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The Greatest Conspiracy Theories in history and Intelligence.
The Greatest Conspiracy Theories in history and Intelligence.
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German, Russian and British Intelligence and the greatest conspiracy theories in history of
Scotland, Ireland, Estonia, Switzerland, Russia and Poland.
Key note. Introduction and general remarks.
I think I managed to investigate and decipher a system: this is a conspiracy inside the headquarters of military intelligence of the Tsarist Russia: deep political espionage (anarchists, Lenin, Marxists) and strategic technological-scientific intelligence (telegraph, radio, electricity, aircraft, engines, ignition magnetos, automatic pilots, helicopters, airships, submarines, lights, etc.). Taken over in a certain period by British intelligence.
An influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign UK policy ca 1895 to ca 1921 played Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, a British statesman.
Acc to Aydelotte: "...in 1888 Rhodes made his third will ... to LORD ROTHSCHILD (his financier in mining enterprises), but ... for strategic reasons Lord Rothschild was subsequently removed from the forefront of the scheme. Professor Quigley reveals that Lord Rosebury, replaced his father-in-law Lord Rothschild, in Rhodes' next and last will. ... Quigley informs us that the central part of the 'secret society' was established by March, 1891, using Rhodes' money.
The organization was run for Rothschild by Lord Alfred Milner - the ROUND TABLE worked behind the scenes at the highest levels of British government, influencing foreign policy and England's involvement and conduct of WW I.
... Between 1894 and 1907 a number of international treaties were signed to have Russia, France, England and further nations unit against Germany in the case of war. It was the task of the
COMMITTEE OF 300 to set the stage for the First World War. From the ROUND TABLE group emerged as a front the 'Royal institute for International Affairs' ... known as 'Chatham House' and had among its founding members Lord Albert Grey, Lord Arnold Toynbee ... of the MI6, H. G. Wells, Lord Alfred Milner - head of the Round Table, and H. J. Mackinder - inventor of the so-called geopolitics.
... sums of money from the international bankers, among others from ALFRED MILNER - by Jan Van Helsing - who later took over the secret Round Table, were poured into the Ochrana that already had infiltrated the Bolshevik movement. Agents steered many of its activities. The infiltration was so strong that in 1908 four of the five members of the Petersburg committee of the Bolshevik party were Ochrana agents".
Hubert Bland, a bank-journalist, worked for the London Sunday Chronicle, a paper owned by newspaper magnate Edward Hulton, formerly of the Liberal Manchester Guardian. Bland was a co-founder of the Fabian Society in 1884 and became a treasurer. He also recruited Bernard Shaw. Bernard Shaw was working for the London Pall Mall Gazette, where William T. Stead served as editor and Alfred Milner as his assistant, both Stead and Milner were close to diamond magnate and Rothschild associate Cecil Rhodes and were involved in the formation of the influential secret organisation known as the Milner Group. Having been recruited to the Fabian Society by his friend Bland in 1884, Shaw recruited Annie Besant and his friends Sidney Webb, Sydney Olivier and Graham Wallas in 1885 and 1886.
Shaw married Charlotte, daughter of Horace Payne-Townshend, a wealthy Stock Exchange investor. He was employed by millionaire William Waldorf - Lord Astor, owner of the Pall Mall Gazette, and became a close friend of the Milner Group leader - Waldorf and his wife Nancy. Shaw's friend, Sidney Webb married Beatrice - a close friend of Rothschild associate and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, the daughter of Richard Potter, a wealthy financier with international connections, the chairman of the Great Western and Grand Trunk Railways of England and Canada.
Shaw, Webb, Olivier and Wallas became the Fabian Society's dominant Big Four with John Passmore Edwards, an leader of the Liberal Manchester School, and with Richard Cobden. The Fabian Society was in close touch with the Rothschilds both directly and through Lord Arthur Balfour, and has also been close to David Rockefeller. Cecil Rhodes the South African diamond millionaire, used his fortune to promote the scheme of federating the English speaking peoples around the globe.
Rhodes and other acolytes of Ruskin, formed a secret society known as the Round Table Group, were able to gain access to Rhodes' fortune after his death in 1902. The Milner Group, the secret society formed by Cecil Rhodes, dominated the British delegation to the Peace Conference of 1919, founded the UK Royal Institute for International Affairs in 1919 / 1920 (the British Institute of International Affairs was founded in London in July 1920), the US Council on Foreign Relations, and parallel groups in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India.
In 1919 British and American delegates to the Paris Peace Conference, under the leadership of Lionel Curtis, conceived the idea of an Anglo-American Institute of foreign affairs to study international problems with
a view to preventing future wars
- at Chatham House, Number 10 St. James's Square in 1923 (Professor Arnold Toynbee became the leading figure until his retirement in 1955).
Retinger was very close to Lionel Curtis, the founder of Chatham House and Retinger was politically active in London exactly at the same time when Chatham House was established in 1921-1923; the Chatham House / the Royal Institute of International Affairs represented by both ideologies of the Rhodes - Milner ideology with the ideology of the Fabian society and Retinger had links to both these groups; his the Bilderberg Group had their first meeting in May 1954 at the Bilderberg Hotel, near Arnhem in Holland.
I wrote above that the Round Table was started by Freemason and Rothschild agent, Lord Alfred Milner; but Rhodes, who was connected to the Freemasons, first formalised his idea with William T. Stead;
in 1910, The Round Table Journal: A Quarterly Review of the Politics of the British Empire was founded by Lord Milner and members of Milner's Kindergarten: Lionel Curtis, Philip Kerr and Geoffrey Dawson; by 1915 Round Table groups existed in seven countries: in the United States acted George Louis Beer, Walter Lippmann, Frank Aydelotte, Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Erwin D. Canham.
Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, b. 1862, known as Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary from 1905 to 1916, was closely politically, intellectually, and socially affiliated with the Milner Group according to Prof. Quigley; he got Russia and France to sign secret agreements that committed them to join England if there was a major war in Europe. Several years later, when World War I was imminent, Sir Edward Grey denied the existence of the secret agreements.
