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Stereotypes of Latino Americans in the United States are general representations of Americans considered of Latino ancestry or immigrants to the United States from Latin American countries, often exhibited in negative caricatures or terms. Latin America is generally considered to comprise all of the politically independent territory of the Western Hemisphere other than Canada and the United States that was originally colonized by the Spaniards or Portuguese. "Latino" is the umbrella term for people of Latin American descent that in recent years has supplanted the more imprecise and bureaucratic designation "Hispanic." Part of the mystery and the difficulty of comprehension lie in the fact that the territory called Latin America is not homogeneous in natural or culture. Latin American stereotypes have the greatest impact on public perceptions, and Latin Americans were the most negatively rated on several characteristics. Americans' perceptions of the characteristics of Latin American immigrants are particularly strongly linked to their beliefs about the impact of immigration, especially on unemployment, schools, and crime.
When discussing how Latino individuals are represented in television and film media, it is also important to acknowledge their vast underrepresentation in popular programming. The individuals are often stereotyped on television, but they are rarely even seen. Latino Americans represent approximately 18% of the US population but only 0.6 to 6.5% of all primetime program characters, 1% of television families, and fewer than 4.5% of commercial actors. That poses the issue that Latino characters are not rarely seen, but even when they are, they are more than likely to be stereotyped. In the unlikely case that they are depicted, they are more likely to be limited to stereotypic characters, usually negatively. In September 2021, Bryan Dimas, co-founder of Latinx in Animation, mentioned an animated series with about 52 episodes which never "had a person of color that was a writer...other than one of the executive producers and some of the production crew," but said that shows are moving away from "having white writers writing for Black characters or Asian characters or Latino characters," and said that he believed there was a wave of more diverse representation in the future.
Stereotypical representation of Latino characters are typically negatively presented and attack the entire ethnic group's morality, work ethic, intelligence, or dignity. Even in non-fiction media, such as news outlets, Latinos are usually reported on in crime, immigration, or drug-related stories than in accomplishments. The stereotypes can also differ between men and women. Latino men are more likely to be stereotyped as unintelligent, comedic, aggressive, sexual, and unprofessional, earning them titles as "Latin lovers," buffoons, or criminals. That often results in the individuals being characterized as working less-respectable careers, being involved in crimes (often drug-related), or being uneducated immigrants. Latino characters are more likely than non-Latino white characters to possess lower-status occupations, such as domestic workers, or be involved in drug-related crimes. Latina women, similarly, are typically portrayed as lazy, verbally aggressive, and lacking work ethic. Latinas in modern movies follow old stereotypes. Latinas are still deemed as "less than", objectified and known for being to be alluring to others. The stereotypes are furthered in pseudo-autobiographical characters like George Lopez, who lacks higher education and is written around humor, and Sofia Vergara, who is portrayed as an immigrant woman marrying a rich man and is often mocked for her loud and aggressive voice.
According to Qingwen, "the impact of television portrayals of minorities is significant because of the ability of television images to activate racial stereotypes and the power exerted by visual images." Non-Latino white Americans who lack real-life contact with Latino individuals are forced to rely heavily on television and film, their only source of exposure to the ethnic group, as the foundation of perceiving Latino individuals. If nearly all of the few representations of the individuals are negatively stereotyped, non-Latino white individuals are likely to carry the perception into real life, embedding that stereotypical image of Latino individuals into their consciousness. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory gives insight into how the stereotypical character representations are carried into the real world and points to the way in which individuals' perceptions are limited to what they have experienced. Those who lack real-life contact with the stereotyped individuals are unable to counter the television portrayals of this ethnic group with a more realistic and less negative image.
Between 2001 and 2010, the Latino population increased significantly in the United States, marking Latinos as the largest minority in California. The news media began negatively framing Latinos as criminals, illegal immigrants, dangerous and violent, further perpetuating prejudice, discrimination, and stereotypes of Latinos.
