince Adam Czartoryski as curator of the educational system in Wilno. A number of students were exiled to the interior of Russia, among them the poet Adam Mickiewicz, who wrote patriotic poems in the Romanticist style. He wrote the Crimea" Sonets (1826) and Konrad Walfenrod (1828), in which he described the life of a nation in captivity.

Political discontent was spreading. From 1824-1830. unrest engulfed the Polish textile industry. Tsar Nicholas I ordered tWO Polish divisions 10 join Russian forces in the war against Turkey in 1828. The Grand Duke Constantine refused. By now married to Joanna Grudzinska, the princess of Lowicz (1820), Constantine gradually evolved towards Polish patriotism. No one noticed lhe change.

In 1828, a clandestine patriotic organization was formed in the officer's school in Warsaw under LieuAdam Mickiewicz (1798·] 855). tenant Piotr Wysocki. The organization

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spread in the Polish armed forces and was joined by Maurycy Mochnacki (1803·1834), who became one of its intellectual leaders. He wrote in his book on Polish literature that Romanticism's main task was to awaken the national consciousness at any price. Another leader in the struggle for the independence of Poland, Joachim Lelewel (1786·1861), a professor at the University of Wilno, published a book in 1829 entitled Poland's Past. Lelewel defined the Slavic prehistoric tribal democratic process. He called it gminowladztwo, or community self.government.

The emperor of Russia, Nicholas I (1796·1855), was crowned in Warsaw cathedral in 1829 as the king of Poland. He spoke fluent Polish and thought about using the Polish army against Austria and Prussia. Instead he led the Russian army against the Turks and defeated them at Wama. After this victory Nicholas I said that he, the present king of Poland, had avenged King Wladyslaw III of Poland, killed centuries earlier in 1444 during a battle at Warna.

Polish-Russian War of 1830·1831

The news of the July Revolution (1830) in France caused a revolutionary fever in Poland, as an economic crisis was deepening and unernployment was widespread. The Polish uprising started on November 29, 1830. The Warsaw Arsenal Buildings were taken over by the revolutionaries. The uprising spread throughout the, Kingdom of Poland. The Administrative Council became the provisional . government of Poland. The Seym proclaimed a national uprising for the independence of Poland. General J6zef CWopicki assumed dictatorial powers.

The uprising broke out in protest against the planned use of the Polish army against revolutionary movements in Western Europe, while Poland was to be occupied with Russian forces. Declaration of the independence of Poland followed.

General !ozef Chlopicki (1798·1845).

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Polish forces included, besides the regular well-trained army of 40,000, a National Guard (Gwardia Narodowa), in which served a separate battalion of 850 Jewish volunteers, Regimental banners displayed a Polish and Russian inscription "For our freedom and yours."

The Seym considered the dethronement of the tsar of Russia as king of Poland. A Polish government

Generallgnacy Prqdzynski was fanned by Adam Czanoryski.

(1792-1850). Joachim Lelewel led the opposition in

the Seym. General Chlopicki's dictatorship collapsed, and the Seym passed the law on duties of a Supreme Commander. Prince Michal Radziwill (1778-1850) was nominated as the commander-in-chief.

In 1831 a Russian anny of 115,000 marched into Poland. It was led by General Iwan Dybicz (1785-1831). In the battle at Stoczek, the Polish cavalry of General J6zef Dwemicki (1779-1857) defeated the Russian division of General Gejsmar. Then, in a five hour battle at Dobre, Colonel Jan Skrzynecki delayed the army corps of Russian General Rosen. The hard-fought battle of Wawer followed. In it, General Jan Zymirski and General Piotr Szembek led Polish forces against the Russian forces of General Pahlen and General Rosen. General Chlopicki was wounded in the battle of Groch6w near Warsaw. Peace feelers by General Skrzynecki were unproductive. The army. corps of General Dwemicki entered Lublin and Zamosc. Russian forces regrouped in order to attack Warsaw from the south. Polish forces destroyed General Geismar's regiment near Wawer and the corps of General Rosen near Dab Wielki.

In 1831 the Seym issued a Proclamation of Independence and Dethronement of the tsar of Russia as king of Poland. It invoked the Polish Social Contract of the First Polish Republic and passed a law to compensate wounded soldiers and their families.

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The battle of Iganie was won by General Ignacy Pradzynski (1792- 1850); however, the late arrival of General Skrzynecki's forces did not permit him to take full advantage of the victory and to destroy Russian elite forces concentrated near Sniad6w.

Fitly-eight questions were addressed to General Skrzynecki about the failure of his leadership; the Seym dismissed him. Had the Seym replaced Skrzynecki much earlier with General Pradzyfiski, the Poles would have had a better chance in the war.

Revolution broke out in the streets

of Warsaw. A mob lynched several men accused of treason. The government of Adam Czanoryski resigned. General Jan Krukowiecki (1772-1850) started negotiations on the terms of surrender.

Russian forces of 77,000 attacked Warsaw. defended by 38,000 Poles. The battle lasted two days and, despite Polish heroic resistance, the Russian forces entered Warsaw. Polish defenders crossed the Vistula River to Praga and retreated to Modlin.

The last commander-in-chief of the uprising, General Maciej Rybinski, crossed the Prussian border near Brodnica on October 5, 1831, with 20,000 men. The fall of the fortresses of Modlin and Zamosc fol-

lowed.

In late 1831, the Seym decided to go into exile rather than submit

to the tsar. 11 was the beginning of the Great Emigration of some 9,000 members of the insurrection; two-thirds of them went to France and the rest to England, Switzerland. Belgium. the United States, and Canada. Emigrants' properties were soon confiscated. The Polish-Russian war enhanced revolutionary movements in Europe, and Polish professional soldiers helped revolutionaries everywhere.

Adam Czartoryski (1770-1861 ).

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KINGDOM OF POLAND WITHIN THE RUSSIAN ABSOLUTIST EMPIRE 1831-1917

From Romanticism to Positivism

Tsar Nicholas I declared the constitution of the kingdom of Poland null and void. He abolished the Polish Seym and the Polish army. He incorporated the Polish kingdom into the Russian Empire. However. he did not remove the customs, which were actually increased in order to economically exploit Polish provinces. The tsar imposed martial law (it Was 10 last until 1858) and imposed high taxes 10 finance the building of Russian fortresses in Poland. The tsar proclaimed an amnesty for the participants of the uprising except the initial conspirators, the members of the Polish parliament, and the Polish government of Adam Czartoryski.

In 1832 the Highest Criminal Tribunal was established in Warsaw.

II immediately tried 254 Polish leaders and sentenced most of them either to death or to deportation 10 Siberia. However, most of the tried people managed to go into exile. The leaders of the uprising, Piotr Wysocki and Wincenty Niernojewski, were apprehended and sentenced to death. Their death sentence was soon changed to life in prison.

Polish soldiers were assigned to the Russian army for twenty-five years service. The new Organic Statute guaranteed a separate legal system in the kingdom of Poland and the Use of Polish as the official language of the kingdom.

Tsar Nicholas I ordered and enforced resettlement of 50,000 Polish noble families-some 250,000 people-s-east of the Volga River. to Siberia, and about 10 percent of them to the Caucasus. The deportees were from Podolia, Volhynia, and Lithuania. the areas where Polish independence activities were strong. Russian victory brought the confiscation of over 5,400 manors (one in ten) in Poland and Lithuania Two million

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rubles were collected in punitive taxes. The Holy Alliance was strengthened and, in 1832, the pope accordingly condemned the uprising. There was a colonialist solidarity. The British did not protest against the treatment of the Poles. in order to be consistent with their denial of the home rule in Ireland.

Universities of Warsaw and Wilno were closed and university libraries were shipped to Russia.

