Royal site Under construction back
Jelena Šubić died c 1378 was a Croatian Kneginja
The castle was first mentioned in the 13th century as a fortress ruled by the Babonić clan. Between 1328 and 1347, it was possessed by the members of Iločki family. In 1347, King Louis I the Great bestowed the fortress to the noble Šubić family who then changed their family name after it, becoming the Zrinski. It remained in their possession until the Ottoman invasion and conquest of the region, which led to the fortress falling to them on 20 October 1577. It wasn't until 1718 that the castle was retaken from the Ottomans.
The castle was first mentioned in the 13th century as a fortress ruled by the Babonićclan. Between 1328 and 1347, it was possessed by the members of Iločki family. In 1347, King Louis I the Great bestowed the fortress to the noble Šubić family who then changed their family name after it, becoming the Zrinski. It remained in their possession until the Ottoman invasion and conquest of the region, which led to the fortress falling to them on 20 October 1577. It wasn't until 1718 that the castle was retaken from the Ottomans.
Among the many notable personalities of the family, there were a few women. Katarina Zrinska (1625–1673), a noted poet, was born in the Frankopan family, and, having married Petar Zrinski, became the member of the Zrinskis. Her daughter, Jelena Zrinska, was the wife of Francis I. Rákóczi, the prince of Transylvania.
Brebiri III. Mladen
Egy majdnem Zrínyi ős nyomában
Nikola Šubić Zrinski
– chorwacki Leonidas, Szigetvár
Nikola Šubić Zrinski Ivana
pl. Zajca, u aranžmanu Tomislava Uhlika
The History of Medieval Armor
The term "Medieval" Generally signifies the ten century period spanning the 5th through 16th centuries. And for the most part this is what this look at medieval armor will focus on. But, in order to understand how armor developed over these centuries I will also give you some background information on armor as it leads up to that period.
Factors of Medieval Armor development
Armor changed, evolved and improved over the medieval period and there are a few factors that had a tremendous impact on this evolution.
Armor before the Medieval Period
There are two major lines of armor that lead up to the armor in Europe through the Medieval Period. The first line is the classical line that came out of the Mycenaean (Alexander the Great), Greek and Roman traditions. The major materials that armor was made from included Bronze and Iron.
The second line came out of the Celtic and Teutonic people. This is called the Barbarian armor line. The armor made in this line was predominantly leather and mail.
The dominance of Chainmail through most of the medieval period
Ring Mail armor Out of all the various armor types chain mail (also known as ring mail) was the most successful and it lasted the longest. Earliest versions of this type of armor date back to the first century and this mail was in use in different variations all the way through the medieval period and beyond to the 17 th century. It was called chain mail or ring mail because it was made of a series of small rings that were interlocked together. This means of assembly was very effective against slicing and stabbing weapons and normal arrows. It was also very complex to make and a chainmail chest piece (often called a hauberk) could be composed of thousands of these little rings.(The picture shows a knight in complete chainmail with a surcoat over it)
Chain Mail - It was in use in various forms throughout the whole medieval period in a variety of capacities. For many centuries is was very effective. But the brunt of its effectiveness was against slashing weapons. The rings that composed the mail were effective at defeating slashing weapons but were not effective against the brunt force blow of weapons such as hammers and maces.
Want to watch a video on how to make chainmail? I have one on my youtube channel here. How to Make Chainmail?
Over the centuries of the medieval period this deficiency was minimized by added a variety of other materials either under or over the chain mail hauberk. These could be a leather jerkin or padded gambeson under the mail or a coat or plates and a surcoat over the mail. This could get very cumbersome and while adding extra layers of padding and protection could reduce concussive damage it still didn't keep pace with the development of weapons.
In the 13 th century the mail become less and less effective, particularly because of the use of crossbows and better weapons. Armorers moved in the direction of adding various pieces of plate either under the mail or over the mail. These were just parts like chest plates or elbow guards. This was a move toward plate armor.
A development in armor was the coat of plates which lasted roughly through the 14th century.
After 1350 the use of solid breastplates came into more use. They were typically made of a solid plate in the front and a solid plate in the back called a backplate. Iron breastplates appeared as early as 1190.
The Transition to Plate Mail
Mail armor with some plate pieces. The most important development after the common use of the breastplate was the addition of more plate armor on various body parts. These included vambraces over the arms, greaves for the lower legs and various other partial plates for shoulders, elbows and knees. (Drawing shows this transition with full mail armor and the addition of some plate armor on arms and legs)
Eventually these all evolved into the complete set of plate armor that we think of when we think of a knight in armor. In this armor every part of a knight's body was covered with plate armor. And these developments of additional protection also had sub developments. A good example of this is the demi-greaves which covered only the front part of the lower leg. These developed into closed greaves which went all the way around the lower leg.
The 15 th Century as the zenith of Platemail suits of Armor
Plate armor The 15th century was the pinnacle of medieval armor and it all revolved around the knights complete set of plate armor. In the beginning of the century the art and craft of making complete plate armor sets developed into two different schools: The Italian and the German. Toward the end of the 15th century and beginning of the 16th century these two schools diverged into what is considered to be the pinnacle of armor making: The Maximilian.
It is during this century that armor also morphed into three different types of armors - Field armor (for Battle) , Ceremonial armor (for ceremonies and good looks) and jousting armor for the knightly competitions. Each type of armor was specifically designed for its use. Battle armor was designed for maximum mobility with optimal protection, ceremonial armor was made to look great and to impress. It was often detailed with gold and silver. And Jousting armor was designed for the specific requirements of the joust which might include an overly large and strong pauldron to deflect an enemy's lance or special braces to support the weight of one's own lance.
Medieval Helmets - Helmets also underwent many changes during the medieval period and a lot of this was influenced by the ability to work with metal and better understanding of what protected better in combat.
Early helmets were typically flat and they developed toward more round and curved in shape because a curved shape would deflect a blow rather than take the full brunt. And in the latest periods the helmets were multiple pieces riveted together and had moving parts like a visor.
Shields - These also changed as other components of armor and weapons changed. In the early centuries of the medieval period they were large and round. As the centuries progressed the got smaller and triangular in shape. I have more information about medieval shields and how they developed and changed here: The Medieval Shield
Metal Working skills throughout the medieval period
The early armor was made with leather, iron, bronze or other hard materials. Steel was developed but only saw limited use because it was difficult to make and tended to be brittle. In the later centuries techniques were developed so plates of armor had carbon added to just the outer surfaces of them. This created a very hard outer surface yet with the softer inner surface of iron there was still some flexibility.
