The Greatest Conspiracy Theories in history and Intelligence.

The Greatest Conspiracy Theories in history and Intelligence.

archived 9 Dec 2014 15:18:21 UTC

COPYRIGHT BY BOGDAN KONSTANTYNOWICZ

December the 9th, 2014

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German, Russian and British Intelligence and the greatest conspiracy theories in history of
Scotland, Ireland, Estonia, Switzerland, Russia and Poland.
France 1789, Russia 1917, Poland 1989. F.  W. Rose, A Serio-Comic Map of the Year 1877,  London:  G.  W. Bacon & Co., British Library; 
 an earlier Dutch map at the University of Amsterdam upon which this map is based is identical 
except for the wounded tentacle.    A later Rose map, even more obviously depicting the British 
perspective, is  'John Bull and his Friends' from 1900 in which John Bull (Great Britain) faces a  
continent full of hostile, disinterested, or preoccupied  'friends' and an even more threatening 
octopus-Russia, reaching out in all directions. On the eve of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5), 
a Japanese take on the Serio-Comic map shifts the focus decidedly eastward and portrays Russia as the 
black octopus. And for a completely contrary view, a Japanese print self-identifies with the 
octopus after the war commenced with the Battle of Port Arthur.   Copyright by  
 http://streetsofsalem.com/2013/01/22/teaching-with-tentacles/

Key note. Introduction and general remarks.

I think I managed to investigate and decipher a system: this is a conspiracy inside the headquarters of military intelligence of the Tsarist Russia: deep political espionage (anarchists, Lenin, Marxists) and strategic technological-scientific intelligence (telegraph, radio, electricity, aircraft, engines, ignition magnetos, automatic pilots, helicopters, airships, submarines, lights, etc.). Taken over in a certain period by British intelligence.

An influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign UK policy ca 1895 to ca 1921 played Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, a British statesman.
Acc to Aydelotte: "...in 1888 Rhodes made his third will ... to LORD ROTHSCHILD (his financier in mining enterprises), but ... for strategic reasons Lord Rothschild was subsequently removed from the forefront of the scheme. Professor Quigley reveals that Lord Rosebury, replaced his father-in-law Lord Rothschild, in Rhodes' next and last will. ... Quigley informs us that the central part of the 'secret society' was established by March, 1891, using Rhodes' money.
The organization was run for Rothschild by Lord Alfred Milner - the ROUND TABLE worked behind the scenes at the highest levels of British government, influencing foreign policy and England's involvement and conduct of WW I.
... Between 1894 and 1907 a number of international treaties were signed to have Russia, France, England and further nations unit against Germany in the case of war. It was the task of the
COMMITTEE OF 300 to set the stage for the First World War. From the ROUND TABLE group emerged as a front the 'Royal institute for International Affairs' ... known as 'Chatham House' and had among its founding members Lord Albert Grey, Lord Arnold Toynbee ... of the MI6, H. G. Wells, Lord Alfred Milner - head of the Round Table, and H. J. Mackinder - inventor of the so-called geopolitics.
... sums of money from the international bankers, among others from ALFRED MILNER - by Jan Van Helsing - who later took over the secret Round Table, were poured into the Ochrana that already had infiltrated the Bolshevik movement. Agents steered many of its activities. The infiltration was so strong that in 1908 four of the five members of the Petersburg committee of the Bolshevik party were Ochrana agents".

Some details:

Hubert Bland, a bank-journalist, worked for the London Sunday Chronicle, a paper owned by newspaper magnate Edward Hulton, formerly of the Liberal Manchester Guardian. Bland was a co-founder of the Fabian Society in 1884 and became a treasurer. He also recruited Bernard Shaw. Bernard Shaw was working for the London Pall Mall Gazette, where William T. Stead served as editor and Alfred Milner as his assistant, both Stead and Milner were close to diamond magnate and Rothschild associate Cecil Rhodes and were involved in the formation of the influential secret organisation known as the Milner Group. Having been recruited to the Fabian Society by his friend Bland in 1884, Shaw recruited Annie Besant and his friends Sidney Webb, Sydney Olivier and Graham Wallas in 1885 and 1886.

Shaw married Charlotte, daughter of Horace Payne-Townshend, a wealthy Stock Exchange investor. He was employed by millionaire William Waldorf - Lord Astor, owner of the Pall Mall Gazette, and became a close friend of the Milner Group leader - Waldorf and his wife Nancy. Shaw's friend, Sidney Webb married Beatrice - a close friend of Rothschild associate and Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, the daughter of Richard Potter, a wealthy financier with international connections, the chairman of the Great Western and Grand Trunk Railways of England and Canada.
Shaw, Webb, Olivier and Wallas became the Fabian Society's dominant Big Four with John Passmore Edwards, an leader of the Liberal Manchester School, and with Richard Cobden. The Fabian Society was in close touch with the Rothschilds both directly and through Lord Arthur Balfour, and has also been close to David Rockefeller. Cecil Rhodes the South African diamond millionaire, used his fortune to promote the scheme of federating the English speaking peoples around the globe.
Rhodes and other acolytes of Ruskin, formed a secret society known as the Round Table Group, were able to gain access to Rhodes' fortune after his death in 1902. The Milner Group, the secret society formed by Cecil Rhodes, dominated the British delegation to the Peace Conference of 1919, founded the UK Royal Institute for International Affairs in 1919 / 1920 (the British Institute of International Affairs was founded in London in July 1920), the US Council on Foreign Relations, and parallel groups in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India.
In 1919 British and American delegates to the Paris Peace Conference, under the leadership of Lionel Curtis, conceived the idea of an Anglo-American Institute of foreign affairs to study international problems with a view to preventing future wars - at Chatham House, Number 10 St. James's Square in 1923 (Professor Arnold Toynbee became the leading figure until his retirement in 1955).

Retinger was very close to Lionel Curtis, the founder of Chatham House and Retinger was politically active in London exactly at the same time when Chatham House was established in 1921-1923; the Chatham House / the Royal Institute of International Affairs represented by both ideologies of the Rhodes - Milner ideology with the ideology of the Fabian society and Retinger had links to both these groups; his the Bilderberg Group had their first meeting in May 1954 at the Bilderberg Hotel, near Arnhem in Holland.

I wrote above that the Round Table was started by Freemason and Rothschild agent, Lord Alfred Milner; but Rhodes, who was connected to the Freemasons, first formalised his idea with William T. Stead;
in 1910, The Round Table Journal: A Quarterly Review of the Politics of the British Empire was founded by Lord Milner and members of Milner's Kindergarten: Lionel Curtis, Philip Kerr and Geoffrey Dawson; by 1915 Round Table groups existed in seven countries: in the United States acted George Louis Beer, Walter Lippmann, Frank Aydelotte, Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Erwin D. Canham.

Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon, b. 1862, known as Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary from 1905 to 1916, was closely politically, intellectually, and socially affiliated with the Milner Group according to Prof. Quigley; he got Russia and France to sign secret agreements that committed them to join England if there was a major war in Europe. Several years later, when World War I was imminent, Sir Edward Grey denied the existence of the secret agreements.
Sir Edward Grey met few times with Edward Mandell House, the son of a successful banker and land owner; House in 1911 became acquainted with Woodrow Wilson; he confered with British foreign secretary Sir Edward Grey in 1913, and in the spring of 1914 again; Colonel Edward House was a superb behind-the-scenes operator whose talents made him an invaluable diplomat and presidential advisor. "...Wilson proclaimed neutrality and in January 1915 dispatched House back to Europe on board the Lusitania for a second official mission. House hoped to change British blockade policies and end German attacks on merchant ships. House found that both sides were so heavily invested in the conflict that they feared a public backlash if peace were sought without victory...".
A third mission took place in 1916, when House met with Lord Grey; in January 1919, House accompanied Wilson to Paris for the peace conference.
Sir Edward Grey was a member of the Fabian Co-Efficients, who also belonged to the inner circle of the Rhodes' Round Table groups that were under the direction of Alfred Milner; others members:
Haldane, L. S. Amery, Lord Robert Cecil, Lord Arthur Balfour, Michael Sadler and Lord Milner himself were among the Fabian Coefficients.
Coefficients included: Bertrand Russell, Sidney and Beatrice Webb, Leo Maxse (who advocated war with Germany already in 1902), Clinton Dawkins of the City, Carlyon Bellairs of the Navy, Pember Reeves, W. A. S. Hewins, H. J. Mackinder, Henry Newbolt, John Hugh Smith, J. Birchenough of the City, Garvin, Josiah Wedgwood, John Hugh Smith, Colonel Repington, F. S. Oliver, and C. F. G. Masterman.
The Illuminati, who also called themselves the Society of the Elect: Cecil John Rhodes, Baron Nathan Rothschild, Sir Harry Johnston, William T. Stead, Reginald Brett - Viscount Esher, Alfred Milner - Viscount Milner, B. F. Hawksley, Thomas Brassey - Lord Brassey; Edmund Garrett; Alfred Beit; Sir Abe Bailey; Albert Grey - Earl Grey; Archibald Primrose - Earl of Rosebery; Arthur James Balfour; Sir George R. Parkin; Philip Lyttelton Gell; Sir Henry Birchenough; Herbert A. L. Fisher; William Waldegrave Palmer - Earl of Selborne; Sir Patrick Duncan; Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian, and others.
The Association of Helpers:
1. The Inner Circle:
Sir Patrick Duncan, Robert Henry Brand - Baron Brand; Philip Kerr - Marquess of Lothian; Lionel Curtis, William L. Hichens, Geoffrey Dawson, Edward Grigg - Baron Altrincham; Herbert A. L. Fisher, Leopold Amery, Richard Feetham, Hugh A. Wyndham; Sir Dougal Malcolm, Basil Williams, Flora Shaw, Nancy Astor, Arnold J. Toynbee; and others;
2. The Outer Circle: John Buchan - Baron Tweedsmuir, Sir Fabian Ware, Sir Alfred Zimmern; Gilbert Murray, Robert Cecil - Viscount Cecil of Chelwood; Sir James W. Headlam-Morley, and others.
Members in other countries: a. Canada; b. United States: George Louis Beer, Frank Aydelotte, Jerome Greene; c. South Africa: Jan C. Smuts, Sir Patrick Duncan, Sir Abe Bailey, and others; d. Australia; e. New Zealand; f. Germany: Helmuth James von Moltke and Adam von Trott zu Solz.

Victor Rothschild (Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild b. 1910 d. 1990; son of Charles Rothschild; a member of the Apostles Club at Cambridge, a secret society, there he became friends with the future Soviet spies Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt, and Kim Philby - not a member; he was recruited to work for MI5 during World War II, and was the head of B1C, continued to work in security as an adviser to Margaret Thatcher; 1971 to 1974 The Think Tank), who worked for J. P. Morgan & Co., was one of the members of the Round Table.

The Rothschilds had financed Cecil Rhodes, co-operated with the Morgans and the Rockefellers, and they financed the activities of Edward Harriman (railroads) and Andrew Carnegie Steel.

Roundtable inner Circle of Initiates included Lord Milner, Cecil Rhodes, Arthur Balfour, Albert Grey and Lord Nathan Rothschild (Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild b. 1840, d. 1915, a British banker in issuing loans to the governments of the USA, Russia and Austria; a close relationship with Benjamin Disraeli, he also funded Cecil Rhodes in the development of the British South Africa Company and the De Beers diamond conglomerate, and administered Rhodes's estate from 1902 and set up the Rhodes Scholarship scheme at Oxford).

According to Gary Allen's expose, Milner financed the Russian Bolsheviks on Rothschild's behalf, with help from Jacob Schiff and Max Warburg.

The Round Table movement, founded in 1909 - acc. to historian Carroll Quigley - was connected to a secret society named the 'Society of the Elect' with
Cecil Rhodes, Stead and Lord Rothschild as his designated successors, and also Milner, Reginald Baliol Brett Lord Esher, Cardinal Manning, Lord Arthur Balfour, Lord Albert Grey and Sir Harry Johnston;
Carroll Quigley claims in 'Tragedy and Hope' that Rhodes's 'Society of the Elect' was established in 1889 - 1891; an outer circle known as the Association of Helpers was later organised by Milner as the Round Table;
its sister organisations: Lionel Curtis founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1920, and Walter Lippmann in 1921 - the Council on Foreign Relations, in America. See also: Alexander May, The Round Table, 1910-66, ed. by University of Oxford.

When Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, drowned on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland, then Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, from December 1916 to November 1918, was one of the most important members of David Lloyd George's War Cabinet. His mother was a daughter of Major General John Ready, former Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island and later the Isle of Man. Upon his return from South Africa, Viscount Milner occupied himself mainly with business interests in London, becoming chairman of the Rio Tinto Zinc mining company, a director of the Joint Stock Bank, in January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson, in Russia, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed; he was an advocate of inter-allied cooperation, in St. Petersburg in February 1917.
But Trotsky in his book 'My Life' tells of a British financier, who in 1907 gave him a large loan to be repaid after the overthrow of the Tsar. Arsene de Goulevitch, who witnessed the Bolshevik Revolution, has identified both the name of the financier and the amount of the loan: over 21 million rubles were spent by Lord Alfred Milner in financing the (March 1917) Russian Revolution.
It was a big dream of Pilsudski and Poles to Tsarist Russia collapsed, and then in the revolutionary chaos appeared Lenin had passed into Russia by the Germans.
A documents made it clear, that this above mentioned funding was provided by Milner and channeled through Sir George Buchanan, who was the British Ambassador to Russia at the time, acc. to Goulevitch, p. 230.

The conspiracy in Russia created curtains and protected from the beginning by the modern counterintelligence of the Tsarist Russia created by Benkendorff and Dubbelt from Estonia and Latvia - thanks to this major role in this system can be played a German families from Estonia.
They anchored (Fabian Pilar von Pilchau of Parnu) in Lithuania / Belarus and joined with families from Belarus: Piłsudski, Dzierzynski, Konstantynowicz and so on. Thanks to this connections the German Empire took over from the top of all this political system according to some theorists, and by others - the British intelligence.
This statement is not true, or not true fully. The main ally of Britain during the First World War was Russia, and the Romanov dynasty with its last tsar. This is confirmed by the organization of the Allied mission to Russia in January 1917 and earlier such a mission to Romania. Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. Ireland fought then about freedom, just like the Poles. Scotland also fight, like Estonia.

When Irish immigration to the United States of America began, the Irish Charitable Society was founded in Boston, in 1737, then as the Ancient and Most Benevolent Order of the Friendly Brothers of Saint Patrick, founded in New York, and the Society of the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick for the Relief of Emigrants in Philadelphia in 1771.
The Irish Free State was established in 1922 as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, following uprising - The Easter Rising, also known as the Easter Rebellion, in Ireland, 1916. The Rising was mounted by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland. It was the most significant uprising in Ireland since the rebellion of 1798.
Remember!
In 1915 Lieutenant-Colonel Christopher Thomson, a fluent French speaker, was sent to Bucharest as British military attache on Kitchener's initiative to bring Romania into the war.
Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, drowned on 5 June 1916 when HMS Hampshire sank west of the Orkney Islands, Scotland. He was making his way to Russia in order to attend negotiations but the ship struck a German mine.

After the Great War (1914 - 1918), a number of conspiracy theories were put forward, one by Lord Alfred Douglas, positing a connection between Kitchener's death, the recent naval Battle of Jutland, Winston Churchill, and a Jewish conspiracy. Churchill successfully sued Douglas for criminal libel, and the latter spent six months in prison. Another claimed that the Hampshire did not strike a mine at all, but was sunk by explosives secreted in the vessel by Irish Republicans. Frederick Joubert Duquesne, a Boer soldier and spy, claimed that he had assassinated Kitchener after an earlier attempt to kill him in Cape Town failed. Duquesne's story was that he posed as the Russian Duke Boris Zakrevsky in 1916 and joined Kitchener in Scotland.
In 1883 Kitchener became a Freemason. He was initiated in Cairo.

In the spring of 1916 Herbert Asquith decided to send Lord Kitchener, his Secretary of State of War, to Russia in an attempt to rally the country in its fight against Germany. On 5th June 1916, Horatio Kitchener was drowned.
Horatio Bottomley, the editor of the John Bull magazine, promoted the idea that Kitchener had been murdered.
In July 1920, Alfred Douglas, the former boyfriend of Oscar Wilde, according to Michael Kettle, continued his campaign against Winston Churchill.
Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas b. 1870 in Powick, Worcestershire; the third son of John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, and his first wife, Sibyl nee Montgomery. Above John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1844 in Florence, Italy, was a Scottish nobleman, the eldest son of Scottish politician Archibald, Viscount Drumlanrig and Caroline Margaret Clayton. His daughter, who became Lady Edith Gertrude Douglas, married the inventor St. George Lane Fox-Pitt. Above named Archibald William Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1818, Viscount Drumlanrig - south of Douglas - was the son of John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry, by Sarah Douglas, daughter of Major James Sholto Douglas. Married Caroline Margaret Clayton at Gretna Green,
Scotland - on border of England, Gretna Green, Scotland is south of Queensberry.
Above John Douglas, 7th Marquess of Queensberry b. 1779, was a Scottish Whig politician. Queensberry was the son of Sir William Douglas, 4th Baronet.

Queensberry - south-west of Jedburgh and of Selkirk; south-east of Douglas.

"...In January 1917 Milner led the British delegation, with Henry Wilson as chief military representative, and including a banker and two munitions experts - on the mission to Russia. There were 50 delegates in total including French, led by de Castelnau, and Italians. The object of the mission, stressed at the second Chantilly Conference in December 1916, was to keep the Russians holding down at least the forces now opposite them, to boost Russian morale and see what equipment they needed with a view to coordinating attacks...".
Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner b. 1854, was a British statesman and colonial administrator who played an influential leadership role in the formulation of foreign and domestic policy.
Above Field Marshal Sir Henry Hughes Wilson, 1st Baronet, b. 1864, and "...Loyd George wanted Russia persuaded to make the maximum possible effort... on a British mission to Russia in January 1917 (delayed from November 1916), the object of which was to keep the Russians holding down at least the forces now opposite them, to boost Russian morale ... The War Office briefing advised that Russia was close to revolution. Wilson met the Tsar but thought him 'as devoid of character and purpose as our own poor miserable King'. Even senior Russian officials were talking openly of assassinating the Tsar or perhaps just the Tsarina. Wilson was impressed by Generals Ruzski (Rucki) and Danilov ... Knox, who had been British military attaché since 1911. He toured Petrograd, Moscow ... and Riga ... His official report (3 March 1917) said that Russia would remain in the war and that they would solve their 'administrative chaos'. However, many other observers at the time, e.g. the young Archibald Wavell in the Caucasus, felt that the advent of democracy in Russia would reinvigorate her war effort, so Wilson's views were not entirely unusual. ... Wilson was appointed Chief of British Mission to the French Army on 17 March 1917, with a promotion to permanent lieutenant-general which Robertson had blocked in November 1916...".
Noël Edouard Marie Joseph, Vicomte de Curieres de Castelnau b. 1851, was a French general in World War I. "...After the dismissal of Joffre ... in 1916 Castelnau was retired from active service. He was sent on the Allied Mission to Russia in the early months of 1917, just prior to the Fall of the Tsar. ... Castelnau was recalled to the command of the Eastern Army Group ... in 1918...".

Today it is difficult to say who, what country, either a government, or an institution, maybe a NGO managed this complicated structure.

Those who have studied the roots of this complex structure, the most common commit certain substantive and methodological mistakes, runs the risk of retaliatory attacks and ridicule, and even fully social ostracism.

"...Lenin was preceded by a Swiss spy named Pierre Gilliard who was hired to tutor the Romanov children in French.
Charles Sydney Gibbes was their English tutor.
The Revolution was planned in London and Geneva... Both men were MI6 operatives (this is an opinion of Scrivener) and they could be relied upon to maintain strict secrecy as to the final fate of the Romanovs...", acc. to Patrick Scrivener.

But Bob Atchison wrote (© Copyright 2011):

"...Pierre Gilliard - Thirteen Years at the Russian Court ...
GILLIARD NOTE:
Ludendorff exaggerates the role of the Entente in the Russian Revolution when he writes:
'In March, 1917, a Revolution, the work of the Entente, overthrew the Tsar'.
The movement was supported by the Entente, but it was not their work.
Ludendorff shows well enough what were its immediate results for Germany. "The Revolution meant a fatal loss of military power to Russia, weakened the Entente and gave us considerable relief in our heavy task. The General Staff could at once effect important economies of troops and ammunition, and could also exchange divisions on a much greater scale."
And further on: "In April and May, 1917, it was the Russian Revolution which saved us in spite of our victory on the Aisne and in Champagne"
(Ludendorff, My War Memories, vol. II).
The Imperial train left Mohilev on the night of the 12th (March 1917), but on arriving at the station of Malaya-Vichera twenty-four hours later it was ascertained that the station of Tosno, thirty miles south of Petrograd, was in the hands of the insurgents, and that it was impossible to get to Tsarskoe - Selo. There was nothing for it but to turn back.
The Tsar decided to go to Pskov to General Russky, the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Front. He arrived there on the evening of the 14th. When the General had told him the latest developments in Petrograd the Tsar instructed him to inform M. Rodzianko by telephone that he was ready to make every concession if the Duma thought that it would tranquillize the nation. The reply came: "It is too late."
To finish her work of destruction, Germany had only to give Lenin and his disciples a plentiful supply of money and let them loose on Russia.
Lenin and his friends never dreamed of talking to the peasants about a democratic republic or a constituent assembly. They knew it would have been waste of breath. As up-to-date prophets, they came to preach the holy war and to try and draw these untutored millions by the attraction of a creed in which the finest teaching of Christ goes hand in hand with the worst sophisms ...
BOB ATCHISON NOTE:
In the previous paragraph Pierre Gilliard suggests that the Jews were responsible for the revolution.
Here he presents (Anti-Semitism) anti-semetic opinions that were widely held at the time.
While many Jews, who as a group had been disenfrancised from the Russian Empire, were active supporters of the Revolution,
those who became Bolsheviks were agnostics or non-believers who most often found themselves oppressors of their own people, religion and culture...".

This structure had a military - intelligence - political nature. This structure created for decades the leading politicians, and drove to the spectacular political internationally events. The mystery of the complicated machines - several octopuses - caused the birth of conspiracy theories, such theories and journalism as Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894.

For a 100 years such theories indicate specified states, as well as some nations or particular politicians, as drivers of the intelligence structure - this situation lasts from 1916 to today, 2014.

The answer to the above question at the moment is gone. In the history of Tsarist Russia, it is difficult to find a detail, because there is difficult to get to archives of a special services and political institutions. Below I quote the text of the book 'The Anglo-American Establishment' by Carroll Quigley ed. in 1981 (copyright by The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden. 1981, New York: Books in Focus, 354 pages, ISBN 0-916728-50-1; reprinted by Rancho Palos Verdes: GSG & Associates, date unknown, ISBN 0-945001-01-0). The author of this book reveals details of secret intelligence and political structures of the United Kingdom and the USA in the second half of the 19th century and in the first half of the twentieth century.

These data obviously yet not suggest who or what was the driving force of the intelligence network and the military-political structures, which in details is discussed on this web site, and broadening data on the site designated as part two. Both of these parties were formed in the second half of 2014. So Carroll Quigley wrote in 1981:

"... in February 1891, three men were engaged in earnest conversation in London. From that conversation were to flow consequences of the greatest importance to the British Empire and to the world as a whole.
For these men were organizing a secret society that was, for more than fifty years, to be one of the most important forces in the formulation and execution of British imperial and foreign policy. ... The leader was Cecil Rhodes, fabulously wealthy empire-builder ... The second was William T. Stead, the most famous, and probably also the most sensational, journalist of the day. The third was Reginald Baliol Brett, later known as Lord Esher, friend and confidant of Queen Victoria, and later to be the most influential adviser of King Edward VII and King George V. ... the three drew up a plan of organization for their secret society and a list of original members. The plan of organization provided for an inner circle, to be known as The Society of the Elect, and an outer circle, to be known as The Association of Helpers. Within The Society of the Elect, the real power was to be exercised by the leader, and a 'Junta of Three'. The leader was to be Rhodes, and the junta was to be Stead, Brett, and Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner. In accordance with this decision, Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner was added to the society by Stead ...
Rhodes had been planning for this event for more than seventeen years (around 1873). Stead had been introduced to the plan on 4 April 1889, and Brett had been told of it on 3 February 1890. ... in modified form, it exists to this day. From 1891 to 1902, it was known to only a score of persons. During this period, Rhodes was leader, and Stead was the most influential member. From 1902 to 1925, Milner was leader, while Philip Kerr (Lord Lothian) and Lionel Curtis were probably the most important members. From 1925 to 1940, Kerr was leader, and since his death in 1940 this role has probably been played by Robert Henry Brand (now Lord Brand).
During this period of almost sixty years, this society has been called by various names. During the first decade or so it was called 'the secret society of Cecil Rhodes' or 'the dream of Cecil Rhodes'. In the second and third decades of its existence it was known as 'Milner's Kindergarten' (1901 - 1910) and as 'the Round Table Group' (1910 - 1920). Since 1920 it ... has been called 'The Times crowd', 'the Rhodes crowd', the 'Chatham House crowd', 'All Souls group', and the 'Cliveden set'. ...
The Milner Kindergarten and the Round Table Group, for example, were two different names for The Association of Helpers and were thus only part of the society, since the real center of the organization, The Society of the Elect, continued to exist and recruited new members from the outer circle as seemed necessary. Since 1920, this Group has been increasingly dominated by the associates of Viscount Astor. In the 1930s, the misnamed 'Cliveden set' was close to the center of the society, but it would be entirely unfair to believe that the connotations of superficiality and conspiracy popularly associated with the expression 'Cliveden set' are a just description of the Milner Group as a whole.
In fact, Viscount Astor was, relatively speaking, a late addition to the society, and the society should rather be pictured as utilizing the Astor money to further their own ideals rather than as being used for any purpose by the master of Cliveden...".

Above mentioned Archibald Henry Maule Ramsay b. 1894, d. 1955, was a British Army officer who later went into politics as a Scottish Unionist Member of Parliament. Ramsay was from a Scottish aristocratic family, a descendant of the Earls of Dalhousie
(Dalhousie Castle near by Edinburgh - 16 km south-east, and Glenmark in the County of Forfar - Angus was historically a county, known officially as Forfarshire, borders Aberdeenshire, Dundee, Perth and Kinross);
in 1913 he served in France for two years, then at the War Office in London; married on 30 April 1917 Lady Ninian Crichton-Stuart, nee Ismay Preston, daughter of Viscount Gormanston; served at the British War Mission in Paris to 1920; the 1920s was a company director,
near Arbroath (25 km ENE of Dundee), and Angus (area borders Dundee and Perth);
in 1936 he pointed to links between Spanish Republicans and the Soviet Union. Ramsay and Tyler Kent, a cypher clerk at the Embassy of the United States in London, were members of the Right Club but they were arrested - Ramsay was arrested under Regulation 18B on 23 May 1940. "The New York Times" published an article on "Britain's Fifth Column" in July 1940 which claimed Ramsay had sent to the German Legation in Dublin treasonable information given to him by Tyler Kent; in 1952 Ramsay wrote "The Nameless War" as an autobiography, theory re-interpreting the whole of modern history.

Above named the Earls of Dalhousie:

George Ramsay (d. 1705), younger son of the second Earl, served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in Scotland in 1702. William Ramsay was created Baron Panmure in 1831;
John Ramsay (1775 - 1842), a Lieutenant-General of the General Staff of India. John Ramsay b. 1775 in
Cockpen, Midlothian, Scotland that is Cockpen and Carrington Parish, ca 15 km south-east of Edinburgh
- d. 1842. Son of George Ramsay, 8th Earl of Dalhousie
- 16 km south-east of Edinburgh -
and married in
Edinburgh in 1800 to Mary, daughter of Philip Delisle of Calcutta, India.
John Ramsay was maj.-gen. 1830; lt.-gen. 1841. Ramsay in 1793 served in Holland, then was stationed in Ireland in 1798, and proceeded to Egypt, 1801;
John Ramsay of Ochtertyre - 32 km west of Perth, Scotland - met him in 1801.
He was put up for Aberdeen Burghs in 1806 by his brother William Maule. He was Commander-in-Chief of the 79th Highlanders, Military Secretary to the Governor-General of Canada, 1819 and 1828.
He was Military Secretary to the Viceroy of India, the 9th Earl of Dalhousie between 1829 and 1832. He gained the rank of Lieutenant-General in the service (1833 ? to 1842 ?) of the General Staff, India - 1841.
Children of Lt.-Gen. John Ramsay and Mary Delise:
1. William Ramsay (1804–1871), a Major-General in the Bengal Army,
2. Admiral George Ramsay, (the twelfth Earl, he served under William Ewart Gladstone as Secretary of State for Scotland in 1886; his eldest son, the fourteenth Earl, was succeeded by his eldest son, the fifteenth Earl - a Deputy Lieutenant of Angus),
3. James Ramsay (1808–1868), a Major-General in the Bengal Army,
4. Lt.-Col. John Ramsay, 5. Anne Finlay Anderson,
6. General Sir Henry Ramsay (1816–1893), a General in the Bengal Army, whose grandson was mentioned above politician Archibald Maule Ramsay;
7. Lt.-Col. Robert Anderson Ramsay.

See in Bengal: Latour and
Alexander Ramsay, Lieutenant to the 57th Bengal Native Infantry, died at Lahore in 1855. Son of Colonel Michael Ramsay who served the Bengal Infantry. Born at Calcutta, 1821.
Balcarres Dalrymple Wardlaw Ramsay, Lieutenant-Colonel, died on 26th January 1885 in Rome, Italy; b. 17 Sept. 1822, son of
Robert Wardlaw Ramsay of Tillicoultry and Whitehill. Tillicoultry is located 18 km east of Stirling! Whitehill - 15 km south-east of Edinburgh.
Bonn Univ.; Lt.-Col. of the 75th Regt. in 1870; A.D.C. to Sir George Arthur, Gov. of Bombay, and to Sir Colin Campbell in India; ret. 1877. Married in 1851 to Anne, daughter of Edward Collins of Frowlesworth, Leicestershire.
George Spottisworde Ramsay, Lieutenant of Royal Artillery, died 7th June 1873 in Bangalore.

Too much in the military - political - intelligence structure is discussed below, is Irish and Scots. It used French families located in Switzerland, Ceylon, France, Russia. Scottish and Irish families combined to Naples and Marseille, Ceylon, Odessa and Japan; Russians, English and Pilsudski entered by Japan to Ceylon; parallel from Odessa the Zionist movement came out founding a base of the state of Israel. Odessa has paired their to Berezino, Ireland - Japan - Ceylon.

And the whole system took over the movement of German from Estonia, and underground combat movement of Pilsudski, combining the objectives of the independence of these two states: Poland / Lithuania / Belarus + Estonia / Latvia, and as I wrote above Israel. Then they created a counterintelligence and intelligence of new Bolshevik Russia and the USSR. It already was a masterpiece, but totally wrecked by Stalin in 1937 - have to say that in this case, Stalin was a genius.

At the end part of that intelligence system of Soviet Union took over the colony by building its so-called People's Polish Republic and the Ministry of Defence, through affinitized of the Konstantynowiczs: the Jaroszewicz, Spychalski, Zarako Zarakowski families and friendly Swierczewski family. Interesting in all of this is the use of Frenchmen to the creation of this system, most moved on the Konstantynowiczs - not so completely. This is the connection: Waclaw Sieroszewski a colleague of Azbelev, who was in Nagasaki - his brother is a director of the company Duflon and Konstantynowicz; so, the Nobel family with Sydney Reilly, an Irishman and a Jew from Odessa - this is the same family of Nobel, where the brother of above-mentioned was the head of the board of the Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company - this is short way to the Swedish Enigma! Waclaw Sieroszewski of course was mate to a brother of Jozef Pilsudski - Bronislaw, which of course anchored in Nagasaki, and then here sailed Reilly. One very interesting figure - erased from history: Nikolay Russel / N. K. Sudzilovskiy / Sudzilowski from the Mscislaw district.

It's amazing that the October Revolution in 1917, which swept the Russian Empire, allowing the reconstruction of Poland, broke out just on the anniversary of the death of Tadeusz Kosciuszko, exactly the 100th anniversary of his death, and around Lenin appeared figures of the Polish nobility, which adopted a sense of the Kosciuszko Polish patriotism.
"Instead, after the fall of Napoleon's empire in 1815 he met with Russia's Tsar Alexander I in Braunau. In return for his prospective services, Kosciuszko demanded social reforms and territorial gains for Poland, which he wished to reach as far as the Dvina and Dnieper Rivers in the east".

On October 15, 1817 Tadeusz Kosciuszko / Thaddeus Kosciusko died. But a underground movement led by Jozef Pilsudski had in that case great deals to take in hands, behind the scenes, all revolutionary Lenin movement of the Bolsheviks, between about 1909 - 1917, and even longer to 1920, when Inessa Armand perhaps was poisoned, and even to the year 1921, when it was still marked a influences of Bruevich brothers of noble Boncza arms.
Inessa Armand controlled all Bolshevik work as a lover and the secretary of Lenin and she has influence on the directions of philosophical - political considerations, which diverged from reality, and their possible introduction in the life would be - if not as an experiment - even doom for the Russian Empire.

The purpose of Jozef Pilsudski was not only gathering information about enemy - Russia, and not only the smuggling of weapons for his organization (Petersburg - Miezonka - Lodz - Cracow), but primarily for Pilsudski was the goal to Lenin seized power and overthrew the Tsarist authorities. This was to allow the recovery of independence by Poland.

Stalin was here the enemy, because he wanted to rebuild the Russian empire, just as the Soviet Russia - a communist state.

Lenin wanted a European communism, the total fiction and the absurd. Pilsudski had to put Lenin at the head of the new Russia, and at least Pilsudski conducive to this Lenin's communist movement did not collapsed. Wrangel, Denikin, Kolchak were number one enemies.

Józef Piłsudski, Walery Sławek, Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz were 'collaborators' of military intelligence service of Austria - Hungary, with nickname "Stefan" since 1908; co-operated Aleksander Prystor, Gen. Bolesław Roja, Józef Beck, Gen. Edward Rydz-Śmigły, and Gen. Kordian Zamorski. Pilsudski in 1904 collaborated with Japan intelligence; Captain Joseph Rybak took care on Pilsudski, placing a group of agents in paramilitary organizations in Galicia, described as "The Informer R". Jozef Pilsudski was dismissed from the Austrian army in September 1916. Brigadier General Wlodzimierz Zagorski was born in 1882 in France. He grew up with his brother in Germany. In 1900 joined the Austrian army. Eleven years later, he began to work for "K-Stelle", 1914, as a captain, he was Chief of Staff Headquarters of the Legions. Formally, was the head of Jozef Pilsudski, who gave him the reports. Cooperation was not the best. When the Japanese-Russian war broke in 1904, Pilsudski decided to use the conflict for the Polish cause, get technical and material help for Polish irredentist aspirations. Japanese will give us the money to buy weapons and facilitate its reception in Hamburg, and we will collect them messages about the movements of the Russian troops sent to the East. These relations were surrounded by the biggest mystery. Only Pilsudski, Jodko, Filipowicz and Stanislaw Wojciechowski knew of them over one and a half year (April 1904 - October 1905).

Pilsudski had its plans to create in Galicia conditions for the military training of volunteers in the event of war between the aggressors and would create Polish troops fighting against Russia and would become the reborn Polish Army personnel.

In 1908 in Lviv, Cpt. Gustav Iszkowski teamed up with the Pilsudski movement. Probably by the end of 1908 Pilsudski spoke with the chief of the Intelligence Census Bureau, Maximilian Ronge. Then probably come to an agreement to organize the grid intelligence and sabotage against Russia in exchange for allowing the activities of the independence movement. In March, 1909 representatives of the Census Bureaus conferring with Pilsudski, Jodko and Slawek in Vienna. The project is called intelligence operation Informer R, directed the same Ronge - hidden it even from his own intelligence apparatus. The management of the organization called The Informer R were Jozef Pilsudski, Valery Slawek responsible for ongoing contacts with the representative of the interview, Captain Joseph Rybak; and Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz. By the end of 1912 Pilsudski organization might only auxiliary information.

Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1864 in Słuck, d. 1924 in Warsaw, nickname A. Wroński, Jowisz, diplomat; his parents: Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1834 - d. 1898 (probably son of Onufry) and Maria Sokołow - Skwarcew b. ca 1842. His father was ophthalmologist. Witold Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz member of the Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat since 1889, and Polish Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat / as II Proletariat, or Small Proletariat established in February 1888 and operated for March 1893. From January to July 1885 he studied medicine at the University of Dorpat / Tartu, Estonia; he came to Warsaw, then in September 1885 he went to Lviv, expelled from Austria, 1886, he studied in Würzburg, and then in Paris, graduated in 1889; London next; collaborator of the Centralization Social-Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat. In 1892 co-founder of the Polish Socialist Party; Jodko-Narkiewicz counted on the war between the aggressors and on ​​an armed uprising against Russia. Above
Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz, born on 23 Dec. 1834 in Puków in the Ihumen district,
died 1898 - Bobownia; Onufry Jodko - Narkiewicz was living in Pukow. Pukau / Pukowo / Pukow, at present: Komsomolskaja, a few km west of Sunaje and Kisiele;
north-west of Truchanowicze and Gresk, Anufrovichi and Anufri, north of Kondratowicze; south-west of Marina Gorka. In 1870, to the Минская губерния, the Игуменский уезд, in the Пуковская волость; Pukowo / Пуков is situated south-east of Tatury / now Charitonowka, and Kutschinka, east of Starica, Sloboda, Dumitshi; north-east of Kopyl. North of Sluck.
Janina Wiktoria Jodko-Narkiewicz, b. 1869
in Warsaw / Warszawa, was daughter of Witold Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz from Puków.
The Polish well-off proprietors in the Ihumen (Cerven) district in the second half of 19th cent. was the Jodko family in landed properties Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo and Onufrowo / Anufri.
Gardening in estates of the Ihumen district: Kuchcice, Tolkaczewicze, Malackowszczyzna, Pukowo, Cieplen, Smilowicze and Rawanicze.
In Pukow is a church, in the 16th cent. to the Puk / Пук family; 17th cent. to Olelkovich / Олельковичь and Radzivill / Радзивилл family; at the beginning of the 18th century to the Neuburg / Нойбург family from German taken from Boguslaw Radziwill / Богуслав Радзивилл, because his daughter Людвика Каролина / Ludwika Karolina Radziwill married to Karl Filipp Neuburg / Karl III Philipp von der Pfalz / Carl Philipp, b. 1661 in Neuburg; that is he married on August 10, 1688 in Berlin to Princess
Ludwika Karolina Charlotte Radziwill of Birze, daughter of Bogusław Radziwill, from this marriage four children were born: Leopoldine Eleonore Josephine, Maria Anna, Elisabeth Auguste Sophie m. Joseph Karl von Pfalz-Sulzbach.
At Пуково / Pukowo in 1731 wielded the earth Franciszek Drucki-Lubecki / Франтишек Друцкий-Любецкий. In 1744 again to the Radziwill family, but at the beginning of the 19th cent. Dominik Radziwill / Доминик Радзивилл lost Pukowo, now Pukowo and Bobownia to the Narkiewicz - Jodko / Наркевич-Иодко;
in 1846 to Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz / Томаш Наркевич-Иодко, Catholic. 1857 new church; close to Пуково (now Komsomolskaja) is Кондратовичи and here in 1862 was the second church;
Ksawery / Ксаверий was son of above named Tomasz Jodko-Narkiewicz, and he bought from Wojnillowicz / Войниллович the Lopuchi estate / Лопухи, 3 km of Pukowo / Пуково; a father of Edward Wojnillowicz / Эдвард Войниллович - Adam was proprietor of above Lopuchi.
Estate of "Оттоново" to Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Онуфри Наркевич-Иодко;
Jakub Jodko-Narkiewicz / Якуб Наркевич-Иодко has the Nadnieman / Наднеман estate;
Onufry Jodko-Narkiewicz / Наркевич-Иодко has son Otton Jodko-Narkiewicz, in 1840 owner of 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm of Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina 1848.

Jodko-Narkiewicz owner of the 'Ottonowo' court that is a farm Chaniczewo / Ханичево, and the Малысковщина Наднёманом / Malyskovshtschina in 1848. Наднёман was property of

Jakob Jodko - Narkiewicz son of Otton Jodko - Narkiewicz, biologist, meteorologist, physicist and electrician, lived 1848–1905;

next owner Konrad Jodko - Narkiewicz, son of Jakob, in 1921 moved to Cracow;

next of kin Kristian Narkiewicz - Lein is living now in Chicago.

Наднёман is located north of Kopyl, near by Piasocznaje, south-west-south of Uzda, and north-west of Pukowo. Ханичево / Атонава / Калінаўка or Оттоново / Ханічава is located north-west of Pukowo, south of above Наднёман, near by Piasocznaje.

Above mentioned Jodko-Narkiewicz in Pukowo ca 80 km west of Osipovichi and north of Sluck. See near by:

1. Manuel Jaroszewicz in Sluck A.D. 1666;

2. Michal Zbieranowski born Berezino in 1882 son of Jozef Zbieranowski and his wife Zofia nee Witkowski, after Bobrujsk, Sluck and Riga / Ryga 1899 - 1904;

3. Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina Bulhak, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor close to Sluck! His mother Franciszka Lowicki and father Jerzy Onufry Bulhak, b. 1749; grandfather: Florian Stanislaw Bulhak;

4. Zofia Bulhak daughter of Hipolit Bulhak / Булгак Софья Ипполитовна b. 08.09.1886, Колесницы / Колесничи of the Копыльски р-н., south-west of Marina Gorka, south-east of Uzda, north of Sluck; d. Nov. 1937.

5. The Konstantynowicz family: Вязовница that is Wiazownica / Viazovnica, west of Swislocz (see Szostak family), north - east of Osipovichi; west of Berezyna river; south-east of Grodzianka (see Marian vel Jerzy Konstantynowicz); and Фортуны - here lived (also Чайковский Петр Николаевич, Чайковская Раиса Петровна / Raisa Czajkowska and the Томкович / Tomkowicz family) parents of Marta nee Konstantynowicz (grand-daughter of Daniel Konstantynowicz / Daniil Konstantinovich): Константинович Матвей Даниилов and Уршуля (Ирина) Адрианова - Urszula Irena daughter of Adrian, moved from Snustik (here also Antoni Tatur / Антон Иванович Татур in 1795), the Igumen / Ihumen county.

6. The Bulhak family: Ліпень (Халуі) / Липень (Холуи) / Lipień (Chołuje) / Lipień (Chałui) or Халуйцы / Халуйск / Холуйск / Chołujce or Lipen / Lipien, at way from Osipovichi to Svisloch, south-west of Swislocz, and north-west of Bobruisk.

7. 1867-1913 I. Bulhak (?) or Bulgak purchased (1861) from Lipovskii, villages Kamionka or Matseevich; Насыцк near by Talka, south-east of Marina Gorka, north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze, near by Kamienka / Kamionki. And above Камионки or Kamienka close to Talka, north-west of Osipovichi.

8. Hieronim Bulhak son of Stanislaw Bulhak / Булгак Героним Станиславович b. 1855 in Сутин or Sucin, 11 km south-west of Talka, and ca 26 km west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze; was living in Дворище to 1937.

9. Булгак Викентий Игнатьевич b. 1902 in Побоковичи - 15 km west of Bobruisk; south-east of Osipovichi (I check my mistake), close to Osovo, Stavishche, Protasievichi, near by Poplawy, Derevcy, Dubrolevo; killed 1933.

10. Bulhak family in 1870 in the Minsk government, Sluck district, the Lanska area - Kosmowicze; Kosmowicze / Kosmowiczi - close to Pukielevshcina, Bychovshcina, Tshanovici, north of Kleck, south of Niezviz / Nieswiez, near by Osmolowo, Lan, Leonowiczi.

11. Konstantynowicz, Wiesielowo / Veselovo village in the Osipovichi district, Mogilev region;

12. Konstantynowicz in 1894, Spustik village, the Igumen County; Byelorussian, individual farmer, lived in the Osipovichi district, Yasenovka / Jasieniowka;

13. Szymon Bułhak b. ca 1660 / 1680?; 1686 Nowogrodek, owner of Ostrówka close to Mir, Janowszczyzna near by Iwieniec, Nowodwórek, Osipowszczyzna, Nacz, Puszcza Moszukowska, Domatkanowicze close to Kleck, Połoneczka by Dzwieja. Mikołaj Bułhak b. circa 1670 / 1695?, son of Benedykt Bułhak and Eufemia, husband of Katarzyna and Marianna, father of Florian Stanisław Bułhak ca 1695 - 1745?

14. Julian Bulhak / Yulyan Bulgak bought land in the Igumen district in 1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi from the landlord Lisowski (of Bulhak in 1867-1913); the estate Bluza (Bluza close to Poddiegtiarnia, north-west of Talka, ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family) from hands of Sophia Prosor / Zofia Prozor - Swietorzecka / Sventorzhetski, owned in those places. The Prozor family was near by to Malkiewicz - Horodecka Izabela.

And now we look at the text below written in January 2014. Bogdan Konstantynowicz, the author of this website believes that we can already, after a quarter-century of research on my genealogy, give to my readers to analyse and rethink, a few comments on the role of our family Konstantynowicz and the Polish-French family Armand from Moscow, in the deep structures of political intelligence of Tsarist Russia and in the strategic network of Russia's technology military intelligence and then even of the Soviet Union.

This is the text for further discussion.

Approximately one hundred years infiltrating of the military intelligence of Tsarist Russia by Polish agents in the years around 1814 - about 1922, brought unprecedented positive effect - Polish independence in 1918. But the Polish country was destroyed completely after the events of 1939, and above all after the creation of the Soviet protectorate in 1944/1945.

Jozef Pilsudski served for the military Austro - Hungarian intelligence, rose to the rank of brigadier general there / Brigadier. So he took advantage from the Germans and Austrians structure worked out into Tsarist Russia, which created artificial figures in the revolutionary socialist movement: Trubeckoj Nestor, Peter Kropotkin, Lenin Ulyanov, as well as in Russian networks of the military and industrial structures of the second half of the 19th century: electricity, telegraph, ciphers, decryption, generators, radio lamps, lighting lamps, aircraft, aircraft engines and vehicles, magneto for engines, new types of steel, electrical cables, airships, cars, radio, then television and soviet nuclear industry.
At the same time, the French military intelligence expanded in Russia, by the old French families, and others: English, Polish and Georgian in Moscow and St. Petersburg.
The network intelligence gone back to the Napoleonic times and the Italian Legions. Through these Cracow networks have developed for a family Trubeckoj, Kalinowski, Oginski, Konstantynowicz, Paszkowski, Armand, Demontet, Duflon, Rey, Diserens.
Russian military intelligence and counterintelligence created by Baltic German families from Latvia and Estonia, went back as far to families: Schilling, Benkendorf, Dubbelt, Rosenberg, Gernet, Rehbinder, Rosen, and next a military intelligence network reached Georgia and Svaneti - Racha: Japaridze, Dadiani, Gruzinsky, Maipariani - full this system took over the Pilsudski movement from the top, among others by family Konstantynowicz from Miezonka, Moscow, Tallinn and Viljandi.

The great importance in this system of underground operation had Armand family from Moscow, next of kin with the Wild, Demontet, a Georgian families, Konstantynowicz and Paszkowski.
Therefore they were relatives of Trubecki, Siedych, Rosenberg, Armand, Manfred, and had a Georgians family: Dadiani, Gruzinsky, Japaridze and Maipariani.
The Russian counterintelligence climb on this system. Now appeared Spychalski family, Jaroszewicz, Zarako Zarakowski, Swierczewski, Żymierski.
On the margin remained Malkiewicz and Horodecki, Szostak and Zbieranowski and Andrzejak of Lodz and many others from Estonia, Latvia, Georgia, Belarus and Russia, and Finland, and of course in Sweden: Nobel, Damm, Hagelin, Hakker.
With the intelligence system of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and of the Tsarist Russia fully used by the Jozef Pilsudski,
in order to rebuild Polish state.
Took over the structure in Lodz, Krakow, St. Petersburg, in Belarus and Moscow.
Inesse Armand and Anna Konstantynowicz were planted to Lenin, not counting other Armands.

Pilsudski always spoke he has got a few or a dozen years to build and re-build the independent Polish state, because then Russia raise with knees.
It was surely Stalin who idolized the Russian imperial state. However, it succeeded smash Russia in the 1917 - 1922 and rebuild Poland in 1918.


The eldest Pole among above military figures was general Jan Jacyna.

Jan (John) Jacyna born 15 December 1864, died on 10, December 1930 in Warsaw. He was the son of Alexander and Natalia nee Hejnarowicz. "In 1878, he graduated from high school in St. Petersburg, and the College of Engineering at Kronstadt and the St. Petersburg Military Academy of Artillery". Major-General in 1911. 1917 was an vice-president of the Association of Military Poles and president and treasurer of the Supreme Polish Military Committee in St. Petersburg. 1921 - 1922 adjutant general of the Head of State. Jacyna was married to Wiktoria Ossowiecki, with whom he had a son, Alexander b. 1894.

He served in a
"
Main technical committee"
of the Navy Ministry in St Petersburg since 1891;
at a later date he acted, 
1901 - 1917

as member on "
the board of directors of government armouries" of the Navy Ministry (next War and Navy  Ministry) in Petersburg.
Since then he was near to problems of war industry in Russia, especially during  -
1914 / 1917 - the First world war; then (since 1915)

he co-operated with "
Military - industrial committee" composite of war industry's representatives and he ran up against suggestions of aeroplanes deliveries and aerial inventions
(
confer Jan Jacyna memoirs, vol. 1, p. 71);

he was the most known general in all Polish environments of St Petersburg at the beginning of the 20th  cent., amidst military and industrial activists
, social workers after the Bolshevik revolution, and also among the Polish active politicians in Russian parliament  since 1905/06; he was near to the imperial Russian court; general Jan Jacyna evaluated figure of Wladymir Boncz Brujewicz wholy negative when paid a  call on Lenin at the end of January 1918;  

(general Jan Jacyna kept in touch with  e.g.

Michal Szydlowski and Karol Jaroszynski = Karol Yaroshinsky, who managed with a big loans especially  during  the First world war. On Jaroszynski see
Shay McNeal, "The Plots to Rescue the Tsar", ed. London 2001  

[Karol Yaroshinsky / Karol Jaroszynski "(...) died in near poverty in 1928. His last years were spent in pain as a result of a poison needle having been jabbed into him at the opera in Paris at almost the same time as Sidney Reilly disappeared in the Soviet Union
(
in the 1920s). (...) Before the Revolution, he had fallen in love with one of the Tsar's daughters (...). Near to Krivoshein - the man who brought Yaroshinsky into the Allied banking scheme. (...) Yaroshinsky was the financial benefactor to the Romanov family during the last days of their captivity in Tobolsk and Ekaterinburg in 1918. The man was involved with Henry Armitstead and Jonas Lied, who had been paid through the British Secret Service for activities in Northern Russia
(
1918)."]
).

The Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company co-operated with the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank.

According to V. S. Solomko at http://www.encspb.ru/ this St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank was a joint-stock commercial bank, opened in 1869, cooperating especially closely with the

St. Petersburg International Bank

by taking part "in the military industrial group to build submarines for the Baltic Navy. The group included Lessner's Plant and Nobel's Plant in St. Petersburg, which played a leading role in the group, as well as Fenix, Atlas, and Gatchinsky Ironworks".

Guchkov Alexander Ivanovich b. 1862, political and public figure, banker and businessman, was Director of Moscow Discount Bank. In 1907 and 1915, he was elected Member of State Assembly representing Industry and Trade, heading a Defence Commission 1907-10.
In St Petersburg, he was a member of St Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank's board.
From 1915, he was Chairman of the Central Military-Industrial Committee and a member of the Special Meeting for defence.
At the end of 1916, he designed plans for dynastic coup, acc. to A. G. Kalmykov and http://www.encspb.ru.

The 'Duflon...' Board of Directors in St. Petersburg, Apothecary island, Lopukhinsky Street, No 8: Evgeny / Evgenij Evgienievich Armand - Chairman, Nikolai Danilovich Liesienko who 1906 - 1914 represented the interests of the company in St. Petersburg, L. F. Duflon who lived since 1908 in Switzerland, Alexander E. Armand, Sergei Gernet son of Pavel and Emil I. Ramseyer - Swiss citizen, the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank, chairman of the Board of the 'Atlas' Society in St. Petersburg; his brother Ramseyer Y. I., Swiss citizen was also the board member of the St. Petersburg Discount and Loan Bank and Director of the Company 'Sormovo'.
On the Рамзай surname:
we are looking for who is Riemsnyder / Reimsnyder / Reemsnyder / Reamsnyder or Ramseyer / Рамзай К. А. / Ramsay K. A. - a family from Estonia and St. Petersburg
.

Lenin's funds in Russia and the German military intelligence service - part 2: Alexander = Helphand vel Parvus (from Berezyna / Berezino) and also Hanecki and Mecheslav Yulevich Kozlovsky (Mieczyslaw Kozlowski son of Julian, a Bolshevik attorney, died in 1927, was described as the chief recipient of the German money that was transferred from Berlin through the Diskonto-Gesellschaft to the Stockholm Nya Banken and thence to the Siberian Bank in Petrograd) had been working for Parvus, Sklarz in Berlin, Karinsky, Bonch-Bruyevich, Lenin, Radek, and Vorovsky; Eugenia Mavrikievna Sumenson (Eugenia daughter of Maurycy, a woman relative of Hanecki), Svenson vel Hans Steinwachs, Alexinsky.


Curiously enough:

New Russian military intelligence under different names operated from October 21, 1918. At this time the Red Army was already a huge and powerful body but after October, 1917, Bolsheviks faced with many difficulties, including the collapse of the army. Therefore, reorganizing the old army, they left in the War Department that is the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs - General Directorate of the General Staff (GUGSH) and this body consisted the 2nd Division of the General Quartermaster in December 1917, which was the central organ of intelligence and counterintelligence services of the armed forces of Russia. So by the end of 1918, Soviet military intelligence in full was as the legal successor of the pre-revolutionary military intelligence. GUGSH headed General V. V. Marushevsky (Polish?) who refused to cooperate with the new government. 

Then Quartermaster-General Nikolai Mikhailovich Potapov was new chief of the military intelligence (in 1915-1917, Potapov was the Main Director of the General Staff at the office of General Quartermaster. However, according to some reports, he - from July 1917 - collaborated with the military organization of the Petersburg bolshevik Committee. In November, 1917 to May 1918, Potapov served as Chief of Staff, and acting as assistant manager of the Military Department; in June 1918, he became a member of the Supreme Military Council, and from July 1919 Chairman of the Military Legislative Council). 