Sir Edward Grey met few times with Edward Mandell House, the son of a successful banker and land owner; House in 1911 became acquainted with Woodrow Wilson; he confered with British foreign secretary Sir Edward Grey in 1913, and in the spring of 1914 again; Colonel Edward House was a superb behind-the-scenes operator whose talents made him an invaluable diplomat and presidential advisor. "...Wilson proclaimed neutrality and in January 1915 dispatched House back to Europe on board the Lusitania for a second official mission. House hoped to change British blockade policies and end German attacks on merchant ships. House found that both sides were so heavily invested in the conflict that they feared a public backlash if peace were sought without victory...".
A third mission took place in 1916, when House met with Lord Grey; in January 1919, House accompanied Wilson to Paris for the peace conference.
Sir Edward Grey was a member of the Fabian Co-Efficients, who also belonged to the inner circle of the Rhodes' Round Table groups that were under the direction of Alfred Milner; others members:
Haldane, L. S. Amery, Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Arthur Balfour, Michael Sadler and Lord Milner himself were among the Fabian Coefficients.
Coefficients included: Bertrand Russell, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Leo Maxse (who advocated war with Germany already in 1902), Clinton Dawkins of the City, Carlyon Bellairs of the Navy, Pember Reeves, W. A. S. Hewins, H. J. Mackinder, Henry Newbolt, John Hugh Smith, J. Birchenough of the City, Garvin, Josiah Wedgwood, John Hugh Smith, Colonel Repington, F. S. Oliver, and C. F. G. Masterman.
The Illuminati, who also called themselves the Society of the Elect: Cecil John Rhodes, Baron Nathan Rothschild, Sir Harry Johnston, William T. Stead, Reginald Brett - Viscount Esher, Alfred Milner - Viscount Milner, B. F. Hawksley, Thomas Brassey - Lord Brassey; Edmund Garrett; Alfred Beit; Sir Abe Bailey; Albert Grey - Earl Grey; Archibald Primrose - Earl of Rosebery; Arthur James Balfour; Sir George R. Parkin; Philip Lyttelton Gell; Sir Henry Birchenough; Herbert A. L. Fisher; William Waldegrave Palmer - Earl of Selborne; Sir Patrick Duncan; Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian, and others.
The Association of Helpers:
1. The Inner Circle:
Sir Patrick Duncan, Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian; Lionel Curtis, William L. Hichens, Geoffrey Dawson, Edward Grigg - Baron Altrincham; Herbert A. L. Fisher, Leopold Amery, Richard Feetham, Hugh A. Wyndham; Sir Dougal Malcolm, Basil Williams, Flora Shaw, Nancy Astor, Arnold J. Toynbee; and others;
2. The Outer Circle: John Buchan - Baron Tweedsmuir, Sir Fabian Ware, Sir Alfred Zimmern; Gilbert Murray, Robert Cecil - Viscount Cecil of Chelwood; Sir James W. Headlam-Morley, and others.
Members in other countries: a. Canada; b. United States: George Louis Beer, Frank Aydelotte, Jerome Greene; c. South Africa: Jan C. Smuts, Sir Patrick Duncan, Sir Abe Bailey, and others; d. Australia; e. New Zealand; f. Germany: Helmuth James von Moltke and Adam von Trott zu Solz.
Victor Rothschild (Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild b. 1910 d. 1990; son of Charles Rothschild; a member of the Apostles Club at Cambridge, a secret society, there he became friends with the future Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt, and Kim Philby - not a member; he was recruited to work for MI5 during World War II, and was the head of B1C, continued to work in security as an adviser to Margaret Thatcher; 1971 to 1974 The Think Tank), who worked for J. P. Morgan & Co., was one of the members of the Round Table.
The Rothschilds had financed Cecil Rhodes, co-operated with the Morgans and the Rockefellers, and they financed the activities of Edward Harriman (railroads) and Andrew Carnegie Steel.
Roundtable inner Circle of Initiates included Lord Milner, Cecil Rhodes, Arthur Balfour, Albert Grey and Lord Nathan Rothschild (Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild b. 1840, d. 1915, a British banker in issuing loans to the governments of the USA, Russia and Austria; a close relationship with Benjamin Disraeli, he also funded Cecil Rhodes in the development of the British South Africa Company and the De Beers diamond conglomerate, and administered Rhodes's estate from 1902 and set up the Rhodes Scholarship scheme at Oxford).
According to Gary Allen's expose, Milner financed the Russian Bolsheviks on Rothschild's behalf, with help from Jacob Schiff and Max Warburg.
The Round Table movement, founded in 1909 - acc. to historian Carroll Quigley - was connected to a secret society named the 'Society of the Elect' with
Cecil Rhodes, Stead and Lord Rothschild as his designated successors, and also Milner, Reginald Baliol Brett Lord Esher, Cardinal Manning, Lord Arthur Balfour, Lord Albert Grey and Sir Harry Johnston;
Carroll Quigley claims in 'Tragedy and Hope' that Rhodes's 'Society of the Elect' was established in 1889 - 1891; an outer circle known as the Association of Helpers was later organised by Milner as the Round Table;
its sister organisations: Lionel Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1920, and Walter Lippmann in 1921 - the Council on Foreign Relations, in America. See also: Alexander May, The Round Table, 1910-66, ed. by University of Oxford.
When Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, drowned on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland, then Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, from December 1916 to November 1918, was one of the most important members of David Lloyd George's War Cabinet. His mother was a daughter of Major General John Ready, former Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island and later the Isle of Man. Upon his return from South Africa, Viscount Milner occupied himself mainly with business interests in London, becoming chairman of the Rio Tinto Zinc mining company, a director of the Joint Stock Bank, in January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson, in Russia, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed; he was an advocate of inter-allied cooperation, in St. Petersburg in February 1917.
But Trotsky in his book 'My Life' tells of a British financier, who in 1907 gave him a large loan to be repaid after the overthrow of the Tsar. Arsene de Goulevitch, who witnessed the Bolshevik Revolution, has identified both the name of the financier and the amount of the loan: over 21 million rubles were spent by Lord Alfred Milner in financing the (March 1917) Russian Revolution.
It was a big dream of Pilsudski and Poles to Tsarist Russia collapsed, and then in the revolutionary chaos appeared Lenin had passed into Russia by the Germans.