History of Medieval Armor Timeline
Up to 5th century: Two varying armor types:
Barbarian armor which was mostly leather and chainmail;
and classical armor which was brass and iron
From 5th through the 14 th Chainmail was standard and still lasted in part until the 17th
12th century: various materials were added to supplement the
chainmail chest piece including the gambeson
13th/14th century: the strength and protection of the chainmail was enhanced
by the addition of various plates. The coat of plates was regularly used.
14th century: The plate chest armor was expanded upon by applying plate
to other parts of the body like greaves for the legs and vambraces for the arms.
15th century: The height of Plate mail armor sets with two different schools:
the Italian and the german.
15th century: Plate armor came in three different types by function:
Battle armor, ceremonial armor and tournament armor. Each was specifically designed for its purpose.
end of 15th century: The two schools of armor making merged into what some
consider to be the pinnacle of armor set styles: The Maximillian.
below is the royal information
but this is what people will see the wwII site here is the first picture
them it will continue
Here at the beginning all this stuff here belongs to the Royal family information and below there's World War II stories and information which I have been trying to organize from the other pages is much as possible to make your life easier Andras
Almost confirmed back to the 11th century
|Originally the name had a letter with 2 dots above it ( ) for Germany and Bohemia but then later after the fall of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, the had to be changed to "e" so now the new Family original name is Pletl|
1454 Jews are expelled from Brunn Moravia by order of King Ladislaus also related to us, and was also the King of Hungary and Bohemia
now genetically proven 2017
If you really want the proof, it is in the states in the New Library.
My Cousins basement! What a shame!
Seal of Ladislaus I Kán (1236)
|Palatine of Hungary|
|Noble family||gens Kán|
on a personal note: what was wrong with all of us then
and what has changed? I have traveled though Europe in 2012 - 2018 and the mentality of the people. The primitive mentality of "screw whi who you can" still prevail. It makes me sick. In fact the more I find out about my family, the sicker I get, and the more I want to know, like if there was any good in my family.
Bohemia, Austria, Coatia, Hungary and perhaps , more. Some things I can find out for sure, and other things, are lost in the corridors of time
|Our Family comes
originally from Bohemia, then they swept across Germany in the
15th century in the form of Royalty, Princess, Princes' Lords and
even an Archbishop of Bruno now in Czechoslovakia which
was in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire
Hans Plätl Von Lichtenberg was his name.
of the Lichtenberg clan. That is not him below.
"Royalty is not divine - if your actions are honorable, then you will be royal no matter what cloth you were cut from."
Ladislaus the Posthumous, known also as Ladislas (Hungarian: Utószülött László; Czech: Ladislav Pohrobek, 22 February 1440 – 23 November 1457) (in Hungarian: V. László), was Duke of Austria, and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. He was the posthumous son of Albert of Habsburg with Elizabeth of Luxembourg. Albert had bequeathed all his realms to his future son on his deathbed, but only the Estates of Austria accepted his last will. Fearing an Ottoman invasion, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates offered the crown to Vladislaus III of Poland. The Hussite noblemen and towns of Bohemia did not acknowledge the hereditary right of Albert's descendants to the throne, but also did not elect a new king.
After Ladislaus's birth, his mother seized the Holy Crown of Hungary and had Ladislaus – known as Ladislaus V in Hungary – crowned king in Székesfehérvár on 15 May 1440. However, the Diet of Hungarydeclared Ladislaus's coronation invalid and elected Vladislaus king. A civil war broke out which lasted for years. Elizabeth appointed her late husband's distant cousin, Frederick III, King of the Romans, Ladislaus' guardian. Ladislaus lived in Frederick's court (mainly in Wiener Neustadt), where Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (the future Pope Pius II) wrote a treatise of his education.
After his mother died in late 1442, Ladislaus' interests were represented by a Czech condottiere, John Jiskra of Brandýs, in Hungary, and by the Czech Catholic lord, Ulrich II of Rosenberg, in Bohemia. Ladislaus' rival in Hungary, Vladislaus, fell in the Battle of Varna in November 1444. The next year, the Diet of Hungary offered to acknowledge Ladislaus as king if Frederick III renounced his guardianship. After Frederick III rejected the offer, the Diet of Hungary elected John Hunyadi regent in 1446. In Bohemia, the head of the moderate Hussites (or Utraquists), George of Poděbrady, took control of Prague in 1448. The Estates of Austria forced Frederick III to resign the guardianship and hand over Ladislaus to them in September 1452. Royal administration was formally restored in Hungary after Hunyadi resigned the regency in early 1453, but he continued to control most royal castles and revenues.
Ulrich II, Count of Celje (his mother's cousin) became Ladislaus' main advisor, but an Austrian baron, Ulrich Eytzinger, forced Ladislaus to expel Celje from his court. Although Ladislaus was crowned king of Bohemia on 28 October 1453, Poděbrady remained in full control of the government. During the following years, Eytzinger, Hunyadi and Poděbrady closely cooperated to mutually secure their positions. Ladislaus was reconciled with Ulrich II in early 1455. With the support of the leading Hungarian barons, Ladislaus persuaded Hunyadi to withdraw his troops from most royal castles and renounce the administration of part of the royal revenues.
After the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II decided to invade Hungary, Ladislaus and Ulrich II left the kingdom. The sultan laid siege to Belgrade. Hunyadi relieved the fortress on 22 July 1456, but he died two weeks later. Ladislaus and Ulrich II returned to Hungary and tried to force Hunyadi's son, Ladislaus, to renounce all royal castles and revenues, but Ladislaus Hunyadi murdered Ulrich II on 9 November, forcing Ladislaus to grant an amnesty to him. However, most Hungarian barons were hostile towards Ladislaus Hunyadi. With their support, Ladislaus captured him and his brother, Matthias. After Ladislaus Hunyadi was executed in March 1457, his relatives stirred up a rebellion against Ladislaus, forcing him to flee from Hungary. Ladislaus died unexpectedly in Prague. He was the last male member of the Albertinian Line of the House of Habsburg.
