World News

World News

Disclaimer: The opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations contained herein are those of the respective author(s) and do not reflect the official views or policies of CEEZAD.

December 23, 2021

Zimbabwe: Anthrax

Since Jan. 1, health officials in Zimbabwe reported 212 human anthrax cases. No deaths have been reported. The latest cases were reported in early November.

The anthrax outbreak started in September 2019 affecting mainly Buhera and Gokwe North and South districts. Since the start of the outbreak, 979 cases, including 3 deaths have been reported.

There are no reports of person-to-person transmission of anthrax. People get anthrax by handling contaminated animal or animal products, consuming undercooked meat of infected animals and more recently, intentional release of spores.

Anthrax is a bacterial pathogen in livestock and wild animals. Ruminants such as bison, cattle, sheep and goats are highly susceptible, and horses can also be infected. Anthrax is a very serious disease of livestock because it can potentially cause the rapid loss of a large number of animals in a very short time. Affected animals are often found dead with no illness detected.

India: Food-borne illness

The death toll in a suspected case of food poisoning in Dahod district's Bhulwan village went up to 8 on Dec. 15, with one more person succumbing during treatment. Seven of the 17 affected persons died after allegedly consuming a meal from the concluding ceremony of a 9-day religious event in Bhulwan village on Dec. 12.

According to police, the villagers participated in sacrificing goats at the concluding ceremony of "Jatar" gathering, which is a 9-day religious event held every 5 years to pray for the well-being of the village. Police said that the local residents, as per tradition, sacrificed 6 goats, and the cooked meat was distributed among people of the village as "prasad." A total of 17 persons, all male, were admitted to the hospital, police added.

Dahod Superintendent of Police Hitesh Joysar told The Indian Express that the first autopsy report of the 4 deceased persons on Tuesday had indicated death due to poisoning, but the police will collect forensic evidence.

Brazil: St. Louis Encephalitis

The Department of Epidemiology of the Municipal Health Foundation (FMS) of Teresina (FMS) received laboratory confirmation of a case of human infection with the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) Dec. 7. An adult patient developed neurological symptoms in March. Although she lived and became ill in Lagoa do Mato - Maranhao (probable place of infection), the patient sought medical care and was admitted to the Emergency Hospital of Teresina (HUT), where she received treatment. There was a good clinical evolution and the ELISA-IgM exams and neutralization test by plaque reduction performed at the Evandro Chagas Institute were positive for SLEV - thus fulfilling criteria for case confirmation.

At the time of hospitalization, the case was reported and the investigation began through the Surveillance Program for Neuroinvasive Diseases caused by Arbovirus - started in Teresina in 2013. This surveillance strategy is implemented in all public hospitals (municipal, state and federal) and private institutions in Teresina, with the support of teams from the Hospital Epidemiology Centers.

United States: Leptospirosis

Amid the push to get COVID-19 vaccine boosters, Hollywood dog owners are rushing to protect not only themselves from the threat of pandemic but their furry friends as well. However, the pup vaccine they're looking to get isn't made by Pfizer or Moderna -- it's a vaccination to protect against a recent outbreak of leptospirosis among dogs in the Los Angeles (LA) and New York City areas.

While veterinary hospitals in urban areas usually see around 15 to 20 cases of this transmitted disease a year, a recent uptick has shown more than 100 cases in LA and New York just over the course of the past few months. An infection can cause lack of appetite, fever, vomiting, lethargy, diarrhea, dehydration and, in more severe cases, kidney and liver failure, requiring 24-hour hospitalization for several days.

The particular strain behind this outbreak passes from dogs to other dogs. "So it's likely being transmitted at dog parks, daycare facilities, boarding kennels and other highly social areas for dogs," says VCA regional medical director Dr. Silene St. Bernard. Many indoor dog play places around LA, as well as veterinarians, have been sending out alerts to their clients to make sure they vaccinate their 4-legged friends.

Canada: Mad Cow Disease

Alberta Agriculture Minister Nate Horner says an older animal has tested positive for atypical mad cow disease in the province.

It's Alberta's 1st case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, also known as BSE, in almost 6 years.

Horner says atypical BSE presents no risk to human health and is not transmissible.

He says the case is not expected to affect the market and quick detection demonstrates that inspectors and producers are dedicated to keeping the disease out of Canada's cattle herd.

This type of BSE happens at a rate of about one in one million cattle and has been reported 6 times in the United States, the last time in 2018.

United States: Herpesvirus

Zookeepers at the Albuquerque BioPark are keeping a close eye on an elephant they say has elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus. The BioPark says 3-year-old Thorne tested positive for a very low level of the virus.

They believe he should be okay since they caught it early. Elephants carry the virus latently throughout their entire lives, and researchers do not know why the virus ever actively appears. Thorne will continue to spend time with his herd and can be seen in outdoor habitats.

This virus causes fatal hemorrhagic disease commonly identified at North American zoos. The virus causes only benign external herpetic lesions in African elephants, but in Asian elephants infection results in endothelial disease, which in many cases can be fatal.

United States: West Nile Virus

Maricopa County continues to break records for the number of West Nile virus cases and deaths recorded this year. As of Dec. 17, 1,300 cases had been recorded in the county, along with 90 deaths.

That's compared to 3 cases and only one death in 2020, according to Maricopa County Department of Public Health records.

Since around a month ago, the county has seen an additional 247 recorded cases of West Nile virus and 78 additional deaths, according to health department data.

With a particularly wet summer this year that followed an extraordinarily dry summer in 2020, conditions were perfect this year for West Nile virus to spread in Maricopa County.

Warmer-than-usual temperatures that extended through November and into early December kept the mosquito season going in the Valley when colder weather might have stopped it.

West Nile virus was first detected in Arizona in 2003, according to the Arizona Department of Public Health. People contract the disease when an infected mosquito bites them. West Nile is not transmitted through [direct] human-to-human contact.

Israel: Avian Influenza

The Ministry of Agriculture announced an unusual outbreak of bird flu in the locality of Margalio in the Upper Galilee. Traffic restrictions on the entry of trucks and equipment into the poultry farms were imposed in the area, and anyone engaged with poultry elsewhere was instructed not to approach the coop complexes.

The Veterinary Services fear that they will have to prepare for the extermination of about half a million laying hens in order to prevent the spread of bird flu.

This incident is accompanied by poultry mortality and requires culling and complete isolation until the event's termination is officially announced.

China: Hantavirus

Since the beginning of winter, Xi'an, in northwest China's Shaanxi Province, has recorded a series of hemorrhagic fever cases, a natural epidemic disease with a high fatality rate. Medical experts said that rodents are the main source of infection and called on the public not to panic as vaccinations can effectively prevent and control the disease, while human-to-human transmission is basically impossible.

The Global Times learned from a medical staff member at the infection unit of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University that the hospital admitted a patient with non-life-threatening hemorrhagic fever in the past few days.

Due to the recent COVID-19 outbreak in Xi'an, many hospitals with infection units have temporarily stopped receiving patients and are only attending to patients infected with COVID-19, said the staff member.

According to media reports, hemorrhagic fever is a common infectious disease in northern China. Starting from October every year, some areas of Shaanxi enter the high-incidence season of hemorrhagic fever.

In recent years, the virus institute of the Shaanxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed local infections in Xi'an by widespread field investigations and laboratory neutralization antibody detection and identification.

Experts said that hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), also known as epidemic hemorrhagic fever, is caused by hantaviruses, with rodents as the main source of infection.

United Kingdom: Avian Influenza

Action is being taken yet again to contain any spread of the [avian influenza H5N1] virus as the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA) confirmed a strain of avian influenza had been found in birds in the Helsby area. It's the second reported case in a month.

Now, Cheshire West and Chester Council, Defra, APHA and the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) are putting several measures in place to help prevent this from happening. This includes a 3 km Protection Zone and a 10 km Surveillance Zone, while owners have been reminded that all poultry and captive birds in the 3 km Protection Zone must be kept inside unless otherwise directed by a veterinary inspector.

The zones restrict access to locations where birds are kept and impose restrictions on the movement of birds but don't limit access to residents or business owners.

United States: Shigellosis

The County of San Diego has announced the ongoing outbreak of shigellosis now stands at 46 confirmed and 5 probable cases, with slowing cases from a week ago and a total of 3 since the 41 confirmed and 7 probable cases reported in the 3 Dec 2021 update.

The County Public Health shigella website includes an epidemiological curve showing declining case numbers in recent weeks. The cases are among individuals experiencing homelessness, with the majority at multiple locations in central San Diego and 2 cases in North County.

No source of the outbreak has currently been identified. The County continues to work closely with the City of San Diego, regional homeless service providers, and others to identify new cases, prevent future potential exposures and promote good hygienic and sanitation precautions.

Shigellosis is a contagious infection typically spread by contaminated surfaces, food or water, or person to person. Those at increased risk include young children (especially those in daycare), people who are experiencing homelessness, travelers to locations with poor sanitation, and men who have sex with men. In 2020, a total of 240 shigellosis cases were reported in San Diego County residents while the 426 cases reported in 2019 were the highest since 1995.

Zimbabwe: Shigellosis

Bulowayo's Tshabalala Extension suburb has reportedly been hit by a dysentery outbreak at a time when residents are being tormented by diarrhea. The diarrhea outbreak recently claimed the life of a resident of the suburb and infected hundred others. The outbreak has been blamed on contaminated water after the local authority implemented a 72-hour water-shedding regime.

A resident told Southern Eye that he had diarrhea for the second time in days and was told by nurses that he was suffering from dysentery. "I am still feeling dizzy and have a running stomach. I am passing stool with blood. I was told that I have dysentery. My son was also having the same problem. My neighbor was also complaining of the same problem," he said.

Tshabalala Residents Association chairperson Webster Tsondayi urged council to provide answers to the recurrent outbreaks of water-borne diseases. "We appeal for effective communication from the city council. We hear that it's water contamination," Tsondayi said. "They should do like they did last time when there were water shortages in the city where they explained to residents the challenges they were facing. We will understand if they explain to us rather than remaining mum."

Bulawayo City Council health services director Edwin Sibanda could neither deny nor confirm the outbreak. 


December 17, 2021

Italy: African Swine Fever

Three free-ranging pigs of the 170 slaughtered at the end of November in the Talana countryside as part of the actions to combat African swine fever (ASF) ordered by the project unit, were found to be seropositive -- small numbers, especially if compared to the latest killings that did not register cases of serological and virological positivity, but enough to decree the existence of an outbreak.

"The official status" -- declares Antonio Montisci, director of the regional service of public veterinary health and food safety -- "will arrive on the basis of the provisions of the European regulation of last April, much more restrictive than the previous one. The new provisions provide that in the presence of 2 seropositive animals, an outbreak is declared."

This news will not affect the report of the inspectors of Brussels who visited Sardinia in November for an audit on what has been done in recent years to eradicate the disease that has afflicted the Sardinian pig sector for 43 years.

Congo: Monkeypox

The government of Maniema, a province in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), officially declared Dec. 9 a monkeypox outbreak. With 191 monkeypox cases, including 24 deaths, reported since the end of September, Afani Idrissa Mangala, the acting governor of Maniema, declared in a statement the outbreak in the province.

The outbreak was confirmed after the confirmation of samples sent to the National Institute of Biomedical Research (INRB), said Mangala, calling on the population to be vigilant and to consult the nearest health centers in case of fever.

In November 2021, a measles outbreak broke out in the same province.

Monkeypox was first identified in 1958, amongst laboratory monkeys. The first human cases were discovered in 1970 in the DRC. Fever, itchy toes, headache, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes, among others, have been identified as the symptoms of the disease.

The disease is not deadly and can be cured [not cured, instead prevented] through the smallpox vaccine.

China: Avian Influenza

Hong Kong health authorities report monitoring a human case of avian influenza A(H5N6) in a 54-year-old woman living in Zigong, Sichuan Province. The woman had exposure to deceased backyard poultry before the onset of symptoms. She developed symptoms on Nov. 17, was admitted for treatment on Nov. 21, and died on Nov. 23.

This is the 27th human case reported on Mainland China in the past year and the 52nd case reported since the 1st case was reported in 2014. Avian influenza is caused by those influenza viruses that mainly affect birds and poultry, such as chickens or ducks.

Clinical presentation of avian influenza in humans includes eye infection (conjunctivitis), flulike symptoms (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches), or severe respiratory illness (e.g., chest infection). The incubation period ranges from 7 to 10 days.

The more virulent forms can result in respiratory failure, multi-organ failure, and even death. People mainly become infected with avian influenza virus through contact with infected birds and poultry (live or dead) or their droppings or contact with contaminated environments (such as wet markets and live poultry markets). Human-to-human transmission is inefficient.

People in close contact with poultry are more susceptible to contracting avian influenza. The elderly, children and people with chronic illness have a higher risk of developing complications such as bronchitis and chest infection.

Dominican Republic: African Swine Fever

It can hardly be called a surprise that African Swine Fever (ASF) has spread to other areas of Haiti. The virus was also found in the north of the country, making it likely ASF has spread to all areas of Hispaniola island.

The latest discoveries show the virus continues to require extreme vigilance. The entire North American continent is praying the virus will stay contained on Hispaniola island, which Haiti shares with the Dominican Republic, and where ASF has been reported from since April.

The latest updates at the website of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) show the virus has been confirmed in 3 more departments of the peninsula: Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Est, in the north of the island. The first outbreak in Haiti was discovered in a farm near Anse-a-Pitre city in Sud-Est province, very close to the border with the Dominican Republic. Together with the initial case, it brings the total amount of reports to 11 from Haiti.

The 10 new cases were first discovered in the summer, with 2 in Artibonite department, 3 in Nord department, and 5 in Nord-Est department. Unlike the discovery in August when a group of 2,500 pigs was found susceptible, these 10 outbreaks happened at smaller sites, the largest having 17 pigs on-site, the smallest one only 3. The OIE was informed several weeks later.

India: Scrub Typhus

Close to 500 cases of scrub typhus have been reported from various districts of Odisha this year, Union Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare Dr Bharati Pravin Pawar informed the Parliament.

In a written reply to a question by Congress MP Saptagiri Ulaka, the minister said the center was aware of the occurrence of the scrub typhus disease in the state. "In 2021, a total of 497 cases of scrub typhus have been reported from various districts of Odisha. Nabarangpur has reported 43 cases this year," he said.

In view of rising trends of scrub typhus, an advisory was issued by National Center for Disease Control in September to all states/UTs regarding containment measures for the prevention of the occurrence and management of the outbreaks.