Proposition 187 was a 1994 ballot initiative to establish a California-run citizenship screening system and prohibit illegal aliens from using non-emergency health care, public education, and other services in the state. The proposition began a spur of negative images and claims associated with Latinos in the United States.[ citation needed ]
Negative news media portrayals, in addition to Proposition 187 affected the Latin American community greatly by limiting employment opportunities, increasing maltreatment in the criminal justice system, and perpetuating victimization through violent hate crimes against Latinos. Studies show that from 2003 to 2007, violent hate crimes against Latinos have risen by 40%.
Instead of focusing on positive attributes related to Latinos, news media content focused mainly on stereotypes and misjudgments when they addressed the population. As a result, news media programs helped build a "semantic meaning of the Hispanic-and-Latino identity as a metonym for illegal immigration."
News media portrayed Latinos as the enemy, consistently labeling them as illegal immigrants and violent criminals without statistics or facts to support their claims. A 2002 study conducted by Chiricos and Escholz examined race and news media content and investigated how news media content primes the local public's fear of crime.
Another study conducted by Waldman and colleagues analyzed three cable commentators: Lou Dobbs, Bill O'Reilly, and Glenn Beck and their discussion of illegal immigration. These results concluded that 70% of the Lou Dobbs Tonight episodes in 2007 contained discussion of illegal immigration, 56% of the O'Reilly Factor episodes in 2007 discussed illegal immigration and Glenn Beck discussed illegal immigration in 28% of his year 2007 programs. As a result of popular shows labeling Latinos as "illegal immigrants" and often portraying Latinos in a negative light, the programs gave anti-immigration activists a platform for discrimination.
In attempt to verify the accuracy of stereotypes held against Latinos, studies conducted at Harvard and Michigan showed that undocumented and foreign-born immigrants were far less likely to commit acts of deviance, crime, drunk driving, or any kind of action that may jeopardize US citizens' well-being. In addition, the study found that the incarceration rate of foreign-born citizens is five times less the rate of native-born citizens.
News media in the 2000s greatly enhanced negative stereotypes associated with Latinos, which further perpetuated anti-immigration rhetoric and opinions throughout the nation. In the early 2000s, many news media programs[ which? ] portrayed unfair and inaccurate stereotypes of Latinos, mainly because of their high immigration rate at the time.[ citation needed ]
According to several scholars, the stereotypes of Latinos are similar to the ones associated with African-Americans. Often characterized as being dangerous, drug traffickers, drug users, violent, and gang bangers, Latinos are subjected to much stereotyping in the United States in relation to crime, especially by their white counterparts. However, this is false.
In the world, Latin Americans are incorrectly perceived as a "race", with a stereotypical "mixed-race" appearance personified by a "mestizo" (mix of European and Indigenous) or "mulatto" (mix of European and Sub-Saharan African) look, which conjures up an image of a person with brown skin, dark eyes, and dark hair, but Latinos are an ethnic group made up of numerous ethnicities, not all of whom are "mixed-race". The "mixed-race" individuals are often identified as "Latino", but "mono-ethnic" looking "Latinos", with the exception of some "Indigenous people" of the United States ("Turtle Island"), are not identified as "Latino" but as "Indigenous people" respectively. The US government greatly contributes to said confusion through the action of categorizing people as "races" instead of "ethnicities" and because of this, the "Latino" ethnicity is without any indication in demographic statistical reports, which implies that the category for "your race" is exclusive of the "Latino" identity. The media does well enough in reporting discrimination or "acts of racism" against "Latinos" ("mestizos" and "mulattoes") at large, but hateful actions are sometimes motivated by the fact of having or being of "mixed-race" appearance or heritage. "Non-Indigenous" or "monoethnic" looking "Latinos" likely try to avoid facing the same discrimination from appearance alone. That misunderstanding of the "Latino" identity often causes "Euro-Latin" Americans, "Afro-Latin" Americans, "Asian Latin" Americans and to a lesser extent "Indigenous peoples" of the Americas to be underrepresented or entirely dismissed in many societies of different countries all over globe. When it comes to the "Latino narrative" it is sometimes incorrectly represented as either stereotypes, misinformation, or complete lies that fail to grasp the "Latino" culture and the "Latino identity" in a whole.
