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      To our parents     Acknowledgements We wish to express our profound gratitude to all those who helped in making this book a reality; specially the faculty, staff and authority of University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh (ULAB), and all our students and well-wishers for their constant motivation and selfless support. Much needed moral support and encouragement was provided on numerous occasions by our families and relatives. We will always be grateful, to the dictionaries and test-prep books we used for the resources and concepts, which helped us build the foundation. Special thanks goes to Nasrin Jahan Bobby, who helped us compile the book online. Bangla Academy English-Bengali Dictionary, American Heritage Dictionary, WordNet 3.0 by Princeton University, Word Power Made Easy by Norman Lewis, Barron's GRE, Word Smart by The Princeton Review, Random House Dictionary, Century Dictionary, www.dictionary.com, www.visualthesaurus.com and many more.   Preface   After years of painstaking research into the factors behind life and career success, American psychometrician and researcher Johnson O'Connor concluded, "An extensive knowledge of the exact meanings of English words accompanies outstanding success in this country (USA) more often than any other single characteristic we have been able to isolate and measure", Atlantic Monthly, 1934. It’s apparent that there is a connection between a good vocabulary and overall success in life. A large vocabulary can help you communicate clearly and effectively, perform outstandingly in job interviews, flourish in job, get admission in academic programs, write better research papers; the positive impacts are endless. Coming to the context of higher studies, vocabulary is the most crucial measurement criteria. All the aspired countries for higher education, specially the North America, have developed ‘standardized tests’ and ‘language proficiency tests’ to judge examinee’s overall standard of English. Such exams are GRE, SAT, GMAT, TOEFL and IELTS, all putting significant amount of pressure on ‘vocabulary’, particularly the first mentioned two. Depressingly enough, for an aspirant with a dream for higher studies, merely having uncorrelated materials in hand, the effort of memorizing roughly 4000 new words becomes futile, since most of the available vocabulary building books are arranged in alphabetical order; being more or less like a dictionary, alphabetical arrangement makes the learning tedious, dull and hard to digest, causing it virtually impossible to retain. These factors frustrate the aspirant and unfortunately many of them quit in the middle. While preparing for our admission abroad, we passed through similar stage and felt the deficit of a properly organized book. Searching two years for the best way to learn new words, we went through all the related books available in market and read bundles of research materials. The most effective way we found, is to memorize in correlated word groups. Keeping that in mind, our attempt was to create something where all the words would be linked, and sorted according to their similarity rather than alphabetical preference. The result is the Word Map. The whole book looks like a huge map or network of words, where every word is connected, either by its synonym and antonym, or by its etymology and derivatives, making it easier to access and remember. This style specifically assists the candidates to group words in a patterned way, which is more analogous to the verbal questions of ‘standardized tests’, instead of typical vocabulary building. Uniquely and for the first time, words are put in mathematical expressions, where the user can comprehend the relations between the words just by having a look at the equations. Other distinctive features are the use of famous literary works and quotations as sentences, and translation of words in Bengali along with their English meanings, making this book an unparalleled masterpiece of its kind. We believe our efforts to make this book will keep you intrigued and absorbed till end. It is our humble call for your lenient disposition towards our unintentional errors and mistakes. All kinds of suggestions and criticisms will be greatly appreciated. We hope this book gives you a unique experience. Authors Feb 2010 We are glad to release the supporting video classes for this book. The book is protected with creative commons, that means the book and videos can be distributed as long as the authors are accredited and as long as it is non used to make profit. We would love to hear from you about the proofreading of the book, or if there is any scope of enhancement. We surely plan to launch a second and third release. We wish to continue doing what we do. But we need you to stay by our side. A little push from your side might have great positive influence on us. Authors Oct 2012   Distinctive Features of the Book 1. All words are grouped. Each and every word of this book falls under a category, whether it is a War-related word, or a type of Phobia. This classificational approach makes it easy to memorize and retain words, recollect it when it is needed, to use it in particular context using special terminologies. The word learning simply becomes quick, easy and fun. 2. Synonyms, antonyms, etymology and derivatives are used to relate the words, making them easy to master. Moreover, these relations help you learn more words at less time with less effort, and observe the same words from different perspectives. This technique is proven to be highly effective in boosting the GRE/SAT verbal scores, as it has practical and direct impact in improving the antonym, analogy and reading comprehension skills. 3. Words are put in mathematical equations. This is the most unique feature of this book. With this method, even a beginner can understand the relations between the words just by having a look at the formulas. Once you are an expert, and you know the meanings of the words, you can revise them by only viewing the formulas and avoid paying attention to details. 4. The sentences we used here are taken from world-class literary works and famous quotations. This makes the journey more fascinating, and less prosaic. The overall effect being an upgraded mental attitude, these quotations and citations will always be useful to you in versatile stages. 5. Along with English meanings of the words, Bengali meanings are provided, making it more smooth to absorb and comfortable to comprehend. Organization of the Book The book is divided into three parts. Every part has its own distinctive style of story-telling and covers a particular range of subjects. Majority of the first part talks about human mind, body and its needs. The part starts with the chapter Joy accompanied by Sorrow, then Love and Hate, Anger and Fear, and finally Confusion, all of these being primary or basic emotions. The next few chapters describe complex emotions or feelings like Annoyance, Calmness and Pride followed by Boasting, which is an outcome of pride. After discussing about emotions, we start talking about senses or Perceptions, Facial Expressions, followed by Body Types and physical fitness, and finally gestures and Motions. The next two chapters are about human needs like Sex and Money, accompanied by War and destruction, Religions and doctrines. We end this part by discussing about Deception. Part 2 is about society, professions and fields of study. The sequence of progression is like: it starts with Social Classes, followed by Apparel and Behavior, then Professions along with working Tools and Instruments. The remaining chapters of the part discusses about diverse fields of study. Our discussion on scientific disciplines starts with life sciences (Biology and Medical Science), then Earth Science, Agricultural Science, and then Physics and Chemistry, all being parts of natural sciences; followed by Politics, Economics and Anthropology under social sciences. Then we talk about the humanistic disciplines as Jurisprudence, Fine Arts (architecture), Literature, Drama, Music, and conclude this part discussing few other similar topics. The third part is organized in a slightly different manner. It’s a collection of contrasting couples, meaning each chapter consists of a pair of words having opposite meanings, such as Energetic – Lethargic, Diligent – Negligent, Astute – Asinine, Accord- Discord , Approve – Reject and so on. However the last chapter, Appraise - Apprise, is not perfectly a contrasting pair, rather it has more properties of a diabolic duo, which we will define shortly. How to Use This Book Following are the definitions and symbols of the terms we used in this book, followed by an illustrated tour on how to use this book. In could be mentioned that we defined few new terms for our ease, which might have different usage in reality. Definitions and Symbols Synonym: Words having the same meanings are called synonyms. We used ‘=’ symbol between synonyms, like in ‘ebullient = exuberant’. Synonym variant: Words having almost the same meanings are synonym variants; it’s a little different from synonyms. We used ‘~’ symbol between synonym variants, like in ‘bland ~ soothing’. Antonym: Words having opposite meanings are called antonyms. We used ‘#’ symbol between antonyms, like in ‘opaque # transparent’ Secondary and tertiary meaning: Secondary and tertiary meanings are meanings of a word that we usually do not attribute to it. We used ‘{ }’ symbol for secondary meanings and ‘[ ]’ for tertiary meanings, like in ‘bolt {abscond} [gobble]’. Derivative: A word that is derived from another word is called a derivative, like different parts of speech or plural form of a word. We used ‘>’ symbol to show derivatives, like in ‘fecundate  >  fecundity’. Same word root: As English language mainly came from Latin and Greek, the English words bear many parts of those languages, which are called word roots. We used ‘^’ symbol to connect words of the same root, like in ‘virago^ virile’. Diabolic duo: Two words are diabolic duos if they are pronounced in the same or almost same way but differ in meaning, spelling or both. Basically, they can be any kind of pair which confuses the reader by pronunciation, spelling or the word roots, as indicated by the term ‘diabolic’ meaning ‘devilish’. We used ‘<>’ symbol between diabolic duos, like in ‘chaste <> caste’ or in ‘emollient <> emolument’ or ‘conciliatory <> ciliated’. Relative: Relatives are words under the same category. To explain, the words which don’t fall in the above mentioned categories, but are still somehow related, are relatives. We used ‘:’ symbol between relatives, like in ‘equipoise : steady’. Got Carried Away: Although the similar words are grouped together in this book, sometimes while discussing we slightly deviated from the main topic to keep the continuity of the flow. In those cases we used the symbol ‘Ä’ in the beginning of the lines to remind that, the particular lines do not directly fall under that section. Keywords: In the beginning of each section of the chapters, you will find few words written in italics. Those words are called keywords. By looking at the keywords you will have an overview of the sequence of progression and have an idea of the words discussed in that section. Legends: Synonym = Synonym variant ~ Antonym # Secondary meaning {} Tertiary meaning [] Derivative > Same word root ^ Diabolic duo <> Relative : Got carried away Ä Illustrated Tour Chapter name 1.19 Religion   designating the word group   Keywords to   religion, doctrine, episcopal, unconventional guide you   religion : doctrine^ doctrinaire • (doctrine)- a particular principle, position, or policy Bengali taught or advocated, as of a religion,   (মতবাদ); meaning This  doctrine  is   a   narrow   and   unintelligent   mode   of     stating   the   fact   in   Nature   that   what   a   man   sows   that   shall   he   reap.   —    Light On The Path and Through the Gates of Gold; • (doctrinaire)- a person who tries to apply some Sentences from doctrine or theory without sufficient regard for literary works   practical considerations; an impractical theorist, ( , , ); This   secularization   is,   I   believe,   the   ultimate   result   of   a  doctrinaire  attitude  to  faith; Ä creed = credo^ credence^ credulity : confide >   confidante > confidant <> confident • (creed)- any system, doctrine, or formula of religious belief, as of a denomination, ( Mathematical equations ); The   fundamental   relating words: ideas   of   this  creed  are   also   the   foundations   of   the   Christian  faith.  —    The Life of St. Paul; creed and credo are • (credo)- any creed or formula of belief, ( synonyms, credo, ; ); Some   people   live   by   credence and credulity that  credo,   and   some   would   rather   drink   the   hemlock   than  examined  their  opinions; have the same word • (credence)- belief as to the truth of something, root, credulity and ( ; ); Otherwise   our   people   confide is closely will   lose  credence,   and   the   goblins   will   gain   related, confide has the confidence  and  encroach.  —    Roc  and  a  Hard  Place; derivatives confidante • (credulity)- willingness to believe or trust too and confidant, and readily, esp. without proper or adequate evidence; confidant and confident gullibility, ( ); are diabolic duos His  credulity  is   shewn   by   the   belief   he   held,   that   the   name  of  a  place  called  Ainnit  in  Sky  was  the  same  as   the  Anaitidis  delubrum  in  Lydia.  —    Life  Of  Johnson; Sequential explanation of each word just below the equation     Mnemonics – Word Memorization Tricks “Mnemonics is like magic, it can be used to perform feats of memory that are extraordinary, and impossible to carry out using the natural memory alone.”- Wikipedia 'Mnemonics' is the process or technique of improving, assisting, or developing the memory. As a proficient user of mnemonic devices in daily life, the book’s first author shares his mnemonic tips and tricks to cram new words: ““While preparing for GRE, I accumulated some generic rules to remember a word. Every person has his own way of remembering things. Take your time to discover the subliminal tricks that best fits you. 1. Never memorize a new word by rote learning, means by reading the words again and again. Rather try to visualize the word in your mind. As example, the word 'copse' means 'a dense growth of bushes', now when you think the word ‘copse’, close your eyes and try to visualize it, bring the picture of the bushes you see in the gardens. Doesn’t copse also sound or feel like bushes? 2. Always try to relate the new unknown word with some other known word. Suppose the word ‘splice’ means ‘to join or tie’. Now the word ‘slice’ means ‘cut into pieces’. See the relation between the words ‘slice’ and ‘splice’. They sound very similar but means opposite. Another similar example is ‘extinct’ and ‘extant’. Try to find linkage between words in your own way. It might be frustrating it the beginning, but eventually you will find the link. There is always a link. Each person has their different and unique way of thinking. Find and use yours. You can relate with words from your mother-tongue language too. Does the word ‘copse’ remind you of any word? Think. 3. Try to amass the words together which forms a rhyme, like ‘equivocate, prevaricate, tergiversate’, all are synonyms meaning ‘be deliberately ambiguous’. This is very helpful, because if in case you forget the meaning of ‘tergiversate’, the power of rhyming will make the whole series pop out of your mind. This book lists many synonyms in rhyming pattern; highlight those words with a marker and read then like rhymes. 4. Discuss and use the words you learn. Unless you use them, you will anyways forget them sometime. And try to learn from your surroundings. Paying attention to words used around you is the best way to increase your vocabulary. And don’t be reluctant to pick up new words whenever you can. Your storage device doesn’t get full (It’s not like a computer hard disk). Rather the larger your vocabulary becomes, the easier it gets to connect a new word with words you already know, and thus remember its meaning. So your learning speed or pace should increase as your vocabulary grows and so should your memory. That’s why we gave many words which are not directly related with GRE/SAT wordlist. But eventually it helps. It’s tested. 5. A very interesting way to memorize a word is by learning the word’s root and etymology. Etymology is the study of the sources and development of words. In this technique you can learn several words at a time and find links among them. See ‘philanthropist’ and ‘philanderer’ have the same Greek root ‘phil-’, means ‘love for something’. While, the meanings are: ‘Philanthropist, someone who makes charitable donations for human welfare', and 'Philanderer, a man who likes many women and has short sexual relationships with them’. An extensive list of Phobia is provided in Chapter 1.6 (Fear). Those words are barely used in practical communication (and so are unneeded to memorize), but with those you will get acquainted with many word roots. As you become more mature and advance in vocabulary, you will gain the ability to detect words with the same roots and correlate between them. 6. Try using all of your senses to learn words. You can try learning words through pictures. Specially, learning proper nouns by this method is pretty effective. You can start listening to audio recording of words too. Try recording the words while reading with synonyms and listen to it later in leisure time. 7. Use the dictionary software called ‘Word Web’. Go to www.wordweb.info/free to download it free. Some more helpful sites are: For mnemonics: www.mnemonicdictionary.com For etymology, meaning and pictures: www.thefreedictionary.com, www.etymonline.com For audio wordlist: www.audio-wordlists.blogspot.com 8. Finally, practice and perseverance is the one and only way to succeed. Unless you practice, nothing is going to change. Because, practice shows us where we are committing mistakes and what are the notches that needs to be filled. I am saying it verbatim, "There is no other way than practice and revise". Remember, the goal of expanding your vocabulary is to lift you slightly above the crowd without losing the audience in words unfamiliar to them. You should be able to understand and use the words and terms encountered in your daily life, as well as prepare yourself by learning the vocabulary needed to bring you closer to your goals.”” ‘People judge you by the words you use, and knowing more words gives your mind more ways to think about things and more tools to plan and solve problems. Having a better vocabulary literally improves your ability to think Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ _______________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.1 Joy rejoice, joyous, frolic exult <> exalt • (exult)- to show or feel a lively or triumphant joy; rejoice exceedingly; be highly elated or jubilant, (a  n , ul o ); Then I rejoiced and exulted, and was so arrayed in assurance of the time to come that I seemed to possess and taste it. — Letters of Catherine Benincasa; • (exalt)- to raise in rank, honor, power, character, quality, etc.; elevate,( n o ); The poet is impressed, moved, thrilled and exalted, and pours out his song from his feelings and transfused with emotion. — George Eliot; A Critical Study of Her Life, Writings and Philosophy; • to praise; extol, (uc p ); To exalt, to heal, to quicken, to inspire; — The Poems of Emma Lazarus, Volume 1; rejoice {wallow = welter} • (rejoice)- to be glad; take delight, ( n/ h / ph ); to rejoice in another's happiness; • (wallow)- to roll about or lie in water, snow, mud, dust, or the like, as for refreshment, (  ,   i"     #$ #$ o ,  %jя ' ); Carolyn Reiff, who has long been a muse of courage in my life teaching me to work instead of wallow. — Grace Slick The Biography; • (welter)- to roll, toss, or heave, as waves or the sea, (#$ #$ ( o ); • to lie bathed in or be drenched in something, esp. blood, ( k, *  ,   i"    o+ ); His gigantic frame weltered in blood. — The Last Trail; • . a confused mass; a jumble or muddle, (,(- , / я"); jubilate > jubilant = gleeful = elated • (jubilate)- to show or feel great joy; rejoice; exult; Leaving the now free and happy town to jubilate in its deliverance from the enemy, Joan of Arc went by Blois and Tours to Chinon. — Joan of Arc; • (jubilation)- rejoicing, (,я n); He was received in London with jubilation, and was richly pensioned for his heroic adventures. — The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte Vol. III. (of IV.); • (jubilant)- showing great joy, satisfaction, or triumph; rejoicing; exultant, (,я n u123 l); The mood amongst my captors suddenly turned jubilant, and one of them rushed into the hold and put his gun against my head. — Tales from the Reading Room; • (gleeful)- full of exultant joy; merry; delighted, (ul); We glided over the water, on the flat, amid the joyful acclamations and gleeful laughter of my fair companions. — The Bark Covered House; • (elated)- very happy or proud; jubilant; in high spirits, (a 3p 4); He was highly elated, and pronounced everything a perfect success. — Mark Twain, a Biography — Volume III, Part 1: 1900-1907; triumph = exult = exuberate = rejoice = jubilate • (triumph)- the act, fact, or condition of being victorious or triumphant; victory; conquest, (,я;  2-"; я l ; ,я aя6 ; u  78 ); Behind his triumph was a hint of the vast resources and the slowmoving but unassailable force his uniform represented. — Greener Than You Think; • (exuberate)- to be exuberant; super abound; overflow, joyful enthusiasm, flamboyance, lavishness, (%d -: . o p ;3< 6 46 8 o ); His protest, though exuberated, against leniency in dealing with atrocities, emphatically requisite in an age apt to ignore the rigour of justice, has been so far salutary, and may be more so. — Thomas Carlyle; joyous > killjoy = spoilsport = party pooper • (joyous)- joyful; happy; jubilant, (=6 12l 3 ;  n); He knows that if men remain virtuous and thrifty, if these homes around him continue peaceful and joyous, his craft can not prosper. — Fifteen Years in Hell; • (killjoy)- a person who spoils the joy or pleasure of others; spoilsport; When I was young I remember my mother referring to anyone who was a bit of a misery as an ' old killjoy'; • (spoilsport)- a person whose selfish or unsportsmanlike attitudes or actions spoil the pleasure of others, as in a game or social gathering, (< ,"k a "  n-u7 # , ?  ?); The Ai gineers, sobered by the miscalculation in their practical joke, gazed at him as though he were some kind of Machiavellian spoilsport. — An Autobiography; • (party pooper)- someone who spoils the pleasure of others; jocund = jolly = jovial = joyous = gay = festive = merry = mirthful > mirth = hilarity : agog • (jocund)- cheerful; merry; gay; blithe; glad, (  ( 3 ; u12l3 ); The day was bright and jocund, and the morning dew still lay upon the grass. — The Adventures of Robin Hood; • (jolly)- in good spirits; gay; merry, (  ( 3 ; p2l 3 ;  @1 %  -; n 3 , ,-A); They are good natured and jolly, and rarely get angry. — The Goblins' Christmas; • (jovial)- endowed with or characterized by a hearty, joyous humor or a spirit of good-fellowship, (  ( 3 ;  n46 8 ; %3 ); She was the most good-natured, jovial, and generous of women. — The History of Pendennis; • (joyous)- joyful; happy; jubilant, (=6 12l 3 ;  n); He knows that if men remain virtuous and thrifty, if these homes around him continue peaceful and joyous, his craft can not prosper. — Fifteen Years in Hell; • (gay)- having or showing a merry, lively mood; • of, indicating, or supporting homosexual interests or issues; • (festive)- pertaining to or suitable for a feast or festival, (u1,%( 3 ;  nB ); Smoke trailed like a festive streamer from the cigarette my mother held between two fingers of her right hand. — Borrowed Finery, A Memoir; • (merry)- full of cheerfulness or gaiety; joyous in disposition or spirit, (ul; u12l 3 ;  ( 3 ;  n%); A merry little man; • (mirthful)- joyous; gay; jolly, ( n c-); His laughter lacked much of being mirthful, and something of being just. — The Clarion; • (hilarity)- boisterous gaiety or merriment, ( n c ); Amid shouts of hilarity, the dice were thrown. — The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 08: 1563-64; • (agog)- highly excited by eagerness, curiosity, anticipation, etc, (,"g; ," -3 ; utя); That specially personal question which had been asked he did not answer at all But the House was still all agog, as was the crowded gallery. — Can You Forgive Her?; bliss = cloud nine = seventh heaven • (bliss)- supreme happiness; utter joy or contentment; The sense of possession alone was a source of bliss, and this book I already knew and loved. — The Promised Land; • (cloud nine)- a state of perfect happiness; • (seventh heaven)- (esp. in Islam and the cabala) the highest heaven, where God and the most exalted angels dwell; • a state of intense happiness; bliss; frisk = frolic (> frolicsome) = rollick = romp = gambol = skylark = cavort = disport • (frisk)- to dance, leap, skip, or gambol; frolic, ((- c- $ ,$  - 2  ); How the squirrels run and chatter and frisk, and fly from branch to branch, with their bushy tails tossing in the warm wind! — Shadows of Shasta; • to search (a person) for concealed weapons, contraband goods, etc., by feeling the person's clothing, (-3  ast n   #    ,-  3 ); The city's data shows over 80 percent of the people stopped and frisked were black or Latino; • (frolic)- to gambol merrily; to play in a frisky, light-spirited manner; romp, (p 4,n o  n c-7 , (- ,$  , 26 3 ;  n- J 3 uc- o ); When the men got tired of work and wanted a frolic, they had a grand wolf-hunt. — The Beginner's American History; • (frolicsome)- merrily playful; full of fun, (% 3 ; Kp; k:$ ;@-; -:- ;@-); Their lively, frolicsome, sunshiny chatter keeps existence from growing mouldy and stale. — The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 18, No. 108, October, 1866; • (rollick)- to move or act in a carefree, frolicsome manner; behave in a free, hearty, gay, or jovial way, (/M; o  n); We shall run a great risk, with this play, if we rollick. — Complete Project Gutenberg John Galsworthy Works; • (romp)- to play or frolic in a lively or boisterous manner, (/M;  , NO NO 3 3  (- ?- 8 ); • to win easily, (scn , a   я , 2- o ); • (gambol)- to skip about, as in dancing or playing; frolic, (dr, -- -mSm; $,$; -:- ; -"); Round and round they gambol, tumbling each other over for all the world like young puppies. — A Cotswold Village; • (skylark)- to frolic; sport; He had no time for skylarking, the heat of the day meant nothing to him, and he was never sleepy. — The Crisis — Complete; • (cavort)- to behave in a high-spirited, festive manner; make merry, (utя B $ % - 2  ; $,$  - 2 - 2 ); In the brilliant light beyond, a group of brazen women began to cavort and sing. — The Mother; • (disport)- to divert or amuse (oneself), ((- ;  n - 7 ); Themselves were so accustomed to disport, — Orlando Furioso; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.2 Sorrow affliction, crestfallen, dolorous, melancholy, gloomy affliction > afflict • (affliction)- a state of pain, distress, or grief; misery, (; k ; d ; nt); Here I was brought into great affliction, and to pass through the severest trial that I ever experienced before or since. — The Power of Faith; • (afflict)- to distress with mental or bodily pain; trouble greatly or grievously, (     / k /  o ); He was greatly surprised to see me so much afflicted, and comforted me in the best manner he could, not thinking me so bad as I was. — Autobiography of Madame Guyon; anguish = torment {excruciate = torture} • (anguish)- excruciating or acute distress, suffering, or pain, (r  nt; "b $); It was with a suppressed anguish which is indescribable that he sat there, with his face covered, looking this approaching misery in the face. — Phoebe, Junior; • (torment)- to afflict with great bodily or mental suffering; pain, (r nt); The intolerable thirst with which the troops were tormented, even on this first march, was but ill allayed by brackish and unwholesome water. — The Memoirs of Napoleon; • (excruciate)- to inflict severe pain upon; torture, ("b    nt o ); The excruciated patient was having his wet bandages folded across his bruises, and could not bear a motion of the mind. — The Adventures of Harry Richmond — Volume 7; anguish^ angst = anxiety • (anguish)- excruciating or acute distress, suffering, or pain, (r  nt, "b $); In the excess of their anguish, they turned for comfort to their saintly friend, beseeching her to come to them without delay. — The Life of the Venerable Mother Mary of the Incarnation; • (angst)- a feeling of dread, anxiety, or anguish, (u'n ), u d); I know of no evidence that atheists have any general tendency towards unhappy, angst-ridden despond. — The God Delusion; woe : adversity = hardship ~ throes : tribulation : fell • (woe)- grievous distress, affliction, or trouble, (d$+; ;  ); The cause of his woe is a telegram, which he is regarding from all points of the compass, as if in hopes of making it send him better news; • (adversity)- adverse fortune or fate; a condition marked by misfortune, calamity, or distress, (d ,; d); After many storms of adversity, our author spent the evening of his days in ease and serenity. — The Lives of the Poets of Great Britain and Ireland; • (throes)- any violent convulsion or struggle,(  t . / nt); The serpent shrieked in its death throes, and its cries reached its fellows. — The Seventh Gate; • the pains of childbirth, (p / "b nt); • the agony of death; • (trubulation)- grievous trouble; severe trial or suffering, (d$+- / /); And tribulation, anguish, and despair, will seize on "every soul of man" who had neglected or despised them. — The Anti-Slavery Examiner, Part 4 of 4; • (fell)- fierce; cruel; dreadful; savage; The newspaper told of the tragic spread of the fell disease; crestfallen = dejected = downcast ~ disheartened : desperate = despondent ~ forlorn = bleak : pessimism • (crestfallen)- dejected; dispirited; discouraged, (23; " ); He looked crestfallen, his kindly and well-favoured countenance being overspread by an expression of disarmingly innocent penitence.--It weighed on me. — The History of Sir Richard Calmady A Romance; • having a drooping crest or head; • (dejected)- depressed in spirits; disheartened; low-spirited, (2 ; 23  ); He became thoughtful and dejected, and one day made known to Cipriani his deliberate intention to shoot the Governor the first time he came to Longwood — The Tragedy of St. Helena; • (downcast)- directed downward, as the eyes, ((4k8 m n) 9", a"); • dejected in spirit; depressed,((,k m n) ags; kn; d$+";  ",); This made both of them look exceeding downcast, and chew the bitter quid of disappointment. — Mary Anerley : a Yorkshire Tale; • (dishearten)- to depress the hope, courage, or spirits of; discourage, (" /; r' /); Heredity bugaboos dishearten, enervate, encourage excesses and neglect. — Civics and Health; • (desperate)- reckless or dangerous because of despair or urgency, (r "   e@    k g  an" 8 ; / ); The battle now became desperate, the Indians concentrating all their forces against the column going round the lake. — Reminiscences of a Pioneer; • having an urgent need, desire, etc.; desperate for attention; • extreme or excessive,desperado; (d/4/; ucBC.; @s; d)2) ; • (despondent)- feeling or showing profound hopelessness, dejection, discouragement, or gloom, (3; " ; -/); I was grown timid and despondent, and could not help fearing that some dreadful calamity awaited us there. — Agnes Grey; • (forlorn)- desolate or dreary; unhappy or miserable, as in feeling, condition, or appearance, ((,, ",) a+ 8 ; " ,; /E ); • lonely and sad; forsaken, ($ ; $ /; /",k; ad) ; Beautiful maiden lost on the range--forlorn, homesick, wretched, scared. — Prairie Flowers; • B ; k." (bleak)- bare, desolate, and often windswept, (я; a" B ; an/cn; ".  8""); It was a day in early November -- bleak, bitter, and gusty, with whirling snow; most persons were indoors. — The Boys' Life of Mark Twain; • cold and piercing; raw; • without hope or encouragement; depressing; dreary, (/n; 23; " ,я); Just as bleak are the projections for consumption tax revenue for 2009, which is estimated to drop 11 percent; • (pessimism)- the tendency to see, anticipate, or emphasize only bad or undesirable outcomes, results, conditions, problems, etc., (/ ,,я ); d$+); To counteract the tendency toward pessimism, his resource was to develop his sense of humor, to create an atmosphere of gayety, by which he was enabled to meet people on a common plane. — Beethoven A Character Study; devastate = desolate > desolation • (desolate)- barren or laid waste; devastated, (uc3); The plunderers desolated the countryside, burning firms and carrying off the harvest; • deprived or destitute of inhabitants; deserted; uninhabited, (я , K ; $L; 2,я 8 "); The widow never returned to the desolated homestead. — The Reign of Andrew Jackson; • solitary; lonely, (n); a desolate place; • dreary; dismal; gloomy, (/n, 2"); desolate prospects; • (desolation)- the state of being desolated, (u'); • devastation; ruin, (M@); a drought that brought desolation to the region; • dreariness; barrenness, (я ," K ); • deprivation of companionship; loneliness, (uc3"; 2,/8 ); • sorrow; grief; woe; a sense of utter desolation following the death of his parents; dysphoria # euphoria^ eugenics • (dysphoria)- a state of dissatisfaction, anxiety, restlessness, or fidgeting; The most commonly reported characteristics of a hangover include headache, nausea, sensitivity to light and noise, lethargy, dysphoria, and thirst; • (euphoria)- a feeling of happiness, confidence, or well-being sometimes exaggerated in pathological states as mania, (L. o 9nя as; //); It is a kind of euphoria, a joy of war, lust for revenge, drunkenness on power and burial of the Jewish command "Do not be joyful when your enemy falls"; • (eugenics)- the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating); hapless = wretched = woeful = woebegone = pathetic > pathos = poignancy > poignant • (hapless)- unlucky; luckless; unfortunate, ( ,; d ); He thought of Carlos originally as a hapless youth having a sort of natural right to rebel. — The Life and Works of Friedrich Schiller; • (wretched)- very unfortunate in condition or circumstances; miserable; pitiable, ( 4 ; " ,; d gs); When one is wretched, there is a pleasure in being entirely wretched. — The Hoosier Schoolmaster; • (woeful)- full of woe; wretched; unhappy, (d ,я;  4 ; d$+я); The fatal cry of sauve qui peut was heard everywhere: the French were now flying pellmell in the most woeful confusion. — The History of Napoleon Buonaparte; • (woebegone)- beset with woe; affected by woe, esp. in appearance, (/n; 2kn; d$+"); I shall never forget the melancholy, woebegone faces of my captain and brother officers on our re- assembling on board. — Sketches From My Life; • (pathetic)- causing or evoking pity, sympathetic sadness, sorrow, etc.; pitiful; pitiable, (r; a j ); His face was very like that of the young negro in Watteau's drawing--pathetic, wistful, north-bitten. — The Lost Girl; • (pathos)- the quality or power in an actual life experience or in literature, music, speech, or other forms of expression, of evoking a feeling of pity or compassion, (r /); Simplicity and a pervading, appealing pathos are the qualities transmitted to its lines by the poet." — My Reminiscences; • (poignancy)- quality of being deeply moving; keeness of emotion, ("k";  "); The tenderness shrills to such exquisite poignancy that it becomes a universal cry, the soul's lament for traitorism: â The pity of it, Iago! — The Man Shakespeare; • (poignant)-don’t keep empty space, delete the words pathos <> bathos = anticlimax • (bathos)- displaying or characterized by bathos; (/4  k , r  /  h g 2 S  T' .U8 2 4 . 9); The last line is a delightful bathos, adding immensely to the completeness of the catastrophe. — Grain and Chaff from an English Manor; • (anticlimax)- an event, conclusion, statement, etc., that is far less important, powerful, or striking than expected, (' grt K , gr"/, aS i",  X8 S  9s "); A sense of exasperated anticlimax set in as Mervyn disappeared from sight. — An Autobiography; • a descent in power, quality, dignity, etc.; a disappointing, weak, or inglorious conclusion; After serving as President, he may find life in retirement an anticlimax; • a noticeable or ludicrous descent from lofty ideas or expressions to banalities or commonplace remarks, ( K " ut /  L /t4K "); We were amused by the anticlimax of the company's motto: “For God, for country, and for Acme Gasworks”; bereavement > bereaved = bereft = lovelorn • B 8  (bereavement)- to deprive and make desolate, esp. by death, (", "jя"  ); Who is so fitted to sing praises to Christ as he who has learned Him in hours of bereavement, disappointment and despair? — The Life and Letters of Elizabeth Prentiss; • (bereaved)- (of a person) greatly saddened at being deprived by death of a loved one, (",/B 8 \ . cn); She appeared bereaved, as if something had happened which she could not begin to understand. — A Funeral In Blue; • (bereft)- deprived of; lacking, (" K ;  "); And this morning she was feeling bereft, a great emptiness somewhere deep inside her. — Mary Balogh - Unlikely Duchess; • (lovelorn)- being without love; forsaken by one's lover, (p-"/); Then he behaved just like a lovelorn beau, when his best girl comes near. — Welsh Fairy Tales; dolorous = lachrymose = lugubrious ~ plaintive = mournful = doleful^ doldrums • (dolorous)- full of, expressing, or causing pain or sorrow; grievous; mournful, (d$+ K ; 2 ); The refrain of “Here lie the Remains” haunted me like a dolorous song. — The Three Brontes; • (lachrymose)- suggestive of or tending to cause tears; mournful, (ar K ; kn .; X4^d ); Many men in their cups become lachrymose, others silly, and some combative. — Red Rooney The Last of the Crew; • (lugubrious)- mournful, dismal, or gloomy, esp. in an affected, exaggerated, or unrelieved manner, (23;  "); Brooker's face was lugubrious, like a Methodist preacher who revelled in hell-fire predictions. — Sharpe's Enemy; • (plaintive)- expressing sorrow or melancholy; mournful, (.4 K ;  K ; .); All their songs are plaintive, and contain modulations of the voice so mysteriously charming in effect, and so good in tone, that they really affect one profoundly. — In the Forbidden Land; • (mournful)- feeling or expressing sorrow or grief; sorrowful; sad, ( ";  np); One by one, the quiet essays and mournful-seeming stories came forth, like drops from a slow-distilling spring. — A Study Of Hawthorne; • (doleful)- sorrowful; mournful; melancholy, ( ;   K ); The place is doleful, and a funeral scene on the only sunless day I experienced in Ladak was indescribably dismal. — Among the Tibetans; • (doldrums)- a dull, listless, depressed mood; low spirits, (/ ; 2n"; "'/" as); If a banquet would lift him from the doldrums, they would throw the most lavish banquet that had ever been seen in Silvanesti. — Dragons Of A Lost Star; • a belt of calms and light baffling winds north of the equator between the northern and southern trade winds in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, (/k n . +  . ". яя K s/   "); melancholy : jeremiad : ululate = wail • (melancholy)- a gloomy state of mind, esp. when habitual or prolonged; depression, (2; " ; 2 K 4n /); The reason for her melancholy was evident to any one who knew her father's history. — Autobiography of Andrew Dickson White, V1; • (jeremiad)- a prolonged lamentation or mournful complaint, (U, r  ;  e@ d  ,/ ); The intensity of the eyes and the defiant tone bewildered the doctor, who found his well- constructed jeremiad without a platform. — The Ragged Edge; • (ululate)- to howl, as a dog or a wolf; hoot, as an owl; • to utter howling sounds, as in shrill, wordless lamentation; wail; Dolefully, he ululated a final, forlorn whistle of farewell. — Diuturnity's Dawn; • (wail)- to utter a prolonged, inarticulate, mournful cry, usually high-pitched or clear-sounding, as in grief or suffering, (., /  /); The last came out in a wail, and she clapped her hands over her mouth, only belatedly realizing that she had blurted out far more than she should have. — The Shadow Of The Lion; funereal <> funeral • (funereal)- mournful; gloomy; dismal, (a n,;  ; 2cn); The drapes, dark `red against the dark brown wooden walls, gave the room an almost funereal atmosphere. — The Shadow Of The Lion; • (funeral)- the ceremonies for a dead person prior to burial or cremation; obsequies, (a n,k ; '/); He was buried in the cemetery of Christ Church, Philadelphia, and his funeral was attended by more than 20,000 of his fellow-citizens. — Life and Times of Washington; • (mortician) – funeral director, ( 8 \/ ); The mortician prepared the corpse for burial; gloomy = sulky = drab = dreary = disconsolate = glum = sullen {dour} = saturnine = dark = morose = moody > moodiness • (gloomy)- dark or dim; deeply shaded, (an/; a ."); Your skies may be gloomy, and misty your mornings, — Life and Remains of John Clare; • causing gloom; dismal or depressing, )23; 23/(; His victories were never accompanied with one gloomy, relenting thought. — Memoirs of Aaron Burr; • (sulky)- marked by or given to sulking; sullen, ( + 8 ; aя; an$ "); • gloomy or dull; When he was not singing, he stood looking like a sulky child. — The Letters of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart; • (drab)- dull; cheerless; lacking in spirit, brightness, etc, (/; e U ; 4t,); I left the shop feeling dowdy and drab, and mildly apprehensive. — A Monstrous Regiment of Women - Laurie R. King - Russell-Holmes 02; • having the color drab,(p    b /@); • a low, sluttish woman, )i"/   я  .;  ,(; • (disconsolate)- sad, without consolation or solace; hopelessly unhappy; inconsolable, ) X8 / /    ";    / nt i(; There was, however, no help for the disconsolate landlord, and Telford left the Salopian to take possession of his new house at 24, Abingdon Street. — The Life of Thomas Telford; • (glum)- sullenly or silently gloomy; dejected, )/; 23(; "He was a charming mixture of glum and glee )ul(" --Lillian Hellman; • (sullen)- showing irritation or ill humor by a gloomy silence or reserve, (4 k)k 8 ; an$ ); Her expression was still fairly neutral-but her eyes held a sullen, if suppressed, fury. — Burning Water; • persistently and silently ill-humored; morose,)g; 23; "/" B (; So deep and sullen were the clouds that we were obliged to light the candles. — Last of the Great Scouts The Life Story of William F Cody; • (dour)- sullen; gloomy; severe; stern, ) T/; я; eg^ (; A portrait of Landa in the introduction showed a dour, disapproving man, lips tight, eyes downcast. — Alfred Hitchcock's Mystery Magazine; • (saturnine)- sluggish in temperament; gloomy; taciturn, )2; (; His entire physiognomy was interestingly saturnine--even cadaverously pale. — The Works of Edgar Allan Poe — Volume 5; • (morose)- gloomily or sullenly ill-humored, as a person or mood, ); +b+ b; b8 -s ; aя(; His most gloomy moods were rather abrupt and fitful than morose, and his usual bearing was calm, soft, and even tender. — Eugene Aram — Volume 01; • (moodiness)- given to gloomy, depressed, or sullen moods; ill-humored, )+ + .; + .; as/4t"(; He had that mix of moodiness, machismo and vulnerability that audiences have always looked for in their favourite "method" actors; dark : swarthy = dusky = brunette • B (swarthy)- (of skin color, complexion, etc.) dark, )g ; ,; ,(; His complexion was swarthy, and his skin shriveled and yellow even then. — The Story of Young Abraham Lincoln; • (dusky)- somewhat dark; having little light; dim; shadowy, )h2' B an/cn ;g ;i(; He towered beside the altar, dusky, naked, with a face like a carven image. — The Hour of the Dragon; • (brunette)- (of hair, eyes, skin, etc.) of a dark color or tone, ) ,L(; Her hair, brunette, darker than I remembered, had been stylishly cut and it gave her the appearance of looking much younger. — The Rules of Attraction; remorse, deplore pine, redemption self-reproach = self-reproof = compunction = remorse = reproach • (self-reproach)- blame or censure by one's own conscience; I feel humiliated before myself, because I seek in vain release from this grief of self-reproach. — Correspondence of Wagner and Liszt; • (self-reproof)- the act of reproving one's self; censure of one's conduct by one's own judgment; He assumed a tone of raillery, which is, perhaps, the readiest mode of escaping from the feelings of self-reproof. — Woodstock; or, the Cavalier; • (compunction)- a feeling of uneasiness or anxiety of the conscience caused by regret for doing wrong or causing pain; contrition; remorse, ( nt; rE" "); He was so much addicted to compunction, and inflamed with heavenly desires, that he could never say mass without tears. — The Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Principal Saints; • (remorse)- deep and painful regret for wrongdoing; compunction, ( / a 4 8 ; a" 8 ;   @ ); I have felt the same remorse, the same bludgeoning sense of guilt. — Highland Ballad; • (reproach)- to find fault with (a person, group, etc.); blame; censure, (n); Lyoff renounced his unrealized dreams with silent reproach, and Sergei with morbid misanthropy. — Reminiscences of Tolstoy; contrite = rueful = remorseful = repentant = penitent > impenitent : penance • (contrite)- filled with a sense of guilt and the desire for atonement; B penitent, ("  / я,  /   a"p 8 ; -)d/ "); He was contrite, and yet no tear was in his eye, no gentle word on his lips. — Sintram and His Companions; • (rueful)- causing sorrow or pity; pitiable; deplorable, (a" 8 K ; " 8 ); Darby's tone was so rueful, his expression one of such patient forbearance towards base treachery, that his aunt laughed outright. — Two Little Travellers A Story for Girls; • (remorse)- deep and painful regret for wrongdoing; compunction, ( / a 4 8 ; a" 8 ;   @ ); I have felt the same remorse, the same bludgeoning sense of guilt. — Highland Ballad; • (repentant)- repenting; penitent; experiencing repentance, (a"p 8 ); He declared himself thoroughly repentant--that this was his first, and would be his last crime--but who can trust the good resolutions of a gambler! — Life in Mexico; • (penitent)- feeling or expressing sorrow for sin or wrongdoing and disposed to atonement and amendment; repentant; contrite, (" B a/ )/ я, a"p 8  a"d 8 ); Austin was very penitent, and promised he'd never be unpunctual again if he lived to be a hundred. — Austin and His Friends; • (impenitent)- not feeling regret about one's sin or sins; obdurate, (a" , 8 K ; a 4 8 ); Indeed a hard heart is impenitent, and impenitence also makes the heart harder and harder. — Works of John Bunyan — Complete; • (penance)- a punishment undergone in token of penitence for sin, (" B  / я,  /" 8  sc-a 4 8 ; p jt); The most popular form of penance was the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, long and painful as it was. — Beacon Lights of History; lament {elegy} • (lament)- to feel or express sorrow or regret for, (  /, . /); The song's lyrics take the form of a first-person lament, as the singer describes his struggles to overcome loneliness and poverty in New York City; • (elegy)- a mournful, melancholy, or plaintive poem, esp. a funeral song or a lament for the dead, ( ^S); The prevailing tone of the composition rather is that of an elegy--the burial of fond hopes. — The Pianolist A Guide for Pianola Players; dirge {requiem = threnode = coronach} • (dirge)- a funeral song or tune, or one expressing mourning in commemoration of the dead, (a n,k /  o   L"); "Life is what we make it--an anthem or a dirge, a psalm of hope or a lamentation of despair."—A Princess in Calico; • (requiem)- any musical service, hymn, or dirge for the repose of the dead, B (",k/ 9t/ d"/ u d ,  " pS @"); It was a requiem, a dirge, a moan, a howl a wail, a lament, an abstract of everything that is sorrowful and hideous in sound. — Charles Dickens and Music; • the Mass celebrated for the repose of the souls of the dead; • (threnode/ threnody)- a poem, speech, or song of lamentation, esp. for the dead; dirge; funeral song; • (coronach)- (in Scotland and Ireland) a song or lamentation for the dead; dirge; The dismal coronach resound. — The Lady of the Lake; deplore = expiate = atone = rue = regret = repent = mourn = plaint = lament = bemoan = bewail = dirge • (deplore)- to regret deeply or strongly; lament, (X/ 8 я, s  + ,k /; a 4 8 /); I confess I have much to deplore, and much for which to be thankful. — Cleveland Past and Present Its Representative Men; • to disapprove of; censure, (n /); • (expiate)- to atone for; make amends or reparation for; I have many sins to expiate, and though I be deathless, life is all too short for the atonement. — Warlord of Mars; • (atone)- to make amends or reparation, as for an offense or a crime, or for an offender, ( )/ ; p"/ /; p jt /); Fasting allows us to atone, leads us toward change and humbles us before the Almighty; • (rue)- to feel sorrow over; repent of; regret bitterly, (a" 8 /; np o ); We had numerous chances over the game and we were left to rue the fact that we missed them; • (regret)- to feel sorrow or remorse for (an act, fault, disappointment, etc.), (a" 8 ; /"; 9 k; +; $s; a  8 ; d$+); The heart at such moments tries to be grateful without regret, and hopeful without indifference. — Father Payne; • (repent)- to feel sorry, self-reproachful, or contrite for past conduct; regret or be conscience-stricken about a past action, attitude, etc., (a 4 8 o / /; a"p 8 o ); If he has anything to repent, it is not to the world that he confesses. — John Knox and the Reformation; • (mourn)- to feel or express sorrow or grief over (misfortune, loss, or anything regretted); deplore, (  /;  np o ); To human reason the death of him we mourn was untimely. — Memorial Addresses on the Life and Character of William H F Lee; • (plaint)- a lament; lamentation, (.); Even in her inmost thoughts her plaint was this,--that he, her son, should be doomed to suffer so deeply for her sin! — Orley Farm; • a complaint, (.  a ); It begins with a plaint, that is full of cynic despair; thence it breaks suddenly into a cheerful andante. — Contemporary American Composers Being a Study of the Music of This Country; • (bemoan)- to express distress or grief over; lament, (  p /); The mother bemoaned the death of her beloved son; • to regard with regret or disapproval; What I bemoan is the growing prevalence of the brutal truth. — Alonzo Fitz and Other Stories; • (bewail)- to express deep sorrow for; lament, ((,)   j /; . / (p)"  "/ B я,)); The result was that he wandered, half- distracted, like Lear, bewailing the wound at his heart which a daughter's hand had given. — The Adventure of Living; • (dirge)- a funeral song or tune, or one expressing mourning in commemoration of the dead, (a n,k /  o   L"); "Life is what we make it--an anthem or a dirge, a psalm of hope or a lamentation of despair."—A Princess in Calico;  expiate <> expatiate = expound = exposit = explicate = elaborate = dilate {distend} = lucubrate • (expatiate)- to enlarge in discourse or writing; be copious in description or discussion, (s / .+  9 .4 /); It is unnecessary to expatiate on the effect of this downright refusal of the woman's proposals. — The Deerslayer; • (expound)- to explain; interpret, (,+, /; s/" /  , aS /s/ /); But it is a craven apology if we stoop to expound: we are seen as pleading our case before the public. — Lord Ormont and His Aminta — Volume 1; • (exposit)- to expound, as a theory, cause, or the like; However many of the views they exposit are rejected by mainstream science and have been repeatedly refuted. — Harry Clarke; • (explicate)- to make plain or clear; explain; interpret, (s / ,+, o  o2 /; p /); There is something of the snake eating its own tail here, since logical probability was supposed to explicate the confirmation of scientific theories. — Interpretations of Probability; • (dilate)- to make wider or larger; cause to expand, (p/"    /); Her eyes began slowly to dilate, and she shivered as though with cold. — The Malefactor; • (lucubrate)- to write in a scholarly fashion; produce scholarship; To lounge and lucubrate, to prate and peep; — Byron's Poetical Works, Volume 1; • to work, write, or study laboriously, esp. at night; languish <> languid • (languish)- to be or become weak or feeble; droop; fade, ( sя o ; an o ; я"gs o ; 9C" я  " ,S  -/  ); As long as global companies are afflicted by huge capital shortages, stock markets are likely to languish or grind downward, analysts say; • (languid)- lacking in vigor or vitality; slack or slow, ()/"mn;  sя); Her manner was extremely languid, as of a person suffering from nervous exhaustion—Miss Ludington's Sister; • lacking in spirit or interest; listless; indifferent,(я"gs; a); pine = yearn = yen = languish : longing = nostalgia • (pine)- languish, decline, long for, yearn, (  nt ) / ) /  o ,  X/ 8 я, 9. 8 p"k /); His wife, who had always been more devoted to her children than her husband, pined, and died also. — Paul Faber, Surgeon; • (yearn)- to have an earnest or strong desire; long, (9. 8 9q a  8 /; p" o   / я, ,. 8  oT); The fighting spirit in him yearned, and in a moment his victim was caught up in a crushing embrace. — The Man in the Twilight; • (yen)- a yearning for something or to do something; • (longing)- prolonged unfulfilled desire or need; • (nostalgia)- longing for something past; pine^ repine = grouse = complain <> complaint = yielding • (repine)- to be fretfully discontented; fret; complain, (/" /; a"p B o ); "Don't repine -- nerve yourself with resolution, and all will be well!"— An Outcast or, Virtue and Faith; • (grouse)- to grumble; complain, (/   a n 2 яя /; . /); My only grouse was the slightly under-portioned serving of beef compared to the rice; • any of numerous gallinaceous birds of the subfamily Tetraoninae, (  // + 2 /  .  r S ); • (complaint)- an expression of discontent, regret, pain, censure, resentment, or grief; lament; faultfinding, (. ; a ); Your complaint is against fate and humanity rather than against the poet Tennyson. — The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning; • (yield)- to give up or surrender, (9t /;  /)" / S  /" o ); Some of Roosevelt's critics construed his yielding, at the last moment, as evidence of his being ruled by Platt after all. — Theodore Roosevelt An Intimate Biography; • to give forth or produce by a natural process or in return for cultivation, B (p" /" " u' /  u'n o ); This crop ranges from 25 to 65 bushels per acre, and the difference in the yield is to be attributed to the manner of cultivation;  redemption = salvation > salvage = relieve • (redemption)- repayment of the principal amount of a debt or security at or before maturity (as when a corporation repurchases its own stock); • the act of purchasing back something previously sold; • (salvation)- the state of being saved or preserved from harm; • (salvage)- compensation given to those who voluntarily save a ship or its cargo, (agt, яяu 8 i", S  mt ud/ /); Their livelihood from salvage, as may be supposed, is very precarious. — The Lifeboat; • (relieve)- to ease or alleviate (pain, distress, anxiety, need, etc.), (ss o ; (, , djn i",) .U, 4, u   / /); He shrugged his shoulders in an attempt to relieve some of the growing soreness from the heavy pack. — The Order War;  restitution = redress = amends = damages = reparation = fix = compensation = indemnification > indemnity • (restitution)- reparation made by giving an equivalent or compensation for B . . /  X loss, damage, or injury caused; indemnification, (48/" \/" p); In cases where the victim did not want restitution, the guilty parties had no obligations imposed on them; • (redress)- compensation or satisfaction for a wrong or injury, ( 8. @ ) /; k"/ K / p"// k. /); He promptly laid before the Legislature a petition for redress, setting forth the facts of the case and the motives of his rival. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; • to adjust evenly again, as a balance, (/ 8 /, p"v /); The people have sore grievances, and they do not get the redress which is their due. — The Story of Louis Riel: the Rebel Chief; • (amends)- reparation or compensation for a loss, damage, or injury of any kind; recompense, (un" ) /; 8.  trb k 8 /; 9i ) B i",/ ps"   " @ )); The next night the fickle Romans made ample amends, for the opera was concluded amid the warmest applause, even from the friends of Paisiello. — The Great Italian and French Composers; • (reparation)- the making of amends for wrong or injury done, (k"/ K ; /я" tr/  X  d/ 8 k -k"/ я, " B +/"); Their repentance consisting in a visible and manifest reparation, they lose the colour of alleging it both to God and man. — The Essays of Montaigne — Complete; • (fix)- to repair; mend, (X ; /b /; T /); • (indemnification)- something that serves to indemnify; compensation, (k"/K ; +/"); The only means to get this indemnification is the restoration of Hungary to its independence by a new revolution—Select Speeches of Kossuth; • (indemnity)- protection or security against damage or loss, (m, k"  . / r d /t; k"/K ; +/"); As soon as the indemnity was paid--and it was an indemnity that could be paid in one lump sum--Prussia evacuated the occupied territory. — Peaceless Europe;  redress : remediable = reparable • (redress)- compensation or satisfaction for a wrong or injury, ( 8. @ ) /; k"/ K / p"// k. /); He promptly laid before the Legislature a petition for redress, setting forth the facts of the case and the motives of his rival. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; • to adjust evenly again, as a balance, (/ 8 /, p"v /); The people have sore grievances, and they do not get the redress which is their due. — The Story of Louis Riel: the Rebel Chief; • (remediable)- capable of being remedied, (p"/ ,; p"; @ ) ); If the esophageal stenosis is not readily and quickly remediable, gastrostomy should be done immediately— Bronchoscopy and Esophagoscopy A Manual of Peroral Endoscopy and Laryngeal Surgery; • (irremediable) - not admitting of remedy, cure, or repair, (ap"); Past mistakes are irremediable, and it behooves me to consider only the future. — Infelice;  amend ~ emend > emendation • (emends)- to edit or change (a text), ( 8. @ ) /); Lumsden himself never emends the text. — The Translations of Beowulf A Critical Bibliography; • to free from faults or errors; correct; • (emendation)- a correction or change, as of a text, (@ )); This emendation is ingenious enough to deserve to be true. — Notes to Shakespeare — Volume 01: Comedies;  compensation > compensate > compensatory • (compensate)- to counterbalance; offset; be equivalent to, (k"/ K /; +/" o ); • (compensatory)- serving to compensate, as for loss, lack, or injury, (k"/. K K ); Once the stipulated compensatory arrangements have been made, Luna shall be free and sovereign. — The Stars Are Also Fire;  fix : anchor : ensconce ~ embed • (anchor)- to fix or fasten; affix firmly, (L/ \.); The British began bombarding the small island from a fleet of warships anchored offshore; • (ensconce)- to settle securely or snugly, ((/, , 9/  s )  я  p"v" /); Sconce and ensconce are constantly used figuratively for _hide — Hamlet; • B (embed)- to surround tightly or firmly; envelop or enclose, (y   ^ S o ); These paths become fixed, embedded, and ingrained only when nerve currents pass over them time and time again. — Human Traits and their Social Significance; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.3 Love penchant, inclination predispose > predisposition = penchant = preference = predilection = orientation > orient # occident • (predispose)- to give an inclination or tendency to beforehand; make susceptible, (  i a  / a      ); Finding the genes that predispose people to lung cancer has been difficult; • (penchant)- a strong inclination, taste, or liking for something, (r; n;  ); He was both kind and cruel, thoughtful and hard-charging and known for his penchant for drinking and carousing; • (preference)- the act of preferring, ( a   ar); Such a preference was answered with a swift and permanent removal from civilized society. — One Shot by Lee Child; • a practical advantage given to one over others,(  k, # p%& p& a'& p &  a g)  ); • (predilection)- a tendency to think favorably of something in particular; partiality; preference, ( a  / k &;    ); History continued to be my strongest predilection, and most of all ancient history. — Autobiography; • (orientation)- an introduction, as to guide one in adjusting to new surroundings, employment, activity, or the like, ( s&,    , as i& # -.  &     & )o0 ); She said the orientation was a little overwhelming, but she also applauded Marshall for presenting the information in an organized manner; • (orient)- to adjust with relation to, or bring into due relation to surroundings, circumstances, facts, etc., (   , as i& #  pk&  я as  20  ); Almost nothing in our economy is capable of continuing much longer without severe re-orienting; • (occident)- the West; the countries of Europe and America, ( 3 & ); Occident was still asleep and Greece and Assyria were scarcely awakened. — Egypt (La Mort de Philae); declivity # proclivity = propensity = inclination = leaning = disposition = tendency > tendentious • (declivity)- a downward slope, as of ground (opposed to acclivity), (4 ; u6 i); The nation is gliding down a declivity, and no one possesses the means or the force to arrest it. — The French Revolution - Volume 1; • (proclivity)- natural or habitual inclination or tendency; propensity; predisposition, (p2& ); The gambling proclivity is doubtfully to be classed as a feature belonging exclusively to the predatory type of human nature. — Theory of the Leisure Class; • (propensity)- a natural inclination or tendency, (s   p2& ; un9& ; % ); The government sometimes participates in the national propensity, pt and adopts through passion what reason would reject. — America First Patriotic Readings; • (inclination)- the act of inclining or the state of being inclined; a bend or tilt; I, therefore, have no motive to consult but my own inclination, which is bent irresistibly on the tranquil enjoyment of my family, my farm, and my books. — Life and Times of Washington; • (leaning)- an inclination, a tendency, or a preference; To his mother was Michelangelo indebted for his leaning toward art. — Little Journeys to the Homes of Eminent Painters; • (disposition)- a habitual inclination; a tendency; There she ruled as mistress, for her disposition was a masterful one, and she was a notable housekeeper. — The Cornet of Horse A Tale of Marlborough's Wars; • (tendency)- marked by a strong implicit point of view; partisan; All news is tendentious, depending on its source, its interpretation, and the temper of the times. — An Autobiography; inclination # disinclination^ inclined^ incline • (disinclination)- the absence of inclination; reluctance; unwillingness, (a c ;  s%)& ); Probably the real ground of his disinclination was the fear that a residence at Valence might revive the painful emotions which time had somewhat withered. — The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte Vol. I. (of IV.); • (inclined)- deviating in direction from the horizontal or vertical; sloping; • having a physical tendency; leaning; • disposed; of a mind; And perhaps you will play to me as often as you feel inclined, and after dinner we can go to the theatre, or read, or do whatever you like. — Man and Maid; leaning > lean = heel = list : roster • (lean)- to incline or bend from a vertical position; • (heel)- tilt to one side; • (list)- lean; lean over, (я ) я  & )0 = o0 ); The flagpole should be absolutely vertical; instead, it lists to one side (secondary meaning); • a database containing an ordered array of items (names or topics); • (roster)- a list of names; prone {prostrate} • (prone)- having a natural inclination or tendency to something; disposed; liable, (-p2; un9; - ; -a' ); Turkey includes one of the more earthquake-prone areas of the world; • (prostrate)- to put or throw flat with the face down, as in submission or adoration; He remained prostrate, his heart no longer battered by doubts and swimming in blissful love for his crucified God. — Visionaries; • predetermine = bias • (predetermine)- to settle or decide in advance, (   3&/    '  &  ); Though the outcome may be predetermined, the path to get there isn't; • (bias)- a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation; love, tryst, betroth adore = love • (adore)- to regard with the utmost esteem, love, and respect; honor, (a& n n  ;      - o @d  ; k  ); There is a woman whom you adore, a unique woman, for in the whole universe there is not a second one like her. — Complete Original Short Stories of Guy De Maupassant; • tryst = rendezvous • (tryst)- an appointment to meet at a certain time and place, esp. one made somewhat secretly by lovers, (& pB-pB B -C&-s ; -C&-B0; a- ); He’d asked her to join him for a romantic tryst, and that had ended their budding romance. — The Seduction Of Sara; • (rendezvous)- an agreement between two or more persons to meet at a certain time and place, (eE -m& -B0  s - k 6 eG Hr - k & s ; -C&-s ); Traditionally, a rendezvous was a gathering of mountain men to exchange needed supplies;  alimony {maintenance} • (alimony)- an allowance paid to a person by that person's spouse or former spouse for maintenance, granted by a court upon a legal separation or a divorce or while action is pending, (   # &B  p k st  #0 9  ); A secret marriage, a sensational divorce, and alimony--Mollie asks nothing more of Fate! — Poor, Dear Margaret Kirby; • (maintenance)- The act of maintaining or the state of being maintained; They paid little more than half the expenses of their maintenance, and the day-scholars paid threepence per week. — Lady Byron Vindicated;  connubial = conjugal : nubile : nuptial : marital^ extramarital^ premarital • (connubial)- of marriage or wedlock; matrimonial; conjugal, ( )-m&); I believe he is pushing some connubial complaint against me at the Court. — Vittoria — Complete; • (conjugal)- of, pertaining to, or characteristic of marriage, ( )-m&; # m& ); Mandarin Ducks form a strong attachment to their partners, hence, they are also an emblem of conjugal fidelity; • (nubile)- (of a young woman) suitable for marriage, esp. in regard to age or physical development; marriageable, ((B0# -mn)  )= ; (=N ) O# B0 B2 0 ); Newly separated Ginny Tait arrived in Honeycote at around the same time - with very nubile twin daughters and an awful lot of baggage; • (nuptial)- of or relating to marriage or the wedding ceremony, (0 -Gk n); A fortnight later, on June 27, Luther celebrated his wedding in grander style, by a nuptial feast, in order to gather his distant friends around him. — Life of Martin Luther; • (marital)- pertaining to marriage, ( )-Gk n); I had seen all kinds of marital relationships in my therapy practice, but nothing like this. — Pop Goes The Weasel; • (extramarital)- being in violation of marriage vows; adulterous, ( )n )&  ); Although Jacqueline may not have known the extent of Jack's extramarital affairs, she could not possibly have been blind to all of it. — Sinatra The Man Behind the Myth; • (premarital)- taking place or existing before marriage, ( )   ); The purpose of her visit to Bob's office that day was to scrutinise the draft of thepremarital agreement. — Buried Alive, The Biography of Janis Joplin;  espouse : splice : betroth = troth = affiance = engage = plight {quandary = predicament = dilemma} • (espouse)- to make one's own; adopt or embrace, as a cause, (-BQ #  (=B  B& # p&)); She was a faithful disciple of every cause she espoused, and scrupulously exact in obeying even its implied provisions. — The Grimké Sisters Sarah and Angelina Grimké; • (splice)- to join (two pieces of film, for example) at the ends, (я R #0 et  ); The only difficulty you will find in making this splice is in getting the strands to come together in such a way that two strands will not run under the same strand of the opposite rope. — Knots, Splices and Rope Work A Practical Treatise; • (betroth)- to arrange for the marriage of; affiance, ( ) я  #  ); Her betrothed was the younger son of a family friend, the Marquis de Beauharnais. — The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte Vol. I. (of IV.); • (troth)- faithfulness, fidelity, or loyalty, (Q #o0 ; & 0 p&r& #o0 ); But she had no power of going back; her troth was plighted, and nothing that any human being could say should shake her from it. — Doctor Thorne; • (affiance)- to bind in a pledge of marriage; betroth, ( #  ;  ) p&r&d )o0 ); He chose her in a love, whose affiance was sanctioned in heaven; and after three years 'absence in the Lake Country, he and Julia met again at his father's house. — Summerfield or, Life on a Farm; • (engage)- to pledge or promise, especially to marry; • (plight)- to pledge (one's troth) in engagement to marry; • a condition, state, or situation, esp. an unfavorable or unfortunate one, (gr& o V as ; d# ); Not one minute's sleep did we get during the whole night, and our plight was indeed an awful one, remote from our companions and wholly destitute of all human comfort. — Journeys Through Bookland, Vol. 8; • (quandary)- a state of perplexity or uncertainty, esp. as to what to do; dilemma, (d' ; G& BY&  ); The lawyer was in a quandary, and at length, in very despair, he consented to forego his dinner and give his annoyer the desired opinion. — The Knickerbocker; • (predicament)- an unpleasantly difficult, perplexing, or dangerous situation, (# ; d# ;  ); She expressed her sorrow for his predicament, her profound belief in his innocence, and her unhesitating conviction that he would be acquitted of the pending charge. — The Colonel's Dream; • (dilemma)- a situation requiring a choice between equally undesirable alternatives, (u0--CE); The way out of this dilemma is the incarnation of the divine Logos. — An Outline of the History of Christian Thought Since Kant;  matriarch^ patriarch : misogamy^ misogynist : polygamist • (matriarch)- a woman who is the founder or dominant member of a community or group, (    t B) p' ); Reigning over all of this activity was the family matriarch, 98-year-old Betty Alley; • (patriarch)- a person regarded as the father or founder of an order, class, % etc., (&& nt &&      [ & ); Thus Abraham Lincoln writes of himself as a patriarch, and no doubt sincerely thought that he was, at a time when he had just reached forty. — George Washington; • (misogamy)- hatred of marriage; Extreme poverty, high mortality rates related to malnutrition and childbirth; and a culture of misogamy are still bleak features of everyday life in Afghanistan; • (misogynist)- hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women, ( d ); The common notion that Milton's own melancholy experience had made him a purblind misogynist is a complete mistake. — Milton; • (polygamist)- a person who practices or favors polygamy, (ht ); This English polygamist has been more successful in seeking solitude than in avoiding notoriety. — Letters of a Traveller Notes of Things Seen in Europe and America; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ \ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.4 Hate abhore, detestable, revengeful, abomination, curse abhor = abominate = loathe = execrate • (abhor)- to regard with extreme repugnance or aversion; detest utterly;  / a j ;  loathe; abominate, (    ); Does our society have the means to evolve or are we so greedy for wealth that we become that which we abhor; • (abominate)- to regard with intense aversion or loathing; abhor, (p  /   p  k   ); But what I loathe and abominate is the  dungheap hidden beneath Hedwige's draper papa's parlour floor When I came to this in my wrongful search through Paragot's papers, I felt greatly relieved — The Belovéd Vagabond; • (loathe)- to feel disgust or intense aversion for; abhor, (   , r a n ); I cannot listen in silence to an accusation which I loathe -- of a crime of which I am wholly innocent. "— Julian Home; • (loath) - unwilling; reluctant; disinclined; averse, (a"c$ ); Romeo and Julliet were both loath for him to go; • (execrate)- to detest utterly; abhor; abominate, (  ); They will execrate, revile, curse and oppress thee with acute tongues. — Tablets of Abdul-Baha Abbas; • to curse; imprecate evil upon; damn; denounce, (a% o'); He has been loathed, execrated, abhorred as a cannibal, a murderer, and a heartless fiend. — History of the Donner Party, a Tragedy of the Sierra; scorn = spurn = despise = disdain = pooh-pooh : contempt = despite • (scorn)- open or unqualified contempt; disdain, ("r a j; a)d;   ; c+,+); And this scorn is the most pitiful page in man's history. — Atlantis; •  (spurn)- to reject with disdain; scorn, (a j p+-+" ;  .- $ / ' "o'); If such a thing were required of me I would spurn the President's commission and retire to the bosom of my family. — General Scott; • (despise)- to regard with contempt, distaste, disgust, or disdain; scorn; loathe,(a j/  /  $ j"/ c,+ ); She is the daughter of the woman you despise, the daughter of one you call evil. — Viola Gwyn; •  ; (disdain)- to look upon or treat with contempt; despise; scorn,( a j ); It's quite clear we must treat the impudent creature's attempt with disdain, and redouble our courtesy towards Evgenie. — The Idiot; • (pooh-pooh)- to express disdain or contempt for; dismiss lightly; He won't be able to say a word against it, but he will pooh-pooh it to a dead certainty. — The Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley; • (contempt)- the feeling with which a person regards anything considered mean, vile, or worthless; disdain; scorn, (  ; a j); There is not in human nature a more odious disposition than a proneness to contempt, which is a mixture of pride and ill-nature. — Pearls of Thought; • (despite)- lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike; • in spite of; notwithstanding, (( $ ) 0tto); The taxi driver apparently could hear their every word despite the bulletproof partition between him and the rear seat; resent = begrudge^ grudge = grievance • (resentment)- the feeling of displeasure or indignation at some act, remark, person, etc., regarded as causing injury or insult, (a0nt3;  k; a." ); I suppose the cause of his resentment is your refusing him your daughter's hand — Works of Lucian of Samosata — Volume 03; • (begrudge)- to envy or resent the pleasure or good fortune of (someone), (  p  d '/ a0nt3 o'); • to be reluctant to give, grant, or allow; They begrudge the time they have to spend at the table. — The Iron Puddler; • (grudge)- to resent for having; begrudge; I have a kind of grudge against many of those truths that I was taught in my childhood, and I am not conscious that they have waked up a particle of faith in me. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; • (grievance)- a wrong considered as grounds for complaint, or something believed to cause distress, ((p    l) d7--d9%  ); The King of Spain has lately promised to redress sundry grievances complained of by English merchants; rancorous > rancor = resentment = bitterness = gall • (rancorous)- (rancor) bitter, long-lasting resentment; deep-seated ill will, (:9s': e = : k;   ; =0); Her antecedents were the rancorous, meddlesome Macedonian queens who routinely poisoned brothers and sent armies against sons. — Egyptology News; • (bitterness)- having a harsh, disagreeably acrid taste, like that of aspirin, quinine, wormwood, or aloes; After we have been filled at the source of all bitterness, our thirst will be quenched at the very Fountain of all sweetness. — The Story of a Soul; • (gall)- to vex or irritate greatly, (.":> o', a ."" ); The knowledge of his failure filled him with gall; •  to make sore by rubbing; chafe severely, ( , ,;  /, a"  s"); • impudence; effrontery, (3 ); abhorrent = abominable = detestable = execrable = loathsome = obnoxious = repellent = repugnant = odious = heinous = disgusting • (abhorrent)- disgusting, loathsome, or repellent; There is no indignity so abhorrent to their feelings! '' — Pride and Prejudice; • (abominate)- to regard with intense aversion or loathing; abhor, (p  /   p  k   ); But what I loathe and abominate is the  dungheap hidden beneath Hedwige's draper papa's parlour floor When I came to this in my wrongful search through Paragot's papers, I felt greatly relieved—The Belovéd Vagabond; • (detestable)- inspiring or deserving abhorrence or scorn; It was one of the most obnoxious, detestable, and odious measures ever proposed. — The Life of William Ewart Gladstone; • (execrable)- utterly detestable; abominable; abhorrent, (- $ - ; я"+); Their oppression had been execrable, and it had become absolutely unendurable. — Napoleon Bonaparte; • (loathsome)- causing feelings of loathing; disgusting; revolting; repulsivee; The boy felt the touch of the beast almost loathsome, and longed to escape from his situation on its neck. — Adventures in Many Lands; • (obnoxious)- highly objectionable or offensive; odious, ("= ; a+n At ); One of the most obnoxious men in the Bible is Nabal; • (repellent)- causing distaste or aversion; repulsive, ( :s;  k ; a" 9":'); Her manner was haughty and repellent, as though designed to rebuke impertinence. — At the Mercy of Tiberius; •  forcing or driving back,(>' o'; g  as:  я""); • (repugnant)- distasteful, objectionable, or offensive, (p , a":; a n;  s); No words can tell how distasteful and repugnant was the task she had undertaken. — Dora Thorne; •  ; F9); (odious)- deserving or causing hatred; hateful; detestable, (+ What rendered their doings reprehensible and positively odious were the means employed to hasten events. — The Delight Makers; • (heinous)- hateful; odious; abominable; totally reprehensible, (я+;  ; uH I; 9); But these men must know there is no sin so heinous which is not pardonable in itself, no crime so great but by God's mercy it may be forgiven — The Anatomy of Melancholy; • (disgusting)- causing disgust; offensive to the physical, moral, or aesthetic taste, (a%'  k ); The horrors are disgusting, as are those of every writer except Dante. — Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli; obnoxious {objectionable = exceptionable} • (objectionable)- arousing disapproval; offensive; But if the original creation of assignats were objectionable, the subsequent creations cannot but augment the evil. — A Residence in France During the Years 1792 1793 1794 and 1795; • (exceptionable)- liable to exception or objection; objectionable, (Atя" ); I wish my manner were less exceptionable, as I do that the advice through the blessing of the Almighty, might prove effectual. — Reminiscences of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey; vindictive = vengeful = revengeful > revenge = avenge = retaliate > retaliation = reprisal = retribution = vengeance = payback ~ requital > requite • (vindictive)- disposed or inclined to revenge; vengeful, (k.:"; k.%+ K ; p=0 '); The tendency had earned him a reputation as one of the darkest characters in New York politics-vindictive, arrogant, a bully with a nasty temper; • (vengeful)- desiring or seeking vengeance; vindictive, (p=0 '; p% .:); a vengeful attitude; • (revengeful)- to exact punishment or expiation for a wrong on behalf of, esp. in a resentful or vindictive spirit, (p% g ); He resolved to be revenged, and reported to Hull that the slave was rebellious. — The Witch of Salem or Credulity Run Mad; • (avenge)- to take vengeance or exact satisfaction for, (p%  % "o'; p  ; p ); The Law should not seek to avenge--that may be left to the savage codes, civil and religious, of the dark ages. — Regeneration; • to return like for like, esp. evil for evil, (d 9+  я  d 9+  .+. o'); to retaliate for an injury; • (retaliation)- the act of retaliating; return of like for like; reprisal, (l d 9+  ); While I did not commit any kind of retaliation, my demeanor was that of an abused child. — BlueOregon; • (reprisal)- (in warfare) retaliation against an enemy, for injuries received, by the infliction of equal or greater injuries, (p+);The Portuguese sullied their victory by acts of cruel reprisal, many of the prisoners in their hands being murdered. — Historical Tales - The Romance of Reality - Volume III; • (retribution)- requital according to merits or deserts, esp. for evil, (u %s); The only just retribution was the suffering of an endless death. — The Destiny of the Soul A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; • (vengeance)- infliction of injury, harm, humiliation, or the like, on a person by another who has been harmed by that person; violent revenge, (p%; p=0);My oath was fulfilledand my vengeance was accomplished, but as I went I reckoned up the cost. — Montezuma's Daughter; • (payback)- something done in retaliation; a really vicious payback for years of being snubbed; • (requital)- an act of requiting; returning in kind; • (requit)- to make repayment or return for (service, benefits, etc.), (% ; p" o'); • to make retaliation for (a wrong, injury, etc.); avenge,(p% g ); • (unrequited) - not returned or reciprocated; not avenged or retaliated, (p":"); There is no passion quite so strong as unrequited or unconsummated love. — Yon Ill Wind; culpable = blamable = censurable • (culpable)- deserving blame or censure; blameworthy, (:' a ); His manner all the evening was that of a man who has been consciously culpable, and is trying to atone for bad behaviour. — The Lovels of Arden; • (blamable)- deserving blame; censurable, ("n":'); Lord Bute is very blamable for embarking the King so deep in measures that may have so serious a termination. — Letters of Horace Walpole 01; • (censure)- strong or vehement expression of disapproval, (0.,";  s ; At); I hold in my hand the monitors' book, open at the page on which our censure was written. — St. Winifred's, or The World of School; despicable = reprehensible = deplorable = contemptible = scurvy = scummy = abject {low} • (despicable)- deserving to be despised; contemptible, (a j'; c $ ; "n":'); My tutor says that lying is despicable, and that a prince who will one day be a king should be too proud to tell a lie! — Old Fritz and the New Era; • (reprehensible)- deserving of reproof, rebuke, or censure; blameworthy, ( s F+); On the grounds of freedom of expression, I find such an attitude reprehensible in the extreme; • (deplorable)- causing or being a subject for grief or regret; lamentable,(%":'; ."sя" ); The state of the Department's security was truly deplorable; •  ; (contemptible)- deserving of or held in contempt; despicable, (+ a j'); His demeanor was contemptible, his questions prosecutorial, and body language was beyond hubris; • (scurvy)- contemptible; despicable; mean, (+  ; a.F9 ; "= ); The story of the eggs was known to all, and if ever men paid for a scurvy, mean trick it was the Van Bremers. — Reminiscences of a Pioneer; • a disease marked by swollen and bleeding gums, livid spots on the skin, prostration, etc., due to a diet lacking in vitamin C; • (scummy)- consisting of or having scum (/"; Oя,; Oя,; ; iI; я ."$ ; a Q" я"; (/",; /".'; Oя,; -oR)); He smelled of the scummy water in which he and his companions spent their off-duty hours. — The False Mirror; • (abject)- utterly hopeless, miserable, humiliating, or wretched, (a+n d9%gs; %":'); The poor, little beggar was so abject--too abject indeed for common decency, since he too, after all, was human. — The History of Sir Richard Calmady A Romance; • (low)- of the most contemptible kind; nefarious : infamous = notorious > notoriety • (nefarious)- extremely wicked or villainous; iniquitous, (a"3 ; "n d 0n., K ; .%; T); Can't even the Man of Steel stop this nefarious scheme?; • (infamous)- having an extremely bad reputation, ( -+ $  ; ; ,jя ; + я+); Charles Manson and Jeffrey Dahmer are two examples of infamous killers; • (notoriety)- the state, quality, or character of being notorious or widely known; I believe that nothing palls sooner than notoriety, and that nothing is more grateful to those who have suffered under it, than retirement. — A Residence in France; egregious = flagrant = glaring • (egregious)- extraordinary in some bad way; glaring; flagrant, ( -+ $ ; a0  (-  +k aV  -   $ ’ kt + h) So egregious was the squint that Miss Mackenzie could not keep herself from regarding it, even while Mr Stumfold was expounding. — Miss Mackenzie; • (flagrant)- shockingly noticeable or evident; obvious; glaring, conspicuously wicked, blatant; outrageous, (a , a : i+ 0mn p %+ e = s3 9;  ;  .; "r; яj,+."); The pianist was to blame, of course, in the public eye, and the whole affair was branded as a flagrant case of abduction. — The Love Affairs of Great Musicians; • (glaring)- shining with or reflecting a harshly bright or brilliant light, (-- O"); He was belted with dirks and pistols, and wore a watch with enormous length of chain, and most glaring ornaments, all probably the spoils of murder. — The First White Man of the West; • very conspicuous or obvious; flagrant, (sK,; яj,+."); What proved more glaring was the complete lack of defense in each case; aversion = antipathy = distaste = dislike = repugnance = revulsion = repulsion = abhorrence = odium = abomination = detestation = loathing = execration • (aversion)- a strong feeling of dislike, opposition, repugnance, or antipathy, ( r; a":; ap t  ;  ;  k); She regarded the overdressed girl with aversion, answered her mincingly-spoken "How do you do, Marjory?" — Hunter's Marjory A Story for Girls; • (antipathy)- a natural, basic, or habitual repugnance; aversion, ( s  d); At this time the antipathy was at its acme between the two races or populations. — The Memories of Fifty Years; • (distaste)- dislike; disinclination, (a n; ar;  ); He pronounced the word with distaste, as if it were an unfamiliar coin offered by a foreign merchant. — A Place Called Freedom; • (repugnance)- distasteful, objectionable, or offensive, (p , a":; a n;  s); Do as I do I tried to, but found it impossible, for my repugnance was immovable. — A Strange Manuscript Found in a Copper Cylinder; • (revulsion)- a strong feeling of repugnance, distaste, or dislike; Disbelief, revulsion, and rage swept through Kathleen, warring with each other until, unable to do anything, she thought she'd explode. — Critical Condition; • a sudden and violent change of feeling or response in sentiment, taste, etc, (." A s pk'); Mixed with his revulsion was also a tiny feeling of excitement. — Dangerous Lady; • (repulsion)- the feeling of being repelled, as by the thought or presence of something; distaste, repugnance, or aversion, (a n ." aV  ar); Perhaps, though he was scarce conscious of it, at the bottom of his repulsion was the certainty that the Christian girl could not fry fish. — Children of the Ghetto A Study of a Peculiar People; • (abhorrence)- a feeling of repugnance or loathing; Treason to party he regarded with a deep-seated abhorrence, as an act for which a man should be justly outlawed. — Mr. Crewe's Career — Volume 1; • (odium)- intense hatred or dislike, esp. toward a person or thing regarded as contemptible, despicable, or repugnant, ( +p     d); In his regiment he soon incurred odium, and a cloud of prejudice enveloped him. — The Romance of Isabel Lady Burton Volume II; • (abomination)- abhorrence; disgust; By all the gods, it was an abomination, an affront to the heavens themselves! — The Kinslayer Wars; • (detestation)- strong dislike or hatred; abhorrence; He was not ignorant of the detestation in which he was held, and it was with some misgivings that he sought the required protection. — The Life of Francis Marion; • (loathing)- great dislike; abhorrence; She turned to look at him with loathing, shocked into immobility as the door he had come through suddenly opened and a woman stood there. — Passionate Relationship; • (execration)- the act of cursing; With a frightful yell of mingled hatred and execration, the seething human mass bore down upon him! — We Two, a novel; aversion > averse = antipathetic = indisposed • (averse)- having a strong feeling of opposition, antipathy, repugnance, etc.; opposed, ( .- $ ;  _$-;   :); It's too risk-averse, and it is really not suited for the future that we're moving into. — Gregory Stock: To upgrade is human; • (antipathetic)- having or showing a strong aversion or repugnance; He arrives at his office, resumes life with his colleagues sympathetic and antipathetic, and then leaves the office for an expedition extending over several hours. — The Author's Craft; • (indisposed)- sick or ill, esp. slightly, (a0s $ ); to be indisposed with a cold; • disinclined or unwilling; averse, (a"c$ ;  _$-,  .- $ ); We found him indisposed, and resolved not to go abroad. — Life Of Johnson;  execration > execrate = imprecate = comminate = beshrew = bedamn = anathemize = maledict = accurse = curse : bane = nemesis = scourge • (imprecate)- to invoke or call down (evil or curses), as upon a person, (a0m; k ); And on all the men of Vaiau imprecate instant death; — Ballads; • (comminate)- curse or declare to be evil or anathema or threaten with divine punishment; • (beshrew)- to curse; invoke evil upon; In deed and truth beshrew the Beldam Life — The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam Jr.; • wish harm upon; invoke evil upon; • (anathemize)- to pronounce an anathema against; denounce; curse; One effect of the war has been to anathematize the name of Germany. — Paris War Days Diary of an American; • (maledict)- to put a curse on, (a% o'); When the son disclosed the object of his visit, he was treated as a madman and threatened with malediction. — Diderot and the Encyclopaedists; • (accurse)- curse or declare to be evil or anathema or threaten with divine punishment; Yet none but souls accursed were there, and fiends counterfeiting the likeness of departed saints. — Sketches and Studies; • (curse)- to use profanity; curse; swear, (a%); • to criticize or reprimand in harsh terms; First he cussed, then he calmed. — The Belted Seas; • ( +k) a cuss old man; • (bane)- a person or thing that ruins or spoils; Illustrious Italians, from Dante downwards, denounced the love of power and money of the Church as the bane of Italy. — Cavour; • (nemesis)- something that a person cannot conquer, achieve, etc., (FV a3  ; a"+' uFk $ %s; .9/,; "'); At last, towards dawn, he rose and, unable even to bring himself to speak to Justine, confronted his nemesis, the padded pole. — The White Ninja; • (scourge)- a whip or lash, esp. for the infliction of punishment or torture; The spectators blocked his way and he used his avern like a scourge, striking to right and left. — The Shadow of the Torturer; • a person or thing that applies or administers punishment or severe criticism; The Anti-Corruption Agency's redoubled efforts to clean up the scourge is also revealing its extent, in a double-edged sword for the administration;  cuss = cussword = curse word = swearword = swearing = expletive • (cuss)- to use profanity; curse; swear, (a%); • to criticize or reprimand in harsh terms; First he cussed, then he calmed. — The Belted Seas; • ( +k) a cuss old man; • (cussword)- curse word; He had hardly closed the door again before he turned toward Pucky, only to snort out a cussword. — Plasma Monster; • (swearword)- a word used in swearing or cursing; a profane or obscene word; The swearword he muttered as he rose and reached for her was fairly clear. — Forbidden Enchantment; • (expletive)- an interjectory word or expression, frequently profane; an exclamatory oath., (p  s'-p % uk); Her shocked expletive was lost in the cheer from the crowd. — Time Scout;  malediction # benediction = benison = blessing = boon : bestow = confer = endue : bequeath • (malediction)- a curse; imprecation, (a%); The word he muttered sounded like a malediction, but Arnold Chetwode went down the stone steps blithely. — The Lighted Way; • (benediction)- the advantage conferred by blessing; a mercy or benefit, (A%: 9); It came upon him that morning like a benediction, bringing perfect serenity, absolute trusting faith. — La faute de l'Abbe Mouret; • (benison)- a blessing; a benediction; The road mounted between groves of olive trees and the air was like a benison, soft and clean. — Spinsters in Jeopardy - Ngaio Marsh - Alleyn 17; • (boon)- something to be thankful for; blessing; benefit, (  a"g $ ; 0- $ , 0  $ o A%: 9); This boon is the sole possible reparation left you. — At the Mercy of Tiberius; • (bestow)- to present as a gift; give; confer, (p" ; A   (0m"V9)); The greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker. — United States Presidents' Inaugural Speeches; • to put to some use; apply: Time spent in study is time well bestowed; • (confer)- to bestow (an honor, for example); People are not generally aware of the advantages which agreeable manners confer, and the influence they exercise over society. — The Idler in France; • (endue)- to invest or endow with some gift, quality, or faculty, (pp o'); Aye, so endued was he with good conditions that there was none bad in him, but good only. — Aucassin and Nicolette translated from the Old French; • (bequeath)- to dispose of (personal property, esp. money) by last will, (ui, . / u  $ " ); In his will he does not bequeath or mention any books, manuscripts, copyrights, and so forth. — Shakespeare, Bacon, and the Great Unknown; • hand down; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.5 Anger rage, irascible rage = furor = fury = frenzy = delirium = hysteria = craze {madden} • (rage)- violent, explosive anger; His lack of empathy and his rage are a lethal combination; • (furor)- a general outburst of enthusiasm, excitement, controversy, or the like,(;  ; un  ); They had accused his sister, who saved her life only by fleeing to the wilderness and remaining in hiding until the insane furor was over. — Old Put The Patriot; • (fury)- unrestrained or violent anger, rage, passion, or the like, (p utя ; am;  ;  ; a  !  s #; kp ; k ' nt ); He anticipated a replay of his own sudden fury, at least. — The Day of the Dissonance; • a fierce and violent person, esp. a woman, (a( )# ; *(+  +); • (frenzy)- extreme mental agitation; wild excitement or derangement, (p , utя ; unt ; kp ); Many individuals have caught onto the ebook frenzy which is going on these days. — Find Free Articles - ArticlesBase; • (delirium)- a temporary state of mental confusion and fluctuating consciousness resulting from high fever, intoxication, shock, or other causes, (- (  ( ; t (,.; t /-; p, )); Eugene recognized no one, but his eyes followed Beulah continually; and when his delirium was at its height only her voice and clasp of his hand could in any degree soothe him — Beulah; • (hysteria)- an uncontrollable outburst of emotion or fear, often characterized by irrationality, laughter, weeping, etc, (s *1 (,.; -234  !); It seemed to me to be either a very aggravated form of hysteria, or, what appears more likely, some more serious mental affection. — The Life of George Borrow; • (craze)- to derange or impair the mind of; make insane, (k#s *+ u6 ; hя! 1 ); The aesthetic craze, with all its faults, was responsible for a great deal of true enthusiasm for anything beautiful. — The Story of My Life; • a minute crack or pattern of cracks in the glaze of a ceramic object; • (madden)- to anger or infuriate, () !, ( ; utя ( ;  k ( ); But for the gospel of Christ, to hear of such bereavements as yours would appall, would madden one. — The Life and Letters of Elizabeth Prentiss; rage <> raze > enrage • (raze)- to tear down; demolish; level to the ground, (m4#3 : ( ; ', 6 4 ( ); The warriors set off on horseback and proceed to raze the rustic village to the ground; • (enrage)- to make extremely angry; put into a rage; infuriate, ( !  ; k1d( ); John McCain has resumed his role as the Maverick of the GOP with a Fox News interview that is bound to enrage the wingnuts: — The Osterley Times; frenzy : maniacal = maniac = lunatic = demented = brainsick = crazy • (maniacal)- of or pertaining to mania or a maniac, (p , (gs; k. ) ); The negro was now roused into a condition of maniacal fury; he gnashed his teeth like a wild beast, and brandished his knife, while uttering fearful threats. — The Story of Ida Pfeiffer; • (maniac)- an insane person; I ran in every direction like a maniac, but wherever I might turn, cries, hisses, and shouts pursued me, and distracted my brain. — Memoirs of Robert-Houdin; • (lunatic)- suffering from lunacy; insane; The workmen regarded him as a lunatic, but were too good-natured to deny him the request. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; • (demented)- mentally ill; insane; No other friend had said anything of comfort to him that day of his love's interment, when he had been half- demented with pain and anger. — The Frozen Heart; • (brainsick)- of, relating to, or induced by a mental disorder; insane or mad; A brainsick fool who would make such an offer could perhaps be edged upward yet again. — Flight in Yiktor;  hysteria : paroxysm = convulsion = fit {tantrum = conniption} • (paroxysm)- any sudden, violent outburst; a fit of violent action or emotion, (( .>   p?) (s( k-#); If the patient survive the first paroxysm, his mind speedily begins to verge towards its natural equilibrium. — The White Slave; or, Memoirs of a Fugitive; • (convulsion)- an intense, paroxysmal, involuntary muscular contraction; But even for the countries in which the Revolution was a convulsion, it was the last convulsion--until that which shakes the world to-day. — A Short History of England; • (fit)- A sudden uncontrollable attack; • a sudden flurry of activity (often for no obvious reason); • (tantrum)- a violent demonstration of rage or frustration; a sudden burst of ill temper, ( -я я A ; k ' n a s ); He had never seen her throw a full-blown tantrum, and she didn't know how he would react. — Garwood, Julie - Killjoy; • (conniption)- Informal a fit of violent emotion, such as anger or panic; frenzied = frantic = frenetic = delirious = agitated = seethed : distraught = overwrought • (frenetic)- wildly excited or active; frantic; frenzied, (kp; unt; b); However, after spending 12 years playing in the less-frenetic German Bundesliga, were we expecting too much from the Ukrainian? — Soccer Blogs - latest posts; • (delirious)- marked by uncontrolled excitement or emotion; ecstatic; I next became delirious, and was in great danger of betraying myself and my friends. — Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl; • (agitated)- to move or force into violent, irregular action, (,  ;  kb 1 ; utя); He was agitated, and appeared like a man who had stolen goods about him. — A Residence in France; • (seethed)- to be in a state of agitation or excitement, ( kb 1 ; DE) ); In the palace about him seethed, all unknown to Gahan, a vast unrest — The Chessmen of Mars; • (distraught)- distracted; deeply agitated, ( kpt;  h,); The children took themselves away early, for their parents were silent, distraught, and strangely unentertaining. — The 30,000 Dollar Bequest and Other Stories; • mentally deranged; crazed, (k. ) ; un gs); • (overwrought)- extremely or excessively excited or agitated, hysterical, (a- t * utя); He was ill and overwrought, and small things became magnified out of all proportion to their actual importance. — The Life of George Borrow; frenetic <> fanatic = rabid • (fanatic)- a person marked or motivated by an extreme, unreasoning enthusiasm, as for a cause; Such an insanely jealous, swaggering, domineering, cruel fanatic is too loathsome to be interesting. — The Life and Works of Friedrich Schiller; • (rabid)- furious or raging; violently intense, (я, Hgs; un ; k1d; a'  ! kp6; ud1d); Danny Tanner, father of the "Full House" clan, is being pursued by rabid hellhounds as he rides an old two-speed bike in a frantic attempt to escape. — In a Free Land Issue #2 by Rageboy Publications; demoniac = possessed = berserk = amok = amuck • (demoniac)- possessed by or as by an evil spirit; raging; frantic, fiendish, ()J (; (-3  ; ( 1 ); Prince biting and striking like a demoniac, the Duke defending himself as well as he was able, without attempting his adversary's life — PG Edition of Netherlands series — Complete; • (possessed)- spurred or moved by a strong feeling, madness, or a supernatural power, (un , 4gs o* ; - ( M,/  O/ -  O/ ? a'( ( ); He was possessed, and so had the first secret of possessing others. — Diderot and the Encyclopaedists; • (berserk)- violently or destructively frenzied; wild; crazed; deranged, (*nt- 4 3   utя kp); Hakon's men had formed a shield- circle round their chief, and were defending him bravely; but the berserk was an uncommonly stout man, very brisk and active, and exceedingly furious, as well as dexterous with his weapons — Erling the Bold; • (amok/ amuck)- psychic disturbance characterized by depression followed by a manic urge to murder, (#-3 4 ' # ( 2 E 2E 1 ( o nt  ,p o* ); Amuck , more properly spelled amok , comes from the Malay word amok , meaning "a state of murderous frenzy." — The Word Detective;  demoniac <> demonic = diabolic = fiendish = satanic = hellish = infernal • (demonic)- befitting a demon; fiendish; It was totally red, suffused with blood, giving him a demonic appearance. — The Hawk Eternal; • (diabolic)- extremely evil or cruel; expressive of cruelty or befitting hell; It was probably supposed that a heretic would be unable to repeat the prayer and the creed, being under diabolic influence. — Joan of Arc; • (fiendish)- of, relating to, or suggestive of a fiend; diabolical; Antonia was devotion itself, until she was gradually driven to a jealousy that was almost fiendish, and led to a separation. — The Love Affairs of Great Musicians; • (satanic)- relating to or suggestive of Satan or evil; • (hellish)- of, resembling, or worthy of hell; fiendish; It's a hellish, romantic cliche that's undeniable. — Alfred Hitchcock's Mystery Magazine; • (infernal)- hellish; fiendish; diabolical, ( (;  (+*; )J (; (s); He has an instinct for the strange and the beautifully infernal, as they are related to decorative design. — The Art of the Moving Picture; wroth^ wrath = anger = ira = choler : umbrage : irate : indignation = outrage • (wroth)- angry; wrathful (usually used predicatively); And the king was wroth, and commanded that his head should be struck off. — The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela; • (wrath)- strong, stern, or fierce anger; deeply resentful indignation; ire, (+b k '; * (  ); But their wrath was as nothing beside the righteous indignation of him who stood, thong in hand, awaiting their coming—The Coming of the King; • (ira)- belligerence aroused by a real or supposed wrong; • (choler)- anger; irritability; Choleric he was, with the superficial and temporary choler of the schoolmaster. — The Three Brontes; • (umbrage)- offense; annoyance; displeasure, (a. * # >  m  p J3 a  kb 1 o* ); They and Lucas, their elder, however, took umbrage at his remarks; Lucas published a reply, whereupon Luther quietly left them to go their own way. — Life of Martin Luther; • (irate)- angry; enraged, (k1d; () 1 ); Out of the corner of my eye I saw Charlie emerge from behind the offset press—ink-stained and sweaty and irate, as I had expected. — process 11; • (indignation)- strong displeasure at something considered unjust, offensive, insulting, or base; righteous anger, (a  , a # i.  ( # k '; k ; ( );  ); Even John is startled by their indignation, and brought as near remorse as is possible for him: — The Man Shakespeare; • (outrage)- an act of extreme violence or viciousness; Many of the ringleaders in the outrage were apprehended during the week, and tried before the justices at quarter-sessions. — Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds; irascible = choleric = hotheaded = hot-tempered = short-tempered = quick- tempered • (irascible)- easily provoked to anger; very irritable, (( )s ; k 'O; s ; MEME); Turk was irascible, austere, and irritable, while the Persian was fond of and well understood a joke. — Complete Project Gutenberg Collection of Memoirs of Napoleon; • (choleric)- extremely irritable or easily angered; irascible, ( -я я+; MEME); Men of this choleric temper are always beloved, for good humour inevitably underlies the ebullitions of so light a rage. — Sir John French; • (hotheaded)- hot or fiery in spirit or temper; impetuous; rash; • (hot-tempered)- having a violent temper; Her father, a hot-tempered, dissipated man, unable to settle anywhere or to anything, naturally proved a domestic tyrant. — Mrs Shelley; • (short-tempered): easily or quickly moved to anger; irascible; I knew she was in despair over our shortage of food that day, and she was short- tempered. — Mao's last dancer; • (quick-tempered)- easily aroused to anger; tempestuous = ferment = unrest • (tempestuous)- characterized by or subject to tempests; Although the voyage was very long and tempestuous, the Holy Sacrifice was omitted only on thirteen days of exceptional storm. — The Life of the Venerable Mother Mary of the Incarnation; • tumultuous; turbulent,(VW kb 1 ; V  ; p utя); The night set in gusty and tempestuous, and the moon was all girt with ragged clouds — Danger! and Other Stories; • (ferment)- any of a group of living organisms, as yeasts, molds, and certain bacteria, that cause fermentation, (!X я pk* ); • agitation; unrest; excitement; commotion; tumult, ( - я(,  я( utя o n , a s ); All was ferment, all was excitement; in the most peaceful quarters the proclamations were torn down, and the ordinances defaced; • (unrest)- a state of agitation or turbulent change or development; @ annoyance (see page 56) Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.6 Fear 1.6.1 Fright fawn, coward, intimidate, specter, gruesome, sinister, auspicious cower = blench = flinch = squinch = wince = quail = recoil = shrink • (cower)- to crouch, as in fear or shame, (d,  , jя , n , я       ; g    ); Her body began to droop and cower, her breath to stifle her; it was impossible to bear it longer. — Treasure and Trouble Therewith A Tale of California; • (blench)- to shrink; flinch; quail, (   !" o  $% & o ); They made me blench with noise and stench, — The Village Wife's Lament; • (flinch)- to draw back or shrink, as from what is dangerous, difficult, or unpleasant, ($% & o ,   !"/  n"/ $ )/  m" o ); He did not flinch, and the staring eyes did not falter, but something drew the mother's attention. — Joyce of the North Woods; • (squinch)- draw back, as with fear or pain; She's no soft-heart to squinch at the sight of blood, and that sort of foolery. — Geoffrey Strong; • (wince)- to draw back or tense the body, as from pain or from a blow; start; flinch, (+, ", a$  .!" o ); What made her wince was the amount of circumstantial testimony falling into place so inexorably against him. — Crooked Trails and Straight; • (quail)- to lose heart or courage in difficulty or danger; shrink with fear, ( $ o ;  /$ $% & o ); He would not shoot, but he did not quail or cower before guns, for knives, or ropes. — Personal Recollections of Pardee Butler; • any of various Old World chicken-like birds of the genus Coturnix; • (recoil)- to draw back; start or shrink back, as in alarm, horror, or disgust, ($% + ;  / s / ,1 2 $%  ); I recoiled, wildly, frightened, trying to cover myself. — Kajira Of Gor. The cannon recoiled, the smoke blossomed, and the ball skipped across the waves a good hundred yards from the bobbing cask. — Sharpe's Trafalgar;  blench <> blanch = pale : pallid = wan : livid = ashen : mauve • (blanch)- to whiten by removing color; bleach, (   134   o ); That made the very bones of my body turn cold, and I saw cheeks about me blanch--for it meant fire and the stake!—Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc — Volume 2; • (pallid)- pale; faint or deficient in color; wan, (56 7;  ); Almost opposite was a face--pallid, with parted lips and fixed eyes--gazing at me. — Wilfrid Cumbermede; • (wan)- of an unnatural or sickly pallor; pallid; lacking color, (as  ,  , k n, !n"); It was more than pale,--it was wan--it was sickly. — Ernest Linwood or, The Inner Life of the Author; • (livid)- having a discolored, bluish appearance caused by a bruise, congestion of blood vessels, strangulation, etc., as the face, flesh, hands, or nails, (4 -<; 4 -= > ;  . kd); His face was livid, his lips were quivering; wherever the bullets rained down most murderously, thither he spurred his horse. — Napoleon and the Queen of Prussia; • (ashen)- extremely pale; drained of color; pallid, ($ A13; $ B); Randall's face turned ashen, and for the longest time he didn't say anything. — One Summer Evening; • (mauve)- a pale bluish purple, (uяj /g14 13); When we look into shop windows together she will refer to a yellow dress as mauve, a pink as white. — The Stretton Street Affair; fawn = grovel = cringe : bristle > bristling • (fawn)- to seek notice or favor by servile demeanor, (46" $13 > /" F    !  "   =6  ag   /!H  ); Cringing and fawning, the outlaw heard what he was required to do. — The Strange Adventures of Mr. Middleton; • a young deer; • a light yellowish-brown color; • (grovel)- to humble oneself or act in an abject manner, as in great fear or utter servility, (я /%   ; +t&3  4 +!1  ); It is more of a disgrace for a college graduate to grovel, to stoop to mean, low practises, than for a man who has not had a liberal education. — Pushing to the Front; • to lie or crawl with the face downward and the body prostrate, esp. in abject humility, fear, etc, ( "   gя A $ ;  k        ! ); • (cringe)- to shrink, bend, or crouch, esp. in fear or servility; cower, ( $% & o aK i  $ ); He is no slave to cringe, and crave — Poems of Sentiment; • to fawn, ( -   +!1  , e   /%   & o ); • (bristle)- rise up as in fear; • to stand or rise stiffly, like bristles,(7k, /%  /  "    o ); • to become rigid with anger or irritation,(/k =  ,1 2 p 7  ); The Polish director of this bristling, provocative documentary, Andrzej Fidyk, filmed a massive youth rally in North Korea in 1988. — The Madison Avenue Journal; • to be visibly roused or stirred; • (bristling)- to become rigid with anger or irritation, (я  P n"  e); And her manner now looked positively bristling as she surveyed Nicolette across the office. — Consultant Care; • one of the short, stiff, coarse hairs of certain animals, esp. hogs, used extensively in making brushes,(7k /%  / ; / ! / !  ); With his bristling grey hair, bulky nose, and lucid eyes, he had the look of an aging and shabby eagle. — The Greatest Survival Stories Ever Told; bootlick = genuflect = kowtow : obeisance = bow • (bootlick)- to seek the favor or goodwill of in a servile, degraded way; toady to; • (genuflect)- to bend the knee or touch one knee to the floor in reverence or worship, (7F" u$   я6 "я  o ); I am immensely impressed by your restraint, and genuflect at your wisdom. — Perfume Posse; • (kowtow)- to act in an obsequious manner; show servile deference, ((a"4" !474 4")  "  K % i p ); His attitude never became demanding or imperious, nor did he kowtow to government functionaries. — Flinx In Flux; • (obeisance)- a movement of the body expressing deep respect or deferential courtesy, as before a superior; a bow, curtsy, or other similar gesture, (a ); Hereward accepted the token with a profound obeisance, and a discomposure which his station rendered not unbecoming. — Waverley Novels — Volume 12; • (bow)- to bend or curve downward; stoop; When the circuit was completed he resumed his first position and the visitors approached him in succession, bowed, and retired. — Life and Times of Washington; fright : apprehension > apprehensive • (fright)- sudden intense fear, as of something immediately threatening; alarm; The pilgrims howled with fright, and during the voyage twenty-three died of privation, vermin, hunger and thirst. — The Life of Sir Richard Burton; • (apprehension)- anticipation of adversity or misfortune; suspicion or fear of future trouble or evil, (+7. ; F6R F uR n  a>"); She was not very swift of apprehension, although so promptly alive to anything tender, refined, and succulent. — Mary Anerley : a Yorkshire Tale; • (apprehensive)- uneasy or fearful about something that might happen, (udg; uR n"; 7."); His mottled face was apprehensive, and he moved with a sort of reluctant alacrity. — The Invisible Man; fearful {dire} = timorous = trepid > trepidation • (fearful)- causing or capable of causing fear; frightening; Half curious and half fearful, they knocked at the door of number three, which was instantly opened by a red-headed page-boy. — Beyond the City; • (dire)- causing or involving great fear or suffering; dreadful; terrible, ( ; 4F1); AP Newsbreak: Obama looks at climate engineering - The president's new science adviser said Wednesday that global warming is so dire, the Obama administration is discussing radical technologies to cool Earth's air. — Megite Technology News: What's Happening Right Now; • (timorous)- full of fear; fearful, (4r; b4"); He is a weak-souled creature, timorous, almost effeminate Linda Davis. — Theft A Play In Four Acts; • (trepid)- timid; timorous; The muscles of the spiritual athlete pant for such exertion; and without it, they would dwindle into trepid imbecility. — The Complete Prose Works of Martin Farquhar Tupper; • (trepidation)- tremulous fear, alarm, or agitation; perturbation, (! "  ; utя"   ); Her eyes were full of tears of trepidation, and he might have felt a sob heaving within her. — A Changed Man; and other tales; craven = coward = poltroon ~ pusillanimous = unmanly : puissant^ impuissance • (craven)- cowardly; contemptibly timid; pusillanimous, ( $rF  ; 4r); None of you must become mean, craven-hearted, untruthful, or dishonest, for if you do, you don't inherit it from me. — The Personal Life Of David Livingstone; • (poltroon)- a wretched coward; craven, (4r; $rF  ; k4); Nelson said he was a miscreant, a poltroon, and a liar. — Drake Nelson and Napoleon; • (pusillanimous)- cowardly, fainthearted, (4r; d3 !t); Either, like a pusillanimous coward, he turned tail, or there is some disgraceful entanglement which holds him back! — Witness to the Deed; • (unmanly)- lacking courage; cowardly; The Duc de Montmorency was meanwhile furious at the contempt incurred by the unmanly bearing of his son-in-law, M. de Conde. — The Life of Marie de Medici; • (puissant)- powerful; mighty; potent, (a"6n k" 7 4; p 7 4); We must keep his friendship for he will make a puissant ally; • (impuissance)- lacking strength; feeble; weak; This can cause muscle impuissance, wear, lowliness, hard-on problems and a reduction in the male libido. — Article Source; frighten = scare = daunt = overawe = cow ~ threaten = intimidate = bully = browbeat {hector = be bossy} : duress : compelling • (scare)- to become frightened; Matters now settled down, the scare was over and ranchers returned to their homes and began repairing damages. — Reminiscences of a Pioneer; • (daunt)- to overcome with fear; intimidate, (rR / nts  ); Even the prospect that he might have to fly, and the uncertainty whither his flight could be, did not daunt or deter him. — Life of Luther; • to control or subdue by inspiring awe; Napoleon now wanted a man of tried devotion, and of stern enough character to overawe the capital and the restless spirits in the army. — The Memoirs of Napoleon; • (cow)- to frighten with threats, violence, etc.; intimidate; overawe, (+".gs   ;  /  ); Half-cowed, lonely, cursing in silence the drudgery that faces us, we learn to live for ourselves alone. — The Return of Blue Pete; • (intimidate)- to make timid; fill with fear, (4" p73  ); The opposition tried to intimidate, they tried to buy out, and then tried to negotiate some other deals, but all in vain. — Hidden Treasures Or, Why Some Succeed While Others Fail; • (bully)- a person who is habitually cruel or overbearing, especially to smaller or weaker people; He was always a bully, and is now tried for cowardice. — Letters of Horace Walpole 01; • (browbeat)- to intimidate by overbearing looks or words; bully, (!R   r >    /  ; /!   <  ); He would frequently overawe and browbeat others, but he was never imperious in dealing with Lincoln. — The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln; • (hector)- to act in a blustering, domineering way; be a bully, ("я3 Pя3  ); No one was allowed to hector another, or to bring his own grievances too prominently forward, so as to disturb the harmony of the night. — Charles Lamb; • (duress)- compulsion by threat or force; coercion; constraint, (яs    / u /   % "  =6 1); He had taken her measure without her true consent; he had done it by duress, forcing the knowledge. — Split Infinity; • (compelling)- tending to compel; overpowering, ( u /   % "  =6     ); There were innumerable paintings in the Louvre that were much more beautiful, compelling, and inspiring; intimidate^ timidity > timid = shy = diffident > diffidence • (timid)- showing fear and lack of confidence, (4r; я ; !   ); I once thought of Robert Grant; but he proved timid, and indeed his saintly propensities would render him suspected. — A Publisher and His Friends; • (diffident)- lacking self-confidence, (+tp"6 4; 7 4); Pestalozzi was diffident, acknowledged freely his mistakes, and sometimes blamed himself for them bitterly; — Autobiography of Friedrich Froebel; ghost = specter = spook = wraith = phantom = apparition = phantasm : exorcise • (ghost)- a demon or spirit, ("; /p"; a$" ); • (specter)- a visible incorporeal spirit, esp. one of a terrifying nature; ghost; phantom; apparition, (>"; a$c ); Now that they were in the thick of it, what frightened him was the specter of defeat. — The Miko; • (spectral) – ghostly,(" ); The black walls of the different dwellings rose up dreary and solemn, with spectral-looking pipes dimly projecting from them. — Frank Oldfield Lost and Found; • (spook)- Informal a ghost; a specter; • (wraith)- an apparition of a living person that appears as a portent just 2  a6" +P  $ H before that person's death, (/  6k "6 2 "  % "3 > ); Legend said that three Muslim Kings had died in the dungeons beneath the Castle of the Virgin, died refusing to profess Christianity, and their ghosts were said to wander wraith-like in the Gateway of God. — Sharpe's Enemy; • (phantom)- something apparently seen, heard, or sensed, but having no physical reality; a ghost or an apparition, (a 4 "3 > ; % 74); One night there appeared to her in a dream a phantom, — Frederic Chopin as a Man and Musician; • (apparition)- a supernatural appearance of a person or thing, esp. a ghost; a 2 specter or phantom; wraith, (7F" >"p"  "6k +t  +3 ; a$c ; >"); So unfanatical was he that he even doubted at times whether the apparition was his father's spirit. — Cobwebs of Thought; • (phantasm)- a ghostly appearing figure; • (exorcise)- to seek to expel (an evil spirit) by adjuration or religious or solemn ceremonies, (nt    &6 (>"-/p"  ) 4> > "  ); The evil spirit had been exorcised, and that mother was given the victory day by day. — Divers Women; bugaboo = bugbear = bogeyman^ bogey • (bugaboo)- something that causes fear or worry; bugbear; bogy, (a 1   &K\ 1 %  i /& st   ,1 2   ; яя  ) ; He had proved himself a harmless bugaboo, and she would not be afraid of him, meet him where she might -- so she felt then. — The Brass Bound Box; • (bugbear)- a bugaboo, (яя  ; яя    ); He was the terror and bugbear, not only of Joe, his own boy, but of all the children on the place. — The White Slave or Memoirs of a Fugitive; • (bogeyman)- a terrifying specter; a hobgoblin; The Dominator is the bogeyman mothers conjure to frighten children. — The White Rose; • (bogey)- an evil or mischievous spirit; a hobgoblin, (>"; /p"; яя  ; 7 " ; l  );  goblin = hobgoblin • (goblin)- a grotesque elfin creature of folklore, thought to work mischief or evil, (a$" ;   >"); At the next stall a goblin was selling a spell to make things big. — The Magic Faraway Tree; • (hobgoblin)- an ugly, mischievous elf or goblin; The hobgoblin stepped back quickly, then lowered his face in submission. — The Gates of Thorbardin; macabre = gruesome = grim {dismal} = grisly = ghastly = ghoulish = morbid = lurid = disconsolate : incubus • (macabre)- gruesome and horrifying; ghastly; horrible, (  ; p 17  i_"$13 > ); The circumstances were macabre, the apparent weapon unlikely, but I accepted the weapon and rejoiced in the circumstances. — Death At The Bar - Ngaio Marsh - Alleyn 09: 1940; • (gruesome)- causing great horror; horribly repugnant; grisly, (4F  , 2 "` ,  ); It glistened in the firelight with a faintly metallic quality, looking like a gruesome mask. — Dragons of Autumn Twilight; • (grim)- stern and admitting of no appeasement or compromise, (  ;   ; 3); His big hands were splayed out on the table in front of him, and his face was grim -- not a shred of regret or admission or apology there. — The Legacy of Heorot; • of a sinister or ghastly character; repellent, (  , 3); • (dismal)- causing gloom or dejection; gloomy; dreary; cheerless; melancholy, (4, Fa,  n); The night came on dark and dismal, and a flood of bitter, wretched thoughts swept over me, crushing me to the earth. — Fifteen Years in Hell; • (grisly)- causing a shudder or feeling of horror; horrible; gruesome, ( ; 4R); Strange and grisly were his servants, called from the dark corners of the planet where grim survivals of forgotten ages yet lurked. — The Devil In Iron; • 2  - ; "6R (ghastly)- shockingly frightful or dreadful; horrible, ("6 2  ; a"6n 13 o as  ;   ;    я; a"6n ap4" ); His complexion looked ghastly, his limbs shook, and his features bore an expression of indescribable horror and anguish. — Stories of Mystery; • (ghoulish)- strangely diabolical or cruel; monstrous, (c$7 ! ; 4R); Browning was manly enough to laugh at all ghoulish cries of any kind whatsoever. — Life of Robert Browning; • (morbid)- gruesome; grisly; • suggesting an unhealthy mental state or attitude; unwholesomely gloomy, sensitive, extreme, etc., ((74   m )3 rg; $4"; 6 =gs); The term morbid obesity is used to describe people whose body mass index (BMI) -- a measure of weight in relation to height -- is 40 or higher; • (lurid)- gruesome; horrible; revolting, (/  d ;   ); • glaringly vivid or sensational; shocking, (PP; 4F113); Then the future looked like a lurid sunset of misery. — The Shoulders of Atlas A Novel; • (disconsolate)- sad, without consolation or solace; hopelessly unhappy; inconsolable, (/   %     /7  $4"; /& /7    nt /i); There was, however, no help for the disconsolate landlord, and Telford left the Salopian to take possession of his new house at 24, Abingdon Street. — The Life of Thomas Telford; • (incubus)- something that weighs upon or oppresses one like a nightmare, (dsp; dsp " /   % /& h1, +n $4k i"6 ); Finally he appeared to throw off the incubus, and, with a return of his ordinary decisiveness, exclaimed Enough. — The Second Deluge; • an imaginary demon or evil spirit supposed to descend upon sleeping persons, esp. one fabled to have sexual intercourse with women during their sleep; dismal <> dismay = appal = shock • (dismay)- the feeling of despair in the face of obstacles, (" 7  a>  "  +".); He held up his umbrella in mock dismay, and stumbled abruptly into a chair. — Richard Carvel; • (appal)- to fill or overcome with horror, consternation, or fear; dismay, (+"."  ; "` 2  ; 3 "  ); The timid girl stood appalled, as the horrible consequences of such an accusation arose before her. — The Lances of Lynwood; formidable = unnerving = redoubtable • (formidable)- causing fear, apprehension, or dread, (  ;  .; 4" ); His eyebrows were formidable, and his mouth smiled no welcome at Jill as she approached him. — Jill the Reckless; • (unnerve)- to deprive of courage, strength, determination, or confidence; upset, (+t&; d ng1 k" o  76 >  ; ! "/ a=4/ a6s"  ); It was unnerving, the way the two giants continued to stare down at him. — Garwood, Julie - The Bride; • (redoubtable)- that is to be feared; formidable, (d3 n; d=3F;3 я  ); He was redoubtable, not in virtue of his office, but because of his unwarrantable assumptions. — The Shadow Line; a confession; baleful = baneful = minatory = menacing = minacious = sinister = threatening = inauspicious = ominous @ omen (see page 463) • (baleful)- full of menacing or malign influences; pernicious, ($ $; a 6 1; aA;   ; s); Benign or baleful, it goes with his triumphs. — Hilda Wade, a Woman with Tenacity of Purpose; • (baneful)- destructive; pernicious, ($ $; aA); That man Clarke has some kind of baneful influence over her. — The Tyranny of the Dark; • (minatory)- menacing; threatening, (4"p;    ; h. ; h.2"); The harsh, minatory note of that voice sufficiently expressed the fact. — Captain Blood; • (menacing)- threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments, (4" ; $я ); This menacing, peremptory attitude in diplomacy served him well, till Bismarck crossed his path. — Lady John Russell; • (minacious)- menacing; threatening, (4"p); She had not heard a word of Colonel Grand's minacious overture. — The Rose in the Ring; • (sinister)- threatening or portending evil, harm, or trouble; ominous, (aA; a_ ! > ); Defaced and sinister, above her battlements, she looked at the house and made it terrible, moon-haunted. — The Three Sisters; • (threatening)- indicating or containing a threat or menace; The threatening alliance between Science and the Revolution is not really directed in favor of atheism nor against theology. J. R. Seeley, Nat. Religion, p. 41; • (inauspicious)- not auspicious; boding ill, (aA; a 6 1! > ; a > ); I was keenly disappointed at the change in the weather, for I felt it was inauspicious for the opening of business, but I was mistaken. — Madeleine An Autobiography; • (ominous)- portending evil or harm; foreboding; threatening; inauspicious, (d 3k1&k  ; a k1  ; aA); To me, the signs of the times appear to be ominous--to forebode evil! — A Review of Uncle Tom's Cabin or, An Essay on Slavery;  inauspicious = untoward = uncomely = unseemly = adverse • (untoward)- unfavorable or unfortunate, (p" > ; d3 P6я ; ap"; ap4" ); "Professor Chi never ignores anything untoward, no matter how trivial it might seem at first," research student Hoang Thu Huong says; • (uncomely)- not in keeping with accepted standards of what is right or proper in polite society; Erewhile he seemed to me uncomely, but now he is like the gods that keep the wide heaven. — The Odyssey; • (unseemly)- not seemly; not in keeping with established standards of taste or proper form; unbecoming or indecorous in appearance, speech, conduct, etc., (a7 ; a7 4; a!"  ); Of course, all that happened tonight was ephemeral, fantastic, unseemly--yet it lacked neither colour nor originality. — The Idiot; • (adverse)- contrary to your interests or welfare;  fortuitous = felicitous = auspicious = propitious ~ opportune : seasonable : expedient • (fortuitous)- happening or produced by chance; accidental, (+ s ; c ); Her entry into the entertainment industry was fortuitous, as she was spotted by a talent scout while skipping school and hanging out at a nearby mall; • (felicitous)- well-suited for the occasion, as an action, manner, or expression; apt; appropriate, ((7b, n6 i"6  p_) 3  !"; $13  > ;  ); His style was remarkably felicitous, and it is said that he adorned all that he touched. — The Story of Rome from the Earliest Times to the End of the Republic; • (felicity)- the state of being happy, esp. in a high degree; bliss, ($    2 ); She was disturbed by no fear for her felicity, nor humbled by any $"p remembrance of her misconduct My dear, dear Lydia!" — Pride and Prejudice; • (auspicious) – favoring success; Everything seemed auspicious, and pointed to speedy success; • (propitious)- presenting favorable conditions; favorable, (a > ; pn  ; A); The virtue of Christ’s sacrifice is to pacify justice and make God propitious, that is, favorable and merciful to sinners. — The Works of the Rev. Hugh Binning; • (opportune)- appropriate, favorable, or suitable, (u$&k  ; a > ; /  ap   я6 = я  ); Tensely he waited for the opportune time One of the redskins carried a comb of honey. — Kid Wolf of Texas; • (inopportune)- not opportune; inappropriate; inconvenient; untimely or unseasonable, (a$& P4 ; a !"); Feats of legal subtlety are inopportune, arithmetical exploits still more so. — An Englishman Looks at the World; • (seasonable)- timely; opportune; a seasonable suggestion; • (expedient)- tending to promote some proposed or desired object; fit or suitable for the purpose; proper under the circumstances, (ud76  = $k u$& P4; 4" =4  o = я ); A trade agreement with Ireland might be a very useful temporary business expedient from the German point of view. — Against Home Rule (1912) The Case for the Union;  serendipity = fluke ~ windfall = bonanza : sleeper • (serendipity)- an aptitude for making desirable discoveries by accident, (ck A o ap"6 7" +o ; c& P; cp p& P); In an interesting serendipity, the antidote comes from a plant which is also found only in that area. — The Beekeeper’s Apprentice - Laurie R. King - Russell-Holmes 01; • (fluke)- good fortune; luck; • an accidental advantage; stroke of good luck, (ap"6 7"  + s   p p /   % ; + s /p P6); But in the 36th minute West Brom drew level with something of a fluke goal; • (windfall)- an unexpected gain, piece of good fortune, or the like, (ap"6 7"  $ o 5  7F); Despite this happy windfall, life for the next few years proved an arduous affair. — The Life and Letters of Walter H Page; • something blown down by the wind, as fruit, ( "  P % /K $ 5 ); • (bonanza)- a sudden happening that brings good fortune; The patient organisms living in Prism's soil had pounced upon the unexpected uric bonanza to utilize the valuable salts contained therein. — Sentenced To Prism; • (sleeper)- an unexpected achiever of success;  hap = kismet : vicissitude : checkered {like checkerboard} : incidental : adventitious > advent • (hap)- an occurrence, happening, or accident; In this poem Hap, Thomas Hardy objects to the part chance plays in our lives; • (kismet)- fate; destin, ( P6;  ";  R); It is your kismet, your destiny, good woman. — The Pacha of Many Tales; • (vicissitude)- change; mutation; mutability, ($"3; ut $"); If there were not such variety and vicissitude, how should the evenness and constancy of the spirit be known? — The Works of the Rev. Hugh Binning; • (checkered)- marked by numerous and various shifts or changes; variegated; The land is checkered, the straight lines and even shapes pointing to agriculture. — NASA Earth Observatory; • (incidental)- happening or likely to happen in an unplanned or subordinate conjunction with something else, (al e a$k 2 " ,; p_k; c R); His heroism is incidental, the commonplace impulse of the moment. — The Project Gutenberg Complete Works of Gilbert Parker; • (adventitious)- acidental, causal, associated with something by chance rather than as an integral part; extrinsic, (c P", c , +$" , as  ); His reaction will be personal and adventitious, and he will miss the artist's real inspiration and ignore his genuine successes. — The Life of Reason; • (advent)- a coming into place, view, or being; arrival; Instead of bringing peace his advent was about to open war. — Abraham Lincoln, A History, Volume 2; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.6.2 Phobia & Mania* phobia # mania • (phobia)- a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid it, (; ; ; ); The phobia is almost universal; it has permeated all classes of  society from highest to lowest. — Evening Round Up More Good Stuff Like Pep; • (mania)- an excessively intense enthusiasm, interest, or desire; a craze, (    я p  ); This feeling ultimately became a kind of mania with him. — Principal Cairns; • Psychiatry a manifestation of bipolar disorder, characterized by profuse and rapidly changing ideas, exaggerated sexuality, gaiety, or irritability, and decreased sleep; phobophobia • (phobophobia)- a morbid fear of developing a phobia; acrophobia • (acrophobia)- an abnormal fear of high places; aglophobia • (aglophobia)- an abnormal dread of pain; photophobia^ photon • (photophobia)- an abnormal fear of light; • (photon)- the quantum of electromagnetic energy, regarded as a discrete particle having zero mass, no electric charge, and an indefinitely long lifetime; phonophobia^ euphonic @ hear (see page 91) • (phonophobia)- a fear of sounds, noise, and one's own voice; • (euphonic)- agreeable sound, especially in the phonetic quality of words, ( -   !"); Many of our most pleasing euphonic words, especially in the realm of music, have been given to us directly from the Italian. — How to Speak and Write Correctly; logophobia • (logophobia)- an obsessive fear of words; cacophobia^ cacophony • (cacophobia)- the fear of ugliness; * The words in this section are less interrelated with each other, but falls under the same category. So, instead of using the symbol ‘:’ and creating a long word chain, we decided to mark this section specially. • (cacophony)- harsh discordance of sound; dissonance; From behind her and within the room came a cacophony of instruments shattering and furniture breaking. — Dirge; callophobia^ calligraphy • (callophobia)- fear of beauty; • (calligraphy)- fancy penmanship, esp. highly decorative handwriting, as with a great many flourishes, (#n  % & ' ; ( r  *); He was really marvelous at calligraphy, and could certainly write the best hand of any man I have ever known; xenophobia • (xenophobia)- an unreasonable fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers or of that which is foreign or strange, ( +'!,+' #m+n a+0    ); Police are investigating whether xenophobia could be the motive behind a shack fire which killed seven Zimbabwe foreign nationals; neophobia^ neologism = coinage : coin • (neologism)- a tendency to dislike anything new; fear of novelty; • a new word, meaning, usage, or phrase, (  !b-(  p+ 2); Meaning "extremely large," ginormous is also what's known, according to the Times itself, as a neologism, or a newly invented word; • (coinage)- the invention of new words; • the right or process of making coins; • (coin)- make coin; to invent or fabricate, (  !b ud   ); The name cosmetic surgery is fundamentally coined from the Greek language; gynophobia # androphobia^ androgen • (gynophobia)- fear of or contempt for women; • (androphobia)- an abnormal fear of men; • a hatred of males; • (androgen)- any substance, as testosterone or androsterone, that promotes male characteristics; geraphobia^ geriatrics • (geraphobia)-fear of old age; • (geriatrics)- the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and problems specific to the aged; demophobia^ demographic • (demophobia)- an abnormal fear of crowds; • (demographic)- related to population balance, (я#5%  tt); In conducting a survey, one should take into account demographic trends in the region; claustrophobia # agoraphobia : ochlophobia^ ochlocracy • (claustrophobia)- an abnormal fear of being in enclosed or narrow places, (d 8   r*  ); These include a large category of fears called phobias -- claustrophobia, agoraphobia, photophobia, altaphobia, phonophobia, etc. — The Conquest of Fear; • (agoraphobia)- an abnormal fear of open or public places; • (ochlophobia)- an abnormal fear of crowds; • (ochlocracy)- a political system in which a mob is the source of control; government by the masses; hydrophobia : aquaphobia : natation • (hydrophobia)- an abnormal fear of water; • (aquaphobia)- (Medicine / Pathology) an abnormal fear of water, esp because of the possibility of drowning; • (natation)- an act or the skill of swimming, (#n ); The bay at Skelwick was so dangerous that Father would not allow any of them to bathe there, so as yet she had had no chance of testing her skill in natation. — The Youngest Girl in the Fifth A School Story; dermatophobia^ dermatology • (dermatophobia)- an abnormal fear of skin disease; • (dermatology)- the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases; odontophobia • (odontophobia)- an abnormal fear of teeth, especially of animal teeth; mastophobia^ mastectomy • (mastophobia)- fear of breasts; • (mastectomy)- (Medicine / Surgery) the surgical removal of a breast; hematophobia^ hemoglobin • (hematophobia)- fear of blood; • (hemoglobin)- the iron-containing respiratory pigment in red blood cells of vertebrates, consisting of about 6 percent heme and 94 percent globin; pathophobia^ pathogen • (pathophobia)- an abnormal fear of disease; • (pathogen)- an agent that causes disease, especially a living microorganism such as a bacterium or fungus; genophobia^ genesis • (genophobia)- a fear of sexual relations; • (genesis)- an origin, creation, or beginning, (#( ; ; p m); Analysis is all very well so long as its ultimate purpose is to subserve genesis--that is to say, evolutionary history. — Anthropology; traumatophobia • (traumatophobia)- a morbid fear of battle or physical injury; thanatophobia^ euthanasia • (thanatophobia)- an abnormal fear of death; • (euthanasia)- painless death, (nt 0,   ); Give me but gentle death: euthanasia, euthanasia, that is all I implore. '" — The Tatler, Volume 1, 1899; taphephobia • (taphephobia)- an abnormal fear of being buried alive; hypnophobia • (hypnophobia)- an abnormal fear of falling asleep; zoophobia • (zoophobia)- abnormal fear of animals; ailurophobia • (ailurophobia)- an abnormal fear of cats; cynophobia • (cynophobia)- a fear of dogs; pantophobia = omniphobia^ omniscient • (pantophobia)- a fear of everything; • (omniphobia)- "non-specific fear" or "the fear of everything" • (omniscient)- having complete or unlimited knowledge, awareness, or understanding; perceiving all things, (#j); If god is omniscient, then all is predestined. — The Atheist Experience; satanophobia • (satanophobia)- an abnormal fear of Satan ; heliophobia • (heliophobia)- a fear of sunlight; nyctophobia • (nyctophobia)- an abnormal fear of night or darkness; cryophobia^ cryogenic • (cryophobia)- a morbid fear of freezing; • (cryogenic)- of or pertaining to the production or use of very low temperatures; plutophobia^ plutocracy @ government (see page 255) • (plutophobia)- fear of wealth; cyberphobia^ cybernetics • (cyberphobia)- an abnormal fear of working with computers; • (cybernetics)- the study of human control functions and of mechanical and electronic systems designed to replace them, involving the application of statistical mechanics to communication engineering; chronophobia^ chronology • (chronophobia)- a fear of time; • (chronology)- the sequential order in which past events occur, ( ? * я   k   gn ); chromophobia^ monochromatic • (chromophobia)- a fear of colors; also called chromatophobia; • (monochromatic)- having only one color; Although most of the collection is monochromatic, the few contrasting colored pictures stand out against the pale gallery wall; aerophobia^ aerodynamics • (aerophobia)- an abnormal fear of drafts of air, gases, or airborne matter; • (aerodynamics)- the branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of gases (especially air) and their effects on bodies in the flow; astraphobia^ astral • (astrophobia)- a morbid fear of thunder and lightning; • (astral)- pertaining to or proceeding from the stars; stellar; star-shaped, ( kt;  k t); He had never felt the least desire to join the Theosophical Society and to speculate in theories of astral-plane life, or elementals. — Four Weird Tales; anemophobia^ anemometer • (anemophobia)- a fear of drafts, gusts of air, wind; • (anemometer)- any instrument for measuring the speed of wind; kleptomania • (kleptomania)- an irresistible impulse to steal, stemming from emotional disturbance rather than economic need; hodomania • (hodomania)- an abnormal love of travel; monomania • (monomania)- an inordinate or obsessive zeal for or interest in a single thing, idea, subject, or the like; pyromania > pyromaniac = incendiary = arsonist > arson • (pyromania)- a compulsion to set things on fire; • (incendiary)- a person who deliberately sets fire to buildings or other property, as an arsonist, (a#d+d+! i  + #m t+ a g#5+ 2 ,; 20' 0); But Samson was an incendiary, and therefore no philanthropist; while we, like the Brahmins, are the protectors of a persecuted race. — The Two Brothers; • a shell, bomb, or grenade containing napalm, thermite, or some other substance that burns with an intense heat,((  ) +g  g+); • a person who stirs up strife, sedition, etc.; an agitator, (us ; p+ ( ' ); • (arsonist)- a person who commits arson (The crime of maliciously, voluntarily, and willfully setting fire to the building, buildings, or other property of another or of burning one's own property for an improper purpose, as to collect insurance); The gang includes a counterfeiter, an extortionist, a burglar, an arsonist, and a dynamiter. — Alfred Hitchcock's Mystery Magazine; • (arson)- Law. the malicious burning of another's house or property, or in some statutes, the burning of one's own house or property, as to collect insurance; nymphomania • (nymphomania)- abnormally excessive and uncontrollable sexual desire in women;  megalomania : grandeur : magnitude : august : majestic = regal = royal : palatial • (megalomania)- a symptom of mental illness marked by delusions of greatness, wealth, etc, ( +я+ a  +N  a  k ! , +     ; a tm ); He would adopt the worst traits of his father and forever seek out women who would pander to his megalomania and every need. — Portrait of a Killer; • (grandeur)- the quality or state of being impressive or awesome, ( 0 ; !  ); Underneath it all is a standard romantic comedy with delusions of grandeur, which is fitting given the story. — Hecklerspray; • (magnitude)- size; extent; dimensions, ( s ; p# ; ! t); Turning your back to crimes of this magnitude is an act of supreme cowardice. — Think Progress; • (august)- inspiring reverence or admiration; of supreme dignity or grandeur; majestic, (0  0, #0   ); The conclave which compiles the index of the Roman Catholic Church is the most august, ancient, learned, famous, and authoritative censorship in Europe. — Mrs. Warren's Profession; • (majestic)- characterized by or possessing majesty; of lofty dignity or imposing aspect; stately; grand; No other young man of the day, we may be sure, would have dared to make such a proposal to the majestic orator. — Samuel Johnson; • (regal)- of or pertaining to a king; royal, ( я,;  +я (); There began, however, soon to appear some indications that Caesar, who certainly now possessed regal power, would like the regal name. — History of Julius Caesar; • (palatial)- befitting or suitable for a palace; stately; magnificent, (p # +' *; (T ; я + ); It is a magnificent structure--palatial, cathedral-like, in its proportions--a gorgeous temple of fashion, built with exquisite taste, of different-colored marbles, and surrounded by graceful columns—Caesar's Column; dipsomania^ dipso = alcoholic = boozer • (dipsomania)- an irresistible, typically periodic craving for alcoholic drink; • (dipso)- a dipsomaniac; habitual drunk; • (alcoholic)- a person addicted to intoxicating drinks; • (boozer)- any alcoholic beverage; whiskey;  bacchanalian = carousing > carousal ~ revelry : orgy = saturnalia • bacchanalia; A riotous, boisterous, or drunken festivity; a revel,( k+# *я , ; -#m ; uT#+ nt); A numerous procession of his adherents escorted him to the ship, bearing lighted torches, and singing bacchanalian songs. — The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 12: 1567, part I; • (carousing)- used of riotously drunken merrymaking; The rest of the day was spent by every man in carousing, horse-racing, and games, with an occasional fight. — Life in Canada Fifty Years Ago; • (carousal)- a noisy or drunken feast or social gathering; revelry, (* + T#); Every now and then he gets upon a carousal, and keeps it up for days, sometimes weeks. — Gaspar the Gaucho A Story of the Gran Chaco; • (carousel)- also called carousel, carrousel. (in amusement parks, carnivals, etc.) a revolving, circular platform with wooden horses or other animals, benches, etc., on which people may sit or ride, usually to the accompaniment of mechanical or recorded music, ( 2+'  ); A calliope was playing somewhere in the park as they drove away; and looking back, Zerchi saw that the carousel was turning. — A Canticle for Leibowitz; • (revelry)- reveling; boisterous festivity,(W0X( + +n *+ 2); So the banquet began By midnight the revelry was at its height. — The Prince and the Pauper; • (orgy)- wild, drunken or licentious festivity or revelry, ( 2 0, * + я+ T#); I found myself the witness of an orgy, the scene a sort of cellar, a perfect cesspool of vice and debauchery. — The Complete Memoirs of Jacques Casanova; • (saturnalia)- a celebration marked by unrestrained revelry and often licentiousness; an orgy; The saturnalia is brought to a close, when all become so intoxicated they can neither tell story nor sing song. — The Death Shot A Story Retold;  insobriety = inebriety = intoxication = tipsiness = drunkenness : decant • (insobriety)- lack of sobriety or moderation; intemperance; drunkenness, (# # k  ; ' # k; *  # k); He wondered who would pay for them or whether the ungenerous might regard wine either as an inducement or a deliberate temptation to insobriety. — The Lighthouse; • (inebriety)- drunkenness; intoxication, (  ; +' nt ; !Z[tt; p  '); The gallant Captain was in the last stages of inebriety, and laid the scene of his London ghost story in Ireland. — The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Citizen-soldier, by John Beatty.; • (intoxication)- inebriation; drunkenness, (unt ; pt ; +' nt ; #   & k ); The slavery of intoxication, unlike human slavery, is confined to no particular section, climate, or society; for it wars on all mankind. — Fifteen Years in Hell; • (tipsiness)- (tipsy) slightly intoxicated or drunk, (\&T   ; ?+;    ); How can I be patient in the tipsiness of this domestic chaos? — Holy Experience; • (drunkenness)- intoxication, (  ); The cholera has laid bare the secrets of drunkenness, all over Europe. — A Residence in France; • (decant)- to pour (wine or other liquid) gently so as not to disturb the sediment, (s   ); Let settle the precipitate, decant, and wash in several changes of water. — Photographic Reproduction Processes; staid = sedate = solemn = somber = sober {drab} = grave > gravity = solemnity • (staid)- of settled or sedate character; not flighty or capricious, (2m,;  ! ,; k !,); Last night's Lee vs. Kryzan debate was pretty staid, which is to say boring. — Buffalo Pundit; • (sedate)- calm, quiet, or composed; undisturbed by passion or excitement, (p! n; a ( ); The ordinary vivacity of childhood forsook me; I became quiet, sedate, and thoughtful. — The Caxtons — Complete; • (solemn)- grave, sober, or mirthless, as a person, the face, speech, tone, or mood, (2m,); • marked or observed with religious rites; having a religious character, (,  a a^ +  *   ( ); Earlier we told you that Limbaugh - in what he called a solemn tribute - honored the late Gordon Dancy; • (somber)- gloomy, depressing, or dismal, (an ; &n;  n;  ); All were somber, watching him, knowing what had to be, knowing this was his parting with his most loyal friend. — Split Infinity; • (sober)- marked by seriousness, gravity, solemnity, etc., as of demeanor, speech, etc., (t  nt; #5,;  ( ,; ! n; *  ); He has been described as a sober, earnest, eloquent, sometimes shrewd and witty but very absent-minded, scholar whose "beautiful and even eloquent language led many to an admiration and love for sciences."—The University of Michigan; • not intoxicated or drunk, (   ; apt); • (drab)- dull; cheerless; lacking in spirit, brightness, etc, (,#; e+ +; W (t0,); I left the shop feeling dowdy and drab, and mildly apprehensive. — A Monstrous Regiment of Women - Laurie R. King - Russell-Holmes 02; • having the color drab,( p  ' ,  +? 5); • a low, sluttish woman, (i   +я ++ , ! ); • (grave)- serious or solemn; sober, (gr; 2m,;  ! ,); Silent as a grave was the forest—Tales of lonely trails; • any place of interment; a tomb or sepulcher, (# ; ); • (gravity)- serious or dignified behavior; dignity; solemnity, (gr as ; 2m,  ); The air is thicker, and there's much more wind; the gravity is a little stronger, so everything's heavier. — Shining Steel; • (solemnity)- the state or character of being solemn; earnestness; gravity; impressiveness, (d n ; 2 m,); The first date proposed for the solemnity was the 26th Messidor, Year XII — The Court of the Empress Josephine; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.7 Confusion confuse, equivocate, mysterious, riddle, embroilment, commotion confound = confuse = addle = muddle = puddle = fuddle = befuddle = perplex = fluster = discombobulate = bemuse = bewilder = obfuscate • (confound)- to perplex or amaze, esp. by a sudden disturbance or surprise, (s  ); The man's face blanched as he cowered and slunk away confounded, without uttering a word. — The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln; • to put to shame; abash, ( s;  ); • (confuse)- to perplex or bewilder, (g  ;   ); But he now began to make mistakes and to grow confused, and this distressed him greatly. — Autobiography of Sir George Biddell Airy; • to fail to distinguish between, (     ); Don’t confuse Nepal with Naples; • (addle)- to make or become confused, ( n;  !     ; "  #); She was nothing like his addle-witted mother and even less like his vapid sisters. — Teresa Medeiros - Once An Angel; • (muddle)- a state of being turbid ($ k, ', "  #) or confused;  hence, intellectual cloudiness or dullness, ( ! ,  ); But instead of making other things more understandable, it only muddled them a little more. — Knocked for a Loop; • to make turbid, or muddy, as water; • (puddle)- to make muddy, ; English soil as they stepped ashore was a puddle, and English air a fog. — Robert Browning; • (fuddle)- to make confusedly intricate, ((d +  $o ); Germany hoped to fuddle the king, whom they would have gladly placed at the head of their league. — Henry VIII and His Court; • (befuddle)- to confuse, as with glib statements or arguments; • to stupefy, (sc.  n   k    ) with or as if with alcoholic drink; And he began to remember certain drugs that could befuddle even the wisest man. — Prison Of Souls; • (fluster)- to put into a state of agitated confusion, ((.m, 0 1 2 ,   ); He was flustered, wanting and not wanting, sure and unsure. — A Traitor to Memory; • to excite and confuse with drink; • (discombobulate)- to confuse or disconcert; upset; frustrate; A personal assault by you on me will wake these people up and discombobulate Goldsmith. — A House-Boat on the Styx; • (bemuse)- to bewilder or confuse (someone); Destructive without being constructive, they bemuse themselves with long words, and scorn simplicity. — Mufti; • (bewilder)- to confuse or puzzle completely, ((.m  ); He evidently desired to convince the multitude before him rather than to bewilder or dazzle them. — Perley's Reminiscences, v. 1-2 of Sixty Years in the National Metropolis; • (obfuscate)- to confuse, bewilder, or stupefy; • to make obscure or unclear; Hearing this, Barbara knew that there was obviously no need to obfuscate, circumvent or prevaricate. — In the Presence of the Enemy; nonplus = flummox = baffle = dumbfound = stupefy = puzzle ~ boggle = flabbergast ~ astound = astonish = amaze > amazement : awe • (nonplus)- a state of utter perplexity; They were put to a nonplus, and summoned the Devil to their relief. — A Budget of Paradoxes, Volume I (of II); • (flummox)- to bewilder; confound; confuse, ((/ ap./ b  ); What flummoxed him was Mr. Koven's elaborate lie, apparently corroborated by Miss Lowell and Mr. Hildebrand. — Triple Jeopardy; • (baffle)- to frustrate or confound; thwart by creating confusion or bewilderment, (   ); She stood now baffled, as she had often been before, by her invincible enemy. — What Necessity Knows. • to check or deflect the movement of (sound, light, fluids, etc.) • (dumbfound)- to make speechless with amazement; astonish, ((d + / (/ s 7  ); For an instant he was dumbfounded, and then the whole truth flashed suddenly upon him. — Thuvia, Maid of Mars; • (stupefy)- to put into a state of little or no sensibility; benumb the faculties of; put into a stupor, (sc.  n   k    , sm/(/(.m  ); Men so vary from one another, that numberless methods have to be invented to repress, stupefy, and extinguish individual thought. — The Simple Life; • (puzzle)- something that baffles or confuses, (d : p;); He recalled the puzzle-lines that had intrigued him as a child, in which the pen never left the paper or crossed itself. — Split Infinity; • (boggle)- to overwhelm or bewilder, as with the magnitude, complexity, or abnormality of, (is  ; .   o= ; ' (o ; >?@ n (o ; n    + aB  (o ); It was a sum large enough to boggle even my imagination, but the king had not finished. — River God; • (flabbergast)- to overcome with surprise and bewilderment; astound, (s a..2  ; (.m  ); The miracles of science and technology are enough to flabbergast any one; • (astound)- to overwhelm with amazement; astonish greatly; shock with wonder or surprise, (s a..2  sm  ); It used to astound me when sensible people said otherwise. — The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning; • (astonish)- to fill with sudden and overpowering surprise or wonder; amaze, (sh  ;  D   ;    !  ); I pronounce, that he will one day astonish the world. — The Life of the Right Honourable Horatio Lord Viscount Nelson; • (amaze)- to overwhelm with surprise or sudden wonder; astonish greatly, (s ..2  ); She viewed her lover in amaze, and cold and scornful was her gaze—Rippling Rhymes • (awe)- , (. o Ed  E Bm  :; Bm ; >'; t B); She ascertained something which filled her at once with awe, and shame, and jealousy, and indignation. — By the Light of the Soul A Novel; equivocate = tergiversate = prevaricate = palter = beat around the bush : jive : mealymouthed • (equivocate)- to use ambiguous or unclear expressions, usually to avoid commitment or in order to mislead; prevaricate or hedge; (  d# a ( e  .   ;    +  ); If I equivocate, I may tumble into a pit of difficulties. — The Frozen Pirate; • (tergiversate)- to change repeatedly one's attitude or opinions with respect to a cause, subject, etc.; The testimony which stirred up the bile of the holy fathers could not but be given, unless you had been willing basely to tergiversate and to expose yourself to their taunts. "—The Rise of the Hugenots, Vol. 1 (of 2); • to change sides; apostatize; • (prevaricate)- to speak falsely or misleadingly; deliberately misstate or create an incorrect impression; lie; (aB  a0 aB uk  / Bm2L B      / B a   ); "Do you swear to prevaricate, perjure yourself and tell nothing but lies except when the truth would wreak the greatest havoc, so hinder you Satan Never," van S said. — Alien Plot by Piers Anthony; • (palter)- to talk or act insincerely or deceitfully, (#    / d N + >L  ); • to act carelessly; trifle, ((   ); He mustn't palter, or trifle, or shilly-shally about that iron certainty. — The Devil's Garden; • (beat around the bush)- to avoid coming to the point; delay in approaching a subject directly; Stop beating around the bush and tell me what you want; • (jive)- Slang. insincere, pretentious, or deceptive; She lowered her lashes and jived her tongue along the brim of her lip. — Another Roadside Attraction; • swing music or early jazz; • the jargon associated with swing music and early jazz; • (mealymouthed)- Hesitant to state facts or opinions simply and directly as from e.g. timidity or hypocrisy; He was a nasty man, mealymouthed and hurtful for all his good looks. — Journey Into Love; equivocal = evasive = sphinx-like = ambiguous ~ indeterminate : elliptical {oval} > ellipsis • (equivocal)- allowing the possibility of several different meanings, as a word or phrase, esp. with intent to deceive or misguide; susceptible of double interpretation; deliberately ambiguous, (d  :); This judge was never equivocal, and I assumed the adjournment was so that she could write an opinion on this still-evolving area of the law. — Death Dance - Fairstein; • (evasive)- tending or seeking to evade, (e @ B7/ ( -pL ); • intentionally vague or ambiguous; equivocal; • not frank; eluding; The man had been evasive, and the bracelet interpreted that as a lie. — Reality Check by Piers Anthony; • (sphinx-like)- enigmatic; mysterious; His face was still sphinx-like but there was a speculative look in his shrewd eyes. — The Man from the Bitter Roots; • (ambiguous)- open to or having several possible meanings or interpretations; equivocal,(d/ a? a  a.p  7); He maintained that it was obscure and ambiguous, and discordant with the private treaty made with Sweden. — The Life of the Truly Eminent and Learned Hugo Grotius; • (indeterminate)- not determinate; not precisely fixed in extent; indefinite; uncertain, (a$7; a; as7); His age was indeterminate, his attitude barely civil. — For Love of Mother-Not; • (elliptical)- (of a style of speaking or writing) tending to be ambiguous, cryptic, or obscure; The short series is trippy and elliptical, a favorite among those who enjoy a weird intellectual puzzle. — Asimov's SF - February2006; • (oval)- resembling an ellipse in shape; elliptical; The two eldest have black, or dark hair and eyes; their visage oval, and complexion somewhat pale, with teeth of dazzling whiteness. — Life of Lord Byron; • (ellipsis)- the omission from a sentence or other construction of one or more words that would complete or clarify the construction, (  != я p я bя); "Sometimes the ellipsis is improperly applied to nouns of different numbers: as, 'A magnificent house and gardens. '" — The Grammar of English Grammars; mysterious : runic : arcane : esoteric • (mysterious)- full of, characterized by, or involving mystery, ((B / (BL2 ); The vast majority of people think of dreams as something mysterious which is not within our power to control. — Article Source; • (runic)- having some secret or mysterious meaning; The runic inscription, which contains more than 760 letters, is the longest known. — Early European History; • (arcane)- known or understood by very few; mysterious; secret; obscure; esoteric, (! ; (B ); Demetrio moved back as the arcane syllables pierced his brain, not stopping until he stood against the wall. — Conan the Defender; • (esoteric)- understood by or meant for only the select few who have special knowledge or interest; recondite, ( $k k  +   e ; d :); There is no doubt that he obtained his idea of esoteric annotation from Gibbon, who, though he used the Latin medium, is in this respect the true father of Burton. — The Life of Sir Richard Burton; mysterious = occult = obscure = vague = hermetic {occult sciences} = cryptic = enigmatic = secret {covert} • (occult)- secret; disclosed or communicated only to the initiated; (gp/  t U j  p p$ a:  >W e ); • of or pertaining to magic, astrology, or any system claiming use or knowledge of secret or supernatural powers or agencies, (ap  / я U$ ); All students of the occult are acquainted with the idea of the elemental essence, that strange half-intelligent life which surrounds us in all directions, vivifying the matter of the mental and astral planes—Thought- Forms; • (obscure)- not clear or plain; ambiguous, vague, or uncertain, (an  / gp); To be poor and obscure is also the ordinance of God; but the dishonesty and discontent which are often seen in the poor is from Satan. — Parochial and Plain Sermons, Vol. VII (of 8); • obscurantist, (B0s  : ? D N + k); • (vague)- not clear or distinct to the sight or any other sense, (as7/ acn/ . B . B ); Augustus Smith lingered in my memory as a vague, mythical creature of no account Joanna smiled. — The Belovéd Vagabond; • (hermetic)- made airtight by fusion or sealing,(Bm+r     .$/ B0!1 2 ); Renny knew that, at greater altitudes, this hermetic-sealing process was for the benefit of passengers. — 110 - The Magic Forest; • having to do with the occult sciences, especially alchemy; obscure and mysterious; It is strange to consider that modern chemistry originated in the hermetic teachings of the ancient alchemist; • (cryptic)- secret, occult,(gp/ d :), That was the ominous message from the priests at Sanctuary, a cryptic statement that was waiting for Kiron when he and Avatre landed at Aerie. — Aerie; • (enigmatic)- resembling an enigma; perplexing; mysterious,( n/ (\   2 ); His gaze on her face, Jack inclined his head, his expression enigmatic. — A Lady of Expectations; • (secret)- a mystery, (gp/ !1 2 ); • (covert)- concealed; secret; disguised, (k  + ;   ); They instantly turned, and made full speed for the covert of a woody stream, to fortify themselves among the trees. — The Adventures of Captain Bonneville;  overt # covert = clandestine = stealth = surreptitious = furtive = undercover = cloak-and-dagger ~ privy : espionage : ulterior : underhand^ handy • (overt)- open to view or knowledge; not concealed or secret, (pk; p ); I think if the violence is too overt the romance is lost; • (clandestine)- characterized by, done in, or executed with secrecy or concealment, esp. for purposes of subversion or deception; private or surreptitious, (! ; gp); Instructions were therefore sent to the ambassador Yorke to demand the punishment of the Amsterdam regents for their clandestine transactions with the enemies of England. — History of Holland; • (stealth)- secret, clandestine, or surreptitious procedure, (an : : o ! . ); He sought this information by stealth, and was aided by his chum, Ned Newton. — Tom Swift and His Sky Racer, or, the Quickest Flight on Record; • (surreptitious)- obtained, done, made, etc., by stealth; secret or unauthorized; clandestine, (gp.    ;   ! p ); There was a murmur of surreptitious, half-ironic applause. — The Combined Maze; • (furtive)- taken, done, used, etc., surreptitiously or by stealth; secret, (  ; ak; ! ;   -  ;  W  + ); His eyes were bloodshot and furtive, his mouth was drawn back in a half-grin of hate and misery. — The Trespasser; • (undercover)- performed or occurring in secret; "He is going to be shadowed by undercover Spanish troops posing as tourists." — Mission Of Honor; • (cloak-and-dagger)- marked by melodramatic intrigue and often by espionage, (! n  (    _;  _); A genuine cloak- and-dagger atmosphere was creeping in. — The Great Escape; • (privy)- participating in the knowledge of something private or secret, (gpU j -Bmn); Westminster Abbey was a mob of dukes, statesmen, privy-councilors, and men of countless acres. — Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Volume 61, No. 378, April, 1847; • (ulterior)- being beyond what is seen or avowed; intentionally kept concealed, ($ 2 ; @ p $7   (W   (.2  ); The spirit of our American radicalism is destructive and aimless; it is not loving; it has no ulterior and divine ends; but is destructive only out of hatred and selfishness. — Ralph Waldo Emerson; • (espionage)- the use of spies by a government to discover the military and political secrets of other nations, (gpt  ); The organization, which investigates economic espionage in the United States, is the FBI; • (underhand)- marked by deception; achieved success in business only by underhand methods; • (handy)- easy to reach; conundrum = brain-teaser = enigma = riddle ~ rebus : labyrinth : paradox : hedge • (conundrum)- riddle; difficult problem, (= p;/ :\ : ); The answer to this conundrum will be ascertained on reading the book. — Punch, or the London Charivari, Volume 99, November 8, 1890; • (brain-teaser)- a difficult problem; The brain-teaser is deceptively simple; • (enigma)- a puzzling or inexplicable occurrence or situation, ( n p;,  k, яB, s i $); This enigma is explained in the fact that the five letters of his name are the initials of those of Vittorio Emanuele Re D'Italia. — The Great Italian and French Composers; • (riddle)- a question or statement so framed as to exercise one's ingenuity in answering it or discovering its meaning; conundrum, (p( / :\ : ); There seemed to be no answer to the riddle, and I set the thought aside for I still had work to do. — River God; • pierce with holes; permeate or spread throughout, ( # W\ /   + ; W  /   ; \   ); His chest was riddled with bullets; • (rebus)- a representation of a word or phrase by pictures, symbols, etc., that suggest that word or phrase or its syllables, (e : :\ : @  as + b    0# W   $N >\  (); I love the way this poem sees life as a rebus, a visual puzzle that, sometimes, we seem unable to piece together or decipher; • (labyrinth)- an intricate combination of paths or passages in which it is difficult to find one's way or to reach the exit, (! :\ : ); Walking a labyrinth is a form of meditation and is even seen by some as a metaphor for the human experience; • (paradox)- a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth, (@ uk > $7  s :  (o Bя ); The only plausible resolution of this paradox is the assumption that these UHE particles are being produced relatively close to the Earth, within around 200 million light years. — AnalogSFF,May2008; • (hedge)- to mitigate a possible loss by counterbalancing (one's bets, investments, etc.), (U  я N N  B  kL 2 2 $ :  B  \   ) • An intentionally noncommittal or ambiguous statement; (#  (   ; B B я  e  ); Give me a definite answer, don’t hedge; • a row of bushes or small trees planted close together, esp. when forming a fence or boundary; hedgerow, ( =  !  i $ B  $  /gl  / p   $"r B ,   / d ; d $o ); • (  d я  >d  ); hedge a person in/round with rules and regulations; embroilment = imbroglio : pell-mell = harum-scarum = helter-skelter = chaotic : garbled • (embroilment)- to involve in argument, contention, or hostile actions, (!d  я d ); The unpalatable fruits of the embroilment had to be eaten and digested at the present crisis. — Life of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen — Volume 1; • to throw into confusion or disorder; entangle; • (imbroglio)- a misunderstanding, disagreement, etc., of a complicated or bitter nature, as between persons or nations, (я# b s, U  яe  B); Altogether it is a horrible imbroglio, and for the moment I do not see my way out of the fog. — The Life of the Rt. Hon. Sir Charles W. Dilke, Volume 1. • a confused heap; a tangle; • (pell-mell)- in disorderly, headlong haste; in a recklessly hurried manner • in a confused or jumbled mass, crowd, manner, etc.; The crowd rushed pell-mell into the store when the doors opened; • overhasty or precipitate; rash: pell-mell spending; • (harum-scarum)- reckless; rash; irresponsible; He had a harum-scarum youth; • disorganized; uncontrolled; • (helter-skelter)- in headlong and disorderly haste; The children ran helter- skelter all over the house; • (chaotic)- completely confused or disordered, (f я;   ); The scene outside was more chaotic, as protesters clashed with officers and broke through metal barriers; • (garbled)- confused, disconnected, disjointed, disordered, illogical, (@c  /   ); Thus the reader will then have no reason to fear a garbled or partial account of personages so difficult to conceive or understand. — The Hermits; imbroglio : intricacy > intricate = convoluted = Byzantine = knotty : nexus = link = connection • (intricate)- complex; complicated; hard to understand, work, or make, (я#/ #+ ; d :; 2#- ); "Medical acronyms and initialisms are becoming more intricate, and Y-geners have raised them to a higher level of complexity." — JAMA current issue; • (convoluted)- complicated; intricately involved, (я#-   ; я# e0 dr(); The enclosed letter was long, convoluted, and often confused. — An Ill Fate Marshalling; • (byzantine)- complex or intricate; Hazardous Waste constituted an entirely separate department of even more byzantine complexity. — Terra Incognita; • (knotty)- involved, intricate, or difficult, (!\#@k + ;    @k + ; B B h); But his work proved a total failure; for the canvas was rough and knotty, and the paint would not dry. — Self help; with illustrations of conduct and perseverance; • (nexus)- a means of connection; tie; link, (B0@ !; n; Bmn); A possible drug nexus is the focus of a murder investigation; din = commotion = tumult = pandemonium = bedlam = chaos = shambles ~ topsy-turvydom = turmoil = hullabaloo = agitation = upheaval = turbulence = sturm und drang ~ mayhem = havoc ~ uproar = garboil = brouhaha = hubbub = hue and cry > hue • (din)- a loud, confused noise; a continued loud or tumultuous sound; noisy clamor, (e#  uc b; (i! ); To concentrate in the midst of such a din was almost impossible. — Men of Affairs; • (commotion)- violent or tumultuous motion; agitation; noisy disturbance, (f(e; utя ); Even people in the long narrow lobby had gone out front to see what all the commotion was about Monk was grinning. — 166 - The Disappearing Lady?; • political or social disturbance or upheaval; sedition; ( U +  k rd k   ; B  a   p   i $ ud      я;  яe); insurrection (d (, a.2l , pя d (, !L- a.2l ), (>n , k .)); • (tumult)- violent and noisy commotion or disturbance of a crowd or mob; uproar, (  + +   (, hd hd,  d! ); Instantly the tumult was allayed. — At War with Pontiac The Totem of the Bear; • (pandemonium)- wild uproar or unrestrained disorder; tumult or chaos, (f(eL 2 as .    ); Police intervention with excessive force resulted in pandemonium, and innocent students sustained multiple injuries; • (bedlam)- a scene or state of wild uproar and confusion, ((i! L 2 s ); For a space there was a very bedlam of cries and broken heads, those behind in the mob surging forward to reach the scrimmage, forcing their own comrades over the edge. — Richard Carvel; • Archaic. an insane asylum or madhouse, (un $ E , un $ ! ,  ! ! $); • (chaos)- a state of utter confusion or disorder; a total lack of organization or order, (f я;  ;  n); The implication is that somewhere beside or outside of all this chaos is an organized world. — F ;SF; - vol 087 issue 02 - August 1994; • (shambles)- a condition of great disorder; • wreck; mess, (:.2 ; B iN  ); According to the Free Dictionary, A place or situation referred to as a shambles is usually a mess, but it is no longer always the bloody mess it once was; • (topsy-turvydom)- a state of affairs or a region in which everything is topsy-turvy (a state of confusion or disorder); • (turmoil)- a state of great commotion, confusion, or disturbance; tumult;  agitation; disquiet, (! @ !; ( n ;  ; !o! ); Looking back, the main factor that I would identify as underlying the turmoil is the broad- based under-appreciation of risk. — The Heritage Foundation Papers; • (hullabaloo)- a clamorous noise or disturbance; uproar, (h$n; f(e;  ! ); In the middle of all the hullabaloo, Pip heard a noise. — The Mystery of the Spiteful Letters; • (agitation)- the act or process of agitating; state of being agitated, (utя , as , > d); The project of the Saverdun school was then in agitation, and a manager was wanted. — Memoir and Diary of John Yeardley; • (upheaval)- strong or violent change or disturbance, as in a society, (>s/  # ; a.2t ; ad+D ); A soldier was crawling up an upheaval, pushing his rifle before him, when he was shot through the body from underneath. — Reminiscences of a Pioneer; • an act of upheaving, esp. of a part of the earth's crust; • (turbulence)- the quality or state of being turbulent; violent disorder or commotion; After this weekend's turbulence, the markets will probably speculate on additional US interest rate cuts; • (strum und Drang)- storm and stress; turmoil; "A book's historical roots represent another barrier; so does the personal Sturm und Drang of the author"-Robert Kanigel; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.8 Annoyance Irritate, annoy, disturb, annoy persistently rankle = grate = fret {stew} ~ irritate = churn = irk = boil = grill = pester = fester = bug = beleaguer = badger = vex = bother = gravel = rasp = nettle = annoy • (rankle)- to cause keen irritation or bitter resentment in; The words that burn or rankle or corrode are not the words to stimulate. — The Adventure of Living; • (grate)- to have an irritating or unpleasant effect, (  ); The screams of the quarreling children grated on her nerves; • to make a sound of, or as if of, rough scraping, (   o я  ); • to scrape or rub with rough or noisy friction, as one thing on or against another, (          g g  ;  g u  ); • a frame of metal bars for holding fuel when burning, as in a fireplace, furnace, or stove, ( !-#  u  $ $); Each room had a grate, and I carried up kindling and coal for all of them. — The Iron Puddler; • (fret)- to feel or express worry, annoyance, discontent, or the like, (as 'o #  ; (я я #)  #  *  ;  +o ); How could I ever do my work if a single discord is there to fret -- fret -- fret? — A Woman's Will; • to cause corrosion; gnaw into something; • an interlaced, angular design; fretwork, ( r -.(/!  ); • (stew)- agitation resulting from active worry; • to undergo cooking by simmering or slow boiling; • to feel uncomfortable due to a hot, humid, stuffy atmosphere, as in a closed room; swelter, (a!!0p  , a!! !, (. k a#s ); You cannot understand the stew I am suffering from; • (irritate)- to excite to impatience or anger; annoy, (#k/ r5/ !  / u!0k  ;  )  ); The crosses and vexations which disturb and irritate ordinary men seemed never to disturb his equanimity. — King Alfred of England; • (churn)- a container or machine in which cream or milk is agitated to make butter, ((  !   6 / #  t); • to agitate in order to make into butter, (#)    # (n  ); Inger used to churn, and there was buttermilk to drink. — Recollections Of My Childhood And Youth; • (irk)- to irritate, annoy, or exasperate, (#k # ut0k  ); I am truly trying to like this, but there are just so many things to irk me. — Lockergnome; • (boil)- to be in an agitated or violent state, (a!  kd 'o ); • to reach or be brought to the boiling point, (<   ); • (  ); The lieutenant had sprained his ankle when he struck, and his boil was still painful, but the burning hay cured him -- for the moment. — The Boys' Life of Mark Twain • (grill)- to subject to severe and persistent cross-examination or questioning, (a!0n < o 6 # я  ); In violation of the Miranda law, the police grilled the suspect for several hours before reading him his rights (secondary meaning); • (pester)- to bother persistently with petty annoyances; trouble, (#k  ; 5 +o ); They were the one class of visitors who seldom came to ask for favors, and never to pester him with advice. — The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln; • (fester)- to putrefy or rot, (( <  # k!?k n)я@. A   ; * ; *  ); Salt air worsened your situation, exacerbating the sore spots, making them fester and redden faster. — The Day of the Dissonance; • to rankle, as a feeling of resentment, (( 6! ##B  я  ; m. + !k  ); A little scheme had begun to fester in the back of his head. — The Silver Spike; • (bug)-to bother; annoy; pester, (#k  ); "She said if I didn't quit bugging them, she was going to hire a couple of guys from the neighborhood." — A Ring And A Promise; • any insect or insect like invertebrate, (   ; (B@  ); • any microorganism, esp. a virus; • a defect or imperfection, as in a mechanical device, computer program, or plan; glitch, (mu<  i!0 + - nt tr<); • to install a secret listening device in (a room, building, etc.) or on (a telephone or other device), ()       я0 iG H  + #0#'   ); • (beleaguer)- to surround with military forces, (a# I  ); God give us bases to guard or beleaguer, — The Hill A Romance of Friendship; • (badger)- to harass or urge persistently; pester; nag, (pK  ! i!0 +! яя.!  / j  !  ; 0 0   ); She was forced to change her mobile number because she was badgered by obscene phone calls and SMSs; • any of various burrowing, carnivorous mammals of the family Mustelidae, ()!.# ;  * I A #@. kd   яnt-# ; #0 я ); • the fur of this mammal; • (vex)- to irritate; annoy; provoke, (#k, u!0k, j  !, '   ); If demons can vex, they must feel like us. — The Phantom Ship; • (bother)- to give trouble to; annoy; pester; worry, (#k, #b!, j  !  ); His baby sister bothered him for candy; • to bewilder; confuse, (udg 'o ; !  ); Please don’t bother to wait, I’ll be leaving soon; • (gravel)- to be a cause of irritation to; • small stones and pebbles, or a mixture of these with sand, ( ;   ); • to cover with gravel; Previous to this gravelling, the land was a stiff, obdurate clay nearly to the surface. — Essays in Natural History and Agriculture; • to bring to a standstill from perplexity; puzzle; • harsh and grating; • (rasp)- to scrape or abrade with a rough instrument, (u , u +  ,  !   ); • to grate upon or irritate,(. , 0 * 0 * b  ; 0 * 0 *  ); He spoke into an ultra-wave microphone, the familiar parade-ground rasp very evident in his deep and resonant voice. — First Lensman; • (nettle)- any plant of the genus Urtica, covered with stinging; ( < # h); When viewed with a sufficiently high magnifying power, the protoplasmic layer of the nettle hair is seen to be in a condition of unceasing activity. — Autobiography and Selected Essays; • to irritate, annoy, or provoke; Do not let her nettle you with her sarcastic remarks; • (annoy)- to disturb or bother (a person) in a way that displeases, troubles, or slightly irritates, (#k # j  !  ; ant5  ); The joke at the expense of Lavery's splayed and painful feet did not annoy him. — The Greatest Survival Stories Ever Told;  ingrate^ grateful <> grate : friction • (ingrate) - an ungrateful person, (a!j U ); The ingrate bob sneered at the tie I gave him; • (grateful)- feeling or showing gratitude; • (grate)- scratch repeatedly; • (friction)- the resistance encountered when one body is moved in contact with another;  boil : seethe : kindle = inflame : smolder • (boil)- to be in an agitated or violent state, (a!  kd 'o ); • to reach or be brought to the boiling point, (<   ); • (  ); The lieutenant had sprained his ankle when he struck, and his boil was still painful, but the burning hay cured him -- for the moment. — The Boys' Life of Mark Twain • (seethe)- to be in a state of agitation or excitement, (#kb  ; < ); In the palace about him seethed, all unknown to Gahan, a vast unrest—The Chessmen of Mars; • (kindle)- to start (a fire); cause (a flame, blaze, etc.) to begin burning, ( g I # I  ); Just set me the stunt of making water boil over a fire I have to kindle, and I'll do it in three shakes of a lamb's tail. — The Banner Boy Scouts Or, The Struggle for Leadership; • (inflame)- to kindle or excite (passions, desires, etc.), (pяj!  # 'o ); • to arouse to a high degree of passion or feeling, (!p, utя!, p!   ); These impression met with much to inflame, and nothing to restrain them—Washington and the American Republic, Vol. 3; • to incite or rouse, as to violence; • (smolder)- to burn without flame; undergo slow or suppressed combustion, (II j ); The fire likely continued to smolder, filling the house with thick smoke, until the pressure popped a window in the home. — Chronicle- Telegram; • to exist or continue in a suppressed state or without outward demonstration;  fester {suppurate = maturate} • (suppurate)- to produce or discharge pus (я), as a wound; maturate,(я 'o ,  o ); The skin may suppurate or slough more or less over the areas of greatest tension or where it is irritated by blows or pressure. — Special Report on Diseases of the Horse; • (maturate)- to suppurate, to mature, (k # @. A ! p p 'o ); The consequences frequently are inflammation and eruptions which maturate. — The Harvard Classics Volume 38 Scientific Papers (Physiology, Medicine, Surgery, Geology);  beleaguer {besiege = circumvent = surround = hem in} • (besiege)- to crowd around; crowd in upon; surround, ( # ' !.U    ; a# I  ); From Augsburg the Emperor went to the camp before Ulm, and made preparations to besiege that place. — Recollections of the private life of Napoleon; • to assail or ply, as with requests or demands, (a I  o #+  a!Y   ); Members of the new parliament were besieged with job applications from people who had worked on the campaign; • (circumvent)- to avoid (defeat, failure, unpleasantness, etc.) by artfulness or deception; avoid by anticipating or outwitting, ((l ) # s#   # I +o ; (  i, #I, (0 i!0 +)   < - o ); Only once had Bell attempted to circumvent the barrier of the positronic brain by the deployment of a mutant, Tako Kakuta. — The Venus Trap; • (hem in)- surround so as to force to give up; acerbate = pique = embitter = rile = roil = miff = harass = harry = plague = bait = beset = upset = gall = chafe = rag = razz = tantalize = tease = twit = taunt = cod = chevy = molest ~ nag = inconvenience : infliction • (acerbate)- to make sour or bitter, (acerbity-!k! , rk! ); The poor girl had not spirit sufficient to upbraid her friend; nor did it suit her now to acerbate an enemy. — The Way We Live Now; • (pique)- provoke; arouse; annoy; • to affect with sharp irritation and resentment, esp. by some wound to pride, (  a'?  # tm   !  ); My brother left home in a pique, and, I'm afraid, went to the bad in Twenty years?" — Roger Ingleton, Minor; • a fabric of cotton, spun rayon, or silk, woven lengthwise with raised cords ; • Ballet. a step in which the dancer steps onto the tip of the toe without bending the knee; • to pride (oneself), ()#. a6#   ); She piqued herself on being very charming; • (embitter)-to make bitter; cause to feel bitterness, (!k!  a6A  ! я )  ; !k  ); This letter was communicated to Richelieu, whose exasperation exceeded all bounds; and it is consequently almost needless to add that it only served to embitter the position of the persecuted exile. — The Life of Marie de Medicis; • (rile)- to irritate or vex, (#k ,  )  ); Besides, I had such a set under me that it was enough to rile the sweetest tempered man. — What I Remember; • to make liquids murky by stirring up sediments; • (roil)-to render (water, wine, etc.) turbid by stirring up sediment; Though black as night, the approaching clouds did not writhe and roil. — Carnivores of Light and Darkness; • to disturb or disquiet; irritate; vex; • (miff)- petulant displeasure; ill humor; • to cause to become offended or annoyed; • (harass)- to disturb persistently; torment, as with troubles or cares; bother continually; pester; persecute, ('  #  я'   , udg  ); • to trouble by repeated attacks, incursions, etc., as in war or hostilities; harry; raid, (#  #  k(@ ); Following many unsanctioned demonstrations, police and other security officials detain, harass, and beat demonstration participants; • (harry)- to harass, annoy, or prove a nuisance to by or as if by repeated attacks; worry, (#^s  ; n   ;  k(@  ); England could not conquer us, but she could harry our coasts, and let loose her Indians on our borders; and we had no navy with which to retaliate. — George Washington; • (plague)- any cause of trouble, annoyance, or vexation, (a. !; ud#); Uninvited guests are a plague; • an epidemic disease that causes high mortality; pestilence; • (bait)- to tease, (Y # a#(   (n#0 +  u ut0k/ яя.!  ); For the common people the bait is their love of liberty. — Biblical Evidence for Catholicism; • food, or some substitute, used as a lure in fishing, trapping, etc, (< ; p 6 #st); • to attract, tempt, or captivate,(<  +o #  ); • (upset)- to disturb mentally or emotionally; perturb, (( 6 # #-.s  ; o<  <  ); He had met with misfortune in the course of his voyage: one of his frail barks being upset, and part of the furs lost or damaged. — The Adventures of Captain Bonneville; • to disturb or derange completely; put out of order; throw into disorder, (#*!/ as  ; !/ *( / /6/  ); to upset a mechanism; to upset an apartment; • (gall)- to vex or irritate greatly, (( +o ; a#(   ); The knowledge of his failure filled him with gall; • U to make sore by rubbing; chafe severely, (   !  ;    a #! s ); • U impudence; effrontery, (I5! ); • (chafe)- to wear or abrade by rubbing, (  . # k!  ,); • to warm by rubbing, ( )(  ); Chilled, he chafed his hands before the fire; • to irritate; annoy,(a'0 # #k # I  ); Yet he began to chafe under the constant demands on his time, and the rigid etiquette of the little Court. — The World's Great Men of Music; • (rag)- a worthless piece of cloth, esp. one that is torn or worn, (0  ; !0  ); • to torment with jokes; play crude practical jokes on, (  u !   ( a!0 *   ); • a person of shabby or exhausted appearance; • (ragamuffin - person wearing tattered clothes); • (razz)- to deride; make fun of; tease; In fact, she used to razz him about his of structure, his lack of spontaneity, Perhaps accusations were carefully chosen. — Undercover Vows; • (tantalize)- to torment with, or as if with, the sight of something desired but out of reach, (   +   6 ud  ; nt !  )  # i  +o ); The half-transparent silk hid little; in fact, it seemed designed to tantalize rather than to conceal. — The Shadow Of The Lion; • (twit)- to taunt, tease, ridicule, etc., with reference to anything embarrassing; gibe at, (   ;   *  ;   a ! (  ); • an insignificant or bothersome person, (' + , )#<); It's bad enough, really, that your shabby script paints him as a twit who was shacking up with some unkempt lady crook. — Galaxy Jane; • (taunt)- to reproach in a sarcastic, insulting, or jeering manner; mock, (  a6A !!  ! +o  ud 0 (n#0  , #dr); In ordinary times we should undoubtedly have suffered from this taunt, especially since it had the merit of being true. — Memoirs of Sir Wemyss Reid 1842-1885; • (cod)- any of several soft-rayed food fishes of the family Gadidae; • (#  #   , I  +o ); • (chevy)- to chase; run after; • to harass; nag; torment; • U (molest)- to bother, interfere with, or annoy, (ic !6 # u!0k # #k U  , )'!  ); • to assault sexually; • (nag)- to annoy by persistent faultfinding, complaints, or demands; Shakespeare makes her a jealous, nagging, violent scold, who will have her husband arrested for debt, though she will give money to free him. — The Man Shakespeare; • to cause pain, discomfort, distress, depression, etc.; This headache has been nagging at me all day; • (inconvenience)- an inconvenient circumstance or thing; something that causes discomfort, trouble, etc, (k ;  ; 5;  ; #m ; a#I  ); But, I fancy, you will soon tire of so much dirt, and the inconvenience will be very great the whole summer. — The Letters of Lord Nelson to Lady Hamilton; • (infliction)- something inflicted, as punishment or suffering, (dh , #+ ,  ! i!0 +r p-k     #+ +  # k #' a6j! ); But this despotic and unparalleled infliction of exile and misery on a host of innocent private individuals, was productive of far different effects. — The History of Napoleon Buonaparte; roil = rile : murky = turbid = cloudy {foggy = nebulous = hazy} • (murky)- dark, gloomy, and cheerless, (!( cn;   an ; !(s#); Dark and murky was it all, but hope mounts high in youth, and it ever fluttered over all the turmoil of his thoughts like a white plume amid the shock of horsemen. — The White Company; • obscure or thick with mist, haze, etc., as the air; • vague; unclear; confused; a murky statement; • (turbid)- not clear or transparent because of stirred-up sediment or the like; clouded; opaque; obscured, (/   </ #/ +.( k, m); I could see a struggle going on at the bottom--turbid water came to the surface- -and then up came the dark head of the savage chief Ugh!' — The Hunters' Feast Conversations Around the Camp Fire; • thick or dense, as smoke or clouds; • (cloudy)- full of or overcast by clouds, a cloudy sky; • (foggy)- thick with or having much fog; misty, (  cn; $  ); a foggy valley; a foggy spring day; • (nebulous)- hazy, vague, indistinct, or confused; And such stories have features too nebulous -- but also too technical -- for newspaper public editors to unravel. — Cryptome; • cloudy or cloudlike; • (hazy)- lacking distinctness or clarity; vague; indefinite; obscure; confused, (  cn; as5); Soft, hazy, and alluring, the pictures romanticized the immense metropolis, making it look like the seat of an empire. — The New Yorker; harry^ harrow^ harrowing • (harrow)- an agricultural implement with spikelike teeth or upright disks, drawn chiefly over plowed land to level it, break up clods, root up weeds, etc, (я(! +#  (i); • to disturb keenly or painfully; distress the mind, feelings, etc., (((. #+@.  ); Nearly all the book is harrowing, and even the atmosphere of the bohemian circles, where conversation is one sparkle of satire, is heavily tainted with vice. — Balzac; • (harrowing)- extremely disturbing or distressing; grievous, (((.#+ ); Nearly all the book is harrowing, and even the atmosphere of the bohemian circles, where conversation is one sparkle of satire, is heavily tainted with vice. — Balzac; bait {enticement = decoy = lure} : entice = lure = tempt • (decoy)- to lure by or as if by a decoy, ( u pb   #+  ; <   ;  +  ! ); • a trained bird or other animal used to entice game into a trap or within gunshot, (   ud 0 a0 o   5 U #  я0 #0#h! o #   ); The way these people had used civilians as a decoy is absolutely sickening; • (lure)-to attract, entice, or tempt; allure, (p 6; (  ; < ); The plants emitted some kind of lure to attract victims. — Conan the Indomitable; • Falconry. a feathered decoy for attracting a hawk, swung at the end of a long line and sometimes baited with raw meat, (p k! # я   k(@ я0 #0#h! uяj  gc); • (entice)-to lead on by exciting hope or desire; allure; inveigle, (p *!  /  я   ); Such lovely sights do not only please, entice, but ravish and amaze. — The Anatomy of Melancholy; • (tempt)- dispose or incline or entice to; We were tempted by the delicious- looking food; petulant, pesterer, aggravate, perturb cranky = petulant = pettish = puckish = peckish = peevish = techy = tetchy = testy ~ touchy ~ fractious • (cranky)- ill-tempered; grouchy; cross; Cindy repressed an urge to hug the cranky, domineering editor right on the bull pen floor. — 1st to Die; • eccentric; queer, (d n a # !gs  ); • (petulant)- moved to or showing sudden, impatient irritation, esp. over some trifling annoyance, (-k'6 #  as # #k); He was often willful and petulant, and I used to think him dreadfully insincere. — Lord Arthur Savile's Crime and Other Stories; • (pettish)- petulantly peevish, ( *@ ( $ ( $i rk # #+(я я); The possibility of finding a man angry or pettish is unpleasant to me. — Father Payne; • (puckish)- mischievous; impish; He had a puckish knowledge of human nature. — The Joyous Adventures of Aristide Pujol; • (peevish)- cross, querulous, or fretful, as from vexation or discontent, (#k; #!#dU  ); In what a peevish, injured tone the creature did complain of our unfair tactics! — Our Friend John Burroughs; • (techy)- irritable; touchy,( < <; )*< ); • (tetchy)- irritable; touchy, ( < <; )*< ); • (touchy)- apt to take offense on slight provocation; irritable, (a6( ;  e<! '! 'o  s6 #); But my pride was touchy, and my determination unwavering. — Recollections Of My Childhood And Youth; • (testy)-irritably impatient; touchy, ()*< ;  < <; tI-.'); Antonio finally tells me, kind of testy, to just go home so he can get back to serving dinner. — Asimov's Science Fiction; • (fractious)- readily angered; peevish; irritable; quarrelsome, ( < <; )*< ;  s6 #; #+(я я); They're stubborn and fractious, and few will argue that they're not the most limited form of human communication. — Magazine - Aeon Authors - 2006 - Issue 06 - Aeon Six; • refractory or unruly; grumpy = cantankerous = crotchety : crusty = curmudgeonly = fussy = cranky = crabby = crabbed = grouchy = churlish = surly = rude = cross = boorish = ill- humored = gruff = brusque : curmudgeon : impetuous = madcap • (grumpy)- surly or ill-tempered; discontentedly or sullenly irritable; grouchy, (#+(я я; r5); He could see Bones glancing his way and looking grumpy, and he figured the good doctor would pay him a visit on the bridge very soon. — Mind Meld; • (stoic)- disagreeable to deal with; contentious; peevish, (#+(я я; 'p); His cantankerous mother, Catherine Kepler, had for some years been carrying on an action for slander against a woman who had accused her of administering a poisonous potion. — Kepler; • (crotchety)- given to odd notions, whims, grouchiness, etc, (a-Hk *n I  ); I hear Mr. Crotch [86] disputed some of your facts about the wingless insects, but he is a crotchety man. — Alfred Russel Wallace Letters and Reminiscences; • of the nature of a crotchet; • (crusty)- having a crisp or thick crust, ( #@-k  ); The crusty gray was interrupted by bands of lighter color. — The Legacy of Heorot; • harsh; surly; rude, ( < < (я я); a crusty remark; • (curmudgeonly)- like a curmudgeon; avaricious; niggardly; churlish; • (fussy)- excessively busy with trifles; anxious or particular about petty details, (as; !#; ts#0s); • hard to satisfy or please; He looked more like a fussy schoolteacher than a cop, more like a psychologist than I did. — Pop Goes The Weasel; • (of clothes, decoration, etc.) elaborately made, trimmed, or decorated, ( , t  i!0 + mn a!0I amU!; я(  ; a # 0 < < 6 !); • (cranky)- ill-tempered; grouchy; cross; • eccentric; queer, (d n a # !gs  ); • (crabby/ crabbed)- grouchy; ill-natured; irritable; peevish, ( <(< s6 #); "This business with Rob is making you a little crabby, Lara," he said. — Magyar Venus; • (grouchy)- sullenly discontented; sulky; morose; ill-tempered, (#+(я я;   ; ) ( (  (   ); The men were so greatly discouraged and the sergeants so grouchy that at times it became almost humorous. — Private Peat; • (churlish)- like a churl; boorish; rude, (#+(я я; a6d; i!); All his fine qualities came out when as an elder he met churlish Ben Jonson. — The Man Shakespeare; • U ; . s6 #;  < <); (surly)- churlishly rude or bad-tempered, (rkp! His was not an arrogant nature, nor a surly--but the change in his environment had been painfully abrupt. — The Promise A Tale of the Great Northwest; • (rude)- discourteous or impolite, esp. in a deliberate way, (a6d; a( я.!; ru); They complain very much of the servants being so rude, and doing so much as they please. — The Grimke Sisters; • (cross)- angry and annoyed; ill-humored; snappish, ( < <; #+(я я); Don't be cross with me; • adverse; unfavorable, (p!A); • (boorish)- of or like a boor; unmannered; crude; insensitive; At his suggestion, Beethoven, who was a practical joker of boorish capabilities, sent her a tuft from the chin of a goat. — The Love Affairs of Great Musicians; • (ill-humored)- irritable; surly; • (gruff)- rough, brusque, or surly, (. ; #+(я я); His voice was gruff, his eyes full of golden chips. — Garwood, Julie - Gentle Warrior; • (brusque)- abrupt in manner; blunt; rough, (ru; a6#0); His animated speeches--brusque, martial, and full of feeling--made quite a sensation. — Renée Mauperin; • (curmudgeon)- a bad-tempered, difficult, cantankerous person, (#+ ) a# U @ #0k); Village Barbershop is an old-hat story -- curmudgeon grudgingly takes in brash youth, with eventual life-enhancing benefits for both. — GreenCine Daily; • (impetuous)- of, pertaining to, or characterized by sudden or rash action, emotion, etc.; impulsive, (uc/ #); $  #  я   p#@! mn; U p#t! ! ; agw +##* '); The character has gone from a very impetuous, aggressive, almost nasty young man to a very quiet, strong, very reserved lawyer. — 100 New Yorkers of the 1970s; • (madcap)- behaving or acting impulsively or rashly; wild; splenetic = prickly = waspish • (splenetic)- irritable; peevish; spiteful, (#+(я я;  < <); For many years he continued to discharge splenetic remarks about his music, and he was always annoyed at being called his pupil. — Joseph Haydn; • (prickly)- full of or armed with prickles, (n!); • full of troublesome points, ( < <); She was rather prickly, and there was more I wanted to know. — Celtic Riddle; • (waspish)- irascibly or petulantly spiteful; The rest of the evening reflected her waspish mood -- she had to wait for a bus and then stand all the way and Aunt Emily had forgotten to put the shepherd's pie in the oven. — Two Weeks To Remember; • quick to resent a trifling affront or injury, ( @! p!0t  + e(); shrew = termagant ~ harridan ~ fishwife ~ virago^ virile • (shrew)- a woman of violent temper and speech; termagant, (#+(я я; <6  (@; / ); The better half of the knight was a shrew, and led him a wretched life. — John Deane of Nottingham Historic Adventures by Land and Sea; • (termagant)- a quarrelsome, scolding woman; a shrew; Minerva is an angry termagant--mean, mischief-making, and vindictive. — The Humour of Homer and Other Essays; • (harridan)- a woman regarded as scolding and vicious; Mudge was fast losing patience with this infinitesimal harridan. — The Day of the Dissonance; • (fishwife)- a woman regarded as coarse and shrewishly abusive; It was about this time that Giorgione's ladylove won fame by discarding him in that foolish, fishwife fashion. — Little Journeys to the Homes of Eminent Painters; • (virago)- a woman regarded as noisy, scolding, or domineering; I saw the billet of wood, and really felt less resentment at the old virago who had offended us. — A Residence in France; • (virile)- of, relating to, or having the characteristics of an adult male; In spite of his miraculous faculty of expression, he never found wonderful phrases for the virile virtues or virile vices. — The Man Shakespeare;  crone = hag = witch • (crone)- a withered, witchlike old woman, (#)! -H# #d U ); The red marble proves that the old crone is a secret agent--one of my enemies The general wiped a slight dew of perspiration off his forehead. — 016 - The King Maker; • (hag)- an old woman considered ugly or frightful; • Obsolete a female demon; • (witch)- a woman claiming or popularly believed to possess magical powers and practice sorcery; gadfly = heckler = pesterer = pest^ pestilential^ pesticide • (gadfly)-any of various flies, as a stable fly or warble fly, that bite or annoy domestic animals, (y , +? (k ); • a person who persistently annoys or provokes others with criticism, schemes, ideas, demands, requests, etc; A gadfly is someone who goes about asking questions that stir thinking and discussion. — Enterprise Architecture: From Incite comes Insight...; • (heckler)-to harass (a public speaker, performer, etc.) with impertinent questions, gibes, or the like; badger, (u!0k ); He captured audiences, he overcame the hostility of persistent disturbers of the meetings, and with his ready wit overwhelmed the heckler. — My Memories of Eighty Years; • (pesterer)- one who pesters; one who troubles or worries; • (pest)- an annoying or troublesome person, animal, or thing; nuisance, (#k #0k); He treats his wife by law as a pest, to be put aside until he has want of her. — Soul of the Fire; • an insect or other small animal that harms or destroys garden plants, trees, etc, (^? t <-!a); • a deadly epidemic disease, esp. a plague; pestilence, (?k (, (' (  #0I); • (pestilential)- pernicious; harmful, (?k ( #я @# '  ); It then became pestilential, but within the last few years its healthfulness has been restored by forest plantations. — The Earth as Modified by Human Action; • annoyingly troublesome, (#{( #k # t); Their pestilential, critical, discontented attitude is spreading over the school. — The Longest Journey; • (pesticide)- a chemical used to kill pests (as rodents or insects); firebrand : kibitzer : bummer^ bum •  (firebrand)-a piece of burning wood or other material,(e < jn  ); • a person who kindles strife or encourages unrest; an agitator; troublemaker, (- #0k  ( я #  я|! ' 5 U ); It looked as if some half- extinguished firebrand of a world had blazed up again, and was burning brightly once more. — In Those Days; • (kibitzer)- a spectator at a card game who looks at the players' cards over their shoulders, esp. one who gives unsolicited advice; • a giver of uninvited or unwanted advice; • a person who jokes, chitchats, or makes wisecracks, esp. while others are trying to work or to discuss something seriously; • (bummer)- a person who bums; • (bum)- a person who avoids work and sponges on others; loafer; idler, (6k я#; a(. ); • a tramp, hobo, or derelict, (ud 0'6 # i!s! #*@  ); • U ; # я); a drunken orgy; debauch,(5 meddlesome = busybodied = interfering = officious = meddling • (meddlesome)-given to meddling; interfering; intrusive; Parliaments were factious, meddlesome, and inexperienced, and sought to block the wheels of government rather than promote wholesome legislation. — Beacon Lights of History, Volume 08 Great Rulers; • (busybodied)- intrusive in a meddling or offensive manner; • (interfering)- intrusive in a meddling or offensive manner; The energy with which Cavour repudiated the idea of interfering with the seminaries is interesting on other grounds. — Cavour; • (officious)- objectionably aggressive in offering one's unrequested and unwanted services, help, or advice; meddlesome, ()    ' -0 ! #  ( . +!  e(; !.U t @); Why should their good advice, or even their urgent importunity, be deemed officious or be treated with contempt? — Female Scripture Biographies, Volume I; • (meddling)- to involve oneself in a matter without right or invitation; interfere officiously and unwontedly; His love of meddling, his ambition to make a fine speech, had ruined everything. — The History of England, from the Accession of James II — Volume 2;  exasperate = exacerbate = aggravate = worsen • (exasperate)- to irritate or provoke to a high degree; annoy extremely, (utя!  ; я )  ; tI-.*0! <  ); I wish not to exasperate, but to convince; and I tender you once more my friendship and my play. ' — Life Of Johnson; • (exacerbate)- to increase the severity, bitterness, or violence of (disease, ill feeling, etc.); aggravate, (dh 0,  ) # <  +     + - o ); In her view, that would only exacerbate the problem, not solve it. — Unwanted Wedding; • to embitter the feelings of (a person); irritate; exasperate, (utя!  ); • (aggravate)- to make worse or more severe; intensify, as anything evil, disorderly, or troublesome, (aI! gr!/ a/  *  !  ); The vices of the Indians, she appeared disposed not to aggravate, and seemed to take pride in extolling their virtues. — A Narrative of the Life of Mrs Mary Jemison; • to annoy; irritate; exasperate, (u!0k, p !  ;    ); Dissensions arose to aggravate the already serious danger in which Agrippina and her friends had been placed. — The Women of the Caesars; • (worsen)-to make or become worse, (aI! (n 'o #  ); That only made the headache worsen, and he winced. — Brightly Burning; perturb = derange = unbalance = unhinge : ruffle • (perturb)- to disturb or disquiet greatly in mind; agitate, (utя!  ; # U  ); The lightning progression maybe; probably; certainly didn't seem 5 to perturb Kat in the least. — The Shadow Of The Lion; • (derange)- to throw into disorder; disarrange, (#/ #kp/ a#s!  ); "Disappointments derange, and overcome, vulgar minds." — The Grammar of English Grammars; • (unhinge)- to confuse; disrupt; The sights and sounds they've experienced unhinge their reason. — The Life and Letters of Walter H Page; • U (ruffle)- to destroy the smoothness or evenness of, ( n, p n # (@! #5  ); The wind ruffled the sand; • to erect (the feathers), as a bird in anger, (  ! # as 'o ); • to disturb, vex, or irritate; to be ruffled by a perceived slight; • to draw up (cloth, lace, etc.) into a ruffle by gathering along one edge, (  i!0 +  *; * <);  faze = enervate • (faze)- to disrupt the composure of; disconcert; 'But at least I know why my startling good looks didn't faze your friend.' — Deal Breaker; • (enervate)- to deprive of force or strength; destroy the vigor of; weaken, (  o ( 6 # d#.  ; s '  ); All occupations that enervate, paralyze, or destroy body or soul should be avoided; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.9 Calmness equanimity, stability, appease, harmonize, soothing equanimity = calmness = unflappability = imperturbability = composure • (equanimity)- calmness of temperament; composure, (-яя p  n); He barely had recovered his equanimity--with his coffee--when a young lady entered the car. — The Husbands of Edith; • (calm)- free from excitement or passion; tranquil; • (unflappability)- not easily upset or confused, esp. in a crisis; imperturbable; • (imperturbable)- incapable of being upset or agitated; not easily excited; calm, (   ; a   t; n; a); He kept cool, imperturbable, and determined, however. — The Project Gutenberg Complete Works of Gilbert Parker; • (composure)- serene, self-controlled state of mind; calmness; tranquility, (  n; s; t  !); He began to lose his composure, and made mistakes, his cards got mixed up, and his scoring was wild. — The Complete Memoirs of Jacques Casanova; flappable : skittish = restive = jittery = nervy : disquietude^ distrait • (flappable)- Informal easily excited or upset; • (skittish)- restlessly or excessively lively, (; я; "я    e); How often does the horse grow "skittish," or even panicky, when there is nothing within sight or hearing. — Clairvoyance and Occult Powers; • (restive)-impatient of control, restraint, or delay, as persons; restless; uneasy, ( $ a c&; ' nt " a) *d . я, - a c&); For some reason her animal had become suddenly restive, and occupied the whole of her attention; • (jittery)-having or feeling nervous unease; She thought about it, analyzed the jittery feeling that made it hard for her to sit still. — Acorna's World; • (nervy)- arrogantly impudent; brazen; So, as you would imagine, I grew up exuberant in body but with a nervy, craving mind. — The Greatest Survival Stories Ever Told; • (disquietude)- the state of disquiet; uneasiness; A single element of disquietude, a solitary, vague unrest disturbs him. — The Redemption of David Corson; • (distrait)- inattentive because of distracting worries, fears, etc.; absent- minded, (; a/,); Will was dull and distrait, and he hardly looked at me once, and talked about sensible impersonal things the whole time. — The Heart of Una Sackville; tranquility = placidity = serenity = repose = quietude • (tranquil)- free from commotion or tumult; peaceful; quiet; calm, ( n; &--); There was only one person in the room who was calm, tranquil, and unmoved--that person was Cecilia herself. — Willis the Pilot; • (placidity)- the state or character of being placid; tranquility; • (serenity)- the state or quality of being serene, calm, or tranquil; sereneness, (p  n); They were aware of the evening's sad serenity, and the little struggling passions of their lives. — Evelyn Innes; • (repose)- calmness; tranquility; His face wore a stern look when in repose, but in conversation it was smiling and cheerful. — Joseph Haydn; • (quietude)- the state of being quiet; tranquility; calmness; stillness; quiet, ( sb; p  n); Mental activity and moral quietude are the two states which, were they perfected and united, would constitute perfect happiness. — Eugene Aram — Volume 02; aplomb = poise = assuredness^ assurance : certitude • (aplomb)- imperturbable self-possession, poise, or assurance, (t- 2; . )'  3" 45  6я& ); Even his aplomb was a little shaken by the complete success of the attack —The Flying Legion; • (poise)- to carry or hold in equilibrium; balance; But the foundations of his poise were shaken when the fish course was set before him. — The Log- Cabin Lady; • (assurance)- a positive declaration intended to give confidence,(tp3'; t 2); The street had given him his self-assurance, his ready tongue and his wit. — Germinie Lacerteux; • presumptuous boldness; impudence; • (certitude)- freedom from doubt, esp. in matters of faith or opinion; certainty, ( 7'); Certitude is the enemy of wisdom and, in office, it is wisdom, not certitude, that is required; relief = succor • (relief)- the easing of a burden or distress, such as pain, anxiety, or oppression; For a moment the relief was as sweet as if she had been saved, but on the heels of that came the realization of her position. — Lonesome Road - Patricia Wentworth - Miss Silver 03: 1939; • (succor)- to help or relieve; I am an outcast at your feet, hungry for love-- succor me, no less kindly! — The Son of Clemenceau; equipoise : steady^ steadfast : uniform # unstable = precarious • (equipose)- equality in distribution, as of weight, relationship, or emotional forces; equilibrium; The ever increasing pressure of social emotions made it seem a selfish and unmanly thing to be so concerned about one's own spiritual equipoise. — The Life and Works of Friedrich Schiller; • (steady)- free from change, variation, or interruption; uniform; continuous, (a8; a5); The rise and fall of his chest was even and steady; • (precarious)- dependent on circumstances beyond one's control; uncertain; unstable; insecure, (a  7;  9я; 4:,); His livelihood became precarious, and he suffered severely during the first five years of anarchy. — Great Italian and French Composers; equipoise = equilibrium^ equivalent = tantamount : commensurate • (equilibrium)- a stable situation in which forces cancel one another; • (equivalent)- being essentially equal to something; • equivalent, as in value, force, effect, or signification, (- !; 4 . ;  ); The sin against the Holy Ghost is tantamount, therefore, to everlasting sin. — Sermons to the Natural Man; • (commensurate)- proportionate; adequate, ()- !; )-k & ); Her sense of satisfaction was certainly commensurate, perhaps extravagant. — Elsie Marley, Honey; gruntle > disgruntle • (gruntle)- to be sulky; cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of; • (disgruntle)- to put into a state of sulky dissatisfaction; make discontent, (ant=    яя /$); Reading the article carefully, Joanna could tell that some of the quotes from disgruntled departmental employees were new and legitimate. — Tombstone Courage; mitigate > unmitigated • (mitigate)- to lessen in force or intensity, as wrath, grief, harshness, or pain; moderate, (,b, p@, 4 h  ; u-   ); Techniques and methods that can prevent, mitigate or resolve conflict are now necessary to ensure 'project sustainability'; • (unmitigated)- not mitigated; not softened or lessened, (mD!;  ; - 4st & ;  9& ); God is no more than a name for the unmitigated reality. — The Moral Economy; • unqualified or absolute; appease = assuage = allay = gentle = gruntle = conciliate = reconcile = lenify = pacify = placate = mollify = stay = quite = quell ~ alleviate = relieve = soothe ~ extenuate = mitigate = palliate = propitiate • (appease)- to bring to a state of peace, quiet, ease, calm, or contentment; pacify; soothe, ( n/ p   ); There was in her a longing which nothing could appease, an irresistible call toward the unattainable, the unknowable. — Doctor Pascal; • (assuage)- to make milder or less severe; relieve; ease; mitigate, (dHI/ 4/ aJD & /  i3 4 p   u-   ); What Wordsworth does is to assuage, to reconcile, to fortify. — Studies in Literature; • (allay)- to put (fear, doubt, suspicion, anger, etc.) to rest; calm; quiet, (nt!/ utя/ J' i3 4 L  ); My misery knows no allay, — Poems of Paul Verlaine; • (gentle)- to mollify; calm; pacify; • (conciliate)- to overcome the distrust or hostility of; placate; win over, ( )3 )   k & :3 / p   ;  : 4 D  ); Unable to conciliate or to compromise, they were conspicuously successful in stimulating the general prejudice against themselves. — Renée Mauperin; • (reconcile)- to win over to friendliness; cause to become amicable, (  : 4 D     8' M; ,   ); As part of an attempt to reconcile, the government has already appealed to the Supreme Court to review the judgment against the Sharifs; • (lenify)- to assuage; to soften; to mitigate; to alleviate; • (pacify)- to ease the anger or agitation of; There were endless difficulties, a censorship to pacify, and many commercial schemes to arrange, but nothing must be left untried. — The Love Affairs of Great Musicians; • (placate)- to appease or pacify, esp. by concessions or conciliatory gestures, ( n/ 2s/   ); First to pacify and placate, then to win and hold those worse than neutrals, was the work of John Jay. — Little Journeys To the Homes of the Great, Volume 3; • (mollify)- to soften in feeling or temper, as a person; pacify; appease, ( n/ p   ,  /   ); Intermarriage, if it were permitted, would naturally tend to mollify enmities. — The God Delusion; • (stay)- to appease or satisfy temporarily the cravings of (the stomach, appetite, etc.); • (quiet)- ( n    "o') • (quell)- to suppress; put an end to; extinguish, (4  ); There was a serious mutiny in the army which required all his tact to quell, arising from the neglect of Congress to pay the troops. — Beacon Lights of History, Volume 11 American Founders; • (alleviate)- to make easier to endure; lessen; mitigate, (L  ; u-   ); There are few mortal misfortunes that I cannot alleviate or overcome. — The Four Million; • (relieve)-to cause a lessening or alleviation of; They replied, We live in the suburbs of the city, where she used to visit, relieve, and comfort the poor. — The Power of Faith; • (soothe)- to calm or placate; But there was no balm to soothe an affront to professional pride-then or in any other age. — A Canticle for Leibowitz; • (extenuate)- to represent (a fault, offense, etc.) as less serious, ( M' p4 :3 a- : grt h  ; p   ); Do not excuse or extenuate, but aggravate your guilt. — The Works of the Rev. Hugh Binning; • (palliate)- to relieve or lessen without curing; mitigate; alleviate, ( // 4 p   ); Perhaps as a rule poisonous substances palliate the symptoms which they cause, or which follow their use. — Personal Experience of a Physician; • (propitiate)- to make favorably inclined; appease; conciliate, (k: u-  я3 S&  ); The young warriors were recalled from the frontiers, and a deputation of thirty-two chiefs set out for Charleston, in order to propitiate the anger of the whites, and arrest the threatened invasion of their country. — The Life of Francis Marion;  ameliorate = meliorate = improve = amend = emend • (ameliorate)- to make or become better, more bearable, or more satisfactory; improve; meliorate, (a-k . un  J    "o'); The commission concluded that decriminalization was the policy that would best ameliorate the worsening situation; • (meliorate)- to make better; • (amend)- reparation or compensation for a loss, damage, or injury of any kind; recompense, (un  :  ; J&  tr 8 k &  ; i  : i3 4 ps   -  .   :,); The next night the fickle Romans made ample amends, for the opera was concluded amid the warmest applause, even from the friends of Paisiello. — The Great Italian and French Composers; • (emend)- to edit or change (a text), (J&   :  ); Lumsden himself never emends the text. — The Translations of Beowulf A Critical Bibliography; • to free from faults or errors; correct; irreconcilable^ conciliate > conciliatory <> ciliated • (irreconcilable)- impossible to reconcile; • (conciliate)- to overcome the distrust or hostility of; placate; win over, ( )3 )   k & :3 / p   ;  : 4 D  ); Unable to conciliate or to compromise, they were conspicuously successful in stimulating the general prejudice against themselves. — Renée Mauperin; • (conciliatory)- tending to conciliate or win confidence or good will; reconciling; • (ciliated)- any protozoan of the phylum Ciliophora (or in some classification schemes, class Ciliata), as those of the genera Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Stentor, and Vorticella, having cilia on part or all of the surface; • having minute hair; The epithelial cells, from their shape, are known as squamous, columnar, glandular, or ciliated. — A Practical Physiology; quell {suppress = quench} • (suppress)- to put an end to forcibly; subdue; • (quench)- to put out (a fire, for example); extinguish; He painted them as having followed up a spent water-course, in hopes of finding wherewith to quench their thirst, and sinking under the disappointment. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; harmonize = liaise = intercede = mediate = arbitrate^ arbiter : slake = quench : solace = comfort = console^ inconsolable • (harmoinze)- to bring into harmony, accord, or agreement, (n': .  ; 4 3 :  ); A mediocre improvisation is always endurable, if the organist has grasped the idea that church music should harmonize with the service and aid meditation and prayer. — Musical Memories; • (liase)-to form a liaison, (// , " я  ); In those days Unicom was required to liaise with 450 servers in unit locations around the world. — The most recent articles from Computing; • (intercede)-to act or interpose in behalf of someone in difficulty or trouble, as by pleading or petition, (:3s  ); I sent a request to Mohamad Bogharib to intercede with Casembe for me for a man to show the way to Chikumbi, who is near to Bangweolo. — The Last Journals of David Livingstone from 1865 to His Death; • (mediate)- to settle (disputes, strikes, etc.) as an intermediary between parties; reconcile; Mary, for two hours before supper, implored Knox to mediate with the western fanatics. — John Knox and the Reformation; • (arbitrate)- to decide as arbitrator or arbiter; determine, (  d  s t  ; :3s  ); Great Britain refused to arbitrate, and denied our right to interfere. — A Brief History of the United States; • (arbiter)- a person empowered to decide matters at issue; judge; umpire, (( S & u- ) - -! D 'nt! a : , 3 k; 'n); Power will be the arbiter, as it always has been the arbiter. — The Iron Heel; • . / p  "  (slake)- to allay (thirst, desire, wrath, etc.) by satisfying, (Z i3 4 p   ); Around the 1880s the Foundry Arms Pub was built, no doubt to slake the thirst of the foundry workers; • (quench)-to slake, satisfy, or allay (thirst, desires, passion, etc.), (g i3 4  -  ; Z.  !  ); Peter had awakened fires that he could not quench, and aroused a spirit that he could not quell. — Oak Openings; • (solace)-comfort in sorrow, misfortune, or trouble; alleviation of distress or discomfort, (nt; p:); "His absence brought solace, and made people breathe freely." — The Tragedy of St. Helena; • (console)- to alleviate or lessen the grief, sorrow, or disappointment of; give solace or comfort, (nt 4o'; "JD &  я); When her father died, Marius did his best to console Cosette; • (inconsolable)- not consolable; that cannot be comforted; disconsolate, (nt i e); Voltaire was equally inconsolable, and still more violent in the expression of his grief. — Critical Miscellanies (Vol. 2 of 3) Turgot; console <> condole : commiserate : sympathy^ empathy • (condole)- to express sympathy with a person who is suffering sorrow, misfortune, or grief, (4 я); The divine love does not merely condole, it delivers You cannot add anything to this promise. — The Threshold Grace; • (commiserate)- to feel or express sorrow or sympathy for; empathize with; pity, (4 aJ &    я); Ambassadors, now that we're coming to know them fairly well, commiserate us. — The Life and Letters of Walter H Page; • (sympathy)- sharing the feelings of others (especially feelings of sorrow or anguish); But much as I appreciate your impulsive good will, I don't think that your sympathy is a thing which I care to accept. — We Three; • (empathy)- the intellectual identification with or vicarious experiencing of the feelings, thoughts, or attitudes of another, (a3 / aJD &  ) et "o' k); It has the tiniest little hands that go into people's hearts and make them discover their own empathy, their own pain. — Stand And Be Counted;  moderate = restrain = chasten = season = normalize {anneal} = temper > temperate^ distemper • (moderate)- to reduce the excessiveness of; make less violent, severe, intense, or rigorous, ( / 4     "o'); • (restrain)- to hold back or keep in check; control; All efforts to restrain or recover the fugitives were idle, until they had reached the woods. — The Life of Francis Marion; • (chasten)- to inflict suffering upon for purposes of moral improvement; chastise, (  : я3  s 4o'; 4    :  ); To chasten, elevate, correct, subdue, — Bitter-Sweet; • (season)- make more temperate, acceptable, or suitable by adding something else; moderate, (   ;    ",'  ); • (normalize)- to make normal; • (anneal)- to heat (glass, earthenware, metals, etc.) to remove or prevent internal stress, to toughen or temper, (:& , \ pJ.  - 4 я3 utp   - I & :, :, ,  ); When he is done, he sets the fullered and ordered iron on the back edge of the forge to anneal, and searches for another chunk of scrap. — The Magic Engineer; • (temper)- to moderate or mitigate, (/ n  ); Climate From April to September the coast has warm, mainly dry weather tempered by sea breezes; • to impart strength or toughness to (steel or cast iron) by heating and cooling; • (temperate)- moderate or self-restrained; not extreme in opinion, statement, etc., ( /  ,  ^ 43- kt,   ,Z); The son was patient, temperate, and of no great ambition. — The Man in the Twilight; • (distemper)- a deranged condition of mind or body; a disorder or disease;  chasten^ chaste <> caste • (chasten)-to inflict suffering upon for purposes of moral improvement; chastise, (  : я3  s 4o'; 4    :  ); To chasten, elevate, correct, subdue, — Bitter-Sweet; • (caste)- Hinduism. any of the social divisions into which Hindu society is traditionally divided, each caste having its own privileges and limitations, transferred by inheritance from one generation to the next; jati, (я; я p); !`); The name is derived from the Sanskrit Bhanda, a jester, and the caste are also known as Naqqal or actor. — The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India—Volume I (of IV);  abate^ bate : slacken : retrench : diminish : dilute : ebb : plummet : subside : wane # wax • (abate)- to reduce in amount, degree, intensity, etc.; lessen; diminish, (  ; p    "o'; p- h -o'   ); Her anger to Booth too began a little to abate, and was softened by her concern for his misfortune. — Amelia — Volume 3; • (bate)- to moderate or restrain; That honour which shall 'bate his scythe's keen edge, — The Man Shakespeare; • (slacken)- to make or become less active, vigorous, intense, etc., (/  ; я a 4o'); If the velocity tends to slacken, the inverse process is employed. — Scientific American Supplement, No. 664, September 22,1888; • (retrench)- to cut down, reduce, or diminish; curtail (expenses), (3' 9  ; I  ); The company said the decision to retrench was sparked by continued tough trading conditions; • (N. diminution) to make or cause to seem smaller, less, less important, etc.; lessen; reduce, (h  ; hpp "o'); When the ice caps finally began to permanently diminish, the summer floods were doubtless terrific. — The Romance of the Colorado River; • (dilute)- to make (a liquid) thinner or weaker by the addition of water or the like, ( -4) a :    ); He practised self-restraint and knew better than to dilute his fame by holding argument with small men on little topics. — Little Journeys to the Homes of the Great; • (ebb)- to fall away or back; decline or recede, (J8 -$; я' я  o';  o'; h -o'); He took charge of the University when its fortunes were at a low ebb, and the future was not bright. — The University of Michigan; • (plummet)-fall sharply, (dr -$ o'   ); It dropped like a plummet, but no man saw where it struck the earth. — The Bloody Crown of Conan; • (subside)- to become quiet, less active, or less violent; abate, ( n, p  "o', - o'); His warmth beginning to subside, he at length said in an altered voice: 'This must not go beyond this room.' — Life and Times of Washington; • (wane)- to decrease in strength, intensity, etc., (k k,!'  k,!я3  "o'; k h -o'  d "o'); The prosperity of the house, however, soon began to wane, and it was brought to bankruptcy by the crisis of 1836. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; • (wax)- increase, grow, ((  ^ nd mn, wane–e - ,)   . -o'); And the new moon waxed, and waned: and every day the a  d sun rose up as usual, and travelled slowly on, till he sank at eve, over the sand, beyond the western hill. — Bubbles of the Foam; bland ~ comforting = soothing : demulcent = salving = emollient <> emolument • (bland)- soothing or mild, ( ! o )' ', o m; d . ;  =",; ^!",); The next morning was fresh and bland, and I walked ahead of the carriage. — A Residence in France; • (soothing)- tending to assuage pain; • (demulcent)- serving to soothe or soften; • (salving)- having a softening or soothing effect especially to the skin; • (emollient)- having the power of softening or relaxing, as a medicinal substance; soothing, esp. to the skin, (t   e -4)); Sesame oil makes ideal massage oil because of its excellent emollient properties; • (emolument)- profit, salary, or fees from office or employment; compensation for services, ( '; u-я; ); It was also a position of grave responsibility; and it ought to have been one of liberal emolument, but it was not. — Benjamin Franklin; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.10 Pride arrogance, overbold, appropriate, hypothesis arrogance = hubris = haughtiness = hauteur = conceit = vanity = self-love : vainglorious • (arrogance)- offensive display of superiority or self-importance; overbearing pride, (d); A mad arrogance, a boundless confidence in himself, flamed through all his veins. — Fenwick's Career; • (hubris)-excessive pride or self-confidence; arrogance, (p a ; ; m; t ; a ; a ); Greed, hubris, and short-sighted pursuit of political advantage have been placed in the pressure cooker and the heat turned on high. — SuperFrenchie; • (haughtiness)- disdainfully proud; snobbish; scornfully arrogant; supercilious, (d; a ); Pride and haughtiness, and command and oppression, were now written on her face, and ruled her gestures. — Traditions of the North American Indians, Vol. 2 (of 3); • (hauteur)- haughty manner or spirit; arrogance, (d); He ruled his regular following with the hauteur of a superior being who does not deign to reveal himself to the first comer. — Musical Memories; • (conceit)-an excessively favorable opinion of one's own ability, importance, wit, etc., (at t ; я !m a# uc #&); He was the impersonation of impudence and self-conceit, and the banker looked angry enough to annihilate him— Make or Break or, The Rich Man's Daughter; • a fancy; whim; fanciful notion, (d'p * n; !!   ); • (vanity)- excessive pride in one's appearance, qualities, abilities, achievements, etc., (ts,; - ; a ; a ; a! m); What a vanity was all human labour, what a mystery all human life. — A Doctor of the Old School — Volume 3; • (self-love)- conceit; vanity; Thus, there was nothing like a logical harshness in his conduct, no committal of self-love, no struggle of rival talent. — Life and Times of Washington; • (vainglory)- excessive elation or pride over one's own achievements, abilities, etc.; boastful vanity; If they have left us nothing for vainglory, they have left us at least enough to be grateful for. — Lectures on Art; • empty pomp or show; self-love {narcissism} : egoism^ egotism > egotistic^ egocentric : smugness : gloat : complacency > complacent <> complaisant • (self-love)- conceit; vanity; Thus, there was nothing like a logical harshness in his conduct, no committal of self-love, no struggle of rival talent. — Life and Times of Washington; • (narcissism)- inordinate fascination with oneself; excessive self-love; vanity; Such abandonment is the recipe for creating narcissism, which is always distinguished by a lack of empathy and real concern for others. — The Irate Nation; • (egoism)- the habit of valuing everything only in reference to one's personal interest; selfishness (opposed to altruism ), (a ; t); It is political and commercial egoism which is the evil harbinger of war. — Creative Unity; • (egotism)- an inflated sense of one's own importance; conceit; Despite his superlative coxcombry and egotism, he was, moreover, a man of no mean abilities. — Fielding; • (egotistic)- being centered in or preoccupied with oneself and the gratification of one's own desires; self-centered; I ought not speak that way, it sounds egotistic, but I am old enough now to be excused for that. — Acres of Diamonds; • (egocentric)- having little or no regard for interests, beliefs, or attitudes other than one's own; self-centered, (tnd); Every word they say is motivated by the desire to manipulate and by their insatiable egocentric need for attention and admiration. — Portrait of a Killer; • (smugness)- contentedly confident of one's ability, superiority, or correctness; complacent, (tp / ; uc0 '; l2k '; 4'd 5t); He wore a Hindoo robe, let his beard grow like a Yogi ... was irritated with the unimaginative, self-seeking smugness of the grown-ups. — Tramping on Life; • (gloat)- to look at or think about with great or excessive, often smug or malicious, satisfaction, (!'& tp/  6); She comes here, too, to gloat--to rejoice--to see how I look before my son in prison stripes! — Jane Cable; • (complacency)- a feeling of quiet pleasure or security, often while unaware of some potential danger, defect, or the like; self-satisfaction or smug satisfaction with an existing situation, condition, etc, (t7 * ; tp!; p/ ); We are affected with the gratification of a benevolent desire, with self-complacency, and with undefined hopes. — Moral Science; a Compendium of Ethics; • (complaisant)- inclined or disposed to please; obliging; agreeable or gracious; compliant; Bribes for the complaisant, prison for the obstinate Men guessed what was coming. — Korea's Fight for Freedom; haughty = imperious = supercilious = swaggering = lordly = overbearing = prideful = disdainful = snotty {dirty with nasal discharge} = bigheaded = uppish = snobbish > snob • (haughty)- scornfully and condescendingly proud; Although outwardly cool and even haughty, I was really in a state of most terrible anxiety. — Adventures of Louis de Rougemont; • (imperious)-domineering in a haughty manner; dictatorial; overbearing, (2я; j; ud; #7 / ); Ah, you do not know how imperious are the reasons which force me to pursue such a course. — Recollections of the private life of Napoleon; • (supercilious)- haughtily disdainful or contemptuous, as a person or a facial expression, (aj: !& ; ; u<!k; u< ); Her eyebrows were a little raised; her expression was a little supercilious, faintly inquisitive. — The Lighted Way; • (swaggerig)- to walk or strut with a defiant or insolent air, (!m 5 =; s ; я- я ); Such an insanely jealous, swaggering, domineering, cruel fanatic is too loathsome to be interesting. — The Life and Works of Friedrich Schiller; • (lordly)- insolently imperious; haughty; arrogant; overbearing, (d'); But generations of prophets have convinced us the Ancients cannot be dead, must still dwell lordly in the cosmos. — The Day of Their Return; • (overbearing)- domineering; dictatorial; haughtily or rudely arrogant, (/ t& ; ; a u я ic 2'; -sc5'); The father of the child says that at home he is violent, overbearing, and intractable. — Spontaneous Activity in Education; • (disdainful)- to look upon or treat with contempt; despise; scorn; Though his smile was captivating, yet the expression of his month when disdainful or angry could scarcely be seen without terror. — The Memoirs of Napoleon; • (snotty)- snobbish; arrogant; supercilious; He handed the horse to Katelyn, who slanted me a snotty little smile of satisfaction. — Ms Longshot; • of or pertaining to snot ( -EF; 2; -GH); • (bighead)- an excessive estimate of one's importance; conceit; • (uppish)- arrogant; condescending; uppity, ( mJ; t ); • (snob)- a person who imitates, cultivates, or slavishly admires social superiors and is condescending or overbearing to others, (-K k !я K  t MM * *  :d pl  J  -K k m !я as Q * aj -5M -M); • (snob) (t, !я K p :d  t o !я K ' p aj !) • a person who believes himself or herself an expert or connoisseur in a given field and is condescending toward or disdainful of those who hold other opinions or have different tastes regarding this field; a musical snob; haughty : cavalier^ cavalcade • (cavalier)- a horseman, esp. a mounted soldier; knight, (aT '); • haughty, disdainful, or supercilious, (Un '; <k; a2 '; m; ud); The system which has seen cavalier disregard of immigration rules become the norm in the Home office; • (cavalcade)- a procession of persons riding on horses, in horsedrawn carriages, in cars, etc, (aT '  2HKt' -2 Kt); The rear of the cavalcade was brought up by more mules and the chariots bearing his plate and tents and all the other equipage with which a prince was wont to travel. — The Life of Cesare Borgia; brazen = bald-faced = bodacious = brash = insolent = impudent = impertinent(pert) = lippy = sassy = brassy = overbold = assuming = assumptive = presumptuous > presumption = effrontery = assumption • (brazen)- shameless or impudent, ( jя; ud); "They're bold, brazen, abominable creatures, invented for the annoyance and destruction of their superiors. — Lady Audley's Secret; • like brass, as in sound, color, or strength, ( ;    2 oя); • (bald-faced)- barefaced; • (bodacious)- audacious (recklessly brave); bold or brazen; Failure to comply with this ruling would result in a bodacious lawsuit; • thorough; blatant; unmistakable; • (brash)- impertinent; impudent; tactless, (d'; #X / ; ud); The man was cocky and brash, but with a dangerous edge to him, as well. — Ilse Witch; • (insolent)- boldly rude or disrespectful; contemptuously impertinent; insulting, (ud; #7/ ); They became insolent, and unwisely showed their contempt for the religious and social institutions which they aimed to overthrow. — Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry; • (impudent)- shameless or brazenly immodest, (#X / ; p ;  jя); The factious libels become daily more numerous and more impudent, and no man comes undamaged from the field. — PG Edition of Netherlands series — Complete; • (impertinent)- intrusive or presumptuous, as persons or their actions; / ; p ); I hope you will excuse me for insolently rude; uncivil, (a'; #7 doing what is only my duty, although it may appear impertinent; • not pertinent or relevant; irrelevant, (ap!Y); • / ; (pert)- boldly forward in speech or behavior; impertinent; saucy, (#7 a275'); I think your pert and impudent remarks call for an apology; • (lippy)- having large or prominent lips; • Slang. impudent; fresh; So he gets a bit lippy from time to time, sounding off about what a hard time he has of it. — A Place of Execution; • (sassy)- rude and disrespectful; impudent, (5; -ds); • (brassy)- made of or covered with brass; • brazen; bold; loud; • (overbold)- excessively or presumptuously bold; impudent; • (assuming)- taking too much for granted; presumptuous; We have food for about a year-assuming an average harvest this year, or even a slightly short one. — The Bear and the Dragon; • (assumptive)- taken for granted; An American is nationally assumptive, an Englishman personally so. — A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains; • (presumptuous)- unwarrantedly or impertinently bold; forward, (a  / ; p#X); He was a bold, presumptuous, ambitious, and licentious man; and his own vices betrayed him to his ruin. — Henry of Monmouth, Volume 2 Memoirs of Henry the Fifth; • (presumption)- assumption of something as true, (a * ; a * ; !m'); But I do say that in all disputes between them and their rulers, the presumption is at least upon a par in favour of the people. — Burke; • (effrontery)- shameless or impudent boldness; barefaced audacity, (d;  jя ! !); The denial of this fact only proves the effrontery, and also the stupidity, of the liars. — Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf: The World War; • (assumption)- arrogance; presumption; brazen {barefaced = shameless} • (barefaced)- shameless; impudent; audacious, (ud;  jя; g; p ); This barefaced Israeli war crime marks a historic turn to a prolonged Palestinian struggle. — Palestine Chronicle - Headlines;  bodacious : audacious = brave = intrepid = dauntless = venturesome : audacity = temerity : = fortitude = nerve = mettle = spunk > spunky = plucky ~ gamely : valiance = gallantry = valor = chivalry > chivalrous = gallant • (audacious)- extremely bold or daring; recklessly brave; fearless, (d\! !'; a!! !'; d'); The crows are equally audacious, and are dangerous to men Iying wounded in solitary places. — Arabian nights. English; • (intrepid)- resolutely fearless; dauntless, (a * ; 2]); The spirit which they breathed was bold, intrepid, and magnanimous — A Modern History, From the Time of Luther to the Fall of Napoleon For the Use of Schools and Colleges; • (venturesome)- having or showing a disposition to undertake risky or dangerous activities; daring, (^G*   pst; a * ); He would never have been so bold and venturesome, if his hunger had not made him forget his prudence. — The Lords of the Wild A Story of the Old New York Border; • (audacity)- fearless daring; intrepidity; The weakness of the patriots necessarily increased the audacity, with the strength, of their enemies. — The Life of Francis Marion; • (temerity)- reckless boldness; rashness, ( `); There is no philosophy without intellectual temerity, as there is no religion without moral temerity. — The Approach to Philosophy; • (fortitude)- mental and emotional strength in facing difficulty, adversity, danger, or temptation courageously, (, Knt&  a!# * M * bsK, t!K, '5 b#K; k); They met their fate with fortitude, and their last words were in grateful remembrance of Maconochie. — The History of Tasmania , Volume II; • (nerve)- boldness; audacity; impudence; impertinence; He had the nerve to say that?; • (mettle)- courage and fortitude, (-я; ! !); The true test of your mettle is your ability to handle "too much." — Aspen Daily News Online; • (spunky)- Informal spirited; plucky; Rolf clearly admired her spunky defiant spirit, and they hit it off almost instantly. — Dance Of Desire; • (plucky)- having or showing courage and spirit in trying circumstances; The champions are generally plucky, and seldom come out of the water of their own will. — Children of Borneo; • (gamely)- in a game or plucky manner; She'd fought gamely to keep up, but the last few hundred paces or so, he'd been forced to almost carry her. — The Seventh Gate; • (valiance)- valiant character; bravery; valor; The virtue of their valiance shall remain, — 'All's Well!'; • (gallantry)- nobility of spirit or action; courage; But he was never lacking in gallantry, and was as brave on such occasions as when all the dangers of the deep threatened him. — Richard Carvel; • (valor)- boldness or determination in facing great danger, esp. in battle; heroic courage; bravery, (! !; k; 'K; -2dK); He had distinguished himself by valor, and, but for his humble extraction and meager education, might have risen to a high command. — The Eagle of the Empire A Story of Waterloo; • (chivalry)- the medieval system, principles, and customs of knighthood; Their intercourse with the French impressed that mercurial people with exalted notions of their humanity, chivalry, and nobleness of nature. — The Memories of Fifty Years; • (chivalrous)- having the qualities of chivalry, as courage, courtesy, and loyalty, (K; -!dя; 2 '); He was a man of noble and virtuous disposition, chivalrous, and inspired with a deep sense of religion — The Great Events by Famous Historians, Volume 10; • (gallant)- smartly or boldly stylish; dashing; He proves a gallant, a capable, a successful warrior, and returns with well-won laurels. — Shakespeare His Life Art And Characters;  impertinent {irrelevant = orthogonal = extraneous {external}} • (impertinent)- intrusive or presumptuous, as persons or their actions; insolently rude; uncivil, (a'; #7 / ; p ); I hope you will excuse me for doing what is only my duty, although it may appear impertinent; • not pertinent or relevant; irrelevant, (ap!Y); • (orthogonal)- extraneous, immaterial, impertinent, rectangular; • (extraneous)- introduced or coming from without; not belonging or proper to a thing; external; foreign, (a!E7;   ; i); His job was his life, and she was an extraneous part of it. — A Man Of Honour;  impertinent # pertinent = apropos = apposite = apt = appropriate = germane : befitting : behoove : condign^ dignity • (apropose)- fitting; at the right time; to the purpose; opportunely, (e p!Y; e !m; K65; K6K6); The speech was made apropos of the projected visit of President Kruger to Berlin, when on his tour of despair to the capitals of Europe while the war was still in progress. — William of Germany; • (apposite)- suitable; well-adapted; pertinent; relevant, (K6K6; K6Kk * ); Their translations of our words into their language are always apposite, comprehensive, and drawn from images familiar to them. — A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson; • (apt)- suited to the purpose or occasion; appropriate, (!Y; K65; K6K6); an apt metaphor; a few apt remarks on world peace; • unusually intelligent; able to learn quickly and easily, ('kd * , 'k#'); an apt pupil; • (germane)- closely or significantly related; relevant; pertinent, (- g * !Y p!Y; !mK*k); But non-germane amendments give these minority viewpoints an undue advantage within that forum; • (befitting)- suitable; proper; becoming; planned with a befitting sense of majesty; • (behoove)- to be necessary or proper for, as for moral or ethical considerations; be incumbent on, (K  u5  ); Yet it behooves governments to keep a vigilant eye upon those to whom they delegate power in remote and helpless colonies. — The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus; • (condign)- well-deserved; fitting; adequate, (`; !5 * ); There is a general outcry for his condign punishment. — The Recreations of a Country Parson; • (dignity)- the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect;  presumptuous {overweening = uppity} • (overweening)- presumptuously conceited, overconfident, or proud, (at tT!'; m); It´s been a remarkable display of overweening, self righteous, arrogance and narcissism. — American Chronicle; • (uppity)- Informal taking liberties or assuming airs beyond one's station; presumptuous; Her gaze was direct, curious, and not at all uppity, and he sensed a gentleness in her that could withstand any circumstance. — Come The Spring;  assumption = premise = postulate = hypothesis = supposition = speculation = guess = conjecture = surmise • (assumption)- arrogance; presumption; • (premise)- a proposition supporting or helping to support a conclusion, (  tsr uk  ; pj); In fact, in all secular moralities, the premise is axiomatic. — Atheist Ethicist; • (postulate)- something taken as self-evident or assumed without proof as a basis for reasoning, (s\!d); The purpose of my postulates is to substitute something more precise and more effective in place of such rather vague principles. — My Philosophical Development; • (hypothesis)- a proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation, (Kk *  M !5n* ; r us , ps i; up; pl); • (hypothetical)- based on assumptions or hypotheses; supposed, (up  ; ); Color will be hypothetical, a mathematical concept only. — Asimov's Science Fiction; • (supposition)- something that is supposed; assumption; hypothesis, (a * ; l; nя; G5); In entire accordance with this supposition is the general character of the epistle. — Companion to the Bible; • (speculation)- the contemplation or consideration of some subject,( ; #&; a * ); to engage in speculation on humanity's ultimate destiny; • (conjecture)- the formation or expression of an opinion or theory without sufficient evidence for proof, (a * ; !Y &  ` #&); But it is doubtful whether this conjecture was any nearer the truth. — Absalom's Hair; • (surmise)- to conjecture or guess, (nя/ a * / !n ); Then his surmise was a true one, and he was indeed aboard one of the enemy's ships. — Across the Spanish Main A Tale of the Sea in the Days of Queen Bess;  hypothesis^ thesis = dissertation^ dissertate = discourse • (thesis)- a proposition that is maintained by argument; • (dissertation)- a written essay, treatise, or thesis, esp. one written by a candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, ( Q&  ; ', n; a !n  (K T  uc lg'   я pst  )); Under some circumstances, it is possible to write a longer, intensively supervised, dissertation; • (dissertate)- talk at length and formally about a topic; • (discourse)- communication of thought by words; talk; conversation, (k/; Q&; #2; n); The object of his discourse was a panegyric of himself and a satire on all other conjurors. — Vivian Grey;  superposition^ supposition > supposititious = supposed = putative : speculation > speculative • (suppositious)- formed from or growing out of supposition; • (putative)- commonly regarded as such; reputed; supposed, (!55  5; a * ); As a transformative thinker, he has always taken care to emphasize the connections between incarcerated lives and lives that unfold in the putative arenas of freedom; • (speculative)- not based on fact or investigation; But he grounded a claim to promotion on the fact that he had â œalways avoided speculative, and preached practical, religion. — Sydney Smith; insolence = impudence = impertinence ~ chutzpah : forward • (insolence)- the quality or condition of being insolent; Sometimes he succeeded, but more often his insolence was submitted to by men as brave as he, but who wished to avoid trouble with him. — The Life of Kit Carson; • (impudence)- the quality or state of being impudent; effrontery; insolence, (#X/ ; p ;  jя); But his impudence is not a manner of prudence, an art of remaining vague, an elegant method of having no opinion. — Chantecler Play in Four Acts; • (impertinence)- insolence; Shortly afterwards I heard that the governor's daughter married the man whose leg I had lamed for his impertinence to me. — Sketches From My Life; • (stoic)- unmitigated effrontery or impudence; gall; "What an enormous chutzpah you possess," I told him. — Nine Princes In Amber; • (forward)- used of temperament or behavior; lacking restraint or modesty; • (froward)- habitually disposed to disobedience and opposition; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.11 Boast boast, pompous, meretricious, fustian boast = bluster = gasconade = brag > braggart = blowhard = vaunter = bragger^ braggadocio = swagger = bravado = rodomontade • (boast)- to speak with excessive pride; But Mrs. Croly's proudest boast was that she was a woman's woman. — Memories of Jane Cunningham Croly; • (bluster)- to be loud, noisy, or swaggering; utter loud, empty menaces or protests,(я-я ; a kd o ); His bluster, his temper, his noisy hilarity, had always antagonized her. — Rainbow Valley; • to roar and be tumultuous, as wind, (  , u i  p! " p  o ); “Let the storm wind bluster,” cried Jack, “we’ll set sail tonight.”; • (gasconade)- extravagant boasting; boastful talk; They were excessively given to gasconade, and every true Canadian boasted himself a match for three Englishmen at least. — Montcalm and Wolfe; • (brag)- to talk boastfully; His conversation was one incessant brag, in atrocious French. — Recollections Of My Childhood And Youth; • (braggart)- a person who does a lot of bragging, (# i $;  %#   m ! ); If you refuse to wrestle, I will brand you as a blower and a braggart--a fellow not fit to be accepted in the society of gentlemen. — Frank Merriwell's Races; • (blowhard)- an exceptionally boastful and talkative person; • (vaunter)- one who vaunts; a boaster; a braggart; A vaunter and a liar are near akin. — The Proverbs of Scotland; • (bragger)- one who brags; • (braggadocio)- empty boasting; bragging; This has been told us by one of your workmen, to whom you disclosed the matter in your braggadocio way. — The Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini; • a boasting person; braggart; • (swagger)- to walk or strut with a defiant or insolent air, ("m '! "( ; )s !, я-я ); Bluster and swagger were foreign to his nature, and he loathed a bully as much as a coward. — Theodore Roosevelt An Intimate Biography; • (bravado)- a pretentious, swaggering display of courage, (  d ; d,   ); False bravado is the initial reaction of the poser. — studentlinc; • (rodomontade)- pretentious boasting or bragging; bluster; Among their opponents the most formidable are Rogero and the pagan Rodomont, whose boastful language has given rise to the term rodomontade. — The Book of the Epic; flaunt = vaunt = flash = tout • (flaunt)- to parade or display oneself conspicuously, defiantly, or boldly, ()tp 0 "/ я  ; я1 / 3#4 ); A slim and trim and well toned body is a delight not only to flaunt, but also to behold; • (vaunt)- to speak vaingloriously of; boast of, (я1 , m, )s ! ); "Where’s now the imperious vaunt, the daring boast, — The Iliad; • (flash)- to give off light or be lighted in sudden or intermittent bursts; • (tout)- to describe or advertise boastfully; publicize or promote; praise extravagantly, (5 u"5 я ;  ! ! ); We achieved the well-nigh impossible, a full scale trial without an observer or a tout in sight. — Bonecrack; grandstand : vapor : rhapsodize : crow • (grandstand)- to conduct oneself or perform showily or ostentatiously in an attempt to impress onlookers; The weekend indeed had been topped off by the anticipated grandstand performance. — Buried Alive, The Biography of Janis Joplin; • (vapor)- to talk or act grandiloquently, pompously, or boastfully; bluster; • (rhapsodize)- to talk with extravagant enthusiasm, (uc " !7  ! ); Instead of answering the question, Valentine instantly began to rhapsodize about the child's face. — Hide and Seek; • (crow)- to gloat, boast, or exult; She crowed her superiority. — DragonFlight; tumid = turgid = bombastic = orotund = declamatory = pompous = pontifical = grandiloquent = magniloquent = overblown = bloated = flatulent^ inflated : billowing : wake(of wave) • (tumid)- swollen, or affected with swelling, as a part of the body, ((" a/p/ m"n) ( ! ; s$; (1 : ); • pompous or inflated, as language; turgid; bombastic, ((1 :"  ! ;   m :; < ); I especially dislike his tumid style; I prefer writing that is less swollen and bombastic; • (turgid)- swollen; distended; tumid, (( ! ; s$); His face grew more and more turgid, and suddenly he slammed down on the floor, gave a kick or two and lay very still A man leaned over and held his wrist. — 048 - The Derrick Devil; • inflated, overblown, or pompous; bombastic, (b #m :; < ); • (bombastic)- ostentatiously lofty in style; I hurl defiance at my century, sounds a trifle bombastic. — The Life and Works of Friedrich Schiller; • (orotund)- (of the voice or speech) characterized by strength, fullness, richness, and clearness, ( 3 $;  m ); The following example requires the union of declamatory force, low pitch, slow rate, monotone, and orotund quality: -- — The American Union Speaker; • (of a style of speaking) pompous or bombastic, (%>  :; < ;  #m ); • (declamatory)- ostentatiously lofty in style; Its success has introduced or confirmed among us the use of dialogue too declamatory, of unaffecting elegance and chill philosophy. ' — Life Of Johnson; • (pompous)- characterized by an ostentatious display of dignity or importance, ( #m ; я1 "! ; )tm ; ap :$); Sometimes a pompous, pretending title hits the mark at once and wins a name. — Life and Remains of John Clare; • (pontifical)- of, pertaining to, or characteristic of a pontiff; papa, (: :  :-mn$); In spite of his prayers that he might be spared the degradation of being arrested while still clad in his pontifical habits, he was at once sent to the Bastile. — The Life of Marie Antoinette; • pompous, dogmatic, or pretentious, ( 0 tя , : k n); The Colonel was smiling now; his handsome face was gradually assuming the expression pontifical. — The Valley of the Giants; • (grandiloquent)- speaking or expressed in a lofty style, often to the point of being pompous or bombastic, (  #m :; < ); His language is free, perfectly clear, often redundant, sometimes grandiloquent, and usually addressed more to the pit than to the boxes. — Studies in Early Victorian Literature; • (magniloquent)- speaking or expressed in a lofty or grandiose style; pompous; bombastic; boastful, (  #m :; < ; # # B "! e%); Lamb's verses were always good, steady, and firm, and void of those magniloquent commonplaces which so clearly betray the immature writer. — Charles Lamb; • (overblown)- overinflated; turgid; bombastic; pretentious, (a% t  ps<5; r:; ">F); The storm which threatened the former was overblown, and he was in season to avert that by which the latter was threatened. — The Life of Francis Marion; • (bloated)- swollen; puffed up; overlarge, (s$; ap G); "Microsoft's license agreement for a bloated, inefficient and unreliable operating system is evil, anti-competitive, and offensive." — MSDN Blogs; • excessively vain; conceited,(); • (flatulent)- having unsupported pretensions; inflated and empty; pompous; turgid; It is a thin, flatulent, and innutritious food, and incapable of supporting infantine life with energy. — The Book of Household Management; • (inflated)- distended with air or gas; swollen; • puffed up, as with pride; His idea of his own importance was ludicrously inflated, and it led him into mischief. — A Place Called Freedom; • unduly expanded in amount, value, or size; characterized by inflation; • (billowing)- a great wave or surge of the sea, (ut !  /;  5 u); The sails from over a hundred ships were like the billowing clouds of an approaching storm front. — Witch War; • (wake)- the track of waves left by a ship or other object moving through the water, (s /  " я  "я %:"B :J " ut (! я!" 7 , (" 7 ); The wake of the swan gliding through the water glistened in the moonlight. Reporters and photographers converged on South Carolina in the wake of the hurricane that devastated much of the eastern seaboard; tumid {erect} ^ tumescent = intumescent = puffy > puff • (erect)- being in a vertical, upright position; Swiftly and furtively the man stood suddenly erect, and began to push the window slowly up. — Beyond the City; • (tumescent)- pompous and pretentious, esp. in the use of language; bombastic, (s$, ( ! , L% , ("! oM ); • (intumescent)- the state of being swollen; • (puffy)- inflated, distended, or swollen; Her face was puffy, her eyes a wasted gray, grief-dim and frighteningly remote. — Buried Alive, The Biography of Janis Joplin; • (puff)- to praise unduly or with exaggeration, (   N"  ("!  (1": a я " ! ); So all gave him a puff, and two of the better sort wrote really fine editorials about him. — The Honorable Peter Stirling and What People Thought of Him; • to make fluffy (( ! ); fluff; orotund {rotund = sonorous} • (rotund)- round in shape; rounded,( ! ! o hP:P  ); • plump; fat,( d d  ); Douglas was a thick-set, rotund man, whose florid gills revealed that he was a host for boon companions. — The Lincoln Story Book; • full- toned or sonorous, (( ns p"/)  я; u t; grm$ ); • (sonorous)- loud, deep, or resonant, as a sound, (U%; !!  ); His instrumentation was very full and sonorous, and his dramatic instinct excellent. — A Popular History of the Art of Music From the Earliest Times Until the Present; pompous = ceremonious : consequential • (pompous)- characterized by an ostentatious display of dignity or importance, ( #m ; я1 "! ; )tm ; ap :$); Sometimes a pompous, pretending title hits the mark at once and wins a name. — Life and Remains of John Clare; • (ceremonious)- carefully observant of ceremony; formally or elaborately polite, ()V   %  ;  #m ); His department was ceremonious, and he made a decided impression on strangers. — Perley's Reminiscences; • (consequential)- following as an effect, result, or outcome; resultant; consequent, ((!sr:); • self-important; pompous, ()t 3% $ ! ); I shall become consequential, and pompous, and altogether insupportable, and then you will leave me and never realize that it has been all your fault. " — Mr. Crewe's Career — Volume 3; strut : grandiloquent^ grandiose • (strut)- to walk with a vain, pompous bearing, as with head erect and chest thrown out, as if expecting to impress observers, (": :' ; ); Johnson did not strut or stand on tip-toe: He only did not stoop. — Life Of Johnson; • any of various structural members, as in trusses, primarily intended to resist 0 longitudinal compression, ( M "% k d  я pP M  5 ); • (grandiose)- affectedly grand or important; pompous, (# ) " : l,  #m , p!, 0 t%); Berlioz was above all the composer of the grandiose, the magnificent. — A Popular History of the Art of Music From the Earliest Times Until the Present;  meretricious = ostentatious = pretentious = flashy = garish = brassy = gaudy = tawdry = shoddy = tacky = tatty = kitsch = kitschy ~ exhibitive • (meretricious)- alluring by a show of flashy or vulgar attractions; tawdry, (  ' ' %); His style is splendid without meretricious ornament, and copious without being redundant; • (ostentatious)- characterized by or given to pretentious or conspicuous show in an attempt to impress others, (! 7 " :Nn " e%; я1 "! ); Eleanor often described Lady Renable as frivolous and ostentatious, and it was not an inaccurate description. — SlightlyDangerous; • (pretentious)- making an exaggerated outward show; ostentatious, (>Fk  N #  5 0 t  gr"t   ; )t 3% $; m; )ts [ ); Punctilious propriety is always pretentious, and pretentiousness is always an attempt at fraud. — Lessons in Life A Series of Familiar Essays; • (flashy)- ostentatiously or vulgarly smart; showy; gaudy, (uяj! o ) ^$  nt r'; '5  ;  "); Not flashy, not even tooled leather, but made out of the tightest-woven and heaviest cloth I'd ever seen. — The Magic of Recluce; • (garish)- crudely or tastelessly colorful, showy, or elaborate, as clothes or decoration, (ap$ 3 " uяj!); • excessively ornate or elaborate, as buildings or writings, (aL я  a!`0; '5 "! ;  5  "5); His flowered Hawaiian shirt was garish, all red and yellow, short-sleeved, fraying at the cuffs. — UglyAmericans; • (brassy)- made of or covered with brass; • brazen; bold; loud, (!jя;   ); The sentimental Mexican ballad that had been playing softly on the radio was abruptly replaced with a brassy rock number. — A Man Called Jesse; • (gaudy)- ostentatiously ornamented; garish, (я% "! ; r'$3 " ' '" ); Everything is handsome without being gaudy, and admirably adapted for the climate. — Life in Mexico; • a festival or celebration, esp. an annual college feast; • (tawdry)- (of finery, trappings, etc.) gaudy; showy and cheap, (r'$3 " я% "! ; '5  ); Measured by the highest standard, his style must be criticised as often spasmodic, tawdry, and meretricious. — Great Italian and French Composers; • (shoddy)- of poor quality or inferior workmanship, (m% " ; 7"! ;  "я; d); One hears complaints that their goods are shoddy, but they have a remarkable power of adapting artistic taste to industrialism. — The Problem of China; • (tacky)- (US-tathy) sticky to the touch; adhesive, ('5'"5; )M "! ; 1 ' ); With a tacky neowool blanket draped over his shoulders, Palma shuffled out of the cave. — Galaxy Jane; • (tatty)- cheap or tawdry; vulgar; a tatty production of a Shakespearean play; • shabby or ill-kempt; ragged; untidy; Perhaps she would buy a sandwich and go and sit in the churchyard tucked away between the tatty streets. — Two Weeks To Remember; • (kitsch)- something of tawdry design, appearance, or content created to appeal to popular or undiscriminating taste, (a3$ ; 3 :; < ; a ); Sacrifice can be avoided, and kitsch is the great lie that we can both avoid it and retain its comforts. — Sierra Highlands; • (exhibitive)- tending to exhibit; What Descartes missed, according to Norris, was the distinction between God as intelligible, or exhibitive, and God as intelligent, or conceptive (Miscellanies 440, Theory I 357-358);  ostentatious > ostensible > ostentation = fanfare = pomposity • (ostentatious)- characterized by or given to pretentious or conspicuous show in an attempt to impress others, (! 7 " :Nn " e%; я1 "! ); Eleanor often described Lady Renable as frivolous and ostentatious, and it was not an inaccurate description. — SlightlyDangerous; • 0 (ostensible)- outwardly appearing as such; professed; pretended, (p  ;  : 'P  u:s : ; ! "7 " ); The relationship between Cornley and his fans is ostensible, and the captain shows no qualms about his gratitude. — The Daily Collegian Online - News; • apparent, evident, or conspicuous, (  p$% ; ): ); They have exercised the right to determine from the circumstances whether the ostensible was the real destination. — The New York Times Current History, A Monthly Magazine The European War, March 1915; • (fanfare)- an ostentatious display or flourish; Their return was greeted quietly and with-out fanfare, the members of the Associative not being the overly demonstrative type. — Sentenced To Prism; • a flourish or short air played on trumpets or the like, (> <  ); • (pomposity)- pompous conduct or character; pompousness; ostentation; The proclamation was so far from answering the general's intention that it was derided by the people as a model of pomposity. — Life and Times of Washington;  bedizen = dizen • (bedizen)- to dress or adorn in a showy, gaudy, or tasteless manner; Sometimes people cover their heads with filth or ashes; and sometimes they bedizen them with crape and white streamers. — The British Barbarians; • (dizen)- Archaic to deck out in fine clothes and ornaments; bedizen; fustian = claptrap = bombast = rant = harangue = screed ~ peroration^ oration > orator > oratory : valediction > valedictory • (fustian)- inflated or turgid language in writing or speaking, (  #m :; < ; ;3 < ; a ); Even in the stage version there is quite too much of rant and fustian. — The Life and Works of Friedrich Schiller; • a stout fabric of cotton and flax, (:r  , %я  , % 5  :#  "^); • (claptrap)- pretentious but insincere or empty language, (N %" ">  ) ^;    "  0 3 3/  %n); Do not be deceived u"d"  by newspaper claptrap, madam. — The Inca of Perusalem; • (bombastic)- speech too pompous for an occasion; pretentious words, ()#m :;< 3 ^ ; (1 !  ); Much of its imagery was bombastic, and far beyond the conception of a boy of my age. — My Life — Volume 1; • (rant)- to speak or declaim extravagantly or violently; talk in a wild or vehement way; rave, (ucs" o  5 $ 3/" k0 o  ) 0 ); The demagogue ranted for hours; • ranting, extravagant, or violent declamation; His postures were sometimes negligent enough; he had a contempt for rant, and hated show and pomp. — Discourse of the Life and Character of the Hon Littleton Waller Tazewell; • (harangue)- a long, passionate, and vehement speech, esp. one delivered before a public gathering, (!m -'o# (e4 p   f :; < ) k0 ); Under the scathing criticism of the opposition the pent-up fury of the original speaker vented itself into a fiery harangue; • (screed)- a long discourse or essay, esp. a diatribe, ($[ e4 $  !7 ; e "[1" $[ k0 ; 3 я 3 я ); I have been much bothered with ear-ache lately, but if all goes well I will send you a screed by the middle of March. — The Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley; • (peroration)- a long speech characterized by lofty and often pompous language, (k0 ^ 4, k0 "^ pL  k" 4kp3 " : ;); After this singular peroration, the speaker pauses to see what may be the effect of his words. — The Flag of Distress A Story of the South Sea; • (oration)- a formal speech, especially one given on a ceremonial occasion; Mr. Cooke says truly of this oration, that nearly all his leading ideas found expression in it. — Ralph Waldo Emerson; • (oratory)- the art of public speaking; This field of occasional oratory was a new and peculiar one for him. — Select Speeches of Daniel Webster; • (valediction)- an act of bidding farewell; a leave-taking; It may now be read as my parting address and valediction, made to my friends. — Apologia Pro Vita Sua; • (valedictory)- bidding good-bye; saying farewell, ( $;   !$); Then he uttered a valedictory which I have always been glad to recall as his last message, for I never saw him again. — The Story of a Pioneer; rant {rave = jabber = spout} • (jabber)- to talk or utter rapidly, indistinctly, incoherently, or nonsensically; chatter, (u"tя3 " B ! ; # " ); He curses me, but his words are just jibber-jabber. — 123 I Love You; • (spout)- Informal to speak volubly and tediously; And when it starts spouting, there won't be any doubt about this being Satan's Gateway. — 040 - Haunted Ocean; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.12 Perception visual perception, see, attractive, attract discern > discernible : descry • (discern)- to recognize or comprehend mentally; That sort of proud and stainless chivalry seems to me to be about the brightest thing we can discern, and the furthest beauty we can recognise. — Father Payne; • (discernible)- capable of being discerned; distinguishable, ( ;   ); The cause is not always discernible, and cases sometimes resist all treatment. — Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine; • (descry)- to see (something unclear or distant) by looking carefully; discern; espy; From my window I could descry, at no great distance, a very ordinary mortal of a man, working industriously among his cabbages. — Revolution, and Other Essays; comely # unsightly # bonnie ~ personable ~ engaging : winsome : pulchritude • (comely)- pleasing in appearance; attractive; fair, (( k mn) ; n  ); She looks youthful and comely, and is very gentle and lady-like. — Passages from the English Notebooks, Volume 2.; • ant. homely (not good-looking, unattractive) • (unsightly)- distasteful or unpleasant to look at, (  ;   ; ;   ); This ship that we are on, a few months ago, was but unsightly ore in the ground. — The Wedge of Gold; • (bonnie)- very pleasing to the eye; And did the bees still give the same bonnie honey, and were the red apples still in the far orchard? — Richard Carvel; • (personable)- of pleasing personal appearance; handsome or comely; attractive, (  ; !я # $ ); He's personable, and has a real flair for making complex design ideas seem simple and easily replicated; • (engaging)-winning; attractive; pleasing, (%&); His manner was frank and engaging, and won him many friends. — Great Fortunes, and How They Were Made; • (winsome)- sweetly or innocently charming; winning; engaging, (( k o  () mn) %&; ; )*  ; uяj#); He is one of the most winsome, charismatic candidates to have appeared on the scene in decades. — South Dakota Politics;  attract = allure = lure = decoy = entice = magnetize = mesmerize = enamor = bewitch = becharm = beguile = captivate = capture = entrance = trance = fascinate : charisma : cynosure • (allure)- to attract or tempt by something flattering or desirable, (p#b  ; g ); Between 1871 and 1878 nine volumes in swift succession allured, provoked, or bewildered the reading world. — Robert Browning; • (lure)- to attract, entice, or tempt; allure,(p#1; ; 2); The plants emitted some kind of lure to attract victims. — Conan the Indomitable; • Falconry. a feathered decoy for attracting a hawk, swung at the end of a long line and sometimes baited with raw meat, (pk я4* %k я  h uяj# 4#gc); • (decoy)- to lure by or as if by a decoy, (u p#b   4 9#; 24 9#; 9: 4 ); • a trained bird or other animal used to entice game into a trap or within gunshot, ( ud a 4=4* %> ?  я  h 4=  4*); The way these people had used civilians as a decoy is absolutely sickening; • (entice)- to lead on by exciting hope or desire; allure; inveigle, (p( / я ); Such lovely sights do not only please, entice, but ravish and amaze. — The Anatomy of Melancholy; • (magnetize)- to make a magnet of or impart the properties of a magnet to, ((m ); Steel is more difficult to magnetize, but retains its magnetism for a long time. — Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium; • to exert an attracting or compelling influence upon: The evangelist's oratory magnetized his listeners, ( k    ,  d   (m  %& ); • (mesmerize)- to hypnotize; He had used his power to mesmerize, implanting a false set of memories and imposing a distorted sense of the passage of time. — Prince of the Night; • (enamor)- to fill or inflame with love (usually used in the passive and fol. by of or sometimes with): to be enamored of a certain lady; a brilliant woman with whom he became enamored, (g   ak )o; pg  )o); He spent that time enamored of becoming a "Renaissance Man". — Sunlight Through The Shadows Magazine Volume 1 Issue 6 (ANSI Edition); • (bewitch)-to affect by witchcraft or magic; cast a spell over, (d d  ; m) ; )1 %& ); "Don't look at the Fairy Aurora, for her eyes bewitch, her glances rob a man of his reason. — Roumanian Fairy Tales; • (becharm)- control by magic spells, as by practicing witchcraft; • (beguile)- to influence by trickery, flattery, etc.; mislead; delude, (F# ; p  ; %n   (p  1# я )); He was once beguiled, amongst friends very intimate, into telling a dream. — Biographical Study of A. W. Kinglake; • (captivate)-to attract and hold the attention or interest of, as by beauty or excellence; enchant, () / m) / g  ); The plausibility of the Design argument at first captivated, then bewildered, and finally dissatisfied me; • (capture)- attract; cause to be enamored; • to take by force or stratagem; take prisoner; seize, (n ; я o; F## !# )s ); The place was entirely destroyed by fire when captured from the French by the English, a piece of sanguinary work which cost the latter five thousand lives!; • (entrance)- to fill with delight or wonder; enrapture, (%pl ; a11$ ); • to put into a trance: to be hypnotically entranced; I was entranced, and a new world of thought and feeling opened before me. — A Backward Glance at Eighty; • (trance)- to entrance; enrapture; It will be a great pleasure when you hear him in the trance, and wipe his feet upon the bass. — Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character; • (fascinate)- to attract and hold attentively by a unique power, personal charm, unusual nature, or some other special quality; enthrall, (p#1 g ; %& ); As we look on such eyes, we think on the tiger, the serpent, beings who lurk, glide, fascinate, mysteriously control. — Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli; • (charisma)- a spiritual power or personal quality that gives an individual influence or authority over large numbers of people, ((  tt) JK r; % t k, !n  )); He carried a tangible charisma, an air of complete authority, and it was evident that the other handsome warriors deferred to him. — The Skrayling Tree; • (cynosure)-something that strongly attracts attention by its brilliance, interest, etc., (%&  kt); She was more than ever now the cynosure, the adored, of the fine young gentlemen. — Zuleika Dobson, or, an Oxford love story;  rapt^ enrapture = ravish = enthrall = enchant = delight = transport = spellbind = transfix {impale = empale} • (rapt)- deeply engrossed or absorbed, (g; ) ); Morel is portrayed as in prayer, his hands clasped, his expression rapt. — Promenades of an Impressionist; • (enrapture)- to move to rapture; delight beyond measure, (4n ); Even after so many years of her death, Christie continues to enrapture us and keep us in the thrall of her irreducible magic; • (ravish)- to fill with strong emotion, esp. joy, (%n )# ; g  ); The remembrance of these times of happiness and innocence frequently returning to my mind, both ravish and affect me. — The Confessions of J J Rousseau; • to seize and carry off by force, (F o); • to rape (a woman), (# ); • (thrall)- to captivate or charm: a performer whose grace, skill, and virtuosity enthrall her audiences, (g  ); The only part of the book which holds us enthralled is the famous description of Dick Turpin's ride to York. — The Tale of Terror A Study of the Gothic Romance; • bond; slave; It is a bad sign when a king has a secret to share with a thrall, and I have a mind to find out what it is. — Havelok the Dane A Legend of Old Grimsby and Lincoln; • (enchant)- to subject to magical influence; bewitch: fairytales about witches who enchant handsome princes and beautiful maidens, (nt-g  ; ) ; 4#  ); The scenery of the valley is very prepossessing, being sure to enchant the eye throughout its entire length. — The Life and Adventures of Kit Carson; • (delight)- a high degree of pleasure or enjoyment; joy; rapture, (4 %n; )&; ul; 4#  ); But her delight is all in archery, — A Book of Myths; • (transport)- strong emotion; ecstatic joy, bliss, etc., (%n aS  %t)); Margo was a creature of extremes, at one moment in transports of joy over a vivid sunset, at another moment in transport of grief over a dying bird- Barron’s GRE; • (spellbind)- to hold or bind by or as if by a spell; enchant; entrance; fascinate; She could use her clerical powers to spellbind the young man .... — War of the Twins; • (transfix)- to make or hold motionless with amazement, awe, terror, etc, (a  o); The assistants part, transfix, and roast the rest: — The Iliad; • to pierce through with or as if with a pointed weapon; impale, (d ); • (impale)- to pierce with a sharpened stake thrust up through the body, as for torture or punishment, (d  #d $ ); Then grasshoppers were caught, impaled, and dropped into a pool. — Dusty Diamonds Cut and Polished A Tale of City Arab Life and Adventure; • (empale)- to pierce with a sharp stake or point; "My quills these rascals shall empale, and ease thy torments without fail.” — A Hundred Fables of La Fontaine; auditory perception, hear, strident, dulcet grating = raspy = harsh ~ raucous = strident = shrill : clarion : clangor = clank : stentorian : sonorous • (grate)- (of a sound or noise) harsh, discordant, or rasping; The atrocious name grated harshly on my ear, too. — The Innocents Abroad; • a frame of metal bars for holding fuel when burning, as in a fireplace, furnace, or stove; • (raspy)- harsh; grating, (); He drew a more serious expression, leaned in closer, and when he spoke, it was in a raspy, confidential voice. — The Thrill of Victory; • easily annoyed; irritable; • (harsh)- ungentle and unpleasant in action or effect, (rU; ); The fingers played upon these as upon a guitar, drawing forth a very low, harsh, and disagreeable tone. — The Story of Ida Pfeiffer; • (raucous)- harsh; strident; grating, (; 4r&); Her voice had become almost raucous, and a faint dull red strangely discolored and altered her face. — In the Wilderness; • (strident)- making or having a harsh sound; grating; creaking, (uc; ; k); I was depicted as strident-voiced ... belligerent ... waving my arms wildly. — Tramping on Life; • (shrill)- high-pitched and piercing in sound quality, ( k; ; ; uc); A shrill, agonized scream reverberated back into the tunnel from just beyond its end. — The Gates of Thorbardin; • (clarion)- shrill, trumpetlike sound, (я  ud4  я uc  ks Y); Her name was well known and became widely familiar when her "Cry of the Children" rang like a clarion throughout the country. — Life of Robert Browning; • (clangor)- a loud, resonant sound; clang, (a UZ UZ b); His ear no longer drinks the rich melody of music; it longs for the trumpet's clangor, and the cannon's roar. — The American Union Speaker; • (clank)- a metallic sound, sharp and hard but not resonant; The anchor comes up clank, clank, as the great chain cable is wound up by the donkey engine, and now we move off silently and smoothly. — The Women of the Arabs; • (stentorian)- very loud or powerful in sound, (uc\k  ; ); His voice was stentorian: his hand stretched out in debate, — The Last Man; • (sonorous)- loud, deep, or resonant, as a sound, (\, ##  ); His instrumentation was very full and sonorous, and his dramatic instinct excellent. — A Popular History of the Art of Music From the Earliest Times Until the Present; uproarious = vociferous = blatant = clamant = clamorous > clamor = cacophony = blare = din • (uproarious)- making an uproar; confused and noisy, as an assembly, person, etc, (])hl_4 $ ); The dignity of the answer seemed to imply a contempt for the threateners, and the mob grew more uproarious. — The Life of Marie Antoinette; • (vociferous)- crying out noisily; clamorous, (uc; )`#); Outside roared a gale more than usually vociferous, and a steady parade of ice ghosts streamed past the windows. — Astounding Stories January, 1935; • (blatant)- brazenly obvious; flagrant; Consequently, if a logical error in a thriller seems blatant, the entire narrative construction may appear to fall down like a house of cards. — The House Next Door; • offensively noisy or loud; clamorous; blatant radios; • (clamant)- clamorous; loud; This is the clamant, imperious need of man. The solitude of life in its ultimate issue is because we were made for a higher companionship. — Friendship; • (clamorous)- full of, marked by, or of the nature of clamor, (uc #4$ ); The frogs were clamorous, and every now and then came the bass boom of a bull-frog. — Jerome, A Poor Man A Novel; • (cacophony)- harsh discordance of sound; dissonance; From behind her and within the room came a cacophony of instruments shattering and furniture breaking. — Dirge; • (blare)- a loud, raucous noise, (  a\); He had a loud voice, and twisted his words so badly, that his singing was like the blare of a trumpet. — Winning His Way; • glaring intensity of light or color; • (din)- a loud, confused noise; a continued loud or tumultuous sound; noisy clamor, (e2 uc b; )`#); To concentrate in the midst of such a din was almost impossible. — Men of Affairs; obstreperous = boisterous = rambunctious • (obstreperous)- resisting control or restraint in a difficult manner; unruly, (uc?c#; a ); But so obstreperous was the crowd, that it was next to impossible. — Mardi: and A Voyage Thither, Vol. I (of 2); • (boisterous)-rough and noisy; noisily jolly or rowdy; clamorous; unrestrained, ((   k   %( m) aя ; ])e(4 $ ; ul); He was loud and boisterous, always laughing and singing, and never able to work consecutively at anything. — The Souls of Black Folk; • (rambunctious)- boisterous and disorderly; He looked like a Kentucky colonel and was a wild, wild man with a great spreading nose and a rambunctious soul. — The Great Escape; dulcet = honeyed ~ euphonic ~ harmonic ~ mellifluous = mellifluent^ mellow • (dulcet)- pleasant to the ear; melodious, ((& b mn) >  ;     ); Her tones are dulcet, and her voice is so mellow and well modulated that I visualize her as another Venus. — Reveries of a Schoolmaster; • (honeyed)- pleasantly soft; dulcet or mellifluous; The honeyed incense of the organ, harps and trumpets was new to him and pleased his Olympian nostrils. — Musical Memories; • (euphonic)- agreeable sound, especially in the phonetic quality of words, (\-   >); Many of our most pleasing euphonic words, especially in the realm of music, have been given to us directly from the Italian. — How to Speak and Write Correctly; • (harmonic)- pleasing to the ear; He loved the pianoforte as an instrument for personal melodic and harmonic expression, and understood the range of its tonal resources. — Edward MacDowell; • (mellifluous)- sweetly or smoothly flowing; sweet-sounding, ((   k s, S, a i  pa)    ; ##  ); The Russian language is indeed more mellifluous, more lingering, more caressing, fuller of sighs than the Polish. — Life of Chopin; • (mellifluent)- mellifluous; Their voices are stronger and more mellifluent than the eastern phoebe's, but the manner of delivery is not so sprightly and gladsome. — Birds of the Rockies; • (mellow)- soft, sweet, and full-flavored from ripeness, as fruit, ( o >  ; #); She loved him for the mellow civilization of his heart and for the wild savageness of his garb. — The Memories of Fifty Years; • ? ); soft and rich, as sound, tones, color, or light, ( o b *:2 o d Olfactory perception, smell, stinky, aromatic olfactory : foul-smelling = funky = ill-scented = foetid = fetid = smelly = stinky = noisome = malodorous : effluvium : mephitis • (olfactory)- of or relating to olfaction, (gZkn); Surplus was in a frenzy, due possibly to his superior olfactory senses, and there was no hope of talking sense into him. — Asimov's Science Fiction; • (foul-smelling)- offensively malodorous; I have no words to describe what I went through in that vile, foul-smelling place. — Richard Carvel; • (funky)- having an offensive smell; evil-smelling; foul; Then leave you on remand in funky Brixton where you can sit and wait for the Ryans to waste you! ' — Dangerous Lady; • (funk)- overcome with great fear; terrified, (p(i 1; ) j; g); • Jazz. having an earthy, blues-based quality or character, (a mn, % o dr #, 1d#); The groove of the record is confident and funky, and at times very swinging; • (ill-scented)- offensively malodorous; His ill-scented, but lucrative, works were situated a mile out of the town; and within sight of the reeking chimneys stood a large, plain house — Born in Exile; • (stoic)- having an offensive odor; stinking; Also the stench was so dreadful that we must bind linen about our nostrils to strain the foetid air. — Moon of Israel; • (fetid)- having an offensive odor; stinking, (4:$ n); The smell of the fresh plant is extremely fetid, and, when taken, it will purge, or provoke vomiting. — Herbal Simples Approved for Modern Uses of Cure; • (smelly)- Informal having a noticeable, usually unpleasant or offensive odor; If you get dirty or sweaty or smelly, just make up your mind to stay that way. — Destination Brain; • (stinky)- having an unpleasant smell; And that's where they put me, in one of those stinky rooms with four other women. — The Kitchen God's wife; • (noisome)- offensive or disgusting, as an odor, (4_ (& n mn); ; 1); The vapor from this pool was extremely noisome, and tainted the air for a considerable distance; • (malodorous)- having an unpleasant or offensive odor; smelling bad, (dn, dnk ); The waste left from the process is usually greenish in color and often malodorous. — Infection Control Today Articles; • (effluvium)- a slight or invisible exhalation or vapor, esp. one that is disagreeable or noxious; We strove desperately to escape the horrible effluvium, but it could not be avoided unless we buried our heads. — Sixteen Months in Four German Prisons Wesel, Sennelager, Klingelputz, Ruhleben; • (memphitis)- an offensive smell; a stench; Come along with me, and get the mephitis blown out of you. — The Whirlpool; smelt ~ emit : emanate : fetor = stench = reek <> wreak • (smelt)- emit an odor; • to fuse or melt (ore) in order to separate the metal contained, (#; % #   4S ? ); The furnace-man smelts tin with copper to create a special alloy used in making bells; • (emit)- to give or send out (matter or energy); • (emanate)- to flow out, issue, or proceed, as from a source or origin; come forth; originate, (  u S  %; p) )o); The first things you emanate are your appearance and your body language; • (fetor)- an offensive odor; a stench; That place was heavy with the fetor of corruption. — The Silver Spike; • (stench)- an offensive smell or odor; stink, (dn; 4:$ n); That horrible chemical stench was entirely mysterious: hot metal and belly acid and thoroughly rotted grass. — The Legacy of Heorot; • (reek)- a strong, unpleasant smell, ( b dn); Foliage left in the water deteriorates quickly and will not only cause the flowers to reek, but pollutes the drinking water for the flowers; • (wreak)- to inflict or execute (punishment, vengeance, etc.), (p   p )Z p n2    ); There was a handful of anarchists out to wreak havoc but the vast majority were there for a passionate but peaceful protest; musky ~ aromatic = fragrant = odorous = odiferous = odoriferous = perfumed = redolent {evocative > evoke} • (musky)- of or like musk, as an odor, (stn); It was a musky, ammoniacal smell, somehow not alien even though it was unfamiliar; • (aromatic)-having an aroma; fragrant or sweet-scented; odoriferous, (n  ; p:p#); It might be called the aromatic essence of all life. A poem is the incarnation of this aroma, the condensation of it into form. — Essays Æsthetical; • (fragrant)- having a pleasant odor; The beautiful, warm air was peculiarly fragrant, and I noticed it got cooler and fresher as we went on. — The Story of My Life; • (odorous)- having a distinctive odor, (1  ); The bakery was always bright and odorous, and at this hour filled with customers; • (odiferous)- shortened variant of odoriferous, odorous or fragrant; He expresses his displeasure by leaving odiferous little loaves everywhere. — Passage at Arms; • (perfumed)- filled or impregnated with perfume; The stuffy, over- perfumed room suddenly seemed insupportable to her. — The Frozen Heart; • (redolent)- having a pleasant odor; fragrant, ( F  s? ) b n; s? 1  ); Gadhafi welcomed Rice in a room redolent of incense; • (evocative)- tending to evoke, (s? -я); An evocative, provocative and hauntingly beautiful drama produced by Ivor Powell and directed by Miguel Sapochnik; • (evoke)- to call up or produce (memories, feelings, etc.), ( Y %; s? я #); Poetry is the use of words to evoke emotions; thurify = incense {infuriate} • (thurify)- to scatter incense; cense; • (incense)- an aromatic gum or other substance producing a sweet odor when burned, used in religious ceremonies, to enhance a mood, etc, (   ; 4 $ ); Their treasures, offering incense, myrrh, and gold. — England's Antiphon; • to inflame with wrath; make angry; enrage, (kd, 4n , p4 ); • (infuriate)- to make furious; enrage, ( k nt );Her answer and her glare seemed to infuriate him more. — Seeds of Yesterday; gustatory perception, taste, savory, comestible, cuisine, gourmand, cloy, acerbity tart : racy : stimulating ~ piquant = spicy = zesty = savory > savor = bask = relish {gusto} : flavor • (tart)- having a sharp pungent taste; sour; Crab apples are tart, almost inedible, except in jellies. — Songs of the Humpback Whale; • sharp or bitter in tone or meaning; cutting; • (racy)- having a distinctive and characteristic quality or taste; Numbers of other pioneers were there, and each contributed his share of racy anecdotes and pleasant reminiscences. — Last of the Great Scouts The Life Story of William F Cody; • (stimulate)- making lively and cheerful; Reading which does not result in enlarging, stimulating, and refining one's nature is but a busy idleness. — Select Speeches of Daniel Webster; • (piquant)- agreeably pungent or sharp in taste or flavor; pleasantly biting or tart, (p:p# nt sd  ;  я utя nt * ); Her physiognomy is keen and piquant, her expression reveals all the emotions of her soul—she does not have to say what she thinks, one guesses it. — Women of Modern France; • (spicy)- piquant; zesty; A spicy, pungent odor filled the Writer's nostrils. — Cyberbooks; • (zesty)- having an agreeably pungent taste, (r(; sd  ); And his prose is zesty and inviting, full of witty metaphors. — Asimov's Science Fiction; • (savory)- pleasant or agreeable in taste or smell, (k   ud n o sk  ; (); A hot savory and a cold salad make a good combination for the summer luncheon, and the savory is a useful dish for the disposition of left-over scraps of meat, fish, etc —The Suffrage Cook Book; • (savor)- the quality in a substance that affects the sense of taste or of smell, (s; n; %я; %1; s n  p? u41 ); The restaurant offers a variety of foods savored by locals and tourists; • (bask)- to lie in or be exposed to a pleasant warmth, (  4)); Basked in the moonlight's ineffectual glow, — The Complete Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley — Volume 1; • (relish)- hearty enjoyment; zest; The country abounds in a fine light blue flowering perennial pea, which the people make use of as a relish. — The Last Journals of David Livingstone from 1865 to His Death; • (gusto)- hearty or keen enjoyment, as in eating or drinking, or in action or speech in general, (  F  %n); The mutton was eaten with gusto, and it did one good to see what a hearty appetite the pale-faced lady had. — Of Human Bondage; • (flavor)- distinctive taste; savor; This bulbous root is said to be of a delicious flavor, and highly nutritious. — The Adventures of Captain Bonneville; toothsome = palatable > palate <> pallet <> palette • (toothsome)- pleasing to the taste; palatable, (sd  ; *(  ); This was an especially toothsome dish, and all partook freely and with relish. — Reminiscences of a Pioneer; • (palatable)- acceptable or agreeable to the palate or taste; savory, (r(; sd); "Yes, when it is palatable, which is not often: commonly it has a bitter taste in the swallowing. — The Justice of the King; • acceptable or agreeable to the mind or feelings; • (unpalatable) - not palatable; unpleasant to the taste, (s; ap ; ar(); Accordingly, extreme care must be taken in preparing the fish for human consumption, ensuring that the unpalatable organs are removed. — The Register; • (palate)- the roof of the mouth in vertebrates; His palate was as keen for good talk as for good wine. — Samuel Johnson; • (pallet)- a small poor bed, (*_ ); You have a little bed and a pallet, and it is warm, so you do not need quilts. — A Little Girl in Old Salem; • (palette)- a thin and usually oval or oblong board or tablet with a thumb hole at one end, used by painters for holding and mixing colors, ((t x # o  я  h Y  k); He uses a minimalist palette, as well, of seven colors plus white; potable : victual = eatable = edible = comestible <> combustible • (potable)- fit or suitable for drinking, (4 ); A person here pretends to have discovered the method of rendering sea-water potable, and has some respectable certificates of its success. — The Writings of Thomas Jefferson Library Edition - Vol. 6 (of 20); • (victual)- food fit for human consumption; I scarcely allow meat and fish and beer and victual to my family and to the poor. — Samuel Rutherford; • (edible)- fit to be eaten, especially by humans; Tull gathered some lichen that was edible, if not deliciously so, and they also chewed on that as they rested. — Conan the Indomitable; • (comestible)- edible; eatable; The seeds yield an oil that is used for illumination and as a comestible Botanical Description — The Medicinal Plants of the Philippines; • (combustible)- capable of catching fire and burning; inflammable; flammable, ()я ) ); Everybody knew petrol was combustible, too, but that didn't mean anybody could design a Porsche. — Be My Enemy; • easily excited, (( k mn) )я utя ) e); victuals = viands = vittles = commissariat = provisions = provender {stock} : purveyor • (victuals)- food supplies; provisions, (/ * d ) ); The marquis tells me, the islanders want arms, victuals, and mortars and cannon to annoy the town. — The Life of the Right Honourable Horatio Lord Viscount Nelson; • to supply with victuals; • (viands)- an article of food; The soldiers, however, had some right to be in temporary possession, since the viands were their own. — On the Heels of De Wet; • viands, articles or dishes of food, now usually of a choice or delicate kind; • (vittles)- victual; • (stoic)- any of the major governmental divisions of the U.S.S.R.: called ministry since 1946; • the department of an army charged with supplying provisions, ( ) я * o a  d m ) 1pp 1); The transport broke down; the commissariat was most imperfect; and Sir George Lawson of Cumberland was unable to supply the army with sufficient beer. — Henry VIII.; • (provisions)- provisions, supplies of food; They knew that the provisions were at an end and this very knowledge spurred them on to make their last sacrifice. — The Story of the Great War, Volume V; • (provender)- dry food, as hay or oats, for livestock or other domestic animals; fodder, ( n_ 4= * ,  (#, n, , i ; 4=* ); • food; provisions, (  * ; 1kd ); Seemingly the only Londoners who enjoy any extensive variety in their provender are the slum-dwellers—Europe Revised; • (stock)- a supply accumulated for future use; a store; As soon as the stock was corralled, Jim rode up to me with one of the sticks that had a scalp on it in his hand. — Chief of Scouts; • standard; typical; kept regularly in supply; Although the stationery store kept only stock sizes of paper on hand, the staff would special-order any items not regularly in stock; • (gustatory)- a person who purveys, provides, or supplies foods, (*  )  k); The different sensory stimuli to which man reacts-tactual, visual, gustatory, auditory, and olfactory-are produced by vibratory variations in electrons and protons. — Autobiography of a Yogi; cuisine : culinary : alimentation > alimentary <> elementary • (cuisine)- a style or quality of cooking; cookery, (n 4d &); Our music is French, our cuisine is an agglomeration, and we all aspire to look American. — Floating City; • (culinary)- of, pertaining to, or used in cooking or the kitchen, (nn aS nn m ); Mr. Mushet thinks it more probable that the discovery was made on the conversion of wood into charcoal for culinary or chamber purposes. — Industrial Biography; • (alimentation)- maintenance; support; It would seem that this divine alimentation ought to make men themselves divine. — Youth and Egolatry; • (alimentary)- concerned with the function of nutrition; nutritive, (4>  ; 4>Zkn  ); Colon cleansing is very important to keep the alimentary canal in good health; • alimentary canal – * #, ## • (elementary)- of, relating to, or constituting the basic, essential, or fundamental part; His knowledge of the strange history of the Gypsies was very elementary, of their manners almost more so, and of their folk-lore practically nil. — The Life of George Borrow; bouillon : ambrosia : condiment = seasoning : repast : gruel • (bouillon)- a clear, usually seasoned broth made by straining water in which beef, chicken, etc., has been cooked, or by dissolving a commercially prepared bouillon cube or cubes in hot water, (Z o   4 d    4  ]   )); Hot bouillon, various meats, salads, cakes, ices, fruits and confections are an ideal menu. — Book of Etiquette, Volume 2; • (ambrosia)- food of gods; He will become an eater always of ambrosia, and an adorer always of gods and guests. — The Mahabharata of Krishna- Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 3 Books 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12; • (condiment)- something used to give a special flavor to food, as mustard, ketchup, salt, or spices, (*  sd   я  h d S g_ #, %(, (2, p1? ); The Italians regard wine as a condiment, something that is as much a part of every meal as salt, pepper and olive oil. — Aspen Times - Top Stories; • (seasoning)- something, such as a spice or herb, used to flavor food; He ate them raw, without seasoning, and served them up the same way. — Analog Science Fiction and Fact; • (repast)- a quantity of food taken or provided for one occasion of eating, feast, banquet; The Duke breakfasted at nine and the repast was a very simple one. — The Duke's Children; • (gruel)- a light, usually thin, cooked cereal made by boiling meal, esp. oatmeal, in water or milk, (d aS я# 92 яi-e ]  # *); And the wife prepared bowls full of rice-gruel, and every one, children and all, ate the rice-gruel till the skins on their stomachs felt quite tight. — Deccan Nursery Tales; gustatory : gastronomy^ gastronome = gourmand = gourmet = epicure = bon vivant : connoisseur • (gustatory)- of or pertaining to taste or tasting, (sZkn); The Thai restaurant offered an unusual gustatory experience for those who used to bland cuisine; • (stoic)- the art or science of good eating, (1я   ); My involvement with molecular gastronomy has been a spare time activity besides my research; • (gastronome)- a connoisseur of good food and drink; a gourmet; Tears and shrieks accompany the descent of the gastronome. — Ordeal of Richard Feverel — Volume 5; • (gourmand)- a person who is fond of good eating, often indiscriminatingly and to excess, ( 1я-#  k); These five girls were like five dishes placed before a gourmand, who enjoys them one after the other. — The Complete Memoirs of Jacques Casanova; • (gourmat)- a connoisseur of fine food and drink; epicure, (4 o 1я  k); You looked like a gourmet just sitting down to a well- covered board, or a miser gloating over his treasure. — Memoirs of Robert- Houdin; • (epicure)- a person who cultivates a refined taste, esp. in food and wine; connoisseur, (4- 1я); The Honourable and Reverend Montacute himself was an epicure, and disliked conversation during dinner. — Tancred Or, The New Crusade; • (bon vivant)- a person with refined taste, especially one who enjoys superb food and drink; • (connoisseur)- a person who is especially competent to pass critical judgments in an art, particularly one of the fine arts, or in matters of taste, (p  (r# & j; 4i (; p); For the music connoisseur, the music that a piano creates is so sweet and pleasant that it makes listening to it worthwhile; gourmand = trencherman = glutton^ glut • (trencherman)- a hearty eater; He was a valiant trencherman, and strong drink was a passion and a weakness with him. — Conan -- The Stories from Weird Tales (1932-1936); • (glutton)- a person who eats and drinks excessively or voraciously, (a 1я  k; 42  ); She is a little bit of a glutton is my Jane, and she overate herself at tea at the Singletons'. — A Modern Tomboy A Story for Girls; • (glut)- to feed or fill to excess; cloy, (a k *o); • to feed or fill to satiety; sate, (a k ) d F 9#); The manufacturers glutted the market and could not find purchasers for the many articles they had produced; gorge = glut = overeat = binge = pig out = stuff oneself • (gorge)- to stuff with food, (k  *o; * U# )o); The gluttonous guests gorged himself with food as though he had not eaten for days; • a narrow cleft with steep, rocky walls, esp. one through which a stream runs, (j2); But what makes the site special is the vertigo- inducing gorge, which is covered with moss and plants; • (binge)- a drunken spree or revel; He and I decided to go on a monumental binge, trying to hit every bar and officer's club in the sector. — The Forever War; • (pig out)- an instance of overindulging in eating; food binge; • (stuff oneself)- to overeat;  cloy = pall = surfeit = sate = satiate > insatiable : voracious = ravening = ravenous = rapacious = insatiable = esurient = edacious : crave : aspire • (cloy)- to weary by an excess of food, sweetness, pleasure, etc.; surfeit; satiate, (m, * , %n i  %   d ar( > ?   ar(  ); The pudding was creamy without being cloying, and the thin pour of wine over the top was a stroke of genius. — Monster Munching; • (pall)- to have a wearying or tiresome effect , (n   (#   h ) 9# k   ? } )o); "The novelty of being thoroughly outclassed soon palls, I would imagine." — Mary Balogh - Lady with a Black Umbrella; • a cloth, often of velvet, for spreading over a coffin, bier, or tomb, (   9 1 4_); • (surfeit)- to bring to a state of surfeit by excess of food or drink, (* o 4 %  , a 4  a 1я r ass; &); He felt a loss of appetite from surfeit, and his energy itself decreased and sickness afflicted him; • (sate)- to satisfy (any appetite or desire) fully, (m$r  4 ? p ); Eventually, both guide and guest found themselves sated by the surfeit of available stimulation. — Sliding Scales; • (satiate)- to satisfy to the full; sate; Cyberpunk Reloaded brings together a varied compilation of articles to satiate the appetite of the most avid fans; • (insatiate)- not satiable; incapable of being satisfied or appeased, ( ? p); (-a ? p); Their hunger for power and importance is insatiable, and it makes them mean. — Isaac Asimov - Murder at the ABA; • (voracious)- craving or consuming large quantities of food, (a n k     #1; ug; k  ; g; ); They are extremely voracious, and the slightest privation of food drives them to frenzy, or kills them. — Anecdotes of the Habits and Instinct of Animals; • (ravening)- rapacious; voracious, ()Zs;   ; uci); Battle raged within the giant Cimmerian, ravening lust warring with his will. — Conan The Triumphant; • (ravenous)- extremely hungry; famished; voracious, (k   ; 1  k ; ##4  ; #1; k  ); I never saw anything like the ravenous, hungry people. — The Romance of Isabel Lady Burton Volume II; • (rapacious)- excessively grasping, plundering, ( #1; ##4  ; )Zs); It would be equally absurd to represent him as a corrupt, rapacious, and bad- hearted man. — Critical and Historical Essays — Volume 1; • (esurient)- hungry; greedy; • (edacious)- devouring; voracious; consuming; The instant you enter the Thunderbird, you are overcome with an edacious distaste and a puncturing depression. — Half Asleep in Frog Pajamas; • (crave)- to long for; want greatly; desire eagerly, ( #1   ;  #  ic я); Everything you crave is yours. — The Harvester; • (aspire)- to long, aim, or seek ambitiously; be eagerly desirous, esp. for something great or of high value, (ucc- _ )o); To live is to aspire; to cease to aspire is to die. — Expositions of Holy Scripture Psalms;  replete <> deplete • (replete)- abundantly supplied or provided; filled, (1 ; 44 $ ); The movie star’s memoir(autobiography, biography) was replete with juicy details about the love life of half of Hollywood; • (deplete)- to decrease seriously or exhaust the abundance or supply of, ( $  9#; &/ *# ; 9_  o); When the building materials deplete, the beavers move on to another location; swill = guzzle = quaff : tipple : lap • (swill)- to drink greedily or excessively, ( #1  4 ; #); This he loved to hear sung to the accompaniment of the harp as he swilled down his red wine. — German Culture Past and Present; • (guzzle)- to drink, or sometimes eat, greedily, frequently, or plentifully, (  UU  #); I know people who can guzzle a bottle of wine and still walk a straight line; • (quaff)- to drink a beverage, esp. an intoxicating one, copiously and with hearty enjoyment; If the juice of that fruit is quaffed, it conduces to peace of mind. — The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 2 Books 4, 5, 6 and 7; • (tipple)- to drink intoxicating liquor, esp. habitually or to some excess, (4  a1 s )o;  2); They amused themselves freely on the Lord's day; they patronized games and plays; and they tippled and — William Penn; • (lap)- to take in (liquid) with the tongue; lick in, (яh  # 4S 4 ); The kitten neatly lapped up her milk. The waves softly lapped against the pier; • to fold over or around something; wrap or wind around something, (1:я  42 ); to lap a bandage around one's finger; • *  %g) a %tpZ   regale {treat} : fete = celebration = feast = fiesta = festival • (regale)- to entertain lavishly or agreeably; delight, (*   %n  , 4 ? p/ ( S ); This tenderness, this sweetness, this regale is nothing else but the Presence of God in the praying soul. — Santa Teresa an Appreciation: with some of the best passages of the Saint's Writings; • (treat)- to provide with food, entertainment, or gifts at one's own expense; The ride out there was a great treat, and very much enjoyed by us all. — Life in the Grey Nunnery at Montreal; • to act or behave in a specified manner toward; • (fete)- a day of celebration; holiday, (u, 4; %n a€  ); • to entertain at or honor with a fete, (m *); He was feted, applauded, and surrounded by his own people. — Life of Chopin; • (feast)- a meal that is well prepared and abundantly enjoyed; And full compensation their stomachs get, as the feast is a literal gorge of meat and drink. — Russia As Seen and Described by Famous Writers; • (fiesta)- a festival or religious holiday; It was the very picture of simple joy, a fiesta celebration. — Ellery Queen Mystery Magazine; unsavory {offensive = distasteful} • (unsavory)- not savory; tasteless or insipid; • unpleasant in taste or smell; distasteful, ( Z;  kя;  kя; ar(); • socially or morally objectionable or offensive; If the author does something unsavory, the contract can be canceled by the publisher. — Writerswrite.com's Writer's Blog; • (offensive)- causing resentful displeasure; highly irritating, angering, or annoying, (2 ; a1); All emissions should be free from offensive odor beyond the process site boundary as perceived by the Inspector; •  unpleasant or disagreeable to the sense, (2n ); • (distasteful)- unpleasant; disagreeable; It grew so distasteful, that later he gave it up and, on account of extreme poverty, returned to his parents 'home, where he had the leisure to write. — The World's Great Men of Music; savorless = insipid = vapid = bland = flavourless ~ brackish = briny = salty • (savorless)- having no savor; destitute of smell or of taste; insipid; Organized charity is a sapid and savorless thing; its place among moral agencies is no higher than that of root beer. — The Shadow On The Dial, and Other Essays 1909; • (insipid)- without distinctive, interesting, or stimulating qualities; vapid, (; ); Reality became insipid, almost hateful to me; conversation, except that of the literary men to whom I have alluded, a burden. — Personal Recollections; • (vapid)- lacking or having lost life, sharpness, or flavor; insipid; flat, (; s; ); The performance of duty, and not an indulgence in vapid ease and vapid pleasure, is all that makes life worth while. — An Autobiography; • ? ; ]>); (bland)- soothing or mild, (%( o S    o m; d %&)); The next morning was fresh and bland, and I walked ahead of the carriage. — A Residence in France; • (flavorless)- without flavor; tasteless; • (brackish)- distasteful; unpleasant; • slightly salt; having a salty or briny flavor, (ƒ& #); The water available during the April to August growing season tends to be brackish, which isn't good for most crops. — Articles; • (briny)- of, relating to, or resembling brine; salty; And on the briny ocean, men never fought more bold, — Drake Nelson and Napoleon; acetic ~ acidulous ~ acerbic = acrid = caustic = blistering = vitriolic = sulfurous = mordant = pungent ~ biting • (acetic)- pertaining to, derived from, or producing vinegar or acetic acid, (m); The use of chemical reagents, such as acetic acid, and various hardening fluids, came into fashion not long after. — Form and Function A Contribution to the History of Animal Morphology; • (acidulous)- slightly sour, sharp; caustic; The melodies are less acidulous, the moods less unbridled. — Musical Portraits Interpretations of Twenty Modern Composers; • (acerbic)- sour or bitter tasting; acid; Then he raised one eyebrow, and his expression went from acerbic, to sardonic. — Joust; • (acrid)- sharp or biting to the taste or smell; bitterly pungent, (a n 2 ; p:p#; b); His tone became more acrid, his sarcasm more biting, more envenomed. — The Sign of the Spider; • (caustic)- capable of burning, corroding, or destroying living tissue, (k; )); I am caustic, and sometimes offend people at first sight; but I am a good friend at heart to such as you. ' — Merry Men; • severely critical or sarcastic; • (blister)- harsh; severe; With his enemy off-balance, he regained his feet and launched a blistering attack, but his arm was weary and he was beaten back. — Ghost King; • (vitriolic)- very caustic; scathing, ()я; p:p#; a  g; b n4 $ ); He jumped rapidly from argument to anecdote and was vitriolic in attack. — My Memories of Eighty Years; • (sulfurous)- characteristic of or emanating from burning sulfur; The air was foul, and though his magic nullified the poison, it could not sweeten the stench of the sulfurous fumes, remove the rank odor of death. — Into the Labyrinth; • (mordant)- sharply caustic or sarcastic, as wit or a speaker; biting, ( b;  ; dr4t); The reproof was mordant, and the worst offenders crouched under the lash. — Henrik Ibsen; • (pungent)- sharply affecting the organs of taste or smell, as if by a penetrating power; biting; acrid, ((n, s i  mn) _; k; b); The air was pungent, and grew steadily more pungent as he neared her dwelling. — F ;SF; - vol 096 issue 02 - February 1999; • (biting)- causing a stinging sensation; nipping; Her tone was biting, her annoyance at him still high. — Conan the Defender; caustic {corrosive = erosive} = acerbic {astringent = bitter = acrimonious} • (corrosive)- having the quality of corroding or eating away; erosive, (k}); Excellent chemical and physical properties make the Fuseal piping system the best choice for handling corrosive waste streams. — ThomasNet Industrial Newsroom - Today's New Product News; • (erosive)- causing erosion; The carrying and erosive powers of a river depend on the rapidity of its currents. — Aether and Gravitation; • (astringent)- harshly biting; caustic, (&; Z(; rk; …); The drug has a feeble odour and an astringent, aromatic and bitter taste. — Find Me A Cure; • (bitter)- having a harsh, disagreeably acrid taste, like that of aspirin, quinine, wormwood, or aloes; Gay's disappointment was bitter, and for a person usually so placid, his indignation tremendous. — Life And Letters Of John Gay (1685-1732); • (acrimony)- sharpness, harshness, or bitterness of nature, speech, disposition, etc., ( яя, %(-%( o 1&  k ; ug ; s12 ); We live in a difficult time and political acrimony is at fever pitch, but it is essential to the health of our nation's liberty and to the continued operation of the social compact that we learn to treat one another with respect and courtesy;  trenchant : piercing = incisive > incise > incision = slit = dent <> dint = means • (trenchant)- incisive or keen, as language or a person; caustic; cutting, (p# k o 1); If they were sometimes trenchant, the blade was of fine temper. — Endymion; • vigorous; effective; energetic; • (piercing)- penetrating; sharp; keen; It is quite certain that a rapid, piercing, commanding expression of eye and features was characteristic of him. — The Life of Captain Matthew Flinders; • (incisive)- penetrating; cutting; biting; trenchant, ( F; k; 2- 2); Emerson's style is epigrammatic, incisive, authoritative, sometimes quaint, never obscure, except when he is handling nebulous subjects. — Ralph Waldo Emerson; • (incise)- to cut into, as with a sharp instrument, ( F/ cn ; *i ); Drafts for similar inscriptions have been found on clay tablets, written for the use of the workmen who were to incise them on stone. — Assyrian Historiography; • (incision)- the act of incising, ( F;    ); Jorgenson pressed four-by- four pads into the incision, but the blood continued to flow. — Critical Condition; • (slit)- a long, straight, narrow cut or opening, (Z 9:  92#); It was the work of a moment with his belt dagger to make a slit, to which he put his eye. — Conan the Defender; • (dent)- a depression in a surface made by pressure or a blow, (  … u4 # %n  (4 9# > ?  ; 2#); He ran his finger down the dent, then dusted off his hands as he stood up. — The crush; • ?    *); By dint of hard work I am (dint)- force; power, ( k 9# > now Chief Editor; • (means)- how a result is obtained or an end is achieved;  incise # excise = expunge • (excise)- to cut out or off, as a tumor, ( :2 9#); If the tumour is seated close to the membrana tympani, and has a broad and sessile base, then it cannot be excised or noosed with any degree of success; • an internal tax or duty on certain commodities, as liquor or tobacco, levied on their manufacture, sale, or consumption within the country, (an†=l); Reductions in the duties of customs, excise, and stamps had all been followed by increase in their proceeds. — The Life of William Ewart Gladstone, Vol. 1 (of 3) 1809-1859; • (expunge)- to strike or blot out; erase; obliterate, (F  9#; #* p  S F  o); Were it possible to expunge these details of their records, and clearly it is not, to do so would be to re-write history in the utterly mendacious way of the worst totalitarian regimes; acidity ~ acerbity = acrimony = bitterness = tartness • (acidity)- sourness; tartness; Bogotas of good grade are noted for their acidity, body, and flavor. — All About Coffee; • (acerbity)- harshness or severity, as of temper or expression, (S, яя, %(  k ; rk ); He perceived in Bonaparte a kind of acerbity and bitter irony, of which he long endeavoured to discover the cause. — Complete Project Gutenberg Collection of Memoirs of Napoleon; • (bitterness)- having a harsh, disagreeably acrid taste, like that of aspirin, quinine, wormwood, or aloes; After we have been filled at the source of all bitterness, our thirst will be quenched at the very Fountain of all sweetness. — The Story of a Soul; • (tartness)- having a harsh, disagreeably acrid taste, like that of aspirin, quinine, wormwood, or aloes; A faint tartness, the somewhat musty odour of old country houses, ascended from the tiled and ruddled floor that glistened like a mirror. — La faute de l'Abbe Mouret;  harshness = abrasiveness > abrade • (harshness)- ungentle and unpleasant in action or effect, (rˆ ;  ); It was contended that his measures displayed great and unnecessary harshness, and were calculated to break down the effectiveness of the navy. — The Life of Admiral Viscount Exmouth; • (abrasive)- any material or substance used for grinding, polishing, etc., as emery, pumice, or sandpaper, (F n&  # 9# я  h  4S); Carborundum is used as an abrasive, that is, as a material for grinding and polishing very hard substances—An Elementary Study of Chemistry; • (abrade)- to wear off or down by scraping or rubbing, ( я n&   # 9#); Waves abrade the shore and strew the debris worn from it over the lake bed. — The Elements of Geology; • to make weary through constant irritation; wear down spiritually;  asperity {sharpness} = rigorousness = severity • (asperity)- harshness or sharpness of tone, temper, or manner; severity; acrimony, ( ; rk ); Even his partisan editorials were free from the least tinge of asperity--and this is a supreme test of a sweet and courteous nature. — California Sketches, Second Series; • (sharpness)- The pain of their sharpness was indistinguishable from the pain of their heat. — The Best Revenge; • (rigorous)- characterized by rigor; rigidly severe or harsh, as people, rules, or discipline, (…; p(i; b); His government was firm, rigorous, and impartial. — History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire — Volume 4; • (severity)- harshness, sternness, or rigor, (… ; b ; p(i ; p# ); Some theological schools are distinguished for their severity, and others for their sentimentalism. — Sermons to the Natural Man; tactile sensation, touch tactile = tangible = palpable • (tactile)- perceptible to the touch; tangible, (sg) ); He had tactile, auditory and visual hallucinations of a religious and sexual coloring. — Studies in Forensic Psychiatry; • (tabgible)- capable of being touched; discernible by the touch; material or substantial, (s d   ; F:  e; s; ; >); Now the authorities are much less tangible, they exercise their power more clandestinely; • (impalpable)- readily or plainly seen, heard, perceived, etc.; obvious; evident; • (impalpable) - not palpable; incapable of being perceived by the sense of touch; intangible, (as; d  ); This little group is perpetually at work adding to a fortune which is invisible, impalpable, and incalculable. — The Roman Question; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.13 Facial Expression face, types of look, types of laughter, types of crying visage = face = kisser = smiler = physiognomy : appearance • (visage)- the face, usually with reference to shape, features, expression, etc.; countenance, (  ;   ); Dark were these of hair and visage, and their arms were the ancient bow and spear. — The Singing Mouse Stories; • (kisser)- Slang the face; Hit me in the kisser with your left wing tank and you'll be all right, Junior. — The Bridges at Toko-Ri; • (smiler)- a pleasant or agreeable appearance, look, or aspect; • (physiognomy)- the face or countenance, esp. when considered as an index to the character, (    t g  d); Did they perceive in his physiognomy, his true name, and authentic history? — Historic Doubts Relative To Napoleon Buonaparte; • (appearance)- outward aspect; The only peculiarity that I noted in their appearance was as to their heads. — The Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe; agape ~ gawk = gape = goggle : ogle = leer • (agape)-with the mouth wide open, as in wonder, surprise, or eagerness, (( s  i   ! )  ); Brother Reymond stared at them in dumb shock, his mouth agape with surprise. — The Robin And The Kestrel; • (gawk)- to stare stupidly; gape, (      "  ); The country boy gawked at the skyscrapers and neon lights of the big city; • an awkward, foolish person; I must have distinguished myself, staring at her like a gawk. — The Queen of Sheba ; My Cousin the Colonel; • (gape)- a wide opening; gap; breach, (s $% ); The sides of the wound gaped, and the blade was visible to my prying eyes. — Wilfrid Cumbermede; • (goggle)- to stare with wide and bulging eyes; The best moment of the morning came, however, when the pastor of the ship faced me, goggle-eyed and marveling. — The Story of a Pioneer; •  ' (ogle)- to look at amorously, flirtatiously, or impertinently, (  &  "  ); He strove to smile adoration on Brilliana, but mistrust marred his ogle, and a shiver of fear betrayed his simper of confidence. — The Lady of Loyalty House A Novel; • (leer)- to look with a sideways or oblique glance, esp. suggestive of lascivious interest or sly and malicious intention, (()   , a , ' ); I can't concentrate with you leering at me; & • leery - suspicious, cautious; That leery, sleery, slippery, poisonous face was hateful to him as the mask of a serpent. — The Man Who Lost Himself; askance : sneer : frown = glower = wrinkle forehead = glare = scowl : purse = pucker : grimace • (askance)- with a side glance; sidewise; obliquely, (-n &' ()     ); He looks at me askance, and shies away from conversation with me. — Wives and Daughters; • with suspicion, mistrust, or disapproval; • (sneer)- a contemptuous facial expression, sound, or statement, (a j - 0  -,   " ); Almost at once I was recognised, and there passed before me a continual stream of men and boys, and one after the other offered some foul sneer or gibe or scoff. — Oscar Wilde; • (frown)- to wrinkle the brow, as in thought or displeasure; This witty rejoinder made the arrogant soldier frown, and the talk suddenly ceased. — The Great Italian and French Composers; • (glower)- to look or stare with sullen dislike, discontent, or anger, (kd ' 2 3 &    ); Seated on the platform behind the speaker, the abbot began to glower, waiting for the worst. — A Canticle for Leibowitz; • (wrinkled)- having wrinkles; rugose; corrugated; The walls were elastic and wrinkled, shrunken to a third the size of the lungs. — The Legacy of Heorot; • (glare)- look at with a fixed gaze; The girl glared at the man who tried to make a pass at her; • (scowl)- to wrinkle or contract the brow as an expression of anger or disapproval; He scowled, and then looked quickly down the list held by the man standing near him. — The Mystery of the Missing Man; • (purse)- to gather or contract (the lips or brow) into wrinkles or folds; pucker; She had long, drooping eyelashes, a little pursed-up mouth, and narrow, pointed teeth, like a squirrel's. — The Song of the Lark by Willa Cather; • a small bag or pouch for carrying money; • (pucker)- to gather into small wrinkles or folds; The salt seemed to pucker my mouth, and I believed it to be powdered alum. — A Mind That Found Itself; • (grimace)- a facial expression, often ugly or contorted, that indicates ' ; 24); Prince Andrew stopped and made disapproval, pain, etc, (   a grimace, as if expecting something unpleasant. — War and Peace; wink : squint • (wink)- to close and open the eyelid of one eye deliberately, as to convey a message, signal, or suggestion, (   55  ); He gave me a little smile and something like a wink, and I knew that he had got his promotion. — Father Payne; • (squint)- to look with the eyes partly closed, as in bright sunlight; The habit of self-adoration had given her a moral squint, a defect which was aggravated by a powerful imagination and excellent reasoning faculties. — Frederic Chopin as a Man and Musician; guffaw : chortle = chuckle : titter = giggle : snicker = snigger : simper = smirk • (guffaws)- a loud, unrestrained burst of laughter, (a6 - o ); The giggles turned to guffaws, then great roaring whoops of laughter that made her sides ache. — The Warslayer; • (chortle)- to chuckle gleefully, (ul -:  ); Even the top medical scientists now claim that a good chortle has an enormous effect on the way we live our lives; • (chuckle)- to laugh quietly or to oneself; My guru gave a welcoming chuckle, as though to a child. — Autobiography of a Yogi; • (titter)- to laugh in a restrained, self-conscious, or affected way, as from nervousness or in ill-suppressed amusement, (    $  - $ ; 0  -); Some of the courtiers began to titter, but King Krewl was greatly annoyed. — The Scarecrow of Oz; • (giggle)- to laugh with repeated short, spasmodic sounds; She tried to suppress a giggle, and almost succeeded. — Conan the Defender; • (snicker)- to laugh in a half-suppressed, indecorous or disrespectful manner, (   -  - ); The boy could not suppress a snicker when the teacher sat on the tack; • (snigger)- to snicker; Instead of a discourse on opposites and paradox, however, there had been another snigger. — Even Cowgirls Get The Blues; • (simper)- to smile in a silly, self-conscious way, (     - ;   -); She would smile and simper, and talk kindly and gaily enough at first, during Sir Brian's life; and among women, when Barnes was not present. — The Newcomes; • (smirk)- to smile in an affected, smug, or offensively familiar way, (  ; (tp '  - o ); Her eyebrows were arched, her mouth shaped into something that could only be described as a smirk. — AHMM, October 2006; snivel = sniffle = snuffle = whine : cackle • (snivel)- to run at the nose; have a runny nose, (   n  %  ); I'm not fooled by the sentimentalism of the profession or the sniveling claims of being an apostle of public enlightenment. — Success A Novel; • (sniffle, snuffle)- to weep or whimper lightly with spasmodic congestion of the nose; He had to sniffle himself as he imagined their gruesome death. — Soul of the Fire; • (whine)- to complain or protest in a childish fashion, (pm (A   ; B     ); He broke out in a whine, and ran after me, limping. — In Those Days; • (cackle)- to laugh or talk in a shrill manner, (uc b  - "  ); But even as the lark's song pierced his heart with its sweetness, a harsh cackle made him cringe. — Test of the Twins; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.14 Body Types thin, fat cadaverous = bony = emaciated = gaunt = angular = haggard = pinched = skeletal = wasted = lanky > lank : wispy •  ); (cadaverous)- of or like a corpse ( • pale; ghastly, ( , k,   ); He was thin and cadaverous, and spoke in a meek and melancholy voice, studied and slow-The Nine- Tenths; • haggard and thin; •  (bony)- of or like bone, ( , as); The little, plump hand was lean and bony, and wrinkles usurped the alabaster brow. — The Memories of Fifty Years; • skinny; emaciated; • (emaciated)- to make abnormally lean or thin by a gradual wasting away of flesh; In that picture she looked like a dirty, emaciated, old vagabond. — Fifteen Years With The Outcast; • (gaunt)- extremely thin and bony, (,   ); Her plump face became gaunt, her fine clothes shabby and she lost her appetite and sparkle; • bleak, desolate, or grim, as places or things, ( ; u!; я  # $ ); a gaunt, windswept landscape; • (angular)- bony, lean, or gaunt, ( %k  ; &  '& ('  ) % e ); Her face was too harsh and angular, her attitude too cruel. — FSFApril2005; • stiff in manner; unbending, (  ( , +,, '-& p , /0  /0'  s2'); • (haggard)- having a gaunt, wasted, or exhausted appearance, as from prolonged suffering, exertion, or anxiety, (d4n, a d 7'- &//  ' '8 e ); Look at you--haggard, losing weight every day, poring over papers, scheming, planning, writing articles, pouring out the great gift of your life twice as fast as you need—Nobody's Man; • (pinched)- compressed; contracted; narrowed; The waiting room chairs were molded plastic and about as comfortable as a pinched nerve. — One False Move; • (skeletal)- of, pertaining to, or like a skeleton; Tiny mountains rose in the background, and skeletal trees burst from the earth like mad, undead horrors. — Kaz the Minotaur; • (wasted)- physically or psychologically exhausted; debilitated, (k d - (o); But by this time his body was wasted, his steps were tottering and his head bent. — From the Bottom Up; • (lanky)- ungracefully thin and rawboned; bony; gaunt, (-m e<   ); Tall and lanky, already packing on muscle from hard ranch work, he'd stood under her mother's backyard tree; • (lank)- (of plants) unduly long and slender, ((&- m ) > , - e< ? &0' -'p ?); Among the newcomers was a lank, angular- featured frontiersman who answered to the name of Sam Houston. — The Reign of Andrew Jackson; • (wispy)-a handful or small bundle of straw, hay, or the like, (g'c ; -   7 ; (-;  #); The beard was irregular and wispy, startling white against his sun-darkened skin. — AnalogSF,Mar2004; cadaver : carrion • (cadaver)- a dead body, esp. a human body to be dissected; corpse, (; ; -); The mutilated cadaver was taken away to the new morgue and put in a cold trunk; • (carrion)- dead and putrefying flesh; Many animals revel in the smell and flavour of carrion, and even of manure, which they devour. — More Science From an Easy Chair; bony = osseous^ ossify = petrify : consolidate > consolidation • (bony)- of or like bone, (; as); The little, plump hand was lean and bony, and wrinkles usurped the alabaster brow. — The Memories of Fifty Years; • skinny; emaciated; • (osseous)- composed of, containing, or resembling bone; bony, (as; as); The scapula, covered by thick carneous masses, does not lie in the living body directly upon the osseous-thorax, neither does the clavicle. — Surgical Anatomy; • (ossify)- to convert into or cause to harden like bone, (('   ); They express as habits, which in turn ossify into a desirable or an undesirable body. — Autobiography of a Yogi; • (petrified)- to convert into stone or a stony substance, (ps2$  -2$ (o); • to benumb or paralyze with astonishment, horror, or other strong emotion, (2  s' E#' &n/ a 2  / я  k ( ); I was petrified, and called to my landlord to witness the unrighteous order I had received. — The Complete Memoirs of Jacques Casanova; • (consolidation)- solidification; strengthening; unification,  (G ; <( ); It was thus his happy fortune to preside at the completion of that work of consolidation, the beginning of which was the end of the labors of Washington. — Life and Public Services of John Quincy Adams; corpulent = obese = rotund = roly-poly = portly = stout : euphemism • (corpulent)- large or bulky of body; portly; stout; fat, (s$- e< 2); He is very corpulent, his features are good, but he is very red and considerably bloated. — Samuel F. B. Morse, His Letters and Journals In Two Volumes, Volume I; • (obese)- very fat or overweight; corpulent, (2! H); More than a half- million 4-year-olds are obese, the study suggests. — The Washington Times stories; • (rotund)- round in shape; rounded, (-- o h,,  ); • plump; fat, ( d d  ); Douglas was a thick-set, rotund man, whose florid gills revealed that he was a host for boon companions. — The Lincoln Story Book; • full-toned or sonorous, ((ns p'K) я; ut; grm); • (roly-poly)- short and plumply round, as a person or a young animal; Cortman was almost a dead ringer for the roly-poly comedian. — I Am Legend; • (portly)- rather heavy or fat; stout; corpulent, ((s -' k't) E; --; h,,  ); He was short but very portly, and his voice contained many of the elements of a fog-horn— The New England Magazine Volume 1, No. 3, March, 1886; • (stout)- bulky in figure; heavily built; corpulent; thickset; fat, (я  ; k; ('я 2'K  e ); Their horses are stout, well-built ponies, of great wind, and capable of enduring the severest hardship and fatigue. — The Adventures of Captain Bonneville; • (euphemisms) – mild expression in place of an unpleasant one, (# 'b ' a #  'b #(- % ‘#   ’ ' ‘'- ’); The expression “he passed away” is a euphemism for “he died”; rotundity > rotund^ rotunda • (rotundity)- roundness; sonorousness of speech; This good woman's chief physical characteristic was rotundity, and her prominent mental attribute good-humour. — Deep Down, a Tale of the Cornish Mines; • (rotunda)- circular building or hall covered with a dome; It was shaped like a rotunda, and topped with a vast airy dome of coloured glass. — The Pit; slender # chubby = embonpoint • (slender)- thin or slight; light and graceful, (r; (---); I remember him as a slender, light haired boy, several years my senior. — Reminiscences of a Pioneer; • small in size, amount, extent, etc.; meager, (ap-  ; a% p); a slender income; • (chubby)- rounded and plump; A great boulder at the back of the square had been carved with the face of a hairy, chubby, jovial baboon. — The Ringworld Engineers; • (embonpoint)- excessive plumpness; stoutness; There was a slight tendency to embonpoint, but this was relieved by her tall and not ungraceful figure. — Vellenaux A Novel; gangly = rangy = lanky # squat = stumpy • (gangly)- awkwardly tall and spindly; lank and loosely built; Wade Hayden even looked a little like Abraham Lincoln -- gangly, with dark hair and that long jaw and sad black eyes. — The End of the Pier; • (of animals or people) slender (r, (---) and long-limbed; He was tall, rangy, immensely weather-beaten, and he had a grizzled beard that reached all the way down to his dog, who was called Boss. — Last Chance to See; •  ); Tall (lanky)- ungracefully thin and rawboned; bony; gaunt, (-m e<  and lanky, already packing on muscle from hard ranch work, he'd stood under her mother's backyard tree; • (squat)- (of a person, animal, the body, etc.) short and thickset, (/'H e< H); Threepio was staring at the squat, snouty shapes standing behind Luke and the Princess. — Splinter Of The Mind's Eye; • (stumpy)- short and thick; stubby; stocky; Glancing back, Joanna saw the little stone still standing like a stumpy dwarf. — The Silicon Mage; muscly, twisted, senile, dilapidated stalwart = hardy = sturdy = stout = brawny = hefty = muscly = muscular = sinewy {tendinous = fibrous = stringy = unchewable = wiry} • (stalwart)- strongly and stoutly built; sturdy and robust, (-m o h-;  ; spj); She only saw him to be young, stalwart, and of -X; G extraordinary manly beauty. — Legends of Vancouver; • (hardy)- capable of enduring fatigue, hardship, exposure, etc.; sturdy; strong, (k, ,(Z, & +(o H' ?' ' e ); They are quite hardy, and, like most other bulbs, should be planted in autumn. — The Culture of Vegetables and Flowers From Seeds and Roots 16th Edition; • (sturdy)- strongly built; stalwart; robust, (k-; -X; я  ;  ); Strong, sturdy, bared forearms flashed regularly like ['[; p-; GK moving, rhythmic shafts — Tramping on Life; • (stout)- bulky in figure; heavily built; corpulent; thickset; fat, (я  ; k; ('я 2'K  e ); She was short in stature and inclined to become stout, her manners were awkward and her opinions narrow. — My Life — Volume 2; •  bold, brave, or dauntless, (Gh ;  2 &t); • (brawny)- muscular; strong; Tull slid to a stop next to Conan, overbalanced and nearly fell but was stopped by an outthrust brawny arm. — Conan the Indomitable; • (hefty)- big and strong; powerful; muscular, (); Expecting any moment to pass groups of hefty, hostile labourers, my ears were alert for the slightest sound behind us or ahead. — A Body In The Bath House; • (sinewy)- having strong sinews, tough, strong and firm, ('я; p kmn); He was handsome, strong, and sinewy--all muscles and flesh, and no fat. — The Dictator; • (tendinous)- sinewy; This partly muscular and partly tendinous partition is a most important factor in breathing. — A Practical Physiology; • (fibrous)- containing, consisting of, or resembling fibers, (nt^; +0'-); The call of the sea was strong within him, and persistency was always a fibrous element in his character. — The Life of Captain Matthew Flinders; • (stringy)- sinewy or wiry, as a person; Harry approached him looking up into the face: trying to see past the long, stringy, wire-gray hair beard. — Harry Potter And The Deathly Hallows; • resembling a string or strings; consisting of strings or string-like pieces; • (unchewable)- full of sinews; especially impossible to chew [syn: fibrous]; They're special ones, made of leather, quite unchewable. — The Rockingdown Mystery; • (wiry)- resembling wire, as in form, stiffness, etc.; • lean and sinew; Though strong and wiry, the Teeth could not have weighed more than a hundred kilos. — Sliding Scales; brawny > brawn = muscularity • (brawny)- muscular; strong; Tull slid to a stop next to Conan, overbalanced and nearly fell but was stopped by an outthrust brawny arm. — Conan the Indomitable; • (brawn)- solid and well-developed muscles, especially of the arms and legs; He forgot that captains are fashioned of brain as well as brawn, mind as much as muscle. — The Day of the Dissonance; • (muscularity)- the state, quality, or condition of being muscular; Her hands touched his shoulders, revelling in their hard muscularity. — Rome's Revenge;  sinewy <> sinuous = askew = wonky = awry {amiss = haywire} = cockeyed = lopsided ~ bent ~ aquiline = tortuous ~ gnarled = crooked ~ serpentine ~ wiggly = wriggly > wriggle = writhe = slither = squirm = swathe = convolute = wrestle = wrench = worm = twist = distort^ torsion = tortuosity = contortion • (sinuous)- having many curves, bends, or turns; winding, (+00;  ;  -); For all the sinuous length between his >' ; ' ; -  head and his shoulders, he was a stiff neck rank conscious and with a dangerous temper. — The Great Escape; • not morally honest; • (askew)- to one side; out of line; in a crooked position; awry, (% 2'; 0 '); Walls are askew, their wooden siding bowed, splintered, or blown out completely. — FSF,October2007; • (wonky)- shaky, groggy, or unsteady, ( '; H-'-; 2gss#; d -); • (awry)- distorted, crooked, with a turn or twist to one side; askew, (% 2'; H-2'  ; 2-); The movie points out not only that wishes fulfilled can go awry, but also suggests that such going awry is a very necessary part of any happy ending; • (amiss)- out of the right or proper course, order, or condition; improperly; wrongly; astray, (2-  2-2'; a&-; ); He greeted her as though nothing was amiss, and began chatting in an offhand manner, as if to prevent any question from her. — Pocket Island A Story of Country Life in New England; • (haywire)- Informal not functioning properly; broken; • (cockeyed)- twisted, tilted, or slanted to one side, (0, 8 &( ,; H; aK $ , udH); But what intrigued him as much as the cockeyed formula was its source. — Jed the Dead; • (lopsided)- heavier, larger, or more developed on one side than on the other; unevenly balanced; unsymmetrical; All the buildings, solid black stone, somehow seemed lopsided, as if they were tilting toward him and about to fall. — The Order War; • (bent)- curved; crooked; • determined; set; resolved, (ic; k); His literary bent, as with most of our gifted authors, manifested itself early, and even in his college days he became a devotee of the poetic muse. — Poets of the South; • (aquiline)- (of the nose) shaped like an eagle's beak; hooked, (b- m   b'-  '); His nose was rather aquiline, and his lips were customarily compressed. — The Life of Captain Matthew Flinders; • (tortuous)- full of twists, turns, or bends; twisting, winding, or crooked, (+00; 0#&' ); The canyon is very tortuous, the river very rapid, and many lateral canyons enter on either side —Canyons of the Colorado; • (gnarled)- (of trees) full of or covered with gnarls; bent; twisted, (('8  m'n) 0&'  o  ; gn%k  ); He was a wiry, gnarled, heavy- browed, iron-jawed fellow of about sixty, with deep-set eyes aglow with sinister and greedy instincts; • having a rugged, weather-beaten appearance; • (crooked)- having or marked by bends, curves, or angles; The logs were cut promiscuously from small pines, straight and crooked, and they were built like a stable or a pen of any kind. — From Slavery to the Bishopric in the AME Church An Autobiography; • (serpentine)- having a winding course, as a road; sinuous, ( -); It might fail, but at least it would not do so due to some serpentine twist that went awry. — Conan the Indomitable; • (wiggle)- to move back and forth with quick irregular motions; He wiggled, shook his head, and tried to get to his feet. — Doom Ship; • (writhe)- to twist the body about, or squirm, as in pain, violent effort, etc, (#?  %nt  &'    /o,   %nt  2 ); How you writhe, how you coil in and out, sweet adder, with supple and spotted skin! — The Confession of a Child of the Century — Complete; • (slither)- to slide down or along a surface, esp. unsteadily, from side to side, or with some friction or noise, (H-' H-' '  8'- %o); Some of the really adventurous folks even slithered under the ice formations to enter the smallest of caves; • (squirm)- to wriggle or writhe, (( &' ); • to feel or display discomfort or distress, as from reproof, embarrassment, pain, etc., ((ass, -jя  b2я ) as2 (2K ); Frantically he squirmed, whirled, and lashed about, but in vain. — Roof and Meadow; • (swathe)- to wrap, bind, or swaddle with bands of some material; wrap up closely or fully, to bandage, ( 0E, H 0E); The body is swathed, and rigid, in a large cloak with wide sleeves, and the richly-jewelled sheath of a gown that betrays no feminine outline of figure. — The Cathedral; • (convoluted)- to coil up; form into a twisted shape; At this point the story gets even more convoluted, and you will have to read the book to see what happens next, and how the boys eventually get home. — Adrift in a Boat; • (wrestle)- to move in a twisting or contorted motion, (especially when struggling); • to contend or struggle; He never could be got to wrestle, though I challenged him more than once. — Richard Carvel; • (wrest)- to twist or turn; pull, jerk, or force by a violent twist, ( 8 я $   ' %o; p'&, 7 aя ); Portugal and Spain were plunged in civil wars, the pretenders, Don Miguel and Don Carlos, attempting to wrest the scepter from the hands of the constitutional queens. — Ten Englishmen of the Nineteenth Century; • (worm)- to move or act like a worm; creep, crawl, or advance slowly or stealthily; • (twist)- to combine, as two or more strands or threads, by winding together; intertwine, (' ; &' ; 0' ); He gave one end of the rod a twist, and short spikes appeared on the opposite end. — Nemesis; •  (distort)- to twist awry or out of shape; make crooked or deformed, ( ); This place has been known to distort reality a little bit. — The Best Revenge; • (torsion)- the act of twisting or turning; Their backs stained, turning the windlass, winding that huge torsion-powered device taut. — Renegades Of Gor; • (tortuosity)- the quality or condition of being tortuous; twistedness; • (contortions)- something contorted or twisted, as in position or meaning, (d'  as); They were ridiculously anxious to suppress his sudden contortions, as one would some gross indecency. — Romance; valetudinarian = infirm = frail = feeble = debile > debility > debilitate • (valetudinarian)- in poor health; sickly; invalid; • excessively concerned about one's poor health or ailments; This kind of valetudinarian effeminacy, this habit of coddling himself, appears in all parts of his conduct. — Critical and Historical Essays — Volume 1; • (infirmity)- a physical weakness or ailment, (d -; i -#; j-#); • (frail)- having delicate health; not robust; weak, (d -; я  ; -; k s; ); Her hands were frail, and the bones of her arms stood out sharply; • (frailty) - morally weak; easily tempted, (j  d -; trH&#; !trH); • (feeble)- physically weak, as from age or sickness; frail, (d -;  'sя; k ); • weak intellectually or morally; Her constitution was feeble, and she inherited from her father his high-strung nervous temperament. — The Life and Letters of Elizabeth Prentiss; • (debile)- relaxed; weak; feeble; languid; faint; Chopin is here a debile, prematurely exhausted young man. — Chopin : the Man and His Music; • (debility)- a weakened or enfeebled state; weakness; His appearance was of great debility, and the tones of his voice were very still. — Lord George Bentinck A Political Biography; • a particular mental or physical handicap; disability; • (debilitate)- to make weak or feeble; enfeeble, (d - ); His exertions in advocating the compromise measures, his official labors, and the increased severity of his annual hay-fever, -- all contributed to debilitate him. — Daniel Webster; brittle : doddering = doddery = gaga = senile # vernal • (brittle)- easily damaged or destroyed; fragile; frail; • having hardness and rigidity but little tensile strength; breaking readily with a comparatively smooth fracture, as glass, (2K; k a?& ('я 2K % e ); The edge of the shell was also brittle, and I broke it by bearing too heavily upon it. — Tales of the Fish Patrol; • (doddering)- shaky or trembling, as from old age; tottering, (m ; яgs); She profoundly disapproved of Emmy's marriage to Septimus, whom she characterized as a doddering idiot. — Septimus; • (doddery)- mentally or physically infirm with age; They're a bunch of doddery old fools, and they were scared. — Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban; • (gaga)- ardently fond; infatuated, (2gs; +-); My outfit for the gaga concert is in violation of their security policy; • excessively and foolishly enthusiastic; • demented; crazy; dotty • (senile)- showing a decline or deterioration of physical strength or mental functioning, esp. short-term memory and alertness, as a result of old age or disease, (E #я ); Now the present King is old, senile, and without heir; it is time for a Queen. — A Spell for Chameleon; • (vernal)- of or pertaining to spring,(n- ; n); This moment is known as the vernal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere; senility = debility = decrepitude = dilapidation = dotage^ dote : old-age • (senility)- the mental and physical deterioration associated with aging; He had been called in, had found the woman dying of pure senility, had actually seen her pass away, and had signed the certificate in due form. — His Last Bow; • (decrepitude)- decrepit condition; dilapidated state; feebleness, esp. from old age, (я ; яgs); Death, decrepitude, disease, sorrow, and many things of a similar kind, are incapable of being avoided by mortals. — The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 3 Books 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12; • (dilapidated)- reduced to or fallen into partial ruin or decay, as from age, wear, or neglect, (E<pp; ( ; k); The building was old and rather dilapidated, and as yet it contained but one piece of furniture, a cheap washstand bureau. — Fifteen Years With The Outcast; • (dotage)- a decline of mental faculties, esp. as associated with old age; senility, (2; E #я  d   ); People die of disease or dotage, and survivors get on with the game, insignificant as ever. — California Literary Review; • excessive fondness; foolish affection,(a#E a   ); • (dote)- to bestow or express excessive love or fondness habitually , (a#E a    2'- p ); Beethoven came to dote upon the large heart, the pure soul, and the serene mind of Therese. — The Love Affairs of Great Musicians;  dilapidation > dilapidated = ramshackle = broken-down = tumble-down = tatterdemalion {ragamuffin} = derelict ~ rickety = shaky = wobbly • (ramshackle)- loosely made or held together; rickety; shaky, (яя ; ''; 2gp); The country cars were of a ramshackle order, and the drivers were often reckless. — Men of Invention and Industry; • (tumble-down)- in a falling state; dilapidated; decayed; ruinous; What happened to the old woman who lives in that tumble-down shanty over the way? — The Promised Land; • (tatterdemalion)- a person wearing ragged or tattered clothing; a ragamuffin; When Reynolds was in Rome, aged twenty-one, he fell in with a tatterdemalion, who proffered his service as guide. — Little Journeys to the Homes of Eminent Painters; • (ragamuffin)- a ragged, disreputable person; tatterdemalion, ( <,  n&t  !  , 80  8H -); No ragamuffin was ever so tattered and torn as this rakish individual. — Truxton King A Story of Graustark; • (derelict)- neglectful of duty; delinquent; negligent, (#k o n<'n/; я ); The derelict craft was a menace to navigation. If they fail to do it they are derelict, and can be punished, or deprived of all advantages arising from the labors of those who do. — The Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman, Volume I., Part 2; • (rickety)- feeble with age; infirm, (d -; 2p 2p); Squinting, I could make out what looked like a small farmhouse, with a couple of rickety outbuildings. — The Fiery Cross; • (shaky)- lacking soundness or sturdiness, as of construction; A shaky, no longer cocky voice came from the gangway. — The Day of the Dissonance; • (wobbly)- shaky; unsteady, (s  a&-  aH-  e ); The heat worsened, and by the end of the first day her head felt like a wobbly bowling ball. — Kate; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.15 Motion careen, vacillate, types of walk, vehicles, traveling careen = lurch = sway = swing ~ swerve = veer = sheer ~ curve = slew • (careen)- (of a vehicle) to lean, sway, or tip to one side while in motion, ( ; e     ); The ship careened, the waves dashed against the bow, and it was evident that she was going to sea in good earnest. — Down the Rhine Young America in Germany; • (lurch)- a sudden tip or roll to one side, as of a ship or a staggering person, (e     ; e      ); The train lurched, and George put a hand on Max's shoulder to steady him. — ChallengingDestiny#24:August2007; • an act or instance of swaying abruptly; • leave somebody in the lurch –         • (sway)- to move or swing to and fro, as something fixed at one end or resting on a support, ( ;  ; n  ); • to move or incline to one side or in a particular direction; • to fluctuate or vacillate, as in opinion; He was in some ways a simple man-- swayed by the impulse of the moment. — The Tin Soldier; • (swing)- to move back and forth suspended or as if suspended from above; The chariots of the gods and goddesses are made of four joists in a frame, suspended by a thick rope, as a swing might be. — Musicians of To-Day; • (swerve)- to turn aside abruptly in movement or direction; deviate suddenly from the straight or direct course, (     ; e   !  " #o; " o); The horses swerved, and jerked a little squawk out of one of the girls. — Children of the Bush; • (veer)- to change direction or turn about or aside; shift, turn, or change from one course, position, inclination, etc., to another, (    ;  %n   o); The wind veered, and sent great gusts of rain into the car. — The Best Short Stories of 1920 and the Yearbook of the American Short Story; • (sheer)- to swerve or cause to swerve from a course; Wyeth instantly sheered his boat out into the stream; when, unluckily it struck upon a sand-bar, and stuck fast. — The Adventures of Captain Bonneville; • transparently thin; diaphanous, as some fabrics, (   o p sc; * * ); stockings of sheer nylon; • unmixed with anything else, (m,-; .; /;   st " ;  %я); a sheer waste of time; • extending down or up very steeply; almost completely vertical, (2; p ulm; 6я"); a cliff that rises sheer from the beach; • (curving)- to move in or take the shape of a curve; Holmes led the way up the curving, uncarpeted stair. — His Last Bow; • (slew)- to turn (a mast or other spar) around on its own axis, or without removing it from its place, ("  !  ! ); It slewed left and right with sudden lurches that caused stomachs to drop and jaws to clench. — Ilse Witch; • a large number or quantity; a whole slew of people; • to kill by violence; to destroy, extinguish; pancake : waver = hover {levitate} = fluctuate = oscillate = vacillate > vacillant = irresolute • (pancake)- to cause (an aircraft) to make a pancake landing; • (waver)-to sway to and fro; flutter, (7  8; is ; d< n o); Your mind wavers, and its agitation will find relief in the exercise of simple memories. — The Works of Edgar Allan Poe — Volume 4; • (hover)- hang about; wait nearby; We have three homes between which we hover--Germany, the earth, and heaven. — The New Society; • (levitate)- to rise or float in the air, esp. as a result of a supernatural power that overcomes gravity, ( - , %  u t ); People assumed that an expert yogin could levitate, read people’s minds and visit other worlds. — Buddha; • (fluctuate)- to change continually; shift back and forth; vary irregularly, (o ; a   o); As his sense of the real presence of these objects fluctuates, so the believer alternates between warmth and coldness in his faith. — Varieties of Religious Experience, a Study in Human Nature; • (oscillate)- to swing or move to and fro, as a pendulum does, (!    n"    n  o); The movie oscillates between the past and present, dreams, fantasies and reality; • (vacillate)- to waver in mind or opinion; be indecisive or irresolute, ( d t/ / d o;  i  a  D o); Where other people writhed or vacillated, Anne had held on her course, uplifted, unimpassioned, and resigned. — The Helpmate; • (vacillant)- undergoing vacillation; wavering; She will take me with her And life became as easy to bear as a vacillant vision seen in dream He loved to look at his wife's portrait. — The Created Legend; • (irresolute)- not resolute; doubtful; infirm of purpose; vacillating, (a s ;  t); Here he lingered as if irresolute, and in an agony of dread at the thought of being deserted, she cried out Here, Hero! — Infelice; vacillate <> vellicate = tickle = titillate • (vellicate)- to twitch; cause to twitch convulsively, as the muscles and nerves of animals; Thus, if you vellicate the throat with a feather, nausea is produced; if you wound it with a penknife, pain is induced, but not sickness. — Zoonomia, Vol. I Or, the Laws of Organic Life; • (tickle)- to touch (the body) lightly so as to cause laughter or twitching movements, ( " " " o); The barking of his two dogs barely reached in to tickle his consciousness, he was so deep in thought, immersed in memory. — A Change of Seasons; • (titillate)- to excite or arouse agreeably; • to tickle; excite a tingling or itching sensation in, as by touching or stroking lightly, (  " " ); In spite of melodramatic elements and other literary faults, it is unquestionably a sincere work, written without any idea of titillating morbid fancies. — Venus in Furs;  deviate = deflect = avert {obviate = forefend = avoid} • (deviate)- to turn aside, as from a route, way, course, etc., (8FG o); From these habits he seldom deviated, unless compelled to do so by particular circumstances. — George Washington; • (deflect)- to bend or turn aside; turn from a true course or straight line; swerve, (e     #o); Their purpose must never be deflected, their enthusiasm never dimmed, their vision never obscured, their exertions never discontinued. — Dawn of a New Day; • H , n i *   ;   ); (avert)- to turn away or aside, ( G Not a drop of blood has been spilt; but war is averted, and a great, new alliance is formed. — The Great Secret; • (obviate)- to anticipate and prevent or eliminate (difficulties, disadvantages, etc.) by effective measures; render unnecessary, (%k " ;  t- o;  ,  hi   "    #N " я ); Hypocrisy does not obviate morality, since whether I act morally or not doesn't excuse your bad behavior. — Intellectual Conservative Politics and Philosophy; • (forefend)- to keep or ward off; avert; The gods forfend, as far as I am concerned. — The Eleven Comedies, Volume 2;  waver = waffle = hesitate : scruple > scruples = ethics = morality = conscience = > unconscionable • (waffle)- to speak or write equivocally, (a#8 a - asG%  8 ;   ); When asked directly about the governor’s involvement in the savings and loan scandal, the press secretary waffled, talking all around the issue; • (hesitate)- to pause in uncertainty; waver; I saw her assimilate the question, look at it carefully, hesitate, and then decide. — Madam Will You Talk; • (scruple)- to have scruples about; hesitate at, (    r- d< ; Q  " o); The devotees came to visit her without scruple, and did not forget to make use of every opportunity of serving themselves. — Court Memoirs of France Series — Complete; • (scruples)- motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles that govern a person's thoughts and actions; Importunate scruples were added to temptation, and while thus violently assailed on many sides, she seemed not to receive light or comfort from any. — The Life of the Venerable Mother Mary of the Incarnation; • (ethics)- the whole of the moral sciences; natural jurisprudence, (N   ;  st 2  S); By elevating the issue of helping others into the central and primary issue of ethics, altruism has destroyed the concept of any authentic benevolence or good will among men. — The Virtue of Selfishness; • (morality)- a system of ideas of right and wrong conduct; Their morality is a hollow shell, and gives way to the first effective temptation. — The Life and Genius of Nathaniel Hawthorne; • (conscience)- a source of moral or ethical judgment or pronouncement, (  ; N  ); As soon as his conscience was appeased, he asked the Almighty's forgiveness for having used profane language, and ordered the boy to go to bed! — Windjammers and Sea Tramps; • (unconscionable)- not guided by conscience; unscrupulous, (a #T k; a#; a  p , ; a <); I readily assented to this, adding some trite remark about the unconscionable wastefulness of domestics. — Trials and Confessions of a Housekeeper; scruple {qualm = misgiving ~ mistrust} • (qualms)- a sudden feeling of apprehensive uneasiness; misgiving, (    as s < (  S  я   я 7 %  n e S  d< <)); Anne had no qualms, and he knew her to be a creature of fine feelings. — From the Housetops; • (misgiving)- a feeling of doubt, distrust, or apprehension, ( n, Q, a U, V); And yet his misgivings were not so dark as, imagined by the light of this later time, they would appear. — A Tale of Two Cities; • (mistrust)- lack of trust or confidence arising from suspicion; Popular hatred and mistrust were exploited by the greedy kings. — Rashi; flounder = stagger ~ fumble = lumber : totter = teeter ~ wobble ~ falter > unfaltering • (flounder)- to struggle with stumbling or plunging movements, (8 H G ;   я  %N я 8      G     2o; ."   d< ; %" ; 7 2o); He floundered, he made desperate efforts, but plunged deeper in the slough. — The Young Duke; • H (stagger)- to walk, move, or stand unsteadily, (7%   W%  7  ); He tottered to his feet, staggered, and recovered. — Conan Of The Isles; • to waver or begin to doubt, as in purpose or opinion, ( Fn  d D n ); • (fumbling)- to feel or grope about clumsily, ( ." 2я я  ); I rose carefully to my feet, fumbling at my belt for my dagger. — Prince of Chaos; • (lumber)- to move clumsily or heavily, esp. from great or ponderous bulk, ( b      ); She lumbered and heaved herself, until she found a place where something - the sand, the temperature - seemed right; • to cut timber and prepare it for market, ( i  k); • to become useless or to be stored away as useless, ( я t я  ; d Dn % ); • (totter)- to walk or go with faltering steps, as if from extreme weakness, (2 "   2 "   ;     as   #o); He attempted to speak, but faltered, tottered, and staggered to the wings. — Mrs. Skagg's Husbands and Other Stories; • (teeter)- to move unsteadily, (7%  7   ); Palma opened his eyes to see the black slaver's gunbelt slide down to his ankles, tighten and cause him to teeter. — Galaxy Jane; • (wobble)- to incline to one side and to the other alternately, as a wheel, top, or other rotating body when not properly balanced, (e  o     ); That was all he knew, his pulse pounding in his ears and his knees wobbling with weariness. — The Shadow Of The Lion; • to vacillate; waver, ( dn g  k t a  D  d<gs o); • (falter)- to hesitate or waver in action, purpose, intent, etc.; give way, (%   d a  D  d<- , %  ); Let your feet not falter, your course not alter — Pike County Ballads and Other Poems; • (unfaltering)- marked by firm determination or resolution; not shakable, (as ; a  ; ] H ); Her voice was low and precise, unfaltering, unembarrassed. — A Taint in the Blood; amble = saunter = promenade = stroll • (amble)- to go at a slow, easy pace; stroll; saunter, (scn    , <N scn  ); He moved in an eccentric amble, and when put upon his speed was generally run backward. — The Life, Crime, and Capture of John Wilkes Booth; • H (saunter)- to walk with a leisurely gait; stroll, (dn/ a    7  ); He sauntered, as idle and as curious as any in that broad walk. — The Summons; • (promenade)- a stroll or walk, esp. in a public place, as for pleasure or display, (     я  bя, aU GH ); Then he resumed his mysterious promenade, still carefully keeping an eye upon us, and smiling by way of conversation. — The English Governess at the Siamese Court; • an area used for such walking; • (stroll)- to walk leisurely as inclination directs; ramble; saunter; take a walk, (<N  s " F-, N); When we set out later for a stroll, I was still entranced in unspeakable rapture. — Autobiography of a Yogi; canter = lope = trot ~ gallop • (canter)- an easy gallop,(a U    S;    ! dr     .7"   ); They put their horses to a canter, and soon drew near to the caravans. — The Garden of Allah; • (lope)- to move or run with bounding steps, as a quadruped, or with a long, easy stride, as a person, (2     *   *  ); Meanwhile from many points the destined warriors loped over the rolling landscape to the rendezvous. — The Way of an Indian; • (gallop)- a fast running motion of other quadrupeds; I set off at full gallop, and soon discovered the disaster. — The Memoirs of Napoleon; • (trot)- the gait of a horse or other four-footed animal, between a walk and a canter in speed; They made the half-mile at a quick trot, and as they ran the rocks and the sky and the air between the cliffs turned a turbid green, like the color in a moss agate. — The Song of the Lark by Willa Cather; gait = pace • (gait)- a manner of walking, stepping, or running, (7  T % `); The complexion is sallow and unhealthy, the limbs imperfectly developed, and the gait is awkward, shambling, and unsteady. — Aids to Forensic Medicine and Toxicology; • (pace)- a step made in walking; a stride; At times he walked slowly, scarcely moving; at times his pace was a nervous, hurried stride, that was almost a run. — The Adventures of Jimmie Dale; ambulatory^ somnambulist^ perambulate^ circumambulate^ circumlocution • (ambulatory)- of, pertaining to, or capable of walking; The traveller walked about the ambulatory, and leaning against the farthest wall, tried to view the church, only to be baffled. — Cathedrals and Cloisters of the South of France, Volume 1; • (somnabulist)- sleepwalker, (spN); He moved and spoke like a somnambulist, with the same insulation from surrounding minds and superiority to material obstacles. — The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 10, No. 57, July, 1862; • (perambulate)- to walk through; Patrols began to be formed, and to perambulate the streets. — History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814; • (circumambulate)- to walk around (something), especially as part of a ritual; • (circumlocution)- a roundabout or indirect way of speaking; the use of more words than necessary to express an idea, (!   " !   " 8 ; p я  a  k  b p ); It was their circumlocution, their innuendo, their mild surprise, their perfunctory congratulations, their assumption of chivalry and their lack of its essence, that wounded and stung the subject of these effusions. — The Shadow of the Rope; drift = impetus ~ momentum : float : waft : blow : flux : soar : clamber : ride > rider • (drift)- a driving movement or force; impulse; impetus; pressure, (, , p, s); The cultural equivalent of genetic drift is a persuasive option, one that we cannot neglect when thinking about the evolution of religion. — The God Delusion; • (impetus)- a moving force; impulse; stimulus, (  k; Q ;   k); The idea of Nationality, already gaining strength, obtained a fresh impetus from the French Revolution. — The War and Democracy; • (momentum)- force or speed of movement; impetus, as of a physical object or course of events, (% ); Events seemed to have acquired their own momentum, almost a will of their own. — The Stars Are Also Fire; • (float)- to move gently on the surface of a liquid; drift along; While the butterflies float, the mother keeps increasing her rate of acceleration. — Passage at Arms; • (waft)- to carry lightly and smoothly through the air or over water, (  %  %     #o); The light wind which blew at the time wafted the bitter words of her mournful dirge to the spot where her friends were. — Traditions of the North American Indians, Vol. 2 (of 3); • (blow)- to be in a state of motion; • (flux)- a flowing or flow, (p; p; s); • continuous change, passage, or movement, ( n  -m); The economic order is in flux, and a new one will surely take its place; • (soar)- to fly upward, as a bird, (  a  u"  o); Bach soon began to find Arnstadt too small and narrow for his soaring desires. — The World's Great Men of Music; • to rise or aspire to a higher or more exalted level; • (clamber)- to climb with difficulty, especially on all fours; scramble; And he began to clamber down the trailing ladders that the Boatmen had dropped over the side. — The Bane of The Black Sword; transmit = convey > conveyance • (transmit)- to send from one person, thing, or place to another; convey; • (convey)- to take or carry from one place to another; transport; He informed them that he had no message to convey or suggestions to offer. — Woodrow Wilson as I know Him; • (conveyance)- a means of transporting, esp. a vehicle, as a bus, airplane, or automobile, ( ); At that period there were no railway facilities worth mentioning, and they had to go by private conveyance--wagon or carriage or on horseback as the case might be. — Fifty Years of Public Service; gesticulation : motility • (gesticulation)- an animated or excited gesture, (a`% `); They use a good deal of gesticulation, and are exceedingly animated, saying with their might what their tongues find to say. — Two Years Before the Mast; • (motility)- ability to move spontaneously; In the new experiments to more unequivocally establish the role of somatic motility, the researchers genetically altered mice to have only subtle alterations in the prestin protein; galleon : skiff : regatta : rowboat = dinghy <> dingy • (galleon)- a large sailing vessel of the 15th to the 17th centuries used as a fighting or merchant ship, square-rigged on the foremast and mainmast and generally lateen-rigged on one or two after masts, ( sN   яя); The galleon was a veritable treasure ship. — The Boy Aviators' Treasure Quest; • (skiff)- any of various types of boats small enough for sailing or rowing by one person, (eя    d o .7 T); Three passengers were taken in each skiff, and were required to lie flat on their backs in the bottom of the boat. — The Jolliest School of All; • (regatta)- a boat race, as of rowboats, yachts, or other vessels, ( T- i); This regatta was the first that Margaret had ever seen, and she was greatly excited. — The Merryweathers; • (dinghy)- any small boat designed as a tender or lifeboat, esp. a small ship's boat, rowed, sailed, or driven by a motor, ( .7 T); The dinghy was rather a larger boat than the ordinary ships' dinghy, and possessed a small mast and long sail. — The Blue Lagoon: a romance; • (dingy)- of a dark, dull, or dirty color or aspect; lacking brightness or freshness, ( , n, p%); So the Dome of Security remained blotched and dingy, the sole permanent building of Satellite City. — The Complete Stories of Evelyn Waugh; • shabby; dismal,( Q); embark # disembark • (embark)- to board a ship, aircraft, or other vehicle, as for a journey, (я я   #t ); • to start an enterprise, business, etc., (fr ; aQg- ); A second cargo was now embarked, and the process was repeated, happily without any accident. — The Three Commanders; • (disembark)- to go ashore from a ship, (N  % ); When we refused to disembark, there was violence as the crew forced us from the ship. — Legends II; jaunt = excursion = expedition = junket = trip • (jaunt)- a short journey, esp. one taken for pleasure, (p  ); In short, this jaunt is as simple as all the rest of her actions have been hardy. — The Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford — Volume 1; • (excursion)- a usually short journey made for pleasure; an outing; A brief sketch of the geological observations made on this excursion is found in a letter from Agassiz to Mr. Peirce. — Louis Agassiz His Life and Correspondence; • (expedition)- a journey undertaken by a group of people with a definite objective; The failure of this expedition was a blow to his pride, and a still greater blow to his purse. — The Adventures of Captain Bonneville; • (junket)- a trip, as by an official or legislative committee, paid out of public funds and ostensibly to obtain information, ( %я); Paterson, criticized for the planned junket, abruptly cancelled his trip; trek : exodus : odyssey • (trek)- a journey or trip, esp. one involving difficulty or hardship, ( N! " d  ); After participants complete the trek, they will receive a light lunch; • (exodus)- a going out; a departure or emigration, usually of a large number of people, (h   e t  ); According to newspaper this exodus is the result of a campaign of violence, murder, terrorism, threats, and intimidation targeted at the minority people; • (odyssey)- a long series of wanderings or adventures, esp. when filled with notable experiences, hardships, etc., ( N! dh  #t); The word odyssey, which means a long journey, comes from the name of a long epic poem, written by the Greek poet Homer sometime between the seventh and ninth centuries B.C.; itinerary : peregrination : wanderlust : peripatetic : migratory^ migrant • (itinerary)- a detailed plan for a journey, esp. a list of places to visit; plan of travel, (F   l); At the top of our itinerary is the ancient heart of Tokyo; • (peregrination)- a course of travel; journey, (F, *, #t); The difficulties of peregrination were now at an end. — Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland; • (wanderlust)- a strong, innate desire to rove or travel about, (F-k< " ); Moonlight nights had come and the wanderlust was growing more and more insistent in his veins. — Kazan; • (peripatetic)- walking or traveling about; itinerant; of or pertaining to the Aristotelian school of philosophy, (  %n s  is F-, e s7  aN " ); He was a peripatetic, in every way, beyond the followers of Aristotle. — Charles Lamb; • (migratory)- roving; nomadic; wandering, (F-N, p-N); Negroes are notoriously migratory, and a large proportion never remain two years in the same place. — The New South A Chronicle of Social and Industrial Evolution; • (migrant)- migrating, esp. of people; migratory, (  u d  e s    at N (  S  2)); A migrant is a human being looking for a better life, changing homes to chase his or her dreams;  sojourn : resort • (sojourn)- a temporary stay, ( .  " я 8); That sojourn was the first step in a lifelong love affair with Naples; • (resort)- a place to which people frequently or generally go for relaxation or pleasure, esp. one providing rest and recreation facilities for vacationers, (F-    я # я); • to have recourse for use, help, or accomplishing something, often as a final available option or resource, ( S l, S am); Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.16 Sex voluptuous, coquette, ribald, lustful, debauch voluptuous = bootylicious = juicy = red-hot = luscious = delicious = toothsome = bosomy = buxom = busty = curvaceous = curvy = sonsie = well-endowed = stacked ~ sylph = nymph = houri • (voluptuous)- full of, characterized by, or ministering to indulgence in luxury, pleasure, and sensuous enjoyment, (indp  ); Her body possessed a fullness that was voluptuous, that he had to admit he found strangely attractive. — The Kinslayer Wars; • (bootylicious)- sexually attractive, esp. in the buttocks (Etymology: booty + delicious); • (juicy)-very profitable, appealing, interesting, satisfying, or substantive, ( ; я); a juicy contract; a juicy part in a movie; • (red-hot)- having strong sexual appeal; • characterized by intense excitement, enthusiasm, or passion, (an utя; ag); • (luscious)- highly pleasing to the taste or smell, (s , "n  p ; ); She belonged to the ripe, luscious, pomegranate type of woman. — The Story of My Life; • (delicious)- highly pleasing to the senses, esp. to taste or smell, ( $n  ; p  ; &$' ); I find the qualifying adjective delicious, and admire the pronounced taste for repose indicated by either side of the alternative. — What I Remember; • (toothsome)- pleasing to the taste; palatable, (&sd ) ; *' ) ); This was an especially toothsome dish, and all partook freely and with relish. — Reminiscences of a Pioneer; • (bosomy)- (of a woman) having a large or prominent bosom; • (buxom)- (of a woman) full-bosomed; • (busty)- having a large bust; bosomy; • (curvaceous)- (of a woman) having a well-shaped figure with voluptuous curves; • (curvy)- curvaceous; • (sonsie)- strong and healthy; robust; • (well-endowed)- having large breasts; • having large genitals. used of a male; • having a large endowment or amount of money; • (stacked)- (of a woman) having a voluptuous figure; • (sylph)- a slender, graceful woman or girl, ( l ,)' - ,.$,; ap; , 0, ); The sylph was a captive who had been promised her freedom if she lured three travelers in for capture. — Man from Mundania; • (nymph)- a beautiful or graceful young woman; She has the artless grace of a little child, the poetic effect of a wood-nymph, is airy, light, and graceful. — The Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe; • (houri)- one of the beautiful virgins provided in paradise for all faithful Muslims, (h); Here is a houri, neatly dressed, evidently long waiting for him especially, and eager to serve him. — From the Easy Chair — Volume 01; toothsome {palatable = delectable = scrummy = yummy = scrumptious} • (palatable)- acceptable or agreeable to the palate or taste; savory, (r' ; sd); "Yes, when it is palatable, which is not often: commonly it has a bitter taste in the swallowing. — The Justice of the King; • acceptable or agreeable to the mind or feelings; • (unpalatable) - not palatable; unpleasant to the taste, (,s ; ap ; ar' ); Accordingly, extreme care must be taken in preparing the fish for human consumption, ensuring that the unpalatable organs are removed. — The Register; • (delectable)- greatly pleasing; delightful; But no words of mine, I fear, will justify to others my own sense of this delectable workmanship. — Shakespeare His Life Art And Characters; • (scrummy)- scrumptious; • (yummy)- Slang delightful; delicious • (scrumptious)- very pleasing, esp. to the senses; delectable; splendid, (&sd ) ; &$45$); She needed to cook a delicious breakfast and a scrumptious lunch in order to keep this job, and she intended to do just that. — Cinderella At The Ball; personable : pulchritudinous • (personable)- of pleasing personal appearance; handsome or comely; attractive, (&) $; -&6я$4 7 ); He's personable, and has a real flair for making complex design ideas seem simple and easily replicated; • (pulchritude)- physical beauty; comeliness, (8 9 -&6n.); Monk was something of a connoisseur of feminine pulchritude, homely soul though he might be himself. — 003 - Quest of the Spider; seduce ~ woo = court = solicit ~ flirt = coquette = butterfly = philander = womanize • (seduce)- induce to have sex; • (woo)- to seek the favor, affection, or love of, esp. with a view to marriage, (- $ 94  p:$ , p 5k ); • to seek to win, (*, ,t, &<4, $d 45 -'> ); • to seek to persuade (a person, group, etc.), as to do something; solicit; importune; • (court)- to seek the affections of; woo, (p-p:$ ); Raju had been courting Rina for eight months; • to try to win the favor, preference, or goodwill of, (- $  @) я ,  -'> ); • (flirt)- to court triflingly or act amorously without serious intentions; play at love; coquet, (<>$> ; **/-4'4' ; -p,4&; 'B4 ) ; p"45); New research suggests the female hormone makes women more likely to flirt, and move from man to man; • (coquette)- a woman who flirts lightheartedly with men to win their admiration and affection; flirt; She might be a careless young coquette, a lawless little brigand, a child of sunny caprices, an elf of dauntless mischief; but she was more than these. — Under Two Flags; • (butterfly)- a person who flits aimlessly from one interest or group to another; • (philander)- (of a man) to make love with a woman one cannot or will not marry; carry on flirtations, (-p -$"); A man with the taste to admire such quality was more dangerous than any philanderer or hustler. — Davis, Lindsey - The Course of Honor; • (womanizer)- a philanderer; His reputation as a womanizer was true. — Dance Of Desire;  solicit {implore = beg} : adjure = beseech = entreat : importune > importunate : litany • (solicit)- to seek for (something) by entreaty, earnest or respectful request, formal application, etc., (&$,d , $ ; a$0 ) ); Even this is the boon I solicit, All created things, O divine Being, belonging to thee, are being destroyed. — The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 2 Books 4, 5, 6 and 7; • (solicitous)- anxious or concerned, (uD E; , 4 ) ); Jews have always been noted for the solicitous care they exercise in the education of the young. — The Haskalah Movement in Russia; • (implore)- to beg urgently or piteously, as for aid or mercy; beseech; entreat, ( яF p:$ ; 5k 'o;   ) -$/ a$$) ); These I implore, adorable princess, with confidence that you will not refuse me. — The Arabian Nights Entertainments - Complete; • (adjure)- to appeal to or entreat earnestly; • (beseech)- to beg eagerly for; solicit, ($ ; &$,d p:$ ); But remember that we do not beseech, we demand! — The Idiot; • (entreat)- to ask (a person) earnestly; beseech; implore; beg, (&$,d a$0 ) я$$); They began to preach, to remonstrate, to warn, entreat, and rebuke until their voices sounded like the roar of many waters in the ears of the people. — William Lloyd Garrison The Abolitionist; • (importune)- to press or beset with solicitations; demand with urgency or persistence, (FF ; &$,d a$0 ) ;  @) -' aH ); At times the whole world seems to be in conspiracy to importune you with emphatic trifles. — Essays — First Series; • (importune)- urgent or persistent in solicitation, sometimes annoyingly so, ($@F,n; яr; &$,d); Others are importunate, and earnest enough, like the beggar's appeal for relief, but without much hope of success. — Religion in Earnest; • (litany)- a ceremonial or liturgical form of prayer consisting of a series of invocations or supplications with responses that are the same for a number in succession, (Is$ 9 )  E " , 0 p:$ &K); The ceremony was began by the recital of a kind of litany, containing the life of Mahomet from his birth to his death. — The Memoirs of Napoleon;  seeker = suitor ~ solicitor : petitioner = supplicant^ supplicate^ supplication = invocation • (seeker)- one that seeks; He had sailed from Palos as a seeker after hidden wealth, hidden knowledge; he returned as teacher, discoverer, benefactor. — Christopher Columbus; • (suitor)- Law. a petitioner or plaintiff, (4  ); I cannot see any ground for this interpretation, though it is probable that Tisdall's appearance as a suitor was sufficiently annoying. — The Journal to Stella; • a man who courts or woos a woman, ((,,9 я$) p:; ,,9p:); • (solicitor)- a person who solicits, (-. i$я, 8,0 44t p$ $, i$ , k4   - $ o $m 4   k : ,4$); And Wareham very properly added that a solicitor was, in a measure, a confessor bound to observe professional secrecy. — With Zola in England; • (petitioner)- something that is sought by request or entreaty, ( , $ , p:); • (suppliant)- a person who supplicates; petitioner, ( $p:, ", :); There are promises for the suppliant, promises for the troubled, promises for mortals. — Expositions of Holy Scripture Psalms; • (supplicate)- to pray humbly; make humble and earnest entreaty or petition, ( $5, я4B ) p:$/ .c ; a$$,$ ) /   ) -$ ); Yet I will never supplicate -- not meanly supplicate -- for an alms. — Jane Talbot; • (invocation)- the act of invoking or calling upon a deity, spirit, etc., for aid, protection, inspiration, or the like; supplication, ( ,9$; a5nt; $c); Lord Cromer felt, and felt rightly, that this invocation was his best epitaph. — The Adventure of Living; bawdy = bawdry = off-color = ribald ~ scurrilous ~ vulgar = uncouth = coarse ~ indecent ~ obscene • (bawdy)- indecent; lewd; obscene, (s74; a&ct); In the early twentieth century, it was common for towns and geographical features to have salacious, bawdy, and even derogatory names. — The Chicago Blog; • (bawdry)- lewdness; obscenity; bawdiness; His interest lies in his anecdote, in his malevolent insinuation, in his bawdry. — Youth and Egolatry; • (ribald)- vulgar or indecent in speech, language, etc.; coarsely mocking, abusive, or irreverent; scurrilous, (s745; aT4 o -,<U& : ,4 e$); We must do our best to be frivolous and ribald, and supply a proper foreground. — The Wit and Humor of America, Volume X (of X); • (scurrilous)- grossly or obscenely abusive, (b ,dr 7 ; a : ,drt ); After all, scurrilous denunciation never affected me. — The Reminiscences of an Irish Land Agent; • (vulgar)- crudely indecent; Another thing I observed about the boy was that I never heard him use an oath or a vulgar, coarse expression. — Reminiscences of a Pioneer; • (uncouth)- awkward, clumsy, or unmannerly, (aя; a5,; a>; -"U; g; ap5); His appearance was less uncouth, his hair and beard a shade less hay-fieldy. — The Extra Day; • (coarse)- vulgar; obscene; crude, ($ >$; ,я); The work is exceedingly coarse, and has fallen into well-deserved oblivion. — Italian Popular Tales; • (indecent)- not decent; unbecoming or unseemly, ("9; a>; aT4); Other city states considered such exercise indecent, claiming that it incited men to commit grave crimes. — Lion Of Macedon; • (obscene)- offensive to morality or decency; indecent; depraved, (aT4); She willed herself not to listen to these obscene, and silly, accusations. — Mary Queen Of Scotland And The Isles; erotic <> erratic • (erotic)- arousing or satisfying sexual desire, (-.6$ $ ud ); They deal not only with matters to which the word erotic is generally applied, but also with unnatural practices. — The Life of Sir Richard Burton; • (erratic)- having no certain or definite course; wandering; not fixed, ((,k ,  ' -kt) s74; :, a&,0$); Her life prior to the coma was dysfunctional, erratic, and filled with self-centeredness; titillating : sensuous : sensual = carnal = sultry <> swelter • (titillating)- to excite or arouse agreeably; • to tickle; excite a tingling or itching sensation in, as by touching or stroking lightly, (&F&F ) ) ); In spite of melodramatic elements and other literary faults, it is unquestionably a sincere work, written without any idea of titillating morbid fancies. — Venus in Furs; • (sensuous)- of or pertaining to sensible objects or to the senses, (indg9); Our nature is so constituted that intuition with us never can be other than sensuous, that is, it contains only the mode in which we are affected by objects. — The Critique of Pure Reason; • (sensual)- relating to or affecting any of the senses or a sense organ; sensory; I am a carnal, sensual, and greedy man, whom you ought thoroughly to despise. — The Life and Legends of Saint Francis of Assisi; • (carnal)- pertaining to or characterized by the flesh or the body, its passions and appetites; sensual, ( , k\& &mn; ^nd ; ind&k; _ ); Are not most of you carnal, all flesh,—the flesh gives laws, and you obey them? — The Works of the Rev. Hugh Binning; • not spiritual; merely human; temporal; worldly; • (sultry)- characterized by or arousing passion, (ug; k; &\k); • oppressively hot and close or moist; sweltering, ((,)`4, ,9o &mn) 5,&; g&); It was hot and sultry, which is rare in an English June—Night and Morning, Complete; • (swelter)- to suffer from oppressive heat, (" 9U&<U&/ ibi/ @B<B ; "4 c 9o); The beat of the sun from above and the swelter of dust from below were overpowering. — The Great Boer War; promiscuous = prurient = salacious = lascivious = libidinous = licentious = lustful = lewd = letch = lecher = satyr : lechery • (promiscuous)- characterized by or involving indiscriminate mingling or association, esp. having sexual relations with a number of partners on a casual basis, (acn5,; $,'; -5 ,'5, 7 -.6$ -4); • casual; irregular; haphazard, (e44; acn; -5 ,'9$; $,'); You're just killing yourself with this spontaneous, promiscuous, and premature overwork; that's what's the matter with you. — On the Frontier; • (prurient)- having, inclined to have, or characterized by lascivious or lustful thoughts, desires, etc, (-.6$ , as o ,  $&mn); Conservatives seemed prurient, mean, and xenophobic, even as Britain was increasingly tolerant, diverse, and cosmopolitan. — The American Prospect Articles; • (salacious)- lustful or lecherous, (aT4; a4$; r' ) 7 ); Prurient, salacious, and gratuitous stories are unfair to both the accused and the accuser. — Romenesko; • (lascivious)- inclined to lustfulness; wanton; lewd, (  ) ; d ); The poems of Anacreon are lascivious, lustful, and essentially carnal, and history informs us that he was a sexual pervert. — Religion and Lust or, The Psychical Correlation of Religious Emotion and Sexual Desire; • (libidinous)- full of sexual lust; lustful; lewd; lascivious, (4mB;  ) ); He set no bounds to his libidinous intercourse with women, but never betrayed any unnatural desires for the other sex. — De vita Caesarum; • (licentious)- sexually unrestrained; lascivious; libertine; lewd, (4mB; a&ct;  ) ); Their songs and games are exceedingly licentious, and their myths are obscene. — Folkways A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals; • (lustful)- excited or driven by lust; He was carved from black marble, but his eyes were rubies, which glowed red and lustful as the coals of hell's deepest pits. — Conan the Wanderer; • (lewd)- obscene or indecent, (i; a5$;  ) ; 4mB); He knew it had been pointed out that while the Germans are lewd, they are not dissolute. — Villa Elsa A Story of German Family Life; • (letch)- a strong, especially sexual desire or craving; • (lecher)- a man given to excessive sexual indulgence; a lascivious or licentious man, (4mB ,  ) ,k); He is a hoary-headed lecher, with wealth and position to aid him in his hellish pursuits; I am poor, and an outcast! — Justice in the By-Ways, a Tale of Life; • (satyr)- a lascivious man; lecher, (a&\. -.6$ $,> ,k); A virgin arises in you when through you a satyr is rising in me. — Madame Aubin; • half-human half-bestial being in the court of Dionysus, portrayed as wanton and cunning, (a0$, o a0hr ,$ ,); • (lechery)- unrestrained or excessive indulgence of sexual desire, (4mB;   ) ); We, verily, have forbidden you lechery, and not that which is conducive to fidelity. — The Summons of the Lord of Hosts; pander = pimp = procure ( > procurement) = indulge > indulgent = lenient : relent) = gratify • (pander)- to act as a pander; cater basely, (  a54-a5r' &9 , uD&9 $ ); They look upon the tellers of stories as among the tribe of those who pander to the wicked pleasures of a wicked world. — Autobiography of Anthony Trollope; • (pimp)- one who finds customers for a prostitute; a procurer; • (procure)- to get by special effort; obtain or acquire; Every remedy in her power to procure was administered, but the disease was acute, and he died. — Woman on the American Frontier; • to obtain (a sexual partner) for another; • (indulge)- to yield to the desires and whims of, especially to an excessive degree; humor; I indulge, with all the art I can, my taste for reading. — Lady Mary Wortley Montague; • (indulgent)- characterized by or showing indulgence; benignly lenient or permissive; He comes from a wealthy political family in Michigan and has never done a day of hard labor in his self-indulgent, coddled and cocooned life; • (lenient)- characterized by tolerance and mercy; • agreeably tolerant; permissive; indulgent, (u ; 4); - 4; k4); Caesar was constitutionally lenient, and admired rather than resented a valiant fight for freedom. — Caesar: A Sketch; • (relent)- to soften in feeling, temper, or determination; become more mild, compassionate, or forgiving, (- 4/ $ 9o; $   , $H) a5p " ; &  9o); Undoubtedly he will relent, and turn — Paradise Lost; • (gratify)- to give pleasure to (a person or persons) by satisfying desires or humoring inclinations or feelings, (* )  , &n,0$ ); Surely he had no revenge to gratify, as against her or her father!—A Black Adonis; platonic # libidinous : libido • (platonic)- purely spiritual; free from sensual desire, esp. in a relationship between two persons of the opposite sex, (-pB , U k&mn; $k); They lived in separate houses; nothing appeared in their behaviour inconsistent in their decorum, and beyond the limits of platonic love. — The Lives of the Poets of Great Britain and Ireland; • (libidinous)- full of sexual lust; lustful; lewd; lascivious, (4mB;  ) ); He set no bounds to his libidinous intercourse with women, but never betrayed any unnatural desires for the other sex. — De vita Caesarum; • (libido)- Psychoanalysis. all of the instinctual energies and desires that are derived from the id, ( ,&$ , c; pk , p); It agrees with the masculine designation of the libido in the text above, for the libido is always active even when it is directed to a passive aim. — Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex; slut = wanton • (slut)- a person, especially a woman, considered sexually promiscuous, (-$\ a"@4 -$ ) ); The servant who took me upstairs was a poor foul slut, and I do not think the room had been properly cleaned or dusted for a very long time. — The Private Life of Henry Maitland; • (wanton)- sexually lawless or unrestrained; loose; lascivious; lewd, (a,0; uc l4; 't9$ , 4mB ,k); She saw in all this magnificence a wanton waste of resources. — The Faith Doctor A Story of New York; amatory = amorous^ paramour = concubine • (amatory)- of, relating to, or expressive of love, especially sexual love, (pcB); This half-year of amatory perturbation was of course unfavorable to literary labor. — The Life and Works of Friedrich Schiller; • (amorous)- inclined or disposed to love, esp. sexual love, (p4; p 4 ) ; ); Her ardour made me amorous, and I rendered homage to her charms till I fell asleep with fatigue—Memoirs of Casanova — Volume 28: Rome; • (paramour)- an illicit lover, esp. of a married person; Tamora's paramour is then sentenced to be buried alive, and the survivors — William Shakespeare; • (concubine)- Law A woman who cohabits with a man without being legally married to him; She said he could take her as a concubine, marry a real wife later. — The Kitchen God's wife;  incontinent^ continent = celibate : continence : abstinence : abstemious : teetotalism : ascetic = austere {stern} = spartan = severe > severity = stiffness = rigor > rigorous = stringent • (incontinent)- lacking in moderation or self-control, esp. of sexual desire, (a&\.; &\.9$); • unable to restrain natural discharges or evacuations of urine or feces, (4 , t 7 $nt * a&:); Now confined to a wheelchair, incontinent, and often fed intravenously, the once loquacious; • (continent)- exercising continence; A woman's virtue is her continence, and a man's virtues are truthfulness and courage. — Despair's Last Journey; • (celibate)- a person who abstains from sexual relations, ( ) ;  ) b); The priests of the temple of Dea (Syria) were, on the other hand, celibate, and so were some orders of the Egyptian priests. — The Freethinker's Text Book, Part II; • (continence)- self-restraint or abstinence, esp. in regard to sexual activity; temperance; moderation, ( t&\.; '; ," e,\  ) u $ntk); Periodic continence, that is, the methods of birth regulation based on self-observation and the use of infertile periods, is in conformity with the objective criteria of morality; • (abstinence)- forbearance from any indulgence of appetite, esp. from the ; u); use of alcoholic beverages, (&\.; '; $,t • (abstemious)- sparing or moderate in eating and drinking; temperate in diet, (, $9 &\.; 9; &\.); The teachings of the high Spirit are abstemious, and, in regard to particulars, negative. Socrates '— Representative Men; • (teetotalism)- the principle or practice of total abstinence from intoxicating drink, (a4 94 $ $ -: , : ); The difference is that Uma Bharati cannot sell her asceticism, vegetarianism, sexual abstinence, teetotalism, and her saffron wardrobe to any urban Indian. — The Morningside Post; • (ascetic)- a person who dedicates his or her life to a pursuit of contemplative ideals and practices extreme self-denial or self-mortification for religious reasons, ( cb ; t$0; m; m n. 7 ); In the last years of his short life he sank into a torpor of superstition--ascetic, self-mortified, and rapt in a strange exaltation, like a medieval monk. — Landmarks in French Literature; • a monk; hermit, (s); • (austere)- severe in manner or appearance; uncompromising; strict; forbidding, ($ $; m); Haydn is in bad health, for her austere mode of life has been carried too far. — The Letters of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart; • rigorously self-disciplined and severely moral; ascetic; abstinent, (a$Fm; $5); I was at the London Oratory yesterday for the Good Friday service: magnificently austere, which isn't a word you usually associate with that church. — Telegraph Blogs; • (stern)- hard, harsh, or severe in manner or character; • (spartan)-suggestive of the ancient Spartans; sternly disciplined and rigorously simple, frugal, or austere, (я,$ &* ) -scn p u &$; c&0$ 5 $ e$ ,k); The decor in the bedroom was spartan, the bedstead and matching bureau and vanity table stained and scratched. — AHMM,September2008; • (severe)- harsh; unnecessarily extreme; So severe was the shock and so vivid the sense of a Providential escape, that scarcely a word was spoken during the drive home. — The Life and Letters of Elizabeth Prentiss; • serious or stern in manner or appearance; • rigidly restrained in style, taste, manner, etc.; simple, plain, or austere; • (severity)- harshness, sternness, or rigor, ( m; b; p'`; p,4); Some theological schools are distinguished for their severity, and others for their sentimentalism. — Sermons to the Natural Man; • (stiffness)- rigid or firm; difficult or impossible to bend or flex, ( m$, k, a$$); His manners were courteous and grave, and quite free from stiffness or affectation. — Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire; • (rigor)- strictness, severity, or harshness, as in dealing with people, ( o; m); He was treated with rigor, and full employment was provided for every hour of his time. — Wieland: or, the Transformation, an American Tale; • (rigorous)- characterized by or acting with rigor; One winter was so rigorous, that many of the Sisters made up their minds to be frozen; a later one was, if possible, still more severe. — The Life of the Venerable Mother Mary of the Incarnation; • ; (stringent)- rigorously binding or exacting; strict; severe, ( m; &) o F; p); He accordingly issued stringent orders to the men that no noise of any description should be made, and not a word be uttered; and there was little necessity to repeat this command. — A Life of Gen Robert E Lee; voyeur = peeping tom • (voyeur)- a person who derives sexual gratification from observing the naked bodies or sexual acts of others, especially from a secret vantage point, (-. ,k , gps$ -: -.6$&g  \, a$ -.6$  a,4 $  $n ); I felt uncomfortable, like a voyeur, a witness to something fundamentally private. — Steven Gould - Wildside (v2.1); • (peeping tom)- a viewer who enjoys seeing the sex acts or sex organs of others; roué = rank = rakehell = libertine = lothario = philanderer = womanizer = casanova = donjuan <> don # doff • (roué)- a dissolute and licentious man; rake, (a&ct, 4mB ,k); • (rank)- grossly coarse, vulgar, or indecent, (at - .k ) ; a*); • (rakehell)- a licentious or dissolute man; rake, (dnt 4mB ,k); • (libertine)- a person who is morally or sexually unrestrained, esp. a dissolute man; a profligate; rake, (a&ct; 4mB ,  ) ,k); A maidservant in the house of a libertine is like a loaf of bread on the shelf. — The Man Who Laughs; • (lothario)- a man who obsessively seduces and deceives women; • (philanderer)- (of a man) to make love with a woman one cannot or will not marry; carry on flirtations; A man with the taste to admire such quality was more dangerous than any philanderer or hustler. — Davis, Lindsey - The Course of Honor; • (womanizer)- a philanderer; His reputation as a womanizer was true. — Dance Of Desire; • (Casanova)- a man with a reputation for having many amorous adventures; rake; Don Juan; • (Don Juan)- a legendary Spanish nobleman famous for his many seductions and dissolute life; • (don)- to put on or dress in, (-  0$ ); Their armour was easily donned, and not very cumbrous. — The Norsemen in the West; • (doff)- to remove or take off, as clothing, (@F; *4 ) -<4; " ); His cap shall doff, and Beauty's kerchief wave; — The Complete Works of Whittier;  debauch = debase = deprave = demoralize = corrupt = vitiate = subvert = profane {violate = desecrate} • (debauch)- to corrupt by sensuality, intemperance, etc.; seduce, ('tq> / $q> ; $,"9 ' a$H$ ) ; ,&$); That drunken debauch was a quest for life, a quest for God. — The New Theology; • (debase)- to lower in rank, dignity, or significance, (4 7 , g, 't i  a0r$ cB$/ aq> ); Do not debase, do not sully, that perfect image of truth. — Tales and Novels — Volume 10; • (deprave)- to make morally bad or evil; vitiate; corrupt, (8$  -: 4 ) ); They soil and deprave the soul, as vile acts do ; $>/ ,  the body. — Plain Facts for Old and Young; • (demoralize)- to deprive (a person or persons) of spirit, courage, discipline, etc.; destroy the morale of, (&9&, t,s&, l4 i d,4 ; $,4 -5K - o); A multi-faceted media campaign is underway to malign, and demoralize the nation, and dehumanize sections of the population; • (corrupt)- guilty of dishonest practices, as bribery; lacking integrity; crooked, (d$gs; $,я; a&D); A Judge may become corrupt, and yet there may not be legal evidence against him. — Life Of Johnson; • (vitiate)- to impair the quality of; make faulty; spoil, (9$,4/ d,4/  7 ); Many causes may vitiate a writer's judgment of his own works. — Lives of the English Poets : Waller, Milton, Cowley; • (subvert)- to overthrow (something established or existing), ($ ) s, ,s&, p d,4  (0, & ) uD* ; 9 ); In order to govern his subjects more easily, he would crush, subvert, nay, ruthlessly destroy, their strength, their spirit, and their self-respect! — Egmont; • (profane)- to treat (anything sacred) with irreverence or contempt; violate the sanctity of, (,t , s$7 , ,st i  p a,j 7 ' / a,$$/ a,t ); No one would dare to describe this work as profane, but whether it is religious or not is a question. — Musical Memories; • (violate)- to break, infringe, or transgress (a law, rule, agreement, promise, instructions, etc.), (pr, ')k i 5K/ 4x$ ); • (desecrate)- to divest of sacred or hallowed character or office, (- $ ,t ,st , s$ a$'5, ) ,   ,,9 ; a,t/  7 ); As you love and value your immortal soul, sanctify and do not waste and desecrate the Sabbath. — Samuel Rutherford;  corrupt > corruption = depravity = turpitude • (corrupt)- guilty of dishonest practices, as bribery; lacking integrity; crooked, (d$gs; $,я; a&D); A Judge may become corrupt, and yet there may not be legal evidence against him. — Life Of Johnson; • (depravity)- moral corruption or degradation, (,  r'; dr4); Several of its members were notorious for their depravity, and Macaulay calls it the "most profligate administration ever known. — The Leading Facts of English History; • (turpitude)- vile, shameful, or base character; depravity, (d>; dnt); Here was an act of extreme heartlessness and turpitude, too bad to be believed of one so ensconced in solemn plausibilities. — Shakespeare His Life Art And Characters;  debauched = debased = dissipated = dissolute • (debauched)- corrupt; vitiated in morals or purity of character; Coming back by Cananor, he lodged in the house of a Christian, who himself was religious, but his son debauched, and subject to all sorts of vices. — The Works of John Dryden; • (dissipated)- indulging in or characterized by excessive devotion to pleasure; intemperate; dissolute, (a:9$  \, k   p 4p); A hard-drinking, dissipated, and somewhat coarse-mannered cavalry officer, he has often been a source of perpetual anger to the kaiser and of distress to his sister, the excellent empress. — The Secret Memoirs of the Courts of Europe; • (dissolute)- indifferent to moral restraints; given to immoral or improper conduct; licentious; dissipated, ('t9$; ay$ я,$.$ ); He was depraved and dissolute, and, to satisfy his licentious desires, he is said to have made free with the treasury—The New Guide to Peterborough Cathedral;  dissolute > dissolution : decomposition • (dissolution)- a bringing or coming to an end; disintegration; decay; termination, (&\"m$ / 8,,9 &m  a,&$); He was a member of Harrington's Club till its dissolution, and of the Royal Society before it had received the name. — Harvard Classics Volume 28 Essays English and American; • (decomposition)- the state of being decomposed; decay, (:  ; '$); There was no sign of decomposition, and she realized that it was because the room had been airless. — Suspicion;  amoral : iniquitous : miscreant : noncommittal^ nondescript • (amoral)- not involving questions of right or wrong; without moral quality; neither moral nor immoral, (8$  &: &m 9$, ay$ ); In an age enamored of machines, life becomes amoral, without moral bearings, devoid of moral categories; • (iniquitous)- characterized by injustice or wickedness; wicked; sinful, (-c d, t); What could be more iniquitous than to attack me without a declaration of war? — The Memoirs of Napoleon; • (miscreant)- depraved, villainous, or base, (dk  ; d, t; d'); This miscreant was arrested with the forearm of a missing child in his pocket, and in his stove were found the head and entrails in a half-burnt condition. — Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine; • (noncommittal)- not committing oneself, or not involving committal, to a particular view, course, or the like; She is demure now, noncommittal, as he attempts to interest her in seeing him again. —Audrey Hepburn; • (nondescript)- of no recognized, definite, or particular type or kind, (&9я -z5)k  . $ e$;  m)  ; a 4k ; &> -@F); In addition to the old structures, modern buildings in Italy – nondescript apartment houses and public buildings -- often don't meet current standards in seismic safety. — Salon; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.17 Money 1.17.1 Financial State destitute, dearth, affluent, abundant, privation destitute = impoverished = poverty-stricken = indigent = needy • (destitute)- without means of subsistence; lacking food, clothing, and shelter,(; d ; d s;  s); Becoming destitute, the colony despatched its governor home for supplies. — History of the United States, Volume 1 (of 6); • (impoverished)- reduced to poverty; There was nothing left for the impoverished family but to return to the old Virginia home, and try to make the best of it. — Memories; • (indigent)- lacking food, clothing, and other necessities of life because of poverty; needy; poor; impoverished, (d;   ; a ); He lived in plenty and elegance upon an income which, to many would appear indigent, and to most, scanty. — Life Of Johnson; destitute <> desuetude = inactiveness • (desuetude)- the state of being no longer used or practiced, (a  o); Laws, like customs, may cease to have a significance, and they may be modified or allowed to fall into desuetude. — A Handbook of Ethical Theory; • (inactiveness)- a disposition to remain inactive or inert; indigence = pauperism = penury = impoverishment • (pauperism)- the state or condition of utter poverty; • (pauper)- very poor person, ( s;  " !); He gives everything away and lives like a pauper, and one may well say that he has the very spirit of poverty. — The Makers of Canada: Bishop Laval; • (penury)- extreme poverty; destitution; From involuntary idleness, servile dependence, penury, and useless labor, he has passed to toils of a very different nature rewarded by ample subsistence. — The Promise of American Life; deprivation = privation • (deprivation)- the condition of being deprived; privation; Wasted with illness and deprivation, his age was indeterminable. — Dragons of Autumn Twilight; • (privation)- lack of the usual comforts or necessaries of life, (a#; anst#; d s; & s); I can bear fatigue and welcome privation, and have seen some of the noblest views in the world. — Life of Lord Byron, Vol. 3 (of 6) With His Letters and Journals; paucity = dearth = famine = shortage = scarcity > scarce • (paucity)- smallness of quantity; scarcity; scantiness, ('  ()*! sl; a#); Either a paucity or excess of water at the roots should lead to identical results. — Scientific American Supplement, No. 508, September 26, 1885; • (dearth)- an inadequate supply; scarcity; lack, (a#; a , ; -); Demographic dearth is the root cause of the economic crisis; • (famine)- extreme and general scarcity of food, as in a country or a large geographical area, (d# k; ' *!#); In India sometimes when a famine is at hand the life of the land starts up before your eyes in all its bareness and bitter stress. — Letters of Travel (1892-1913); • (scarcity)- insufficiency or shortness of supply; dearth, (dp!; -); The last march was remarkable for the scarcity of birds, so eight days were spent on porridge and rice without relish. — The Last Journals of David Livingstone from 1865 to His Death;  sustain > sustenance ~ subsistence = livelihood = bread and butter • (sustenance)- means of sustaining life; nourishment, means of livelihood, (*!   &; 01  0 1 u ); Their only means of sustenance was from the charity of the British and French soldiers, who shared rations with them. — Private Peat; • (subsistence)- a means of subsisting, especially means barely sufficient to maintain life; All her subsistence was a little unpleasant and disagreeable broth, which I forced her to take against her will. — Autobiography Of Madame Guyon; • means of support; subsistence; Even business men and traders, who ought to know better, ignore the science on which their livelihood is wholly founded. — The Adventure of Living; tycoon = mogul = magnate • (tycoon)- a businessperson of great wealth and power; magnate, (t o k& !(&  l); He set out to corner all the pepper in the world and make himself into a tycoon, and because of his compulsive fanaticism, he managed it. ' — Bonecrack; • (mogul)- a bump or mound of hard snow on a ski slope; Pullman shrugged off his failure to become a mogul, took a job as a manager at a chain bookstore in Westwood and settled into a pleasant life. — More Twisted Stories Vol II; • (magnate)- a person of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise, field of business, etc., (t-6#& !k); He was now a railway magnate, the president of a system, a manipulator of dexterity and courage. — Little Journey in the World; affluent = wealthy • (affluent)-plentiful; abundant; The enthusiasm that made her speech so affluent, when measured by the average scale, was the unconscious overflow of a poetic temperament. — Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli; pecunious # impecunious( = penniless)(^ pecuniary = monetary) • (impecunious)- having little or no money; penniless; poor, ( (m;  " !); He was known as a competent officer, who discharged his duties with great consideration for the impecunious and unfortunate. — The Story of the Upper Canada Rebellion; • (penniless)- very poor; Now we were in America hungry and penniless, and hard was the bed that we should lie on. — The Iron Puddler; • (pecuniary)- pertaining to money; These were that, after the present campaign, no farther pecuniary or military aids were to be expected from France. — The Life of George Washington, Vol. 4 (of 5) ; • (monetary)- of or pertaining to money; pecuniary, (-8 ); Instant cash loans are short term monetary arrangements, where in you get instant funds to deal with emergency needs; sumptuous = luxurious = deluxe = opulent = princely • (sumptuous)- entailing great expense, as from choice materials, fine work, etc.; costly, (''! " ; '9 ; !h; я<); He knew she was a queen, because she wore a crown as well as a sumptuous ornately bejeweled royal gown. — Geis of the Gargoyle; • (luxurious)- characterized by luxury; ministering or conducive to luxury, ((h o -'); His court was luxurious, and in private he was addicted to sensual lust. — Renaissance in Italy, Volume 1 (of 7) The Age of the Despots; • (luxuriant)- abundant, rich and splendid; The panorama was beautiful; the vegetation was luxuriant, and, from its vivid green, refreshing to the eye. — The Phantom Ship; • (deluxe)- of special elegance, sumptuousness, or fineness; high or highest > ; '9 !; a un ' ); A half hour in quality, luxury, etc., (a!1=0 later, the cab swooped around the plantings and fountains in front of the deluxe, L-shaped Kennedy-Warren Apartment Complex. — The 6th Target; • (opulent)- wealthy, rich, or affluent, ( &; t ); The merchants of Timbuctoo were opulent, and two of them were married to princesses. — Life and Travels of Mungo Park in Central Africa; • (princely)- greatly liberal; lavish; magnificent; The young man is hitherto blameless; but it would be unreasonable to expect much from the immaturity of juvenile years, and the ignorance of princely education. — Life Of Johnson; copious = ample = abundant = bountiful = plentiful = plenteous = plenary = voluminous • (abundant)- present in great quantity; more than adequate; oversufficient, (p1; a@); Fruit was abundant, and every matron prided herself upon preserving and putting away quantities of it for home use. — Life in Canada Fifty Years Ago; • (bountiful)- liberal in bestowing gifts, favors, or bounties; munificent; generous, (p1; 8A); His Indian companion has made for his supper a bountiful provision, having killed three fat turkeys in the space of half an hour. — The Life of Francis Marion; • (plentiful)- existing in great plenty, (p1;  p; h); Fish is very plentiful, and the principal animal food of the inhabitants. — Life of William Carey; • (plenteous)- affording an abundant supply; • (plenary)- full; complete; entire; absolute; unqualified, ((k';  > t (mn) (m" ; " ; (&'& ; a); I announce to you a plenary indulgence which I have obtained from the goodness of our Heavenly Father, and from the mouth of the Sovereign Pontiff. — The Life and Legends of Saint Francis of Assisi; • (voluminous)- forming, filling, or writing a large volume or many volumes, ( 1 , ' ); Dr. Rush's writings were voluminous, and embraced a variety of subjects. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; copious^ cornucopia • (copious)- plentiful; copious; abundant, (p1); The spring is copious, clear, and of excellent water; I need not say with what relish I drank of it. — Dreams Waking Thoughts and Incidents; • (cornucopia)- Classical Mythology. a horn containing food, drink, etc., in endless supply, said to have been a horn of the goat Amalthaea, (p1  p&); The cornucopia or horn of abundance figures frequently in sculpture, paintings, and works of art. — Chats on Household Curios; ample <> amble • (ample)- fully sufficient or more than adequate for the purpose or needs; plentiful; enough, (p1, 8A,  p); The chimney was peculiarly ample, occupying one entire side of the whole building, which was an exact square. — The First White Man of the West; • (amble)- to go at a slow, easy pace; stroll; saunter, (scn  ; & scn ); He moved in an eccentric amble, and when put upon his speed was generally run backward. — The Life, Crime, and Capture of John Wilkes Booth; bountiful > bounty • (bounty)- a generous gift, (a>  ; u); The poor creatures were extremely grateful for his bounty, and many of them even shed tears. — Lander's Travels The Travels of Richard Lander into the Interior of Africa; substantial > substantive • (substantial)- basic or essential; fundamental; • of ample or considerable amount, quantity, size, etc., (; (p1 1 ; ul* !); His appearance--substantial, unostentatious--inspired confidence in his integrity and confidence in his ability to cope with any emergency. — The Fighting Shepherdess; • (substantive)- possessing substance; having practical importance, value, or effect, (snt; s& ; s; p > ; (!); The effect on the treaty is substantive, not merely numerical. — The Sum of all Fears; rife = overabundant = plethoric = luxuriant = lush = profuse {profusion} = exuberant = rampant • (rife)- of common or frequent occurrence; prevalent; in widespread existence, activity, or use, ((s> 1 , h p, ( ); Drunkenness was rife, and often we heard them singing ribald songs or insanely shouting—The Scarlet Plague; • (overabundant)- an excessive amount or abundance; surfeit; Delancy was not blest with an overabundant sense of humor. — Making People Happy; • (plethoric)- overfull; turgid; inflated; The colonel was a stout, tall, plethoric German, evidently devoted to the service and patriotically Russian. — War and Peace; • (luxuriant)- abundant or lush in growth, as vegetation, (L , Ln, p1); The panorama was beautiful; the vegetation was luxuriant, and, from its vivid green, refreshing to the eye. — The Phantom Ship; • (lush)- characterized by luxuriousness, opulence, etc., ((h o -'); "The real pleasure and richness in this book come from the lush, detailed writing about unusual lives and relationships charged with complexity." — A Suitable Vengeance; • (of vegetation, plants, grasses, etc.) luxuriant; succulent; tender and juicy, ((9(, - Nkt) p1 я oP); • (profusion)- spending or giving freely and in large amount, often to excess; extravagant, ((p1 1 , uc(, -!n); Gold is there in profusion, and to be had for the seeking. — To The Gold Coast for Gold, Vol. II A Personal Narrative; • (exuberant)- effusively and almost uninhibitedly enthusiastic; lavishly abundant, ((#  &, ('d > " , p1 " , p c, uc(, ud); His aim was deliberate and effective His style was generally exuberant, and the note of personal assertion prominent. — Successful Methods of Public Speaking; • (rampant)- violent in action or spirit; raging; furious,(a nt, a); • growing luxuriantly, as weeds, ( &, a!