A documents made it clear, that this above mentioned funding was provided by Milner and channeled through Sir George Buchanan, who was the British Ambassador to Russia at the time, acc. to Goulevitch, p. 230.
The conspiracy in Russia created curtains and protected from the beginning by the modern counterintelligence of the Tsarist Russia created by Benkendorff and Dubbelt from Estonia and Latvia - thanks to this major role in this system can be played a German families from Estonia.
They anchored (Fabian Pilar von Pilchau of Parnu) in Lithuania / Belarus and joined with families from Belarus: Piłsudski, Dzierzynski, Konstantynowicz and so on. Thanks to this connections the German Empire took over from the top of all this political system according to some theorists, and by others - the British intelligence.
This statement is not true, or not true fully. The main ally of Britain during the First World War was Russia, and the Romanov dynasty with its last tsar. This is confirmed by the organization of the Allied mission to Russia in January 1917 and earlier such a mission to Romania. Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. Ireland fought then about freedom, just like the Poles. Scotland also fight, like Estonia.
When Irish immigration to the United States of America began, the Irish Charitable Society was founded in Boston, in 1737, then as the Ancient and Most Benevolent Order of the Friendly Brothers of Saint Patrick, founded in New York, and the Society of the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick for the Relief of Emigrants in Philadelphia in 1771.
The Irish Free State was established in 1922 as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, following uprising - The Easter Rising, also known as the Easter Rebellion, in Ireland, 1916. The Rising was mounted by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland. It was the most significant uprising in Ireland since the rebellion of 1798.
In 1915 Lieutenant-Colonel Christopher Thomson, a fluent French speaker, was sent to Bucharest as British military attache on Kitchener's initiative to bring Romania into the war.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, drowned on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland. He was making his way to Russia in order to attend negotiations but the ship struck a German mine.
After the Great War (1914 - 1918), a number of conspiracy theories were put forward, one by Lord Alfred Douglas, positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas for criminal libel, and the latter spent six months in prison. Another claimed that the Hampshire did not strike a mine at all, but was sunk by explosives secreted in the vessel by Irish Republicans. Frederick Joubert Duquesne, a Boer soldier and spy, claimed that he had assassinated Kitchener after an earlier attempt to kill him in Cape Town failed. Duquesne's story was that he posed as the Russian Duke Boris Zakrevsky in 1916 and joined Kitchener in Scotland.
In 1883 Kitchener became a Freemason. He was initiated in Cairo.
In the spring of 1916 Herbert Asquith decided to send Lord Kitchener, his Secretary of State of War, to Russia in an attempt to rally the country in its fight against Germany. On 5th June 1916, Horatio Kitchener was drowned.
Horatio Bottomley, the editor of the John Bull magazine, promoted the idea that Kitchener had been murdered.
In July 1920, Alfred Douglas, the former boyfriend of Oscar Wilde, according to Michael Kettle, continued his campaign against Winston Churchill.
Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas b. 1870 in Powick, Worcestershire; the third son of John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, and his first wife, Sibyl nee Montgomery. Above
John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry b.
1844 in Florence, Italy, was a Scottish nobleman, the eldest son of Scottish politician Archibald, Viscount Drumlanrig
and Caroline Margaret Clayton.
His daughter, who became Lady Edith Gertrude Douglas, married the inventor St. George Lane Fox-Pitt. Above named Archibald William Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1818, Viscount Drumlanrig - south of Douglas - was the son of John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry, by Sarah Douglas, daughter of Major James Sholto Douglas. Married Caroline Margaret Clayton at Gretna Green,
Scotland - on border of England, Gretna Green, Scotland is south of Queensberry.
Above John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1779, was a Scottish Whig politician. Queensberry was the son of Sir William Douglas, 4th Baronet.
Queensberry - south-west of Jedburgh and of Selkirk; south-east of Douglas.
"...In January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson as chief military representative, and including a banker and two munitions experts - on the mission to Russia. There were 50 delegates in total including French, led by de Castelnau, and Italians. The object of the mission, stressed at the second Chantilly Conference in December 1916, was to keep the Russians holding down at least the forces now opposite them, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed with a view to coordinating attacks...".
Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, was a British statesman and colonial administrator who played an influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign and domestic policy.
Above Field Marshal Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, 1st Baronet, b. 1864, and "...Loyd George wanted Russia persuaded to make the maximum possible effort... on a British mission to Russia in January 1917 (delayed from November 1916), the object of which was to keep the Russians holding down at least the forces now opposite them, to boost Russian morale ... The War Office briefing advised that Russia was close to revolution. Wilson met the Tsar but thought him 'as devoid of character and purpose as our own poor miserable King'. Even senior Russian officials were talking openly of assassinating the Tsar or perhaps just the Tsarina. Wilson was impressed by Generals Ruzski (Rucki) and Danilov ... Knox, who had been British military attaché since 1911. He toured Petrograd, Moscow ... and Riga ... His official report (3 March 1917) said that Russia would remain in the war and that they would solve their 'administrative chaos'. However, many other observers at the time, e.g. the young Archibald Wavell in the Caucasus, felt that the advent of democracy in Russia would reinvigorate her war effort, so Wilson's views were not entirely unusual. ... Wilson was appointed Chief of British Mission to the French Army on 17 March 1917, with a promotion to permanent lieutenant-general which Robertson had blocked in November 1916...".
Noël Edouard Marie Joseph, Vicomte de Curieres de Castelnau b. 1851, was a French general in World War I. "...After the dismissal of Joffre ... in 1916 Castelnau was retired from active service. He was sent on the Allied Mission to Russia in the early months of 1917, just prior to the Fall of the Tsar. ... Castelnau was recalled to the command of the Eastern Army Group ... in 1918...".
Today it is difficult to say who, what country, either a government, or an institution, maybe a NGO managed this complicated structure.
Those who have studied the roots of this complex structure, the most common commit certain substantive and methodological mistakes, runs the risk of retaliatory attacks and ridicule, and even fully social ostracism.
"...Lenin was preceded by a Swiss spy named Pierre Gilliard who was hired to tutor the Romanov children in French.
Charles Sydney Gibbes was their English tutor.