Colonel Yudin was the bolshevik Commissar and Peter F. Ryabikov, after the coup, was had remained in the office because the Bolsheviks did not touch the military intelligence, as opposed to counter-military intelligence, which they immediately dispersed, as it was involved in the campaign of charges the Bolsheviks was spying for Germany in the summer of 1917. Crisis of foreign intelligence commenced with the end of December 1917: colonel Andrey Stanislavsky (Polish?) entered the service for the French intelligence, and intelligence reports from the allies - the French military mission in Moscow - came to the end in July 1918. In February 1918, the country faced with bloody civil war, and in March 1918 the Soviet government established the Supreme Military Council for the organization of the armed forces of Red Army with a military leader, former tsarist general M. D. Bonch-Bruevich and two political commissars Shutko and P. Proshyan. On March 17, 1918, the Supreme Military Council included: a military leader, his assistant, Quartermaster-General with several assistants, and intelligence chiefs, a field inspector of artillery, and others; on March 19, 1918: Chairman - People's Commissar for Military Affairs Leon Trotsky, the Council members and above named General N. Potapov. In June, 1918 the Supreme Military Council was reorganized and included: a military leader Bonch - Bruevich, chief of staff and staff occupied by former officers, the deputy of the military leader appointed a former Major General of General Staff Alexander Alexandrovich Samoylo, an assistant Chief of Operations of the Supreme Military Council was Colonel Alexander Kovalevsky (Polish? April - May 1918). Kovalevsky, soon will move to the South, where he headed the mobilization management of the North Caucasus Military District; here he with General Nosovich (Polish?) were arrested by Stalin, but after Nosovich was fleeing to the 'white', Kovalevsky was again arrested and shoted.

Wladymir i.e. Vladimir Bonch - Bruevich / В. Д. Бонч-Бруевич was publisher and one of Lenin's closet associates. Curiosity! Lenin signed certificate for V. Bonch-Bruevich on July 7, 1920 because of a month's holiday and travels to Kulgaevka / Kulgajewka village in the Klimovichi county, Moghilev / Mogilev province, when the Red Army went on the general offensive - begun on July 4, 1920 - against Poland. Wladymir i.e. Vladimir Bonch - Bruevich had got a cabin in autonomous Finland and Lenin had hiding place there in period July - October 10th, 1917 [Old Style] i.e. to 23rd October; Vladimir Bruevich was administration manager at the Council of People's Commissars from November 1917; cf. F. Antoni Ossendowski, "Shadow of the bleak East", edition of 1919 and 1921, p. 57 - 58: he was known to sphere of Petersburg high society, Polish "old nobleman", secret chieftain of  socialists; he concealed of Trocki - Bronstein in Petersburg A.D. 1905 and also directed Chrustalow - Nosar or Chrustalov - Nosari in 1905.

The second brother, older - general Michail (III) Boncz Brujewicz / Bonch - Bruevich either Bonch - Bruyevich Mikhail Dmitriyevich or Michal Bonc - Bruevic, see - if you read Russian - here:  http://history.tuad.nsk.ru/index.html (b. 1870 - died 1956; son of Dmitry who stayed in Moscow) who was tsarist general. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich from 1892 to 1895 served as an officer with the Lithuanian Guards Regiment at Warsaw. He was in command of the 176th Perevolochensky Regiment, based at Chernigov in 1914 and had known Russian aviator Pyotr Nesterov. The chief of staff and deputy commander of the Russian Northern Front and commander of the Northern Front from 29 August 1917 to 9 September 1917. September 1917 (?) a chief of the Russian military counterintelligence.
Above inf. acc. to http://www.x-libri.ru/elib/ by Arsen Martirosyan Benikovich, 'Conspiracy marshals. British intelligence against the Soviet Union'.
'Germane-norden' and 'Balticum' were extremely influential in Germany, and in Russia - representatives of the ancient aristocratic families of the number pro-German Ostsee (Baltic) Barons played a crucial role in large-scale after February and October 1917 Revolutions in Russia, close to the head of the Russian military counterintelligence Gen. M. Bonch-Bruevich (brother of Lenin's closest aide). Different source: On September 9, 1917, Бонч-Бруевич / Bonch-Bruevich was replaced as commander by Gen. V. A. Cheremisov / В. А. Черемисов and appointed to the Supreme Commander. Arriving at the General Headquarters in Mogilev, Bonch-Bruevich established contact with the Mogilev Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies and 27 September 1917 was co-opted into its executive committee in Mogilev by Dnieper river. In early October 1917, Bonch-Bruevich rejected the appointment of Governor-General of the Southwestern Region in Kiev and Omsk and took over as head of the Mogilev garrison.
But acc. to Soviet Security and Intelligence Organizations, 1917-1990: A Biographical..., by Michael Parrish, we read that M. D. Bonch-Bruevich was a General in Tsarist Counterintelligence.
Next M. D. Bonch-Bruevich was chief of staff of the Supreme Commander after November 1917
. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the military director of the Supreme Military Council and chief of general field staff of the Red Army (field staff of the Revolutionary Military Council) in 1918 - 1919.

Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the specialist in take a pictures from airplanes and organized the first technical office of aerial photograph in 1925; he wrote "The aerial photograph" in 1931 and similar book in 1934 (and  Grigorij - his son Mikolaj (2nd) b. 1896 was general of the Soviet air force).


The family von Pilar Pilchau from Pärnu and south-western foreland of Tallinn, played a major role in the political activities of Estonia in the nineteenth century, combining both stories Polish struggle for independence with history of Estonia.


Among relatives and next of kins of our Konstantynowicz 'Mscislau' branch appeared the Zarako Zarakowski family in the second half of 19th cent. and in the 20th cent.; 

the Spychalski family from Lodz was related to kinsmen of our lineage at the turn of the 20th century and in the middle of the 20th cent.; 

the Jaroszewicz family had connection to our line in the middle of the 20th cent. (the Jaroszewicz house derived from the Vicebsk province and had Prus the 1st arms, they possessed here the Ostupiszcze estate from Gruzewski family since 1710 to the end of the 18th cent.; Jerzy Piotr Jaroszewicz with Kwaczynski nickname was an officer here in 1713 - 1714 and somebody here in 1716; related to Kownacki, Rymaczewski and Kopakowski according to Jan Ciechanowicz, vol. 3; among others several of the Jaroszewiczs died in Old Bychow in 1655; priest Manuel Jaroszewicz in Sluck A.D. 1666, Roman Jaroszewicz in Mahileu in 1682, and Jan Jaroszewicz in Vilna 1720 - 1722, another Jan Jaroszewicz and also his son Jan lived in Szaule near by Mejszagola in 1753, Ludwik Jaroszewicz lived in the Mscislau province in 1764; the Jaroszewiczs were related to Jankowski, Olszewski and Chodasiewicz families in the Dzisna district and also they served Radzivill family in the Minsk government at the turn of the 20th cent.; Dmitrij Jaroszewicz son of Konstantin, Russian admiral)

Constantinovich / Konstantinovitz / Constantinowitz family in Russia, 18th and 19th cent. to the November Revolution 1917

the Swierczewski family was near socially associated with us, for instance in the sixtieth of the 20th century. 

Some Generals, Prime Minister, the Head of State and one marshal of the communistic Poland - creators of the Soviet   transitory administration 1943 / 1990 - derived from these families. Relatives of our Konstantynowicz branch kept in touch  with  Jozef  Pilsudski, Michal Zymierski and Wladyslaw Sikorski at the moment in the first half of the 20th century - marshals  and  General with different political views. 

It wonder that three Marshals and General - military prosecutor died with natural death but three remaining Generals died with tragic death.

The Jaroszewicz marriage was murdered by former Secret Service and the Soviet KGB officers, acc. to http://nowahistoria.interia.pl/historia-na-fotografii/. Jaroszewicz was supposed to suggest that Charles / Karol Swierczewski 'Walter' betrayed him in 1947, the secret disclosed by the Soviet General, concerning the replacement of the Polish communist leaders by Soviet agents-look-alikes.

About a backstage of murder of the Jaroszewicz couple writes in book 'Famous couples PRL', Sławomir Koper, ed. by 'Red and Black', at website http://wiadomosci.wp.pl/ on 11 February 2014. "...Jaroszewicz apparently had financial problems, but saved a sell-numismatists, which Peter has accumulated during his long career. ... journalist Bohdan Roliński published two interviews with former Prime Minister. ... indicated that Jaroszewicz spoke with Karol Świerczewski, who told him that the Russians used the 'method of matrioszka', of substituting Polish communist by Soviet agents - look-alikes. Jaroszewicz and Świerczewski have identified several 'matrioszka', including Jozef Swiatlo and Boleslaw Bierut. Jaroszewicz suggested that the death of Świerczewski could be related to this knowledge. ... Even more sensational hypothesis has a journalist of the weekly Angora, Leszek Szymowski, who stated that the reason for the murder was the Jaroszewicz archive, which contained a copy of the documents incriminating Wojciech Jaruzelski, Czeslaw Kiszczak and other politicians 80s. This crime was part of a broader plan to eliminate all that could stopped the conduct of political transformation, directed by generals Kiszczak and Jaruzelski. Weekly Wprost published information suggesting that the death of Jaroszewicz has connected with the secret wartime archives of the Reich Security Office, which at the end of World War II went to the baroque palace in Radomierzyce near Zgorzelec. ... among others Gestapo informers lists, documents relating to French collaboration with the Third Reich ... In 1945, Colonel Piotr Jaroszewicz and several other officers had some explosive packages of securities before the archives were transferred to the USSR. ... Tadeusz Steć was killed in his own home at the hands of unknown assailants just a few months after Peter. Before his death, he was tortured... Jerzy Fonkowicz was assassinated in 1997. In 2007, the theory that the murder was related to the Jaroszewicz Nazi archive has placed the Criminal Intelligence Bureau of the Police Headquarters (in Poland). ... ignored the testimony of the witness (who said he saw one woman and two men the morning on September 1 came out of the house). At the end of 2005, analysts Archive X (section dealing with the explanation of complex criminal cases) found that from the register of the murder of Jaroszewicz lost key evidence, that is, the three bags with traces of unidentified fingerprints. The prints were found at the glasses of Jaroszewicz and cabinet doors located in his office... Biography of Jaroszewicz overgrown in many myths. The future prime minister was born in 1909 in Nieśwież ... ... In August 1943 he was still Private, but after several months already a colonel, and after a further eight (after the war) general! Even Napoleon Bonaparte promoted from lieutenant to general took a little more time...".

Generals of communistic People Polish Army: Karol Swierczewski, Piotr Jaroszewicz and Marian Spychalski (later on the Marshal) in the fourties of the 20th century were deputies of Michal Zymierski - Marshal and communistic Minister of Defense. The genealogy of my Mscislau "inlet" of the Konstantynowicz ancestry point out long and strong connections with the Imperial Russian Army and Russian military intelligence since the seventies of the nineteenth century  and after  when they served in tsarist Georgia / Sakartvelo 
but especial at the turn of the 20th century. It was the tsarist military technology intelligence at the beginning of the 20th century.  

This connections fade away probably at the end of the 20th century?


The historical and genealogical details.


The family von Pilar Pilchau from Pärnu and south-western foreland of Tallinn, played a major role in the political activities of Estonia in the nineteenth century, combining both stories Polish struggle for independence with history of Estonia.

Below I present abbreviation of the von Pilchau Pilar genealogy.

Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau, a Baltic German politician, regent, the owner of the Audern, his birthplace after his father's death in 1870, and Sauga. Audru / Audern, 8 to 10 km north-west-north of Parnu city, is a small borough. Sauga / Sauck, 6 km north of Parnu core, in Pärnu County, southwestern Estonia. Adolf (Alf) Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau died June 17, 1925 in Pernau (Pärnu), Pärnumaa, Estland. Baron Adolf Konstantin Jakob Pilar von Pilchau b. 1851, nickname Alf, b. in Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa. His wife Julie Olga Eugenie von der Pahlen born in Pleskau or Pskow / Pihkva in 1865, her mother Helene Charlotte Louise von der Pahlen nee von Toll 1833 - 1910, and her grandmother Olga Karoline Olga von Toll nee von Strandman 1796 - 1861, her brother Karl Gustav von Strandmann 1787 - 1855, and her sister Wilhelmine Charlotte von Ungern-Sternberg nee von Strandmann 1785 - 1813.

The father of Adolf Pilar von Pilchau was Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, Baron, born and died in Audru / Audern, 1814 - 1870. Grandfather Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814, who has brothers:
1. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830; his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.
2. Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 in Jöggis / Jőgisoo, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland, and
3. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1761 - 1819 in Reval / Tallinn. They has stepfather Gotthard Johann II Zoege Reichsgraf von Manteuffel 1717 - 1753, acc. to Peter Trefilov and Mikael Lillieström (under copyright by geni.com).

Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. 1767 in Kirna, Türi vald, Järvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in Jöggis (Jőgisuu). He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia. Jőgisoo (Jőgisuu) ca 3 km south-west of Kullamaa, south-east-east of Haapsalu, Läänemaa county.

On the Gruenewaldt / Grünewaldt family:
Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina. She was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano.
She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Charlotte Julie Pila von Pilchau; Ada Pilar von Pilchau (Helene Bertha Johanna Adele von Gruenewaldt 1853-1889); Theodor Gustav Otto Peter Pilar von Pilchau; and Hilda Pilar von Pilchau.
We have got different inf.: Paulina Cecilia Mariano Julia Elizabeth 1847-1896, nee Pilchau von Pilar, the wife of Rafael Mariano from Neapol. And also - Paulina Julia Elisabeth von Pilar Pilchau or Cecilia Paulina Julia Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau (1847-1896), was married to the professor Mariano.
Relatives: Adolph (ALF), Jacob Constantin von Pilar Pilchau (1851 - 1925 in Pärnu, Baron of Livonia, and the marshal of the district magistrate in Parnu); and Helene Bertha Johanna Adele Gruenewaldt or Adele Gruenewaldt (1853-1889, nee Pilchau von Pilar, married Walther Gruenewaldt; she died in 1889 in Cannes; her husband Walter Johann Georg Konstantin von Grünewaldt was born 1843 in Hapsal /Haapsalu; his family owned Koik (Koigi) in Järvamaa: father Alexander Georg von Grünewaldt b. 1805 in Koik; his grandfather Johann Georg von Grünewaldt b. 1763 in Koik (Koigi), Järvamaa; great-grandfather Johann Adam von Grünewaldt died 1792 in Koik / Koigi). Karl Jakob Rudolf von Gernet 1826 died April 20, 1912 in Hapsal / Haapsalu, Estonia. His brother: Magnus Friedrich von Gernet 1824 died October 22, 1909 in Reval / Tallinn, Estonia - and his son:
Rudolf Jakob von Gernet was born 1864 and died in 1944. Rudolf Jakob von Gernet 1864 - 1944, and his mother Katharina Kitty Helene Amelie von Gernet (nee von Gruenewaldt / Grünewaldt; her father Johann / Iwan Christoph Engelbrecht von Grünewaldt, from Hukas and Koik = Koigi; her grandfather - above named - Johann Georg von Grünewaldt b. 1763 in Koik (Koigi), Järvamaa; her great-grandfather Johann Adam von Grünewaldt b. 1719, landlord of Koigi) 1833 - 1909, near by the Pilchau Pilar family.
Richard Adolf von Gernet of 1863, known as Adolf, or Adolph. He was born on 14 April 1863 in Sellenkull / Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu - 27 km, and south-west of Lehola. He was a graduate of the cathedral school / 'Domschule zu Reval' (a German-language institution, but it was closed in 1893) 1876 - 1881, and Dorpat in 1881-1886. He was a noted metallurgist after 'M. Inst. M.M.' that is the 'Institute of Mining and Metallurgy'. Adolf von Gernet worked in 'Privatlaboratoriums von Dr. Werner Siemans' in Berlin by Erik Thomson, where he was made ​​head of this laboratory of Werner von Siemens. In 1889 he built a gold wash in Yekaterinburg in the Urals. In 1892 he was representative of the company in America. Around 1895 he followed his brother Rudolf to South Africa where he was a Director of the 'Central Rand Gold Mine Ore Reduction Works'. He patented a process for extracting copper, which became known as Siemens-Halske electric precipitation process later. He presented a paper before the 'Society of Chemists and Metallurgists' in Johannesburg on electrical precipitation; von Gernet, representing the firm of Siemens & Halske, of Berlin, introduced the process in the Transvaal, and for several years it was extensively used. In the 1890s he studied with John Hays Hammond off the coast of Cape Town, the gold content in the sea water ('investigations off the coast of South Africa, not far from Capte Town, to determine the gold content of sea water in that place'). There was a 'Von Gernet Copper Company', but it was liquidated in October 1905. In 1898 he became the first Russian Vice Consul in Johannesburg. In 1901, he traveled through Peru and Bolivia. Later he was in Brussels. Acc. to me he back to Estonia / Russia 1906 ? - to 1917 ? He died on January 4, 1942 in Dingolfing, Bavaria. Adolph von Gernet married in 1898 Leonilla princess of Mestscherski with whom he had a daughter, Alexandra von Reitzenstein (1900-1965).
Above Rudolf Jakob von Gernet 1864, as Rudolf. He was born on 30 December 1864 in Sellenkull, Poenal, Laanemaa, (Sellenkull = Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu - 27 km and south-west of Lehola) Estonia. A doctor, who was latterly appointed by the Boer authorities to superintend the hospital, by James Francis Harry St. Clair-Erskine Rosslyn.
Rudolf Jakob von Gernet, migrated to South Africa in the late nineteen nineties together with his wife Olga Antoinette Vera von Dehn.

We back now to the first wife of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was (by geni.com) Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern, death on December 17, 1896 in Neapol / Neapel. Her family: father Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern and mother Berta Johanna Carolina Freiin Pilar von Pilchau. She was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau; Johanna Sophie Konstanze Keyserling; Ada; Pauline Julie Elisabeth; Theodor Gustav Otto Peter; Hilda Pilar.
Above Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, of Audern / Audru, Pärnumaa, born 1814, d. 1870 in Audern close to Pärnu. He was son of Jakob Johann Pilar Pilchau and Juliane Elisabeth Vietinghoff; and he was brother of Pauline Luise Pilar von Pilchau. Burial in Pärnu. Born 1774, d. 1814. Grandfather: Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.

Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830 / von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig - his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.

Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830 in 1803 has been married to Anna Fyodorovna von Hesse / Johanna Agnetha b. 1779, had three sons and two daughters: Alexander (1804 - 1866), Lieutenant-Captain of the Guards; Nicholas (1815 - 1887) and George (1819 - 1882); Elizabeth 1808, Elena 1811. Brothers of Yegor Maksimovic Pilar:
1. Major Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 (1769?),
2. Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774,
3. Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.

Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871, that was Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802, his sister Sophia; his father was born in 1769 - Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida, Vilna province in Poland, after Major of the Russian army. His son Stanisław Count Pilar von Pilchau owner of Mickuny close to Nowa Wilejka, polonised, but from the Baltic German from Estland and Latvia, married to Zofia Januszewska / Zofia Januszewski.
She came from Ignacy Januszewski b. 1804 and Kazimiera born 1806, she died on 28 Jan 1898, Wilno; her son Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, born 1860, married 1890 to Helena Joanna Krzywiec, he died on 12 Oct. 1939 in Mickuny, next of kin of Feliks Dzierżyński; Helena Joanna Krzywiec born 1864, died on 8 Aug. 1955 in Mickuny; her son Roman Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1894, d. 1937.

Jacek Gilewicz from Marseille - grandson of Justin Dzerzhinsky / Justyn Dzierżyński, a cousin of Felix Dzierzynski, the adoptee by his parents. He has an archive of the sister of Felix - Aldona Dzierzynska, suddenly three pages of the manuscript; he was convinced that Stalin was poisoned Felix. He has cousin in Radom, Mrs. Wanda from Dzierżyński, died in 2011, owned a memorabilia of sister of Felix, Aldona, including a manuscript of 1909, photocopies of letters; Felix began to write to his sister when he went to high school of Vilnius, the last letter he sent to Aldona in 1919. In Moscow is living grandson of Felix - Felix Dzerzhinsky Janowicz / Feliks Janowicz Dzierżyński; old man, a professor at Moscow University. We remember that in 1923, Soviet intelligence resident living in Warsaw, Mieczyslaw Łoganowski had a group of young communists and came up with the idea that they had to go to Sulejowek, to pay homage to Pilsudski and then throw a bomb or shoot him. Łoganowski sent a plan of attack to Moscow. Felix categorically forbade him to implementation because of Anthony Bulhak Dzerzhinsky married a niece of Pilsudski. They have for some time lived with Pilsudski in Sulejówek. It was a very tragic situation. His brother Stanislaus Dzierzynski in 1917, was stabbed to death in their family mansion. Probably they were some deserters. Escaped from the front, returned to Russia, spent the night in the mansion. Felix had command track down the group. They have to be tracked and shot. From a letter to his sister Aldona Bulhak - Kojałłowicz (April 15, 1919): 'I am sending you things from Dzierżynow. Very solid gold jewelry was confiscated because of our rights... I know that this confiscation touches you, but I could not otherwise - that is the law of gold'. We have data of Jan Bułhak b. 1871 in Nowa Wilejka / New Wilejka, son of Mikolaj Bułhak and Antonina Zamkowicz.

Александр Карл Пилар фон Пильхау born 1802, in Wilno / Вильнюс, was married to Ионна Станиславовна Кульвинска / Joanna nee Kulwinska daughter of Stanislaw Kulwinski. His mother
Maria Cecylia von Bécu / Мария Цецилия фон Бекю and father Магнус or Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау born 1768. His grandfather Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау born 1734, married 1756 in Tallinn / Ревель, to Катарина Хелена фон Таузас. Place of living: Халлик and Йоггис; Hagar / Hallik in Tamsalu, Estonia, county of Laane-Viru, south-west of Rakvere - eastern Eesti. Augustas Ludvikas Becu / August Ludwik Becu / August Ludwik Bécu b. 1771 in Grodno, his father - Jan Ludwik Bécu.
August Ludwik Bécu owner of Mickuny, married ca 1800 to von Pilar Pilchau 1770-1816
(we are looking for! Хелена Вильгельмина Пилар фон Пильхау born 1757 and died 1783, her father Магнус Вильгельм Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1734 d. 1801; her brothers and sisters: 1756 in Халлик, born Иоганна София Пилар фон Пильхау, Хелена Вильгельмина Пилар фон Пильхау, Вильгельм Фридрих Пилар фон Пильхау 1761, София Элизабет Пилар фон Пильхау 1762, Анна Доротея Пилар фон Пильхау 1762, in Халлик, Oтто Густав Пилар фон Пильхау born 1763, Юлиана Шарлотта Пилар фон Пильхау b. 1764, in Халлик, Мария Луиза Пилар фон Пильхау Крутов b. 1766, Георг Людвиг or Егор Максимович Пилар фон Пильхау born on 19 март 1767, Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау 1768, Катарина Элизабет Пилар фон Пильхау 1769, Анна София Пилар фон Пильхау 1771, Иоганна Кристина Пилар фон Пильхау 1772, Якоб Иоганн Пилар фон Пильхау 1774, Рейнгольд Адольф Пилар фон Пильхау 1775, Рейнгольд Вольдемар Пилар фон Пильхау 1777, Ульрика Генриетта Пилар фон Пильхау 1780, Каролина Амалия Пилар фон Пильхау 1780),

and he has two daughters: Aleksandra Mianowski nee Becu 1804-1832, closest friend of Juliusz Słowacki, and Hersylia Januszewski 1808-1872.
Teofil Januszewski, was brother of Salomea - mother of poet Juliusz Słowacki.

August Ludwik Bécu in August 1818 married second time to Salomea Słowacki,
when Juliusz Slowacki aged 8. August Ludwik Becu was sent in 1803 - 1804 from (Russia) the Vilna University to Scotland (UK).
Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830:
his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801.

Brothers of Yegor Maksimovic Pilar:

Major Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Maxim / Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau, b. 08.06.1768 or 1769
(his wife was Maria Becu
with her children: Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and a son was born in Wilno / Вильнюс, Alexandr / Alexander Karl /
Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802),
Engineer Major Jacob Maksimovic / Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1774, and
Captain Vladimir Maksimovic / Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau b. 1777.
Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау born on 8 June 1768 and his cousins and closest next of kin:

Бокельберг or Фокельберг / Vokelberg, Фридрих фон Руктешель in Йоггис; Шталь фон Гольштейн / Holstein;

фон Людер / Luder died 1857;

Екатерина Николаевна Кудашева / Kudashev, b. 1811; Дунина / Dunin, b. 1799; 1798 m. to Иоганн Густав Юст / Iust; 1766 born in Халлик, Иван Крутов / Krutov / Krutow; Иоганна Агнета Гессе / Hesse b. 1779;

Мария Цецилия фон Бекю / Becu (Maria Becu was married Магнус Максимилиан Фабиан Пилар фон Пильхау / Magnus Maksymilian Fabian Pilar Pilchau b. 1768; her children: Zofia / София Пилар фон Пильхау and in Wilno / Вильнюс, was born Alexandr / Alexander Karl / Aleksander Karol Pilchau Pilar, b. 1802);

Katarina Elizabiet Pilar von Pilchau / Катарина Элизабет Пилар фон Пильхау born 1769, d. 1835, in 1798 married to Johann Ditrich B. von Althann / Althan or Altham / Иоганн Дитрих Бенджамин Альтхан;
Сукни (Suckni) / Sukni d. 1838;

Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau / Katarina Elizabiet Pilar von Pilchau, b. 1769 in Hallik, Estonia, d. 1835; daughter of
Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas;
she was wife of Johan Diedrich Benjamin Althan / Althann; and she was mother of Johan Heinrich Althan; Georg Benjamin von Althann and Emilie Helene Althan; her family:
Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau; Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau; Jakob Johann Baron, and Reinhold Woldemar; Margarethe Elisabeth Gfin. Manteuffel; and Gotthard Johann III Reichsgraf Zoege von Manteuffel.
Inf. by Elle Kiiker. Above mentioned
Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died 1801 in Jöggis / Jőgisuu; he was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia; Garde-Lt., Major of the Polish Army.
Inf. by Peter Trefilov. Above named Johan Diedrich Benjamin Althan: b. ca 1760 ? Above Georg Benjamin von Althann, b. 1803 d. 1856, husband of Sophie Cecilie von Hirsch and Olga Helena Kornrumpf; father of Elisabeth Sophie von Althann; Georg Alexander, Anna Adelheid, Ernst Moritz, and Adolph Richard. He was attorney, by: Elle Kiiker. Above Dr. Georg Alexander von Althann b. 1839 in
Pernau (Pärnu), Estland;
died 1898 in Aachen; son of Georg Benjamin von Althann and Sophie Cecilie von Hirsch; a medical practitioner, 'Korporatsiooni Livonia'. Above Elisabeth Sophie von Althann b. 1837 in Pernau (Pärnu).

фон Рамм / von Ramm, b. 1779;

фон Мореншильдт b. 1811; Наталья Николаевна Карпова / Karlow; Михайловна Езерская / Jezierski, died 1919;

фон Штааль b. 1843; Васильевна Чулкова b. 1855; Домудовская / Домудовски; фон Эссен / Essen b. 1847; Раиса Митрофановна Филиппова / Filippow d. after 1932; Беренд фон Мореншильдт d. 1861; Симсен; 1801 Франц Герман Экбаум; 1801 Фридрих фон Руктешель.

Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau / Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau born in 1841 and died on January 11, 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia came from Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau b. 1734.
Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in Санкт-Петербург / St Petersburg, d. 1922; daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau.
Evdokya Dmitrievna Horvath was born in St Petersburg in 1902, and married first in 1921 to Cecil Lewis, second time to Cedric Williams; she was the daughter of the military engineer General Dmitri Horvath, the second of six children of General Horvath and his wife Camilla Benois. Dmitri Horvath was the great-great-grandson of Marshal Mikhail Kutusov, and was connected to the Baltic aristocracy through his mother, Baroness
Maria Pilar von Pilchau. Camilla Benois,
a member of a distinguished family of artists, sculptors, architects and musicians, was herself a talented artist and sang and played the piano. Acc. to (Copyright in 2005) The Independent.

Above Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein, and was brother of Ottilie Gustava von Lüder, Hermann Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Gustav Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Georg Pilar von Pilchau, acc. to: Henno Linn, Peter Trefilov, Marc Peter Bauer and Anita Kuzmina.
Above Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.
Above
Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734, was father of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau,
Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau,
Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau; was brother of Dorothea Charlotta Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau. Acc. to Peter Trefilov and Bernard von Schulmann.
Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau 1832 - 1894, his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau b. 1803 in Padis. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas.

Above
Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814,
has brothers:

1. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830
(Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830 / von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, his father was retired major of the Polish army -
Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801).
Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilchau (1734-1801), landlord of Hallik north - east of Tallinn or rather south-west of Rakvere, Lehtse south-west of Rakvere, Meremőisa close to Keila-Joa, Major (1756), served for the Polish army as Major in 1757.

2. Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 in Jöggis / Jőgisoo, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland, and

3. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1761 - 1819 in Reval / Tallinn, acc. to Peter Trefilov and Mikael Lillieström (under copyright by geni.com).

Zofia Januszewski / Zofija Pilar von Pilchau
died January 28, 1898 - she was sister of Januszewski Dzerzhinsky Helena, mother of Felix Dzerzhinsky, who died in 1896. Alexander von Pilar Pilchau, Judge of the district of Vilnius, died in 1871 - he was great-grandfather of Roman Pilar! Aleksander Pilar von Pilchau, d. 1871, that was Carl Alexander Pilar von Pilchau, born 10.2.1802, his sister Sophia; his father was born in 1769 - Magnus Fabian Pilar von Pilchau - in Lida.

Mickiewicze Wielkie: in 1870 situated in the Minsk Governorate, the Slutsk district, volost Kleck, but in 1923 in the Poland, Province Nowogródek, the district of Nieswiez. Mickiewicze situated on way from Niasviz / Nieswiez to Klieck / Kleck, close to Asmolawa. It was the Витгенштейн family estate as Быховщизна in 1870 (Wittgenstein - Byhovschizna / Bykowszczyzna).
P. L. Wittgenstein to E. K. Pilyavskaya / E. Pilawska in 1886-1887. In 1887, Peter / P. L. Wittgenstein died, the son Lev Petrovich Wittgenstein; Peter L. Wittgenstein b. 1831, Vilna Province, Lieutenant-General, a military agent in France, the Russian-Turkish war, one of the richest landowners of the Russian Empire. Wankowicz family / the Vankovichs were living in the Slutsk county, lived near Kleck, Byhovschinka / Byhovschizna / Byhovschina and Ostreika / Astrejka in the Bobruisk (?) county, lived in the Borovische village in the district of Hlusk / Glussk. This Byhovschizna was in the Slutsk County. It was into the property of the Prince D. Radziwill, of Nesvizh. Above Lew / Prince Lev Wittgenstein / Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn b. June 7, 1799, the eldest son of Field Marshal Count Peter Xristianovich Wittgenstein / Piotr Christianovich Wittgenstein and Antoinette Stanislavovna Snarskii / Antuanetta Snarski / Antuaneta Snarska. He was married twice:
1. 1828 to Princess Stefania nee Radziwill, daughter of above Dominik Radziwill and Theophile Morawska; with two children:
Maria or Antoinette Carolina - Stefania, and above Peter / Peter Dominic Ludwig 1832-1887, Adjutant General, Lieutenant General.
2. Princess Leonilla Baryatinskaya Ivanovna.
Stefania Wittgenstein b. Paris 1809, d. 1832, nee Radziwill - father Dominik Radziwill b. 1786, d. 1813; mother Teofila Morawska. Stefania was owner about 12000 km˛ that is 1 mln ha in Belarus (Miezonka...) and Lithuania. Her children: Piotr Wittgenstein b. 1831 and Maria b. 1829 with husband Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst. Her husband from 1828 Ludwik Adolf  F. Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn (Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn) born 8 June 1799 in Kowno, He was first son of Ludwik Adolf Piotr / Pjotr Christianovich zu Sayn und Wittgenstein / Пётр Христианович Витгенштейн, who was born 1769 in Pierejaslawl Zalesskij either Нежин / Negine or Переяславл, and died 11 June 1843 in Lwiw / Lwow.
Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze
(Witold Bulhak / Bułhak owner of Mickiewicze Wielkie in the Kleck district. After death of dad and uncles he taken more Bułhak properties, with library in Dobośnia palace. Witold Bułhak that is Józef Witold Bułhak, owner of Czehrynka / Czyhirinka [1834], close to Niemki, Kolbowo, south of Czeczewiczy, near by Drut' river, west-south-west of Stary Byhow).
His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor; parents of Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789: mother Franciszka Lowicki and father Jerzy Onufry Bulhak, b. 1749.
Florian Stanislaw Bulhak (a branch of photographer Jan Brunon Bułhak) + Krystyna Ciekawianka were parents of
Florian Bułhak b. 1750 d. 1806, Józef Bułhak (see below), Jan Bułhak, Wincenty Bułhak, Ignacy Józefat Bułhak / Ignacy Jozafat Bułhak / Josafat Ignatius Bulhak, Jerzy Onufry Bułhak b. 28 April 1749: branch of Aldona Dzierzynska (see below) and Władysław Bułhak.
Above Josafat Ignatius Bulhak b. April 20, 1758, d. February 25, 1838, Greek Orthodox priest, Uniate bishop of Pinsk (1787-1795), bishop of Brest (1798-1828), Bishop of Lithuania (1828-1833) and Archbishop of Polotsk (1833-1838), in 1817-1838 the Metropolitan of Kiev. Above Jozef Bulhak, the Uniate bishop of Pinsk and Turow, abbot of the monastery of the Basilian in Suprasl.
Great-grandfather Mikolaj Bulhak b. 1670 (father of FLORIAN STANISLAW, KAZIMIERZ, KATARZYNA, JAKUB m. BARBARA Wolk - Traby, FRANCISZKA, DOROTA, MARCIN m. MARIANNA WERESZCZAK, JAN b. 1700 m. NN MOGIELNICKA, Nowogrodek clark: probably from Mikolaj Bulhak b. 1670 come a branch of Gabriel Bulhak and Ignacy Bulhak of Bobruisk / Bobrujsk marshal and next generation here:
Witold Bulhak / Bułhak owner of Mickiewicze Wielkie in the Kleck district. After death of dad and uncles he taken more Bułhak properties, with library in Dobośnia palace. Witold Bułhak that is Józef Witold Bułhak, owner of Czehrynka / Czyhirinka [1834], close to Niemki, Kolbowo, south of Czeczewiczy, near by Drut' river, west-south-west of Stary Byhow, and south-east of Zbyszyn of the Brujewicz family and Borki of 'Nadberezyncy'. Bułhak Gabriel, office clark in 1793 and 1810. Gabriel Bułhak with Syrokomla coat of arms, born ca 1750 / 1754, married in 1790), m. to Marianna Imielinski - Prawdzic; he taken estate Kosmowicze from Radziwill. His parents: Benedykt Bulhak (b. ca 1640?) and Eufemia Protasewicz. Benedykt was from Konstanty Bulhak and Anna Zablocki, acc. to aordycz.republika.pl. Above Eufemia Bułhak (Protasewicz - Jastrzębiec) b. ca 1650 was mother of Mikołaj Bułhak, Jerzy Piotr Bułhak and Szymon Bułhak - by: Urszula Ewa Skarżyńska in 2007.
Aldona Kojallowicz Bulhak nee Dzierzynska, 1870 - 1966. Her husband Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856 - his father Rudolf Jerzy Bulhak 1824-1894; grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789. Great-grandfather Jerzy Onufry Bułhak b. 28 April 1749. Children of Jerzy Onufry Bulhak: Chryzostom Stanisław Bułhak, Beata Bułhak - Lopott - Trzeciak, Krystyna Bułhak - Niezabitowski, Ostroberta Bułhak - Woyna b. 1793, Duklana Pilecki b. 1795 and Julian Bułhak. Julian Bulhak / Yulyan Bulgak bought land in the Igumen district in 1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi from the landlord Lisowski (of Bulhak in 1867-1913) close to Marina Gorka. We know that BULHAK, J., was in Nieswiez, Slutsk, Minsk. Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, he died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor.
Осташин Мурованый / Ostaszyn Murowany. Here was living Jan Bulhak / Ян Булгак, son of Валериан Булгак, Walerian Bulhak or Walery; Jan Brunon Bułhak's parents were Walery Antoni Stanisław Bułhak - Syrokomla b. 1842 in Ostaszyn d. 1905
(he was brother of Karolina Karpowicz, Antoni Bułhak b. 1850 d. 1898, NN Bułhak, Barbara Bułhak from Sadek d. 1907 and Helena Kiersnowska; Walery Antoni Stanisław Bułhak was son of Jan Antoni Franciszek Bułhak b. 1795 in Woroncza and JULJA HROMYK, and grandson of Florian Bulhak b. ca 1740, great-grandson of Florian Stanisław Bułhak from Mikolaj Bulhak and Katarzyna or Marianna)
and Józefa née Haciska - Roch (b. 1848 in Miratycze, daughter of Władysław Dachnowicz Haciski - son of Tadeusz Dachnowicz Haciski - and Anna Haciska), landowners in Ostaszyn. Jan Bulhak from 1897 to 1899, studied literature, history and philosophy at Jagiellonian University, Kraków. Back home, he lived in the village of Peresieka (Пярэсека) near Minsk, where he inherited a manor after his great-uncle's death (brother of one's grandparent or uncle of one's parent). Пярэсека, Минская область / Pereseka, close to Czurylawiczi, Kaikawa, ca 16 km south of Minsk core; 7 km south-west of Karaliszczawiczi / Koroliszczewiczi / Koroliszczewicze - here Konstantynowicz family.
Children of FLORIAN BULHAK b. ca 1740 and HELENA JABLONSKI: JÓZEF, WINCENTY, WLADYSLAW, IGNACY, MACIEJ b. 1794 d. 1863, JAN ANTONI FRANCISZEK b. 1795 in Woroncza d. 1850, and FLORIANA.

Bagration-Gruzinski and Mukhrani from Sakartvelo / Georgia. Troubetzkoy / Trubeckoj, Katenin, Orlov-Denissov and Martynov from Russia.


In search of genealogy. It is of greatest importance to me.

I am looking for all information about my grandfather Marian or Jerzy Konstantynowicz and about his family from the parish of Berazino (Berezina, Berezino or Berezyna).  He belonged to one of the old noble families from the farthest eastern reaches of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Those lands were also the first to be taken by tsarist Russia as the result of the partitions of Poland

Those near and dear (families at the beginning of the 20th cent.) in the Berazino parish (Mother of God of Mercy catholic church),  Riga / Ryga, the Dryssa ujezd and elsewhere:
Viljandi, Tallinn, Parnu / Parnawa, Moscow, Petersburg, Ufa, Miezonka, Hapsal / Haapsalu, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti.

With families: Melik - Beglyarov or Melik-Beglarov, Demonets / Demonet or Demontet, Breguet, Brown, Wilde, Nikitin, Katenin, Gruzinski, Bagrationi, Drzewiecki, Orlov-Denisov, Martynov, Paszkowski, Kalinowski, Zarako Zarakowski, Malkiewicz, Horodecki, Zbieranowski, Szostak, Nobel, Masson, Hacker / Hakker, Kammer, Briling, Vologdin, Azbelev, Benckendorf or Benkendorf, Pushkin, Kropotkin, Chikin, Bakst, Trubecki / Trubiacki / Troubetzkoy / Troubetskoi, Beklemishev, Rosenberg, Wittgenstein, Dadian-Mingrelsky / Dadiani Mingrelskij, Radziwill, Piottuch-Kublicki, Soltan, Oginski, Japaridze (Mestia in Upper Svaneti and Zuruldi 7 km east, ca 30 km north of Lentechi, and north-west of Oni; the Japaridzes is Svans), Rosen, Gernet, Rehbinder, Schilling, Nakachidze, von Zarnekau, Yurievsky, Duke of Oldenburg, Nikoladze, Maipariani or Maypariani, Saparov, Armand, Diseren, Duflon, Rey, Paat / Paats, Karamyan, Pescheux d'Herbenville / Pecheux.

1.

Malkiewicz

Old Svolna, Miezonka, Moscow and the Jauji farm (i.e. Jowce or Javci in LATVIA; 49 km north - east of Vilani in the Ludsen = Ludza district formerly. We know now about Jeci small village close to Dzirkalava / Dzierkalova, Lapava / Lapova, Locukolni, Purini, Zalmuiza in the area of Malnava. Jeci village is located 4 km from Karsava. Malnava Roman Catholic Church was laid in 1932 under the auspices of priest Boleslavs Grisans. This is the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rezekne-Aglona.

Count Szadurski (a friend of the Malkiewicz family) in ca. 1830 - who was himself a nature lover, interested in gardening - lay out a park behind the manor house in Malnow / Malnawa. Documentary evidence of Malnava estate dates back in 1774 but before 1724 the estate belonged to the Hilzen family of German roots.
In 18th century, the Malnava / Malnov / Malnow manor came into the ownership of Count Szadurski. In 1878, this land belongs to Julius von der Ropp, after S. F. Agarkov in 1906.
Oświej / Oswej / Osveya (Izabela Horodecki - Malkiewicz spent her childhood there; she was born in Moscow, but her father from the Malnow district; she has family in Miezonka, Lodz, Warsaw; in Karsawa - Malnow - Ludsen area were living the Brzezinskis) was a property of the Ciołek-Szadurski family in mid 1820s. Szadurski Mikolaj, son of Franciszek-Ksawery in 1817 studied in Polotsk / Polock, next in Vilnius 1822/23, landlord of Malnow and Oswiej, in Lucyn / Ludsen, the nearby town, Szadurski held offices, in 1837 married to Marya Zyberk-Plater daughter of Michal. Mikolaj died in 1876.

Melnava / Malnaya / Małnów / Malnow - a village near to Karsawa: Karolina, next of kin with Jozef Hylzen, was wife of Jan Franciszek Szadurski, owner of Pusza, Zielonpol or Zielonpole and Matnow / Malnow; her son Jan Szadurski, m. Dorota Szczyt, and her children:

1. Jozef Szadurski, offices in Witebsk 1814 1817,

2. Ksawery, who taken estates from the Hylzen family; Jozef Szadurski has son Ignacy, who held offices in Witebsk 1835 / 1838, no children and from Ksawery Szadurski is new branch.

A place of offices held by a member of the Szadurski family: Szadurski Stanislaw, a brother of Mikolaj, son of Franciszek-Ksawery, a Russian colonel, died in 1870; Szadurski Mikolaj died 1876. Properties of Szadurski: Zwirdzin to Stanislaw Szadurski, Newlany, Dorotpol, Dunakla to the Stanislaw Szadurski family. Oswiej and Malnow - the Mikolaj Szadurski family.
Michal Plater-Zyberk 1777 - 1862/63, his daughter Maria married to Mikolaj Szadurski. Maria b. on 23 Sept. 1813, m. on 15 Oct. 1837, she died in Kraslaw on 20 Dec. 1893.

Izabella Malkiewicz born 01st May 1908 in Moskwa / Moscow / Moscou; Mother-in-God was Maryla Koziell Poklewska / Maryla Koziell Poklevski married to Slotwinski / Slotvinski. Her sister Irena Malkiewicz, actress.
In Moscow her father had a car; she known very well French language. In 1911 first time in Swolna Stara, to Zarakowski, Konstantynowicz and Malkiewicz families. 1912 and 1913 in Stare Zaborze / Zaborze, close to Swolna. 1913 in Oswiej / Osvieja, in empty palace. 1914 in Rawanicze to Slotwinski family, the Berazino parish. She known Miezonka and history about Anna Malkiewicz married Konstantynowicz; Anna died when was born first baby. Lived in Moscow to September 1918; October 1918 in Wilno / Vilnius. January 1919 Vilna / Wilno was captured by Bolshevik troops, and Jozef Malkiewicz left under Soviets. The Malkiewicz family escaped to Warsaw. 1937 served the Red Cross in Warsaw. September 1939 served Field Hospital No 104 of Colonel Szarecki; 08 September 1939 left Warsaw. On 16 September in Kopyczynce and back to Trembowla, and again 18 - 19 September 1939 in Trembowla (to November the 01st, 1939); here was general Wladyslaw Sikorski - and Chruszczow - in Hospital No 104. April 1942 to 1943 - The J. Przybylski office in Warsaw; here general Zymierski - Rola of the Soviet military intelligence service; from Spring 1942 Izabella Malkiewicz / Izabela Horodecka - Malkiewicz as 'Teresa' served Polish counter-intelligence service;

17 March 1943 served to 993/W Special Unit. She was famous for activity during the Second world war in Warsaw. Her mother Genowefa daughter of Jan Werakso from Minsk in Belarus; painter (Izabella Horodecki - Malkiewicz was great grand-daughter of Wiktor Waraksa / Weraksa b. circa 1820 son of Jan). Her father Wladyslaw Alojzy Malkiewicz b. 23 February 1875 in Swolna Stara / Svolna;

lived in the Dryssa county; 1879 in Pluszcze with the Pluszczewski family; 1885 Wilno, after Moscow near by the Konstantynowiczs; married 1907, stayed in Moscow to September 1918. Her husband Zygmunt Horodecki. Deputy Prosecutor of Warsaw Court to 05 September 1939; Kowno 1940; 14 June 1941 jailed in Soviet Union; Palestine and Monte Cassino, Ankona / Ancona. His brother was colonel of Polish Army in 1939.

Maryla Koziell Poklewska / Maryla Koziell Poklevski married to Slotwinski / Slotvinski. Born ca 1880?

Note:

Iwan Poklewski-Koziell (1865 - 1925)
/ Иван Альфонсович Поклевский-Козелл: his mother

Angelika Rymoza (1830 - 1901).

His father Alfons Poklewski-Koziell (1809 - 1890), grandfather Tomasz Poklewski-Koziell b. ca 1780
/ Foma / Томаш Поклевский-Козелл; grandmother Anna Spink b. ca 1790. His sister Антонина Альфонсовна Ризенкампф / Anna Antonina Alfonsovna von Riesenkampff (1860 - 1908).

Next Jan:

Jan Koziełł-Poklewski / Jakub Skała / b. 1837 in Serwecz Wielki, d. 1896 in Bobrujsk / Bobruisk; Colonel in 1863; 1852 studied in Petersburg, next in Paris / Paryż; friend of Ludwik Mierosławski; 1861 Wilno, Moscow; Petersburg, 1863 in Warszawa / Warsaw; Augustow; Grodno and Belgium; 1864 Dresden and Paris; back to the Congress Poland in 1872 and jailed in Alma Ata / Ałma-Ata.

Вялікая Сэрвач, Великая Сервачь, Wielki Serwecz, Vialikaja Servač, Siervacz Servach: close to Liudvinovo, Kostienievichi, Stieszicy; ca 18 km south-west of Dolginovo; north-east of Vilejka, north of Minsk in Belarus.

Romuald Mikolaj Augustyn / Romuald Malkiewicz family:

born 07-02-1840 in Jowce, Malnow parish, Ludsen district; family close to Mikolaj Szadurski, Maryanna Szadurska, Dominik Porako, Justyna nee Filipowicz, Jan Brzezinski, Julia nee Cray / Krey, Hermann Cray / Herman Krey, Franciszka nee Ostrowska.

Children:

1. Wladyslaw Alojzy b. 23 February 1875 in Stara Swolna, the Dryssa county, died 29 November 1941 in Warsaw, after 1879 with family Pluszczewski; living in Pluszcze, the Swieciany ujezd. 1885 Wilno college, next Moscow; married in 1907 to Genowefa daughter of Jan Werakso; Summers in Stare Zaborze, Oswiej, Swolna i Rawanicze; in 1914 at Rawanicze close to Berezyna, Oswiej 1912 - 1913; to September 1918 in Moscow, next in Wilno October 1918; January 1919 escaped to Warsaw from Wilno; living in Warsaw. 1919 in Minsk in Belarus, near to dr Jan Malkiewicz with Jastrzebiec coat of arms. Jan Werakso killed in Moscow.

2. Jozef Malkiewicz born Swolna Stara at the Dryssa ujezd in 1879, from 1879 to 1914 in Pluszcze, 12 km from Zacisze of Konstantynowicz; January 1919 married; after 1919 ?

3. Michal Malkiewicz b. ca 1870; lived in Stara Swolna next door Zarako-Zarakowski family. the Oswieja parish, the Dryssa ujezd; friend to Bernatowicz of Zaborze and relatives to the Bortkiewicz family from Swolna - gen. Aleksander Bernatowicz b. 1855; in an office of Piotr Jaroszewicz was woman from this family! Genowefa Malkiewicz nee Werakso to 1975 known the Bortkiewicz family. Michal Malkiewicz married Konstancja Bernatowicz b. 1878 in Zaborze close to Holubowo of Zarakowski, she died 1962. He died 1916 in Swolna Stara. His sons: Marian Malkiewicz b. Stara Swolna, the Witebsk province, 01-01-1916, ca January 1918 with mother escaped Stara Swolna to Wilno; 1919 in Wilno, died 1972. Zygmunt Malkiewicz b. 1907 in Stara Swolna; 1918 escaped from Swolna to Wilno, lived after in Warsaw, married 1937 to Krystyna Zekowska d. 1987; he was after in Kurow, Opatow, Ruszcza; 1950 - 1970 repressed by the Polish communists; d. 1974. Children: Izabela, Zbigniew, Anna Tarnowska.

4. Marian Malkiewicz b. ca 1867 lived in Oswiej, 30 km north of Swolna station; single; from 1873 in Stara Swolna, 4 km from Zaborze; Zaborze 24 km north of Dzisna; Swolna of Zarakowski located 4 km north of Zaborze of Bernatowicz. Killed.

5. Anna nee Malkiewicz with the Korab coat of arms; b. 1865 in Oswiej, after in Malnow, from January 1873 in Stara Swolna, close to Zarakowski; 1879 in Pluszcze, married to Stanislaw Konstantynowicz of Miezonka; died after born of first baby in Miezonka.

At present we have got few figures with our last name in Latvia:

Athena Konstantinovics, Rafael Konstantinovics, Vladimirs Konstantinovics, Ewald Konstantinovics, Siegfried Konstantinovics, Viktors Konstantinovics and in Jelgavas - Edgars Konstantinovics
) www.surnameweb.org/registry/m/a/l/malkiewicz.shtml

2.

Nieciejewski

in farms Hrynica / Griniza and Usochy in the Ihumen district, and also village Luszewska Slobodka in  the Rahacou district (345 ha., here a family of Gorski lived, too) since 1881; the Russian and Soviet general, count  Bronislaw Nieciejewski who was  born c. 1870 in the Berazino parish came from Hrynica, and his  daughter worked as translator and interpreter as early as November 1917 (after completion of the  University of  Paris) at the first Council of People's Commissars under direction of Wladymir (Vladimir) Boncz Brujewicz who was the chief of the Lenin's office 1917 - 1918; either Nieciejovski or  Niecijevskij, Nicijewski and  Nieciovski, too.

Eugeniusz Nieciejewski, born 1826 in Hrynica / Grenica, close to Berezyna Ihumenska; killed by the Red Army in 1922; the Poraj coat of arms, nobleman in 1836. His children: Maria Nieciejewska married to Wladyslaw Szostak b. 1864 Miezonka - she was born 1871 Hrynica; Bronislaw Nieciejewski born 1870, Hrynica, the Russia general; killed in Moscow in accident; Stanislaw Nieciejewski b. 1872, Hrynica; he studied geology around 1892, ca 1895 engineer geologist, settled in Baku and here he worked at the oil fields before 1914; had Georgian wife before 1900, ca 1920 settled in Tbilisi, Georgia. His descendants live in Georgia today.

3.

Uminski 

or Uminskas with Cholewa arms in the Vilna and Vicebsk provinces (Manulki farm A.D. 1672), Bruslevo (or Bryjelov, Brialewo in the Berezina parish) and Smolarnia - Florian Czarnyszewicz has written the book "Nadberezyncy"  about this village; Smolarnia was situated next to Krasny Brzeg in the Babrujsk district,  property of the Korzeniewski  family and also of

Wincenty Stanislaw Koziell Poklewski
- he was born 1853 and died 1929, son of Alfons Koziell Poklewski 1809 or 1810 - 1890, who was a member of the State Administration of Trade 1907 - 1912 according to Tatiana Pietrovna Mosunov and he was related to Hotowski i.e. Gatovskij, Slotwinski from Ravanicy and Malkiewicz / Малькевич, too.
The second son of Alfons Koziell Poklewski: Stanislaw Koziell Poklewski was born 1868 and died after 1930, in 1897-1901 Tokio, 1901-1909 London, 1909-1912/13 Persia, 1913 to November 1917 in Romania!

His father Alfons Koziell Poklewski had 4 or 5 children:

4 or three sons

(Poklewski - Koziell Wladyslaw, b. 1866 in Belarus, tsarist colonel, served in Russian Army as engineer; Polish Army since November 1918, general in 1919;
and Wincenty Stanislaw and also Stanislaw)

and one daughter: Anna Poklewska - Koziell born ca 1860 married

to Antoni Riesenkampff b. ca 1860 with daughter Aniela nee von Reisenkampf 1890 - 1963 married to Jozef Aleksander Wielopolski 1886 - 1961. Above Alfons, the Roman Catholic religion, was born 1809 or 1810 in the Bykov area of the Vitebsk District that is Bykowszczyzna, in the Vicebsk government, after high school in Polock, after in Vilnius, and St Petersburg, 1838 West Siberie and Perm, Ural, Tobolsk, Tiumen, Jekaterynburg (near to the Szumski family), Omsk, Tomsk, Czelabinsk acc. to Antoni Kuczynski. Died in 1890. His father name Фома that is Foma Koziell Poklewski, officer in Polock and was born ca 1780.

His next of kin: Jozef son of Jan and Jozefa nee von Tolensdorff, was exiled to Siberie after 1863.

Vincent Stanislav Koziell Poklewski 1853 - 1929. State Councillor, entrepreneur, since 1890 managing 'Heirs of A. F. Poklevski Kozell' Company.
Since 1878 in the public service. Shadrinsk 1878-1881; Ufa 1885-1886; Vjatsk classical gymnasium 1892-1898; Since
1883 - of the Perm province;
the Shadrinsk County in 1905-1907,
the Kamyshlovsky County;
1903 to 1918 Yekaterinburg classic men's gymnasium. Honorary member of the Ural Society of Naturalists; Chairman of the Siberian Branch of the Yekaterinburg Trade Bank, a member of the board of the Volga-Kama Bank.
Tyumen, Yekaterinburg;
in 1907-1912 Member of the State Council of Trade. He owned in 1903 in Vitebsk province, the Bykovschizna estate / Быковщизна; in the Minsk province in
Bobruisk County - Красный берег / Krasnyj Bereg;
in the Vyatka province - the iron mining and ironworks in Glazov County - Upper and Lower Zalazinskii iron foundry.
In Ufa province at the Sofia village farm;
the Orenburg province - Demarin estate. In the province of Perm - Tyushevskii estate. In Tobolsk province of Turin county; in the district of Tobolsk;
in the province of Perm - Ertarskaya and Sarsinskaya factory.
Stone houses in St. Petersburg, Perm, Ekaterinburg, Kamyshlov, Shadrinsk, Verkhoturye, Krasnoufimsk, Nizhny Tagil, Kushvinsky plant, Birsk, Tobolsk, Tyumen, Kurgan, Semipalatinsk, Omsk, Pavlodar. He also owned gold mines in several provinces, copper and silver mines. Since 1919 in exile. His wife Ж-Мария-Юзефа / Jozefa Maria, daughter of Michael Gatovsky, that is
Maria Hattowska 1858-1949,
lived in Yekaterinburg.