|Duke of Austria|
|Regent||Frederick V (1440–1452)|
King of Hungary and Croatia
contested by Vladislaus I between 1440 and 1444
|Reign||1440 or 1444–1457|
|Coronation||15 May 1440|
|Predecessor||Albert or Vladislaus I|
Elizabeth of Luxembourg(1440–1442)
John Hunyadi (1446–1453)
|King of Bohemia|
|Coronation||28 October 1453|
|Regent||George of Poděbrady (1453–1457)|
|Born||22 February 1440
Komárom (now Komárno in Slovakia)
|Died||23 November 1457 (aged 17)
|Burial||St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague|
|Father||Albert of Habsburg|
|Mother||Elizabeth of Luxembourg|
adislaus was the posthumous son of Albert of Habsburg and Elizabeth of Luxembourg. Albert was the hereditary Duke of Austria, while Elizabeth was the only child of the Holy Roman EmperorSigismund, who was also King of Bohemia and Hungary. Sigismund was also Duke of Luxemburg, but he had mortgaged Luxembourg to his niece, Elizabeth of Goerlitz. Sigismund wanted to secure his realms for both his daughter and her husband, but the Estates of Bohemia and Hungary did not acknowledge the couple's hereditary right to rule. After Sigismund died in December 1437, Albert was elected the sole king of Hungary. In Bohemia, Albert was unanimously elected king only after he defeated Casimir – the younger brother of Vladislaus III of Poland – who was supported by a group of Hussite lords and burghers.
Albert was planning to launch a military expedition against the Ottoman Turks, who had been making plundering raids in the southern regions of Hungary, but fell seriously ill during the preparations. The dying king, who knew that his wife was pregnant, willed Austria, Bohemia and Hungary to his posthumous child if his wife gave birth to a son. He also put his infant heir under the guardianship of his widow and his cousin, Frederick of Habsburg. Albert died on 27 October 1439.
Fearing a new Ottoman invasion of Hungary, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates refused to accept the deceased king's last will. They offered the crown to Vladislaus III of Poland and wanted to persuade the pregnant queen dowager to marry the new king. In Bohemia, the assembly of the Estates passed decrees in January 1440 to avoid having a new civil war break out between the Hussites and the Catholics before a new king was elected. The Estates of Moravia passed a similar decree.
Although the 31-year-old Elizabeth seemingly agreed to marry Vladislaus, who was only 16, she made preparations for the coronation of her son after her physicians predicted that she would give birth to a son. She ordered her chambermaid, Helene Kottanner, to steal the Holy Crown of Hungary from the castle of Visegrád. Before long, Helene Kottanner and her accomplice seized the crown. They handed it to the queen on the very day she went into labour, which was considered a miracle by both the queen and her courtiers. Elizabeth gave birth to Ladislaus in Komárom (now Komárno in Slovakia) on 21 February 1440, almost four months after his father's death. He was named for King St Ladislaus. Dénes Szécsi, Archbishop of Esztergom, baptised him.
The Estates of the Duchy of Austria acknowledged Ladislaus' right to rule and made Frederick of Habsburg, who had been elected King of the Romans, regent in accordance with the last will of Ladislaus' father. In Bohemia, only the Catholic lords, who were under the leadership of Ulrich II of Rosenberg, were willing to accept Ladislaus' hereditary right to rule. Soon after the birth of her son, Queen Elizabeth sent envoys to Poland to persuade the delegates of the Hungarian Estates to break off their negotiations with Vladislaus III of Poland. However, the Hungarian lords refused and elected Vladislaus king on 8 March 1440. Before his election, Vladislaus had pledged that he would marry Queen Elizabeth and protect her infant son's interests in Austria and Bohemia.
The queen refused to give her consent to the project and decided to have her son crowned king before Vladislaus came to Hungary. She hastily took Ladislaus from Komárom to Székesfehérvár, which was the traditional place of the royal coronations in Hungary. After a young lord, Nicholas Újlaki, symbolically knighted the infant Ladislaus, Archbishop Dénes Szécsi anointed and crowned him king on 15 May. During the lengthy ceremonies, his mother's cousin, Ulrich II, Count of Celje, held the crown over the head of Ladislaus who burst into tears while the coronation oath was being read out on his behalf. Six days later Vladislaus III entered Buda. Queen Elizabeth fled first to Győr, and from there to Sopron, taking the infant king with her.
The most powerful lords – including Ladislaus Garai, Đurađ Branković, Frederick II and Ulrich II of Celje – and most towns remained faithful to the child-king, but most noblemen preferred Vladislaus' rule in the hope that he would be able to lead the defence of the kingdom against the Ottomans. A civil war broke out between the partisans of the two kings which would last for years. The Diet declared Ladislaus' coronation invalid on 29 June 1440, stating that "the crowning of kings is always dependent on the will of the kingdom's inhabitants, in whose consent both the effectiveness and the force of the crown reside". On 17 July, Archbishop Dénes Szécsi crowned Vladislaus king with a crown taken from the tomb of King Saint Stephen, the first king of Hungary.
In need of financial resources to continue the war against Vladislaus, Queen Elizabeth signed a treaty with Frederick III, King of the Romans, in Wiener Neustadt on 22 November. She not only mortgaged Sopron to Frederick III, but also appointed him as her son's guardian and gave the Holy Crown of Hungary to him. Thereafter Ladislaus lived in Frederick III's court, mainly in Wiener Neustatdt.
Queen Elizabeth hired a Czech condottiere, John Jiskra of Brandýs, who took control of Kassa (now Košice in Slovakia) and a dozen other towns in Upper Hungary during the next months. However, Vladislaus' two military commanders, Nicholas Újlaki and John Hunyadi, defeated the united army of the child Ladislaus's supporters from the central and southern parts of Hungary in the Battle of Bátaszék in early 1441. During the next months, Vladislaus and his commanders took control of the western and eastern territories of Hungary, but Jiskra and Queen Elizabeth's other supporters continued to control Upper Hungary, along with Esztergom, Győr, Pressburg (now Bratislava in Slovakia) and other important towns. Negotiations began and Queen Elizabeth and Vladislaus signed a peace treaty in Győr on 13 December 1442. The queen recognized Vladislaus as king, but preserved her son's claim to the throne. Three or four days later the queen suddenly died and Ladislaus became an orphan before his third birthday.
After the death of Ladislaus' mother, his claim to rule in Hungary and Bohemia was primarily protected by Jan Jiskra and Ulrich of Rosenberg, respectively. Most parts of Hungary remained under the rule of Ladislaus's rival, Vladislaus. In Bohemia, the moderate Hussite lord, Hynce Ptáček of Pirkstein, administered the eastern territories, and the towns dominated by the radical Taborites were united in a league. The Hussite Ctibor Tovačovský of Cimburk, who had assumed the title governor after Albert's death, continued to administer Moravia, closely cooperating with the towns and the Catholic Bishop of Olomouc. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, whom Elizabeth of Goerlitz made her heir, invaded Luxemburg on her behalf in 1443.Frederick III authorized the Estates of Luxemburg to pay homage to Philip the Good, but he also stipulated that Ladislaus could buy back the duchy after Elizabeth of Goerlitz's death. During Ladislaus's lifetime, the Luxembourgeoise Estates did not recognize Philip the Good as their legitimate sovereign.