The program of "organic work" was to be used as a legal activity in defense of Polish national culture and land ownership. Poles worked for the eradication of illiteracy and for an increase of national consciousness, especially in the Grand Duchy of Poznan, Silesia, Pomerania, Mazuria, and Wannia under Prussia, as well as in the Kingdom of Poland under Russia, and in Lesser Poland (Galicia) under Austria.

King of Prussia Frederic Wilhelm III met with Austrian Emperor Francis and Tsar Nicholas I in 1833 to coordinate anti-revolutionary activities, especially in the Polish provinces.

The construction of the citadel in Warsaw was started. In 1839 executions of revolutionaries such as Artur Zawisza, Andrzej Wollowicz, Szymon Konarski, the emissary of "Young Poland," and others were conducted on the grounds of the citadel in which thousands of Polish patriots were imprisoned. Polish resistance movements spread through the area of the three partitions and continued with varying intensity.

Prussian efforts to unify the 350 independent German principalities brought a marked coolness in Berlin's relations with Russia. TIlls brought relaxation of censorship in Poznan.

Activities of the Great Emigration

Poles arrived in Paris as "knights of liberty." The French government granted them a modest allowance and placed them under police surveillance. Some 75 percent of the exiles were of noble stock. but most of them had no substantial means of support. The name, Great Emigration. was given to them in later years in order to distinguish them from the next waves of political refugees from Poland.

By the end of 1831, the left wing formed the Polish National Committee in Paris. IlS leader was Joachim Lelewel, More radical pol-

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i I·

.j

iticians formed the Polish Democratic Society in 1832 for an independent and reformed Poland, free of serfdom.

Adam Czartoryski purchased a palace called Hotel Lambert on the beautiful island of St. Louis in Paris. He attempted to solve the Polish question by diplomacy; in 1834 he was supported by the Association for National Unity. Lelewel, expelled from France, settled in Belgium and took over the leadership of the "Young Poland" in 1834.

Paris, Poznan, and Krak6w, where he executed allegorical monuments. Oskar Sosnowski worked in Warsaw and in Krakow, Among other works, he is the author of the figure of the famous preacher, Piotr Skarga, and the monument of Queen Jadwiga and King Jagiello in Planty Park in Krak6w.

The international crime of the obliteration of the Polish Slate generated an increased demand for historical paintings, most of them in the Romantic style. Allegorical and historical scenes were painted by J6zef Peszka and Aleksander Orlowski. Michal Plonski sketched Polish noblemen and peasants. while Franciszek Lampi painted romantic landscapes and portraits of wealthy landowners and burghers. Neoclassical paintings such as works by Antoni Brodowski included theatrical compositions and exaggerated gestures. An ultra-romantic portrait of Mickiewicz was painted by Walenty Wailkowicz.

A country squire from the Krak6w region, Piotr Michalowski (1800-1855) was one of the greatest Polish painters. Highly educated and talented. he was an excellent portraitist. He loved to paint horses and did so in pre-Impressionist style. His most expressive work shows the charge of Polish cavalry in Somosierra, Spain.

Views of Poland, its architecture. landscapes. and people were painted with a patriotic accent on porcelain and shown in women's embroidery. The structurally simple Biedermeier became predominant in furniture and in porcelain designs by 1820. Polish porcelain factories were located in Korzec, Baranowka, and Niebor6w. Polish sashes continued to be fashionable, so were woven tapestries. Warsaw produced silverplated cutlery.

Transition from Classicism to the Romantic Neo-Gothic

The last palaces and the first monumental buildings were built in neoclassical style. Typical is the main building on the campus of the University of Warsaw, which was rebuilt in 1815-1824 in neoclassical style with an arcaded portico on the ground floor. (Originally it was a baroque palace of King John Casimir.) St. Alexander Church in Warsaw was built in the style of the Roman Pantheon. The monumental building of the Polish Academy of Sciences was built in the new style of Polish classical architecture. The Palace of the Commission of Treasury and Revenue, the Palace of the Minister of Treasury, and the Bank of Poland were built by Antonio Corazzi, Bankowy Square was an example of contemporary urban planning. The Bank of Poland covered the cost of restoration and preservation of many architectural treasures in Poland like the 14th-century medieval castle of Bedzin, The most brilliant design of Corazzi was the Grand Theater of Warsaw, which became the center of artistic and social life in Poland. It included a stage and auditorium, reception rooms, and ballrooms.

Neo-Gothic architecture started in Putawy in 1788-1810. Henryk Marconi (1792-1862) designed the Central Railway Station in Warsaw as an imitation of Palazzo Pitti in Florence. The Europejski Hotel in Warsaw was designed in the nee-Renaissance style. The Golden Chapel in the Cathedral of Poznan was built in Nee-Gothic style in 1836-1840.

Busts of prominent Poles, scientists. and university professors were sculpted in Wilno by Kazimierz Jelski, Jakub Tatarkiewicz made beautiful sculptures in the antique allegorical style. Romanticism became dominant in Polish sculpture after 1830. Wladyslaw Oleszczyiiski worked in

Romanticism in Polish Literature

Poles wrote in the Romantic style and many of their great works were written and published in Paris and other cities where Polish exiles lived. The History of the Uprising of the Polish Nation in 1830-1831 was published by Maurycy Mochnacki, the most prominent critic of early Romanticism. The Polish national epic poem Pan Tadeusz was written and published in 1834. It was the last work published by Adam Mickiewicz, who became the most renowned Polish poet since Jan Kochanowski. Mickiewicz also published a magazine, The Polish

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P ifg rim, and The Book of the Polish Nation and its Pilgrimage. The drama Kordian was written by Juliusz Siowacki in Paris in 1834. One year later, he wrote the drama Holszrytiski. Siowac ki was the most prominent Polish playwright and a great innovator in Polish poetry. The vastness and diversity of Slowacki's talent can be appreciated in his many plays and such works as the philosophical, histori-

Juliusz Slowacki (1809-1849). cal, and fantastic poem entitled "Kr61 Duch" ("King Spirit," 1847).

This work has no equal in European Romanticist literature and it inspired many modernist writers.

The third of the great Romantic bards of Poland was Zygmunt Krasinski (1812-1859), a philosopher of history who hesitated between catastrophism and optimism, as well as between tradition and progress. Krasinski wrote a national drama the Nle-Boska Komedia (The Undivine Comedy, 1835). In it, he wanders through the nightmare of a revolution similar to Dante's wandering through hell in the Divina Comedia. Using his mastery of Polish poetic prose, Krasinski wrote a mythical symbolic d.rama,lrydion iIridion, 1836). In it, he describes the struggle of a conquered nation with its invaders in a setting of 3rd<enrury Rome.

Aleksander Fredro (1793-1876) was the greatest playwright of Polish folkloric comedies that dealt with a rich variety of Polish country squires and their peculiarities. Fredro served as Napoleon's bodyguard in 1812 and was very contemptuous of Napoleon as a person. Fredro's works still belong to the basic classical repertoire of Polish theater.

The first modem literary historian, Kazimierz Brodzinski (1791- 1835), published 0 klasycznosci i romantycznoici (0/1 Classicism and Romanticism). He advocated the creation of an original national literature based on native tradition, in order to show the individual character of the Polish nation and its spirit. He believed in me "romantic school"

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and criticized me classical theory, which demanded the same pattern of literature to be followed by all nations.

The most prominent member of the "Ukrainian School" of Romantic poetry was Antoni Malczewski (1793-1826). He and other writers used Ukrainian memes and folklore. They lived and worked in Warsaw and presented a pessimistic view of life by describing tragic lives of typical Polish Romantic heroes who rebelled and could not free themselves as they drowned in conflicts and contradictions.