Maryla Koziell Poklewska / Maryla Koziell Poklevski married to Slotwinski / Slotvinski. Born ca 1880?

Probably a daughter of Wincenty Stanislaw Koziell Poklewski born 1853 and died 1929, son of Alfons Koziell Poklewski 1809 or 1810 - 1890, who was a member of the State Administration of Trade in 1907 - 1912 according to Tatiana Pietrovna Mosunov.

The Riesenkampff family from Estland / Estonia:

A.

Friedrich Magnus von Riesenkampff b. 1839 in Vööla mőis, Lääne County - d. 1902 in Vladikavkaz of Severnaya Osetiya, his mother Anna Charlotta Ottilia von Riesenkampff (1801 in Tallinn - 1852 Tallinn), his father Georg Magnus von Riesenkampff

(1780 Tallinn - 1846, Tallinn, he sold Voola / Bysholm, and next arrendator of Moik [10 km north-east of Nomme, Mőigu manor / Moik / Moick is located in the Tallinn suburb of Mőigu, Rae Parish], Colonel in 1827, inf. by Andrey Masing)

Officer 1857, Captain, Major; his wife Josephine Sacharow, daughter of Григорий Сахаров. Her son Fedor von Riesenkampff (b. 1870 in Slonim - 1908), with wife Katharina Heintz (b. 1872 from Kowno / Kaunas).

Children of Georg Magnus von Riesenkampff b. 1780 Tallinn: Maria Karoline Lichonin / Мария Георгиевна Лихонина b. Tallinn 1827; Konstantin Berend von Riesenkampff b. 1843 in

Mahtra, Juuru Parish, Rapla County - ca 38 km south-east of Saku;

Justus Wilhelm Ernst von Riesenkampff b. 1833 in Tallinn; Friedrich Magnus von Riesenkampff b. 1839 in Vööla mőis; Elisabeth Valerie Justine Petraschewski / Pietraszewski b. 1836, d. in USA; Gregor (Georg) Gustav von Riesenkampff 1824 in Vööla mőis; Helena Charlotta Friedberg b. 1841 in Tallinn; Nikolai von Riesenkampff b. 1826 in Tallinn, Major served in Caucasus, d. in USA; Alexander Otto Eberhard von Riesenkampff b. 1821 - 1895, born in Vööla mőis, served in Tomsk.

Saku / Sack - owners von Scharenberg, von Hastfer, von Rehbinder and von Baggehufwudt.

Vööla mőis, Lääne county, Estonia - neighbours:

1. Carl Gustav von Gernet born in Waikna and died 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola, Estonia with son Karl Iogann / Carl Iohan von Gernet - Waikna / Vaikna that is support manor of Koluvere manor, Kullamaa Parish in Läänemaa County; 38 km east of Haapsalu and also east of Kiideva, north-west-north of Parnu, 70 km circa. Note: Jula Dunkel b. 1840, from Ridala Parish, Lääne County, Estonia - her father Kustas Dunkel b. 1814 from Haeska, 7 km east of Kiideva (Gernet) and south-east of Haapsalu, about 23 km west of Vaikna.

2. Mentioned Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died 1801 in Jöggis (Jőgisuu - Jőgisoo ca 3 km south-west of Kullamaa, south-east-east of Haapsalu, Läänemaa county), Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia, and this same Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau had children: Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau; Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich, Jakob Johann, Catharina Elisabeth, Reinhold Woldemar. Copyright by geni.com and Peter Trefilov.

3. From Piirsalu, Läänemaa east of Haapsalu, connected to Mari Masing and from Roela, Lääne-Viru County, Estonia. Mazing - Korkus in Livonia, from Estonia: Revel, Dorpat, Narva and Viru / Wierland - Varstu Parish in Vőru County, and from Riga, St. Petersburg in Russia. Motherland - the former Livonia, Estonia present. According to legend from the Swedish soldier who settled after 1630 in St. Mary Magdalene in Kayavere in Livonia.

4. Ebba Emilie Pilar von Pilchau b. 1866, her parents: Olga Marie Emilie von Staal and Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilchau von Pilar. Above Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau 1832 - 1894, his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau (1803 in Padis / Padise, Harjumaa, Eesti / Estland / Estonia and died in 1862, and grandfather Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 from Jöggis / Jőgisuu, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland).

5. Pilar von Pilchau family was owner of Enivere, a village in Martna Parish, Lääne County, in western Estonia, north-east of Kiideva and Haeska.

6. Jakob Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau 1774 - 1814, has brothers:

a. Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830;

b. Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 in Jöggis / Jőgisoo, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland, and

c. Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau 1761 - died 1819 in Reval / Tallinn. They has stepfather Gotthard Johann II Zoege Reichsgraf von Manteuffel 1717 - 1753, acc. to Peter Trefilov and Mikael Lillieström (under copyright by geni.com).

7. Marie Dagmar Pilar von Pilchau born in Sternberg, Lääne County in 1887. Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau 1841 - 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia. His son born February 28, 1887 in (Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau) Kuressaare (Arensburg), Saaremaa, Estonia. Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 from Jöggis / Jőgisuu, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland.

8. Von Gernet family. 1859 in Sellenkull. Sellenkull = Seljakula, Seljaküla close to Keedika. North-east of Haapsalu, 27 km. And south-west of Lehola. Seljaküla is a village in Oru Parish, Lääne County, in western Estonia; Lääne County / Ляэнемаа / Lääne maakond / Läänemaa / Western land / Wiek (Pastorat Poenal - Nurme 38 street - is in Taebla Municipality, Lääne-Nigula Parish, east from Haapsalu).

Sergey Gernet / Сергей Павлович Гернет / Sergei Gernet: a midshipman in the 1st Baltic Naval Depot. Sergei Pavlovich Gernet born 1859 and d. 1918; his father: Paul Bernhard Friedrich Gernet b. 1819 d. 1860. His son: Eugene S. Gernet b. in Kronstadt on October 31, 1882 d. on August 8, 1943 in Spartacus village, Pavlodar area, Kazakhstan. The captain of the 2nd rank in 1917.

9. Friedrich August Siré 1843-1916, an accountant, railway official, most recently in Baku; and his wife Louise Rosalie Fabricius 1842-1919 / Luise Rosalie Siré (nee Fabricius) - she was from Lihula, Läänemaa, Eesti; her father Johann Carl Fabricius b. ca 1812 from Pernau / Pärnu. Daughter Elfriede Luise Caroline Rosenberg nee Siré 1868 St. Petersburg - 1893 and her son Alfred Ernst Rosenberg 1893 - 1946 from Tallinn. Above Lihula, Läänemaa, Eesti, north-west of Parnu, and south-east of Haeska ca 24 km and Kiideva; south-west of Keskkula.

B.

Alfons Riesenkampff 1889 - 1936 son of Antoni Riesenkampff b. 1849, and Anna Koziełł-Poklewska b. ca 1860.

Mentioned above Antoni Riesenkampff / Антон Егорович Ризенкампф / Anton Johann Gabriel b. 1849 - d. 1919 in St Petersburg, General-Leutenant, his wife in 1880 was Anna Koziełł-Poklewska; his son Alfons von Riesenkampff 1889 - 1936, daughter Angelika Aniela Anna Antonia Maria Wielopolski or Aniela b. 1885 or 1890, married to Józef Aleksander Wielopolski of Zabełcz, she died 1963 in Warsaw; Lydia von Riesenkampff b. 1900, and next son Anton Alfons von Riesenkampff 1886 - 1955 in Zabrze.

Above mentioned Антонина Альфонсовна Ризенкампф / Anna Antonina Alfonsovna von Riesenkampff nee Poklewski-Koziell 1860 - 1908. She died in the Hrodna government, acc. to Andrey Masing. Her mother Angelika Rymoza / Рымша Анжелина Иосифовна / Rymscha / Rymsza, 1830 - 1901, (she was mother to Jozef Poklewski-Koziell, Wincenty Stanislaw, Iwan / Jan, Anna Antonina Alfonsovna, Stanislaw). Father of above named Antoni Riesenkampff / Антон Егорович Ризенкампф / Anton Johann Gabriel von Riesenkampff b. 1849, was Gregor (Georg) Gustav von Riesenkampff 1824 - 1878, born in Vööla mőis, Lääne County, Estonia; died in St Petersburg; Sergeant of Riga's dragoons regiment in 1838, lieutenant of the Prince Chernyshev / Czernyszew regiment, the campaign of 1849 in Hungary, Staff Captain, 1867 - Titular Counselor in Petersburg. His 1st wife was Hedwig Nesselowski or Ludowika / Ludwika Niesiolowska / Неселовская / Jadwiga Gräfin Korzbeck / Ядвига, daughter of Anton Nesselowski / Antoni Niesiolowski, Count. His second wife: Warwara Pawlowna Naumow / Варвара Павловна Наумова 1833 - 1909. Children of above Gregor (Georg) Gustav von Riesenkampff b. 1824: Михаил Георгиевич Ризенкампф / Michail Georgievich b. 1866, Anton Johann Gabriel b. 1849, Anatolij Egorovich (Анатолий Григорьевич or Егорович Ризенкампф, 1868 - killed 1918 in Sevastopol, he was the Black See naval officer, his wife Natalia Voronine / Воронина; her children: Nina Anatolievna von Riesenkampf de Almeida b. 1905 died in Sao Paulo, Мария Анатольевна Ризенкампф / Marie Pinto Alves / Moussia Pinto Alves 1901 - 1986, Olga Markow / Ольга Анатольевна Маркова 1899 - d. ca 1946), Alexander 1872 - 1895 with wife Vera Kozhewnikow / Вера Васильевна Кожевникова.

Family of above Gregor (Georg) Gustav von Riesenkampff b. 1824: Anna Katharina Riesenkampff b. 1822 in Tallinn; Nikolai von Riesenkampff b. 1826 in Tallinn - Major in Caucasus; Alexander Otto Eberhard 1821 in Vööla mőis, Lääne County - d. 1895, school in Reval 1833-34, studied in St. Petersburg, served in Tomsk, 1875 in Pjatigorsk, wife Елизавета Анисимовна, was friend of writer Dostoewski / Dostojewski; Maria Karoline Lichonin / Лихонина 1827 in Tallinn - 1882 in Petersburg, her husband Николай Александрович Лихонин died 1872 in Kronshtadt, Captain 1st Class.

Above Vööla mőis, Lääne County - that is Vööla (Bysholm) in Noarootsi Parish, Läänemaa County - 17 km north of Haapsalu.

Note:

Iwan Poklewski-Koziell (1865 - 1925) / Иван Альфонсович Поклевский-Козелл: his mother Angelika Rymoza (1830 - 1901).

His father Alfons Poklewski-Koziell (1809 - 1890), grandfather Tomasz Poklewski-Koziell b. ca 1780 / Foma / Томаш Поклевский-Козелл; grandmother Anna Spink b. ca 1790.

His sister Антонина Альфонсовна Ризенкампф / Anna Antonina Alfonsovna von Riesenkampff (1860 - 1908).

Jan Koziełł-Poklewski / Jakub Skała / b. 1837 in Serwecz Wielki, d. 1896 in Bobrujsk / Bobruisk; Colonel in 1863; 1852 studied in Petersburg, next in Paris / Paryż; friend of Ludwik Mierosławski; 1861 Wilno, Moscow; Petersburg, 1863 in Warszawa / Warsaw; Augustow; Grodno and Belgium; 1864 Dresden and Paris; back to the Congress Poland in 1872 and jailed in Alma Ata / Ałma-Ata.

Вялікая Сэрвач, Великая Сервачь, Wielki Serwecz, Vialikaja Servač, Siervacz Servach: close to Liudvinovo, Kostienievichi, Stieszicy; ca 18 km south-west of Dolginovo; north-east of Vilejka, north of Minsk in Belarus.

The Uminski family
was related to Sarnecki (or  Sarneckis  from  Skierniow estate in the Trakai district) family with Slepowron arms.

After 10 years, I need specifies the base of the Krasny Brzeg village and the village of Smolarnia. Krasny Brzeg is situated in an area of Zlobin that is now the Gomel Province. Here is a palace of Koziell-Poklewski. Smolarnia / Смолярня / Smalarnia is a village in Belarus, a former Polish nobility locality, located in Mogilev Province at present, in the area of Kliczow / Klitshev, 3.5 km to the south-west of Kliczow, next to Niaseta / Niesety, Budniewo, about 30 km south - west of Miezonka. The village is sheltered from the north by forest. Smolarnia and its people during 1905-1920 is describes by Florian Czarnyszewicz.

4.

counties Zarako Zarakowski

i.e. the Zarokovskij family e.g. during war 1878 - 1879; properties: Holubovo palace, Kniazievo village and the great Svolna / Swolna estate - the chief  military state prosecutor of communistic Poland (after - see http://konstantynowicz.info/September_1939 - 1939 P. O. W. in Russia and next Military Attorney in Warsaw / Attorney General) and Soviet general, count Stanislaw Zarako Zarakowski  was born here in 1909 or November 1907; neighbourhood of them: Lipski Jan who  was the noble marshal of the Vicebsk government, Alina Rykow, Maryia Zabiella, famous Czerski by 1835,  Szczyt since 1725, Rudomin, Korsak, Dluzniewski; Jan Zaraka(o) - Zarakowski b. 21.02.1857, Russian general,  stayed in Vicebsk  in June 1918, next Polish division general 1923, d. in Warsaw before 1934 according to T. Kryska-Karski; Soviet and Polish general  Boleslaw Zarako -  Zarakowski was chief of the main staff of the Polish People Army in 1944, b. in Polack 1894.

Count Jozef Zarakowski / Zarako - Zarakovski. Born ca 1833 (like Antoni Konstantynowicz b. ca 1833), owner of Holubowo palace, Kniaziewo estate, big Swolna lands, Wasilewo village in the Dryssa ujezd, the Witebsk government, Russia. Wife Teofila.

His children:

1. Anna Zarakowska, Zarako; b. 1865 in Wasiliszki, the Lida ujezd. She was living in the Dryssa county, Holubowo. After marriage in Swolna, her property; also estates by the Berezyna river and two homes in Daugavpils / Dyneburg. In the summer of 1918 moved from Witebsk / Vicebsk to Warsaw. Next she was living in Wolkowysk. Died in Bransk, Poland, on 10 August 1950.

Her husband Jozef Konstantynowicz son of Antoni Konstantynowicz, b. ca 1833. He was born ca 1857. Second son of Antoni Konstantynowicz from Miezonka.
He was living in Swolna of Zarakowski. Very rich man. Two homes in Dyneburg. Big estate by the Berezyna river. He had three brothers. Summer 1918 in Vicebsk / Witebsk, died in Russia.

2. Hieronim Zarako Zarakowski / Zarakowski Jeronim, godfather of Czeslaw Konstantynowicz in 1901 in Vierchnij Dvinsk / Dryssa.

3. Jan Zarako - Zarakowski / Zarako-Zarakowski, b. 21 February 1857; Russian General and Polish Army General. 1923 div. general retired. Lived in Warsaw, died before 1934, at Powazki buried.

5.

Zbieranowski

Igumen, Berazino (Michal born Berezino in 1882 son of Jozef Zbieranowski and his wife Zofia nee Witkowski, after Bobrujsk, Sluck and Riga / Ryga 1899 - 1904), Riga and Miezonka; they were relations of Sarnecki (or Sarneckis)  family  with Slepowron arms.

Leon Spychalski was godfather of Piotr Zbieranowski. Leon was brother of Marshal Marian Spychalski and friend of the Andrzejak family. Piotr is grandson of Wiktoria Konstantynowicz from Miezonka / Viktoria Konstantinovich of Meshonka in the Berezino parish.

6.

Szostak

Miezonka and (acquaintances of  Raczkiewicz)  Babrujsk = Bobruisk or Bobruysk   www.surnameweb.org/registry/s/z/o/szostak.shtml

7.

Konstantynowicz

Miezonka, Petersburg, Svolna = Svol'na or Swolna, Krycau, Daugavpils, Kovalki, Riga, Omsk, Borovina.

Wasilij / Wasyl Constantinowitz / Konstantynowicz, was general of the Russian Army,
and Leon Bakst (1866 - 1924) is our far kinsman: his relatives, families  TretyakovBarsak, Klyachko and Manfred. His grandfather Baxter, probably English (mother side), acc. to http://www.leon-bakst.com/ - Collection Constantinowitz. Leon Bakst always lived with his family in St. Petersburg. Leon Bakst had two sisters, Sophia and Rose, and brother Isaiah.
April 28 in 1866 Leon Bakst was born in Grodno. His grandfather was a tailor in Paris and ca 1876 came to Russia, to St Petersburg. In 1878 Leon Bakst won a drawing contest at school and after he decid to leave college. When his grandfather died, his parents divorced. Kanaev, his friend, found him a job with Albert Benois, Alexandre Benois, K. Somov, W. Vroubel, D. Filosofov and his cousin S. Diaghilev. Alexandre Benois has friend - Count Benkendorf; Count put him in touch with Gran Duke Vladimir; Duke was President of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts. 1903 Leon Bakst married L. Gricenko, widow of a painter, the daughter of P. Tretyakov. 1914 thanks to Count D. Benkendorf's support, Leon Bakst was elected as a member of the Academy of Fine Arts.

The Benois family (look above):
Evdokya Dmitrievna Horvath was born in St Petersburg in 1902, and married first in 1921 to Cecil Lewis, second time to Cedric Williams. Williams lived in Chelsea; she was the daughter of the military engineer General Dmitri Horvath, the second of six children of General Horvath and his wife Camilla Benois. Dmitri Horvath was the great-great-grandson of Marshal Mikhail Kutusov, and was connected to the Baltic aristocracy through his mother, Baroness Maria Pilar von Pilchau. Camilla Benois, a member of a distinguished family of artists, sculptors, architects and musicians, was herself a talented artist and sang and played the piano. In 1902 Tsar Nicholas II had appointed General Horvath, his distant cousin, to be General Manager of the Chinese Eastern Railway and consul general in Harbin, Manchuria. Acc. to (Copyright in 2005) The Independent, by Ian Axford and Tamara Breus. Albert Nikolayevitch Benois / Альберт Николаевич Бенуа, b. 1852 was a Russian water-colorist. Albert was the elder son of architect Nicholas Benois. Albert's daughter Maria married the Russian composer, pianist and conductor, Nikolay Tcherepnin. Acc. to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Benois. Alexandre Nikolayevich Benois / Alexander Benois, b. 1870, Saint Petersburg, was an artist, art critic, historian, preservationist. Acc. to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandre_Benois. His mother Camilla / Камилла Альбертовна Кавос, and then Бенуа, was the granddaughter of Catterino Cavos. His father was Nicholas Benois, a Russian architect. Benois's son, Nicola Benois / Nikolai Benois, born 1901. Alberto Giovanni Cavos was a director of the Venice theatre. His son Catterino Albertovich Cavos / Catarino Camillo Cavos b. 1775, settled in Russia in 1798, after the fall of the Republic of Venice and was an Italian composer. Acc. to http://www.rootschat.com/forum/. His son Alberto Cavos / Albert Katerinovich Kavos b. 1800, was a Russian-Italian architect. Alberto's children: Caesar Cavos, Constantin Cavos and Camilla Cavos b.1828, married Nicholas Leontievich Benois, children: Camilla Nikolaevena Benois b. 1849, married Mathew Edward Edwards, Ekaterina Nikolaevna Benois, Albert Nikolaevich Benois, Leon Benois, Nikolaj Nikolaevich Benois, Yulij, Louise, Alexander Benois - watercolour artist. Benois family was descended from French confectioner Louis Jules Benois, who came to Russia in 1794 during the French Revolution: Louis Jules Benois b.1770, married to Ekaterina Andreevna Groppe. Son: Nikolai Leontievich Benoi b. 1813. By williamscdr - Copyright, from www.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Was married to Camilla Albertnova Cavos b. 1827. Daughter: Camilla Nikolaevna Benois b. 1849 married Mathew Edward Edwards. Copyright by RootsChat.Com.

Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in Санкт-Петербург / St Petersburg, d. 1922; daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau and Katharina Nikolaievna Pilar von Pilchau / Kitty Ekaterina Nikolajevna Pilar von Pilchau
(see: http://www.geni.com/people/Magnus-Wilhelm-Pilar-von-Pilchau/ on Katharina Kitty / Ekaterina Nikolajevna / Nikolaievna Pilar von Pilchau nee Koudaschew / Кудашева, b. 1811, daughter of Николай Данилович князь Кудашев / Danilovitch Kudashev; she was wife of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau and Hermann Napoleon von Hoyningen-Huene; was mother of above Maria Pilar von Pilchau, Nikolai, Elisabeth Lizine Shuvalova, Theodor Fedor Kotzebue Pilar von Pilchau and N. N. Pilar von Pilchau; all copyright by Henno Linn, Peter Trefilov, Marc Peter Bauer and Anita Kuzmina. Above Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau b. 1791, was son of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Magdalene Wilhelmine Staël von Holstein, and was brother of Ottilie Gustava von Lüder, Hermann Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Gustav Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau and Georg Pilar von Pilchau, acc. to: Henno Linn, Peter Trefilov, Marc Peter Bauer and Anita Kuzmina. Above Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau b. 1761 son of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas. Above Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734, was father of Wilhelm Friedrich Pilar von Pilchau, Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau, Jakob Johann Pilar von Pilchau, Catharina Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau and Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau; was brother of Dorothea Charlotta Pilar von Pilchau and Maria Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau. Acc. to Peter Trefilov and Bernard von Schulmann);
wife of Leonid Nikolaevich Horvath / Леонид Николаевич Хорват; she was mother of Dmitri Horvath (was the great-great-grandson of Marshal Mikhail Kutusov) / Дмитрий Леонидович, Владимир Леонидович Хорват, Екатерина Леонидовна Хорват, Любовь Леонидовна Хорват and Ольга Леонидовна Хорват; sister of Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau, Elisabeth Shuvalov, Theodor / Fedor Kotzebue Pilar von Pilchau and N. N. Pilar von Pilchau. All above acc. to Peter Trefilov on July 25, 2009, under copyright by geni.com.
See:
http://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Pilar_von_Pilchau. Adolf Pilar von Pilchau: 1899 magistrate of Pärnu; he became a Viljandi church curator. In 1902 he became also an economic Livonia president. In 1905 the Livonia Council send Adolf Pilar von Pilchau to Petersburg to ask Emperor for help, on 14 December 1905 arrived in Tallinn; 1906 Pilar von Pilchau moved to Riga. 1908-1918 he was the marshal of the Livonian knighthood. In 1912 he was elected to the Baltic provinces of Russia as a representative member of the Supreme Council, to share life in Riga and St. Petersburg. In 1915 the Russian soldiers raided his house in Pärnu, destroyed furniture and broke the porcelain collection, by Rodzjanko. 1916 in Tartu, Riga. On February 28th 1917, was a small dinner party. Prince and Princess Kourakine, Countess Kotzebue - Pilar von Pilchau and her daughter, Baron and Baroness Schilling and some other guests were invited. Suddenly the kitchen was full of soldiers come to search the house. The Countess Kleinmichel has been arrested and taken to the Duma. Some of the newspapers have declared that the Countess was an intimate friend of Alexandra Feodorovna, but that is untrue. Madame Narishkine, nee Countess Toll, was arrested likewise, but after a conversation with Kerensky, she was set at liberty. On the Countess Kotzebue - Pilar von Pilchau: Paul Demetrius / Pavel Ewstafijewitsch Graf von Kotzebue, was father of Louise Christine von Rönne; Olga Anna Pauline von Rosen; Marie Agnes von Baggehufwudt and Alexandrine Mathilde / Alix Pilar von Pilchau. Above Alexandrine Mathilde (Alix) Pilar von Pilchau von Kotzebue daughter of Paul Demetrius von Kotzebue and Wilhelmine Elisabeth Gräfin von Kotzebue; she was wife of Theodor Kotzebue - Pilar von Pilchau and mother of Dmitri, Katharina (Karin) von Hoyningen-Huene and Alexandra Pilar von Pilchau. Sister of Olga Anna Pauline von Rosen. She was owner of Ravila / Meks / Mecks; Ravila Manor close to Kolu, ca 33 km south-east of Saku; also von Rosen, von Uexküll, von Detloff, von Manteuffel, Countess Alexandra Mathilde Kotzebue / Alexandra von Kotzebue - Pilar von Pilchau / Countess Alexandrine Mathilde Kotzebue-Pilar von Pilchau 1849 Reval - died 1943 in Schalkau, Wartheld. Above countess Olga Anna Pauline von Kotzebue of Kotzebue-von-Pilar-und-von-Pilchau, born 17 Nov 1842 in Tiflis, d. 1931 in Reval / Tallinn.

Ebba Emilie Pilar von Pilchau b. 1866, her parents: Olga Marie Emilie von Staal and Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilchau von Pilar. Above Konstantin Behrend Alexander Pilar von Pilchau 1832 - 1894, his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau (1803 in Padis / Padise, Harjumaa, Eesti / Estland / Estonia and died in 1862, and grandfather Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau 1777 - 1847 from Jöggis / Jőgisuu, Kullamaa, Läänemaa, Estland). Maria Pilar von Pilchau b. 1839 in Санкт-Петербург / St Petersburg, d. 1922; daughter of Karl Magnus Pilar von Pilchau and Katharina Nikolaievna Pilar von Pilchau / Kitty Ekaterina Nikolajevna Pilar von Pilchau. We know about Gustav Adolf Nikolai Pilar von Pilchau / Gustav Adolf Pilar von Pilchau born in 1841 and died on January 11, 1918 in Haapsalu (Hapsal), Lääne County, Estonia; his wife Aline Annette von Essen (was born 1847); his father Karl Magnus Reinhold Pilar von Pilchau (1803 - 1862); grandfather Reinhold Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau (1777 - 1847), great-grandfather Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau (1734 - 1801), from Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau (1709 - 1752).

Above Dmitry A. Benkendorf / Benkendorf, Dmitriy Alexandrovich / Mita, born 1845, died 1917 or 1919; in 1910 became chairman of Academy of Fine Arts. State Councillor; in 1882-94 Secretary of the Embassy in Berlin, and later a member of the Council of the Russian Bank for Foreign Trade, the 'Russian Society of Sea, River ... and warehouses', 1903 - the Mariupol Mining and Metallurgical Society; amateur painter, graphic artist. His brother, Alexander, 1848-1915, Lieutenant General.

Note on the family of Dmitry Benckendorf / Dmitriy Benkendorf (Mita) born in 1845. Benkendorf Dmitriy Alexandrovich nickname Mita, died 1917. His brother, Alexander Alexandrovich Benckendorf, 1848 - 1915, was lieutenant-general. We now check data on his father: 1. ? they were sons of Alexander Benckendorf (1819 - 1849), the Guard lieutenant. Portrait of Steuben. 2. or they were next of kin with the Nikolai Kropotkin: his brother Peter D. Kropotkin; from Peter / Pyotr Kropotkin, b. 1771 d. 1826 and Praskovja A. Gagarin b. 1770 d. 1850, were children: 1800 - Tatiana Kropotkin Musin-Pushkin, 1801 - Dmitry Petrovich Kropotkin, 1802 - Nicholas P. Kropotkin and 1805 - Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin died 1871 - father of famous theorist of anarchism. Near by to the Benkendorf family! Children of above named Dmitrij / Dmitry Kropotkin: 1826 Peter D. Kropotkin, 1830 Nikolai Kropotkin next of kin with Benkendorf and 1832 Ivan D. Kropotkin.

We remember about Weimar Orest E., b. 1845 died in 1885, prominent physician in St. Petersburg, populist, organized the escape of Kropotkin from prison in 1876 acc. to 'Notes of a revolutionary' by Kropotkin; he was arrested in 1879 and sentenced to 15 years in prison; he died in prison at Kara; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz daughter of Jan / Ivan Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz;
Wiktoria - she was b. 1846 and died in 1899/1900.

Prince Peter Kropotkin b. 1842, Moscow, died 1921; theorist of anarchism, a historian, from princes of Smolensk province, his father, Prince Alexei Petrovich Krapotkin (1805 - 1871), Major General, owned estates in the three provinces; his mother, Catherine N. Sulima was a direct descendant of Cossacks Ataman - Ivan Sulima. Above Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin, b. 1805 and his father Pyotr Kropotkin b. 1771 and mother Praskovja A. Gagarin b. 1770.
Pyotr Kropotkin b. 1771, has father Nikolai Alexeyevich Kropotkin b. 1742 d. 1795,
and grandfather Alexey Kropotkin.

We back to the Benckendorf or Benkendorf family:
Alexander Benkendorf (1800 - 1873) in 1826, retired with the rank of lieutenant of the Guards, settled in Vinogradov, in 1859 bought the oil mines on the Apsheron Peninsula near Baku, founded the oil company 'Benckendorf', in 1865 he was in Moscow; his children:
a. Maria Benckendorf b. 1833 d. 1887 - her husband Nikolai Kropotkin b. 1830 and his brothers Peter D. Kropotkin 1826, and Ivan D. Kropotkin 1832; and her child Dmitri Kropotkin, b. 1857 d. 1902.
b. Above Alexander Benkendorf born 1800 d. 1873 (probably father of Dmitry Benckendorf / Dmitriy Benkendorf (Mita) born in 1845 that is Benkendorf Dmitriy Alexandrovich nickname Mita, died 1917 - you look on Bakst and Apollon Konstantynowicz). Father of Alexander: Ivan Benckendorf b. 1765 d. 1841, and grandfather: Johann Michael Ivan Benckendorf b. 1720 d. November 18, 1775, came from Johann Benckendorf b. April 26, 1659 d. June 17, 1727.
Alexei Petrovich Kropotkin b. 1805 died 1871 - father of famous theorist of anarchism Prince Peter Kropotkin b. 1842, Moscow, died 1921; theorist of anarchism. Near by to the Benkendorf family!

1924 Bakst meet Ida Rubinstein.
You can read 'Bakst and Benois: the Tobin wing', Marion Koogler, McNay, ed. by Art Museum, 1985. More at: http://search.getty.edu/gateway/. "Ballets Russes burst upon the Paris scene in 1909, introducing for the first time Russian dancers, choreographers, and designers to Continental audiences. Among Diaghilev's earliest collaborators were Leon Bakst and Alexandre Benois... The Tobin Collection contains some of the most important designs by Benois and Bakst... Goncharova, who lived in Moscow when she first met Diaghilev in 1913, represented a trend in Russian art that had developed in direct answer to the Eurocentric leanings that characterized Bakst's and Benois' designs", by Elaine Wolff, 2/26/2004, at http://www2.sacurrent.com/arts/. Copyright by 'San Antonio Current', SAN ANTONIO, TX.

Nephew of Leon Bakst that is son of his sister Rose Samuilovna Rosenberg / Samuel Rosenberg was born in Germany (Zakhar L. Manfred worked as a lawyer in St. Petersburg, during the Civil War was a teacher in the Saratov province, then in the Pskov province; Rosa Samuilovna Rosenberg - a translator, sister of the artist Leon Bakst, died in 1918) and Zachary Manfred, was historian Albert Z. Manfred (1906-1976) who born in St Petersburg (acc. to Eugene Konstantynowicz / Константинович - son of Apollon Konstantynowicz, Polish, and Anna Konstantynowicz / Константинович nee Armand, Polish roots - and his children living in Switzerland and Paris, France, that is grandchildren of Anna nee Armand, and great-grandchildren of Varvara Karlovna Demonsi / Demonets or DEMONTET; this Eugene Konstantynowicz, as a patient, was treated in Switzerland, there he became acquainted with Marusya, who cared for her uncle Leon Bakst, along with Sophia, Bertha, Paul and Emily). See: the Constantinowitz Museum in Meudon.
Meudon is a municipality in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, in the département of Hauts-de-Seine. Chalais-Meudon was important in the pioneering of aviation, initially balloons and airships, but also the early powered craft (in 1880 Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs).

Klyachko, Maria Markovna (1895 - 1994), married name Constantinowitz / Marie Constantinowitz (1895 - 1994), daughter of Léon Bakst’s sister, Sophia Klyachko / Sophie nee Bakst (1869 - 1944).

All information about Léon Bakst’s relatives are culled from 'My recollections of Uncle Lyova', the memoirs of Maria Klyachko-Constantinowitz and Manuscripts department, Tretyakov Gallery, fund 111, items 2632, 2636, and from Nikolai Constantinowitz, Irina Albertovna Manfred, Maria Markovna Klyachko who married a musician – a cello player Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugene Constantinowitz (1890 - 1977). She met her future husband in Switzerland, when she was tending to the sick Bakst. Her two sons became architects - Nikolai and Pyotr Constantinowitz (Mikolaj Konstantynowicz and Piotr Konstantynowicz; but also is inf. about 3 children of Maria nee Klaczko / Maria Markovna Klyachko and Yevgeny Constantinowitz / Eugene Constantinovich / Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz) and 'Collection of the Constantinowitz family' is in Paris (among correspondence of Howard D. Rothschild were letters of Constantinowitz Marie in 1976-1980; Howard Rothschild born 1907 and died 1989 in New York).

Constantinowitz, Pyotr Yevgenievich (Kанстантинович / Kanstantinovich / Constantinowitz Pierre was born 1928 and address: Orée du Bois Brűlé, 78380 Bougival) and Constantinowitz Nikolai Yevgenievich (born 1931 - Nicolas, 45B Route des Gardes, Meudon). Constantinowitz, Yevgeny Apollonovich (Eugeniusz Konstantynowicz son of Apollon Konstantynowicz; born 1890 - died 1977) was a cello and piano player; he was receiving a treatment at the same resort as Bakst. And also we know about Carole Constantinowitz.
Pierre Constantinowitz, route de la Bourbonniere, Chailly en Gatinais and 13 rue des Pres Verdy, Sevres, France.

Let's look now at the Constantinowitz family ancestors from France:

1. Michel Barsacq, born in 1942 to Andre Barsacq and Mila Kliatchko; d. 1985 in Paris, France. Andre Barsacq 1909 - 1975.

2. Leon Barsacq (1906-1969).

3. Eugene Constantinowitz b. on December 26, 1890, died on May 30, 1977 in Paris, France; burial: Batignolles Cemetery in Paris; father of Paul Kliatchko; Marie Constantinowitz and Mila Kliatchko.

4. Paul Kliatchko b. on October 10, 1904, d. on May 15, 1975.

On 21st November 2013 any Russian host (© Copyright: Рене Мария Арманд, 2013 Свидетельство о публикации №213112100583) show to us at webpage http://www.proza.ru/2013/11/21/583 a research of Rene Marie Armand and we can read:
"...In 1918, as the head of mission of the Red Cross,
Inessa Armand was sent by Lenin to France in order to take out several thousand Russian soldiers
of an expeditionary corps. She was arrested by the French authorities, but released because of the threat of Lenin shoot for her the French mission in Moscow. Inessa was really part of a diplomatic mission to return to the Russia soldiers of expeditionary corps ... All three members (Dmitry Manuilsky and Jacques Davityan) of the mission really concluded under house arrest, ... and released after the Commissar for Foreign Affairs G. V. Chicherin (and not Lenin) gave France a message that French citizens in Russia could be arrested. ... I write about my great-aunt Inessa Teodorovna (patronymic Fedorovna - tribute Russian language) ... But how do you know the truth about Inese? Even in our family rarely talked about her... It was all about the conspiracy. ... Marietta Shahinian could not tell the whole truth about the relationship between the trinity Krupskaya, Lenin, Armand. ...
husband of Inna, daughter of Inessa Armand - Гуго Эберлейн / Hugo or Gugo Eberlein
and a husband of another daughter Varya - Yakov Romas / Яков Ромас. ... 'Inessa small' - so everyone called Inna, daughter of Inessa Armand and Alexander ... Sometimes in Riga, where we lived, came Варвара Александровна / Варя / Varya, the daughter of Inessa / Inez... she did not just have to go to France or Switzerland, to see mother, who was forced to live in exile. It was sure that Inessa came from a family of Protestants, and that her husband was a Catholic. ... Before the revolution the Armands had a house on the corner of the alley Granatny and Spiridonyevka, owned by husband of Inessa. And a country house - in the village Eldigino, near Pushkin, in thirties miles from Moscow. ... Inessa and her sister Renee were born in the family of an opera singer and actress Theodore Steffen and Natalie Wild. Inessa Elizabeth, the eldest, was born May 8, 1874 in Paris. His father died when a little girl grew up and she turned with his aunt in Moscow. Woman and her two orphans, gave music lessons and foreign languages, so there is nothing surprising in the fact that Inessa and Rene fluent in Russian. My grandmother Renee, sister Inez, until his death spoke in Russian with a strong accent. I kept the letters from her relatives, including from her sons. They are written in French, the native language of grandmother Renee. She studied music not in Moscow but in the Paris Higher National Conservatory of Music and Dance. ... in 1850, in the family of businessman Piter Wild / Peter Wild and his wife - the French, born daughter. Newborn named Natalie. Wilde / the Wilds were parishioners of the Church of England. ...their name sounded like Wilde. Natalie, has a pleasant and strong voice, decided to continue his musical education in Paris. Parents were unhappy, but his daughter still succeeded. Woman sent to the French capital, accompanied by Aunt Sophie / Zofia, the sister of her mother. In Paris, appeared her idol - Comedy Opera tenor, born in Lyon. Fans knew him under the name Pesce Erbanvil / Пёше Эрбанвиль. Singer was the son of the venerable French bourgeoisie, who were ashamed of relationship with the artist... The family has a birth certificate Renee Louise Justine Stephen / Рене Луиза Жюстины Стефан, my dear grandmother. ... Inessa Armand - daughter of British (?) opera singer Stephen Theodore (nee Theodore Pecheux d'Herbenville) and French (?) actress Nathalie Wild, also an opera singer, and later a teacher of singing ... ... Wild Natalie was able to insist on his own. To marry, one of them had to change their faith. Theodore did that. On May 8, 1874 at 2:00 pm, in Paris, at number 63 at the Rue de la Chapelle born a girl that happy parents named Inez - Elizabeth / Inessa Elizabeth ... In the Anglican Church St. Mary the wife got a new document with the metric record of birth Inessa Elizabeth - May 8, 1874. ... Natalie and Theodore had been born next child - a daughter again. Her name Rene Justine Louise. Natalie gave birth of three daughters. The youngest, Anna, will be not just a rich man's wife, but also an aristocrat, and receive a Russian title of 'Her Excellency'. ...Tired of quarrels and lack of money, Natalie said 'yes' to the proposal of the relatives send to Moscow older girl. Six year old Ines, along with Aunt Sophie, who so shamefully failed chaperone role, went to Russia. Everything. With her father girl will never see. His mother and sister come to Moscow only ten years later, after the death of Theodore, who died at age 36. ...On October 3, 1893 the parish priest of St. Nicholas Church in the village near Moscow, Pushkino, father Ignatius Kazan made ​​wedding of a hereditary honorary citizen, Moscow guild merchant's son, Alexander Armand to a French citizen, young lady, the daughter of artist Inez Elizabeth Stephen, Anglican. ... now husband - the
eldest son of hereditary honorary citizen of Moscow: Евгении Евгеньевич Арманд / Yevgeny Armand (Trading House 'Armand and sons').
Family of millionaires. Several luxury houses in Moscow - the Old Square, in the Cash Lane on Arbat Street, on the corner Granatny to Spiridonyevka, on Vozdvizhenka. Forests under Pushkino, hunting grounds around Sergiev Posad, land near Ikshi. weaving and dyeing factories. ... Armand family was significantly higher in the material and social terms than the Wild family. Wild / Wilde were descended from a teacher from England, who arrived in Russia with the invitation of Count Vorontsov senior. The real name of them was Wilde / Уайльд, but in Russia it quickly rechristened to Wild. From my father, I have heard that one of Wilde worked for a time as a manager of Count Vorontsov, who was known to Anglomaniac. One of the descendants of the Wild amassed a sizable fortune, but his successors were less able to commerce... too much invested in real estate. Bought the land, but it did not bring quick money. Wilde conducted in the village of Pushkin, where rented a cottage next door to the house of Armand. ... Inessa first appeared in Moscow in 1880. ... Inessa when aged 17 years received a tutor diploma. However, all girls had such a document. The diploma of tutor had
Barbara Karlovna nee Demonet / Demonsi and all her daughters, girls from a family of millionaires.
And the last - Inessa Steffen not married to the son of E. I. Armand but on his grandson! ... According to one version, Paul Armand / Поль Арманд was a shoemaker who had fled to Russia from the French Revolution. According to another version, Paul died on a road and his son Alexander to get to Moscow. But it is necessary to go to the old German cemetery, were we find the grave of the first Armand who moved to Russia from France. ... Paul Armand 1760 - 1835, Marie Barbe Armand, nee Collignon 1774 - 1872, Jean-Louis Armand 1786 - 1855, Jeanne Angelique Armand 1765 - 1813, Paul Felix Armand, 06.06.1816 - 03.08.1817. The 29 year-old general Paul Armand came from Paris in the carriage of the Marquis de Courtenay / де Куртене. Armand was not married ... He had an antique best wines of France in barrels, bought up at the south. Paul Armand expected to open in Moscow own wine shop. On the way to Russia, he did not know that it will suffer a financial collapse: the ship will sink with wine. ... When Paul Armand married, he did not know what would be the basis of family trade - fashionable hats. Next to the fashionable shop of Armand was
trading house of Demonet where sold not only fashionable Parisian clothes, but also French wines, perfumes, delicacies and even lamps.
No one yet suspects that family Armand and Demonet in the future intermarry. This will be the heyday of the Trade House 'Eugene Armand and his sons'. The first mention of Armand contained in the book 'History of the French colony in Moscow from 1812...' by F. Tasteven. Tasteven writes that the first Armande / Armand, who arrived in Moscow, lived in Lefortovo, then the Lubyanka. Found in the book a mention of Mr. Freda Wilde / Фридa Вильде, who lived in the early 19th century on the Arbat. They lived nearby Mademoiselle Richard, in future Madame Demons / Demonet. No one knows what the future of these three families intermarried. ... In 1812, were arrested Jean-Paul Armand and his wife Sabina, as well as members of families Demons / Demonet / Demontet and Wild. ... They have relied on weaving, building two factories in the village of Pushkino thirty miles from Moscow. ... one of the descendants of Paul Armand, Eugene Louis / Эжен Луи. He was a talented entrepreneur and intelligent man. Evgeny left a sizable fortune to his sons Eugene, Emil and Adolf. ... Eugene Louis (Louis Eugene or Луи Эжен / Евгений Иванов Арманд) became the first of Armand who strengthened the roots of the family tree in the Russian land. In 1864, having achieved considerable success in the development of the textile industry in Russia, received the prestigious international fairs of several gold medals, he petitioned the Emperor Alexander II on awarding him and
his wife (Maria Frantsova) and sons (Евгении-Франсуа / Evgenii-Francois, Адольф-Осип и Эмиль-Александр) the title of honorary citizens (April 1852).
... published this document, as well as the decree of the king... Armand were Catholics, parishioners of St. Louis church at Malaya Lubyanka in which building, together with other French settlers invested.
Eugene Louis was married in this church with a beautiful Polish - Maria Wilhelmina Pashkovskaya. Her father, Franciszek Paszkowski / Francis Paszkowski was a writer and military, during Napoleon's Italian campaign, he served as adjutant to Murat. ... Young Catholics family donated money and the Orthodox St. Nicholas Church in Pushkino.
When Armand moved to Orthodoxy, were baptized in this church grandchildren of Louis Eugene / Yevgeny Ivanovich. In the same church my grandmother Rene changed the Church of England to Orthodox in order to get married and named her Mary. But this name is never called, but gave it to her daughter (the couple had six children). ... Evgeny Armand, the eldest son, who worked in a textile factory as manager, after father's death led the family business. Evgeny married a girl from Demonets / Demonet / Demontet family, most of those family lived at the Kuznetsk bridge. Demonets have sent them son Charles (in Russia it was called Karl in German style) to study medicine, he became a prominent physician, professor of the Kharkov University. There, in Kharkov Carl and his wife, has child, Barb, in Russian - Varvara Karlovna. Marrying Eugene Armand, she gave birth to eleven children who safely reached maturity. ... For the Orthodox communion Inessa took its second name - Elizabeth. Now, according to the documents became Elizabeth Armand. Renee Louise Justine, which in the family simply called Rene. She graduated in Paris College of Music. Parisienne recently arrived in Russia had difficulties with the Russian language, which almost did not know. Therefore, in the family Armand, where the native language was still French, she immediately felt at home. ... After the wedding, Evgenii / Evgeny bought the estate near Pushkino for the two eldest sons. Alexander received the village Eldigino, Nicholas and Renee - Aleshino village, just five miles one from another. After the wedding term Inessa first child was born. He was named after his father. After Alexander Alexandrovich was born Fyodor / Fedor - Theodore. In memory of her father. After just a year and a half was born a girl. She received her mother's name. At first her family called 'Inessa small'. The next child was the Varia, named after her grandmother, Barbara Karlovna Demonets Armand. ...
In April 1897, were arrested three young men from the family Armand: Leo Emilevich, Boris, a student at Moscow University, and Евгений Евгеньевич Каммер / Evgeny Kammer, a student at Moscow Technical School and relative of Armand. Kammer older sister Mary was married to Sergei Yevgenyevich Armand, and brother had lived in Pushkin with his family. Armand's relative hired a tutor to younger children. It was in the room of Kammer gendarmes found illegal warehouse printed and manuscript editions for screen printing machine, many ready stencils, paint, stacks of writing paper. ...
Alexander E. Armand was busy from morning till night. In addition to managing the factories, it duties as a member of the Moscow City Duma, Zemstvo Assembly, a member of the Special Committee on charity beggars. Inessa decided to engage in charity. She began to visit homes in Eldigino and workers in Pushkin. ... She talked about her endeavor only to Anna his sister-in-law. Anna Armand married a Pole by the name of Konstantynowicz. Her husband Apollo, engineer, represented the interests of Russia in a major French company of Breguet for the production and trade of electromechanical structures. With his father-in-law Evgeny / Evgenii Evgenievich Armand, he was linked not only by family, but also in business relationships. He become the Chairman of the Board of JSC 'Dyuflon, Konstantynowicz and Co.', as the head of the family clan and Alexander E., husband of Inez, was also elected one of the directors. In the same company acted Lyudvigovich Emmanuel Nobel, nephew of Alfred Nobel, who instituted a unique prize. While husbands are engaged in business, their wives are actively discussing ways to improve public life. Relatives friends began appearing at the family table... Semenovykh-Prozorovsky, Armand Maria Nikolaevna, who had married a son of the chief architect of Moscow... There is a curious picture, made ​​in 1906. At the head of the table - one of the sisters whose face is not visible. The right hand of her father - Evgeny Evgenievich, near Renee, then Inessa with Andriusha kneeling, opposite - Vladimir, and near the samovar - Anna Evgenievna Konstantynowicz. Old photo conveys a friendly family atmosphere. Of the six members of the family who were peacefully drinking tea and smiling to each other, three - revolutionaries. Inessa, Volodya, Anna ... Anna Konstantynowicz, heiress of her husband, who died in 1902, go abroad, where she became friends with the first social democratic circles, and then, following the example of Inessa, will join the Bolsheviks.

Most of his fortune she will donate to the party funds, and together with Lenin, Krupskaya, Inessa and other Bolsheviks back in the famous sealed train to Russia.

This group of people go down in history as a gang of villains who interrupted Russia's path to prosperity. But how can these people suspected of criminal intent to destroy the country?
Inessa and Anna Konstantynowicz, Alexander, Boris, Vladimir Armand who participated in the revolutionary movement, could continue measured life. But they did not allow a conscience.
... the family, who tried to reorganize society. ... loved aunt Inessa, Aunt Anna, and was genuinely happy when they returned from a long exile. Abroad will be only adult son of Anna Konstantynowicz and Apollo, and it is the only branch of the family Armand, which again take root in their historic homeland, France. All others (??) remain in Russia and share unhappiness people. ... Alexander E. Armand's wife released without scandal and even the parents explained everything. Couple immediately went to the Cote d'Azur in Nice. One could only imagine the feelings of parents and the whole family. Volodya was the youngest and most beloved son. Inessa was beloved daughter...".

Many years later Grand Duke Sandro settled in Nice. Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich Sandro Sasho was a key figure in the development of the Russian air force; b. 1866 Tbilisi, d. 1933, Nice, France. Freemason, Philalethes, near by the Russian military intelligence service.
Copyright by http://www.leon-bakst.com/php/famille.php?lang=ru
Inessa Armand born in Paris on 8th May, 1874. Name variations: Ines Stéphane / Eлизавета Фёдоровна / Ines Elisabeth Stephane / Elise / Elisabeth / Elisaveta / Стеффeн / Steffen / Comrade Inessa and Elena Blonina. Born Elizabeth Stephane, was daughter of Theodore Pecheux d'Herbenville and Nathalie Wild; married Alexander Armand, Oct 3, 1893.

Alexandre Dumas points to Pescheux d'Herbenville / Pecheux and Ernest Duchatelet were involved in political trials at the time but the person who shot Alfred Galois (a duel) was by the initials L. D., a member of the Society of Friends of the People (La Societe des Amis du Peuple, in France created in 1830, fighting for a republic and for political enlightenment of progressive workers. After the 1833 trial, the society ceased to exist, acc. to 2010 The Gale Group, Inc).
And after - when she was only five - Elizabeth Stephane or Ines / Inessa was brought up by an aunt - new governess and grandmother living in Moscow - around 1880. Anna Asknazi vel Askenazy was friend of Inessa Armand in Moscow of 1909 and also doctor N. N. Pechkin, Boris Armand, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich / Константинович who helped out financially, Natalia Emil'evna, the twin Brilling brothers-in-law, Alexander Armand.
At the age of eighteen she married
Alexander Armand, the son of Evgenii Armand, a successful textile manufacturer in Pushkino near by Moscow. At the age of 19 she knew only two languages until as adult she learned German and Polish.

Who was Inessa Armand? "Date of birth: May 8th 1874, according to Eglish Wiki, and April 26th 1874 – to Russian. Her father, a singer, is described almost identically everywhere, but her mother, Nathalie Wild, is called simply 'a comedian' in English Wiki, a 'half-French, half-English Jewish actress' in Russian. Other Russian-language sources mention only that her parents were 'actors', another one informs us that, possibly, her parents were not officially married at the time of her birth...".

Now few details about life of Inessa Armand. Source: http://creakypavillion.wordpress.com/.
Date of birth: May 8th 1874 or April 26th 1874. Her father, a singer, and her mother,
Nathalie Wild, a comedian or half-French, half-English Jewish actress. Inessa's mother, Natalie Wild, also came from a French family that had settled in Moscow, although her roots was from Franche-Comte of France. Her father was a language teacher, and the Wilds naturally came to know the Armands. Natalie back from Moscow to live with a French, Theodore Stephane, and Ines / Inessa had been born in Paris 1874, as the eldest of three girls, born four months before her parents were married. In Pushkino, the Wilds had friends.
In 1879 her father's contract with the Grand-Theatre in Lyons ended. The notices of his performances in such operas as The Thief of Baghdad, Rigoletto, and even Faust were often good. They returned to Paris, where he rejoined the Théâtre de la Gaietie, but the marriage with Natalie had become troubled, and they parted, leaving Natalie, pregnant. Natalie's mother and her sister, Sophie, visited Paris in 1879, probably to help Natalie. They took Inessa back with them to Moscow. Sophie was a tutor to various Moscow families, possibly at times to the Armands as a governess, and she and her mother educated Inessa at home. Inessa's father, by his death certificate, lived on, for six years - to 1885 - after she had left Paris in 1879. In 1889 doesn't mention her sister, Inessa appeared in Russia again.
Inessa had moved to Moscow with family and she moved directly into house of her future husband, Alexander Armand, because her aunt was employed there. In 1891, when Inessa was seventeen, her grandmother died, and mother Natalie brought her other two daughters to Russia to live in the Moscow apartment, probably near Kouznietsky-Most.
She and her sister played pianoforte; her aunt provided all her schooling and she received perfect education in Paris ? and Moscow. "Some say her aunt was forced to become a teacher to provide for her nieces", and she didn’t have a place for them to stay. Inessa and Renee just visited Armands and were acquainted with this family; next Inessa, also was a governess in Armand family.
Inessa had married when she was 19 in 1893 in Moscow. She married Alexander and her sister married into Armand family, with Boris or Nicolas. Inessa forced Alexander to marry her. Together with husband they opened a school for peasant children. She used her husband’s money for charity for prostitutes. She falls in love with his younger brother Vladimir, leaves Alexander. She never married Vladimir becasue she never formally divorced Alexander.
She became a member of a bolshevik organisation in 1904 or in 1903! In 1908 she jumped bail which her first husband Alexander paid for her, about 5000 rubles, and left Russia illegally. She joined Vladimir in Switzerland.

She met Lenin in Paris or she met him in Brussels!
Inessa Armand was to become Lenin's lover, but without her marriage and husband, she might never have been to meet Lenin.

The Armand family home was extraordinary. Originally four separate houses. Alexander's father, Eugene-Evgenii Evgenevich Armand lived with his two brothers, Emil and Adolf. Alexander's ancestor Paul was killed and Paul's son, Ivan, started a wine-import business. It was Ivan's son, the first Eugene, who founded the Armand fortunes. Alexander's father, also named Eugene, was converting from the Roman Catholic faith to Russian Orthodoxy, and Alexander, like most of his brothers and sisters, was Orthodoxy.

At least of 10 December 1908 Inessa Armand wanted to attend the First All-Russian Women's Congress in St Petersburg with her sister-in-law, Anna Evgen'evna Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz / Константинович. Inessa was lover of Lenin since 1909 or 1910, but according to 'Correspondence of Lenin and ... organizations. 1903-1905 years', Volume 3, the first book, we know that Lenin sent a cliche of 'Iskra' / 'Sparks' at Dyuflon address in Yekaterinburg (p. 332, here also name of Konstantynowicz!) in 1903. "Inessa Armand. Revolutionary and Feminist" by R. C. Elwood, p.74 - Inessa was on her honeymoon with Lenin who showed up in Copenhagen without his wife Krupskaia.
Inessa spent the time with her sister-in-law Anna Konstantinovich / Константинович, whom she apparently visited in Leipzig during the month of August 1910. Inessa and Anna would finish the summer by attending the Conference of Socialist Women in Copenhagen. Inessa very likely was accompanied by her sister-in-law Anna Konstantinovich, rather than by Lenin during the days of the 1910 congress. On Sunday 28 August 1910 after the Women's Conference had closed, Inessa and perhaps Anna Konstantinovich attended the opening ceremonies of the Eighth Congress of the Second International using two guest tickets obtained for Armand by Lenin in Copenhagen, according to P. P. Bulanov, Moscov 1925, 75.
In 1911 Armand became secretary for the Committee of Foreign Organisations established to coordinate all Bolshevik groups in Western Europe.