The seal of Ulrich II, Count of Celje, who was Ladislaus's kisman and close advisor
Ladislaus' rival, Vladislaus, died fighting against the Ottomans in the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444. At the Diet of next year, the Hungarian Estates agreed that they would acknowledge the child Ladislaus as king if Vladislaus, whose fate was still uncertain, did not come back to Hungary before 1 June 1445. However, they stipulated that they would elect a new king if the child king's guardian, Frederick III, did not release both the king and the Holy Crown of Hungary. The Estates also elected seven "Captains in Chief" – John Hunyadi, Nicholas Újlaki, George Rozgonyi, Emeric Bebek, Michael Ország, Pancrace Szentmiklósi, and Jan Jiskra – to administer the kingdom. Frederick III stormed into Hungary, and captured a dozen fortresses along the western frontiers of Hungary, including Kőszeg, by the end of July. The Counts of Celje, who were related to Ladislaus through his mother, invaded Slavonia and took control of the province before the end of the year. As Frederick III refused to release Ladislaus, the Diet of Hungary elected John Hunyadi regent for the period of Ladislaus' minority on 6 June 1446. John Hunyadi, who adopted the title governor, ruled most part of Hungary, but could not expand his authority over the regions under the rule of Frederick III, Jan Jiskra and the Counts of Celje. The envoys of the Hungarian Estates and Frederick III signed a truce on 1 June 1446, which confirmed Frederick III's guardianship over Ladislaus.
In Bohemia, George of Poděbrady took up the leadership of the moderate Hussite lords after the death of Hynce Ptáček. He captured Prague on 3 September 1448 and imprisoned Meinhard of Neuhaus who had started negotiations of the moderate Hussites' union with the Catholic Church. Early the next year, Ulrich of Rosenberg and other Catholic lords entered into a formal league against Poděbrady.
Ladislaus had a good education in Frederick III's court. A Latin grammar was completed especially for him. Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (the future Pope Pius II) summarized his advice on education in a letter that he addressed to the ten-year-old Ladislaus in 1450. Piccolomini suggested that Ladislaus should read both classical authors (including Archimedes, Cicero, Livy and Vergil) and the Bible. He also emphasized the importance of physical training, stating that "both mind and body ... must be developed side by side".
|Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary|
|Vladislaus II, also known as Vladislav II, Władysław II or Wladislas II (1 March 1456 – 13 March 1516; Czech: Vladislav Jagellonský; Hungarian: II. Ulászló; Polish: Władysław|
Ladislaus VI, King of Hungary and Bohemia, 1490.
Ladislaus VI, King of Hungary and Bohemia, 1490. After Tertii, Austriacae Gentis Imaginum. Illustration for Iconographie Général et Méthodique du Costume du IV au XIX siècle by Raphael Jacquemin (Paris, 1869). Engraved by Delatre.
On his deathbed, Ladislaus the Posthumous offers his thanks to George of Poděbrady, painting by Jan Škramlík
Betrothal portrait of Ladislaus and Magdalena of France.
Ladislaus never married. After his arrival in Prague in autumn 1457, he asked for the hand of Magdalena, daughter of Charles VII of France. Charles VII accepted that proposal but Ladislaus had died by the time the marriage contract was signed by his envoys in Paris. With Ladislaus's death, the "Albertinian Line" of the House of Habsburg became extinct. Emperor Frederick III and his brother, Albert VI, jointly succeeded him in Austria. In Hungary, Matthias Hunyadi was elected king two months after Ladislaus' death. George of Poděbrady was elected king of Bohemia on 3 March 1458.
There is a gap in our history here I still need to fins when I have time .
I need to Marry a Historian. I am sure life would be very interesting with her.
|Reihard's grave stone in the St. Mary's Church in Hanau|
|Spouse(s)||Catherine of Nassau-Beilstein|
|Noble family||House of Hanau|
|Father||Ulrich IV, Lord of Hanau|
|Mother||Elizabeth of Wertheim|
|Died||26 June 1451
Father: Count Ulrich IV of Hanau b: 1335
Mother: Princess Elisabeth of Wertheim b: 1343
Marriage 1 Princess Katharina of Nassau-Beilstein b: 1370
Father: Count Reinhard II of Hanau b: 1370
Mother: Princess Katharina of Nassau-Beilstein b: 1370
Father: Count Philipp I of Hanau-Babenhausen b: 8 MAY 1417
Mother: Princess Anna of Lichtenberg b: 25 OCT 1442
Johann Reinhard III,
Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg
After the death of his father raised his younger brother Louis claims to the rule. The primogeniture was indeed in the Hanauer family statutes since the 14th Anchored century, the general law of succession , but spoke for a country subdivision. Through the mediation of Count Philipp I of Hanau-Münzenberg it came within a short time reached a settlement and Louis renounced his claim. Shortly thereafter, he went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and died here in 1484 on the return journey.
Philip II ruled at first in close imitation of the Palatinate , the lord of parts of the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg was. Philip II supported Elector Philip of the Palatinate, at the siege of the castle Hohengeroldseck .
Cooperation, but also was armed with the intermarried home Zweibrücken-Bitsch , since a significant portion of the rule Lichtenberg was at first ruled jointly. It was not until 1487 there was a confrontation between two of the Lichtenberger heritage. Together went Count Philipp II and Count Simon IV alarm of Zweibrücken-Bitsch against themistress of her late father, Jakob Lichtenberg , Bärbel of Ottensheim ago: After the death of Jacob von Lichtenberg 1480 she was accused of witchcraft in the town ofHagenau incarcerated. The two used to the city council for a death sentence . Presumably it was to go to the fortune of the Barbel Ottensheim. Another possibility is that the tense situation in order in advance of the peasants' war should be brought a "scapegoat" to the subjects, as the mistress had had far-reaching influence on the government and was said to be hated by the people. Before it came to a verdict, Bärbel died in prison - the cause remained unclear.
With Kurmainz there was a lengthy discussion regarding the Mainz fief, which was finally settled to the effect that Philip II, the city Klingenberg ceded to Mainz, but half ofBrumath received as a fief.
He participated in various diets, the main point of the danger of a Turkish invasion in Central Europe.