The Revolution was planned in London and Geneva... Both men were MI6 operatives (this is an opinion of Scrivener) and they could be relied upon to maintain strict secrecy as to the final fate of the Romanovs...", acc. to Patrick Scrivener.
"...Pierre Gilliard - Thirteen Years at the Russian Court ...
Ludendorff exaggerates the role of the Entente in the Russian Revolution when he writes:
'In March, 1917, a Revolution, the work of the Entente, overthrew the Tsar'.
The movement was supported by the Entente, but it was not their work.
Ludendorff shows well enough what were its immediate results for Germany. "The Revolution meant a fatal loss of military power to Russia, weakened the Entente and gave us considerable relief in our heavy task. The General Staff could at once effect important economies of troops and ammunition, and could also exchange divisions on a much greater scale."
And further on: "In April and May, 1917, it was the Russian Revolution which saved us in spite of our victory on the Aisne and in Champagne"
(Ludendorff, My War Memories, vol. II).
The Imperial train left Mohilev on the night of the 12th (March 1917), but on arriving at the station of Malaya-Vichera twenty-four hours later it was ascertained that the station of Tosno, thirty miles south of Petrograd, was in the hands of the insurgents, and that it was impossible to get to Tsarskoe - Selo. There was nothing for it but to turn back.
The Tsar decided to go to Pskov to General Russky, the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Front. He arrived there on the evening of the 14th. When the General had told him the latest developments in Petrograd the Tsar instructed him to inform M. Rodzianko by telephone that he was ready to make every concession if the Duma thought that it would tranquillize the nation. The reply came: "It is too late."
To finish her work of destruction, Germany had only to give Lenin and his disciples a plentiful supply of money and let them loose on Russia.
Lenin and his friends never dreamed of talking to the peasants about a democratic republic or a constituent assembly. They knew it would have been waste of breath. As up-to-date prophets, they came to preach the holy war and to try and draw these untutored millions by the attraction of a creed in which the finest teaching of Christ goes hand in hand with the worst sophisms ...
BOB ATCHISON NOTE:
In the previous paragraph Pierre Gilliard suggests that the Jews were responsible for the revolution.
Here he presents (Anti-Semitism) anti-semetic opinions that were widely held at the time.
While many Jews, who as a group had been disenfrancised from the Russian Empire, were active supporters of the Revolution,
those who became Bolsheviks were agnostics or non-believers who most often found themselves oppressors of their own people, religion and culture...".
This structure had a military - intelligence - political nature. This structure created for decades the leading politicians, and drove to the spectacular political internationally events. The mystery of the complicated machines - several octopuses - caused the birth of conspiracy theories,
such theories and journalism as Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894.
For a 100 years such theories indicate specified states, as well as some nations or particular politicians, as drivers of the intelligence structure - this situation lasts from 1916 to today, 2014.
The answer to the above question at the moment is gone. In the history of Tsarist Russia, it is difficult to find a detail, because there is difficult to get to archives of a special services and political institutions. Below I quote the text of the book 'The Anglo-American Establishment' by Carroll Quigley ed. in 1981 (copyright by The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden. 1981, New York: Books in Focus, 354 pages, ISBN 0-916728-50-1; reprinted by Rancho Palos Verdes: GSG & Associates, date unknown, ISBN 0-945001-01-0). The author of this book reveals details of secret intelligence and political structures of the United Kingdom and the USA in the second half of the 19th century and in the first half of the twentieth century.
These data obviously yet not suggest who or what was the driving force of the intelligence network and the military-political structures, which in details is discussed on this web site, and broadening data on the site designated as part two. Both of these parties were formed in the second half of 2014. So Carroll Quigley wrote in 1981:
"... in February 1891, three men were engaged in earnest conversation in London. From that conversation were to flow consequences of the greatest importance to the British Empire and to the world as a whole.
For these men were organizing a secret society that was, for more than fifty years, to be one of the most important forces in the formulation and execution of British imperial and foreign policy. ... The leader was Cecil Rhodes, fabulously wealthy empire-builder ... The second was William T. Stead, the most famous, and probably also the most sensational, journalist of the day. The third was Reginald Baliol Brett, later known as Lord Esher, friend and confidant of Queen Victoria, and later to be the most influential adviser of King Edward VII and King George V. ... the three drew up a plan of organization for their secret society and a list of original members. The plan of organization provided for an inner circle, to be known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers. Within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be exercised by the leader, and a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was to be Rhodes, and the junta was to be Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner. In accordance with this decision, Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner was added to the society by Stead ...
Rhodes had been planning for this event for more than seventeen years (around 1873). Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890. ... in modified form, it exists to this day. From 1891 to 1902, it was known to only a score of persons. During this period, Rhodes was leader, and Stead was the most influential member. From 1902 to 1925, Milner was leader, while Philip Kerr (Lord Lothian) and Lionel Curtis were probably the most important members. From 1925 to 1940, Kerr was leader, and since his death in 1940 this role has probably been played by Robert Henry Brand (now Lord Brand).
During this period of almost sixty years, this society has been called by various names. During the first decade or so it was called 'the secret society of Cecil Rhodes' or 'the dream of Cecil Rhodes'. In the second and third decades of its existence it was known as 'Milner's Kindergarten' (1901 - 1910) and as 'the Round Table Group' (1910 - 1920). Since 1920 it ... has been called 'The Times crowd', 'the Rhodes crowd', the 'Chatham House crowd', 'All Souls group', and the 'Cliveden set'. ...
The Milner Kindergarten and the Round Table Group, for example, were two different names for The Association of Helpers and were thus only part of the society, since the real center of the organization, The Society of the Elect, continued to exist and recruited new members from the outer circle as seemed necessary. Since 1920, this Group has been increasingly dominated by the associates of Viscount Astor. In the 1930s, the misnamed 'Cliveden set' was close to the center of the society, but it would be entirely unfair to believe that the connotations of superficiality and conspiracy popularly associated with the expression 'Cliveden set' are a just description of the Milner Group as a whole.
In fact, Viscount Astor was, relatively speaking, a late addition to the society, and the society should rather be pictured as utilizing the Astor money to further their own ideals rather than as being used for any purpose by the master of Cliveden...".