Dr. Edward Reilly
from Australia when was visiting Marijampole, Lithuania, in Oct. 2003, had seen the grave of Lenin's (??) son, Guards Captain Andrej Armand, who fell in Oct. 1944 as the front Lenin, Anna Konstantynowicz / Константинович and Inessa Armand in train from Switzerland, Germany, Sweden to Finland, April 1917. Copyright by http://www.pseudology.org/Bank/PlombVagon85.htm pushed towards Prussia. 

When Lenin was writing to Inessa Armand to Moscow by 16 February 1920, asked her about any products which were sent to Konstantynowicz (according to 'Lenin in his life. ...' by Е. Н. Guslarov; address of Inessa: Nieglinnaja street, house 9, flat No 6; s. 226). 

Anna Konstantynowicz, Lenin Ulyanov and Inessa / Ines Armand in a sealed train, April 1917 The coup d'etat by Lenin in 1917 Lenin and his money

The Armand noble family

Paul Armand was born probably in 1770, acc. to unpublished memoirs of David L. Armand. Paul Armand with wife Angelica daughter of Charles (1765 in Alsatia - 1813 in Moscow) and with 14-year-old son, Jean (Jean / Ivan / Jean-Louis Armand born 1786 or 1798 - died 1855 in Moscowwent to Moscow in 1812, when Napoleon was in Moscow but this family has appeared in Russia at the end of the XVIII century, an escape from the terror of the French RevolutionWhen Napoleon had to withdraw, Paul had no choice to withdraw together with the French army (author Svetlana Alexandrovna Krylatov, a descendant of the family Kurtener, during a meeting of the descendants of the merchant families in the former Merchants Club in Malaya Dmitrovka in 1990). Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand was b. 1809 and died 1890, was a son of Jean Armand / Ivan and his first wife Elizabeth Osipovna (born 1788, died 1817) called Sabina, and the second wife was Marie Barbe, born Kolinon (1780 - 1872) who had a daughter Sophia, later married a Swede from Estonia (or Latvia - the Livland government), Jozef Hacker / Joseph Hakker / Osip Hecke / Hekke.

Samples:
Hacker / Hakker / Häcker, Wilhelm Ferdinand, born in 1774, d. Riga 27. 11. 1842; his sons: 1. Ferdinand Eduard Hacker, Dorpat 4. 11. 1812, d. Riga 1877, m. in Lübeck in 1835 to Friederike Hernquist; 2. Woldemar Magnus Hacker, Riga 27. 10. 1818, d. 1888, m. in Riga 1851 to Juliane Georgine Mittmann, second married to Carolina Meyenn; his sons: 1. Julius Hacker (1852-1896), 2. Wilhelm Woldemar Hacker b. Riga in 1859, m. in Riga in 1900 to Erna Burkhard; son: Fritz Woldemar Jacob Hacker born in Riga 1903.

The COLLIGNON family in France was living in Lorraine 1835 (Meuse), Ile-de-France 1725, and in Russia 1858, in St Petersburg: Charles Collignon, engineer; Édouard Collignon - after graduating from the l'École polytechnique in 1849, in 1857 to 1862 he played an important role in the construction of railways from Saint Petersburg to Warsaw. Marie Barbe COLLIGNON (b. ca 1804 in Mercy-le-Haut, died 12 July 1883 in Tucquegnieux), married to Louis FLOSSE, born 10 April 1800, her father Joseph COLLIGNON b. 1774 in Mercy-le-Haut - his parents Nicolas COLLIGNON and Anne HURLAUX. François Collignon b. 1673, his father Hubert Collignon; Nicolas Collignon was son of above Francois; Nicolas Collignon b. 1723, his son Nicolas Collignon 2nd b. 1752, granddaughter Marie Barbe Collignon (b. 1786, d. 1831 and completely different person then above Marie b. ca 1804) - her husband François Navel.
Sabine father has name Evgen the 'first'.

Sophia was the daughter of Ivan from his second marriage and was born c. 1830, she was granddaughter of Paul that is Pavel. She married a Swede - Joseph Hekke (Hacker or Hakker) about 1850. No data about this Swede (from Eesti / Estland / Estonia). From this marriage was the oldest Maria Osipovna that is daughter of Osip / Joseph. She was born about 1851. The second child was 12 years later, and was born about 1863 - Sophia Osipovna. And about 1864 Alexandr son. When their parents died c. 1866, a guardian was appointed - uncle Evgeny 'second' Armand. He put children in his office in the Old Square and Evgeny hired a governess for the children about 1867.

In the second half of the 19th century lived with the Armand family a governess, girls Inessa and Rene Stefan, both were married to two brothers Armand, Alexander and Nicholas. Inessa Fedorovna in 1903, leaving her husband, lived with his brother Volodya and after escaping from exile in 1909, Inessa Fedorovna went to Switzerland, where she was waiting for Vladimir / Volodya.  Alexander went to Belgium, graduated on engineer to manage a factory of his father. After collectivization in 1930 he appealed to Alechinsky farm and lived until 1943.

Maria Osipovna was a musician and student of Nicholas Rubinstein (Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein b. 1835 and was a Russian pianist, the younger brother of Anton Rubinstein; with Nikolai Pietrovich Trubetskoy / Prince Nikolai Petrovitch Troubetzkoy born 1828 died 1900, was the founder of the Moscow Conservatory). Sophia, daughter of Joseph was graduated from high school. Amateurishly painted. She was  in love with the youngest of the cousins ​​- Emil, third son of Eugene / Evgeny and soon married about 1883. The Catholic Church blessed the couple. Alexandr son of Joseph, wanted to become a monk, but he went to the army, and eventually became a police officer. 


Evgeny Armand Ivanovich / 
Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand
Evgeny Armand Ivanovich / Evgeny second / Eugene-Louis Armand was b. 1809 and died 1890, was a son of Jean Armand / Ivan and his first wife Elizabeth; was married to a Polish woman, Catholic - Mary Frantsevna Pashkovskaya / Maria Paszkowski (Пашковские) daughter of Franciszek.

She was born
1819 and died 1901


and was
highly educated, c. 1840 studied painting in France; she was a woman of strong and humble disposition.

Eugeniusz Ludwik Armand / Eugene Louis was married to a beautiful Polish - Maria Wilhelmina Pashkovskaya. Her father, Franciszek Paszkowski / Francis Paszkowski was a writer and military, during Napoleon's Italian campaign, he served as adjutant to Murat. ... Young Catholics family donated money the Orthodox St. Nicholas Church in Pushkino.
When Armand moved to Orthodoxy, grandchildren of Louis Eugene / Yevgeny Ivanovich were baptized in this church.

Maria had a tender heart. In contrast to the position of her husband, his wife was educated, and drew quite well, in France she drew the ruins of castles and really liked them; Evgeny built in a park such ruins.  

She was daughter of
general Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski
with the Zadora coat of arms
who was born 12 October 1778 in Brody - d. 11 March 1856 in Cracow, friend of general Tadeusz Kosciuszko.

Dominik Paszkowski
born 1783 in Brody, the Lwow province; his father Jan Paszkowski was born c. 1750 and has got the Zadora coat of arms; married c. 1770 / 1777 and Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski, general, was
his first son.

General Franciszek Paszkowski.
In May 1797, he emigrated to Italy, where he joined the Polish Legions (in September 1800, was assigned to the Italian Legion): III Battalion 2 Legion. The 1799 Campaign in Italy; he was a lecturer in history at the School of Military legion in Mantua, but he also taught mathematics and languages.
He worked with General Rymkiewicz and Cyprian Godebski, became friend with Joseph Kalasanty Szaniawski and Andrew Horodyski / Andrzej Horodyski;
the Legion of Verona, in the siege of Mantua and after the capitulation was captured Austrian. Despite the fact that Marshal Lannes had no Poles on his Staff, Captain Milkiewicz and
Captain Paszkowski served as Staff Officers for Marshal Ney.
In 1798 Cpt. Adjutant Major; 1800, the Italian Legion on the staff at the side of General Wielhorski.
Attached to Gen. Lapoype and served his aide;
in December 1801, Paszkowski wanted to emigree to the United States.
In 1801 he met Kosciuszko and the next three years he spent at his side, gathering material for a biography.
In 1804-1805 he served in the military camp of Chalons-sur-Marne. Chalons-en-Champagne or Chalons-sur-Marne, in northern France, capital of the Champagne-Ardenne region.
In the campaign of 1805, fought in the cavalry of Marshal Joachim Murat, as a translator and - by Wężyk - was adjutant of Murat.
Did not lose contact with Kosciuszko.
During the War of the Third Coalition Paszkowski distinguished himself at the Battle of Austerlitz, also participated in the campaign of 1806, in November 1806, together with Murat came to Warsaw. Next served I Battalion 3 regiment with the rank of lieutenant colonel; December 1807 - Colonel and Chief of Staff of the Legion.
With General Stanislaw Fiszer stay in Paris 1807, he served as Chief of the General Staff.
1809 - adjutant of the Saxon King Friedrich August / Frederick Augustus Duke of Warsaw; was awarded the Military Cross Polish (Military Virtue). Zamosc and Cracow.
In 1812, commanded the 2nd Brigade of the 16th Infantry Division under General Zayonchek / Jozef Zajaczek: Smolensk, Borodino and Czirikov; to Vilnius traveled together with Fr. Joseph; 1812 he was promoted to brigadier general; Warsaw, in January 1813, Modlin; from Krakow to Dresden - after the capitulation of Dresden was captured by the Austrian and he was in the Hungarian city of Zalaegerszeg. After the Treaty of Paris returned to the country.

General F. M. Paszkowski was living in Tonie located north-west of Cracow, close to Bronowice Wielkie. Among prominent holders of Tonie were:
Bernard Wapowski, Sierakowski rector of the Cathedral of Wawel, after his death in 1806 village became the property of the Austrian state, since 1820, Tonie leased General Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski, followed by his nephew

(Franciszek Paszkowski born 26 March 1818 in Warsaw, Member of the National Parliament of Galicia, son of Dominic Paszkowski (1783-1866) and Anna Niemojewski d. 1872, brother of Joseph Edmund Paszkowski, studied painting at the Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts, studied painting in Düsseldorf, in Dresden and Rome; after uncle General Francis Maximilian Paszkowski was owner of Tonie).

Lucjan Rydel in the years 1901-1912 lived here with the family, and Tetmajer. Francis Paszkowski born 27 September 1853 in Warsaw, lawyer and Member of Parliament of Galicia, was the son of Joseph Edmund and Seweryna nee Stompf, brother of Leon, in 1883, published the memoirs of Kosciuszko, the next owner of Tonie.


His family:
colonel Jozef Paszkowski 1787 - 1858.


Franciszek Paszkowski
(Franciszek Jozef Wladyslaw Paszkowski) was born 1818 and died 1883, painter - who was studied painting in Rome 1839, acc. to J. Pachonski, and after was living in Cracow; here was member of the Science Cracow Association since 1848 - after 1873; his father Dominik Paszkowski was born 1783 in Brody and was brother of general Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski (b. 1778).
Jan, the grandfather of above named Franciszek - painter was living in Brody and was born circa 1750.
Father of Franciszek - Dominik Paszkowski (at a portrait) and brother (at a portrait) Jozef Edmund Paszkowski. The same Jozef Edmund Paszkowski b. 1817 and died 1861, poet and translator.

Franciszek was a nephew of general Franciszek Maksymilian Paszkowski b. 1778 and the nephew of Wojciech Paszkowski, who was member of the independent authorities of Galicia in 1809; also he was the uncle of Franciszek Paszkowski, lawyer, b. 1853 died 1926.

Józef Franciszek Daniel Paszkowski (?= Jozef Edmund Paszkowski)
with coat of arms of Zadora was born 3 January 1817 in Warsaw and
died 1861 in Warsaw, too;

son of Dominik Paszkowski (father was born 1783 in Brody); he was related with Stompf family, the Lasocki from Lasocin with coat of arms of Dolega,  Kulikowski, Niemojewski, Gzowski families, his son Leon Ignacy Józef Paszkowski was related with Niemojewski and Falkiewicz.
Addition: Michal Paszkowski colonel of militia, died after 1819.

Maria Paszkowska that is Paszkovski has got

three sons: Eugene / Eugeniusz the 'third', Adolph / Adolf and Emilie that is Emil Armand / Aрманд (
Eugene born about 1842, Adolph b. circa 1845 and Emilie / Emil about 1847).

All the sons had taken the house close to Pushkino factory c. 1875. T
he elder son, Eugene / Evgeny was a merchant of the first guild and trading - manufacturing advisor. His wife,
Barbara Karlovna Demonets
had 12 children,

all the sons were married and all the daughters married: it was told about
 39 grandchildren Eugene and Barbara Karlovna (all
42 cousins). His wife, Barbara Karlovna  - a woman of extraordinary kindness and care, shelter under his wing all.

On the Saparov family: among others Tatela, Kalabekov,
Sofia Paat d. 1866 from Estonia / Estland (connections to the Paats' / Paats / Päts / Paat family in the Parnumaa / Parnu district; Paats' family moved to Asuncion, Paraguay in 1894; Jaan Paats b. 1861 in Mooste, Pőlva kihelkond, Vőrumaa - his father Jakob Paats b. 1833 and grandfather Peeter Paats),
Markaryan, Mary Mirimanov, Vakhtang Jalalov, Sergei Teimurazovich Melik-Beglyarov d. 1905, Varvara Maypariani, Alexander Florensky (1850-1908), Tabriz, Nikolai Romanovich Karamyan d. 1930, Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, Leo Emilevich Armand (Inessa Armand - the wife of his cousin) - Leo Emilevich Armand that is his father Emily E. / Эмилий Евгеньевич and Евгений Евгеньевич / Evgeny, father in law of Inessa Armand - were brothers; in Riga one of the descendants of this family is living. Any details: Saparov Pavel Gerasimov (1820 - 1878), was married to Sophia Paat (d. 1866), children: Saparova Anna born before 1845, Saparov Gerasimos 1845 - 1869, Saparova Elizabeth 1854? - 1919 was married to Sergei Teimurazovich Melik-Beglarov d. 1905 and
Saparov Arkady 1854 - before 1921, was married to Varvara Maypariani:
children - Saparova Elena Arkadevna,
Saparova Tamara Arkadevna (b. ca 1880?) was married 1st to Ivan Iaparidze son of Constantine Japaridze / Constantin Japaridze (b. ca 1860) from the upper Racha region of Georgia (sister Agrippina, Countess von Zarnekau (b. 1855) nee Agrippina Constantines Japaridze / აგრაფინა ჯაფარიძე, გრაფინია ფონ ზარნეკაუ and parents Constantine and Melania Japaridze; father Constantine died 1860) that is Ivan Konstantinovich Japaridze, and 2nd marriage to Leo Emilievich Armand (b. 1880) - Inessa Armand - the wife of his cousin;
Saparova Nina Arkadevna d. before 1920,
Saparova Catherine Arkadevna d. 1916 and
Saparova Maria Arkadevna.

Borowina village:

1. Jan Konstantynowicz b. 15-02-1888, the Berezyna parish, Ihumen district; 1917 officer in Moscow; married to Afina from Georgia, she was living in Moscow, too; ca October 1917 back home to Borowina; escaped with brother Franciszek Konstantynowicz in December 1918 from Borowina / Borowica to Bialystok; in 1920 he served the Balachowicz Army. Pawel / Paul Konstantynowicz Adolfovich, b. 1885 in the Minsk Province, Igumen county, Borovin; Pole, individual peasant, place of residence: Tara district, M - Noble, Sibkraya after arrest on 02/10/1930, convicted 04/08/1930 at Sibkray on 5 years labor camp, sent to Siblag of the Omsk region, source: Memorial Book of the Omsk Region. See http://iberezino.ru/Represed2.html and http://iberezino.ru/Repressed10.html. Also about Konstantynowicz Tomasz son of Ludwig Konstantynowicz / Thomas Lyudvigovich; born 01/01/1893, Borovin in the Berezinskii district, Pole, lived: Berezinski region, village Borovin / Borowina and arrested on September 25, 1937, sentenced: The Commission and the Prosecutor of the NKVD of the USSR December 17, 1937 for espionage, verdict: he was shot January 19, 1938 and place of burial - Cherven. Rehabilitated April 29, 1989 by the military prosecutor. We know now that Ludwig Konstantynowicz with the Fox coat of arms was born ca 1850 / 1860. Ludwig is a descendant of Dominik Konstantynowicz.

2.
Franciszek Konstantynowicz b. 17 / 30-10-1900 in Borowina, son of Ludwik Konstantynowicz, 1915 - 1917 military college in Moscow, 1917 met with Lenin in train to Petersburg; October 1917 back to Borowina; December 1918 escaped to Bialystok, 1920 served to the Balachowicz Army, maybe from 1919. 1921 - Szczypiorno, Plock, Tuchola, Bialystok, Warszawa, 1945 Wroclaw.

3. Ignacy; Tomasz; Paulina born in Smolarnia 1894; Pawel; Piotr; NN daughter; NN son - Adam?

Some additional information about the Konstantynowicz family on the Minsk province and other areas of Belarus:

1. 1921, the Mogilev oblast, the Bialynicze area, Pankov / Pankowo village - (probably Lankovo, 8 km north-east of Bielynichi);
2. Talkachevshchina near by Kojdanov - SW of Minsk;
3. Wiesielowo / Veselovo village in the Osipovichi district, Mogilev region;
4. 1910, Novogrudok region, Korchevichi;
5. Kossovo region, Golenchitsy;
6. Novogrudok prov., Slodchyu / Slodcze; Poles, lived in the Kossovo region in Golenchitsy;
7. 1880, Spustik village in the Minsk district, Byelorussian, peasant, after lived in Puchowicze / Pukhovichy district, Francuska Grobla / Griebla;
8. 1888, Minsk Province. Puhovitskaya parish / Puchowicze area, Podkosie village;
9. Novogrudok area, Gnoinskaya village, Pole; the resident in Kossovo region, Golenchitsy;
10. 1894, Spustik village, the Igumen County; Byelorussian, individual farmer, lived in the Osipovichi district, Yasenovka / Jasieniowka;
11. 1885, the Minsk Province, the Igumen county, Borovin / Borowina village;
12. 1875, Bolschaya Glushitsa or Gluszuca;
13. 1893, Borovin village in the Berezinskii district;
14. 1901, the Dvinsk in Latvia now;
15. Wladyslawa Saturnina Konstantynowicz, b. ca 1861, marrried on 26 July 1884 in Warsaw;
16. Szymon Konstantynowicz Sosa - from Georgia? "Sosa" is nickname only.

8.

Pilecki

Pileckis with Leliwa arms in the Vilna region in 1632 and the Trakai district in 1648, Navahrudak in 1674; first  information of 1484 and 1511; they verified the Swan coat of arms in Vilnius and Kaunas in 1807, and also the family  possessed a farmland near by Lida and close to an estate of Marshal Edward Rydz Smigly west of  Lida in the thirties of the 20th cent. 

9.

Stankiewicz

The Stankiewicz ancestry with the Wadwicz coat of arms lived in the Minsk and Mscislau provinces, according to Kasper Niesiecki, vol. 8 (among others 1648 and 1661) as early as the 17th century; the Mazyr district, the province of Polack A.D. 1674. They were related to Kotowski and Oginski families. According to Jan Ciechanowicz, vol. 5, p. 134 - 135: Stankiewicz or Stankevicius of the Mogila, Boncza and Wadwicz coats of arms; they were near related to Bilewicz (or Billewicz) family from Samaites at the turn of the 16th century. There are information about Jan Stankiewicz in Samaites and Vilna A.D. 1635 and about Michal and Adam Mikolaj here in 1648; Jan Mikolaj from Raseiniai region in 1646, and also Kazimierz in 1658; about Stefan from the Minsk province in 1697 and Adam Stankiewicz in Samaites 1788. They verified the Mogila coat of arms on March 16th, 1835 and derived from Samaites territory in Lithuania. Here they owned Raseiniai in 1535 and next moved to Vilkmerge district (Kirbutiszki and Krekszle farms). The noble Stankiewicz family with the Wadwicz coat of arms came of the Orsa district, and next in the Asmjany one, also the Minsk province and the Mscislau one. They verified the Wadwicz coat of arms in Minsk on February 25th, 1828; besides they lived in the Braslau region.  
   You can to see interesting website on the Stankiewicz family,
http://republika.pl/aord/stankiewicz.htm among other things about: 1. Wladyslaw, Adam and Witold Stankiewicz from Vilna; 2. Antoni from the Minsk government (b. circa 1870, the member of the Civil Guard in Minsk in 1918); 3. Feliks b. 1927 in Babrujsk;
   4. The  Stankiewicz family from Przydrusk village near by Daugavpils was related to colonel Jan  Stankiewicz. Przydrusk = Przydrujsk or Piedruja in the former Grand duchy of Lithuania, and Latvia now, 44 km West of Malkiewicz's Old Svolna = Stara Swolna; Jan Stankiewicz born 04.04.1862 in Vilna / Wilno as son of Franciszek Stankiewicz with the Mogila coat of arms and Pelagia nee Sienkiewicz, got married to Maria Odrowaz in 1886 and  next  as colonel served and  lived in Riga / Ryga 1887 - 1909 / 1910 and possesed the Awocin property in Latvia to c. 1910;  the friend  of   parents of  minister Jozef Beck  from Riga and acquaintance of Jozef Pilsudski  in August 1919 in Wilno;  the relation of  Butrym  family. Colonel Jan Stankiewicz was Polish educational activist and freedom fighter within the Pilsudski undercover movement before 1910 in Riga. Colonel Jan Stankiewicz had withdrawn from the  Russian Army on 01.01.1918, and the Bolsheviks assented to this discharge on 28.02.1918; reunion with family in  Smolensk  after January 1918; and next after settled  himself  in Vilna / Wilno / Vilnius in 1918 or maybe spring 1919. But he served for the Polish Army just since April 1919 and as brigade-general in October 1923; died in Milanowek near to Warsaw in December 1945.

He was mistaken for colonel Gustaw Stankiewicz  son of Marian  from the Siedlce government   b. 1860 - 1918 who was maybe commandant of the 2nd  Polish Corps in  Ukraine in  accordance with Nicman of 1995 and with a Moscow Archive of 2000, and Gustaw died in 1918 over a fight against "reds" somewhere in Ukraine;  
also he was  mistaken with  Sylwester  Stankiewicz, according to Vronskya J. of 1992.
. Sylwester Stankiewicz born 1866 and died in Taganrog close to Rostov-na-Don in March 1919;  maybe since 10th January 1918 to 28th March 1918 as the commandant of the 2nd Polish Corps in Moldova and Ukraine; General-Lieutenant Sylwester Stankiewicz after served for general Anton Denikin in the Voluntary Army with 3000 Russian soldiers; maybe since January 1919 under command of general Piotr Vrangel.  It's not plain statement seeing as turned up just now and come in from East surely. Entries in Wikipedia of  September 2008 on Gustaw and Sylwester (!) have got only currently edited references and there are mistakes in details.

Main former historians: Baginski H., Dowbor - Musnicki J., Holowko T. of  1931 and Michaelis E. of 1929 point out Russian General-Lieutenant Jan Stankiewicz as the commandant of the 2nd Polish Corps in Moldova and Ukraine during December 1917 - March 1918.

 Who was a Commander of the 2nd Polish Corps in
Soroka (Soroca by Dnister in  present north Moldova id est Soroki) and Iasi (east Romania now) in the end of January 1918 till March 08th,  1918?  Colonel Jan Stankiewicz from Riga? General Jan Stankiewicz? Old Gustaw Stankiewicz or an unknown Stankiewicz?  Sylwester Stankiewicz? 

Commander of  the 2nd  Polish Corps retreated front of Germans (a withdrawal of military forces after 
acceptance the Ukraine as ind. state by Germany on 09 February 1918 and 03 Mar. 1918) and after stayed in Iasi on  March 02nd, 1918 and came into contact  with Haller in Jaruga on
March 05th, 1918; when Romania
on the same day March 05th, 1918 concluded an alliance with  Germany - Haller and Stankiewicz with the 2nd Corps on 08th March 1918 launched  a march east and crossed Dnister river going into  Ukraine evading a disarmament in the then Romania. On the other hand General - Lieutenant Jan   Stankiewicz went out from  Czeczelnik to Kiev on March  25th, 1918, to Gen. Michaelis, and next he joined the  White Russian Gen. Aleksiejew / Alekseev by the Kuban river in April 1918 He fought north of  Stavropol in  September  -  October 1918, e.g.  battle  near by Ternovka on  October 14th, 1918 with White  Russians against "reds".  Stankiewicz took the offensive against Stalin's troops for  Astrakhan in middle of  November  1918, and after a retreat of the Voluntary Army, fought at Stavropol "White" Territory in  December 1918 and at the beginning of 1919. General Jan Stankiewicz evacuated himself  from Novorossijsk and probably arrived close by Odessa in March 1919.

 Note: the retreat of 3500 soldiers of the Voluntary Army from under Odessa commenced  at the beginning of April 1919 towards Bessarabia - it was a province of the then Romania between 1918 and 1940/44  - where the Romanians had disarmed "white" Russians, and a  part of this "Army" joined in  General 
Zeligowski 4th Division transcending Dniestr / Dnister river on 10th April 1919;  made Tschernowzy (= Chernovits, Cernivci) and Stanislavov in Poland  in June 1919.  See   Berezyna
5. Bronislaw from Riga (b. 1913, his  grandfather Nikodem was policeman in Riga).  

10.

Spychalski

The Spychalski family from Lodz, worked in a garage of Andrzejak at the beginning of the 20th century and they were acquainted with Pilsudski

Miezonka na mapie sowieckiej 1951 / 1982. Copyright by http://download.maps.vlasenko.net/smtm100/n-36-063.jpg


История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Genealogy and history of the Kanstancinovič / Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz, Trubetzkoy / Troubetskoy / Trubecki, Orlov-Denisov / Orlow Denisow, Dadiani, Nikitin, Wittgenstein, Golicyn / Golitsyn, Bagrationi / Bagration-Gruzinski / Bagration Gruzinsky, Pashkovsky / Paszkowski, Duflon / Dyuflon, Siedych / Sedoch / Staroch-Siedoch, Armand, Demonets / Demonet in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia

История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Genealogy and history of the Kanstancinovič / Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz family in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia. The Lenin Revolution 1917 - 1918.


История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Genealogy and history of the Wernadski, Modzelewski and Kanstancinovič / Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz family in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia.

История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Genealogy and history of the Dubbelt / Dubelt, Pushkin / Puszkin, Gernet, Toll, Croy, Rehbinder, Konstantinovich / Constantinovich / Constantinowitz, Armand, Paszkowski, Demonet, Kalinowski, Trubecki / Troubetzkoy / Troubetskoj, Sedykh / Siedoch, Zarako Zarakowski / Zarakovskij, Dyuflon / Duflon, Nobel, Vernadskij, Modzelewski families in the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia (Moscow, St Petersburg, Alexandrovsk, Miezonka, Berezyna, Orsha, Mahileu, Mscislaw, Riga, Tallinn, Kronstadt, Viljandi, Parnu / Parnawa, Daugavpils, Harku, Saku, Nomme, Kazan).

My grandfather Jerzy Konstantynowicz / Jurij Konstantinovich / vel Marian Konstantynowicz was a regular.
On 04 December 1918 he owned document in Marian Konstantynowicz name but he wasn't this person surely over military service in voluntary Lithuanian - Byelorussian Division. My grandfather was born on 23 April 1898 either 1897 or 23 April 1900 in the village MIEZONKA, at present Belarus: the Bjalynicy (= Belynichi) region in the Mahileu (= the Mogilev or Mahilyow province) 'oblast'; the village is situated among grand forest and southwards was big marsh - Miezonka was at a territory of the Radzivilles enormous estates before A.D. 1840. He has got papers that was born in Warsaw in 1898 or in Pohost / Pogost close to Berezyna / Berazino.
At first he learnt - Autumn 1908 - in the secondary school in
Mahileu by the river Dnjapro,

next he was transfered to Parnu / Pernau at the end of 1908: 1908 / 1909 - to 1912 a real school - Gymnasium in PÄRNU / Pernau / Parnawa / Пернов or Пярну

(
the Livland government, and Estonia present; Феллин / Fellin that is after 1917 - Вильянди / Viljandi is situated close to Parnu, and the Konstantynowicz's vel Staroch Siedoch / Sedykh / Siedoh /
Седых / Siedych
lived here. At margin: the Commander-in-chief of the Estonian Army Johan Laidoner was born 1884 in Raja farmstead near Viiratsi, site now located in nearby Vardja village in Viljandi / Viiratsi area, 2 km from Viljandi in the south. President Konstantin Pats born 1874 in Tahkuranna, Parnumaa - the Parnu district, and his grandfather Hans Pats was born 1819 in Holstre - Viljandi County / Viljandimaa - Holstre in the Paistu Parish, is situated about 10 km south east from Viljandi, Estonia.

Pärnu Coeducational Gymnasium / Pärnu Ühisgümnaasium / Boys Gymnasium of Pärnu / Pärnu Kuninga Tänav Pőhikool School is located in Pernau. The school was founded in 1861 and is the eldest school in town. It started as a school for boys. Here has studied: Tiit Kuusik, Paul Keres 1930-1934, Konstantin Päts b. 1874, graduated from Pärnu Gymnasium, 1894-98 studied law at Tartu University, 1918-38 Prime Minister, 1905-06 in Switzerland, 1906-09 in Finland. The beginning of scouting in Estonia, in 1912 back to the first troop was formed in Pärnu. The first article in the Estonian media about scouting was published in 1911. Anton Őunapuu described there the principles of scouting, and soon 'Junyi Razvedtchik' was obtained. The Pärnu troop stayed functioning as the one and only troop during the first years of scouting in Estonia, attracting 80 - 100 boys on its best days. In 1916 a troop was formed in Tartu and in 1916/17 Anton Őunapuu started scouting activities in different schools in Tallinn, where he was teaching gymnastics. Some scouts and leaders joined with Kalevlaste Maleva in 1918. In Parnu has studied: Jeannot Schotz, had been a gold medal student at Gymnasium (High School) in Pärnu before going on to Riga University; Schotz, Benno b. 1891, sculptor, at the age of two he moved to Pärnu and attended the Gymnasium there until 1911. Vilms, Jüri b. 1889 Kabala parish, Viljandi county, studied at Pärnu Gymnasium and was expelled for participating in the revolutionary events of 1905. After studying privately, he graduated from school in 1907. On 19 February 1918 Vilms, together with Konstantin Päts and Konstantin Konik, was elected a member of the Estonian Salvation Committee / the Rescue Committee. Boris Berg, Earl b. 1884 in Eastland. As a child, he lived in France, then studied at a grammar school in Pärnu. In 1901, in the footsteps of his father, George Berg, entered the Parnu Gymnasium / Lyceum, of the course 62. He served in the Office of the Ministry of Justice. Additional info on Anton Őunapuu: Anton Őunapuu born in the Vana-Vändra borough in Pärnu County, Estonia, the Liivoja farm / talu, Liivoja farm is located close to Vőhma, Imavere, Kabala / Kabbalah and Arkma village; his wife Ella Ksenia, his sister Emmeline Kald, his half sister Anna Milvek, his father Hans Őunapuu b. 1844. He started his studies in Vaki Municipality School 1897, graduatuated from Vändra Parish School in 1903. In 1908 he continued his studies at evening courses. Graduated in 1913 from Helsinki University. Worked at gymnastics schools in 1913-18; he promoted the Scout Movement in 1916 in schools of Haapsalu, Pärnu, Tallinn and Viljandi. In 1917 Őunapuu formed a Student Home Guard Squad. His friend Anton Jürgenstein b. 1861 Vana-Vändra vald, Pärnumaa, was an Estonian journalist, literary critic and politician. Jaan Tőnisson close friend and companion. Anton Jürgenstein was elected in 1907 to the Russian State Duma. Jaan Tőnisson b. 1868, near Tänassilma, Viiratsi Parish, Viljandi County, Foreign Minister of Estonia from 1931 to 1932
)

-
he knew very well spoken and written Estonian according to the Polish Ministry of Defense in Warsaw
- and

the Naval Corps (or at the Petrograd Naval College = the Naval War College; Course of Navigation Officers 1912 - December 1916) in St Petersburg and 

Genealogy of the Constantinovich family 1534 - ca 1945 in Belarus, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, Lithuania. Константинович - биография. History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives: Pushkin, Troubetzkoy, Radziwill, Piottuch-Kublicki, Sedykh from Kazan, Soltan, Oginski, Paszkowski and Kalinowski from Cracow, Zbieranowski, Zarako-Zarakowski, Malkiewicz, Armand in Moscow and Petersburg, Gernet from Estonia, Dunkel / Tunkel from Estonia, Dubbelt / Dubelt from Riga, Bakst, Demonet or De Monet, Dizeren, Azbelev, Holynski of 18th cent., Bagration-Gruzinski and Mukhrani from Sakartvelo-Georgia.

he first served in the Kronstadt Stronghold (the Bureau of Navy Transport - in a navigation ensign capacity, i.e. concretly "pra'porchik", this is a temporary rank, about equivalent to Sub-Lieut., R.N.R. in British Navy, one 1/2-inch gold stripe without curl - Dec. 1916 / March 1917). After the March (1917) Revolution and during the First World War he escaped on powerboat from the Kronstadt Stronghold to Tallinn (Reval = Revel, the capital of autonomous Estonia = Estland since March 1917) with Estonian engineer Jansen / Jannsen and stayed here since 02nd April 1917 by 02nd June of 1917; next in Petrograd on 03rd June 1917 by November 1917

Curiosity: 1. Among seamen writers was Captain 2nd rank Konstantin Konstantynowicz. 2. 1907 - first plant in Estonia built to provide power for household electric power on stream in Parnu. 3. 1908 - first radio transmission station in Estonia is built at the Russian imperial Baltic Fleet's Tallinn port. 

St Petersburg and The Duflon and Konstantynowicz Company 1892 - 1918

During the fighting between the "whites" and "reds" after the Bolshevik Revolution towards the end of 1917 (Minsk Litewski - he has been assigned on 11 December 1917 to the Cadet Legion, here in December 1917 - and at a later date in Orsha / Orsza [Christmas?] and ca 15 December 1917 in Old Bychau / Bychow) by summer 1918 my grandfather 'Marian' or Jerzy Konstantynowicz / Yuri / Георгий / Юрий Константинович served for

secret service of counter revolutionary White 1st Polish Corps 

under general Dowbor Musnicki (a scout troop of the 1st Division and next - on 27th January 1918 - under command of engineer Wroblewski - who later worked in an armoury in Pionki  in the thirties of the 20th century  keeping in touch with the Wankowicz family still - recognized Mahileu and Babrujsk) and  fought (Orsa = Orscha / Orsza, colonel Frej 16/20 January 1918 and Rahacou / Rochaczow 03rd/10th January 1918 - 4th infantry regiment, the 1st  Division of Polish Rifles, Hradzianka / Grodsjanka / Grudzjenka - North of Ossipowitschi Mahilyow google satellite maps) against the Bolsheviks for freedom of this  country; he carried out duties of courier (Minsk, Babrujsk, Barysau) for the Polish Women Rings. We must back now to Aldona nee Dzierzynski who was living in the Bobruisk district near by Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński b. 1817, who was brother of Edmund Dzierzynski b. 1829
or (date of birth is mistake maybe) Эдмунд Руфин Иосифович Дзержинский / Edmund Rufin Iosifovich Dzierzynski, b. on 15 May 1838, died in 1882 (born in Oszmiany / Oshmiany / Ошмяны, the Wilno government / Виленская губ.).

Next in the  

Civil Guard of the Minsk Government and the Government of Mahileu on 08th July 1918

- then met the family of Wankowicz (quod vide Appendix D about this family) in Old Kaluzyca = Kaluzyn because Mr. Witold "Tolo" Wankowicz was chief of the Union of Weapon in the Ihumen district  -  

autonomous section of the Polish Military Organization 

- and my grandfather was courier between the Luboszany (= Libuschany) estate and Kaluzyca in fall 1918;  see: Berezyna ; here you  can to acquaint with information about former Ihumen district and with data on the Polish in the parish of Berezino; it's a large part devoted to Polish senior officers in Tsarist Army and which next served for the 1st Polish  Corps in Belarus in 1917 - 1918;  Jerzy Konstantynowicz vel Marian Konstantynowicz

my grandfather was near to general Wejtko (ensign of orderly in Minsk and Vilna 1918) in  the  

Self-defence of Lithuania and Belarus - on 22nd November 1918 from Minsk Litewski to Wilno / Vilnius, and 04th December 1918 in Lapy close to Bialystok to Polish Army - 15th December 1918 a school of the Kowno Regiment

- after the collapse of tsarist Russia, Poland regained its independence after 123 years  of  foreign rule and he was professional officer in the 

military intelligence service of  Polish Army 

(namely IInd Bureau of the General Staff - determination according to "The Secret Story of SOE (...)" by W. J.  M. Mackenzie, U.K. 2000, p. 312; 04 December 1918 he owned document in Marian Konstantynowicz  name but he wasn't this person surely over military service in voluntary Lithuanian - Byelorussian  Division) 1918 - 1947; military oath in Vilna on December 29th, 1918 during defense of  the town against Soviet troops; the 77th Kovno Regiment next; he served when Poland  was fighting with the Bolsheviks in defense of its independence (20 February 1919 Rozanka, Slonim, Nowogrodek, Minsk Litewski, 11 March 1919 to 10th May 1919 ? - 1920). 

The LIDA garrison (the barracks had name of Marshal Edward Rydz Smigly; the 77th Infantry  Regiment handed over an estate to the Marshal west of Lida near by a farmland of famous Pilecki family;  a pilot and the pioneer of Polish air force Witold Worbek Lettaw from Lithuania (the Lettowt family was verified  in the Kaunas government in 1844 - 1847 and in Vilna on 03.05.1827 as Letowt; also as Letovt Vorbek or von Lettow Vorbeck, v.  Lettow-Vorbeck, Lettow von Vorbek) acted in this garrison) by morning 18 - 09 - 1939; my grandfather at the night 17 / 18 September 1939 co-organized burning of the LIDA  garrison's documentation and next was in Landwarow (= Lentvaris) on  September 19th, 1939,  ZAWIASY, probably arrived at the Rudziszki (= Rudiskes) station and to Grodno 20th  September 1939. He gone on Lithuania on September 21st (= Litauen; was interned and after registered  at the Vievis station 21st   September 1939; see more information about Polish September 1939: http://konstantynowicz.info) 1939; he was in  camps for prisoners of war in: Palanga, relocated to Vilkaviskis Ponoj (= Ponoi in USSR   Karta), Archangel / Archangelsk and Viazniki / at the Wjasniki station (here in August 1941; that is  the Jusha camp = Jusk); 

  Walki z sowietami po 23 wrzesnia 1939  New website! © author Bogdan Konstantynowicz

September 1941 - May 1947 Army of general Anders. 1947 -- 1948 émigré from Italy to ARGENTINA. He lived after in Mexico or New Mexico, too. I am unclear about where he died; he used pseudonym Stankiewicz / Antoni Stanislaw Stankiewicz ? as though a second surname.

A few details after 10 years of my websites:
My grandfather was rarely at home before The Second World War. He traveled often for longer. With these expeditions brought particular trophies. What it was? These trophies from the trips were the Bolshevik guns called "revolver" or "Nagan" with a large caliber. He had a drawer in his office in the garrison of the 77th infantry regiment in Lida, full of them always. Probably, he killed enemies acc. to my father, on behalf of the Polish state. So my father spoke to us, grandfather often had to be on a secret trip to the Soviet Union. When he left the garrison and was in the central Poland, it received the nick-name Stankiewicz. For his interlocutors he took as a gift the Bolshevik guns. Once he was at the anniversary meeting of the members of the Polish Military Organization in Krakow and he was wearing a colonel's uniform. He had several biographies: according to one worked for the mobilization department of the Ministry of Defence. According to another legend, was an accountant. Still other data said that already in Tsarist Russia was learning to future employee of military intelligence, probably in the range of encryption and radio. The course includes swam on the Russian battleship - "Petropavlovsk". During World War I it was stationed in Helsinki. In 1918, in Miezonka and Bobruisk he walked in uniform of the tsarist army probably "junker", very decorative, according to his colleague from Miezonka. Also he used the birth certificate of Marian Konstantinovich, who died shortly after birth, but he was baptized. The new born baby died when his mother Anna also died - she was from the home of Malkiewicz family. These false documents indicated to Stanislaus Konstantynowicz as his adoptive father. When in 1939 he was in a camp for Polish interned soldiers in Palanga, Lithuania has used for identification in contact with the family, a sailing ship picture. In 1947 Marian Konstantynowicz settled near to Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Acc. to KONSTANTYNOWICZ Immigration Records on the Port of Buenos Aires in Argentina, at http://www.hebrewsurnames.com/ we read: KONSTANTYNOWICZ, JAN aged 25, ORTODOX, Polish, on 01/02/1929 arrived to BUENOS AIRES; KONSTANTYNOWICZ, MARIA aged 57, householder, Catholic, from Italy, ship EMPIRE HALBERD, dep. GENOVA, arrived on 20/11/1947 to BUENOS AIRES, was born in ROMA; KONSTANTYNOWICZ, MARIAN aged 47, Catholic, Polish, ship EMPIRE HALBERD, dep. GENOVA, arrived on 20/11/1947 to BUENOS AIRES, born in MIEZONKA; KONSTANTYNOWICZ, STEFAN aged 22, Catholic, Polish, from CHERBURG, arrived 03/08/1927 to BUENOS AIRES, born in ZYDOWSKIE; and again KONSTANTYNOWICZ, STEFAN aged 28, from TRIESTE arrived on 18/09/1932 to BUENOS AIRES, was born in ZYDOWSKIE. These data were obtained from www.cemla.com.

After 1948 all marks after Marian Konstantynowicz are interrupted. It is known, however, that Marian Konstantynowicz next was in Mexico. No one knows where or when he died.

Before the Second World War my grandfather did not have in the then Poland any family of his parents. My family in the twenties and thirties of the twentieth century, was running an extensive exchange of correspondence mainly from Estonia and in second place with Finland and Latvia. At a later point were letters from Lithuania.

More about Estonia, Finland, Sweden and Latvia in combination with radiotelegraphy, communications, telephone, radio tubes, wiring, and transmission of information by radio to the next page of my genealogy.

История фамилии Константинович - генеалогия семьи. Estonia, Finland, Sweden and Latvia in combination with radiotelegraphy, communications, telephone, radio tubes, wiring, and transmission of information by radio in Russia 1892 - 1918. Genealogy and history of the Kanstancinovič / Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz.

His particular personal signs acc. to UK Ministry of Defense (photo of 1934): 

- his blood - group: A

-  a scar under right knee

- he was 160 cm tall.

Berezyna

The residents of Miezonka - Polish noble locality at the beginning of the 20th cent. 

Umecki

near by Lodz now

Tumilowicz

(Miezonka and neighbourhood) Jan and Florian sons of Jozef, Leon and Piotr sons of Foma, Wasyl and Felicjan sons of Ilin, Jakub and Maciej sons of Wincenty and others; close to Dzierzynski family (brother of Felix); one of them Boleslaw worked at the Monitz factory in Lodz, was born c. 1901 in Miezonka number 9, he had two sisters and brother Bronislaw, nowadays in Poland (near by Lodz, too

Bronowicki

Lodz at a later date 

madam Zaleski

 

Barszczewski

Adam the son of Wincenty and Jan the son of a.n. Adam 

Soroko

= Soroka, Saroka of Leliwa and Suchekomnaty arms in the Brest province and at a later date in Vilkmerge area, Dzisna  region since 1571; related to Bulhak noble family and Koziell house; some estates in the Trakai  district in 1607; Siberia  now 

Konstantynowicz

among others Bydgoszcz now 

Szostak

i.e. Sastakas with Dabrowa coat of arms and Tartars with Swan arms (they lived in the Lida and Vilna  districts, for example A.D. 1764, and also in the Svencionys district A.D. 1835, derived from Tartar Szostak according to  S. Dziadulewicz and verified in Minsk and Vicebsk); Stanislaw Szostak was from this family, person of the  same age what my grandfather, he learnt at the "Nikolai - Ingenieurschule" (the air section was here during the First world war) in Petersburg by November 1917, defender of the Winter Palace on  07  November 1917, colonel of armoured weapon 1944 - 1947. According to Dariusz Szostak of 2011: Stanislaw Szostak born 14 January 1898 in Bobrujsk / Bobruisk, baptized in church of Berezyna, died 11 February 1961, 1908 - 1915 school in Bobrujsk, 1915 / November 1917 in Petrograd, all summers in Miezonka, 1917 / 1918 1st Polish Corps in Bobruisk, on 15 November 1918 escaped from Miezonka together with Karol Zbieranowski and M. Andrzejak, to 03rd December 1918 in Ihumen / Cerven, 06 December 1918 Lapy near by Bialystok in Polish Army, together with Ludwik Andrzejak, Marian Andrzejak, Karol Zbieranowski; in Zambrow after served for Lithuanian-Belarussian Voluntary Division; jailed 29 October 1917 to 18 December 1917 in Petrograd. 1939 Grodno, major 1939, 1939 / 1940 Lithuania, 1940 / 1941 Soviet camps, 1941 / 1947 Polish Army of General Anders. Summer 1946 in UK.

A few interesting facts about families coming from Miezonka. Antoni Szostak / Anthony Szostak born ca 1830 in the Vicebsk government, since ca 1864 in Miezonka or maybe ca 1850 the Berezina parish, the Pogost / Pohost district, The Ihumen county. He bought ca 75 ha in Miezonka, because of the act of 1861 this area of nobility been subjected to enfranchisement, and not divided and allocated among peasants, he was nobleman.
His wife Anna / Ann Nieciejewska / Nieciejowska, born ca 1835 in Hrynice / Grenica, south-west of the Berezina, close to the river of Berezina. She was sister of Eugeniusz / Eugene Nieciejowski senior, was married ca 1860/1864 in Miezonka and here she was living. Anna Nieciejowska's / Nieciejewski brother: Eugene b. 1826 in Hrynice, the Berezina / or Berezino / Berazino parish, he was killed by soldiers of the Red Army close to Berezina in 1922, aged 96. Nobleman with the Poraj coat of arms. This arms was confirmed in 1836 in the Minsk government. His wife died before 1914.

And others Nieciejewski: 1863/1864 - Anthony Nieciejewski son of Peter Nieciejewski, Anthony son of Casimir Nieciejewski or Niecijewski; Jan and Michal Nieciowski. Shot by the NKVD in 1939 - 1941: Francis, son of Francis Nieciejewski (born 1901) living in Grodno; Jozef son of Francis, born in 1899, killed in Grodno; Kazimierz son of John Nieciejewski, lived in Pinsk?, born in 1915; Jozef son of Mikolaj Nieciejowski, b. 1902 killed in Grodno; Aurelia voto Nieciejewska, was born in 1913.

Acc. to Dunin, 1836 nobility with coat of arms Poraj, 1836 confirmed in the Minsk government. Piorunowy Most, Hrynica, Usochy in the Ihumen County, acc to Leszczyc of 1908/1913, Nieciecki only.

Children of above named Eugene Nieciejewski, brother of Anna Szostak: Maria married to Wladyslaw Szostak, Bronislaw Nieciejewski, Stanislaw and unknown son, born ca 1875/1880, in Hrynica maybe, his wife unknown name has two children Sophia and Eugene Nieciejewski junior, lived in Warsaw, the Dabrowski street. This wife b ca 1880, died in the 50' of the 20th cent. in Warsaw, were she was living since 1948. Above Bronislaw Nieciejewski, General of the Russian Army, b ca 1870 in Hrynica, co-operated with the Bolshevik groups before 1914, 'count', in 1917 in the Soviet Russia, August 1918 in the Red Army, a lecturer in military school in Moscow, killed in Moscow run over by a tram ca 1935, he known Stanislaw Szostak. Above Stanislaw Nieciejewski b ca 1872.

Children of Anthony Szostak (the Szostak family from the Vicebsk government, nobility) and Anna Nieciejewska: Faustina b. Miezonka, 1919 lived in Miezonka; Beata born in Miezonka, ca 1930 the Urals mountains, lived in Ufa, died here, she has children, husband Arthur Duszewski, Ural mountains exile, here died in Ufa; Wincenty Szostak / Vincent Szostak born in Miezonka, wife Maria; Maria nee Szostak, b in Miezonka, winter 1929/1930 exiled to Siberia, back from Siberia to..., husband Narcissus Soroko / Narcyz Soroka, born in Miezonka, 1929/1930 is exiled to Siberia, he was born ca 1865/1870; Mamert Szostak, born Miezonka, single, died during the exile road in winter 1929/1930; Pawel Szostak b. ca 1875, Miezonka, single, lived in Miezonka, after 1944 in Minsk, 1940 and 1944 letters to his family from Minsk, in July 1944 from Minsk escaped to a West but he died in unknown place, 1940/1941 near by Wladyslaw Szostak his brother; Wladyslaw Szostak, born 1864 in Miezonka, lived in Bobruisk / Bobruisk, owner of the mill in Miezonka, 1940 - 1941 in Minsk Lithuanian, with Pawel Szostak, 1942 - 1945 the Pruzany / Pruzenie area, Szamotuly 1945, after Wilkowo village west Poland, died in 1948 in Wilkowo close to Swiebodzin, Mr. Dariusz Szostak discovered his tomb in the 90's of the 20th century. wife of above Wladyslaw Szostak: Maria nee Nieciejewska; above the Duszewski family was living in Ufa in Russia. Alexander Szostak son of Vincent Szostak, b 1905 in Miezonka, 1921 Radom, Poland, Railway company, 1940/1944 Warsaw, in 70' of the 20th cent. often with visit in Koluszki Stare.

Three sons of Narcissus Soroko: one was doctor in Siberia, after 1956 with his next brother was still living in Siberia, Soroko third son, b 1900 known many inf. on Miezonka, three times in Koluszki old in 50' of the 20th century, in 1958 among others, ca 1959 was living in Warsaw very short. Stanislaw Szostak born 14 January 1898 in Miezonka or Bobruisk, son of Maria nee Nieciejewska, baptized in Berezina, 1908 - 1915 Bobruisk, 1915 Petrograd / Petrograd. Maria nee Szostak, b 1900 Bobruisk, lived in Hrynica, 1920 escaped to Czemioly, 1921 in Slonim, 1925 lived in Jeziornica, 1941 - escaped to Pruzany, 1942-1945 close to Pruzany in the Prussia at this time, 1945 Wilkowo close to Swiebodzin, single, 1960 Czeremchy close to Bialystok, 1970 with visit in Miezonka and at Minsk Belarus, teacher, in the 70' known next of kin Georgians, lived in Bialystok, died in 1984 in Bialystok. Jan / John Szostak born 10 January 1905 in Svislach, lived in Bobruisk during the First World War, baptized in Svislach 30 January 1905, in 1918 with brother Stanislaw in Bobruisk, 1925 back to Poland, lived in Slonim, 1928 Lodz, 1996 spring I was talking with him, "Stanislaw Konstantynowicz was like close family" said to me, died November 1996 in Lodz, and his wife died in 1996. Alexander Szostak b Miezonka 1906, July 1920 escaped to Poland, complited the University of Vilnius, friend of Stefan Jedrychowski, close to Raczkiewicz, 1939 POW in the Soviet Union, Warsaw, married to Maria, 1940/1944 in Koluszki old, June 1944 Sulejow, with Zdzislaw Zbieranowski, 1943 letters to Jeziornica, 25 January 1945 with John Szostak and Zdzislaw Zbieranowski, 1945/1949 was working in Lodz, Warsaw after, died in 1968 in Warsaw.
Among others Lodz now  

Witkowski

= Vitovsky of 1860; among other things: Antoni and Wincenty the sons of Mikolaj and Jan who was  son of Franciszek, in period of the January Insurrection 1863 - 1864 

Malkiewicz

they had relatives in Paluse i.e. Pluszcze; information of 1958 according to Narcyz Soroko from  Siberia; among others Lodz now 

Zbieranowski

one from them, Mr. Aleksander Zbieranowski was convicted during "shahtynski"  lawsuit of 1928 - he was radio engineer and the specialist - expert of a radio valves after completion of the Polytechnic of Berlin in 1914; other - Wladyslaw Zbieranowski  was  courier of the Polish Military Organization at the district of Babrujsk A.D. 1918.

The Zbieranowski family was living in Лясковичи / Ляскавічы / Liaskavichi / Laskowicze, ca 28 km south-east of Prusy, close to Albinsk, Choromcy, Zabolotse, south of Glusk / Mogilev Province, Belarus; south of Dokol; south of Simanavichi, where was a property of Bulhak (Dzierzynska Aldona, Jerzy Bulhak). Zawoloczyce is located south-east of Simonovichi, ca 2 km, and west of Glusha, north of Liaskavichi ca 45 km.