Scrub typhus, also known as bush typhus, is caused by a bacteria called Orientia tsutsugamushi. It spreads to people through bite of infected chiggers (larval mites). The most common symptoms of scrub typhus include fever, headache, body aches, and sometimes rash.

Ghana: Yellow Fever

Ghana has recorded 46 Yellow Fever deaths, with 102 confirmed cases out of about 600 suspected cases recorded.

The latest death was recorded Dec. 9.

The outbreak, first recorded in October, is now in 4 regions: Savannah, Upper West, Bono, and Oti regions.

Dr. Dennis Laryea, Acting Head of Disease Surveillance at the Ghana Health Service (GHS), told the Ghana News Agency, in Accra that although the YF infections were gradually reducing, the Service was still recording some suspected cases.

"The outbreak started in West and North Gonja, but we have not recorded any case from these 2 districts over a period. We are, however, recording a few cases from Central Gonja, Bole, and Sawla-Tuna-Kaba districts," he said.

Dr. Laryea said the GHS had done an elaborate vaccination campaign in the areas at risk and would by next week receive a donation of about 400 000 doses of YF vaccines from the World Health Organization (WHO) to expand the YF vaccination drive.

He said the drive would target about 600,000 unvaccinated persons in districts of concern.

Brazil: Yellow Fever

A monkey has died of yellow fever in Santa Catarina, rekindling the alert for the disease in the state.

The case was confirmed by the Epidemiological Surveillance Dec. 10; vaccination coverage in the state is below that recommended by the Ministry of Health.

Directorate of Epidemiological Surveillance of Santa Catarina confirmed the death of a monkey as a result of the yellow fever virus in Pedras Grandes, in the south of the state.

With this, the State has 625 cases of epizootics notified this year alone, of which 137 were confirmed with yellow fever.

In relation to human cases, there was a record of 8 cases of the disease, with 3 deaths. None of the human cases had a vaccine record against the disease.

The period of greatest transmission of yellow fever occurs between the months of December to May, due to favorable climatic and environmental conditions for the reproduction of the mosquito that transmits the disease.

United States: Tick-borne Diseases

The spread of the black-legged tick, the primary vector for the pathogen that causes Lyme disease, may be facilitated in Pennsylvania by animals that people rarely associate with it -- black bears, according to researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.

In a recently published study, the researchers reported on the presence, abundance, and spatial distribution of ticks on black bears, with an eye toward better understanding the bears' role in tick ecology and dispersal and improving on-host surveillance techniques for ticks.

"American black bear populations in the Northeast have been rising substantially since the 1980s," said lead researcher Hannah Tiffin, dual-title doctoral degree candidate in entomology and in international agriculture and development. "Pennsylvania has seen a dramatic increase in bear numbers, with the estimated population doubling between the late 1980s and 2001 and continuing to rise in the last 20 years."

During roughly the same time frame, she noted, tick-borne diseases in humans have risen significantly, with the number of cases reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nearly tripling between 2004 and 2017. Lyme disease, which is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted primarily by the black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis, is the most frequently reported vector-borne disease in the United States. Pennsylvania leads the nation in reported Lyme cases.

"To date, most wildlife studies of black-legged ticks have looked at 2 species -- the white-tailed deer and the white-footed mouse," Tiffin said. "As a result, there's a lack of research on other animal species in terms of their role in tick dispersal, their suitability as hosts, and their status as reservoirs of disease pathogens."

Zimbabwe: Anthrax

From the beginning of the year, health officials in Zimbabwe reported 212 human anthrax cases. No deaths have been reported. The latest cases were reported in early November -- in Gokwe North District (2), Gokwe South District (4) in Midlands Province, Goromonzi District (1) in Mashonaland East Province, Hurungwe District (1) and Makonde District (1) in Mashonaland West Province [9 cases total].

The anthrax outbreak started in September 2019 affecting mainly Buhera and Gokwe North and South districts. Since the start of the outbreak, 979 cases, including 3 deaths have been reported.

There are no reports of person-to-person transmission of anthrax. People get anthrax by handling contaminated animal or animal products, consuming undercooked meat of infected animals and more recently, intentional release of spores.

Anthrax is a bacterial pathogen in livestock and wild animals. Ruminants such as bison, cattle, sheep and goats are highly susceptible, and horses can also be infected. Anthrax is a very serious disease of livestock because it can potentially cause the rapid loss of a large number of animals in a very short time. Affected animals are often found dead with no illness detected.

When conditions become favorable, the spores germinate into colonies of bacteria. An example would be a grazing cow ingests spores that in the cow, germinate, grow, spread and eventually kill the animal. Anthrax is caused by the bacterium, _Bacillus anthracis_. This spore-forming bacteria can survive in the environment for decades because of its ability to resist heat, cold, drying, etc. This is usually the infectious stage of anthrax.


December 10, 2021

United States: Legionellosis

A central Indiana prison inmate has died after being among those confirmed ill with Legionnaire's disease amid an outbreak of the bacterial lung infection at the facility, state prison officials said. The inmate, a 38-year-old man from the Pendleton Correctional Facility, died Dec. 3 at a hospital, the Indiana Department of Correction said.

The agency had announced that 3 inmates had confirmed cases of the illness and 2 others had probable cases. All 5 inmates had been taken to hospitals for treatment, and prison system and health officials were working to determine the source of the outbreak at the facility about 25 miles northeast of Indianapolis. The 5 sickened men all live in 2 units of the maximum security facility.

The prison's hot water has been turned off during the investigation into the source of the illness, but the prison's toilets and drinking water are not affected, officials said. The Legionella bacteria are spread through inhaled water droplets, such as mist or steam, and not person-to-person contact.

Chad: Hepatitis

A hepatitis E outbreak had been declared by Chadian health authorities in mid-November 2021 in Sategui health area, Lai health district in the Tandjilé region. As of Nov. 20, there have been 377 suspected cases and 2 deaths reported. Among those affected, the majority have been men with 216 cases and the most affected age-group has been less than 10 years of age with 90 cases.

Hepatitis E is endemic in Chad, particularly in the Tandjilé region, which previously experienced large-scale outbreaks in 2017 and 2018. Poor hygiene and sanitation conditions coupled with limited access to safe water are risk factors for outbreaks in this region. All the 6 villages that reported cases have few improved water points that are below the standards of 500 inhabitants per water point. The ongoing floods in the affected southern part of the country may affect the quality of the outbreak response.

People are infected primarily through the fecal-oral route, usually through contaminated water or food. There have been several cases of hepatitis E infection in France due to eating raw figatellu, which is made with pig liver. Much like hepatitis A, the fatality rate is low with the exception of pregnant women, in whom it can reach 20% among those infected in the third trimester. Liver failure is a frequent outcome with pregnant women.

Australia: Ross River Virus

The number of Ross River virus cases in Mandurah has surged more than 61% since the last season, but the Peel Mosquito Management Group (PMMG) says this is a "positive and pleasing outcome for the city."

There were 47 reported cases of the mosquito-borne virus for the 2020-21 season compared to 29 for 2019-20, a 61.7% increase in one season. The Peel region also experienced a rise in numbers, increasing by 67.6% to 105 cases up from 71 the season prior.

La Niña conditions, a weather event which sees cooler surface waters in the Pacific Ocean, provided an ideal environment for saltmarsh mosquitoes to breed more rapidly.

Despite the surge in cases, PMMG reported only 2 months of the season recorded case numbers above the moving average for the region. The PMMG has attributed this "pleasing outcome" to the sophisticated mosquito management activities undertaken by the City of Mandurah, the WA Department of Health and the PMMG.

The group manages mosquito populations through aerial larviciding, a treatment that has little impact on the environment and residents. Across the 2020-21 season, the PMMG covered its largest area ever with a total 6808.1 hectares [16 823 acres] treated with the mosquito-killing agent.

India: Peste des Petits Ruminants

Goats kept by a man in Dahod have been isolated after one of the animals died due to Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), better known as sheep and goat plague. The viral disease is extremely contagious and can infect and even kill large parts of herds of animals like sheep and goats.

This is the first time that a PPR case has been reported in the Dahod district. Officials said that the infected goat belonged to a man who rears animals for meat. The man got alarmed after one of his goats died after suffering from cough and cold for a couple of days along with loose motions.

The man insisted that a test should be conducted to identify the ailment. The tests revealed that the goat was suffering from PPR.

Animal husbandry officer Kamleshgiri Gosai said that the man whose goat had died was asked to keep his remaining goats in the shed itself and not take them out for grazing. "This has been done to ensure that if more goats are infected, they do not spread it to other goats outside," he said.

Cameroon: Cholera

At least 8 people have died and more than 180 others are infected in a cholera epidemic that is sweeping across 2 health districts in Cameroon's Southwest region, international medical charity Doctors Without Borders (MSF) said Nov. 30.

"The Ekondo Titi Health District has reported more than 160 cases of cholera, with 62 patients hospitalized at the Cholera Treatment Unit, 15 patients treated at the Oral Rehydration points, and 5 deaths recorded. The Bakassi Health district has also reported 29 suspected cases with 3 deaths. The condition is particularly worrying because it means that cholera has spread in the community," Donatien Tshishimbi, MSF Medical Coordinator said in a statement. The population is vulnerable to infectious diseases like cholera because access to health care is difficult and the living conditions are poor, MSF said.

The international medical charity has established 2 cholera treatment centers and dispatched a team of health personnel to the affected areas to provide free treatment to the population. In early November 2021, the country's health authorities in the region warned that cholera was spreading in parts of the region accompanied by a rise in COVID-19 cases.

France: Avian Influenza

In France, the latest epidemic has hit a farm with laying hens. It is the first case in a commercial livestock farm.

According to the Ministry of Agriculture, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was detected Nov. 27 on a laying hen farm in the Nord department, just a few kilometers from the Belgian border. Investigations were currently underway to trace the route of infection.

According to the ministry, the flock was culled and the farm immediately disinfected. A protection zone and a surveillance zone had been set up around the outbreak. This is connected with strict biosecurity regulations for poultry farmers and a transport ban for birds.

The alliance of the Confederation Paysanne (Conf), an association of small farmers, and the Federation of Organic Farmers (FNAB), meanwhile, stressed that the farm in question was a commercial one with 160,000 birds and was also located in a region with close links to Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands. The organizations had jointly lodged a complaint with the Supreme Administrative Court in order to bring down the new disease protection requirements. Among other things, they see high hurdles for exemptions from the stall obligation endangering animal welfare and the existence of free-range farms.

According to Conf and FNAB, there is scientific evidence that the risk of introducing avian influenza into free-range systems is generally low. The spread of the disease depends mainly on the density of the flock, and the transport of goods and animals and the introduction of people also play an important role in the spread of the virus. It is also criticized that exemptions from the obligation to keep animals in confined areas are only possible if a veterinarian has previously certified that the animals are suffering from the disease.

France: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

In early November, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease killed a retired research technician from the National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment who had worked at Toulouse in contact with biological tissues infected with prions.

In all likelihood, this woman belonged to the Host-Pathogen Interactions (IHAP) research unit. Created in 2003 on the campus of the National Veterinary School of Toulouse (Envt) and attached to the animal health department of INRA, the main objective of this laboratory is "to understand the interactions between pathogenic microorganisms and their hosts".

Costa Rica: Malaria

Costa Rica health authorities report an increase in malaria cases in the last 4 weeks in the Northern Zone, prompting reinforcement of the epidemiological fence operation in the border corridor.

Local health services confirmed that there was a total of 138 cases as of Nov. 27, of which 13 are relapses in people infected with the disease.

Authorities of the Ministry of Health, the Costa Rican Social Security Fund (CCSS), with the support of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), maintain an epidemiological fence in the communities of Medio Queso, San Gerardo, Cuatro Esquinas, Isla Chica, La Trocha, Las Delicias, and Coquital, with the aim of preventing the cases from spreading to nearby places or to other territories in the region.

Vector officials of the Ministry of Health and Primary Care Technical Assistants (ATAPS) of the CCSS, concentrate their work on a house-to-house visit sweep to detect people with symptoms, take blood samples, supply medicines to suspicious people, deliver awnings and fumigate areas near the home. Another team of medical professionals and health planning professionals is in charge of the analysis, follow-up, and evolution of the reported cases.

Germany: African Swine Fever

A case of African swine fever (ASF) has been reported in a wild boar in the eastern state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

The case was recorded by the ministry of agriculture for the neighboring state of Brandenburg, reported Reuters.

It's not the first case reported in the region. In mid-November, Germany's federal agriculture ministry confirmed a case on a farm in the same state.

So far, most of the cases occurred in the eastern states of Brandenburg and Saxony.

Kenya: Lumpy Skin Disease

The sight of lumps on her cow's skin worries a livestock farmer and resident of Seretunin in Baringo Central.

What she is anxious about is a viral disease commonly known as Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD), which affects cattle.

"I lost my calf. At first I did not understand what was happening to the calf; it was only 6 months old. It had some nasal discharge and was hyper-salivating," the woman told the Sunday Standard.

On Dec. 3, 2 cows showed the same symptoms after the death of the calf, which prompted her to seek help from a local veterinarian who diagnosed the cows with LSD.

Farmers in the area are now on high alert due to the LSD outbreak, which has already claimed the lives of several livestock.

Lumpy skin disease is an infectious disease in cattle caused by a virus of the family Poxviridae, also known as Neethling virus. The disease is characterized by fever, enlarged superficial lymph nodes and multiple nodules on the skin and mucous membranes.

Mongolia: Foot and Mouth Disease

A case of FMD was registered in Burentogtokh soum of Khuvsgul aimag on Dec. 2. As of Dec. 9, a total of 7 outbreaks have been registered in the aimag, of which 3 are in the Burentogtokh soum and 4 in the Tsagaan-Uul soum. There are 12,442 cattle, 312 camels, 131,076 sheep, and 63,023 goats kept in 353 households in the hotspot and suspected areas, totaling 206,853 head of livestock. Of these, 640 cattle, 801 sheep and 98 goats from 53 households, a total of 1,539 head of livestock, were found infected. According to the Veterinary Department of Khuvsgul aimag, the number of animals vaccinated in the Sangiin Dalai bagh of Burentogtokh soum totalled 27,869, consisting of 1,542 cattle, 18,435 sheep and 7,892 goats from 50 households.

The continuing FMD epizootic in Mongolia started on Aug. 6. According to the media, citing Mongolia's General Authority for Veterinary Services, as of mid-October 2021, more than half of Mongolia's 21 provinces had been infected. The identification of the disease in Khuvsgul testifies to a further spread of the virus.