Above mentioned Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894, d. 1955, was a British Army officer who later went into politics as a Scottish Unionist Member of Parliament. Ramsay was from a Scottish aristocratic family, a descendant of the Earls of Dalhousie
(Dalhousie Castle near by Edinburgh - 16 km south-east, and Glenmark in the County of Forfar - Angus was historically a county, known officially as Forfarshire, borders Aberdeenshire,
in 1913 he served in France for two years, then at the War Office in London; married on 30 April 1917 Lady Ninian Crichton-Stuart, nee Ismay Preston, daughter of Viscount Gormanston; served at the British War Mission in Paris to 1920; the 1920s was a company director,
near Arbroath (25 km ENE of Dundee), and Angus (area borders Dundee and Perth);
in 1936 he pointed to links between Spanish Republicans and the Soviet Union. Ramsay and Tyler Kent, a cypher clerk at the Embassy of the United States in London, were members of the Right Club but they were arrested - Ramsay was arrested under Regulation 18B on 23 May 1940. "The New York Times" published an article on "Britain's Fifth Column" in July 1940 which claimed Ramsay had sent to the German Legation in Dublin treasonable information given to him by Tyler Kent; in 1952 Ramsay wrote "The Nameless War" as an autobiography, theory re-interpreting the whole of modern history.
Above named the Earls of Dalhousie:
George Ramsay (d. 1705), younger son of the second Earl, served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in Scotland in 1702. William Ramsay was created Baron Panmure in 1831;
John Ramsay (1775 - 1842), a Lieutenant-General of the General Staff of India. John Ramsay b. 1775 in
Cockpen, Midlothian, Scotland that is Cockpen and Carrington Parish, ca 15 km south-east of Edinburgh
- d. 1842. Son of George Ramsay, 8th Earl of Dalhousie
- 16 km south-east of Edinburgh -
and married in
Edinburgh in 1800 to Mary, daughter of Philip Delisle of Calcutta, India.
John Ramsay was maj.-gen. 1830; lt.-gen. 1841. Ramsay in 1793 served in Holland, then was stationed in Ireland in 1798, and proceeded to Egypt, 1801;
John Ramsay of Ochtertyre - 32 km west of Perth, Scotland - met him in 1801.
He was put up for Aberdeen Burghs in 1806 by his brother William Maule. He was Commander-in-Chief of the 79th Highlanders, Military Secretary to the Governor-General of Canada, 1819 and 1828.
He was Military Secretary to the Viceroy of India, the 9th Earl of Dalhousie between 1829 and 1832. He gained the rank of Lieutenant-General in the service (1833 ? to 1842 ?) of the General Staff, India - 1841.
Children of Lt.-Gen. John Ramsay and Mary Delise:
1. William Ramsay (1804–1871), a Major-General in the Bengal Army,
2. Admiral George Ramsay, (the twelfth Earl, he served under William Ewart Gladstone as Secretary of State for Scotland in 1886; his eldest son, the fourteenth Earl, was succeeded by his eldest son, the fifteenth Earl - a Deputy Lieutenant of Angus),
3. James Ramsay (1808–1868), a Major-General in the Bengal Army,
4. Lt.-Col. John Ramsay, 5. Anne Finlay Anderson,
6. General Sir Henry Ramsay (1816–1893), a General in the Bengal Army, whose grandson was mentioned above politician Archibald Maule Ramsay;
7. Lt.-Col. Robert Anderson Ramsay.
See in Bengal: Latour and
Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January
1885 in Rome, Italy;
b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of
Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill. Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.
Bonn Univ.; Lt.-Col. of the 75th Regt. in 1870; A.D.C. to Sir George Arthur, Gov. of Bombay, and to Sir Colin Campbell in India; ret. 1877. Married in 1851 to Anne, daughter of Edward Collins of Frowlesworth, Leicestershire.
George Spottisworde Ramsay, Lieutenant of Royal Artillery, died 7th June 1873 in Bangalore.
Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. It used
French families located in Switzerland, Ceylon, France, Russia. Scottish and Irish families combined to Naples and Marseille, Ceylon, Odessa and Japan;
Russians, English and Pilsudski entered by Japan to Ceylon; parallel from Odessa the Zionist movement came out founding a base of the state of Israel. Odessa has paired their to Berezino, Ireland - Japan - Ceylon.
And the whole system took over the movement of German from Estonia, and underground combat movement of Pilsudski, combining the objectives of the independence of these two states: Poland / Lithuania / Belarus + Estonia / Latvia, and as I wrote above Israel. Then they created a counterintelligence and intelligence of new Bolshevik Russia and the USSR. It already was a masterpiece, but totally wrecked by Stalin in 1937 - have to say that in this case, Stalin was a genius.
At the end part of that intelligence system of Soviet Union took over the colony by building its so-called People's Polish Republic and the Ministry of Defence, through affinitized of the Konstantynowiczs: the Jaroszewicz, Spychalski, Zarako Zarakowski families and friendly Swierczewski family. Interesting in all of this is the use of Frenchmen to the creation of this system, most moved on the Konstantynowiczs - not so completely. This is the connection: Waclaw Sieroszewski a colleague of Azbelev, who was in Nagasaki - his brother is a director of the company Duflon and Konstantynowicz; so, the Nobel family with Sydney Reilly, an Irishman and a Jew from Odessa - this is the same family of Nobel, where the brother of above-mentioned was the head of the board of the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company - this is short way to the Swedish Enigma! Waclaw Sieroszewski of course was mate to a brother of Jozef Pilsudski - Bronislaw, which of course anchored in Nagasaki, and then here sailed Reilly. One very interesting figure - erased from history: Nikolay Russel / N. K. Sudzilovskiy / Sudzilowski from the Mscislaw district.
It's amazing that the October Revolution in 1917, which swept the Russian Empire, allowing the reconstruction of Poland, broke out just on the anniversary of the death of Tadeusz Kosciuszko, exactly the 100th anniversary of his death, and
around Lenin appeared figures of the Polish nobility, which adopted a sense of the Kosciuszko Polish patriotism.