# я' ); Murder ran rampant, and the roads were everywhere strewn with the bodies of slaughtered men. — Personal Recollections of Pardee Butler; brimming : lush : succulent • (brimming)- to be full to the brim, (    " , uc); Her eyes were brimming with tears as she turned to him, obviously upset that she'd made this confession to a near stranger. — Ellery Queen Mystery Magazine; • (brim)- the upper edge of anything hollow; rim; brink; the brim of a cup; • (succulent)- full of juice; juicy, ((, ((, (sd1 ); The corn is sweet and succulent, the chicken gushing and tender, and the tomatillo sauce bright, spicy, and acidic. — The Paupered Chef; • rich in desirable qualities; exuberant <> exorbitant = usurious = prohibitive • (exorbitant)- exceeding the bounds of custom, propriety, or reason, esp. in amount or extent; highly excessive, (a!; 'tk); The prices charged for rent are exorbitant, and should secure decency and healthful quarters. — Aliens or Americans?; • (usurious)- practicing usury; The commission found that usurious interest rates were applied for many bonds and that past Ecuadorian governments illegally took other loans on; • (prohibitive)- sufficing to prevent the use, purchase, etc., of something, (  '" > ;  t'" ); Moving to a new security infrastructure is potentially cost-prohibitive, as that would involve basically swapping out every set-top box in the field; unbridled : rampant <> rampart • (stoic)- not controlled or restrained; violent,( '& ; l& ; a(U); Anger - unbridled, irrational and seething anger - is spilling into surrounding countries in the Middle East and threatens to affect overall peace efforts in the region. — Indybay newswire; • (rampart)- a broad elevation or mound of earth raised as a fortification around a place and usually capped with a stone or earth parapet, ( V  Nl); He surrounds the city with a rampart, a moat, and a wall: thus he enlarges the pomœrium. — The History of Rome, Books 01 to 08; prevail > prevailing = predominant = prevalent = preeminent = preponderant = paramount = overriding • (prevail)- to be widespread or current; exist everywhere or generally, (! o; я'  h p o); • to use persuasion or inducement successfully, (W 1 (W 1 я ; pd1 / ud1d ); Gustavus wrote to Michael telling him that if the Catholic league should prevail, the Greek Church would be in danger. — The Story of Russia; • (preponderant)- having ascendancy, power, authority, or influence over others; preeminent, (p, p , p#&); Now where love is predominant, there is a sweet peace and harmony between all the members of this one body. — The Works of the Rev. Hugh Binning; • (prevalent)- widespread; of wide extent or occurrence; in general use or acceptance, (( , !, ( t 0 >  a A 1 , p); This opinion of our own constancy is so prevalent, that we always despise him who suffers his general and settled purpose to be overpowered by an occasional desire. — Life Of Johnson; • (preeminent)- eminent above or before others; superior; surpassing, (( YA; ( p ; ag !); Emerson had the same lofty aim as Milton, To raise the idea of man; he had the power to inspire in a preeminent degree. — Ralph Waldo Emerson; • (preponderant)- superior in weight, force, influence, numbers, etc.; prevailing, (#, ()*!, k i! 't, p); Their wealth was even more preponderant, being, slaves apart, nearly one hundred per cent. — History of the United States, Volume 3 (of 6); • (paramount)- chief in importance or impact; supreme; preeminent, (( c; k  k' NYA); The health issue is now paramount, as global obesity levels reach epidemic proportions; • (override)- to prevail or have dominance over; have final authority or say over; overrule, ((a ! a#', (dn, i◌^_, a i!)    ag! ); The override was anticipated after the Democratic governor's veto message was read to the House on Monday night;  preeminent > preeminence = distinction • (distinction)- honor, contrast, discrimination, (8 !, snt!, 0, (m ); They have, in other words, a distinction of their own and their distinction is their power. — Laugh and Live;  overriding : ascendancy : dominance : purchase : clout • (ascendancy)- the state of being in the ascendant; governing or controlling influence; domination, (p !; p!; p#1t); Her political ascendancy is a direct result of the women's movement, which has changed the world utterly for women of all persuasions; • (dominance)- the condition or fact of being dominant; Although plant life held dominance, animal life was also abundant and lush. — Midworld; • (purchase)- firm grasp or footing; The mountaineer struggled to get a proper purchase on the slippery rock; • (clout)- great influence (especially political or social), (N _ 1  N !k p#  k'); Often you need political clout to ensure your rights are enforced; • a blow, esp. with the hand; cuff, (-9; k); frequency > frequent ~ pandemic ~ ubiquitous = omnipresent • (frequent)- happening or occurring at short intervals, (p ()9,, p, Nb   1 ,  ', a#!s); Her outbreaks became more frequent, her departures from his miserable roof more prolonged. — The Private Life of Henry Maitland; • (pandemic)- (of a disease) prevalent throughout an entire country, continent, or the whole world; epidemic over a large area, (('g N  ' !p); An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the human population; • (ubiquitous)- existing or being everywhere, esp. at the same time; omnipresent,(( !&); Bluetooth technology is as convenient as it is ubiquitous, that is to say, it's quite common; • (omnipresent)- present everywhere at the same time; Rumor made his spies omnipresent, his priests omniscient, his anger all-powerful. — The Door Through Space;  omnipresent^ omnipotent^ impotent {infertile = sterile} ^ potent : fertile = fecund = prolific • (omnipotent)- almighty or infinite in power, as God, (( k' ); God is omnipotent, and he will decide. — The Companions of Jehu; • (impotent)- not potent; lacking power or ability, (ak'; a('8 ; )( 1 ; k&); Arsenal seemed every bit as impotent, their minds as shattered as their dreams. — Football.co.uk news feed; • (infertile)- unproductive or barren; He could not bear the sight of the sea; its infertile bosom and blind restless tumblings filled him with melancholy. — Rousseau; • (sterile)- not producing or incapable of producing offspring; The land was more sterile, and the people were much poorer. — The Life of Thomas Telford; • (potent)- powerful; mighty, (k&; p#d1); It is an extremely potent carcinogen, causing an increase in cancer risk with infinitesimal doses; • (fertile)- capable of initiating, sustaining, or supporting reproduction; Much of this land was extremely fertile, and most of it required little labor to prepare it for cultivation. — The Reign of Andrew Jackson; • (fecundity)- the quality of being fecund; capacity, esp. in female animals, of producing young in great numbers, (u ; u= &); This phenomenon of incredible fecundity is one of the mysteries of that time. — Castilian Days; • (prolific)- producing offspring, young, fruit, etc., abundantly; highly fruitful, (p1 ' u= &; apя); This exhibition offers an opportunity to study the pioneering thinking of an intensely passionate, prolific, and idiosyncratic individual; plethora = overplus = superfluity • (plethora)- overabundance; excess, (ap1, -!); The remedy for your plethora is simple--abstinence. — Life of Lord Byron, Vol. 3 (of 6) With His Letters and Journals; • (overplus)- an excess over a particular amount; surplus; At the end of each year, the account is balanced, and the overplus or deficit is transferred to the succeeding one. — Religion in Japan; • (superfluity)- extreme excess; superfluous = supererogatory = supernumerary = excess = extra = redundant {pleonastic = tautological} • (superfluous)- being more than is sufficient or required; excessive, (pя k, a 8 , a8); A more thorough examination would have been superfluous, as it was impossible to doubt any longer. — The Waif of the "Cynthia"; • (supererogatory)- greater than that required or needed; superfluous; Still, I am quite alive to the difficulties of my task; and I am conscious that the work may to some appear supererogatory. — A Study of Hawthorne; • going beyond the requirements of duty; • (supernumerary)- being in excess of the usual, proper, or prescribed number; additional; extra, (()*!k st  !k); Marion chose for the leader of his band, Major John Vanderhorst, then a supernumerary officer in his brigade. — The Life of Francis Marion; • (redundant)- exceeding what is necessary or natural; superfluous; Maquesta's words seemed redundant, a repetition of words resounding in his own mind. — Dragons of Spring Dawning; • (pleonastic, pleonasm)- the use of more words than are necessary to express an idea; redundancy; The translation here is somewhat pleonastic for the sake of perspicuity; the original is clear in itself, but not to us who have no such practice. — The Odyssey of Homer; • (tautological)- needless repetition of an idea, esp. in words other than those of the immediate context, without imparting additional force or clearness, as in “widow woman.”, (a8 &  t' 1 > " ); He is likely to express himself in a tautological, careless, or even illogical fashion. — The Common People of Ancient Rome Studies of Roman Life and Literature; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.17.2 Saver & Spender stingy, avaricious, economical, squanderer, openhanded skimp = scrimp = scant = stint : pittance •  (skimp)- to provide for or supply inadequately; be stingy with, (s ,   ); There should be no skimping, no false economy, in a matter of such prime importance. — The Flag; • (scrimp)- as skimp; Once in the cold winter days, when we all had to scrimp on electricity, he complained bloody murder about the cold. — Tales From The Secret Annex; • (scant)- barely sufficient in amount or quantity; not abundant; almost inadequate, (ap   , a l); Though crops were scant, the forest itself was ample and sometimes brought him rich returns if he managed right. — Blue Ridge Country; • (stint)- to be frugal; get along on a scanty allowance, (    ,  , a );“He chose to be deported, since a stint in prison almost guaranteed deportation later anyway; • an allotted amount or piece of work, ( " !    я  $ mn); After a stint as a radio presenter, she went to Goldsmiths to do a degree as a mature student; • (pittance)- a small allowance or wage, (a l; a(!p $); And when we asked for a pittance, they gave it with grudging grace. — Poems of Purpose; stingy = hoarder = penny-pincher = skinflint = miser = tightwad = cheapskate = parsimonious = penurious = grudging = niggard = scrooge • (stingy)- reluctant to give or spend; not generous; niggardly; penurious,  (s , n  , я); He sat alone at the end of the bar, hunched over his drink like a stingy dog with a bone. — Where There's Smoke; • (hoard)- to accumulate for preservation, future use, etc., in a hidden or carefully guarded place; Being distrustful and a hoarder, he must have good, old fashioned crowns, with the ancient effigy, so as to lay them away in a jar or old woollen stocking; give him specie or he will keep his grain. — The French Revolution - Volume 3; • (penny-pincher)- a miserly, niggardly, or stingy person; • (skinflint)- a mean, niggardly person; miser; This week, the old skinflint is down in the vault where he keeps all his money locked up. — Asimov'sSF,August2008; • (miser)- a person who lives in wretched circumstances in order to save and hoard money, (  , a!-./, , я, ); The pauper and the miser are as free as any in the Catholic Convents of Palestine. — The Innocents Abroad — Volume 06; • (tightwad)- a close-fisted or stingy person; I forgot to bring my lunch today to work, but I am too much of a tightwad to go buy some lunch; • (cheapskate)- a person who is stingy and miserly; • (parsimonious)- characterized by or showing parsimony; frugal or stingy, (n   ,  ); He was generous with his money, but parsimonious with his conversation. — Madeleine An Autobiography; • (penurious)- extremely stingy; parsimonious; miserly, ( d, k", 2 2 , r); He was in no sense penurious, but vulgar show, senseless extravagance, and selfish luxury were utterly repellent to him. — The Life of Sir William Hartley, ebook, etext; • (grudging)- displaying or reflecting reluctance or unwillingness, stingy, (4 5    4  ac o); She had a half-grudging, half- ironic grin of appreciation for a fellow sportsman, the same grin with which she had looked up at her from the sea at Cadgwith. — Dangerous Ages; • (niggardly)- reluctant to give or spend; stingy; miserly, (ac    p t  p   e); They say you are mean and niggardly--that you're afraid to spend a dollar. — Dennison Grant: a Novel of To-day; • (scrooge)- a selfish person who is unwilling to give or spend;  avaricious = prehensile = avid = greedy = devouring = covetous > covetousness = cupidity = rapacity = avarice • (avaricious)- characterized by avarice; greedy; covetous, (4  ,4, p); In the midst of opulence he eats a frugal lunch in a room which supplies the one thing of which he is avaricious--big windows and plenty of fresh air. — Success (Second Edition); • (prehensile)- greedy; grasping; avaricious; • adapted for seizing, grasping, or taking hold of something, (;2<  k, 4(  ); The possession of an effective prehensile organ--a hand or its equivalent--seems to be the first great requisite for the evolution of a high order of intellect. — Science in Arcady; • (avid)- keenly desirous; eager; greedy, (u?  , un, 4 ); His mother had been an avid gardener and passed her love of green and blooming things along to him. — Encounter At Farpoint; • (greedy)- excessively desirous of acquiring or possessing; Her overweening ambition made her greedy, and Yoshida had learned how to live off that greed without the Reverend Mother ever knowing it. — Black Blade; • (devouring)- to swallow or eat up hungrily, voraciously, or ravenously,(4Ag 4A, 4  o); When a soul with childlike trust casts her faults into Love's all-devouring furnace, how shall they escape being utterly consumed? — The Story of a Soul; • (covetous)- inordinately or wrongly desirous of wealth or possessions; greedy, (  ); Charity is the very opposite of the selfish, covetous, ambitious, proud, grudging spirit of this world. — Sermons for the Times; • (cupidity)- eager or excessive desire, esp. to possess something; greed; avarice, (-mt 4); Ali's schemes had succeeded, but both his ambition and his cupidity were frustrated. — Celebrated Crimes (Complete); • (rapacity)- inordinately greedy; predatory; extortionate; He left behind him a character of reckless rapacity, and of a determined will, notwithstanding some generous and humane actions. — Memoirs of the Jacobites of 1715 and 1745 Volume II; economize = husband > husbandry • (economize)- to practice economy, as by avoiding waste or reducing expenditures; The prices are so low that we have difficulty in meeting the interest on our mortgages and paying our taxes, no matter how seriously we economize. — My Memories of Eighty Years; • (husband)- to manage, esp. with prudent economy, (   ); Marathan runners must husband their energy so that they can keep going for the entire distance; • (husbandry)- careful or thrifty management; frugality, thrift, or conservation; He accumulated his small fortune by diligence and husbandry; thrifty = frugal = economical = sparing = stinting • (thrifty)- practicing thrift or economical management; frugal, ( ); Her husband had always been industrious and thrifty, and his death left her enough to support her and her Sally in the way they wished. — Jane Talbot; •  thriving, prosperous, or successful, (d., un .); • (frugal)- economical in use or expenditure; prudently saving or sparing; not wasteful, (( ,  i  mn),  , ,  G ); He frequented the voluptuous and the frugal, the idle and the busy, the merchants and the men of learning. — Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia; • (economical)- avoiding waste or extravagance; thrifty, ( , ); The young enthusiast began life anew in Paris, by being very economical, as he must pay back the loan made for his mass. — The World's Great Men of Music; • (sparing)- economical; Perhaps it was her hope that if the city fell such a garment might save her life, sparing her for the collar. — Renegades Of Gor; • (stinging)- ; The whirling, stinging, white dust darkened the air and coated our sledges, our horses, and our faces. — The Adventure of Living; prodigal <> prodigy • (prodigal)- wastefully or recklessly extravagant, (a , a, a/ , hp , a  , ks  ); So prodigal was the luxuriance of foliage, so overflowing the tide of herbage, that from end to end it all seemed hidden, flooded, submerged. — La faute de l'Abbe Mouret; • (prodigy)- a person, esp. a child or young person, having extraordinary talent or ability, (s, a! G st, a k mn L 4 5  /p  "ns k); She said Mozart had a sister who also was a child prodigy, and their dad traveled the country for both to perform. — The Lubbock Avalanche-Journal:Today's Headlines; profligate = prodigal = squanderer : spendthrift : extravagant = lavish • (profligate)- utterly and shamelessly immoral or dissipated; thoroughly dissolute, (!jя dQ., ind, , mS, d/); None but a profligate, a sensualist, a ruffian, could disbelieve. — Jane Talbot; • recklessly prodigal or extravagant, (a , a, a/ , u</T); • (squanderer)- one who squanders; He is what is called a squanderer of money. — Essays on Political Economy; • (spendthrift)- a person who spends possessions or money extravagantly or wastefully; prodigal, (a   a 4); He has been described as a spendthrift and gambler, and as one scarcely honest in his extravagance and gambling. — Framley Parsonage; • (extravagant)- spending much more than is necessary or wise; wasteful, (a/, a); The duke, an open-handed man and renowned for his extravagant hospitalities, had lived not wisely but too well. — Crabbe; • exceeding the bounds of reason, as actions, demands, opinions, or passions,(U, aL( ); • (lavish)- expended, bestowed, or occurring in profusion, (a , a); Prodigal were their compliments--lavish their promises of support. — Rienzi, Last of the Roman Tribunes; wastrel : squanderer > squander = fritter • (wastrel)- a wasteful person; spendthrift, (a! k, aVT  , a  a/ 4); At the same time he complained that Julian was an extravagant wastrel, intent on destroying the family fortunes. — Mary Jo Putney - The Rake; • (squander)- to spend or use (money, time, etc.) extravagantly or wastefully, (a , 4 / ,  u<); When she married me, without any settlement, that money became mine, in point of law--mine to squander or make away with as I pleased. — Birds of Prey; • (fritter)- to squander or disperse piecemeal; waste little by little, (fritter something away- k a/ ); How much energy is frittered away as a result of Facebook, MySpace, and other social networks?; munificent = overgenerous = unstinting = freehanded = bighearted : magnanimous • (minificent)- extremely liberal in giving; very generous, ( ,  , p); The allowance appeared munificent, and he accepted the offer with gratitude. — Delsarte System of Oratory; • (overgenerous)- very generous; The house was in a pleasant part of the town and the wages were adequate although not overgenerous. — Waiting For Deborah; • (unstinting)- very generous; • (freehand)- openhanded; generous; God was not freehanded with His heaven. — Invisible Links; • (bighearted)- generous; kind; She was prickly, demanding, funny, bighearted, and loyal beyond all reason. — tell No one; • (magnanimity)- generosity, (   ); Lincoln's magnanimity is the final proof of the completeness of his self-discipline. — The Promise of American Life; magnanimity = largesse {tip = cumshaw} = gratuity^ gratis^ gratuitous^ ingratiate : appanage : right • (largesse)- generous bestowal of gifts, (u  ); A sharp-eyed beggar noticed this largesse and at once shot out his hand. — Asimov's Science Fiction; • (tip)- a small sum of money given to someone for performing a service; a gratuity; • (cumshaw)- a present; gratuity; tip; "I never heard her ask for any cumshaw that weighed less than a ton and which required fewer than a dozen enlisted men and two trucks to move." — Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day; • (gratuity)- a gift of money, over and above payment due for service, as to a waiter or bellhop; tip, ( W; ..); I never left at your door a copy of verses provocative of an annual gratuity, as your noble honor styles it. — The Christmas Books of Mr. M.A. Titmarsh; • (gratis)- without charge or payment; free, (G ; A); Aboriginal would not give his corn away gratis, the Vraibleusians determined to give up bread. — The Voyage of Captain Popanilla; • (gratuitous)- given, done, bestowed, or obtained without charge or payment; free; voluntary, ( G p t  pp); In the monastery all such labour was gratuitous, that is, the copyist received no pecuniary remuneration, only his food and lodging. — Illuminated Manuscripts; • (ingratiate)- to establish (oneself) in the favor or good graces of others, esp. by deliberate effort (usually fol. by with), (agя  / aAя  o); He has always endeavoured to ingratiate himself in my favour, by depreciating everything in his own country. — A Residence in France; • (appanage)- land or some other source of revenue assigned for the maintenance of a member of the family of a ruling house, (яn  !Gt pp mt); He would then marry the daughter of one of them, and annex Scotland as herappanage. — A Forgotten Hero Not for Him;  altruism = philanthropy # misanthropy : cynical • (altruistic)- unselfishly concerned for or devoted to the welfare of others, (!m ); The symbolism behind the Italian flag is altruistic, the green stands for hope, the white for faith, and red for charity; • (philanthropy)- altruistic concern for human welfare and advancement, (p, 4[ W, я); But your philanthropy is so patient, so far-sighted, that present evils give you less solicitude. — The Correspondence of Thomas Carlyle and Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1834-1872, Vol. I; • (misanthropy)- Hatred or mistrust of humankind, (dW; [); Lyoff renounced his unrealized dreams with silent reproach, and Sergei with morbid misanthropy. — Reminiscences of Tolstoy; • (cynical)- bitterly or sneeringly distrustful, contemptuous, or pessimistic, (].  ;/mn); The general impression of his face seemed to me slightly cynical, and he had a constant smile that betokened self-possession and confidence. — The Life Story of an Old Rebel;  benefactor^ beneficent^ benevolent^ beneficiary^ benefaction • (benefactor)- a person who confers a benefit; kindly helper, (я ;  ); He is a modest man, and for this reason disclaimed all desire to be known as a benefactor. — Hidden Treasures Or, Why Some Succeed While Others Fail; • (beneficent)- doing good or causing good to be done; conferring benefits; kindly in action or purpose, ( ;  ); His heart is naturally beneficent, and his beneficence is the gift of God for the most excellent purposes, as I have often freely told him. — Pamela, Volume II; • (benevolent)- characterized by or expressing goodwill or kindly feelings, ( ;  .); While instilling in her a sense of duty to be benevolent, her father had also warned her about the potential pitfalls of wealth; • (beneficiary)- a person or group that receives benefits, profits, or advantages, (   t p); At the primary level it pertains to the individual; otherwise the beneficiary is the larger society; • (benefaction)- the act of conferring aid of some sort; The luxury of benefaction was a new one to him, and he wondered at the keenness of its flavor. — The Raid from Beausejour; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.18 War belligerent, altercation, assault, military, confiscate, rebel, junta, war, injure, destroy bellicose = belligerent = truculent = pugnacious = warlike = quarrelsome = disputatious = contentious = combative = competitive = litigious = militant = antagonistic {antipathetic} : martial • (bellicose)- inclined or eager to fight; aggressively hostile; belligerent; pugnacious, (p,   ); Their attitude towards human existence is that you cannot be a patriot or create a great nation unless you are bellicose and warlike. — Drake Nelson and Napoleon; • (belligerent)- of warlike character; aggressively hostile; bellicose; Billy slapped his left hand to his right ear, as though he were reaching for a belligerent mosquito. — The Authentic Life of Billy The Kid; • (truculent)- fierce; cruel; savagely brutal, (s, я  ); He looked as I had seen him in my fancy a thousand times--truculent, gray and awful—The Voice of the City: Further Stories of the Four Million; • aggressively hostile; belligerent, (d   , d  ); • (pugnacious)- inclined to quarrel or fight readily; quarrelsome; belligerent; combative, (d  , p,  ); There was something irresistibly pugnacious, and yet good-natured, in the florid face of this person—An Enemy to the King; • (warlike)- belligerent; hostile; They were warlike, angry, and at the present moment peculiarly discontented with Rome. — The Life of Cicero; • (quarrelsome)- given to quarreling; contentious; His wife was pretty, not clever, quarrelsome, and under a virginal appearance; mischievous to the last degree. — Court Memoirs of France Series — Complete; • (disputatious)- fond of or given to disputation; argumentative; contentious, ( !p",  ); I believe one great source of our concord is that neither he nor I are disputatious, which is not the case with any of them. — Rousseau (Volume 1 and 2); • (contentious)- tending to argument or strife; quarrelsome, (  # , p,  ); Its matter was less contentious, and its technical execution was effective and brilliant. — Bjornstjerne Bjornson; • (combative)- ready or inclined to fight; pugnacious; In addition he was prompt, combative, and magnanimous; shrewd, but never subtle; sensible, but not imaginative. — Lady John Russell; • (competitive)- having a strong desire to compete or to succeed, (p    # ); The easiest kind of competitive examination is an examination in writing. — An Autobiography; • (litigious)-inclined to dispute or disagree; argumentative, (   я); The tenants were not going to be frustrated by that—being Irishmen and litigious, which is one and the same thing. — The Reminiscences of an Irish Land Agent; • (militant)- vigorously active and aggressive, esp. in support of a cause, (d  , я$, " # ); Men of neutral quality do not make good Christians-militant. — Little Journeys to the Homes of Great Reformers; • (antagonistic)- hostile; unfriendly, (%tr'  (n,   *, ( ); Then he became antagonistic, and now his army, recruited from bandit elements, was fighting the Bolsheviki. — My Disillusionment in Russia; • acting in opposition; opposing, esp. mutually, ((s  r d k %); • (antipathetic)- opposed in nature or character; antagonistic; Mutually antipathetic, they quarreled, but could not afford to quarrel long. — The Dust Flower; • (martial)- inclined or disposed to war; warlike, (dp ); The sound of martial music inspired the young cadet with dreams of military glory- Barron’s GRE; disputatious : polemic > polemical • (polemic)- a controversial argument, as one against some opinion, doctrine, etc., ( ;  ); This polemic is evidenced as being contrary to the traditional exegesis in every level. — Conservapedia - Recent changes [en]; • (polemical)- (polemical) – ( ); I have long since made up my mind to stick to prose; it is the true medium for a polemical egotist. — The Unclassed; contentious > contention > contend = vie <> viable = feasible • (contention)- a struggling together in opposition; strife; • strife in debate; dispute; controversy, ( !, kp%! 0, ); Such a contention is absurd, for it puts the cart before the horse. — The War in South Africa Its Cause and Conduct; • (contend)- to struggle in opposition, (123  ; p dnd  ; p    ); I by no means concealed from myself the difficulties with which I had to contend or the doubts the critics would express, but this troubled me very little. — The Story of My Life; • (vie)- to strive in competition or rivalry with another; contend for superiority, (( l 1o ; p    ); Many merchants vie with one an - other to secure the custom of the people. — The Bane of The Black Sword; • (viable)- capable of living, (  8  8!); The companies are beginning to get obnoxious again; they view me as a viable sales gimmick. — Smart Dragons, Foolish Elves; affray = fray {razzle} = fracas = altercation = brawl = wrangle = feud : vendetta • (affray)- a public fight; a noisy quarrel; brawl, (p %9  $ - $  ,  (); The royal crown which he had worn so proudly into the battle was knocked from his head in the dreadful affray, and trampled in the dust. — Richard III Makers of History; • (fray)- a fight, battle, or skirmish,a competition or contest, esp. in sports,a noisy quarrel or brawl,(p dnd , dnd); Both sides made strenuous efforts for the fray, and brought every fighting man they could into the field. — China; • (    k   1<  o , nt  o   ) • (frazzle)- to wear away along the edges; fray; Neither can lick the other to a frazzle and neither can afford to give up till it is completely licked. — The Life and Letters of Walter H Page; • (fracas)- a noisy, disorderly disturbance or fight; riotous brawl; uproar, (>?2, @  ,  $  , hjяC); "This fellow attacked me and I simply defended myself, so the fracas was not my fault. — 083 - The Other World; • (altercation)- a heated or angry dispute; noisy argument or controversy, (,  ,  , 8    ); By the end of the altercation, the Conservative House leader glumly buried his face in his hands; • (brawl)- a noisy quarrel, squabble, or fight, (    d (p % p %9 s 0)); The crux of the brawl was apparently related to recent political arguments that have been made on the show. — Latest Articles; • (wrangle)- to argue or dispute, esp. in a noisy or angry manner, (ucs  p p" 1 0 ! ! a%g"  ); Never did rival lawyers, after a wrangle at the bar, meet with more social good humor at a circuit dinner. — The Adventures of Captain Bonneville; • (wrangler)- (1bя K9   " % st p8 M" m 0 s  u( **  P t) • (feud)- a bitter, often prolonged quarrel or state of enmity, especially such a state of hostilities between two families or clans; This led to a family feud, and he proposed to remove to Virginia. — Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl; • (vendetta)- any prolonged and bitter feud, rivalry, contention, or the like, (% 0k p  ); One of these events throws the country into confusion, for the vendetta is rancorous and bloody, as in ancient Germany or in modern Corsica. — First Footsteps in East Africa; skirmish : scuffle : melee • (skirmish)- any brisk conflict or encounter, (10  0  10R 0 'n a %  *9 p % (! # (l0 0 cn  i); Many a skirmish was nipped in the bud through the watchful care of the officers of the Virginia, which otherwise might have led to bloodshed. — The Story of Paul Boyton Voyages on All the Great Rivers of the World; • (scuffle)- to struggle or fight in a rough, confused manner, (     (  ); However, the scuffle was prevented from going out of control as police arrived in time. — The Times of India; • (melee)- a confused hand-to-hand fight or struggle among several people, (e     i, %W X  0  '); A woman involved in the melee is alleged to have punched an officer several times in the head; onslaught = onrush : barrage = battery = bombardment = shelling ~ cannonade : salvo = volley = fusillade • (onslaught)- an onset, assault, or attack, esp. a vigorous on, (p2YZk"); Without a tremor the troops awaited their onslaught, cheering loudly as they saw the fluttering banners of the enemy approach. — Sir John French; • (onrush)- a violent physical or verbal attack; an assault; Unable to check his onrush, Vergilius leaped forward and fell out of sight. — Vergilius A Tale of the Coming of Christ; • (barrage)- Military. a heavy barrier of artillery fire to protect one's own advancing or retreating troops or to stop the advance of enemy troops, (1 0 0!3 e  a' a  p2Y g! " d  3 X a  *); The main objective of the Farakka barrage was to save Kolkata Port from extinction - Internet; • (battery)- an emplacement for one or more pieces of artillery; • (cannonade)- a continued discharge of cannon, esp. during an attack, Tremendous as was the cannonade, the earthworks were almost a match for it. — The Naval History of the United States Volume 2 (of 2); • (salvo)- a simultaneous or successive discharge of artillery, bombs, etc, (h   0 ( 1  !", 1 (\0, h! h  ); The Russians give Finck and his General Officers a cannon salvo, here and there, without effect, and get no answer. — History of Friedrich II of Prussia; • (volley)- the simultaneous discharge of a number of missiles or firearms, (1k(" st e   a 0g 0 k(, e    я! o] ); A random volley was fired at the retreating steamer, but it soon got out of range, and continued on its way up the river. — Last of the Great Scouts The Life Story of William F Cody; • Tennis. the flight of the ball before it hits the ground, (1 Z '# s%!   Z i  1p  0 1< ( ] 0 ); • Cricket. a ball so bowled that it hits the wicket before it touches the ground; half-volley; • (fusillade)- a simultaneous or continuous discharge of firearms, (a  g!"); In a few seconds there was a furious fusillade, accompanied by the rattle of machine guns. — Towards the Goal; waylay = ambush = bushwhack = lurk • (waylay)- to intercept or attack from ambush, as in order to rob, seize, or slay, (Zk"   я09 o 1( 8  , (8 *9 Zk"   !s a("   10o ); He was the victim of a plot to waylay--perhaps to murder him. — The Vision Splendid; • (ambush)- a sudden attack made from a concealed position; A judicial ambush is there made an essential part of the examination of criminals. — The Life of Jesus; • (bushwhack)- to fight as a guerrilla in the woods; • (lurk)- to lie or wait in concealment, as a person in ambush; remain in or around a place secretly or furtively, (o 1( 8  ); In the layers of the lower world the evil divinities and Spirits lurk, always seeking to harm and destroy mankind. — From Paris to New York by Land;  assault = assail^ unassailable = inviolable {sacrosanct} = infrangible = impregnable = inexpugnable : invincible • (assault)- a violent physical or verbal attack; • (assail)- to attack vigorously or violently; assault, (p2Y %k Z  0 ); The First Consul had always regarded Portugal as an English colony, and he conceived that to attack it was to assail England. — The Memoirs of Napoleon; • to attack with arguments, criticism, ridicule, abuse, etc., (яя!  ); • (unassailable) - not open to attack or assault, as by military force or argument, (a0 k9); • prohibiting violation; secure from destruction, violence, infringement, or desecration, (a^9; a^0); The territorial unity of this state is declared to be inviolable, and its territory to be indivisible 2d. — Select Speeches of Kossuth; • (sacrosanct)- extremely sacred or inviolable, (*!(# ; a^9); Decidedly nothing but sacrosanct literature interests me. — The George Sand-Gustave Flaubert Letters; • (infrangible)- difficult or impossible to break or separate into parts; • (impregnable)- strong enough to resist or withstand attack; not to be taken by force, unconquerable, (dя!, a я, a^0); He occupied at Kolin a position almost impregnable, and awaited the attack of the King. — Critical and Historical Essays, Volume III (of 3); • (inexpugnable)- incapable of being overcome, challenged or refuted; • (invincible)- incapable of being conquered, defeated, or subdued, (a я, a( я, ap !, !яC); As all these warriors are invincible, a terrible fight will take place between them. — The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 1 Books 1, 2 and 3; preempt ~ commandeer {highjack} <> commander : adjutant : marshal • (preempt)- to occupy (land) in order to establish a prior right to buy, (agk *   ( o ); The most serious restriction on such sales was the droit de retraite, or right of the seignior to preempt the same property himself within forty days from the date of the sale. — Lord Elgin; • to acquire or appropriate before someone else; take for oneself; arrogate, (agk; agk *   ' я09 (  я)    ); • (commandeer)- to order or force into active military service; • to seize (private property) for military or other public use, (  p  я 0 1я (! #   ,    ,     i 9     ); Phillips had been held hostage in a lifeboat by pirates who had unsuccessfully tried to commandeer his cargo ship last week; (commander)- a person who commands, especially a commanding officer; • (adjutant)- Military. a staff officer who assists the commanding officer in X issuing orders, (e 9   0  g p% 0 o %W k    t 0  я ! ! ); With hasty steps he traversed the apartment, and called his adjutant. — The Merchant of Berlin An Historical Novel; • (marshaled)- to arrange in proper order; set out in an orderly manner; arrange clearly, (09s  ); Facts are marshaled, the news of the day is interpreted to show that men are determined by economic conditions. — A Preface to Politics; unassuming > assume = arrogate = usurp = capture = confiscate = seize = wrest = appropriate^ expropriate • (unassuming)- modest; unpretentious, (0 я  я    0 e0; 0 ' 0; ap'); He is a thoroughly good man; mild, unassuming, amiable, and judicious beyond most men. — Reminiscences of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey; • (assume)- to take upon oneself; • (arrogate)- to take or claim for oneself without right; appropriate; • (usurp)- to seize and hold (a position, office, power, etc.) by force or without legal right, (a09 '     , я   );Even sovereignty has its limitations and overthrow; this is a kingship and dominion which none may usurp or destroy. — A Compilaton on Scholarship; • (capture)- to take by force or stratagem; take prisoner; seize, (n  , я 10o , P   1R%  s  ); The place was entirely destroyed by fire when captured from the French by the English, a piece of sanguinary work which cost the latter five thousand lives!; • (confiscate)- to seize as forfeited to the public domain; appropriate, by way of penalty, for public use, (% s       k    я p  ); He might confiscate or transfer monastic property, or forbid his subjects to support monks. — Hinduism and Buddhism, An Historical Sketch, Vol. 2; • (wrest)- to twist or turn; pull, jerk, or force by a violent twist, (1 0 P 1я (!#  0   o , p 23   < aя!0  ); Portugal and Spain were plunged in civil wars, the pretenders, Don Miguel and Don Carlos, attempting to wrest the scepter from the hands of the constitutional queens. — Ten Englishmen of the Nineteenth Century; • (appropriate)- suitable or fitting for a particular purpose, person, occasion, etc., (8 8,  8 2 ,  0 0i); an appropriate example; an appropriate dress; • to set apart, authorize, or legislate for some specific purpose or use,( % u d %9 Z     ); • to take without permission or consent; seize; expropriate, (Zt  ); It appeared that money had been provided and appropriated, and a pledge given to the bank to confirm the contract in the council. — The History of Tasmania, Volume I; • (expropriate)- to take possession of, esp. for public use by the right of eminent domain, thus divesting the title of the private owner, ( 2#9  ); One saw the expropriator and the expropriated--as if Marx had arranged the picture. — The New Machiavelli; draft > draftee = conscript • (draft)- to take or select by draft, esp. for military service, ( *9 '  # 10  0 2  я09 0! 20  ); • (draftee)- one who is drafted, especially for military service; • (conscript)- to draft for military or naval service, ( *9 '  # a8 1я     u  >09 0 ' !  ); You are an escaped conscript, and I am arresting you." — The Memoirs of General the Baron de Marbot; incursion > incur^ influx • (incursion)- a hostile entrance into or invasion of a place or territory, esp. a sudden one; raid, (Zs Zk"    ); Then the resident aliens who joined in the incursion were at least three thousand strong; besides which there was a multitude of light troops. — The History of the Peloponnesian War; • (incur)- to become liable or subject to through one's own action; bring or take upon oneself, (0 я u( 1g  Z0 , -' я0/ -gs o , 0я s n g"  ); Whatever immediate losses he may incur, there will be more than compensating gains. — Men of the Bible; Some Lesser-Known Characters; • (influx)- act of flowing in, (a'9n  p , Z); The sudden influx, the great travel from ocean to ocean, had given much impetus to business as well as to local amusements. — Shadow and Light An Autobiography with Reminiscences of the Last and Present Century; maritime = marine • (maritime)- connected with the sea in relation to navigation, shipping, etc., (d  d t m! ); The elder Pitt warned his fellow-countrymen against letting France become a maritime, a commercial, or a colonial power. — William of Germany; vanguard : vantage^ advantage • (vanguard)- the foremost division or the front part of an army; advance guard; van, (ag  10 ); I found that the Germans were steadily advancing and that the vanguard was about seven kilometers out of the city. — A Journal From Our Legation in Belgium; • (vantage)- a position, condition, or place affording some advantage or a commanding view, (* ; 1 ); I am not terribly strong for the unions, but the point of vantage is always with the employers. — To Him That Hath: a Tale of the West of Today; aegis : accouter : accessory • (aegis)- the shield or breastplate of Zeus or Athena, bearing at its center the head of the Gorgon, (a'k"); The labor contract, long extolled as the aegis of economic liberty, is no longer free from state vigilance. — The Armies of Labor A chronicle of the organized wage-earners; • X sponsorship; auspices, ((3 (  , Z0 # 9); • (accoutre)- to equip or outfit, esp. with military clothes, equipment, etc; The colonel departed, doubting sorely in his heart how to accoutre and lead from the barrack stables three horses, in the teeth of his revolted regiment. — The Princess and Curdie; • (accessory)- one who incites, aids, or abets a lawbreaker in the commission of a crime but is not present at the time of the crime, (a( *   ); • a subordinate or supplementary item; an adjunct, (  st, Z0$ u("); She bought an attractive handbag as an accessory for her dress; cohorts : arsenal : cache : cordon : centurion : armada : coup : vulnerable : projectile : camouflage : contingent (temporary military unit) {dependant} [representating large group] • (cohort)- a group or company, (e t as 9k  ); • any group of soldiers or warriors, (p 20 1  0 10  0 e-% %); Caesar and his Roman cohorts conquered almost all the known world; • (arsenal)- a place of storage or a magazine containing arms and military equipment for land or naval service, (ast  ); That fight in the arsenal was a vivid incident in this closing chapter of the history of war. — The World Set Free; • (cache)- a hiding place, esp. one in the ground, for ammunition, food, treasures, etc, (gp ' Y ); He figured out the way to break into our meat- cache, and what he didn't eat, the rest of the team did. — Brown Wolf and Other Jack London Stories; • (cordon)- a line of police, sentinels, military posts, warships, etc., enclosing or guarding an area, (k 9 # ); Officers and men had formed a sort of cordon, and from the gallery several ladies looked down and waved handkerchiefs. — A Little Girl in Old Quebec; • (centurion)- (in the ancient Roman army) the commander of a century, ((p 20 1 -e) e% 9%3 10   10 ); But the centurion, as a military officer, was superior to the captain of an Alexandrian corn-ship, and — Expositions of Holy Scripture: the Acts; • (armada)- a fleet of warships; Now fully assembled in normal space, the armada was ready to take the next step of moving toward the system's sun and positioning itself around the Twin Worlds. — Dirge; • (coup)- highly successful action or sudden attack, (a' 9t 0; k   u d %9 Zs ( k( g"); The four top military officers involved in the coup were acquitted by the Supreme Court; • (vulnerable)- capable of or susceptible to being wounded or hurt, as by a weapon, (k gs  (  e0, Zk9, ak ); The battle for preserving or exploring the vulnerable areas of the Arctic has just started; • (invulnerable) – incapable of injury, (Z  k  gs    0 e0); He is practically invulnerable, and deals them sudden death with his powerful tail. — The Naturalist in La Plata; • (projectile)- missile,(1k(" st); Their excited imagination outdistanced the projectile, the speed of which diminished notably without their feeling it. — The Moon-Voyage; • (trajectory)- the curve described by a projectile, rocket, or the like in its flight, (1k(" st p (8); Such a trajectory could be consistent with that of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM); • (camouflage)- the act, means, or result of obscuring things to deceive an enemy, as by painting or screening objects so that they are lost to view in the background, or by making up objects that have from a distance the appearance of fortifications, guns, roads, etc, ( 1 0 P u(s  sr( u(b 9  3 X  ; ( %; # %); While the female is creating a diversion -- and a disturbance -- by her vocal camouflage, the other criminal silently puts in his deadly work. — With Our Army in Palestine; • (contingent)- a temporary military unit; • dependent for existence, occurrence, character, etc., on something not yet certain; conditional, (a0s ; Zs); Cher’s father informed her that any increase in her allowance was contingent on the quality of her final grades; • X any one of the representative groups composing an assemblage,(t   a% P 9k ); This was a battle that was won by the more radical contingent, and it helped to sharpen the ideological contradictions present; • (dependant)- contingent on another; reconnaissance^ reconnoiter = scout • (reconnaissance)- Military. a search made for useful military information in the field, esp. by examining the ground, (%tr( k as 0,  %k i 9  я 0  u d %9 (2  89 0n 0  Ck n a' 0); I had been captured during a reconnaissance, my escort of a few troopers being speared by the Indians of his bodyguard. — A Set of Six; • (reconnoiter)- to make a reconnaissance; Thence he sent out parties to reconnoiter the enemy's position, and learn his intentions. — Life and Times of Washington; • (scout)- to spy on or explore carefully in order to obtain information; reconnoiter; deploy : emissary • (deploy)- to arrange in a position of readiness, or to move strategically or appropriately, (P  1o ; "!  ); There was neither time nor space to deploy, and the attack was repulsed. — Germany, Bohemia, and Hungary, Visited in 1837. Vol. II; • (emissary)- an agent sent on a mission to represent or advance the interests of another, ( # ; gp2); A rebel emissary, the notorious Jacob Thompson, was reported by the secret service as slipping through the North and trying to get passage to Europe on the Allan steamship out of Portland, Maine, or Canada. — The Lincoln Story Book; rebellion = revolt = insurrection > insurgent = mutinous = seditious = subversive = rabble-rousing : rebel > rebellious = malcontent = disaffected : defiance • (rebellion)- open, armed, and organized resistance to a constituted government; Hearing of these things, the Queen's ladies hastened to her in fright, fearful that a rebellion was about to break out. — TheChildrenof; • (revolt)- to attempt to overthrow the authority of the state; rebel; I would say that a revolt is a dramatic and often forceful change of government. — Conservapedia; • (insurrection)- an act or instance of rising in revolt, rebellion, or resistance against civil authority or an established government, ( d ; a'#9t 0); Leaders of the insurrection were arrested, tried, and convicted of treason, but were pardoned by Washington—A Brief History of the United States; • (insurgent)- a person who rises in forcible opposition to lawful authority, esp. a person who engages in armed resistance to a government or to the execution of its laws; rebel,( d , a' 9t 0 ); The disturbances went on increasing for two years, until law was at an end in the insurgent counties. — George Washington; • (mutinous)- disposed to, engaged in, or involving revolt against authority, ( d ,  d p); The garrison are mutinous, and in dreadful want of provisions. — The Life of the Right Honourable Horatio Lord Viscount Nelson, Vol. II; • (seditious)- given to or guilty of engaging in or promoting sedition, ( я?); In September William Hurt and Ridpath were arrested for libelous and seditious articles, but were released on bail. — The Journal to Stella; • (subversive)- tending to subvert or advocating subversion, esp. in an attempt to overthrow or cause the destruction of an established or legally constituted government, (0 %  # , (\); Under the general rubric of "subversive" were included all kinds of people. — Black Friday; • (rabble-rousing)- arousing to action or rebellion; No wonder the rabble- rousing song "Arise, you Russian People" had been a genuinely popular favorite for years. — Red Storm Rising; • (rebel)- to refuse allegiance to and oppose by force an established government or ruling authority; He was no longer the rebel, the insurgent or the bandit. — Simon Bolivar the Liberator; • (rebellious)- prone to or participating in a rebellion; The rebellious were generally won over by presents or flattery. — The Life of the Venerable Mother Mary of the Incarnation; • (malcontent)- dissatisfied with the existing government, administration, system, etc, (ant3); But being an irreconcilable malcontent was somehow ingrained in him; • (disaffected)- discontented and disloyal, as toward the government or toward authority, (k; r(; >; a *9); The militia have been inspired, by the recent success, with confidence—the disaffected are silenced. — The Life and Correspondence of Sir Isaac Brock; • (defiance)- a daring or bold resistance to authority or to any opposing force, (p %9 a *9  p  *; rd 2"; s*! ; aj ); Lying was part of their defiance, a denial that the enemy's effort had succeeded. — The Romantic; seditious > sedition • (sedition)- incitement of discontent or rebellion against a government, ( 0   X(! k r d 1k(  1  ,   a 09  p  2  i 9  u d %9 1 0 8   я,  я?); These, as we have seen, had been refractory in Jersey, and instead of being punished, were paid for their sedition. — The Life of Francis Marion;  junta = junto = clique = camarilla = coterie = cabal = faction = in-group = inner circle : caucus ~ conclave • (junta)-a small group ruling a country, esp. immediately after a coup d'état and before a legally constituted government has been instituted, (1я (! #  k      a<     2k); The principal difficulty encountered by the junta was the dispatch to Cuba of the men and the munitions so greatly needed by those in the field. — Cuba, Old and New; • (junto)- a clique (often secret) that seeks power usually through intrigue; • (clique)- a small, exclusive group of people; coterie; set, (ei s 8! Zd kd ); Without his clique he is but a wit; with his clique, a power. — The Parisians — Volume 05; • (camarilla)- a group of unofficial or private advisers to a person of authority, esp. a group much given to intrigues and secret plots; cabal; clique; The camarilla crowded round Ferdinand, who lay without sense or motion. — Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Volume 61, No. 379, May, 1847; • (coterie)- a group of people who associate closely,(a'n s 8!mn 9k  1 v); Shakespeare did not write for a coterie: yet he produced some works of considerable subtlety and profundity. — Play-Making A Manual of Craftsmanship; • (cabal)- a small group of secret plotters, as against a government or person in authority, (1 (0 nt, gp2k, gp); A cabal was formed to take away his captainship, which death did more effectually. — Great Pirate Stories; • (faction)- a group or clique within a larger group, party, government, organization, or the like, (( %  я?0 )   a'9n  kb e p % s 8! n  2k n  1 v); The temper of the local democracies, which, for the most part, controlled the state governments, was insubordinate, factious, and extremely independent. — The Promise of American Life; • factious- inclined to form factions; causing dissension; • (in-group)- a group of people united by common beliefs, attitudes, or interests and characteristically excluding outsiders; a clique; He has written a remarkable paper on the evolution and biblical history of in-group morality, laying stress, too, on the flip side - out-group hostility. — The God Delusion; • (inner circle)- an exclusive circle of people with a common purpose; • (caucus)- any group or meeting organized to further a special interest or cause, ( я?0     ]0 ; ei  ' ); The decision of the caucus is the infallible declaration of the creed. — Under the Prophet in Utah; the National Menace of a Political Priestcraft; • (conclave)- a secret or confidential meeting; They had none of the solemnity of a conclave, or the dignity of literary assemblies. — Frederic Mistral;  sect : faction : schism : secession • (sect)- a body of persons adhering to a particular religious faith; a religious denomination, ( * "'  p2  K  18  s nt  K  1( "  9k  mp ; (n; u(; 'n !; 1< ); Participation in the occult ceremonies of the sect was a chief means of salvation. — The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism; • (schism)- division or disunion, esp. into mutually opposed parties, (  '; *! c); The healing of the long schism was the most important of the council's achievements. — An Introduction to the History of Western Europe; • (secession)- withdrawal, (a("; cn  ); Plainly the central idea of secession is the essence of anarchy; mar = maim = mangle = mutilate ~ disfigure = deface {blemish} = impair = incapacitate : injury = trauma > traumatic • (mar)- to damage or spoil to a certain extent; render less perfect, attractive, useful, etc.; impair or spoil, (k  *0  , 03   1< ); For feminine loveliness is on the wane-- marred, like many other good things, by over-education. — Tomaso's Fortune and Other Stories; • (maim)- to deprive of the use of some part of the body by wounding or the like; cripple, (Z  a8 ($   1o ); A very interesting visit for me was to the Pinjarpole, or hospital for animals sick, maimed, and incurable. — The Romance of Isabel Lady Burton Volume II; • (mangle)- to injure severely, disfigure, or mutilate by cutting, slashing, or crushing, (gr '  1  P{  03   1< ); Her body was dreadfully mangled, and the blood pouring from it had formed a large pool on the cottage floor. — The Phantom Ship; • (mutilate)- to injure, disfigure, or make imperfect by removing or irreparably damaging parts, (a$ 0  ,  $/ 0 $  ); By heedless exaggeration we may murder a reputation -- mutilate an existence; • (disfigure)- to mar the appearance or beauty of; deform; deface, (12   ZX X  ; 03  ); I could not leave his body there--disfigured and maimed, to lie in the open passage! — The Dictator; • (deface)- to mar the surface or appearance of; disfigure, (X / "!  ); Disfigure applies more generally to persons; deface, to things. — Slips of Speech : a Helpful Book for Everyone Who Aspires to Correct the Everyday Errors of Speaking; • (blemish)- to destroy or diminish the perfection of; The presence of Trinculo and Stephano in the play has sometimes been regarded as a blemish. — Shakespeare His Life Art And Characters; • (impair)- to make or cause to become worse; diminish in ability, value, excellence, etc., ( 0  k  ;   ); The temporary separation of the soul and body does not even interrupt, much less impair, the eternal life given by Jesus. — The Great Doctrines of the Bible; • (incapacitate)- to deprive of ability, qualification, or strength; make incapable or unfit; disable, (ak/ a8!  ); If you become incapacitated, your Power of Attorney can make important decisions on your behalf; • (trauma)- a serious injury or shock to the body, as from violence or an accident; But fear and trauma, and the ache of Anskiere's geas, had driven Jaric far beyond rational understanding. — Stormwarden; • (traumatic)- of, pertaining to, or produced by a trauma or wound, (Z a8  k n); The teen suffered what emergency officials described as a traumatic head injury; destroy = demolish = sabotage^ saboteur • (demolish)- to tear down completely; raze; I did not demolish my hut of pearl shells, but left it standing exactly as it had been during the past two and a half years. — Adventures of Louis de Rougemont; • (sabotage)- destruction of property or obstruction of normal operations, as by civilians or enemy agents in time of war; Groups like Striker conducted recon, sabotage, search and rescue, and ran surgical strikes. — Mission Of Honor; • (saboteur)- a person who commits or practices sabotage; destroyer of property, (an! ); During 16 years with Britain's Royal Navy, he served in the Middle East and East Africa as a deep-sea diver, gunnery officer, underwater saboteur, and counter sabotage specialist; efface = obliterate ~ exterminate = extirpate = eradicate = annihilate = decimate • (efface)- to rub out, erase, or obliterate (outlines, traces, inscriptions, etc.), ( P 1< ; 0sh  ;   (  ); Almost every night they were brought out; almost every night some pencil marks were effaced, and others were substituted. — Moby Dick, or, the whale; • (obliterate)- to remove or destroy all traces of; do away with; destroy completely,( P 1< ; 0sh  ; \  ); Her months of grief and misery were obliterated, and the Almighty in his infinite goodness, had taken her to himself--had taken her to Heaven. — The Trials of the Soldier's Wife A Tale of the Second American Revolution; • (exterminate)- to get rid of by destroying; destroy totally; extirpate, (1%  , m#"! \  ); It soon became apparent that, unless checked, they would exterminate the population and burn or otherwise destroy their settlements. — The Life and Adventures of Kit Carson; • (extirpate)- to remove or destroy totally; do away with; exterminate,(un#  , m#"! \  ); We demoralize and we extirpate, but we never really civilize. — The Malay Archipelago, the land of the orang-utan and the bird of paradise; • to pull up by or as if by the roots; root up; to extirpate an unwanted hair; • (eradicate)- to tear up by the roots; Durango's beef stew hadn't been strong enough to eradicate her taste from his mouth. — Stone Cold Surrender; • (annihilate)- to reduce to utter ruin or nonexistence; destroy utterly, (m#0r ! ( *  , 0sh  ); Genocide constitutes the most extreme possible terms for settling differences: a stronger party's decision to annihilate or extirpate the weaker; • to annul; make void,(ap  ); • (decimate)- to destroy a great number or proportion of, usually one out of ten, ((  9   9  \  );Israeli political leaders have drawn the lesson from their dirty little 'war' that they can totally destroy a nation, decimate a society and murder and maim 7000 civilians with impunity. — Signs of the Times;  ineradicable = indelible = inexterminable ~ permanent : indissoluble • (ineradicable)- not eradicable; not capable of being eradicated, rooted out, or completely removed, (a0 c9 , a0C( 0 ); His one interest in religion seemed to lie in his notion that it was a curious form of delusion almost ineradicable from the human mind. — The Private Life of Henry Maitland; • (endelible)- making marks that cannot be erased, removed, or the like, (a0( 0, a  20); The disgrace of having been in jail was indelible, and the danger was by no means over. — The Colonel's Dream; • (inexterminable)- not exterminable; incapable of being exterminated; Tears came into his light eyes when he said that, and she perceived that there was nothing in his soul save sickly, deserving innocence, and of course this inexterminable love for her. — The Judge; • (permanent)- lasting or remaining without essential change; If that church believed the institution to be permanent, their belief does not settle the question for us. — Ralph Waldo Emerson; • (indissoluble)- not dissoluble; incapable of being dissolved, decomposed, undone, or destroyed, (a c9, a Y0, ~ X , a^9); In a land where there is boundless liberty of divorce, wedlock is described as the indissoluble compact. — Miscellaneous Writings and Speeches — Volume 3; ruin = smash = wreck <> wrack : debris = detritus = rubble • (smash)- break into pieces, as by striking or knocking over; • (wreck)- the act of wrecking or the state of being wrecked; destruction; Among the killed taken from the wreck was a woman partially burnt. — A Woman's Life-Work; • (wrack)- destruction or ruin; The waters of the sea are poured in thunder wrack upon the hills and run in rivers back into the sea. — The Iron Puddler; • (debris)- the remains of anything broken down or destroyed; ruins; rubble, (\  %); The solar atmosphere was filled with flying debris, and some of these portions reached a height of 100,000 miles above the solar surface. — The Outline of Science, Vol. 1 (of 4) A Plain Story Simply Told; • (detritus)- broken bits and pieces of anything, as that which is demolished, (i  ( 8   ); This precaution should be observed, not only with dimension stone, but also with the rubble which is to be used in walls. — The Ten Books on Architecture; • (rubble)- broken bits and pieces of anything, as that which is demolished, (i  ( 8   ); This precaution should be observed, not only with dimension stone, but also with the rubble which is to be used in walls. — The Ten Books on Architecture;  bestial = brutal = brute = savage = barbarian : feral • (bestial)– of, pertaining to, or having the form of a beast, ((C; ( %); I cannot conceive what people at the North mean by speaking of the negroes as a bestial or brutal race. — Army Life in a Black Regiment; • (bestial)- without reason or intelligence; brutal; inhuman, (0v ); Many have condemned the behaviour as barbaric and bestial, worse than what occurred in Abu Gharib. — Internet; • beastlike in gratifying one's sensual desires; carnal; debased • (brutal) – extremely ruthless or cruel; He had been hot, brutal, and tyrannical to them when he had the power. — The Adventure of Living; • (brute) – an animal; a beast; He was a knowing-looking brute, and was evidently out hunting on his own account. — The Rifle and The Hound in Ceylon; • (savage) – not domesticated or cultivated; wild; To the young Genevan, brought up in the restrictions of European civilization, the history of the savage was a favorite study. — The Project Gutenberg eBook of Albert Gallatin, by John Austin Stevens.; • (barbarian) – a fierce, brutal, or cruel person; He was a barbarian, and the terrible patience of the wilderness and its children was as much a part of him as his lusts and rages. — The Conquering Sword of Conan; • (feral) – existing in a natural state, as animals or plants; not domesticated or cultivated; wild, (09; 1(   0 0  0 e0;   t; ( %); The voice was deep, feral, and edged with a growl. — Kate Douglas, Lacy Danes, Morgan Hawke; atrocity = barbarity = brutality = savagery = viciousness = ferociousness = ruthlessness > ruthless > ruth • (atrocity) – brutal deed; A chief point in their Manifesto was the assassination of this Sinclair; scandal and atrocity, of which there is no doubt now the Russians were guilty. — History of Friedrich II of Prussia; • (viciousness) – spitefulness; malignancy; The people to whom he preached were a rude, rough set, mainly ignorant and superstitious, and many of them sunk in the depths of drunkenness and viciousness. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; • (ferociousness) – the quality of being ferocious; savage fierceness; cruelty; ferocity; His ferociousness, like the dynamite, annihilated itself with the explosion. — The Trail of the White Mule; • (ruthless)- without pity or compassion; cruel; merciless, (0!; k ; X 0€r"; 0%; 0!); He was very ruthless, and yet he was not without pity. — Victory; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.19 Religion religion, doctrine, episcopal, unconventional, myth religion : doctrine^ doctrinaire • (doctrine)- a particular principle, position, or policy taught or advocated, as of a religion or government, (); This doctrine is a narrow and unintelligent mode of stating the fact in Nature that what a man sows that shall he reap. — Light On The Path and Through the Gates of Gold; • (doctrinaire)- a person who tries to apply some doctrine or theory without sufficient regard for practical considerations; an impractical theorist, (tt ,  tt an, tt); This secularization is, I believe, the ultimate result of a doctrinaire attitude to faith;  creed = credo^ credence^ credulity : confide > confidante > confidant <> confident • (creed)- any system, doctrine, or formula of religious belief, as of a denomination, (   ); The fundamental ideas of this creed are also the foundations of the Christian faith. — The Life of St. Paul; • (credo)- any creed or formula of belief, ( ; ); Some people live by that credo, and some would rather drink the hemlock than examined their opinions; • (credence)- belief as to the truth of something, (; s); Otherwise our people will lose credence, and the goblins will gain confidence and encroach. — Roc and a Hard Place; • (credulity)- willingness to believe or trust too readily, esp. without proper or adequate evidence; gullibility, (p); His credulity is shewn by the belief he held, that the name of a place called Ainnit in Sky was the same as the Anaitidis delubrum in Lydia. — Life Of Johnson; • (confide)- to give as a responsibility or put into another's care; entrust; He put it in charge of an agent in whom he knew he could confide, and started it on a tour throughout the country. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; • to disclose private matters in confidence; • (confidant/ confidante)- a close friend or associate to whom secrets are confided or with whom private matters and problems are discussed, (s k, n! " # $ % "  % &); She was in many ways her father's confidant, and in his later years closely associated with him in literary work. — The Story of Cooperstown; • (congident)- marked by assurance, as of success;  tenet = dogma > dogmatic : illiberal • (tenet)- any opinion, principle, doctrine, dogma, etc., esp. one held as true by members of a profession, group, or movement, (; ); This confirmed my rising conviction that the tenet is of rather recent origin. — Phases of Faith Passages from the History of My Creed; • (dogmatic)- asserting opinions in a doctrinaire or arrogant manner; opinionated, ((k m ) " "k& !  ()  p * +); He was consequential, dogmatic, and with all the self-asserting priggishness of young Oxford fresh upon him. — She and I, Volume 1; • (illiberal)- narrow-minded; bigoted; He was illiberal, without generosity, unsocial, and soulless, with every attribute of mind to be admired, without one quality of the heart to be loved. — The Memories of Fifty Years; ideology : evangelist • (ideology)- the body of doctrine, myth, belief, etc., that guides an individual, social movement, institution, class, or large group, (,*); The result of this ideology was a set of bubble economies built on debt- financed real estate and stock market inflation; • (evangelist)- (initial capital letter) any of the writers (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) of the four Gospels, (-++ ! -+ %. + a ($!,  , % ! a$ я), -+ ! p-+ ); The evangelist was arrested by twelve men, delivered to an official and beheaded. — Forty Years in South China; devout ~ reverent : piety^ impiety • (devout)- devoted to divine worship or service; pious; religious, (p;  ); Externally he was devout, like a Spaniard, but in his heart he had the piety of an angel. — The Confessions of J J Rousseau; • (reverent)- feeling, exhibiting, or characterized by reverence; deeply respectful, (0d,#n; 0d*%); When he spoke again, his tone was reverent -- the tone of voice a man uses when he encounters some awe- inspiring natural wonder. — F ;SF; - vol 090 issue 01 - January 1996; • (piety)- reverence for God or devout fulfillment of religious obligations, ( ; ,k); The monasteries of those days were the seats both of learning and piety, that is, of such learning and piety as then prevailed. — King Alfred of England; • (impiety)- lack of piety; lack of reverence for God or sacred things; irreverence, (a; a ); Idleness leads to impiety, and impiety anywhere, from Tattersal's to the public, we all know. — Rest Harrow A Comedy of Resolution; pharisaical = holier-than-thou = self-righteous = sanctimonious • (pharisaical)- practicing or advocating strict observance of external forms and ceremonies of religion or conduct without regard to the spirit; self- righteous; hypocritical,(&  -+3# 5  nt  ,+*5 , ,6# 5 ); The proud and pharisaical, the ambitious and tyrannical, principalities and powers, may combine to crush us. — The Kingdom of God Is Within You; • of or pertaining to the Pharisees (  o -+3+ я pd p- ih+ e ; mp); • (holier-than-thou)- exhibiting an attitude of superior virtue; self-righteously pious; • (self-righteous)- confident of one's own righteousness, esp. when smugly moralistic and intolerant of the opinions and behavior of others, (я+ t! e> a+ %! я+ 03t mn @p A , m ! , &(c); The refined hypocrisies which so elude his eye, and thus nurse his self- righteous pride, must put on a grosser form, till he cannot choose but see himself as he is. — Shakespeare His Life Art And Characters; • (sanctimonious)- making a hypocritical show of religious devotion, piety, righteousness, etc., ( % .  , Dя, E%); His bearing and expression were truly sanctimonious, and had the gleam in his eyes been in keeping — The Touchstone of Fortune; monotheism : infidel = heathen = pagan : agnostic : atheist : deist • (monotheism)-the doctrine or belief that there is only one God, (e +- ); Polytheism was dominant while their monotheism was as yet a persecuted belief. — The Necessity of Atheism; • (infidel)- a person who has no religious faith; unbeliever, ( " k , *G  % -   + , a, s , H+); He was an avowed infidel, and seemed to delight in spreading his opinions among the prisoners, who were generally too willing to listen to him. — Six Years in the Prisons of England; • (heathen)- Offensive one who adheres to the religion of a people or nation that does not acknowledge the God of Judaism, Christianity, or Islam; The oracles of the heathen are always sources of gain to their prophets. — Fables of Infidelity and Facts of Faith Being an Examination of the Evidences of Infidelity; • (pagan)- one who is not a Christian, Muslim, or Jew, especially an adherent of a polytheistic religion in antiquity; But it is not every teacher, pagan or Christian, who lays such stress on God's gift of peace, or is so sure of it. — The Jesus of History; • Offensive one who has no religion; • (agnostic)- a person who holds that the existence of the ultimate cause, as God, and the essential nature of things are unknown and unknowable, or that human knowledge is limited to experience, (я)st E) a  E!  J+ mn  Ei ! я m  % " k  +, aj); Darwin called himself an agnostic, a word that had been coined by his friend, Thomas Huxley; • (atheist)- a person who denies or disbelieves the existence of a supreme being or beings, (++, s ); A functional atheist is a person who believes in God and his redemptive plan but lives Monday through Saturday as if God doesn't exist; • (deism)- the belief, based solely on reason, in a God who created the universe and then abandoned it, assuming no control over life, exerting no influence on natural phenomena, and giving no supernatural revelation, (M* p*    s + e #+t+ ast ; s ; e t); Warburton and a whole host of apologists carried on the battle against deism and infidelity. — Burke;  agnostic = skeptic > skepticism > skeptical = incredulous = implausible # plausible • (skeptic)- a person who questions the validity or authenticity of something purporting to be factual, ( " k  , tt i+  mn >* #G +, " k +  mn >* #G +, >*t, >*, >*); The man who denies the phenomena of spiritism to-day is not entitled to be called a skeptic, he is simply ignorant; and it would be a hopeless task to attempt to enlighten him.” — Modern Spiritualism; • (skepticism)- skeptical attitude or temper; doubt; His relentless cynicism and skepticism were a little too much for me to take on a daily basis; otherwise we might have been even closer friends. — Pop Goes The Weasel; • (skeptical)- inclined to skepticism; having doubt, (n&p, >*, ng-t); Still skeptical, the Princess sat back and looked askance at Halla. — Splinter Of The Mind's Eye; • (incredulous)- not credulous; disinclined or indisposed to believe; skeptical, (ap, a); Religious principles are always put aside when they are opposed to ardent desires; without being incredulous, they act as if they believed nothing. — Superstition In All Ages (1732) Common Sense; • (implausible)- not plausible; not having the appearance of truth or credibility; The lower this limit relative to the galaxy age, the more implausible is the cluster hypothesis, thus arguing for a point mass. — CiteULike: Everyone's library; • (plausible)- having an appearance of truth or reason; seemingly worthy of approval or acceptance; credible; believable, (#R "$$  "k>j ! ); False logic seem plausible, and even outright lies repeated enough begin to sound like the truth;  apocryphal : doubtful ~ tentative = provisional = dubious = dubitable • (apocryphal)- of doubtful authorship or authenticity,(  Sd m  n& я e +- p,A G , n&я , pT#k); Nothing helped Lincoln's popularity more than the story--apocryphal or no-- of his taking the vote of his Cabinet on a proposition of his own and then remarking: "Ayes one; Noes six—A History of the United States; • (tentative)- of the nature of or made or done as a trial, experiment, or attempt; experimental, (#+k% 5 ); The school choice you indicate on the Scholarship Application Form may be tentative, and you may choose another school at any time; • (provisional)- accepted or adopted tentatively; conditional; probationary, (# %;  ; as); The banishment of the wicked to Tartarus is provisional, a preparation for their return to incarnate life. — The Destiny of the Soul A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; • (dubious)- doubtful; marked by or occasioning doubt, (n&# 5 , ng); And if the next county is dubious, a remote county is untrustworthy. — The English Constitution; • (dubitable)- subject to doubt or question; uncertain; Here are no heights of truth over - looking the confused landscape of that dubitable domain. — Can Such Things Be;  pantheism : materialism : existentialism : fatalism : masochism : sadism^ sadomasochism : pacifism : hedonist : sensualist : voluptuary = sybarite • (pantheism)- a doctrine identifying the Deity with the universe and its phenomena, (+; + u#); Her passionate pantheism was not derived; it was established in her own soul. — The Three Brontes; • (materialism)- preoccupation with or emphasis on material objects, comforts, and considerations, with a disinterest in or rejection of spiritual, intellectual, or cultural values, (st; я)); Recognition of the external world and the reflection of it in the human mind forms the basis of dialectical materialism, which is the Marxist theory of knowledge; • (existentialism)- a philosophical attitude associated esp. with Heidegger, Jaspers, Marcel, and Sartre, and opposed to rationalism and empiricism, that stresses the individual's unique position as a self-determining agent responsible for the authenticity of his or her choices, (H+ * t A p-+ ei  ", %p o p 5%  G ! e a YZ p); Sartre's existentialism drew its immediate inspiration from the work of the German philosopher, Martin Heidegger. — Existentialism; • (fatalism)- the acceptance of all things and events as inevitable; submission A to fate, (aR ; ); Fragmented instances of astral fatalism are also found to recur in early Greek philosophical practice; • (masochist)- Psychiatry. the condition in which sexual gratification depends on suffering, physical pain, and humiliation, ( "[ A *G; G ); A sadist is simultaneously a masochist, though either the active or the passive side of the perversion may be more strongly developed and thus represent his preponderate sexual activity. — Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex; • (sadistic)- Psychiatry. sexual gratification gained through causing pain or degradation to others. Compare masochism, (G  G ); How can one look at their backward, sadistic, medieval moral code and see righteousness of any kind? — American Chronicle; • (sadomasochism)- the combination of sadism and masochism, in particular the deriving of pleasure, especially sexual gratification, from inflicting or submitting to physical or emotional abuse, (e t #+%k o - G  o G ); New Testament theology adds a new injustice, topped off by a new sadomasochism whose viciousness even the Old Testament barely exceeds. — The God Delusion; • (pacifism)- the belief that disputes between nations should and can be settled peacefully, (*n); At the opposite end of the spectrum from pacifism, we have a pusillanimous reluctance to use religious names for warring factions. — The God Delusion; • (hedonist)- a person whose life is devoted to the pursuit of pleasure and self-gratification, (. !  pi #+$- ei  , p); The hedonist is content if it only gives him pleasure. — The Art of Letters; • (sensualist)-a person given to the indulgence of the senses or appetites, ( ,k/ ind#+ k, ind , ,); The eye is a sensualist, and its appetites, once aroused, grow. — Sacred and Profane Love; • (voluptuary)- a person whose life is devoted to the pursuit and enjoyment of luxury and sensual pleasure, ( _+ k k, ,%, ind#+*); This Sacchini, by the bye, was a reckless voluptuary, who seems never to have married. — The Love Affairs of Great Musicians; • (sybarite)- (usually lowercase ) a person devoted to luxury and pleasure; No sybarite could have complained of the comfort of the chairs or the arrangement of the light. — Christopher Hibbault, Roadmaker; immolate ~ sacrifice : compromise • (immolate)- to sacrifice, (% o; u` +); Historically, the word immolate had been used by Fathers and theologians of the Church to refer to the eucharist as a commemoration of the once-for-all sacrifice of Christ. — Reformation Theology; Any attempt to hijack your cellular function or alter your genetic makeup will cause that cell to self-immolate. — FSF - May2006; • (compromise)- a settlement of differences by mutual concessions; an agreement reached by adjustment of conflicting or opposing claims, principles, etc., (#G->, ++ e at " +#kg% i  E! #+ E+ ); The contest had become practically a deadlock, and a compromise was arranged by General Maximo — Cuba, Old and New; • an endangering, esp. of reputation; exposure to danger, suspicion, etc.; a compromise of one's integrity; reincarnation^ incarnation {avatar} > incarnate = embody • (reincarnation)- rebirth of the soul in another body; Many Biblical passages reveal that the law of reincarnation was understood and accepted. — Autobiography of a Yogi; • (incarnation)- assumption of human form or nature, (a+; p 5 ); This incarnation is God making Himself accessible to human thought--God opening to Man the possibility of correspondence through Jesus Christ. — Beautiful Thoughts; • (avatar)- the manifestation of a Hindu deity (especially Vishnu) in human or superhuman or animal form, (&n! #+ ! ) a+); This avatar was only a lifeless creation enlivened by the mind of a mage who lived in a far place Phair Caron had never seen. — Dalamar the Dark; • (incarnate)- embodied in flesh; given a bodily, esp. a human, form, ( 5 ;  5 ); Christians consider Jesus to be deity incarnate, that is, the revelation of the loving, great God; • (embody)- to give a bodily form to; incarnate; But he set to work resolutely to embody, so far as he might, his stray imaginings upon the haunting English theme, and to give them connected form. — Sketches and Studies; catechumen : convert : proselyte > proselytize • (catechumen)- a person under instruction in the rudiments of Christianity, as in the early church; a neophyte; Doubtless he was a very lukewarm catechumen, since at intervals he inclined to scepticism. — Saint Augustin; • a person being taught the elementary facts, principles, etc., of any subject; • (converts)-one who has been converted, as to a religion or opinion, (n+ k; e  $ a  s s# + k); They insisted on no religious knowledge, and merely demanded that the converts should be baptised. — Russia; • (proselyte)- a new convert to a doctrine or religion; It was during his reign that the whimsical attempt was made by Louis XIV. to conquer Siam and proselyte her king. — The English Governess at the Siamese Court; • (proselytize)- induce someone to convert to a religion or belief, (n+ +); We must override our instinct to proselytize, and instead consciously analyze routes to reform; pontifical = episcopal = papal = apostolic : ecclesiastic • (pontifical)- of, pertaining to, or characteristic of a pontiff; papa, ( ##  *#-mn); In spite of his prayers that he might be spared the degradation of being arrested while still clad in his pontifical habits, he was at once sent to the Bastile. — The Life of Marie Antoinette; • pompous, dogmatic, or pretentious, ( A tя , #+kn); The Colonel was smiling now; his handsome face was gradually assuming the expression pontifical. — The Valley of the Giants; • (episcopal)- of or relating to a bishop; His confusion was great when he found that the people stared at him on the road; and stared the more the nearer he approached the episcopal city. — The Life of John Clare; • (papal)- of, relating to, or issued by a pope; So far all had been easy for the papal forces; but now the Orsini rallied in the last three fortresses that remained them -- Bracciano, — The Life of Cesare Borgia; • (apostolic)- of or relating to an apostle; These apostolic men preached everywhere the grandeur and goodness of God, the obligation of each one to love Him, to obey His love, and to do penance. — The Life and Legends of Saint Francis of Assisi; • (ecclesiastic)- a member of the clergy or other person in religious orders, (#+& ! ); His voice had the self-satisfied meekness of the successful ecclesiastic, his bearing suggested rectitude tempered by desire to avoid observation. — John Ingerfield and Other Stories; prelate : clergy = divine {elysian} • (prelate)- an ecclesiastic of a high order, as an archbishop, bishop, etc.; a church dignitary, (*#+ #"+   > R A #"+ es "я ); On the shoulders of a prelate was the purple that had dazzled the world — Imperial Purple; • (clergy)- the body of people ordained for religious service; And the clergy were all devoted to the task of mercy. — A Book of Golden Deeds; • (divine)- to discover or declare (something obscure or in the future) by divination; prophesy, (,G` m  я, g& +& я, ,Gd +); A divine, according to our division of labour, is a man who has chosen as his life-work to study the things of God; the things, that is, of God in Christ, in Scripture, in the Church, and in the heart and life of man. — Samuel Rutherford; • (elysian)- of, pertaining to, or resembling Elysium(-+ *n+ *); • blissful; delightful, (s; Z%); His own chronicle has forgotten or ignored those elysian days and has not in all its length — The French in the Heart of America; elysian fields = nirvana = eden = heaven • (nirvana)- (often initial capital letter) Pali, nibbana. Buddhism. freedom from the endless cycle of personal reincarnations, with their consequent suffering, as a result of the extinction of individual passion, hatred, and delusion, ( [d ); This prepares one for Mahayana Buddhism, which prepares one for nirvana, which is the elevation into nothingness, that is, into no-thingness, into the real world; • (eden)- the garden where Adam and Eve first dwelt; hence, a delightful region or residence; God sent them out of the garden of eden where man had every goods that was needed; laity : secular = temporal > temporize • (laity)- the body of religious worshipers, as distinguished from the clergy (я+ "я 6%), (#+&nt ! +   e  % k); This anti- ecclesiastical bias on the part of the laity was the dominant factor in the Reformation under Henry VIII. — The Project Gutenberg eBook of Henri VIII - A.F. Pollard; • (secular)- of or pertaining to worldly things or to things that are not regarded as religious, spiritual, or sacred; temporal, (#$; i&я ; я)-я ); It's a word shared by both the sacred and the secular, the religious and profane, the worldly and the other-worldly. — Iowa State Daily; • (temporal)- pertaining to or concerned with the present life or this world; worldly, (#$; G ); The pagan conceptions of virtue were merely materialistic, temporal, and self-regarding. — Christianity and Ethics A Handbook of Christian Ethics; •  • (temporize)- to be indecisive or evasive to gain time or delay acting, () +; %k# +); The time to temporize, theorize, be conservative and easy-going has gone by. — Our Vanishing Wild Life Its Extermination and Preservation; convent : cloister : refectory : monastery > monastic • (convent)- a community, especially of nuns, bound by vows to a religious life under a superior, ; The parlour in a convent is the room where the nuns are permitted to speak to their friends through a lattice. — Tales and Novels of J. de La Fontaine — Volume 14; • (cloister)- a place of religious seclusion, as a monastery or convent, (j  0 (-e+ я)); The quiet life of the cloister was abandoned for a life of open warfare under a military discipline. — The History of Education; educational practice and progress considered as a phase of the development and spread of western civilization; • (refectory)- a dining hall in a religious house, a college, or other institution, (0, j  %я+ ,я*%); The beautiful and commodious hall of the refectory was occasionally used for various secular gatherings. — Little Folks (November 1884) A Magazine for the Young; • (monastery)- a community of persons, especially monks, bound by vows to a religious life and often living in partial or complete seclusion; A few days later the monastery was a ruin. — Now It Can Be Told; • (monastic)- of, pertaining to, or characteristic of monks or nuns, their manner of life, or their religious obligations:, (n  0-mn); Insubordination had to be checked or the monastic institution was doomed. — A Short History of Monks and Monasteries; anoint = inunct = embrocate = oil • (anoint)- to consecrate or make sacred in a ceremony that includes the token applying of oil, (*G  a3 ! & & %  k%k st %# +); Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him. — Conservapedia - Recent changes [en]; • (inunct)- administer an oil or ointment to ; often in a religious ceremony of blessing; • (embrocate)- to moisten and rub (a part of the body) with a liniment or lotion; exegesis : tonsure • (exegesis)- critical explanation or interpretation of a text or portion of a text, esp. of the Bible, ((  %. #s + ! ) .); If scriptural exegesis was a sore point between Catholics and Protestants, the doctrine of the Eucharist was equally controversial. — Galileo in Rome; • (tonsure)- the shaving of the head or of some part of it as a religious practice or rite, esp. in preparation for entering the priesthood or a monastic order, (,k! a$ #+& ! &+ ud* $ ) ! ); If his scalp was shaved in a clerical tonsure, his red velvet cap covered it. — The Saracen: Land of the Infidel; blasphemy = desecration : sacrilegious • (blasphemy)- impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things, (J+  + &tt  #t  jm); On uttering this blasphemy, a voice from heaven said, "Wicked man! — Curiosities of Literature, Vol. 1 (of 3); • (desecration)- the act of diverting from a hallowed purpose or use; The desecration took place two days after the funeral. — Joseph Haydn; • (sacrilegious)- desecrating; profane, (d&# 5 );Artistic expression, even when it ` s sacrilegious or profane, should never be banned or curtailed in any way. — The Student Operated Press; unhallow = deconsecrate = desecrate # consecrate = sanctify = hallow = purify = purge > purgation = catharsis = abreaction • (unhallow)- Archaic to violate the holiness of; profane or desecrate; Alas! it were -- unhallow'd bliss. — Byron's Poetical Works, Volume 1; • (deconsecrate)- to make (a church, synagogue, or temple, for example) no longer consecrated; • (desecrate)- to divest of sacred or hallowed character or office, (  #t st  s a-, !  ##  &+ +, a#t/ G5 +); As you love and value your immortal soul, sanctify and do not waste and desecrate the Sabbath. — Samuel Rutherford; • (consecrate)- to make or declare sacred; set apart or dedicate to the service of a deity,(#t +; u` +); We moved through waters consecrate, and she expressed for us the spirit which hovered over them. — Gossamer 1915; • (sanctify)- to make holy; set apart as sacred; consecrate, (#t +, #t % % + +.); The spirit that has built it is free from the perverted enthusiasms which crusade against freedom, put thought in fetters, and sanctify persecution. — Thomas Henry Huxley; • (hallow)- to make holy; sanctify; consecrate, (#t +, #t %  +); On All-hallow Eve Mrs. S. and myself visited a large cemetery. — Strange True Stories of Louisiana; • (purge)- to rid of whatever is impure or undesirable; cleanse; purify, (* +; * +); I must root out that fault before I die or my purgatory will be long. — The City and the World and Other Stories; • (purgation)- the act of purging or purifying; At the beginning of the purgation, at all events, Parliament professed carefulness and even leniency in its choice of victims. — The Life of John Milton Volume 3 1643-1649; • (catharsis)- purgation, ( +-); • the purging of the emotions or relieving of emotional tensions, esp. through certain kinds of art, as tragedy or music, (k ! ; k (; , *G oяp * +  ,+ a,5 ! + $ a я+ H% " k ! _;)); It seemed to me that the laughter was a catharsis, and that it marked a new beginning for all of us. — River God; • (abreaction)- the purging of emotional tensions; catholic = universal = general = generic • (catholic)- broad or wide-ranging in tastes, interests, or the like; having sympathies with all; broad-minded; liberal,(u+; +; g&; я); His taste is catholic, and while he delights in the humming birds, he does not therefore scorn the less brilliant hippopotamus. — By the Christmas Fire; • (generic)- relating to or descriptive of an entire group or class; general;  parish > parochial = provincial = insular > insulate = isolate : island • (parish)- an administrative part of a diocese that has its own church in the Anglican, Roman Catholic, and some other churches; • (parochial)- very limited or narrow in scope or outlook; provincial, (d > ); It may require us to be a lot less parochial, a lot more focused on the common good of the planet; • of or pertaining to a parish or parishes, (#+*>kn); • (provincial)- having or showing the manners, viewpoints, etc., considered characteristic of unsophisticated inhabitants of a province; rustic; narrow or illiberal; parochial, (я *+ - я p*+ p, p*+ + i+ p a  ! ; p* ); He felt somewhat provincial, and no woman noticed him, and it was clear that Kitty was no longer interested in him. — Mike Fletcher A Novel; • (insularity)- narrow-mindedness; isolation, (d#65 ; r-t; g); Their insularity, spiritual as well as geographical, has whetted the edge of a thousand flouts and gibes. — The Open Secret of Ireland; • (insulate)- to cause to be in a detached or isolated position; Emerson could insulate himself here and keep his electricity. — Authors and Friends;  iconoclastic ~ unorthodox = maverick ~ bohemian # conventional = traditional = > traditionalist = hidebound • (iconoclastic)- a breaker or destroyer of images, esp. those set up for religious veneration; His methods are reflective and sometimes iconoclastic, but the results are impressive; • (unorthodox)- breaking with convention or tradition; not orthodox, (" # , A , s  p$d  M& ! + Z Z# 5 , a ! , ,n, ); The whistle is unorthodox, but it gets attention in noisy places. — Pop Goes The Weasel; • (maverick)- a lone dissenter, as an intellectual, an artist, or a politician, who takes an independent stand apart from his or her associates; Award winning Portuguese choreographer Rui Horta is a dance maverick; • an unbranded calf, cow, or steer, esp. an unbranded calf that is separated from its mother, (% + E#& as #$ #$ _+ ! ) e `); • (bohemian)- (usually lowercase) a person, as an artist or writer, who lives and acts free of regard for conventional rules and practices, (я + я k); Her account of life and psychology as a young, bohemian, communist, women in the 1950's is sumptuously detailed. — Vulpes Libris; • (hidebound)- stubbornly prejudiced, narrow-minded, or inflexible; An Icelander wasn't as stupid and hidebound as these continentals. — The Shadow Of The Lion;  heretic > heresy = heterodoxy^ heterogeneous • (heretic)- a professed believer who maintains religious opinions contrary to those accepted by his or her church or rejects doctrines prescribed by that church, (u`#$, nt , +Hя, .+я); While the heretic was made to suffer, the faithful were sure of their reward. — The Life of Francis Marion; • (heresy)- opinion or doctrine at variance with the orthodox or accepted doctrine, esp. of a church or religious system, (*G G p-% + rd , u`#$, nt); But the heresy was as incoherent and as credulous as the antithetic orthodoxy. — The Promise of American Life; • (heterodoxy)- a heterodox opinion or doctrine, (,n%m, ); How very few people are capable of what you call sincere heterodoxy, in morals or religion! — Born in Exile; • (heterogeneous)- consisting of elements that are not of the same kind or nature; But in his daily intercourse with this heterogeneous population, he was not always aware that clerical intimacy should never descend to familiarity. — Biographical Memorials of James Oglethorpe;  unconventional ~ bizarre = eccentric = flaky = freaky = freakish = gonzo = outlandish = outré = odd : aberrant = abnormal = anomalous = deviant : idiosyncratic = queer = peculiar : errant : atypical • (bizzare)- markedly unusual in appearance, style, or general character and often involving incongruous or unexpected elements; outrageously or whimsically strange; odd, (ad!, -t, ud;); Yet so wild and bizarre is this particular tale that one can only wonder at the inventiveness of whoever initially declaimed it. — The Deluge Drivers; • (eccentric)- deviating from the recognized or customary character, practice, etc.; irregular; erratic; peculiar; odd, (ad!, as, , ..%, #%;); Our uncle is very eccentric, and says a great many sharp, disagreeable things; and his manners, generally, do not invite affection. — May Brooke; • (flaky)- Slang. somewhat eccentric; odd; • (freaky)- strange or unusual; freakish; The House had always been a little strange, but this was freaky. — Moonheart; • (freakish)- markedly unusual or abnormal; strange; I am not low-spirited, nor fanciful, nor freakish, but look what seem to me realities in the face, and am ready to take whatever may come. — Nathaniel Hawthorne; • (gonzo)- (of journalism, reportage, etc.) filled with bizarre or subjective ideas, commentary, or the like; • crazy; eccentric; This scheme is no different, just a hi-tech gonzo variant. — Analog Science Fiction and Fact; • (outlandish)- freakishly or grotesquely strange or odd, as appearance, dress, objects, ideas, or practices; bizarre, (ad!, ,*); The costumes of the actors were in the last degree outlandish, and the performance was in keeping with the clothes. — Following the Equator, Part 6; • (outré)- passing the bounds of what is usual or considered proper; unconventional; bizarre, (p$&,5  , *%rd); The humor is so outré that the listener can only laugh in a state of self-awareness; • (aberrant)- departing from the right, normal, or usual course, (#$; s, , "$"$  Jp #$  %k $ -!; as, ); The psychologists continued to monitor his aberrant behavior. — Dragons Dawn; • (anomalous)- deviating from or inconsistent with the common order, form, or rule; irregular; abnormal, (&,5 , k); Why this anomalous, aberrant, and thoroughly eccentric movement on the part of nature? — Life: Its True Genesis; • (deviant)- differing from a norm or from the accepted standards of a society; The unobtrusive lighting was tinted a soft pink, as if some deviant physicist had found a way to rouge photons. — The Mocking Program; • (idiosyncratic)- a characteristic, habit, mannerism, or the like, that is peculiar to an individual, (as, ); It is to the absence of idiosyncratic organs, therefore, that we must attribute the nearly unlimited perception of the ultimate life. — The Works of Edgar Allan Poe — Volume 2; • (quirk)- a peculiarity of action, behavior, or personality; mannerism, (dG ! , ad! a,); • a sudden twist or turn; In penning this quirk, the eminent critic would seem to have willfully overlooked the fact that a writer's life may have much or may have little to do with his works. — Balzac; • (peculiar)- strange; queer; odd, uncommon; unusual, (-t, a#+-, *R, snt); Heat then may be defined as a peculiar motion, probably a vibration of the corpuscles of bodies tending to separate them. — Aether and Gravitation; • (errant)- deviating from the regular or proper course; erring; straying, (vn; #$); He was a sort of knight-errant in the brigade, and his behavior seemed not unfrequently dictated by a passion for chivalrous display. — The Life of Francis Marion; • (atypical)- not typical; not conforming to the type; irregular; abnormal, (pt +  e, apr# , apm ); There were those who said that it was somehow atypical of Edinburgh, a city which for most of the year seemed sleepy, moderate, bridled. — Mortal Causes;  eccentricity = kookiness • (eccentric)- deviating from the recognized or customary character, practice, etc.; irregular; erratic; peculiar; odd, (ad!, as, , ..%, #%;); Our uncle is very eccentric, and says a great many sharp, disagreeable things; and his manners, generally, do not invite affection. — May Brooke; • (kookiness)- characteristic of a kook; strange or crazy;  anomalous > anomaly = discrepancy = inconsistency^ consistency • (anomaly)- a deviation from the common rule, type, arrangement, or form, (as,  k st); A bird that cannot fly is an anomaly; An anomaly is a departure from average conditions; • (discrepancy)- the state or quality of being discrepant; difference; inconsistency, (#$ ; ax ; a%); The great cause of this discrepancy was the difference in care. — Battle Studies; • (inconsistency)- the quality or condition of being inconsistent; This perplexing inconsistency, which is the only serious blot on Penn's fair fame, appears to have been the result of two convictions. — William Penn; • (consistency)- agreement, harmony, or compatibility, esp. correspondence or uniformity among the parts of a complex thing, (# 5 #+ %; Z); As in life, so in dialogue -- consistency is a test of worth. — Writing for Vaudeville;  idiosyncrasy = foible = mannerism : quirk = oddity = crotchet {hook} • (idiosyncrasy)- a characteristic, habit, mannerism, or the like, that is peculiar to an individual, (k+ *R -n+  -+, s, k*R); Consciousness is not itself dynamic, for it has no body, no idiosyncrasy or particular locus, to be the point of origin for definite relationships. — The Life of Reason; • (foible)- a minor weakness or failing of character; slight flaw or defect, (k+ [ -+t, "   a& !  +, d%); His foible is a canine appetite for popularity and fame; but he will get above this. — Memoir, Correspondence, And Miscellanies, From The Papers Of Thomas Jefferson, Volume 2; • (mannerism)- a habitual or characteristic manner, mode, or way of doing something; distinctive quality or style, as in behavior or speech, (a,  -++ ad! k*R, dG ! , *l  & k*R# 5 {|+ a &+); His style has hardened into mannerism, and the display of barren science in difficult posturing and strained anatomy has become wilful. — Renaissance in Italy Volume 3 The Fine Arts; • (quirk)- a peculiarity of action, behavior, or personality; mannerism, (dG ! , ad! a,); • a sudden twist or turn; In penning this quirk, the eminent critic would seem to have willfully overlooked the fact that a writer's life may have much or may have little to do with his works. — Balzac; • (oddity)- an odd or remarkably unusual person, thing, or event, (ad! A p   k*R, as, ); We must not be too ready to quarrel with every oddity: an oddity will sometimes just give the start to an outbreak of song. — England's Antiphon; • (crotchet)- an odd fancy or whimsical notion, (a"[k -n+, % H(;+ s+%#*G); • a small hook; • a curved surgical instrument with a sharp hook; • Entomology. a small, hook like process;  unwonted^ wont • (unwonted)- not customary or usual; rare; The fields themselves had an unwonted, a haggard sort of look. — Warlock o' Glenwarlock; • (wont)- custom; habit; practice, (a,s, p3 +); The citizens of London, as their wont was, were exceptionally disloyal. — Earl Hubert's Daughter The Polishing of the Pearl - A Tale of the 13th Century; myth, phoenix : amazon : juggernaut : halcyon : gnome : stygian : obsidian : centaur^ centurion • (myth)- a traditional story accepted as history; serves to explain the world view of a people; • (phoenix)- a mythical bird of great beauty fabled to live 500 or 600 years in the Arabian wilderness, to burn itself on a funeral pyre, and to rise from its ashes in the freshness of youth and live through another cycle of years: often an emblem of immortality or of reborn idealism or hope, ( #[+ #.- " + r,5 * * `+ (-+ #+ -g я D> + i -,s $ #+ ! ,(- oj); The phoenix is also called "the guardian of the terrestrial sphere." — The Legends of the Jews — Volume 1; • (amazon)- one of a race of female warriors said to dwell near the Black Sea, (p- g u# $ + "d); To a sagacious observer, the amazon was already manifest under the lady of society —The Duchess of Berry and the Court of Charles X; • (juggernaut)- any large, overpowering, destructive force or object, as war, a giant battleship, or a powerful football team, (&n!  яn$); When he saw the swords of his archers break on that man-like juggernaut, he had known it was no human foe they faced, and he had fled, hiding in the deep woods until the sounds of slaughter ceased. — The Devil In Iron; • (halcyon)- calm; peaceful; tranquil, (*n; d"&); It was a halcyon, happy three months that he lingered there, but did not make his fortune; he only laid the corner-stone. — Complete Letters of Mark Twain; • (gnome)- (in folklore) one of a species of diminutive beings, usually described as shriveled little old men, that inhabit the interior of the earth and act as guardians of its treasures; troll, ( $- & #% ,5, e p* -r#+ ,6+ +k + ,5  . "); Thak, stooping like a giant gnome, approached the wall where the rope hung, and gave it a peculiar sidewise pull. — Conan; • an expert in monetary or financial affairs; international banker or financier; • (stygian)- dark or gloomy; infernal; hellish; And then there are stories that we whisper into a stygian darkness. — Carmen Agra Deedy spins stories; • (obsidian)- a volcanic glass similar in composition to granite, usually dark but transparent in thin pieces, and having a good conchoidal fracture, ( % +|+ -+  g *%); It had a blade of obsidian, a darksome, glasslike volcanic rock, and the edge rivaled a razor in cutting qualities. — 001 - The Man of Bronze; • (centaur)- Classical Mythology. one of a race of monsters having the head, trunk, and arms of a man, and the body and legs of a horse, ((g #+ ! ) l я, "+ &+ a, G+ !  