The Great Manifesto or the "Poitiers Manifesto" of the Polish Democratic Society was published in 1836. Its motto was "Everything for the people, everything by the people." It advocated the struggle for independence based on a democratic program of equality of all. freedom from serfdom, and conversion of the land held in tenure into ownership by the peasants. In 1836, Waclaw Aleksander Maciejowski published A Comparative History of Slavonic Legislations. The history of the Polish culture was documented with archeological investigations carried out by the Learned Society of Krak6w, the Wilno Archeological Commission, and many individual collectors, Polish Romanticism expressed an upsurge in national and patriotic feelings and the perception of a martyred Poland as a future savior in European history,

Polish Theater under Foreign Censorship

In a typically colonialist-imperialist approach, Germans, Russians, and Austrians intended to denationalize the Polish people. They enforced an extensive censorship. Certain plays, topics, and even words were forbidden on the stage. That included the Romantic dramas of Mickiewicz, Slowacki, Krasinski. and Norwid-aU written in exile. Thus. me priority of the theater was the preservation of the Polish language, customs, and traditional Clothing. The Germanization programs were enforced from the beginning of Prussian occupation, Severe Russian censorship was introduced in 1819. The capital of Lesser Poland, called Galicia by the Austrians, was moved from Krak6w to Lw6w. In both of these cities, Polish theaters played an important role in the preservation of Polish culture. In Warsaw, the Grand Theater was built in 1830-1833. On its large stage, opera and ballet troupes per-

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formed. Its smaller stage was named Variety Theater and was used by the drama troupe.

Jan Nepomucen Kaminski, playwright and translator of Shakespeare and Schiller, managed and directed the theater in Lw6w from 1809 to 1848. The year 1834 saw the first staging of the comedy Zemsta (The Revenge), written by Aleksander Fredro, who helped the actors during the staging of his plays in which he emphasized verbal and situational humor. Fredro wrote in a vigorous verse, flexible and comical. He beautifully presented Polish tradition on stage and helped to achieve the splendid staging.

Germans did not permit a permanent Polish theater to exist in Poznan. Thus, with only three Polish theaters in the territories of the Old Polish Nobles' Republic, the Poles developed traveling theaters, which remained busy giving guest performances.

national dances, collected 13,000 songs with words and music from various regions of Poland. His collection, Piesni ludu polskiego (Polish Folk Songs). was published in 1857 and immediately hailed as a menument to the vitality of Polish folk culture.

Beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Poland Andrzej Zarnoyski introduced cash payments instead of serf work in private industrial plants. Soon followed the considerable growth of linen factories in Zyrard6w and large textile works in L6di. based on steam power. In 1840-1847. the railroad from Warsaw to Vienna was built.

The year 1850 is considered to be the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Polish lands. The first steamships sailed on the Vistula River,

In 1851, customs between the Kingdom of Poland and Russia were abolished. In 1856, the first gas streetlamps were installed in Warsaw, where a year later, the Medical Academy was established and became a center of patriotic activities,

The Russian defeat in the Crimean War (1854-1856) at the hands of England, France. Turkey, and others brought the beginning of reforms by Tsar Alexander II. He allowed economic progress based on the "organic work," but staunchly opposed Polish independence. However, in 1858 martial law was lifted in Poland, censorship was eased, and amnesty for emigrants was proclaimed. As an additional concession, the Polish language was permitted in the postal system.

Polish National Music by Romantic Composers

Polish composers expressed their national identity through music. A Polish national style was crystallized by Frederic Chopin in his mazurkas and polonaises, He fully used the sound qualities of the piano and rendered his highly nationalistic compositions in an original and creative manner.

Composers J6zef Elsner and Karol Kwpiiiski wrote music to texts based on Polish history.

Stanislaw Moniuszko (1819-1872) created some 360 Polish romantic songs published in 12 volumes. He was also the most distinguisbed composer of Polish operas. Moniuszko's Halka was first staged in 1848 and his Straszny Dw6r (The Haunted Manor) in 1864. All of Moniuszko's operas have a patriotic character, and their action takes place in a typically Polish environment of country squires. Their music is based on Polish national dances such as mazurkas and polonaises. His songs are swift harmonic, rhythmical, and easily accompanied by piano, and became well known throughout Polish lands.

An outstanding violin virtuoso and conductor of the orchestra of the Dresden Opera, Karol Lipinski (1790--1861) composed v iolin music and an opera. He was a master of violin technique and played in a violin competition against Nicolo Paganini in Warsaw.

Oskar Kolberg (1814-1890), ethnographer and composer of Polish

Unrest and the Rule of Wielkopolski

In June of 1860, a patriotic demonstration took place during the funerat of the widow of General J6zef Sowiiiski (1777-1831), a hero of the battle of Warsaw in 1831. The people of Warsaw commemorated the uprising of 1830 on November 29 with protest marches. Among the posters carried some called for the free unification of Italy, which was currently in the news. Five demonstrators were killed by Russian soldiers. Renewed protest marches resulted in 100 people killed. In 1861, martial law was reestablished in Warsaw. The same year, the learned circles of Wilno published Slownikj~zyka polskiego (A Dictionary a/the Polish Language) sometimes

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called The Willlo Dictionary. It included many regional words from northeastern parts of Poland and is proof of a strong cultural cormection between the Wilno region and the rest of ethnic Poland.

The Agrarian Association proposed cash rent for land use, instead of peasant labor. Margrave Aleksander Wielopolski (1803-1887), the head of civil government in the Kingdom of Poland, proposed a Land Reform and an act on Jewish emancipation. However, Wielopolski banned political demonstrations; mass arrests followed, as well as the deportation of activists including Catholic and Jewish clergymen. Polish-Jewish solidarity blossomed. It was the high point of the trend towards Jewish assimilation in Warsaw.

The Town's Resistance Conunittee (the Reds) was founded by Apollo Korzeniowski (father of J6zef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, who wrote in English under the pen name of Joseph Conrad). Leopold Kronenberg founded the conservative Direction of Whites. At that Lime, Jaroslaw Dabrowski, Russian army officer and Polish revolutionary, arrived in Warsaw and joined the Reds.

In the years 1862-1863, several decrees were prepared by Aleksander Wielopolski. They pertained to contracts on the individual land use by the peasants and on reformation of the Polish language school system, including Szkola Gl6wna, as the University of Warsaw was renamed. Wielopolski issued the decree on complete emancipation of the Jews in Poland. The decree primarily benefitted educated professionals who assimilated into Polish culture. The Yiddish-speaking Jewish masses remained within their traditional subculture, based on Jewish religious and ethnic tradition and the use of the Yiddish language. The University of Warsaw, the Medical School. and the Law School reopened.

The End of Romanticism in Poland

Polish Romanticist poetry did nor end with the failure of the European revolutions of 1848. Cyprian Kamil Norwid was one of the greatest creators and innovators of Polish poetry. His Vade mecum contains a manifesto of innovative poetry, He wrote dramas such as Kleopatra (Cleopatra, 1872), and criticized the lack of humanitarianism among contemporary industrialists and bankers. He wrote about the love of work as well as of the feeling of tragic loneliness and individualism.

The best and most prominent Polish novelist, J6zef Ignacy Kraszewski (1812-1887), wrote some 400 works, mostly historical novels but also social, moral, and folk novels. Kraszewski wrote a series of novelized chronicles covering the entire history of Poland starting with Stara Basn. (An Anciem Tale, 1876) and ending with the "Saxon Night" or Saskie ostatki (Saxon Shrovetide, 1889). In 1841-1851, Kraszewski accomplished great editorial work in the periodical The Athenaeum (1841-1901), which in 1876-1901 acquired an encyclopedic character.