"Instead, after the fall of Napoleon's empire in 1815 he met with Russia's Tsar Alexander I in Braunau. In return for his prospective services, Kosciuszko demanded social reforms and territorial gains for Poland, which he wished to reach as far as the Dvina and Dnieper Rivers in the east".
On October 15, 1817 Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Thaddeus Kosciusko died. But a
underground movement led by Jozef Pilsudski had in that case great deals to take in hands, behind the scenes, all revolutionary Lenin movement of the Bolsheviks, between about 1909 - 1917, and even longer to 1920, when Inessa Armand perhaps was poisoned, and even to the year 1921, when it was still marked a influences of Bruevich brothers of noble Boncza arms.
Inessa Armand controlled all Bolshevik work as a lover and the secretary of Lenin and she has influence on the directions of philosophical - political considerations, which diverged from reality, and their possible introduction in the life would be - if not as an experiment - even doom for the Russian Empire.
The purpose of Jozef Pilsudski was not only gathering information about enemy - Russia, and not only the smuggling of weapons for his organization (Petersburg - Miezonka - Lodz - Cracow), but
primarily for Pilsudski was the goal to Lenin seized power and overthrew the Tsarist authorities. This was to allow the recovery of independence by Poland.
Stalin was here the enemy, because he wanted to rebuild the Russian empire, just as the Soviet Russia - a communist state.
Lenin wanted a European communism, the total fiction and the absurd. Pilsudski had to put Lenin at the head of the new Russia, and at least Pilsudski conducive to this Lenin's communist movement did not collapsed.
Wrangel, Denikin, Kolchak were number one enemies.
Józef Piłsudski, Walery Sławek, Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz were 'collaborators' of military intelligence service of Austria - Hungary, with nickname "Stefan" since 1908; co-operated Aleksander Prystor, Gen. Bolesław Roja, Józef Beck, Gen. Edward Rydz-Śmigły, and Gen. Kordian Zamorski. Pilsudski in 1904 collaborated with Japan intelligence; Captain Joseph Rybak took care on Pilsudski, placing a group of agents in paramilitary organizations in Galicia, described as "The Informer R". Jozef Pilsudski was dismissed from the Austrian army in September 1916. Brigadier General Wlodzimierz Zagorski was born in 1882 in France. He grew up with his brother in Germany. In 1900 joined the Austrian army. Eleven years later, he began to work for "K-Stelle", 1914, as a captain, he was Chief of Staff Headquarters of the Legions. Formally, was the head of Jozef Pilsudski, who gave him the reports. Cooperation was not the best. When the Japanese-Russian war broke in 1904, Pilsudski decided to use the conflict for the Polish cause, get technical and material help for Polish irredentist aspirations. Japanese will give us the money to buy weapons and facilitate its reception in Hamburg, and we will collect them messages about the movements of the Russian troops sent to the East. These relations were surrounded by the biggest mystery. Only Pilsudski, Jodko, Filipowicz and Stanislaw Wojciechowski knew of them over one and a half year (April 1904 - October 1905).
Pilsudski had its plans to create in Galicia conditions for the military training of volunteers in the event of war between the aggressors and would create Polish troops fighting against Russia and would become the reborn Polish Army personnel.
In 1908 in Lviv, Cpt. Gustav Iszkowski teamed up with the Pilsudski movement. Probably by the end of 1908 Pilsudski spoke with the
chief of the Intelligence Census Bureau, Maximilian Ronge.
Then probably come to an agreement to organize the grid intelligence and sabotage against Russia in exchange for allowing the activities of the independence movement. In March, 1909 representatives of the Census Bureaus conferring with Pilsudski, Jodko and Slawek in Vienna. The project is called intelligence operation Informer R, directed the same Ronge - hidden it even from his own intelligence apparatus. The management of the organization called The Informer R were Jozef Pilsudski, Valery Slawek responsible for ongoing contacts with the representative of the interview, Captain Joseph Rybak; and Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz.
By the end of 1912 Pilsudski organization might only auxiliary information.
Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1864 in Słuck,
d. 1924 in Warsaw, nickname A. Wroński, Jowisz, diplomat; his parents: Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1834 - d. 1898 (probably son of Onufry) and Maria Sokołow - Skwarcew b. ca 1842. His father was ophthalmologist. Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz member of the Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat since 1889, and Polish Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat / as II Proletariat, or Small Proletariat established in February 1888 and operated for March 1893. From January to July 1885 he studied medicine at the University of Dorpat / Tartu, Estonia; he came to Warsaw, then in September 1885 he went to Lviv, expelled from Austria, 1886, he studied in Würzburg, and then in Paris, graduated in 1889; London next; collaborator of the Centralization Social-Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat. In 1892 co-founder of the Polish Socialist Party; Jodko-Narkiewicz counted on the war between the aggressors and on an armed uprising against Russia. Above
Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, born on 23 Dec. 1834 in Puków in the Ihumen district,
died 1898 - Bobownia; Onufry Jodko - Narkiewicz was living in Pukow. Pukau / Pukowo / Pukow, at present: Komsomolskaja, a few km west of Sunaje and Kisiele;
north-west of Truchanowicze and Gresk, Anufrovichi and Anufri, north of Kondratowicze; south-west of Marina Gorka. In 1870, to the Минская губерния, the Игуменский уезд, in the Пуковская волость; Pukowo / Пуков is situated south-east of Tatury / now Charitonowka, and Kutschinka, east of Starica, Sloboda, Dumitshi; north-east of Kopyl. North of Sluck.
Janina Wiktoria Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1869
in Warsaw / Warszawa, was daughter of Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz from Puków.
The Polish well-off proprietors in the Ihumen (Cerven) district in the second half of 19th cent. was the Jodko family in landed properties Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo and Onufrowo / Anufri.
Gardening in estates of the Ihumen district: Kuchcice, Tolkaczewicze, Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo, Cieplen, Smilowicze and Rawanicze.
