Events in the 20th century
The world at the beginning of the century
In Europe, the British Empire achieved the height of its power. Germany and Italy, which came into existence as unified nations in the second half of the 19th century, grew in power, challenging the traditional hegemony of Britain and France. With nationalism in full force at this time, the European powers competed with each other for land, military strength and economic power.
Asia and Africa were for the most part still under control of their European colonizers. The major exceptions were China and Japan. The Russo-Japanese War in 1904-1905 was the first major instance of a European power being defeated by a so-called inferior nation. The war itself strengthened Japanese militarism and enhanced Japan's rise to the status of a world power. Tsarist Russia, on the other hand, did not handle the defeat well. The war exposed the country's military weakness and increasing economic backwardness, and contributed to the Russian Revolution of 1905, the dress rehearsal for the conclusive one in 1917.
Already in the 19th century, the United States had become an influential actor in world politics. It had made its presence known on the world stage by challenging Spain in the Spanish–American War, gaining the colonies of Puerto Rico and the Philippines as protectorates. Now, with growth in immigration and a resolution of the national unity issue through the bloody American Civil War, America was emerging as an industrial power as well, rivaling Britain, Germany, and France.
With increasing rivalry among the European powers and the rise of Japan and the United States, the stage was set for a major upheaval in world affairs.
The imperial crisis
From 1914 to 1918, the First World War, and its aftermath caused major changes in the power balance of the world, destroying or transforming some of the most powerful empires.
"The war to end all wars": World War I (1914–1918)
Main article: World War I
The First World War, termed "The Great War" (or simply WWI) by contemporaries, started in 1914 and ended in 1918. It was ignited by the Assassination in Sarajevo of the Austro-Hungarian Empire's heir to the throne, Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand, by Gavrilo Princip of the Serbian nationalist organization "Black Hand". Bound by Slavic nationalism to help the small Serbian state, the Russians came to the aid of the Serbs when they were attacked. Interwoven alliances, an increasing arms race, and old hatreds dragged Europe into war. The Allies, known initially as "The Triple Entente", comprised the British Empire, France and Russia. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Bulgaria, and later the Ottoman Empire, were known as "The Central Powers".
In 1917, Russia ended hostile actions against the Central Powers after the fall of the Tsar. The Bolsheviks negotiated the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany, although it was at huge cost to Russia. Although Germany shifted huge forces from the eastern to the western front after signing the treaty, it was unable to stop the Allied advance, especially with the entrance of American troops in 1918.
The war itself was also a chance for the combatant nations to show off their military strength and technological ingenuity. The Germans introduced the machine gun, U-Boats and deadly gases. The British first used the tank. Both sides had a chance to test out their new aircraft to see if they could be used in warfare. It was widely believed that the war would be short. Unfortunately, since trench warfare was the best form of defense, advances on both sides were very slow, and came at a terrible cost in lives.
When the war was finally over in 1918, the results, would set the stage for the next twenty years. First and foremost, the Germans were forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles, forcing them to make, exorbitant payments to repair damages caused during the War. Many Germans felt these reparations were unfair because they did not actually "lose" the war nor did they feel they caused the war (see Stab-in-the-back legend). Germany was never occupied by Allied troops, yet it had to accept a liberal democratic government imposed on it by the victors after the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm.
Much of the map of Europe was redrawn by the victors based upon the theory that future wars could be prevented if all ethnic groups had their own "homeland". New states like Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia were created out of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire to accommodate the nationalist aspirations of these groups. An international body called the League of Nations was formed to mediate disputes and prevent future wars, although its effectiveness was severely limited by, among other things, its reluctance and inability to act.
The Russian Revolution and communism
Main article: Russian Revolution of 1917
The Russian Revolution of 1917 (ending in the overthrow of the Tsarist regime and the brutal execution of His Imperial Majesty Nicholas II and his family) sparked a wave of communist revolutions across Europe, prompting many to believe that a socialist world revolution could be realized in the near future. However, the European revolutions were defeated, Vladimir Lenin died in 1924, and within, a few years Joseph Stalin displaced Leon Trotsky as the de facto leader of the Soviet Union. The idea of worldwide revolution was no longer in the forefront, as Stalin concentrated on "socialism in one country" and embarked on a bold plan of collectivization and industrialization. The majority of socialists and even many communists became disillusioned with Stalin's autocratic rule, his purges and the assassination of his "enemies", as well as the news of famines he imposed on his own people.
Communism was strengthened as a force in Western democracies when the global economy crashed in 1929 in what became known as the Great Depression. Many people saw this as the first stage of the end of the capitalist system and were attracted to Communism as a solution to the economic crisis, especially as the Soviet Union,'s economic development in the 1930s was strong, unaffected by the capitalist world's crisis.
Between the wars
Main article: Interwar period
Main article: Great Depression
After World War I, the global economy remained strong through the 1920s. The war had provided a stimulus for industry and for economic activity in general. There were many warning signs foretelling the collapse of the global economic system in 1929 that were generally not understood by the political leadership of the time. The responses to the crisis often made the situation worse, as millions of people watched their savings become next to worthless and the idea of a steady job with a reasonable income fading away.
Many sought answers in alternative ideologies such as communism and fascism. They believed that the capitalist economic system was collapsing, and that new ideas were required to meet the crisis. The early responses to the crisis were based upon the assumption that the free market would correct itself. This, however, did very little to correct the crisis or to alleviate the suffering of many ordinary people. Thus, the idea that the existing system could be reformed by government intervention in the economy rather than by, continuing the laissez-faire approach became prominent as a solution to the crisis. Democratic governments assumed the responsibility to provide needed services, in society and alleviate poverty. Thus was born the welfare state. These two politico-economic principles, the belief in government intervention and the welfare state, as opposed to the belief in the free market and private institutions, would define many political battles for the rest of the century.
The rise of dictatorship
Main articles: Fascism, Totalitarianism, and Dictatorship
Fascism first appeared in Italy with the rise to power of Benito Mussolini in 1922. The ideology was supported by a large proportion of the upper classes as a strong challenge to the threat of communism.
When Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933, a new variant of fascism called Nazism took over Germany and ended the German experiment with democracy. The National Socialist party in Germany was dedicated to the restoration of German honor and prestige, the unification of German-speaking peoples, and the annexation of Central and Eastern Europe as vassal states, with the Slavic population to act as slave labor to serve German economic interests. There was also a strong appeal to a mythical racial purity (the idea that Germans were the Herrenvolk or the "master race"), and a vicious anti-semitism which promoted the idea of Jews as subhuman (Untermensch) and worthy only of extermination.
Many people in Western Europe and the United States greeted the rise of Hitler with relief or indifference. They could see nothing wrong with a strong Germany ready to take on the communist menace to the east. Anti-semitism during the Great Depression was widespread as many were content to blame the Jews for causing the economic downturn.
Hitler began to put his plan in motion, annexing Austria in the Anschluss, or reunification of Austria to Germany, in 1938. He then negotiated the annexation of the Sudetenland, a German-speaking mountainous area of Czechoslovakia, in the Munich Conference. The British were eager to avoid war and believed Hitler's assurance to protect the security of the Czech state. Hitler annexed the rest of the Czech state shortly afterwards, indicating that he had ulterior motives.
Fascism was not the only form of dictatorship to rise in the post-war period. Almost all of the new democracies in the nations of Eastern Europe collapsed and were replaced by authoritarian regimes. Spain also became a dictatorship under the leadership of General Francisco Franco after the Spanish Civil War. Totalitarian states attempted to achieve total control over their subjects as well as their total loyalty. They held the state above the individual, and were often responsible for some of the worst acts in history, such as the Holocaust Adolf Hitler perpetrated on European Jews, or the Great Purge Stalin perpetrated in the Soviet Union in the 1930s.
Global, war: World War II (1939–1945)
Main article: World War II
The war in Europe
Main article: European Theater of World War II
This section provides a conversational overview of World War II in Europe. See main article for a fuller discussion.
Soon after the events in Czechoslovakia, Britain and France issued assurances of protection to Poland, which seemed to be next on Hitler's list. World War II officially began on September 1, 1939. On that date, Hitler unleashed his Blitzkrieg, or lightning war, against Poland. Britain and France, much to Hitler's surprise, immediately declared war upon Germany, but the help they delivered to Poland was negligible. At the same time, Poland was attacked from the East by Soviet Union, acting in a secret alliance with Nazi Germany. After only a few weeks, the Polish forces were overwhelmed, and its government fled to exile in London (see Polish government in Exile).
In starting World War II, the Germans had unleashed a new type of warfare, characterized by highly mobile forces and the use of massed aircraft. The German strategy concentrated upon the devotion of the Wehrmacht, or German army, to the use of tank groups, called panzer divisions, and groups of mobile infantry, in concert with relentless attacks from the air. Encirclement was also a major part of the strategy. This change smashed any expectations that the Second World War would be fought in the trenches like the first.
As Hitler's forces conquered Poland, the Soviet Union, under General Secretary Joseph Stalin, was acting out guarantees of territory under a secret part of a nonaggression pact between the USSR and Germany known as the Nazi-Soviet Pact. This treaty gave Stalin free rein to take the Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, as well as Eastern Poland, all of which would remain in Soviet possession after the war. Stalin also launched an attack on Finland, which he hoped to reduce to little more than a Soviet puppet state, but the Red Army met staunch Finnish resistance in what became known as the Winter War, and succeeded in gaining only limited territory from the Finns. This action would later cause the Finns to ally with Germany when its attack on the Soviet Union came in 1941.
After the defeat of Poland, a period known as the Phony War ensued during the winter of 1939–1940. All of this changed on May 10, 1940, when the Germans launched a massive attack on the Low Countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg), most probably to surmount the Maginot Line of defenses on the Franco-German border. This witnessed the incredible fall of Eben Emael, a Belgian fort considered impregnable and guarded by 600 Belgians, to a force of only 88 German paratroopers. The worst of this was that King Léopold III of Belgium surrendered to the Germans on May 28 without warning his allies, exposing the entire flank of the Allied forces to German panzer groups. Following the conquest of the Low Countries, Hitler occupied Denmark and Norway, beginning on April 9, 1940. Norway was strategically important because of its sea routes which supplied crucial Swedish ore to the Nazi war machine. Norway held on for a few crucial weeks, but Denmark surrendered after only four days.
With the disaster in the Low Countries, France, considered at the time to have had the finest army in world, lasted only four weeks, with Paris being occupied on June 14. Three days later, Marshal Philippe Pétain surrendered to the Germans. The debacle in France also led to one of the war's greatest mysteries, and Hitler's first great blunder, Dunkirk, where a third of a million trapped British and French soldiers were evacuated by not only British war boats, but every boat the army could find, including fishing rafts. Hitler refused to "risk" his panzers on action at Dunkirk, listening to the advice of Air Minister Hermann Göring and allowing the Luftwaffe, or German Air Force, to handle the job. The irony of this was that the escaped men would form the core of the army that was to invade the beaches of Normandy in 1944. Hitler did not occupy all of France, but about three-quarters, including all of the Atlantic coast, allowing Marshal Pétain to remain as dictator of an area known as Vichy France. However, members of the escaped French Army formed around General Charles de Gaulle to create the Free French forces, which would continue to battle Hitler in the stead of an independent France. At this moment, Italy, under Benito Mussolini, declared war on the Allies on June 10, thinking that the war was almost over, but he managed only to occupy a few hundred yards of French territory. Throughout the war, the Italians would be more of a burden to the Nazis than a boon, and would later cost them precious time in Greece.
Hitler now turned his eyes on Great Britain, which stood alone against him. He ordered his generals to draw up plans for an invasion, code named Operation Sea Lion, and ordered the Luftwaffe to launch a massive air war against the British isles, which would come to be known as the Battle of Britain. The British at first suffered steady losses, but eventually managed to turn the air war against Germany, taking down 2,698 German planes throughout the summer of 1940 to only 915 Royal Air Force (RAF) losses. The key turning point came when the Germans discontinued successful attacks against British airplane factories and radar command and coordination stations and turned to civilian bombing known as terror bombing using the distinctive "bomb" sound created by the German dive-bomber, the Stuka. The switch came after a small British bombing force had attacked Berlin. Hitler was infuriated. However, his decision to switch the attacks' focus allowed the British to rebuild the RAF and eventually force the Germans to indefinitely postpone Sea Lion.