A very common stereotype of Latino males is that of the criminal, gang member, or "cholo". It is connected to the idea of Latinos being lower class and living in dangerous neighborhoods that breed the attitude of "cholo". Cholo and chola are terms often used in the United States to denote members of the Chicano gang subculture. The individuals are characterized by a defiant street attitude, a distinctive dress style, and the use of caló, slang, speech. In the United States, the term "cholo" often has a negative connotation and so tends to be imposed upon a group of people, rather than being used as a means of self-identification. That leads to considerable ambiguity in the particulars of its definition. In its most basic usage, it always refers to a degree of indigeneity.
Latinos are frequently seen as the "others" in the United States despite their large percentage of the population. The otherness becomes a lens in which to view them as foreign or not being American. That mentality creates the illegal stereotype and the concept of job stealing. Generally, the term "immigrant" has positive connotations in relation to the development and operation of democracy and US history, but "illegal aliens" are vilified. The term "illegal alien" is defined as "a foreign person who is living in a country without having official permission to live there." Although many Latino Americans were born in the United States or have legal status, they can be dismissed as immigrants or foreigners who live without proper documentation taking opportunities and resources from real Americans. Immigrants have been represented as depriving citizens of jobs, as welfare-seekers, or as criminals. Especially with the recent political/social movement in the United States for stricter immigration law, Americans are blaming Latinos for "stealing jobs" and negatively impacting the economy.
A very common stereotype, as well as mentality, is that all Latino individuals have the same ethnic background, race, and culture but there are really numerous subgroups, with unique identities. Americans tend to explain all of Latin America in terms of the nationalities or countries that they know. For instance, in the Midwest and the Southwest, Latin Americans are largely perceived as Mexicans, but in the East, particularly in the New York and Boston areas, people consider Latin Americans through their limited interactions with Dominicans and Puerto Ricans. In Miami, Cubans and Central Americans are the reference group for interpreting Latin America. The idea of homogeneity is so extensive in US society that even important politicians tend to treat Latin America as a culturally-unified region. Latino Americans become a homogenous group, instead of their actual individual cultures, qualities, and differences.
There are two conflicting common stereotypes in accordance with employment that male Latinos tend to fall into a manual labor worker or an unemployed/lazy citizen. Many Latino Americans have equally as much education and skill level but are seen as "hard labor workers" such as farmhands, gardeners, and cleaners. This stereotype goes along with that of the immigrant in believing all Latinos work in hard labor fields and manual labor only because they arrive in the country legally, which is false. Latin Americans are also often pictured as not strongly inclined to work hard, despite the conflicting stereotype of working manual labor jobs. Today, negative stereotypes against certain ethnic groups about low cognitive abilities exist in many world regions, including stereotypes about people with a Latino background in the United States. The stereotype creates a standard of thinking that alienates Latinos from having as many job and education opportunities because they are viewed as less than others.[ citation needed ]
Latino masculinity, which is already coded as violent, criminal, and dangerous (Collins 1991; Ferguson 2000; Vasquez 2010), makes the racial project of controlling images systematically restrict Latinos' lives. Machismo is depicted as the cult of male strength, which implies being fearless, self-confident, capable of making decisions, and able to support one's family. It also emphasized an acceptance of male dominance over women, including the valorization of Don Juanism, and, in its extreme form, a defense of the traditional division of labor (women in the kitchen and taking care of the children and men as providers). Hollywood movies, along with some American scholars and other people in the country, tend to regard machismo as unique to Latin America. Latino identity and stereotypes can place a limit on how Latino men are able to present themselves.[ citation needed ]
According to scholars, in the entertainment industry, Latinas have been historically depicted as possessing one of two completely-contrasting identities. They have been depicted as either "virginal," "passive," and "dependent on men" or as "hot-tempered," "tempestuous," "promiscuous," and "sexy." A 2005 study conducted by Dana Mastro and Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz, professors of communication studies at the University of Arizona, found depictions of Latina Americans on primetime television are both limited and biased. The study analyzed the frequency and the quality of the depictions of Latino individuals on primetime television in 2002. The study found that "Latinas were the laziest characters in primetime... they were the least intelligent, most verbally aggressive, embodied the lowest work ethic, and (alongside whites) were the most ridiculed." According to the same studies, the marketing industry has also played a role in stereotyping females with Latino origin by using the stereotypical identities to sell product. Specifically, the bodies of Latina women have been used and sexualized to sell product targeted to men. According to Mary Gilly, a professor of business at the University of California Irvine, Latina women, in particular, are eroticized in the marketing industry because of their frequent portrayal as "tempestuous," "promiscuous," or "sexy."