In Pukow is a church, in the 16th cent. to the Puk / Пук family; 17th cent. to Olelkovich / Олельковичь and Radzivill / Радзивилл family; at the beginning of the 18th century to the Neuburg / Нойбург family from German taken from Boguslaw Radziwill / Богуслав Радзивилл, because his daughter Людвика Каролина / Ludwika Karolina Radziwill married to Karl Filipp Neuburg / Karl III Philipp von der Pfalz / Carl Philipp, b. 1661 in Neuburg; that is he married on August 10, 1688 in Berlin to Princess
Ludwika Karolina Charlotte Radziwill of Birze, daughter of Bogusław Radziwill, from this marriage four children were born: Leopoldine Eleonore Josephine, Maria Anna, Elisabeth Auguste Sophie m. Joseph Karl von Pfalz-Sulzbach.
At Пуково / Pukowo in 1731 wielded the earth Franciszek Drucki-Lubecki / Франтишек Друцкий-Любецкий. In 1744 again to the Radziwill family, but at the beginning of the 19th cent. Dominik Radziwill / Доминик Радзивилл lost Pukowo, now Pukowo and Bobownia to the Narkiewicz - Jodko / Наркевич-Иодко;
in 1846 to Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz / Томаш Наркевич-Иодко, Catholic. 1857 new church; close to Пуково (now Komsomolskaja) is Кондратовичи and here in 1862 was the second church;
Ksawery / Ксаверий was son of above named Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, and he bought from Wojnillowicz / Войниллович the Lopuchi estate / Лопухи, 3 km of Pukowo / Пуково; a father of Edward Wojnillowicz / Эдвард Войниллович - Adam was proprietor of above Lopuchi.
Estate of "Оттоново" to Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Онуфри Наркевич-Иодко;
Jakub Jodko-Narkiewicz / Якуб Наркевич-Иодко has the Nadnieman / Наднеман estate;
Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Наркевич-Иодко has son Otton Jodko-Narkiewicz, in 1840 owner of 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm of Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina 1848.
Jodko-Narkiewicz owner of the 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina in 1848. Наднёман was property of
Jakob Jodko - Narkiewicz son of Otton Jodko - Narkiewicz, biologist, meteorologist, physicist and electrician, lived 1848–1905;
next owner Konrad Jodko - Narkiewicz, son of Jakob, in 1921 moved to Cracow;
next of kin Kristian Narkiewicz - Lein is living now in Chicago.
Наднёман is located north of Kopyl, near by Piasocznaje, south-west-south of Uzda, and north-west of Pukowo. Ханичево / Атонава / Калінаўка or Оттоново / Ханічава is located north-west of Pukowo, south of above Наднёман, near by Piasocznaje.
Above mentioned Jodko-Narkiewicz in Pukowo ca 80 km west of Osipovichi and north of Sluck. See near by:
1. Manuel Jaroszewicz in Sluck A.D. 1666;
2. Michal Zbieranowski born Berezino in 1882 son of Jozef Zbieranowski and his wife Zofia nee Witkowski, after Bobrujsk, Sluck and Riga / Ryga 1899 - 1904;
3. Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina Bulhak, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor close to Sluck! His mother Franciszka Lowicki and father Jerzy Onufry Bulhak, b. 1749; grandfather: Florian Stanislaw Bulhak;
4. Zofia Bulhak daughter of Hipolit Bulhak / Булгак Софья Ипполитовна b. 08.09.1886, Колесницы / Колесничи of the Копыльски р-н., south-west of Marina Gorka, south-east of Uzda, north of Sluck; d. Nov. 1937.
5. The Konstantynowicz family: Вязовница that is Wiazownica / Viazovnica, west of Swislocz (see Szostak family), north - east of Osipovichi; west of Berezyna river; south-east of Grodzianka (see Marian vel Jerzy Konstantynowicz); and Фортуны - here lived (also Чайковский Петр Николаевич, Чайковская Раиса Петровна / Raisa Czajkowska and the Томкович / Tomkowicz family) parents of Marta nee Konstantynowicz (grand-daughter of Daniel Konstantynowicz / Daniil Konstantinovich): Константинович Матвей Даниилов and Уршуля (Ирина) Адрианова - Urszula Irena daughter of Adrian, moved from Snustik (here also Antoni Tatur / Антон Иванович Татур in 1795), the Igumen / Ihumen county.
6. The Bulhak family: Ліпень (Халуі) / Липень (Холуи) / Lipień (Chołuje) / Lipień (Chałui) or Халуйцы / Халуйск / Холуйск / Chołujce or Lipen / Lipien, at way from Osipovichi to Svisloch, south-west of Swislocz, and north-west of Bobruisk.
7. 1867-1913 I. Bulhak (?) or Bulgak purchased (1861) from Lipovskii, villages Kamionka or Matseevich; Насыцк near by Talka, south-east of Marina Gorka, north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze, near by Kamienka / Kamionki. And above Камионки or Kamienka close to Talka, north-west of Osipovichi.
8. Hieronim Bulhak son of Stanislaw Bulhak / Булгак Героним Станиславович b. 1855 in Сутин or Sucin, 11 km south-west of Talka, and ca 26 km west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze; was living in Дворище to 1937.
9. Булгак Викентий Игнатьевич b. 1902 in Побоковичи - 15 km west of Bobruisk; south-east of Osipovichi (I check my mistake), close to Osovo, Stavishche, Protasievichi, near by Poplawy, Derevcy, Dubrolevo; killed 1933.
10. Bulhak family in 1870 in the Minsk government, Sluck district, the Lanska area - Kosmowicze; Kosmowicze / Kosmowiczi - close to Pukielevshcina, Bychovshcina, Tshanovici, north of Kleck, south of Niezviz / Nieswiez, near by Osmolowo, Lan, Leonowiczi.
11. Konstantynowicz, Wiesielowo / Veselovo village in the Osipovichi district, Mogilev region;
12. Konstantynowicz in 1894, Spustik village, the Igumen County; Byelorussian, individual farmer, lived in the Osipovichi district, Yasenovka / Jasieniowka;
13. Szymon Bułhak b. ca 1660 / 1680?; 1686 Nowogrodek, owner of Ostrówka close to Mir, Janowszczyzna near by Iwieniec, Nowodwórek, Osipowszczyzna, Nacz, Puszcza Moszukowska, Domatkanowicze close to Kleck, Połoneczka by Dzwieja. Mikołaj Bułhak b. circa 1670 / 1695?, son of Benedykt Bułhak and Eufemia, husband of Katarzyna and Marianna, father of Florian Stanisław Bułhak ca 1695 - 1745?