Cyprian K. Norwid (1812-1883).

Eclecticism in Polish Architecture

Eclecticism was prevalent in architecture of this time, combining the nee-Renaissance and the neo-baroque, as well as utilizing early Romanesque, neo-Gothic, and neo-classical styles throughout Poland.

Early Romanesque was used in St. Charles Borromeo Church in Warsaw, where the utilization of metal permitted inexpensive repetition of identical decorative motifs. More precious material like marble was used in the Bristol Hotel in Warsaw.

Positivism and industrialization demanded industrial buildings for factories and the housing of workers. Neo-Gothic style was used on the campus of the University of Krak6w and in Collegium Novum by Feliks Ksiezarski, as well as in the rebuilding of a monastery that served as the first Polish museum, the Czanoryski Collection.

The nee-Renaissance was used by Filip Pokutynski in the building of the House of the Academy of Learning; and by Tornasz Pryliriski in the rebuilding of the medieval Cloth Hall in Krak6w. Prylinski used the Florentine style in building the headquarters of the Florianka Insurance Company. The Savings Bank of Szpitalna Street was built in the same

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style by Maksymilian Nitsch and Karol Zaremba. Jan Zawiejski modeled the Municipal Theater of Krak6w after the Paris Opera.

Designs in the style of Dutch mannerism of bricks with metal ornaments were used by such architects as Wladyslaw Ekielski and Teodor

Talowski.

Sculpture and Painting by the End of the 19th Century

Sculptures of erotic and mythological subjects were made by Wiktor Brodzki in post-classical style, sometimes combining classical figures with nee-Gothic buildings. Many of the very talented Polish sculptors participated in styles common throughout Europe.

Realism dominated Polish painting during the second half of the 19th century. It was the style of Antoni Teofil Kwiatkowski, Franciszek Kostrzewski, J6zef Szermentowski, and Aleksander Kotsis, who painted Polish subjects including the Tatra Mountains and portraits.

Polish historical paintings have shown battle scenes by January Suchodoiski, and sentimental historiographies by Antoni Piotrowski and Henryk Siemiradzki. Great portraitists and historical painters were J6zef Sirnmler and Henryk Rodakowski. Juliusz Kossak painted 17thcentury battles. Kossak's student, Artur Grottger, illustrated ~atri?tic themes of the Insurrection of 1863 in the realistic style. Huge histoncal paintings by Jan Matejko taught the Poles about impo~t ~d glorio~s moments of their past with visionary reconstruction Painted m a realistic style. Historical paintings by J6zef

Brandt were rendered in a very dynamic style. An excellent teacher of a generation of painters was Wojciech Gerson (1841- 1901), who himself was a painter of historical themes. His most outstanding student was Maximilian Gierymski, who painted with photographic accuracy. Aleksander Gierymski was a realistic painter under the influence of Impressionism. Slavic folktales were painted in realistic style by Jan Matejko (1841-1893). Witold Pruszkowski.

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Stanislaw Witkiewicz (1851-1915) rebelled against the realistic school and stated that formal and artistic values should be the most important rather than the content of a painting.

Along with painting and sculpture, artistic weaving flourished in Poland despite industrialization and mass production.

The Patriotic Role of the Polish Theater

During the second half of the 19th century, Polish theater worked under different conditions of censorship in the three zones of partitions. The leading actress of the Warsaw theater was Helena ModrzejewskaModjeska who arrived from Krak6w and brought about a revival of Shakespearian plays. The Warsaw theater was a theater of stars without a unifying directorial policy.

From 1866·1885, the theater of Krak6w was managed by Stanislaw Kozmian, who brought a new approach of working with actors and new staging techniques. He eliminated extravagances and insisted on truth on the stage, with the goal of making the performance as a whole excellent, rather than permitting strong individual displays. The actors were forbidden 10 acknowledge applause during the scenes. Kozmian staged eighteen Shakespearian plays translated directly from the English original. Besides a large repertoire of Polish plays by Kochanowski, Zablocki, Boguslawski, and Mickiewicz, as well as Fredro's comedies and Slowacki's tragedies, he staged French, Spanish, and Russian dramas. The main role of Kozmiari's theater was the preservation of Polish language and literature throughout the three partition zones.

The Lw6w theater used plots from national history and staged specific Polish variants of melodrama. It also had an opera auditorium where the operas by Wladyslaw Zelefiski (1837-1921) were first staged.

The Polish theater of Poznan was not allowed by the Prussians to acquire a build-

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Helena ModrzejewskaModjeska (Opid, 1821- 1883), actress.

ing until 1870. Earlier it had to depend on guest performances only. Once reestablished, the Poznan theater gave guest performances in Gdansk, Wroclaw, and other cities in the Prussian zone of partition.

By the end of the 19th century, additional Polish theaters were built in Krak6w (1893), Lw6w (1900), L6dz, Kalisz, and Lublin. Polish theaters in the eastern part of the Old Republic were closed down by the Russians after the January Insurrection of 1864.

There were some fifty traveling Polish theater companies that gave summer open-air garden performances in Warsaw and other cities, as well as in numerous health resorts,

A popular and exuberant amateur theater movement developed in all Polish territories. It included members of the farming community, industrial workers, and students.

Polish Music at the End of the 19th Century

Polish composers wrote mainly operas and songs, as well as chamber music and pieces for the piano and violin.

Henryk Wieniawski was a virtuoso violinist who also composed concertos and short pieces for the violin.

Eugieniusz Pankiewicz and Aleksander Zarzycki were the leading song composers. The best-known piano composers were Antoni Stolpe, Antoni Rutkowski, and Juliusz Zarebski.

Polish singers often performed abroad. Marcelina SernbrichKochanska, an operatic soprano, was a prima donna in the best European opera houses and eventually became a permanent singer in the New York Metropolitan Opera. Polish musicians playing abroad included Polish pieces in order to popularize their national music.

The chairman of the Warsaw Music Society, Zygmunt Noskowski (1846-1909), composed four symphonies, orchestral works, piano music, and many songs. He was an excellent teacher of musical composition. Wladyslaw Zelefiski (1837-1921) conducted an orchestra in Warsaw, organized the Warsaw Music Society, and taught in the Musical Institute. He later became the director of a school of music at the Musical Society of Krak6w.

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The Press in the Kingdom of Poland

Some 160 new Polish periodicals were on the market from 1849- 1860 and about 120 from 1861-1864. Daily news was in demand. In 1868, sixteen out of the one hundred periodicals were dailies. Periodicals were specialized as political, economic, commercial, cultural-literary, technical, and scientific. Entitled Rozrywki dla dzieci (Children's Entertainment), newspapers for children were started in 1824 by Klemantyna Tanska-Hoffrnanowa. Seventeen women's magazines were published in 1818-1835.

Heruyk Rzewuski founded the Dziennik Warszawski (Warsaw Daily) in 1851 with 2,300 subscribers. The Gazeta Warszawska (Warsaw Gazette) in 1859-1861 had 7,000 subscribers. The Gazeta Codzienna (Daily Gazelle) had 7,500 subscribers in 1861. The Kurier Warszawski sold 4,000 copies in 1863, and 20,000 in 1883. It installed the first rotary press in 1878.

A Warsaw periodical, the W~drowiec (The Wanderer), printed the first photographic illustration in 1882. The greatest masters of Polish literature stimulated the development of Polish journalism by hav ing their works printed in installments. From 1866 on, ideological presses of various political and social groups emerged. It grew rapidly. Many political periodicals were published abroad. Attempts were made to reach the masses. The development of modem printing techniques helped the expansion of illustrated periodicals. The invention of photographic techniques brought the development of illustrated magazines. In 1860 photography was introduced in the Tygodnik Ilustrowany (lltustrated Weekly). It consisted of engraved pictures. Pictures produced by the photochemical carbon process of autorypy were introduced in 1881.