In Landshut war of succession between 1503-1505 of the Palatinate and Bavaria remained neutral Philip, but his son and designated successor, Philip III. of Hanau-Lichtenberg, who was involved on the part of the Palatinate. Landgraf Wilhelm of Hesse by the German king Maximilian I. with the execution of the imperial ban against thebreakers of the peace commissioned classified Palatinate and its allies. The rural area of the Office Babenhausen was already destroyed, before it succeeded Philip II, with the help of Maximilian I, and the fact that Babenhausen as a Bohemian fief belonged to the Habsburgs indirectly, halting the campaign against their own possessions. The fact that his son was fighting on the "wrong" side expecting him not to Maximilian. Philip Babenhausen residence was spared so at least. She received in 1503 by Maximilian I. the privilege to be allowed to hold an annual fair - the Nicholas Market.
|Drawing by Karl Gruber of the grave monument of Count Philip Louis I of Hanau-Münzenberg, that was destroyed during World War II|
|Spouse(s)||Countess Magdalena of Waldeck|
|Noble family||House of Hanau|
|Father||Philip III, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg|
|Mother||Countess Palatine Helena of Simmern|
|Born||21 November 1533|
|Died||4 February 1580 (aged 46)|
|Burial||St. Mary's Church in Hanau|
All the way back to the 14th century
Some of the clothing they wore
1573 Jorge Christoph (pronouced christoff) Platl
Christopher Platl. Jaime Reis. Juan Rial. David Ringrose. Felipe Ruiz Martín ...... Parece que, de 1562 a 1573, Torregrosa no estuvo ocupado al servicio
There is some reference that one of the Princes of Hanabau married A PRINCE Phillip of Spain in 1573 to 1574
But I loose the trail after that. When I went to Spain in 2011, I could not pick up the trail so she she marry him or not, it is not clear. And If anyone has information about this, please email me at
Below are some period coins of the time.
Gale World Chronology:
human rights, social justice
William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, is beheaded at London January 10 at age 71, having been tried by the House of Commons and found guilty of high treason. Puritan William Prynne has led the attack against the diminutive and small-minded prelate, who has been held prisoner in the Tower of London since 1641.
James Graham, marquis of Montrose, takes the marquis of Argyll by surprise at Inverlochy north of Fort William February 2 and routs his 3,000-man army (see 1644). Montrose has only 1,500 men, but they leave about 1,700 enemy killed or wounded and proceed to lay waste Moray and Aberdeenshire, elude an army led by William Bailie of Letham at Brechin, capture and pillage Dundee, escape into the Grampian hills, defeat one of Bailie's lieutenants at Auldearn near Nairn, and rout Bailie himself at Altford.
Sir Thomas Fairfax, now 33, is appointed commander in chief of a New Model Army in February and works to organize and train an effective fighting force as England's Civil War continues. Oliver Cromwell has taken steps to create a Parliamentary army whose commanding officers owe their appointments to abillty rather than social standing, he has outfitted them with red uniforms (red is the cheapest dye available), and by spring these first "redcoats" have polished their skills in weapon handling.
A Self-Denying Ordinance passed by the House of Lords in April discharges members of Parliament from any obligation to hold civil or military commands. William Fiennes, 1st viscount Saye and Sele, has been chiefly responsible for the measure's passage. Charles I sends his son and namesake to the west country, whence the youth escapes to France and rejoins his mother.
Parliamentary army lieutenant colonel John Lilburne resigns his commission in April rather than subscribe to the Solemn League and Covenant with Scotland, which commits Parliament to reform the Church of England along Presbyterian lines (see religion, 1640). Commissioned a captain in Cromwell's army when hostilities began 3 years ago, Lilburne was taken prisoner at Brentford in November 1642, nearly tried for treason, but exchanged for a Royalist prisoner. He criticizes Parliament and its army for not supporting the radical demands of the Leveller movement—transfer of sovereignty to the House of Commons, suffrage for all men whether or not they own property, complete equality before the law, decentralization of government to local communities, a redistribution of parliamentary seats, annual or biennial parliamentary sessions to give ordinary citizens representation, an end to conscription and impressment, reopening of enclosed land, and the like. Arrested and sent once again to prison, Lilburne will remain under confinement with few interruptions until August 1647 (see 1647).
Prince Rupert captures Leicester in May, but the Battle of Naseby in Northamptonshire June 14 ends in a decisive defeat of Charles I's English Cavaliers at the hands of Oliver Cromwell's Roundheads in a triumph for the English middle class and merchants, who are supported by many of the country's great noblemen in the continuing Civil War. Prince Rupert's 4,000 infantrymen and 5,000 cavalry are outnumbered by the Parliamentarians, whose New Model Army consists of 7,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry. Some 6,000 of Charles's men are killed, wounded, or taken prisoner; the Roundheads suffer fewer than 1,000 casualties and capture all 13 Cavalier guns.
Sir Thomas Fairfax marches his New Model Army to the southwest and defeats the only remaining Royalist army in July at Langport, Somerset.
The marquis of Montrose marches south in July with 2,000 men, having augmented his numbers. Bailie and the marquis of Argyll follow but are defeated at Kilsyth August 15 and suffer terrible losses (their entire 6,000-man force is killed, wounded, or captured). Montrose's clansmen slip away home with their booty, however, and when Montrose enters the border country with 500 cavalry and 1,000 infantry he is taken by surprise in a dawn attack at Philiphaugh, near Selkirk, September 13 by 6,000 Covenanter troops, mostly cavalry, under the command of General David Leslie, 44, who cut Montrose's Royalist army to pieces (see 1646).
Prince Rupert surrenders Bristol to the Parliamentarians in September and is dismissed from his command.
Europe's Thirty Years' War nears its end. Swedish soldiers Lennart Torstensson, 42, and Count Hans Christoph Königsmark repulse an imperial army under General Matthias Gallas, now 61, in January and block efforts by the army to relieve the hard-pressed Danes. They pursue the enemy into Germany, and virtually annihilate Gallas's army at Magdeburg. Torstensson gains a victory over the imperialists at Jankau in Bohemia in March, conquers Moravia with support from the Transylvanian prince George Rákoczi, and advances on Vienna. Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, 33, is defeated in Franconia but raises a French and Hessian army that invades Bavaria and defeats the Bavarians in the (second) Battle of Nördlingen (Allerheim) August 3. Commanded by the duc d'Enghien, now 24, the French and Hessians have 6,000 infantry, 11,000 cavalry, and 11 guns; the Imperialist/Bavarian army commanded by Field Marshal Baron Franz von Mercy has 5,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry, and 23 guns; the duc d'Enghien prevails, but he loses 4,000 killed and wounded. Von Mercy is killed, 5,000 of his men are killed or wounded, and 15 of his guns are captured. Plague breaks out in the Swedish army of Count Torstensson as he lays siege to Brunn and he returns to Bohemia.