Julian Bulhak
and Aldona Dzierzynski Kojallowicz Bulhak at the Bobruisk region
Properties of the Bulhak family in the Minsk province and others regions:
Zawołoczyce that is Заволочицы, Zavalochycy, Zavolochicy, Zavolochitsy close to Simanavichi; west of Glusha, ca 38 km west of Bobruisk / Bobruisk.
Zawołoczyce, here was Bernardine filial chapel in the village. Zawołoczyce that is Заволочицы, Zavalochycy, Zavolochicy, Zavolochitsy close to Simanavichi; west of Glusha, ca 38 km west of Bobruisk / Bobruisk.
The Bulhak family: Ліпень (Халуі) / Липень (Холуи) / Lipień (Chołuje) / Lipień (Chałui) or Халуйцы / Халуйск / Холуйск / Chołujce or Lipen / Lipien, at way from Osipovichi to Svisloch, south-west of Swislocz, and north-west of Bobruisk. 1859 - the estate Matseevich / Matsevichi / Mateevichi; 1890, the estate Bluza / Блужа-Городно close to Poddiegtiarnia, north-west of Talka, ca 26 km north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze / Asipovichy, and west of Lipien of Bulgak / Bulhak family, west of Lapichi, south-east of Marina-Gorka; Булгак Софья Ипполитовна b. 08.09.1886, Колесничи of the Копыльского р-н., south-west of Marina Gorka, south-east of Uzda, north of Sluck; d. Nov. 1937. Булгак Викентий Игнатьевич b. 1902 in Побоковичи, south-east of Osipovichi, close to Osovo, Stavishche, Protasievichi, near by Poplawy, Derevcy, Dubrolevo; Булгак Героним Станиславович b. 1855 in Сутин or Sucin, 11 km south-west of Talka, and west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze; was living in Дворище to 1937. Kamionka or Matseevich from Lipovskii in 1861 and Мацевичи / Matsevichi of Bulhak in 1867 - Mateevichi, south of Ugodino, near by Kamienka / Kamionka; west of Talka, and south of Marina Gorka; Булгак Борис Николаевич b. 1907 in Macevichi / Мацевичи. Матевичи / Мацевичи / Matewitschi / Maciejewicze i.e. Macevicy (inf. about location above), and Zuki, Budzilowka and Kondratowicze.
Budzilowka / Будзиловка in the Беломльская волость / Bielomlskaja volost; Zabrodok / Забродок and Beresniewka / Бересневка to the Bulhak family / Булгак. Беломльская волость was in the Berezina parish / Березинский church. Biegoml / Bjagolm is north of Borisow. But Бересневка is also in the Боровицкий сельсовет, the Kirov district / Кировский район - south of Kliczew; Krasny Brzeg south of Dobosnia / Dobysna - the Bulhak family property. Кухтичи close to Uzda, west; near by Rakosziczi, Siemienowiczi, east of Stolbcy, Stolbce; west of Marina Gorka. Булгак Степан Степанович b. 1893 in Луки / Luki close to Stolbce; d. after 1933. Насыцк near by Talka, south-east of Marina Gorka, north-west of Osipovichi / Osipowicze, near by Kamienka / Kamionki. And above Камионки or Kamienka close to Talka, north-west of Osipovichi. Борки - Borki close to Sbyschi / Zbyszyn of Brujewicz and close to Tschigirinka of Bulgak / Bulhak family, close to Kolbowa. Булгак Иван Цезарович b. 1907 in Borki / Борки, Бобруйского р-на; Булгак Эдуард Владимирович b. 1907 in Stankow / Станково, the Дзержинский / Dzierzynski region.
Aldona Kojałłowicz Bułhak nee Dzierżyńska, 1870 - 1966. Aldona Dzierżyński, oldest sister of Feliks Dzierzynski, 1892 married to Gedymin Jerzy Bułhak (died 1908). Her son Antoni Bulhak died after 1970, was one of the aides of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski. Anthony George Bułhak / George Bulhak (using his middle name) / Jerzy Bulhak / Antoni Jerzy Bułhak, a Polish citizen, the son of Gediminas Bulhak and Aldona Dzierzynski / Dzerzhinsky, was born in Zawołoczyce, on March 3, 1898 (or he was baptized in Zawoloczyce - Bulhak estate was near by this chapel in the Marina Gorka region); married Wanda nee Juchniewicz, born in Vilnius, March 8, 1901, the daughter of Caesar / Cezary and Mary nee Pilsudska / Maria Pilsudska / Maria Pilsudski. The marriage was April 11, 1923 in Vilnius.

Aldona nee Dzierzynski was living near by Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński b. 1817, who was brother of Edmund Dzierzynski b. 1829 or (date of birth is mistake maybe) Эдмунд Руфин Иосифович Дзержинский / Edmund Rufin Iosifovich Dzierzynski, b. on 15 May 1838, died in 1882 (born in Oszmiany / Oshmiany / Ошмяны, the Wilno government / Виленская губ.).

Details of the Bulhak family and Dzierzynski: BULHAK, J., Nieswiez, Slutsk, Minsk. 1793 - Itel, called also Itol, was a village in Rechitsa District of Minsk Province, owned by Bulhak noble family. Acc. to map of Louis Antoine, Rue des noyers, 70 in Paris, and a German map of March 1943: village Zadoboszenie that is Beresniewka, close to Itol / Itel, south of Borki of 'Nadberezynce' and Gresznera village; Shilitschi = Zylicze, Beresniewka = Beresnewka, Czyhyrinka = Tschigirinka, Zbyszyn of the Brujewicz family = Sbyschin. Since 1801 - Itel was a village in Bobruisk District of Minsk Empire, owned by Bulhak noble family. In 1833, Jewish families rented the land from the Itel owner nobleman Bulhak and moved there. Dobosna river was the main road for local habitants. 40 km to Bobruisk. Zhylіchy / Zhilichi / Жиличи (Добосна / Dobosna), Кировский район - the Kirov district of Mogilev region; palace and park owned Bulhak family at the end of XVIII (E. Bulhak); it was built by Ignacy Bulhak / Ignatius Bulchak in the 30s of the XIX century; Ignatius Bulhak in the War of 1812 fought with the troops of Napoleon. East of Bobruisk, close to Staraja Dobosna and Borki - west, Pawlowiczi, Bortniki, Parchimkawiczi, Kopaczewka. In Bobrujsk - land marshal Ignacy Bułhak ca. 1788 died ca. 1838.
Żylicze, Zhyliczy, Dabosnia / Dubośnia / Жиличи or Добосна / Dobośnia / Dubośna / Добасна - a village over the river of the same name. East of Bobruisk, close to Staraja Dobosna and west of Borki, close to Pawlowiczi, Bortniki, Parchimkawiczi, Kopaczewka; west of Tichiniczi. South-east of Kirowsk and Leszczenka. Owners: Gliński and Radziwills erected their residences; from the early nineteenth century to the Bolshevik Revolution was the manor house of Bulhak (Ignacy Bulhak, Edgar Bułhak and the last owner was Emanuel Bułhak) with a large palace in the classical style. In 1918, after the liquidation of Polish Corps and leaving these areas by the German army, the palace (the most beautiful Polish eastern borderlands) was ransacked, demolished, and finally burned by the local population, or by Bolshevik forces of Mikhail Tukhachevsky. Similar was an eclectic palace of Koziełł - Poklewski in Krasny Brzeg; built between 1890-1893 and designed by Eugene Szretter. Driving along the river Dobośna we got to the palace of Bulhak in Żylicze (it was to ca 2000); before World War I photographed the property of Dobośna Jan Bułhak. After World War I Dobośna was in the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. The last owner Dobośna - Emanuel Bulhak not admitted to the relationship with the famous photographer Jan Bulhak, considered himself a better branch of the family, using the title prince.

Bułhak Alexander (in the Slonim district, Siergiejewicze), with Andrzej Bułhak (Dobrzymol) and Jozefat Bulhak (Mołczad). 1930 in the Polesie and Volhynia: Bułhak Mikołaj - Sobiczyn, Bułhak Stefan - Siechnowicze, Bułhak Stefan - Żerdziki. Ліпень (Халуі) / Липень (Холуи) / Lipień (Chołuje) / Lipień (Chałui) or Халуйцы / Халуйск / Холуйск / Chołujce or Lipen / Lipien, at way from Osipovichi to Svisloch, south-west of Swislocz, and north-west of Bobruisk. 1762-1763 Franciszek Bułhak SJ, catholic priest. Bułhak Helena wife of Aleksander / Alexander Bulhak, her son Karol and Andrzej were livinig in Michałów close to Stołowicze, in the Nowodródek province. Bułhak Witold owner of Mickiewicze Wielkie in the Kleck district. Inf. on Bułhak Gabriel, office clark in 1793 and 1810. Bułhak Leon, office clark, 1809, Bułhak Jan, in 1787. Gabriel Bułhak with Syrokomla coat of arms, born ca 1750, married in 1790, child: Ignacy Bulhak, the marshal of Bobrujsk, (Ignacy Bułhak / Ignatius Bulhak in the War of 1812 fought with the troops of Napoleon; was living east of Bobruisk, close to Staraja Dobosna; the land marshal in Bobruisk; born ca. 1788 died ca. 1838. See: Baron Grigory V. Rosen (1782-1841), Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, General of Infantry, Adjutant General in 1818. Yegor Maksimovic Pillar / Pilar von Pilhau 1767-1830, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., von Pilhau Yegor Maksimovic or Georg Ludwig, from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801) his grandson married to Zofia b. ca 1830. Józef Bułhak ca 1840. Emmanuel de Bulhac / Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak b. 1865, d. 1943, the Syrokomla coat of arms, duke, philosopher. He was son of Józef Bułhak and Antonina nee Malinowski. Owner of Czehrynka and Dobośnia. After death of dad and uncles (Witold Bułhak that is Józef Witold Bułhak, owner of Czehrynka / Czyhirinka [1834], close to Niemki, Kolbowo, south of Czeczewiczy, near by Drut' river, west-south-west of Stary Byhow, and south-east of Zbyszyn of the Brujewicz family and Borki of 'Nadberezyncy' book by Czarnyszewicz Florian), he taken Bułhak properties, with library in Dobośnia palace. Tchegrinka / Czehrynka through Tchechevitche, government of Minsk / Czehrynka, the Byhow district, Ozierany parish. Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak was also owner of Bereśniówka / Bieresniowka, south-west of above Czehrynka / Czyhirinka, close to Sieliba, Niehowla, north of Dobysnia; near by Dobosna river / or Dobysna river, south-east of Miezonka of Konstantynowicz.
Jerzy Bułhak-Jelski, b. 1900, d. 1972; parents: Czesław Jelski and Helena Moniuszko 1875-1946; grandparents: Józef Jelski 1830-1879 with Cecylia Wołłowicz (her father Eustachy Wołłowicz 1797) and Donat Moniuszko with Izabela Bułhak - Syrokomla (her parents: Józef Bułhak ca 1840 and Antonina Malinowska ca 1830; Izabela was sister of Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak b. 1865); Emanuel Bułhak m. Józefa Hutten-Czapski with daughter Izabella and Emanuel Bułhak adopted Jerzy Bułhak-Jelski and Władysław Bułhak). Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak b. 1865, duke, son of Józef Bułhak and Antonina Malinowski; Czehrynka and Dobośnia owner. Zofia Bułhak b. 1830, grandaughter of Ignacy Bulhak, marshal of Bobruisk. Married in 1860 to Henryk Wołłowicz b. ca 1820. Izabela Bułhak b. ca 1900 died 1930, was daughter of Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak 1865-1943 and Józefa Hutten-Czapska-Potulicka; parents of Emanuel Bulhak: Józef Bułhak b. ca 1840 and above named Antonina Malinowska b. ca 1830.
We know about Bułhak Teofila nee Wendorff. Wincenty, son of Stanisław Wincenty Michał Bulhak, 1807-09 office in Mozyr district. His wife Dubrawska / Dabrowska; relatives of Emanuel Bułhak.

Ignacy Bulhak, his children: Эдгар Игнатьевич Булгак / Edgar Ignatievich Bulgak / Bulhak (inf. of 1905, Rohaczewski ujezd / Рогачевски уезд in the Moghilev government, owned Добосна / Dobosna and Skripnica / Скрипица in the Качеричска volost); Zofia Bułhak ca 1830 + Henryk Wołłowicz born ca 1820 (Józef Wołłowicz ca 1860); Józef Bułhak b. ca 1840 + Antonina Malinowska ca 1830 (Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak 1865-1943, Izabela Bułhak ca 1870).

Edgar Bułhak 1848-1922 with relatives: Gabriel Bułhak, Józef Ślizień; Emanuel Mieczysław Bułhak 1865-1943 + 1890 Józefa Hutten-Czapska-Potulicka from Stanisław Hutten-Czapski 1860-1922 and Jadwiga Maria Emilia Potulicka. Next of kin Jerzy Bułhak-Jelski 1900-1972, Donat Moniuszko ca 1850; Eliza Moniuszko, Helena Moniuszko; Ignacy Bułhak / Bulgakov Ignat: from Dobośnia, also called Żylicz. At the end of the eighteenth century Dobośnia was bought by Bulhak, the construction of the huge neoclassical palace began around 1825 by Ignacy / Ignatius Bulhak, marshal of the nobility of the Bobruisk county. Ignacy Bulgak / Bulhak was born approximately 1786 / 1788, d. 1848; from the Minsk government; he was son of Gabriel Bulhak, cavalry captain in 1784, Lida, a nobleman (Gabriel Bułhak was born ca 1750 or ca. 1754 and died ca. 1799; in Lida district or the Asmjany district?) and Fortunata Bułhak. He had four siblings: Jozef Bulhak / Joseph (1786-1865) and three unknown sisters; studied philosophy in 1810-1812 , Dorpat in Livonia. He was honorary curator of the school Bobrujsk area and marshal of Bobruisk in 1809-1825, a Knight of the Order of St. Anna 2nd class. Known as the benefactor of education, especially school of Bobrujsk, was twice married: Isabella Clara Ślizień / Izabella Klara Ślizień (1810-1834) in 1828 and to her sister Teresa nee Slizien (relatives: Michael Ślizień born about 1725, marshal of the nobility area of Borysow; owner in the Slonim area of Bohuszewicze; Joseph Ślizień born about 1760 died 1856, Mściże owner, the marshal of the nobility area of Borysow; Wilhelmina de Liebe, Antoinette Oborska, Teresa Ślizień born about 1790). From the first he had two children: Joseph Witold (1829-1892), a graduate of the University, and Sophia (1832-1881), from the other wife, was seven children: Oskar; Olgierd (1845-1871); Henry; Edgar (1848 - 1923); Isabella (born 1879); Wanda and Adela. He founded the ancestral residence in Dobośnia, in 1825; most of the goods in the Rohaczew district. Bułhak Edgar from Doboszna, gub. mohilow, bought 'Polish Armorial' of Boniecki.

1870 in the Minsk government, Sluck district, the Lanska area - Kosmowicze; Kosmowicze / Kosmowiczi - close to Pukielevshcina, Bychovshcina, Tshanovici, north of Kleck, south of Niezviz / Nieswiez, near by Osmolowo, Lan, Leonowiczi.

Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak b. 1856, m. 1892, to Aldona Dzierzynski, died 1908, lived in Mickiewicze. His grandfather Chryzostom Stanislaw Bulhak b. 1789, m. to Antonina Bulhak, estates: Ostrówek, Burdziewicze, Kozlowicze, Nowy Dwor close to Jelnica and Szabany, south-east of Minsk or Nowy Dwor close to Sluck!? And his grandfather Mikolaj Bulhak b. 1670, m. to Marianna Imielinski; estate Kosmowicze from Radziwill. Aldona Kojallowicz Bulhak nee Dzierzynska, 1870 - 1966, acc. to http://www.geni.com/people/. Her son Antoni Bulhak b. 1898. His wife Wanda Bulhak nee Juchniewicz from Cezary Juchniewicz and Maria Juchniewicz nee Pilsudska, b. 1873. She was daughter of Józef Wincenty Piotr Pilsudski, b. 1833; and her brother was Józef Klemens Pilsudski b. 1867. Antoni Bulhak died after 1970, was one of the aides of Marshal Jozef Pilsudski. The second son of above Aldona: Rudolf Bulhak b. 1895. Sister of above Aldona: Jadwiga Dzierzynska-Kuszelewska / Hedwig / Jadwiga Kuszelewski (1871 - 1949) + Konstanty Kuszelewski - Prawdzic (1857 - 1922). Her son: Jerzy Kuszelewski, 1895-1939.

The Dzierzynski or Derzinskis house of Sulima arms was verified in Minsk 1819; a poorer members were administrators in the Wankowicz house; others were related to Bulhak family and held Pietrylowicze farm in the Asmjany district in 1838, also Podgaj farm in Barysau district at the end of the 19th century.

In Bobruisk church: 1889, was baptized Henryka Wolska (she was born 1887 in Bobruisk / Bobrujsk), from nobility, her parents Henryk Wolski and Ludwika Maria nee Dzierzynska, Wolska (Ludvika Dzerzhinska Wolski from Zerdz, ujezd Rzeczyce). Witnesses Urszula Imbrowa and Ryszard Wolski. 1889 was died Henryk Wolski, in Bobruisk, his parents: Henryk Wolski and Ludwika nee Dzierzynska. Iosif / Jozef Dzierzynski was born 1879 in Michaliszki / Михалишки, baptized 1889 in Bobruisk / Bobrujsk stronghold, his parents: Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierzynski, and Koleta nee Lozowska (Colette / Nicoleta / Koleta Lozovskaya Dzerzhinska / Nikoleta Lozowska Dzierzynska), Dzierzynska. Nobility from the Minsk government. Witnesses Karol Kuczynski and Ludwika Wolska wife of Henryk Wolski. Above Dzierżyński Ryszard Edward Wincenty was born in 1817. His first wife (?) Ostrowska Colette and second wife - Koleta nee Lozowska, Dzierzynska.

About above named Zerdz village:
Zerdzia / Жэрдзь / Zerda or Zerdz / Жерда / Жердь, owners: (1889) Jozefa Fenska / Юзефа Людвиговна Фенская, Marina nee Korsak / Марина Флорианова Корсак m. Wolska / Вольскa daughter of Florian Korsak (1876) and Tеофильa Флориановa Фенскa / Teofila Fenska; next Jan Jasztold-Howorko / Иван Яштольд-Говорко, with his daughters: Maria Goworko / Howorko and Natalia Goworko; Bildziukiewicz / Бильдзюкевич Леонид and Antoni Kisiel-Dorohinicki / Кисель-Дорогиницкий (in 1905 here was born his son). The village was situated in the Homel oblast / Гомельская обл. close to Sosnowoborsk / Сосновоборск, before 1917 in the Minsk province / Минская губ., the Rzeczyce county / Речицкий у., Karpowicze area / Карповичская вол.; here were living the Rudzinski family / Рудинский. Zerda (Кремены and Староселье) was land of Konstanty Jasztold-Howorko son of Jan / Константин Яштольд-Говорко, Александр Викторов Бильдзюкевич / Aleksander Bildziukiewicz (1904 - to 1910; 1908); and part of this village to Mikolaj Pietrunkin / Николай Георгиевич Петрунькин (before 1914). In Zerda was born Александр Дорогиницкий / Aleksander Dorohinicki; also Korsak family / Корсаки, Wolski / Вольские and Fenski / Фенские. Zerdz located ca 12 km south-west of Swietlogorsk / Светлогорск.

Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński was born 1817, his parents: Jozef Dzierzynski / Иосиф Дзержинский b. 1788 died in 1854, and Антонина Озембловская / Antonina Oziemblowska b. 1788;

her children: Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński b. 1817, Onufry Antoni Modest Dzierżyński b. 1818, Bernard Leonard Dzierżyński 1819 - 1879, Tomasz Justyn Dzierżyński 1822 - 1859, Antoni Mikołaj Dzierżyński 1823 - 1865, Felicjan Jan Dzierżyński 1830 - 1904, Józefat Dzierżyński 1831, Leokadia Dzierżyńska 1833, Róża Dzierżyńska 1835, in Oszmiany / Oshmiany / Ошмяны, the Wilno government / Виленская губ., Эдмунд Руфин Иосифович Дзержинский / Edmund Rufin Iosifovich Dzierzynski, b. 1829 or (?) on 15 May 1838, died in 1882.

Grandparents of Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński born 1817: Antoni Jakubowicz Dzierżyński 1755 - 1816, and Konstancja Adamowicz. He came from Jakub Dzierżyński, Mikołaj Dzierżyński / Derzinskis d. 1703, and from Mikołaj Dzierżyński / Derzinskis.

In 1830 in Kamiensk or Kamien close to Oziemblowo (Jozef Dzierzynski and Antonina nee Oziemblowska, Dzierzynska were grandparents of Feliks Edmundowicz Dzierzynski), baptized daughter of Ignacy Giedroyc, witnesses: Tomasz Wasilewski and Antonina Dzierzynska. 1850, Kamien, baptized Klara Tarnolicka, by Wincenty Dzierzynski. 1856, Kamien, beptized Zygmunt Julian Obricki / Obrycki, son of Kazimierz Obrycki and Jozefa nee Dzierzynska, Obrycka. From Slobodka, Bielorucka volost, the Minsk government.

Wanda Schonthaller-Dzierzynska 1920-2011 - daughter of Major Dzierzynski.

And about Jozef Oziemblowski / Ozieblowski + Aniela Zdrojewska: children - Boleslaw Ozieblowski, Michal, Maria Moszynski, Stefania. Dieriewno / Derevno located close to Ozemlovo / Ozemblovschizna. A church in Dieriewno / Derevno - there was baptized Feliks Dzierzynski / Felix Dzierzynski and buried his father Edmund Rufin Dzierzynski, his sister Wanda, his brother Stanislaus d. in 1917. Edmund Dzerzhinsky born 1829 in Dzierzynowo, married to Helena Januszewska, died 1882. Helena Januszewska born 1849 in Joda and married to Edmund Dzerzhinsky, she died on 15 Jan. 1896 and buried in Vilnius. Feliks Dzierzynski b. 11 September 1877, his father Edmund Dzierzynski b. 1829, mother Helena Januszewska b. 1849, died in 1896, her parents: Ignacy Januszewski born 1804 and Kazimiera Januszewska born 1806; parents of Edmund Dzierzynski: Jozef Jan Dzierzynski b. 1788 and Antonina Oziemblowska.

Others: Dzierzynski Witold, 1887-19.XI.1892. Krzywiec nee Zyromski, Aleksandra, 1828. Pilar von Pilchau nee Bielawski, Marja / Maria Bielawska.

Anthony George Bulhak / George Bulhak (using his middle name) / Jerzy Bulhak / Antoni Jerzy Bulhak, a Polish citizen, the son of Gediminas and Aldona, the house Dzerzhinsky, was born in Zawoloczyce, on March 3, 1898; married Wanda nee Juchniewicz, born in Vilnius, March 8, 1901, the daughter of Caesar and Mary nee Pilsudska. The marriage was April 11, 1923 in Vilnius. Above named Zawoloczyce, here was Bernardine filial chapel in the village, like Chromce (near Bobruisk).

Zawoloczyce that is Zavalochycy, Zavolochicy, Zavolochitsy close to Simanavichi; west of Glusha, ca 38 km west of Bobruisk / Bobruisk.

Jozef Wincenty Piotr Pilsudski, b. 1833 died 1902, + Maria Billewicz died 1884; daughter Zofia Zula Pilsudski Kadenacy, b. 1865, d. 1935; her husband Boleslaw Kadenacy died 1918; his son Czeslaw Kadenacy, b. 1896, grandson Tadeusz. Jozef Wincenty Piotr Pilsudski, b. 1833 died 1902, + Maria Billewicz has 12 children, among others Helena Pilsudski b. 1864 d. 1917, Zofia Kadenac b. 1865 + Boleslaw Kadenac, Bronislaw Pilsudski, Józef Pilsudski, Adam Pilsudski b. 1869, Kazimierz Pilsudski, Maria Juchniewiczowa b. 1873 + Cezary Juchniewicz, Jan Pilsudski, Ludwika Majewska b. 1879 + Leon Majewski, Kacper Pilsudski b. 1881, Piotr Pilsudski, Teodora Pilsudska, Piotr.

Above Antoni Bulhak (Antoni Jerzy Bulhak, son of Gedymin Jerzy Bulhak, and Aldona nee Dzierzynska, his brother Rudolf Kojallowicz; his wife nee Juchniewicz), b. 1898.
Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński was born 1817, his parents: Jozef Dzierzynski / Иосиф Дзержинский b. 1788 died in 1854, and Антонина Озембловская / Antonina Oziemblowska b. 1788; her children: Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński b. 1817, Onufry Antoni Modest Dzierżyński b. 1818, Bernard Leonard Dzierżyński 1819 - 1879, Tomasz Justyn Dzierżyński 1822 - 1859, Antoni Mikołaj Dzierżyński 1823 - 1865, Felicjan Jan Dzierżyński 1830 - 1904, Józefat Dzierżyński 1831, Leokadia Dzierżyńska 1833, Róża Dzierżyńska 1835, born in Oszmiany / Oshmiany / Ошмяны, the Wilno government / Виленская губ., Эдмунд Руфин Иосифович Дзержинский / Edmund Rufin Iosifovich Dzierzynski, b. 1829 or (?) on 15 May 1838, died in 1882. Grandparents of Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński born 1817: Antoni Jakubowicz Dzierżyński 1755 - 1816, and Konstancja Adamowicz. He came from Jakub Dzierżyński, Mikołaj Dzierżyński / Derzinskis d. 1703, and from Mikołaj Dzierżyński / Derzinskis.

Aldona nee Dzierzynski was living near by Ryszard Edward Wincenty Dzierżyński b. 1817, who was brother of Edmund Dzierzynski b. 1829 or (date of birth is mistake maybe) Эдмунд Руфин Иосифович Дзержинский / Edmund Rufin Iosifovich Dzierzynski, b. on 15 May 1838, died in 1882 (in Oszmiany / Oshmiany / Ошмяны, the Wilno government / Виленская губ.).


Aleksander Zbieranowski born 1895, in Miezonka, son of Jan, wife Jozefa b. 1905 - daughter of Michal, lived in Kirylucha close to Rozyszcze in Volhynia before 1939, children: Danuta, Jan, Ryszard, Zygmunt.

Next Aleksander Zbieranowski born ca 1890 in Miezonka, son of Wiktoria nee Konstantynowicz - she died after 1940 in Omsk, and Antoni Zbieranowski b. 1869, d. 1914 in Miezonka; Wiktoria Zbieranowska lived in Soviet Union after 1917, and 1929/1930 exiled to Siberia, Omsk; married to Antoni Zbieranowski ca 1890.

Above named Aleksander Zbieranowski born ca 1890 - completed the Moscow Technical University, an electricity division, after college in Bobruisk; next the Berlin Technical University before 1914, an radio faculty; he was working for Dutch Company Phillips. He taken Karol Zbieranowski to Moscow in 1914. He was in love to Letitia Bowler before 1917 in Moscow, but she escaped from Moscow to Miezonka in November 1917 with Karol Zbieranowski.

A note at margin:

We know on Norman Bowler James b. 1889 d. 1965 - husband of Ethel May Yardley: Ethel May Yardley b. 1897 - daughter of Edward Alfred Yardley and Susan Elizabeth. And about descendants of William Bowler who was born in Mansfield Woodhouse. His son FRANCIS BOLER, d. 14 Nov 1671, Pleasley, near by Mansfield. And JOSEPH BOWLER was born 27 Oct 1838 in Mansfield / Woodhouse, and died 1918. He married LETITIA in Dublin. She was born 1848. 2nd he married MARY ANN WHITE in 1859 in Mansfield Woodhouse.

Ware is a town in Hertfordshire, 15 km south-east of Stevenage. Miss Letitia Bowler born ca 1890 was changed for somebody and has come home to Ware, Herts - says The Daily Mail. Miss Letitia Bowler was sentenced to death by the Bolsheviks. Miss Bowler had many other novel experiences (1910-1921). She dined with the ex-Kaiser at Wurtemburg in 1909 (she aged ca 19 ?), played blind man's buff with the Emperor Francis Joseph at Budapest in 1911, and was the only European among 3.000 women presented to Albdul Medjed after the great fast at Constantinople in 1912. She was acquainted with the Austrian Archduke Franz Fredinand, whose murder caused the war, and from the palace of the son of the Sultan Abdul Aziz at Constantinople she heard the first shot fired in the Dardanelles. She was captured by the Bolsheviks while a nurse with the Polish Army (March 1919 ? - April 1920).

Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg / Albrecht Maria Alexander Philipp Joseph von Württemberg, b. 1865 was an important German military leader in World War I and head of the Royal House of Württemberg from 1921. Albrecht was born in Vienna as the eldest child of Duke Philipp of Württemberg and his wife Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria, daughter of Archduke Albert, Duke of Teschen / Cieszyn.

Albrecht was married in Vienna in 1893 to Archduchess Margarete Sophie of Austria, a daughter of Archduke Carl Ludwig. They had seven children, 1st was Philipp Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg (1893-1975). Philipp Albrecht / George Philipp Albrecht Carl Maria Joseph Ludwig Hubertus Stanislaus Leopold Herzog von Württemberg, b. 1893, first married to

Archduchess Helena of Austria, Princess of Tuscany born 1903 in Linz; daughter of Archduke Peter Ferdinand of Austria and Princess Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, daughter of

Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta.
Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta b. 1841 was the third son of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria.

He was pretender to the throne of the Two Sicilies; Born in Caserta, Alfonso became the third-in-line heir. Caserta this is the capital of the province of Caserta in the Campania region of Italy. Caserta is located 40 kilometres north of Naples. Its municipality borders with Capua, Casagiove, and Santa Maria Capua Vetere and Valle di Maddaloni.

Kaiser Franz Joseph I and King Wilhelm II von Württemberg met on 31.08.1909 in Württemberg.

Maria Carolina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies / Princess Maria Carolina Giuseppina Ferdinanda of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, b. 1856, Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, d. 1941, Warsaw, by her marriage to Polish nobleman Count

Andrzej Przemysław Zamoyski;

she was third-eldest daughter of Prince Francis of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Count of Trapani and his wife Archduchess Maria Isabella of Austria, Princess of Tuscany.

Above Francis of the Two Sicilies, Count of Trapani b. 1827 Naples, d. 1892, was the youngest son of Francis I of the Two Sicilies and his second wife Maria Isabella of Spain; Count of Trapani; his brother

Ferdinand II / Ferdinando Carlo, b. 1810, King of the Two Sicilies from 1830, died 1859 in Caserta Palace -

his son Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta (1841 - 1934) was the third son of Maria Theresa of Austria and was pretender to the throne of the Two Sicilies. Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta had son Prince Ranieri of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Castro (1883 - 1973) who married to Countess Maria Carolina Zamoyska, daughter of Andrzej Przemysław Zamoyski, with two children.

Above Ranieri, Duke of Castro was born in Cannes, France, son of Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta and Princess Maria Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1851 - 1938). Ranieri for a time served in the Royal Spanish Army.

Countess Maria Carolina Zamoyska b. 1896, Cracow, d. 1968, Marseille, France, the wife of Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro, she was a daughter of Andrzej Przemysław Zamoyski, and his wife Princess Maria Carolina (Maria Carolina Giuseppina Ferdinanda di Borbone, Principessa delle Due Sicilie b. 1856, Naples, d. 1941, Warsaw) of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.

We back to Ceylon, tea, the Kings of the Two Sicilies, Caserta, Naples, and the Rothschild family:

Mayer Amschel Rothschild had remain his eldest son in Frankfurt, while his four other sons went to different European cities; the Rothschild banking family of Naples was founded by Calmann Carl Mayer von Rothschild (1788 - 1855) who went to Naples / Napoli / Neapol and established C. M. de Rothschild & Figli (Carl Rothschild and Sons) in 1821 during an occupation of Naples by the Austrian army.

By 1820, N. M. Rothschild & Sons bank was already operating successfully in London, and de Rothschild Freres in Paris, and S. M. von Rothschild in Vienna near by Prince Klemens Metternich.

The C. M. de Rothschild & Figli bank arranged loans to the Papal States (five loans were issued between 1831 and 1850), Kings of Naples, Piedmont, Duchy of Parma, Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Carl Mayer von Rothschild, was a financial manager to important business connections with Luigi de Medici (and with Ferdinand I b. 1751, the King of the Two Sicilies from 1816, he was born in Naples and lived in Caserta and Capodimonte), in 1826, with Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, and Pope, Gregory XVI.

In 1855 the middle son Adolphe / Adolf had to run the Naples branch, and the Naples house closed in 1863, operating in the field of acceptance and exchange, and trading copper, silver, oil, corn and in 1843, cooperated with Kentucky and Virginian tobacco; the records of the Naples house were held by the Frankfurt partners and were destroyed after the closure of that branch in 1901. Carl von Rothschild died in Naples. The end of the Naples branch began when revolution broke out and Giuseppe Garibaldi captured Naples in 1860. Because the Naples branch was run by just two family members, father Carl Mayer von Rothschild and son Adolf, the only great property they occupied there was the Villa Pignatelli in Naples.

The Worms Brothers promoted coffee and then tea cultivation in Ceylon (Keenakelle, Meddecombra, Thotulagalla, Condegalla, Labookelle, Norwood in Dikoya - they held these properties for twenty-four years and sold them to the Ceylon Company), acc. to Ukers in his book 'All About Tea', on their Rothschild, and Sogamma estates, and on Condegalla estate, a part of Labookelle, in the Pussellawa district
(Rothschild tea was the standard for quality in Mincing Lane from the 2000-acre Rothschild estate),
under the direction of Mr. Jenkins, a retired tea planter from Assam.

Mayer Amschel Rothschild b. 1744, banker, m. Gertrude Schnapper, with children:
1. Schönche Jeannette Rothschild b. 1771 m. 1795 to Benedikt Moses Worms b. 1772;
2. Amschel Mayer Rothschild representative of Rothschild banking family of Germany;
3. Salomon Mayer Rothschild of the banking family of Austria;
4. Nathan Mayer Rothschild in England;
5. Carl Mayer Rothschild b. 1788, of Naples;
6. Henriette Rothschild m. 1815 to Abraham Montefiore b. 1788, banker;
7. James Mayer Rothschild banker in France.
The eldest, Solomon Worms, was the first Baron de Worms, son of Benedict Worms (above Benedikt Moses Worms b. 1772) of Frankfurt-on-Main, and his wife, who was the eldest sister of the Baron de Rothschild.
The Worms Brothers were both members of the London Stock Exchange. Maurice Worms set sail East in 1841, and Gabriel followed him in 1842.
There was Delta estate, adjoining Rothschild on the one side, owned by James Glenie, and Captain Harry Bird's Black Forest, where F. R. Sabonadiere, the founder of Sabonadiere & Company Colombo started. Next Loolecondera situated in the Hewaheta district, owned by G. D. B. Harrison, and W. M. Leake, and James Joseph Mackenzie in 1841.

Note again on the Bowlers:

Now Martin G. Bowler is living at an address in Ware; Brenda Bowler, Tim Bowler, Bowler Richard from Ware, Hertfordshire, and Susan Bowler of Watford. Jane Bowler, b. Iver, Buckinghamshire, in 1871 a charwoman, d. Iver, Buckinghamshire, in 1886.

Letitia Bowler was wife of Juliusz Gezehle from Lodz after 1927. Aleksander Zbieranowski was with visit in Miezonka ca 1927/28.

Bowler L., 'An Englishwoman's Experiences in Bolshevik Prisons', "Blackwood's Magazine", No 210, 1921, pp. 707-733: the author, a teacher with a Polish family at the time of the revolutions, tells the tale of her arrest, along with a number of Poles, during the Soviet-Polish war and of her appalling experiences in a series of prisons and camps, where she narrowly escaped execution. Acc. to 'The Russian Revolution and Civil War...', by Jonathan Smele.

Copyright by http://hurryupharry.org/. From the Vaults: Blackwood's Magazine, December 1921. Michael Ezra, in 2010:

"...L. Bowler was an Englishwoman who travelled to Russia in 1914. She had lived in one village (Miezonka) which the Bolsheviks ultimately decided to set on fire (Nov. 1918) and make the villagers homeless. Because she had some things left in the village she joined an expedition to bring relief to the villagers. This ultimately led to her arrest. She was convinced that the only reason that she was not shot was because she was an Englishwoman. Had she been a Russian, she would have suffered the same fate as countless Russians at the hands of the Bolsheviks, a lethal bullet. Subsequent to pressure on the Russians to release British prisoners, not least from Lord Curzon, the Foreign Secretary under David Lloyd George, she was released from the hellish Bolsheviks prisons. Bowler recounted her experiences in a 27 page essay published in 1921 in Blackwoood's Magazine. The extract I copy below is from the concluding section:

AN ENGLISHWOMAN'S EXPERIENCES IN BOLSHEVIK PRISONS, L. BOWLER, BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE, No. MCCLXXIV, VOL. CCX, DECEMBER 1921, pp.707-733. I have seen Bolshevism from its genesis until November 1920. ... I have lived there six and a half years under the Czar and with the Bolsheviks. I know the language, and have the experience necessary to make comparisons... The greater part of the population loathes the Soviet Government, to which it is in abject slavery. The Russians only dissemble loyalty in order to escape arrest. Most of the people do not care who rules - the Whites or the Reds...".

No. MCCLXXIV, 1921, AN ENGLISHWOMAN'S EXPEEIENCES IN BOLSHEVIK... BY L. BOWLER. "I went to Russia in July 1914 to take a post as ... with a Polish lady. On the outbreak of war I wished to return to Vienna, but as the Woloczysk Bridge was blown up, all connection with Austria was, for me, at an end. I determined therefore to take a position as teacher in another family, but as the Germans were advancing, left them in July 1915 for Moscow (the Armand family home?).

On 2nd March 1917 the revolution began, all the police were arrested, and the prisons thrown open. ... I was determined to see it fall, and in spite of the danger of being shot at any moment, I lived in Moscow till March 1919 (to November 1917!), when I was forced to leave through lack of food. Accordingly I went to a little Polish village in White Eussia (with Andrzejak, Zbieranowski to Miezonka in Belarus), where I had some acquaintances (Konstantynowicz and Malkiewicz). When the Poles advanced I managed, with great difficulty, to escape over the frontier to Beresina (Berezyna in November 1918), where I took a position as head-mistress in a Polish higher-grade school, held in Count Potocki's palace. After the failure of the Bolsheviks to recapture Beresina (August 1919), they took up their headquarters about forty versts distant. I was very anxious about my friends (Karol Zbieranowski, Jerzy vel Marian Konstantynowicz, Szostak were living in Miezonka) in Miezonka. The Bolsheviks had taken everything from them. We did not want for anything on the front, and it grieved me very much that I was powerless to aid them (she was sick in 1918!). They suffered especially from want of salt. I did not taste salt once during the eight months I spent at Miezonka (in 1918). One could not buy it for any money at that time. Suddenly one day the news was brought to us that the Bolsheviks had destroyed the village of Miezonka by fire, and that the villagers were homeless. Although the Poles had never trespassed farther than twenty versts on the Red territory, our Commander, a very intrepid young man, resolved to make an expedition to Miezonka, and to bring the villagers back to Beresina / Berezyna (April 1920). As I had left several boxes there, I was most anxious to join this relief expedition. The Commander tried to dissuade me, but I was firm in my resolution. He lent me the uniform of a Poznanski soldier, so that in case of a rencontre with the Bolsheviks, I should not be conspicuous in female garb. I did not fancy myself as a soldier at all, but it was certainly the most practical form of dress for the journey we subsequently made. Fifteen minutes before our departure a soldier was sent to inform me that I must be ready, and bound me to the strictest secrecy.

Accordingly, at 11 P.M. on 31st March 1920, I started out on the journey which proved to be the means of mining my whole career, undermining my health, and, in fact, upsetting my whole life. I think I have been endowed with more than my share of love for adventure, but I believe if I could have foreseen what would be the sequence, I should have allowed prudence to guide me. We were a party of 120, and the soldiers sang gaily as we rowed across the river. Arrived on the other side, they formed fours, and then the Commander made a nice little speech. He exhorted the men to bear in mind they were going to rescue unfortunate people from the excruciating torments they were subjected to at the hands of the Bolsheviks, and that in case of an encounter with the latter they must not shoot unless in self-defence. ... The men marched all night, and told one another tales of similar expeditions they had made... After a few minutes' walk we came to a forester's house in the wood, and heard that some Magyars had been there, but hearing our voices, when we were trying to get out of the bog, they took flight. If they had only been courageous enough to come to us when we were in that critical condition, not one of us would have been alive today to tell the tale. We went very cautiously through the woods, until we came out on the village road. Here we were entirely surrounded by woods. We had only gone twenty five 'viorsts' of our journey, and had ten viorsts to walk to complete it... One of our soldiers fired a rocket. At the same moment we espied six mounted Magyars in the distance, emerging from a wood. ... and I retreated with my wounded warrior to a secluded part of the wood. On the way we met another seriously wounded soldier ... I was wounded also in the heels with shrapnel splinters, but I had no time to think about it. ... to take the two wounded soldiers back to Beresina, although the prospect of going through the terrible bog again was not enticing. However, the Bolsheviks soon settled my fears on that score. We had only gone a short distance when we realised the woods were simply teeming with Bolsheviks. ... They immediately asked me what rank I held in the army. On hearing that I was not a soldier, they said: Well, you belong to the cursed race, and therefore must die... that I was an Englishwoman, ... they declared that I deserved a double dose of bullets on that account... I was taking to my friends in Miezonka. They wanted to divest me of my uniform, which was quite new, and would have been a great acquisition to one of them. We were hurried off quickly to another village, because, knowing how daring the Poznanski soldiers are, although they were 120 against 500 Bolsheviks, the latter felt sure they would be conquered, as they in reality were subsequently. We were taken to the village of Koslovsk
(Koslovsk / Kozlov Bereg / Koslovyj Bereg / Kozlowyj Bierieh - north-west of Miezonka a few kilometers),
where another party of soldiers gathered round us and exulted over their great defeat of the Poles and English. ... had searched my boxes in Miezonka, but fortunately they did not appear to recognise me. They informed us that we were the only survivors of our party of 120, all the rest having been annihilated by them, and that we should feel particularly grateful to them that they had not killed us... village, Koritzina
(Koritzina / Korytniza north of Miezonka several kilometers / Korytnica),
... were moved to a different place, ... April (1920) ... in the
town of Mogilev.
... Easter Sunday, ... at the Chay-Ka Prison... among 100 Polish military prisoners. It was, like all the bases, a terribly dirty place. Many of the prisoners escaped ... From Novi Zubkoff I was taken to the base at Moscow. This was a perfectly impossible place for women. We were not allowed to be one second alone on any pretence whatsoever. ... From the base I was taken to Novi Peskoffski Concentration Camp. There I met people Poles asunder in every way members of the noblest families in Russia ... So I was taken to Sokolniki Hospital, a splendid place for contagious illnesses, just outside Moscow. ... At that time the British Labour Delegation was in Moscow. Continually enthusiastic reports of speeches made by them were brought to me to read. ... returned to the camp again, but a week after my return I was sent to the Extraordinary Commission. ... The next day I was sent with an escort of four guards back to the town of Mogilev. No one was allowed to speak to me in the train, consequently every one had the impression that I must be some dangerous murderess or infamous criminal of some sort. I was taken to the prison of the Sixteenth Army, and occupied a tiny room with twenty five thieves and street-girls. ... I had been three days in Mogilev when I was called before this man. He began by showing me my passport, a few snapshots I had taken of peasants at different times, and the money I had - left in my room at Beresina, all of which I identified as my own property. Then he handed me a photo of a village taken from an aeroplane, and asked me what that was. ... I was supposed to have written to General Zeligowski, and to the Foreign Office in Warsaw... I was told the fact had been established that I had acted as chief spy on the Polish front, practically as Marshal Pilsudski's right hand ... I was told the Extraordinary Commission had proofs that I had been working in the employ of the British Secret Service for ten years. These accusations simply dumfounded me. I was perfectly innocent of any of the charges brought against me. ... I was there during the month of June (1920), ... I had never possessed any Polish documents at all. ... When the Bolsheviks advanced on Beresina the priest and his sister were obliged to flee, and the Governor, who was making an inspection in the villages, hearing the Red Army was advancing, made good his escape also, leaving all the archives and documents intact in his office. The Bolsheviks seized everything there, and finding my passport, concluded that all the incriminating papers must belong to me. ... I was taken to the base in Mogilev. ... From Mogilev I was taken to the base at Orsha. From there I was taken to the base at Smolensk, then to the Extraordinary Commission at the Western Front in the same town. Here, after my papers were examined, an order was given to conduct me to a place called the town Governor's prison, and to put me in an underground cellar under strict surveillance. ... I left Smolensk with a large party of prisoners for the base at Dolgabush. Then I was taken to Viasma, where I remained six days. The Commander there was very kind to me. He allowed me to play the piano ... From Viasma I was sent to Yakitz, and then to the base at Moscow, from thence to the Extraordinary Commission's headquarters, and then to the town prison, Butirka. ... I was three months in Butirka, and the latter part of the time I worked with another English lady in the department for repairing the prison garments. ... was taken from Butirka to Ivanoffsky Camp. ... I remained in Ivanoffsky Camp a month, when suddenly I heard my compatriots in Butirka had been sent home to England. I at once went to the Commander and declared I should go on hunger strike if I was not repatriated at once. ... and the next day I was sent to Pokrovsky Camp, where I remained only one day. Then I was sent to Andronievsky Camp, a place exclusively for foreigners. ... We were the last British prisoners to leave Russia. ... I fared exceedingly well on my journey to Petrograd. I was the only woman on the train, and the Esthonian Mission members were extremely kind to me. Several of them spoke English ... Letitia Bowler ... on 30th November 1920, we left Petrograd ... and travelled to Bialiastroff, the Finnish frontier. ... Mrs Harding had more than 200,000 Soviet roubles taken from her, because one was only allowed to take 10,000 roubles out of the country, as though one could make use of even a million of that worthless paper. ... Major Fitzhughes, the British Red Cross representative, called out: Mrs Harding and Miss Bowler first, please. ... Free after eight months of torture ... We remained in Terijoki in quarantine over three weeks. ... he said: So you are the famous Miss Bowler? Well, I do congratulate you on your delivery from the Bolsheviks. When I asked him how he had heard of me, he said that I had given trouble to every one from the Consul at Helsingfors to Lord Curzon in London... 24th December we left Terijoki for Hango, where we arrived the next day. After five days' pleasant sailing via Copenhagen we arrived at Hull on 30th December 1920. I had been eleven years away from England, and arrived home literally a pauper. All that I had earned during thirteen years had been confiscated...".

Samples only: Gezela (Gezela Augustyn b. 1889, Polish colonel, Lodz 1929) / Gesehle / Gesell / Geselle (Silvio Gesell b. 1862, was a German anarchist and founder of Freiwirtschaft. He gave his business in Argentina to his brother and returned to Germany in 1892, next Gesell moved to Les Hauts-Geneveys in the Swiss canton of Neuchâtel, to 1907. In 1915, Gesell left Germany to return to Les Hauts-Geneveys, 10 km north of Neuchâtel).

Children of Wiktoria Konstantynowicz and Antoni Zbieranowski: Karol Zbieranowski, Aleksander, Aleksandra Przelaskowska b. ca 1900 in Miezonka, Siberia after 1929/30, Anna Muzyka b. ca 1902 in Miezonka, she died after 1965 in Omsk, Ryszard Zbieranowski b. 1897 in Miezonka, 1916 - 1917 the GUARD company in the Kremlin, Moscow, the first escaped to Miezonka and in November 1917 to Turkey, after Charbin in China, Vladyvostok, Japan after 1920/1921, cooperation with YMCA, Vancouver in Canada, Winnipeg in Manitoba 1921 - 1927, 1927 Saskatchewan, the Buchanan farm, died ca 1980 in Saskatchewan. And next child of Wiktoria: Jozef Zbieranowski b. 1898 in Miezonka, 1915 the car unit in Moscow, with Marian Andrzejak, November 1917 escaped to Miezonka, February 1918 1st Polish Corps, 1920 aide at the General Zeligowski, 1922 Lodz, the Nawrot street No 44, Canada after 1930, 1938 - 1945 Koluszki Stare, December 1945 escaped again to Canada, 1958 in Bydgoszcz to Zofia Konstantynowicz; his wife from Lodz, son in Winnipeg born after 1952 / 1956.

Karol Zbieranowski b. 1894, Miezonka, the Ihumen district; 1914 a car unit in Russian Army in Moscow, close to Aleksander Zbieranowski, November 1917 escaped to Miezonka together with Marian Andrzejak, February 1918 served for 1st Polish Corps with Jozef Zbieranowski, Marian Andrzejak, Marian Konstantynowicz vel Jerzy; in Bobruisk in a car unit of Staff; 15 November 1918 escaped from Miezonka together with Stanislaw Szostak and Marian Andrzejak; 06 December 1918 Lapy, together with Ludwik and Marian Andrzejak and Stanislaw Szostak; Zambrow after; 20 February 1919 at Bolshevik war; to 1921 in Lida, in car unit of the Kowno Regiment; Karol Zbieranowski moved in 1921 to Lodz, he was near by Ullman from Switzerland, in 1928 near to Jan Szostak; and to engineer Zygmunt Rau, who translate the Rowecki memoirs.

The Ullman family from Switzerland:

Fredrik Ullman worked as a scientific collaborator at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. Variantes: Uhlmann, Uhlman, Ulhmann, Ullman, Ullmann. From Monchaltorf, Zurich - Rose-Marie Ullman. ULLMAN 1763 in Rüderswil, Bern canton, 20 km east of Bern. 1820 in Bern; 1828 in Herdern in Thurgau, Suisse - north-east of Zurich. 1758 - 1771 Uesslingen, in Thurgau - 8 km south-west of Herdern; 1842 in Herdern in Thurgau; 1872 in Uesslingen; 1865 in Wängi in Thurgau - 13 km south of Herdern. And Bern / Berno. 1733 - 1852 Eschenz; Family ULLMAN in 1628 - 1753 in Switzerland / Suisse; 1744 - 1837 in Eschenz, area of Thurgau - 7 km north-west of Herdern. All above data copyright by geneanet.org.

Karol Zbieranowski in 1934 lived in Koluszki Stare and Lodz, Piotrkowska No 40; 1927 in Lodz made appointment of Aleksander Zbieranowski from Soviet Union with English lady
Letycja Bowler / Letitia Bowler - before 1917 in Moscow
met; Karol Zbieranowski known Julian Bronowicki from Miezonka who settled in Lodz; 1939 Hungaria, 1946 back to Lodz. Near by Marshal Marian Spychalski (Ludwik Andrzejak 'Black' friend of father of Marshal Spychalski from Lodz, and known Jozef Pilsudski ca 1900); his wife Maria Adelajda Andrzejak b. 1903 in Lodz, died after 1968 in Koluszki Stare; her father Ludwik Andrzejak 'Black', her friend was wife of Marshal Spychalski, b. 1906; 1903 / 1904 Jozef Pilsudski very often in a home of Andrzejak; her two brothers: Marian Andzejak close to Jan Szostak and Ludwik Andrzejak born ca 1895, owner of shop at Tuwim street No 15; Karol Zbieranowski died November 1966 in Koluszki Stare, acc. to inf. 1995/2000 (28 January 2014).

Title: ENGLISHWOMAN'S LIFE IN RUSSIA. After spending eight months in 29 Russian prisons, Miss Letitia Bowler (born ca 1890 ?) was changed for somebody and has come home to Ware, Herts - says The Daily Mail.

Ware is a town in Hertfordshire, 15 km south-east of Stevenage (Miss Letitia Bowler born ca 1890 was changed for somebody and has come home to Ware, Herts - says The Daily Mail). The approx distance between Stevenage and Banbury (Stanyan / Stanian, Hardy) in a straight line is 49 miles or 78 km. Rawlins, in Oxfordshire / Rawlins House, in Adderbury, close to Banbury, in Oxfordshire, north of Oxford.

Miss Letitia Bowler was sentenced to death by the Bolsheviks, taken into the woods at night to be shot, removed back to prison, and subsequently marched from gaol to gaol, walking in all 500 miles. In 11 years residence on the Continent, Miss Bowler had many other novel experiences (1910-1921). She dined with the ex-Kaiser at Wurtemburg in 1909 (she aged ca 19 ?), played blind man's buff with the Emperor Francis Joseph at Budapest in 1911, and was the only European among 3.000 women presented to Albdul Medjed after the great fast at Constantinople in 1912. She was acquainted with the Austrian Archduke Franz Fredinand, whose murder caused the war, and from the palace of the son of the Sultan Abdul Aziz at Constantinople she heard the first shot fired in the Dardanelles. She was captured by the Bolsheviks while a nurse with the Polish Army (March 1919 ? - April 1920).
Tuesday, 8 March 1921. The Adelaide Register, 1901-1929. Acc. to 'trove.nla.gov.au' - 08 Mar 1921 - The Register. Ware, Herts: Ware is a town in Hertfordshire, England close to the county town of Hertford. It is also a civil parish in East Hertfordshire district, ca 35 km north of London City.

The Zbieranowski family near by
Lodz now  

Huszcza

or Guscis (= Gustis); with Puchala and Horseshoe coats of arms in the Polack province and in  Mahileu A.D. 1671 and next in the provinces Vilna and Minsk; they verified the arms in Minsk in  1825; the Huszcza and Tumilowicz families that is the rural  "badger nobility", the Polish strongly.  The Borsuki village  (Badgers) is situated 15 km north - east from Miezonka, according to M. K.  Pawlikowski who described history of Ipohorski -  Irtenski family from the Berazino parish (proprietors of  Backov estate 3 km E  from the Berezina river);
sons of Jerzy: Kazimierz, Hilary, Aleksander, Julian and  Maciej Huszcza; peers of this Jerzy: Jan Huszcza, Semen, Fiodor and Kondrat Huszcza in the period  of the January Insurrection; they've been living in
Siberia and Belarus


Comment on the Bonch - Bruevichs  

The Bruevich ancestry comes from the Orthodox gentry of the Mogilev province

Its founder, nobleman Vladimir Bruevich, was born March 4, 1561 and received from the king Sigismund August a letter on the ground in the village of Samotevichi / Самотевичи in the ex-Polish Mstislavl province, located on the outskirts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, before 1917 Samotevichi located in the Klimovitskaya County of the Mogilev province. At the present time in the Kostyukovitche district, of the Mogilev region in Belarus. Over the next two centuries the Bruevichs were priests in the Unitarian Church in Samotevichi and of the surrounding villages: Belaya Dubrava, Kostukovichi, Osov, Studenets (http://gf-sut.ru/public/iattach/262/Vestnik2.pdf) and others, or engaged in agriculture. A descendant of Vladimir Bruevich in the 5th generation, priest Ivan Bonch-Bruevich (d. 1668) had six sons: Gregory / Jerzy, Paul / Pavel, Casimir / Kazimierz, Nicephorus / Nikifor, and others who became the founders of the major branches of the family. In 1772, this part of Belarus was conquered by the Russian Empire.
Descendants of
Gregory / Jerzy / Grigori Bonch-Bruevich, rector of the church in Samotevichi:
Pavel Fedorovich 
Bonch-Bruevich (1758-1818), collegiate councilor, an official of the Ministry of Justice, and his son, Michal Pavlovich Bruevich / Michael P. Bonch-Bruevich (1798-after 1870), state councilor, a prominent official of the Russian administration in the Kingdom of Poland.
A family of 
Paul Bonch-Bruevich / Pavel Bruevich remained unknown.
In the Kazimir Bonch-Bruevich branch known: Vasily Mikhailovich Bonch-Bruevich (1801-1865state counselor, a teacher of mathematics of the Polotsk Cadet Corps, Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich son of Dmitry Bruevich (1870 - 1956), lieutenant-general, (http://www.hrono.ru/biograf/bio_n/nik2all_b.php) the national founder of aerial geodesy, and Vladimir Dmitrievich Bonch-Bruevich (1873-1955), a prominent Soviet and party leader. Vasiliy Fedorovich Bruevich (1840-1914), Councillor, an official of the Ministry of State, philanthropist. Great-grandson of Casimir Bonch-Bruevich, a priest Andrey Bonch-Bruevich (1773-1831),
of the Mogilev province, had a son, Ivan Andreevich Bonch-Bruevich / Jan Brujewicz son of Andrzej Brujewicz with Boncza coat of arms (b. 1822), collegiate assesor and the first of the Orel line of the Bruevichs: Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bonch-Bruevich (1888-1940), professor, corresponding member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences; Aleksei Mikhailovich Bonch-Bruevich (b. 1916), Professor.
A descendant of Nikifor Brujewicz / Nicephorus Bonch-Bruevich moved to the Chernihiv province, of which Nikolai Bonch-Bruevich (b. 1808), member of the Academy of Fine Arts, was living in Poltava.
All five branches by the beginning of XX century were included in the nobility books of Novograd-Seversky governorship, Mogilev, Chernigov, Orel and Saratov provinces and the Kingdom of Polandused the Boncha coat of arms, except for the younger branch, who wrote Bruevich, and had the Sas arms. Representatives of these branches were in the territory of Klimovichi, Chernigov, Mogilev and Rogachev counties and Surazh county: Ivan Ivanovich Bruevich (b. 1860), the actual state councilor, lawyer and Nikolai Grigorevich Bruevich (1896-1987), Lieutenant General and aviation engineeringMember of the Academy of Sciences.
Ivan Andreevich Bonch-Bruevich (born 04 January 1822), of the Kharkiv office, he owned a small village Yablonovets, of the Orel province in ca 1873, wife Apollinariya Petrovna.
Peter Ivanovich Bonch-Bruevich (born 12 October 1858, Ryazan), owner of the Uzkoe village, he graduated from the classical gymnasium in OrelMinistry of Finance. Was married in the city of Orel, in 1883.
Nikolai Bonch-Bruevich (1861-1909) was married twice.
Alexander Bonch-Bruevich (b. 1862), graduated of the Sumy School. He was member of the provincial government of Orel in 1891; after 1917, the building manager in St. Petersburg / Leningrad. His wife Natalia Matsneva (b. 1867), the daughter of a collegiate councilor Michael Ipollitovich Matsnev and his wife, Varvara Pavlovna.
Andrey Bonch-Bruevich (b. 1863, died 1905), owned the village YablonovetsWife: Elizabeth Nikolaevna Paradovskithe daughter of General.
Alexander Bonch-Bruevich, Lieutenant Infantry of the Dorogobuzh Regiment.
Ipollit Aleksandrovich Bonch-Bruevich / Hipolit Brujewicz son of Alexandr from the Kiev governorship, 1894; he graduated from the General Bakhtin Cadet Corps in
Orel

The foremost expert in the radio valves in the tsarist Russia was Michail (2nd) Boncz Brujewicz (Bonch-Bruevich b. 1888 in Orjol - d. 1940; son of   Aleksander (III) Boncz Brujewicz / Bonch - Bruevich who stayed in Kiev since 1896), electrician and engineer after completion of the "Nikolai -  Ingenieurschule" in Petersburg 1914; he served in the Russian army as a professional officer, expert of electron lamps and radiolocation1915 - 1919 made a study of radio valves and organized the first production of one as chief of high - frequency's section in the Central  laboratory of War  Department in middle of 1917 (the first  broadcast valves  and valve sets appeared in Russian Air Force in 1917); director of the radio  valves laboratory in 1918 - 1920 and author of the broadcasting station's project in Moskow of 1922; his son Aleksej Bonch - Bruevich (b.  1916) was the Soviet expert of electron tubes, too.