The Uprising of 1863·1864

In 1863 an attempt was made on the life of Grand Duke Constantine, the viceroy in charge of the kingdom of Poland. Jaroslaw Dabrowski was arrested. Contacts between Polish and Russian revolutionaries increased. Weapons Were imported in preparation for an armed struggle for the independence of Poland. The Russian Revolutionary Committee of "Zemlya i Volya" (Land and Liberty)

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promised to help. Wielopolski tried 10 torpedo the planned insurrection by ordering a conscription to the Russian army of members of Polish patriotic organizations.

On January 22. 1863, the Central Committee of the leftist Reds. acting as the Temporary National Government, issued the Manifesto for the Insurrection. It called the Polish nation to arms. The proclamation of the provisional government of Poland in Warsaw called for the following: the abolition of serfdom; the recognition of arable land as the property of the tenants; and all inhabitants to be declared free and equal citizens of Poland. The proclamation also included the request for help from Poles in Austria and Prussia. without armed insurrection there, in order not to unite the three partitioning powers of Austria, Germany. and Russia against Poland. The proclamation ended with an appeal to the Russian nation to join the Poles in an effon to abolish tsarist tyranny.

During the night of January 22, 1863, the first engagements between insurrectionists and the Russian units took place. The rail and telephone connections with Warsaw were cut. Russian garrisons of 100,000 men were attacked in some twenty locations. Insurrection spread from ethnic Poland to Lithuania, Byelorussia (Belarus), and Ukraine. The English, French. and Austrian governments demanded the revival of the constitution of the Kingdom of Poland of 1815. Prussia offered military assistance to the tsar.

Romuald Traugutt (1826-1864), the last dictator of the uprising. did not hope for any significant help from western countries. Instead he had to rely on the peasants for a mass-levy and on closer relations with revolutionary movements abroad.

A manifesto was issued by Tsar Aleksander 11 (1818-1881). In it he promised amnesty to the insurrectionists if they lay down their arms within a month. The British, French, and Austrian governments sent diplomatic notes to Russia demanding a change in Russian policies in the Kingdom of Poland.

The fighting throughout Poland, Belarus, and Ukraine intensified.

The leader of the uprising in Plock and Kalisz. Zygmunt Padlewski, was executed. The payroll of the Russian army in Poland was captured by the units of Aleksander Waszkowski.

Polish casualties were heavy in the unequal struggle, Mikhail Muraviev (1795-1866), the governor general in Wilno, was called the "Hangman" after he put down the uprising in Lithuania by mass reprisals and executions. Muraviev coerced the Kahals to cooperate against the insurrection. In sixteen months the Poles fought in 1.229 engagements against the Russian army (956 in the Polish kingdom, 237 in Lithuania, and 36 in Ukraine and Belarus).

In 1864, marital law was imposed in Galicia as the Austrian, Prussian and Russian governments cooperated against the insurrection. The leaders of the revolution were executed in the Citadel of Warsaw: Romuald Traugutt; Rafal Krajewski (1834-]864); Roman Zuliflski (1833-1864); J6zef Toczyski (1826-1864); and Jan Jezioranski (1834-1864).

The insurrection was started by revolutionary nobles. It was joined by young workers and craftsmen. The last to leave the struggle were peasant volunteers.

Romuald Traugutt (1826- 1864). Leader of the Uprising for Freedom and end of serfdom, he was executed in the Citadel of Warsaw.

Russian Reprisals and the Economy

The tsar proclaimed the abolition of serfdom and a prohibition on land purchases by the Poles. They also were forbidden to build and repair Catholic churches in Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine. The tsar ordered the enforcement of an intense Russification program.

The administrative system of the Kingdom of Poland was integrated with the rest of the Russian Empire in 1864. While the tsar ordered the abolition of serfdom in the Kingdom of Poland, he left it in force in the rest of the tsarist lands, In 1867 an imperial order subjugated the Catholic clergy of the Kingdom of Poland to the St. Petersburg Roman Catholic College.

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In 1869 the Russian language was imposed on the University of Warsaw and it became a Russian university. Thus the only two remaining Polish universities were located in Krak6w and Lw6w.

Strikes were prohibited. In 1870 Russian military couns acquired jurisdiction over civilian Poles. The harsh new rules increased Polish emigration to the United States of America and to Canada. Poles took part in the French Revolution of 1871. Jaroslaw Dabrowski was nornlnated commander-in-chief of the French revolutionary forces On May 5, shortly before his death in combat on May 23. Many other Polish veterans of the 1863 uprising took part in the revolution in Paris.

Warsaw's population reached 223,000. By 1880 the number of industrial workers increased to 150,000 in the Kingdom of Poland under Russia. The value of industrial production rose 10 200 million rubles. The network of railroad lines increased to 2,100 kilometers in the truncated Kingdom of Poland. It was the beginning of rapid population growth due to industrialization and the integration of the Kingdom of Poland into the Russian economy. The Polish currency was eliminated. There was an increase in landless rural population and in ever-smaller farms.

Positivism in Polish Culture and Science

The failure of the insurrection of 1863 brought demands for "organic work" in order to raise the economic and intellectual potential of Polish people. The Main School (or the university) in Warsaw produced important scientific achievements in biology, chemistry, and linguistics until the Russians closed it in 1869.

In 1875,-the Museum of Agriculture and Industry was opened, which, under the cover of economic activity, conducted editorial work, set up courses at a university level. and maintained research laboratories. Maria Sklodowska (Curie) worked in a physics laboratory (1890-1891), and Stanislaw Kalinowski measured terrestrial magnetism in 1902. In 1881, the Mianowski Fund was organized for the support of research and publishing activity. It published university textbooks---5uch monographical publications as the Mathematical and Physical Library, Mathematical and Physical Works and Dissertations, Philosophical Library, Philological Works, and the Library of Legal Knowledge. The Mianowski Fund helped to finance

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scientific journals, to grant foreign scholarships, and to guide the development of scholarship in the Kingdom of Poland. In 1885 0. clandestine Polish university was organized in Warsaw. Its faculty included prominent scholars, who were not permitted to teach in Polish.

In 1897 publication of Poradnik dla samoukow (Teach YourselfJ started. It was the only publication of its kind in Europe, presenting highquality material meant for students who could not attend foreign universities. The self-teaching textbooks were prepared by outstanding scholars in cytology, anatomy, theory of evolution, philosophy, psychology, telecommunication, theory of relativistic empiricism, chemistry (including the organic synthesis of urea), sociology, anthropology, economics, and the theory of pedagogy based On experimental psychology.

The Monumenta Poloniae Historica was published by August Bielawski, an eminent historian. New publications were designed to combat rural illiteracy and to popularize the natural sciences. Collective publications such as the Polish Geographic Dictionary, the Dictionary of the Polish Language, and the Great Illustrated Encyclopedia were written by eminent scholars.

Poles continued to resist Russification. In 1875 Kondrad Pr6szyDski, the publisher of Gazeta SWiqteczna (Holiday Gazette), designed for wide readership, also published the first modem text of elementary Polish language. Its yearly editions reached 1,200,000 by 1916.

National ideas were cultivated by learned periodicals to the point that there were no local differences in all the zones of divided Poland. The monthly Biblioteka Warszawska discussed science, arts, and industry and favored ideas of Positivism. It strengthened the editorial movement in the Kingdom of Poland. Biblioteka Warszawska served as an important scientific directory. All aspects of Polish national culture were registered by Oskar Kolberg in 23 volumes of his publication Lud (The Common People) published in 1865-1890.