14. Julian Bulhak / Yulyan Bulgak bought land in the Igumen district in 1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi from the landlord Lisowski (of Bulhak in 1867-1913); the estate Bluza (Bluza close to Poddiegtiarnia, north-west of Talka, ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family) from hands of Sophia Prosor / Zofia Prozor - Swietorzecka / Sventorzhetski, owned in those places. The Prozor family was near by to Malkiewicz - Horodecka Izabela.
And now we look at the text below written in January 2014. Bogdan Konstantynowicz, the author of this website believes that we can already, after a quarter-century of research on my genealogy, give to my readers to analyse and rethink, a few comments on
the role of our family Konstantynowicz and the Polish-French family Armand from Moscow, in the deep structures of political intelligence of Tsarist Russia and in the strategic network of Russia's technology military intelligence
and then even of the Soviet Union.
This is the text for further discussion.
Approximately one hundred years infiltrating of the military intelligence of Tsarist Russia by Polish agents in the years around 1814 - about 1922, brought unprecedented positive effect -
Polish independence in 1918. But the Polish country was destroyed completely after the events of 1939, and above all after the creation of the Soviet protectorate in 1944/1945.
Jozef Pilsudski served for the military Austro - Hungarian intelligence, rose to the rank of brigadier general there / Brigadier. So he took advantage from the Germans and Austrians structure worked out into Tsarist Russia, which created artificial figures in the revolutionary socialist movement: Trubeckoj Nestor, Peter Kropotkin, Lenin Ulyanov,
as well as in Russian networks of the military and industrial structures of the second half of the 19th century: electricity, telegraph, ciphers, decryption, generators, radio lamps, lighting lamps, aircraft, aircraft engines and vehicles, magneto for engines, new types of steel, electrical cables, airships, cars, radio, then television and soviet nuclear industry.
At the same time, the French military intelligence expanded in Russia, by the old French families, and others: English, Polish and Georgian in Moscow and St. Petersburg.
The network intelligence gone back to the Napoleonic times and the Italian Legions. Through these Cracow networks have developed for a family Trubeckoj, Kalinowski, Oginski, Konstantynowicz, Paszkowski, Armand, Demontet, Duflon, Rey, Diserens.
Russian military intelligence and counterintelligence created by Baltic German families from Latvia and Estonia, went back as far to families: Schilling, Benkendorf, Dubbelt, Rosenberg, Gernet, Rehbinder, Rosen, and next a military intelligence network reached
Georgia and Svaneti - Racha: Japaridze, Dadiani, Gruzinsky, Maipariani -
full this system took over the Pilsudski movement from the top, among others by family Konstantynowicz
from Miezonka, Moscow, Tallinn and Viljandi.
The great importance in this system of underground operation had Armand family from Moscow, next of kin with the Wild, Demontet, a Georgian families, Konstantynowicz and Paszkowski.
Therefore they were relatives of Trubecki, Siedych, Rosenberg, Armand, Manfred, and had a Georgians family: Dadiani, Gruzinsky, Japaridze and Maipariani.
The Russian counterintelligence climb on this system. Now appeared Spychalski family, Jaroszewicz, Zarako Zarakowski, Swierczewski, Żymierski.
On the margin remained Malkiewicz and Horodecki, Szostak and Zbieranowski and Andrzejak of Lodz and many others from Estonia, Latvia, Georgia, Belarus and Russia, and Finland, and of course in Sweden: Nobel, Damm, Hagelin, Hakker.
With the intelligence system of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and of the Tsarist Russia fully used by the Jozef Pilsudski,
in order to rebuild Polish state.
Took over the structure in Lodz, Krakow, St. Petersburg, in Belarus and Moscow.
Inesse Armand and Anna Konstantynowicz were planted to Lenin, not counting other Armands.
Pilsudski always spoke he has got a few or a dozen years to build and re-build the independent Polish state, because then Russia raise with knees.
It was surely Stalin who idolized the Russian imperial state. However, it succeeded
smash Russia in the 1917 - 1922 and rebuild Poland
The eldest Pole among above military figures wasgeneral Jan Jacyna.
Jan (John) Jacyna born 15 December 1864, died on 10, December 1930 in Warsaw. He was the son of Alexander and Natalia nee Hejnarowicz. "In 1878, he graduated from high school in St. Petersburg, and the College of Engineering at Kronstadt and the St. Petersburg Military Academy of Artillery". Major-General in 1911. 1917 was an vice-president of the Association of Military Poles and president and treasurer of the Supreme Polish Military Committee in St. Petersburg. 1921 - 1922 adjutant general of the Head of State. Jacyna was married to Wiktoria Ossowiecki, with whom he had a son, Alexander b. 1894.
He served in a
"Main technical committee"
Navy Ministry in St Petersburg
at a later date he acted,
1901 - 1917
as member on
board of directors of government armouries" of the
(next War and Navy Ministry)
Since then he was near to problems of war industry in Russia,
especially during - 1914 / 1917 - the First world war; then
he co-operated with "Military - industrial committee"
composite of war industry's representatives and he ran up against suggestions of aeroplanes deliveries and aerial inventions
(confer Jan Jacyna
memoirs, vol. 1, p. 71);
he was the most known general in all Polish environments of St Petersburg at the beginning of the 20th cent., amidst military and industrial activists,
social workers after the Bolshevik revolution, and also among the Polish active politicians in Russian parliament since 1905/06; he was near to the imperial Russian court; general Jan Jacyna evaluated figure of
Wladymir Boncz Brujewicz
wholy negative when paid a call on Lenin at the end of January 1918;
Jan Jacyna kept in touch with e.g.
Michal Szydlowski and
Karol Jaroszynski = Karol Yaroshinsky,
who managed with a
big loans especially during the First world war. On Jaroszynski see
Shay McNeal, "The Plots to Rescue the Tsar", ed. London 2001
[Karol Yaroshinsky / Karol Jaroszynski
"(...) died in near poverty in
1928. His last years were spent in pain as a result of a poison needle having been jabbed into him at the opera in Paris at almost the same time as