December 3, 2021

United Kingdom: Avian Influenza

A case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has been confirmed in commercial poultry near Pokesdown, Bournemouth. Temporary Control Zones of 3 km and 10 km have been put in force around an area centered on Castlemain Avenue. This is the first outbreak in the south west during the resurgence of the disease that began in October.

Bird flu has been confirmed in captive birds and commercial and non-commercial poultry in Worcestershire, Warwickshire, Essex, Lancashire, North Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Cumbria, Cheshire and Norfolk. An Avian Influenza Prevention Zone (AIPZ) was declared across the whole of the country to mitigate the risk of the disease spreading. It is now a legal requirement for all bird keepers in the UK to follow strict biosecurity measures.

Keepers with more than 500 birds will need to restrict access for non-essential people on their sites, workers will need to change clothing and footwear before entering bird enclosures and site vehicles will need to be cleaned and disinfected regularly to limit the risk of the disease spreading.

Backyard owners with smaller numbers of poultry including chickens, ducks and geese must also take steps to limit the risk of the disease spreading to their animals.

Germany: African Swine Fever

There are three further officially confirmed cases of African swine fever (ASF) in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. The Friedrich Loeffler Institute on the Riems [FLI] has diagnosed the disease in wild boars.

The animals belong to a group of wild boars that were killed a week ago during a driven hunt near Marnitz (Ludwigslust-Parchim district) on the state border with Brandenburg. A dead infected piglet was discovered. As a result, all 17 wild boars killed there were examined. Three of them have now also tested positive. ASF is not dangerous to humans, but infected pigs usually die.

The Ludwigslust-Parchim district has already set up zones in which strict regulations apply. This also includes a restricted area that unauthorized persons are no longer allowed to enter. A protective fence is now being erected there. Construction has already started. All wild boars are now to be tracked down and killed in this region in order to limit the risk of further infections as far as possible.

Cameroon: Yellow Fever

A vast immunization campaign to fight against yellow fever will soon be in operation, officials of the Expanded Program on Immunization have said. The vaccination campaign is in view after the Ministry of Public Health announced at least 13 deaths as well as 38 new infections have been recorded.

The resurgence of the disease in the country is affecting at least 9 regions, with only the South-West yet to present a case. Thus, to fight against the disease, health experts and community mobilisers have been on the field to educate the public on risk factors as well as prevention.

To prepare the ground for vaccination, the Ministry of Public Health as well as other partners have been carrying out surveys and doing detailed field investigations to assess the magnitude to the outbreak of the disease while equally searching cases in communities and assessing the risk of transmission.

According to Dr. Lihinag Li Meng Sylvain, field epidemiologist and senior support staff at the central technical group at Expanded Program on Immunization, the vaccination exercise will go a long way to stop any further spread of the disease. "Yellow fever affects everyone who is not vaccinated; thus, it is imperative to get vaccinated or more cases of yellow fever may sprout up," he said.


United States: West Nile virus

As of Nov. 23, health officials in Maricopa County, Arizona have reported a total of 1,091 human West Nile virus (WNV) cases in 2021. This total accounts for roughly half the total cases in the United States this year. The previous annual record of 355 cases in Arizona was set in 2004.

County officials also report 79 deaths due to the mosquito-borne disease. In all of 2000, Maricopa County saw 3 cases and one death. Melissa Kretschmer with the Maricopa County Health Department said a dry 2020 season followed by this very wet monsoon season contributed to more standing water, leading to more mosquitoes.

Statewide, Arizona has reported 1,233 total confirmed and probable cases and 90 deaths. Pinal and Pima counties recorded cases in the double digits with 94 and 74 total cases, respectively.

West Nile virus is typically spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. Although it can cause severe disease, only about 1 in 5 of those infected will develop any symptoms at all. Those who do develop symptoms usually experience a flulike illness including fever, headache, body aches and muscle weakness.

Ghana: Yellow Fever

The number of casualties recorded from the outbreak of yellow fever in some parts of the country has risen to 39. Apart from the Savannah and Upper West Regions where cases were initially reported, the Ghana Health Service (GHS) says others have been recorded in the Northern, Oti and Bono regions.

The director-general, Dr Patrick Kuma-Aboagye who made the disclosure, said the Service was intensifying vaccination campaigns on the disease in reporting regions to control its spread and save lives. He was speaking at the opening of a 3-day senior managers meeting for top-level management members within the health sector in Accra Nov. 25. The meeting, which is the second of its kind, will discuss pertinent issues affecting the sector for policy planning and budgeting for service delivery sustainability. The meeting's theme is "Improving service delivery in a pandemic; the role of participatory planning and budgeting".

Dr. Kuma-Aboagye said as much as the GHS deployed COVID-19 vaccines, other life-saving vaccines to protect the populace against other infectious diseases would be pursued. "To control these diseases, there is renewed high-level commitment to obtaining sufficient vaccines to make vaccines a national public good. We will continue to implore the use of enhanced protocols to reduce rate of infections, admissions and deaths.”

Guyana: Malaria

The Guyana minister of health, Frank Anthony, confirmed on Nov. 23 that Venezuelans who entered Guyana through the town of Port Kaituma in the northwest of the South American country, have been diagnosed with malaria. The minister was part of the team of officials who traveled to the area for a first-hand assessment of the needs of citizens arriving from the Bolivarian country.

Frank Anthony had indicated at a press conference on Nov. 22 that Venezuelans are guaranteed health care, after Guyana media reported the entry of people through the town of Puerto Kaituma, in north west Guyana. He reported that about 200 people, part of 25 families from Venezuela, had settled in the town of Anabisi, an area near Puerto Kaituma. He said that, in addition to malaria, several other diseases such as respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea were detected among immigrants and pointed out that a large number of them were caused by limited access to drinking water. There are also cases of poor nutrition, a problem that affects children especially.

Tunisia: Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease

On Oct. 23, Tunisia officially reported to OIE 4 epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) outbreaks in cattle located in Kasserine, Ariana, and El Kef governorates. The results of gene sequencing aren't available. Outbreaks in cattle were also recorded in Siliana governorate. Cases in wild ruminants (deer) were recorded in Jendouba governorate.

EHDV serotype 6 emerged for the first time in Tunisia in 2006, almost simultaneously with Morocco and Algeria. During this first outbreak, clinical cases were reported in cattle herds. In Tunisia, the previous occurrence dates from September 2015, when a bovine outbreak was recorded in Mahdia governorate.

Samples from affected animals were submitted to the OIE reference laboratory in Teramo (IZS, 'G. Caporale', Abruzzo and Molise) for serotyping and gene sequencing; results are pending. According to media reports, there is an ongoing epizootic of another orbivirus, bluetongue (BT), in Tunisia, affecting sheep and cattle. Most of the (27) BT virus serotypes cause viraemia in cattle with very mild or no clinical signs; BTV-8 is exceptional. The results of the laboratory tests are expected to determine the definitive diagnosis of cattle presenting clinical signs in Tunisia.

Libya: Rift Valley Fever

The agricultural sector in Benghazi revealed Nov. 26 the presence of outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in the Al-Wahat region.

The coordinator of the agricultural sector in Benghazi, Miftah Al-Khashmi, met Nov. 25 with the head of the National Center for Animal Health, Zakaria Al-Khattal. The meeting took place in the presence of Abdel Hakim Al-Misrati, head of the Benghazi Agricultural Police. The meeting discussed the presence of some Rift Valley fever outbreaks in the Al-Wahat region.

The meeting dealt with how to coordinate actions with the competent authorities to combat this disease that affects animals and causes infection in humans.

Malaysia: Japanese Encephalitis

The Kedah Health Department confirmed that 2 cases of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) infection have been detected in the Kota Setar district, with both cases involving death.

State Health director Dr Othman Warijo said the first case was reported on Nov. 18 followed by the second case Nov. 25, and the department declared an outbreak of JE in the district that day.

In this regard, he said the cumulative number of JE cases reported in the state as of Nov. 25 was 10 cases compared to 8 cases in the same period last year, an increase of 25% with 3 deaths out of the 10 cases.

"Outbreak control activities were implemented immediately," he said in a statement last night. "Among the control measures implemented by the Kota Setar District Health Office and the State Health Department are vector control through thermal space spraying and larvaciding in patients' residential localities as well as outbreak localities that are at risk.

Senegal: Rift Valley Fever

An outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) is ongoing in Senegal, which was declared by health authorities after confirmation of the first case on Nov. 10 by the Pasteur Institute of Dakar.

As of Nov. 18, a total of 3 cases and zero deaths are reported in the health districts of Gossas and Diofior, in the Fatick region.

Rift Valley Fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever that causes illness in animals (such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and camels).

Most people with RVF have either no symptoms or a mild illness with fever, weakness, back pain, and dizziness. A small percentage (8-10%) of people with RVF develop much more severe symptoms, including eye disease, hemorrhage (excessive bleeding), and encephalitis (swelling of the brain).

United States: Legionellosis

The Indiana Department of Correction [IDOC] announced that an outbreak of legionnaires' disease has been confirmed at the Pendleton Correctional Facility. 3 cases have been confirmed, and 2 additional cases have been identified to be probable.

Legionnaires' disease is a very serious type of pneumonia caused by bacteria called Legionella. Outbreaks are often associated with large or complex water systems, such as showers, fountains, and hot tubs.

All 5 incarcerated individuals are receiving treatment and are hospitalized. Others who show symptoms will be tested and treated in the same way as needed.

Legionnaires' disease is serious, with 1 in 10 people who get the disease dying from infection. It can be treated with antibiotics and can make a full recovery, especially if the individual is receiving care in a hospital.


November 19, 2021

Central African Republic: Ebola

Four people have died of hemorrhagic fever in the Central African Republic, raising suspicions of an early Ebola outbreak in that country.

The victims are located in the city of Kabo in the prefecture of Ouham-Fafa, and local doctors put forward the hypothesis of the Ebola virus. But the Minister of Health, Pierre Somse, prefers to wait for the results of the analysis of the samples before officially deciding on the nature of the disease.

Pending these results, Minister Somse calls on the Central African population to be "calm" and practice "vigilance", while reassuring them that measures are being taken to prevent the spread of the disease. The last Ebola alert in the Central African Republic dates back to August 2020 when a case was reported in Côte d'Ivoire, a country in which population movements are quite frequent.

Japan: Avian Influenza

Japan has detected its first outbreak of bird flu for the 2021 winter season, with confirmation of a case of "highly pathogenic avian influenza" [HPAI] at a poultry farm in the northeast of the country, the agriculture ministry said Nov. 10.

About 143,000 egg-laying chickens are being exterminated at the farm in Yokote city in Akita Prefecture, the ministry said in a statement on its website, adding that restricted zones up to 10 km from the site have been established.

The flu was later detected to have spread to another province of the country. An outbreak of bird flu has been confirmed at a poultry production facility in Himeji city in Hyogo province. It was reported that a large-scale disinfection work was started in the region. The state administration set up a crisis desk to decide on the measures to be taken.

Japan has temporarily suspended exports of chicken meat and eggs from all regions following the outbreak, the ministry said.

"Under the current situation in Japan, we do not believe that there is any possibility of avian influenza being transmitted to humans through the consumption of chicken meat or eggs," the ministry said.

But an increase in the number of people in China getting infected from bird flu this year is turning into a source of concern among epidemiological experts, especially as the world slowly recovers from the COVID-19 pandemic.

China has reported 21 human infections with the H5N6 subtype of avian influenza in 2021 to the World Health Organization [WHO], compared with only 5 last year, with 6 dead and many of the others critically ill.

Ireland: Avian Influenza

The Department of Agriculture has confirmed a case of bird flu in County Kerry. The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) was confirmed in a white-tailed sea eagle near Tarbert. The eagle was submitted to the Veterinary Laboratory in Limerick as part of the Department's wild bird avian influenza (AI) surveillance program.

The Department also confirmed that wild birds in Donegal and Offaly have also been confirmed positive for H5N1, including both mute swans and whooper swans and wild geese. One Minister for State described the confirmations as "very concerning."

Last week, a strain of the virus was detected in a peregrine falcon in County Galway. The Minister for Agriculture said it is "very unfortunate that this case has been detected in such a rare bird."

However, Minister for Agriculture Charlie McConalogue commended the Department's wild bird AI surveillance program. "It is important that we remain vigilant, and I would also urge that flock owners should also be watchful. We should do everything that we can to ensure that potentially infected wild birds do not have contact with domestic flocks."

Ghana: Yellow Fever

The Ghana Health Service (GHS) has embarked on a vaccination exercise in the Savannah Region after 16 were reported to have died of yellow fever.

The Ghana Health Service announced the outbreak of suspected yellow fever in the Savannah Region.

Yellow fever is a viral infection spread by a particular species of mosquito.

The outbreak has been recorded in the West Gonja Municipality and the North Gonja District of the region.

As of Nov. 12, the death toll had increased to 16 with others in critical condition.

To bring the outbreak under control, the Ghana Health Service has started vaccinating people in the 2 assemblies, with the hope of extending it across the region.

Thomas Suuri, the Disease Control Officer of the Ghana Health Service in the Savannah Region, says about 90% of residents in affected communities in the North Gonja District have been vaccinated.

Malaysia: Cholera

The Selangor health department has issued a statewide cholera alert to all hospitals and district health clinics, according to a circular. The circular, sighted by SAYS, is signed by Selangor health director Dr. Sha'ari Ngadiman, who said that a case of cholera in the Petaling district was detected.

According to the circular, the case involves a Malaysian citizen. "In this regard, it is hoped that all parties will take note and improve control and prevention measures more effectively in accordance with existing guidelines," it said.

No other details such as the age, gender, and condition of the patient were mentioned in the circular. Early symptoms of the disease include painless watery stool and vomiting and can lead to dehydration, circulatory collapse, and even death if left untreated.

Congo: Monkeypox

For two weeks, the population of the community of Bakongola, Ovudu grouping, Kimbombo territory in Maniema has suffered from this rare epidemic named monkeypox.

Monkeypox, a rare disease, is caused by the simian pox virus, which is structurally related to smallpox and causes a similar disease, but less severe. It is part of the group of orthopoxviruses_.

The residents who contacted the editorial staff of Netic-News are launching a cry of alarm to the authorities because the situation is becoming more and more serious.