His relatives - actual originators of the November coup d'etat in 1917

Two brothers - younger Wladymir Boncz Brujewicz = Bonch-Bruevich Brujewicz Wladymir - Bonch Bruevich - Boncz Brujewicz

(1873 - 1955, son of Dmitry Bonch-Bruevich; photo: W. Boncz - Brujewicz in Moscow, October  1918. 

Children of Dmitrij Brujewicz: Michail / Michal Boncz Brujewicz and his wife Eudokia Dobrowolski daughter of Porfir / Porfirion Dobrowolski. She was born 1870, d. 1943. Michail b. 24 Febr. 1870 in Moscow, died 1956 in Moscow, too. Second son of Dmitrij - Wladimir Boncz Brujewicz, b. 1873 in Moscow, d. 1955 in Moscow. Wife Wiera Wieliczkina, in Geneve, Switzerland. Wiera was born 1868. His second wife Anna Tinkier vel Tynker daughter of Semen / Zenon Tynker. Anna Tinker was the first wife of Solomon Czernomordik son of Isajew / Izak. 

Children of Michail Brujewicz: Tamara b. 1896, Konstantin with wife Sofia Winogradow; Konstantin Boncz-Brujewicz born 4 Febr. 1898, in St Petersburg; Georgij Boncz Brujewicz son of Michail Brujewicz, born 1900, died 1923. Alexandr son of Michail, died 1981. 

Child of Wladimir Boncz Brujewicz: Elena b. 1904 and died 1985 in Moscow, husband Leopold Awerbach son of Leonid Awerbach

Dmitrij that is Dymitr Brujewicz with the Boncza coat of arms, was son of Afanazy who was born 1798 in Kulgajewka, the Klimowicze area (Dmitry Bonch-Bruevich was born in Prusino, but rather in Kuligaevka, which now is merged with Prusino in a village; now these villages - Kuligaevka / Kulgajewka and Prusino - divides only river; Kuligaevka belonged the Bonch-Bruevich family and two brothers Michail and Vladimir came here in the summer and played with local children; Dmitry Afanasievich Brujewicz with Boncza coat of arms, lived here in his home, and here he died; he was buried in the local cemetery on the outskirts of the village but an ancient cemetery has not been preserved like the tomb of Bonch-Bruevich). 

Dymitr was born 26 October 1840, died after 1904. The first wife of Atanazy / Afanazy (b. 1798) was Irina Osipowna Liepieszynskaja vel Irena Lepeszynski died 1839 in Prusinowo, the Klimowicze county, the Mohylew government, daughter of Jozef Lepeszynski (Prusinskaja Buda 6 km east of Kasciukovicy / Прусинская Буда but Prusino / Прусино that is Prusinowo 2 km east of Kostiukovichi in the Костюковичский район and south of Klimovichi). 

Afanazy Brujewicz son of Andrzej, born 1798 in the Klimowicze area, his second wife Olga Reszkowicz born 1814 or 1818, daughter of Pavel Reszkowicz; first wife Irena Lepeszynski was daughter of Jozef. Andrzej Brujewicz the 'second', b. 1768 and son of Kirill Brujewicz, d. 12 July 1819 in Kulgajewka, the Klimovichi county, the Mohylew by Dniepr government; Andrzej was owner of Kulgajewka village, but all villagers were taken by Ignacy Ciechanowiecki and removed on new places. The first wife unknown, 2nd wife 1799 Fiedosja Kuzminicz who d. 1830 - 1st married with Filipp Platkowski son of Jan Platkowski; Andzej has got 2 sons: Afanasij / Afanazy / Atanazy and Fiodor. Kirill Brujewicz son of Andrzej the 'first' Brujewicz with Boncza coat of arms, b. 1735, d. circa 1804 / 1805, with wife Anna Sawinicz (Kirill Brujewicz was owner of part of Samotiejevichi in Krzyczew area / Krichev / Кричев that is Самотевичи south - west of Kostiukovichi and south of Krzyczew, now the Moghilev oblast but Kostiukovichi belonged to Vladimir Tichonowiecki and his family 1799 to 1917; Kirill was owner also Kulgajevka / Kulgaevka in Klimovichi county, a house in Kostiukovichi 1783, inf. on him 1805 in the Klimovichi court). 

Kazimierz son of Jan vel Ivan Brujewicz was died 1705 and was father of Andrzej the first. Jan was son of Fedor. Fedor was son of Jan the first).

Above named Wladymir i.e. Vladimir Bonch - Bruevich / В. Д. Бонч-Бруевич was publisher and one of Lenin's closet associates. Curiosity! Lenin signed certificate for V. Bonch-Bruevich on July 7, 1920 because of a month's holiday and travels to Kulgaevka / Kulgajewka village in the Klimovichi county, Moghilev / Mogilev province, when the Red Army went on the general offensive - begun on July 4, 1920 - against Poland. Wladymir i.e. Vladimir Bonch - Bruevich had got a cabin in autonomous Finland and Lenin had hiding place there in period July - October 10th, 1917 [Old Style] i.e. to 23rd October; Vladimir Bruevich was administration manager at the Council of People's Commissars from November 1917; cf. F. Antoni Ossendowski, "Shadow of the bleak East", edition of 1919 and 1921, p. 57 - 58: he was known to sphere of Petersburg high society, Polish "old nobleman", secret chieftain of  socialists; he concealed of Trocki - Bronstein in Petersburg A.D. 1905 and also directed Chrustalow - Nosar or Chrustalov - Nosari in 1905.

The second brother, older - general Michail (III) Boncz Brujewicz / Bonch - Bruevich either Bonch - Bruyevich Mikhail Dmitriyevich or Michal Bonc - Bruevic, see - if you read Russian - here:  http://history.tuad.nsk.ru/index.html (b. 1870 - died 1956; son of Dmitry who stayed in Moscow) who was tsarist general. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich from 1892 to 1895 served as an officer with the Lithuanian Guards Regiment at Warsaw. He was in command of the 176th Perevolochensky Regiment, based at Chernigov in 1914 and had known Russian aviator Pyotr Nesterov. The chief of staff and deputy commander of the Russian Northern Front and commander of the Northern Front from 29 August 1917 to 9 September 1917. September 1917 (?) a chief of the Russian military counterintelligence.
Above inf. acc. to http://www.x-libri.ru/elib/ by Arsen Martirosyan Benikovich, 'Conspiracy marshals. British intelligence against the Soviet Union'.
'Germane-norden' and 'Balticum' were extremely influential in Germany, and in Russia - representatives of the ancient aristocratic families of the number pro-German Ostsee (Baltic) Barons played a crucial role in large-scale after February and October 1917 Revolutions in Russia, close to the head of the Russian military counterintelligence Gen. M. Bonch-Bruevich (brother of Lenin's closest aide). Different source: On September 9, 1917, Бонч-Бруевич / Bonch-Bruevich was replaced as commander by Gen. V. A. Cheremisov / В. А. Черемисовым and appointed to the Supreme Commander. Arriving at the General Headquarters in Mogilev, Bonch-Bruevich established contact with the Mogilev Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies and 27 September 1917 was co-opted into its executive committee in Mogilev by Dnieper river. In early October 1917, Bonch-Bruevich rejected the appointment of Governor-General of the Southwestern Region in Kiev and Omsk and took over as head of the Mogilev garrison.
But acc. to Soviet Security and Intelligence Organizations, 1917-1990: A Biographical..., by Michael Parrish, we read that M. D. Bonch-Bruevich was a General in Tsarist Counterintelligence.
Next M. D. Bonch-Bruevich was chief of staff of the Supreme Commander after November 1917
. Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the military director of the Supreme Military Council and chief of general field staff of the Red Army (field staff of the Revolutionary Military Council) in 1918 - 1919.

Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch - Bruyevich was the specialist in take a pictures from airplanes and organized the first technical office of aerial photograph in 1925; he wrote "The aerial photograph" in 1931 and similar book in 1934 (and  Grigorij - his son Mikolaj (2nd) b. 1896 was general of the Soviet air force)

the family of Aleksander II Brujewicz or Bonc - Bruievicius of the Boncza arms lived in Zbyszyn or Sbychin near to Tschetschewitschi since 1876 / 1880, 39 km SE away from Miezonka and the big estate had 5548 hectares, he lived next door Gresmer or Greszner family (according to a map edited by A. Brantner of "K.u.k. militar - geographisches Institut" in Wien 1896) and Mr Witold  Bulhak home (the Bulhak noble house of  the Syrokomla arms, verified in Minsk A.D. 1802, possessed also in the government of  Minsk: Matewitschi  = Maciejewicze i.e. Macevicy and Zuki, Budzilowka and Kondratowicze); villages Woncza / Vontcha,  Borki and Rogi - which Florian Czarnyszewicz described in a book "Nadberezyncy" i.e. Berezyna's Riverside Inhabitants - were situated close by the Zbyszyn estate: 3 and 7 km;
besides a certain Aleksander (IV ?) Brujewicz purchased village Mistow and neighbourhood in the Congress Poland on 25 January 1861 but I haven't yet any firm evidences if it's the same Aleksander (2nd) Brujewicz who settled himself in  the Zbyszyn  property - I  am searching information;

they derived from Michal I Brujewicz who was born 1762 and stayed in the Minsk  province and all  following   generations (all his sons: Aleksander I, Mikolaj I, Bazyli, Wiktor, Piotr, Pawel, Fiodor) served in Russian army at a later date;  the Brujewicz  family  was in   Mahileu   A.D. 1718 and in Krycau  A.D. 1745, Sladzin or Sladziniec  in Mahileu region in 1761

Brujewicz of the Boncza coat of arms (or Boncz - Brujewicz, possessed Bohdanowka 1st in the Mscislau  district since 1870 - 10,5 km  Nord of Jurkowschtschina i.e. Jurkowszczyzna - and also Poplatyno in the district  since  1870;  Petrulin in the region of Cerykau; Muryn -  Bor  or Bor near to Holynski's Michiejevitschi / Michiejewiczi,  i.e. 12  km  NW of Klimavicy since 1870; and Sieliszcze 18 km E-S-E of Cavusy  or  Czausy  - since 1876)



The Sedoh / Siedoh / Sedykh / Седых / Siedych family in Estonia and in Tatarstan now.

Victor Konstantynowicz vel Wiktor Konstantynowicz or Wiktor Konstantynowicz Staroch Siedoch vel (nickname) Starych Siedych / Sedykh (acc. to me he changed the surname because Viktor Konstantinovich has the documents named Constantine and scans of Estonian passports with the Starych Siedych surname), was born on 20 October 1874 in Kazan, his father unknown name, but mother was Mary vel Maria nee Trubecki / Duchess Mary Trubetskaya / Maria Trubecka / Trubetskaja / Trubetzkaya born ca 1853 (or circa 1840). Wiktor Konstantynowicz was married to Alexandra Nikolaevna nee Starych Siedych / Sedykh / Siedoh, born 03 February 1877 in St Petersburg, her father Nikolai Ivanov Starych Siedych / Sedykh / Siedoh, mother Olga Ryabchinskaya / Riabczynski; on 09 June 1934 lived in Estonia, Nomme, the Harku street No (tn) 28-2 and buried in the cemetery Hiiu-Rahu (by the order of Nomme Small Town Council, Hiiu-Rahu Cemetery, which was established in 1919, is the smallest among the cemeteries in Tallinn) in Tallinn: Victor on 19 January 1945 buried by Rita Tunkel / Tungel, address Apteegi 14-2 and Alexandra - 09 December 1948 buried by Galina Tunkel.
Inf. among others things by Inga Ilves (she is from Moscow / Москва, Russia but with roots from Järva County and near by families from Odessa, Tallinn - Hiiu [Hiiu is a subdistrict / asum in the district of Nomme, Tallinn, the capital of Estonia], the town of Elva in Estonia) and 'http://forum.vgd.ru/'.

There are 10 people in Estonia with the Trubetskoi / Trubetskoy (Трубецкой и Эстония) last name now, in Harjumaa. Harju County or Harjumaa / Harrien / Harria, it is situated in northern Estonia, on the south coast of the Gulf of Finland; Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, is included in the county.
See also: 'genealogy.euweb.cz' acc. to Josef Zvonecka and 'http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3ATrubetskoy_family' "...but then the page was attacked by Polish nationalists who turned it into a mess, starting a bunch of unnecessary stubs with Polish names. They also extensively used the Trubetskoy genealogy which I had compiled and posted at 'genealogy.euweb.cz'. I am sorting this category and some of it's members have really more connection with Russia then Poland..." (?!). "Someone give a bibliographic reference for this genealogy" at 'http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trubetskoy_family'. My correspondent was writing to me in June 2012: "...The Library of Congress as well as some other world libraries own the official Troubetzkoy family genealogies. The most recent one was published in 1976 and has full information about Princess Maria and was written by a nephew. In addition, there are 3 books about the descendants of that particular branch of the family, with the latest book published in 2006".

Bedrich Vilem Urban was born on March 18, 1880 in Senice in Austria / now Czech Republic and died 1955; in 1904 worked for 'Tallinna Volta' and 1908 for 'firmas Duflon ja Konstantinovitsch' that is the Dyuflon and Konstantynowicz Company, 1911 'Siemens-Schuckert'. In 1918 back to Estonia. His wife Amanda Wilhelmine Clara Urban; his children: Dalibor Dalka Urban, Jean Boris Urban, Zdanek Zdenya Urban; his parents: Marie Urban and Stepan Urban father. Above named his wife Amanda Wilhelmine Clara Urban nee Steinberg born on June 29, 1882 in Tallinn, Harjumaa county - her father Gustav Kustas Steinberg b. on March 2, 1850 in Üksnurme - Üksnurme is a village in Saku Parish, Harju County in northern Estonia, close to Tallinn, Üksnurme is 2 km south - west from Saku; Saku is 12 km south of Nomme, and 16 km from Tallinn. Saku is a small borough in Harju County, Estonia. Her mother: Anna Maria Steinberg nee Sa(a)lwelt / Saalwelt b. June 21, 1862 in Harku; Harku is 6 km west of Nomme, where lived the Sedykh and Konstantynowicz families, next of kin with the Troubetzkoy family. Wiktor Konstantynowicz was living on 09 June 1934 in Estonia, Nomme at Harku (the Harku street in Nomme located in north of the town, near to the Hiiu-Rahu kalmistu Tallinnas) tn 28-2 and buried in the cemetery Hiiu-Rahu. Above named address: Hiiu, street Harku tn (No) 28, apt. 2, Nőmme - Tallinn, Harjumaa district, Eesti / Estonia - Harku str. No 28 crossroads streets on Vahtra str in north part of Nomme. Nomme is one of the 8 administrative districts of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. Harku / Hark is a small borough in Harku Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia. Anna Maria Steinberg nee Sa(a)lwelt / Saalwelt died in the Czech Republic. And a grandmother of wife Amanda Wilhelmine Clara Urban nee Steinberg: Mina Salwelt nee Mamers b. on October 7, 1836 in Parmel.


Genealogy of the Constantinovich family 1534 - ca 1945 in Estonia and Latvia. Константинович - биография. History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives: Troubetzkoy, Sedykh from Kazan, and Kalinowski from Cracow, Armand in Moscow and Petersburg, Gernet from Estonia, Dunkel / Tunkel, 
Rehbinder / Rebinder, Benkedorf, Urban, Steinberg, 
from Estonia, Dubbelt / Dubelt from Riga, Bakst, Demonet or De Monet, Dizeren, 
Azbelev, Bagration-Gruzinski and Mukhrani from Sakartvelo-Georgia.

An information from a database of the White movement:

Starych Siedych Victor Konstantynowicz born 1874, in service since 1904, an officer since 1912, 'ensign' that is praporschik by Admiralty,
in the North - Western Army of White movement enlisted on May 20, 1919 and in December 1919 at the headquarters of the 4th Infantry Division

(by Michael Kihntopf: 

'...The Russian counter-revolutionary Northwest Army ... had started near the Estonian and Russian frontier ... The Northwest Army had its origins in ... October 1918 in the occupied city of Pskov. ... the German General Staff authorized the organization of nearly 2500 prisoners of war and former tsarist officers who had sought shelter from the Bolshevik secret police in German occupied territory into a unit it designated as the Northern Corps. ... Konstantin Pats, the Estonian prime minister ... had formed a fledgling army of two 300 man companies. ... White movements, the Corps ...contained 36 former generals ... The first was General Aleksandr Rodzianko ...The second to rise to the top was a product of the revolution, Major General Stanislav Bulak-Balakovitch who styled himself as the Ataman of Peasants and Partisan Legions. He had begun his military career in 1915 as a private gaining an officership as a reward for organizing Polish guerilla units in German occupied territory. When the revolution came, he had thrown his support to the Bolsheviks only to desert with 1000 men, four machine guns, and 120 horses and join the Northern Corps at Pskov where he promoted himself from captain to major general. Bulak-Balakovitch became the corps' co-field commander. ... Rodzianko attached his men to the Estonians. On 4 January 1919, the Estonians (struck)... Rodzianko began to organize the liberated territory. ... nearly 5000 bayonets were added to the corps. ... British observers placed the corps numbers at just under 7000. The corps, considering its claimed numbers, declared itself the Northwest Army. ... Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak, the supreme commander of Russian counter revolutionary forces, gave his approval to Rodzianko and ordered General of the Infantry Nikolai Iudenich, who had escaped to Finland in 1918, to take over the administrative command of the army. ... he was relying on an army of 25,000 divided into six columns. ... Column D (4th Division) would advance east to Luga and column E's purpose was to cut the Pskov – Luga railway. Column F was to protect the right flank of E and (4th Division) D. Each of the columns consisted of a division ... The offensive began on 11 October 1919 all along the front. ... (4th Division) Column D captured Luga on 13 October ... For a few months, Iudenich was held under house arrest ... Iudenich left Estonia aboard a British ship ...' -  

Copyright © 2008 Mike Kihntopf / Michael P. Kihntopf at: kihnt@swbell.net. ... veteran of the U.S. Air Force. Published online: 06/27/2008).

In 1917 Wiktor Konstantynowicz was living in Peterburg / St. Petersburg but on June the 14th, 1924 they lived in the town of Viljandi.
Daughter of Alexandra and Victor Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovitsch:
Galina nee Konstantynowicz born approx. 1900 / 1902 died in Nomme after 1968 and was married to a Latvian; she had two daughters, one married to a Latvian, another to a German (Irena?).

Below inf. by http://forum.vgd.ru/ September 2004 to August 2011, but with few (!) mistakes:
Victor Konstantynowicz vel Staroch Siedoch Viktor Konstantinovitsch was born 1874, the husband of Ивановой Александры Николаевны / Alexandra Nikolaevna Ivanova, born in 1877, whose daughter Галина Седых / Halina Sedykh / Galina Siedych, born between 1901 and 1903, went from St. Petersburg in Tallinn, where she married to an Estonian and gave birth to two daughters, the youngest of whom was named Irene / Iren. Wiktor Konstantynowicz vel Victor Siedych, Navy ensign, who lived in Geslerovsky lane / Геслеровском пер. No 29, in Petersburg in 1917. The Geslerovsky lane now has the Chkalov prospect name. Victor Konstantynowicz / Konstantinovich was confirmed in a letter of 1944.
Galina Sedykh in 1968 lived in the center of Nomme, now Tallinn Nomme.
Victor Starych Siedych Konstantinovich was born on 20th October 1874 in Kazan, his father Staych Siedych Konstantyn / Constantine (??), mother Duchess Mary Trubetskoy / Maria Trubetskaya; a sailor, Petrograd. And Alexandra was born on 02nd March 1877 in St. Petersburg, but her father Nikolai Ivanov and her mother Olga Ryabchinskaya / Ryabchinsky; resided on 09 June 1934 at Nomme, Harku street No 28-2.
Above Victor Konstantinovich b. 1874, in service since 1904, an officer since 1912, ensign by the Admiralty, in the North-Western Army enlisted May 20, 1919, in December 1919 at the headquarters of the 4th Infantry Division.

Alexandra Konstantynowicz was buried by mentioned Rita Dunkel, and in the recording of Constantin (Wiktor Konstantynowicz) is Galina Dunkel / Tungel or Tunkel.

Rudolph Dunkel b. 1881 in Kurtna - d. ?; his brother: Carl Johann Dunkel b. 1872 in Riisipere - d. ?, his children: 1898 Harald Johann Dunkel in Tallinn, 1899 Marga Helene Dunkel in Koogi / Jőelähtme ca 25 km east of Tallinn. Riisipere - close to Nissi; 23 km south of Lehola.
Dunkel, Johannes was living in Tallinn, 1904.
By Georg Dunkel from Suomi: Elisabeth Dunkel nee Kőplas (her father Michel Kőplas 1840 in Vastseliina, area of Vőru, Eastland - south-east part of Estonia now, and west of Pskov 70 km) b. 1878 in Hürsi, Vőrumaa, Estonia but west of Pskov and died 1953 in Helsinki; her son: Voldemar Dunkel b. in St Petersburg and died in Helsinki; her husband Georg Otto Dunkel, he was living in Viipurinlääni, Suomi / the Viipuri Province was a province of Finland from 1812 to 1945; her grandson Georg Dunkel. Above Voldemar Dunkel was born 1903 in St Petersburg - 1964 in Helsinki, Finland; his father Georg Otto Dunkel b. 1873 in Szczecin, Western Pomerania - d. 1941 in Kirkkonummi, Finland - municipality is located just outside the Helsinki Metropolitan Area; Voldemara's wife Taisia Dunkel nee Stanovaja / Stanovay b. 1902; her sons: Albert, Eugen and Georg Dunkel - Finland - his son Manuel Dunkel.
Juhan Tunkel 1862 - 1930, by Henryk Manicki. Nicknames: Juhhan, Dunkel, born on March 4, 1862 in Humala, Keila district, Harjumaa and d. April 1, 1930. His children: Annette Rosalie Türberg in Baltisch Port / Paldiski, Harjumaa, next on February 11, 1897 birth of Julie Tunkel in Paldiski, he married to Mari Dunkel and second time to Juula Dunkel. Next children: 1898 Maria Dunkel and 1901 Hermine Dunkel in Humala, Harjumaa; and 1903 Johannes Dunkel in Humala, Harjumaa. Johannes Dunkel b. 1903 died ?, Humala, Harjumaa and his halfsister: Annette Rosalie Türberg b. on June 27, 1893 in Baltisch Port / Paldiski, Harjumaa; m. 1920 to Johannes Türberg, children: 1926 Vilma Rosalie Türberg in Lehola, Harjumaa. And her halfsister: Julie Tunkel 1897 - d.?, Paldiski, by http://www.geni.com/people/Julie-Tunkel. Her sister: Hermine Dunkel 1901 - d.? from Humala, Harjumaa and son of Hermine: Heldur Jakob.
Some details on different person: Leeno Dunkel nee Trauerberg b. on August 27, 1844 in Rannamoisa, Harjumaa, her husband Jüri Tunkel and her father Jüri Trauerberg. Her daughter Maria Pauline Hindreus nee Tunkel b. 1870.
Both women - Rita Dunkel and Galina Dunkel - lived in those years at Apteegi No 14-2 in the area Nomme. The Apteegi street (Apteek road) in Tallinn, close to Vene str., and the Tallinna Kultuurivaartuste Amet in Old Town. See 'A Rambling Dictionary of Tallinn Street Names' by Simon Hamilton.
1825 - restored merchant's harbor Baltic port / Baltijskij Port / Paldiski. 1842 - Lutheran Church of St. Nicholas was built at the expense of Nicholas I, on the proposal of the chief of the III Department of His Majesty's Office of General A. H. Benkedorf / А. Х. Бенкедорф, a native of this place, the owner of the estate located near Keila-Joa. Created in 1856 by a special committee 'to improve on the military side', examining the question, '...where there should be first-class marine facilities', for the Baltic Fleet, near to the mouth of the Gulf of Finland. The Baltic port converted into the base of the main forces of the fleet. 1857 in the Baltic port began research under the direction of Admiral Panfilov, were taken successively in 1881 and 1889. Here was the headquarters of the Baltic Coast Defense district. 1893 - 1897 here lived Dunkel or Tunkel.

Close to Humala, in the Keila Parish, was an estate of Abram Hannibal. In Estonia, Abram Hannibal taken a family crest when he bought an estate Karyakyula / Vana-Karjaküla mõis / Alt-Hohenhof - Ivan Gannibal (1735-1801), was born in Karjaküla Manor (Pushkin), after: von Glehn, von Gernet, von Krause / Kraus. Karjaküla is a small borough in Keila Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia. It is known that Hannibal was the chief commander of Tallinn for 10 years and married Regina Christina Sjöberg / Sheberg in 1736; she was the daughter of the Swedish army captain Mattias Sjöberg (the female line from the family Albedil) but her first son was born on 5 June 1735 in Vana-Karjaküla mõis. The three eldest sons (Ivan, Peter and Osip) were born in Eastland, and two younger (Isaac and Jacob), on the estates of Pskov province.

Count Alexander von Benckendorff / Aleksandr Khristoforovich Benkendorf, b. 1781 or 1783 d. 1844, was a Russian Cavalry General; he is most frequently remembered for his later role, under Tsar Nicholas I, as the head of the Gendarmes and the Secret Police in Imperial Russia. Alexander von Benckendorff was born to a Baltic German family in Reval / Tallinn. His brother Konstantin von Benkendorff was a general and diplomat, and his sister Dorothea von Lieven. He was the first Chief of Gendarmes and Executive Director of the Third Section from 1826 to 1844. His family possesed Schloss Fall / Keila-Joa from 1827 or 1837 and in 1830s Meremőisa / Merremois / Meremoisa, close to Keila-Joa. After his death, the castle was owned by prince Volkonsky family.

"Konstantyn" and Alexandra were buried at different sites; on the site of Konstantyn were: Lewashow Weera / Levashov Veera in 1933, 1972 and Kuznetsova Kalina 1976, Lewaschov Konstantin / Lewasow Konstantin 1936, Straro, Sedo or Straroh Sedoh Konstantin (Constantine) and Ma'nnik Eugen 1986. On the site of Alexandra: Aleksandra and Ivanova Maria 1991, Donskov Peeter 1993, Mary Grigorevna 7.11.1914 - 27.10.1911 and Peter / Pietr 09 January 1920 - 25 September 1993. It is possible that this place was sold to a new owner. A date : 11 September 1948 and 1991 not confirmed. Sedykh were Orthodox.
Dunkel Galina at the cemetery of Siselinna on 13 August 1982; here name of Rita Krause. Maybe Rita is a daughter of Galina, and Rita Irene and Rita are the same person. Rita Irene, daughter of Heinrich / Rita Irene Heynrihovna b. 1927 / Rita-Ireene at cemetery of Siselinna that is Krauze Rita-Ireene died on 21 November 1998.
Heinrich Dunkel, a father of Rita, Irene; captain. Heinrich Georg Dunkel / Heinrich Dunkel / Baldwin-Heinrich Dunkel was a reserve captain; Heinrich Dunkel was poisoned in the central prison of Tallinn by the communists. On January 10, 1934 or 1935 - a funeral of the union officers leader, a reserve captain Baldwin - Heinrich Dunkel took place in Tallinn. He had died in prison.

From Riga, Latvia: daughter of Galina Sedykh / Dunkel was Irena. Sabine from Riga is the Sedykh family relatives. After Irene's death from Tallinn brought some pictures, among them there were, pre-revolutionary.

On the Baltic German family von Krause and the Siselinna / Siselinna kalmistu Cemetery, str Vana Kaarli kalmistu, place K VI, 11-1. That is the Defence Forces Cemetery of Tallinn, sometimes called the Tallinn Military Cemetery, is one of the three cemeteries of the Tallinn City Centre Cemetery. It is situated about 3 kilometres outside the centre of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. Dunkel Galina at the cemetery of Siselinna was buried on 13 August 1982; here name of Rita Krause. Maybe Rita is a daughter of Galina, and Rita Irene and Rita are the same person. Siselinna Cemetery No K VI 11/1 11/1 - Dunkel Galina on 13.08.1982 by Rita Krause. Siselinna Cemetery No K IX 4/5 buried Krauze Rita-Ireene on 21.11.1998. Dunkel, Balduin-Heinrich, captain, reg. file ERA.554.1.139 - ERA.1868.1.1361 on 16.03.1934-15.01.1935 that is Heinrich Dunkel, father of Rita Irene nee Dunkel. Victor Konstantinovich born on 20.10.1874 in Kazan, his father Konstantinovich, mother Mary Trubetskoy / Trubetskaya, was sailor, Petrograd, Alexandra b. 03.02.1877 in Petersburg, her father Nikołaj Iwanow, mother Olga Ryabchinskaya, Victor was living on 09/06/1934 in Nőmme. The Krauze / Krause family, Latvian-German origin, before the Second War in Latvia and Estonia:

1. Christina Sofia Krause / Христина-София Краузе b. 1755 in Revel / Tallinn, d. 1825;
m. Frideriks / Фридерихс b. 1749; her children: in Ревель, was Евстафий Иванович Фридерихс / Якоб Иоганн Август, b. 1776, d. 1834, and Генрих Якоб Фридерихс b. ca 1780; in Avandus / Авандус, was born Элизабет Катарина Фридерихс in 1784. They were living in Lasinurme (Lassinorm) - close to Avandus, knight manor in Simuna Parish, Virumaa County - south of Rakvere;
Thula / Tuula, Saue Parish, Harju County, Estonia - 3 km south of Keila, 8 km soth-west of Saue, 8 km east of Lehola.
Her husband - mentioned above - Иоганн Иеремия Фридерихс b. 1749, Dorpat; he was living in Лассинорм, Авандус, Ревель, Тула of von Toll. Above Евстафий Фридерихс b. 1776, married in 1803 (div. 1807) in London to

Josephine Mercier (Friderichs, Aleksandrova, Weiss) b. 1778 d. 1824; she married second time in 1820 to Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss
/ Александр Густав Иоганн фон Вейс - son of Сергей / Андреас Отто Георг фон Вейс b. 1760; her son Константин Рейнхольд фон Вейс b. 1839 d. 1917; her grandson (stepgrandson, acc. to me) Aleksandr von Weiss / Александр фон Вейс b. 1870.
History and genealogy of the Constantinovich family with relatives in Estonia: Tuula, Saue, Ohtu, 
Harku, Nomme, Saku, Uksnurme, Lehola, Tallinn and the Harjumaa district: Krauze, Mercier, Troubetzkoy, 
Sedykh from Kazan, Gernet from Estonia. The Baltic German families in Estonia: Schilling 
von Cannstatt / Schilling von Canstatt /  Schilling von Canstadt, von  Pillar-Pilchau, Gernet, 
Rehbinder, Toll, Croy, Weiss.
Her partner Константин Павлович Poманов, 1779 - 1831.

We know about: MERCIER, 1666 in Paris. Mercier, Louis Sébastien, 1740-1814. They come from Levallois-Perret - in the northwestern suburbs of Paris. And from Meurthe et Moselle, and Vosges, Lorraine, France. General Auguste Mercier (1833-1921) married Fanny Isobel Tremayne Simons at Versailles in 1871. His son Evelyn Gabriel Tremayne Mercier, born 1876, was Lieut-Colonel in the infantry.

Samples only. Pierre-Mathurin Mercier born 1774 at the Lion d'Angers in France, north-west of Angers, died 1801 in La Motte in France, is a military officer, commander of the legion of Vannes and the Catholic Army during the War in the Vendée, south-west of Angers; he joined in June 1793 Vendee army, going on Nantes. Pierre Mathurin Mercier was the son of Pierre Mercier and Lucretia Touze / Lucrece Touzé, from a middle class family, moved to Château-Gontier in 1784, north of Angers; relatives: Frédéric Mercier, his brother, one of the leaders of Fromentieres; Mary Lucretia Mercier (1776-1831), and Felix Elias Mercier / Felix Elie Mercier, brother of Peter / Pierre, attach to his name 'Vendée' in memory of his brother. The Mercier Vendée: in Grammont south-west of Angers, La Péraudiere, La Noue, Toulouse. Next of kin with Huet, Picault, in 1701 to Bouvet, Guillot. Louise Huet, b. 1714 in Le Lion d'Angers, d. 1764, her mother Bouvet; Louise married to Mathurin Mercier, his sons: François Mercier (la Vendee) in 1766 m. Françoise Hantri, and Pierre Mercier in 1773 m. to Lucrece Touzé.

Josephine Mercier (Friderichs, Aleksandrova, Weiss) b. 1778 d. 1824; she married second time in 1820 to Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss / Александр Густав Иоганн фон Вейс (son of Сергей / Андреас Отто Георг фон Вейс b. 1760);

her stepson Константин Рейнхольд фон Вейс b. 1839 d. 1917; her grandson Aleksandr von Weiss / Александр фон Вейс b. 1870.

Above mentioned Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss / Александр Густав Иоганн фон Вейс / Александр Сергеевич b. 1792 d. 1845, his father Сергей or Андреас Отто Георг фон Вайсс b. 1760 d. 1821, and his mother Анна Мария Альбрехт b. ca 1768; he was married 1st to

Анна Элизабет фон Врангель / Anna Elisabeth Wrangell b. 1804, 2nd time in 1820 married to Жозефина ле Мерсье or Лемерсье b. 1778 d. 1824;

his children: Николай фон Вейс b. 1833, Александрина Элизабет фон Вейс b. 1837, Константин Александрович / Константин Рейнхольд фон Вейс b. 1839, Александр Карл Клеменс / Александр Александрович b. 1840.

Анна Элизабет фон Врангель / Anna Elisabeth Wrangell Betsy b. 1804. Marriage with Александр Густав Иоганн фон Вейс b. 1792;
her children: Николай фон Вейс b. 1833, Александрине Элизабет Делингсхаузен b. 1837, mentioned Константин Рейнхольд b. 1839, and last Александр Карл Клеменс b. 1840 d. 1921. She died 1875 in Uchten. Her father Georg Johan von Wrangell from Uchten (1760 in Reval - 1836, his brother Karl Magnus von Wrangell); grandfather Reinhold Johann von Wrangell (1721 - 1767) from Koddil / Kodila, Raplamaa, Estland; great-grandfather Karl Johann von Wrangell b. 1691, by Peter Trefilov at geni.com.

Александров Павел Константинович / Aleksandrov Pavel K., Adjutant-General, son of Grand Duke Константин Павлович / Constantine Pavlovich and

Ульяна Михайловна Александрова / Жозефина Фридрикс / Ulyana Mikhailovna Alexandrova / Friedrichs Josephine,

was born 1808. Godfather was the Emperor Alexander I;

his mother Josephine Friedrichs nee Mercier b. 1778 - d. 1824; 1805, she arrived to St. Petersburg, as an actress, in search of her husband. In London she married to Colonel Alexander von Friedrichs, a personal aide-adjutant Emperor. She found her husband in 1807 and divorced. Constantine Pavlovich / Konstantin Pavlovich Romanov met her 1807, in 1816, she taken name Juliana M. / Ulyana Mihajlovna Alexandrova. In 1820, Juliana M. married Colonel Weiss. Her son Alexandrov in 1829 was appointed aide-adjutant to His Imperial Majesty, and in 1831 took part in the war against the Polish insurgents. 1846 - a major general; 1855 was appointed adjutant-general, and 1856 lieutenant general. Александров Павел Константинович / Aleksandrov Pavel K. married in 1833 to Shcherbatova, Princess Anna Alexandrovna; Pavel K. Alexandrov died 1857.

The count Albert R. de Gern / де Герн граф Альберт Романович Earl, member of the Russian-French Chamber of Commerce, Board Member: The Russian-French Commercial Bank and the Society of the Bryansk factories; the secretary of French society 'Russian Mining and Metallurgical Union', the French agent in Russia, and member of the board of 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company.

Neighbour of count Albert von Gern / Герн at I. Lidvall / Lidval house in 1912 - 1916 in St Petersburg:

M. N. Weiss, the daughter of Vice Admiral

Weiss, Alexander Konstantinovich; he was born 1870,
was Rear-admiral on 12 June 1916; he graduated from the Maritime School; commanded a torpedo boat and destroyers; after the October Revolution in the service of the Reds. Chief of Staff of the Red Baltic Fleet to 1919. Arrested in 1931, 1933 and 1935 exiled to Orenburg.

His father:
Weiss, Konstantin / Константин Рейнхольд фон Вейс b. 1839 d. 1917.
He was born on August 5, 1839 in Tsarskoye Selo, came from the nobility of the province of Estonia / Эстония. May 14, 1896 was promoted to lieutenant general. June 6, 1907 Weiss was promoted to General of Infantry. General Weiss was living in St. Petersburg (Petrograd) in 1917 at Nicholas Road, 59 where he died August 22, 1917.

And next of kin Konstantin von Weiss born July 29, 1877 in Tsarskoye Selo, died in Augsburg; during the Civil War, the commander of the Baltic Battalion of the Estonian Army. Baltic Regiment was formed in early 1919 in Estonia of the volunteers - Baltic Germans and since the spring of 1919 worked with the North-Western Army. October 1919 was part of 3rd Infantry Division, then worked as a part of the 1st Army.

The CARLIER name is French Huguenot, French Protestants and in 1720 Jan CARLIER born in Amsterdam, North Holland had two children born in Colombo, Sri Lanka which was colonized by the Dutch. Mary Josephine Carlier - maybe she is Mary Carlier, b. 1811, daughter of Daniel Carlier and Mary Marlain;
sister of Henry Augustus Carlier; William Evans Carlier and David Evans Carlier, half sister of Daniel Carlier - copyright by Marco Alexander Herbst at geni.com. Above Daniel Carlier, b. 1766, London, England; died 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu, India,

son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier;

inf. by Marco Alexander Herbst, Rachel Cowan, Stephen R Johnson and Stephen David Berryman.

Daniel Carlier m. Mary Marlain; he was born in 1770 or 1766 at London, England (? - in Colombo, Sri Lanka), d. 1822 / 1829 in Palamcottah, Tamil Nadu, India. Son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier. Husband of Mary Marlain; father of Henry Augustus Carlier; Mary Carlier; William Evans Carlier; David Evans Carlier and Daniel Carlier; brother of Isaac Carlier, half brother of Abraham Carlier, inf. by Marco Alexander Herbst at geni.com in 2009; Mary MARLAIN b. ca 1770, d. 1855 Ootacamund; he was working as Conductor of Madras Invalids; is the man who leaves the Huguenot community in London to go to India.

Daniel's parents were Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier, both born in London; he married a woman from Colombo, Mary Marlain, in 1807 in India, but he had also son Daniel, born about 1796. He had son Daniel second who married Eliza Grace Evans in 1829 in Palamcottah, Madras from his third wife - her father may be William Evans.
Mary Carlier (Marlain) b. ca 1770 in Colombo, Ceylon; d. 1855 in Ooty, Tamil Nadu, India.

2.

Christian Sigismund Krause was born in about 1763. He was not mentioned in his father's will of 30 January 1765.

3.

JOHANN WILHELM KRAUSE, in Dome Hill [Estonia], was architect Johann Wilhelm Krause b. 1757 Alam-Sileesia / Lower Silesia and died in 1828, Tartu; lived in Dresden, and Estonia. June 6, 1925 from 'Latvijas Vestnesis' / 'Latvian Herald', on actress Irma Emma Krauze from Liepaja. Johann Wilhelm Krause b. 1757 in Lower Silesia - died 1828 Tartu, Krause had studied a little of theology, drawing and architecture. Krause had been a technician in the army of Prussia, and he came to Livonia as a home teacher in 1784 of Riga, worked as an architect in Aluksne and Kizbele, Tartu thanks to his family relations: he had married the sister of the wife of the future Rector of the University. In January 1806 Krause was elected Professor Ordinary of Economics until his death in 1828.

4. Now in Riga, Latvia:

tel. 67671523, Krause Ieva, str Ozolciema 12/1. Erich Krause owner of 'Erich Krause Finland Oy' (Latvian Branch), Riga, Ziemelu 4. Krauze I., an adviser, Terbatas 14, Riga. The proposed mayoral candidate from the Union of Greens and Farmers is Armands Krauze from Riga, he also holds a Masters degree in agriculture. Krauze is a long-term Chairman of the Latvian Beekeepers association, was deputy Chairman of the Agricultural Organizations Cooperation Council, work at the Finance Ministry, Agriculture Ministry, Latvian parliament and Brussels.

5.
Dita Krauze - Assistant to the Chairman at Eligo International, Production Assistant at Tristana Media. Education - Latvian Academy of Culture, Riga State Gymnasium No. 1, born ca 1984. Otto Krause of Buenos Aires, Argentina; the engineer Otto Krause, son of German immigrants, the school was founded in 1897 and is the oldest technological school in the country.
Justina Helena Krause nee Topp 1794 - 1853, nick-name Christina Helena, birthplace: Pärnu / Pernau; her mother Anna Helena Nolte / Topp / Mollin from Testamaa / Tőstamaa, her sons: Magnus Wilhelm Krause 1826 - 1892 and Friedrich August Krause 1821 - d.?, her daughters 1822 Dorothea Elisabeth Knoch and Carharina Helena Hanson. Marriage of Justina Helena to Johann Friedrich Krause.
Maria Ernestine Krause nee Ellmann born 1907 - d.? from Kaelase, Pärnu-Jaagupi - Pärnu-Jaagupi is a borough in Pärnu County, Estonia, the administrative centre of Halinga Parish, ca 28 km north of Parnu - her father Jüri Ellmann, her husband Johannes Krause, her son Endel Krause 1929 - 1992.

Riina vel Irina Tomson nee Krause b. 1851 - d.?, her father Mihkel Krause.
Mardi Jurri 1799 - d.? from Halinga, married to Liso voi Rina 1827 and birth of Irina / Rőőt m. Krause. Daughter?

6.
The von Krause family now in Estonia: Vaike-Kamari in Jogeva, 1794 in Pärnu / Pernau, 1907 in Kaelase, Pärnu-Jaagupi in Pärnu County, Testamaa / Tőstamaa, Kulla in Parnu, str Parna No 5a in Parnu, and also in Tallinn, Narva and Tartu.
Marriages of Krauze: Graubner, Karl Alexander b. 1859 m. Berggrun, Freiderike Marie b. 1864 in Parnu. Vorhauer m. to Eisleben, Catharina Augustina b. 1802 in Wenden, Livland, Latvia, lived in Naukšeni / NAUKSCHEN, and her daughter Vorhauer, Wilhelmine m. Krause, Alexander (father: Vorhauer, mother: Eisleben, Catharina Augustina) and children: Krause, Elli and Krause, Arved. Above locality Naukšeni is close to Rujiena and north Latvia near by Estonia border. Krause Theodor 1848 m. Christine Daugschat 1843. The Baltic German family von Krause: "They were near the town of Valmiera / Valmiery. They also have been associated with the current Kaliningrad region, with the current Yasnaya Polyana. There was a connection with von Reither: Nina von Reither the wife of Yuri Arturovich von Krause, once with De Klerk - Daniel De Klerk was married to someone from Rieter, as well as the princes Telegino. Arthur von Krause was a lawyer in Riga in the 19th century. and he had a brother Robert".

The Estonian - Belarusian branch of the Troubetzkoy family (Трубецкой и Эстония):

Nicholas Nikitich Trubeckoj  b. 1744 and d. 1821 - his son Prince Petr Nikolaevich b. 1773 and d. 1801 (his mother Princess Varvara Alexandrovna Czerkasskaja / Princess Varvara Alexandrovna Tcherkassky).

Gregory / Grigory Troubetzkoy / Grigorij Petrovich Trubecki who - settled before 1832 in the Kingdom of Poland - was born in 1802 after death of his father, and died in 1879 or 11 January 1874 

-
his brother Prince Jurij Petrovich Trubeckoj / Yuri Troubetzkoy was born 1796, died 1859 (married to Olga Nikolaevna Tchaikovsky / Czajkowski daughter of Mikolaj Czajkowski).
His sister Anna nee Trubecki / Trubetsky / Anna Kozhoukhova born 23 December 1793 died 29 March 1827 (married to Alexandr Stepanovitch Kozhoukhov / Aleksander Kozuchow or Kozuchowski son of Stefan Kozuchow or Kozuchowski).
Grigory Troubetzkoy / Grigorij Trubetsky / Gregori Trubiacki / Grzegorz Trubecki was a Prince of the Troubetzkoy family. He married M. Kalinowska

(Maria Kalinowska in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow)

and they lived before 1840 in St. Petersburg.
Grigory / Grzegorz Trubecki was the son of Piotr Nikolaievich Troubetzkoy / Prince Petr Nikolaevich Troubetskoy born 18 November 1773 and died 16 November 1801 and Nadezhda Ivanovna Pestov / nee Pestova born 1793.

Next generation:
Prince Nestor Grigorievich Troubetzkoy / Nester / Nestor Grigoriewicz Trubecki, a landowner and revolutionary, international journalist and from 1901 "correspondent of Freiheit, Neues Leben, Der Anarchist, Der Freie Arbeiter, Wolny Swiat, Der Generalstreik, Der Weckruf, member of Jan Machajski’s squad
(Acc. to Marcel Duchamp:
"The anarchist period in Nestor Trubecki's life is just a compilation of Max and Siegfried Nacht biographies... there is no any book about I Proletariat, where the name Trubecki / Trubeckoy is mentioned...".
Max Nomad is the pseudonym of Austrian author and educator Max or Maximilian Nacht. Born in 1881, into a wealthy Jewish family from Buczacz, eastern Galicia, Poland. He lived in Austria. His older brother Siegfried Shlomo Nacht was born in Vienna in 1878 and died in 1956, with Senna Hoy in Zürich from 1903 to 1907 edited five volumes of the militant journal Der Weckruf / The Alarm. Siegfried, later Stephen, Nacht emigrated to the United States of America at the end of 1912, Max followed in 1913.
Max Nacht from 1902 on contributed widely to anarchist periodicals, e.g. 'Neues Leben', 'Wolny Swiat' in 1904; fled arrest in August 1904 and went to Zurich, where he became an editor of 'Der Weckruf'. He become a member of Jan Machajski's group in Geneva; active in the Polish-Russian underground 1908-1909; went to the USA in 1913, where he changed his name into Max Nomad.
Shlomo Nacht was delegate for Eastern Galicia to the International Socialist Congress in Paris 1900; went to Spain in 1903; in Amsterdam in 1904; active in Bohemia where he edited 'Der Generalstreik'; 1906 expelled from Switzerland, lived in several European countries; emigrated to the USA in 1912.
See: http://www.iisg.nl/archives/en/files/n/ARCH00915.php
Johannes Holzmann / Senna Hoy, according to Walter Fähnders, a professor for German literature, he wrote a short text and published in 'Der Kampf' that was a depiction of a homosexual encounter; deported to Zurich, he worked for a newspaper 'Der Weckruf' / 'The Wake-up Call'; he decided to leave Zurich, after in Paris, and Russia where he joined an anarchist federation in Poland for several weeks, robbing rich merchants but in June 1907 he was caught and sentenced to fifteen years of hard labor; in 1913 he was in an insane asylum near Moscow and died in 1914.
Errico Malatesta born 1853 in Capua, went to Geneva, where he collaborated with Machajski and Kropotkin to 1881.
Jan Strozecki vel Janek Galecki b. 1869, from 1877 to 1887 in Kielce he was friend with Stefan Zeromski and Jan Machajski.
Details on Machajski: 1891 was leaving Warsaw to Cracow, but is arrested, expelled from Austria, he went to Zurich, in June 1892 arrested again on the border of Russia and exiled to Yakutia in Siberia, Machajski in 1903 from Irkutsk came to Geneva with
Sycia Rosa Lewin vel Wiera Machajska,
in 1905 he moved to St. Petersburg, in 1907 he fled to Galicia in Austria and from here he moved to Switzerland.
And short about above Kropotkin:
Weimar Orest E., b. 1845 died 1885, physician in St. Petersburg, the owner of Orthopedic Clinics, populist, organized the escape of Kropotkin from prison in 1876 acc. the 'Notes of a revolutionary' by Kropotkin, he was arrested in 1879 and sentenced to 15 years in prison, it was the Russian-Turkish war period and this prison shortened to 10 years, he died in prison at Kara, his wife Wiktoria nee Konstantynowicz / Victoria Konstantinovich daughter of John / Ivan Konstantinovich / Konstantinovich - she was b. 1846 and died in 1899/1900)
in Geneva", who was born and died in Poland, b. in 1832 (?) in Free City of Cracow or in 1840 (!) - died in 1907 Warsaw
.

Above named Nestor Troubecki vel Nester Kalinowski in 1857 went to Vienna, in 1859 returned to Krakow, promote the Ruthenian Catholic Church, the Belarusian Greek Catholic Church and Ruthenian language; 1863 the outbreak of January Uprising and he was involved in the secret 'Prowincjonalny Litewski Komitet' in Vilnius / Wilno; Trubecki was a member of the 'Miedzynarodowa Socjalno-Rewolucyjna Partia Proletariat' and a contributor of the 'Wolny Swiat' in 1904; 1905 went to Warsaw in the Congress Poland and next fled arrest in April 1906 and went to Zürich and Geneva; "...lived in several European countries and returned to Congress Poland; active in the Polish-Belarusian underground resistance until his death in 1907".

Nestor Trubecki was a member of the 'International Social-Revolutionary Party of the Proletariat' - the first Polish labor party based on the assumptions of Marxism. The party was founded in 1882 in Warsaw (L. Warynski, Stanislav Kunicki, Maria Bohuszewicz, Marian Stefan Ulrych, Edmund Ploski, Tadeusz Rechniewski, Henryk Duleby, Alexandra Jentys, S. Kunicki, Alexander Debski, Kazimierz Puchewicz, Bronislaw Slawinski, Felix Kon, Strzeminski, Felsenhardt Rosalie, Joseph Razumiejczyk, Julia Razumiejczyk, Vincent Buksznis, Michael Zynda, Wladyslaw Wislocki, Theophilus Bronikowski) and the group was arrested in July 1886. Next in February 1888 until March 1893, Nestor Trubecki was a member of the 'Polish Social-Revolutionary Party Proletariat' / the 'Second proletariat' (Ludwik Kulczycki, Marcin Kasprzak, Adam Dabrowski, Wladyslaw Anielewski, Napoleon Zelcer, Stanislaw Kassjusz, Stanislaw Mendelson, Maria Jankowska-Mendelson, Alexander Debski); in 1893 other members of the Proletariat II entered among others things the Polish Socialist Party of Jozef Pilsudski.

Mother of Nestor Trubecki or Nester Trubiacki / Troubetzkoy vel Nestor Kalinowski:

countess Maria Kalinowska.
Probably she was born after 1805 - ca 1819 and it was the same age as Maria Paszkowska / Mary Armand nee Paszkowski. The genealogy of Maria Kalinowska has to be proven, but it appears that the family was listed below: mother Emilia Potocka b. 1790 and married Kalinowski and second time married to Czeliszczew; father Josif / Jozef / Osip Kalinowski b. after 1780 ? and died 1825. Grandfather Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759 and grandmother Elzbieta Bielska from Olbrachcice b. ca 1760.

The Kalinowski family in 1818 under the Austrian Empire acc. to Okolovich taken the count title with the Kalinowa coat of arms, given on 17 August 1818 by Franciszek I / Francis emperor of Austria. The first with this title was Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski from the Volhynia and Ukraine branch of the Kalinowski / Kalinovsky family. Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759, married in 1780 to Elzbieta Bielski from Olbrachcice born ca 1760 with children:
Josef / Osip Kalinowski general of Polish Army, b. ca after 1780, died 1825 - his wife Emilia Potocka born 1790, Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 and Justyna Kalinowska m. Russocka b. 1790 d. 1876. Above Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831 had son Władyslaw Kalinowski
(Józef Kalinowski b. 01 Sept. 1835 in Vilnius / Wilno, his father Andrzej Kalinowski b. 10 Dec. 1805 or January 10, 1805 in Grodno and died in Hrozow 1878 (Trokiele), the Wilno Uniw.; his grandfather Jerzy Kalinowski b. ca 1780 or 1773 by wife Dorota Kulakowska - Kosciesza / Rosciesza; great-grandfather Krzysztof Kalinowski - b. ca 1750.
See also: http://elonka.com/family/saint/genealogy.html by Elonka Dunin: elonka@aol.com from St. Louis, Missouri, USA and http://www.sejm-wielki.pl/b/sw.65063
).
Ancestors: Ignacy Kalinowski from Wielka Kamionka born ca 1720 died 1782 and Justyna Borzecka born (ca 1710 is error date) ca 1735. Kamionka Wielka is situated in south east Poland.