e> a, _)+ ); Because Che was a centaur, albeit a young one, his advice was always excellent, and the Chief always heeded it. — Roc and a Hard Place; • (centurion)- (in the ancient Roman army) the commander of a century, ((p- +-e) e * *R %+ ); But the centurion, as a military officer, was superior to the captain of an Alexandrian corn-ship, and — Expositions of Holy Scripture: the Acts; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 1.20 Deception cheat, pretend, manipulate, fabricate, deception, disguise, guileful, malinger, charlatan, betrayer beguile = bilk = cheat = swindle = chisel = cozen = delude = deceive = dupe = fob = fool = sucker • (beguile)- to influence by trickery, flattery, etc.; mislead; delude, ( , p   , n   (p  я)); He was once beguiled, amongst friends very intimate, into telling a dream. — Biographical Study of A. W. Kinglake; • (bilk)- to defraud; cheat, (, p  ); In court documents, the government describes a scheme that may have bilked investors out of as much as $2 billion. — Dump Michele Bachmann; • (swindle)- to cheat (a person, business, etc.) out of money or other assets, (p / p/ яc  ); She could not bear to lose the land she had got by a swindle, and then she could not bear the loss of her lover. — Barchester Towers; • (chisel)- a wedgelike tool with a cutting edge at the end of the blade, often made of steel, used for cutting or shaping wood, stone, etc, (      i ); But works of art, of the chisel, the brush, the pencil and the loom were her delight. — Memories of Jane Cunningham Croly; • to cheat or swindle (someone), (; p  ); • (cozen)- to cheat, deceive, or trick, (  , p  ); I had already been cozened once, I had resolved not to be snared again. — Desert Dust; • (delude)- to mislead the mind or judgment of; deceive, (p   / #n ); A lover is one who deludes himself; a journalist is one who deludes himself and other people. — Journalism for Women A Practical Guide; • (deceive)- to mislead by a false appearance or statement; delude, (%  i  &' яn, p   , )/ o  o, , #n ); He was often deceived, and made many a fatal blunder, shrewd politician though he was. — PG Edition of Netherlands series — Complete; • (dupe)- to make a dupe of; deceive; delude; trick, (p  ,  ); I am not simple enough to allow myself to be duped, and, what is worse, cheated in such a manner. " — The Complete Memoirs of Jacques Casanova; • (fob)- to cheat someone by substituting something spurious or inferior; palm off, (+    )  u  '- d / o); This time he was not to be fobbed off with bluster and posturing. — Denzil Quarrier; • (fool)- to trick, deceive, or impose on, (,  ); Acting like a fool is the only way they feel cool; • (sucker)- to make a sucker of; fool; hoodwink; But the best way to avoid being suckered is to check out who you are doing business with before you trust him or her with your money. — Omni: February 1995; delude <> deluge • (deluge)- a great flood of water; inundation; flood, (-0p);The end of the deluge was the complete destruction of the human race, all but Noah and his family—Companion to the Bible; pretend = dissemble = mask = feign = sham : façade • (pretend)- to cause or attempt to cause (what is not so) to seem so, (/  , - -   ); to pretend illness; to pretend that nothing is wrong; • to appear falsely, as to deceive; feign; to pretend to go to sleep; • to make believe,(aя0      o); He pretended, therefore, to be cheerful and happy; and fortunately his old habits enabled him to play his part well. — The Adventures of Daniel Boone: the Kentucky rifleman; • (dissemble)- to give a false or misleading appearance to; conceal the truth or real nature of, (d4  , ' - /5 ); I am under no necessity to dissemble, and dissimulation is foreign to my habits, and abhorrent to my nature! — Tales and Novels — Volume 08; • (feign)- pretend, to represent fictitiously; put on an appearance of, ( , ud ); It is very certain that the grief she manifested was all feigned, and that the assassins were rewarded for their devotion to her interests. — The Empire of Russia; • 8 (unfeigned) - not feigned; sincere; genuine, (a t- ; a5; a  -9); Jerry's vehement anger was certainly unfeigned, while Birch grew more sullen with each moment. — The Pirate Shark; • (sham)- to assume the appearance of; pretend to have, ( , / 54 ); We know why Lupin shammed the murder of the girl and spread the rumor of his own death. — The Hollow Needle; Further adventures of Arsene Lupin; • (façade)- a superficial appearance or illusion of something, (- 4); Beneath that facade are our elite Alpha forces on a clandestine mission to overthrow the Georgian government. — The St. Petersburg Times; • the front of a building, esp. an imposing or decorative one, (a:  'm /); The sole objects in the scene rivaling the fairness of the facade were a dozen swans floating upon the lake. — Desperate Remedies; gull = hoax • (gull)- to deceive, trick, or cheat, () o; p  ); I tried him in several ways, and found that he could be "gulled" more easily than any of the other messengers. — The Expressman and the Detective; • (hoax)- to deceive by a hoax; hoodwink, (< c  u  a > + , ), +   ,  l, -4, , ) я); The explosion of laughter receiving the two principals when the hoax was revealed caused the incident to be a sore point to both Lincoln and Shields. — The Lincoln Story Book; malinger = shirk = skulk = fiddle = goldbrick • (malinger)- to pretend illness, esp. in order to shirk one's duty, avoid work, etc, ( @ eB ud4 a's   ); To shirk or malinger on the man who paid me my wages was a sin, first, against myself, and second, against him. — War of the Classes; • (shirk)- to evade (work, duty, responsibility, etc.), ((я,  @,  t i  ) e B +; 5 0 ); I can excuse a liar, I can pardon a thief, I can pity a murderer, but a shirk--no! — A Spinner in the Sun; • (skulk)- to move in a stealthy manner; slink, (я F)   я  Gr 4    B aI a'J ud4 KF ); They did not skulk, but neither did they make themselves conspicuous. — 150 - The Wee Ones; • (fiddle)- to alter or falsify (accounts, for example) for dishonest gain; • (goldbrick)- a person, especially a soldier, who avoids assigned duties or work; a shirker; I was getting goldbrick looks from the men working at their desks, so I went back to my cubicle. — White Jazz; bluff = hoodwink = bamboozle • (bluff)- to mislead someone by presenting a bold, strong, or self-confident front, (  u p  ,  я o, p o); Clair thought Lord Byron’s boast that he would swim the Hellespont was just a bluff; • good-naturedly direct, blunt, or frank; heartily outspoken,(rk nt ' o s>G  k); a big, bluff, generous man; • presenting a bold and nearly perpendicular front, as a coastline,(G  '/ G @G ) B, uc o d0 R); At the top of the bluff was a long pile of stones, from which grew bushes and occasional trees. — Wellspring of Chaos; • (hoodwink)- to deceive or trick, (p   , p/ ) o, #n , F я ); There has never been an opportunity for the opposition to hoodwink the public on its way to power; • (bamboozle)- to deceive or get the better of (someone) by trickery, flattery, or the like; humbug; hoodwink, (), p o,  , p , 5 : -); I am not here to be bamboozled, or to give you an opportunity for exercising any ability you may possess in the art of lying. — The Lost Ambassador The Search For The Missing Delora; manage = wangle = finagle = fake = fudge = falsify = cook = rig = manipulate : exploit • (wangle)- to falsify or manipulate for dishonest ends, (a p  + G            я ); Undoubtedly there's been a great deal of extravagance, but you may be able to wangle a reasonable explanation. " — Bones in London; • (finagle)- to trick, swindle, or cheat; • (fudge)- to cheat or welsh; • to avoid coming to grips with (a subject, issue, etc.); evade; dodge, (яB  / /)я - o); Good news is it can't be fiddled, fudged, manipulated or fabricated; • (cook)- to falsify, as accounts, (,   /l ); • (rig)- to manipulate fraudulently,(p  9 g0  nt ); Somebody rigged the contest so no one got first prize; • to put in proper order for working or use, ('-d  %t pst g0 ); • (manipulate)- to manage or influence skillfully, esp. in an unfair manner, ( 5  5 +  0 ; я 5k ' я  ); Some use the legends and stories of the past to share peace and love; others use it to condemn, manipulate, and cheat people out of money. — Propeller Most Popular Stories; • (exploit)- to make use of selfishly or unethically; This brilliant little success was practically a cavalry exploit, and it was typical of much that was to follow. — Sir John French; • to employ to the greatest possible advantage;  mulct : deprive : wean : disenfranchise : divest = strip = defrock = unfrock • (mulct)- to deprive (someone) of something, as by fraud, extortion, etc.; swindle; It seemed probable that they would be mulcted in heavy damages; and even these would be no bar to a criminal prosecution. — The Story of the Upper Canada Rebellion; • to punish (a person) by fine, esp. for a misdemeanor, (я -  4 s/ X o, (  ) /  o); Virginia, where he was tried and acquitted and his adversary mulcted in damages. — A History of American Christianity; • (deprive)- to remove or withhold something from the enjoyment or possession of , (  /  0 ); No alien interlopers were going to deprive him of that long-awaited pleasure. — The Last Starfighter; • (wean)- to accustom (a child or young animal) to food other than its mother's milk; cause to lose the need to suckle or turn to the mother for food, (-   d n 4Z a  as , -i ); • to withdraw (a person, the affections, one's dependency, etc.) from some object, habit, form of enjoyment, or the like; Slowly, like a heroin addict weaned off by methadone, I had the inside of my head adjusted; • (disenfranchise)- to deprive (a person) of a right of citizenship, as of the right to vote, (/  a  I   ); Increasing mobility will disenfranchise a majority of the population. — The Worlds Of Robert A Heinlein; • (divest)- to strip or deprive (someone or something), esp. of property or rights; dispossess, (54  o, k-  B o, 5 0 , 5  / ); It is difficult to divest the words hypnotism and clairvoyance of certain sordid and sinister associations. — Four-Dimensional Vistas; • (strip)- to deprive of (clothing or covering); • (defrock)- to deprive (a monk, priest, minister, etc.) of ecclesiastical rank, authority, and function; depose, ((a'+ я 5dG) %я t 8 I a5' ); The vast majority of priests who are defrocked, or laicized, do so voluntarily, usually because they wish to marry; • (unfrock)- to deprive (a monk, priest, minister, etc.) of ecclesiastical rank, 8 authority, and function; depose, (a'+ я 5dG %я t I a5'  ); Some dislike him because he was a priest, some because he was an unfrocked priest. — Lectures on the French Revolution; foist : interpolate • (foist)- to force upon or impose fraudulently or unjustifiably, ( +    я я ' /  o); My main political views are fostered by a dislike for the burden of social consciousness foisted upon a working class already overburdened with their own problems; • (interpolate)- to introduce (something additional or extraneous) between other things or parts; interject; interpose; intercalate, (i i    '\%я ); Some scholars are of the opinion that the Gita was composed relatively recently and later interpolated into the text; fabricate > fabrication = canard : fabricated = fictitious = fancied : concoct = hatch = cook up • (fabricate)- to devise or invent (a legend, lie, etc.), ( -@ , a\4  яB /, -I  ud  + ); They also fabricate, lie, manipulate and intimidate. — The Two Malcontents; • (canard)- a false or baseless, usually derogatory story, report, or rumor, 8 ( -I tn ; gя; a5; ); These claims are an outrageous and recycled canard, and have no basis in fact; • (fabricated)- formed or conceived by the fancy or imagination; • (fictitious)- created, taken, or assumed for the sake of concealment; not genuine, (s ;  l  ^8 ); His story is fictitious, his hero imaginary. — A History of English Romanticism in the Nineteenth Century; • (fancied)- unreal; imaginary, ( l ; aG; a'); They did not turn out to be so rich as people had fancied, and what they did leave went to distant relations very far off. — Bible Stories and Religious Classics; • (concoct)- to devise; make up; contrive,( -I  0G + ,   ); to concoct an excuse; • to prepare or make by combining ingredients, esp. in cookery, (  n u5 - 4 _  , pst , ud ); The ingredients are easily accessible and many manufacturers need nothing more than their kitchens to concoct large quantities; • (hatch) – to bring forth or produce; devise; create; contrive; concoct; • to cause young to emerge from (the egg) as by brooding or incubating; • an opening that serves as a doorway or window in the floor or roof of a building, (я  -` F), ei F) u5 sn%/ a); The latch on the hatch failed to catch, so the hatch remained unlatched- Barron’s GRE; • to mark with lines, esp. closely set parallel lines, as for shading in drawing or engraving, ('-n   s  i   ac ); • (cook up)- make up something artificial or untrue; evasion = subterfuge = pretext = affectation • (evasion)- an act or instance of escaping, avoiding, or shirking something, (<4 5 0, e B %o <4); Her attempts at evasion are vain, and rather than face her father's anger, she permits herself to be married a second time. — The Life and Romances of Mrs Eliza Haywood; • (subterfuge)- an artifice or expedient used to evade a rule, escape a consequence, hide something, etc, (( 4d `-  apG   eB я) , 54, + G  ); He scarcely comprehended the subterfuge, and was absolutely blind as to its reason. — Two on a Tower; • (pretext)- something that is put forward to conceal a true purpose or object; an ostensible reason; excuse, (aя0  ; 54;    ; ; a ); He would be in and out all day on any and every pretext, always entering with an undisguised eagerness, leaving with a slow, dreamy reluctance. — Friday, the Thirteenth; • (affectation) -an effort to appear to have a quality not really or fully possessed; the pretense of actual possession, ( t- 8 / -  +, as  +,  t-  8 ); His language was free from stiffness and affectation, and his verses had a graceful flow. — Beacon Lights of History, Volume 01 The Old Pagan Civilizations; feint = juke ~ dodge • (feint)- a movement made in order to deceive an adversary; an attack aimed at one place or point merely as a distraction from the real place or point of attack, (,  t-8 k-, (%d   - >%d   ) k-   k- eB ud4 5)+  ); A movement designed for a feint, was now converted into a real attack. — The Rise of Canada, from Barbarism to Wealth and Civilisation Volume 1; • (juke)- to make a move intended to deceive (an opponent); • (dodge)- an elaborate or deceitful scheme contrived to deceive or evade; deception = chicanery = shenanigan = trickery = guile = wile = skulduggery • (deception)- the use of deceit; I knew then the only alternative left for me to extricate myself was to use deception, which is the most effectual defense a slave can use. — Narrative of the Life and Adventures of an American Slave Written by Himself; • (chicanery)- trickery or deception by quibbling or sophistry, (p , _ + G  , + % k  ); They saw and heard of corruption, chicanery, and petty jealousy all round them here. — French and English A Story of the Struggle in America; • (shenangian)- a mischievous or deceitful trick, practice, etc; • (trickery)- the practice or use of tricks; deception by stratagem; At first his attacks were all simple, without feint or trickery, as were mine. — Richard Carvel; • (guile)- insidious cunning in attaining a goal; crafty or artful deception; duplicity, (p , ,  @ R  -, + %@  ); He lacked guile, and he feared God, -- and a man who does both will never go far astray. — The Last Chronicle of Barset; • guileless - free from guile; sincere; honest; straightforward; frank, (p 0G); Love is so guileless, so proper, so pure a passion as to involve none of those things which require or which admit of confession. — The Love Affairs of a Bibliomaniac; • (wily)- a trick, artifice, or stratagem meant to fool, trap, or entice; device, (<4  , + G  , 4 G); The adventurers from whom she derived a fatal strength were of a vain, wily, and irritable temperament. — Athens: Its Rise and Fall, Complete; • (skullduggery)- dishonorable proceedings; mean dishonesty or trickery, ( @ R p ; k + G  ); It is the legacy of skullduggery of our colonial masters that keeps the two nations dragging on and on; guile^ gullible : susceptible • (gullible)- easily deceived or cheated, ('0я p %/); He felt badly for the gullible and trusting human. — Sliding Scales; • (susceptible)- capable of being affected emotionally; impressionable, (aR  d '0яi p  0 e-, g04G, '0яg0G, g0G); The minds of the young are most susceptible, and if no moral principles are impressed upon them at school or college they are apt to go astray. — America, through the spectacles of an Oriental diplomat; delusion = semblance = hallucination = illusion <> allusion <> elusion > elusive • (delusion)- a false belief or opinion, (aG &'  - ; - #-); After a fortnight of self-delusion, the curtain fell from his eyes; he resumed his natural character, and shut up his books. — Lazy Tour of Two Idle Apprentices; • 8 ; r5 (semblance)- outward aspect or appearance, ('4  ; '; ); What semblance was there of the rosy, smiling face that had so long brightened the old home? — The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 18, No. 108, October, 1866; • (hallucination)- a sensory experience of something that does not exist outside the mind, caused by various physical and mental disorders, or by reaction to certain toxic substances, and usually manifested as visual or 8 auditory images, ( >#- ; a @-   l    p k  >n 8 ); When freed from this hallucination, agony was marked on her brow, and her cheek was more than usually pale and collapsed. — Traditions of Lancashire, Volume 1 (of 2); • (illusion)- something that deceives by producing a false or misleading impression of reality, (-; -0; #-); It was a night of perfect illusion, and the illusion was mysterious, delicate, and faint. — The Pool in the Desert; • (allusion, allude)- to refer casually or indirectly; make an allusion, (5k ul ); Now, the particular danger to which I allude is French novels, French romances, and French plays. — Sermons Preached at Brighton Third Series; • to contain a casual or indirect reference,(i j ); • (elusion)- the act or an instance of eluding or escaping; evasion; And at last I began to realize in my harassed soul that all elusion was futile, and to take such holidays as I could get, when he was off with a girl, in a spirit of thankfulness. — The Celebrity, Complete; • (elusive)- eluding clear perception or complete mental grasp; hard to express or define, (55; s8 p); She was once more the tantalizing, elusive, mysterious creature — Green Mansions: a romance of the tropical forest; fancy : reverie : figment <> pigment • (fancy)- imagination or fantasy, esp. as exercised in a capricious manner, (aG l); He thought of Rose all through the holidays, and his fancy was active with the things they would do together next term. — Of Human Bondage; • (reverie)- a state of dreamy meditation or fanciful musing, (spp; sp aI n 0  %o); The sound that had broken her reverie was the gentle sweep of big-bladed oars through the calm sea —A Spirit in Prison; • (figment)- a mere product of mental invention; a fantastic notion, ( l  ^8  ); I should fear he might even stigmatize imagination as a figment, and delicacy as an affectation. — Charlotte Bronte and Her Circle; • (pigment)- a substance used as coloring; incantation = conjuration = legerdemain ~ prestidigitation : sleight • (incantation)- the chanting or uttering of words purporting to have magical power, (-nt; -ntc); As soon as the incantation was over, the Chancellor surveyed himself in the mirror. — Once on a Time; • (conjuration)- the act of calling on or invoking a sacred name,an incantation; magical charm,the practice of legerdemain, (%d, ' @d a   - , dB%nt); A part of the scheme of conjuration is that the conjure doctor can remove the spell and put it back upon the one who laid it. — The Conjure Woman; • (legerdemain)- sleight of hand, (0 'Fi, 0s<4); The impostor was renowned for his wonderful tricks of legerdemain, as well as for cures, necromancy, and fortune-telling —Captain Canot or, Twenty Years of an African Slaver; • trickery; deception,(я я,  l); • any artful trick; • (prestidigitation)- sleight of hand; legerdemain, ( l я, я я, 0  , indя, 0 'Fi); When in his wanderings he earned some coins by a show of prestidigitation, it had often figured in the act. — F ;SF; - vol 101 issue 04-05 - October-November 2001; • (sleight)- skill; dexterity; an artifice; stratagem, (0s<4  0  -5+;  l я); The deed, in the circumstances, assumed the appearance of a sleight-of-hand trick. — The Teeth of the Tiger; artifice = ruse = stratagem {gambit} = contrivance = intrigue = machination > machinate = excogitate = devise : conspiracy • (artifice)- a clever trick or stratagem; a cunning, crafty device or expedient; wile, (k ,  @ R , + , + G  , ); It is a fascinating literary artifice, and it has fascinated many to their ruin. — Studies in Early Victorian Literature; • (ruse)- a trick, stratagem, or artifice, (+ G  , ) я, + , 4 , R+); Your pretended assassination in such a clever manner was all a ruse--you didn't poison him at all. — Man of Many Minds; • (stratagem)- a plan, scheme, or trick for surprising or deceiving an enemy, (( 4d %d  '- 4tro')  я h <4); To obtain victory in battle without cunning or stratagem is the best sport. — The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 1 Books 1, 2 and 3; • (gambit)- Chess. an opening in which a player seeks to obtain some advantage by sacrificing a pawn or piece, (   p m + 4d); Whatever kind of gambit is being played here, it is bigger than any of its parts or pieces. — Highways in Hiding; • any maneuver by which one seeks to gain an advantage; • (contrivance)- a plan or scheme; expedient, (<4, F n, ^, ud  st); This ingenious contrivance was applied by Mr. Everett to the paying-out machinery. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; • (intrigue)- to arouse the curiosity or interest of by unusual, new, or otherwise fascinating or compelling qualities; appeal strongly to; captivate, (< 0   uJ'  udGp , +kn, dB%nt ,  rd -nt  ); The story has some twists and turns to keep the audience intrigued, along with some jaw dropping action sequences; • (machination)- crafty schemes; plots; intrigues, (dB%nt); Gracious God! The sole aim of their machinations is to bring about the extermination of this servant. — Epistle to the Son of the Wolf; • (excogitate)- to consider or think (something) out carefully and thoroughly; He must first think and excogitate his matter, then choose his words, and examine the weight of either. — Discoveries Made Upon Men and Matter and Some Poems; • (devise)- to contrive, plan, or elaborate; invent from existing principles or ideas, (5 l ;   ; ud ); He tested his theory in every way that he could devise, and he found it verified in every detail. — The Story of the Heavens; • (conspiracy)- an evil, unlawful, treacherous, or surreptitious plan formulated in secret by two or more persons; plot, (dB%nt; +kn); The tale of the conspiracy was a complete fabrication manufactured by the police. — Korea's Fight for Freedom; artifice^ artisan {craftsman} ^ artifact^ artistry = prowess • (artisan)- a person skilled in an applied art; a craftsperson, ( 4l   я -@ k  /); He's a simple artisan, and can't even read and write, but he does marvelous things. — A Desperate Character and Other Stories; • (craftsman)- a man who practices a craft with great skill; This Tasso was a most excellent craftsman, the best, I believe, who ever lived in his own branch of art. — The Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini; • (artifact)- any object made by human beings, esp. with a view to subsequent use; • a handmade object, as a tool, or the remains of one, as a shard of pottery, characteristic of an earlier time or cultural stage, esp. such an object found at an archaeological excavation, (-d  d _  st); The chair had arm straps and leg shackles; an artifact from the Spanish Inquisition. — FSFMay2005; •  (shard) - a fragment, esp. of broken earthenware, (-  5t j  ;  - + ); The shard was found by a teenage volunteer during a dig about 20km (12 miles) south-west of Jerusalem; • (artistry)- a superior skill that you can learn by study and practice and observation; • (prowess)- exceptional valor, bravery, or ability, esp. in combat or battle, ( k-; 4<%@; G%@; a' k- ); His livelihood depended upon his own personal prowess, his skill in woodcraft and water lore. — Legends of Vancouver;  connivance = collusion <> collision <> collation = bite = snack • (connivance)- tacit encouragement or assent (without participation) to wrongdoing by another, (5k 'm  '-I@, K- a5 p + ) я I  '0  ); But the great crime could not be achieved without the connivance, and at last the active consent, of the national government. — A History of American Christianity; • (collusion)- a secret agreement, esp. for fraudulent or treacherous purposes; conspiracy, (dB%nt  ud4 /5 + k  '0% / ); Since all parties are acting in collusion, the majority of Canadians are no longer represented by government; • (collision)- the act or process of colliding; a crash or conflict; • (collation)- a light meal that may be permitted on days of general fast, (  -  '- n a '- 0 ); As soon as the ladies arrived, the collation was served up, and we sat down to supper. — The Arabian Nights Entertainments - Volume 01; guise = mask = masquerade ~ imposture = impersonation ~ camouflage • (guise)- general external appearance; aspect; semblance, (54 ; 4); That whole luxurious first class passive resistance guise was a thing that died with Gandhi, Luthuli and John Lennon; • (mask)- to disguise or conceal; hide; dissemble, (- 4 d a, /5 , B ); to mask one's intentions; • (masquerade)- a party, dance, or other festive gathering of persons wearing masks and other disguises, and often elegant, historical, or fantastic costumes, (d4  ); The actors in the masquerade are at table in the great room of the tavern. — The Wandering Jew — Volume 09; • (imposture)- the action or practice of imposing fraudulently upon others, (X/ d 5' p , X -, pm, _ ); Vanity leads to imposture, and imposture to the wronging of others. — When Valmond Came to Pontiac, Volume 3; • (impersonation)- to assume the character or appearance of; pretend to be, (d 4 , R - a ); He was charged with first-degree criminal impersonation, a felony, and petit larceny. • (camouflage)- the act, means, or result of obscuring things to deceive an enemy, as by painting or screening objects so that they are lost to view in the background, or by making up objects that have from a distance the appearance of fortifications, guns, roads, etc, (%   u5 s  sr5 u5 b K ' > 8 ; 54; R4); In the animal kingdom color serves to warn, camouflage, advertise, and compete. — Neuroanthropology; machiavellian = duplicity = double-dealing • (machiavellian)- characterized by subtle or unscrupulous cunning, deception, expediency, or dishonesty, ( @ R ); The Prince, made the word "Machiavellian" a byword for deceit, despotism and political manipulation. — Conservapedia; • (duplicity)- deceitfulness in speech or conduct; speaking or acting in two different ways concerning the same matter with intent to deceive; double- dealing, (5 , 4 , + G  ); What fathomless duplicity was hers, that she could appear so innocent. — The Octopus : A story of California; • (double-dealing)- duplicity; treachery; deception; But such atrocities were sharp medicines, benefits in disguise, good against cowardice, selfishness, double-dealing, and deficient patriotism. — The Life of Francis Marion; wily = crafty = cunning = foxy = guileful = slick = sly = tricky = tricksy = knavish > knave = rascal = scallywag • (crafty)- skillful in underhand or evil schemes; cunning; deceitful; sly; He may indeed be considered as one of the types of the subtle, crafty, selfish politician that was the ideal of Macchiavelli. — The Life of Cesare Borgia; • (foxy)- foxlike; cunning or crafty; slyly clever; They were certainly young and foxy; sixteen, seventeen years old. — Pop Goes The Weasel; • (guileful)- insidiously cunning; artfully deceptive; wily; It seemed as if it could not be very deep or guileful, it was so frankly expressed. — The Frontiersmen; • (slick)- sly; shrewdly adroit, ('k  , 5 , a n 5  ' ); • (sly)- cunning or wily, (p 5@ R , /5   /5  e-); Then I tried to get at him in many ways; but he was pretty sly, and had always two prize-fighters, besides his sons and his khitmutgar, on guard over him. — The Sign Of The Four; • (tricksy)- marked by skill in deception; • (knavish)- like or befitting a knave; untrustworthy; dishonest,(p - R ); It usually denotes roguish, knavish, sly, artful. — Works of John Bunyan — Volume 03; • (knave)- an unprincipled, crafty fellow; I had all along suspected that the man was a knave, and this profession of love confirmed me in my former belief, and I turned away and left him. — Three Years in Europe; • (rascal)- one that is playfully mischievous; 'Every man of any education would rather be called a rascal than accused of deficiency in the graces,' — Life of Johnson; • (scallywag)- Informal a reprobate; a rascal; A cameo by Ricky Gervais as a scalawag named Ferdy the Fence seems to be cut from similarly extravagant cloth. — FSF,January2008; disingenuous = artful • (disingenuous)- lacking in frankness, candor, or sincerity; falsely or hypocritically ingenuous; insincere, (a',    , 5); This was disingenuous, and she felt humiliated by her subterfuge. — The Odd Women; • (artful)- slyly crafty or cunning; deceitful; tricky, ( @ R , +   , p 5@ R , '); He is a spy--artful, delusive, and penetrating, beyond the abilities of any of his class. — The Spy; factitious ~ artificial = contrived : stilted = mannered : affected • (factitious)- not spontaneous or natural; artificial; contrived, (as , 8  t- , a ' n- R 8 ); The end is not violent or factitious, it  +  '> is necessary and inevitable. — The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of Allegory (Periods of European Literature, vol. II); • (contrived)- obviously planned or forced; artificial; strained, (F n  <4 ); He did not know how it could be contrived, but it could certainly be contrived, and he began to dramatize their meeting on these various terms. — A Pair of Patient Lovers; • (stilted)- stiffly dignified or formal, as speech or literary style; pompous, (+, + j  +   'mn >, as , i v    k>); He used the most stilted, ornate, and diplomatic language to carry the simple fact. — The Lincoln Story Book; • (mannered)- having distinctive mannerisms; affected, (ad +  4>); Most of them are ill-mannered, as abusive as illogical, and as malicious as weak—The Works of Robert G. Ingersoll, Volume VIII. Interviews; • (affected)- acted upon; influenced, (p  ); You're affected, which is bad sense and insincerity. — Hobson's Choice; • influenced in a harmful way; impaired, harmed, or attacked, as by climate or disease,(k gs , p F); spurious = specious <> spacious = capacious = commodious • (spurious)- not genuine, authentic, or true; not from the claimed, pretended, or proper source; counterfeit, (- , -I, я, я); To spurn the spurious is not to reject the true. — Friendship; • (specious)- apparently good or right though lacking real merit; superficially pleasing or plausible, ( 5  > 8 %II@  '   - 0 ( nt '  ) e-); But they are specious, and sufficiently so to delude a man of sense and of integrity. — The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. 06 (of 12); • (spacious)- spacious and convenient; roomy, (sh, p4s);The house itself was well-built, commodious, and fitted with all the conveniences of the day; • ample or adequate for a particular purpose; • (incommodious)- not spacious, inconvenient; The flat was a small and incommodious one, but it was in a quiet street and not very far from Hampstead Heath. — The Foolish Lovers; • (capacious)- capable of holding much; spacious or roomy, ('5 '  ; p4s; 4); The buildings round it were capacious, and well made. — The Great War As I Saw It; • (commodious)- spacious; roomy; It had been made to mask this secret subterranean chamber in which the Kilgore gang was then gathered. The place was commodious, and contained some noteworthy objects. — With Links of Steel; fallacious : fraudulent = bogus • (fallacious)- containing a fallacy; logically unsound, ( # n, # n- R ); • deceptive; misleading,(p ); To me it seemed atheistic, fallacious, heretical. — Katherine's Sheaves; • fallacy- mistaken idea based on flawed reasoning; invalid argument,(  -I &'); This fallacy is the supposition that man's creativeness is to be measured solely by its visible, audible, or tangible results. — The Joyful Heart; • (fraudulent)- engaging in fraud; deceitful; That some of the effects were palpably fraudulent, and that, fraud apart, there remained a residuum of phenomena not easy to explain, were all irritating facts. — Robert Browning; • (bogus)- not genuine; counterfeit; spurious; sham, ( -I; я; - ; я); This article demonstrates that the threat of an avian flu pandemic is not bogus, and is, indeed, real; mendacious # veracious > vicarious > veracity > mendacity • (untruthful)- telling lies, esp. habitually; dishonest; lying; untruthful, ( -I, -IG); Milton, was a malicious, mendacious, and dishonest man. ' — Hours in a Library, Volume I. (of III.); • (veracious)- habitually speaking the truth; truthful; honest, (' ; %II@); This report is very likely not veracious, because this bone spontaneously repairs itself so quickly and easily. — Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine; • (veracity) - truthfulness; • (vicarious)- performed, exercised, received, or suffered in place of another,(p  ; _ l); Most architecture exhibitions are frustratingly vicarious: they try to make us feel as if we were in actual buildings, with films and computer simulations, but they can't. — The New Yorker; • (veracity)- truthfulness; The facts, however, have all the air of veracity, and being given on such a solemn occasion, the document is entitled to high credit. — The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus; • (mendacity)- the tendency to be untruthful; prankster = trickster = slicker • (prankster)- a mischievous or malicious person who plays tricks, practical jokes, etc., at the expense of another; It was just a prankster calling on his unlisted phone. — Deal Breaker; • (trickster)- a deceiver; cheat; fraud; At Zagazig they were joined by the venerable wag and trickster, — The Life of Sir Richard Burton; • (slicker)- a swindler; a sly cheat; phony = hypocrite = dissembler = dissimulator = pretender = fraud = impostor = sham = role player = poser = poseur : posture • (phony)- not real or genuine; fake; counterfeit, (a' , ); No guile, no hesitation, nothing phony or overrehearsed. — The Hard War; • (hypocrite)- a person who pretends to have virtues, moral or religious beliefs, principles, etc., that he or she does not actually possess, (X, X 5sG, -@yяG,  -@, _Bb , -F); It is but an indifferent trick for a hypocrite to make temperance speeches. — The Hoosier Schoolmaster; • (dissemble)- to give a false or misleading appearance to; conceal the truth or real nature of, (d4  , ' - /5 ); I am under no necessity to dissemble, and dissimulation is foreign to my habits, and abhorrent to my nature! — Tales and Novels — Volume 08; • (pretend)- to cause or attempt to cause (what is not so) to seem so, (/  , - -   ); to pretend illness; to pretend that nothing is wrong; • to appear falsely, as to deceive; feign; to pretend to go to sleep; • to make believe,(aя0      o); He pretended, therefore, to be cheerful and happy; and fortunately his old habits enabled him to play his part well. — The Adventures of Daniel Boone: the Kentucky rifleman; • (fraud)- deceit, trickery, sharp practice, or breach of confidence, perpetrated for profit or to gain some unfair or dishonest advantage, (XG p , я+ , , p); Any fraudulent, abusive, or otherwise illegal activity may be grounds for termination of this Agreement; • (impostor)- a person who practices deception under an assumed character, identity, or name, (5 , X, -@yяG, d 5'); If he had been a low ignorant impostor, like a person he could name, he would have been employed and honoured. — The Life of George Borrow; • (sham)- to assume the appearance of; pretend to have, ( , / 54 ); We know why Lupin shammed the murder of the girl and spread the rumor of his own death. — The Hollow Needle; Further adventures of Arsene Lupin; • (role player)- one who assumes or acts out a particular role; • (poser)- a poseur; Very simple and gentle, with a sweet voice; undesirous of shining or poser-ing, so it seems to me. — The Letters of Elizabeth Barrett Browning; • (poseur)- a person who attempts to impress others by assuming or affecting a manner, degree of elegance, sentiment, etc., other than his or her true one, (  / я %  k  j am ,  j 'G, 5 p); That statement alone elucidates the difference between a real scientist and the kind of poseur we see in Richard Dawkins. — InstaPunk; • (posture)- an affected or unnatural attitude, ( 4d  j s  s5 / ', / @ aj j, a\); Her posture, her expression, the way she moved her hands, even the texture and lines of her face—all of them were totally different. — Angelmass;  hypocrite > hypocritical^ crisis : juncture : exigency • (hypocritical)- characterized by hypocrisy; To regard the aspirations as hypocritical, and only the meaner effusions of his mind as emblematic of the true man, is both unreasonable and uncharitable. — The Life of Cicero; • (juncture)- a point of time, esp. one made critical or important by a concurrence of circumstances, ('c-0 @  R ; ' nk); Without the Prince and his efforts--at this juncture, there would probably have never been a free Netherland commonwealth. — The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Complete (1555-84); • (exigency)- a case or situation that demands prompt action or remedy; emergency, (яrG as); Immediately after a battle, but too late for the exigency, there was an influx, then a lull. — Woman's Work in the Civil War A Record of Heroism, Patriotism, and Patience; dissimulator > dissimulate • (dissimulator)- a person who professes beliefs and opinions that he or she does not hold in order to conceal his or her real feelings or motives; • (dissimulate)- to disguise or conceal under a false appearance; dissemble, (p 8 -, aR  /5  n as  ); No! His ability to dissimulate, for years, his double existence, proves, on the contrary, a wonderful amount of duplicity. — Other People's Money; • (simulate) - to create a simulation, likeness, or model of (a situation, system, or the like); Simplorer technology enables engineers to model, simulate, analyze and optimize such complex systems; • (simulate) - to make a pretense of; feign, ( ;  ); Consequently he disguised himself by wearing green spectacles and tying a pillow over his stomach to simulate corpulence. — The Life of Sir Richard Burton; charlatan = mountebank ~ quack • (charlatan)- a person who pretends to more knowledge or skill than he or she possesses; quack, (%  k sG -t a k k , j  'k-     ); He was an adept in the wily arts of the charlatan, achieving notoriety by unscrupulous methods. — Primitive Psycho-Therapy and Quackery; • (mountebank)- a person who sells quack medicines, as from a platform in public places, attracting and influencing an audience by tricks, storytelling, etc, (%  k + I @ -d   +> ,pя, )я, ); But his natural gift was to be a mountebank, a clown, a circus Hercules. — Casa Braccio, Volumes 1 and 2 (of 2); • (quack)- a person who pretends, professionally or publicly, to skill,  knowledge, or qualifications he or she does not possess; a charlatan,(0 B (|k)); The physicians of Nuremberg denounced him as a quack, a charlatan, and an impostor. — The Magician; apostate = recreant = deserter = ratter = turncoat = traitor = treasonist = quisling = judas = renegade > renege • (apostate)- a person who forsakes his religion, cause, party, etc, (s- , s-@, s5k /G); He regarded the Church of England as apostate, and any kind of fellowship with it as grievous sin. — Waldo's Virginia Political Blogroll. • (ant. apostle) Obey God then and obey the apostle: but if ye turn away, our apostle is not to blame, for he is only charged with plain preaching. — The Koran (Al-Qur'an); • (recreant)- unfaithful, disloyal, or traitorous, (5rd  , &'K , &'0n, ); Ismenia and the faithless Baron decamp to parts unknown, while Clementina's father starts back to Rome with his recreant daughter. — The Life and Romances of Mrs Eliza Haywood; • (deserter)- to leave (a person, place, etc.) without intending to return, esp. in violation of a duty, promise, or the like, (5  /  ,B 5); • (of military personnel) to leave service, duty, etc., with no intention of returning; A soldier is typically classified as a deserter after being absent without leave for 30 days; • (ratter)- Slang. one who betrays or deserts another; • (turncoat)- a person who changes to the opposite party or faction, reverses principles, etc.; renegade, (  ; s5k#>); Critics call McClellan a turncoat, a sellout and a disgruntled former employee; • (traitor)- a person who betrays another, a cause, or any trust, ( &'K );To do these things in the character of a traitor was abhorrent to his nature and terrible to his feelings. — Nostromo, a Tale of the Seaboard; • a person who commits treason by betraying his or her country; • (treasonist)- someone who betrays his country by committing treason; Had there been previous protests those people would have been branded unpatriotic, treasonist to be protesting during war time; • (quisling)- a person who betrays his or her own country by aiding an invading enemy, often serving later in a puppet government; fifth columnist, ( 4G   4 k 'I '0% / G  k; ; 4d0G; &'K ); But the important qualification to become a quisling, as specified by the Indian recruiting agents, is to drop the Tamil national aspiration. — TamilNet Newswire; • (Judas)- a person treacherous enough to betray a friend; traitor; • also called Judas Iscariot. the disciple who betrayed Jesus. Mark 3:19; • (renegade)- a person who deserts a party or cause for another, traitor, (s-@ /G,  /G, &'K , -@#>, 5dX); Denounced as a renegade, with his life threatened and his influence lost, he retired to his native province. — The World's Best Orations, Vol. 1 (of 10); • (renege)- to go back on one's word, (I   ); It is a very bad thing to renege after you have accepted an offer; • Cards. to play a card that is not of the suit led when one can follow suit; break a rule of play; perfidious > perfidy = treachery = treason = betrayal • (perfidious)- deliberately faithless; treacherous; deceitful, ( &'K , d+G); In the letters she had dictated, Jeanne appeared treacherous, perfidious, cruel, sanguinary, seditious, blasphemous and in favour of tyranny. — The Life of Joan of Arc, Vol. 1 and 2; • (perfidy)- deliberate breach of faith or trust; faithlessness; treachery, ( &'K  );What mattered to the crowd his falseness and his perfidy, his licentiousness and cruelty? — The Last of the Barons — Volume 12; • (treachery)- violation of faith; betrayal of trust; treason, (p ); In war they relied mainly on cunning and treachery, and the character of their country was eminently suited for the display of these tactics. — Reminiscences of a Pioneer; • (treason)- the offense of acting to overthrow one's government or to harm or kill its sovereign, (яo  p  aI &'K  ); Suspected of high-treason, and of embezzling public money, he was executed without a moments delay. — Lives of the Three Mrs. Judsons; • (betrayal)- the offense of acting to overthrow one's government or to harm or kill its sovereign; This play then must have been written shortly before his betrayal, and should give us Shakespeare's ordinary attitude. — The Man Shakespeare; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com PART 2 2.1 Society social classes, urbane, suave, gauche, rural, proletarian, territories, domicile, denizen aristocracy = gentry : patriciate = patrician = aristocrat = blue blood : peerage • (aristocracy)- a class of persons holding exceptional rank and privileges, esp. the hereditary nobility, (aяnt); Your aristocracy is a base imitation of our snobby, revelling in the heartless hording of gold, and vaunting of bad English. — The Adventures of My Cousin Smooth; • (gentry)- people of standing; class of people just below nobility, ( я    aя mp); The children of the gentry were usually taught in their homes by private teachers of small classes. — Our Legal Heritage, 5th Ed; • (patriciate)- nobility or aristocracy; The patriciate of Rome had combined with the people to place its destinies in Dea Flavia's hands. — "Unto Caesar"; • The rank, position, or term of office of a patrician; • (patrician)- a person of noble or high rank; aristocrat, (aя  mn   яng  k); The young patrician was as amenable to this law as the child of the lowest peasant She succumbed. — Condensed Novels; • (aristocrat)- a member of a ruling class or of the nobility; He had the manners of an aristocrat, and was careful in his dress. — The Loves of Great Composers; • (blue blood)- noble or aristocratic descent; • (peerage)- the body of peers of a country or state; I found her very well pleased; for peerage will be some sort of protection to her upon any turn of affairs. — The Journal to Stella; urbane = polished = refined ~ genteel = cultivated = cultured : svelte = suave = elegant • (urbane)- having the polish and suavity regarded as characteristic of sophisticated social life in major cities, ( !; #s% & ; 'я); No matter that his manners were polished and urbane, the unmistakable aura of a predator hung about him. — This is a work of fiction; • (polished)- refined;cultured; • (refined)- (used of persons and their behavior) cultivated and genteel; She was delicate and refined and unused to hardship"; "refined people with refined taste; • (genteel)- belonging or suited to polite society, (d o  *; +d s); He was elegant and genteel, at any rate, that everybody would be bound to allow. — A Hungarian Nabob; • (cultivated)- educated; polished; refined; The Breunings were in good circumstances, cultivated, good-natured and hospitable. — Beethoven A Character Study; • (cultured)- educated, polished, and refined; cultivated; She was beautiful and cultured, of liberal views and great oratorical powers. — The Life and Work of Susan B Anthony 01; • (svelte)- slender or graceful in figure or outline; slim; She was a svelte, quite lovely, dark-haired, dark-eyed woman of about Tiffany's age. — Dance Of Desire; • (suave)- smoothly agreeable and courteous; The suave, elegantly dressed Van Buren was politely applauded as the new Chief to whom respect was due. — The Reign of Andrew Jackson; • (elegant)- characterized by or exhibiting refined, tasteful beauty of manner, form, or style; His house was most elegant, and full of magnificent Chinese and Japanese furniture. — Alfred Russel Wallace Letters and Reminiscences; refined # crass ~ crude • (refined)- so crude and unrefined as to be lacking in discrimination and sensibility; It was full of crass, ribald wit and senseless rodomantade. — The Life and Works of Friedrich Schiller; • (crude)- in a raw or unprepared state; unrefined or natural, (a ., a ); This community was new and crude, and its inhabitants were for the greater part persons of little education and few aspirations. — Madeleine An Autobiography; • lacking finish, polish, or completeness, (a'p, tr2 3 ); cultured # philistine ~ yokel : ignoble • (philistine)- a person who is lacking in or hostile or smugly indifferent to cultural values, intellectual pursuits, aesthetic refinement, etc., or is contentedly commonplace in ideas and tastes, (#s% я a ' 4); The peculiar characteristic of the philistine is a dull, dry kind of gravity, akin to that of animals. — The Essays of Arthur Schopenhauer: the Wisdom of Life; • (yokel)- a rustic; a country bumpkin, (. g' ' 4 & ); The auctioneer spoke the question directly to this country yokel, while he winked at the crowd in front of him. — Stories of the Prophets (Before the Exile); • (ignoble)- of low character, aims, etc.; mean; base, ( 5; я6 ; 7; *jя ); While all hypocrisy and truckling to the majority opinion is ignoble, the blunt announcement of disbelief may do much more harm than good. — Problems of Conduct; suavity : gentility ~ elegance : panache = style • (suavity)- urbanity; polish, (sg; ;'.  & ); Her taste, steadiness, suavity, and solid knowledge suited a style very difficult for a southern singer to acquire. — Great Singers, First Series Faustina Bordoni To Henrietta Sontag; • (gentility)- those of gentle birth; refinement, (d;  *); He had a great respect for my gentility, and learning; and was always afraid of being too familiar. — The Adventures of Hugh Trevor; • (elegance)- refinement, grace, and beauty in movement, appearance, or manners; • scientific exactness and precision; But he lacks neither intelligence nor elegance, and if he sometimes goes too fast he never overemphasizes slowness. — Musical Memories; • (panache)- a grand or flamboyant manner; verve; style; flair, ( <i  ); It lacks style, panache, any decent photography, the frames have no depth, everything is either underlit or over-filtered — CommanderBond.net; quality : elite : haut monde : intelligentsia • (elite)- a group or class of persons or a member of such a group or class, enjoying superior intellectual, social, or economic status; We have created an elite within Vatican; only the elite are aware of the knowledge we have gained. — Project Pope; • (haut monde)- high society; • (stoic)-intellectuals considered as a group or class, esp. as a cultural, social, or political elite, ('я +7 a# dя  & e # gr  4 s. 5n kmn *   5 ; dя  & -mp); If he wanted the company of an educated woman, or a clever one, he had any number of open invitations to the salons of the intelligentsia. — The Serpent's Shadow; graceless = gauche <> louche • (graceless)- without any sense of right or propriety, (a  , 7FF .  3 ); The graceless action of a heavy hand,â and a li2le later the thought of the crime brings even this tough adventurer to weakness: — The Man Shakespeare; • (gauche)- lacking social grace, sensitivity, or acuteness; awkward; crude; tactless, ('я ap; ;<!); He is gauche, affected, somewhat ridiculous, distrusted by the Republicans, and scoffed at by the Royalists. — The Memoirs of Victor Hugo; • (louche)- of questionable taste or morality; decadent; There's something louche regarding him. — The History of Pendennis; solecism = faux pas = gaffe = gaucherie : bloomer = pratfall = bungle = blunder {blurt = ejaculate} • (solecism)- a breach of good manners or etiquette, (4 aHd  ,  !5  n + я, ad, aJя ); In nature their existence is a solecism, as their genius is a paradox; for their crimes seem to be without guilt, their curses have kindness in them, and if they afflict mankind it is in sorrow — Literary Character of Men of Genius Drawn from Their Own Feelings and Confessions; • (faux pas)- a slip or blunder in etiquette, manners, or conduct; an embarrassing social blunder or indiscretion; • (gaffe)- a social blunder; faux pas, (p', K / a '  uk, 3* k, K ); Republicans insist that this latest purported gaffe is a complete fabrication; • (gaucherie)- lack of social grace, sensitivity, or acuteness; awkwardness; crudeness; tactlessness, (;<! ;5 , ;<! я, , 5* i ); I should then be certain that she extenuated my gaucherie at her party, whether I got speech with her or no. — She and I, Volume 1; • (bloomer)- Slang a blunder, (' t &*); • a person who attains full maturity and competence; • (pratfall)- a humiliating error, failure, or defeat; Calvin almost made him slip and take a pratfall, just to pierce that dignity. — Alvin Journeyman; • (bungle)- to do clumsily and awkwardly; botch, ((+ я) ; < '  ; P/ P&*  ); Every business bungle, any global economic blunder, prompts the same cry; • (blurt)- to utter suddenly or inadvertently; divulge impulsively or unadvisedly, (+  ' KQ + gp  4 * +R*); She hadn't meant to shout, of course, but Catherine's blurted-out remark did surprise a near scream out of her. — Garwood, Julie - Castles; • (ejaculate)- to utter suddenly and passionately; exclaim; • to eject or discharge abruptly, especially to discharge (semen) in orgasm;  impropriety : malapropism : spoonerism • (impropriety)- the quality or condition of being improper; incorrectness, (a J5 ; a7k& ; a 7k & & ); I am sure that you could not be guilty of any impropriety, and I will not allow you to be accused of it, if it is to be prevented. " — Valerie; • (malapropism)- an act or habit of misusing words ridiculously, esp. by the confusion of words that are similar in sound, ( b   a  ); Because, they know that their scientific malapropisms will not stand scrutiny; • (spoonerism)- the transposition of initial or other sounds of words, usually by accident, as in a blushing crow for a crushing blow, (p m U Vn   R* ! % b 7 well-oiled bicycle-e s*well-boiled icicle); "Ligers and Tigons" may sound like a classic spoonerism, but these animals actually exist; rural = rustic = pastoral = bucolic = idyll {eclogue ~ madrigal} : pristine • (rural)- of, relating to, or characteristic of the country; Their subjects are always rural, naive, and full of rustic pathos and rustic drollery. — Jasmin: Barber, Poet, Philanthropist; • (rustic)- of, pertaining to, or living in the country, as distinguished from % towns or cities; rural, (g', ., t'  , a2); I am annoyed that you should dream of wishing to marry a simple rustic, the daughter of my lodge keeper. — Dora Thorne; • (pastoral)- having the simplicity, charm, serenity, or other characteristics generally attributed to rural areas, (+'4* o lя  4); The chief poem of the work was to be a pastoral, in twelve cantos, descriptive of the aspects of the months and seasons, tinder the title, 'The Shepherd's Calendar.' — The Life of John Clare; • (bucolic)- of, pertaining to, or suggesting an idyllic rural life, ( Z*, g', H*  4); The place was distinctly bucolic, and as such opposed instinctively to larger mills, big millmen, lumber, lumbermen and all pertaining thereunto. — The Rules of the Game; • (idyll)- a poem or prose composition, usually describing pastoral scenes or events or any charmingly simple episode, appealing incident, or the like, (  4 g' я  + я *  %  62  [n d #kp  , l5t); The chief thing that is impressed on my memory was a curious and pathetic little idyll which is thus recorded in my Diary. — The Adventure of Living; • (eclogue)- a pastoral poem, often in dialogue form; The two books are both made up of two volumes, with a prologue, an epilogue, and an "eclogue" in between each volume; • (madrigal)- pastoral song, (7nt]  '  ^]); Voices in a madrigal could be manipulated in such way the singer appeared to be crying, laughing or yelling in anger etc; • (pristine)- of or pertaining to the earliest period or state; primitive, (;'; ;; at' % ); The government of Bhutan would like to keep Bhutan pristine, and therefore tourism is highly regulated; • having its original purity; uncorrupted or unsullied; bourgeois = materialistic : plebeian = demotic • (bourgeois)- a member of the middle class; • a person whose political, economic, and social opinions are believed to be determined mainly by concern for property values and conventional respectability, ( st 'd % o 'я '7  uQ k; sF5 ; '2 ' k); The growing competition among the bourgeois, and the resulting commercial crises, make the wages of the workers ever more fluctuating; • (materialistic)- pertaining to, of the nature of, or characterized by materialism, in any sense of that word; I realised that what I should now call the materialistic hypothesis would not help me to a solution. — The Adventure of Living; • (plebeian)- belonging or pertaining to the common people, ('я  ma&k ' 4 & ); I was so shabby and plebeian, then, that people actually dare offer me money! — Alton Locke, Tailor And Poet; • (demotic)- of or relating to the common people; popular; These papers were in two languages-Greek and demotic, or the popular language of the Egyptians. — The American Journal of Archaeology, 1893-1; proletarian = working-class = prole = blue collar • (proletarian)- (in ancient Rome) belonging to the lowest or poorest class of the people, (  ); He was a proletarian, according to his own aggressive classification, and he had wanted to write for a living. — Burning Daylight; • (prole)- a proletarian; I'm at the Road, ready to serve my prole masters but looking in the wrong direction. — Destiny's Road; • (blue collar)- of or pertaining to wage-earning workers who wear work clothes or other specialized clothing on the job; mendicant = beggar = friar = panhandler = cadger • (mendicant)- begging; practicing begging; living on alms, (k & , k , Z *& ); In that country the preachers are not like our mendicant orders of friars -- they have two or three suits of clothing, and they wash sometimes. — The Innocents Abroad; • (friar)- a member of a usually mendicant Roman Catholic order; In the first scene of the third act the Duke as a friar speaks to the condemned Claudio. — The Man Shakespeare; • (panhandler)- a street beggar; The panhandler sitting on the courthouse steps was a familiar sight. — The Witness; • (cadger)- a person who gets a living by begging; Her means of living were derived from the employment of child-cadger to the Foundling Hospital of Dublin. — Valentine M'Clutchy; metropolis : municipality : downtown • (metropolis)- any large, busy city, (+ + p.  , '  , я. ); All the most distinguished men of the metropolis were there. — Napoleon Bonaparte; • (municipality)- a political unit, such as a city, town, or village, incorporated for local self-government; It was decided in consequence by a deliberation of the municipality, that the magistrates should provide for the repairs. — The Life and Legends of Saint Francis of Assisi; • (downtown)- to or in the main business section of a city, (   m e*, - я +nds*); The traffic was starting to open up as we passed by downtown, the spires of the financial district disappearing in the upper mist of the storm. — The Narrows; outskirts = fringes ~ suburbs : hinterlands^ hindmost • (outskirts)- the part or region remote from a central district, as of a city or town; They were nearing the outskirt fields of cultivation. — The Island Pharisees; • (fringes)- a marginal, peripheral, or secondary part; Mostly cedars and mesquites on the fringes, a lone cypress waited nearest the water. — The Man From High Mountain; • (subrubs)- a usually residential area or community outlying a city; Every householder had from five to ten acres in the suburbs, and one and a half close at home; and the people seemed happy. — The Life of Sir Richard Burton; • (hinterlands)- back country; Many of these prominent activists have been transferred to isolated prisons in Burma's hinterlands, far from family and friends; • (hindmost)- furtherest behind or nearest the rear; last, ( 5 [ ; ct'); Suddenly a shriek broke from those who stood hindmost, and in strode the witch, with serpents round her neck and arms and hair. — The Olive Fairy Book; territory : enclave • (territory)- an area of land; a region; You are therefore expelled from these territories, and will embark on the next ship to leave this harbour. — Sharpe's Devil; • (enclave)- a country, or esp., an outlying portion of a country, entirely or mostly surrounded by the territory of another country, (a  '. s e2 + ae*); The Vatican is an independent enclave in Italy; I enjoy some privileges, by reason of being called on to attend sick people outside the enclave, and also by virtue of having a godson to visit. — The Raven In The Foregate; abode = domicile = dwelling = habitation ~ residence ~ lodging^ dislodge : accommodate • (abode)- a place in which a person resides; residence; dwelling; habitation; home, ( s , <, ; ); The castle which overlooked the island was built for his abode, and here the legend is prudently silent. — A Residence in France; • (domicile)- a place of residence; abode; house or home, ( , s ); This domicile is in the shape of a pyramid on a three foot wall, about sixteen feet on a side, the whole supported by a solid post held by an iron tripod. — At Plattsburg; • (dwelling)- a building or place of shelter to live in; place of residence; abode; home; The face of the dwelling is as cheerful as are the sun, river, mountains and meads, that it looks down upon from its slight elevation. — Gladys, the Reaper; • (habitation)- a place of residence; dwelling; abode, ( s ); Were I to describe all the places I visited in search of a habitation, my list would be interminable. — The Quest of the Simple Life; • (residence)- the place in which one lives; a dwelling; "The amount of luggage being stored inside of the residence was almost surreal," Officer Kendall Goo wrote in a court document; • (lodging)- accommodation in a house, esp. in rooms for rent, (< % k); His Majesty alighted at the chateau, where his lodging was prepared, and the officers of his household had preceded him. — Recollections of the private life of Napoleon; • % (dislodge)- to remove or force out of a particular place, ( s  a. s +F uQZ  ,   +o); Flushing is done to dislodge naturally occurring sediment from within pipe walls; abode <> adobe • (adobe)- a sun-dried, unburned brick of clay and straw; The houses of the ancient town are made of adobe, one story high, and the streets are unpaved, narrow, crooked and ill looking. — The Life of Kit Carson;  hovel = hutch = shack = shanty • (hovel)- a small, very humble dwelling house; a wretched hut, (я 2 & ); The soil and the hovel were his, descended to him from his forbears! — The Story of Russia; • (hutch)- a pen or coop for small animals, especially rabbits, (Z  Zf5); The wire had been well repaired, and overnight the hutch was always fastened by a hook. — F ;SF; - vol 092 issue 05 - May 1997; • (shack)- a small, crudely built cabin; a shanty, (5*6 ); • (shanty)- roughly built, often ramshackle cabin; a shack, (g< & ; f& <6 ); The frame for such a shanty is a cross-pole resting on two crotches about six feet high and enough straight poles to make a foundation for the thatch. — Woodcraft;  asylum = refuge = recourse = sanctuary ~ haven {harbor} • (asylum)- an inviolable refuge, as formerly for criminals and debtors; sanctuary, (;a,  t); I was put into the asylum, and afterwards was sent to sea before the mast. — The Phantom Ship; • (refuge)- a place providing protection or shelter; That will be my refuge, and perhaps even my only habitation. — The George Sand-Gustave Flaubert Letters; • (recourse)- access or resort to a person or thing for help or protection, (7 5o; ;a g  a *m  ); I hope that the dispute can be settled through other means, but legal recourse will be the last resort; • (sanctuary)- a sacred or holy place, ( s 3 ); That hour in the sanctuary was the most emotionally exhausting hour I've spent in recent months. — Snickollet; • (haven)- any place of shelter and safety; refuge; asylum, (+a; ;a   a's*); I was born and raised in this community and I don't want to see this community becoming known as a haven for hookers and johns; • (harbor)- any place of shelter or refuge; At the harbor are abandoned docks and fishing sheds where ghosts drift through fog-ridden afternoons. — F ;SF - vol 099 issue 03 - September 2000; denizen = inhabitant = dweller ~ citizen • (denizen)- an inhabitant; resident, (+   3 lZ ae* i  s яn    e' k, p  ud; s; я); The lioness had claimed him as a denizen of the forest; and, would he yield to her, she no doubt would be very tender to him. — An Eye for an Eye; • (inhabitant)- one that inhabits a place, especially as a permanent resident; Next to her father she was the oldest inhabitant, and she had a prestige which was given to no one else. — Northern Lights, Volume 4.; • (dweller)- an inhabitant; • (citizen)- a person owing loyalty to and entitled by birth or naturalization to the protection of a state or nation; The accused explained that the citizen was his first witness. — A Tale of Two Cities; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.2 Apparel and Behavior attire, anadem, demeanor costume = attire = raiment = cloth {clothe = adorn} = array > disarray • (costume)- the attire worn in a play or at a fancy dress ball; • (attire)- clothing of a distinctive style or for a particular occasion; • clothing; apparel; attire, (  c ; я); He was given fine raiment, a splendid black horse upon which to ride, and a great bag full of money. — Tales of Giants from Brazil; • (clothe)- provide with clothes or put clothes on; • (adorned)- to decorate or add beauty to, as by ornaments, (я, a  ); Her attendants were fitly adorned, and the knights went in. — The Fall of the Niebelungs; • (array)- to place in proper or desired order; marshal, (d  я s  ); The trappers were newly fitted out and arrayed, and dashed about with their horses caparisoned in Indian style. — The Adventures of Captain Bonneville; • to clothe with garments, esp. of an ornamental kind; dress up; deck out,(jя    !o#); She was royally arrayed, her face was pale and cold, but her great eyes glowed in it. — The World's Desire; •  (disarray)- disorder; confusion, ($ ; %); The enraged mob swept up the slope in chaotic disarray, united only in its fury. — The Kinslayer Wars; décolleté <> decollate = decapitate • (décolleté)- (of a garment) low-necked; having a low-cut neckline, (ksn  ); The armour covers the entire uppermost parts of the body including the nose, mouth, neck and décolleté; • (decollate)- cut the head of; You can also introduce preying mantids (via their eggs), and decollate snails are predators of other snails; • (decapitate)- cut the head of; The order was to decapitate the victims, and bring their heads in sacks to Cairo to be exhibited to the people. — The Memoirs of Napoleon; embroider {embellish = aggrandize} • (embroider)- to decorate with ornamental needlework,(  ); She tried to embroider, as she sat alone and waited for something to happen, but her nerveless fingers would not hold the needle. — Mary Louise Solves a Mystery; • (embellish)- to beautify by or as if by ornamentation; ornament; adorn, (n   , a  , * ); He exaggerated, embellished, and dramatised the story which he had related to his wife. — The Fortune of the Rougons; • (aggrandize)- to make great or greater in power, wealth, rank, or honor, (k, , , t o grt d  , ); An usurper may be popular, if his genius has saved or aggrandized the nation which he governs. — Critical and Historical Essays, Volume III (of 3); plait = braid = tress {make by interlacing} • (plait)- braid; intertwine, ((*, 1 i )    ); His hair was freshly plaited, and his skin had been rubbed with fragrant oil. — Robin Hobb; • (braid)- make by braiding or interlacing; • (tress)- a hairdo formed by braiding or twisting the hair brooch <> broach • (brooch)- a clasp or ornament having a pin at the back for passing through the clothing and a catch for securing the point of the pin, (#  34   5   я rя   e p ); Her bodice is gathered together by a brooch, and she has another brooch on one shoulder. — The Old Masters and Their Pictures For the Use of Schools and Learners in Art; • (broach)- to mention or suggest for the first time, (3* я  8# us    3* ;r  ); • Machinery. an elongated, tapered, serrated cutting tool for shaping and enlarging holes, (<=-?;     ; 4 t   Ad   5  nt8); anadem^ diadem : tiara : coronet : headband : halo {aura} : fillet : coiffure • (anadem)- a garland or fillet; a chaplet or wreath; • (diadem)- a crown; a cloth headband, sometimes adorned with jewels, formerly worn by Oriental kings, (4  ); • (tiara)- a jeweled headdress worn by women on formal occasions; • (coronet)- a small crown; usually indicates a high rank but below that of sovereign; • (headband)- a band worn around or over the head; • (halo, aura)- an indication of radiant light drawn around the head of a saint; • a circle of light around the sun or moon; • (fillet)- a narrow headband or strip of ribbon worn as a headband; • (coiffure)- a style of arranging or combing the hair, ();Her blond hair was drawn high up in an eighteenth century coiffure, and her high pale face looked like a cameo or an old coin. — Celibates; demeanor = behavior = deportment • (demeanor)- conduct; behavior; deportment, (3* -3* D; **); The General was much impressed by her modest demeanor, and surprised to see the refinement and beauty she possessed. — Iola Leroy Shadows Uplifted; • (deportment)- (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people; He was grave and dignified in his deportment, and polished and courteous in every action. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; frigid {arctic = frozen = glacial} • (frigid)- without warmth of feeling; without ardor or enthusiasm, (?E, F,  %, pD); The night was rapidly turning frigid, and the few people who hurried past were bent on their destinations. — Muller, Marcia - [20] - While Other People Sleep; • (arctic)- extremely cold; • (glacial)- of or pertaining to glaciers or ice sheets; • bitterly cold; icy, (!; rt); His tone was glacial, his expression remote, his eyes the color of flint; chilly : warm : affable = amiable = cordial = genial • (chilly)- appreciably or disagreeably cold; • (affable)- pleasantly easy to approach and to talk to; friendly; cordial; warmly polite, (H* F o nIn, a#); His manners were most affable, and he spoke with so much politeness as to win all hearts. — Court Memoirs of France Series — Complete; • (amiable)- having or showing pleasant, good-natured personal qualities; affable, (1яя,  #, m o L! ,D,M ); His sense of gratitude had kept him unusually amiable, and when a sullen fit took him his lieutenant Trevarthen had served for an admirable buffer. — Two Sides of the Face Midwinter Tales; • (cordial)- courteous and gracious; friendly; warm, (3n , ! ,, uO, h #); He was most cordial, and he made many enquiries about Lord Kitchener for whom he expressed the highest regard. — Experiences of a Dug- out, 1914-1918; • (geniality)- warmly and pleasantly cheerful; cordial,( #; !IM  F); For all his geniality, there seemed something false in the commandant's manner. — dummyblind; propriety : protocol • (propriety)- appropriateness to the purpose or circumstances; suitability, (Lk; Q%; QQ,; uk  ); It is often said that these principles might have been uttered by Washington with equal propriety--as good Federalist doctrine. — Union and Democracy; • (protocol)- the customs and regulations dealing with diplomatic formality, precedence, and etiquette, (#5; Lя5); The signing of the protocol is the first step to obtaining full export approval; decorum : seemly = comely = becoming • (decorum)- dignified propriety of behavior, speech, dress, etc., (H; I); Morella's decorum, her absence of all daring thought in conversation, pleased her so. — Beyond The Rocks A Love Story; • (seemly)- fitting or becoming with respect to propriety or good taste; decent; decorous, (I, Q*, QQ); But she knew when silence was seemly, and always restrained her discourse within the limits of discretion. — Isaac T. Hopper; • (comely)- pleasing in appearance; attractive; fair, ((k mn)  , n  ); She looks youthful and comely, and is very gentle and lady-like. — Passages from the English Notebook; • ant. homely (not good-looking, unattractive) • (becoming)- according with custom or propriety; mores : accost : greet : salute • (mores)- folkways of central importance accepted without question and embodying the fundamental moral views of a group, (я FF; * ); We recognize each country enacts its own laws in accordance with its own local norms and mores, and we must comply with applicable laws; • (accosted)- to confront boldly; • to approach, esp. with a greeting, question, or remark, (8 ps a * S %#  3  ); She is accosted, and invited to enter, by a polite and voluble individual at the door. — The Works of Edgar Allan Poe — Volume 4; affront = insult = abuse > disabuse • (affront)- to offend by an open manifestation of disrespect or insolence, (udpD I a  ); Offering tobacco without accepting or understanding the impact of her actions is an affront, an insult, to the Creator, her Nation and her family; • (abuse)- treat badly; • (disabuse)- to free (a person) from deception or error, (Un 5 D Q k   ; u ? 5 D# s  ); You haven't done anything to disabuse me of that notion. — Dvorak Uncensored;  confront = face = encounter = address • (confrontation)- discord or a clash of opinions and ideas; Despite the thin edge of the moment on which the confrontation was balanced, Eric managed a slight smile. — The I Inside; • (encounter)- contend against an opponent in a sport, game, or battle; • come upon, as if by accident; meet with; @ neat & trim (see page 322) Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.3 Profession 2.3.1 Professionals* profession = career = vocation^ vocational^ avocation = hobby = by-line • (vocation)- a regular occupation, especially one for which a person is particularly suited or qualified; He decided, upon leaving Princeton, to adopt medicine as his vocation, and began his studies in Philadelphia. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; • (vocational)- of or relating to a vocation or vocations; The period from twelve to seventeen embraced vocational training. — My Disillusionment in Russia; • (avocation)- something a person does in addition to a principal occupation, esp. for pleasure; hobby, (я   t  , ,  ); The incongruity of Finucane's avocation, and his manners and appearance amused his new friend Pen. — The History of Pendennis; • (by-line)- an auxiliary activity; They've probably been publishing under your by-line since we left. — Passage at Arms; actuary > actuarial • (actuary)- a statistician who computes insurance risks and premiums; He was a statistician, studying to be an actuary in his insurance company. — Hot Money; • (actuarial)- a person who computes premium rates, dividends, risks, etc., according to probabilities based on statistical records, (   ,  ); For too long, important actuarial analysis has not been effectively shared across the organization or used to fuel daily business decision-making; tanner • a person whose occupation it is to tan hides, (     я я ); The tanner was a disgruntled man; he believed himself entitled to be a Nineteener, but he couldn't get recognition. — The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg and Other Stories; barterer • (stoic)-to trade by exchange of commodities rather than by the use of money, (  ); The barterer and the murderer; let others follow where they lead. — My Lady of the Chinese Courtyard; sculptor : quarry <> query • (sculptor)- one who produces sculptural artwork; • (quarry)- an open excavation or pit from which stone is obtained by digging, cutting, or blasting; All the bottom of the quarry was a maze of rusted rails. — 051 - Mad Eyes; • victim; object of a hunt, (  kst  p"  #); By the time they started in pursuit, their quarry was already passing through the operations office door. — 026 - The Spook Legion; • dig into, (  ud ); To his unaccustomed mind their quarry was almost witless and exceedingly dirty. — The Window-Gazer; * The words in this section are less interrelated with each other, but falls under the same category. So, instead of using the symbol ‘:’ and creating a long word chain, we decided to mark this section specially. • (query)- a question; an inquiry, (p&; яj)); Thus rejecting results reached by the ballot as now in practical use, a query is already in the minds of those who listen. — 'Tis Sixty Years Since; suitor • Law. a petitioner or plaintiff, (    ); • a man who courts or woos a woman,(( я) "p , p ); barrister • (in England) a lawyer who is a member of one of the Inns of Court and who has the privilege of pleading in the higher courts, ((i+n) uc  a   )pp iя); He practised as barrister, and served the office of mayor in 1637, at Congleton, of which he afterwards became high steward. — Rides on Railways; suffragist • an advocate of the grant or extension of political suffrage, esp. to women; The woman suffragist is merely bluffing. — The Unexpurgated Case Against Woman Suffrage; testator • a person who makes a will; It appeared that the testator was sick in bed when he signed the instrument. — By The Sea 1887; protagonist • the leader or principal person in a movement, cause, etc; • a proponent for or advocate of a political cause, social program, etc; • the leading character, hero, or heroine of a drama or other literary work, (0  p1 k, #t 4 ); In this book the protagonist is the boy's father, a pharmaceutical manufacturer who takes the inexcusable step of making his son a laboratory animal. — Ben Bova; apologist = vindicator • (apologist)-a person who makes a defense in speech or writing of a belief, idea, etc, (tk)   ); Josephus was essentially an apologist, and his writings include not only an apology for his people, but an apology for his own life. — Josephus; • (vindicator)- one who vindicates; one who justifies, maintains, or defends; She is the champion and vindicator only of her own. — Chris Floyd - Empire Burlesque; defeatist : rout • (defeatist)- a person who surrenders easily or is subject to defeatism, (я n); The defeatist attitude shown in the face of the nationwide report is not good; • (rout)- to disperse in defeat and disorderly flight; • a defeat attended with disorderly flight; dispersal of a defeated force in complete disorder, ( я  7t89  :)"); The reinforcements were able to rout the enemy; inquisitor • a questioner, esp. an unduly curious or harsh one, (a)n 4 ; n ); The officers of the army hated to do police service, and my inquisitor was no doubt glad not to pass me into the custody of the police. — The Autobiography of a Journalist, Volume I; cartographer • map-maker, ( t ); French cartographer, a large and elaborately executed map of the world, which has been reproduced by M. Jomard, in his M.numents of — The Voyage of Verrazzano A Chapter in the Early History of Maritime Discovery in America; choreographer • the designer or arranger of a ballet; She is well known as a choreographer for stage, film, and television, having won many awards for her work; curator • the person in charge of a museum, art collection, etc, (=d?-k ); The museum curator was an enthusiastic naturalist, and Huxley must have had the opportunity of extending his knowledge of at least the external characters of many forms of life hitherto unknown to him. — Thomas Henry Huxley A Sketch Of His Life And Work; factotum : sinecure • (factotum)- a person, as a handyman or servant, employed to do all kinds of work around the house; He is the factotum, always in demand, always expected to do the thousand indispensable things that nobody else will do. — McGuffey's Fifth Eclectic Reader; • (sinecure)- an office or position requiring little or no work, esp. one yielding profitable returns, ( =  я =   )m 7  nt я  t i); Ripton's lieutenancy became a sinecure, his rank merely titular. — Complete Project Gutenberg Works of George Meredith; peon = drudge > drudgery = donkeywork • (peon)- landless agricultural worker, bond servant; He had been a peon, and that made him respect our opinions--at least he avoided differing with us. — The Log of a Cowboy A Narrative of the Old Trail Days; • (drudge)- a person who does tedious, menial, or unpleasant work; She had once been his idol, she was now a household drudge, and the imaginative homage which had been once hers was given to another. — The Life of Froude; • (drudgery)- menial, distasteful, dull, or hard work; With all its sham, drudgery, and broken dreams, it is still a beautiful world. — the paris apartment; • (donkeywork)- Slang hard physical labor; functionary : tenure • (functionary)- a person who functions in a specified capacity, esp. in government service; an official, ( 8pp  1D k, k, E); This evidently pleased the high functionary, and he condescended to engage John Clare on the spot. — The Life of John Clare; • (tenure)- the holding or possessing of anything, ( 8E#  k  ); He acknowledges his tenure has been a "stormy" one, marked by high-profile problems; fancier • a person who breeds animals, plants, etc., esp. in order to improve the strain, (   d p" i  )m  j e+   "  aE 4 I k); In wandering through the garden Goldsmith recollected that his uncle Contarine was a tulip fancier. — Oliver Goldsmith; lexicographer • compiler of a dictionary, (a81    )J ); Jesting at himself he defined 'lexicographer' as 'a writer of dictionaries, a harmless drudge.' — A History of English Literature; etymologist • a specialist in etymology or word roots; However, an English etymologist is at best a specialist in Indo-European linguistics, and more often only in Germanic; philatelist • the collecting of stamps and other postal matter as a hobby or an investment, (K 0 0 )+g ); The philatelist is found in every civilized country, and the collection of postage stamps, used and unused, grows apace; pugilist • a person who fights with the fists; a boxer, usually a professional, ( I=d 4 ); He set himself square like a pugilist, which was his notion of resistance. — Phoebe, Junior; tailor = seamster : sartorial • (tailor)- one that makes, repairs, and alters garments such as suits, coats, and dresses; It tells of a mother who wants her daughter to marry a tailor, and not wait for her sailor bold. — Charles Dickens and Music; • (seamster)- a tailor; My wife is a seamster, my auntie a cook I do janitor work or comon labor. — The Journal of Negro History, Volume 4, 1919; • (sartorial)- of or pertaining to tailors or their trade, (  pst  ); Some of us have failed to point out the Emperor's lack of clothes, whilst others have been busy praising his sartorial elegance; sentinel = sentry • (sentry, sentinel)- a person or thing that watches or stands as if watching, (p); In a few moments the sentry was alone in the trench. — Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. 150, February 23, 1916; vintner • a person who makes wine or sells wines, ( )); From the corner of his eye he observed that the vintner was studying him. — The Goose Girl; fisher : piscatorial • (fisher)- one that fishes, as a person or ship engaged in fishing; • (piscatorial)- of or pertaining to fishermen or fishing, ( 71 )+kn); His piscatorial aspirations extended beyond the grave. — Camps, Quarters, and Casual Places; numismatist • (numismatist)- person who collects coins, ( d 4 o  j); For gold coins and bars, ask an accredited gold appraiser or numismatist; calligrapher : orthography : cursive = longhand : hieroglyphic • (calligrapher)- one skilled in calligraphy; • (orthography)- the art of writing words with the proper letters, according to accepted usage; correct spelling, (Od  p ); Our ancestors were not particular in orthography, and often spelt according to the ear. " — Notes and Queries, Number 72, March 15, 1851 A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men; • (cursive)- (of handwriting) in flowing strokes with the letters joined together, ( E0 E0   # I); In normal writing we run our letters together in cursive form, in printing, we separate the letters; • (longhand)-cursive writing; The longhand manuscript, written by him in longhand, from which the typist had worked, was also there in his room. — Murder By The Book; • (hieroglyphic)- designating or pertaining to a pictographic script, particularly that of the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are conventionalized, recognizable pictures of the things represented; The pictorial hieroglyphic is the simple picture of the thing signified. — The International Magazine, Volume 2, No. 3, February, 1851; taxonomist • specialist in classifying (animals etc.), ( P" "  =); The role of the taxonomist was to discover the fundamental design of the creator, not to compile a mere card index of organisms — Jennifer Marohasy; orator • a person who delivers an oration; a public speaker, esp. one of great eloquence, ()k 4 ); The third kind of orator is the sublime, copious, dignified, ornate speaker, in whom there is the greatest amount of grace. — The Orations of Marcus Tullius Cicero, Volume 4; ventriloquist • someone who can make his or her voice seem to come from another person or thing,(  Q); I tell you he's a ventriloquist, and a mighty clever one too. — Camp and Trail A Story of the Maine Woods; mercenary^ mercantile • (mercenary)- working or acting merely for money or other reward; venal, (  a o a1 s 4 я я  e ); I am known as a mercenary woman, and until we marry and give up the money, everybody will think scornfully of me. — Red Money; • (mercantile)- of or pertaining to merchants or trade; commercial, ()"я  " )+kn); Manufacturing, mercantile, and banking companies have all tended to combine in large corporations, partly for greater economy, partly for an increase of profits through manipulating reorganization of stock companies, and partly for centralization of control; hireling = pensionary • (hireling)- a person who works only for pay, esp. in a menial or boring job, with little or no concern for the value of the work, (8S E ); He was a mere hireling, and was, without much difficulty, induced by Taaffe to turn approver. — The History of England, from the Accession of James II — Volume 4; • (pensionary)- mercenary; venal;  contrabandist • one who traffics illegally; a smuggler, (   ); The rude native, the contrabandist who mocked at laws seemed stupefied by the news. — The Dead Command From the Spanish Los Muertos Mandan;  shyster • a lawyer who uses unprofessional or questionable methods, ( E =  i e  k,  e я  я u ); First, the shyster lawyer, without principle or mercy, then his brutal clerks, sly and grafting; buccaneer = pirate = corsair • (buccaneer)- any of the piratical adventurers who raided Spanish colonies and ships along the American coast in the second half of the 17th century, (я)4; m0;  a8=t); He was no longer a pirate or buccaneer, but an admiral leading a national enterprise. — On the Spanish Main Or, Some English forays on the Isthmus of Darien; • (pirate)- a person who robs or commits illegal violence at sea or on the shores of the sea; • (corsair)- a pirate, esp. formerly of the Barbary Coast; Having recovered, he again put to sea, but was captured by a corsair and carried to France. — The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus;  vagrant = vagabond = nomad = wanderer > wander = ramble = meander = roam = stray = swan • (vagrant)- wandering or roaming from place to place; nomadic, (==, 7n7S, 7n  V , e ); The old woman became a wanderer and a vagrant, and was at length passed to her native parish, where she has since dwelt. — Eugene Aram — Complete; • (vagabond)- wandering from place to place without any settled home; nomadic, (8? 4 , uW4); He was a fine specimen of the vagabond, as I conceive him. — Dreamthorp A Book of Essays Written in the Country; • (nomad)- a member of a group of people who have no fixed home and move according to the seasons from place to place in search of food, water, and grazing land,(==); As the titles indicate, the life in the earlier story was stationary: in the latter it is nomadic--the characters are artistes in a travelling show. — Adventures in Criticism; • (wanderer)- one who or that which wanders; He was much of a wanderer, partly from the natural desire of restless youth to see the world, and partly because his health was weak. — Burke; • (wander)- to move about without a definite destination or purpose; Certain of the stars, which appeared to wander, and were hence called planets, provided an extended field for these speculations. — Kepler; • (ramble)- to wander around in a leisurely, aimless manner, (i s Y " ,  En 7S Z0  ? 4 S); Sometimes they rambled or rested on the sunny slopes in groups, sometimes in couples, and sometimes singly. — The Wild Man of the West A Tale of the Rocky Mountains; • to talk or write in a discursive, aimless way,(a)+g  e      ); He rambled, hesitated, and could not been more diffident and blaze; • (meander)- to proceed by or take a winding or indirect course, (e o ? 4 S); The bear seemed to be very oblivious to the quad rider but then turned and meandered about his way; • to wander aimlessly; ramble,(ud8  ); • (roam)- to move about without purpose or plan; wander; • (stray)- to move away from a group, deviate from the correct course, or go beyond established limits; Somehow, like an old, stray, and starving dog, he wandered to the Brownings 'house. — The Adventure of Living; • (swan)- Chiefly British to travel around from place to place; apothecary • a druggist; a pharmacist, (]1 o  ^)) g pst  o k ); He was subsequently apprenticed to a surgeon and apothecary, and became deeply interested in the study of anatomy. — More Letters of Charles Darwin — Volume 2; gynaecologist • a specialist in gynecology, (1t j); pediatrician # geriatrician = gerontologist • (pediatrician)- a physician who specializes in pediatrics,(OE  ^) ); The pediatrician should be able to advice on which child exactly needs therapeutic intervention; • (geriatrician)- a physician who specializes in geriatrics, (1 я E); • (gerontologist)- a specialist in gerontology, (1   ); obstetrician • physician specializing in delivery of babies, (1t); Visits to the obstetrician, good nutrition and proper vitamins, and all the precautions taken during a normal pregnancy are advisable; podiatrist • a person qualified to diagnose and treat foot disorders; I saw my podiatrist today, and he suggested a particular walking shoe; shrink = psychiatrist^ psyche : mindset = mentality • (shrink)- Slang a psychotherapist; • (psychiatrist)- a physician who practices psychiatry, ( _ ^) ); A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry and is certified in treating mental disorders; • (psyche)- the human soul, spirit, or mind, ( t; ant; ` ; )); That research is no substitute for understanding the human psyche; • (mindset)- a fixed mental attitude or disposition that predetermines a person's responses to and interpretations of situations; Get out of that self- pitying mindset, Bomanz, you old fool. — The White Rose; dermatologist • a specialist in dermatology, esp. a doctor who specializes in the treatment of diseases of the skin, (t -j); Water, air, sunlight, and dermatologist are the real acne solutions; cardiologist • doctor specializing in the ailment of the heart, (hE j); He planned to become a pediatric cardiologist, and had "a masterful ability to relate to children,"; orthopaedist • a specialist in correcting deformities of the skeletal system (especially in children); ophthalmologist = oculist ~ optometrist ~ optician • (ophthalmologist)- a physician who specializes in ophthalmology; In 1884 an Austro-American ophthalmologist, Carl Koller, introduced the use of cocaine as a compound to deaden limited areas, and for operations. — The Human Brain; • (oculist)- physician who specializes in treatment of the eyes, (kE 4 j); She had been to an oculist, who found that the trouble was in her eyes. — Complete Project Gutenberg Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. Works; • (optometrist )- a person who is professionally trained and licensed to examine the eyes for visual defects, diagnose problems or impairments, and prescribe corrective lenses or provide other types of treatment; You may also get recommendation for the optometrist or ophthalmologist who has diagnosed your cataracts; • (optician)- a maker or seller of optical glass and instruments, (  o n  ); In all cases of this disease, therefore, an optician should be consulted, to see if there is any defect in the eyes. — Papers on Health; neurologist • one who is versed in neurology, (s4j); anaesthetist • a person specially trained to administer anesthetics; dentist • a person who is trained and licensed to practice dentistry; osteopath • a physician who practices osteopathy (as o +) " 4 )e d   E  ^)); chiropractor • a therapist who practices chiropractic, (as)n ( rW) " 4 )e d E- ^) j k); chiropodist = podiatrist • one who treats diseases or malformations of the hands or feet; especially, a surgeon for the feet, hands, and nails; a cutter or extractor of corns and callosities; a corn-doctor, (   o  #-)+kn E  ^) ); oncologist • a specialist in oncology (The branch of medicine that deals with tumors, including study of their development, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention); urologist • one who is versed in urology (The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract and urogenital system); ecologist • the branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment, including other organisms, (s); A Stirling University ecologist has been studying the behaviour of bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans; epistemologist • a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge; “The pragmatizing epistemologist posits there a reality and a mind with ideas. — Meaning of Truth; herpetologist • one who studies reptiles. A herpetologist who receives many small doses of snake venom may indeed become tolerant to them; ornithologist • scientific student of birds,(kj); His admiration for the beautiful blue eggs led him to devote his time to ornithology, or the study of birds. — Country Walks of a Naturalist with His Children; pedagogue > pedagogy : tutelage > tutelary : didactic : precept : faculty ~ conservatory : seminary • (pedagogue)- teacher; The steward was with him as a kind of pedagogue, and continued to instruct him during the whole ride. — An Eye for an Eye; • (pedagogy)- teaching, art of education; In an unconvincing defense of our own ignorance we loudly insist that detailed knowledge of any subject is mere pedagogy, a hindrance to clear thinking, a superfluity. — The "Goldfish"; • (tutelage)- the act of guarding, protecting, or guiding; office or function of a guardian; guardianship, (a88 t); They continued to be under French tutelage, and their strongholds in the possession of French troops. — The Life of Napoleon I (Volume 1 of 2); • (tutelary)- having the position of guardian or protector of a person, place, or thing, (  a88 )mn); They devise a sole, tutelary, and all- powerful form of government, but elected by the people. — Democracy in America — Volume 2; • (didactic)- intended for instruction; instructive, (k  V ,   V ); The volume is frankly didactic, and Browning, as becomes a master who would make his lessons easy to children, teaches by parables and pictures. — Robert Browning; • (precept)- an injunction as to moral conduct; maxim, (` u;   ;  ; a)4 ); So train them and so live before them in the home that in after-years they will say with pleasure: "This precept was always taught me by my parents. — The value of a praying mother; • (faculty)- an ability, natural or acquired, for a particular kind of action, (( ) ) k; k  (   74 )); The onus is on the user to apply a critical faculty; • (conservatory)- a school of music or dramatic art; In due course he won the first prize and the gold medal at the conservatory, and was then offered an opportunity to study in Paris, which he declined. — Famous Violinists of To- day and Yesterday; • a greenhouse, especially one in which plants are arranged aesthetically for display, as at a botanical garden; • (seminary)- a special school providing education in theology, religious history, etc., primarily to prepare students for the priesthood, ministry, or rabbinate, (kP ); Some of the youths went soon to the theological seminary, and at once leavened that community with their own spirit The seminary--there was only one in all Protestant America. — A History of American Christianity; mentor = coach ~ counselor = adviser = consultant • (mentor)- a wise and trusted counselor or teache,(j    ); Being a mentor is a chance to live your life and include a child in it; • (coach)- Sports a person who trains or directs athletes or athletic teams; • (counselor)- a person who gives counsel; an adviser; • (consultant)- one who gives expert or professional advice;  academician : bookworm = scholastic = pedant > pedantic = donnish = bookish = studious ~ nerd : intellectual > intellect • (academician)- a member of an art, literary, or scientific academy or society, Palissot, academician of Nancy, known by a few dramatic compositions, had just had one of them performed at Luneville before the King of Poland. — The Confessions of J J Rousseau; • (bookworm)- a person who pays more attention to formal rules and book learning than they merit; • (scholastic)- of or relating to schools; academic; This revival of the prophetic past had nothing scholastic or antiquarian about it. — The Life of Jesus of Nazareth; • (pedant)- one who pays undue attention to book learning and formal rules, ( = k Z4E  o  -a) 4  a n h); The soul of the pedant was at first tugged as if from below, then drawn slowly down, and finally shot off out of sight This is a most extraordinary thing!' — The Path to Rome; • (pedantic)- ostentatious in one's learning, (W 8)8 4 ); The hatred of the pedantic is the characteristic sentiment of the time. — English Literature and Society in the Eighteenth Century; • (donnish)- of, relating to, or held to be characteristic of a university don; bookish or pedantic; He was stiff and donnish, and had scarcely condescended to speak to anyone. — The Three Lieutenants; • (bookish)- fond of books; studious; The courteous kindliness of the words is almost as characteristic as the bookish illustration: — The Man Shakespeare; • (nerd)- Slang a person who is single-minded or accomplished in scientific or technical pursuits but is felt to be socially inept; He was an obnoxious little nerd, but she had him - for the moment anyway. — Pop Goes The Weasel; • (intellectual)- appealing to or engaging the intellect; He proved to be an intellectual, a Tolstoian, the manager of a children's colony. — My Disillusionment in Russia; • (intellect)- capacity for thinking and acquiring knowledge, esp. of a high or complex order; mental capacity, ( 1k o d 4 ; 1k; 1); The greater your visions, the more dazzling your intellect is and thus the greater prestige should be awarded to you. — Gates of Vienna;  pundit = savant ~ erudite • (pundit)- a learned person, expert, or authority, (W ; =   j); The old pundit was a poet. — The Awakening of China; • (savant)- a person of profound or extensive learning; learned scholar, (a n W k; W p); He was a savant, and cared only for science; and thus youth, with its thousand pleasures, would have constantly drawn him from its study. — The Queen's Necklace; • (erudite)- characterized by great knowledge; learned or scholarly, (W " V ); That is an argument that requires volumes of erudite, often inscrutable, prose. — The Irate Nation; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.3.2 Professionalism tyro, adept, paragon entrant = freshman = neophyte = newbie = newcomer = starter : fledgling = callow = unfledged : rookie = greenhorn • (entrant)- a person who enters, (p ); • a competitor in a contest,(p   ); • a new member, as of an association or school,(      ); It was only by chance that Brother Cadfael witnessed the arrival of the new entrant, two days later. — The Devil's Novice; • (freshman)- a student in the first year of the course at a university, college, or high school; As a mere freshman, I looked up to my room-mate with great respect, and treated him accordingly. — James Fenimore Cooper; • a novice; beginner; • (neophyte)- a beginner or novice; • a person newly converted to a belief, as a heathen, heretic, or nonbeliever; proselyte ( ng , s  ); These systems will be available in the market by the end of this month and is a perfect gifting item for a neophyte or an experienced gardener; • (newbie)- a newcomer or novice, esp. an inexperienced user of the Internet or of computers in general; • (newcomer)- one who has only recently arrived; One of the sights shown to the newcomer was a two-story house built before the era of the sawmill. — A Backward Glance at Eighty; • (starter)- one that starts; The father gave him fifty dollars as a starter, with the final word, — Little Journeys To the Homes of the Great; • (fledgling)- a young bird just fledged; • an inexperienced person; Ultimately their efforts would determine the future of the fledgling community. — The Legacy of Heorot; • (callow)- immature or inexperienced, (aя k, a" , a #j); His first major interviews were bumbling and he came across as callow, a little shifty (on the National Guard issue) and sort of dim. — The Strata-Sphere; • (unfledged)- not fledged; without sufficient feathers for flight, as a young bird, (( % &mn)e% u+ &k  e); • immature; callow, (a k, - +, ad k  , a dnk  , ); This is the hasty conclusion of monasteries Hasty Well--unfledged saints fall.... Their growth becomes self-centred. — Fate Knocks at the Door A Novel; • (rookie)- Slang an untrained or inexperienced recruit, as in the army or police; And now that it was time to implement it, he was as nervous as a rookie on his first day in the business. — The Miko; • (greenhorn)- an untrained or inexperienced person; But now, as we are on the right footing, I can tell you that I wintered once in Arkansaw, and that's enough to let you know I'm no greenhorn, no how you can fix it. — Wild Western Scenes; • a naive or gullible person; someone who is easily tricked or swindled, (a #j o &я p    k);  freshman : sophomore : junior : senior • (freshman)- a student in the first year of the course at a university, college, or high school; As a mere freshman, I looked up to my room-mate with great respect, and treated him accordingly. — James Fenimore Cooper; • a novice; beginner; • (sophomore)- a student in the second year of high school or college, ("    3 4я d  3 6t  6t ); I decided to try a fresh examination in order to gain a year by reentering as a sophomore. — The Autobiography of a Journalist; • (junior)- a student in the third year of a U.S. high school or college; • (senior)- a student in the fourth year of high school or college; novice = beginner = tyro ~ amateur = naive : abecedarian : tenderfoot : green • (novice)- a person who is new to the circumstances, work, etc., in which he or she is placed; beginner; tyro; A revolver in the hands of a novice is almost as dangerous as an automatic pistol. — The Fifth Battalion Highland Light Infantry in the War 1914-1918; • (tyro)- a beginner in learning anything; novice, (p8  k8 , a #j  k, a" ); "So you are a geologist Mr. Lively looked at Johnny reverently Only a mere tyro, a beginner, in knowledge," he said. — 102 - Mystery Island; • (amateur)- a person who engages in a study, sport, or other activity for pleasure rather than for financial benefit or professional reasons, (a k + , - +, tr ;< = ); The Prince was a musical amateur, like his father and his grandfather, whose enthusiasm for Handel it is hardly necessary to recall. — Joseph Haydn; • (naive)- lacking worldly experience and understanding; My every thought was alert with naive, speculative curiosity concerning the mystery of woman. — Tramping on Life; • (abecedarian)- a person who is learning the letters of the alphabet; • a beginner in any field of learning; • (tenderfoot)- a raw, inexperienced person; novice, (я  < >& e    k); Bob was new to this country then and reckless, like a tenderfoot is, and the first thing he did was to go and get lost. — The Black Pearl; • (green)- not mature or ripe; young; apprentice = prentice : probationer • (apprentice)- a learner; novice; tyro, ( k ); Any reasonably educated apprentice should be able to follow his formulation. — The White Rose; • (prentice)- Archaic an apprentice; • (probationer)- a person undergoing probation or trial, (ak< ); Thomas Borrow made the acquaintance of the young probationer, and promptly settled any aspirations that she may have had towards the stage by marrying her. — The Life of George Borrow; • (probation) (   &  i   "+n# g<  -   k -"< &8 g<4 i    k<, ak) sciolist = dabbler = dilettante <> debutante • (sciolism)- superficial knowledge; If he were a sciolist or a wrong-headed fanatic, this would be a serious evil. — Studies in Early Victorian Literature; • (dabble)- to play and splash in or as if in water, esp. with the hands, (  i    я4 6;); He was in fact so thoroughly a dabbler, that it was pretty much a matter of indifference to what work he applied his hand. — The History of Rome (Volumes 1-5); • to work at anything in an irregular or superficial manner, ( &   % & "" ); • (dilettante)- a person who takes up an art, activity, or subject merely for amusement, esp. in a desultory or superficial way; dabbler, (  &A i   a  nt e& 3 a#  j&mn  e&  8> a #  i e  k); Despite his later reputation as a dilettante, this was well conceived and executed, and his hard work was exceptional. — Luftwaffe Victorious; • a lover of an art or science, esp. of a fine art; • (debutante)- a young woman making a debut into society, (uD" &я p8 -tp r< ;  ); The debutante was at once self-possessed and serious, receiving the applause of the audience without fear or humility. — The World's Greatest Books — Volume 07 — Fiction; virtuoso = consummate = mavin = maven = maestro = veteran = seasoned = adept # inept = feckless • (virtuoso)- a person who has a cultivated appreciation of artistic excellence, as a connoisseur or collector of objects of art, antiques, etc, ( l &mn 3 j  r "&mn  k, 4 ); I have acquired a perfect technique, the technique of a great virtuoso--through the pianola. — The Pianolist A Guide for Pianola Players; • (consummate)- to bring to a state of perfection; fulfill, ( %D , < = A ); ; • complete or perfect; supremely skilled; superb, (a t k, %D  ); He was a consummate orator, on whose lips thousands and thousands of his countrymen had hung entranced. — Autobiography of Seventy Years, Vol. 1-2; • (maven)- an expert or connoisseur; Not being a maven on adolescence, she didn't presume to offer advice, although sometimes her insights were useful. — Hair Raiser; • (maestro)- an eminent composer, teacher, or conductor of music; (p% & -s>, os a8 &A  "4); To be blessed by such a maestro is what every musician longs for throughout his life; • (veteran)- a person who is long experienced or practiced in an activity or capacity; Her eyes had taken on the flat look of a war veteran, her lips compressed into a bloodless line. — The Other Daughter; • (seasoned)- experienced; They looked thoroughly seasoned, and had made record time with a large outfit. — The Trail of '98 A Northland Romance; • (adept)- very skilled; proficient; expert, (&k  , 4  , 3j); At that he was an adept, and not the shiftiest, craftiest schemes he had ever devised had given him a moment's uneasiness. — The Grain of Dust; • (inept)- without skill or aptitude for a particular task or assignment; maladroit, (a; , a , a& " ); His own journeymen are totally inept, and that’s mostly thanks to his poor training. — Hamilton, Peter F. - [Void 01] - The Dreaming Void; • (feckless)- ineffective; incompetent; futile, (8; ak;  t ); As this Administration continues to look feckless, it will continue down the path of McCarthyism. — Latest Articles; maladroit # adroit : deft = dexterous^ambidextrous^ ambivalence • (maladroit)- lacking in adroitness; unskillful; awkward; bungling; tactless, (a <  ); How maladroit women are if they imagine that by their fears and their doubts of the sincerity and constancy of men, they can make any one believe they are fleeing from love, or despise it! — Ninon de L'Enclos the Celebrated Beauty of the 17th Century; • (adroit)- expert or nimble in the use of the hands or body; • cleverly skillful, resourceful, or ingenious, (k, <  , 4  ); He is evidently an adroit, audacious, cool-headed fellow. — Monsieur Lecoq; • (deft)- dexterous; nimble; skillful; clever, ( kp o "   ); With deft, careful fingers she lifted the wet cloths above the bruised forehead. — The Power and the Glory; • (dexterous)- skillful or adroit in the use of the hands or body, (k, 4  ); The noiseless movements of his white fingers were marvellously dexterous-- neat, rapid, and finished. — The Slave of the Lamp; • (ambidexterous)- able to use both hands equally well, ( a8     & k   &k, &&"  g<  >); It is rare that you meet a person who is ambidextrous,--that is, who uses both hands equally well. — The Daughter of the Chieftain : the Story of an Indian Girl; • (ambivalence)- the coexistence of opposing attitudes or feelings, such as love and hate, toward a person, object, or idea; And in her ambivalence, she, who was once as unwavering as the whooping crane, was now more like the gull. — Even Cowgirls Get The Blues;  expertise : forte = métier : aptitude : flair : finesse : genius^ ingenious <> ingenuous = artless • (expertise)- expert skill or knowledge; expertness; know-how, ( 3 j o k ); Focus on job opportunities where your expertise is a real fit; • (forte)- a strong point, as of a person; that in which one excels, (  k 3 k   g<, 3 A ); With the piano-forte, however, an entirely new style of expression came into existence. — Great Violinists And Pianists; • (métier)- an occupation for which you are especially well suited; • (aptitude)- capability; ability; innate or acquired capacity for something; talent,(s#   a я k ; p< ); His son inherited this aptitude, and helped his father in mechanical experiments, soon quite outstripping him. — American Men of Mind; • (flair)- a natural talent, aptitude, or ability; bent; knack, ( 6 #4# M  6i , ; &t i   ";  M s#  o &я k ; &я k  o O<  ); You used the word flair, do you think the art of poetry is dictated more by talent than skill?; • (finesse)- extreme delicacy or subtlety in action, performance, skill, discrimination, taste, etc., (P4 &k = ; "   ); In this story he displays the finesse, artistry and imagination of an old pro. — Greylorn; • (genious)- extraordinary intellectual and creative power; • (ingenious)- cleverly inventive or resourceful, (ud4  ; uj; "k<); The plots are ingenious, the action swift, and the moral tone wholly healthful. — The Pony Rider Boys in Texas Or, The Veiled Riddle of the Plains; • (ingenuous)- free from reserve, restraint, or dissimulation; candid; sincere, ( Q;, a;, aR , я, &4 "t, 4 "t); The exposition of his reason is interesting, ingenuous, and chivalrous. — Expositions of Holy Scripture: Romans Corinthians (To II Corinthians, Chap. V); • (artless)- free from deceit, cunning, or craftiness; ingenuous, (s# ; &4; S); He was innocent and artless, but his views were narrow, and his genius contemptible. — The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. 