Germany: African Swine Fever

Cases of African swine fever [ASF] have been reported in the Rostock district (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania). Following the reported death of several pigs in a fattening farm, the State Office for Agriculture, Food Safety and Fisheries examined initial samples. A PCR test led to the suspicion that the animals were infected with the ASF virus. Further investigations by the Friedrich Loeffler Institute [FLI] have now confirmed the suspicion, as reported by the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL).

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania has become Germany's third federal state affected by ASF. Previously affected federal states are Brandenburg and Saxony; almost 2,700 cases of ASF have been detected there by now, most of them in wild boars.

How the animal disease entered the fattening farm is currently unknown. The FLI will now also investigate the route of the pathogen's entry into the herd. The responsible authority onsite must now order that all animals in the herd are killed and harmlessly disposed of.

Kazakhstan: Anthrax

In the Abay region of Shymkent, 4 people contracted anthrax while cutting carcasses, As it turned out, the owner sold the meat of the sick animal at a cheap price.

Experts remind that you need to buy meat only in proven places, if the seller has a medical examination and a veterinary certificate.

Anthrax is an acute infectious disease that is one of the most dangerous. A person can get infected from a sick animal. It is not transmitted from person to person. One of the main measures for the prevention of anthrax is vaccination. It applies to livestock workers, persons involved in the processing, transportation and storage of animal skins. If sick animals are found, the veterinary service should be notified for timely action.

There are several types of anthrax manifestations -- cutaneous, pulmonary, intestinal and septic form. All of them are manifested by an increase in body temperature, with damage to the lymphatic system. Mortality in the pulmonary-intestinal form is 80-100%. When the first signs of the disease appear, you must immediately contact the clinic at the place of attachment.

November 12, 2021

Cameroon: Cholera

Health workers in Cameroon are fighting a cholera outbreak that claimed 13 lives this week in 2 major cities of the central African state. The outbreak, which has affected several hundred people, comes as Cameroon prepares to host the African Football Cup of Nations, or AFCON, in about 2 months. Cameroon's health minister Manaouda Malachie in a release this week said thousands of civilians in the capital city Yaounde and Ekondo-Titi, an English-speaking western town, are threatened by cholera.

Cholera is an infectious and often fatal bacterial disease of the small intestine, typically contracted from infected water supplies and food. It causes severe vomiting and diarrhea and can kill within hours if left untreated.

Amos Kome Njikang, the medical doctor in charge of the Ekondo-Titi Hospital, dispatched health workers to the community to search for and transport cholera patients to the hospital. "We have made plans for the transportation of new cases from the community to the health facility at Bamousso. We have also tried to increase personal hygiene, hand washing, washing of whatever we consume. We are trying to tell them how to purify water before they drink."

The health ministry said several hundred patients were rushed to hospitals in Yaounde and Ekondo-Titi. The government said it recorded at least 13 cholera-related deaths in the 2 towns since [Mon 1 Nov 2021]. It is feared the outbreak may have claimed more lives in villages which lack health infrastructure. This week, the Ministry of Health said it dispatched several dozen health workers to warn civilians that eating uncooked food and unwashed fruits, or drink water that's not boiled, increases the risk of getting cholera.

Kenya: Leishmaniasis

Kenyans are now living in fear after a strange disease broke out in Tharaka Nithi County, claiming 5 lives in a matter of months. According to information from health officials, the rare and strange disease known as kala-azar has so far infected 33 individuals over the last few months. This has put the county on a high alert, taking necessary steps to contain the outbreak.

Kala-azar, scientifically referred to as visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is characterized by irregular bouts of fever and anemia. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), kala-azar is also characterized by weight loss and enlargement of the spleen and liver.

The disease is caused by parasites and transmitted through the bites of infected female sand flies. The infection rates vary from person to person. People with HIV have a high chance of going full-blown once infested by the disease. The disease is mainly attracted by poor hygienic conditions, malnutrition, and environmental changes. However, the disease is treatable and curable once detected in its early stages.

Jordan: Foot and Mouth Disease

The Greater Amman Municipality announced the closure of the livestock market in the Sahab area for a period of 2 weeks starting on Nov. 5.  A calf in one of the stalls adjacent to the livestock market have been found infected with foot and mouth disease..

The municipality's secretariat explained, in a statement, that the decision was based on a letter from the Ministry of Agriculture. The secretariat said that "this disease does not have any impact on public health", according to the letter of the Ministry of Agriculture, and spraying and sterilization operations will be carried out during the closure period.

Deputy director of the city for health and agricultural affairs in the Amman municipality, Mervat Mhairat, indicated through the "Kingdom" that the decision was a precautionary and preventive measure to prevent the disease from spreading to neighboring farms on the site, especially since the area is agricultural. She said that the disease has no effects on public health, but epidemiologically, if there is an infected area, the disease can be transmitted through clothing or droplets.

"Our role in the Amman municipality is only the halal market, which was established to serve farmers in the region to facilitate buying and selling operations. As for neighboring farms, it is one of the tasks of the Ministry of Agriculture -- and it takes the precautionary and preventive measures, including vaccination, monitoring, treatment and assistance to farmers," according to Mhairat. Mhairat expressed her hope that no other cases would be detected.

Bulgaria: African Swine Fever

Bulgarian veterinary authorities reported on Nov. 8 a new outbreak of African swine fever [ASF] at an industrial farm that has a total of 180 pigs in the southern village of Radinovo.

The outbreak is the second at an industrial farm in a Balkan country this year, the Bulgarian Food Safety Agency said.

All the pigs at the farm will be culled, the agency said, and a 3 km quarantine zone set up around it to stop the spread of the disease, which is incurable in pigs but harmless to humans.

In August, the agency had to cull some 13,000 pigs at an industrial farm in the central village of Apriltsi after an ASF outbreak. The agency has reported 5 outbreaks of the disease in backyard farms in 2021.

Russia: Anthrax

The Yamal Peninsula in the Russian Federation experienced a massive outbreak of anthrax in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in July-August 2016, with 2650 (6.46% of the total susceptible population) animals infected, of which 2350 died (case fatality rate of 88.67%). In our study, we analyzed climatic and epidemiological factors that could have triggered the outbreak.

The cancelation of reindeer vaccination against anthrax in 2007 resulted in an increase in population susceptibility. In response to the outbreak, total vaccination of all susceptible animals was resumed. To assess the vaccination effectiveness, we tested 913 samples of blood serum taken from vaccinated reindeer using an antigenic erythrocyte diagnostic kit to detect specific anti-anthrax antibodies via an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) 9 months after vaccination. We found that 814 samples had sufficiently high levels of anti-anthrax antibodies to indicate a protection level of 89% (95% confidence interval: 87-91%) of the whole reindeer population.

Venezuela: Leishmaniasis

The board of the organization of Médicos Unidos de Venezuela [MUV/United Physicians of Venezuela] reports cases of leishmaniasis and other diseases in the rural areas of Lara state.

They indicate that patients could not be treated with the urgency required, since the health personnel has not been able to move due to lack of fuel for transportation.

Dr. Luzmila Leal, director of the MUV, added that health programs have slowed down. Likewise, the epidemiologists consulted by that institution have confirmed that there are cases of leishmaniasis in Duaca, Sanare, and Macuto; and that the disease has been there for many years.

However, lately, there have been reports of infected people in the town of La Ruezga in Barquisimeto. Despite this, health personnel have not been able to provide care and implement a control program. "The official agencies have not been able to send staff to critical sites, due to the lack of transportation and fuel," said MUV. Leal explained that "it is not that the programs have been paralyzed, but that they have been slowed down.

United States: Plague

A domestic cat in Evergreen tested positive for bubonic plague last week, according to Jefferson County Public Health.

The health department said the cat stays near Bergen Mountain Road and Stagecoach Boulevard, close to Elk Meadow Park. It tested positive for plague Nov. 5, according to the health department.

The health department said this is the first case of plague confirmed in the county this year. The cat is suspected to have been infected by an encounter with a sick rodent, possibly a rat.

"While plague is a serious disease, and cases of animal-borne disease in household pets is never something we like to see, it is normal and expected for some animals to contract plague in Jefferson County each year," Jim Rada, director of Environmental Health Services at Jefferson County Public Health, said in a release. "The good news is modern antibiotics are effective against plague, and as long as it is treated promptly, severe complications, illness, or death can be avoided."

India: Newcastle Disease

Around 70 demoiselle cranes, popularly known as Kurjan in western Rajasthan, have been found dead in Kaparda village near Jodhpur over the last 3 days, with forest department officials blaming the highly contagious Newcastle disease which affects the respiratory tracks of the birds. However, tests on viscera samples that can establish this are awaited, and at least one expert believes the deaths are actually the result of pesticide poisoning.

The officials said another 150 birds are stranded because they cannot fly due to the disease.

The Newcastle disease is caused by a virus belonging to the paramyxovirus family. The forest department has sent the viscera samples of the birds to IVRI Bhopal for further investigation. DN Pandey, the head of the forest department, said only the report will provide a clear picture.

Congo: Typhoid

In a follow-up on the typhoid outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), from the beginning of 2021 through the end of September 2021, 1,121,104 total typhoid cases have been reported, including 19.734 confirmed cases. The death toll from typhoid in the DRC is now 411. In 2020, a total of 715,920 suspected cases of typhoid fever were reported, including 178 deaths.

Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella [enterica serotype] Typhi, is a life-threatening bacterial infection. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about 21 million people annually. S. Typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. In addition, a small number of persons, called carriers, recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shed S. Typhi in their feces.

You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is shedding S. Typhi or if sewage contaminated with the bacterium gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food. Therefore, typhoid fever is more common in areas of the world where handwashing is less frequent and water is likely to be contaminated with sewage.

Ghana: Yellow Fever

The death toll in the yellow fever outbreak in the Savannah Region has risen to 14. The casualties comprise one male adult and 13 children.

Some 19 others are still on admission at the West Gonja Hospital from 2 districts in the Region. The affected districts, which include West and North Gonja Municipal and Districts, respectively, also recorded 65 cases.

In an interview with JoyNews, the Savannah Regional Director of Ghana Health Services, Dr. Chrysantus Kuubio said there is no need for any panic situation from the public as the situation is currently under control. He added, "We have so far suspected 65 cases and 14 deaths, and 7 of these deaths have been recorded in West Gonja Municipal and the other 7 too from the North Gonja District."

"And the initial communication has been 8 deaths, but surveillance is such that we visit these communities where we have these reported cases and also check to see if there are deaths that have not been reported at the facility," Dr. Kuubio stated. Larabanga, Logto, Canteen, Kamakura, Sori no. 1 and no. 5 are among the affected communities.

November 5, 2021

Congo: Ebola

This week, Doctors Without Borders launched Ebola virus disease management activities in the Beni health zone of the Democratic Republic of Congo, supporting the efforts of the Ministry of Health. In the Butsili and Kanzulinzuli health centers, the response focuses on triage, detection, and isolation of suspected cases. Teams, alongside those of the Ministry of Health, carry out outpatient consultations for patients of all ages admitted to the isolation unit.

The teams will try to ensure the rehabilitation and structural improvements of the two health centers and assist with sustaining the supply of medicines and food for the patients admitted to the isolation center and their companions. In addition, they will provide technical support to monitor community activities in order to locate and identify contact cases in the community, but also social monitoring of all high-risk contacts through the distribution of kits including telephones and food to make it easier for people suspected to have Ebola to self-isolate and limit viral transmission. People at high risk, including contacts of confirmed cases and first responders, will be vaccinated to contain the spread of the virus.

Since Oct. 8, when the first positive case was detected, 5 new cases were confirmed, including 3 deaths, in the Butsili health center. A previous epidemic was officially declared over on May 3 in Butsili, with an assessment of 5 confirmed cases including 3 deaths and 308 contacts followed in the area, according to data from health authorities.

China; Avian Influenza

The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health is closely monitoring a human case of avian influenza A(H5N6) on the Mainland, and again urged the public to maintain strict personal, food and environmental hygiene both locally and during travel.

The case involves a 60-year-old woman living in Changde in Hunan Province. She is a farmer and had exposure to dead poultry. She developed symptoms and was admitted for treatment. The patient is in critical condition.

Since 2014, 48 human cases of avian influenza A(H5N6) have been reported by Mainland health authorities.

"All novel influenza A infections, including H5N6, are notifiable infectious diseases in Hong Kong," a spokesman for the CHP said.

Travellers to the Mainland or other affected areas must avoid visiting wet markets, live poultry markets or farms. They should be alert to the presence of backyard poultry when visiting relatives and friends. They should also avoid purchasing live or freshly slaughtered poultry, and avoid touching poultry/birds or their droppings. They should strictly observe personal and hand hygiene when visiting any place with live poultry.

United States: West Nile Virus

An unvaccinated 9-year-old crossbred Belgian/Standardbred gelding in Wisconsin has died after contracting West Nile virus -- the state's first confirmed case of the virus in a horse since 2018.

The disease can cause brain inflammation in horses and people, according to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP), which confirmed the case.

However, the virus cannot pass directly between people and horses -- the only route of transmission is from a mosquito bite, the DATCP says.

The Crawford County horse death is the only confirmed case -- human or equine -- in the state this year, according to the state Department of Health Services.

Mosquitoes transmit the virus from birds, which are natural reservoirs for the West Nile virus. Because humans and equines acquire the virus from mosquitoes, the threat normally occurs when mosquitoes are most active, from mid-to-late summer until the first killing frost.

United States: Swine Flu

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported 2 previous human infections with novel influenza A viruses.

One infection with an influenza A(H1N1) variant (A(H1N1)v) virus was reported by North Dakota that occurred during the 2020-21 influenza season. And one infection with influenza (A(H3N2)v) virus was reported by Ohio that occurred during the current 2021-22 influenza season.

Both patients are younger than 18 years of age, were not hospitalized, and have recovered or are recovering from their illness. One of the patients had close contact with swine before illness onset.

The other patient had no known swine contact or attendance at agricultural exhibits where swine were present. This finding indicates that limited human-to-human transmission potentially occurred. Moreover, no ongoing human-to-human transmission has been identified associated with either patient.

Finally, it is essential to note that in most cases, variant influenza viruses have not shown the ability to spread efficiently and sustainably from person to person. When an influenza virus that normally circulates in swine (but not people) is detected in a person, it is called a "variant influenza virus." The first swine influenza virus (swine flu) was found in pigs in 1918.

Netherlands: Avian Influenza

The Dutch Food and Consumer Safety Authority (NVWA) culled 107,000 chickens due to a bird flu outbreak at a large poultry farm in Grootschermer in the municipality of Alkmaar, Minister of Agriculture Carola Schouten wrote in a letter to the Tweede Kamer.