Above named count Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759; his father Ignacy Kalinowski ca 1720 died 1782 and his mother Justyna nee Borzecka ca 1735 (1710 it's error) - Justyna was daughter of Franciszek Borzecki (ca 1693 - 1739) and Ludwika Marianna Pociej (ca 1715), and married ca 1765 to Ignacy Kalinowski, she died after 1780?. The father of above Ludwika Marianna Pociej - Ludwik Konstanty Pociej.
A brother of above Justyna nee Borzecka: Aleksander Maciej Borzecki in 1773 made agreement with Ignacy Kalinowski on a will and testament of Emerencjanna Warszycki who was married first to Pociej, and she was great-grandmother of Ignacy Kalinowski, acc. to: http://www.redbor.pl/.
Above Ludwik Konstanty Pociej b. 1664, d. 30 January 1730, in 1709 commander-in-chief of the Lithuanian army, his parents: Leonard Gabriel Pociej and Regina Oginska.
Jozef / Osip Kalinowski's (was born ca 1780) brothers and sisters: Justyna Kalinowska b. 1790 married to Jozef Tomasz Russocki, and Ignacy Franciszek Kalinowski b. 1784 d. 1831.
Grandfather of Olga, Jozefina and Seweryna:
Seweryn Ksawery Kalinowski b. 1759.
Grandson of Seweryna nee Kalinowska: Mikolaj Plautin / Николай Сергеевич Плаутин b. 1868 and married to Maria Michajlowna Rajewska 1872 - 30 December 1942; her mother:
Marija Grigorievna nee Gagarin - her sister Anastazja Grigorievna nee Gagarin b. 1853 died 1876 married to Piotr Michajlovich Orlov Denisov born 1852 who was son of Michail Vasilievich Orlov Denisov born 1823, who was brother of Nadiezda married Katenin. Grandfather of above Marija nee Rajewskaja: Mikolaj Mikolajevich Rajevskij Younger from the Kiev government, Moscow and St Petersburg b. 14 September 1801; and the second grandfather of above Maria nee Rajewska: Grigorij Grigorievich Gagarin b. 1810 d. 1893.

Children of count Jozef Kalinowski:

Seweryna
b. 1814 d. 1852, Jozefina married Oginska, born 1816 and died 1844 and also Olga born 1822 died 7 April 1899 in Retow

(Bohdan Michal Oginski duke b. 1848, married on 28 Apr. 1877 to Gabriela Maria Potulicki in Cracow, died on 25 March 1909 in Retow in the Rosienie district in Lithuania now / Zmudz, owner of Retow and Zalesie that is Retowo or Rietavas, 25 km from Plungian; 1775 to Ksawery Oginski. In 1863 here died Ireneusz Oginski and in 1892 the first telephones in Lithuania).

From Mickuny / Mickūnai of the Becu family and the Pilar Pilchau property (near by Terlecki, Ozieblowski, Januszewski, Dzierzynski and Pilsudski families), to Zalesie / Zalesse / Залесье of the Oginski family - close to Smorgon / Smargon / Smorgonie - is ca 60 km to south-east.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century the property Mickuny belonged to August Becu (1771-1824) - Professor of Medicine at the Imperial University of Vilnius (he was in Scotland 1803 - 1804), the second husband of the Salome / Salomea Slowacki, the mother of the famous poet Juliusz Slowacki (he was next in Switzerland in the years 1834-1835). Probably about 1815 Mickuny / Mickūnai became the property of Alexander Pillar von Pilchau / Pilar Pilchau, then judge of the district of Vilnius. Alexander Pillar, in Mickuny in 1826 built a new chapel. In the mid-nineteenth century Mickuny / Mickunai belonged to Stanislaw Pillar, the son of Alexander. 1923 owner of Mickuny - next Alexander Pillar. But his brother, Roman Pillar (1895-1937) before World War I, began to study law at the University of St. Petersburg, where he was soon involved with the Bolsheviks activity of Felix Dzierżyński.

Probably M. Kalinowska (Maria) married Troubetzkoy / Trubecki was sister of above Seweryna, Jozefina and Olga, but this data need to be check, of course!

 Above countess Olga / Ольга Осиповна Калиновская born 1818 or 1822 was married to Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński  b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus in 1844 and her son: Bohdan / Bogdan Oginski was born in 1849. She was lover of Alexander IItsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with NN princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska was son Michael-Bogdan or Bogdan / Bohdan, prince Oginski born 10. 10. 1848 or 1849 married after to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki. Above Ireneusz Oginski, duke, lived in the Kovno government, and was landowner of Retow and Zalesie.

Bogdan Ogiński died on 25. 03. 1909.


Sister of Olga:
Jozefina Kalinowska born 1816,  was also married to duke Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński who was born 1808.
And Северина Иосифовна Калиновская / Seweryna Kalinowski b. 1814 d. 1852 was married to Mikolaj Plautyn
/ Плаутин b. 1794 or 1796 d. 24 December 1866, son of Fiodor Sergiejewicz Plautyn / Plautin died 1807? Nikolai Fedorovich Plautin was an outstanding military leader and statesman of the Russian Empire, General of Cavalry 1856, Adjutant General 1849, a member of the State Council in 1862.

Above
Emilia Potocka married first to Kalinowski and second time to Czeliszczew, was born 1790 and her parents: Protazy Antoni Potocki b. 1761 and mother Marianna Lubomirska (Zubow, Potocki, Uwarow) born 1773 or Marianna Elzbieta Lubomirska b. ca 1766 - 1810.

The Chelishchev family (Czeliszczew / Tchelischev):
Ольга Васильевна Константинович / Olga Vasilievna Konstantinovich was living in Pskov, str Kalinin, No 15/11, Apt. 1. Olga Chelishchev - Konstantinovich / Olga Tchelischev daughter of Vasilij Chelishchev and she was married to Lew Konstantynowicz - b. ca 1865 / 1875. Olga b. ca 1875, her son Lew Lwowicz Konstantynowicz born 1900. Above named Vasilij Chelishchev was born ca 1840 / 1850.
And mother of Nestor Trubecki or Nester Trubiacki / Troubetzkoy vel Nestor Kalinowski: countess Maria Kalinowska.
Probably she was born (after 1805) ca 1819 and it was the same age as Maria Paszkowska / Mary Armand nee Paszkowski.
The genealogy of Maria Kalinowska has to be proven, but it appears that the family was listed below: mother Emilia Potocka b. 1790 and married Kalinowski and second time married to Chelishchev / Czeliszczew. According to statements the Church of the Holy Trinity was built in 1740 by Major Joann Chelishchev / Ivan Sergeyevich Chelischev at his own expense. In 1840, the Holy Trinity Church (Novo-Troitsk) was assigned to a Church which is 4 miles away in Piesna. A detailed description of the temple, published in the 'Pskov diocese statements' for 1896.
About von Rebinder / Rehbinder / Ребиндер family from Estonia:
In Estonia in 1820, Count Carl Friedrich von Rebinder / Rehbinder / Ребиндер in the garden of his estate on the banks of the river Saku opened small brewery; since that time, local brewers use spring water, the best in Estonia and in the Baltic countries. Gustav Kustas Steinberg b. on March 2, 1850 (Bedrich Urban's next of kin) in Üksnurme - Üksnurme is a village in Saku Parish, Harju County in northern Estonia, close to Tallinn, Üksnurme is 2 km south - west from Saku; Saku / Саку in Эстляндия, is 12 km south of Nomme, and 16 km from Tallinn. Saku is a small borough in Harju County, Estonia.

Note on Saku, Uksnurme and landlords of this estates.
Üksnurme, in German Uxnorm, was founded in 1630. Heinrich Hastfer was owner. In 1795 it manor was acquired by Karl von Gernet. In 1846 - Julius von Ramm, in 1853 Dietrich von der Pahlen possession. A main building was erected in 1860. In 1882 this estate passed to the neighboring estate owners from Saku.
Major Karl Gustav von Gernet was died on 31.12.1812 and was living here and also Gustav Georg von Gernet / Georg Gustav von Gernet adjoined a land called Musa (mõis = manor, поместье) to Üksnurme
(b. on April 13, 1780; d. on October 10, 1846 in Reval; his children: Karl August von Gernet and Ernst Julius von Gernet; his brothers: Wilhelm Adolf von Gernet, Karl Johann von Gernet, Alexander August von Gernet and sister - Helena von Gernet b. and d. 1779; his father - Karl Gustav von Gernet or Carl Gustav von Gernet b. on December 28, 1747 in Waikna / Vaikna and died on December 31, 1812 in Lehhola / Lehola has wife Louise Christine von Rehbinder / Luise Christine von Rehbinder b. circa 1764 and d. on March 24, 1827 in Narwa / Narva; she has four husbands: Wilhelm Droßmann, Otto von Rehbinder, Georg Gustav von Ditmar and Carl Gustav von Gernet; her father - Woldemar Heinrich von Rehbinder, b. circa 1706 and d. on June 17, 1775 in Arensburg / Kuressaare in Saaremaa and her grand-father acc. to Reet Laherand: Karl Wilhelm von Rehbinder b. ? died ca. 1745 and her grand-mother Anna Elisabeth nee von Poorten, d. 1720).
Karl Friedrich Rehbinder sells the Saku estate belonging to the Musa farm for hands of Karl von Gernetile, a price 3,000 silver rubles
(Count Karl Friedrich von Rehbinder b. November 10, 1764 in Saue and died on November 18, 1841 in Saue, was a Baltic German origin, Saku, Saue, Rahula and Jälgimäe landlord. He founded his own beer Saku house, which was Saku Brewery. His father Otto Magnus von Rehbinder (1727 to 1792) and grand-father Gustav Magnus von Rehbinder (1673 - 1734); his father belonged Udriku, Imastu, Polli,
Saku, Liigvalla estates. Count Rehbinder married in 1786 to Countess van Nassau-La Lecq; marital born: Count Otto Albrecht Friedrich von Rehbinder on December 14, 1786 in Tallinn and died on 25 January 1813 in Jälgimäe - Jälgimäe, he was Saue and Rahula landlord; second child Count Paul Eduard von Rehbinder 1794 Saue - 1870 Tallinn - Saku, Saue and Riidaku landlord; third Count Gustav Konstantin von Rehbinder on 1795 Saue d. 12 December 1822 Jälgimäe, the landlord of Jälgimäe; Count Carl August von Rehbinder Jacob 1797 - 1799; Countess Karoline Luise von Rehbinder b. 1802 in Saue and m. to Count Carl Theodor von Manteuffeleliga.
Above named Saue is a town in north-western Estonia in Harju County, to Tallinn 18 km, Keila 7 km, Saku 7 km; above named Riidaku, east of Haapsalu in Raikküla Parish - south-west-south of Tallinn; above Udriku and Imastu are close to Rakvere and Liigvalla near by Rakvere; Polli - 23 km south of Viljandi).

Assessor Johann Georg von Hastfer pledges the Üksnurme estate for 35,000 silver rubles to Karl Gottlieb von Gernetile; on 14 April 1808 was signed an agreement. The main building has survived to this day.

Karl Wilhelm von Rehbinder (b. ? - died ca 1745), his sons:
Woldemar Heinrich von Rehbinder, Magnus Gustav von Rehbinder, Friedrich von Rehbinder, Karl Mathias von Rehbinder, Gustav Johann von Rehbinder and Berend Wilhelm von Rehbinder. His daughter - Barbara Helene von Gernet - died January 14, 1803 in Lehhola / Lehola, Harjumaa, Estonia. Her son Carl Gustav von Gernet 1747 - 1812. Above Woldemar Heinrich von Rehbinder b. ca 1706 - 1775.
Alexander Rehbinder or Rebinder b. 1826 d. 1913, his children: Nikolai Rehbinder or Rebinder b. 1863 d. March 22, 1918, Alexey Rebinder b. 1865 d. 1932, Alexander Rebinder b. 1869 and d. on March 22, 1918 and next Maria Rebinder Mansurov b. 1874.

Mikhail P. Rehbinder, he studied at the St. Petersburg School of Jurisprudence and worked at the Law Faculty of the University; he lived in an estate Lyadno in the Novgorod province; he was trying to create together with peasants agricultural co-operative in his estate in the Novgorod province; he left his family and went to the USA in 1909; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz / Константинович, daughter of Ivan / Jan Konstantynowicz; her son Alexander died d. 1906. 

Weimar Orest E., b. 1845 died 1885, prominent physician in St. Petersburg, the owner of orthopedic clinics; populist, organized the escape of Kropotkin from prison in 1876 acc. to 'Notes of a revolutionary' by Kropotkin; he was arrested in 1879 and sentenced to 15 years in prison; it was the Russian-Turkish war period and this prison shortened to 10 years; he died in prison at Kara; his wife Victoria Konstantynowicz daughter of Jan / Ivan Konstantinovich / Konstantynowicz - she was b. 1846 and died in 1899 / 1900. 



Acc. to: 'Tales from the Family Tree - The Tale of the Italian-blooded Russian Prince' by Iwo Załuski:
Prince Ireneusz Ogiński was born in

Zalesie, half way between Vilnius and Minsk, near the town of Smorgon.

Text below is under copyright by http://www.oginskidynasty.com/ and 'Tales from the Family Free - Countess Nagurska and the Imperial Assassin', by Iwo Załuski at www.oginskidynasty.com/Tales5 and for further information contact to Iwo Załuski email załuskiresearches@ogińskidynasty.com. To learn more about these stories in their true historical context, read Iwo Załuski's 'The Ogiński Gene: The History of a Musical Dynasty'.

Maria de Néri father and on Duca Don Neri family, samples only: 1. San Filippo Neri / S. Filippo Neri of Parma (see Michal Kleofas Oginski); 2. In Venice, was the Congregation of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri, 1747-49, 1760; 3. 1794 Michele Neri Bondi.

NERI MICHELE (born 16 OCTOBER 1750, Firenze / FLORENCE, ITALY, died ca. 1822 in Firenze); born as Michele Neri, he added the surname Bondi in 1773, not to be confused with a singer who was then active in the Tuscan capital. Nothing is known of his youth and his musical training, but after he was a student of Ferdinando Rutini (Ferdinand Rutini / Rutini, Ferdinando b. 1763 - d. Terracina, 13 Nov. 1827, composer; he was working at the Teatro della Pergola in Florence) and made his debut as an opera composer at the Teatro dell Pergola in Florence. By 1779 he was employed as the keyboardist at the Teatro degli Intrepidi in the same city. Acted in Florence, Bologna and Pisa, Lucca, Rome, Ravenna, Siena and Palermo. Only one of his work was staged at the Teatro della Pergola in Florence. Between 1779 and 1790 he was also musical director and arranger of several small theaters in the city, among which the Intrepid Theatre with Gaetano Andreozzi, Giovanni Battista Borghi, Domenico Cimarosa; in 1790 the Teatro della Pergola, 1793 became the impresario at the Teatro Santa Maria; in January 1796 he opened a music school in Fiesole, and he became maestro di cappella of the church of Santa Maria de Candeli.

By 'Wikipedia' and 'it.inforapid.org' on Neri Michael Bondi:

his real name was Michael Neri, but in 1773 changed its name to Bondi Neri, not to be confused with a singer who was then active in the Tuscan capital; nothing is known of his youth and his musical training, but after Ferdinand Rutini, was the most prolific composer of Florence in the second half of the eighteenth century. His biggest success - drama Marriages, which was given at least twice in Florence and Bologna, Pisa, Lucca, Rome, Ravenna, Siena and Palermo. All his other works were performed only in theaters of his hometown: Intrepid, Old Town Square, Santa Maria and Borgo Ognissanti. Only one of his work at the Teatro della Pergola, the biggest of Florence. Between 1779 and 1790 he was also musical director and arranger of several small theaters in the city Florence, among which was the Intrepid Theatre, with Gaetano Andreozzi, Giovanni Battista Borghi, Domenico Cimarosa, Giuseppe Moneta and Giovanni Valentini. In 1790, at the Teatro della Pergola, he directed the 'Hamlet' of Louis Caruso and in 1793 became the impresario at the Teatro Santa Maria. In this period he was also appointed the first harpsichordist to Pergola, a position he held until the fall of 1822. The Teatro Alfieri in Florence is located in Via Pietrapiana. Also called 'theater of Via Santa Maria'. Giuseppe Moneta: nothing is known of his youth; 1779, his career proceeded regularly until the end of the century; over the next 20 years he composed several works, primarily melodramas; in 1791, he was maestro di cappella of a grand-duchy court of Tuscany and later director of the chapel of the court of Parma. Fiesole, is an Italian town in the province of Florence in Tuscany, about 6 kilometers from Florence. When Oginski come to Italy in 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte is appointed as the Commander-in-Chief of the Directorate in Italy in March 1796, and starts the Italian campaign. French troops defeated the Austrians at Lodi, come to Milan, and proclamated the Republic Transpadana in place of the former Duchy. The Kingdom of Sardinia cedes to France, Savoy and the Nice area; the French troops invade the Papal States, and the British troops occupy the island of Elba.

We remember that Ogiński, Michał Kleofas / OGINSKI Michele Cleofa, b. 1765, a deputy in the Four Years' Parlament 1788–92, emigrating in 1795. In 1802 he settled in Zalesie; a senator of the Russian empire, visited St. Petersburg. From
1822 to 1833 he lived in Florence.
Was buried at the Basilica di Santa Croce, the principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy.

"...Countess Maria Nagurska ... was born as Maria Neri in Venice in 1777, the daughter of a local innkeeper of Florentine extraction, who claimed descent from the musician Philip Neri. Early in 1796 Maria watched with interest as her native city (Firenze / Florence) filled up with refugees from the Warsaw after the Final Partitions of Poland ... veterans of the campaigns against the invading forces of King Frederick of Prussia and Empress Catherine of Russia... These young veterans included the already legendary piano-playing warrior Prince Michał Kleofas Ogiński, who had until only recently, under Stanislaw Kosciuszko, been leading his commando units in Northern Lithuania against the Russians. ... Among Oginski Michał Kleofas' fellow veterans were Count Kajetan Nagurski, and Tadeusz Wysogierd. They were close friends and did everything together, including romancing the local girls... nineteen-year-old Maria Neri, ... Tadeusz Wysogierd ... took off with her to Florence. Kajetan, not to be outdone, chased the fugitive couple to the Tuscan capital, and after a showdown, won her from the much more dashing and handsome Tadeusz... Michał Kleofas Ogiński would almost certainly have known her, although no actual meeting has been documented. In 1796 Catherine of Russia died, and was succeeded by her son, Paul. Under the new Tsar life was beginning to return to some semblance of normality in the former Polish Commonwealth, and many refugees were accepting amnesties already offered by Catherine, and returning to whatever might pass for a new homeland in the former Polish and Lithuanian territories. Kajetan Nagurski joined this re-immigration. ... he took Maria back with him to Warsaw, now the Prussian city of Warschau, where he installed her with a governess-cum-companion and various tutors to educate ... and thus render her acceptable in high society. Meanwhile he himself returned to Russian Lithuania, to reclaim and sort out his estate. Diarist and writer Stanislaw Morawski, in his autobiography 'My Years of Youth in Vilnius', described how Kajetan, unable then to get a passport allowing him back into Prussia, and thus to Warsaw, asked Morawski's father, Apolinary, to visit Maria and see how she was getting on: 'My father promised, went and met the young lady. On entering he naturally expected to see a tavern wench. Imagine his unexpected surprise when he saw before him a lady of rare beauty, completely at ease with drawing room etiquette, speaking perfect French, Italian without the Venetian accent, writing fluently and without significant spelling mistakes, in a word, a completely finished lady showing not the slightest hint of a tavern upbringing'. Apolinary Morawski was, like so many others before him, smitten by Maria, and, despite the age gap, it was only a matter of time before they became lovers behind Kajetan's back. Their affair was discovered and broken up by the infuriated Kajetan himself. He subsequently had her brought to his estate in Lithuania, where he married her. However, Kajetan's health, which had never been good, deteriorated further, and he developed jaundice. He virtually took to his bed, so Maria began to be seen in the company of the dashing young Count Ludwik Pac, whose father, Count Michal Pac, owned Jezno, one of the finest palaces in Lithuania. The affair came to an end when Kajetan (Count Kajetan Nagurski) decided to go to Vienna, where he hoped to find a cure for his jaundice, and take Maria with him. Ultimately, he failed to find a cure, and died there soon afterwards. His widow, now an independent lady of some considerable means, returned to Vilnius, and life in that city's highest social echelons. In 1801, Countess Maria Nagurska's life changed direction after she caught the attention of General Bennigsen. General Count Levin August von Bennigsen was born in Brunswick in 1745. His military career began in the Hanoverian army, but in 1764 he ... brought to Russia by Catherine the Great. ... He became friendly with the young Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Paul. ... Bennigsen, if Stanislaw Morawski's documentation is to be believed, was the man who actually did the deed by personally strangling the Tsar to death in his bed. ... promoted Bennigsen to the position of Governor of Vilnius. On his city's social circuit he met the beautiful Countess Nagurska, for whom he developed an instant infatuation. Meanwhile, the accession of the new Tsar had a direct effect on the fortunes of Michał Kleofas Ogiński. At this time he was living with his wife Izabela and two infant sons, Tadeusz and Xavier ... - not very happily ever after, as it happened – at his wife's family's estate at Brzeziny, to the south west (see Otrebusy) of Warsaw. He had spent five penniless and peripatetic years trying to restore the Polish state by diplomatic means. He now dreamed of just returning home to get his life and estates, now in Russian territory, back. Catherine had offered him an olive branch, which he knew to be a trap, and rejected: he had been sentenced to death in his absence for his part in Kosciuszko's campaigns against her forces, and she did not forgive and forget readily. Her son, Tsar Paul, did not trust him, and refused him permission to return. The new Tsar Alexander, however, not only forgave him, but also praised him for being true to his convictions in fighting for his homeland, and offered him an unconditional amnesty. Michał Kleofas Oginski, whose marriage to Izabela had just ended in inevitable divorce, had nothing to lose, and perhaps something to gain by returning home, so he accepted the amnesty, and returned to Lithuania. He initially found somewhere to live in Vilnius... he again came across Maria Nagurska, whom he still remembered as Maria Neri, nineteen-year-old daughter of a Venetian innkeeper. Now he found a beautiful, 25-year-old socialite ... and the mistress of Governor Bennigsen... She had given him a key to the back door of her house, and a specified time and day on which she would receive him. ... Like Bennigsen, Michał Kleofas had fallen head over heels in love with Maria Nagurska; the feeling was reciprocated, and their passionate affair continued unabated until it was discovered that she was pregnant. Michał Kleofas proposed, Maria accepted, and they were married sometime during 1804, and settled at his estate at Zalesie ... close to the town of Smorgon, half way between Vilnius and Minsk. By this time Michał Kleofas had been appointed senator at the Court of the Petersburg, and was put in charge of Education in Russia's newly acquired lands. The new Princess Maria Oginska took to her new role as Lady of the Manor perfectly. The Manor had been built for comfort rather than as a luxurious residence, but Maria loved it. 'Zalesie is a delightful spot for us', she wrote to her sister, Countess Cuchina Scotti, in Florence. ... The idyll, however, was short-lived. Stanislaw Morawski, describing the open nature of Michał Kleofas Ogiński's second marriage, wrote that there was no man of consequence, no young Russian general, perhaps even no broad-shouldered valet who was not her lover. Added to these were actors, singers, and ordinary soldiers. ... Morawski continues to throw some light on the ancestry of their four children: 'Apart from Zaluska (Amelia, born on December 10, 1803, who later became Countess Zaluska) conceived with Ogiński, every one of his daughters (Emma and Ida, born in 1805 and 1813 respectively) had a different father. Her son (Ireneusz, born in 1807) was conceived of the singer Paliani'. Italian Giuseppe Paliani was music tutor to the Ogiński girls...".

Countess Cuchina Scotti, in Florence - by Zaluski - "...She (Maria Neri) then sent for her younger sister Cuchina (Concha? - probably a nickname - her Christian name is not on record) to give her a better life in Lithuanian society, and as a companion for herself. Cuchina complied, and promptly became pregnant by Nicholas Morawski, Maria's former lover's younger brother, and uncle of the writer. So Maria sent Cuchina back to Florence, and arranged for her to marry Count Scotti – in the end a satisfactory arrangement all round. The child was born in happy circumstances a legitimate Scotti...".

Details at margin:
There is information that Maria Neri, singer and countess, met Oginski in Venice at the beginning of 1796, when this ex-insurgent of the Kosciuszko troops arrived to Italy as a refugee from the great Duchy of Lithuania. Only then, but also at the beginning of 1796, Maria Neri i Oginski along came to Florence, probably to the father of Maria Neri. It seems that the mother of Maria Neri lived in Venice. In Florence, the others refugees from Lithuania were already, as it describes the Iwo Zaluski.
In 1795 / 1796, the Republic of Venice: Bergamo, Brescia, Venice, Padua, Verona, Belluno. In
spring of 1796, Piedmont fell and the Austrians were beaten (Lodi). The army under Bonaparte crossed the frontiers of neutral Venice; by the end of 1796 the French troops were occupying the Venetian state up to the Adige. Vicenza, Cadore and Friuli were held by the Austrians.
April 1797: France taken the Lombard part of the Venice State.
Grand Duchy of Tuscany: Siena, Livorno, Florence, Talamone. The Medici family became extinct in 1737, and Tuscany was transferred to Francis, Duke of Lorraine and husband of Austrian Empress Maria Theresa; Ferdinand III 1790–1801, was deposed by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1801 so that Tuscany could be given to the Bourbon Dukes of Parma; Tuscany / Etruria was annexed by Napoleonic France in 1807. Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, in 1792 during the French Revolution, became the first monarch to formally recognize the new French First Republic, however, the English and Russian monarchs persuaded him to join their side in the War of the First Coalition.
1795, he declared Tuscany's neutrality in the war.
He stabilized his rule for several years to 1799 when he must to flee to Vienna when republicans established a government in Florence.
A surprising similarity or maybe this is not just a coincidence?

Capua:
1. Errico Malatesta born 1853 in Capua, went to Geneva, where he collaborated with Machajski and Kropotkin to 1881. Jan Strozecki vel Janek Galecki b. 1869, from 1877 to 1887 in Kielce he was friend with Stefan Zeromski and Jan Machajski in Switzerland.
2.
The Duca di San Teodoro / Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke, b. 6 June 1833 in Milano, died 1906 at Eaton Square. Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the di Caserta in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua!
3.
MARIANO, Raffaele / Raphael Mariano / Mariano Mariani, b. in Capua, 1840. The first wife (m. ca 1866?) of above Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano was Charlotte Julie Pilar Pilchau / Charlotte Julie Cäcilie Pilar von Pilchau born on January 9, 1847 in Audern; she was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. Pauline Julie Elisabeth Pilar von Pilchau b. 1855 in Audern, daughter of Fredrik Adolf Woldemar Pilar von Pilchau, from Audern and Berta Johanna Carolina Pilar von Pilchau; she was second wife of Rafael Mariano / Raffaele Mariano. She also was sister of Adolf Konstantin Jakob Baron Pilar von Pilchau. This is the branch of Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau and Catharina Helena von Tausas. The same branch: Georg Ludwig / Egor Maksimovich Pilar von Pilchau 1767 - 1830 / Yegor Maksimovic Pillar, the Russian commander of the Napoleonic wars, Maj.-Gen., from the family of a professional military, his father was retired major of the Polish army - Magnus Wilhelm von Pilar Pilhau 1734 - 1801. Georg Ludwig (Egor Maksimovich) Pilar von Pilchau b. in Kirna, Türi vald, Järvamaa; but his father Magnus Wilhelm Pilar von Pilchau b. 1734 and died on November 25, 1801 in Jöggis (Jogisuu). He was son of Georg Johann Baron Pilar von Pilchau and Anna Sophia.

4.

Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta (1841 - 1934) was the third son of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria. Born in Caserta; but the Two Sicilies were conquered by Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1861.

Ferdinand was born in Palermo, the son of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies and his wife and first cousin Maria Isabella of Spain. Ferdinand II was King of the Two Sicilies from 1830 until his death in 1859.

Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta was married to his cousin, Princess Maria Antonietta of Bourbon-Two Sicilies b. 1851, a daughter of Archduchess Maria Isabella of Austria, Princess of Tuscany. Her paternal grandparents were Francis I of the Two Sicilies and his second wife Maria Isabella of Spain. Francis of the Two Sicilies, Count of Trapani b. 1827 in Naples.

Count Andrzej Przemysław Konstanty Jan Władysław Zamoyski b. 1852 was a Polish aristocrat and landowner, the grandson of Count Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski, and of Count Przemysław Potocki. Andrzej Przemysław married Maria Carolina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, granddaughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies, and had eight children.

Józef Hieronim Retinger (born Cracow, 1888 - 1960) "...was a Polish political adviser and a founder of the European Movement that would lead to the founding of the European Union, he created the Bilderberg Group".

His father, Józef Stanisław Retinger, was the personal legal counsel and adviser to Count Władysław Zamoyski.
I think I managed to investigate and decipher   a system: this is  a conspiracy inside the headquarters of military 
intelligence  of  the Tsarist Russia:   deep political  espionage  (anarchists, Lenin, Marxists) and strategic  
technological-scientific intelligence  (telegraph, radio, electricity, aircraft, engines, ignition magnetos, automatic 
pilots, helicopters, airships, submarines, lights, etc.).  Taken over in a certain period by British intelligence.
Financed by Count Zamoyski, Retinger attended the Sorbonne in 1906, moved to England in 1911, where his closest friend Jozef Konrad Korzeniowski / Joseph Conrad was living.

Wladyslaw Zamoyski (b. Paris in 1853 - died 1924), the son of General Wladyslaw Zamoyski and Jadwiga of Działyński, daughter of Titus / Tytus Dzialynski;

in connection with the involvement of the General Zamoyski in the Crimean war, the parents stay in Turkey (Adam Mickiewicz , too),

and Wladyslaw grew up with Działyński in Poznan and Kórnik; returning to Paris; 1863 to 1874 studied in École Polytechnique in Paris, 1875 military service in the French army, 1879-1881 took part in the governmental expedition to Sydney and Melbourne,

he was representative of the French government to Australia, went to Tahiti, Hawaii, and to the United States. In 1881 has left the United States,

and soon returned to the country, to Kornik.
In 1885, Zamoyski as French citizens was forced to leave Poznan region;
returned to Paris, then they went to Rome,
next in Galicia (Zakopane, Cracow), the founder of the Society "Sokol" in Cracow (1892); he was a owner of Kórnik, Głuchów, Janusz, Babin and Bargów, and a part of Zakopane.

Wladyslaw Zamoyski in 1912 moved to Paris, and again in June 1914; financed the initiative affairs for Polish independence.
Wladyslaw Zamoyski was the moral authority of the Polish National Committee, including Roman Dmowski, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, gen. Jozef Haller and Polish delegates to the Peace Conference at Versailles in 1919.
He returned to Poland in 1920.

In 1921, July 9, Head of State Marshal Józef Pilsudski visited the Kórnik and the Zamoyskis, thanked them for their care, in Zakopane and Paris (1906), on Bronislaw Pilsudski.
On July 29, 1906 Bronislaw Pilsudski left Nagasaki in Japan for Yokohama (or 23 July) and went to USA, France and Bystre village close to Zakopane in Austria.

Wladyslaw Zamoyski co-operated with Temporary Commission of Confederated Independence Parties, political representation founded in Vienna on 10 November 1912; Wladyslaw Zamoyski send Retinger to London to co-ordinate actions for independence; secretary was W. Jodko-Narkiewicz, L. Wasilewski later; commander of the military was J. Pilsudski; independence based on Austro-Hungary, and

Józef Pilsudski was appointed commander of the military forces in Dec. 1912;

motherboards activists were: Joseph Pilsudski, Ignatius Daszynski, Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz, Wladyslaw Sikorski, Valery Slawek, Hippolytus Sliwinski, Leon Wasilewski.

Leon Wasilewski b. 1870 in St Petersburg, friend of Jozef Pilsudski; great-grandfather moved from Zmudz to Livonia, his grandfather was Woyszwiłł / Jerzy Woyszwiłł / Vaišvilā, then Wasilewski, b. ca 1810, lived in Liksna / Ликсна (in 1770 to Jozefat Zyberg, then to Izabella Helena Zyberg and her husband Michal Broel - Plater from Kraslawa [half way from Daugavpils to Vierchniedvinsk]; Liksna is located ca 22 km north-west of Dynaburg / Daugavpils, the Vicebsk government; next to her son Henryk Zyberg - Plater, and grandson Jan Plater-Zyberg). Parents: Benedykt Wasilewski and Maria Reitter / Maria Rejterówna / Reiter maybe from Hungaria or Austria (we know on Johannes Jacob REITTER born 1701, in Germany, married Barbara MARX, had a daughter Anna Maria born 1749 in Germany, Anna married Johann Jacob NUSSBAUM); father in 1868 was working in Sankt Petersburg. Leon Wasilewski in 1893 moved to Lviv / Lwow, and met Józef Piłsudski; studied in Lwow and Praga, next in Switzerland in 1896, London, back to Galicja, Nov. 1918 Wasilewski was member of Jędrzej Moraczewski government. 1920-21 in Estonia. His daughter Wanda Wasilewska, b. 1905; his sister Maria Wasilewska.

Father of Wladyslaw Zamoyski (b. Paris in 1853 - died 1924): General Władysław S. Zamoyski 1803 - 1868

(son of Stanisław Kostka Sariusz Zamoyski b. 1775 and Zofia Adamowna Czartoryska; brother of Andrzej Artur Zamoyski b. 1800 Wien - stayed in Klemensow, Paris and Dresden / Drezno; father of Władysław b. 1853),

and mother Jadwiga Działyńska b. 1831 in Warsaw, married in 1852 - her tutor Anna Birt from England.

Mentioned above Count Andrzej Przemysław Konstanty Jan Władysław Zamoyski b. 1852 in Warsaw, was the son of Count Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski

(b. 1820 - d. 1889, he was from Stanislaw Kostka Sariusz Zamojski 12th / Станислав Костка Сариуш Замойский 1775 - 1856 and Zofia Adamowna Czartoryska b. 1778 d. 1837)

and Róża Marianna Ewa Potocka (1831 - 1890 Tomaszpol, she was from Przemyslaw Potocki b. Tulczyn in 1805).

He was the owner of estates in Lubowla and Podzamcze. Andrzej Przemysław married Maria Carolina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, granddaughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies, in 1885 in Paris and had eight children.

See at a branch from Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski 12th, b. 1775 Warsaw, 1809 he became the chairman of the Provisional Government of Galicia, who had sons with Zofia Adamowna Czartoryska b. 1778:

1. Konstantyn Zamojski b. 1799;

2. Andrzej Artur Zamoyski b. 1800 in Wien / Wieden, m. to Róża Potocka (1802-1862), daughter of Antoni Potocki and Countess Róża Potocka b. 1780 or 1782 - d. 1862

[Antoni Potocki, married 1799, he had three children: Włodzimierz Stanisław Potocki, Róża Potocka (1802-1862), married to Count Andrzej Artur Zamoyski and Przemysław Potocki (1805-1847), married to Princess Teresa Sapieha; in 1813 Róża married Count Władysław Grzegorz Branicki];

Andrzej Artur Zamoyski had children: Władysław (1827-1873); Cecylia (1831-1904) Lubomirska; Jan Michał / John Grey; Stanisław Antoni (1834-1881); Róża (1836-1915) Lubomirska; Andrzej Antoni and Zdzisław;

3. Jan Zamojski b. 1802;

4. Władysław b. 1803 in Paris, d. 1868 Paris, Colonel in 1831, General in Turkey and England, Count, 1852 m. to Jadwiga Działyńska, with sons

Władysław Zamoyski (1853 Paris - 1924 in Kornik), and Witold.

5. Celestyna b. 1805; 6. Jadwiga b. 1806; 7. Zdzislaw b. 1810; 8. August b. 1811; 9. Eliza b. 1818;

10. Stanislaw Kostka b. 1820 - d. 1889.

Mentioned above Retinger traveled to Mexico in 1917, where he became an unofficial political adviser of Luis Morones and President Plutarco Elias Calles. During World War II, he advised the Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile, General Władysław Sikorski. In 1944, in Operation Salamander; "...Retinger became a leading advocate of European unification and helped found both the European Movement and the Council of Europe... Honorary Secretary General of the European Movement. ... Retinger initiated the Bilderberg conferences (1954) and was their secretary until his death ... in 1960".

Józef Hieronim Retinger (17 April 1888 – 12 June 1960) was a Polish political adviser. Since 1906 in Paris, among his new friends was the Marquis de Castellane, and an artists from Left Bank cafes; 1908 docteur of Sorbonne, next Univ. of Munich, Florence ca 1907?, 1908 met masonry in London, 1911 Cracow under procection of Count Zamoyski and the Godebski family, and again in 1911 or 1912 to London, 1912 return to Cracow, married Otylia Zubrzycka; sometimes to Paris and again London where Józef Hieronim Retinger opened a bureau of the Supreme National Council; met with Joseph Conrad, 1914 ? and next he fled to Spain and met L. N. Morones and P. E. Calles, moved in 1917 to Mexico; Józef Hieronim Retinger travelled to USA and met Felix Frankfurter and Sir Edward Bedington-Behrens.
Felix Frankfurter b. 1882, in Vienna and immigrated to New York, Harvard Law School, friend and adviser of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who appointed him to the Supreme Court in 1939; was born into a Jewish family of Leopold Frankfurter, a merchant; Felix Frankfurter worked for Tenement House Department of New York City, friend with Walter Lippmann and Horace Kallen; an editor of the Harvard Law Review; law firm of Hornblower, Byrne, Miller & Potter in 1906, assistant to Henry Stimson, the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York; law officer of the Bureau of Insular Affairs,
used a donation from the financier Jacob Schiff to create a position;
was appointed Judge Advocate General, supervising military courts-martial for the War Department; he was encouraged by Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis to become more
involved in Zionism. In 1918, he participated in the founding conference of the American Jewish Congress in Philadelphia; 1919, Frankfurter served as a Zionist delegate to the Paris Peace Conference.
Roosevelt nominated Frankfurter to the Supreme Court in 1939 (to 1962).
During 1st World War and after Józef Hieronim Retinger met in England with Stafford Cripps, Winston Churchill, Marshall Horatio Herbert Lord Kitchener.
In Paris since 1906:
with Georges Clemenceau, Paul Valery, Andre Gide, Maurice Ravel; in 1916 in Paris met with Arthur Capel, 1924 to Edmund Dene Morel in London.
In 1917 Józef Hieronim Retinger traveled to Mexico, where he became an unofficial political adviser to union organizer Luis Morones and President Plutarco Elías Calles. Later, during World War II, he advised the Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile, General Władysław Sikorski. After 1930 Józef Hieronim Retinger co-operated with Sikorski, Korfanty, Kot, Popiel, Witos and Paderewski.
Józef Hieronim Retinger was a founder of the European Movement that would lead to the founding of the European Union and was involved in founding the Bilderberg Group.
The Bilderberg Group or Bilderberg Club is an annual private conference of approximately 120-150 political leaders, the original conference was held at the Hotel de Bilderberg in Oosterbeek, Netherlands, in 1954. Józef Retinger (Jan Pomian was his secretary) approached Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, with former Belgian Prime Minister Paul Van Zeeland, and the head of Unilever - Dutchman Paul Rijkens,
Walter Bedell Smith, then head of the CIA, who asked Eisenhower adviser Charles Douglas Jackson.
Unilever is an Anglo-Dutch multinational consumer goods company founded in 1929 by Lever Brothers (founded in 1885 by William Hesketh Lever) and the Dutch Margarine Unie, has made corporate acquisitions, including Lipton. Lever Brothers was a British manufacturer founded in 1885 by William Hesketh Lever and James Darcy Lever.

From the other hands:

William Lock / Locke, William, the younger (1767-1847), amateur artist, friend of Henry Fuseli; Locke painted historical and allegorical subjects, after 1819 he lived at Rome and Paris

(see: Luke Schaub from Neuchatel and Basel - In 1715 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, finally the Polish Embassy; Paszkowski family in Cracow, Moscow, Rome and Paris also!);

leaving one son, William 3rd, and a daughter Elizabeth.

Locke, William, the third (1804-1832), captain and amateur artist, published some illustrations to Byron's works. He was drowned in the lake of Como, Italy;

married Selina [b. after 1800?], daughter of Admiral Tollemache, that is Admiral of the Fleet -

John Richard Delap Halliday / John Halliday - 1821 the surname and arms of Tollemache

[copyright by geni.com: John Richard Delap Halliday Tollemache, b. 1772 in Helmingham, Suffolk; d. 1837 in London; husband of Lady Elizabeth Best, father of Charlotte Hope; John 1st Baron Tollemache; Marcia, Elizabeth Jane Henrietta, Selina Tollemache, Emily, Wilbraham Spencer and others; brother of Francis Tollemache; William Augustus Delap, and others; inf. by Michael Lawrence Rhodes, and Susan Mary Rayner / Green / RYAN.

Baron Tollemache, of Helmingham Hall near Ipswich in the County of Suffolk; from 1876 for John Tollemache / John Jervis Tollemache, 1st Baron Tollemache b. 1805 – d. 1890; He was the son of Admiral of the Fleet John Richard Delap Halliday / John Halliday (1821 the surname and arms of Tollemache), eldest son of Lady Jane Halliday.

Lord Tollemache married Georgina Louisa Best, daughter of Thomas Best, in 1826; they had five children together. After her death in 1846, he married Eliza Georgiana Duff, daughter of Sir James Duff, in 1850; they had nine children together];

he had daughter, Augusta Selina Locke b. 1833, married ca 1852?:

a. Ernest Lord Burghersh,

b. the Duca di San Teodoro / Luigi Caracciolo, Duca di Sant'Arpino and San Teodoro m. 1854, diss. 1876 to Augusta Selina Elizabeth Locke b. 6 June 1833 in Milano, died 1906 at Eaton Square.

Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the di Caserta in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua! Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta.

The de Luna family come from Don Giovanni Sanchez de Luna b. 1642, III Marquis of Gagliati / Gagliato, 1798, the Sanchez de Luna obtained the title of Duke on the surname.
Luigi Caracciolo-Venato Duca di Santa Teodora / CARACCIOLO Louis / CARACCIOLO Luigi, b. 1826 in Napoli, d. 1889 in MILAN.
His father: Carlo Luigi / Carlo Luigi Caracciolo-Venato di Santa Teodora, and mother:
Teresa SANCHEZ DE LUNA.
It is hereditary noble family. Noble titles Duca di San Teodoro, di Sant’Arpino, di Casal di Principe, di Parete, Marquis / marchese di Capriglia, of Villamaina; the Neapolitan citizen;

CARACCIOLO Louis m. LOCK Augusta Selima;
children:

1. Teresa CARACCIOLO / Teresa Caracciolo-Venato, duchessa di Santa Teodora e di Parete Marchesa di Villamaina e Capriglia b. 1855 Napoli, d. 1935 Roma, married firstly Marcantonio Colonna, and

married sec. to Rodolfo Lancrani / Lanciani

(Marcantonio Colonna / Marcantonio Colonna Doria Principe e Duca di Paliano Principe di Avella e di Sonnino, with children: Isabella Colonna di Avella di Tursi, di San Teodoro e Arpino di Villamaina e Capriglia (1879 - 1957) and Vittoria Colonna (1880 - 1954).
Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani b. 1845, d. 1929, was an Italian archaeologist, was born in Rome or in Montecelio, now Guidonia Montecelio; acted together with British art historians as Austen Henry Layard and John Murray; was married twice, first to an American woman and then to the British widow of Prince Colonna),

2. and Amalia / Amalia nee CARACCIOLO / Amalia Caracciolo-Venato.

c. Thomas de Grey, the present Lord Walsingham / Thomas de Grey, 6th Baron Walsingham b. 1843 in Stanhope Street, Mayfair, London, d. 1919, was an English politician.

Douglas and Douglas Scotti family, from origins to the Middle Ages. A truly comprehensive description of the Scotti family and Dougla Scotti bibliography is found in the book 'The old families of Piacenza and their coats of arms', published in 1979. The Scotti family (SCOTUS) or Douglas or Douglas Scotti is an ancient and noble family of Piacenza, the mayor of Bologna; Ranuccio Douglas Scotti (1597-1659), bishop; Owned by the family was the Castle of Agazzano. Bernardino Scotti was born in Milan on October 6, 1656, the second son of the noble family Scotti, he became a lawyer, speaker of the Sacred College of the Holy See; Gian Giacomo Scotti Gallerati, Count. And also Scotti Chiapponi with the title of Lord of Miceno, Carlo, Fabio (1780). Gallerati Scotti family, from 1731 following the union of the goods and the names of the two families: Gallerati Count Francesco Scotti, Cardinal Giovanni Filippo Scotti Gallerati, Duke Thomas Anselmo Gallarati Scotti, Duke Thomas Gallarati Scotti, Prince Gallerati Giancarlo Scotti. Thomas IV Duke Fulco Gallerati Scotti. The Italian strain, known by the nickname of Scotus, will take over the plural form of Scotti; somebody in Piacenza.

Hotel Scoti (Scotti, Scotto) is a unique pensione in the heart of the historical centre of Florence (Firenze, Italia). Located in an elegant 16th century palazzo in Via Tornabuoni.
Luigi Scotti Douglas d. 1880, Count of Vigoleno, Regio Rescritto in 1856; his son Alfonso b. in Nola in 1849, d. 1910. Nola, north-east of Napoli, ca 23 km. South-east-east of Aversa, and south-east of Santa Maria Capua Vetere! The Scotti family originates from ALBERTO became Lord of Piacenza; from the Lords of Vigolino or Vigoleno.
The branch of Vigolino settled in Naples after 1734, from RAMIZIO married Josephine Poulet in Naples, child Joseph, b. 1776 who married Dorothy Granalais; LOUIS b. 1796 Naples, married Mary Josephine Carlier, with whom he had Ferdinand, Federico and Alfonso; this Luigi / Louis Scotti began his military career as a bodyguard in 1816, after a long military career in 1859 promoted field marshal. Ermanno Stradelli b. 1852, Italian photographer, of Borgo Val di Taro currently in the province of Parma, then in the province of Piacenza. His mother, Marianna Douglas Scotti di Vigoleno, place of residence in Borgotaro / Borgo Val di Taro. Castello di Vigoleno north-east of Genova. Borgo Val di Taro - east of Genova.

At margin:

CARACCIOLO Louis / CARACCIOLO Luigi, b. 1826 in Napoli: landlord of Casal di Principe - 15 km south-west of Santa Maria Capua Vetere; and owner of Sant'Arpino / Sandarpine in the Caserta region in Campania; 14 km north of Napoli, close to Aversa; 18 km south of Capua! Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta. Estates: Casal di Principe - 15 km south-west of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, di Parete - 6 km south-east of above named Casal di Principe and 4 km south-west of Aversa, Capriglia - north-east of Napoli, Villamaina - east of mentioned Capriglia. Gaetano Errico Malatesta Maria Pasquale was born in 1853 in Villa Santa Maria Maggiore, at two miles distance from the castle of Caserta, and ca 4 km south -east of Capua, now part of the town called Santa Maria Capua Vetere, in the province of Caserta. Sant'Arpino ca 15 km south of Santa Maria Capua Vetere, and 12 km south of Portico di Caserta; he was son of Don Federico Malatesta, a landowner and entrepreneur originally from Napoli, and Lazzarina Rastoin, a French lady originally from Marseille.

A surprising similarity of names! Or maybe this is not just a coincidence?

1. "...In Angouleme with the assistance of Messrs. X. Muller and J. Stahl, engineers of the establishment, and partly by M. Duflon, electrical engineer in the measuring room of M. Sciami, director of the Maison Breguet...".

2. "Witold Rutkowski son of Charles Adam and Kazimierz Dzerzhinsky / Kazimierz Dzierzynski son of Edmund Dzierzynski came together to Warsaw during the study. Kazimierz Dzerzhinsky joined the Academy of Veterinary in Dorpat (Tartu, now Estonia). He came therefore to Dzierżynow, and to Warsaw on the Technical School of Wawelberg and Rotwand. He lived in lodgings with Witold Rutkowski, but he was arrested and then he went to Germany, in Frankfurt am Main, then moved to Karlsruhe. Rented apartment with a family of Italian origin - Schiotti. He fell in love with the daughter of the owners Lucy Schiotti and married".

3. Maria Neri - Nagurska - Oginska "sent Cuchina back to Florence, and arranged for her to marry (Conte) Count Scotti (Schiotti) – in the end a satisfactory arrangement all round. The child was born in happy circumstances a legitimate Scotti...".

Details at margin:

Hotel Scoti (Schiotti in Modena, Scotti in Lake Villa, Scotto) is a unique pensione in the heart of the historical centre of Florence (Firenze, Italia). Samples: Giancarlo Schiotti, Vallina, that is Giancarlo Scotti. Schiotti, Donald K. possible aka's Sciotti. Scotti of Santolo Nicola / Santelo Nicola. Alessandro Maria Schiotti from Roma. Scotti or Schiotti - this surnames or name was in the life of the Dzierzynski and Oginski families in the 19th century. At geni.com we read on N. N. Scotti b. 1646 / 1706, son of Fabio Scotti and Alessandra Vittoria Scotti, father of Carlo Scotti; brother of Annibale Deodato Scotti, marchese di Castelbosco - 16 km west of Piacenza, and north-east of Genova / Genoa / Genua. Copyright by George J. Homs on May 21, 2012. Annibale Deodato Scotti b. 1676 and died 1732 in La Granja, Caceres, Extremadura, Spain. Husband of Teodora Chiapponi. Father of Fabio Scotti. Carlo Scotti b. ca 1670/1680?

From Mickuny / Mickūnai (Dzierzynski, Slowacki, Pilsudski, Pilar Pilchau, Januszewski, Becu) to Zalesie / Zalesse / Залесье of the Oginski family - close to Smorgon / Smargon / Smorgonie - is ca 60 km to south-east.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century the property Mickuny belonged to August Becu (1771-1824) - Professor of Medicine at the Imperial University of Vilnius (he was in Scotland 1803 - 1804), the second husband of the Salome / Salomea Slowacki, the mother of the famous poet Juliusz Slowacki (he was next in Switzerland in the years 1834-1835).

Probably about 1815 Mickuny / Mickūnai became the property of Alexander Pillar von Pilchau / Pilar Pilchau, then judge of the district of Vilnius. Alexander Pillar, in Mickuny in 1826 built a new chapel. In the mid-nineteenth century Mickuny / Mickunai belonged to Stanislaw Pillar, the son of Alexander. 1923 owner of Mickuny - next Alexander Pillar. But his brother, Roman Pillar (1895-1937) before World War I, began to study law at the University of St. Petersburg, where he was soon involved with the Bolsheviks activity of Felix Dzierżyński.

The father of above named Prince Ireneusz Ogiński was Prince Michał Kleofas Ogiński, with his Italian wife, Princess Maria, nee Neri.

The Ogińskis had three daughters, Amelia, Emma and Ida. Ireneusz, the only boy, was their second child. He was born in 1808. Princess Maria and Michał Kleofas Ogiński, in Venice began to take lovers.
In 1841 Ireneusz was thrown into jail, may well have had something to do with the 'Kalinowska Affair' a few years later.
Sometime around the late 1830s (acc. to me not late 1820s), Ireneusz married Countess Jozefina Kalinowska, whose sister, Countess Olga happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father. In 1848 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene. The following year Prince Michał was born under perfectly normal circumstances to Ireneusz and Olga.

Prince Ireneusz Ogiński died in 1863
In Vilnius, the capital of Russian Lithuania, was living Countess Maria Nagurska.
She was born Maria Neri in Venice in 1777. Early in 1796 Maria watched young veterans included the already legendary piano-playing warrior Prince Michał Kleofas Ogiński, who - under Tadeusz Kosciuszko - leading his units in Northern Lithuania against the Russians.

Among Michał Kleofas’ Oginski fellow veterans were Count Kajetan Nagurski, and Tadeusz Wysogierd. They were close friends with Maria Neri but Kajetan Nagurski took Maria back with him to Warsaw, now the Prussian city of Warschau, where  Apolinary Morawski became lover behind Kajetan’s back, but Maria began to be seen in the company of  Count Ludwik Pac, whose father, Count Michal Pac, owned Jezno, one of the finest palaces in Lithuania.

Maria Neri returned to Vilnius, and after 
to Florence.

In 1801, Countess Maria Nagurska caught the attention of General Bennigsen. General Count Levin August von Bennigsen was born in Brunswick in 1745, but was promoted to the position of Governor of Vilnius and he met Countess Nagurska.

Meanwhile, Michał Kleofas Ogiński  was living with his wife Izabela and two sons, Tadeusz and Xavier at his wife’s family’s estate at Brzeziny, to the south west of Warsaw. The new Tsar Alexander, offered him an unconditional amnesty and  Michał Kleofas, whose marriage to Izabela had just ended in divorce, accepted the amnesty, and returned to Lithuania to live in Vilnius, where, he again came across Maria Nagurska / Maria Neri, the mistress of Governor Bennigsen.

Michał Kleofas Oginski married her in 1804, and settled at his estate at Zalesie, close to the town of Smorgon, half way between Vilnius and Minsk.

Their four children: Amelia, born on December 10, 1803, who later became Countess Zaluska, conceived with Ogiński, but every one of his daughters - Emma and Ida, born in 1805 and 1813 had a different father; her son Ireneusz Oginski, born in 1807 or 1808 was conceived of the singer Giuseppe Paliani who was music tutor to the Ogiński girls.


The children of Karol and Amelia Załuska - nine surviving children, the eldest, Michał who, with his wife Lena ran Iwonicz, to the youngest, Franciszka, known as Fanny. 
Michał Kleofas Oginski b. 1765, his father Andrzej Ignacy Oginski with wife Paula Szembek (Paula nee Szembek from Slupowo married Jan Prosper Potocki; her father Marek Szembek born 1712 died 1744, and her grandfather Antoni Felicjan Szembek. Paula Szembek was born ca 1738? died 1797. Her children: Celestyn Lubienski b. 1758 d. 1848 with 1st husband Feliks Walezjusz Lubienski, Protazy Antoni Potocki b. 1761 d. 1801, Jozefa Oginska [b. 1763 with husband Andrzej Ignacy Oginski b. 1739 d. 1787], Michał Kleofas Oginski b. 7 October 1765 died 15 October 1833. Protazy / Prot Antoni Potocki born 1761 - died 1801 married Marianna Elzbieta Lubomirska b. ca 1766 - 1810 with daughter Emilia Potocka born ca 1790.

Above Andrzej Ignacy Oginski b. 1739 d. 1787 [Andrzej Ignacy Joachim Jozef Adam]
). His children:
Tomasz Antoni Oginski,
Ireneusz Kleofas Oginski, Franciszek Ksawery Oginski, Amelia Zaluska, Ida Oginska married Piottuch Kublicka, Emma Ogińska.
Andrzej Ignacy Oginski b. 1740, his father Tadeusz Ogiński and grandfather Marcin Oginski.
Izabela Oginska b. 1711 d. 1761, her father Michal Radziwillher husband Tadeusz Franciszek Oginski b. 1712 d. 1783, his line from Marcin, Szymon and Samuel Oginski.