07 (of 12);  adept <> adapt = adjust = conform ~ acclimate^ clime = climate : weather : gusty : whiff # gale • (adapt)- to make suitable to requirements or conditions; adjust or modify fittingly, (% %o, a #  я ); I have no fears on the subject, for, as you know, I can pretty well adapt or conform myself to any style of composition. — The Letters of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart; • (conform)- to act or be in accord or agreement; comply; There are many tragedies which conform, at least partially, to this scheme; but not all, hence it cannot be a universal norm. — The Principles of Aesthetics; • (acclimate)- to accustom or become accustomed to a new climate or environment; adapt,( #n -o,    as &A % %i/   o); They are very flexible and acclimate easily to various activity levels, as long as they are allowed to be with people as much as possible; • (clime)- climate, (; #=%V); It is peculiarly suited to the humanities of every race, clime, and condition; there is no limit to its expansive adaptability. — The Lost Ten Tribes, and 1882; • (gusty)- blowing or coming in gusts, as wind, rain, or storms, ( &); His ordinary voice was hoarse and gusty, and his smile diabolical. — The Anti-Slavery Examiner, Omnibus; • (whiff)- a slight gust or puff of wind, air, vapor, smoke, or the like, (W X, WD ,   &,  D, o #& -& e M4 n); He drew a whiff, and when the fire glowed, he turned the pipe stem toward the seam of the skins above the doorway. — Myths and Legends of the Great Plains; • (gale)- a noisy outburst, (44< = - s s<); • a very strong wind, (p4 ; ); How anxiously we looked out for some sign that the gale was abating, but in vain. — A Voyage round the World A book for boys;  utopia : paragon = peerless = unequal (^ equalitarian) = nonpareil = matchless = incomparable = singular • (utopia)- an imaginary island described in Sir Thomas More's Utopia (1516) as enjoying perfection in law, politics, etc., (sp\); Their minds construct a utopia -- one in which all judgments are based on logical inference from syllogisms built on the law of mathematical probabilities. — A Preface to Politics; The liberal utopia is a lie and has never worked in the history of mankind; • (paragon)- a model or pattern of excellence or of a particular excellence, (X3  = r); The duke's mistress is glorified as a paragon of virtue. — The Life and Works of Friedrich Schiller; • (peerless)- having no equal; matchless; unrivaled, (a 4   , &k  ); I can acknowledge you as my peerless bride. " — What Can She Do?; • (equalitarian)- egalitarian (affirming, promoting, or characterized by belief in equal political, economic, social, and civil rights for all people), (&  ;  &4   & a  o & &   -&    ^& ); There is an equalitarian movement every few years, certainly, under various names. — Time Enough For Love; • (nonpareil)- having no equal; peerless; • (singular)- extraordinary; remarkable; exceptional,(a&<; ad ); The aspect of this province is very singular, and in summer most refreshing. — La Vendée;  epitome = paradigm = prototype^ stereotype = archetype^ archbishop • (epitome)- a person or thing that is typical of or possesses to a high degree the features of a whole class, (&-&_k, g<4  p ); Muhammad is seen as the epitome of Muslim life, and Muslims have long sought to emulate him. — Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium - Recent changes [en]; • (paradigm)- an example serving as a model; pattern, (u<,  ); And while he was uneasy about offering his own lifestyle as a paradigm, it was taken as one by those who followed him or sought his advice. — London Review of Books; • (prototype)- the original or model on which something is based or formed, (4r = , - r, 4 = , - -p ); The geometry of the prototype is adjustable to achieve desired performance specifications suitable for modeling and verification; • (stereotype)- fixed and unvarying representation; standardized mental picture, often reflecting prejudice, (mя  ;i 6D" 8 o 6 W4 3; D; XD); Lumping a number of traits together and building a stereotype is a natural way of dealing with people; • (archetype)- the original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based; a model or first form; prototype, (- r;      e - r; P4 -); In the science of symbolism, the archetype is the thing adopted as a symbol, whence the symbolic idea is derived. — The Symbolism of Freemasonry; • (archbishop)- a bishop of highest rank; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.4 Tools instruments, utensils, devices, mechanisms, apparatus, weapons anvil • a heavy iron block with a smooth face, frequently of steel, on which metals, usually heated until soft, are hammered into desired shapes, (  i,   ,  s); The blacksmith leaves his anvil, the carpenter his bench, and the tailor his goose. — Gov. Bob. Taylor's Tales; fulcrum • the support, or point of rest, on which a lever turns in moving a body, ( n  , usm, "m); The joint between the atlas and the skull is the fulcrum, the weight of the head is the resistance. — A Practical Physiology; catapult • an ancient military engine for hurling stones, arrows, etc, (g); • British. a slingshot; He said he was hit by a stone from a catapult--a stone the size of a man's head. — Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc — Volume 1; conduit • a pipe, tube, or the like, for conveying water or other fluid, ( %&  '  я )   , ik  i)% " ); Since the total length of the conduit was 3,850 ft., the first cost of the material in the forms was 18 cts. per lin. ft. — Concrete Construction Methods and Costs; automation • the technique, method, or system of operating or controlling a process by highly automatic means, as by electronic devices, reducing human intervention to a minimum, (s, ,  -  . /  я ) ud d o nt e5  ) ); Marketing automation is a set of applications that help marketers manage and simplify the marketing process; awl • pointed tool used for piercing, (- 6  7 8%  я ) 89 :6  . -, ", ; ); It handled every tool, from a pitchfork to an awl, and made the whole of a rake, the bows, teeth, head and staff. — Confessions of Boyhood; pry {be nosey} • (pry)- to move, raise, or open by leverage,(6 %.  8 <  ); Stephen Harper will remain the leader of the Conservative Party until it is pried from his hands; • to inquire impertinently or unnecessarily into something, ((a ) )) a); >   :? <@я  o.); Though Nora claimed she didn’t mean to pry, everyone knew she was just plain nosy; ballast • any heavy material carried temporarily or permanently in a vessel to provide desired draft and stability, (я я s < я ) я я <  % s gr d)%); These again require abundant ballast, and there is no ballast in a country devoid of stone and with a soil innocent of the smallest pebble. — Here, There and Everywhere; barb • a point or pointed part projecting backward from a main point, as of a fishhook or arrowhead, (C, l,  pF @  a5, @9); • an obviously or openly unpleasant or carping remark, (apC, % %. n), ) , <@6); I endeavoured to keep up my spirits by boldness, but I felt the barb in my heart. — Ten Years' Exile; bolt {abscond} [ gobble] • (bolt)- a movable bar or rod that when slid into a socket fastens a door, gate, etc, (l); He was out the door like a bolt, and we heard the sound of his running feet in the street. — Carey, Jaqueline - Kushiel's Dart orig; • length of fabric,(6I  J     ); Before he cut into the bolt of canvas, he measured how much fabric he would need; • to make a sudden, swift dash, run, flight, or escape; spring away suddenly, (: : drJ . ); In an instant the rabbit bolted--he clutched it and clasped it tight to his chest. — The Amateur Poacher; • to eat (food) hurriedly and with little chewing; gulp; • (gobble)- to swallow or eat hastily or hungrily in large pieces; gulp, (Jg: J, JJ  J); He watches the odd creatures eagerly as they gobble up the seed. — Jean Francois Millet; cauldron • a large kettle or boiler, ( i); Then he lit some spirits of wine under the caldron, and pronounced some magical incantations. — Memoirs of Robert-Houdin; carafe • a wide-mouthed glass or metal bottle with a lip or spout, for holding and serving beverages, (:  ); Her right hand held the water carafe, and as she dived around the end of the table toward the door she threw it at his cylindrical white body. — Persephone and Hades; carillon • a set of stationary bells hung in a tower and sounded by manual or pedal action, or by machinery, (  6. s M); A mobile carillon will be stationed near the Fine Arts Center and the Hekman Library and will call the campus to Convocation; centrifuge • an apparatus that rotates at high speed and by centrifugal force separates substances of different densities, as milk and cream, ( %& st    F  J d s & &  я )h .); Two men began turning the ancient centrifuge by hand. — The Stars My Destination; chalice • a drinking cup or goblet, (RsC. - )h  t); That chalice, after being sanctified by the word of God, is the blood of Christ.” — The Faith of Our Fathers; peg • a small cylindrical or tapered pin, as of wood, used to fasten things or plug a hole, (7    ); chassis • Automotive. the frame, wheels, and machinery of a motor vehicle, on which the body is supported, (9J, Uo  9- % 7); Dust collecting on the chassis is a serious hindrance to performance; grapple • to hold or make fast to something, as with a grapple, (k  ;; "@ ;); He loved the Constitution, to which he would cling and grapple -- and he was clothed with the infirmities of man's nature. " — A Book About Lawyers; chisel {cheat} • (chisel)- a wedgelike tool with a cutting edge at the end of the blade, often made of steel, used for cutting or shaping wood, stone, etc, (9 %. 9  <%i ); But works of art, of the chisel, the brush, the pencil and the loom were her delight. — Memories of Jane Cunningham Croly; • to cheat or swindle (someone),(7 ; p  ); harp > harping • (harp)- Music an instrument having an upright triangular frame consisting of a pillar, a curved neck, and a hollow back containing the sounding board, (%)nt-); She had been playing to me on the harp, and I sat listening in happiness almost unbearable. — Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli; • (harping)- tiresome dwelling on a subject; She is too lean in the harping, and too full in the counter, to steer. — The Red Rover; cistern • a reservoir, tank, or container for storing or holding water or other liquid, (я;); If your cistern is dry, wait until it rains; or bore a well. — The Art of Public Speaking; clavicle • collarbone, (Ys); He sang as usual through the opera, but discovered on examination afterward that the clavicle was fractured. — Great Singers, Second Series Malibran To Titiens; cog • a gear tooth, formerly esp. one of hardwood or metal, fitted into a slot in a gearwheel of less durable material, (6 pn% 9 %@  <@я); He has simply been a pawn on the chess-board, or a cog in the great wheel. — From Aldershot to Pretoria A Story of Christian Work; colander • a metal or plastic container with a perforated bottom, for draining and straining foods, (6  ; Z@Z); Drain in a colander, then rinse well under cold water; die • to impress, shape, or cut with a die, (d    ; 8@6); In coining pennies, workers at the old mint squeezed sheets of softened copper between two dies; file • particles removed by a file; As the prisoner filed away at the iron bar on the cell window, a small heap of filing accumulated on the window still; gavel • a small mallet used by the presiding officer of a meeting, a judge, etc., usually to signal for attention or order, ([ F  %   J "-  я ) )h  %  :   ); The Speaker rapped with his gavel, and I failed to hear the opening words. — A Far Country — Complete; mallet • a short-handled hammer, usually with a cylindrical head of wood, used chiefly to drive a chisel or wedge; Then I took chisel and mallet, and went at it blithely. — The Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini; maul • to handle or use roughly, (d)   a)6 ;) " ); This consideration therefore, together with some others, were for the most part, as amaul on the head of pride, and desire of vain-glory. — Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners; sledgehammer • a long heavy hammer; Maybe something like a sledgehammer swinging hard in a man's hand. — Die Trying; bludgeon • a short, heavy club with one end weighted, or thicker and heavier than the other, (g ; J%; U]-); Iron Age returned, and the bludgeon was taken down from its shelf, and the scalping-knife refurbished. — Matthew Arnold; mace • a clublike armor-breaking weapon of war, often with a flanged or spiked metal head, used chiefly in the Middle Ages, (я%]-; J%); And the mighty Drona also instructed Arjuna in fighting with the mace, the sword, the lance, the spear, and the dart. — The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 1 Books 1, 2 and 3; gouge • a chisel having a partly cylindrical blade with the bevel on either the concave or the convex side, (e ;  9); • to scoop out or turn with or as if with a gouge, (9 %. 9); The toe and heel of the beveled side of the gouge are brought into contact with the flat side of the stone. — A Course In Wood Turning; • to extort from, swindle, or overcharge; If you suspect price-gouging, you can file a complaint with the attorney general; guy • a rope, cable, or appliance used to guide and steady an object being hoisted or lowered, or to secure anything likely to shift its position, ( 8  s  :я < я ) )h %  ); In the end, guy ropes had to be erected to hold the panels in place whilst the cement set; gyroscope • an apparatus consisting of a rotating wheel so mounted that its axis can turn freely in certain or all directions, and capable of maintaining the same absolute direction in space in spite of movements of the mountings and surrounding parts: used to maintain equilibrium, determine direction, etc.; Astronauts have removed the first old gyroscope (called "rate sensor unit") from the Hubble Space Telescope; holster • pistol case; If you have an adjustable holster, the adjustment screw will change the tension easily; hone • to sharpen on a hone, ( %o.); His predator's senses were well-honed, acutely sensitive. — Anthology - My Scandalous Bride; lancet • a small surgical instrument, usually sharp-pointed and two-edged, for making small incisions, opening abscesses, etc., ()% F  )h di ; :6  8  ); He was very partial to the use of the lancet, and quite a terrible adept at tooth-drawing. — The Lighthouse; larder • a room or place where food is kept; pantry, (5:, <%)d) < я ) )h ; @); They have stripped my little larder, and I don't know what they haven't taken besides. — The Ocean Cat's Paw The Story of a Strange Cruise; pantry • a small room used for the preparation of cold foods; The pantry was a long narrow room with a sink down one wall and tea urns down the other. — Two Weeks To Remember; nib • the point of a pen, or either of its divisions, (  ); The pen has a decent steel nib, but the flow of my particular pen was inconsistent; palimpsest • a parchment or the like from which writing has been partially or completely erased to make room for another text, ( ] &   < d  я )  < 8  ^ .8); His books are no palimpsest, 'the prophet's holograph, defiled, erased, and covered by a monk's.' — Critical Miscellanies, Vol. 1, Essay 5, Emerson; pylon • a marking post or tower for guiding aviators, frequently used in races; • a steel tower or mast carrying high-tension lines, telephone wires, or other cables and lines, (ikt  <@ 9r   u@6 <); This pylon is one hundred and four feet long, thirty-three feet wide and sixty feet high and is covered with inscriptions and reliefs. — The Critic in the Orient; quiver • a case for holding or carrying arrows, (  ;  C  ); Then he drew off the cover of his quiver, and took out an arrow, fresh, winged, a cause of gloomy ills. — The Iliad of Homer (1873); • to shake with a slight but rapid motion; vibrate tremulously; tremble, (@; m o.;   o.); His lip quivered, and he appeared to be very much agitated. — Desk and Debit or, The Catastrophes of a Clerk; scabbard • a sheath for a sword or the like, (C <); His six-shooter had plates of silver on the handle, and his scabbard was covered with silver buttons. — Ranching, Sport and Travel; sheathe • place into a case, (" ; "c% ); George, sheathe your sword and stand aside. — The Midnight Queen; scaffold • a temporary structure for holding workers and materials during the erection, repair, or decoration of a building, (яstC% ); Under the scaffold was the room where the actors dressed and where the — The History of London; seine • a fishing net that hangs vertically in the water, having floats at the upper edge and sinkers at the lower, (8 ;  я -); Everything on the beach becomes a picture; the casting the seine, the ploughing the deep for seaweed. — Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli, Volume II; sextant • an astronomical instrument used to determine latitude and longitude at sea by measuring angular distances, esp. the altitudes of sun, moon, and stars, (я я as  . nt); The sextant is the one most in use and so will be described first. — Lectures in Navigation; spatula • an implement with a broad, flat, usually flexible blade, used for blending foods or removing them from cooking utensils, mixing drugs, spreading plasters and paints, etc., (n я :    8  я )h nt); Using a rubber or silicone spatula, spread the dough evenly in the baking pan; suture • a joining of the lips or edges of a wound or the like by stitching or some similar process, (ks :i  ^ :f F %J, :i. %J); If the suture is made too tight the subsequent swelling may cause the stitch to tear out. — Special Report on Diseases of the Horse; taper • a candle, esp. a very slender one, (<  :r ); Then he lit a taper, and went downstairs to the professional torture-chamber. — Birds of Prey; tiller • a bar or lever fitted to the head of a rudder, for turning the rudder in steering, ( >    ); I took the tiller, and steered gradually toward the middle of the river. — The Rudder Grangers Abroad and Other Stories; toga • a robe of office, a professorial gown, or some other distinctive garment; Hence the Roman habit began to be held in honor, and the toga was frequently worn. — The Germany and the Agricola of Tacitus; trident • a three-pronged instrument or weapon, (я%  6  t  ); He carried a trident, and in all respects, looked the part as Neptune is so often pictured. — Patty's Butterfly Days; trough • a long, narrow, open receptacle, usually boxlike in shape, used chiefly to hold water or food for animals, (g    я ) %C < k); In its open square were a pump and a horse-trough, at which two horses were drinking. — Tom Grogan; • lowest point; Analyzing Market Troughs and Rebounds), and a key indicator of a trough was the strong performance of value stocks relative to momentum stocks; gutter • a tool for gutting fish; • a channel at the edge of a street or road for carrying off surface water; tureen • a large, deep, covered dish for serving soup, stew, or other foods, (i o. JC ]-); Behind the glass a white tureen, a row of plates with swimming fish around the rims, four green wineglasses; facsimile • an exact copy, as of a book, painting, or manuscript, (<, d  , 8 pF a pr); Permission may be granted to certain individuals, organizations, businesses, or institutions through written contract, or for single use of images, by facsimile or electronic mail; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.5 Life Science 2.5.1 Biology zoology, ornithology, herpetology, malacology, entomology, ichthyology, mammalogy ornithology : aerie = aery = eyrie = eyry • (ornithologist)- scientific student of birds, (kj ); His admiration for the beautiful blue eggs led him to devote his time to ornithology, or the study of birds. — Country Walks of a Naturalist with His Children; • (aerie)- nest of a large bird of prey; Seeing the blaze from his aerie on the island, Putnam attacked the fire as he always attacked the enemy, with impetuosity. — Old Put The Patriot; volary = aviary # apiary • (volary) – a large bird-cage or enclosure in which the birds have room to fly; • (aviary) – enclosure for birds, (k  ,    ); They were both at the aviary, admiring the birds, and absorbed in their own talk. — Heart and Science A Story of the Present Time; • (apiary) – a place in which a colony or colonies of bees are kept, as a stand or shed for beehives or a bee house containing a number of beehives, (   s, k    ); The apiary was supposed to be a very private place - far away from work and, most of all, far away from the public; incubate = hatch • (incubate) – to hatch (eggs), as by sitting upon them or by artificial heat, (  o,   c  ); Books are like babies and they take time to incubate, but when they're ready to be born you know it. — Grasping for the Wind; • (inasmuch)- since, owing to the fact that; • (hatch) – to cause young to emerge from (the egg) as by brooding or incubating; • an opening that serves as a doorway or window in the floor or roof of a building, (я  " #, ei # u sn()* +); The latch on the hatch failed to catch, so the hatch remained unlatched- Barron’s GRE; • to bring forth or produce; devise; create; contrive; concoct; • to mark with lines, esp. closely set parallel lines, as for shading in drawing or engraving, (,n - s -i   a0 ); talon : hackle : plumage • (talon)- a claw, esp. of a bird of prey, (  - ( 1)  # -); The hand on her shoulder clutched like a talon, the muscles informed with an unnatural force. — The Emigrant Trail; • (hackle)- the neck plumage of a male bird, as the domestic rooster, 5 ()2  ) 3 m    " ); They are predominantly white birds with some black barring on the tail and neck hackle; • (plumage)- the entire feathery covering of a bird,(-  ); She has birds with the sweetest notes and brightest plumage, and fish and animals in the greatest variety. — The Continental Monthly , Vol. 2 No. 5, November 1862; herpetology : amphibian : viper : venom : pterodactyl • (herpetologist)- one who studies reptiles. A herpetologist who receives many small doses of snake venom may indeed become tolerant to them; • (amphibian)- able to live both on land and in water, (u67); Like a baby taking its first steps, the amphibian was manipulating the people around it. — Vance Moore; • (viper)- poisonous snake; The spirit of the viper is apparent in every line of it. — The Continental Monthly, Vol. 1, No. 6; • (venom)- poison; As their venom is non-poisonous, Tarantulas are not categorized under the deadliest insects; • (pterodactyle)- any of a number of genera of flying reptiles of the extinct order Pterosauria; These diagrams of the plesiosaurus, the ichthyosaurus, the pterodactyle, give you a notion of some of these extinct reptiles. — Lectures and Essays; ecdysis : slough = shed = exuviate = molt > molten • (ecdysis)- the shedding of an outer integument or layer of skin, as by insects, crustaceans, and snakes; molting; At the end of each developmental stage, insects perform the ecdysis sequence, an innate behavior necessary for shedding the old cuticle; • (slough) – an area of soft, muddy ground; swamp or swamp like region, (я 68,  9 ); • the outer layer of the skin of a snake, which is cast off periodically, (, *k - ,, ;< , an *k p> 2 (   5 a? ); The separation of the slough is a tedious process, and the patient may become exhausted by pain, discharge, and toxin absorption. — Manual of Surgery Volume First: General Surgery. Sixth Edition; • (shed) – to cast off or let fall (leaves, hair, feathers, skin, shell, etc.) by natural process, (*) , 7 , -   ); • (exuviate) – to cast off or shed (exuviae); molt; We may remark that other classes of animals exuviate in a similar manner to the crustaceans. — Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, No. 433 Volume 17; • (molt) – (of birds, insects, reptiles, etc.) to cast or shed the feathers, skin, or the like, that will be replaced by a new growth, ((- ,mn)     )я A)   -,, (   , B i* ,m;  p))   " (o); The action of a group of cells in the brain causes the organ to release some of the stored ecdysone periodically and this stimulates a molt. — The Human Brain; • (molten) – liquefied by heat; in a state of fusion; melted, () ); When all the soap is molten, additions of pearl ash solution are made to give it a finer and smoother texture, render it more transparent, and increase its lathering properties. — The Handbook of Soap Manufacture; malacology : tarantula : carapace : incrustation : mantle^ dismantle • (malacology)- the branch of zoology that studies the structure and behavior of mollusks; • (tarantula)- venomous spider; The cobalt blue tarantula, in contrast to the shyer blonde, is a high-strung species from Myanmar and Thailand that can be quite aggressive; • (carapace)- a bony or chitinous shield, test, or shell covering some or all of the dorsal part of an animal, as of a turtle, (c; #B; 7?B i* k - ,); Some of the pattern that's imprinted on the carapace is diagnostic for many turtles; • (incrustation)- a crust or coat of anything on the surface of a body; covering, coating, or scale, (Ac, an; , 2<); This goes on until a regular incrustation is formed, and the soil is covered by a white deposit of nitre. — Manures and the principles of manuring; • (mantle) – Anatomy the cerebral cortex; Its tentacles circled its body like a mantle, and its tread-feet took it immediately in any direction. — Phaze Doubt; • (dismantle) – to disassemble or pull down; take apart, (a? cn ,     ); The fleet was dismantled, and the army disbanded. — The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte Vol. I. (of IV.); • to deprive or strip of apparatus, furniture, equipment, defenses, etc., (g  >  (,я,jя i* - o *)); entomology : louse • (entomology)- the branch of zoology dealing with insects, (Itt); He is best known for his contributions to entomology, the study of insects, and is considered by many to be the father of modern entomology. — CreationWiki - Recent changes [en]; • (louse)- wingless usually flattened bloodsucking insect parasitic on warm- blooded animals; • any of numerous small, flat-bodied, wingless biting or sucking insects; • to bungle, (  o, <  o); loused the project; louse up a deal; ichthyology^ ethology > ethos • (ichthyology)- the branch of zoology dealing with fishes; His leisure was devoted to scientific study, especially the ornithology, ichthyology, and anthropology of the West Indies. — The Journal of Negro History, Volume 5, 1920; • (ethology) – the scientific study of animal behavior, especially as it occurs in a natural environment; • the study of human ethos and its formation; Classical ethology flourished in the years immediately following World War Two. — The Distinction Between Innate and Acquired Characteristics; • (ethos) – Sociology. the fundamental character or spirit of a culture; the underlying sentiment that informs the beliefs, customs, or practices of a group or society; dominant assumptions of a people or period, ( K ,я L aM ,?s5 O <*); The paper seeks to reflect on how the Indian ethos has been at stake in the last part of the second millennium; mammalogy : pachyderm : ferret(mustela nigripes) : marsupial : ewe : hirsute : venison <> benison • (mammalogy)- the branch of zoology that deals with mammals; In all the Indian mammalogy this section is probably the most difficult to write about. — Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon; • (pachyderm)- thick skinned animal, (s8 7; 7P  яnt); The pachyderm presented her port side to the boss elephant man when she saw him whirl his bullhook in a circle. — Elephant Song; • (ferret)- a domesticated, usually red-eyed, and albinic variety of the polecat, used in Europe for driving rabbits and rats from their burrows, (  я  , R p>  K); • to drive out by using or as if using a ferret (often fol. byout), (-#я  ); They had not ferreted him out, nor had they stumbled upon him by accident. — The Country Beyond; • (marsupial)- any viviparous, nonplacental mammal of the order Marsupialia, comprising the opossums, kangaroos, wombats, and bandicoots, the females of most species having a marsupium containing the mammary glands and serving as a receptacle for the young,(M ,?kn); You are a nocturnal marsupial, carrying your young in your pouch and hanging from tree limbs by your prehensile tail; • (ewe)- a female sheep, esp. when fully mature, (6B ); His kindly heart yearned over this ewe-lamb of his large flock. — The History of Sir Richard Calmady A Romance; • (hirsuite)- hairy,(  ; rk; us-s  ); Their bronzed faces and thick necks were hirsute, as if overgrown with moss, tangled or crispy. — The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 10, No. 59, September, 1862; • (venison) – the flesh of a deer or similar animal as used for food, 5 ()?, ); If well cooked the venison is delicious Partridges are only found in certain districts. — Life and sport in China Second Edition; • (benison) – a blessing; a benediction; The road mounted between groves of olive trees and the air was like a benison, soft and clean. — Spinsters in Jeopardy - Ngaio Marsh - Alleyn 17; equine^equestrian : colt : whinny {querulous} • (equine)- of, pertaining to, or resembling a horse, (aU,?kn); Although the equine is an animal with a broad range of vision (360 degrees), it has two blind spots - one directly behind it and the other just in front of its nose to beneath it; • (equestrian)- of or pertaining to horseback riding or horseback riders, (aU2,?kn); He frequently reviewed the troops of the equestrian order, reviving the ancient custom of a cavalcade [179], which had been long laid aside. — The Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Volume 02: Augustus; • (colt)- a young male animal of the horse family; • a young or inexperienced person, (p a6j r>, a6j r> *, k B79 ); • 5 hKX); (whinny) – to utter the characteristic cry of a horse; neigh,(d The horse gave a slight whinny, nosed into his master's hand and laid his head down again. — The Patrol of the Sun Dance Trail; • (querulous) – full of complaints; complaining, (  s6 <,  2p); Her tone was querulous, her words without force. — The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte Vol. I. (of IV.); bovine : low : browse = graze = pasture • (bovine)- of or pertaining to the subfamily Bovinae, which includes cattle, buffalo, and kudus, () Y,?kn); • stolid; dull; Their psychology is bovine, their outlook crude and rare; — Actions and Reactions; • oxlike; cowlike; • (low)- to utter the deep, low sound characteristic of cattle; moo, ()r- )  ); From hilltop, they could see the herd like ants in the distance; they could barely hear the cattle low; • (browse)- to graze; pasture on, (Y  -o, 7); • to look through or glance at casually,(7-    ); You can browse through a full range of events by category, or at a specific venue; • to eat, nibble at, or feed on (leaves, tender shoots, or other soft vegetation); • (graze)- to feed on growing grasses and herbage; The tents were then pitched, horses hobbled and turned out to graze, and the evening meal prepared. — The Life of Kit Carson; • (pasture)- grass or other vegetation eaten as food by grazing animals; We drove them every morning between two and three miles to pasture, into the wide and delightful plains. — Life and Adventures of Venture; feline^ canine : whelp • (feline)- of or belonging to the family Felidae, which includes the lions, tigers, jaguars, and wild and domestic cats; felid, (B ,?kn; B я ); Finding our voices, my friend and I greeted the monk, expressing our admiration for his prowess in the extraordinary feline arena. — Autobiography of a Yogi; • (canine)- of or like a dog; pertaining to or characteristic of dogs, (,mn    ; k   ;  ); The department hopes the new canine will be able to serve double duty as a drug dog and tracker; • a canine tooth; cuspid; • (whelp)- the young of the dog, or of the wolf, bear, lion, tiger, seal, etc, (   , 3, 6l, B, ,?2,   p65); Brown is a whelp, also he's a power that must be reckoned with. — The Enchanted Canyon; porcine = piggy = swinish • (porcine)- of or resembling swine or a pig, ( ,mn 8  , 8 5 ); Childish rage flared in his bloodshot eyes, and his porcine face flushed. — Conan Of The Isles; • (piggy)- Informal a little pig; Not being armed with rifles, their weapons of offence against piggy were revolvers, ropes, and the stretchers of the boats. — Sketches From My Life; • (swinish)- resembling or befitting swine; bestial; brutish; Polyandry is considered swinish, and concubinage is unknown. — The Manóbos of Mindanáo Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume XXIII, First Memoir; vulpine : vixen = harpy • 5 (vulpine)- of or resembling a fox, cunning, crafty, ( ) ] , ; 8 ); There is nothing bold or vicious or vulpine in it, and his timid, harmless character is published at every leap. — Squirrels and Other Fur-Bearers; • (vixen)- female fox; The female, called a vixen, prepares a den before she bears the young; • (harpy)- in Greek myth, a winged monster, ravenous and filthy, having the face and body of a woman and the wings of a bird of prey, with the feet and fingers armed with sharp claws and the face pale with hunger, ((g. >  ) `   K, ( -a     o 2  a? -    - o  ,m ); • a rapacious, grasping person; leonine^ lionize • (leonine)- of or pertaining to the lion, (,?2,mn ); He was leonine is his rage; • (lionaze)- to treat (a person) as a celebrit, (u -* *kr )>* ); Though he was lionized, he was lionized by people who understood the sensitiveness of artistic natures. — The Three Brides, Love in a Cottage, and Other Tales; simian^ simulate • (simian)- monkeylike, (, 5 ); Her body was thin and tiny and her face simian, a maze of wrinkles. — The Third Wexford Omnibus; • (simulate) - to make a pretense of; feign, (6 ;  ); Consequently he disguised himself by wearing green spectacles and tying a pillow over his stomach to simulate corpulence. — The Life of Sir Richard Burton; ursine^ ursa major • (ursine)- of or pertaining to a bear or bears; He was ursine, with an engaging smile that made crescents of his eyes. — Brown Waters, Black Berets; • (ursa major)- a constellation outside the zodiac that rotates around the North Star; lupine^ piscine^piscatorial • (lupine)- characteristic of or resembling a wolf; Thorby had seen hexadactyls, hirsutes, albinos, lupine ears, giants, and other changes. — Citizen Of The Galaxy; • (piscine)- of, relating to, or characteristic of a fish or fishes; Further traces of this bony structure were shown to exist, among other piscineresemblances, in the Amphibia. — The Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley; • (piscatorial)- of or pertaining to fishermen or fishing, ( ,?kn); His piscatorial aspirations extended beyond the grave. — Camps, Quarters, and Casual Places; carnivorous^ herbivorous^ omnivorous • (carnivorous) – flesh-eating, (?, ); These crocodiles are carnivorous, and they require fresh meat in order to survive. — The Forest Monster of Oz; • 5 (herbivorous) – feeding on plants, (>6я ); Perhaps Islam is analogous to a carnivorous gene complex, Buddhism to a herbivorous one. — The God Delusion; • (omnivorous)- eating both animal and vegetable foods; He was an omnivorous reader of poetry, which he quoted in season and out, with little regard for accuracy. — Madeleine An Autobiography; metamorphosis : mutation • (metamorphosis)- Biology. a profound change in form from one stage to the next in the life history of an organism, as from the caterpillar to the pupa and from the pupa to the adult butterfly, (rn, A  7t ;); It's a metamorphosis, a caterpillar turning into a butterfly; • (mutation)- a sudden departure from the parent type in one or more heritable characteristics, caused by a change in a gene or a chromosome, (*k, t 5 , , rn); After two hundred years of experimentation and mutation, the Phyrexians had bred a beast resistant enough to time change to climb five hundred feet through the curtain of fast time. — Time Streams; predator # prey {quarry} • (predators)- creatures that seizes and devours another animal; person who robs or exploits others, (  ); Small bodied species, like roe deer, may evade predators more by concealment; • (prey)- an animal hunted or caught for food; quarry; Often the fish fought for their prey, sometimes under the walkway itself. — Renegades Of Gor; • (quarry)- an open excavation or pit from which stone is obtained by digging, cutting, or blasting; All the bottom of the quarry was a maze of rusted rails. — 051 - Mad Eyes; • victim; object of a hunt, (   k*st  p>  -); By the time they started in pursuit, their quarry was already passing through the operations office door. — 026 - The Spook Legion; • dig into, (M* ud ); To his unaccustomed mind their quarry was almost witless and exceedingly dirty. — The Window-Gazer; extinct # extant • (extinct)- no longer existing or living, ( p ); Whereby the renowned Dukes of Meran fall extinct, and immense properties come to be divided among connections and claimants. — History of Friedrich II of Prussia; • (extant)- still in existence; not destroyed, lost, or extinct; None of his letters during those years are extant, so far as I can discover. — Life Of Johnson; botany, flora flora # fauna • (flora) – the plants of a particular region or period, listed by species and considered as a whole, (  K e   ()  , )-)B, ud  , ud,m); When interplanted with other flora, the foliage will be covered and the unattractive fading foliage will go unnoticed. — The Seattle Times; • (fauna)- the animals of a given region or period considered as a whole, ( я)   K , p>   ); Filled with diverse flora and fauna, the island is a treat for anyone whose interests lie on nature, landscapes and nature views; fructify : fecundate > fecundity : impregnate = saturate • (fructify) – to bear fruit; become fruitful, ( /   / u;   2o); I have a plan which may fructify, although some years may intervene before any decided steps can be taken. — Memories of Hawthorne; • (fecundate) – to make prolific or fruitful; I tried to hatch some of the eggs I had endeavoured to fecundate. — Essays in Natural History and Agriculture; • (fecundity) – the quality of being fecund; capacity, esp. in female animals, of producing young in great numbers, (u;; u] ); This phenomenon of incredible fecundity is one of the mysteries of that time. — Castilian Days; • (impregnate) – to make pregnant; get with child or young, ()6; / anjst ); The end of religious observance is the love of God, but the love of God requires more than feeling; it must impregnatelife. — Philo- Judaeus of Alexandria; • (saturate)- soak thoroughly, (utr 6я; a6,9 ); Perhaps a continuous set of such false targets would saturate the seeker. — The Sum of all Fears;  fruition > fruit ~ upshot = consequence = result = aftermath = corollary : phenomena : incidence • (fruition)- the condition of bearing fruit; • attainment of anything desired; realization; accomplishment, (a6 <,d,  p, 8 , , ); Here was her fruition, the period of her supremacy. — Within the Law; • (upshot)- the final result; the outcome; he could find no way out, and the upshot was a public auction sale of the farm effects and the household furniture. — Lloyd George The Man and His Story; • (aftermath)- a consequence, especially of a disaster or misfortune; It is a kind of aftermath, in which the historian gathers up scattered records, but does not preserve the dramatic character of the history. — Josephus; • (corollary)- an immediate consequence or easily drawn conclusion, (   s6 >    ; a,dn  ); Its corollary is the right of revolution. — Political Thought in England from Locke to Bentham; perennial^ biennial • (perennial)- lasting for an indefinitely long time; enduring, (K;* , ,,  3;s ); Tea-plants are perennial, and are set about four feet apart on hillsides. — East of Suez Ceylon, India, China and Japan; • (biennial)- happening every two years, (di  an an 3 e); The life cycle of a biennial weed requires two years to complete; • lasting or enduring for two years,(di * ); arboretum # menagerie • (arboretum)- a plot of land on which many different trees or shrubs are grown for study or display; As a teacher, she believed that the arboretum was the perfect spot to observe and enjoy native plant life; • (menagerie)- a collection of wild or unusual animals, esp. for exhibition; His beasts were a most comic menagerie, and right fruitful of laughter. — The Princess and Curdie; exude = transude = transpire ~ seep = ooze • (exude) – to come out gradually in drops, as sweat, through pores or small openings; ooze out, ("  "; 7); He can give the natural perfume of any flower to a scentless one, or revive a wilted blossom, or make a person's skin exude delightful fragrance. — Autobiography of a Yogi; • (transude) – to pass through pores or interstices in the manner of perspiration; The sun shone on his dilapidated garments and on his purple skin; it was almost black and seemed to transude blood. — Over Strand and Field; • (transpire) – to occur; happen; take place, ( 3  aM ) * p  2o; яя 2 B); On inspection it transpired that this information was buried fairly deeply with no obvious path to get to it; • (seep) – to pass, flow, or ooze gradually through a porous substance, (( M; ,m;) 7; k 2o); Bleeding may be contained within the body if there is no outlet, or channel for the blood to seep or gush out through; • (ooze) – to flow or leak out slowly, as through small openings; coppice = copse : conifer : frond : foliage ~ verdure^verdant : deciduous • (coppice) – a thicket of small trees or bushes; a small wood; Who chop in coppice wild and delve the russet soil. — Life and Remains of John Clare; • (copse) – a thicket of small trees or shrubs; a coppice; There was a copse, through the middle of which the little river, the Fyllot, ran. — Father Payne; • (conifer)- a plant producing naked seeds in cones, or single naked seeds as in yews, but with pollen always borne in cones, (7R 5   <); Drought triggered tree mortality in mixed conifer forests in Yosemite National Park; • (frond)- an often large, finely divided leaf, esp. as applied to the ferns and certain palms, (>;   ) ( a? , 5 ); The flat fragrant plumes are exceedingly beautiful: no waving fern-frond is finer in form and texture. — The Yosemite; • (foliage)- the leaves of a plant, collectively; leafage, (t,m, >;я); The soil was deep and rich, and the foliage was already in its tenderest spring green. — The Texan Scouts A Story of the Alamo and Goliad; • (verdure)- the lush greenness of flourishing vegetation; It is a glorious situation; the vale rich in corn and verdure, vast woods hang down the hills, which are green to the top, and the immense rocks only serve to dignify the prospect. — Letters of Horace Walpole 01; • (verdant)- green with vegetation; covered with growing plants or grass, (я o ,я  ; , *  ); Trees and shrubs grew lush and verdant, and there was a small patch of lawn. — The Divine Wind; • inexperienced; unsophisticated; • of the color green; • (deciduous)- shedding the leaves annually, as certain trees and shrubs, (p   " ( e; >;7 ); We miss the freshness of a deciduous foliage, our evergreens look dull, and we have no deciduous trees as yet. — Life of John Coleridge Patteson; ligneous : capillary • (ligneous)- of the nature of or resembling wood; woody; The upper stratum is ligneous, and is found to be very convenient for pavements. — The Lady of the Ice A Novel; • (capillary)- pertaining to or occurring in or as if in a tube of fine bore, (O  ); The force which causes the water to rise in these tubes is called the capillary force, from the old Latin word — The First Book of Farming; • resembling a strand of hair; hairlike; shrivel = wither = sear : wizened • (shrivel) – to contract and wrinkle, as from great heat, cold, or dryness, ((, K , Yl  ;* r) #7, 9  / Y  2o  ); He was looking out into the garden, which was part orchard, now beginning toshrivel and to brown with the first touch of frosts. — Richard Carvel; • (wither) – to shrivel; fade; decay, (Y (o, >; 2o); He was seen day by day to wither, and grow weaker; • (sear) – to burn or char the surface of, (g ; " , o); My leaves are sear, tinged, but not tainted. — Alroy The Prince Of The Captivity; • (sere) – parched; dry; You are too lank and sere, — A Legend of Old Persia and Other Poems; • (wizened)- withered; shriveled, ( >;-7;, 7  -(o); He was a wizened, scrubby old fellow wearing a dirty peaked cap with a band of tarnished gold. — The Man with the Clubfoot; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.5.2 Medical Science infection, anodyne, cataract, pulmonary, coagulate, limbo infection : contagion : contamination > contaminate > decontaminate • (infection)- an agent or a contaminated substance responsible for one's becoming infected; • (contagion) – the communication of disease by direct or indirect contact, (k  ); The first symptom of the contagion was the swelling of the lymph nodes under the arms or between the thighs. — Galileo in Rome; • (contamination) – the act or process of contaminating; So even if the spice inside had somehow spoiled, through leakage, or rot, or insect contamination, the cask had a resale value. — The Shadow Of The Lion; atrophy : attrition • (atrophy) – degeneration, decline, or decrease, as from disuse, ((    a ,    g) k); The eternal spirit of Progress which works throughout the universe never fails to punish the deserter, and the most common punishment is atrophy. — The Quest of the Simple Life; • (attrition) – gradual decrease in numbers, reduction in the work force without firing employees, wearing away of opposition by means of harassment, (я  k); Wars of attrition are not always won by the besiegers, no matter how resourceful and resolved. — Dirge;  atrophy <> trophy : epitaph : memorial^ memorable^ memorialize = commemorate • (epitaph)- a commemorative inscription on a tomb or mortuary monument about the person buried at that site, ( !); One of the fathers of modern medicine asked on his death-bed, thirty years ago, that his epitaph should be, "He fed fevers Fourth. — Preventable Diseases; • (memorial)- serving as a remembrance of a person or an event; commemorative; All that remained as a memorial was the wax effigy that had been carried at the Queen's funeral, of which only the head, much altered, survives today. — TheChildrenof; • (memorable)- worth being remembered or noted; remarkable; What made the celebration the more memorable was the sermon in Gaelic by Bishop MacDonald of Argyll and the Isles. — The Life Story of an Old Rebel; • (commemorate)- to serve as a memorial or reminder of,( k  # s  %  oi k  # m a) * + ); The monuments commemorate, among others, Spencer Perceval, murdered in 1812, and a daughter of Lord — Holborn and Bloomsbury The Fascination of London; canker : contusion : blister = bulla • (canker)- a gangrenous or ulcerous sore, esp. in the mouth, (k, ); • any evil; Alone, therefore, Sarah brooded over her trials, and those of the slaves, until they became like a canker, incessantly gnawing. — The Grimke Sisters; • (contusion)- an injury, as from a blow with a blunt instrument, in which the subsurface tissue is injured but the skin is not broken; bruise, (-. a s); There was upon the head a strong contusion, as if inflicted by some blunt and heavy instrument. — Pelham — Volume 05; • (blister)- a local swelling of the skin that contains watery fluid and is caused by burning or irritation; Her body was one entire blister, and very much inflamed. — Life in the Grey Nunnery at Montreal; • (bulla)- Pathology a large blister or vesicle; Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax can be caused by lung diseases that produce the bulla, such as emphysema or asthma. — Scientific American; jaundice > jaundiced • (jaundice)- yellowish discoloration of the whites of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes caused by deposition of bile salts in these tissues; • (jaundiced)- affected by or exhibiting envy, prejudice, or hostility; I've developed a rather jaundiced view of humanity during the eight years I've spent in MO. — For Love Of Mother Not; antidote^ antiseptic^ septic^ aseptic • (antidote)- a medicine or other remedy for counteracting the effects of poison, disease, etc,(   ,p   1 ); And as ignorance must be met by education, so prejudice must be met with its antidote, which is association. — Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, 1995, Memorial Issue; • (antiseptic) – free from or cleaned of germs and other microorganisms, (  я +   k i  * !2   ! e); Next a powerful antiseptic was applied and then fresh white bandages were bound around the injured spot. — Fighting in France; • (antiseptic) – pertaining to or of the nature of sepsis; infected, ( я* 4 4 ); Aloe Vera works as antiseptic, antibacterial, and anti- inflammatory; • (aseptic)- free from the living germs of disease, fermentation, or putrefaction, ( # k + ;  я); If the wound is aseptic, the dressing should be likewise, such as cotton gauze, sterile cotton, oakum, or tow; poultice : unguent = unction = balm > balmy • (poultice)- a soft, moist mass of cloth, bread, meal, herbs, etc., applied hot as a medicament to the body, ( * u! я 7 ,  ,   i  * p 9; u!,:; u; ); He prescribed a poultice, and said that the swelling would probably break in about three days. — Trials and Triumphs of Faith; • (unguent) – an ointment or salve, usually liquid or semiliquid, for application to wounds, sores, etc., (   ! c  . h >   !*?); They anointed the fingers with some unguent, and lighted them; • (unction) – an act of anointing, esp. as a medical treatment or religious rite, (   -2 .  *; a@ я); This unction is called _Extreme_, because it is usually the last of the holy unctions administered by the Church. — The Faith of Our Fathers; • B (balm) – anything that heals, soothes, or mitigates pain, (  k ? pp , n +   p ! >  * p  ,  я h .); To some it came as a balm, to some it brought disquiet; in each and everyone it wrought a change of outlook. — The Orchard of Tears; • (balmy) – mild and refreshing; soft; soothing, fragrant; The air was fresh and balmy, and laden with the scents of spring; elixir = philosopher's stone = panacea ~ nostrum : placebo : efficacy • (elixir)- also called elixir of life. an alchemic preparation formerly believed to be capable of prolonging life, (! ; at-  + ); By the word elixir is meant length of days and happiness. — Food for the Lambs; or, Helps for Young Christians; • (philosopher's stone)-hypothetical substance that the alchemists believed to be capable of changing base metals into gold • (panacea)- a remedy for all disease or ills; cure-all, (  ,-  o + ;   F# 2 u!); The hunt for a panacea is as sure to be disappointing in the future as it has been in the past. " — Alcohol: A Dangerous and Unnecessary Medicine; • (nostrum)- a medicine sold with false or exaggerated claims and with no demonstrable value; quack medicine, (## 1 ; .7 + 1 ); This nostrum, and the manner of administering it, struck me in so laughable a light that I could not keep my countenance. — The Complete Memoirs of Jacques Casanova; • (placebo)- a substance having no pharmacological effect but given merely to satisfy a patient who supposes it to be a medicine, (,  я , G t + , nt *o я o  +  p*t a :+ ); An example of a placebo is a pill containing sugar instead of the drug or other substance being studied; • (efficacy)- capacity for producing a desired result or effect; effectiveness, (K p 4 ); However, such tests have yielded contradictory results, and their efficacy is unclear; potion <> portion • (potion) – a drink or draft, esp. one having or reputed to have medicinal, poisonous, or magical powers, ( 1 ,    Lndя  u!2 e t; N; 2++); The effect of the potion was almost instantaneous, amply attesting; • (portion) – a section or quantity within a larger thing; a part of a whole; cauterize : catharsis : cleanse : scrub : purge > purgatory : punitive : cathartic • (cauterize)- to burn with a hot iron, electric current, fire, or a caustic, esp. for curative purposes; treat with a cautery, (( k k k   я ) kя !*?  ,  . * ! 7 + *o); I'm going to be prompt and ruthless in an effort to cauterize this wound before it gets any worse. — Gates of Vienna; • (catharsis) – purgation, (2); • the purging of the emotions or relieving of emotional tensions, esp. through certain kinds of art, as tragedy or music, (- , k + ; k (#,  OяP *   ,@ a@4 +  ? a  я  K > - , k + #)); It seemed to me that the laughter was a catharsis, and that it marked a new beginning for all of us. — River God; • (scrub)- clean with hard rubbing; • (purge) – to rid of whatever is impure or undesirable; cleanse; purify, (   ;   ); I must root out that fault before I die or my purgatory will be long. — The City and the World and Other Stories; • B + (purgatory) – place of spiritual expiation, (  ! s, p  -, -t > G ds @ * > .- >% !!>k + -t    .); I must root out that fault before I die or my purgatory will be long. — The City and the World and Other Stories; • (punitive) – serving for, concerned with, or inflicting punishment, ( s4 ); The Bolsheviki resorted to punitive expeditions which became the terror of the country. — My Disillusionment in Russia; • (cathartic)- purgative, (2 1 ;   !*?); And it was cathartic, already making her feel better, bringing to an end this awful part of her life. — CourtingTrouble; laceration : dissection^ vivisection : autopsy • (laceration)- the result of lacerating; a rough, jagged tear, (k); A scalp laceration, therefore, may bleed profusely even though a major blood vessel has not been cut; • (dissection)- analysis, cutting apart in order to examine; Take time for the dissection, and save the specimen in dilute alcohol. — A Practical Physiology; • (vivisection)- the action of cutting into or dissecting a living body, (я - c*); Dissection, vivisection, analysis--those are the processes to which all things not conclusively historical and all things spiritual are bound to pass. — A Book of Myths; • (autopsy)- inspection and dissection of a body after death, as for determination of the cause of death; postmortem examination, (*n);By the time the autopsy was over, there were two obvious handprints on her throat. — The Tenth Circle; anodyne = analgesic = painkiller : opiate : narcotic ~ sedative ~ anesthetic : tranquilizing : stupor • (anodyne)- a medicine that relieves or allays pain, ( *u! 1 , nt* st); Please do not hesitate to call your flight attendant if you require an anodyne, and remember that your satisfaction is our prime directive. — The Many-Coloured Land -- Julian May; • (analgesic) – a remedy that relieves or allays pain, ( *   *u!  !*?, >   ); Paracetamol is also an analgesic (pain reliever), so it eases the discomfort and body aches that often accompany fever; • (painkiller) – an agent, such as an analgesic drug, that relieves pain; There just wasn't enough painkiller or somazine to keep the wounded asleep. — The Legacy of Heorot; • (opiate) – a drug containing opium or its derivatives, used in medicine for inducing sleep and relieving pain, (- K>k + *  > ? ?   + я h .); It contains an opiate, and should not be given without definite orders from a physician. — The Mother and Her Child; • (narcotic) – any of a class of substances that blunt the senses, as opium, morphine, belladonna, and alcohol, that in large quantities produce euphoria, stupor, or coma, that when used constantly can cause habituation or addiction, and that are used in medicine to relieve pain, cause sedation, and induce sleep; If one man may soothe his feelings with this narcotic, another may stimulate them, when he is low and cheerless, with alcohol. — From Death into Life; • (sedative)- allaying irritability or excitement; assuaging pain; lowering functional activity; And for relaxation and sedative, when he had thoroughly worn himself out with mental toil, he would have recourse to the hardest bodily exercise. — Life of Charles Dickens; • (anesthetic)- a substance that produces anesthesia, as halothane, procaine, or ether; After the sting of the local anesthetic, there was no pain in the procedure. — Meyer, Stephenie - New Moon; • (tranquilizing)- tending to soothe or tranquilize; Animal Control officers say they tried to track the dogs and shoot them with tranquilizing darts but were unsuccessful; • (stupor)- suspension or great diminution of sensibility, as in disease or as caused by narcotics, intoxicants, etc., (-, *d ,  + i  *я  p j. a s; i ndsm); He lay in stupor, and the surgeon said he was going comfortably, and would suffer little. — Lazarre; astigmatism : cataract : myopic • (astigmatism)- Ophthalmology. a refractive error of the eye in which parallel rays of light from an external source do not converge on a single focal point on the retina,(  nd); The correction of astigmatism is often accomplished in conjunction with the correction of field curvature aberrations; • (cataract)- an abnormality of the eye, characterized by opacity of the lens, (2% : ); A little nephew whom she had adopted was suffering from cataract, and she desired to place him under the care of the famous Düsseldorf oculist. — Annie Besant An Autobiography; • a descent of water over a steep surface; a waterfall, esp. one of B %7 я p!); considerable size, ( .; • (myopic)- Ophthalmology. pertaining to or having myopia; nearsighted, B ; a** (k* Z 4 ); Therefore her thoughts and arguments were myopic, almost necessarily specious. — Children of the Whirlwind; pulmonary : palpitate = throb = flutter = pound = pulsate : arrhythmic : carcinogenic • (pulmonary)- of or pertaining to the lungs, (KKkn + + ); A blood clot that travels to the lung is called a pulmonary embolism; • (palpitate)- to pulsate with unusual rapidity from exertion, emotion, disease, etc.; flutter, (h; !9 dr o a  @ s n .o); My heart began to palpitate, for no Catholic ever made more faithful confessions to his absolving priest, than I to my only parent. — Ernest Linwood or, The Inner Life of the Author; • (throb)- to beat rapidly or violently, as the heart; pound; It makes every movement of the hand a benediction, every heart-throb an unuttered prayer. — Memories of Jane Cunningham Croly; • (flutter)- to wave or flap rapidly in an irregular manner; I felt my heart flutter, and knew if I should undertake to speak my voice would tremble, and determined to gain time. — Personal Recollections of Pardee Butler; • (pound)- to pulsate rapidly and heavily; throb; • (pulsate)- to expand and contract rhythmically, as the heart; beat; throb, (s n .o); The fact that they move, pulsate, work in all directions, shows that they have the necessary organs with which to work. — Life: Its True Genesis; • (arrythmic)- lacking rhythm or regularity of rhythm; In the arrhythmic heartbeat-instant that follows, we all sigh and hope that this time he stays here for good. — Asimov's Science Fiction; • (carcinogenic)- any substance or agent that tends to produce a cancer, ( nя); Researchers introduced a carcinogenic, something that causes cancer, into the mammary glands of rats; dorsal # ventral : torso : visceral • (dorsal) – relating to the back of an animal, (!Z* B B , !Z*kn ); The dorsal, anal, ventral and pectoral fins are black with a white margin with the first rays being banded; • (ventral) – of or pertaining to the venter or belly; abdominal, (u*mn); The posture of attack and self-protection is abandoned, and the ventral area, more vulnerable than the back, is exposed to the sting of the bee. — Social Life in the Insect World; • (torso) – the trunk of the human body; • a sculptured form representing the trunk of a nude female or male figure, ( n; .-!-? .   (o   4 )); Speaking about the discovery of the torso, the spokesman said: 'It is a very remote area and the body part had not been buried; • something mutilated or incomplete; • (visceral)- felt in one’s inner organ, (- nt); The plot is incredibly light, eschewing the intellectual for the visceral, and simply tells a solid, if unspectacular, war story. — Destructoid; dyspeptic = bilious • (dyspeptic)- a person subject to or suffering from dyspepsia (indigestion),(aя ,gs); But he was troublesome in small matters; irritable, nervous, and dyspeptic. — The Life of Froude; • (bilious)- pertaining to bile or to an excess secretion of bile, (a  !t  !2 K Z B ); • peevish; irritable; cranky; • (stoic)- extremely unpleasant or distasteful,(  k); My father complained of being dreadfully bilious, a bad preparation for the purpose. — Records of a Girlhood; disgorge : ejaculation : emetic • (disgorge)- to eject or throw out from the throat, mouth, or stomach; vomit forth, (u,;  ); The agent may indeed squeeze out larger sums than publishers like to disgorge, but how can he obtain more than the market-value? — Without Prejudice; • (ejaculation)- the act or process of ejaculating, esp. the discharge of semen by the male reproductive organs; • an abrupt, exclamatory utterance, ( sp; - s u k); By cunning questions and ejaculations of wonder he could elevate my simple art, which is but systematized common sense, into a prodigy; • (emetic)- causing vomiting, as a medicinal substance, (  ud); The doctor gave me an emetic, and soon after I ejected a quantity of bitter bile. — A Sailor of King George; symbiosis : homeostasis • (symbiosis)- the living together of two dissimilar organisms, as in mutualism, commensalism, amensalism, or parasitism, ( @n я  я ! 4 ,, a  я t, ?я ); Of course, the price that must be paid for this symbiosis is the obliteration of the self, and deep down inside that's just what the leftist desires; • (homeostasis)- the tendency of a system, esp. the physiological system of higher animals, to maintain internal stability, owing to the coordinated response of its parts to any situation or stimulus tending to disturb its normal condition or function; The process of homeostasis, of particular interest to systems biologists, has a long history in physiological studies. — Citizendium, the Citizens' Compendium; anemia : insomnia^ somniferous = soporific : somnolent • (anemia)- Pathology. a quantitative deficiency of the hemoglobin, often accompanied by a reduced number of red blood cells and causing pallor, weakness, and breathlessness, (kl); Anxiety is associated with medical factors such as anemia, asthma, infections, and several heart conditions; • a lack of power, vigor, vitality, or colorfulness; His writing suffers from anemia; • (insomnia)- inability to obtain sufficient sleep, esp. when chronic; difficulty in falling or staying asleep; sleeplessness, (a d); His disease took many forms--insomnia, arthritis, weakness of sight, incapacity for sustained thought. — The American Spirit in Literature; • (somniferous)- inducing sleep; soporific; Her study of library-cataloguing, recording, books of reference, was easy and not too somniferous. — Main Street; • (soporific)- inducing or tending to induce sleep; In addition to being a strong soporific, the drug conveniently wipes out memory just prior to being administered. — Bloodhype; • (somnolent)- sleepy; drowsy, ( d ;+  dp; d); And the absence of consciousness in this half-somnolent existence cast upon its whole beautiful expanse a shade of melancholy. — Essays on Russian Novelists; chronic : febrile : prophylactic • (chronic)- having long had a disease, habit, weakness, or the like, ((,  a s mn) a  *s); Many of these diseases are chronic, and can be prevented by having a healthy lifestyle at a younger age, and continuing it into adulthood; • (febrile)- pertaining to or marked by fever; feverish, (j kn; j @ !n); All anti-febrile chemicals are rank poisons and contrary to nature's way. — Valere Aude Dare to Be Healthy, Or, The Light of Physical Regeneration; • (prophylactic)- defending or protecting from disease or infection, as a drug, (,  -!*- !* ? k  ! e !*?, 2 ;  !*k!); Happiness is the great prophylactic, and nothing is so sanitary as love, even though it be flavored with garlic. — Little Journeys to the Homes of the Great; coagulate = clot ~ congeal^ gelatinize : curdle • (coagulate) – to change from a fluid into a thickened mass; curdle; congeal, (@4   .o); A stream of blood welled out of the man's back, from between the shoulder-blades -- warm blood, that had not even started to coagulate. — Told in the East; • (clot) – a thick, viscous, or coagulated mass or lump, as of blood; Were this fluid not consumed rapidly, it would clot within a matter of hours, making it totally useless. — Conan the Indomitable; • (congeal) – to solidify by or as if by freezing; Her looks made Ralph's spirits sink to forty below zero, and congeal. — The Hoosier Schoolmaster; • (gelatinize) – to convert to gelatin or jelly; Tom denies any attempts to gelatinize his audience with such tactics. — Recidivism; • (curdle)- to become congealed as if by having changed into curd; No wonder the blood seemed to curdle in my veins in contemplating the lives of these men, and their end. — A Woman's Life-Work; cerebral : apoplexy • (cerebral)- Anatomy, Zoology. of or pertaining to the cerebrum or the brain, ( se-kn); He said the evolution of a part of the brain called the cerebral cortex, which processes complex thinking, perception and language, might be responsible; • betraying or characterized by the use of the intellect rather than intuition or instinct; • (apoplexy)- a sudden, usually marked loss of bodily function due to rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel, (n  ,, e ,  se k  -я   2 k o 2  k  ! !); The physician thought that apoplexy was imminent, and that if so, Luther could hardly recover. — Life of Martin Luther; psychosis ~ paranoia : sensitization : hypochondriac • (psychosis)- a mental disorder characterized by symptoms, such as delusions or hallucinations, that indicate impaired contact with reality, ( r! as@   rg   a s; i  ); Occasionally we also see a case of organic brain disease or manic-depressive psychosis, and in more frequent instances a case of epilepsy. — Studies in Forensic Psychiatry; • (paranoia)- psychosis marked by delusions of grandeur or persecution, (  > d4  #     ; > j); Sometimes, emotional state related to pleasure and the result of extreme paranoia is a phobia; • (sensitization)- Psychology. the process of becoming susceptible to a given stimulus that previously had no effect or significance, ( *  k * 4 ); Propane is not an irritant, does not cause sensitization, and has no known teratogenic or mutagenic effects; • (hypochondriac)- a person who worries or talks excessively about his or her health, (  l4 ;   gs); King Philip the Fifth was a hypochondriac, a half-demented creature, almost a madman. — A History of the Four Georges, Volume II (of 4); aphasia^ amnesia^ mnemonic • (aphasia)- the loss of a previously held ability to speak or understand spoken or written language, due to disease or injury of the brain, ( se - K ?   ?  l k  !,  k !); I affected him with a kind of aphasia, erasing the words he wanted from his brain. — Secret History Revealed By Lady Peggy O'Malley; • (amnesia)- loss of a large block of interrelated memories; complete or partial loss of memory caused by brain injury, shock, etc, (-   m4 sB   !); This dislocation of memory is a variety of aphasia known as amnesia, and when the memory is recurrently lost and restored it is an "alternating personality." — The Poisoned Pen;  mnemonic^ memento = keepsake = souvenir = token = relic • (mnemonic)- assisting or intended to assist the memory, (sB mn; s); A mnemonic is a short rhyme, phrase, or other mental technique for making information easier to memorize; • (memento)- an object or item that serves to remind one of a person, past event, etc.; keepsake; souvenir, (s 2h, a @j); She had an impulse to pocket the spoon for a memento, to show it to grandchildren for a warning. — Complete Project Gutenberg Works of George Meredith; • (keepsake)- anything kept, or given to be kept, as a token of friendship or affection; remembrance, (sB sr!  k  :+ ); Finley, that you would paint me a handsome piece for a keepsake as you are going to Europe and may not be back in a hurry. — Letters and Journals 01; • (souvenir)- a token of remembrance; a memento; This souvenir, which holds the place of honor in his collection, he immediately shipped home. — Last of the Great Scouts The Life Story of William F Cody; • (stoic)- something serving as an indication, proof, or expression of something else; a sign; I have taken your young brother as a token, to show you that I know all that you do. — Dangerous Lady; • (relics)- a surviving memorial of something past, (a o  > sB  яg %, ! tt + *); Roman coins and relics, and fragments of tessellated pavement, have been found in and about the town. — In the Days of My Youth;  retentive : reminiscence^ remnant = residue • (retentive)- having power or ability to remember; having a good memory; He possessed, too, a wonderfully retentive memory. — Fifty Years of Railway Life in England Scotland and Ireland; • having power or capacity to retain, ( k); Keep salt consumption to a minimum as salt makes your body water-retentive; • (reminiscence)- the act or process of recalling past experiences, events, etc, (sB 2, as+ ); All attempts at reminiscence, at irrelevant anecdotes, were mere pretense. — Lahoma; • (remnant)- a remaining, usually small part, quantity, number, or the like, (a , :#Kq#, >;  r; a Z); To save the remnant, the contending parties came to a compromise. — International Miscellany of Literature, Art and Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, Oct. 1, 1850; • (residue)- something that remains after a part is removed, disposed of, or used; remainder; rest; remnant, (a Z); None of the samples tested were found to contain residues;  vestige = trace = tincture • (vestige) – a mark, trace, or visible evidence of something that is no longer present or in existence, ( 2h; ,n; n+ ,); There was not a cloud in the sky, nor the vestige of a cloud. — Where the Trail Divides; • (trace) – a visible mark, such as a footprint, made or left by the passage of a person, animal, or thing; The only public libraries whereof I have any trace were at Kingston, Ernesttown and Hallowell. — Life in Canada Fifty Years Ago; • (tincture) – a coloring or dyeing substance; a pigment; This tincture should be made from the dried leaves to avoid hydration of the ether. — The Medicinal Plants of the Philippines;  limbo = oblivion > oblivious • (limbo)- a region on the border of hell or heaven, serving as the abode after death of unbaptized infants (limbo of infants) and of the righteous who died before the coming of Christ (limbo of the fathers or limbo of the patriarchs), ( ss  a> + ss! 4 >, +   k*   pя B -t* s); Sarah sat in limbo, waiting for the  .o G*  operation to be over. — Dangerous Lady; • (oblivion) – the state of being completely forgotten or unknown, ( s; sB ; a2 a s); Human life is short and fleeting, and many millions of individuals share in it, who are swallowed by that monster ofoblivion which is waiting for them with ever-open jaws. — The Essays of Arthur Schopenhauer; The Art of Literature; • (oblivious) – unmindful; unconscious; unaware, (a2; sB); He was just walking straight ahead, oblivious, the flashlight beam swinging gently in front of him. — The Hard Way by Lee Child;  replication > replica > replicate = duplicate > reduplication : image {effigy} : counterpart • (replication) – a copy; In the world of genes, the occasional flaws in replication (mutations) see to it that the gene pool contains alternative variants of any given gene - 'alleles' - which may therefore be seen as competing with each other. — The God Delusion; • (replica) – a copy or reproduction of a work of art produced by the maker of the original or under his or her supervision, ( p, h h  ); This replica is crafted from steel and aluminum, and includes a wall display case; • (replicate) – to repeat, duplicate, or reproduce, esp. for experimental purposes; After being placed in culture to grow and replicate, the cells were injected back into the afflicted joints; • (duplicate) – identically copied from an original; Physically, Galographics looked like a duplicate of the Genealogy Archives, with one exception. — Orphan Star; • (reduplication) – a copy; This is a modern reduplication, not an archaeological one. — The Life of the Fields; • (effigy)- a representation or image, esp. sculptured, as on a monument, (!t + ; p  4 ); His effigy was presently burned by the clergy, as he had not appeared in answer to a second summons, and he was outlawed in absence. — John Knox and the Reformation; • (counterpart)- one that closely resembles another; Every time he looked up, the purple eyes of his counterpart were there, gazing across the conference table in his direction. — Dirge; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.6 Earth Science geography, geology, terrain, ravine, fissure, catastrophe paleontology : oceanography^ topography • (paleontology)- the science of the forms of life existing in former geologic periods, as represented by their fossils, (яj ); His personal interests focus within the areas of human osteology, paleontology, archaeology and forensics; • (oceanography)- the exploration and scientific study of the ocean and its phenomena, ( d  m o dpk    j ); A permanent space station would be able to provide broad support for the sciences of oceanography, mete orology, and physics, as well as astronomy. — skylab; • (topography)- the detailed mapping or charting of the features of a relatively small area, district, or locality, (p  o ); He studied minutely the topography, history, civilizations and resources of the countries he visited. — Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition; archipelago : glade : prairie : terrain : tundra : oasis : glen : marsh • (archipelago)- a large group or chain of islands, (!!я  ); The explorers penetrated to the very heart of the archipelago, and made a hydrographic survey of it. — Celebrated Travels and Travellers Part III; • (glade)- an open space in a forest, (#  $ %& я'); Entering the glade, he stared around in vague confusion. — The Seventh Gate; • (prairie)- an extensive area of flat or rolling, predominantly treeless grassland, especially the large tract or plain of central North America, (# ut *#  k, , s   $/ ); Indians and buffalo make the poetry and life of the prairie, and our camp was full of their exhilaration. — The Life and Adventures of Kit Carson; • (terrain)- an area of land; ground, ($/01); It was over mountainous terrain, a burning desert and a snake-infested swamp. — A Ring And A Promise; • (tundra)- one of the vast, nearly level, treeless plains of the arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and North America,(nd  a45); A study in Canada revealed that the tundra is shrinking in response to global warming; • (oasis)- a fertile or green spot in a desert or wasteland, made so by the presence of water, ( r ); A Broadwood is on its way from London; in a few days I hope to have made unto myself some kind of oasis in this desert. — The Wings of Icarus; • (glen)- a small, narrow, secluded valley, ( 78 u!); Walked in the glen and wandered about the burn and top of Mama's glen, wondering how anybody could ever ask me to leave all that is so much too dear. — Lady John Russell; • (marsh) – a tract of low wet land, often treeless and periodically inundated, generally characterized by a growth of grasses, sedges, cattails, and rushes, (я5$/ , я5, 5 a45); In going north we crossed this river, or rather marsh, which is full of papyrus plants and reeds. — The Last Journals of David Livingstone from 1865 to His Death; marsh : mire = morass = quagmire = quag = slack • (mire) – a tract or area of wet, swampy ground; bog; marsh, (!&, !9, 8 , &); • to involve; entangle, (a :  !;, !&# !;); The oxen were mired, and so was the load. — When Life Was Young At the Old Farm in Maine; • (morass) – a tract of low, soft, wet ground, ( <,  , =$я я , я5$/ , c); He is like a strong man struggling in a morass: every effort to extricate himself only sinks him deeper and deeper. — Select Speeches of Daniel Webster; • (quagmire) – land with a soft muddy surface; A throne may be a quagmire, and a man may be buried in it, and buried alive. " — The Eternal City; • a difficult or precarious situation; a predicament; Some are predicting that this quagmire could be our next Vietnam; • (slack) – an area of still water; fen : swamp : muskeg : bog {toilet = lavatory} • (fen)- low land covered wholly or partially with water; boggy land; a marsh,( < я5$/ , 5); His fame descended to Northamptonshire itself, and far into the misty realm of thefen-bound regions. — The Life of John Clare; • (swamp)- a tract of wet, spongy land, often having a growth of certain types of trees and other vegetation, but unfit for cultivation, (я5, я5$/ , a !$/ /  , c, 5); Without a lantern, the swamp was a black cave around them. — Wit'ch's Storm; • (muskeg)- a bog of northern North America, commonly having sphagnum mosses, sedge, and sometimes stunted black spruce and tamarack trees; It was then that I discovered a pack of eight wolves silently romping about in the snow of the muskeg--just like a lot of young dogs. — The Drama of the Forests Romance and Adventure; • (bog) – wet, spongy ground with soil composed mainly of decayed vegetable matter, (я5$/ , я5, 5, !&!8 / я ); I found myself as on a miry bog, that shook if I did but stir, and was, as there, left both of God and Christ, and the Spirit, and all good things. — Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners; • (lavatory) – a room equipped with washing and often toilet facilities; a bathroom, (=?<'); She walked to the front and saw that the lavatory was unoccupied, thank goodness. — The Man Means Business; precipice ~ cliff : crater : grotto : hummock = hillock = knoll {knell} • (precipice)- a cliff with a vertical, nearly vertical, or overhanging face, (5, $g  !8# ulm  an 0; !D; p!); Without waiting to investigate whether the slope terminated in a drift or a precipice, they flung themselves over. — The Silver Horde; • a situation of great peril; • (cliff)- a high, steep, or overhanging face of rock, (u&< 0; !,;); Here what they call a cliff was a crumbling bank of whitey-brown earth not fifty feet high. — In the Days of the Comet; • (crater)- a bowl-shaped depression at the mouth of a volcano or geyser, (ag' j5 0  ); A breath of wind, a distant vibration, and the collapse would continue until the crater was filled solid with pulverized rubble. — The Stars My Destination; • (grotto) – a cave or cavern, (# u *c ,# # t $#   8 g,); On one side of the garden was a large and elaborate cement grotto, and a statue of the Blessed Virgin stood in a niche at the back. — The Great War As I Saw It; • (hummock)- also, hammock. an elevated tract of land rising above the general level of a marshy region, (=IJ !,;; J5; K); The next hummock was surmounted, the dogs panting, and the men, even in that icy air, reeking with perspiration. — A Man's Woman; • (hillock) – a small hill; On a small hillock, in the midst of vast tracts of rice, it raises its nine stories to a height of one hundred and seventy feet. — The Story of Ida Pfeiffer; • (knoll) – a small, rounded hill or eminence; hillock, (=IJ !,;; K); The two marksmen hid behind a small knoll, after having laid out a newly-killed deer as bait. — From Pole to Pole A Book for Young People; • (knell) – the sound made by a bell rung slowly, esp. for a death or a funeral, (LMN (#   a#nk u!5#k)); Who would ring my funeral knell, and plant the wild rose upon my lonely grave? " — The Forest King Wild Hunter of the Adaca; gorge ~ ravine ~ valley : spring : cascade # cataract • (gorge)- to stuff with food,(k#   0o, =0# =K5 ,o); The gluttonous guests gorged himself with food as though he had not eaten for days; • a narrow cleft with steep, rocky walls, esp. one through which a stream runs, (' 9J); But what makes the site special is the vertigo- inducing gorge, which is covered with moss and plants; • (ravine)- a narrow steep-sided valley commonly eroded by running water,('$ 98 u!; ); She was a creature of optimism and she believed in her friends, but the blank far wall of the ravine was a mighty pessimistic thing. — Dragon on a Pedestal; • (valley)- an elongated lowland between ranges of mountains, hills, or other uplands, (u!); At the head of the valley are the famous geysers of California. — Thirty-One Years on the Plains and In the Mountains; • (spring)- a small stream of water flowing naturally from the earth; • (cascade)- a waterfall descending over a steep, rocky surface, (я5p!); He preserved unbroken silence until he got nearly opposite the cascade, on the left of the road, a few leagues from Chambery. — The Memoirs of Napoleon; • Electricity. an arrangement of component devices, as electrolytic cells, each of which feeds into the next in succession; • (cataract)- a descent of water over a steep surface; a waterfall, esp. one of considerable size, (,P 0; я5p!); From the cataract, the river is a continued rapid, half a mile in width, for about 7 miles. — The Life and Correspondence of Sir Isaac Brock; • an abnormality of the eye, characterized by opacity of the lens, (=<#0 I ); A little nephew whom she had adopted was suffering from cataract, and she desired to place him under the care of the famous Düsseldorf oculist. — Annie Besant An Autobiography; ford : confluence : arroyo = gully : stream : creek : rivulet : brook {tolerate = endure > enduring = surviving} • (ford)- a place where a river or other body of water is shallow enough to be crossed by wading, (  a'$ a7  =,&#J  ';# ! ,o ); We crossed the ford, and took up the spoor on the further side, and followed it into the marsh-like land beyond. — Maiwa's Revenge; • (confluence)- a flowing together of two or more streams, rivers, or the like, (   5 p,, di   5 , s  T ); But when they reached their confluence, they forgot their fish, and it took its way in the sea at will. — The Koran (Al-Qur'an); • (arroyo)- (chiefly in southwest U.S.) a small steep-sided watercourse or gulch with a nearly flat floor: usually dry except after heavy rains; Above the dam the arroyo was running like a mill-tail. — A Texas Matchmaker; • (gully)- a small valley or ravine originally worn away by running water and serving as a drainageway after prolonged heavy rains,('0); They heard of a gully, five or six miles away, where crystals had been found. — Brave Men and Women; • a ditch or gutter; • (creek)- U.S., Canada, and Australia. a stream smaller than a river, (=IJ ); Over the divide at the head of this creek is a tributary of the Big Windy. — The Turtles of Tasman; • (rivulet)- a small stream; streamlet; brook, (=IJ ); The stony bottom of the rivulet was his only aid. — The Flaming Jewel; • (brook) – a small, natural stream of fresh water, (=ss   =IJ ); Across the brook was a flimsy wooden bridge, missing several crucial planks. — Challenging Destiny #19; • to bear; suffer; tolerate, ( , ); Her impatience brooked no delay. — Ideala; • (endure) – to carry on through, despite hardships; undergo; I know what frail man can endure, and what support I can and will give him. — The Life and Legends of Saint Francis of Assisi; lagoon : delta : gulf • (lagoon)- an area of shallow water separated from the sea by low sandy dunes, (a'$ 5k я#5 h; u!h); Now and then in the lagoon was the splash of some big fish, and a little way out towards the opening in the reef was the light of a schooner. — The Trembling of a Leaf Little Stories of the South Sea Islands; • (delta)- a nearly flat plain of alluvial deposit between diverging branches of the mouth of a river, often, though not necessarily, triangular, (-d!); The Egyptian population is concentrated only in the Nile Valley delta, an area of some 50,000 square kilometers; • (gulf)- an area of shallow water separated from the sea by low sandy dunes, (a'$ 5k я#5 h; u!h); Now and then in the lagoon was the splash of some big fish, and a little way out towards the opening in the reef was the light of a schooner. — The Trembling of a Leaf Little Stories of the South Sea Islands;  peak = acme = apex = pinnacle = summit = vertex = tip = top = culmination = apogee = zenith = crest • (peak)- the pointed top of a mountain or ridge, (p:  !,;  !8# r </;  0); • (acme)- the highest point; summit; peak, (8</;, un #8c 0, !#P8); To be born obscure and to die famous has been described as the acme of human felicity. — The Life of Froude; • (apex)- the tip, point, or vertex; summit, (uc n, 8n); "That is the triumphal apex, the glory, the culmination of everything that is great and supreme in manhood. — Ziska; • (pinnacle)- the highest or culminating point, as of success, power, fame, etc., ( #8c  ); In the middle of a tortuous valley there rises up an immense pinnacle and on the pinnacle are four castles -- Las Tours, the Towers. — The Good Soldier; • (summit)- the highest point or part, as of a hill, a line of travel, or any object; top; apex, (0, </;, 8, T); • (vertex)- the highest point of something; apex; summit; top, (8, 8n, </;); Find the neighboring vertex with the largest number of incident edges; • (tip)- the extreme end of something; especially something pointed; • (culmination)- that in which anything culminates; the culminating position or stage; highest point; acme, (8n);It was the hour of culmination, the supreme moment of felicity waiting for its crown. — The Blue Flower; • (apogee)- the highest or most distant point; climax, (!^ =^# k!#^ <nd  a  = g#,  / as , 8n, 0); Here is modern civilisation at apogee--the final word in luxury--the dénouement of spectacular life. — Europe After 8:15; • (zenith)- a highest point or state; culmination, ( ^ u!# = я я  *# a7, 0 :, n ); The harvest moon in the zenith was flooding the world with unclouded light. — The Mermaid A Love Tale; • (crest)- the highest part of a hill or mountain range; summit, (!8# T, =Ku# </;);  nadir # zenith = apogee # perigee • (nadir)- the lowest point; point of greatest adversity or despair, ( m  d85 n); The nadir is the lowest point in the heavens and the zenith is the highest. — Keats: Poems Published in 1820; • (perigree)- the point in the orbit of a heavenly body, esp. the moon, or of an artificial satellite at which it is nearest to the earth, (= g, ks = n !^  J ); The moon is nearest the earth at her perigee, and most distant at her apogee;  abyss ~ chasm ~ fissure = crevice = cleft^ cleave {rive = rend = rip = split = sever : sunder^ asunder} • (abyss)- a deep, immeasurable space, gulf, or cavity; vast chasm, (a5 'h, , !5,  5); It was a dread of the abyss, the dread of the crags which seemed to nod upon me. — A Set of Six; • (chasm)- a yawning fissure or deep cleft in the earth's surface; gorge, ('$ %J5, 0, 'h); This chasm was probably about eight or nine hundred feet deep, and its sides were straight and sheer as those of a well. — Dreams and Dream Stories; • (fissure)- a narrow opening produced by cleavage or separation of parts, (<, %J5, n, n); The sheet of once molten rock with which a fissure has been filled is known as a dike. — The Elements of Geology; • (crevice)- a crack forming an opening; cleft; rift; fissure, (!,;  =o#5 %J5); At the end of the crevice was a boulder wedged in a hole. — The Color of Her Panties; • (cleft)- a space or opening made by cleavage; a split, (<;  %J5, %J#5 d  =05 0  ); This cleft is the only entrance to a valley three or four miles long, which lies in the very heart of the mountains. — Views a-foot; • (cleave) – to adhere closely; stick; cling, (d$# e&#J ^; a ' ^); If you could stand outside it and see the universes cleave, I'm sure it would be very spectacular; • to split or divide by or as if by a cutting blow, esp. along a natural line of division, as the grain of wood,(=<; cn ); The proteases rapidly cleaved globin peptides and intact hemoglobin at multiple different sequences.; • (rive) – to tear or rend apart; to rive meat from a bone; • (rip) – to cut, tear apart, or tear away roughly or energetically; • (split) – to break, burst, or rip apart with force; rend; • (sever) – to separate (a part) from the whole, as by cutting or the like, (J; In/ cn ); Sharpski had his fingers severed, his skull fractured and his nose nearly cut off; • (sunder) – to separate; part; divide; sever, (!^/ k  ); Family ties were sundered, and old friendships were broken. — Beacon Lights of History, Volume 11 American Founders; • (asunder) – into separate parts; in or into pieces, (!^ ,#, cn ,#); The door did softly asunder, and her father entered. — Eventide A Series of Tales and Poems;  cleave = cling = adhere > adherent = devotee : retinue = entourage = cortège = suite : constituent {component} = supporter : champion • (cling) – to hold fast or adhere to something, as by grasping; Inside we are cold, and we cling together for warmth. — The Time Traveler's Wife; • (adherent) – a person who follows or upholds a leader, cause, etc.; supporter; follower, ( ^8, a '   ); The Compact had no more faithful adherent, and by no one were "low radicals" held in more profound abhorrence. — The Story of the Upper Canada Rebellion; • (devotee) – a person who is extremely devoted to a religion; a follower, (= # : 8  : 8 ='#t en $k); Religion for a devotee is a veil which covers and justifies all his passions, his pride, his bad humor, his anger, his vengeance, his impatience, his bitterness—Superstition In All Ages (1732) Common Sense; • (retinue) – a body of retainers in attendance upon an important personage; suite, (uc!s  8< g  Tn); In his retinue was a troop of comedians, a court fool, two dwarfs for luck, seven cooks, three alchemists and an astrologer. — Little Journeys to the Homes of Eminent Painters; • (entourage) – a group of attendants or associates; a retinue; Behind the entourage, the freed captives chattered animatedly about their rescue. — The Day of the Tempest; • (cortège) – a train of attendants; a company of followers; a procession; The cortège passes on, and the platoon heaves a sigh of relief and stands easy. — Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. 150, March 22, 1916; • (suite) – a staff of attendants or followers; a retinue; • (constituent)- supporter;serving to compose or make up a thing; component, ( 8< 15  ; 'D  u!  a7); It must contain at least one constituent which is a word or an image, and it may or may not contain one or more sensations as constituents. — The Analysis of Mind; • (champion)- to act as champion of; defend; support, ( ^8 ; k ); Among the many causes Peter forcefully championed were a living wage, healthcare for all, and making the US the world leader in renewable energy; aperture ~ orifice : vent : rift : pitfall • (aperture)- an opening, as a hole, slit, crack, gap, etc, (# *#5 p# # !# e n, %&, %J5, Id); The more tightly the aperture is allowed to close, the less light will enter the camera; • (orifice) – an opening or aperture, as of a tube or pipe; a mouth-like opening or hole; mouth; vent, ((g, i) 0  ); This orifice was nearly twenty feet in width, but scarcely two in height. — Île mystérieuse. English; • (vent)- an opening, as in a wall, serving as an outlet for air, smoke, fumes, or the like, (n; Id; =%); While a vent is a good idea to minimize moisture in basements, it isn't required for an electric dryer; • to give free play or expression to (an emotion, passion, etc.), (a: p LJ# ); His strong literary inclination now vented itself in efforts which were in every way characteristic of the man. — Great Fortunes and How They Were Made; • (rift)- an opening made by splitting, cleaving, etc.; fissure; cleft; chink, ($/!# %J#5 !  u!); The ice shelf beyond this rift is effectively unstable; • a break in friendly relations, (I;I;, n#t %J5); The opposition was not slow to take advantage of the rift, and planted itself on the side of his Royal Highness. — Lady Mary Wortley Montague; • (pitfall) – a lightly covered and unnoticeable pit prepared as a trap for people or animals, (=<-'8);For the wary wolf dreads the pitfall, and the hawk the suspected snares, and the kite the concealed hook. — The Works of Horace; lode : strata > stratified • (lode)- a veinlike deposit, usually metalliferous, (: 0  98 0); Already men were at work on the new lode, and doing placer digging for the free gold in the soil. — That Girl Montana; • (strata) –a plural of stratum; There they deposited, in thin horizontal strata, a series of rocks of different kinds. — Biographies of Distinguished Scientific Men; • (stratified) – divided into classes; arranged into strata, (s$/;  s); River deposits are stratified, as may be seen in any fresh cut in banks or bars. — The Elements of Geology; • (stratum) – layer; level; layers of earth’s surface; (pl. strata); cataclysm = catastrophe = calamity : conflagration {inferno = perdition = hell} : avalanche • (cataclysm)- any violent upheaval, esp. one of a social or political nature, (*s e7 p<1 !8 , # яj    я p); It is a world cataclysm, and before it ends it may unsettle everything fine and wholesome in America. — Woodrow Wilson as I know Him; • an extensive flood; deluge, (p , $/ m); • (catastrophe)- a sudden and widespread disaster, (!8, *s !t); I felt that a catastrophe was approaching before which the boldest spirit must quail. — A Journey to the Interior of the Earth; • (calamity)- an event that brings terrible loss, lasting distress, or severe affliction; a disaster; This calamity was aggravated by the loss of the Royal George at Portsmouth, which was the finest ship in our navy. — The History of England in Three Volumes, Vol.III. From George III. to Victoria; • (conflagration)- a destructive fire, usually an extensive one, (5 o N7  ag1 # # L; e7  яT5 !