Stereotypical identities that have spurred from the idea that Latina women are "hot-tempered", "tempestuous", "promiscuous" and "sexy" include the "fiery Latina" and the "hot señorita." Both stem from the fact that Latina women are continually sexualized and eroticized in popular programming and in the entertainment industry as a whole. Recent examples include Sofia Vergara's character on Modern Family, but examples date back to the 1920s and 1930s with "Dolores del Río playing the exotic and passionate lover of the 1920s, and Carmen Miranda playing sexy and bombshell characters in the 1930s and 1940s." Vergara portrays Gloria Delgado-Pritchett on "Modern Family," a "trophy wife" often seen in provocative clothing and high heeled shoes. She often has trouble pronouncing English words and speaks with a heavy accent. Among the contemporary depictions accused of promoting the "Latina bombshell" include Iris Chacón's image, Naya Rivera in Glee , and Shakira and Jennifer Lopez's "somewhat infamous music videos."
Gina Rodriguez's portrayal of Jane on The CW romantic dramedy, Jane the Virgin , is one of the more recent examples of Latina women being portrayed as "virginal" or "passive." Jane is a devout Catholic who learns that she is pregnant after she is accidentally artificially inseminated during a routine check-up. The show follows Jane as she struggles with the discovery and faces challenges as a new mother. While Rodriguez's character is almost the polar opposite of Vergara's, both perpetuate extreme stereotypes of Latina women.[ citation needed ]
It has been established that Latinas in the United States have been hypersexualized by the media and societal stereotypes.[ citation needed ] One reason for Latinas being stereotyped as hyper-sexualization is the idealistic picture of large Latino families with multiple children because of the Latina's highly sexualized nature. That has created the political and social threat of Latina's "hyper-fertility" in which there is a concern that the hypothetical fertility and birthing rates of Latinas is much more than their non-Latino white people, adding to the threat of the Latino presence in the United States (Gutiérrez 2008; Chavez 2004).
A significant study compared the sexual activity of non-Latina white women and Latinas in Orange County, California, where there is a high population of Mexican American families. Non-Latina white women began sexual relations about a year younger than all of the Latinas in the survey reported. The non-Latina white women were more likely to report having had five or more sexual partners, but Latinas were more likely to report no more than two. Both non-Latina white women and Latinas showed a trend towards fewer children per household. In fact, second-generation Latinas were shown to have fewer children than non-Latina white women. The study's results reinforce the idea that the stereotype of the hypersexual fertile Latina is another social construct aimed at creating the Latino threat narrative in the United States.
According to several sources, the entertainment industry can be credited with the creation and frequent reinforcement of the stereotypes, but the news is particularly important in the maintenance of these stereotypes. Unlike the entertainment and marketing industries, according to several studies, the press produces representations that are based on "reality." A 1994 study by Macrea et al., found stereotypes are generalizations that our culture has defined for us, and that using stereotypes is "more efficient." Thus, according to Macrea et al., journalists, because of time and space constraints, may be more likely to rely on stereotypic portrayals.
Recent research has consistently found that both Latino Americans have been underrepresented in news media and that their limited portrayal have been depicted as a burden on contemporary American society. The recent election of President Donald Trump has brought the issue to the forefront of American news, and issues relating specifically to immigration have perpetuated stereotypes of Latino Americans as criminals.
Latinos are misperceived as "lazy" or "unintelligent" people because of the stereotypes of Latinos strictly occupying blue-collar jobs such as construction workers and older-generation Latinos being unable to speak English.