The importance of the Battle of Britain is that it marked the beginning of Hitler's defeat. Secondly, it marked the advent of radar as a major weapon in modern air war. With radar, squadrons of fighters could be quickly assembled to respond to incoming bombers attempting to bomb civilian targets. It also allowed the identification of the type and a guess at the number of incoming enemy aircraft, as well as tracking of friendly airplanes.
Hitler, taken aback by his defeat over the skies of Britain, now turned his gaze eastward to the Soviet Union. Despite having signed the non-aggression pact with Stalin, Hitler despised communism and wished to destroy it in the land of its birth. He originally planned to launch the attack in early spring of 1941 to avoid the disastrous Russian winter. However, a pro-allied coup in Yugoslavia and Mussolini's almost utter defeat in his invasion of Greece from occupied Albania prompted Hitler to launch a personal campaign of revenge in Yugoslavia and to occupy Greece at the same time. The Greeks would have a bitter revenge of sorts; the attack caused a delay of several crucial weeks of the invasion of the USSR.
On June 22, 1941, Hitler attacked Stalin with the largest army the world has ever seen. Over three million men and their weapons were put into service against the Soviet Union. Stalin had been warned about the attack, both by other countries and by his own intelligence network, but he had refused to believe it. Therefore, the Soviet army was largely unprepared and suffered incredible setbacks in the early part of the war, despite Stalin's orders to counterattack the Germans. Throughout 1941, German forces, divided into 3 army groups (Army Group A, Army Group B, and Army Group C), occupied the territories of the present day Ukraine and Belarus, laid siege to Leningrad (present day Saint Petersburg), and advanced to within 15 miles of Moscow. At this critical moment, the Soviet people stalled the German Wehrmacht to a halt at the gates of Moscow. Stalin had planned to evacuate the city, and had already moved important government functions, but decided to stay and rally the city. Recently arrived troops from the east under the command of Marshal Georgi Zhukov counterattacked the Germans and drove them from Moscow.
Here marks the third great blunder of Hitler's. He could have won the war in the USSR except for a few reasons. One, he tried to capture too much too fast; he wanted the German army to advance all the way to the Urals, which amounted to one million square miles (2,600,000 km²) of territory, when he probably should have concentrated on taking Moscow and thereby driving a wedge into heart of the Soviet Union. Second, he ignored the similar experiences of Napoleon Bonaparte nearly one hundred and fifty years earlier in his attempt to conquer Russia. Despite this, Stalin was not in a good position. Roughly two-fifths of the USSR's industrial might was in German hands. Also, the Germans were at first seen by many as liberators fighting the communists. Stalin was also not a very able general, and like Hitler, at first tried to fight the war as a military strategist. However, Hitler managed to turn all of his advantages against himself, and lost the only remaining hope for Germany: seizing the Caucasus and taking control of North Africa and the oil-rich Middle East.
Mussolini had launched an offensive in North Africa from Italian-controlled Libya into British-controlled Egypt. However, the British smashed the Italians and were on the verge of taking Libya. Hitler decided to help by sending in a few thousand troops, a Luftwaffe division, and the first-rate general Erwin Rommel. Rommel managed to use his small force to repeatedly smash massively superior British forces and to recapture the port city of Tobruk and advance into Egypt. However, Hitler, embroiled in his invasion of the Soviet Union, refused to send Rommel any more troops. If he had, Rommel might have been able to seize the Middle East, where Axis-friendly regimes had taken root in Iraq and Persia (present-day Iran). Here, Rommel could have cut the major supply route of the Soviets through Persia, and helped take the Caucasus, virtually neutralizing Britain's effectiveness in the war and potentially sealing the fate of the Soviet Union. However, Hitler blundered again, throwing away the last vestiges of the German advantage on his coming offensive in 1942.
After the winter, Hitler launched a fresh offensive in the spring of 1942, with the aim of capturing the oil-rich Caucacus and the city of Stalingrad. However, he repeatedly switched his troops to where they were not needed. The offensive bogged down, and the entire 6th Army, considered the best of German troops, was trapped in Stalingrad. Hitler now refused to let 6th Army break out. He insisted that the German army would force its way in. Hermann Göring also assured Hitler that the Luftwaffe could supply the 6th Army adequately, when it could in reality only supply a minute fraction of the needed ammunition and rations. Eventually, the starved 6th Army surrendered, dealing a severe blow to the Germans. In the end, the defeat at Stalingrad was the turning point for the war in the east.
Meanwhile, the Japanese had attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7, 1941. This disastrous attack forced the Americans into the war. Hitler need not have declared war on the United States, and kept its continued neutrality in Europe, but he did not. Both he and Mussolini declared war only a few days after the attack. At the time, most German generals, preoccupied with war in the USSR, did not even notice America's entrance. It was to be a crucial blunder.
Throughout the rest of 1942 and 1943, the Soviets began to gain ground against the Germans. The tank battle of Kursk is one example. However, by this time, Rommel had been forced to abandon North Africa after a defeat by Montgomery at El Alamein, and the Wehrmacht had encountered serious casualties that it could not replace. Hitler also insisted on a "hold at all costs" policy which forbade relinquishing any ground. He followed a "fight to the last man" policy that was completely ineffective. By the beginning of 1944, Hitler had lost all initiative in the Soviet Union, and was struggling even to hold back the tide turning against him.
From 1942 to 1944, the United States and Britain acted in only a limited manner in the European theater, much to the chagrin of Stalin. They drove out the Germans in Africa, invading Morocco and Algeria on November 8, 1942. Then, on July 10, 1943, the Allies invaded Sicily, in preparation for an advance through Italy, the "soft underbelly" of the Axis, as Winston Churchill called it. On September 9, the invasion of Italy began. By the winter of 1943, the southern half of Italy was in Allied hands. The Italians, most of whom did not really support the war, had already turned against Mussolini. In July, he had been stripped of power and taken prisoner, though the Italians feigned continued support of the Axis. On September 8, the Italians formally surrendered, but most of Italy not in Allied hands was controlled by German troops and those loyal to Mussolini's (Mussolini had been freed by German paratroopers) new Italian Social Republic, which in reality consisted of the shrinking zone of German control. The Germans offered staunch resistance, but by June 4, 1944, Rome had fallen.
The Battle of the Atlantic took place from 1942 to 1944. The Germans hoped to sever the vital supply lines between Britain and America, sinking many tons of shipping with U-boats, German submarines. However, the development of the destroyer and aircraft with a longer patrol range were effective at countering the U-boat threat. By 1944, the Germans had lost the battle.
On June 6, 1944, the Western Allies finally launched the long awaited assault on "Fortress Europe" so wanted by Stalin. The offensive, codenamed Operation Overlord, began the early morning hours of June 6. The day, known as D-day, was marked by foul weather. Rommel, who was now in charge of defending France against possible Allied attack, thought the Allies would not attack during the stormy weather, and was on holiday in Germany. Besides this, the Germans were expecting an attack, but at the natural harbor of Calais and not the beaches of Normandy; a blunder that sealed the operation's success. They did not know about the Allies' artificial harbours, and clues planted by the Allies suggested Calais as the landing site.
By this time, the war was looking ever darker for Germany. On July 20, 1944, a group of conspiring German officers attempted to assassinate Hitler. The bomb they used did injure him, but the second was not used, and a table shielded Hitler in a stroke of luck. The plotters still could have launched a coup, but only the head of occupied Paris acted, arresting SS and Gestapo forces in the city. The German propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels, rallied the Nazis, and saved the day for Hitler.
In France, the Allies took Normandy and finally Paris on August 25. In the east, the Soviets had advanced almost to the former Polish-Soviet border. At this time, Hitler introduced the V-weapons, the V-1 flying bomb and, later, the V-2, the first rockets used in modern warfare. The V-1 was often intercepted by air pilots, but the V-2 was extremely fast and carried a large payload. However, this advance came too late in the war to have any real effect. The Germans were also on the verge on introducing a number of terrifying new weapons, including advanced jet aircraft, which were too fast for ordinary propeller aircraft, and submarine improvements which would allow the Germans to again fight effectively in the Atlantic. All this came too late to save Hitler. Although a September invasion of The Netherlands failed, the Allies made steady advances. In the winter of 1944, Hitler put everything into one last desperate gamble in the West, known as the Battle of the Bulge, which, despite an initial advance, was a failure, because the introduction of new Allied tanks and low troop numbers among the Germans prevented any real action being taken.
In early February 1945, the three Allied leaders, Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin, met at newly liberated Yalta in the Crimea in the Soviet Union in the Yalta Conference. Here, they agreed upon a plan to divide post-war Europe. Most of the east went to Stalin, who agreed to allow free elections in Eastern Europe, which he never did. The west went to Britain, France, and the U.S. Post-war Germany would be split between the four, as would Berlin. Here the territory of the Cold War was set. The boundaries of a new Europe, stripped of some of its oldest ruling families, were drawn up by the three men at Yalta.
At the beginning of 1945, Hitler was on his last strings. The Soviets launched a devastating attack from Poland into Germany and Eastern Europe, intending to take Berlin. The Germans collapsed in the West, allowing the Allies to fan out across Germany. However, the Supreme Allied Commander, American general Dwight D. Eisenhower, refused to strike for Berlin, and instead became obsessed with reports of possible guerrilla activity in southern Germany, which in reality existed only in the propaganda of Joseph Goebbels. By April 25, the Soviets had besieged Berlin. Hitler remained in the city in a bunker under the Chancellery garden. On April 30, he committed suicide, after a ritual wedding with his longtime mistress Eva Braun. The Germans held out another 7 days under Admiral Doenitz, their new leader, but the Germans surrendered unconditionally on May 7, 1945, ending the war in Europe (see V-E Day).
Rivalries that had begun during the war, combined with the sense of strength in the victorious powers, laid the foundations of the Iron Curtain and of the Cold War.
The war in the Pacific
Main article: Pacific Theater of Operations
Main article: The Holocaust
The Holocaust (which roughly means "great fire") was the deliberate, systematic, and horrific murder of millions of Jews and other minorities during World War II by the Nazi regime in Germany. Several differing views exist regarding whether it was intended to occur from the war's beginning, or if the plans for it came about later. Regardless, persecution of Jews extended well before the war even started, such as in the Kristallnacht (literally "Crystal Night", Night of Broken Glass). The Nazis used propaganda to great effect to stir up anti-Semitic feelings within ordinary Germans.
After the conquest of Poland, the Third Reich, which had previously deported Jews and other "undesirables", suddenly had within its borders the largest concentration of Jews in the world. The solution was to round up Jews and place them in concentration camps or in ghettos, cordoned off sections of cities where Jews were forced to live in deplorable conditions, often with tens of thousands starving to death, and the bodies decaying in the streets. As appalling as this sounds, they were the lucky ones. After the invasion of the Soviet Union, armed killing squads of SS men known as Einsatzgruppen systematically rounded up Jews and murdered an estimated one million Jews within the country. As barbaric and inhuman as this seems, it was too slow and inefficient by Nazi standards.
In 1942, the top leadership met in Wannsee, a suburb of Berlin, and began to plan a more efficient way to slaughter the Jews. The Nazis created a system of extermination camps throughout Poland, and began rounding up Jews from the Soviet Union, and from the Ghettos. Not only were Jews shot or gassed to death en masse, but they were forced to provide slave labor and they were used in horrific medical experiments (see Human experimentation in Nazi Germany). Out of the widespread condemnation of the Nazis' medical experiments, the Nuremberg Code of medical ethics was devised.
Slave laborers at the Buchenwald concentration camp.
The Nazis took a sadistic pleasure in the death camps; the entrance to the worst camp, Auschwitz, stated "Arbeit Macht Frei"—"Work Makes Free". In the end, six million Jews, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Gypsies and political prisoners were killed by various means, mainly in the death camps. An additional seven million Soviet and other Allied prisoners of war died in camps and holding areas.
There is some controversy over whether ordinary Germans knew about the Holocaust. It appears that many Germans knew about the concentration camps; such things were prominently displayed in magazines and newspapers. In many places, Jews had to walk past towns and villages on their way to work as slaves in German industry. In any case, Allied soldiers reported that the smell of the camps carried for miles. A very small number of people deny the Holocaust occurred entirely, though these claims have been routinely discredited by mainstream historians.
The Nuclear Age begins
The first nuclear explosion, named "Trinity", was detonated on July 16, 1945.