In 1880 Poland's Internal History was published by Tadeusz Kurzon of the "optimist school." Aleksander Swletochowski (1849-1938) published the Polish positivist weekly Prawda. He demanded social reforms such as the emancipation of women and Jews.

The world's first liquefying of oxygen and nitrogen was achieved by

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Zygmunt Wr6blewski and Karol Olszewski. Marian Smoluchowski discovered the laws governing the Brownian movement and advanced the kinetic-molecular theory of matter. Emil Godlewski worked on photosynthesis, respiration, and water movement in plants. Napoleon Cybulski separated the first hormone and created the basis for encephalography. In 1874 Tadeusz Browicz, an anatomo-pathologist, discovered the germ of typhoid fever. Ludwik Teichmann discovered the hemin salt crystals. Karol Estreicher (1827-1908) created the monumental Blbliografia Polska (The Polish Bibliography), working in the Jagellonian Library in Krak6w.

The Legal Society, founded in Lw6w, published Przeglqd Prawa i Administracji (Law and Administration Review) in 1870. The same year Wladyslaw Plater founded the Polish National Museum at Rapperswil in Switzerland.

In 1871, the Technical Academy was reorganized as the Polytechnic of Lw6w under Maksymilian Thullie, a co-inventor of reinforced concrete structures, He added research in mining, metallurgy, agriculture, and forestry. Professor Ignacy Moscicki invented methods for synthesizing nitric acid from air.

World-class scientists worked in Lw6w. From 1856 on, Antoni Malecki lectured on Polish literature and language at the University of Lw6w. Professor Ludwik Finkel published the Bibliography 0/ Polish History. Tadeusz Wojciechowski taught medieval hi s tory, and professor Szymon Askenazy specialized in the modem history of Poland Wladyslaw Abraham taught the history of law. Polish philology was taught by Roman Pilat, Kazimierz Twardowski founded the Lw6w philosophical school, the beginning of the Warsaw-Lw6w philosophical school.

In 1874 the Copernicus Society o/Naturalists was founded in Lw6w and published a periodical, The Cosmos. In 1886 the Historical Society of Lw6w started publishing the Historical Qu.arterly; the University Teachers Association published a journal, the Museum; and The Medical Society of Lw6w published the Archives 0/ Biological and Medical Sciences. 'The Philological Society inaugurated the periodical the Eos in 1893. Two years later the Ethnographic Society of Lw6w started publishing the periodical LwJ (the People). Most of these publications were financed by the Association for

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the Support of Polish Learning in Lw6w founded by Oswald Balzer, professor of the history of law. Funds for the preservation of monuments and archives in Lw6w were provided by the Ossolifuki Institution, which continued to publish and serve as a center of historical research.

Economic and Cultural Persecution by Germany

In 1874 the Berlin goverrunent ordered the arrest and two-year imprisonment of the archbishop of Gnieznc-Poznan, Mieczyslaw l..ed6chowski. One hundred parish priests were removed, and the Catholic seminary in Poznan was closed by the blocking of Church funds. German was imposed as the official language in aU Polish provinces under the Berlin government in 1876. One year later the German language was imposed in the Seym of the Grand Duchy of Poznan, which was packed with Germans. In 1878 came the closing of the Polish Society for Rural Education on orders of the Prussian government,

Poles defended themselves by founding the Polish Association of Rural Libraries in 1880 in Poznan, which soon had 1,000 libraries in Poznania and Silesia.

In 1881, Wojciech Ketrzynski founded Polish Aid Committee for Silesia, Mazuria, and Pomerania. The teaching of the Catholic religion in German language schools was prohibited by the Berlin government in 1883.

The imperial government of Germany issued a decree in 1886 that founded the German Colonization Commission with an initial capital of 100,000,000 marks for the purchase of land held by Poles, and for its resale to ethnic Germans as a form of economic "ethnic cleansing." It was also the Berlin government's response to the economic success of Polish banks in Poznan and in provinces. The Poles defended themselves by founding a Polish cultural and educational newspaper, the Olsztyn Gazette, the same year.

A new German decree came in 1887. It ordered the removal of the Polish language from all schools in Poznania, Pomerania, Silesia, Warrnia, and Mazuria, In 1889, the Polish Miners' Union of Self-Help in Upper Silesia conducted a ten-day general strike to protest against German colonial exploitation and the Germanization program. In 1893, the Polish Socialist Party of Greater Poland in Poznania was founded

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with the purpose of rebuilding an independent Polish Slate. lis program was proclaimed in 1897.

The anti-Polish extremist lobby formed the Deutscher Ostmarkenverein, or Hakata in 1894. It used political slogans similar 10 Hitler's Lebensraum. The Berlin government promoted glorification of German Brethren known as Teutonic Knights, perpetrators of medieval mass murders including genocide of the Balto-Slavic Prussians. There was further intensification of anti-Polish measures.

German Emperor Wilhelm II von Hohenzollern (1859-1941) delivered an ami-Polish speech in Toruri, The widespread Polish response was summarized in the slogan: "No [free] Kashubia without Poland." The Poles responded with a massive Polish national revival. In 1895 the Polish People's Bank was founded in By tom, Silesia. It Was followed by forming similar savings and loans banks throughout Upper Silesia: in.Opole in 1897, in Siernianowice in 1898, in Katowice in 1898, and in Raciborz in 1900. In 1896 the People's Party of Mazuria was founded. It published the newspaper called People's Gazette,

Anti-Polish Emergency Laws in Prussia were passed in Berlin in 1898. The funds of the German Colonization Commission in Polish provinces were increased to 995,000,000 marks. There was a noticeable growth of a German sense of insecurity in the East. "Ostflucht" was the name given 'to the German flight from Polish lands in the GermanPrussian Empire. The "Ostfluchr" was a sign of Polish successes in the struggle for the land, There also was the growth of west German industry, which was financed by the plunder of France in the war of 1870-1871 and resulted in a demand for labor in West Germany,

The Berlin government prohibited the Poles from settling in new Polish villages without a special permit. This, and other similar measures, resulted in the growth of membership in the Polish National League for Self-Defense, as well as in protest marches in Poznan against the treatment of Poles as second-class citizens in 1900.

In 1901 a schools strike in Wrzesnia was held against changing school prayer from Polish to German. The German police conducted public flogging of children and jailed the protesting parents. Some parents spent up to two years in jail.

The Polish response effected the 1903 defeat of a German political machine in me race for a seat in the Berlin parliament. Instead, Wojciech Korfanty (1873-1939) WOn the election in Katowice-Zabrze, Incensed at this outcome, the Germans responded with an anti-Polish law on land settlements in 1904.

A two-year wave of strikes followed in protest of the persecution of the Poles in Silesia, in all of Poznania, in Pomerania, as well as in East-Prussian Warmia, and in Mazuria, In 1906 a strike of 100,000 school children in Pomeria and Poznania demanded religious education in Polish.

The following year the Poles won an election victory in Upper Silesia Five Polish deputies were sent to me Berlin parliament, where they joined me Polish Circle of Deputies. The Polish Socialist Party of Prussia demanded the independence of Poland.