Ethnic-minority students, who are in the lower-income bracket, are more likely to attend schools that are overcrowded, dangerous, and limited in the opportunities offered for advanced coursework with experienced teachers. Because of the inequalities in education, the graduation rate for Latino students is substantially below the rate for white students. Without a sufficient education, Latinos have a harder time obtaining white-collar or professional jobs.
Contrary to the belief that Latinos are "lazy," a study by Andrew J. Fuligni has shown that "students from ethnic minority backgrounds often have higher levels of motivation than their equally achieving peers from European backgrounds.... Latin American and Asian families have significantly higher values of academic success and a stronger belief in the utility of education." The high level of motivation comes from Latinos having a greater sense of obligation to support, assist, and respect the family.
A common misconception about Latinos and language learning is that not being able to speak English is a sign of unwillingness to learn. Some immigrants, from Mexico and other Latin countries, live in the United States for decades without acquiring a basic command of English. The primary reason is that it is difficult to learn a second language as an adult. Another reason is that finding time to learn a new language while struggling to financially support and spend time with family may be impossible.
The "job-stealing Latino" stereotype is also false. According to Pastora San Juan Cafferty and William C. McCready, "a preliminary study of labor market competition among the black, Latino, and non-Latino white population (Borjas, 1983) found no evidence that Latinos had a negative impact on the earnings of the other two groups." Latinos are not "taking away" jobs that non-Latino groups want. The blue-collar jobs Latinos obtain are low paying and have few fringe benefits, leading to little or no health insurance coverage.
The aggressive "Latino gang member /criminal" stereotype, which we often see in movies and on television, is inaccurate. Gang-suppression approaches of numerous police departments have become "over-inclusive and embedded with practices that create opportunities for abuse of authority." This means most of the gang enforcement police stops are based on racial profiling. These stops involve no reasonable suspicion of criminal activity and oftentimes include non-gang members.
Latino youth have a more difficult time establishing a positive school identity because of the negative academic stereotypes regarding their racial-ethnic group. The academic stereotypes, which negatively affect the academic performance of Latinos, focus on inability, laziness, and a lack of interest and curiosity.
Adolescence makes teenagers come face to face with deeply-rooted social issues, and the challenges they face can be daunting. For young Latinas in particular, the societal and emotional issues that they must come to terms with can be complicated. These issues can be complicated because they are learning who they are and what they want their role to be in society, but they also must fight against the stereotypes that have been imposed upon them by culture. Positive identity formation for young Latinas may be more difficult to achieve than it is for young Anglo girls. Some have postulated that providing young Latinas with the concepts of feminism may enhance their abilities to believe in themselves and improve their chances of realizing that they have the abilities to be successful because of who they are, not because of who they married. However, a recent study published in the Journal of Adolescent Research found that young Latinas may have a "different perspective" on feminism than their Anglo counterparts. The study found that Latinas experienced feminism differently because of cultural values; young Latinas "face an intricate balance between future family and career goals in their identity development." Some Latinas interviewed in the study expressed concern that if they told a young man that they were feminists, "they might assume that the girls didn't like men" and a large number also opposed the ideas of feminism and equality because of traditional values. The study ultimately determined that the majority of the young Latinas interviewed considered themselves to be feminists but a relatively large minority of the young women rejected the idea of feminism and equality because they were fearful of possible female superiority and endorsed traditional family values and female occupations.
Research shows that many Latinos in the United States do not identify as "American" but instead with their or their parents' or grandparents' country of origin. One of the reasons is the misbelief that to be an American, one needs to be white. Latinos who have experienced racial discrimination are more likely to identify as Latino or Latino American than simply American because they feel they are not treated as "real" Americans.
A study by Suárez-Orozco and Suárez-Orozco (2001) has shown that the internalization of perceived stigmatized identity of Latinos can lead to resigned helplessness, self-defeating behavior, and depression.