Main article: History of nuclear weapons
During the 1930s, innovations in physics made it apparent that it could be possible to develop nuclear weapons of incredible power using nuclear reactions. When World War II broke out, scientists and advisors among the Allies feared that Nazi Germany may have been trying to develop its own atomic weapons, and the United States and the United Kingdom pooled their efforts in what became known as the Manhattan Project to beat them to it. At the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico, scientist Robert Oppenheimer led a team of the world's top scientists to develop the first nuclear weapons, the first of which was tested at the Trinity site in July 1945. However, Germany had surrendered in May 1945, and it had been discovered that the German atomic bomb program had not been very close to success.
The Allied team produced two nuclear weapons for use in the war, one powered by uranium-235 and the other by plutonium as fissionable material, named "Little Boy" and "Fat Man". These were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945 each. This, in combination with the Soviet entrance in the war, convinced the Japanese to surrender unconditionally. These two weapons remain the only two nuclear weapons ever used against other countries in war.
Nuclear weapons brought an entirely new and terrifying possibility to warfare: a nuclear holocaust. While at first the United States held a monopoly on the production of nuclear weapons, the Soviet Union, with some assistance from espionage, managed to detonate its first weapon (dubbed "Joe-1" by the West) in August 1949. The post-war relations between the two, which had already been deteriorating, began to rapidly disintegrate. Soon the two were locked in a massive stockpiling of nuclear weapons. The United States began a crash-program to develop the first hydrogen bomb in 1950, and detonated its first thermonuclear weapon in 1952. This new weapon was alone over 400 times as powerful as the weapons used against Japan. The Soviet Union detonated a primitive thermonuclear weapon in 1953 and a full-fledged one in 1955.
Nuclear missiles and computerized launch systems increased the range and scope of possible nuclear war.
The conflict continued to escalate, with the major superpowers developing long-range missiles (such as the ICBM) and a nuclear strategy which guaranteed that any use of the nuclear weapons would be suicide for the attacking nation (Mutually Assured Destruction). The creation of early warning systems put the control of these weapons into the hands of newly created computers, and they served as a tense backdrop throughout the Cold War.
Since the 1940s there were concerns about the rising proliferation of nuclear weapons to new countries, which was seen as being destabilizing to international relations, spurring regional arms races, and generally increasing the likelihood of some form of nuclear war. Eventually, seven nations would overtly develop nuclear weapons, and still maintain stockpiles today: the United States, the Soviet Union (and later Russia would inherit these), the United Kingdom, France, China, India, and Pakistan. South Africa developed six crude weapons in the 1980s (which it later dismantled), and Israel almost certainly developed nuclear weapons though it never confirmed nor denied it. The creation of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty in 1968 was an attempt to curtail such proliferation, but a number of countries developed nuclear weapons since it was signed (and many did not sign it), and a number of other countries, including Libya, Iran, and North Korea, were suspected of having clandestine nuclear weapons programs.
The post-war world
Following World War II, the majority of the industrialized world lay in ruins as a result of aerial bombings, naval bombardment, and protracted land campaigns. The United States was a notable exception to this; barring Pearl Harbor and some minor incidents, the U.S. had suffered no attacks upon its territory. The United States and the Soviet Union, which, despite the devastation of its most populated areas, rebuilt quickly, found themselves the world's two dominant superpowers.
Much of Western Europe was rebuilt after the war with assistance from the Marshall Plan. Germany, chief instigator of the war, was placed under joint military occupation by the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. Berlin, although in Soviet-controlled territory, was also divided among the four powers. Occupation of Berlin would continue until 1990. Japan was also placed under U.S. occupation, that would last five years, until 1949. Oddly, these two Axis powers, despite military occupation, soon rose to become the second (Japan) and third (West Germany) most powerful economies in the world.
Following the end of the war, the Allies famously prosecuted numerous German officials for war crimes and other offenses in the Nuremberg Trials. Although Adolf Hitler had committed suicide, many of his cronies, including Hermann Göring, were convicted. Less well-known trials of other Axis officials also occurred, including the Tokyo War Crime Trial.
The failure of the League of Nations to prevent World War II essentially discredited the organization, and it was dissolved. A new attempt at world peace was begun with the founding of the United Nations on October 24, 1945 in San Francisco. Today, nearly all countries are members, but despite its many successes, the organization's success at achieving its goal of world peace is dubious. The organization was never given enough power to overcome the conflicting interests and priorities of its member nations.
The end of empires: decolonization
Michael Somare, the first leader of an independent Papua New Guinea.
Main articles: Decolonization and New Imperialism
Almost all of the major nations that were involved in World War II began shedding their overseas colonies soon after the conflict. In Africa, nationalists such as Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana led their respective nations to independence from foreign rule. The tactics employed by the revolutionaries ranged from non-violent forms of protest to armed rebellions, depending on the nation involved. The United States granted independence to the Philippines, its major Pacific possession. European powers also began withdrawing from their possessions in Africa and Asia. France was forced out of both Indochina and, later, Algeria.
Mutually assured destruction: the Cold War (1947–1991)
Main article: Cold War
This section should be added, and the following (War by proxy) merged into it.
War by proxy
Main articles: Korean War, Vietnam War, and Cuban Missile Crisis
Two wars and a near-war in the 1950s became the foci for capitalist versus communist struggle. The first war was the Korean War, fought between People's Republic of China-backed North Korea and mainly United States-backed South Korea. North Korea's invasion of South Korea led to United Nations intervention. General Douglas MacArthur led troops from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain, and other countries in repulsing the Northern invasion. However, the war reached a stalemate after Chinese intervention pushed U.N. forces back, and an Armistice ended hostilities, leaving the two Koreas divided and tense for the rest of the century.
The second war, the Vietnam War, was perhaps the second most visible war of the 20th century, after World War II. After the French withdrawal from its former colony, Vietnam became partitioned into two halves, much like Korea. Fighting between North and South eventually escalated into a regional war. The United States provided aid to South Vietnam, but was not directly involved until the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, passed in reaction to a supposed North Vietnamese attack upon American destroyers, brought the U.S. into the war as a belligerent. The war was initially viewed as a fight to contain communism (see containment, Truman Doctrine, and Domino Theory), but, as more Americans were drafted and news of events such as the Tet Offensive and My Lai massacre leaked out, American sentiment turned against the war. U.S. President Richard Nixon was elected partially on claims of a "secret plan" to stop the war. This Nixon Doctrine involved a gradual pullout of American forces; South Vietnamese units were supposed to replace them, backed up by American air power. Unfortunately, the plan went awry, and the war spilled into neighboring Cambodia while South Vietnamese forces were pushed further back. Eventually, the U.S. and North Vietnam signed the Paris Peace Accords, ending U.S. involvement in the war. With the threat of U.S. retaliation gone, the North proceeded to violate the ceasefire and invaded the South with full military force. Saigon was captured on April 30, 1975, and Vietnam was unified under Communist rule a year later, effectively bringing an end to one of the most unpopular wars of all time.
The Cuban Missile Crisis illustrates just how close to the brink of nuclear war the world came during the Cold War. Cuba, under Fidel Castro's socialist government, had formed close ties with the Soviet Union. This was obviously disquieting to the United States, given Cuba's proximity. When Lockheed U-2 spy plane flights over the island revealed that Soviet missile launchers were being installed, U.S. President John F. Kennedy instituted a naval blockade and publicly confronted the Soviet Union. After a tense week, the Soviet Union backed down and ordered the launchers removed, not wanting to risk igniting a new world war.
The space race
In 1969, humans first set foot on the Moon.
Main article: Space Race
With Cold War tensions running high, the Soviet Union and United States took their rivalry to the stars in 1957 with the Soviet launch of Sputnik. A "space race" between the two powers followed. Although the USSR reached several important milestones, such as the first craft on the Moon (Luna 2) and the first human in space (Yuri Gagarin), the U.S. allegedly pulled ahead eventually with its Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs, which culminated in Apollo 11's manned landing on the moon. Five more manned landings followed (Apollo 13 was forced to abort its mission). Nevertheless, despite its successes U.S. space program could not match many major achievements of Soviet space program, such as unmanned rover-based space exploration and image and video transfer from surface of another planet, until early 21st century.
In addition, both countries launched numerous probes into space, such as the Venera 7 and Voyager 2.
In later decades, space became a somewhat friendlier place. Regular manned space flights were made possible with the American space shuttle, which was the first reusable spacecraft to be successfully used. Mir and Skylab enabled prolonged human habitation in space. In the 1990s, work on the International Space Station began, and by the end of the century, while still incomplete, it was in continual use by astronauts from the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, and Canada.
The end of the Cold War
In 1989, the Berlin Wall separating West and East Berlin fell.
Main article: Cold War (1985-1991)
By the 1980s, the Soviet Union was weakening. The Sino-Soviet split had removed the USSR's most powerful ally, the People's Republic of China. Its arms race with the U.S. was draining the country of funds, and further weakened by internal pressures, ethnic and political. Mikhail Gorbachev, its last leader, attempted to reform the country with glasnost and perestroika, but the formation of Solidarity, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the breaking-off of several Soviet republics, such as Lithuania, started a slippery slope of events that culminated in a coup to overthrow Gorbachev, organized by Communist Party hard-liners. Boris Yeltsin, president of Russia, organized mass opposition, and the coup failed. On December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union was officially disbanded into its constituent republics, thus putting a final line under the already exhausted Cold War.
Information and communications technology
Main articles: Computer, History of computing hardware, and Internet
The creation of the transistor revolutionized the development of the computer. The first computers, room-sized electro-mechanical devices built to break cryptographical codes during World War II, quickly became at least 20 times smaller using transistors. Computers became reprogrammable rather than fixed-purpose devices. The invention of programming languages meant computer operators could concentrate on problem solving at a high-level, without having to think in terms of the individual instructions to the computer itself. The creation of operating systems also vastly improved programming productivity. Building on this, computer pioneers could now realize what they had envisioned. The graphical user interface, piloted by a computer mouse made it simple to harness the power of the computer. Storage for computer programs progressed from punched cards and paper tape to magnetic tape, floppy disks and hard disks. Core memory and bubble memory fell to random access memory.
The invention of the word processor, spreadsheet and database greatly improved office productivity over the old paper, typewriter and filing cabinet methods. The economic advantage given to businesses led to economic efficiencies in computers themselves. Cost-effective CPUs led to thousands of industrial and home-brew computer designs, many of which became successful; a home-computer boom was led by the Apple II, the ZX80 and the Commodore PET.
The first model of the IBM PC, the personal computer whose successors would fill the world.
IBM, seeking to embrace the microcomputer revolution, devised its IBM Personal Computer (PC). Crucially, IBM developed the PC from third-party components that were available on the open market. The only impediment to another company duplicating the system's architecture was the proprietary BIOS software. Other companies, starting with Compaq, reverse engineered the BIOS and released PC compatible computers that soon became the dominant architecture. Microsoft, which produced an operating system for the PC, rode this wave of popularity to become the world's leading software company.
The 1980s heralded the Information Age. The rise of computer applications and data processing made ethereal "information" as valuable as physical commodities. This brought about new concerns surrounding intellectual property issues. The U.S. Government made algorithms patentable, forming the basis of software patents. The controversy over these and proprietary software led Richard Stallman to create the Free Software Foundation and begin the GNU Project.
Computers also became a usable platform for entertainment. Computer games were first developed by software programmers exercising their creativity on large systems at universities, but these efforts became commercially successful in arcade games such as Pong and Space Invaders. Once the home computer market was established, young programmers in their bedrooms became the core of a youthful games industry. In order to take advantage of advancing technology, games consoles were created. Like arcade systems, these machines had custom hardware designed to do game-oriented operations (such as sprites and parallax scrolling) in preference to general purpose computing tasks.
Computer networks appeared in two main styles; the local area network, linking computers in an office or school to each other, and the wide area network, linking the local area networks together. Initially, computers depended on the telephone networks to link to each other, spawning the Bulletin Board sub-culture. However, a DARPA project to create bomb-proof computer networks led to the creation of the Internet, a network of networks. The core of this network was the robust TCP/IP network protocol. Thanks to efforts from Al Gore, the Internet grew beyond its military role when universities and commercial businesses were permitted to connect their networks to it. The main impetus for this was electronic mail, a far faster and convenient form of communication than conventional letter and memo distribution, and the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). However, the Internet remained largely unknown to the general public, who were used to Bulletin Boards and services like Compuserve and America Online. This changed when Tim Berners-Lee devised a simpler form of Vannevar Bush's hypertext, which he dubbed the World Wide Web. "The Web" suddenly changed the Internet into a printing press beyond the geographic boundaries of physical countries; it was termed "cyberspace". Anyone with a computer and an Internet connection could write pages in the simple HTML format and publish their thoughts to the world.