In 1908 the government in Berlin proclaimed the Law of Compulsory Expropriation of Polish-owned lands and the resale of these propenies to Germans. The new law was accompanied by a decree on the elimination of Polish from public meetings. Poles called it the "muzzle law." These German measures led to the 1909 creation of the National Democratic Party in Greater Poland and to the 1910 founding of the Mazurian People's Bank in Szczytno by the Mazurian People's Party. The Polish Christian Democratic Party of Silesla was also founded and published its own newspaper, the Goniec Wielkopolski (Greater Poland's Messenger). It soon reported on the population census in Prussia. A Polish Christian Democratic Party was founded in Silesia by Wojciech Korfanty, It was followed in 1912 by the founding of me Polish-Catholic People's Party in Grudziadz,

Fair in Lw6w Shows a Gloomy Reality under Austria

The first national fair and exhibition in Lw6w iTargi Wschodnie) was opened in 1874. It showed Galicia as the least industrialized and poorest province in Europe, with the highest birth and death rates. The exhibition ridiculed the "Austrian colonial program," which set 3 percent of Germans to oppress 45 percent of Poles, who were to oppress 41 percent of Ruthenians and Ukrainians, who in tum were to oppress II percent of Yiddish-speaking Jews. The Jews, by virtue of their "strangle

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hold" on the economy, were to oppress everybody. The exhibition showed that only 400 families had enough land to be considered wealthy.

Galicia, the largest and poorest province of the Austrian Empire, still paid the highest rate of income taxes in Europe and, as a result, two million people emigrated from Galicia by 1914, mostly to the United States. Mass starvation periodically reached catastrophic proportions, claiming up to 50,000 dead during the worst years. The losses would have been greater if emigration had not occurred.

Economic and Political Life under Austria

In 1877~1913, the Seym of Lw6w was controlled by a Polish majority and the Austrians were able to foment and exploit the friction between Poles and the large Ukrainian minority.

The Galician c'rude oil production rose from 92 to 1,488,000 tons from 1890~1911. In Cieszyn, Silesia, coal mining increased from 3,400,000 to 7,600,000 tons, or about half of the entire Austro-Hungarian production from 1 890~ 1913.

In 1892 the Social-Democratic Party of Galicia was founded, along with its own newspapers. It demanded a ten or eight hour work day. better working conditions. and cheaper housing.

In 1895 Roman Dmowski (1864~1939) of me National League founded the AII~PoJjsh Review (Przeglad Wszechpolski) in Lw6w. The National League became the National Democratic Party in 1897.

In 1903 the political program of National Democracy was published in Dmowski's book. Thoughts of a Modern Pole; it included the idea that Germany had been and was the main enemy of the Polish people and that Poland could be rebuilt only in alliance with Russia. Dmowski believed that there was no hope to integrate Yiddish-speaking Jewish masses and started to formulate anti-Semitic and anti-German political programs.

Stanislaw Kutrzeba published the History of Polish Government in Outline in 1905. II was the first of the many well-documented 20th-century works on Polish historical topics,

Polish Scientific Activity in the Early 20th Century Education in the Polish language was forbidden under the Russian colonial rule. Thus the Polish University at Warsaw had to be clandes-

tine. It was renamed the Society for Scientific Courses. Its Division I taught linguistics and literature; Division II taught anthropology, social sciences. history, and philosophy; and Division III taught mathematics and natural sciences. In 1905-1918, the Society for Scientific Courses consisted of 300 scholars and 25,000 students, of whom 15,000 were women. In 1915. under German occupation of Warsaw. the Polish University and Polytechnic was organized. After 1905, the activities of the Mianowski Fund intensified as it became "the ministry of Polish science in disguise." It financed. with vast public contributions, the Warsaw Learned Society and numerous Iaboratories,

The Warsaw Learned Society was founded in 1907, after the Friends of Learning Society was organized in Wilno in 1906. However. since the Polonization of the universities in Krak6w (1870) and Lw6w (1871) and the founding of the Academy of Learning in Krak6w in 1873, southern Polish provinces under Austria were the leaders of Polish intellectual life and acquired a European standard.

The Academy of Learning of Krak6w held a leading position in scholarship among Polish learned societies until 1918. Two of its three departments were dedicated to humanities and one to the mathematical and natural sciences. In the years 1873-1918, it produced about one hundred serial historical publications, plus 52 volumes of Reports of the Physiographic Commission.

The Krak6w historical school at Jagiellonian University was led by J6zef Szujski and Michal B obrzyft ski. who analyzed the political and legal background of the downfall of Poland. Comparative Slavic linguistic studies were conducted by Lucjan Malinowski. Jan Rozwadowski, and Jan Lo~. Classical philology was taught by Kazimierz Morawski from Poznan, and Byzantine studies were organized by

Maria Sklodowska-Curie Leon Sternbach. Ludwik Gumplowicz

(l867~1934). influenced German and Anglo-Saxon

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sociology. A high standard was achieved at the Law School in leaching Roman law by Fryderyk Zoll, criminal law by Edmund Krzymuski, and canon law by Boleslaw Ulanowski,

Among the emigrant Polish scientist was Maria Sklodowska-Curie, who twice won the Nobel Prize (1903 and 1911) for her discoveries of polonium and radium and their respective compounds. A Polish patriot, she named the first element she discovered "polonium." She initiated-the establishing of the Radium Institute in Paris (1912) and the Radiological Laboratory and Radium Institute in Warsaw in 1932.

Many Polish world-class scientists taught abroad. To name a few examples: mathematician Stanislaw Lesniewski; Feliks Jasinski and Stanislaw Kierbedz were specialists in structural analysis, bridge building. etc.: Wojciech Swi~toslawski pioneered thermo-chemistry, and later served as the minister of education in Poland in 1935-1939; Gabriel Narutowicz, hydro-power engineer, taught at the Polytechnic in Zurich, and later became the president of Poland; physic-chemist Marcell Nencki; organic chemist Stanislaw Kostanecki; physicist J6zef Wierusz-Kowalski; chemist Tadeusz Estreicher; classical philologist Tadeusz Zielinski; and Slavist, historian of culture, language, and literature Aleksander Bruckner. Most of them taught in Poland after the First World War.

Language and Literature in the Early 20th Century

The reform of the orthography of the Polish language was completed in 1891. Following its inauguration of Prace Filologiczne (The Philological Sludies) in 1885 the Krak6w Academy of Learning began to issue two other publications: Poradnik ifzykowy (The Language Handbook) in 1901; and in 1913, ifzyk Polski (The Polish Language). In addition. the Academy of learning published Slownik Gwar Polskich (Dictionary 0/ Polish Dialects) in 1900-1911; and in 1915. it printed two volumes of the Encyklopedia Polska (Polish Encyclopedia), entitled ifzyk Polski i jego historia (The Polish Language and Irs History).

Another reform of Polish orthography was carried out in 1918. Polish literature blossomed. Adam Asnyk wrote poetry linking the Romantlcist tradhions with social problems viewed in a Positivist manner. Adolf Dygasifiski wrote excellent naturalist novels about animals. Eliza

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Orzeszkowa, writer and journalist. wrote tendentious positivist literature; her best and most famous novel was Nod Niemnem (On the Shores of Niemen, 1887). Boleslaw Prus (Aleksander Glowacki, 1847-1912) was a writer and columnist of the period of realism. In Lalka (The Doll. 1890), he described the "last Romanticists" and the defeat of the positivist "dreamers." Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916) wrote Polish historical novels. His novel, Quo Vadis, about early Christians in Nero's Rome won him a Nobel Prize (1905) and was by far the greatest bestseller worldwide at the time.

In 1898 Arthur Gorski was the first to use the term "the Young Poland." The Young Poland literary style (1890-1914) of the fin de siecle was influenced by western European style. It included entire literary works written in regional dialect. The dialect of the Podhale mountain region in southern Poland was used in some works by Stanislaw Witkiewicz and Kazimierz Przerwa- Tetmajer; the dialect of the Kielce region Was used by Stefan Zerornski; and the I:.owicz dialect was used by Wladyslaw Reymont, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1926 for his epic novel Chlopi (The Peasants).