Schouten wrote it concerns a "broiler farm with 3 sheds: 2 sheds with 40,000 animals and one shed with 27,000 animals. In one barn, the animals showed signs of bird flu," Schouten said.

The samples taken show that there is, indeed, a case of contamination.

Near the infected farm there is another chicken farm with 18,700 broilers. According to the agriculture minister, it is "responsible" not to clear this company preventively because no other commercial poultry farm is located within a radius of 10 kilometers "where the spread could occur."

Canada: Bluetongue

The Southern Okanagan Sportsmen's Association has issued an update on deaths plaguing bighorn sheep populations in the South Okanagan [British Columbia].

A total of 20 wild bighorn sheep were found dead near Grand Forks in August, after an outbreak of epizootic hemorrhagic disease, also known as bluetongue.

The association recorded a rise in sheep mortalities near Vaseaux Lake and Okanagan Falls in late September and early October.

In a written update from Craig McLean, a wildlife biologist in the Okanagan region, he states that the findings so far indicate that a handful of dead sheep that were brought into the lab have been confirmed to have bluetongue.

But the total number of South Okanagan bighorn sheep lost is not fully known at this time.

"With regards to the South Okanagan bighorn sheep, we have lost some animals from the meta population but at this time we don't have an overall understanding of impacts," McLean wrote.

United States: Legionellosis

Washington County, Ore., Public Health is investigating 6 cases of Legionnaires' disease reported within the last week in the Murrayhill area of Beaverton. Four people have been hospitalized. The county said those infected range in age from late 40s to early 80s and live within 2 miles of Murray Boulevard and Scholls Ferry Road.

Health officials have not identified the source of the infection and want to warn people in the area to look out for symptoms. Washington County Public Health is working with the Oregon Health Authority and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to collect samples and conduct tests to determine the sources of the exposure.

Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by Legionella bacteria found naturally in the environment. Common sources of infection include hot tubs, hot water tanks, large air conditioning and plumbing systems, and fountains. People can become infected by breathing in droplets from contaminated water, according to Washington County Public Health.

United States: Hepatitis A

The Roanoke Valley, Va., health district announced Friday, that a second adult died from hepatitis A complications in an outbreak linked to Famous Anthony's restaurant. The person was hospitalized with complications from the virus, which causes inflammation of the liver. Roanoke City and Alleghany Health Districts officials said it would not release further information about the individual due to privacy reasons.

Officials have identified 49 confirmed cases, including 31 hospitalizations. A small number of cases are still under investigation, but no new cases have been reported to the health district this week

The incubation period, which accounts for the time between exposure to the virus and the onset of symptoms, passed 2 weeks ago.

"We grieve the loss of this second individual, who was loved by friends and family," health district director Cynthia Morrow said. "It is devastating that we have seen a high rate of severe disease with this outbreak."

A Roanoke County resident aged 75 died from hepatitis A complications Oct. 8. He was the first confirmed death associated with the outbreak.

United States: Hantavirus

The first human case of hantavirus infection in Riverside County, Calif., was recently confirmed by health officials.

County officials said they believe the patient might have been exposed to deer mice droppings or urine that contained hantavirus while in the Whitewater area. The individual was briefly hospitalized and is recovering at home.

Hantavirus is usually found in remote wilderness areas and impacts humans in areas where deer mice droppings are left behind, such as cabins and rest areas. Officials emphasized that hantavirus infection is rare and can cause serious illness. It can frequently become fatal, but there are steps the public can take to reduce exposure.

India: Leptospirosis

The number of confirmed leptospirosis cases in Ernakulam district has gone up in October compared to figures in September. A total of 18 cases were confirmed in September, while the number of suspected cases was 51. The number of confirmed cases was 29 as of Oct. 26. Another 48 suspected cases were also reported in the district, according to official estimates. The number of deaths due to suspected leptospirosis went up from 5 in September to 6 this month.

District Medical Officer N.K. Kuttappan said the cases would go up once the rains were over. People in rain-affected areas and those engaged in relief and cleaning work should take doxycycline tablets on the advice of health workers, he added. Dr. Kuttappan said those who died of leptospirosis were found to have not taken preventive medicines. They had also delayed receiving proper medical care.

The health authorities said people should refrain from self-medication, if they have leptospirosis symptoms. They include fever, redness in eyes, headache, skin rash, and muscle pain. Any delay in taking treatment leads to liver and kidney problems. Multi-organ failure is reported in severe cases.

Israel: Avian Influenza

A flock of breeding turkeys on a farm in Maayan-Tzvi has been found infected by HPAI H5N1. The affected flock is composed of 35-week-old birds.

Preliminary clinical signs were observed Oct. 29 in the males' coop only, numbering less than 400 birds.

The mortality increased, reaching a total of 9% during the same day. Individual animals presented neurological signs and stumbling. Necropsy revealed enteritis.

Samples were submitted to the Kimron Veterinary Institute, where HPAI H5N1 has been identified.

India: Anthrax

The district veterinary department has sprung into action following reports that anthrax had claimed the lives of 4 sheep and one goat in Warangal's Chapala Banda village. As an immediate precaution, they have launched measures to stop the spread of the bacterial disease, although veterinarians have said that this was a common infection in livestock.

A resident of Chapala Banda village in Duggondi mandal said that he had purchased 5 sheep and one goat from an Anantapur trader at the local fair, and on Oct. 26, all 6 died. Veterinary doctors collected the samples and sent them to National Center for Laboratory Animal Sciences, Hyderabad, which confirmed that they had succumbed to anthrax.

Dr. M. Balakrishan, joint director, district veterinary and animal husbandry, Warangal, said, "We immediately procured 9,000 doses of vaccination against anthrax from Bengaluru and administered them on all goats and sheep in the 5 km radius. There were a total of 7,800 goats and sheep in the mandal's 5 villages."

Ghana: Yellow Fever

Some 8 persons have died from a suspected yellow fever (YF) outbreak in the Savannah region, the Ghana Health Service (GHS) has said. This follows interim laboratory results of an unusual disease from the region, a press release from the Service, copied to the Ghana News Agency said. It said the disease was presumed to be yellow fever and that samples had been shipped for final confirmation.

The release, signed by Dr Patrick Kuma-Aboagye, director general of the GHS, said tests for other viral hemorrhagic fevers like Ebola, Lassa, Marburg, and Zika were all negative. The affected persons were nomads in selected communities in West and North Gonja of the Savannah region, who had never been vaccinated against yellow fever. The GHS urged all persons from the region who had fever, general weakness, headache, nausea, and vomiting to immediately report to the nearest health facility. It encouraged individuals who had never been vaccinated against yellow fever to do so.

"Avoid mosquito bites by wearing clothing that covers all parts of the body and report to the nearest health facility if you have fever and, especially when you have yellowish discoloration of your eyes," the Service advised. A team of experts from the Service, Center for Disease Control (CDC) Ghana, World Health Organization (WHO) Ghana, and the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR) has been deployed to support the Savannah region to investigate and institute appropriate control measures.

Sweden: Newcastle Disease

An outbreak of serious and contagious Newcastle disease has been discovered in the province of Orebro, following test results from the Swedish Veterinary Institute (SVA). "Avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses circulate regularly in wild birds. To avoid the spread of infection to domestic birds, it is always important to ensure that direct and indirect contact between domestic and wild birds is avoided," says infection control farmer Caroline Busval, according to a press release.

The authority imposed restrictions in the area to avoid further spread. An infection control investigation has been initiated in order to ascertain the source of the infection and whether there is a risk of further spread. This disease is harmless to humans [see comment].

The disease is relatively uncommon and she is not aware of any previous outbreaks in the county, says Ella Siegvardsson, an Orebro County veterinarian.

Since 1995, 20 outbreaks of Newcastle disease have occurred in Sweden. The most recent outbreak recorded in Vastra Gotaland County was in 2018. In the previous year, farms were affected in Ostergotland County, Skane County, and Kalmar County.

Libya: Leishmaniasis

The National Center for Disease Control has confirmed that it received a report through the monitoring team in the municipality of Brak Al-Shati, Ashkada region [Wadi Ash Shati'], including the emergence of cases of leishmaniasis. The center confirmed that it had sent medical teams to the area to assess the environmental situation, and to give the necessary treatment and technical recommendations to help the families, and to take precautionary and preventive measures to avoid the disease.

The Center indicated that a medical team from the Department of Common Diseases Control at the Center went to the Ashkadeh area to assess the environmental situation and to find out the reasons behind the emergence of disease cases in the area.

The National Center for Disease Control pointed out that the initial findings revealed that they were infected with leishmaniasis, and to confirm this, samples were taken from patients and sent to the reference laboratory for common diseases at the center for examination. Animals and inside the homes of the infected cases, to catch the vector and storage of leishmaniasis, to be examined and analyzed within the reference laboratory for common diseases at the National Center for Disease Control.

United Kingdom: Avian Influenza

A case of H5N1 avian influenza has been confirmed in poultry and wild birds in north Wales, just days after the UK recorded its first bird flu outbreak of the season. The chief veterinary officer for Wales confirmed the presence of the H5N1 strain at a premises in Wrexham County.

Temporary disease control zones of 3 km and 10 km have been imposed around the premises to limit the risk of disease spread. A veterinary investigation is under way; however, dead wild birds found in the area have tested positive for the virus and are believed to be the source of infection.

The Welsh government said the risk to public health from the virus was considered to be very low. This is the first confirmation of the disease in Wales since it was discovered in pheasants in January.


October 21, 2021

Germany: African Swine Fever

African swine fever (ASF) is advancing further west in Germany. On Oct. 13, the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut [FLI] confirmed a case in a hunted wild boar in Saxony. The wild boar was killed on the weekend 10 km north of Dresden. The epidemic is located more than 100 km west of the German-Polish border. It is only 100 km to Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt.

This is the first time that Saxony has had an ASF case in wild boars outside the Görlitz district. So far, ASF has been identified in more than 500 wild boars there. From the current case near Radeburg to the exclusion zone in the Görlitz district (endangered area), it is almost 55 kilometers.

In Saxony, the ASF crisis team is now meeting at the Ministry of Social Affairs. Among other things, a decision will be made on the delimitation of the restriction zones to be set up. Details are not yet available. Saxony extended the obligation to examine all shot healthy wild boars since the end of September. Earlier, such measure was restricted to the districts of Görlitz and Bautzen. At present, this measure is obligatory also in the districts of Meissen, Saxon Switzerland-Eastern Ore Mountains, and on the territory of the state capital Dresden.

With the latest case, the total number of ASF cases identified in Brandenburg and Saxony for a year has risen to 2,500. Fortunately, there have only been 3 cases in domestic pig herds so far. With the added Meissen district, a total of 8 districts are now affected. In the past 14 days alone, the Friedrich Loeffler Institute confirmed 69 ASF cases in wild boars.

Japan: Japanese Encephalitis

Oita Prefecture announced on Oct. 13 that a woman in Kunisaki City developed Japanese encephalitis and died. This is the first time that deaths due to Japanese encephalitis have been confirmed in the prefecture since 2006 when statistics began.

According to the prefecture, the woman was hospitalized with a fever on Sept. 12 and died Sept. 29. She was diagnosed by a post-mortem examination when the Eastern Health Center was contacted.

According to the Prefectural Infectious Disease Control Division, [arthropod-borne] infectious diseases can be caused by mosquito-borne viruses. They do not spread from person to person. Vaccination can reduce the chance of developing the disease by 75-95%.

Algeria: Brucellosis

The health services of the Misdalah district east of Bouira have appealed to the heads and residents of its municipalities to avoid the acquisition and consumption of milk and all its derivatives of unknown source and offered for sale on the roads and some shops, in order to avoid infection with brucellosis, from which several confirmed cases of infection were recorded in the population.

The announcement published by the neighborhood's health services in Hanif stated that, according to the detection of a confirmed case of human brucellosis for a person living in the village of Texiridan. In the village, from the municipality of Al-Shorfa, epidemiological investigations conducted by the services confirmed that the cause of infection is the acquisition and consumption of fresh milk from several shops in the region.

Therefore, according to the same services, mayors of municipalities must intensify supervision to prevent the spread of the disease, and the residents of the region should avoid getting or consuming milk and all its derivatives of animal origin of unknown origin, especially those offered for sale on the roads or in public places without supervision, as well as some shops. This should be done in order to protect their private and public health due to the health symptoms that the disease causes, which may lead to death, in addition to the fear of the infection spreading more among them, whether by consuming these materials, especially unboiled milk, or by direct contact with the blood of infected animals such as sheep, sheep and goats.

Mozambique: Cholera

Mozambican health authorities announced an outbreak of cholera in the district of Caia, Sofala province, in the center of the country. The outbreak has already caused 160 cases with no deaths recorded.

The first suspicions arose in late August, Justino Antonio, district director of health services in Caia told Radio Mozambique.

A team of technicians from the provincial health department is investigating the origin of the outbreak, which only occurs at the district headquarters, while local services have installed tents to treat the sick. "We have 3 tents installed, one for more serious cases," explained the person in charge. At the same time, there is distribution of products for water treatment and awareness of the use of latrines.

United States: Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease

The presence of epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) has been confirmed in Vermont for the first time in state history. Several deer in Rutland County were recently discovered dead from the viral disease. The county is in the north-central part of the state and to the east of the Adirondack Park in New York, which has been hit hard this autumn by a massive outbreak of EHD. Officials in Massachusetts and other northeast states are monitoring for any cases of the disease while hoping for a hard frost to kill the biting midges that spread it.

The Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department (VFWD) said the EHD cases so far have been confined to the towns of Castleton and West Haven in a press release. The agency notes that "although [the cases] are likely related to more widespread outbreaks occurring in New York. The majority of Rutland County and the rest of Vermont appear not to have been affected by EHD." The disease was confirmed in 7 counties in New York in September, and NY Department of Environmental Conservation officials have been investigating cases in a total of 28 counties statewide.

EHD is spread by tiny, biting midges also known as "no-see-ums." Multiple strains, or serotypes, of the virus do exist. Whitetails infected with one strain may survive and become more resistant to that strain but not to a different one. Once infected, deer often die within 36-48 hours.

United States: Legionellosis

The Nassau County, NY, Department of Health is looking into a Legionnaires' disease outbreak on Long Island. There are 10 reported cases in a one-mile radius. All of the cases were discovered within the past 2 weeks.