The Web's immense success also fueled the commercial use of the Internet. Convenient home shopping had been an element of "visions of the future" since the development of the telephone, but now the race was on to provide convenient, interactive consumerism. Companies trading through web sites became known as "dot coms", due to the ".com" suffix of commercial Internet addresses.
The world at the end of the century
By the end of the century, more technological advances had been made than in all of preceding history. Communications and information technology, transportation technology, and medical advances had radically altered daily lives. Europe appeared to be at a sustainable peace for the first time in recorded history. The people of the Indian subcontinent, a sixth of the world population at the end of the century, had attained an indigenous independence for the first time in centuries. China, an ancient nation comprising a fifth of the world population, was finally open to the world in a new and powerful synthesis of west and east, creating a new state after the near-complete destruction of the old cultural order. With the end of colonialism and the Cold War, nearly a billion people in Africa were left with truly independent new nation states, some cut from whole cloth, standing up after centuries of foreign domination.
The world was undergoing its second major period of globalization; the first, which started in the 18th century, having been terminated by World War I. Since the US was in a position of almost unchallenged domination, a major part of the process was Americanization. This led to anti-Western and anti-American feelings in parts of the world, especially the Middle East. The influence of China and India was also rising, as the world's largest populations, long marginalized by the West and by their own rulers, were rapidly integrating with the world economy.
However, several problems faced the world. The gap between rich and poor nations continued to widen. Some said that this problem could not be fixed, that there was a set amount of wealth and it could only be shared by so many. Others said that the powerful nations with large economies were not doing enough to help improve the rapidly evolving economies of the Third World. However, developing countries faced many challenges, including the scale of the task to be surmounted, rapidly growing populations, and the need to protect the environment, and the cost that goes along with it.
Terrorism, dictatorship, and the spread of nuclear weapons were other issues requiring attention. The world was still blighted by small-scale wars and other violent conflicts, fueled by competition over resources and by ethnic conflicts. Despots such as Kim Jong-il of North Korea continued to lead their nations toward the development of nuclear weapons.
Disease threatened to destabilize many regions of the world. New viruses such as SARS and West Nile continued to spread. In poor nations, malaria and other diseases affected the majority of the population. Millions were infected with HIV, the virus which causes AIDS. The virus was becoming an epidemic in southern Africa.
The geographic distribution of surface warming during the 21st century calculated by the HadCM3 climate model if a business as usual scenario is assumed for economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions. In this figure, the globally averaged warming corresponds to 3.0 °C (5.4 °F).
Perhaps most importantly, it was speculated that in the long term, environmental problems threatened the planet's liveability. The most serious problem was global warming, which was predicted to frequently flood coastal areas, due to human-caused emission of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide produced by the burning of fossil fuels. This prompted many nations to negotiate and sign the Kyoto treaty, which set mandatory limits on carbon dioxide emissions.
The celebration of the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century was at New Year's 2000, January 1, 2000. Yet, historically speaking the century, according to calendar, ended at the end of 2000.
John F. Kennedy
35th President of the United States
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson
Preceded by Dwight D. Eisenhower
Succeeded by Lyndon B. Johnson
United States Senator
January 3, 1953 – December 22, 1960
Preceded by Henry Cabot Lodge II
Succeeded by Benjamin A. Smith II
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 11th district
January 3, 1947 – January 3, 1953
Preceded by James Michael Curley
Succeeded by Tip O'Neill
Born John Fitzgerald Kennedy
May 29, 1917
Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S.
Died November 22, 1963 (aged 46)
Dallas, Texas, U.S.
Resting place Arlington National Cemetery
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Jacqueline Lee Bouvier
Relations Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Sr. (father)
Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald (mother)
Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Jr. (brother)
Rose Marie Kennedy (sister)
Kathleen Agnes Kennedy (sister)
Eunice Mary Kennedy (sister)
Patricia Helen Kennedy (sister)
Robert Francis Kennedy (brother)
Jean Ann Kennedy (sister)
Edward Moore Kennedy (brother)
Children Arabella Kennedy
Caroline Bouvier Kennedy
John Fitzgerald Kenndy
Patrick Bouvier Kennedy
Alma mater Harvard College
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Cursive signature in ink
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1941–1945
Rank US-O3 insignia.svg Lieutenant
Unit Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109
Battles/wars World War II
Solomon Islands campaign
Navy and Marine Corps Medal ribbon.svg Navy and Marine Corps Medal
Purple Heart BAR.svg Purple Heart
American Defense Service ribbon.svg American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg American Campaign Medal
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign ribbon.svg Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (3 bronze stars)
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg World War II Victory Medal
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his death in 1963.
After military service as commander of Motor Torpedo Boats PT-109 and PT-59 during World War II in the South Pacific, Kennedy represented Massachusetts' 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat. Thereafter, he served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. At 43 years of age, he was the youngest to have been elected to the office,[a] the second-youngest president (after Theodore Roosevelt), and the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president. A Catholic, Kennedy was the only non-Protestant president, and was the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize. Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African-American Civil Rights Movement, and early stages of the Vietnam War. Therein, Kennedy increased the number of military advisers, special operation forces, and helicopters in an effort to curb the spread of communism in South East Asia. The Kennedy administration adopted the policy of the Strategic Hamlet Program which was implemented by the South Vietnamese government. It involved certain forced relocation, village internment, and segregation of rural South Vietnamese from northern and southern communist insurgents.
Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald, arrested that evening, was accused of the crime but was shot and killed by Jack Ruby two days later, before a trial could take place. The FBI and the Warren Commission officially concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin. However, the United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded that those investigations were flawed and that Kennedy was probably assassinated as the result of a conspiracy. Kennedy's controversial Department of Defense TFX fighter bomber program led to a Congressional investigation that lasted from 1963 to 1970. Since the 1960s, information concerning Kennedy's private life has come to light. Details of Kennedy's health problems with which he struggled have become better known, especially since the 1990s. Although initially kept secret from the general public, reports of Kennedy's philandering have garnered much press. Kennedy ranks highly in public opinion ratings of U.S. presidents
The launch of Doctor Who was overshadowed by the assassination of John F. Kennedy the previous day. The serial received favourable reviews, and the four episodes attracted an average of 6 million viewers. However, it became overshadowed by the subsequent story, The Daleks.
Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord—a time travelling, humanoid alien known as the Doctor. He explores the universe in his TARDIS (acronym: Time and Relative Dimension in Space), a sentient time-travelling space ship. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, a common sight in Britain in 1963, when the series first aired. Along with a succession of companions, the Doctor faces a variety of foes while working to save civilisations, help ordinary people, and right wrongs.
The show has received recognition from critics and the public as one of the finest British television programmes, winning the 2006 British Academy Television Award for Best Drama Series and five consecutive (2005–10) awards at the National Television Awards during Russell T Davies's tenure as Executive Producer. In 2011, Matt Smith became the first Doctor to be nominated for a BAFTA Television Award for Best Actor. In 2013, the Peabody Awards honoured Doctor Who with an Institutional Peabody "for evolving with technology and the times like nothing else in the known television universe." The programme is listed in Guinness World Records as the longest-running science fiction television show in the world and as the "most successful" science fiction series of all time—based on its over-all broadcast ratings, DVD and book sales, and iTunes traffic. During its original run, it was recognised for its imaginative stories, creative low-budget special effects, and pioneering use of electronic music (originally produced by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop).
The show is a significant part of British popular culture; and elsewhere it has become a cult television favourite. The show has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series. The programme originally ran from 1963 to 1989. After an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot in the form of a television film, the programme was relaunched in 2005 by Russell T Davies who was showrunner and head writer for the first five years of its revival, produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff. Series 1 in the 21st century, featuring Christopher Eccleston as the ninth incarnation, was produced by the BBC. Series 2 and 3 had some development money contributed by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), which was credited as a co-producer. Doctor Who also spawned spin-offs in multiple media, including Torchwood (2006–11) and The Sarah Jane Adventures (2007-11) – both created by Russell T Davies, K-9 (2009–10), the four-part video series P.R.O.B.E. (1994–96), and a single pilot episode of K-9 and Company (1981). There also have been many spoofs and cultural references of the character in other media.
Twelve actors have headlined the series as the Doctor. The transition from one actor to another is written into the plot of the show as regeneration, a life process of Time Lords through which the character of the Doctor takes on a new body and, to some extent, new personality, which occurs when sustaining injury which would be fatal to most other species. Although each portrayal is different, and on occasions the various incarnations have even met one another, they are all meant to be aspects of the same character. The Doctor is currently portrayed by Matt Smith, who took up the role after David Tennant's last appearance in an episode broadcast on 1 January 2010. On 1 June 2013, it was announced that Matt Smith would leave the series and the eleventh Doctor would regenerate in the 2013 Christmas special. On 4 August 2013, Peter Capaldi was announced as the twelfth incarnation of the Doctor.
Genre Science fiction drama
C. E. Webber
Directed by Various
Starring Various Doctors
(currently Matt Smith)
(currently Jenna Coleman)
Theme music composer
Opening theme Doctor Who theme music
Composer(s) Various composers
(currently Murray Gold)
Country of origin United Kingdom
No. of seasons 26 (1963–89) plus one TV film (1996)
No. of series 7 (2005–present)
No. of episodes 798 (106 missing) (List of episodes)
Executive producer(s) Various
(currently Steven Moffat and Brian Minchin)
Camera setup Single/Multi-Camera hybrid
25 minutes (1963–84, 1986–89)
45 minutes (1985, 2005–present)
Various other lengths
Original channel BBC
BBC One (1963-1989, 1996, 2005-present)
BBC One HD (2010–present)
BBC HD (2007–10)
BBC America (2010–present)
405-line Black-and-white (1963–67)
625-line Black-and-white (1968–69)
625-line PAL (1970–89)
525-line NTSC (1996)
576i 16:9 DTV (2005–08)
1080i HDTV (2009–present)
Audio format Monaural (1963–87)
Stereo (1988–89; 1996; 2005–08)
5.1 Surround Sound (2009–present)
Original run Classic series:
23 November 1963 –
6 December 1989
12 May 1996
26 March 2005 – present
K-9 and Company (1981)
The Sarah Jane Adventures (2007–11)
Doctor Who Confidential (2005–11)
Totally Doctor Who (2006–07)
Sarah Jane's Alien Files (2010)
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The Doctor Companion Time Lord Dalek Cyberman The Master Sontarans
TARDIS Regeneration Sonic screwdriver Time War Whoniverse Torchwood Institute UNIT
History Story arcs Missing episodes Theme music Doctor Who in Canada and the U.S. Doctor Who in Australia Fandom Merchandise
Serials (unmade) Awards and nominations DVD and Blu-ray releases Doctors Cast Guest appearances Producers Script editors Writers Directors Music Composers Soundtrack releases
Supporting characters Historical characters UNIT personnel Creatures and aliens Villains Henchmen Robots Planets Items Vehicles
Chronology Doctor Who exhibitions
K-9 and Company Tardisodes Torchwood The Sarah Jane Adventures K-9
Whose Doctor Who Thirty Years in the TARDIS Dalekmania Doctor Who Confidential Totally Doctor Who Torchwood Declassified Doctor Who: The Commentaries An Adventure in Space and Time
The Curse of the Daleks Doctor Who and the Daleks in the Seven Keys to Doomsday Doctor Who – The Ultimate Adventure Doctor Who: A Celebration Doctor Who Prom 2008 2010 2013 Doctor Who Live
Key production staff
Sydney Newman Philip Segal Russell T Davies Steven Moffat
Verity Lambert John Wiles Innes Lloyd Peter Bryant Derrick Sherwin Barry Letts Philip Hinchcliffe Graham Williams John Nathan-Turner Phil Collinson
David Whitaker Dennis Spooner Donald Tosh Gerry Davis Terrance Dicks Robert Holmes Anthony Read Douglas Adams Christopher H. Bidmead Antony Root Eric Saward Andrew Cartmel
Terry Nation Delia Derbyshire Ray Cusick Kit Pedler Douglas Camfield Malcolm Hulke Dudley Simpson Murray Gold Euros Lyn
Dr. Who and the Daleks Daleks – Invasion Earth: 2150 A.D.