Findings from an experimental study of college-bound Latinos students showed that when Latino students were faced with stereotype threat, their academic performance suffered. Results of the study showed that Latino students who internalized racial stereotypes performed worse on a standardized test than Latino students who did not internalize those same stereotypes. The negative impact of racial stereotypes on student performance has implications for the overall educational journey of Latino students. Performing poorly on standardized tests could lead to limitations in the options available for furthering education. Another experimental study of Latino undergraduate students found that Latino students in the stereotype threat condition performed worse on an exam than all other students with which they were compared (Latino students in non-stereotype threat condition and white students in both stereotype threat and non-stereotype threat conditions). A study by Fischer (2009) found that Latino college students who internalize negative stereotypes about themselves tend to spend fewer hours studying, which further decreases their academic performance.
Immigration to the United States is the international movement of non-United States nationals to reside permanently in the country. Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of United States history. All Americans, except for Native Americans, can trace their ancestry to immigrants from other nations around the world.
Racial profiling is the act of suspecting, targeting or discriminating against a person on the basis of their ethnicity or religion, rather than on individual suspicion. Racial profiling often involves discrimination against minority populations and builds on any negative stereotypes of the targeted demographic. Racial profiling, however, is not limited only to an individual's ethnicity, race or religion and can also be based on the individual's nationality. In European countries, the term ethnic profiling is also used instead of "racial profiling".
A stock character is a stereotypical fictional person or type of person in a work of art such as a novel, play, or a film whom audiences recognize from frequent recurrences in a particular literary tradition. There is a wide range of stock characters, covering men and women of various ages, social classes and demeanors. They are archetypal characters distinguished by their simplification and flatness. As a result, they tend to be easy targets for parody and to be criticized as clichés. The presence of a particular array of stock characters is a key component of many genres, and they often help to identify a genre or subgenre. For example, a story with a knight-errant and a witch is probably a fairy tale or fantasy.
Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican ancestry. In 2019, Mexican Americans comprised 11.3% of the US population and 61.5% of all Latino Americans. In 2019, 71% of Mexican Americans were born in the United States, though they make up 53% of the total population of foreign-born Latino Americans and 25% of the total foreign-born population. The United States is home to the second-largest Mexican community in the world, second only to Mexico itself. Most Mexican Americans reside in the Southwest. Many Mexican Americans living in the United States have assimilated into US culture which has made some become less connected with their culture of birth and sometimes creates an identity crisis.
Hispanic and Latino Americans are Americans of Spanish or Latin American ancestry. More broadly, these demographics include all Americans who identify as Hispanic or Latino regardless of ancestry. As of 2020, the Census Bureau estimated that there were almost 62.1 million Hispanics and Latinos living in the United States.
Racism in the United States comprises negative attitudes and views on race or ethnicity which are related to each other, are held by various people and groups in the United States and have been reflected in discriminatory laws, practices and actions at various times in the history of the United States against racial or ethnic groups. Throughout American history, white Americans have generally enjoyed legally or socially sanctioned privileges and rights which have been denied to members of various ethnic or minority groups at various times. European Americans, particularly affluent white Anglo-Saxon Protestants, are said to have enjoyed advantages in matters of education, immigration, voting rights, citizenship, land acquisition, and criminal procedure.
Women of color is a phrase used to describe female non-whites. The political term "women of color" surfaced in the violence against women movement. In the late seventies it unified all women experiencing multiple layers of marginalization with race or ethnicity as a common issue.
In sociology, racialization or ethnicization is a political process of ascribing ethnic or racial identities to a relationship, social practice, or group that did not identify itself as such. Racialization or ethnicization often arises out of the interaction of a group with a group that it dominates and ascribes a racial identity for the purpose of continued domination and social exclusion; over time, the racialized and ethnicized group develop the society enforced construct that races are real, different and unequal in ways that matter to economic, political and social life. These processes have been common throughout the history of imperialism, nationalism, racial and ethnic hierarchies.