#;  ); In a very short time the conflagration was over, and a dark column of smoke, which marked the spot where it had raged, was lifted slowly into the air. — The Island Home; • (inferno)- a place or condition suggestive of hell, especially with respect to human suffering or death, ( ); He was not only trapped within the labyrinth of the inferno under Old St. Pat's; he was trapped in the kaleidoscope of his own cross-senses. — The Stars My Destination; • (perdition)- a state of final spiritual ruin; loss of the soul; damnation, ( , / 8 , a5n ! ); If she should go down to perdition, his remorse would be worse to bear than flames of fire and brimstone. — The Christian A Story; • (avalanche)- a large mass of snow, ice, etc., detached from a mountain slope and sliding or falling suddenly downward,( ,;#sJ, =;  ;  ); The crowd rushes out like an avalanche, the candidate surfing along the top, a look of bliss on his face. — Futurismic; torrent : flood = deluge = inundate = submerge • (torrent)- a stream of water flowing with great rapidity and violence, (p5 я5:; 5:  ); The words came pouring out like a torrent, and Carlotta stamped her foot and shook her fist in Prudence's face. — Summer Term At St Clare's; • (deluge)- a great flood of water; inundation; flood, ( ,p ); The end of the deluge was the complete destruction of the human race, all but Noah and his family—Companion to the Bible; • (inundate)- to flood; cover or overspread with water; deluge, (p ); The swamp was inundated, and it required all their dexterity and promptitude to save themselves. — The Life of Francis Marion; • (submerge)- to put or sink below the surface of water or any other enveloping medium, (=m#    jя ); Suddenly thick darkness, indescribably thick, seemed to submerge me. — Fifteen Years With The Outcast; earthquake = tremor = seism > seismic • (tremor)- involuntary shaking of the body or limbs, as from disease, fear, weakness, or excitement; a fit of trembling, (&! ; =5; $/-m ; ,); The US Geological Survey said the tremor was centred some 35km (22 miles) north-west of San Jose; • (seismic)- pertaining to, of the nature of, or caused by an earthquake or vibration of the earth, whether due to natural or artificial causes, ($/m - LJ); But only 14 percent of buildings in that vulnerable swath were built to seismic-safety standards, the report said;  jeopardy = hazard = peril : fiasco = debacle • (jeopardy)- risk of loss or injury; peril or danger; In this your life was placed in extreme jeopardy, as you may recall, and as it proved by the number of dead left in that vicinity. — An Autobiography; • (hazard)- a chance of being injured or harmed; danger; As a nocturnal hazard, the wolves already made trouble enough, and the wolves were merely creatures of flesh and blood. — A Canticle for Leibowitz; • (peril)- imminent danger; Her sensibility gives keenness to her imagination and she magnifies every peril, and writhes beneath every sacrifice which tends to humiliate her in her own eyes. — Mrs Shelley; • (fiasco)- a complete and ignominious failure, (= u##' < ^8); This fiasco is the direct result of evil conduct, and of nothing else at all. — A Laodicean : a Story of To-day; • (debacle)- a general breakup or dispersion; sudden downfall or rout, ( ,d#8'; ! ); The German advance which ended in this debacle has been the costliest defeat in point of materials which they have yet suffered. — The New York Times Current History of the European War; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.7 Agricultural Science agrology : agronomy : horticulture • (agrology)- science of soils in relation to crops; • (agronomy)- the application of soil and plant sciences to land management and crop production; • (horticulture)- the cultivation of plants agrarian : alluvial : arable : silt : humus : fallow : flail : reaper : shaving : yeoman • (agrarian)- relating to land, land tenure, or the division of landed property, (   st  mn, ); The economy of the West Branch Valley was basically agrarian -- a farmers 'frontier. — The Fair Play Settlers of the West Branch Valley; • (alluvial)- pertaining to soil deposits left by running water, (я,  ); The Greeks called the alluvial deposit at the mouth of the Nile, from its shape, the Delta of the Nile. — The Science of Fingerprints Classification and Uses; • (silt)- earthy matter, fine sand, or the like carried by moving or running water and deposited as a sediment, (s   ); Sometimes they contained nothing but silt, and sometimes they were salt- water rivers. — Waiting for Daylight; • (humus)- the dark organic material in soils, produced by the decomposition of vegetable or animal matter and essential to the fertility of the earth, $ (udjяt  ); When organic matter has undergone a certain amount of decay it is called humus, and these soils are called organic soils or humus soils. — The First Book of Farming; • (fallow)- (of land) plowed and left unseeded for a season or more; uncultivated, ( я); Their fields lie fallow, their woodlands are being stripped. — The Call of the Cumberlands; • (flail)- to beat or swing with or as if with a flail, (%& '() nt ( ()); She flailed, trying to fight them off, but they wrestled her away from the crevice and its blasting fumes. — Man from Mundania; • (reaper)- a machine for cutting standing grain; reaping machine, (%& )nt); Like the reaper, the mowing-machine is buried under the swathe it cuts, and flowers fall over it--broad ox-eye daisies and red sorrel. — The Life of the Fields; • (shaving)- a very thin piece or slice, esp. of wood, (+,(- . (/  .); With his hunting knife he cut curling shavings, and in a moment a delicious warmth began to flood the cabin. — The Snowshoe Trail; • (yeoman)- a farmer who cultivates his own land, especially a member of a $ former class of small freeholders in England, ( 0 )(яi )(я я  (a)&)&    )(я я +0 ( )- (   a(4)); Dressed as a yeoman, with the Lady Margaret as his sister, he mounted a horse, with her behind him on a pillion. — The Boy Knight; parched : arid = desiccate > desiccant = siccative • (parched)- extremely dry; very thirsty, ( (  ( (' 7 56); His mouth was parched, his eyes were burning, and every now and then a sudden fit of sickness overcame him. — The Widow Lerouge; • (arid)- being without moisture; extremely dry; parched, (a) 7 ;56; $ 9) ); The deadly dryness of this arid waste added to our discomfort. — The Aztec Treasure-House; • (desiccate)- to preserve (food) by removing moisture; dehydrate, (56 ); Damp the bold thought or desiccate the heart. — The Columbiad; • (desiccant)- a substance, such as calcium oxide or silica gel, that has a high affinity for water and is used as a drying agent; • (siccative)- a substance added to paints and some medicines to promote drying; a drier; barren {devoid} <> warren • (barren)- not producing offspring; The life they depict has been called barren, and the literary product has been described as thin. — Nathaniel Hawthorne; • (warren)- a place where rabbits breed or abound, ( :;  я( < (:%  ( o >%s ( ); There is a rabbit-warren on the north-east of the island, belonging to the Duke of Argyle. — Life of Johnson; • a building or area containing many tenants in limited or crowded quarters, ( @);  e  4 <,7(я o /)); Surely this was deep within the warren, and virtually impassable to human beings. — Triple Detente by Piers Anthony; damp = dank = clammy ~ moist ~ humid ~ muggy = steamy ~ soggy : sticky = gluey = gummy = glutinous = mucilaginous = viscid^ viscous^ viscosity • (damp)- Slightly wet; Our patience is still tried by the cold, damp, and most unwholesome weather, which prevents the children from going to see anything. — The Life and Letters of Elizabeth Prentiss; • Music to slow or stop the vibrations of (the strings of a keyboard instrument) with a damper; • Physics to decrease the amplitude of (an oscillating system); • (dank)- unpleasantly moist or humid; damp and, often, chilly, (,(,(); No refrigerating plant ever contained a freezing room so dank, cold and gloomy as that theatre! — A Fantasy of Mediterranean Travel; • (clammy)- disagreeably moist, sticky, and cold to the touch; He still had the clammy, red-nosed look of illness, but his high cheekbones were flushed with the morning sun and he looked remarkably cheerful for a man who'd been out in a cold wood all night. — The Fiery Cross; • (moist)- slightly wet; damp or humid; I realized suddenly that the hand in which I carried my manuscript was moist, and I was afraid it would make marks on the paper. — The Promised Land; • (humid)- damp, (Bd; ,(,(); The night was warm and humid, and through the narrow tenement streets there poured a teeming mass of life. — His Family; • (muggy)- (of the atmosphere, weather, etc.) oppressively humid; damp and close, (,&,&( o uD;  o g); That winter was warm and muggy, with continuous showers of warm rain that seemed to change into mud in the air as it fell. — The Captives; • (steamy)- filled with or emitting steam; He wished she were with him right now, under this steamy water, their naked bodies rubbing together, creating that erotic friction. — One Summer Evening; • (soggy)- saturated or sodden with moisture; soaked; Moist and steamy instead of moist and cool, the air hung heavy on him like a soggy bathrobe. — The Dig; • (sticky)- having the property of adhering or sticking to a surface; adhesive; The heat, combined with the humidity, made for a sticky mix. — One Summer Evening; • (gluey)- like glue; viscous; glutinous; sticky; With a gluey snarl, the Dead God raised two of its hands; Antryg saw what was coming and ducked, but not quickly enough. — The Silicon Mage; • (glummy)- having the texture or properties of gum; sticky and viscid; • (glutinous)- of the nature of glue; gluey; viscid; sticky, (B/(); This spiral, formed of plain, non-glutinous thread, starts from the centre and winds in rapidly-widening circles to the circumference. — The Life of the Spider; • (mucilaginous)- resembling mucilage; moist and sticky; The taste of the decoction is bland, mucilaginous, and cordial. — Herbal Simples Approved for Modern Uses of Cure; • (viscid)- having a glutinous consistency; sticky; adhesive; viscous, (B/(; ++(); It lessens in quantity; it becomes thicker, viscid, adhesive, and glutinous. — The Dog; • (viscous)- sticky; gluey; I drained the puncture of viscous blue fluid and applied an anti-bacterial cream. — Asimov's Science Fiction; • (viscosity)- the condition or property of being viscous; The viscosity of the ground was so sluggish that the caterpillar tracks were ineffective unless all available power was turned on. — The Ghosts of Gol; damp {muffle = mute = weaken} • (muffle)- to wrap or pad in order to deaden the sound; • (mute)- refraining from producing speech or vocal sound; sylvan : defoliate • (sylvan)- consisting of or abounding in woods or trees; wooded; woody, (B ;&, B ;& , )&, )я); The driveway from the gate was sunk in green; a hundred trees kept the place secluded, sylvan, and still. — Lewis Rand; • (defoliate)- to destroy or cause widespread loss of leaves in (an area of jungle, forest, etc.), as by using chemical sprays or incendiary bombs, in order to deprive enemy troops or guerrilla forces of concealment, (t)/ )Ht ); The winter moth is already starting to defoliate trees in Arctic Scandinavia; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.8 Other Natural Sciences physics refraction : convex # concave • (refraction)- Physics. the change of direction of a ray of light, sound, heat, or the like, in passing obliquely from one medium into another in which its wave velocity is different, (p); Alhazen discovered atmospheric refraction, and showed that we see the sun and the moon after they have set. — Fragments of science, V. 1-2; • (convex)- having a surface that is curved or rounded outward. Compare concave, (ut ); The nails are convex, and incurved at their free ends, suggesting a resemblance to the beak of a parrot. — Manual of Surgery Volume First: General Surgery. Sixth Edition; • (concave)- curved like a segment of the interior of a circle or hollow sphere; hollow and curved, (a  ,      kk  ); Convex things are equally concave, and concave things convex; perimeter : concentric^ centrifuge > centrifugal : centripetal : coercive • (perimeter)- the border or outer boundary of a two-dimensional figure, (  d kt "#$%&); To find the perimeter of any quadrilateral, we add the lengths of the four sides; • (concentric)- having a common center, as circles or spheres, (end, end )*, &nd); The rings are concentric -- that is, they all have the same center, like the rings of a dartboard; • (centrifuge)- an apparatus that rotates at high speed and by centrifugal force separates substances of different densities, as milk and cream, ( $+, st ., 5 4 / d $s + $+  я  h "); By spinning the solution in a centrifuge, the rubber separates, forming a liquid that rises to the top; • (centrifugal)- moving or directed outward from the center (opposed to centripetal ), (nd; "&,7%); Even the giant forces of the world, centripetal and centrifugal, are kept out of our recognition. — Creative Unity; • (centripetal)- directed toward the center (opposed to centrifugal), (nd&7 ; and); The perfect equilibrium of these two contending forces, one centripetal, the other centrifugal, make for its safety and welfare. — Catholic Problems in Western Canada; • (coercive)- serving or tending to coerce, (&&  4 ); • (coercion) – (&, & % d )); Although political coercion is the most distinctive expression of political inequality, you could-in principle - have a consistent authoritarian social order without any use of force. — Rad Geek People's Daily; calorific : kaleidoscope : matrix • (calorific)- heat producing, ($); This definite amount of heat per pound liberated by perfect combustion is termed the calorific value of that substance. — Steam, Its Generation and Use; • (kaleidoscope)- an optical instrument in which bits of glass, held loosely at the end of a rotating tube, are shown in continually changing symmetrical forms by reflection in two or more mirrors set at angles to each other, (e 5  89 7    a 9 8 o  + e ;  . k&/ $ ,)% , o ) 7 ); This sudden turn of the political kaleidoscope was a pivotal point in the life of Ary Scheffer. — Little Journeys to the Homes of Eminent Painters; • (matrix)- point of origin; array of numbers or algebraic symbols; It starts from a fragment that serves as a matrix, and becomes completed little by little. — Essai sur l'imagination créatrice. English; • mold or die, (<=8); acoustics : echo • (acoustics)- science of sound; • quality that makes a room easy or hard to hear in; • (echo) – repetition of a sound by reflection of sound waves from a surface; When she came to retell the story in a fuller form, the echo was still in her mind of the phrases she had written nine years before. — The Story of My Life;  echo : ditto : reciprocation > reciprocate = repercussion = backlash = rebound = reverberation > reverberate • (echo)- the aforesaid; the above; the same (used in accounts, lists, etc., to avoid repetition), ($ , 4 l7, ei &, /&); • (ditto)- a mark used to indicate the word above it should be repeated; • (reciprocation)- the act or fact of reciprocating; interchange, ( &, ", a); They received his mocking farewell without any form of reciprocation or sign of resentment. — The Evil Shepherd; • a mutual giving and receiving; reciprocate his invitation by inviting him; • (reciprocate)- to give and receive reciprocally; interchange; repay in kind, (p o); His brother's passion being reciprocated, Macumer sacrificed himself for their happiness. — Repertory of the Comedie Humaine Part 2; • (repercussion) – an effect or result, often indirect or remote, of some event or action, ($l  A, $  <A  &, pB); When the air around was no longer shaken by constant repercussion, Bobby fell asleep. — The Bronze Eagle A Story of the Hundred Days; • (backlash) – a sudden, forceful backward movement; recoil; • (rebound) – to bound or spring back from force of impact, ( <  u$ .  <C o  D , pkp "o); That remark was really meant as a kind of rebound argument for General Wood. — The Adventure of Living; • (reverberation) – the fact of being reverberated or reflected, (B a  , pB); Except for the reverberation of the torrent deep in the gorge at their right, no sound at all broke the deep silence. — Running Water; astronomy penumbra^ umbra • (penumbra)- the partial or imperfect shadow outside the complete shadow of an opaque body, as a planet, where the light from the source of illumination is only partly cut off, (u$<, g" & , 4  8nd 8$) ;) pc); It does enter a region of space called the penumbra, in which the Earth partially blocks the Sun; • (umbra)- Astronomy the completely dark portion of the shadow cast by the earth, moon, or other body during an eclipse, The Latin word for shadow was umbra, and the Greek counterpart was skia; asteroid^ astral = stellar = sidereal • (asteroid)- also called minor planet. Astronomy. any of the thousands of small bodies of from 480 miles (775 km) to less than one mile (1.6 km) in diameter that revolve about the sun in orbits lying mostly between those of Mars and Jupiter, (g"$я  ); We have guessed that the asteroid was a huge spacecraft. — The Runaway Asteroid; • (astral)- pertaining to or proceeding from the stars; stellar; star-shaped, (kt, kt); He had never felt the least desire to join the Theosophical Society and to speculate in theories of astral-plane life, or elementals. — Four Weird Tales; • (stellar)- pertaining to the stars, (kt); His rammer training had not even told him how to avoid stellar-sized black holes, because there were none to be expected on his planned course. — A World Out of Time; • (sidereal)- of or pertaining to the stars, (kt); Each season of the year can thus be characterised by the sidereal objects that are conspicuous by night. — The Story of the Heavens; auroral ^aureole = corona • (auroral)- pertaining to the aurora borealis or aurora australis; They so entirely resembled auroral beams, that I had no hesitation in pronouncing them at the time to be such. — Himalayan Journals — Complete; • (aurora)- a radiance surrounding the head or the whole figure in the representation of a sacred personage, (яIk, d&K , a;L& , %p ); It gave to her a kind of aureole, as if her beauty shed a lustre round her. — The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 14, No. 84, October, 1864; • (corona)- Astronomy the luminous irregular envelope of highly ionized gas outside the chromosphere of the sun; The voltage would come off the top of his coil as a "corona", or brush discharge. — The Greatest Hacker of All Time, by N. Small (Nikola Tesla); lunar^ solstice^ equinox • (lunar)- pertaining to moon, (8nd-;kn); This is called a lunar calendar, and it is calculated by the time it takes the moon to travel around the earth; • (solstice)- either of the two times a year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the celestial equator, (k7 ut  k , 4  & 4 a s  ; a); In Chiron's time, the solstice was arrived at the middle of the sign, that is to say to the fifteenth degree. — Letters on England; The winter solstice usually occurs on December 21; • (equinox)- the time when the sun crosses the plane of the earth's equator, making night and day of approximately equal length all over the earth and occurring about March 21 (vernal equinox or spring equinox) and September 22 (autumnal equinox), (, 4   P 7  ak&  ; e & -t & "); The equinox is the beginning of longer nights and cooler days in the Northern Hemisphere; universe = cosmos = macrocosm^ microcosm^ cosmic • (macrocosm) – the entire world; the universe, (&" Q; &"&g); The mysteries of the greater world, or macrocosm, are expressed or revealed in the lesser world, the microcosm. — The Promulgation of Universal Peace; • (cosmos) – the universe regarded as an orderly, harmonious whole; There is a unity in the cosmos which is more important than any one world, any one race. — The Long Way Home; • (microcosm) – a little world; a world in miniature (opposed to macrocosm ), (kd 5   Q); The body of man is a microcosm, the  * whole world in miniature, and the world in turn is a reflex of man. — The Legends of the Jews — Volume 1; • (cosmic)- immeasurably extended in time and space; vast, (&"я/); This radiation, known as the cosmic microwave background, is a relic or echo of the Big Bang itself; Chemistry alchemy : transmutation^ transfigure • (alchemy)- a form of chemistry and speculative philosophy practiced in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and concerned principally with discovering methods for transmuting baser metals into gold and with finding a universal solvent and an elixir of life, (&/%  )st); I do not think the world can be changed suddenly by some heavenly alchemy, as St. Paul was smitten by a light from the overworld. — Three Wonder Plays; • (transmutation)- change into another nature, substance, form, or condition, (r$n);When subjected to transmutation (filtering by a prism) we can see various other colors within the band of RED. — An Excellent Man; • (transfigure)- to change in outward form or appearance; transform, (), &, 4 p ; &"&n r$ ); Mary was transfigured, and sang the hallelujah of the Resurrection, the victory over Death and the eternity of life. — La faute de l'Abbe Mouret; erode <> corrode : distill : patina • (erode)- to eat into or away; destroy by slow consumption or disintegration, (% % k ); The biggest problem is keeping the drains clear so that the rains don't erode the roadway on which the capstones are placed. — The Magic of Recluce; • (corrode)- to eat or wear away gradually as if by gnawing, esp. by chemical action, ( pk D % % k   "o); The pot was so much corroded, that a small piece of it only could be preserved. — Diary of Samuel Pepys — Complete; • (distill)- to subject to a process of vaporization and subsequent condensation, as for purification or concentration; Thus, inwardly corroded by the venom it distills, his physical machine gets out of order, like that of Marat, but with other symptoms. — The French Revolution - Volume 3; • (patina)- a film or incrustation, usually green, produced by oxidation on the surface of old bronze and often esteemed as being of ornamental value, ($  bя  & u$ * 5  я  , 88 $,); The sculpture in the embassy is covered in black patina, and is usually known as "The Black Canoe."; metallurgy : bullion • (metallurgy)- the technique or science of working or heating metals so as to give them certain desired shapes or properties, (   ); He was skilful in mineralogy and metallurgy, and seems to have spent a good deal of money in searching for mines. — The Complete Works of Whittier; • (bullion)- gold or silver in the form of bars or ingots; Laws made against exportation of money or bullion will be all in vain. — Life Of Johnson; • gold or silver considered in mass rather than in value; • embroidery or lace worked with gold wire or gold or silver cords; pestle : granulate : bray = crunch = grind ~ pulverize = powder : mill : masticate : triturate • (pestle)- to pound or grind with or as if with a pestle, ( < 9  g=A  я &C,  h e  &C X, g=A ); The pestle was a heavy block of wood shaped like the inside of the mortar, and fitted with a handle attached to one side. — Home Life in Colonial Days; • (granulate)- to form into granules or grains, ( $ "o,  < u$/ ,), e A-+ A  a& 5 ); Put one cupful of granulated or loaf sugar and half a cupful of water on to boil. — Miss Parloa's New Cook Book; • (bray)- to pound or crush fine, as in a mortar; • the loud, harsh cry of a donkey, (/ Y,  C  ,) )b); The sharp bark of the monkey mingled with the bray of the conch. — The Life of Sir Richard Burton; • (crunch)- to crush, grind, or tread noisily; There was horrific crunch, and a man flew from the water, smashing into a heap on the shore. — The Legacy of Heorot; • (grind)- to reduce to fine particles, as by pounding or crushing; bray, triturate, or pulverize, (.P 84,  g=A ); Yet he was wise in his way; devoid of sentiment or sympathy as a grind-stone, his wit was as sharp as his heart was cold. — The Memories of Fifty Years; • (pulverize)- to reduce to dust or powder, as by pounding or grinding, (g=A   "o); The roads so near the front were pulverized, and the dust rose in dense clouds. — A Yankee in the Trenches; • (mill)- to grind, work, treat, or shape in or with a mill, ( g=A , $P, [); • (masticate)- to chew, (8 , ); The second important use of cooking is that it makes food both easier to masticate and easier to digest. — A Handbook of Health; • (triturate)- to reduce to fine particles or powder by rubbing, grinding, bruising, or the like; pulverize; Mix, and triturate well in a mortar so as to mix perfectly, and make into twenty pills with mucilage of gum arabic. — The Ladies Book of Useful Information Compiled from many sources; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.9 Politics types of government, authoritarian, polity nihilist = anarchist = anarchy^ diarchy^ gynarchy^ oligarchy^ monarchy ~ tyranny • (nihilist)- (nihilism) total rejection of established laws and institutions, (s); That makes you a nihilist, the political expression of which is totalitarianism. — open Democracy News Analysis - Comments. • the root of the word nihilist is “nihil”, Latin for “nothing”; • (anarchy)- political and social disorder due to the absence of governmental control, (  я , a я,   ); A sounder explanation discovers the causes less in despotism than in anarchy--anarchy in every department where it could be most ruinous. — Critical Miscellanies (Vol. 2 of 3) Essay 3: Condorcet; • (diarchy)- government by two joint rulers; This diarchy was to hold for both the central and provincial governments. — The New World of Islam; • (gynarchy)- government by women; • (oligarchy)- a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few, (); The real government had become a kind of oligarchy, as it always did after too much false democracy ruined the ideals of real and practical self-rule. — Badge of Infamy; • (monarchy)- a state or nation in which the supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in a monarch, ( яnt); In the eyes of Israel before the exile the monarchy is the culminating point of the history, and the greatest blessing of Jehovah. — Prolegomena; • (potentate) - a person who possesses great power, as a sovereign, monarch, or ruler, (k  k;  ; ); He was simply treating his god as he would have treated a powerful earthly patron or potentate, that is, he was apologising for anything he might have done to alienate his favour. — The New Theology; • (tyranny)- arbitrary or unrestrained exercise of power; despotic abuse of authority, (k !  a " a  # ); The only check on his tyranny was the fear of being called to account by a distant and a careless government. — The History of England, from the Accession of James II — Volume 1; bureaucracy^ ochlocracy^ ergatocracy^ gerontocracy^ plutocracy^ theocracy^ democracy : hegemony • (bureaucracy)- government by many bureaus, administrators, and petty officials, ($nt); • overregulated administrative system marked by red tape; Streamlining the bureaucracy was Mr. Ford's mission; • (ochlocracy)- government by the masses; mob rule; • (ergatocracy)- government by the workers or the working class;; • (theocracy)- a form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, the God's or deity's laws being interpreted by the ecclesiastical authorities, (%! &); The Indian form of government may be characterized as a theocracy, and the medicine-man is the high priest. — The Great Salt Lake Trail; • (democracy)- government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives; A democracy is a manifest deduction from the foregoing political principles, always assuming that the people whose independence is thereby diminished are incapable of efficient national organization. — The Promise of American Life; • (hegemony)- leadership or predominant influence exercised by one nation over others, as in a confederation, ('( g '& '% e+ '& t , ! t o p/, $%  , p/0 ); Having, however, by God's grace gained world hegemony, the government of the United States had no alternative but to impose peace upon a chaotic planet. — Three Worlds to Conquer; despotic > despot = dictator = potentate = authoritarian = autocrat ~ absolutist = totalitarian ~ tyrannt > tyrannic : oppressive : domineer = hector • (despotic)- of, pertaining to, or of the nature of a despot or despotism; autocratic; tyrannical, ( s 2 , s nt); He is despotic, and unmerciful to insubordination; he would shoot a fellow down with as little remorse as he would shoot — Uncle Tom's Cabin; • (despot)- a ruler with absolute power; The sovereign rapidly degenerated into an accomplished despot, and the women into intriguers and coquettes. — Ninon de L'Enclos the Celebrated Beauty of the 17th Century; • (dictator)- a tyrant; a despot; One of the joys of being a dictator is to be able to indulge your little obsessions; • (potentate) - a person who possesses great power, as a sovereign, monarch, or ruler, (k  k;  ; ); He was simply treating his god as he would have treated a powerful earthly patron or potentate, that is, he was apologising for anything he might have done to alienate his favour. — The New Theology; • (authoritarian)- subordinating individual to the state, favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom, (! t, ! t "3, p/0t "3); The four styles of parenting that have been described by researchers are authoritarian, authoritative, permissive and uninvolved parenting. — About.com Psychology; • (autocratic)- pertaining to or of the nature of autocracy or of an autocrat; absolute; King George was one of the last truly autocratic, aristocratic monarchs on the English throne. — The Partial Observer; • (absolutist)- an advocate of despotism, or of absolute government; Therefore, by absolutist religious lights, abortion is simply wrong: full- fledged murder. — The God Delusion; • (totalitarian)- of or pertaining to a centralized government that does not tolerate parties of differing opinion and that exercises dictatorial control over many aspects of life, (g, 5 я6  e+  /n a  pdn ' ' я "); The way to put more stones on the defense side of the scale is to put more resources into defensive technologies, not create a totalitarian regime of Draconian control. — Asimov's Science Fiction; • (totalitarianism) – (e  , g); • (tyrannt)- a dictator; • (tyrannic)- characteristic of a tyrant or tyranny; despotic and oppressive; The laws are tyrannical, our objections are cowardly. — Beauchamp's Career — Volume 4; • (oppressive)- burdensome, unjustly harsh, or tyrannical, ( :3, a 2 ); The silence of those clustered masses was oppressive, almost uncanny. — The Bloody Crown of Conan; • (domineer)- to rule arbitrarily or despotically; tyrannize, ($%   ; я    < , a 2   $2 3  , m #o", ud  #  ); These mercenary creatures would soon domineer in our houses and destroy both the mother and the babe. — Letters on England; • (hector)- to behave like a bully; swagger; He dismissed them, and swaggered over to the marketplace to hector and bully the natives who were piling their wares in the shade of the great grass roof. — The Ivory Trail;  authoritarian {dominating = imposing = magisterial = peremptory = high-and- mighty} ^ authoritative = definitive = conclusive = determinate > determination = resolution > resolve • (dominating)- exercising influence or control; At this early day Antony was still looked upon as the dominating person in the triumvirate, and for him Vergil had no love whatever. — Vergil; • (imposing)- impressive, as by virtue of size, bearing, or power; These singular masses had occasionally a very imposing, and even sublime appearance, rising from the midst of a savage and lonely landscape. — The Adventures of Captain Bonneville; • (magisterial)- imperious; domineering, (m!- я'&+); He united the magisterial, dogmatic air, and the hollow countenance of the professor of rhetoric with the sharp eyes, suspicious mouth, and vague uneasiness of the bookseller. — Lost Illusions; • (peremptory)- leaving no opportunity for denial or refusal; imperative, (2  ! t ;3!, 5 a  o pB/' "); His words were peremptory, as usual, but his tone was mild, even confidential. — The Song of the Lark; • (high and mighty)- marked by arrogance; haughty and overbearing; • (authoritative)- having due authority; having the sanction or weight of authority, ($% , ! k"); • having an air of authority; accustomed to exercising authority; positive; peremptory; dictatorial, (! t я, p/0t я); She is even at times disagreeably pompous and authoritative, and preaches rather than argues. — Mary Wollstonecraft; • (definitive)- most reliable or complete, as of a text, author, criticism, study, or the like, (D"; 2;:n); The conclusion was definitive, and a mutual promise that neither would ever renew the subject. — Memoirs of Aaron Burr, Volume 2; • (conclusive)- serving to settle or decide a question; decisive; convincing, (2;:n, FF r 3 , p ; , dn ; ); The ending of this season although conclusive, also opens up to so many possibilities to new plots. — Anime Nano!; • (determinate)- conclusive; final; having defined limits; definite, (d; %! ; 2;:n); We cannot produce direct observation of God, but we can find the "trace" or the co-determinate, the effects of God in the wrold. — CADRE Comments; • (resolution)- the mental state or quality of being resolved or resolute;  firmness of purpose, (I ; J'l a+ a< #); The terms of any delegation should be approved by a resolution of the board; •  (resolve)- firmness of purpose or intent; determination, (IJl);For a quarter of an hour it cost her a repetition of efforts to fix her attention, but her resolve was at length successful. — Thyrza;  disciplinarian = martinet = stickler • (disciplinarian)- one that enforces or believes in strict discipline; With her children she was a model disciplinarian, exceedingly strict, a wise law-maker; yet withal a tender, devoted, self-sacrificing mother. — The Life and Letters of Elizabeth Prentiss; • (martinet)- a rigid military disciplinarian; Yet he was a most strict disciplinarian, and enforced the rules like a martinet. — From Canal Boy to President; • (stickler)- a person who insists on something unyieldingly, (5  k  ('" egL'"'я %' /  ('" grt    m'! яs a/' ;3! a+ <'); Being a stickler, Paul says that the probability of sunrise is very close to 1. — F ;SF; - vol 102 issue 05 - May 2002; polity : government = regime {regimen} : subsidy : autonomous : constitution • (polity)- a particular form or system of government, ( & s); The republic, he taught, presupposes the Church's doctrine, and the Church ought to love a polity which is the offspring of her own spirit. — Life of Father Hecker; • (regime)- a mode or system of rule or government, ( s,   d); Transparency International reports that this regime is the second most corrupt in the world; • (regimen)- governmental rule or control; • Medicine/Medical. a regulated course, as of diet, exercise, or manner of living, intended to preserve or restore health or to attain some result, (s's un я < ,  " i  (" ", ss %); This regimen is also a splendid means of increasing the weight in cases of defective assimilation. — Vitality Supreme; • (subsidy)- a direct pecuniary aid furnished by a government to a private industrial undertaking, a charity organization, or the like, (Q+ n lp J a  R/ u' ' #5 #', a<! #5 , /!0 ); In economics, the rationale for a subsidy is a positive externality. — Library of Economics and Liberty; • (autonomous)- self-governing; independent; subject to its own laws only, (s"t, s%); The president of Iraq's Kurdish region demanded yesterday that oil-rich Kirkuk be incorporated into his autonomous area; • (constitution)- the system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribes the nature, functions, and limits of a government or another institution; gerrymander : demagogue • (gerrymander)- U.S. Politics. the dividing of a state, county, etc., into election districts so as to give one political party a majority in many districts while concentrating the voting strength of the other party into as few districts as possible, (!2'  '(   ' %' 0 я ad " am  ); The police power has often been misused for such purposes; the gerrymander is another clever method of manipulating the results of elections —Problems of Conduct; • (demagogue)- a person, esp. an orator or political leader, who gains power and popularity by arousing the emotions, passions, and prejudices of the people, (5 я6  5k! 0 u s ' ' $' udp ' я% 3' V ' 2W ' ; k ); The art of the demagogue is the art of the parrot; he must utter some senseless catchword again and again, working on the suggestibility of the crowd — Outspoken Essays; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.10 Other Social Sciences finance, banking, economics arrears^ arrearage : obligation = indebtedness : deficit : liability : onus : beholden : insolvent = bankrupt : default • (arrears)- something overdue in payment; a debt that remains unpaid, ( ); He has been paying full Council Tax, but since April 2004 he has been accruing arrears on his account due to non-payment; • (arrearage)- the state of being behind in the fulfillment of obligations or of being overdue in payment; • (obligation)- the act of binding oneself by a social, legal, or moral tie; But when the recipient becomes unwilling to admit the obligation which is no detraction to himself, and without which the giver is poor indeed, the case is altered. — Daniel Webster; • (indebtedness)- the state of being indebted; Here the traces of indebtedness are much clearer and more numerous. — Shakespeare His Life Art And Characters; • (deficit)- inadequacy or insufficiency; The major reason for the deficit is the sharp decline in tax revenues; • (liability)- moneys owed; debts or pecuniary obligations, (  t; ; ;   ); He appealed, and the question of his liability was argued at some length before the Committee. — The Uncollected Writings of Thomas de Quincey; • (onus)- a difficult or disagreeable obligation, task, burden, etc., (  t); We have to put the onus back on the parents to keep their children under control; • (beholden)- obligated; indebted, ( ;  j d); We are beholden, in a measure, to Mr. Burnham, and have to be guided by his wishes. — Starlight Ranch and Other Stories of Army Life on the Frontier; • (insolvent)- not solvent; unable to satisfy creditors or discharge liabilities, either because liabilities exceed assets or because of inability to pay debts as they mature, (   a ;!  u #); The liberty and even the life of the insolvent were at the mercy of the Patrician money-lenders. — Lays of Ancient Rome; • (bankrupt)- having been legally declared financially insolvent; Trusting to your check Belgium finds herself bankrupt, sequestrated, blotted out as a nation. — The Life and Letters of Walter H Page; • (default)- failure to meet financial obligations, (    ! $o); When buyers defaulted, the financial system was crippled; interest : fiscal : audit • (interest)- a fixed charge for borrowing money; usually a percentage of the amount borrowed; • (fiscal)- of or relating to government expenditures, revenues, and debt; But this appeal to the selfishness of British manufacturers had no influence on British statesmen so far as their fiscal policy was concerned. — Lord Elgin; • (audit)- an official examination and verification of accounts and records, esp. of financial account, (& $ 'd &k); A business audit is an assessment of the judgments made by the financial department of a company; reimburse : defray : remunerative = lucrative • (reimburse)- to make repayment to for expense or loss incurred, repay, (  a !   ); In Austria, the public health service generally requires proof of effectiveness to reimburse medical treatments, but makes an exception for homeopathy; • (defray)- to bear or pay all or part of (the costs, expenses, etc.), (a ! я*;  $ ); The Canine Unit's donation will help defray the cost of feeding two police dogs; • (remunerative)- affording remuneration; profitable, (#я); His work does not seem to have been very remunerative, and eventually he went abroad in connection with a mining venture, and died in Mexico in 1833— George Borrow in East Anglia; • (lucrative)- profitable; moneymaking; remunerative, (#я); The story of Daniel evidences how highly honoured and lucrative was the magical or divining faculty. — The Superstitions of Witchcraft; • (lucre) - monetary reward or gain; money, (  (a+ u  )); "Filthy lucre -- the root of all evil," muttered Brother Martin. — The Lady of Blossholme; clientele : franchise : entrepreneur ~ founder {scuttle} • (clientele)- the clients or customers, as of a professional person or shop, considered collectively; a group or body of clients, (, dn  ); Although the clientele was almost exclusively English, she spoke only French, explaining herself to Britons by means of benevolent smiles — The Old Wives' Tale; • (franchise)- a privilege of a public nature conferred on an individual, group, or company by a government, (    *& !  p t ! 1 *  a  2  , я ); We passed scores of motels, but they were all franchised to national chains. — I'm A Stranger Here Myself; • (enterpreneur)- a person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk for a business venture; The brilliant Bostonian high-tech entrepreneur, normally the hawk in his own administration and quite an effective public speaker, seemed visibly nervous, and frankly admitted as much. — The Hacker Crackdown; • (founder)- a person who founds or establishes, (p 4); Foster is best known as the founder of the Negro Professional Baseball League, as well as a pitcher; • (of a ship, boat, etc.) to fill with water and sink, (5  5,  jя $o); The ship in which he sailed as purser foundered, and he, and I believe everybody on board, perished. — My First Voyage to Southern Seas; • (scuttle)- to sink (a vessel) deliberately by opening seacocks or making openings in the bottom, (7 8 8  я$я 5 ); His ship has just been scuttled, and he's too good a judge of the value of money to let drown. — The Four Million; • to run with quick, hasty steps; scurry, ( 9: 9/ dd  #); • a deep bucket for carrying coal, (# = 9 8 ); anthropology anthropology : archaeology : ethnology^ ethnic • (anthropology)- the science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development, biological characteristics, and social customs and  beliefs of humankind, ( j,   , tt ); The notion of adaptation is rampant in the social sciences, such as anthropology, as well as in biology; • (archeology)- the systematic study of past human life and culture by the recovery and examination of remaining material evidence, such as graves, buildings, tools, and pottery; He had inquired about my previous education, and urged me to study philology, archaeology, and at least one Semitic language. — The Story of My Life; • (ethnology)- a branch of anthropology that analyzes cultures, esp. in regard to their historical development and the similarities and dissimilarities  between them, (tt ); In other words, ethnology, like history, seeks to tell what actually happened. — Introduction to the Science of Sociology; • (ethnic)- pertaining to or characteristic of a people, esp. a group(ethnic group) sharing a common and distinctive culture, religion, language, or the  like, ( tt); Students come to the Law School from across the United States and abroad, representing a variety of cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds; humanoid : anthropoid^ anthropomorphic^ anthropomorphous • (humanoid)- having human characteristics or form; Most of the talkers were humanoid, though a couple were alien to the point of unrecognizability. — The Last Starfighter; • (anthropoid)- resembling humans, (2 8 ,    , ); Further north there is a still larger anthropoid, which the natives call a wild man and Europeans a gorilla. — To The Gold Coast for Gold, Vol. II A Personal Narrative; • (anthropomorphic)- ascribing human form or attributes to a being or thing not human, esp. to a deity, (p&  st t  m !); A system so frankly anthropomorphic was bound to be weak on the speculative side. — The Greek View of Life; • (anthropomorphous)- having or suggesting human form and appearance; genealogy ancestor = antecedent = primogenitor = progenitor^ progeny = offspring • (ancestor)- a forerunner or predecessor; They think that their ancestor was the original inventor of this cheap substitute for bird song. — Woodland Tales; • (antecedent)- preceding; prior, (!1 !&, ! 1 *&, ! 1 8r2*); A university and its antecedent, the school, may best co-operate with the medical school by making due provision for the study of those branches of knowledge which lie at the foundation of medicine. — Science & Education; • (primogenitor)- the state or fact of being the firstborn of children of the same parents, (agяt; C4t); The law of primogeniture, much maligned by egalitarians, created a class of aristocrats without real titles and little money. — The Monarchist; • (progenitor)- abundance; abundant quantity, (! 1 8r2;  r2 8 ); All looked back with the same ancestral pride to their great progenitor, the friend of God. — Ten Great Religions An Essay in Comparative Theology; • (progeny)- a descendant or offspring, as a child, plant, or animal, (n- n ; F); She was buried with literary honors, and one of her progeny was advanced to the duties and honors of office cat. — Concerning Cats My Own and Some Others; • (offspring)- the progeny or descendants of a person, animal, or plant considered as a group; antecede = antedate = precede > precedent > unprecedented • (antecede)- to go before, in time, order, rank, etc.; precede; It must antecede death, or it will be of no avail. — Sermons on Various Important Subjects; • (antedate)- to be of an earlier date than; precede in time; They antedate the titles under which Rawson claims. — Gordon Keith; • (precede)- to go before, as in place, order, rank, importance, or time, (ag*&, !1 *&, ag!&, ! 1 !& $o); His mate may precede or follow him in his devotions, but never accompanies him. — The Soul of the Indian; • (precedent)- Law. a legal decision or form of proceeding serving as an authoritative rule or pattern in future similar or analogous cases, ( я; ! 1  !); He referred to the case of Kentucky as a precedent, attempting thereby to show the competency of Congress to admit a State formed within the jurisdiction of another. — The Journal of Negro History, Volume 6, 1921; • preceding in time, rank etc., (ag*); I was searching for a precedent, and at last I found one in the story — The Wonder; • (unprecedented)- having no previous example; The strain upon him was unprecedented, and, very naturally, he at times showed his irritation and some temper. — My Memories of Eighty Years; atavism = throwback • (atavism)- reversion to an earlier type; throwback, (  h pяn   # k $ ,   k e K  t M N   2g  ! 8 ); He was a magnificent atavism, a man so purely primitive that he was of the type that came into the world before the development of the moral nature. — The Sea Wolf; • (throwback)- a reversion to a former type or ancestral characteristic; She made a striking sight, clad in a long dress of scales that glittered in the subdued light, herself a genetic throwback, tall and blonde. — Starfarers; posterity = descendant : pedigree • (posterity)- succeeding or future generations collectively, (F*); Have we then reason to believe that our posterity will be wiser because instructed by a greater number of examples? — The Collected Works of Ambrose Bierce, Volume 1; • (descendant)- a person, animal, or plant whose descent can be traced to a particular individual or group; It is his first descendant, and everybody knows that such are just the things of which fathers are very apt to be proud. — Wild Northern Scenes Sporting Adventures with the Rifle and the Rod; • (pedigree)- an ancestral line; line of descent; lineage; ancestry, (! 1 8r2k, F# , # я 8 , # K 8 ); On the same page the Ford pedigree is given, where it is seen that Johnson had an uncle Cornelius. — Life Of Johnson; primogeniture = inheritance = hereditary • (primogeniture)- the state or fact of being the firstborn of children of the same parents, (agяt; C4t); The law of primogeniture, much maligned by egalitarians, created a class of aristocrats without real titles and little money. — THE MONARCHIST; • (inheritance)- something regarded as a heritage; He was a mimic by inheritance, a comedian by instinct and unrestrained habit. — Eugene Field A Study In Heredity And Contradictions; • (hereditary)- Law descending from an ancestor to a legal heir; passing down by inheritance; The Chamber of Peers was to be hereditary, and nominated by the Emperor, and its number was unlimited. — The Memoirs of Napoleon; ancestry = lineage = descent {extraction} = bloodline = filiation > filial • (ancestry)- family or ancestral descent; lineage, (F); Possibly the main current of his ancestry is as little strictly English as German. — Life of Robert Browning; • (lineage)- lineal descent from an ancestor; ancestry or extraction, (# 8 , F, Fk 8 ); She did not doubt however that her beloved husband's lineage was a most noble one. — Legends of the Rhine; • (descent)- the act or an instance of descending; Sometimes the descent was attributed to the fresh fault of each individual, and was thought to be constantly happening. — The Destiny of the Soul A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; • (extraction)- descent or lineage, (F, 1#); The German naval officer is usually of middle-class extraction, while a slightly larger proportion of the officers of the army is taken from the noblesse. — William of Germany; • an act or instance of extracting, (#! 1  u+     я); • (bloodline)- direct line of descent; pedigree; It was their strongest connection, the shared heritage of their bloodline. — Morgawr; • (filiation, filial)- of, pertaining to, or befitting a son or daughter, (n- Fkn); The religion of such a period is filial, and God is viewed as the protector and friend of the family or tribe. — Ten Great Religions An Essay in Comparative Theology;  cognate {connate} = consanguine^ sanguine {blood-red colour} [optimistic] ^ sanguinary = gory = bloodthirsty • (cognate)- related by birth; of the same parentage, descent, etc, (ei # 1   ud1); Gravity is a mutual affection between cognate bodies towards union or conjunction (similar in kind to the magnetic virtue), so that the earth attracts a stone much rather than the stone seeks the earth. — Kepler; • allied or similar in nature or quality; • (connate)- existing at birth or from the beginning; inborn or inherent; It can be recognized at once by the connate leaves that form the fascicle or by the remarkable stout curved peduncle of its cone. — The Genus Pinus; • (consanguine)- descended from a common ancestor; consanguineous; • (sanguine)- cheerfully optimistic, hopeful, or confident, ( &); The emperor was sanguine, and boasted that all external danger had passed away. — Ancient States and Empires; • (sanguinary)- bloody, (kk; kh#); Humphrey was a veteran of the Civil War, commanding a company in many sanguinary battles. — Reminiscences of a Pioneer; • (gory)- covered or stained with gore; bloody, (kk); Thurlow's cheeks were gory, already turning purple in splotches. — Partone; • (bloodthirsty)- marked by eagerness to resort to violence and bloodshed; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.11 Jurisprudence accuse, arrest, acquit, vindicate, condone, recidivism accuse = charge = arraign = indict = impeach = criminate = incriminate^ recriminate : implicate • (accuse)- to charge with a shortcoming or error, (ak    ); I can complain no longer, for that would mean to accuse, and I do not even want toaccuse friend Devrient. — Correspondence of Wagner and Liszt; • (charge)- Law to instruct (a jury) about the law, its application, and the weighing of evidence; I solemnly declare to you that this charge is a most infamous calumny. — The Memoirs of Napoleon; • (arraign)- to call or bring before a court to answer to an indictment, ((  rd) a    ,   я    я  ); Sidney Prale was arraigned, and the plea of not guilty was made and entered. — The Brand of Silence A Detective Story; • (indict)- (of a grand jury) to bring a formal accusation against, as a means of bringing to trial, (ak   ); The Democratic Party and the mass media have refused to indict, impeach, prosecute, and convict this White House; • (impeachment)- (in Congress or a state legislature) the presentation of formal charges against a public official by the lower house, trial to be before the upper house, (a    я ak    a!s  , a#$!  ); The abuses stated in our impeachment are not those of mere individual, natural faculties, but the abuses of civil and political authority. — The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. 11 (of 12); • (criminate)- to incriminate; He resolutely refused to criminate himself; and the evidence against him was insufficient. — The History of England, from the Accession of James II — Volume 2; • (incriminate)- to accuse of or present proof of a crime or fault, (ak  / /  &  ); However, the law grants them the right to self- incriminate: voluntary confessions are admissible; • (recrimination)- to bring a countercharge against an accuser,(& l a ; p ); He has left our politics a wreck of recrimination, anger and polarization. — The Corner; • (implicate)- to show to be also involved, usually in an incriminating manner, (a& * i   !, я-  .  ); The committee named in it differs from the committee really named by the Provincial Congress, and the proceedings nowhere implicate the men actually proved guilty. — The True George Washington; accusation = accusal = indictment ~ impeachment ~ allegation • (accusal)- accusation; An impulse of self-accusal drove Glennard to the window. — The Touchstone; • (indictment)- any charge, accusation, serious criticism, or cause for blame, (a , a &t); And this indictment is amply confirmed from other sources. — The Greek View of Life; • (allegation)- an assertion made with little or no proof, (a , a  p0    1 ); The police wouldn't elaborate on who the allegation was against or any other details; arrest = collar = nail = apprehend • (arrest)- to stop; check; • to seize and hold under the authority of law; His secret mission to Genoa gave a pretext for his arrest, and for thirteen days, in August, 1794, he was a prisoner, but through his friends was liberated. — The Life Of Napoleon Bonaparte; • (collar)- Slang to arrest (a criminal, for example); • (nail)- Slang to stop and seize; catch; • (apprehend)- to take into custody; arrest by legal warrant or authority,( gp   , & - o  );A criminal had to be apprehended, and the circumstances, though difficult, were not unfamiliar. — The Sins of Séverac Bablon; • to grasp the meaning of; understand, esp. intuitively; perceive, (5 &  ); • to expect with anxiety, suspicion, or fear; anticipate,(#6  );  apprehend > apprehensive^misapprehend = misconstrue(^construe) = misconceive(^conceive > conception) = misinterpret • (apprehensive)- uneasy or fearful about something that might happen, (udg, u:n, #6); His mottled face was apprehensive, and he moved with a sort of reluctant alacrity. — The Invisible Man; • (misapprehend)- to apprehend incorrectly; misunderstand; Those in an inferior station to yourself will doubt your good intentions, and misapprehend your plainest expressions. — Selected English Letters (XV - XIX Centuries); • (misconstrue)- to misunderstand the meaning of; take in a wrong sense; misinterpret, ( 5 ,  .  ); Surely it is a mad world that can thus misconstrue obvious and innocent facts! — Memoirs of Sir Wemyss Reid 1842-1885; • (construe)- to give the meaning or intention of; explain; interpret, (< , k   я a<=  ;  .   ); Heyward paused, for he knew not how to construe the remarkable expression that gleamed across the swarthy features of the attentive — The Last of the Mohicans; A narrative of 1757; • (misconceive)- to interpret incorrectly; misunderstand; To understand is pain and joy in one; to misconceive is to scatter broken glass for bare feet. — The Project Gutenberg Complete Works of Gilbert Parker; • (conception)- the act or power of forming notions, ideas, or concepts, (l , &l ,   ?   5  0 ! as ); But this conception is the result of an arbitrary confusion between the generality of laws and that of genera. — Evolution créatrice. English; • (misinterpret)- to interpret inaccurately; My actions ought to speak for themselves, but you listen not to them but to those who misinterpret and distort them. — William of Germany; incarcerate = immure = imprison = impound = remand = jail • (incarcerate)- to imprison; confine, (  rd  ); He is currently incarcerated in Spain awaiting extradition to Morocco; • (immure)- to confine within or as if within walls; imprison, (  rd  ); You seduce men to crime, and then arraign them at the bar of justice -- immure them in prison. — Select Temperance Tracts; • (imprison)- to put in or as if in prison; confine; These thoughts would so confound me, and imprison me, and tie me up from faith, that I knew not what to do. — Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners; • (impound)- to confine in or as if in a pound, (i  k0  .  ); And when he was done, he ordered the car impounded for the crime team's analysis. — A Traitor to Memory; • (remand)- Law to send back to custody; To a little child, whether he is in prison on remand or after conviction is not a subtlety of position he can comprehend. — Oscar Wilde; shackle = fetter = hobble ~ manacle ~ tether • (shackle)- a ring or other fastening, as of iron, for securing the wrist, ankle, etc.; fetter, (   &  -;  - ; -); In the prison he claims he was shackled, forced to listen to never-ending music, kept in a standing position, was fed contaminated food and denied proper washing facilities; • (fetter)- to confine; restrain, ( - &  ; #B 1  ); But he was fettered, and his fetters were his choice. — The Iliad of Homer Translated into English Blank Verse by William Cowper; • (unfettered) – liberated; freedom from chain; How is it possible to have unfettered, free-market capitalism with regulations already in place?; • (hobble)- a shackle for the ankles or feet; • to put a device around the legs of (a horse, for example) so as to hamper but not prevent movement; Within the week he could hobble about on his crutches for a short distance; after that he felt more secure. — Last of the Great Scouts The Life Story of William F Cody; • (manacle)- to handcuff; fetter, ( -  # &  ); All the Englishmen were manacled, as though their captors supposed that they would make an attempt to escape. — The Three Lieutenants; • (tether)- to fasten or confine with or as if with a tether, ( -   &C D*  . ); There were three cows tethered, all of them lowing uncomfortably; acquit = assoil = exonerate = exculpate = discharge = dismiss • (acquit)- to relieve from a charge of fault or crime; declare not guilty, ( =    o , .  ! o , a  < a  o ); We mean to try you fairly, to acquit or condemn you in strict justice. — The Northern Iron; • (assoil)- to absolve; acquit; pardon; "May God assoil his soul!" — A Knight of the White Cross : a tale of the siege of Rhodes; • (exonerate)- to clear, as of an accusation; free from guilt or blame; exculpate, (a    0k  o ); But patriotism does not exonerate us from linguistic infantilism. — The Times of India; • (exculpate)- to clear from a charge of guilt or fault; free from blame; vindicate, (a   < E1 o ); The captain gave a sigh that would have exculpated him from the gravest of crimes, and looked steadfastly toward the west. — Vesty of the Basins; • (discharge)- to get rid of a burden or load, ( t < a  o , a& * < .  ! o ); The injustice of arbitrary discharge is avoided by confining the right of dischargeto the employment manager, and he rarely exercises it. — My Life and Work; • (dismiss)- to discharge or remove, as from office or service, (. s, . я, & ); The chivalrous Prince is dismissed, and Joanna is alone with, her thoughts. — Frederic Mistral; • to put off or away, esp. from consideration; put aside; reject, (0 <   n  H  );  acquit {comport = behave = conduct = deport} • (comport)- to bear or conduct (oneself); behave, (  ); But he found his situation very far from such as comported with his ideas of royal authority and state. — History of King Charles the Second of England; • (deport)- to bear, conduct, or behave (oneself) in a particular manner; • to expel (an alien) from a country; banish, ( !/= !/  -  ); In July they began to round up boys and girls and deport them. — Tales From The Secret Annex; justify = vindicate > vindicator = apologist : absolve > absolution = remission • (justification) - a reason, fact, circumstance, or explanation that justifies or defends, (    я  k ! p&  ); The originating cause of our justification is the grace of God. — The Theology of Holiness; • (vindicate)- to clear, as from an accusation, imputation, suspicion, or the like; It will become his son to vindicate his name, and revenge his death. — The Old English Baron: a Gothic Story; • to afford justification for; justify, (p0  p&   ); It was believed that his ambition would be less to extend his dominions than to vindicate his title of the most Catholic king. — The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 04: 1555-59; • (vindicator)- one who vindicates; one who justifies, maintains, or defends; She is the champion and vindicator only of her own. — Chris Floyd - Empire Burlesque; • (apologist)- a person who makes a defense in speech or writing of a belief, idea, etc, (t&k!0<=  ); Josephus was essentially an apologist, and his writings include not only an apology for his people, but an apology for his own life. — Josephus; • (absolve)- to free from guilt or blame or their consequences, (( , a &  , & & *, a,  , pr i  <) 0k  o , 0k   ); The sins which the priest has no authority to absolve are called reserved sins. — Baltimore Catechism No. 3 (of 4); • (absolution)- (verb - absolve) act of absolving; a freeing from blame or guilt; release from consequences, obligations, or penalties, (я=  &    *0= я=1  & &0k K ); Then it must be considered that their absolution is only upon repentance, and often upon penance also. — Life Of Johnson; • (remission)- a lessening of intensity or degree; abatement; Go then, and exhort men to do penance for the remission of their sins, and for peace. — The Life and Legends of Saint Francis of Assisi; attest = manifest = authenticate = evidence = ratify • (attest)- to give proof or evidence of; manifest, (p0  p0    , p  ); This paper was duly signed and attested, and the prisoner was given his liberty and an hour's grace. — A Girl of the People; • (manifest)- to make clear or evident to the eye or the understanding; show plainly, (!sM   .   p 0   ); • readily perceived by the eye or the understanding; evident; obvious; apparent; plain, (!sM  ; sM; p 0 ); And now the stratagem of the enemy became manifest, and at the same time also there was seen on the mountains above them a great army of the Samnites. — Stories From Livy; • (stoic)- a list of the cargo or passengers carried on an airplane, (   я я я 0  0    ;   0 &   t   ); • (manifestation) - outward or perceptible indication; materialization, (sM ; p #); But this manifestation is the work of God. — Summa Theologica, Part III; • (manifesto) - a public declaration of intentions, opinions, objectives, or motives, as one issued by a government, sovereign, or organization,(# !,  яN  p1 =1  ud#, 0=!H p1 !mn p # . K ); For the first time in history a manifesto was addressed "to the German nation." — A History of Modern Europe, 1792-1878; • (authenticate)- to establish the authenticity of; prove genuine; If this edition is published while I am at London, I shall revise the sheets and authenticate its being according to his last corrections. — Life of Adam Smith; • (evidence)- something indicative; an outward sign; The mere classification of the evidence was a momentous and necessary task. — The Reminiscences Of Sir Henry Hawkins; • (ratify)- to confirm by expressing consent, approval, or formal sanction, 1 (s k   S  a0    ; a!0<=    ); Laws and statesmen for the most part indicate and ratify, but do not create. — Historical and Political Essays;  condone : amnesty : clemency^ clement^ inclement : leeway = tolerance = allowance : leniency : lax : latitude^ lateral • (condone)- to overlook, forgive, or disregard (an offense) without protest or censure; I may not be able to condone theft, but I can comprehend your desperation. — The Sheikh's Innocent Bride; • (amnesty)- a general pardon for offenses, esp. political offenses, against a government, often granted before any trial or conviction,(#   T * a& * kt p #= ! *  k0 ); Many availed themselves of the amnesty, anxious to return to their own homes. — The Shadow of the Cathedral; • (clemency)- the quality of being clement; disposition to show forbearance, compassion, or forgiveness in judging or punishing; leniency; mercy, (k0 #  ; m ;  0 ; 0d 1 ); This clemency was shown him because he deserted before hostilities commenced. — General Scott; • (inclement)- (of the weather, the elements, etc.) severe, rough, or harsh; stormy, (W , rk o 0=0, W X o 5 - ); The weather was very inclement, and rain was falling, accompanied by a very high wind. — Recollections of the private life of Napoleon; • (leeway)- a degree of freedom of action or thought; A competent skipper will always be certain that enough leeway is allowed in the ship's course to avoid drifting aground. — The Word Detective; • (leniency)- mildness; permissiveness, (u  ;  0 ); The main reason that induced Charles so far to toleration and leniency was the trouble with the Turks. — Life of Luther; • (lax)- not strict or severe; careless or negligent, ( ; Y ;  0; #<); If we are too lax, our kids ride roughshod over us and take advantage of our softness; • (latitude)- freedom from narrow restrictions; freedom of action, opinion, etc., (0=, 0 i   s *  ); There was no effort on the part of the saluting soldier to halt him, and once outside he realized why this latitude was allowed him. — The Lighted Match; • an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator; • (lateral)- of or pertaining to the side; situated at, proceeding from, or directed to a side, (& Z=; & Z= ); We should be far more lateral thinking than we are; enfranchise = liberate = manumit = emancipate > emancipationist = abolitionist • (enfranchise)- to grant a franchise to; admit to citizenship, esp. to the right of voting, (  [ *  p   ); United States, at once enfranchise all the negroes in their midst. — History of the Thirty-Ninth Congress of the United States; • (liberate)- to set free, as from imprisonment or bondage, (0k   , ud   ); But he says himself he would steal a negro to liberate him, and the court says it makes no difference whether he steals to liberate or steals to sell. — Personal Memoir Of Daniel Drayton; • (manumit)- to release from slavery or servitude, ((p    k  !) 0k  ); They were not required so far as we know, in any instance, to manumit their slaves. — A Review of Uncle Tom's Cabin or, An Essay on Slavery; • (emancipate)- to free from restraint, influence, or the like, (0k  o (#   яN  ] a * <)); The mind was emancipated, and religion grew more liberal and humane, as the result of this contact with foreign lands. — Unitarianism in America; • (emancipationist)- one who is in favor of or advocates the emancipation of slaves; In his earlier years, he had been an outspoken emancipationist, and had always frankly expressed his opinion that slavery was a great evil. — Political Recollections 1840 to 1872; • (abolitionist)- a person who advocated or supported the abolition of slavery in the U.S, (g !p<  & &k&  , uc  ); Frederick Douglass was a former slave and abolitionist, and invoking his name was meant as a slur, historian Ritchie said;  disengage ~ extricate = unravel = disentangle = untangle # tangle = entangle = ravel • (disengage)- to release from attachment or connection; loosen; unfasten, 1 (&< o ); During this process the hydrogen gas of the water is disengaged, and flies off with effervescence. — Conversations on Chemistry; • (extricate)- to free or release from entanglement; disengage, (0k   ); He gasped and kicked his legs in a frantic attempt to extricate himself. — The Day of the Dissonance; • (ravel, unravel)- to disentangle or unravel the threads or fibers of (a woven or knitted fabric, rope, etc.), (я[ .  ); We weave, we ravel and we unravel. — The Ancient Regime; • to tangle or entangle,(я[ &   ); • to involve; confuse; perplex, (я-  ; я-  ); • (disentangle)- to extricate from entanglement or involvement; free; She was too busy trying to disentangle herself from her seat-belt. — A Ring And A Promise; • (untangle)- release from entanglement of difficulty; • (tangle) – to mix together or intertwine in a confused mass; snarl; There were six of them, curled up around each other like a tangle of hairy rope. — The Legacy of Heorot; • (entangle)- to twist together or entwine into a confusing mass; snarl; Friends engender obligations and obligations entangle life. — The Miko; recidivism = backsliding > backslide = recidivate = retrogress = relapse : revert • (recidivism)- repeated or habitual relapse, as into crime, (d a& *p  ); Their recidivism is not due to an inability to distinguish between right and wrong. — Studies in Forensic Psychiatry; • (backslide)- a falling back in principle or practice; a lapse in or abandonment of religious obligation; apostasy; In our journeying to and fro, we found some honest-hearted Friends, who appeared to be concerned for the cause of truth among a backsliding people. — The Journal of John Woolman; • (recidivate)- to relapse into bad habits, sinful behavior, or undesirable activities; • (retrogess)- to return to a previous pattern of behavior, especially to return to criminal habits; • (relapse)- to go backward into an earlier and usually worse condition; We don't stand still or retrogress; we keep going on and up. — The Drums of Jeopardy; • (relapse)- to fall or slide back into a former state; I feared a relapse, and unwilling to run the risk, I preferred abstinence to exposing Theresa to a similar mortification. — The Confessions of J J Rousseau; • (revert)- to return to a former habit, practice, belief, condition, etc., ( as  p =  ); After 3 generations the property reverted to the landowners; crime, types of felony, misdemeanor felony > felon = outlaw = malefactor = crook = convict = offender : desperado : ruffian = hooligan = roughneck = rowdy • (felon)- Law. a person who has committed a felony, (gr a& * k); His soul seemed to be crushed by the terrible realization that his son was a common felon--worse than felon, the persecutor of innocence. — Hatchie, the Guardian Slave; or, The Heiress of Bellevue; • (outlaw)- a fugitive from the law; The younger son succeeded in escaping, but he became a wretched fugitive and outlaw, and all manifestations of resistance to Caesar's sway disappeared from Spain. — History of Julius Caesar; • (malefactor)- evildoer; criminal, (a& * ; 0n  я  я k); The judge may be grieved for the malefactor, and wish that he could shew mercy to him, but find himself obliged to condemn him and suffer justice to take its course. — Sermons on Various Important Subjects; • (crook)- Informal one who makes a living by dishonest methods; • (convict)- Law to find or prove (someone) guilty of an offense or crime; • (offender)- one that offends, especially one that breaks a public law; In this case, as in the other, the offender was a mere lad, little over twenty, named John Francis. — Life of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen V.1; • (desperado)- a bold, reckless criminal or outlaw, esp. in the early days of the American West, (ag&a   / &  d=1t); The man afterwards became a noted desperado, and was quite conspicuous in the Kansas war. — The Life of Hon. William F. Cody; • (ruffian)- a tough, lawless person; roughneck; bully,(c; $s k; gX ; X ); Expecting resistance, the ruffians were for a moment staggered at seeing only two unarmed men. — The Great Events by Famous Historians, Volume 10; • (hooligan)- a tough and aggressive or violent youth; • (roughneck)- an uncouth person; a rowdy; • (rowdy)- a rough, disorderly person; They were rowdy, but hardly criminals. — Texas! Lucky; bribery^ bribable = venal <> venial • (bribery)- the act or practice of offering, giving, or taking a bribe; It was shameful and open bribery, but bosses are shameful and open in their doings, so Peter was only living up to his role. — The Honorable Peter Stirling and What People Thought of Him; • (bribable)- capable of being bribed; liable to be bribed; The legislature elected by bribery is a bribable body. — Complete Essays; • (venal)- willing to sell one's influence, esp. in return for a bribe; open to bribery; mercenary, (a<= я   a!:  я  pst, k! *, a<=&# , a<= &  ); Corrupt and venal orators are the assassins of the public liberties and of public morals— Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry; • (venial)- able to be forgiven or pardoned; not seriously wrong, as a sin (opposed to mortal), (k0 =; 0 я= ; K; u&k ); So powerful is the influence of fashion, it can even cause murder to be regarded as a venial peccadillo. — Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions — Volume 2; burglary : larceny : filch = cabbage = pilfer = purloin = steal : plagiarize : smuggling : contraband • (burglary)- the act of entering a building or other premises with the intent to commit theft; In doing his research into Sir Mayhew's life in preparation for the burglary, he'd learned that Mayhew was a major stockholder in Southland. — Ellery Queen Mystery Magazine; • (larceny)- the wrongful taking and carrying away of the personal goods of another from his or her possession with intent to convert them to the taker's own use, (); Murder, larceny, arson, rape -- all offences against the person were commuted for a definite price. — The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 01: Introduction I; • (filch)- to steal (esp. something of small value); pilfer, (; ?D   ); He gave what he filched to the others, and Musa shared the dainties they bought with the stolen property. — The Last Journals of David Livingstone from 1865 to His Death; • (cabbage)- anything filched; • (pilfer)- to steal (a small amount or item); An Italian will pilfer or steal, cheat or defraud you, in any way he can. — The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction Volume 12, No. 327, August 16, 1828; • (purloin)- to steal, often in a violation of trust; The document he came to purloin is in my pocket, and here, Sir George, is my warrant for retaining possession of it. " — A Maker of History; • (plagiarize)- steal another’s ideas and pass them off as one’s own, (a  , #b i  g  я     ; m  ); The reason students plagiarize is because they believe they won’t get caught; • (smuggling)- offensive carrying of dutiable goods; The officers explained to me the manner in which smuggling is conducted. — A Residence in France; • (contrabandist)- one who traffics illegally; a smuggler, (       ); The rude native, the contrabandist who mocked at laws seemed stupefied by the news. — The Dead Command From the Spanish Los Muertos Mandan; embezzlement = defalcation = peculation = misappropriation • (embezzlement)- to appropriate fraudulently to one's own use, as money or property entrusted to one's care, (); She pleaded guilty to a charge of tax collectors embezzlement, a violation under the state taxation code; • (defalcation)- misappropriation of money or funds held by an official, trustee, or other fiduciary, (-!ri, a<=-t! ); At the time this was done, Tobias Watkins was in prison in Washington for a defalcation of only a few hundreds to the Government. — The Memories of Fifty Years; • (peculation)- to steal or take dishonestly (money, esp. public funds, or property entrusted to one's care); embezzle, (aN*  t! ); He practiced every dirty act of peculation, and even stooped to connections with the sutlers to defraud the public. — Life and Times of Washington; • (misappropriation)- to apply wrongfully or dishonestly, as funds entrusted to one's care, (!ri, t! ); The Colonel found this a hideous misappropriation of precious manpower but he seemed to have no choice in the matter. — The Ninja; pillage = plunder = maraud = ravage = harry = loot = despoil = ransack : foray = raid = maraud : predation = depredation • (pillage)- to strip ruthlessly of money or goods by open violence, as in war; plunder, (n  ); Houses were attacked and pillaged, and men murdered in cold blood. — A Brief History of the United States; • (plunder)- to rob of goods or valuables by open force, as in war, hostile raids, brigandage, etc., ((#  d    Tp !0) n  / [   ); They were eager for plunder, and seized the captain to plunder him of his clothes. — Forty Years in South China; • (maraud)- to roam or go around in quest of plunder; make a raid for booty, (n  #  ud# K  -  ); The authorities were anxious to stifle the notion of rebellion, and to treat the whole movement as a marauding affair. — The Philippine Islands; • (ravage)- to work havoc upon; damage or mar by ravages, (ks/ k$!  , M  ); Provinces were ravaged, and towns and castles were stormed. — Richard II Makers of History; • to pillage; sack, (0=0  n o   ,  :   ); • (harry)- to harass, annoy, or prove a nuisance to by or as if by repeated attacks; worry, (ks  , n   , KK k0  ); It was a real treat for the harried President to escape from the politicians and have a quiet talk with a private soldier. — The Every-day Life of Abraham Lincoln; • (despoil)- to strip of possessions, things of value, etc.; rob; plunder; pillage, (!=s n  , n   ); While their territory has been devastated and their homes despoiled, the spirit of the Serbian people has not been broken; • (ransack)- to search or examine thoroughly; He delighted to ransack the history of a nation, of an art or a science, and bring to me all the particulars. — Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli; • (foray)- to make a raid; pillage; maraud, (s    k0 ,  0 ); It was my fate to take part in many a fight and in many a foray, and to send many a man to his doom. — Tales of Destiny; • (raid)- a sudden assault or attack, as upon something to be seized or suppressed, (s k0 ); With insufficient time to improvise, the raid was allowed to proceed. — Luftwaffe Victorious; • (predation)- depredation; plundering; I wondered if the driver had actually been carrying a Home Stone or if his assertion had been merely a trick to discourage predation. — Renegades Of Gor; • (depredation)- the act of preying upon or plundering; robbery; ravage, (n  , *$!, [& [  ); If a depredation was committed in the night, the dawn of morning found the sufferer on the trail of the marauder. — Western Characters or Types of Border Life in the Western States; usury : fleece = overcharge = rob • (usuary)- the lending or practice of lending money at an exorbitant interest, (!     ); Exorbitantly high interest rates were called "usury," and were forbidden by federal law. — Credit card information; • (fleece)- to deprive of money or belongings by fraud, hoax, or the like; swindle,(W  * p   o ); Sooner or later must he come within reach of their talons to be fleeced, flouted and despoiled. — The Trail of '98 A Northland Romance; • to remove the fleece of (a sheep), ( -   0 ? -  ); They shear sheep of their fleece, which they then comb into separate strands of wool- Barron’s GRE; misdemeanor = violation = infraction = infringement > infringe {contravene = contradict} • (misdemeanor)- Law. a criminal offense defined as less serious than a felony; So I was let to go unwhipped of justice for that misdemeanor, and perhaps that was the lesson which burnt into my soul. — The Grimke Sisters • (infraction)- breach; violation; infringement; The preservation of the Constitution from infraction is the President's highest duty. — State of the Union Address (1790-2001); • (infringement)- a violation, as of a law, regulation, or agreement; a breach; For the infringement of other rights of a private character the law has provided civil remedies with which we are not at this moment concerned. — The Reminiscences Of Sir Henry Hawkins; • (infringe)- to commit a breach or infraction of; violate or transgress, (,/ n/ .X  , a=/ ak0  , (& * ) n/ k0  ); The making of this copy will not infringe the copyright in the content; • (contravene)- to act or be counter to; violate; And Ferrante does not impress one as the sort of husband whose wishes his wife would be bold enough to contravene. — The Life of Cesare Borgia; • (contradict)- to assert or express the opposite of (a statement); He has never had the generosity, the magnanimity, or the candour to contradict or disavow. — Memoirs of Aaron Burr; peccadillo = indiscretion : misconduct = malfeasance • (peccadillo)- a very minor or slight sin or offense; a trifling fault, (   k t ! 0  d= ;  tr[); It is an action between friends, just as my silence on the subject of your peccadillo is a friendly action. — The Gray Dawn; • (indiscretion)- lack of discretion; injudiciousness; Their indiscretion, and the men who are guiding them, will prevent our communicating our secret to them till the very last moment. — The Life of Marie Antoinette; • (indiscretion)- the performance by a public official of an act that is legally unjustified, harmful, or contrary to law; wrongdoing; The dawn of the implementation of new rules to address the financial crisis, industry wide corruption and fraud, and other malfeasance is quickly approaching; impinge = entrench {trench} = encroach > encroachment • (impinge)- to make an impression; have an effect or impact; • to encroach; infringe , (aK  !M 1  , K    ); On the inert molecules of seed and soil these waves impinge, disturbing the atomic equilibrium, which there is an immediate effort to restore. — Fragments of science, V. 1-2; • (entrench)- to place in a position of strength; establish firmly or solidly, ( pq .  k  , S  1 s &  ); There had been no time to entrench the position properly, but the troops showed a magnificent front to the terrible fire which confronted them. — Sir John French; • (trench)- to surround or fortify with trenches; entrench; The floor of the trench is also sloped for purposes of draining. — History of the World War, Vol. 3; • (encroachment)- to advance beyond proper, established, or usual limits; make gradual inroads, (aN*, as   a< ap  ag! o , ! 0 n  ); To preserve internal order and freedom from encroachment is the first purpose of government. — State of the Union Address (1790-2001); transgress = trespass = breach = infiltrate = infract = intrude > intruder = interloper • (transgress)- to pass over or go beyond (a limit, boundary, etc.), (! 0 n  ); to transgress bounds of prudence; • to go beyond the limits imposed by (a law, command, etc.); violate; infringe, (i, k ,  ); Thus Satan leads us on by first tempting us to transgress, then making our first sin an argument to sweep away all objections in regard to committing others. — From Wealth to Poverty; • (tresspass)- an encroachment or intrusion; Murder was reckoned but a venial trespass, and was boasted as a piece of bravery. — The Works of John Dryden; • (breach)- breaking of contract or duty, ( ; ; n; ); • fissure or gap; The engines were then rolled along the mole to the walls, and a breach was at last made, and the city was taken by assault. — Ancient States and Empires; • (infiltrate)- to pass (troops, for example) surreptitiously into enemy-held territory; Even if we infiltrate the alien core in the Jem'Hadar station, we can't blow it up. — Time's Enemy; • (infract)- to infringe; violate; • (intrude)- to thrust or bring in without invitation, permission, or welcome, ( я   p#     ); And then I ran away, not wishing to intrude, and waited impatiently for dinner and an introduction to my well- beloved heroine. — Memories and Anecdotes; • (interloper)- to intrude into some region or field of trade without a proper license, (& * p#);He felt like an interloper, an intruder, and his heart sank. — Ghost King;  intrude^ obtrude^ unobtrusive^ extrude^ protrude : protuberance = bulge : expansive : egress • (obtrude)- to thrust (something) forward or upon a person, esp. without warrant or invitation, (a   я  я 0 0 a u&  & o ; a*  =  ); Gates was quite too vain-glorious to listen and Marion quite too moderate to obtrude his opinions; and yet Marion was a man of equal prudence and adroitness. — The Life of Francis Marion; • (unobstrusive)- not obtrusive; inconspicuous, unassertive, or reticent, (ak; ap); He was quiet unobtrusive, and only a fair scholar according to the standard of the College authorities. — Ralph Waldo Emerson; • (extrude)- to thrust out; force or press out; expel, (p s, *  i  ?D  0 *0  & p   #   o ); The surface of the sea-ice was now extremely slushy and bad for pulling; the ice had begun to extrude its salt. — The Worst Journey in the World Antarctic 1910-1913; • (protrude) – stick out, ( i p!    o ); His eyes protruded, and a scream ripped past his teeth. — 013 - Meteor Menace; • (protuberance)- a protuberant part or thing; projection or bulge, (pm ; ps ); The protuberance is usually reflexed from the unequal growth of the two surfaces. — The Genus Pinus; • (bulge) – a protruding part; an outward curve or swelling; His face ceased to bulge, slowly shrinking until the skin pressed tight around the clear outlines of his skull. — The Kinslayer Wars; • (expansive)- having a wide range or extent; comprehensive; extensive, (p!  # ; s  ! *); Froude's sense of humour was rather receptive than expansive, and he did not often display it in his writings. — The Life of Froude; • (of a person's character or speech) effusive, unrestrained, free, or open, (uc; uc); • (egress)- exit, (ps ); The gates of the outer wall were open all day for ingress and egress, and closed only at night. — The Phantom Ship; legal terminologies decree = fiat = edict = rescript = dictum : ordinance^ ordain <> ordeal • (decree)- a decree issued by a sovereign or other authority, (tk; a*  #); This decree was annulled by the king, and confirmed by parliament. — History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814; • (fiat)- an authoritative decree, sanction, or order, (# ! =1  p t h0    #); As a liberal, I fear that some of our rights could thus be curtailed by ministerial fiat; • (edict)- a decree or proclamation issued by an authority and having the force of law; The edict was set up at the turnings of streets, and in public places of the town. — The Works of John Dryden; • (rescript)- a formal decree or edict; The petition and the rescript are in existence, and confirm Cellinis veracity in this transaction. — The Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini; • (dictum)- an authoritative pronouncement; judicial assertion, ( ,   , a# !  ); A wise man, he had learned early in life a basic dictum: odd appearance may indicate wealth or eccentricity, with the two not necessarily mutually exclusive. — Orphan Star; • (ordinance)- an authoritative rule or law; a decree or command, (a*  #); This ordinance was at first approved by a lieutenant colonel of the United — Report on the Condition of the South; • 1 (ordination) - Ecclesiastical. the act or ceremony of ordaining, ( яt   ac   ); He was instituted here in 1852 at the age of 24 only a year after his ordination as priest; • (ordain)- to decree; give orders for, ( #  ); The Constitution has itself pointed out, ordained, and established that authority. — American Eloquence, Volume 1 Studies In American Political History (1896); • (ordeal)- any extremely severe or trying test, experience, or trial, (ag& k ); One thing Bauer has learned through his ordeal is the importance of preventing bad things from getting worse. — The Austin Daily Herald; subpoena : summons <> summon = invoke • (subpoena)- the usual writ for the summoning of witnesses or the submission of evidence, as records or documents, before a court or other deliberative body, (   я o  я . h0  , !& ,  0 ); They refused to cooperate on the grounds that the subpoena was a violation of the First Amendment; • (summons)- an authoritative command, message, or signal by which one is summoned, (  ! 0  я o  я  0 , !0); To each a summons was to be addressed, and Napoleon wrote the preliminary directions at Dresden. — The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte Vol. III. (of IV.); • (summon)- to call together; convene; "Be kind enough to summon the proprietor of this establishment." — The House Without a Key; • (invoke)- to call for with earnest desire; make supplication or pray for, (!    !$k  я vZ, i i   !   p <=  ); I invoke the name of the goddess Lostris, and you cannot stand against it. ' — Warlock; affidavit : adjuration : affirmation : conviction {belief} • (affidavit)- a written declaration upon oath made before an authorized official, (i p0  ! k !  = #&<&= 1 , H  .  i 0 , #&<&t); In the affidavit, applicants will have to cite the reasons behind their financial woes, such as job loss or a drop in income. — Salon; • (adjuration)- an earnest request; entreaty, (!=d a *  , =n, #&<); Repeat that cruel adjuration, and you inflict a death-blow. — Wagner, the Wehr-Wolf; • (affirmation)- something that is affirmed; a statement or proposition that is 1 declared to be true, ( S  !, K  , !a  K  ); It is thus impossible to make any affirmation which is universally and absolutely valid. — A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1; • (conviction)- the judgment of a jury or judge that a person is guilty of a crime as charged, ( u ! s  ); He and everybody knew that his conviction was an act of legal violence. — Sir Walter Ralegh A Biography; • 1 Z !  p); a strongly held belief, ( S inequity : nepotism • (inequity)- lack of equity; unfairness; favoritism or bias, (a  , a t, a ); Fixing inequity is a prerequisite for constructing a healthy and just economy; • (nepotism)- patronage bestowed or favoritism shown on the basis of family relationship, as in business and politics, (sяp ); Stories of scandal, nepotism, and more layoffs are causing many to question the future and credibility of the university; filibuster : perjury : perpetrate : forensic : investigate : sue > ensue • (filibuster)- to impede legislation by irregular or obstructive tactics, esp. by making long speeches, (  k !$!    !  K= k1 p   !d n g  kt w K[ ); The only way to break a filibuster is for three-fifths of the Senate to invoke something called cloture-that is, the cessation of debate. — The Audacity of Hope; • (perjury)- the willful giving of false testimony under oath or affirmation, before a competent tribunal, upon a point material to a legal inquiry, (0< i, #&<,); Robberts warned the public not to register false cases as they would be charged with perjury, and fined or sentenced to time in prison; • (perpetrate)- to commit, (   a& *  tr[ !$K[  , a  ! *  , r =   ?  ); The greatest evil we can perpetrate, is to make someone else do evil. — David A; • (forensic)- pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate, (  h   -!mn ,  K[); His style is generally forensic, altho he frequently rises to the dramatic. — Successful Methods of Public Speaking; • (investigate)- to observe or inquire into in detail; examine systematically; The boys did not stop to investigate, but flew in terror to report their tale. — The Boys' Life of Mark Twain; • (sue)- Law to petition (a court) for redress of grievances or recovery of a right, (0 0  ;  / p <=  ); They suffered the bonds to be sued, and thus raised the question. — Select Speeches of Daniel Webster; • (ensue)- to follow in order; come afterward, esp. in immediate succession, (&= K[ ; K[  я); A struggle ensued, and the crime of homicide was added to that of robbery. — Eugene Aram — Complete; warranted > warranty • (warranted)- justified, authorized, (a p   , a   ); If deportation is warranted, then those people must be sent packing, regardless of their phony claims. — Werner Patels - A Dose of Common Sense; • (unwarranted) - having no justification; groundless; Equally unwarranted is a similar assumption in the broader ranges of society. — The Nature of Goodness; • (warranty)- an act or an instance of warranting; assurance; authorization; warrant, (  n); This warranty is invalid if the factory-applied serial number has been altered or removed from the product; depose > deposition • (depose)- to remove from office or position, esp. high office, (& / k0 / !$ !  ); Great leaders honor the people who want to depose them, the assassins in their midst. — The Practice of Leadership; • (deposition)- removal from an office or position, (k0 < a&!  ;  яz$#); Philip availed himself of a flaw in the Pope's election to threaten him with deposition, and in return was excommunicated. — History of France; rebuttal^ rejoinder = comeback = retort : repartee • (rebuttal)- an act of rebutting, as in a debate, (.X, a  .X  ! k-p0 ); Ready and spontaneous skill in rebuttal is the final excellence of debating. — The Making of Arguments; • (rejoinder)- an answer to a reply; response,(pt  , dя ); He had always the correct rejoinder, always did the right thing. — Black Jack; • (comeback)- a return to a former higher rank, popularity, position, prosperity, etc.; This was Malcomb's standard comeback -- although he lacked the courage to say it out loud. — The crush; • (retort)- to reply to, usually in a sharp or retaliatory way; reply in kind to, (я  o , p  ); Henry replied with no idle threats or empty reproaches, but his retort was none the less effective. — Henry VIII.; • (repartee)- a quick, witty reply, (d  p я , 0.  0.  !0  я  ); But Louise was too shy to respond to this repartee, and she dropped her eyes in confusion. — Patty's Success; reprieve {respite = hiatus} • (reprieve)- to delay the impending punishment or sentence of (a condemned person), ( X  # s a< m  , ! 0 ss   ); Supreme Court, but as one of thousands of petitions the Court receives each year, his chance for a reprieve is remote; • (respite)- a delay or cessation for a time, esp. of anything distressing or 1 ); Climbing up into the trying; an interval of relief, (a!;  0; t trees afforded a temporary respite, as wolves cannot, like bears, there follow their victims. — Winter Adventures of Three Boys; • temporary suspension of the execution of a person condemned to death; reprieve, (! я p  s  m ); • (hiatus)- a break or interruption in the continuity of a work, series, action, etc., ((*     a!mH  = ! H ) ?  c ; k0,); She thought her libido had taken a permanent hiatus, but apparently it hadn't. — A Change of Seasons; docket : document : dossier : missive <> massive • (docket)- an official memorandum or entry of proceedings in a legal cause,(W    st ! !$k&); • a register of such entries; • British. a writing on a letter or document stating its contents; any statement of particulars attached to a package, envelope, etc.; a label or ticket, (  k  ,     ); • (dossier)- a collection or file of documents on the same subject, esp. a complete file containing detailed information about a person or topic, (   k  K[  <  !m    я&t, !$kp! ); He has reams of paper which he calls the dossier of the crime. — Simon the Jeste; • (missive)- a written message; letter, ( K=, grm  * &t); This missive was accompanied by a long letter, dated Nov. — Little Memoirs of the Nineteenth Century; • (massive)- large in comparison with the usual amount; militate : draconian : generality • (militate)- to have a substantial effect; weigh heavily, ((! k-p0 i  !mn) rd !k o /  я  ); Passion, in him, comprehended many of the worst emotions which militate against human happiness. — The Caxtons — Volume 08; • (draconian)- of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Draco or his code of laws, (|s&= H 621 ! e<n Dracop= i  ); • (often lowercase ) rigorous; unusually severe or cruel, ((i !m=) a# W  o 0=0); He is also an advocate of more gun control legislation as well as a draconian, massively increased enforcement of the current laws. — Mirror On America; • (generality)- an indefinite, unspecific, or undetailed statement, (! *  1 ; asM  a =M uk  0n); None can answer yet for *   the generality, whose decisive franchise will elect a fit arbiter in due time. — Life of Robert Browning; tribunal : litigation : embargo • (tribunal)- a court of justice, (  ); The principal function of this tribunal is the trial of charges brought against ministers by the king or by the Folkething. — The Governments of Europe; • (litigation)- the engagement in legal proceedings, (0 0 ; i ‚g); They are very fond of litigation, and are mostly able to afford the expense of a lawsuit. — Sport and Work on the Nepaul Frontier; • (embargo)- an order of a government prohibiting the movement of merchant ships into or out of its ports, (  я  * j ); Whether the embargo was a wise and efficient or a futile and useless measure has little to do with the question of his conduct. — John Quincy Adams American Statesmen Series; writ : codify : codicil : legacy : lien : tithe • (writ)- a formal order under seal, issued in the name of a sovereign, government, court, or other competent authority, enjoining the officer or other person to whom it is issued or addressed to do or refrain from some specified act, (   < < =1 &k K    p  *    #); This writ was delivered to Baddele as sergeant of the staple, and by virtue of it he took and imprisoned Edmund in the staple. — Our Legal Heritage, 5th Ed.; • (codify)- to reduce (laws, rules, etc.) to a code; And there is no system of equations to codify how one deed compares with another; the system will be self-regulatory. — Top stories from Times Online; • to make a digest of; arrange in a systematic collection; • (codicil)- supplement to the body of a will, (ui &#M  # !$# * ); From the evidence of handwriting experts, it became clear that the codicil was a complete forgery. — Christie, Agatha - Hallowe'en 2; • (legacy)- a gift made by a will, (ui p p !mt); Being a part of his legacy is a real honor for me; • (lien)- Law. the legal claim of one person upon the property of another person to secure the payment of a debt or the satisfaction of an obligation; The village bank accounts had been frozen and a lien was put on village property; • (tithe)- any tax, levy, or the like, esp. of one-tenth, (g 0 & d   &   я p t я0 u:&n d e- #0 $#); The next year some financier "equalises" the tithe, and my tithe is reduced to £100. — Speculations from Political Economy; proviso : statute : bicameral • (proviso)- a clause in a statute, contract, or the like, by which a condition is introduced,(# k,  i     *  #= &* ! 0 d   я !$ я a#=  ); This proviso was adopted by the House, but was rejected by the Senate. — Recollections of Forty Years in the House, Senate and Cabinet An Autobiography.; • (satute)- an enactment made by a legislature and expressed in a formal document, (!$! =1  a0    *d i; !$*); The violation of this statute is a misdemeanor. — The Negro Problem; • (statutory) - prescribed or authorized by statute, (!$*d); He is currently serving a 10-year sentence for the statutory rape of another young girl; • (bicameral)- having two branches, chambers, or houses, as a legislative body, (di k#M (i! )); The United States Congress is a bicameral body; Check Us Out on https://www.facebook.com/groups/HigherStudyAbroad/ ____________________________________________________________________ Get access to hundreds of web materials and links, Join discussions and find answers to your higher studies related queries, Send suggestions and felicitations to: www.higherstudyabroad.com 2.12 Fine Arts architecture, ornament tectonics : terrace : frieze : cornice : dormer • (tectonics)- the study of the earth's structural features; No more gas comes out, because vulcanism, tectonics, all geology ended long ago. — Inconstant Star; • (terrace)- a porch or walkway bordered by colonnades; At the very center of the terrace was the place of honor. — The Rich Little Poor Boy; • (frieze)- the part of a classical entablature between the architrave and the cornice, usually decorated with sculpture in low relief, (o u  a   r a ); The fragments of the narrow frieze which bordered the upper part of the frieze are marked from 50 to 68. — How to See the British Museum in Four Visits; • (cornice)- any prominent, continuous, horizontally projecting feature surmounting a wall or other construction, or dividing it horizontally for compositional purposes, ( ); Above the cornice is another monolith, the lower part squared and the upper shaped into a pyramid. — History of Phoenicia; • (dormer)- also called dormer window. a vertical window in a projection built out from a sloping roof; This superb detached dormer-style residence is located only four miles from Loughrea town; rostrum = dais = podium ~ lectern • (rostrum)- a dais, pulpit, or other elevated platform for public speaking; He was also no mean orator in a nation where the arts of the rostrum are specially cultivated and understood. — The Adventure of Living; • (dais)- a raised platform, as at the front of a room, for a lectern, throne, seats of honor, etc., (; !); On the table at the dais was silver plate, then a rare luxury, restricted to the highest classes, the articles being spoons, knives, plates, and goblets. — A Forgotten Hero Not for Him; • (podium)- an elevated platform, as for an orchestra conductor or public speaker; Standing at the podium, his face set in stern lines, Matt lifted his eyes and studied the wall at the far end of the room. — Honorbound; • (lectern)- a reading desk in a church on which the Bible rests and from which the lessons are read during the church service, ( я i  $ %   я& &h( ), *s ); On either side of the lectern is a large bullet proof glass screen protecting him from any shots fired by would-be assassins who might be positioned in skyscrapers overlooking the venue; alcove ~ niche ~ cubbyhole : cubicle : repository • (alcove)- a recess or small room adjacent to or opening out of a room, (- % ! , , /(k,  1 2& ar , s, 5я , , ,я 7 , ); He peeped in between the curtains of the alcove, and saw at once what was out in the square. — A Court of Inquiry; • (niche)- a small concavity; • an enclosure that is set back or indented; • (cu