Novelisations Original books Bernice Summerfield Time Hunter
Audiobooks Audio plays Audio releases Cyberman Dalek Empire Gallifrey I, Davros Jago & Litefoot Kaldor City Sarah Jane Smith UNIT The Lost Stories Destiny of the Doctor
Wartime P.R.O.B.E. Shakedown: Return of the Sontarans Downtime Auton trilogy Dæmos Rising Dead and Buried
Doctor Who spin-offs Stage plays Video games Spoofs Spin-off companions Faction Paradox Iris Wildthyme Death's Head Star Trek: The Next Generation/Doctor Who: Assimilation2
Doctor Who Magazine Doctor Who Adventures Doctor Who – Battles in Time Doctor Who DVD Files
Big Finish Productions Reeltime Pictures BBV Mad Norwegian Press Magic Bullet Productions Obverse Books
Portal Portal Category Category Wikipedia book Book WikiProject WikiProject
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Media in Cardiff
Aspect Television BBC Wales ITV Wales S4C Broadcasting House Cardiff BBC Roath Lock BAFTA Cymru Cube Interactive Hartswood Films Calon Cardiff Film Festival
Media Wales, Six Park Street, Cardiff 001.jpg
Doctor Who Torchwood The Sarah Jane Adventures Caerdydd Being Human Crash Merlin Sherlock Upstairs Downstairs Casualty Pobol y Cwm
Gavin & Stacey
Hospital 24/7 Newyddion ITV News Wales CF99
The Story of Tracy Beaker Superted
Panic Button Flick Killer Elite Human Traffic Patagonia Skellig The Contractor Tiger Bay
Western Mail South Wales Echo Echo Extra Y Dinesydd gair rhydd Buzz Metro Cardiff School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies Media Wales
BBC Radio Wales BBC Radio Cymru Capital FM South Wales Nation Radio Gold Real Radio Xpress Radio Radio Cardiff
WalesOnline CardiffOnline Pizzaman
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Television series by Russell T Davies
Dark Season (1991) Century Falls (1993) Revelations (1994–96) Springhill (1996–97) Coronation Street: Viva Las Vegas! (1997) The Grand (1997–98) Queer as Folk (1999–2000) Bob & Rose (2001) The Second Coming (2003) Mine All Mine (2004) Casanova (2005) Doctor Who (2005–10) Torchwood (2006–11) The Sarah Jane Adventures (2007–11) Wizards vs Aliens (2012–)
Damaged Goods (Virgin New Adventures novel) All production credits Screenplays by Russell T Davies
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Press Gang (1989–1993) Joking Apart (1993–1995) Chalk (1997) Coupling (2000–2004) Jekyll (2007) Sherlock (2010–present) Doctor Who (2010–present, written only: 2005–2010)
The Adventures of Tintin (2011)
The Curse of Fatal Death (1999) "The Empty Child" / "The Doctor Dances" (2005) "The Girl in the Fireplace" (2006) "Blink" (2007) "Time Crash" (2007) "Silence in the Library" / "Forest of the Dead" (2008) "The Eleventh Hour" (2010) "The Beast Below" (2010) "The Time of Angels / "Flesh and Stone" (2010) "The Pandorica Opens" / "The Big Bang" (2010) "A Christmas Carol" (2010) "Space" / "Time" (2011) "The Impossible Astronaut" / "Day of the Moon" (2011) "A Good Man Goes to War" (2011) "Let's Kill Hitler" (2011) "The Wedding of River Song" (2011) "The Doctor, the Widow and the Wardrobe" (2011) "Asylum of the Daleks" (2012) "The Angels Take Manhattan" (2012) "The Snowmen" (2012) "The Bells of Saint John" (2013) "The Name of the Doctor" (2013) 50th anniversary special (2013)
"A Study in Pink" (2010) "A Scandal in Belgravia" (2012)
Awards for Doctor Who
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BAFTA TV Award for Best Drama Series
Inspector Morse (1992) Inspector Morse (1993) Between the Lines (1994) Cracker (1995) Cracker (1996) EastEnders (1997) Jonathan Creek (1998) The Cops (1999) The Cops (2000) Clocking Off (2001) Cold Feet (2002) Spooks (2003) Buried (2004) Shameless (2005) Doctor Who (2006) The Street (2007) The Street (2008) Wallander (2009) Misfits (2010) Sherlock (2011) The Fades (2012) Last Tango in Halifax (2013)
[hide] v t e
Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form (2003–present)
"Conversations with Dead People" (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) (2003) Gollum's Acceptance Speech at the 2003 MTV Movie Awards (2004) "33" (Battlestar Galactica) (2005) "The Empty Child" / "The Doctor Dances" (Doctor Who) (2006) "The Girl in the Fireplace" (Doctor Who) (2007) "Blink" (Doctor Who) (2008) Dr. Horrible's Sing-Along Blog (2009) "The Waters of Mars" (Doctor Who) (2010) "The Pandorica Opens" / "The Big Bang" (Doctor Who) (2011) "The Doctor's Wife" (Doctor Who) (2012) "Blackwater" (Game of Thrones) (2013)
Complete list (1958–1980) (1981–2002) (Long form: 2003–present) (Short form: 2003–present)
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Nebula Award for Best Script/Bradbury Award (2001–present)
Nebula Award for Best Script
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon – James Schamus, Kuo Jung Tsai and Hui-Ling Wang (2001) The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring – Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens & Peter Jackson (2002) The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers – Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens, Stephen Sinclair & Peter Jackson (2003) The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King – Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens & Peter Jackson (2004) Serenity – Joss Whedon (2005) Howl's Moving Castle – Hayao Miyazaki, Cindy Davis Hewitt and Donald H. Hewitt (2006) Pan's Labyrinth – Guillermo del Toro (2007) WALL-E – Andrew Stanton, Jim Reardon and Pete Docter (2008)
Ray Bradbury Award for
Outstanding Dramatic Presentation
2000X — Tales of the Next Millennia – Yuri Rasovsky and Harlan Ellison (2001) Joss Whedon (2008) District 9 – Neill Blomkamp and Terri Tatchell (2009) Inception – Christopher Nolan (2010) Doctor Who: "The Doctor's Wife" – Neil Gaiman & Richard Clark (2011)
Complete list (1973–2000) (2001–present)
[hide] v t e
Saturn Award for Best Television Presentation
Alien Nation: Millennium (1994) Alien Nation: Dark Horizon (1995) Doctor Who: Doctor Who (1996) The Shining (1997) Storm of the Century (1999) Fail Safe (2000) Jack and the Beanstalk: The Real Story (2001) Steven Spielberg Presents Taken (2002) Battlestar Galactica (2003) Farscape: The Peacekeeper Wars (2004) Masters of Horror/The Triangle (2005) The Librarian: Return to King Solomon's Mines (2006) Family Guy: Blue Harvest (2007) The Librarian: Curse of the Judas Chalice (2008) Torchwood: Children of Earth (2009) The Walking Dead (2010) The Walking Dead (2011) Breaking Bad (2012)
Time Persons of the Year
Charles Lindbergh (1927) Walter Chrysler (1928) Owen D. Young (1929) Mahatma Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval (1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932) Hugh Samuel Johnson (1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1934) Haile Selassie I (1935) Wallis Simpson (1936) Chiang Kai-shek / Soong May-ling (1937) Adolf Hitler (1938) Joseph Stalin (1939) Winston Churchill (1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt (1941) Joseph Stalin (1942) George Marshall (1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1944) Harry S. Truman (1945) James F. Byrnes (1946) George Marshall (1947) Harry S. Truman (1948) Winston Churchill (1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)
Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II (1952) Konrad Adenauer (1953) John Foster Dulles (1954) Harlow Curtice (1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev (1957) Charles de Gaulle (1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg / Willard Libby / Linus Pauling / Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè / William Shockley / Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen / Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy (1961) Pope John XXIII (1962) Martin Luther King, Jr. (1963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1964) William Westmoreland (1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson (1967) The Apollo 8 Astronauts: William Anders / Frank Borman / Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt (1970) Richard Nixon (1971) Henry Kissinger / Richard Nixon (1972) John Sirica (1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly / Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford / Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King / Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)
Jimmy Carter (1976) Anwar Sadat (1977) Deng Xiaoping (1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan (1980) Lech Wałęsa (1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983) Peter Ueberroth (1984) Deng Xiaoping (1985) Corazon Aquino (1986) Mikhail Gorbachev (1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev (1989) George H. W. Bush (1990) Ted Turner (1991) Bill Clinton (1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat / F. W. de Klerk / Nelson Mandela / Yitzhak Rabin (1993) Pope John Paul II (1994) Newt Gingrich (1995) David Ho (1996) Andrew Grove (1997) Bill Clinton / Ken Starr (1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush (2000)
Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush (2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono / Bill Gates / Melinda Gates (2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin (2007) Barack Obama (2008) Ben Bernanke (2009) Mark Zuckerberg (2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama (2012)
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926[note 1]) is the constitutional monarch of 16 sovereign states (known as the Commonwealth realms) and their territories and dependencies, as well as head of the 54-member Commonwealth of Nations. She is Supreme Governor of the Church of England and, in some of her realms, carries the title of Defender of the Faith as part of her full title.
On her accession on 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth became Head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon. From 1956 to 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and some realms became republics. At present, in addition to the first four aforementioned countries, Elizabeth is Queen of Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Kitts and Nevis. Her reign of 60 years is currently the second longest for a British monarch; only Queen Victoria has reigned longer at 63 years.
Elizabeth was born in London and educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne as George VI in 1936 on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, in which she served in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, with whom she has four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward. Her coronation service took place in 1953 and was the first to be televised.
The Queen's many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and reciprocal visits to and from the Pope. The Queen has seen major constitutional changes in her realms, such as devolution in the United Kingdom and the patriation of the Canadian constitution. Times of personal significance have included the births and marriages of her children, the births of her grandchildren, the investiture of the Prince of Wales, and the celebration of milestones such as her Silver, Golden, and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, and 2012, respectively.
Major events in the Queen's reign have included the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the Falklands War, wars with Iraq and the War in Afghanistan. There have been times of personal sorrow for her which include the death of her father at 56, the assassination of Prince Philip's uncle, Lord Mountbatten, the breakdown of her children's marriages in 1992 (a year deemed her annus horribilis), the death in 1997 of her daughter-in-law, Diana, Princess of Wales, and the deaths of her mother and sister in 2002. The Queen has occasionally faced severe press criticism of the royal family and republican sentiments, but her personal popularity and support for the monarchy remains high.
Queen of the Commonwealth realms
Reign 6 February 1952 – present
Coronation 2 June 1953
Predecessor George VI
Heir apparent Charles, Prince of Wales
Prime Ministers See list
Spouse Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (m. 1947)
Charles, Prince of Wales
Anne, Princess Royal
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
House House of Windsor
Father George VI
Mother Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Born 21 April 1926 (age 86)
Mayfair, London, England, United Kingdom
Church of England
Church of Scotland
Queen Elizabeth II navigational boxes
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Queen Elizabeth II
Queen of Antigua and Barbuda Queen of Australia Queen of the Bahamas Queen of Barbados Queen of Belize Queen of Canada Queen of Grenada Queen of Jamaica Queen of New Zealand (Cook Islands) Queen of Papua New Guinea Queen of Saint Kitts and Nevis Queen of Saint Lucia Queen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Queen of the Solomon Islands Queen of Tuvalu Queen of the United Kingdom Prime Ministers
Titles and honours
List of titles and honours Head of the Commonwealth List of things named for Queen Elizabeth II
State visits Commonwealth visits
Wedding to Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Coronation Silver Jubilee Golden Jubilee Diamond Jubilee Queen's Official Birthday
Heads of state of the European Union member states
Fischer (AT) Albert II (BE) Plevneliev (BG) Christofias (CY) Klaus (CZ) Margrethe II (DK) Ilves (EE) Niinistö (FI) Hollande (FR) Gauck (DE) Papoulias (GR) Áder (HU) Higgins (IE) Napolitano (IT) Bērziņš (LV) Grybauskaitė (LT) Henri (LU) Abela (MT) Beatrix (NL) Komorowski (PL) Cavaco Silva (PT) Băsescu (RO) Gašparovič (SK) Türk (SI) Juan Carlos I (ES) Carl XVI Gustaf (SE) Elizabeth II (UK)
Acting heads of state shown in italics.