The Russian czar Mikhail I Romanov dies at Moscow July 12 at age 49, having founded the dynasty that will continue until 1917; he is succeeded by his son, 16, who will reign until 1676 as Aleksei Mikhailovich.
The 19th cent. brought a rebirth of Czech nationalism. Under the leadership of Palacký a Slavic congress assembled at Prague in the Revolution of 1848, but by 1849, although the Czech peasantry had been emancipated, absolute Austrian domination had been forcibly restored. The establishment (1867) of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy thoroughly disappointed the Czech aspirations for wide political autonomy within a federalized Austria. Instead, the Czech lands were relegated to a mere province of the empire. Concessions were made (1879) by the Austrian minister Taaffe; Czechs entered the imperial bureaucracy and parliament at Vienna. However, many Czechs continued to advocate complete separation from the Hapsburg empire.
Full independence was reached only at the end of World War I under the guidance of T. G. Masaryk. In 1918, Bohemia became the core of the new state of Czechoslovakia. After the Munich Pact of 1938, Czechoslovakia was stripped of the so-called Sudeten area, which was annexed to Germany. In 1939, Bohemia was invaded by German troops and proclaimed part of the German protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
After World War II the pre-1938 boundaries were restored, and most of the German-speaking population was expelled. In 1948, Bohemia's status as a province was abolished, and it was divided into nine administrative regions. The administrative reorganization of 1960 redivided it into five regions and the city of Prague. In 1969, Bohemia, along with Moravia and Czech Silesia, was incorporated into the Czech Socialist Republic, renamed the Czech Republic in 1990. The Czech Republic became an independent state when Czechoslovakia was dissolved on Jan. 1, 1993
1646 Hans Platl Von Lichtenberg
was the Archbishop of the Brunn (New Spelling Bruno)
We are directly related to him though the Platl Family which is our family.
Thank God our name wasn't Smith or Schmitt.
FriendsFirst.ca you will find lower down
welcome to my world
You need to know the person you are interested in
Where he came from
What he really is.
You don't really know much and if you want to cling onto someone because you have a few common interests that is ok. But the truth is it would be better to know a lot about each other and then if there is chemistry
Below is a pictures of my fathers family in the Old country. The Family has been the family of over 600 years. Our lineage can be traced back to the Crusades.
|If you are here because you are learning about who I am am, then please provide be with some information about you. Where you came from, where you think you are going because all of that is quite interesting to me. As you go through this site you will see many interesting things, as I am writing a book about my family from the time they were hiding Jews during WWII and save some 700 families from the axe to You know the movie Schindlers list my Grand fathers List was 20 times longer as he owned factories and vineyards and all kinds of things. He had people sitting around making up professions and then convincing the Germans not to take them away. Loosing all their wealth after the war. Coming to Canada with nothing and starting again. By the time my grand father came to Canada after loosing every thing twice, Once to the Germans and then again to the Russians, He came he at 66 at $5.00 in his pocket. And when he died at 88, he was a multi-millionaire all over again. *"Making millions is easy, holding on to them is quite another" * And the rest, as we say is History.|
I think this marks the end of the royal Euro somewhere around here and and then
we just are descendents of royalty we are not still royalty anymore because we
have been watered down so much that that we are no longer royal. At in a way I'm
kind of glad that it went this way because something wrong was a lot of royalty
and too much is an really good but I'm glad that that I come from such a
background because it's kind of interesting and I got to see lots of castles all
throughout Europe that belonging to my families at one time or another I'm not
proud of the fact that my family started lots of wars and were in a lot of words
and the conquered everything to get what they got in the there was lots of
corruption and lots of bad things that occurred because of the fear of the Devil
and Christianity and all the rest of the stuff that we know now is not even
really true and then those people that said they spoke to God probably never did
as her is no God and those people that unfortunately still are stuck in the
stone ages believing all that stuff well they can have it. There is a divine
force call the universe and that's it will have to live with that somehow.
In 1688 Platl Came to Hungary and there was no such letter will 2 dots above the "a" so they changed the name to Pletl for the new Hungarian Country
Pletl Married Rak
Later Rak married Bubik 1905 I think?
We are working on this now
1717 Married into the Bubik
(it is an amazing Library of facts which my aunt runs for the family)
it is kind o cool to see your family coat or carved carved into stone in some churches in Europe
My grandparents, my dad and my other aunts and uncle
My Grand Parents Vineyard below
After loosing everything twice. Once to The Germans during the 2nd WW and then again to the Russians. My grandfather came to Canada A broken man with $5.00 in his pocket at 65 and when he died at 80, he was a multi-millionaire all over again. Amazing And a very hard working and industrious family.
My mom in 1940
second from the left and bottom row
My father was an Junior Engineer during the WWII. He specialized in 4 things.
Automation and later
New Product design
Born 1923 he died in December 2018 He was around 95
He created a crank pump for all kinds of liquids, including gas for planes, so they could be fueled directly from the drum; faster than a regular "up and down pump." The ones they made for the Germans during the war, they put impurities into the oil compartment and those impurities with fine metal filings went into the motor causing all kinds of problems, for the Germans. iT WAS GOOD TO "STICK-IT TO THE GERMANS for taking over their factories, but they were playing a dangerous game. When the Germans brought the pump back to see if there was something wrong with it, one of my uncles filled it up with more bad stuff and gave it back to them. I am not sure of the number of planes it put out of commission, but I was told it was alot between 20 and 40. After they were returning many of the pumps, my grandfather told my uncle to fix most of them but to make sure some still didn't work. This took out another 18 planes before my grandfather said to my uncle it is not time to fix all the pumps. The Germans never found out why they had so many problems with the motors and they did not really know which pumps they were using for which planes. Later when the Nazis started paying attention, my grand father was told and he took the appropriate steps to make sure that no one ever knew. But the Germans were always digging for the truth and he is sure that in time they would have figured it out bit the Germans were already loosing the war and had many other problems in the end, which kind of back fired on my family as the Germans during their retrets where blowing up their own factories so they would not be useful to the advacing Russian army.
As the story goes, the ones they made for the Germans, during the war which Jammed on occasion and and ones the "Underground" got, where flawless. My Grandfather, also "Leslie Bubik", was playing a dangerous game. I have lots of stories which I am sharing with you here.