Above Ida Oginska born in 1813 (ca 1800 ?) and married to  Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki from Kublicze.

Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki's brothers and sisters:
Emilia Piottuch-Kublicka m. Wincenty Smokowski, Stanisław ca 1804, Anna Piottuch-Kublicka 1809-1885 m. Józef Benislawski ca 1790-1852, Walentyna Piottuch-Kublicka m. Wladyslaw Jozef Sołtan 1795-1843, Oktawia Piottuch-Kublicka born ca 1810 m. first Jozef Szumski b. ca 1800 and second to Dominik Konstantynowicz born (after 1800) ca 1805.

The family of Weis / Weiss:
Neighbour of count Albert von Gern / Gernet / Гернет / Гернеты at I. Lidvall / Lidval house in 1912 - 1916 in St Petersburg: M. Weiss, the daughter of Vice Admiral Weiss, Alexander Konstantinovich; he was born 1870, was Rear-admiral on 12 June 1916; he graduated from the Maritime School; commanded a torpedo boat and destroyers; after the October Revolution in the service of the Reds. Chief of Staff of the Red Baltic Fleet to 1919. Arrested in 1931, 1933 and 1935 exiled to Orenburg. His father probably: Weiss, Konstantin. He was born on August 5, 1839 in Tsarskoye Selo, came from the nobility of the province of Estonia / Эстония. May 14, 1896 was promoted to lieutenant general. June 6, 1907 Weiss was promoted to General of Infantry. General Weiss was living in St. Petersburg (Petrograd) in 1917 at Nicholas Road, 59 where he died August 22, 1917. And next of kin Konstantin von Weiss born July 29, 1877 in Tsarskoye Selo, died in Augsburg; during the Civil War, the commander of the Baltic Battalion of the Estonian Army. Baltic Regiment was formed in early 1919 in Estonia of the volunteers - Baltic Germans and since the spring of 1919 worked with the North-Western Army. October 1919 was part of 3rd Infantry Division, then worked as a part of the 1st Army.

1. Daniel Carlier, b. 1766, London; son of Jacob Carlier and Susanne Mercier; he m. Mary Marlain;
2. Christina Sofia Krause / Krauze b. 1755 in Revel, d. 1825; m. Frideriks b. 1749; her son Евстафий Иванович Фридерихс / Якоб Иоганн Август, b. 1776, married in 1803 (they were living in Lasinurme (Lassinorm) and Thula / Tuula of the Toll family, Saue Parish) in London to Josephine Mercier (1820 to Aleksandr Gustav Johann Weiss) b. 1778, her stepgrandson Aleksandr von Weiss b. 1870. Her partner Константин Павлович Poманов, 1779 - 1831.
3. Colonel Weiss helped Jan Konstantynowicz (son of Jerzy / Marian Konstantynowicz / Stankiewicz) with nickname 'Stankiewicz' after 1944 in Poland.
4. Otto Magnus Karl Bernhard von Toll / фон Толль (1794 - 1799) born in Thula (Tuula), Saue vald, Harjumaa; d. 1799 in Walling (Valingu), Saue or Keila vald; and Margaretha Elisabeth Lisette von Toll Freiin von Rosen (1769 - 1824), d. 1824 in Walling (Valingu), Saue vald or Keila vald, Estonia. Valingu, 4 km north-east of Tuula, 4 km south-west of Saue. Franziska Helene Magdalena von Toll (1796 - 1820 in Walling (Valingu), 3 km east of Keila.

Ekaterina Petrovna Trubetskaya / Ekaterina Troubetzky / Troubetzkoy (nee Mussina-Pushkina; her father Pietr  Klavdijevich Mussin-Puschkin b. 1768) was born 1816 and died c. 1897; her partner
Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia

and with him was daughter Sofia Troubetzkoy (1838 in Moscow, Russia and died July 27, 1898 in Madrid). Husband of above named Ekaterina Petrovna Mussina-Pushkina: Sergey Trubetskoy / Сергей Васильевич Трубецкой (1815 - 1859) son of Vassili Sergejevich Fürst Trubetskoy ('Vasily', born April 3, 1776 and died February 22, 1841; general of cavalry, member of the State Council). The same Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia was partner of Countess Olga Kalinowska but she happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father Nicholas I. On 10 October 1848 or in 1849 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan or Michael-Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene (above Ольга Осиповна Калиновская was born 1818 or 1822 and was married in 1844 to Ireneusz Kleofas Ogiński b. 1808 d. 1863 from Belarus; she was lover of Alexander II, tsar of Russia who was born in Moscow on 29. 04. 1818. This Emperor has children from two marriages and children with two different women: with NN princess Lubomirska ca 1867 and with above Olga, countess Kalinovsky / Olga nee Kalinowska; Michael-Bogdan Ogiński married after to Gabrielle-Marie, countess Potulicka / Maria Potulicki; Bogdan Ogiński died on 25 March 1909). The following year Prince Michał Oginski was born under perfectly normal circumstances to Ireneusz Oginski and Olga nee Kalinowski (her sister Countess Jozefina Kalinowska
married Ireneusz Oginski, too). Prince Ireneusz Ogiński died in 1863, lived in the Kovno government, and was landowner of Retow and Zalesie.


Above Vasily Troubetzkoy, general of cavalry, member of the State Council, born 1776 and died 22.2.1841. His relatives: de Voisins, Gilbert, de Rohan-Rochefort, Manfredi, de Beauregard, Mussin-Pushkin, de Morny, Silva-Bazan. His granddaughter Margarita, b. 14.10.1857, married 14.11.1881 to Marie Christian Labrousse de Beauregard who died 1.6.1911. Next granddaughters: Maria, b. 7.12.1886 and by Vladimir, b. 1824, his daughter Maria, born 12.5.1857, died 1933, m. 29.6.1880 and div. with Aleksej Yakovlevich Voropanov.

Margarita Troubetzkoy born 14 October 1857 - but not Maria - married to Marie Christian LABROUSSE de BEAUREGARD d. 1911, and his parents: Bertrand Christian Labrousse de Beauregard and Cecile de Mones d'Elbouix.
Marie Christian Labrousse de Beauregard b. ? was husband of Margarita Trubetskaya, b. 1857, daughter of Alexander Trubetskoy and Marie Eugénie Gilbert de Voisins. She was sister of Sergey Trubetskoy; Alexander Trubetskoy; Grigory Trubetskoy and Alexey Trubetskoy. Above Alexander Trubetskoy b. 1813, d. 1889, son of Vasilij Trubecki / Василий Сергеевич Трубецкий, князь (Василий b. 1776, d. 1841) and Sophia Marianna / Софья Андреевна. The LABROUSSE-BEAUREGARD family: LABROUSSE-BEAUREGARD Montignac from Dordogne, Aquitaine, France, b. 1816 - 1816, and LABROUSSE-BEAUREGARD Cadillac from Gironde, Aquitaine, France, b. 1868. Labrousse Bernard de Beauregard, a member of the clergy of Saintes, emigrated to Spain in 1792. Bertand Christian LABROUSSE de Beauregard born ca 1795 ?, parents: Jérôme LABROUSSE de Beauregard 1768-1846 (Jerome was son of Bernard Sr du Claux 1739-1789 and Angelique 1745-1813; Jerome has three children: Edouard Jerome LABROUSSE de Beauregard 1804 [next generation: Marguerite Amanda DUJARRIC de la Baronie 1814; Félicie Dite Elisabeth LABROUSSE de Beauregard 1834-1896], Jean Baptiste Frederic LABROUSSE de Beauregard [next generation: Marie Camille GRAUGNARD; Françoise Julia LABROUSSE de Beauregard], Bertrand Christian Labrousse de Beauregard / Bertand Christian LABROUSSE de Beauregard [next generation: Marié Cécile de MONEYS del Bouix; Pierre Adolphe LABROUSSE de Beauregard; Christian LABROUSSE de Beauregard - maybe he is Marie Christian Labrousse de Beauregard b. ? who was husband of Margarita Trubetskaya, b. 1857, because his parents: Bertrand Christian Labrousse de Beauregard and Cecile de Mones d'Elbouix: Cecile de MONES d'ELBOUIX b. after 1808, married to Bertrand Christian de LA BROUSSE de BEAUREGARD, who was born 28 November 1808, son of Jérôme de LA BROUSSE de BEAUREGARD and Elisabeth Marguerite Wilhelmine de HESSE-DARMSTADT; above Cecile child: 1. Christian LABROUSSE de Beauregard / Marie Christian Labrousse de Beauregard husband of Margarita Trubetskaya; 2. Adolphe de LA BROUSSE de BEAUREGARD married to Jenny BOERSH with child: Jeanne Bertrande de LA BROUSSE de BEAUREGARD 1874, married 1893, Paris, to Henri de LÉCLUSE-TREVOËDAL b. 1867, with children Guy de LÉCLUSE-TREVOËDAL b. 1895, and Odette de LÉCLUSE-TREVOËDAL b. 1902]), and Marguerite Elisabeth de HESSE d'Armstadt died 1809 daughter of Marie Adelaide Cheyrouze and Louis IX de Hesse, b. 1719 d. 1790. Baptiste LABROUSSE de Beauregard, b. 1776 - Brenac, Dordogne, d. 1781, son of Bernard Sr du Claux LABROUSSE 1739-1789 and Angelique LESCURE 1745-1813. Above Bernard Sr du Claux LABROUSSE, 1739-1789, son of Jean Labrousse Du Claux, 1693-1764 and Catherine Bouilhac d. 1738. He was grandson of Jean Labrousse Du Rocq, d. 1725. Above Marie Eugénie Gilbert de Voisins, b. 1835, d. 1901, daughter of Jean Pierre, comte Gilbert de Voisins and Marie Sophie Taglioni (Marie Sophie Taglioni b. 1804 in Stockholm, Sweden, d. 1884 in Marseille, France, daughter of Philippe Taglioni and Sophie Karsten), wife of Alexander Trubetskoy, mother of Sergey Trubetskoy; Margarita Labrousse de Beauregard; Alexander Trubetskoy; Grigory Trubetskoy and Alexey Trubetskoy; she was sister of Georges, comte Gilbert de Voisins, by Elle Kiiker Ling and Jadra of 2012, at geni.com. Georges Gilbert de Voisins b. 1843 (his son Marie Auguste Gilbert de Voisins b. 1877 in Paramé, St-Malo, France, d. 1939 in Paris; husband of Louise de Heredia daughter of José Maria de Heredia and Louise Cécile Despaigne), son of Jean Pierre, comte Gilbert de Voisins and Marie Sophie Taglioni, husband of Sozonga Ralli. Sozonga Ralli b. 1857 in London, d. 1906 in Paris, daughter of Stephanos Rallis. Stephanos Rallis b. 1829 in Marseille, d. 1902 in Monte Carlo, son of Augustis Rallis and Sosonga - b. 1804 in Smyrne. Above Jean Pierre Gilbert de Voisins d. 1863, son of Pierre Paul Alexandre Gilbert de Voisins and Charlotte Digneron de Beauvoir b. 1775, husband of Marie Sophie Taglioni, father of Georges, comte Gilbert de Voisins and Marie Eugénie Gilbert de Voisins, copyright by George J. Homs in 2013.

Gabriel Voisin was born in Belleville-sur-Saône in 1880,

France, and his brother Charles Voisin (b. Lyon 1882), two years younger than him, was his companion. When his father (who? - Georges Gilbert de Voisins b. 1843) abandoned the family, his mother, Amélie, took her sons home to Neuville-sur-Saône, where they settled near her father's factory.


Otrebusy, a village in the Congress Poland, close to Brwinow; before 1900 this estate - Folwark Elżbietówka, Popowek - was sold (Borman, Knoff, Szolc). Otrebusy south-east of Brwinow, 4 km and Kanie village is north-east of Otrebusy 1,5 km.

On a maps of Herman Karol de Perthees of 1783 and 1786 we have got Otrebusy and also a map of 1803: it's data on the Oginski family (relatives of the Kalinowski family, Count) and Sulinski under the German rule, acc. to Prof. Marian Prokopek.

Acc. to 'genealogia.okiem.pl/soltan':
Stanislaw Soltan, b. 1756, died in 1836 Mitawa, general, wifes:
Franciszka Teofila Radziwill d. 1802 from parents Stanislaw Radziwill and Karolina Pociej,
and second wife since 1820 was Konstancja Toplicka-Tupalska Korsak from father Antoni.

His children below:

1. Karolina Soltan b. ca 1780 married Jozef Piottuch-Kublicki.
2. Stanislaw Soltan, 1822 - died 1897 in Anninsk, from Brzostowica Murowana in the Hrodna goverment, with wifes: Maria Dunin-Jundzill b. 1827 and Albertyna Dunin-Jundzill, b. 1837

(brothers and sisters of above Stanislaw Soltan: 3. Helena Soltan b. 1790 m. to Franciszek Soltan b. 1780,
4. Adam Leon Ludwik Sołtan, born 1792 in Warsaw,
and 5. Anna Soltan, b. ca 1788 and m. to Antoni Wankowicz b. 1758).

Children of Stanislaw Soltan b. 1822:

1. Bogdan Wiktor Soltan 1861 - 1912 married to Maria Franciszka Soltan b. 1863 (his brothers and sisters: 2. Emilia Soltan Korsak, b. 1847 d. 1908, 3. Stanislaw Soltan, 1848 - 1850, 4. Helena Soltan 1849 - 1852, 5. Adam Soltan 1851 - 1902 Brzostownica Murowana, 6. Wiktor Władyslaw Rudolf Pereswit-Soltan, 1853 - d. 1905 Warsaw, owner of Kraszuty)
and his daughter - Maria Emilia Soltan b. 1889 Aninsk and died 1963 m. Zdzisław Henryk Grocholski - her daughter Maria Grocholska b. 1911 Pietniczany and died in 1940 Otrebusy.

Acc. to 'www.bkpan.poznan.pl/biblioteka':
"...Grodno ... 15 October 1793 ... Krzywkowski v. W. Oginski ex-General of Lithuania, ... Gasowski ... 'otrzymal z wyznaczeniem komisyi do rozsadzenia granic folwarku swego Otrebusy zwanego, w ziemi warszawskiej lezacego, z folwarkiem W. Oginskiego ... okolica tegoz imienia graniczacego, ... Gasowski przeciwnie w odpowiedzi swojej dowodzi, ze majac swoj majatek w cudzych rekach, a nie mogac go dojsc dla przemocy, u Konfederacyi Generalnej Koronnej wyjednal sobie sancitum, przez ktore nie uchylenia jakiego prawa lub uciazliwego dla W. Oginskiego Ex-Hetmana praejudicatum zada, lecz sadu, a to koncem przyspieszenia ukrzywdzonemu sprawiedliwosci: i ze tego sadu ktory sie sklada z sasiadow osiadlych, lekac sie W. Oginski nie powinien... 1793 ...sprawa takowa do przyzwoitego sadu odeslana byc ma'."
Above named Oginski that is Michal Kazimierz Oginski, duke, b. 1728 or 1730 / 1731 died 1800 in Slonim or Warsaw; General, cousin of Andrzej Ignacy Oginski - freemason, and father (?) of Michal Kleofas Oginski - freemason.

But acc. to me: Michal Kleofas Oginski b. 1765 has different father, that is Andrzej Ignacy Oginski with wife Paula Szembek.
Ogiński, owner of the Helenow palace, Otrębusy, Komorów, Helenow and Opacz, was born as Michal Kleofas Ogiski in Guzów close to Zyrardow on 7 October 1765 and died 1833, was a Polish and later Russian statesman, a Polish insurrectionary and composer; his father Andrzej Oginski was governor of Trakai, in Lithuania; his mother, Paulina nee Szembek. When the Russians occupied Vilnius, he moved to Warsaw; he swore allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia and settled in Zalesie village, Ashmyany region, in present-day Belarus and later Helenow close to Otrebusy and Pruszkow. In 1755 - Michal Kazimierz Oginski b. 1728 - d. 1800, was owner of Helenow and Otrebusy, to his death in 1800, next owner of Otrebusy (and Helenow): Michal Kleofas Ogiski to his death in 1833, and after the Oginski family Helenow in ca 1800 to hands of Tadeusz Ostrowski (ca 1800 to 1817 Tomasz Adam Ostrowski, 1833-1855 Wincenty Arkuszewski, after him Stanislaw Potocki and Jakub Ksawery Potocki).

Note!

Dzierżynowo / Дзяржынава / Дзержиново: formerly Oziembłowo, a total of 180 acres, including the manor house, currently lies in the Minsk region, about 15 km south-west-west of Iwieniec; north of Prudy and north-east of Naliboki; close to Pietrylovichi. It was a family nest of Dzierżyński, for a time leased (to 1875) by

Edmund Dzerzhinsky for others; here in 1877 was born Felix Dzerzhinsky. Here were killed two of his brothers: Stanislaw and Kazimierz.

Previous name - Oziembłowo is listed in the Geographical Dictionary.

Zalessie (Zalesie), Залессе / Залесье / Залессе, ca 11 km south-east of Smorgon, ca 60 km north of Iwieniec

(also Januszkowcze / Januszkowiczi ca 15 / 18 km north of Iwieniec; Bielarucz / Bielaruczi / Беларучи in the Логойский район, close to Aliekszycy, 19 km south-west of Lohojsk / Logoisk, 27 km north of Minsk core; Józefa Dzierżyński married to Kazimierz Obrycki, owner of Słobodka near by Białorucz, he was born ca 1825, his father Joachim Obrycki b. ca 1800; and Januszkowicze / Янушковичи 15 / 18 km north of Iwieniec; south-east of Volozin, close to Piershai),

ca 70 km north of Dzierzynowo / Oziemblowo; a farm and property of Ogiński.

Michal Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas Oginski lived here, b. 1765 - d. 1833, composer, diplomat, one of the leaders of the Kosciuszko Uprising 1794;
he received a fortune in a fall from his uncle, Count Francis Xavier Oginski / Franciszek Ksawery Oginski; in the years 1802-1806 he lived there permanently, and in 1822 he was here often. After the death of Michał Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas Oginski for many years in assets stayed widow, an Italian singer Maria de Neri. Zalesie next taken by the son of Maria nee Neri / Mary and Michał Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas - Ireneusz Oginski (1808-1863), and later, his son Michael Nicholas Oginski (1848-1902).

Andrzej Oginski hired a home teacher from Vienna for Michał Kleofas Oginski - Jean Rolin (Rollain / Rolain / Rolayn Jean), who had previously served for emperor Leopold II as the tutor. Rolin (Rollain / Rolain / Rolayn), was teaching various subjects such as mathematics (by former Jesuit Abbe Rhoddee), and high-quality education; Rolin (Rollain / Rolain / Rolayn) also put to 7-year-old son a special diet and took long walks. Teen-age Michał Kleofas Oginski worked up to 16 hours per day. He studied political economics and in particular the Polish and French literature. Michał Kleofas read a lot of books such as Voltaire and Rousseau.

Grigory Troubetzkoy / Grigorij Trubetsky / Gregori Trubiacki / Grzegorz Trubecki was a Prince of the Troubetzkoy family. He married Maria Kalinowska. Maria Trubecki nee Kalinowski in 1840 moved back from St Petersburg on Krakow / Cracow. But they lived before 1840 in St. Petersburg.
At the same time just the Ogińskis had three daughters, Amelia, Emma and Ida. Ireneusz, the only boy, was their second child. He was born in 1808. Princess Maria Neri and Michał Kleofas Ogiński, in Venice began to take lovers.
In 1841 Ireneusz Oginski was thrown into jail, may well have had something to do with the 'Kalinowska Affair' a few years later.
Sometime around the late 1830s (acc. to me not late 1820s), Ireneusz married Countess Jozefina Kalinowska, whose sister, Countess Olga happened to be the mistress of Tsarevitch Alexander, the son of Tsar Nicholas I. Olga was pregnant by either the Tsarevitch or his father. In 1848 Olga gave birth to Prince Bogdan - Ogiński by name and Romanov by gene. The following year Prince Michał was born under perfectly normal circumstances to Ireneusz and Olga. Prince Ireneusz Ogiński died in 1863.

The Rolin family (Rollain = Rolain / Rolayn):
Henri-Antoine Rolin was born in 1774 and died in 1835 in Kortrijk / Courtrai.
Some branches of his many descendants: Ernest Bertin (1870-1915), Maurice Bresson (1892-1955), Jacques Filiol Raimond (1880-1933), Filiol Pierre Raimond (1884-1950), Constant Van Ackere (1873-1957) and Waelbroeck Georges (1853-1917).
Here are some examples of baptisms of the Rollin family: 1752 Jacques Rollin, 1757 Catherine Rollin, 1759 Marguerite Rollin, 1759 Rollin M. Amable, 1760 Pierre-Amable Rollin, 1762 Francois-Amable Rollin, 1763 Philippe Rollin, 1765 Joseph-Marie Rollin, 1766 Piere Rolin, 1768 Charles Rollin. Despite that the family is originally from Mons, Achilles / Achille ROLIN was actually born in Namur, 1839 (married Henriette Coralie LAGRANGE, daughter of Eugene Jacques LAGRANGE, Lieutenant Colonel; he lived in Brussels and died in Ixelles), the son of Joseph Nicolas Rolin, b. 1811 (mother from Ciney), d. 1854. Two years later, in 1841, was born a sister Leopoldine ROLIN; Joseph Nicolas Rolin mother: Mary Elizabeth Marie Joseph DESOMME; Mary's parents were DESOMME Pierre Joseph (d. before 1802) and Francoise Josephe FOUNTAINS (also died before 1802). Hubert Jean Rolin and Francois Joseph Rolin were born 1782 and 1784 respectively, in the parish of
Pessoux near Ciney, in Jannaeus - a few kilometers from Ciney.
Hubert and Francis were the son of Jean ROLIN and Anne LYSIN (died in Ciney). Indeed, their grandfather Hubert LYSIN died 1788, and their father, Jean Rolin, died 1789. Jean Rolin was not born in the parish of Pessoux. The marriage certificate indicates that Jean Rolin was a parishioner of Ciney; Jean Rolin born in the hamlet of
Bry, Parish of Celles, 1738. He is the son of William ROLIN born in 1715; two brothers was born in 1738 and 1741; Jean Joseph ROLIN was born in Bry - Celles. Celles is south of Achene, and 10 km south-west of Ciney, Belgique; 12 km from border of France; southern Belgique.
The second son of Jean Rolin, above mentioned Francis Joseph, born in 1784.

The Rolin or Rollin family (1768 Charles Rollin) was originally from Mons. See Oginski family and a tutor from Vienna / Wieden / Wien.
Also the Rollin / Rolin family from: Namur, west of Mons, Belgium; in Pessoux east-south of Namur; in Ciney - close to above Pessoux; in Celles. Jean Joseph ROLIN was born in Bry - Celles. Celles is south of Achene, and 10 km south-west of Ciney, Belgique; 12 km from border of France; southern Belgique.


The father of Michal Kleofas Oginski b. 1765 - Andrzej Ignacy Oginski with wife Paula Szembek.

Ogiński was owner of the Helenow palace (Helenowek) - 3 km south-west of Pruszkow and 4 km east of Brwinow, Otrębusy - 3 km south-east of Brwinow, Komorów - 3 km east of Helenowek and 6 km east of Brwinow, Helenow / Helenowek, and Opacz - 16 km east-north-east of Brwinow (Opacz Kolonia); Michal Kleofas Ogiski born in Guzów (ca 28 km west of Brwinow and 18 km southern of Zelazowa Wola were F. Chopin was born; Brwinow is located 35 km south-east of Zelazowa Wola) close to Zyrardow on 7 October 1765 and died 1833, was a Polish and later Russian statesman, a Polish insurrectionary and composer. His father Andrzej Oginski was governor of Trakai, in Lithuania.

When the Russians occupied Vilnius, he moved to Warsaw; he swore allegiance to Tsar Alexander I of Russia and settled in Zalesie village, Ashmyany region, in present-day Belarus and later in Helenow close to Otrebusy and Pruszkow. In 1755 - Michal Kazimierz Oginski b. 1728 - d. 1800, was owner of Helenow and Otrebusy, to his death in 1800, next owner of Otrebusy (and Helenow): Michal Kleofas Ogiski to his death in 1833, and after the Oginski family sold Helenow in ca 1800 to hands of Tadeusz Ostrowski (ca 1800 to 1817 Tomasz Adam Ostrowski, 1833-1855 Wincenty Arkuszewski, after him Stanislaw Potocki and Jakub Ksawery Potocki). Note!

Zalessie (Zalesie), Залессе / Залесье / Залессе, ca 11 km south-east of Smorgon, ca 60 km north of Iwieniec (also Januszkowcze / Januszkowiczi ca 15 / 18 km north of Iwieniec; Bielarucz / Bielaruczi / Беларучи in the Логойский район, close to Aliekszycy, 19 km south-west of Lohojsk / Logoisk, 27 km north of Minsk core; Józefa Dzierżyński married to Kazimierz Obrycki, owner of Słobodka near by Białorucz, he was born ca 1825, his father Joachim Obrycki b. ca 1800; and Januszkowicze / Янушковичи 15 / 18 km north of Iwieniec; south-east of Volozin, close to Piershai), ca 70 km north of Dzierzynowo / Oziemblowo; a farm and property of Ogiński.

Oginski, much older than Chopin but still active in the 1820s, preempting Chopin by approximately a quarter-century. The Oginskis also temporarily possessed Siedlce. They were the sponsors of Orthodox editions in Ruthenian and Slavonic languages.

We look on Nicolas (Mikołaj) Chopin who was born 1771 in France, in the town of Marainville, located on the Madon river, around 30 km from Nancy, the capital of Lorraine, an independent duchy, governed by Poland's former king Stanisław Leszczyński to his death in 1766. François Chapin / Chopin of Romont on the Lorraine border, in 1705 married Catherine Oudot, and settled in Catherine's native village of Xirocourt. François (1738-1814), a skilled wheeler and administrator of the commune of Marainville, married Marguerite Deflin (1736-1794). Thus his son Nicolas, born in 1771, was known to lady Franciszka Weydlich (from a wealthy bourgeois Parisian family of German origins), and after Michał Pac's death in 1787, the Weydlichs decided to return to Poland in fall 1787. Nicolas Chopin decided to leave his home and accompany the Weydlichs. Until 1791 the Weydlichs resided at 406 / 1 Krakowskie Przedmieście Ave., in 1794 Nicolas became teacher to Jan Dekert Jr. in Warsaw, and 1795 Nicolas was a home tutor to the children of Ewa Łączyńska nee Zaborowska, widow of Maciej Łączyński, remarried with Józef Chrzanowski. In 1802 Nicolas was tutor to the sons of Kacper Skarbek and his wife Ludwika nee Fenger in Żelazowa Wola, until 1810, when he became professor at the public Warsaw High School. Nicolas tutored several prominent future figures of the Congress Kingdom of Poland, including Jan Dekert (1786-1861), Warsaw suffragan bishop, Maria Walewska born Łączyńska (1786-1817), Napoleon's mistress, Teodor Łączyński (1785-1842), Jan Nepomucen Dziewanowski (1782-1808), Fryderyk Skarbek (1792-1866), near by Samuel Bogumił Linde, eminent lexicographer; professor Karol Mahe; professor Józef Rousseau, the Dziewanowskis, Pruszaks, Skarzyńskis and Zboińskis, the Skarbeks; his close friends: the Kolberg family, Jakub Benik, Jan Austen. Inf. under copyright by Piotr Mysłakowski, Andrzej Sikorski (January 2006).

Szymanowska was a member of the Society of Good Deeds Committee, the organizer of Fryderyk Chopin's February 1818 concert; Józef Elsner, Chopin's composition teacher, had been a close friend of Szymanowska's parents, and he almost certainly was also Szymanowska's private tutor. Inf. under copyright by Sławomir Dobrzański.

Both Szymanowska and Chopin were influenced by the popular composer of piano polonaises, Prince Michał Kleofas Ogiński (1764-1833), after Chopin was just seven years old in 1817.

Michal Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas Oginski received a fortune in a fall from his uncle, Count Francis Xavier Oginski / Franciszek Ksawery Oginski; in the years 1802-1806 he lived in Zalesie permanently, and in 1822 he was here often. After the death of Michał Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas Oginski for many years in assets stayed widow, an Italian singer Maria de Neri. Zalesie next taken by the son of Maria nee Neri / Mary and Michał Kleofas Oginski / Michael Cleophas - Ireneusz Oginski (1808-1863), and later, his son Michael Nicholas Oginski (1848-1902). Andrzej Oginski hired a home teacher from Vienna for Michał Kleofas Oginski - Jean Rolin (Rollain / Rolain / Rolayn Jean), who had previously served for emperor Leopold II as the tutor.

Frédéric François Chopin b. 1810 in above mentioned Zelazowa Wola, was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist; 1831 he settled in Paris; supported by his admirer Jane Stirling, who also arranged for him to visit Scotland in 1848; Jane Wilhelmina Stirling 1804 - 1859 was a Scottish amateur pianist, took him on a tour of England and Scotland in 1848, and took charge of the disposal of his effects and manuscripts after his death in 1849. Stirling was born as the youngest of 13 children of

John Stirling, Laird of Kippendavie, at Kippenross House, near Dunblane in Perthshire, and was descended from a noble Scottish family.

She was placed under the charge of her widowed sister, Mrs Katherine Erskine - from 1826, she and her sister divided their life between Scotland and Paris; met Frédéric Chopin in 1840 or 1842 / 1843, worked with Chopin of the French editions of most of his works; became his secretary, agent and business manager. Her father John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie 1742 - 1816; his parents: Patrick Stirling, 4th of Kippendavie, b. 8 Apr 1704

(Patrick Stirling, 1704 - 1745 from Charles Stirling, 3rd of Kippendavie, b. 14 Dec 1680

{his father John Stirling, 2nd of Kippendavie, b. 1622, Dunblane, Perthshire, Scotland and Christian Dog / Doig b. 1640, Kilmadock, Perthshire, Scotland}

and mother Catherine Arbuthnot: come from Alexander Arbuthnot, of Knox M. P., b. 1654 and mother Jean Scott)

and mother Margaret Douglas d. 1754: her parents Sylvester Douglas, of Whiteriggs d. 1729 and Margaret Keith. Frederick Chopin was in Edinburgh 1848, and arrived in London in April 1848.

Famous Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, b. 1871, was a New Zealand-born British physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. Rutherford moved in 1907 to the Victoria University of Manchester; was the son of James Rutherford, who had emigrated to New Zealand from Perth - 53 km north-east of Stirling, Scotland. The Rutherford family comes from an area of the Scottish Borders called Roxburghshire; south from Jedburgh, - ca 130 km south-east of Stirling, because all Scottish Rutherfords share roots in Roxburghshire. To 1706 / 1707, the Rutherfords moved into other areas of Scotland, such as, Ayrshire and Perth - 48 km north-east of Stirling, and south into Northumberland, to Sweden, France and the Netherlands:

Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune - 15 km north-west of Stirling, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland; his father was John RUTHERFORD (his parents: David RUTHERFORD

[his father David RUTHERFORD, b. 1764 in the parish of Kilmadock - 13 km north-west of Stirling, Perth, Scotland, who was son of James RUTHERFORD b. 1720 in Kilmadock, Perth, Scotland]

b. 1764 in Kilmadock, Perth, and mother Margaret FULTON from Of Kilmadock, Perth) b. 1800 in Kilmadock, Perth, Scotland.

The Scottish origin (Nest de Barri) of the Barry family come from the village of Barry in the former county of Angus, 60 km north-east of Perth, north of Edinburgh; in Ireland, Ho Barry circa 1591, as the first Irish dramatist, while John Barry (b. 1745 in Tacumshane, County Wexford, southern Ireland; d. 1803), is generally regarded as 'The father of the American Navy'. Guillaume Dubarry / du Barry, Count Roquelaure, Lord Rennery, b. 1732, d. 1811 in Toulouse, was husband of Jeanne Becu / Madame du Barry. Dubarry name is known from 1400 around Toulouse. Guillaume was the son of Antoine Dubarry, captain, and Marguerite Catherine Cécile Thérese de La Caze; 1750 he moved to Santo Domingo; returned to France, to Lévignac and Toulouse. 1768, his elder brother Jean-Baptiste Dubarry, calls him to Paris. 1768 marriage to J. Becu.

Remember: 1. Edward Sterling / Esterling (b. ca 1807/1809) and Elena Shtaal / Elena Staal from Riga and Livland had daughters:
Odile Sterling / Esterling b. 1830 (Latvia?) at farmhouse in Yucca / Iukka, and Bertha Didrikil born in Riga in 1835 died in 1891, also Charlotte Sterling / Esterling and Alvina Sterling / Esterling. Probably that is Yukka, Yuka at Crimea, close to Заозерное / Ялы́-Мойна́к / Yalı Moynaq / Ялы Мойнакъ, 10 км south-west of Евпатория, western Crimea.

2. George Arbuthnot's father was a businessman (Aberdeen) who died shortly after being ruined in the Ayr Bank crash of 1772; George Arbuthnot secured a post as Chief Secretary to the Governor of Ceylon, and founded the Arbuthnot Bank in Madras (1810); 1810 he married Eliza Fraser, daughter of an Inverness solicitor who was staying with her uncle in Madras. They returned to Britain in 1823, purchased an estate in Surrey, and visited Rome.

3. Louis Latour b. 1799, m. Catherine Smith in 1822, Calcutta; Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland - at Calcutta; Georgiana De Lautour, who was born in Madras, India in 1791, died in 1849, her father Francis Latour / Francis Lautour m. Anne Hordle / Ann. Francis Latour had a daughter Mary Latour / 'Matross' in 1778, and next Amelia Lautour 1784, James Oliver Lautour 1790, and Peter Augustus Lautour b. 1787. Mentioned above

Catherine Sconce b. 1813 in Stirling / Sterling, Scotland - 60 km north-west of Edinburgh, d. 1899 in South Kensington of Middlesex; married 1836 or 1837 in Calcutta to Edward de Lautour / Latour who was the son of Joseph Andrew De Lautour

(b. 1785 in Madras, d. 1845 in Hexton Park) and Caroline Young (b. 1793 in Soho, London).

4. John Stirling, 6th of Kippendavie 1742 - 1816: John Kippendavie, acquired the estate of Kippenross - 2 km east of Dunblane and 9 km north of Stirling - from William Pearson 1778, and Kippendavie - 1 km north-east of Dunblane, Lanrick - 18 km north-west of Stirling, Auchinbie, Shanraw, and Woodland from James Stirling of Keir in 1813.

Children: 1. Patrick STIRLING b. 1782 in Dunblane, Perth; 2. Douglas STIRLING b. 1784 in Dunblane, Perth, 3. Mary STIRLING 1786 in Dunblane, 4. William STIRLING 1787 in Dunblane; 5. Catherine STIRLING 1791 in Dunblane, 6. Charles STIRLING 1796 in Gargunnock 12 km west of Stirling, Scotland; 7. Thomas STIRLING 1800 in Dunblane, Perth, 8. Sylvester Douglas STIRLING b. 1803 in Dunblane, 9. Jean Wilhelmina STIRLING 1804 in Dunblane. The same branch: James STIRLING b. ca 1707 in Kippendavie, Stirling, Scotland.

The Latour / Lantour / Lautour of Calcutta, India: next of kin of Reilly, Herberlet, Jean Lester, Edward De Lautour married Catherine Sconce - second daughter of Robert Sconce, Esquire, of Stirling in Scotland
- (Robert Sconce was writer in Stirling, 1769 close to Fallin east of Stirling - that is north-east of Glasgow) at Calcutta; Georgiana De Lautour, who was born in Madras, India in 1791, died in 1849, her father Francis Latour / Francis Lautour m. Anne Hordle / Ann. Francis Latour had a daughter Mary Latour / 'Matross' in 1778, and next Amelia Lautour 1784, James Oliver Lautour 1790, and Peter Augustus Lautour b. 1787. Catherine Sconce b. 1813 in Stirling / Sterling, Scotland, d. 1899 in South Kensington of Middlesex; married 1836 or 1837 in Calcutta to Edward de Lautour / Latour; Egan O'Rahilly (1670-1726) was of a family long established near Killarney. The County Cavan situated north of Mullingar. Killarney of south-west Ireland. The Westmeath county with Mullingar! South of The County Cavan. The Latour / Lantour / Lautour of Calcutta, India is next of kin of Reilly, Herberlet, Jean Lester, Catherine Sconce. Sidney George Reilly, b. 1873 (1874 ?), known as the Ace of Spies.

In Whytriggs or Whiteriggs was born Sylvester Douglas in ca 1662, d. 1729. His father Bishop Robert Douglas, b. 1625, d. 1716, mother Elizabeth Lammy.

Family Margaret Keith, b. 1662, married in 1695, with children: 1. George (of Skelmuir) Douglas, b. 1696, 2. Robert Douglas, d. 1735, 3. John (of Fechel) Douglas, b. 1703 / 1714, 4. Elizabeth Douglas, b. 1695, 5. Margaret Douglas, b. 1705. Douglas John, marchant, from Aberdeen; son of Sylvester of Whiteriggs; Patric nephew of Sylvester.

Douglas family from Bothwell - 15 km south-east of Glasgow, Kincardineshire 30 km south of Aberdeen, and from Fordoune, Scotland - 14 km north-west of Srirling. But we know also on Peter Rutherford, b. 1843 in Doune - 15 km north-west of Stirling, Kilmadock, Perth in Scotland; his father was John RUTHERFORD. See: Douglas from Italy, Napoli.

Catherine Arbuthnot come from Alexander Arbuthnot, of Knox M. P., b. 1654 and mother Jean Scott; relatives to Margaret Douglas d. 1754: her parents Sylvester Douglas, of Whiteriggs d. 1729 and Margaret Keith.

And here - between these families - appears Chopin. Frederick Chopin was in Edinburgh 1848.

ANNE CHOPIN b. 1769 in MARAINVILLE sur MADON, d. 1845, from parents FRANCOIS CHOPIN 1738-1814 and MARGUERITE DEFLIN 1736-1794; married in 1798 to JOSEPH THOMAS 1768-1850 (born in MARAINVILLE sur MADON, d. in FORCELLES). Marguerite Leonie Maire (Thomas) b. 1831 in Marainville-sur-Madon, Vosges, Lorraine, France; daughter of Charles Joseph Thomas and Therese Justine Ququ. Charles Joseph Thomas b. 1801 in Marainville-sur-Madon, d. 1873 in Saint-Firmin, Hautes-Alpes. Son of Joseph Thomas and Anne Thomas Chopin. Joseph Thomas b. 1768 in Marainville-sur-Madon.



Please look at details on this website!



Now we back to the Estonian-Polish branch of the Troubetzkoy family (Трубецкой и Эстония) and about Nestor Troubetzkoy. His father Grigory Troubetzkoy b. 1802 and died 11 January 1874, grandfather Piotr Nikolaievich Troubetzkoy b. 18 November 1773 - died 16 November 1801. Brother of Grigory: Yuri Troubetzkoy b. 1796 - d. 1859, sister Anna Kozhoukhova / Kozuchowska / Kozuchow born 23 December 1793 - 29 March 1827. Pawel son of Nestor Trubecki had three brothers: Herasim Trubecki, a scientist; second - an oil magnate and a chemist in Baku whose name is not known; third - a captain of the icebreaker 'Yermak', whose name is not known; and two sisters, whose names are not known! As you can see, the Estonian branch of the family Trubecki has huge gaps in accurate information about the generations, dates of births, names of children, especially in the period from about 1830 to about 1880. It's this period that I was particularly interested!
Children of a landowner and revolutionary Nestor Trubecki / Nester Troubetzkoy or Kalinowski / Trubeckoj born 1832 or 1840 in Cracow and died in Cracow or in Warsaw, Congress Poland in 1907:

1. professor Nestorovich Paul Troubetskoy / Павел Трубецкой / Pavel Trubecki son of Nestor / Pawel Trubecki (TROUBETZKOY, was born in Congress Poland 1879);  with title of Prince; died in 1941 in Tallinn; in Orsza, Belarus, 1903 was married to Maria Makeiewna Dobrzinska (Maria daughter of Maciej Dobrzynski born in Orsza on August the 1st or 8th, 1887 and died in Tallinn on 22 March 1974).
Pavel Trubecki was a member of the Polish Socialist Party of Józef Pilsudski, "was a partisan of Stanislaw Bulak-Balachowicz, a member of The Special Unit of Belarusian People's Republic in Estonia (Asobny Atrad BNR in Estonia) and veteran of Estonian War of Independence. By 1905 Jozef Pilsudski's party, the Polish Socialist Party, of which Pawel Trubecki was a member, was the largest socialist party in the entire Russian Empire. Failing in his purpose, Trubecki left Congress Poland in 1906, and moved to Reval (now Tallinn, Estonia). (Pawel Trubecki / Pavel Trubiacki / Paul Troubetzkoy moved from Orsha / Orsza to Tallinn in 1906, at the end of this year probably - but all his family to 1908) In 1906, as a stable government was re-established in the province, a Neo-Romantic literary movement 'Young Estonia' (Noor-Eesti) took hold there. Pawel Trubecki got the Nansen passport".


His children:
Jan Michal / Ivan Mihkel Trubecki / Pavlovich Troubetzkoy born in Orsza 1906, died in Tallinn 1971 with wife Alma Koidu;
second - Anjuta Pavlovna Gorbachev / Gorbaczow b. Tallinn in 1908, died Tallinn 2004 with husband A. Gorbachev, proprietor of houses in Tallinn;
third Aleksander Trubetskoi / Alexander Pavlovich Troubetzkoy b. Tallinn 1913, d. 1941 with wife Linda;
fourth (see also below) - Wladymir / Vladimir Trubetsky / Wladimir Trubetskoi / Vladimir Waloc Troubetzkoy, b.  5.10.1915, d.  22.4.1997 with wife Gerda Tiksmann and second wife 1935 Lydia Maripuu born Dundaga 1915, died in Muuga Aedlinn 1990 
(Muuga aedlinn - Muuga garden city is area in the western part of the town of Maardu, Estonia; it's located just east of Tallinn's Pirita district and Maardu is a town and a municipality in Harju County, Estonia and it is part of the east Tallinn metropolitan area; Nomme is south-west part of Tallinn):
his child - Jan Trubecki / Jaan Trubetsky, born in Tallinn on 29.12.1938 and his children with Leili Rikk: Tonu Trubetsky (+ Anu Klyszejko) and Toomas Trubetsky and also with Dagmar: Tonis Trubetski and Toivo Trubetski. Above named Vladimir Trubetskoy was a member of the Polish Home Army born 1915 died 1997 and his son was Jan Trubetskoy born 1938. 

2. Gerasim / Herasim Trubecki / Gerasimos vel Gerasim Nestorovich Trubecki, doctor, born 1866 / 1870 / 1880 or after 1870 and died in Paris; scientist.

3. four (5?) unknown:
an unknown oil magnate in Baku who was born ca 1870s and died ca April 28, 1920 in Baku; he was chemist in oil industry in Bakou / Baku;
the second unknown, captain of the soviet icebreaker 'Yermak' / Ermak,
and two (or three) unknown daughters.

But we have two different trees in the genealogy of the Estonian branch of the Troubetzkoy family;
1. according to N. Ikonnikov and Miroslav Marek, Sept. 2007: Great-grandfather of Pavel Troubetzkoy: Pyotr Troubetzkoy, b. 18 Nov. 1773, d. 16 Nov. 1801, m. Nadejda Ivanovna Pestova [his father: Nikolay born 1744]. Grandfather of Pavel: Grigory b. 1802, d. 11 January 1874. His sister Anna b. 1793, d. 1827, m. Alexandr Stepanovitch Kozhoukhov, brother: Yuri b. 1796, d. 1859, m. Olga Nikolaevna Tchaikovsky. Father of Pavel: Nestor Troubetzkoy / Nester Trubiacki / Trubecki, born ca 1832, died ca 1907. Pavel Troubetzkoy born 1866, died 1941; married to Maria Kalinowska born ca 01 August 1892, died ca 1972. His children: Vladimir Waloc b. 05 October 1915, died 22 April 1997, married Gerda Tiksman and second m. to Lydia Maripuu b. 25 Jan. 1915 d. 25 April 1990; Ivan Mihkel; Alexandr and Anastasia married NN Gorbatchev. Children of Vladimir Waloc: Jaan b. 29 Dec. 1938 married Leili Rikk born 10 Nov. 1937: Erich and Isabella born 20 July 1956 m. NN Hitzel. Children of Jaan: Toivo, Tonis, Tonu vel Tony Blackplait, m. Anu Klyszeyko, 2 m. Maret Parnamets, 3 m. Margit Roosileht; and Toomas born 22 Dec. 1967; Children of Tonu: Reginleif  b. 1989, Tonu born 1990, Madeleine Angelique b. 1993; and
2. Nestor Trubecki has
wife M. Kalinowska / Maria Kalinovsky.
Never any inf. about his next of kin - Maria Trubeckoi / Duchess Maria Troubetzkoy / Mary Trubecki born 1835 / 1850 or information that Maria Trubecki was born in the next generation for example circa 1850 / 1853.

But genealogical research are directed to show that

Nestor Troubetzkoy (with nickname Nester Kalinowski) had a sister Maria. His sister's name would be given by the mother Maria of the Kalinowski house: Mary Kalinowski who had affinities with family of Oginski; in turn, this family was associated with the Radziwills and then with the Konstantynowiczs in Miezonki.

Duchess Maria Troubeckoy probably born about 1840, married Konstantinovich - genealogical research go towards demonstrating that her husband's name was Vasily / Wasyl; Wasilij or Vasily Konstantynowicz was born about 1840.

Therefore, we have strong links between the 'Duflon and Konstantynowicz' Company in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Zaporozhya / Zaporoze / Alexandrovsk and with Estonia, including Tallinn, Viljandi and Parnu. These relations also apply Miezonki, Lodz, the secret Pilsudski movement (Andrzejak, Wankowicz, Trubecki) in Belarus and Estonia and the smuggling of weapons from Russia to Galicia by (Spychalski, Andrzejak) Lodz.

Two families: Kalinowski and Paszkowski, has a lot connections. Count Joseph Kalinowski fought in the Polish Legions, among others between 1806 and 1807 - Silesia, Westphalia, etc. Similarly, the colonel and then general Franciszek Paszkowski. Both participated in the Napoleonic wars, years 1812-1813. Returned to the country in 1814. Then Paszkowski, and Kalinowski, have made a Free City of Krakow (ca 1819) and established families. Their children were born just after 1816. Both have completed military service in the rank of general. Both family came from south of the former Poland, after in the Russian zone, and also in the Austrian partition, but had a relationships with families living in Russia.

Note about the Piottuch - Kublicki family: 

 Ferdynand Piottuch - Kublicki, who was an activist of 1863 in the East Belarus, was friend of Artemiusz Viaryha - Dareuski from the Vicebsk region and also Walerjan Weryho / Valerian Veryho (he was owner of the Stajki estate - South of Vicebsk, close to the Dymanowo station, where Russian police on 22nd April 1863 attempted to arrest him). Above Ferdynand  Piottuch - Kublicki was neighbour of Wasilewski and relation of Staniewicz; he and duke Artemiusz Viaryha - Dareuski / Weryho stayed in Vicebsk in 1862 and in Stajki 1863Artemiusz Viaryha - Dareuski was familiar to: Moniuszko, Odyniec, Syrokomla and with Aleksander Chodecki in Mohylew (Mahileu or Mogiliow) in 1859.
Lady Augusta Soltan, b. around 1750 was married to Eliasz / Elijah Kublicki Piottuch from Kublicze, and was living in Livonia. The next generation: 

1. Elizabeth Piottuch-Kublicka of Kublicze, b. approximately 1790 married Benedict Wawrzecki, Marshal of Braslav and second husband Krutz

2. Joseph Piottuch-Kublicki of Kublicz, about 1800 m. Soltan Carolina born ca 1780; child: 

Valentina Piottuch-Kublicka of Kublicz, b. ca 1800 and m. Wladyslaw Jozef Soltan was born 1795, d. 1843 (mother Josepha Benislawska), her child 

Soltan Octavia, b. in Prezma / Pryzma / Presman 1830, died on August 15, 1871 in Kazan (or Razan ?), she was married in 1849 to Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan / Hieronim S. V. Soltan born 1824, died in 1900, landowner, member of the January Uprising.
Above named Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan was born 1824 in Uzukrewno (his mother's estate) and died on March 15, 1900 in Prezma, now Latvia; son of Stanislaus Soltan (collaborator of the Constitution of 3 May, imprisoned in Smolensk in the 1794-1796, the President of the Provisional Government of Lithuania in 1812
, d. Mitawa 1836) and Constance Toplicki / Konstancja Toplicka, a high school in Mitawa in 1835-1842 Courland, his parents after confiscating the 'Zdzieciol' estate (in the Slonim area and mentioned by Mr. Tadeusz Mickiewicz) moved house on the Livonia area, he was the insurgent in 1863, exiled to Ufa, interned in Riga. Study at the University of St. Petersburg in 1843-1844, married in 1849, with a relative of his, Oktawia nee Soltan, daughter of Joseph and Valentina, and settled in the estate of his wife, Pryzma in Polish Livonia. In 1858 - 1859 he traveled abroad, where he conferred with Adam Czartoryski and Witold Czartoryski and Count Zamoyski on the current state of Lithuania and Belarus. He was against armed Insurrection. When the uprising broken out, Soltan, unable to stop it, joined to the Insurrection in the Livonia province and after Soltan was arrested in Vitebsk on June 5th, 1863. He was exiled to Ufa on August 18, 1863, and remained there until 1866. Then he was interned in Riga 1872 - 1875, was allowed to return in 1875 to assets of his wife in Polish Livonia, where he died in September 1900 in Prezma / Presman near to Malta in Inflanty / Lettgallen / Livonia, the Rēzeknes Rajons - 18 km south west from Rezekne acc. to http://exonyme.bplaced.net/Board/Thread-Lettgallen. The von der Borch family from Prele / Preili/ Priji near to Dyneburg and from Wyping in the Rzezyce / Rezekne district was owner of the Prezma estate before 1714. Above named Samuel Jerome Wladyslaw Soltan moved in 1891 to Riga, where he many years honorably served as President of the Charitable Society

Now we back to the Piottuch Kublicki family:
Joseph Piottuch-Kublicki of Kublicz, about 1800 m. Soltan Carolina born ca 1780; children: 

Valentina Piottuch-Kublicka of Kublicz, b. ca 1800 and m. Wladyslaw Jozef Soltan was born 1795, d. 1843; 

Stanislaw Piottuch-Kublicki, 

Octavia Piottuch-Kublicka m. Joseph Szumski and second time to Dominik Konstantynowicz

Anna Piottuch-Kublicka m. Joseph Benisławski

Emilia Kublicka m. Vincent Smokowski

Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki m. Ida Oginska.
Some details:
Oktawia Soltan, born 1830, died on 15.8.1871 in Kazan, married to (1849) Władyslaw Hieronim Samuel Soltan, b. 1824, d. 1900. Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki married Ida Oginski. Karol Piottuch-Kublicki, b. ca 1850 m. Zofia Eysymont, b. ca 1840 - her parents: Oktawiusz and Helena Soltan. Stanislaw Soltan, born on 27.8.1756, d. 1836 in Mitawa, m. Franciszka Teofila Radziwill d. 1802, her father Stanislaw, mother Karolina Pociej from Zdzieciol. Second time married ca 1820 to Konstancja Toplicki-Tupalski Korsak.

Parents of above named Ida Oginski:

Michal Kleofas Oginski 1765-1833 and Maria Neri 1778-1851.
Grandparents of Ida Oginski: Andrzej Ignacy Oginski 1739-1787 and Paula Szembek.
Husband of Ida Oginski: Adolf Piottuch-Kublicki.
Son of Ida Oginski: Karol Piottuch-Kublicki born ca 1850.

Bohdan Oginski died in 1625.
His children:
1. Alexander d. 1667, Troki; 2. Jan d. 1640; royal courtier 1613;

3. Samuel Leo d. 1657, Trakai 1620

(his son Simon Charles d. ca 1699, chamberlain of Vitebsk in 1654; grandson, Michael Marcian 1672 - 1750, Vitebsk in 1703, Vitebsk in 1730, Borysow; great-grandson, Tadeusz Francis 1711 - 1783, Trakai 1744, Trakai 1770, Oshmiana, m. in Korelicze (? Koreliszcze) in 1737 to Isabella Radziwill b. 1711 and great-great-grandson,
Andrzej Oginski / Andrew 1739 - 1787,
Secretary of Lithuania in 1771, Trakai 1778, Trakai 1783, m. 1763 to Paula Szembek-Łubieński-Potocki d. 1797);

4. Dimitri d. 1610; royal courtier, 5. Anna m. Wilhelm Stetkiewicz, Chamberlain of Braslav; 6. Barbara m. Szemet, chamberlain of Vilnius; 7. Dorothy Pieczyhojski,

8. Apolonia Oginski (b. before 1599 and died ca 1650/1670?, m. George Szemet, of Samogitia,
m. second time after 1610 to Michal / Michael Despot Zenowicz b. ca before 1597).

Polonia Oginska / Apolonia Oginski was the maternal grandmother of Anna von Wrangell.
Joseph Juriewicz/ Jozef Jurewicz, from the Orsha district in the province of Mogilev (his sister, Anna von Wrangell, was seventeen years younger than he), came into possession of Kolpino after his marriage to Joanna Despot Zenowicz / Anna Deszpot-Zienowicz; also in Kraszuty / Wielkie-Kraszuty / Krashuty, a village in the Mikolajewska area, a district of Polock, goverment of Witebsk / Vicebsk; here lived Soltan, 1853-1905, engineer from Lodz, the Congress Poland; this estate located north-east of Polock / Polatsk, close to present border of Belarus and Russia; Savino 3.6 km north east; and Porzecze.

Stanislaw Juriewicz, as the oldest brother, had estates in Belorussia, and after the death of his parents, divided these properties among his brothers. His brother, Michal Juriewicz, received Kraszuty. His brother Jan received two estates, Franopol and Porzecze. Franciszek, another brother, lived in St. Petersburg. Anna von Wrangell received three estates: Kolpino, Reblio, and Zabelja. The estate Kolpino had belonged to her mother, (? nee) Despot - Zenowicz / Despoth / Deszpot - Zienowicz. Originally, this estate had belonged to the Princes Oginski:
Polonia Oginska / Apolonia Oginski was the maternal grandmother of Anna von Wrangell.
The title to the estate Porzecze was left in the name of Stanislaw Juriewicz.

The Wrangel family / Wrangell / Vrangel / Wrangel Gubental:

1. Anna von Wrangell received three estates: Kolpino, Reblio, and Zabelja. The estate Kolpino had belonged to her mother. Originally, this estate had belonged to the Princes Oginski: Polonia Oginska /
Apolonia Oginski was the maternal grandmother of Anna von Wrangell. The title to the estate Porzecze was left in the name of Stanislaw Juriewicz.

2. Alexan