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Current heads of state in Central American countries
Elizabeth II (Belize) Laura Chinchilla (Costa Rica) Mauricio Funes (El Salvador) Otto Pérez Molina (Guatemala) Porfirio Lobo (Honduras) Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua) Ricardo Martinelli (Panama)
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The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British Royal Family. Where a princess may have been or is descended from George I more than once, her most senior descent, by which she bore or bears her title, is used.
Queen Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia
Princess Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange Princess Amelia Princess Caroline Princess Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Cassel Queen Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway
Princess Augusta, Duchess of Brunswick Princess Elizabeth Princess Louisa Queen Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway
Princess Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of Württemberg Princess Augusta Sophia Princess Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg Princess Sophia of Gloucester Princess Sophia Princess Amelia Princess Caroline of Gloucester Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester
Princess Charlotte Augusta, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Princess Charlotte of Clarence Princess Elizabeth of Clarence Queen Victoria Princess Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Princess Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck
Princess Victoria, Princess Royal and German Empress Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse Princess Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll Princess Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg Princess Frederica, Baroness Alfons von Pawel-Rammingen Princess Marie of Hanover
Princess Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife Princess Victoria Queen Maud, Queen of Norway Queen Marie, Queen of Romania Princess Victoria Melita, Grand Duchess of Hesse Princess Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Princess Beatrice, Duchess of Galliera Princess Margaret, Crown Princess of Sweden Princess Patricia of Connaught Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone Princess Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden Princess Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Princess Olga of Hanover
Princess Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife Princess Maud, Countess of Southesk Princess Sibylla, Duchess of Västerbotten Princess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Queen Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes
Queen Elizabeth II Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy
Princess Anne, Princess Royal
Princess Beatrice of York Princess Eugenie of York Lady Louise Windsor
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Charles, Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay Earl of Carrick Baron of Renfrew Lord of the Isles Prince and Great Steward of Scotland more
Diana, Princess of Wales (first wife) Prince William, Duke of Cambridge (elder son) Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (daughter-in-law) Prince Harry of Wales (younger son) Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall (second wife) Elizabeth II (mother) Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (father) Anne, Princess Royal (sister) Prince Andrew, Duke of York (brother) Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex (brother)
Investiture of the Prince of Wales First wedding (guest list) Divorce Second wedding
The Prince's Charities/The Prince's Charities Canada Mutton Renaissance Campaign
Duchy Originals from Waitrose Poundbury
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Time Persons of the Year
Mohammad Mosaddegh (1951) Elizabeth II (1952) Konrad Adenauer (1953) John Foster Dulles (1954) Harlow Curtice (1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighter (1956) Nikita Khrushchev (1957) Charles de Gaulle (1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959) U.S. Scientists (1960) George Beadle Charles Draper John Enders Donald A. Glaser Joshua Lederberg Willard Libby Linus Pauling Edward Purcell Isidor Rabi Emilio Segrè William Shockley Edward Teller Charles Townes James Van Allen Robert Woodward John F. Kennedy (1961) Pope John XXIII (1962) Martin Luther King, Jr. (1963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1964) William Westmoreland (1965) Baby boomers (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson (1967) The Apollo 8 Astronauts (1968) William Anders Frank Borman Jim Lovell The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt (1970) Richard Nixon (1971) Henry Kissinger Richard Nixon (1972) John Sirica (1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women (1975) Susan Brownmiller Kathleen Byerly Alison Cheek Jill Conway Betty Ford Ella Grasso Carla Hills Barbara Jordan Billie Jean King Carol Sutton Susie Sharp Addie L. Wyatt
The British Royal Family
HM The Queen
Philip HRH The Duke of Edinburgh
Charles HRH The Prince of Wales
Camilla HRH The Duchess of Cornwall
William HRH The Duke of Cambridge
Kathryn HRH The Duchess of Cambridge
HRH Prince Harry of Wales
Andrew HRH The Duke of York
HRH Princess Beatrice of York
HRH Princess Eugenie of York
Edward HRH The Earl of Wessex
Anne HRH The Princess Royal
(1066 - 1154)
King William I, the Conqueror 1066 - 1087
King Henry I 1100 - 1135
King Stephen 1135 - 1154
Empress Matilda 1141
(1154 - 1399)
King Henry II 1154 - 1189
King Richard I the Lionheart 1189 - 1199
King John 1 1199 - 1216
King Henry III 1216 - 1272
King Edward I 1272 - 1307
King Edward II 1307 - 1327
King Edward III 1327 - 1377
Richard II 1377 - 1399
The House of Lancaster
(1399 - 1461)
Henry IV 1399 - 1413
Henry V 1413 - 1422
Henry VI 1422 - 1461, 1470 - 1471
The House of York
(1461 - 1485)
King Edward IV 1461 -1470, 1471 - 1483
King Edward V 1483 - 1483
King Richard III 1483 - 1485
King Henry VII 1485 - 1509
King Henry VIII 1509 - 1547
King Edward VI 1547 - 1553
Jane Grey 1554
Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) 1553 - 1558
Queen Elizabeth I 1558 - 1603
(1603 - 1649) (1660 - 1714)
James I 1603 - 1625
Charles I 1625 - 1649
Charles II 1660 - 1685
James II 1685 - 1688
William III 1688 - 1702 and Queen Mary II 1688 - 1694
Queen Anne 1702 - 1714
The House of Hanoverians
King George I 1714 - 1727
King George II 1727 - 1760
King George III 1760 - 1820
King George IV 1820 - 1830
King William IV 1830 - 1837
Queen Victoria 1837 - 1901
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and The Windsors
(1901 -1910) (1910 - Today)
King Edward VII 1901 - 1910
King George V 1910 - 1936
King Edward VIII June 1936
King George VI 1936 - 1952
Queen Elizabeth II 1952 - present day
The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II was the ceremony in which the newly ascended monarch, Elizabeth II, was crowned Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Ceylon, and Pakistan, as well as taking on the role of Head of the Commonwealth. Elizabeth, then aged 26, ascended the thrones of these countries upon the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952, and was proclaimed queen by her various privy and executive councils shortly afterwards. The coronation was held more than a year after the accession, on 2 June 1953. This followed the tradition that a festival such as a coronation was inappropriate during the period of mourning that followed the death of the preceding sovereign. In the coronation ceremony itself, Elizabeth swore an oath to uphold the laws of her nations and to govern the Church of England. Celebrations took place and a commemorative medal was issued throughout the Commonwealth realms.
articipants Queen Elizabeth II
Great Officers of State
Archbishops and Bishops Assistant of the Church of England
Garter Principal King of Arms
Peers of the Realm
Mistress of the Robes
Location London, England
Date June 2, 1953
A moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon. This includes both manned and unmanned (robotic) missions. The first human-made object to reach the surface of the Moon was the Soviet Union's Luna 2 mission on 13 September 1959. The United States's Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon on 20 July 1969. There have been six manned landings (between 1969 and 1972) and numerous unmanned landings.
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight which landed the first humans, Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr, on Earth's Moon on July 20, 1969, at 20:17:39 UTC. The United States mission is considered the major accomplishment in the history of space exploration.
Launched from the Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39 in Merritt Island, Florida on July 16, Apollo 11 was the fifth manned mission, and the third lunar mission, of NASA's Apollo program. The crew consisted of Armstrong as Commander and Aldrin as Lunar Module Pilot, with Command Module Pilot Michael Collins. Armstrong and Aldrin landed in the Sea of Tranquillity and became the first humans to walk on the Moon on July 21. Their Lunar Module, Eagle, spent 21 hours 31 minutes on the lunar surface, while Collins remained in orbit in the Command/Service Module, Columbia. The three astronauts returned to Earth on July 24, landing in the Pacific Ocean. They brought back 47.5 pounds (21.5 kg) of lunar rocks.
Apollo 11 fulfilled U.S. President John F. Kennedy's goal of reaching the Moon before the Soviet Union by the end of the 1960s, which he had expressed during a 1961 mission statement before the United States Congress: "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth."
Six additional Apollo missions flew to the Moon and five landed between 1969 and 1972.
Mission name Apollo 11
Spacecraft name CSM: Columbia
Command Module CM-107
mass 12,250 lb (5,560 kg)
Service Module SM-107
mass 51,243 lb (23,243 kg)
Lunar Module LM-5
mass 33,278 lb (15,095 kg)
Spacecraft mass 96,771 lb (43,895 kg)
Crew size 3
Call sign CSM: Columbia
LM: Eagle in-flight; Tranquillity Base on lunar surface
Launch vehicle Saturn V SA-506
Launch pad LC 39A
Kennedy Space Center
Florida, United States
Launch date July 16, 1969
Lunar landing July 20, 1969
Sea of Tranquillity
(based on the IAU Mean Earth Polar Axis coordinate system)
Lunar EVA duration 2 h 36 m 40 s
Lunar surface time 21 h 31 m 20 s
Lunar sample mass 21.55 kg (47.5 lb)
Number of lunar orbits 30
Total CSM time in lunar orbit 59 h 30 m 25.79 s
Landing July 24, 1969
North Pacific Ocean
Mission duration 8 d 03 h 18 m 35 s
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. The home of the United Nations Headquarters, New York is an important center for international affairs and is widely deemed the cultural capital of the world. The city is also referred to as New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the state of New York, of which it is a part.
Located on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs which were consolidated in 1898: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. With a 2010 United States Census population of 8,175,133 distributed over a land area of just 305 square miles (790 km2), New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. The New York City Metropolitan Area's population is the United States' largest, estimated at 18.9 million people distributed over 6,720 square miles (17,400 km2), and is also part of the most populous combined statistical area in the United States, containing 22.2 million people as of 2009 Census estimates. New York has the largest internet presence of any location in the world; registering 7.1 billion search results as of December 2011.
New York traces its roots to its 1624 founding as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic, and was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surrounds came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a globally recognized symbol of the United States and its democracy.
Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known to its approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway theater district, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The city hosts many world renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. New York City's financial district, anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, functions as the financial capital of the world and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization of its listed companies. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. Unlike most global rapid transit systems, the New York City Subway provides 24/7 service. Numerous colleges and universities are located in New York, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which are ranked among the top 50 in the world
Coordinates: 40°43′N 74°00′WCoordinates: 40°43′N 74°00′W
Country United States
State New York
• Type Mayor-Council
• Body New York City Council
• Mayor Michael Bloomberg (I)
• City 468.9 sq mi (1,214.4 km2)
• Land 304.8 sq mi (789.4 km2)
• Water 165.6 sq mi (428.8 km2)
• Urban 3,352.6 sq mi (8,683.2 km2)
• Metro 6,720 sq mi (17,405 km2)
Elevation 33 ft (10 m)
Population (April 1, 2010 United States Census)
• City 8,175,133
• Density 27,532/sq mi (10,630/km2)
• Urban 18,223,567
• Urban density 5,435.7/sq mi (2,098.7/km2)
• Metro 18,897,109
• Metro density 2,812.1/sq mi (1,085.7/km2)
Demonym New Yorker
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
• Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 100xx-104xx, 11004-05, 111xx-114xx, 116xx
Area code(s) 212, 718, 917, 646, 347, 929
FIPS code 36-51000
New York City
The Five Boroughs: The Bronx · Brooklyn · Manhattan · Queens · Staten Island
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New York metropolitan area · New York State · United States
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Greater Long Island
Long Island • Long Islanders
Geography • History • Economy • Transportation • Politics • Policing • Music • Popular culture • Recreation
Municipalities • North Shore • South Shore • North Fork • South Fork • Long Island Sound • Barrier islands • Fire Island
Kings (Brooklyn) • Queens • Nassau • Suffolk
New York City (part) • Glen Cove • Long Beach
(Nassau:) Hempstead • North Hempstead • Oyster Bay
(Suffolk:) Babylon • Brookhaven • East Hampton • Huntington • Islip • Riverhead • Shelter Island • Smithtown • Southampton • Southold
Villages & hamlets
with more than
Babylon • Baldwin • Bethpage • East Rockaway • Floral Park • Freeport • Garden City • Hempstead Village • Hicksville • Huntington • Islip • Kings Park • Lake Grove • Levittown • Lindenhurst • Lynbrook • Massapequa • Massapequa Park • Merrick • Mineola • Oceanside • Riverhead • Rockville Centre • Patchogue • Smithtown • Uniondale • Valley Stream • Wantagh • Westbury • West Islip
Villages & hamlets
with fewer than
Amityville • Asharoken • Atlantic Beach • Baxter Estates • Bayville • Belle Terre • Bellerose • Bellerose Terrace • Bellport • Brightwaters • Brookville • Cedarhurst • Centre Island • Cove Neck • Dering Harbor • East Hampton • East Hills • East Williston • Farmingdale • Flower Hill • Great Neck • Great Neck Estates • Great Neck Plaza • Greenport • Head of the Harbor • Hewlett Bay Park • Hewlett Harbor • Hewlett Neck • Huntington Bay • Island Park • Islandia • Kensington • Kings Point • Lake Success • Lattingtown • Laurel Hollow • Lawrence • Lloyd Harbor • Malverne • Manorhaven • Matinecock • Mill Neck • Munsey Park • Muttontown • New Hyde Park • Nissequogue • North Haven • North Hills • Northport • Ocean Beach • Old Brookville • Old Field • Old Westbury • Oyster Bay Cove • Plandome • Plandome Heights • Plandome Manor • Poquott • Port Jefferson • Port Washington North • Quogue • Roslyn • Roslyn Estates • Roslyn Harbor • Russell Gardens • Saddle Rock • Sag Harbor • Sagaponack • Sands Point • Saltaire • Sea Cliff • Shoreham • South Floral Park • Southampton • Stewart • Thomaston • Upper Brookville • Village of the Branch • West Hampton Dunes • Westhampton Beach • Williston Park
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New York-Newark-Bridgeport Combined Statistical Area
Bergen • Bronx • Dutchess • Essex • Fairfield • Hudson • Hunterdon • Kings • Litchfield • Mercer • Middlesex • Monmouth • Morris • Nassau • New Haven • New York • Ocean • Orange • Passaic • Pike • Putnam • Queens • Richmond • Rockland • Somerset • Suffolk • Sussex • Ulster • Union • Westchester
New York City
Cities and towns
Bridgeport • Elizabeth • Huntington • Jersey City • New Haven • Newark • Paterson • Stamford • Waterbury • Yonkers
Cities and towns
Bayonne • Branford • Cheshire • Clifton • Danbury • East Haven • East Orange • Englewood • Fairfield • Garfield • Greenwich • Hackensack • Hamden • Hoboken • Howell, New Jersey Kearny • Long Beach • Long Branch • Meriden • Middletown • Milford • Mount Vernon • Naugatuck • New Brunswick • New Milford • New Rochelle • Newburgh • Newtown • Norwalk • Passaic • Perth Amboy • Plainfield • Poughkeepsie • Rahway • Shelton • Stratford • Torrington • Trenton • Trumbull • Union City • Wallingford • West Haven • Westfield • Westport • White Plains
Cities and towns
Ansonia • Asbury Park • Beacon • Bethel • Brookfield • Darien • Derby • Dover • Guildford • Guttenberg • Harrison (NJ) • Harrison (NY) • Kingston • Linden • Madison • Monroe • Morristown • New Canaan • New Fairfield • North Branford • North Haven • Orange • Plymouth • Peekskill • Ridgefield • Rye • Scarsdale • Secaucus • Seymour • Southbury • Summit • Watertown • West New York • Weston • Wilton • Winchester • Wolcott
Central Jersey • Greater Danbury • Greater New Haven • Greater Waterbury • Hudson Valley • Litchfield Hills • Long Island • North Jersey • Southwestern Connecticut
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State of New York
Albany (capital)* The Empire State
Administrative divisions Bibliography Congressional districts Constitution Demographics Economy Education Elections Geography Government Governor Legislature Court System History Symbols People Politics Transportation Visitor Attractions
Adirondack Mountains Allegheny Plateau Capital District Catskill Mountains Central Region (formerly Central-Leatherstocking) Central New York Champlain Valley City of New York Finger Lakes Holland Purchase Hudson Highlands Hudson Valley Long Island Mohawk Valley New York Metro Niagara Frontier North Country Ridge and Valley Saint Lawrence Seaway Shawangunks Ski country Southern Tier Southtowns Tech Valley Thousand Islands Upstate Western
Albany / Schenectady / Troy Binghamton Buffalo / Niagara Falls Elmira / Corning Glens Falls Ithaca Jamestown Newburgh / Middletown New York City Poughkeepsie Rochester Syracuse Utica / Rome
Albany Allegany Bronx Broome Cattaraugus Cayuga Chautauqua Chemung Chenango Clinton Columbia Cortland Delaware Dutchess Erie Essex Franklin Fulton Genesee Greene Hamilton Herkimer Jefferson Kings Lewis Livingston Madison Monroe Montgomery Nassau New York Niagara Oneida Onondaga Ontario Orange Orleans Oswego Otsego Putnam Queens Rensselaer Richmond Rockland Saint Lawrence Saratoga Schenectady Schoharie Schuyler Seneca Steuben Suffolk Sullivan Tioga Tompkins Ulster Warren Washington Wayne Westchester Wyoming Yates
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Summer Paralympic Games host cities
1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Tel Aviv 1972: Heidelberg 1976: Toronto 1980: Arnhem 1984: Stoke Mandeville/New York 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro
Other articles related to New York City's population and geography
Bergen County, NJ Westchester County
Yonkers Long Island Sound
Hudson County, NJ
Jersey City Nassau County
New York City
Middlesex County, NJ Monmouth County, NJ Atlantic Ocean
Lat. and Long. 40°43′N 74°0′W
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50 most populous cities of the United States
(2010 United States Census Bureau)
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50 largest metropolitan statistical areas in the United States by population
Salt Lake City
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World's fifty most-populous urban areas
Osaka –Kobe –Kyoto
Rio de Janeiro
Ho Chi Minh City
Johannesburg –East Rand
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Location of the capital of the United States and predecessors
New Amsterdam (New Netherland) · Boston (Massachusetts Bay Colony)
1774 First Continental Congress
1775 – 1781 Second Continental Congress
Philadelphia → Baltimore → Lancaster → York → Philadelphia
1781 – 1789 Congress of the Confederation
Philadelphia → Princeton → Annapolis → Trenton → New York City
1789 – present Federal government of the United States
New York City → Philadelphia → Washington, D.C.
Located on the Atlantic coast of NE United States
Empire State Building is one of the 7th Wonders of the Modern World
Average 47 million tourists per year enjoy New York city breaks
39 theatres in the Broadway district
Birthplace of numerous cultural movements
5 boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, The Bronx, Queens, Staten Island
New York tourist attractions
Empire State Building
Statue of Liberty
Luxury shopping on Fifth Avenue and at Macy's
Museum of Modern Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Guggenheim Museum
The original World Trade Center was a complex with seven buildings featuring landmark twin towers in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. The complex opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. The site is currently being rebuilt with five new skyscrapers and a memorial to the casualties of the attacks. As of November 2011, only one skyscraper has been completed, with four more expected to be completed before 2020. One World Trade Center will be the lead building for the new complex and is expected to be finished by 2013. A sixth tower is still awaiting confirmation to be built. At the time of their completion, the original 1 and 2 World Trade Center, known colloquially as the Twin Towers, were the tallest buildings in the world.
The complex was designed in the early 1960s by Minoru Yamasaki and Associates of Troy, Michigan, and Emery Roth and Sons of New York. The twin 110-story towers used a tube-frame structural design. To gain approval for the project, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey agreed to take over the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad, which became the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). Groundbreaking for the World Trade Center took place on August 5, 1966. The North Tower (1) was completed in December 1972 and the South Tower (2) was finished in July 1973. The construction project involved excavating a large amount of material, which was later used as landfill to build Battery Park City on the west side of Lower Manhattan. The cost for the construction was $400 million ($2,200,000,000 in 2012 dollars). The complex was located in the heart of New York City's downtown financial district and contained 13.4 million square feet (1.24 million m2) of office space. The Windows on the World restaurant was located on the 106th and 107th floors of 1 World Trade Center (the North Tower) while the Top of the World observation deck was located on the 107th floor of 2 World Trade Center (the South Tower). Other World Trade Center buildings included the Marriott World Trade Center; 4 World Trade Center; 5 World Trade Center; 6 World Trade Center, which housed the United States Customs. All of these buildings were built between 1975 and 1981. The final building constructed was 7 World Trade Center, which was built in 1985. The second King Kong was filmed in 1976 with some scenes mentioning and showing the World Trade Center. The World Trade Center experienced a fire on February 13, 1975, and a bombing on February 26, 1993. In 1998, the Port Authority decided to privatize the World Trade Center, leasing the buildings to a private company to manage, and awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties in July 2001.
On the morning of September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers flew two 767 jets into the complex, one into each tower, in a coordinated terrorist attack. After burning for 56 minutes, the South Tower (2) collapsed, followed a half-hour later by the North Tower (1), with the attacks on the World Trade Center resulting in 2,753 deaths. 7 World Trade Center collapsed later in the day and the other buildings, although they did not collapse, had to be demolished because they were damaged beyond repair. The process of cleanup and recovery at the World Trade Center site took eight months. The first new building at the site was 7 World Trade Center, which opened in May 2006. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC), established in November 2001 to oversee the rebuilding process, organized competitions to select a site plan and memorial design. Memory Foundations, designed by Daniel Libeskind, was selected as the master plan, which included the 1,776-foot (541 m) One World Trade Center, three office towers along Church Street and a memorial designed by Michael Arad.