The Legionella bacteria are found naturally in the environment and are transmitted by aerosolized water. People can get Legionnaires' disease when breathing in a mist or vapor containing the bacteria, most commonly from cooling towers, fountains, spray parks, hot tubs, whirlpool spas, showers, and faucets. The bacteria are not spread from person to person.

Those who are 50 years of age or older are at a higher risk of becoming ill with Legionnaires' disease, as well as current or former smokers, those with chronic lung disease, those with a weakened immune system, and people who take immunosuppressant medications.

Iran: Anthrax

Arvandkenar district governor said that the cause of death of a number of large livestock in one of the villages of Nasar district of Arvandkenar district is being investigated. In an interview with IRNA on Oct. 14, Sadegh Jalali stated: "After learning about the death of heavy cattle in one of the villages, the issue was investigated in the field with the coordination of the district and department of veterinary medicine." He added, "In the initial investigation, it was found that the cause of death of these animals was due to a disease and has nothing to do with the water of the area."

Jalali said: "So far, exact statistics on the number of lost animals are not available and the issue is under further investigation."

In an interview with IRNA, the head of Abadan Veterinary department stated that the cause of death of large cattle in Nasar village was Charbon (Anthrax) disease and added that the necessary action to vaccinate cattle in the region is on the agenda. Assadollah Abbasi added: "Currently, veterinary groups are specially vaccinating the animals of the residents up to a certain radius in the region by preparing a vaccine." He added: "200 doses of vaccine will be prepared for injection and will be injected into the cattle of the region by Oct. 15."

Australia: Hendra Virus

A new variant of the dangerous Hendra virus has been confirmed in a horse during routine surveillance in New South Wales, Australia.

Researchers recently discovered the new variant in historical samples, and a new test is now available nationally to identify it.

Researchers with the science agency CSIRO and the University of Sydney investigated laboratory samples from horses previously suspected of having Hendra virus but had all tested negative.

"They found evidence of a novel virus, later confirmed as a new variant and have now developed a diagnostic tool specific to detect it," said David Littleproud, the Minister for Agriculture and Northern Australia.

"The research and now this detection highlights the geographic distribution of Hendra virus-carrying bats is likely much greater than once thought."

Science and Technology Minister Melissa Price said the new test would significantly reduce infection risks for veterinarians and frontline equine workers.

Zambia: Typhoid Fever

Health officials in Zambia confirmed an outbreak of suspected typhoid in Lusaka, the country's capital. Residents of mostly shanty compounds of the Zambian capital have of late complained of diarrhea cases, forcing the health authorities to conduct tests.

Minister of Health Sylvia Masebo said environmental and water analysis has revealed fecal contamination of water in some shanty compounds in the city. She said in a release that health authorities have since heightened active surveillance-reporting cases and engaged the water and sanitation firm to manage the problem.

The ministry, she said, has also received 6,000 bottles of liquid chlorine from the Zambia Red Cross to be distributed to the affected areas, as well as intensified water quality monitoring. "We continue to urge all households to ensure that they practice safe food and water hygiene practices more so during this time of year in order to avoid diseases," she said.

Spain: Bluetongue

Last July, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food of the Balearic Islands officially confirmed the presence of bluetongue serotype 4 on the island of Mallorca, after which the Government decided to start a vaccination campaign against the disease.

Since the first outbreak of bluetongue was detected, outbreaks have been reported in different areas of the island of Mallorca. However, the last 2 outbreaks have been located, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAPA), on the island of Ibiza .

This presents the detection of the bluetongue for the first time in Ibiza since the disease returned to the archipelago in 2021.

The 2 outbreaks detected on the island of Ibiza occurred in the municipalities of Sant Joan de Labritja and Sant Antoni de Portmany, in 2 sheep farms, affecting a total of 7 animals .

Regarding the bluetongue vaccination campaign, which began in July, the Balearic government estimates that before the end of the year, more than 200,000 sheep and 16,000 cows (breeding animals) will have been vaccinated against the disease. Thus, the campaign is nearing completion. In fact, at the end of September they reported that more than 80% of the islands' cattle had already been vaccinated.

United States: Leptospirosis

Rats have been terrorizing New Yorkers even more than usual this year [2021], teaming up in clan warfare during the food-scarce days of strict Covid lockdowns and harassing sidewalk diners once the city began opening up.

And this year, more New Yorkers have been falling seriously ill from a rare but potentially fatal bacterial disease called leptospirosis, which is spread through exposure to rats, and specifically through contact with rat urine or contaminated water.

Last month, the city's health department reported 14 cases of leptospirosis -- an unusually high number since just New York has documented a total of 57 cases in the 15 years since 2006 -- and alerted healthcare providers to be on the lookout for symptoms. Of the first 14 cases, 13 people were hospitalized with acute renal and hepatic failure, and one person died as a result of an infection, the alert said. Last week, there was a 15th case. That person appears to have recovered, the health department told Insider.

The disease is treatable with antibiotics and some people won't experience any symptoms, though 1 in 10 cases progress to severe complications, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Every year, there are roughly 150 cases of leptospirosis nationwide, according to the CDC, with most cases occurring in Puerto Rico and Hawaii.

India: Scrub Typhus

The Vindhya region has reported 200 cases of scrub typhus so far this year. However, viral and seasonal diseases are on decline, according to doctors at Shyam Shah Medical College hospital, Rewa. As per doctors, certain deaths too have been reported among scrub typhus affected patients. However, they attributed the deaths to comorbidities.

Scrub typhus cases are on the rise in Vindhya region. It leads to multiple organ failure. Viral disease is on decline, said Dr. Naresh Bajaj, head of pediatric department at the hospital attached to Shyam Shah Medical College in Rewa.

As for its prevention, no vaccine is available to prevent scrub typhus. People are advised to reduce risk of contracting the disease by avoiding contact with infected chiggers. When traveling to areas where scrub typhus is common, avoid areas with lots of vegetation and brush where chiggers may be found.

The scrub typhus symptoms are similar to dengue. Its symptoms are fever and chills, headache, body ache and muscle pain, a dark, scab-like region at the site of the chigger bite (also known as eschar), mental changes ranging from confusion to coma, enlarged lymph nodes, rashes, etc.

Italy: Legionellosis

Two cases of legionellosis were found at the Sinigo elementary school [Trentino-South Tyrol region]. Since the infection is transmitted via aerosol (through the droplets present in the water vapor), the use of the showers has been suspended and the air conditioning system closed.

The health department has carried out water samples; the analyses are still in

October14, 2021

India: Japanese Encephalitis

According to the civil surgeon's office in Patna, a child from the city outskirts village of Pandarak died due to Japanese encephalitis Oct. 5.

The child was admitted to the NICU ward of Patna Medical College and Hospital (PMCH). Another child from the Karauta village near Bakhtiyarpur was also found positive with Japanese encephalitis. He was also admitted to the PMCH.

Japanese encephalitis virus is endemic in north eastern India, including Bihar state, and cases occur there annually. Although there have been fewer cases of acute encephalitis syndrome and Japanese Encephalitis in Bihar state this year than in previous years, these 2 cases indicate that Japanese encephalitis virus continues to be transmitted in that state.

The widespread immunization program in 35 of the 38 districts reported earlier doubtless has played a role in JE case reduction.

Congo: Ebola

A case of Ebola has been reported in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The official confirmation is pending. The case is stated to be a 2 year old in a densely-populated neighborhood of the city of Beni, one of the epicenters of the 2018-2020 outbreak. Three of the baby's neighbors presented symptoms consistent with Ebola in September 2021 and then died, however, none were tested for the virus.

It was not immediately known if the case was related to the 2018-2020 outbreak that killed more than 2,200 people in eastern Congo, or the flare-up that killed 6 this year.

South America: Yellow Fever

In 2021, three countries in the Region of the Americas (Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela) have reported confirmed yellow fever cases. In 2020, two countries in the Region of the Americas reported confirmed cases of yellow fever: Bolivia and Peru. A situation summary of the countries that reported confirmed yellow fever cases in 2021 is provided below.

A reemergence of the yellow fever virus has been reported in the extra-Amazonian region of Brazil since 2014. The expansion of the historical area of yellow fever transmission to areas previously considered not at risk led to two waves of transmission -- one during the 2016-2017 seasonal period, with 778 confirmed human cases including 262 deaths, and another during the 2017-2018 seasonal period, with 1,376 confirmed human cases including 483 deaths. As a result, Brazil changed their yellow fever vaccination recommended areas to include the entire country.

During the seasonal period (2020-2021) between July 2020 and April 2021, a total of 287 suspected human cases were reported, 8 of which (3.4%) were confirmed, 47 (16%) are under investigation, and 235 (82%) were discarded. All confirmed cases, which included 3 fatal cases, were reported in the state of Santa Catarina. Of the total confirmed cases were ages ranging between 34 to 61 years and 4 cases with no vaccination history.

Italy: Bluetongue

"Bluetongue is out of control, so much so that we are witnessing an exponential growth of the disease, which yesterday recorded 684,000 animals involved with 1,913 outbreaks and 9,388 deaths, in continuous and rapid growth". This was underlined by the president of Copagri Sardegna, Ignazio Cirronis, in whose opinion "the responsibilities of the Department of Health, which decided to derogate from the obligations established by its own decree of Feb. 25, 2016 relating to the vaccine prophylaxis plan, are serious. it is deemed not to be fully applied within the established time frames."

"We consider it very serious" -- continues Cirronis -- "that a dangerous state of malfunctioning of the chain of command in the field of animal health remains; to date, in fact, no decision has been taken to purchase the necessary vaccines, already quantified, and there is no coordination between the departments of Agriculture and Health, which should proceed by mutual agreement and involve agricultural organizations together".

United States: Shigellosis

The County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency is monitoring an outbreak of at least 6 cases of shigellosis in individuals experiencing homelessness since Sept. 30. The cases were found after the individuals were hospitalized. They are expected to recover.

The County has notified the City of San Diego and will work with the city and potential exposure sites and homeless service providers to ensure good hygienic precautions, identify any additional cases and connect ill individuals to treatment and housing. A health advisory to local providers also has also been issued.

"Shigellosis is not usually serious, but in the wrong circumstances it can spread, and we want to ensure this vulnerable population is kept safe," said Seema Shah, M.D., medical director of HHSA's Epidemiology and Immunization Services branch.

Shigellosis is a contagious infection typically spread by contaminated surfaces, food or water, or sometimes person-to-person such as men who have sex with men (MSMs). In 2020, the County identified 243 total cases; to date in 2021, the County has identified 220.

Nigeria: Dysentery

A total of 20 people have been reportedly killed by a cholera outbreak in Adamawa State, Nigeria,, while 16 others are battling for their lives presently from the epidemic. SaharaReporters learned that the deadly disease, currently ravaging Gbalang town, in the Numan Local Government Area, has brought panic to the residents. Residents of the community called on Governor Ahmadu Fintiri, to urgently address the raging epidemic.

A youth leader in the Gbalang community, Umar Sadau, told SaharaReporters that 20 people, including women and children, had died after contracting the disease. Saidu further disclosed that 16 others were receiving medical treatment at the Numan General Hospital and Gbalang Dispensary.

He said, "The disease (cholera) which is currently ravaging the community has taken its toll. When a victim comes down with cholera, they die within hours, and sometimes the following day. So far, we've buried 20 corpses, all victims of the disease, and 16 others are in the hospital right now."

Confirming the incident, the Director, Public Health in the state Ministry of Health, Dr. Laori Celine, said cholera was reported from the Numan area. She said, "Our records have shown 15 cases of the cholera outbreak and one dead in Numan LGA. And interventions such as the provision of Aqua tabs, awareness on hygiene are being given. We also engaged some NGOs to support us in reaching out to the affected communities."

October 7, 2021

Nigeria: Yellow Fever

Since September 2017, yellow fever cases have been reported across several states in Nigeria. From Between Jan. 1 and Sept. 1, a total of 1,312 suspected cases were reported in 367 local government areas (LGAs) across 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT).

A total of 45 blood samples were sent to the Institut Pasteur in Dakar (IPD) and 31 samples tested positive by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Of these 31 PRNT-positive cases, 12 cases had a history of yellow fever vaccination. Among the remaining 19 non-vaccinated PRNT-positive cases, 2 deaths were reported (case fatality ratio: 11%). These 19 PRNT-positive cases were reported from Enugu (7 cases), Anambra (3 cases), Benue (3 cases), Delta (2 cases), Oyo (2 cases), Niger (one case) and Osun (one case) states. Investigations into the PRNT-positive cases are ongoing.

Nigeria has documented gaps in population immunity against yellow fever. According to WHO-UNICEF 2020 estimates, the national immunization coverage for yellow fever was 54% in 2020, which is below the threshold of 80% necessary to protect against outbreaks. In the 9 states reporting PRNT-positive cases, the routine immunization coverage declined between 2018 and 2020 and was below 80% in 2020. These states include Anambra, Benue, Delta, Enugu, Imo, Niger, Ondo, Osun and Oyo. There are 6 states that reported coverage below 50% (Anambra, Delta, Enugu, Imo, Osun, and Oyo states).

Between 2019 and 2020, preventive mass vaccination campaigns were conducted in 6 (all LGAs) of the 9 states. Coverage was reported to be high (more than 90%) in Delta and Ondo states but lower (less than 80%) in Anambra, Benue, Niger, Osun and Oyo states. Additionally, in Enugu State, 9 of 17 LGAs organized reactive mass vaccination campaigns in 2020, while in Imo State, mass vaccination activities have not been organized in recent years.

China: Avian Influenza

A 26-year-old woman in southern China has died of H5N6 bird flu amid a rise in isolated cases, health officials in Hong Kong reported on Sept. 29. Three other cases were reported earlier this month.

The Hong Kong Department of Health said it was notified about the case in Guilin, a city in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in mainland China. There was no immediate word from local officials.

The health department said the 26-year-old woman had contact with live domestic poultry before she developed symptoms on Aug. 14. She was admitted to hospital 5 days later and has since died.

It was not immediately clear why the case had not been previously reported to the public. The World Health Organization (WHO) did not immediately respond to request for comment.

Only 46 human cases of H5N6 bird flu have been confirmed since the first case in 2014, but nearly 1/4 of them have been reported during the last 2.5 months. At least 22 cases, all but one of them in China, were reported during the last year.

Brazil: West Nile Virus

The 17th Regional Health of Paraná, headquartered in Londrina [Paraná state], reported that a case of West Nile fever had been recorded in a mule in the city of Porecatu. The technical note corfirming the presence of the disease was issued by Adapar (Agricultural Defense Agency of Paraná). The State Health Secretariat (Sesa) reported that it has been investigating suspected cases in humans and other possible cases of infection in animals in the municipalities of Lupionópolis and Florestópolis, also in the north of the state.