English movie test with sound effects
Hungarian movie of same thing with ww2 sound effects in the back ground.
|My dad was already interested in
Jewish Girl and during the war when the
Germans were taking them away. My Grandfathers family,
"The Bubik Family", helped my moms family and hid them in one of their
houses. Then another family showed up and then another
and another until , they were hiding them in barns and other
properties. My Grand Father saved 760 people from
the chopping block and Schindlers list was nothing
compared to my Grandfathers list. I was told that they
sat around for hours making up titles for jobs. You see
the Germans gave free laborers to the Factory owners to make their
bullets and tanks. My grand father had a few factories
so he was able to save many and because he owned farms and
vineyards. He was able to feed everyone of them. I
was told when My grand father came to Canada he was a broken man
with $5.00 in in pocket at 65 and when he died at 88, he was a
multi millionaire again. Simply amazing.
My Grand fathers brother was the Director of the Berlin Opera house during the second world war and was also involved with the smuggling of those , who were involved in Hitler's ASSASSINATION attempt, out of the Country. Bringing them to Argentina. Why Argentina, I am not sure but His Name was Arpad Bubik and He was also the director of a theater in Argentina but it was never as successful as it was for him in Berlin. He was a Hungarian Patriot when Hungary was free.
One of My Uncles was the mine guide. He took 142 Jewish families across the Hungarian/Austrian border. He only talked about the war when he got really drunk ; like at weddings. I always listened to the stories. He told me that it would have been better if he stepped on a mine and when I asked why? He said because He did not know where the mines where. WOW !!!!! Now that is luck.
When I was a kid some Hebrew foundation called my house, I was living at 421 Roselawn Avenue in those days. 416 481-4344 and wanted to give an award to my fathers family for there efforts in the war helping Jews and getting them to safe places.
I accepted the award and told my dad who was furious. And told me he is not interested in any award. Later I found out why. My father eventually told me he does not want to remember any of it. My Grand father hid the Jews right under the noses of the Germans. Almost in plain site.
I am glad they did what they did. otherwise I would not be here.
My family did some pretty dangerous things like take the bombs out of planes that were shot down, they were stripped down and sent to the "underground " to be used against the Germans. WOW my dad was nuts.
In those days where were no cell phones when when you went from one place to another with a gas ration on, they walked and tool their bicycles. My one uncle Imre Bubik. was caught by the Germans and torched so much he went crazy, but he never gave the locations of the save houses. He remained crazy till the end of his life, just a few short years ago My mother is also gone 2005. I miss her.
My Family paid a very heavy price for what they did to help the Jews and it never would have started if my dad hadn't met my mom.
So how where they found out and caught? This is where the mistake occurred. Because Gas was being rationed , no one had gas for their vehicles. But the Bubik family always had gas. Even towards the end of the war, even the Germans has to ration their gas, because there was not enough to go around, But by this time. The Bubiks had lots because my dad was pumping the gas out of the planes that crashed on their lands. The Germans weren't stupid, they just followed the trail and eventually busted them all.
My dad was not there and neither was my grandfather and the rest of his sisters were already getting ready to leave while Hungary was being bombarded my the allies and they all survived. Amazing!!!
Hiding a Jew was worse than being one, in those days and I never met my grand mothers and tons of relatives because many were rounded up and shot and they were the lucky ones. The rest were sent to processing and labour camps.
My dad was able to escape capture only to be captured by the Russians at the end of the war. WOW .
My dad told me , that he and my other Uncle "Deszo (sic) were caught at the same time rounded up and put into, pens. No buildings, they had to stand there as it rained and it was cold and many died there too.
The Russians were ruthless and when they Took
Hungary, the Russian army, were allowed to take whatever they wanted
by going from room to room raping all the women that they found.
Something you don't hear about in history books. But the Russians
did some amazingly terrible things to people. Like in East Germany
when the Russians were raping all the women there apparently it had
the highest rate of suicide ever in history. It's written down
somewhere you can go find it I don't really want to talk about this
too much. My aunt also wrote a book and actually published the and
I'm going to be putting it here as well is my stupid cousins won't
give me the digital version of it which I've asked for like 20 times
because they just don't care. Perhaps because their American who
Now back to the story. My dad told me that he found an old spoon the ground was frozen but they both managed to dig a hole under a part of the fence escape by using the spoon they found. If the Russians has dogs, they would not have been able to escape. My Dad, almost starving to get back to his land only to find that the Russians were occupying it.
My Grand Father lost every thing to the Germans and then the Germans where blowing things up on their retreat including my Grandfathers factories. Then my fathers family went into the factories to salvage what they could and were hiding machinery in barns and other places because the Russians were taking the machines away. What a story but all true.
My grandfather told my aunt Audrey to bury
the machines in the ground that because there was no more concrete
left because at the end of the war it was no concrete where it was
very hard to find my aunt built these massive holes in the ground
with what ever machinery in anything they could find and reinforced
it with what some of the buildings that were bombed is much as
possible and these machines were found about 15 years ago when there
are doing construction in Budapest and believe all these machines
that they found those were hours at one time or should I say our
grandfathers I was in Canada in the middle of a bunch of stuff so I
couldn't leave to go and check the stuff out it would've been very
interesting to see. But if you're to dig into your archives in
hungry would find this to be true. Some time in the near future I
will take the information from my aunt's book and I will included in
this because she has a real account firsthand of what happened and
it's not fair really for me to translate from this point on.
Can you really blame the guy but I
enjoyed the wrath of his lack of interest and other things in my
life. It is one of the reasons why I never had kids because I always
thought that I might have some of him in me and I could never put a
child through what I went through.
Bubik Arpad - 1944 was responsible for getting Germans, involved in the assassination attempt on Hitler, to get them out of the Country, smuggling them out of the Country and taking them to Argentina.
" Dohnányi’s misery", he learned that his son Matthew, who had become a Captain in the Hungarian Army, had died in a Russian concentration camp. Just a few months later, Dohnányi learned that his other son, Hans (father of the famous conductor Christoph von Dohnányi), had been executed by the Nazis for his involvement in Hungary’s 20 July 1944 assassination plot against Hitler. Dohnányi, fearing for his own life, accepted an offer from Árpád Bubik, who had once been his secretary, to escape Europe and move to Buenos Aires, Argentina. "
Because everyone lost touch with everyone else after the ware many thought the others has perished. And that is why my dad did not want to accept the award.
But I will go to Israel to accept it because the woman my dad has the "hots" for and who they got out of the country. One of them was my mother to be. Her name was Veronica, but everyone called her Vera.