Tallest in the world from 1971 to 1973[I]
Preceded by Empire State Building
Surpassed by Willis Tower
Location New York City
Coordinates 40°42′42″N 74°00′45″WCoordinates: 40°42′42″N 74°00′45″W
Groundbreaking August 25, 1966
1 WTC: August 1968
2 WTC: January 1969
3 WTC: December 1979
4, 5, & 6 WTC: 1970
7 WTC: 1983
1 WTC: December 23, 1970
2 WTC: July 19, 1971
3 WTC: February 1981
4, 5, & 6 WTC: 1975
7 WTC: 1987
Opening April 4, 1973
Destroyed September 11, 2001
Antenna spire 1 WTC: 1,727 ft (526.3 m)
1 WTC: 1,368 ft (417.0 m)
2 WTC: 1,362 ft (415.0 m)
3 WTC: 242 ft (74.0 m)
4 & 5 WTC: 118 ft (36.0 m)
6 WTC: 105 ft (32.0 m)
7 WTC: 610 ft (186.0 m)
1 WTC: 1,348 ft (411.0 m)
2 WTC: 1,342 ft (409.0 m)
1 & 2 WTC: 110 floors
3 WTC: 22 floors
4 & 5 WTC: 9 floors
6 WTC: 8 floors
7 WTC: 47 floors
1 & 2 WTC:[clarification needed] 4,300,000 sq ft (400,000 m2)
4, 5, & 6 WTC: 500,000 sq ft (50,000 m2)
7 WTC: 1,868,000 sq ft (170,000 m2)
Elevator count Both had 99 elevators
Design and construction
Owner Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Emery Roth & Sons
Engineer Leslie E. Robertson Associates
Timeline of tallest buildings in New York City
Collegiate Reformed Protestant Dutch Church (c.1643) · Trinity Church (85 m) (1846) · New York World Building (94 m) (1890) · Manhattan Life Insurance Building (100 m) (1894) · Park Row Building (119 m) (1899) · Singer Building (187 m) (1908) · Metropolitan Life Tower (213 m) (1909) · Woolworth Building (241 m) (1913) · 40 Wall Street (283 m) (1929) · Chrysler Building (320 m) (1930) · Empire State Building (443 m) (1931) · World Trade Center (526 m) (1973) · Empire State Building (443 m) (2001)
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Aon Center · Bank of America Plaza · Bank of America Tower · Chrysler Building · Empire State Building · Franklin Center (Chicago) · JPMorgan Chase Tower · John Hancock Center · The New York Times Building · Trump Tower Chicago · Two Prudential Plaza · U.S. Bank Tower · Wells Fargo Plaza · Willis Tower
Baiyoke Tower II · Bank of China Tower · The Center · Central Plaza · China World Trade Center Tower III · CITIC Plaza · Guangzhou International Finance Center · International Commerce Centre · International Finance Centre · Jin Mao Tower · Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower · Kingkey 100 · Menara Telekom · Minsheng Bank Building · Nanjing Greenland Financial Center · Nina Tower · Northeast Asia Trade Tower · Petronas Towers · Shanghai World Financial Center · Shimao International Plaza · Shun Hing Square · Taipei 101 · Tianjin World Financial Center · Tuntex Sky Tower · Wenzhou World Trade Center
City of Capitals
Eureka Tower · Q1
Almas Tower · Aspire Tower · Arraya 2 · Burj Al Arab · Burj Khalifa · Emirates Office Tower · Emirates Towers Hotel · HHHR Tower · Kingdom Centre · Rose Tower · Ocean Heights · The Address Downtown Dubai · The Index · The Marina Torch
175 Greenwich Street · 200 Greenwich Street · Carnegie 57 · One World Trade Center
Gran Torre Santiago
Abenobashi Terminal Building Skyscraper (Abeno Harukas) · Busan Lotte World Tower · Dalian Eton Center · East Pacific Business Center · Forum 66 · Gate of the Orient · Gate of Taipei · Global Financial Building · Goldin Finance 117 · The Gramercy Residences · Grand International Mansion (The Pinnacle) · Hanging Village of Huaxi · Leatop Plaza · Lotte World Premium Tower · MahaNakhon · Orchid Heights · Palais Royale, Mumbai · Pearl River Tower · Pingan International Finance Center · Ryugyong Hotel · Shanghai Tower · Sino-Steel Tower · The Wharf Times Square · We've the Zenith · White Magnolia Plaza · Yantai Shimao No.1 The Harbour
Federation Tower · Mercury City Tower · Shard London Bridge
23 Marina · Abraj Al Bait · Ahmed Abdul Rahim Al Attar Tower · Al Hamra Tower · Al Yaqoub Tower · Central Market Project · DAMAC Heights · Dubai Pearl · Elite Residence · Emirates Park Towers · Infinity Tower · Lamar Towers · Qatar National Bank Tower · The Landmark · Marina 101 · Princess Tower · Sky Tower
Al Quds Endowment Tower · Barwa Tower · BDNI Center 1 · Burj Al Alam · Chow Tai Fook Centre · Dalian International Trade Center · Doha Convention Center Tower · Dubai Towers Doha · Eurasia · Faros del Panamá · India Tower · JW Marriott International Finance Centre · Pentominium · Parc1 Tower A · Plaza Rakyat · Skycity · Square Capital Tower · Waterview Tower · Xiamen Post & Telecommunications Building
World Trade Center
See also Proposed supertall skyscrapers · List of architects of supertall buildings
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World Trade Center
World Trade Center Complex
Tower One and Tower Two · Marriott World Trade Center · 4 World Trade Center · 5 World Trade Center · 6 World Trade Center · 7 World Trade Center · The Sphere · The Bathtub
World Trade Center site · One World Trade Center · Two World Trade Center · Three World Trade Center · Four World Trade Center · Five World Trade Center · 7 World Trade Center · National September 11 Memorial & Museum · The Mall at the World Trade Center · PATH station
1993 bombing · September 11 attacks
Minoru Yamasaki · Emery Roth & Sons · Larry Silverstein · Austin J. Tobin
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Architecture by Minoru Yamasaki
One Woodward Avenue (1963) · IBM Building (1963) · Century Plaza Hotel (1966) · M&T Bank Center, Buffalo (1967) · World Trade Center Tower 1, Tower 2, Buildings 4, 5 and 6 (1970–1971) · Montgomery Ward Corporate Headquarters Tower (1972) · Century Plaza Towers (1975) · Bank of Oklahoma (1977) · Rainier Bank Tower (1977) · Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond (1978) · 100 Washington Square (1981) · Torre Picasso (1988) · Columbia Center (1989–2000)
Lambert-St. Louis International Airport main terminal (1956) · Dhahran International Airport terminal (1961) · Eastern Airlines terminal at Logan Airport (1969) · King Fahd International Airport master plan (1977)
Houses of worship
North Shore Congregation Israel (1964) · Temple Beth El (1974) · Shinji Shumeikai Founder's Hall (1982)
Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Detroit Branch Building annex (1951) · Pruitt–Igoe housing project (1954) · Grosse Pointe University School (1954) · Military Personnel Records Center (1955) · McGregor Memorial Conference Center (1957) · Prentis Building and DeRoy Auditorium Complex (1959) · Robertson Hall at Princeton University (1965) · Pacific Science Center (1962) · Irwin Library at Butler University (1963) · Oberlin Conservatory of Music (1963) · Quo Vadis Entertainment Center (1966) · Dr. John Archer Library (1967) · Japan Center (1968) · Tulsa Performing Arts Center (1976) · Istanbul Cevahir (1987)
Wascana Centre and University of Regina - Regina Campus (1961–1967)
The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th or 9/11[nb 1]) were a series of four coordinated suicide attacks upon the United States in New York City and the Washington, D.C. areas on September 11, 2001. On that Tuesday morning, 19 terrorists from the Islamist militant group al-Qaeda hijacked four passenger jets. The hijackers intentionally crashed two planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City; both towers collapsed within two hours. Hijackers crashed American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia. The fourth jet, United Airlines Flight 93, crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after passengers attempted to take control before it could reach the hijacker's intended target in Washington, D.C. Nearly 3,000 died in the attacks.
Suspicion quickly fell on al-Qaeda, and in 2004, the group's leader Osama bin Laden, who had initially denied involvement, claimed responsibility for the attacks. Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S. support of Israel, the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives for the attacks. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded law enforcement powers. In May 2011, after years at large, bin Laden was found and killed.
The destruction of the twin towers caused serious damage to the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant impact on global markets. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year. Numerous memorials were constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York, the Pentagon Memorial, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in Pennsylvania. Adjacent to the National Memorial, the 1,776 feet (541 m) One World Trade Center is expected to be completed in 2013.
Location New York City; Arlington County, Virginia; and near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Date Tuesday, September 11, 2001
8:46 a.m. – 10:28 a.m. (UTC-04:00)
Attack type Aircraft hijacking, mass murder, suicide attack, terrorism
Injured More than 6,000
Perpetrator(s) Al-Qaeda led by Osama bin Laden
September 11 attacks
Planning · September 11, 2001 · Rest of September · October · Beyond October
American Airlines Flight 11 · United Airlines Flight 175 · American Airlines Flight 77 · United Airlines Flight 93
World Trade Center · The Pentagon · Stonycreek, Pennsylvania · Shanksville, Pennsylvania
Airport security · Economic effects · Local health effects
Immediate aftermath · Cultural references · Audiovisual entertainment · Closings and cancellations · Detentions · Post-9/11 · Reactions · 9/11 conspiracy theories
U.S. military response · U.S. government response · Rescue and recovery effort · Financial assistance · Operation SUPPORT · Operation Yellow Ribbon · Memorials and services
Responsibility · Motives · Hijackers · 20th hijacker
U.S. Congressional Inquiry · 9/11 Commission (Report · Criticism) · PENTTBOM
Communication (Radio communications) · Patriot Day · WTC collapse · Slogans and terms · Survivors' Staircase
Book · Category · Portal · WikiProject
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World Trade Center
World Trade Center Complex
Tower One and Tower Two · Marriott World Trade Center · 4 World Trade Center · 5 World Trade Center · 6 World Trade Center · 7 World Trade Center · The Sphere · The Bathtub
World Trade Center site · One World Trade Center · Two World Trade Center · Three World Trade Center · Four World Trade Center · Five World Trade Center · 7 World Trade Center · National September 11 Memorial & Museum · The Mall at the World Trade Center · PATH station
1993 bombing · September 11 attacks
Minoru Yamasaki · Emery Roth & Sons · Larry Silverstein · Austin J. Tobin
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War on Terror
ISAF · Operation Enduring Freedom participants · Afghanistan · Northern Alliance · Iraq (Iraqi Armed Forces) · NATO · Pakistan · United Kingdom · United States · European Union · Philippines · Ethiopia
Al-Qaeda · Osama bin Laden · Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula · Abu Sayyaf · Anwar al-Awlaki · Al-Shabaab · Hamas · Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami · Hezbollah · Hizbul Mujahideen · Islamic Courts Union · Jaish-e-Mohammed · Jemaah Islamiyah · Lashkar-e-Taiba · Mujahideen · Taliban · Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
War in Afghanistan · OEF – Philippines · Georgia Train and Equip Program · Georgia Sustainment and Stability · OEF – Horn of Africa · OEF – Trans Sahara · Drone attacks in Pakistan
Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) · Insurgency in the Philippines · Iraq War · Iraqi insurgency · Operation Linda Nchi · South Thailand insurgency · Terrorism in Saudi Arabia · War in North-West Pakistan · War in Somalia (2006–2009) · 2007 Lebanon conflict · Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown
Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse · Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act · Axis of evil · Black sites · Bush Doctrine · The Clash of Civilizations · Combatant Status Review Tribunal · Criticism of the War on Terror · Death of Osama bin Laden · Enhanced interrogation techniques · Torture Memos · Extrajudicial prisoners · Extraordinary rendition · Guantanamo Bay detention camp · Military Commissions Act of 2006 · NSA electronic surveillance program · Pakistan's role · President's Surveillance Program · Protect America Act of 2007 · Targeted killing · Targeted Killing in International Law · Unitary executive theory · Unlawful combatant · USA PATRIOT Act
Terrorism · War
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Saif al-Adel · Ayman al-Zawahiri · Abu Musab Abdel Wadoud · Abu Yahya al-Libi · Adam Yahiye Gadahn · Adnan Gulshair el Shukrijumah · Abu Dua
Osama bin Laden (killed) · Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (captured) · Anwar al-Awlaki (disputed; killed) · Nasir al-Wuhayshi (killed) · Younis al-Mauritani (captured) · Mohammed Atef (killed) · Fazul Abdullah Mohammed (killed) · Atiyah Abd al-Rahman (killed) · Mohammad Hasan Khalil al-Hakim (killed) · Abu Laith al-Libi (killed) · Abdullah Said al Libi (killed) · Abu Faraj al-Libbi (captured) · Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi (killed) · Ilyas Kashmiri (killed) · Mohamed Atta (killed in the 9/11 attacks) · Khadr family (captured/killed) · Samir Khan (killed)
Timeline of attacks
1993 World Trade Center bombing · 1998 United States embassy bombings · USS Cole bombing · September 11 attacks · 2002 Bali bombings · Iraq Ashura bombings · 2004 Madrid train bombings · 7 July 2005 London bombings · 23 November 2006 Sadr City bombings · 18 April 2007 Baghdad bombings · 2007 Algiers bombings (April, December) · 2007 Yazidi communities bombings · 2008 Danish embassy bombing in Islamabad · 2009 Little Rock recruiting office shooting · Northwest Airlines Flight 253 · Cargo planes bomb plot
Soviet war in Afghanistan · Civil war in Afghanistan (1989–1992) · Civil war in Afghanistan (1992–1996) · Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001) · War in Afghanistan (2001–present) · Iraq War · Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown · Shia insurgency in Yemen · Somali Civil War · War in North-West Pakistan (Drone attacks) · Insurgency in the Maghreb ·
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula · al-Qaeda in Iraq · Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb
Conspiracy / propaganda
Al Qaeda Handbook · Al Neda · As-Sahab · Fatawā of Osama bin Laden · Inspire · Al-Khansaa · Kuala Lumpur al-Qaeda Summit · Management of Savagery · Voice of Jihad · Benevolence International Foundation · Qaedat al-Jihad · Al-Qaeda safe house
Video and audio
Videos and audio recordings of Osama bin Laden · Videos and audio recordings of Ayman al-Zawahiri · USS Cole bombing video
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← 2000 · Aviation accidents and incidents in 2001 · 2002 →
Jan 23 Yemenia Flight 448
Jan 27 Oklahoma State basketball team crash
Jan 31 Japan Airlines mid-air incident
Mar 03 Thai Airways International Flight 114
Mar 19 Comair Flight 5054
Mar 29 Avjet Aspen crash
Apr 01 Hainan Island incident
Apr 04 Sudanese Air Force AN-24 crash
Jul 04 Vladivostok Air Flight 352
Aug 24 Air Transat Flight 236
Aug 29 Binter Mediterráneo Flight 8261
Sep 11 (9/11) American Airlines Flight 11
Sep 11 (9/11) United Airlines Flight 175
Sep 11 (9/11) American Airlines Flight 77
Sep 11 (9/11) United Airlines Flight 93
Sep 11 Korean Air Flight 85
Sep 17 Grozny Mi-8 crash
Oct 04 Siberia Airlines Flight 1812
Oct 08 Linate Airport disaster
Nov 12 American Airlines Flight 587
Nov 24 Crossair Flight 3597
Dec 02 AFRF Flight 9064
Dec 22 American Airlines Flight 63 ("Shoe bomb" plot)