West Nile fever is a viral infection caused by an arbovirus hosted by a mosquito; arboviruses also cause dengue, Zika, and chikungunya. Transmission is through the bite of infected mosquitoes, mainly of the genus Culex. The natural hosts are wild birds, which act as virus amplifiers and sources of infection for mosquitoes. Humans, horses, and other primates can be infected.

According to Sesa, in humans, 80% of those infected have no symptoms. Among the symptomatic, West Nile virus (WNV) usually causes fever, headache, tiredness, and body, eye, and headaches. In severe cases, the central nervous system may be involved. According to Sesa, in humans, suspicious cases are those of people with "unspecific acute febrile illness, accompanied by neurological manifestations compatible with meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis, of unknown etiology". In less than 1% of human cases of infection, there is encephalitis or meningitis, with neck stiffness, mental confusion, or epileptic seizures.

Brazil: Yellow Fever

Municipalities of northern Minas Gerais have been compelled to monitor the occurrence of yellow fever cases. These actions were sparked after monkey deaths due to yellow fever were observed in Ubaí and Icaraí in August 2021.

Samples of organs of howler monkeys found dead in Luislândia are still being analysed at a Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED) laboratory in Belo Horizonte. There were also deaths in Serra das Araras, Chapada Gaúcha, although without confirmation of yellow fever diagnosis.

The monitoring actions by the state secretary of health of Minas Gerais have been ongoing since Sept. 20. The investigation involves health officials of Montes Claros, of FUNED, of Januária and of Varginha.

Teams of technicians, accompanied by staff from the municipalities, traveled around rural areas collecting mosquitoes that are potential vectors of the disease. If dead monkeys are found, they will be tested for yellow fever.

Ukraine: Anthrax

In the Ternopil zoo, a pony died of anthrax on the territory of the aviary. Today the anthrax infection was confirmed by Kyiv veterinarians. Employees who came in the morning to feed the zoo animals, finding a dead pony, immediately reported the case to the Ternopil City Veterinary Hospital.

"Specialists from the hospital and the Ternopil Regional State Laboratory of the State Service of Ukraine for Food Safety and Consumer Protection went to the scene. During the necropsy of the animal, signs of pneumonia, gastroenteritis and lymphadenitis were found, and the enlargement and rounding of the edges of the spleen aroused suspicion of anthrax," the State Food and Consumer Service of Ternopil region reported.

To confirm anthrax infection, specialists took samples of the spleen, liver, heart and lymph nodes. This material was sent to the regional state laboratory of the State Food and Consumer Services. After the necropsy, "The carcass of a pony was removed by incineration, about which a relevant act was drawn up and a photograph was taken. The burnt remains were buried, and the burial place and the transport by which the corpse was transported were disinfected," the Ternopil State Food and Consumer Service reported.

Venezuela: Yellow Fever

The death of araguatos, or howler monkeys, has previously been reported in Monagas and Anzoategui.

A total of 10 confirmed epizootics of non-human primates (araguato monkeys) have been reported in Venezuela: 7 in Monagas and 3 in Anzoategui, with 2 confirmed by PCR laboratory (both from Edo Monagas) and 8 confirmed by epidemiological link.

Yellow fever vaccination coverage for Venezuela is 75%, and 78% in Monagas.

These are the first cases that have been reported since November 2019, when an indigenous Pemon was infected in Bolivar state.

Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever. Symptoms of yellow fever (fever, chills, headache, backache, and muscle aches) develop 3-6 days after infection. About 15% of people infected with yellow fever virus will develop severe illness that can lead to liver disease, bleeding, shock, organ failure, yellowing skin (jaundice), and sometimes death. Diagnosis is based on symptoms, laboratory testing, and travel history. Yellow fever virus spreads through the bites of infected mosquitoes.

Mongolia: Foot and Mouth Disease

At least 7,681 head of livestock of 85 herders have been infected with the deadly foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the central Mongolian province of Uvurkhangai [Ovorhangay, Ovorkhangai], the provincial veterinary department said Oct. 4. The viral infectious disease has spread in the province via livestock of herders who have returned home from the east of the country.

Due to a drought in Uvurkhangai this summer, many herders in the province have moved to the east, which has rich grass, to fatten their livestock.

High-risk animals are being vaccinated against the FMD to curb and prevent its spread. So far this year [2021], the highly contagious disease, which spreads among cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, sheep, and pigs, has broken out in more than half of Mongolia's 21 provinces, according to the country's General Authority for Veterinary Services.

The livestock sector, with around 70 million head, is a main pillar of the Mongolian economy. The landlocked country, with a population of some 3.4 million, is striving to develop its livestock sector by raising meat exports in a bid to diversify its mining-dependent economy, while frequent outbreaks of livestock diseases such as FMD are impeding the process.The country's meat exports have been suspended since June [2021] due to infectious animal diseases, according to the Mongolian National Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

Japan: Yezo Virus

A novel virus that can be transmitted by tick bites has been discovered in Japan. Dubbed Yezo virus (YEZV), it can cause fever and other symptoms in humans.

A case of the mysterious disease was recorded in 2019 after a 41-year-old man was admitted to a hospital with symptoms, including fever and leg pain, Hokkaido University noted in a news release. The man was bitten by an "arthropod believed to be a tick", but tests revealed he was not infected with any of the known viruses carried by ticks in the region.

Although the man was discharged from the hospital after 2 weeks, another case of the disease was reported a year later with the patient displaying similar symptoms.

Septemeber 30, 2021

Iraq: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

Health officials in Iraq are reporting the death of a person working as a butcher in Mosul city due to infection with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), according to a Shafaq News report.

The Director of the Veterinary Hospital, Dr. Uday Al-Abadi, said that quarantine was imposed on a number of people who had been in contact with the deceased in a hospital. He added that "we have fogged the meat market in Ras Al-Jada, on the right side of Mosul, because the butcher works there, and we hope that no new cases will be recorded."

The mayor of Mosul, Zuhair Al-Araji, said this case is the first of its kind recorded in Mosul. He pointed out that this is an issue of great concern and authorities will impose strict penalties on any butcher who slaughters livestock outside the authorized slaughterhouse. He explained that the penalties would reach prison and the imposition of financial fines to prevent the spread of CCHF in the city of Mosul.

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus of the Bunyaviridae family. The CCHF virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10%-40%.

Congo: Monkeypox

The World Health Organization (WHO) reported 69 additional suspected monkeypox cases in the past month in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), bringing the cumulative total since the beginning of the year to 8,849.

In addition, 3 more deaths were recorded, bringing the monkeypox death for 2021 to 69.

In 2020, DRC saw a total of 6,257 suspected cases including 229 deaths (CFR 3.7%) reported in 133 health zones from 17 out of 26 provinces in the country.

According to the CDC, the symptoms of monkeypox are as follows: About 12 days after people are infected with the virus, they will get a fever, headache, muscle aches, and backache; their lymph nodes will swell; and they will feel tired. 1 to 3 days (or longer) after the fever starts, they will get a rash. This rash develops into raised bumps filled with fluid and often starts on the face and spreads, but it can start on other parts of the body too. The bumps go through several stages before they get crusty, scab over, and fall off. The illness usually lasts for 2 to 4 weeks.

Namibia: Foot and Mouth Disease

Namibia has detected a new strain of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the country, the agriculture minister said in a statement on Sept. 23.

"It is important to highlight that the new FMD serotype O also causes clinical cases in goats and sheep and they can spread the disease further to other susceptible animals," Minister Carl Schlettwein said in a statement.

The susceptibility of small ruminants is of significance for Namibia's current FMD prevention and control activities. According to the above OIE report, vaccination in response to the outbreaks has been undertaken in the affected compartment.

Madagascar: Plague

In a follow-up on a report 2 weeks ago, on Aug. 29, in the Itasy region, Arivonimamo health district, an alert was received by the health authorities regarding cases of pulmonary plague. As of Sept. 16, a total of 38 suspected cases of pulmonary plague including 19 confirmed and 6 death cases are reported so far.

Active case finding, chemoprophylaxis for high-risk contacts of alive and death cases are ongoing, as well as regular meetings of the plague control committees at regional and health district level, mass sensitization activities, contact tracing, ongoing investigation, as well as vector and anti-reservoir control measures.

Pneumonic plague is the most serious form and is the only form that can be spread from person to person. Pneumonic plague can develop from inhaling infectious droplets or may develop from untreated bubonic or septicemic plague.

Malaysia: Leptospirosis

Bathing pools at the Ulu Bendul Recreational Park were closed to the public after 3 individuals who visited the area fell ill. All 3, who have since been warded at the Tuanku Ja'afar Hospital, came down with fever, vomiting and diarrhea after visiting the popular park. Two are believed to have leptospirosis, while the third may have a rotavirus infection.

Kuala Pilah District Council chief Mohd Faizal Abdul Manap said the closure would also allow the authorities to carry out maintenance work in the area. "We decided to close following advice from the state health authorities. We regret the inconvenience," he said.

Earlier, state health director Datin Dr. Harlina Abdul Rashid said the authorities were still probing the cases. "Based on the symptoms, we suspect 2 individuals have come down with leptospirosis, or rat urine disease, and another with rotavirus. Prior to falling ill, all 3 had all visited the recreational park," she said. Dr. Harlina said health authorities have also carried out a risk assessment and taken samples from the park.

Spain: Tularemia

The Government of Navarra has registered a case of tularemia in a forestry worker in the Leitza area, who had to be admitted to hospital, where he tested positive. The autonomous community had not reported new cases of this disease for years. In fact, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, the only autonomous community that was seriously affected in recent years of the last decade was Castile-Leon, which in 2014 suffered a score of cases during an outbreak of this infection.

Tularemia is a zoonotic disease, that is, it is an animal infection transmissible to humans. Fundamentally, it affects lagomorphs and rodents, although other mammals, birds, fish and amphibians can also be infected. In general, it occurs frequently in people related to hunting, meat handling and jobs associated with agriculture and livestock. Therefore, the risk groups for this disease are those formed by people who have close contact with the natural environment or its products, such as farmers, ranchers, veterinarians, hunters, fishermen, forestry employees, gardeners, cooks, and butchers.

Clinical symptoms in humans vary depending on the route of entry or the method of infection. There are 7 clinical presentations: ulceroglandular, glandular, oculoglandular, oropharyngeal, pneumonic, typhoid, and intestinal. Among them, the most common is ulceroglandular, which originates when contagion occurs through the bite of an arthropod or when contaminated animals or their remains are handled. An ulcer appears at the site of contact and inflammation of the regional lymph nodes occurs, along with high fever. With proper treatment (antimicrobial therapy), most patients make a full recovery.

Philippines: African Swine Fever

African swine fever (ASF) has already spread to 49 towns and cities in Eastern Visayas, affecting new areas, but the Department of Agriculture said that the outbreak is manageable.

The animal disease has already infected 14,924 hogs in 230 villages as of mid-September.

The number represents 6.68% of the region's 223,504 hog population, regional information officer Francis Rosaroso said.

In Leyte province, affected areas are Abuyog, Javier, Mahaplag, Dulag, MacArthur, Tanauan, Burauen, Palo, La Paz, San Miguel, Barugo, Tunga, Sta. Fe, Leyte, Pastrana, Tacloban City, Mayorga, Jaro, Kananga, Carigara, Tolosa, Dagami, Tabontabon, Ormoc City, Tabango, Matag-ob, Calubian, Villaba, and Baybay City.

In other provinces, ASF-hit areas are Silago, Sogod, and Libagon in Southern Leyte; Calbayog City, Catbalogan City, Sta. Rita, Hinabangan, Basey, Sta. Margarita, Gandara, Matuguinao, and Motiong in Samar; Lope de Vega, Catarman, Mondragon in Northern Samar; Dolores, Oras, Jipapad, Balangiga, and Guiuan in Eastern Samar.

"Although there are new areas affected, this is not alarming since the rate of increase has been going down. The total number of affected villages is only 5% of the total," Rosaroso said.

India: Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis -- a bacterial disease that spreads through the urine of infected animals such as rats and cattle -- has emerged as the biggest killer among monsoon diseases. Data gathered from the civic body [Mumbai] shows that 70 people have succumbed due to leptospirosis over the past 6 years. In comparison, dengue, a mosquito-borne disease, has killed 55 people and malaria has killed 38 people during the same period.

The leptospirosis infection is caused by the Leptospira bacteria that can enter the human body through cuts, abrasions or open wounds. The cases of leptospirosis are typically during monsoon and after flooding events, when people are forced to wade through water. However, doctors say that a few sporadic cases are reported throughout the year from areas with overflowing sewers, water accumulation, and a general lack of cleanliness.

Since 2015, the city has recorded 1,576 cases of leptospirosis, according to civic data. However, this data captures patients who were admitted only in the civic-run hospitals. A large number of patients could be treated in private hospitals and on an outpatient department basis as well.

"Mortality in leptospirosis is generally seen when patients seek medical advice very late," said Dr Wiqar Shaikh, professor of medicine at the state-run JJ Hospital [Mumbai]. "One of the severe impacts of leptospirosis is swelling in the liver, which may worsen in cases of late diagnosis. Also, patients with existing comorbidities can have a severe impact," he said adding that since June this year, he has treated around 40 patients with leptospirosis.

Germany: Q Fever

In Berlin, the animal disease Q fever was transmitted from sheep to laboratory staff in the summer. Up to 15 cases of infection are known to be counted in this outbreak, said Silvia Kostner, spokeswoman for the State Office for Health and Social Affairs and confirmed media reports. Q fever can be associated with flu-like symptoms in humans, but it can also lead to complication

Larger outbreaks like this are rare in Berlin, said Kostner. In this case, the infection process was quickly recognized and also ended. "At no time was there a risk to the general population," added the spokeswoman. The latest human illness known to the office was at the end of July.

According to the definition of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), Q fever is a zoonosis that is widespread almost worldwide - i.e., a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. It is caused by a bacterium called Coxiella burnetii. Ticks play a role in spreading among animals. The symptoms in animals are often ambiguous, and the disease is not fatal for them.

According to the RKI, about half of the cases lead to a flu-like illness if it is transmitted to humans -- for example via the air or animal excretions. It can be complicated by inflammation of the lungs, liver, heart muscle, or brain. Chronic disease courses, mainly heart valve inflammation, are very rare, but feared because of the severity of the disease.