She met my dad in Paris after the war and then went to Brazil together where they met My moms sister. Edith. Edith married , John Gati (a holocaust survivor) in New York. He was A film animator and she was a head designer for Givenchy.
When I was a kid I met Mr. Givenchy a few times Mr. Gucci and all the famous designers, most of whom where Jewish. Both my Aunt Edith and Uncle John are gone now and They have been survived my their two sons Paul and William( Bill. )
Paul Was a great violinist and William was a great Pianist. I remember as a kid when they both were in Julliard and has sold out concerts at Carnegie Hall, there in New York.
There is more but I am still filling in the pieces. You see...no one wants t talk about the war. Especially those who gave great sacrifices to it.
My dad was never really in the war because my Uncle "Deszo" was an officer and got a job for my dad to fix the vehicles so He did not have to become a real soldier.
Just a note: I don't know how my uncle Deszo really survived he was in and out
of my father's life only at the times when it was most crucial it was like my
dad's guardian angel. He was one of the ones that was taken by the Russians and
tortured until he died and many of my relatives that were hiding Jews many of
whom were shot or were taken away to death camps or later for those who survived
were taken away again to labour camps for the Russians.
They had worse than terrible lives things that you and I could never imagine and they survived and we thought most of them perished until I started to be on television a lot in Hungary.
Why? Because my parents were sending me back there to learn Hungarian and many times I was on television and in those days there was only one or two channels in Hungary and everybody was glued to the television all the time and soon some of those relatives found out what my last name was and they started to contact the TV stations and I was reunited with many of my family members which were thought to have perished during and after the war and since then they've had families and kids and that is when I met my cousin Bubik Istvan , who later became a famous actor even winning an Oscar in the United States for Best foreign actor. Even I was in a few films with him and enjoyed his company because he was probably the best friend I ever had. In those days when we met it was very difficult to get Hungarians out of the country but because I had some political connections by then even as a child, they let him out for a couple of months while my parents took him and I all over Croatia. I have fond memories of those and I will share their stories later on. My cousin Steve (Istvan) died around 2005 I think he died the same time as my mother died.
My dad had a few Motorcycles. They were one of his hobbies
My fathers glider when he was 18 - I had no idea they had such modern things in those days. I mean look at that thing. That picture was taken almost 60 years ago
My dad also had a truck and He and his bother would take the plane apart, put it in the truck, drive it to the top of some really big hill or mountain on their property, reassemble it, and launch it off some cliff. OR--------- THEY COULD PULL THE PLANE BEHIND THE TRUCK a with a very long cable AND LAUNCH IT INTO THE AIR.
When I was a kid he used to take me gliding. Just outside of Toronto I eventually got my STUDENT license. iN THAT CASE i WAS PULLED INTO THE AIR BY ANOTHER PLANE. IT WAS COOL BUT IT WAS NOT MY THING.
Pictures of my dad in the old days, before he met my mom
My fathers hunting hawk
I don't understand the attraction, of a Hunting Hawk, personally.
But they didn't have internet in those days. They had to fill of those days with other things.
My dad having a rest.
A machine my dad designed in Hungary which was part of a conveyer system for my grand fathers factory.
Here was a picture of him when he realized he would have to leave it all behind. In the old country.
Just after the war. They met in Paris and my moms sister was already making her own clothes
This was the first Jewish Family they hid and eventually saves from the Germans During WWII.
In those days there were Edith on the left and Vera (Short for Veronica on the right)
My mom with an old boyfriend
Here with another one. She was a model for Vogue in those days and she was being perused by many
My dad was a popular guy with the Ladies too below
This house in the country - one of the weekend homes
Was this where the glider was DAD? The House staff were standing out in front.
Below a picture of my mother before I was born
in St. Paulo in Brazil.
She died in Oct. 12 2005 I will always miss her.
my mom I don't know how old she was here
Then I was born in December 17 1957.
And then (follow the link)
Les wants to become Less 2007-2008
You see, we live in a very inefficient world. We've been doing this for the last few hundred years. And though there has been a lot of improvement in technology, Bristol very backwards. Canada is the worst. But it doesn't have to be this way.
People heat and cool their whole house even though they're not in the rooms that are being heated or cooled. Why? It is a complete waste.
There are systems out there that you can buy that automatically adjust to the flus and defense in your house, so that it only heats and cools the areas of the house picture in. But most people can't afford a system like that. A cheap $65,000
Of the most important thing, it to have a good temperature where you're working, and when you're sleeping, or doing other things.
So I designed a bed, because we spend about a third of our lives in it, to help me do most of the things that I would normally do when I am there.
Including heating and cooling the area around it.
This problem number one. Then what about all the things you do in bed. while there are the obvious things like sleeping or having sex, and when some people eat in their beds, or work in their beds, sometimes they just sit on top of their beds and watch TV.
What are things that you normally have beside your bed, light clock radio etc. etc..
But they all pick up clutter on either side of your bed and take up more room. But it doesn't have to be that way either. I look at everything in life and see all the improvements I could make to it. And that's good enough for me. I have no intention of selling them more mass-producing them. Unless someone wants to hire me to work in their company to create such things at the very next to do so. but no one ever has. so I plug away myself.
Every time you want to watch a movie, usually have to get up from your bedgo find a movie, put it into your VCR or CD player, lay back in bed find the remotes.
And I just think about this for a second. How much time do you actually spend doing does each and every time. can take Madame multiplied Other times you do it a year. And you'll quickly realize, that you've just wasted perhaps 20 hours worth of time. in some cases more than that. now that's three days. Three working days. Or three days on vacation.
When you're in your car, you have to go into your backseat to get the CDs?
do after going to the trunk start your car which to be also on your bed.
in my case movies are dispensed with automatically from a CD carousel. all I do is type in the movie I wanted, either by title, or anything, initials Miss lectured of movies in that group. all I do is click on the one I want, and it spits out a, and that's the one I put in a CD reader which is right beside my bed, so that I don't have to get up. In fact my movies or the boxes that hold the movies don't have to be anywhere near my bed, or anywhere near my living room. Everything is in carousels. And every time my friends come over, because it's so technologically advanced.
with Les and Les and Kato
Hungarian folk Art
Not all men are the same
My Name is Les and I used to Live in Toronto
This is not a business. It is just my personal web page.
last of the Pletl Royal Family as I know
I found a family in Croatia that have a blessing to her business also with the same last name and I've tried to contact the many times but they never return any of my phone calls so I can waste my time with that.