Hispanic and Latino American Muslims are Hispanic and Latino Americans who are of the Islamic faith. Hispanic and Latino Americans are an ethnolinguistic group of citizens of the United States with origins in Spain and Latin America. Islam is an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah), and that Muhammad is a messenger of God. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, claimed to be the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative examples of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, and the Quran in its Arabic to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. The Spaniards took the Roman Catholic faith to Latin America via imperialism and colonialism; Roman Catholicism continues to be the largest, but not the only, religious denomination among most Hispanics. In contrast, the Arabs took Islam to very few Latin American countries such as Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala and Colombia via post-independence immigration.
In the United States, a white Hispanic or Latino is an individual who self-identifies as white and is of full or partial Hispanic or Latino descent, the largest group being white Mexican Americans. Although not differentiated in the U.S. Census definition, White Latino Americans may also be defined to include only those who identify as white and either orginate from or have descent from countries in Latin America that speak Romance languages such as Brazil, Haiti, and French Guiana.
Anti-Mexican sentiment is an attitude towards people of Mexican descent, Mexican culture and/or Mexican Spanish and is most commonly found in the United States.
Hispanophobia or anti-Spanish sentiment is a fear, distrust, hatred of; aversion to, or discrimination against the Spanish language, Hispanic, Latino and/or Spanish people, and/or Hispanic culture. The historical phenomenon has had three main stages by originating in 16th-century Europe, reawakening during 19th-century disputes over Spanish and Mexican territory such as the Spanish–American War and the Mexican–American War, and finally in tandem with politically-charged controversies such as bilingual education and illegal immigration to the United States.
Stereotypes of white people in the United States are generalizations about the character, behavior, or appearance of white Americans by other Americans in the United States. For stereotypes about Americans by people of other nationalities, see Stereotypes of Americans.
Hispanic and Latino are ethnonyms used to refer collectively to the inhabitants of the United States who are of Spanish or Latin American ancestry. While the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, for example, by the United States Census Bureau, Hispanic includes people with ancestry from Spain and Latin American Spanish-speaking countries, while Latino includes people from Latin American countries that were formerly colonized by Spain and Portugal.
The criminal stereotype of African Americans in the United States is an ethnic stereotype according to which African Americans, and African American males in particular, are dangerous criminals. The origin of this stereotype is that as a demographic, they are proportionally over-represented in the numbers of those that are arrested for committing crimes: for example, according to official FBI statistics, in 2015, 51.1% of people arrested for homicide were African American, even though African American people account only for 13.4% of the total United States population. The figure of the African-American man as a criminal has appeared frequently in American popular culture, further reinforcing this image in the collective unconscious.
Currently, there are over 20 million immigrant women residing in the United States. The American Immigration Council states that the majority of these immigrant women come from Mexico, meaning that the main demographic of immigrant women in the U.S. are Latina. As the fastest growing minority group in America, Latinas are becoming primary influencers in education, economics and culture in American society and the consumer marketplace.
The immigrant paradox is that recent immigrants often outperform more established immigrants and non-immigrants on a number of health-, education-, and conduct- or crime-related outcomes, despite the numerous barriers they face to successful social integration.
Brownface is a social phenomenon in which a white or light-skinned person attempts to portray themselves as a "brown" person of color, but less overtly and with a lighter complexion than traditional blackface. This may include mimicry of Middle Eastern, North African, Southeast Asian, Latin-American, Melanesian, Micronesian, Polynesian, Native American, and/or South Asian ethnic identity by using makeup, hair-dye, and/or by wearing traditional ethnic clothing. It is typically defined as a racist phenomenon, similarly to blackface.
Gringo justice is a sociohistorical critical theory developed by Chicano sociologist, lawyer, and activist Alfredo Mirandé in 1987, who used it to provide an alternative explanation for Chicano criminality in the United States and challenge the racist assumption that Chicanos were inherently criminal, or biologically, psychologically, or culturally predisposed to engage in criminal behavior. The theory is applied by Chicano and Latino scholars to explain the double standard of justice in the criminal justice system between Anglo-Americans and Chicanos/Latinos. The theory also challenges stereotypes of Chicanos/Latinos as "bandidos," "gang-bangers," and "illegal alien drug smugglers," which have historically developed and are maintained to justify social control over Chicano/Latino people in the US.