A "demonic prophet of Polish modernism" of the Young Poland, Stanislaw Przybyszewski (1868-1927) wrote, among other essays, Chopin and Nietzsche in 1895; a prose poem "De Profundis" (1900); and a cycle of plays in 1901-1903. Przybyszewski propagated the cult of the "naked soul" and "lust," which created around him an atmosphere of scandal. He wrote expressionist poetry after World War One.

From 1905 on, the Green Baloon, a satirical cabaret in Krak6w, was a center of artistic life. The Young Poland style was a rebellion against the utilitarian literature of the Positivist period. There was some pessimism in its frequent attacks on "dreamy Romanticism" expressed by the leading writers and literary critics. Stanislaw Brzozowski and Karol Irzykowski.

Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916).

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A professor of comparative literature and a symbolic, visionary poet, Jan Kasprowicz was also an outstanding translator of Greek, English, German, French, and Scandinavian literature.

Novelist Stefan Zeromski was called "the conscience Of the nation."

His novels cover Polish themes from the time of the Napoleonic campaigns to the early post-World War One period.

Architecture and Sculpture at the Turn of the Century

Public buildings were still built in the palatial style. Franciszek Maezyriski built the Palace of the Society of the Friends of Arts in Krak6w, where he also built the Old Theater in the art nouveau style. He also designed the new Jesuit Church in combined Vistula-Gothic and the art nouveau style with sculpted decorations by Xavery Dunikowski, the most outstanding sculptor in the style of Young Poland.

Slawornir Odrzywolski built the Technical Society Building with a white ceramic front elevation adorned with sculptures by Jan Raszka, Odrzywolski built brick apartment houses with metal decorative motifs in Taira Mountain style in 1909, as well as the Agricultural Society Building in Krak6w with symbolic decorations sculpted by Jan Szczepkowski.

Jozef Czajkowski designed the Museum of Technology and Industry in Krak6w in early Functionalist style, which was also used in the Warsaw construction of the art gallery Zacheta and in the Philharmonic Hall.

- Modem buildings included the Bristol Hotel, Savoy Hotel (1906), Under the Eagles Bank, and Polish Theater (1912).

Modernism dominated in Polish architecture and sculpture. Konstanty Laszczka, influenced by Francois Rodin, sculpted nudes and portrait heads.

Xavery Dunikowski produced sculptures in his own individual style. He created "symbolic sculptures such as Love, Concentration, and Motherhood.

Sculptor Henryk Kuna evolved through impressionism and modernism to classicism.

Polish Painting at the Turn of the Century

The painters of Young Poland believed in an objective truth and felt the native landscape gave them the best means of expression.

A landscape painter, J6zef Chelmonski, painted with realism and felt

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that his perception of his native country was not compatible with French Impressionism.

Wladyslaw Podkowiilski was at first an Impressionist painter, then later changed to Symbolism. His famous Ecstasy is a romantic symbolic composition showing an ecstatic nude riding a black stallion.

Leon Wycz6lkowski started painting in symbolist style; but about 1880, he changed to Impressionism in his many landscapes of the Ukraine and Polesie,

Julian Falat specialized in watercolor winter landscapes, which he painted in a transition style from Impressionism to the art nouveau.

Jan Stanislawski specialized in small landscapes which he painted on canvas and on cardboard in modernistic style.

One of the most talented Polish painters was J6zef Pankiewicz, He propagated the Impressionist style. His works, such as the Sand-Diggers, were perfect in design and color.

Olga Boznanska was a portrait painter with good psychological characterization of her subjects. She painted first in the Impressionist style, then evolved into Modernism.

Stanislaw Wyspiaflski (1869-1907) was a poet, dramatist, stage designer, painter, and stained glass designer, who gave a romantic interpretation to the modem European style. He saw the Cathedral of the Castle of Krak6w as the Acropolis of Poland. He liked to use pastels. His portraits of children are especially beautiful. He created a Polish style in handicrafts.

Jacek Malczewski (1854-1929) was a symbolist painter fascinated with the history of Poland. He painted death as an angel rather than the usual skeleton.

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Stanisiaw Wyspiariski (1846-1916), a self-portrait.

Painting, Jacek Malczewski,1905.

Ferdynand Ruszczyc (1870-1936) was a neo-Romanticist and a symbolist who liked Japanese landscape painting. He clearly outlined the objects painted.

Pre-World War I Polish Theater'

Polish theaters in Krak6w under director J6zef Kotarbinski and in Lw6w ~der Tadeusz Pawlikowski were the most important in the prewar period, They Ieained brilliant actors and staged splendid performances. o,f ~olish romanticist and modem plays. The Wedding by W.y~pl~ski was first staged in Krak6w in 1901. It was praised for its originality, precise structure, original verse, and dramatic atmosphere created by music and lighting with the help of the author. Kotarbinski was followed by Ludwik Solski, an experienced actor and director.

. . The theater ~ Warsaw was under heavy censorship and was prohibited from staging Wyspiailski's dramas until the revolution in 1905. However, operetta and farce flourished. Polish soloists of world fame were invited to the best music theaters in Europe and in America. After the T~eater Po~.ski opened in 1913 in Warsaw, it became the leading stage m all Polish lands because of its repertoire, modem staging, and exc:ellent scenography, which was painted using perspective representanon, By the e~d of M~emism of the Young Poland in 1914, ten permanent prof~slonal Polish language theaters were in operation, besides many traveling theater companies performing throughout Polish lands.

Early Polish Film

. Polish inventors started to experiment and publically display their cinematographic equipment in the early 1890s. Piotr Lebiedzinski (1860-1934) completed the construction of his motion picture camera in 1893, two years before the Lumiere brothers unveiled their camera in pub~c .. Pleograph for writing words on a film was designed by Kazimierz Pr6szczyflski. Jan Szczepaniak invented color film and patented it in England in 1899 under patent number 7727. His inv~ntion was used in 1932 in the United States by Kodak in the Kodak-color film system. Thus, Szczepaniak was one of the forerunners of the modem cinematography.

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The first Polish situation comedy was shown in 1908. II was entitled His First Visit to Warsaw.

The first film which was an adaptation of a Polish novel was shown in Krak6w in 1911. Its title was Meir Ezofowicz, and it was based on the novel of the same title by Eliza Orzeszkowa,

Polish actress Pola Negri (Apolonia Chalupiec 1899-1987) became a star of silent film in Poland in 1914 and in America in 1923. She made her debut in the Polish film Niewolnica zmysf6w (The Sex Slave). The picture Zona (The Wife) brought her international fame. She starred in such pictures as Carmen, The Spanish Dancer, etc.

Music of the Young Poland

The symphonic music of the Young Poland was best represented by Mieczyslaw Karlowicz. He composed six symphonic poems, and wrote music for poems written by some of the best poets of the Young Poland period. He composed powerful and expressive music in his own original style, typically changing from melancholy, sadness, and bitterness to resignation.

- Polish virtuoso pianist, composer, and statesman, Ignacy Jan Paderewski played his first piano concert in 1887. He composed concertos, operas, piano pieces, including a well-known minuet. He wrote a Symphony, a Piano Concerto, and a Polish Fantasia. During the war in 1914-1918, he toured the United States raising funds for Polish relief. He donated his music book collection to the University of Krak6w.

Karol Szymanowski (1883-1937), who composed operas, symphonies, orchestral works, chamber music, and songs made his debut at the tum of the century, though he became famous only in the 1920s.

In 1901, a philharmonic orchestra was founded in Warsaw. Its first conductor was the composer Emil Mlynarski, who concentrated on symphonic music. Its second conductor, Grzegorz Fitelberg, was a champion of Polish modem national music. He composed a symphony, symbolic poems, Polish rhapsody songs, and cham-

ber music, .

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Ignacy Paderewski (1860-J941 ).