Bulgaria: Anthrax

A case of cutaneous form of anthrax in a shepherd was found in Shumen district. This is the first and only [human] case of the year in the country. According to a report on the epidemic situation of the Ministry of Health from mid-September, the man fell ill after treatment of the skin of a dead animal. After examination by an infectious disease specialist, he was left for home treatment. The diagnosis was laboratory confirmed. The case was notified to the Regional Directorate for Food Safety (RHI) in Shumen for taking measures of competence.

RHI-Shumen continues the epidemiological study (of the event) with the application of anti-epidemic measures.

This is the first case of anthrax in the country this year, according to the National Center for Infectious and Parasitic Diseases. At the same time last year, there was not a single patient with this disease.

Anthrax mainly affects herbivores. In humans, the skin form is the most common (affected organ). It is spread through contact with infected animals, contaminated soil, meat, and objects that have come into contact with the carcass. The incubation period is 1-20 days. The skin form begins with the appearance of a dense red spot, which increases for 1-2 days. Along with the local changes, there are also signs of intoxication of the body such as malaise, loss of appetite, headache, fever. If left untreated, the disease can have fatal consequences.

India: Foot and Mouth Disease

An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) among cattle in Hassan has left both farmers and veterinarians worried.

Cases have been reported from Arkalgud, Arsikere, Channarayapatna, and Sakleshpur taluks. While the farming community, depending on cattle for regular income, is worried about their livelihood, the veterinarians are struggling hard to provide treatment amidst a shortage of staff members.

The Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry has reported over 150 cases in the district so far. As of Sept. 24, the animals in 16 villages of the district are being treated. So far, the death of one animal had been reported. However, farmers claim more animals have died over the last one month. The disease of cattle has an impact on milk production, affecting milk producers.

The vaccination for cattle is done once in 6 months under the National Animal Disease Control Program. However, the vaccination drive was not done in the last one year, owing to the COVID-19 pandemic.

United States: Swine Flu

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a new human infection with an influenza A(H1N2) variant (A(H1N2)v) virus was reported by Ohio. This is the second H1N2v case reported this year in the state.

The patient is less than 18 years of age, was not hospitalized, and has completely recovered from their illness.

The patient and the household contacts of the patient report no swine contact or attendance at agricultural exhibits where swine were present.

It is possible that limited human-to-human transmission occurred. No ongoing human-to-human transmission has been identified.

Ten human infections with a novel influenza A virus have been reported in the United States this influenza season, including 2 H3N2v (IA, WI), 3 H1N2v (IA, OH (2)), and 5 H1N1v (IA, NC, WI (3)) virus infections.

Six infections have occurred in children less than 18 years of age, and 4 have occurred in adults greater than or equal to 18 years of age. Of the 10 infected individuals, only one had no identified connection to swine. The other 9 individuals had direct contact with swine, were on a property with swine present, or had a household member who had direct contact with swine prior to illness onset.

China; Bird Flu

The health authority in southern China's Guangdong province said on Sept. 22 that a single case of a human being infected with the H5N6 strain of bird flu has been reported in the city of Dongguan.

The infected patient, a 53-year-old male, is being treated in hospital, the Health Commission of Guangdong Province said in a statement, adding that experts considered the risk of transmission to be low at this stage.

Mexico: Typhoid Fever

Tamaulipas state, on the west coast of Mexico and bordering Texas has reported 3,407 typhoid fever infections since the beginning of 2021, according to a report. This puts Tamaulipas at the top of cases reported in any one state, closely followed by Sinaloa state (3,381).

Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, is a life-threatening bacterial infection. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about 21 million people annually. S. Typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever can have the organism in their bloodstream as well as intestinal tract. In addition, a small number of persons, called carriers, recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacterium. Both ill persons and carriers shed S. Typhi in their feces.

You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is shedding S. Typhi or if sewage contaminated with the bacterium gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food. Therefore, typhoid fever is more common in areas of the world where handwashing is less frequent and water is likely to be contaminated with sewage.

Namibia: Anthrax

Anthrax is an infectious bacterial disease endemic in some parts of Africa. It affects people, livestock, as well as wildlife. Using GPS telemetry data, a team of scientists from the Cheetah Research Project of the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) reconstructed a special case of anthrax infection in Namibia: 3 free-ranging cheetahs in the Namib Desert died within 24 hours after feeding on a mountain zebra that tested positive for the disease. The zebra is the first described case of a wild animal infected with anthrax in this arid region. The case also shows that there might be previously unknown risks to cheetah populations in the desert.

Since 2015, scientists of the Leibniz-IZW Cheetah Research Project (CRP) have conducted a National Cheetah Survey together with the Namibian Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Tourism (MEFT). The purpose is to obtain data on cheetah density and distribution across the country. Within this framework, a coalition of 3 cheetah males was captured in the Namib Desert and one animal equipped with a GPS collar. The recorded location and movement data were regularly downloaded during aerial tracking flights. On one of these flights, the carcass of a collared cheetah -- one of the members of the coalition -- was located from the aircraft. During the following ground inspection, the other 2 cheetahs were also found dead.

United States: Eastern Equine Encephalitis

The Camden County (NJ) Department of Health and Human Services reported an eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) case in a resident of Pine Hill.

On Sept. 21, laboratory test results positive for EEE were reported to the Camden County Department of Health and Human Services. The patient remains hospitalized.

"Eastern equine encephalitis is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. Only a few human cases are reported each year, and the disease can't be passed directly from person to person," said Commissioner Carmen Rodriguez, liaison to the Health Department. "The Camden County Department of Health is continuing to work with the Mosquito Commission to ensure that additional spraying and testing will be conducted in the area."

Symptoms of EEE include, but are not limited to, a sudden onset of high fever, stiff neck, lack of energy, general muscle pain, and a headache increasing in severity.

Kyrgyzstan: Anthrax

In the Suzak district of the Jalal-Abad region, 8 people were hospitalized with suspected anthrax. According to the head of the Jalal-Abad Interdistrict Center for Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance and Prevention of Infectious Diseases, Roma Uraimov, residents began to seek medical help from Sept. 23.

"In one of the settlements of the Suzak region, a sick cow was slaughtered. Meat was handed out to residents -- more than 100 people ate it; work is underway on this issue. Residents of the settlements Zhashasyn, Kyzyl-Senir and Boston applied to the medical institution," he said.\

Earlier in the Aksy region of Jalal-Abad there was also an outbreak of anthrax; 7 people were hospitalized, and 2 of them had the disease confirmed.

September 24, 2021

England: BSE

A case of BSE, commonly known as mad cow disease, has been found on a farm in Somerset.

The animal infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy has died and has been removed from the site, the Animal and Plant Health Agency [APHA] said.

It is unclear how the cow caught the disease and until an investigation has completed restrictions on livestock movements in the area around the farm have been imposed as a precaution.

The agency said there was no risk of mad cow disease entering the food supply system as a result of the incident.

The chief veterinary officer, Christine Middlemiss, said detecting the BSE case was proof the government's surveillance program for containing the disease was working.

"A single case of classical BSE has been confirmed on a farm in Somerset. The animal died on farm and was tested as part of our TSE [transmissible spongiform encephalopathy] surveillance controls.

"Movement restrictions have been put in place on the farm. This is standard procedure until we have a clear understanding of the origin of the disease.

United States: St. Louis Encephalitis Virus

The Fresno County, Calif., health department on Sept. 17 announced the first case of Saint Louis Encephalitis in the county this year. It's also the first in the state.

The mosquito-borne illness is similar to West Nile because it affects the central nervous system.

It can feel like the flu because symptoms include aches, pains and fever.

Health officials say they are most concerned about the elderly and young kids because it can cause more serious complications.

The community is urged to avoid mosquito bites as much as possible by eliminating standing water -- and avoid being outdoors at dusk.

The person who was sick with the virus was treated at a Valley hospital and is expected to be okay.

China: Avian Influenza

Officials with the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection (CHP) report monitoring an additional human case of avian influenza A(H5N6) in mainland China.

The case involves a 40-year-old woman living in Yongzhou in Hunan Province, who had prior exposure to a live poultry market before the onset of symptoms. She developed symptoms on Sept. 8 and was admitted for treatment Sept. 9. The patient is in serious condition.

Since 2014, 43 human cases of avian influenza A(H5N6) have been reported in mainland China, with 4 out of 10 cases reported in just the past year

Avian influenza is caused by those influenza viruses that mainly affect birds and poultry, such as chickens or ducks. Clinical presentation of avian influenza in humans may range from flu-like symptoms (e.g. fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches) to severe respiratory illness (e.g. chest infection). Eye infection (conjunctivitis) and gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. nausea, vomiting and diarrhea) have also been reported. The incubation period ranges from 7 to 10 days. The more virulent forms can result in respiratory failure, multi-organ failure and even death.

Cambodia: Avian Influenza

In February 2021, routine sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illness in Cambodia detected a human avian influenza A(H9N2) virus infection. Investigations identified no recent H9N2 virus infections in 43 close contacts. One chicken sample from the infected child's house was positive for H9N2 virus and genetically similar to the human virus.

The reported case is a 3-year-old boy with a history of exposure to domestic poultry who presented with influenza-like illness in February 2021 and was confirmed to be infected with influenza A/H9N2 virus.

H9N2 viruses circulate endemically in poultry from Cambodia, as they do in Bangladesh, Viet Nam, and China. Of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) detected in chickens in Cambodia in live bird markets (LBMs), 75% are H9N2. Whereas serosurveys indicate persons in Cambodia with poultry contact are exposed to H9N2, active human infections have not been detected.

Guinea: Marburg Virus

On Sept. 16, the Ministry of Health of Guinea declared the end of the Marburg virus disease outbreak in Guéckédou prefecture, Nzérékoré Region. In accordance with WHO recommendations, the declaration was made 42 days after the safe and dignified burial of the only confirmed patient reported in this outbreak. This was the first-ever Marburg virus disease case reported in Guinea.

From Aug. 3 to the end of outbreak declaration, only one confirmed case was reported. The patient, a man, had onset of symptoms on July 25. He went to a small health facility near his village, with symptoms of fever, headache, fatigue, abdominal pain, and gingival hemorrhage. A rapid diagnostic test for malaria returned a negative result, and the patient received ambulatory supportive care with rehydration and symptomatic treatment.

Upon returning home, his condition worsened, and he died on Aug. 2. An alert was subsequently raised by the sub-prefecture public health care facility to the prefectorial department of health in Guéckédou. The investigation team was immediately deployed to the village to conduct an in-depth investigation and collected a post-mortem oral swab sample, which was shipped on the same day to the viral hemorrhagic fever laboratory in Guéckédou city. On Aug. 3, the sample tested positive for Marburg virus disease by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and negative for Ebola virus disease.


September 10, 2021

Ukraine: African Swine Fever

A case of African swine fever has been registered in Kharkiv region: quarantine restrictions are introduced.

Measures that will be implemented in the region to localize the outbreak were discussed at a meeting in the Kharkiv Regional State Administration with the participation of law enforcement officials.

An outbreak of the disease was recorded at the Sloboda National Nature Park in the Bohodukhiv district, where 9 dead wild boar were found.

According to Dmytro Voloshko, Chief State Veterinary Inspector, the selected animal samples were sent to the Regional State Laboratory of the State Food and Consumer Service in Poltava Oblast.

"On Sept. 2, we received an examination to confirm the diagnosis of African swine fever. Therefore, an order was issued to establish temporary quarantine restrictions on ASF," Dmytro Voloshko said.

During the meeting, Oleksandr Skakun, head of the Kharkiv regional administration, said that all measures should be taken in accordance with the instructions on the fight against ASF.

Turkey: Anthrax

After an animal died in Gunkiri town of Guroymak district and anthrax disease was detected in Degirmen village, the town and village were quarantined.

Veterinary teams operating in the district started vaccination studies at 6 points. Upon the death of a citizen's animal in Gunkiri town and the detection of diseased animals in Degirmen village, the sample taken by the teams of the District Provincial Directorate of Agriculture and Forestry was sent to the Elazig Veterinary Research Control Center Laboratory and the test was positive, and Gunkiri town and Degirmen village were quarantined.

In order to prevent the spread of the anthrax disease, it was decided to keep the village and town in quarantine for 15 days.

Anthrax is enzootic in eastern Turkey and a constant problem, and the previous multiple outbreaks in 2018 were serious, with very significant numbers of livestock deaths. So far this outbreak in 2021 appears to involve livestock in Gunkin and Degirmen. How many has yet to be revealed. We hope their veterinary vaccination response is up to the challenge. That there were animal cases suggests that the cattle in these 2 sites had not been vaccinated this spring.

Chile: Hantavirus

A 10-year-old child was infected by a hantavirus in Carahue, Araucania region and remains in serious condition in the Calvo Mackenna Hospital in Santiago. Recently, 3 people infected with this virus were reported in Araucania, one of whom died as a result of the disease.

The case of the child is being investigated where the infection might have occurred in a rural area of Carahue. The child sought medical attention at the Nueva Imperial Hospital in which the hantavirus protocols were activated and, finally, it was decided to transfer the child to the Hospital Calvo Mackenna in Santiago because of the patient's complex condition.

This past July, a 44-year-old woman died as a result of a hantavirus infection in the Curacautin community.

The Araucania Health Regional Health Ministerial Secretariat issued an announcement for people to avoid exposure to hantaviruses, a disease that is transmitted in the urine of the wild long-tailed mouse.

Kazakhstan: Tetanus

The Department of Sanitary and Epidemiological Control reported a tetanus death in northern Kazakhstan. The case was a 54-year-old man from Uzbekistan who injured his right foot with a nail during construction work. Despite exhibiting symptoms he did not seek medical help until 5 days after the injury.

With the persistence of symptoms, an ambulance was called for the man. The patient was taken to the emergency room of the district hospital. At the time of the examination, he presented with spasm of the jaw, stiffness along the entire spine, and severe weakness.

"Based on the presence of an epidemiological history and clinical picture, a diagnosis of tetanus was made. The vaccination status of the patient is unknown. Emergency vaccination was carried out. From the moment of admission to the hospital, the patient's condition remained without visible changes, consistently grave. On August 28, he died," stated Arman Kushbasov, deputy head of the regional department of sanitary and epidemiological control.

China; Anthrax

A 14-year-old teenager died of anthrax last month. This is recent news from Shandong Province's Disease Control and Prevention Bureau. The reporter's statistics showed that the country has reported at least 162 anthrax cases and 2 deaths this year.

Anthrax is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. Skin anthrax is the most common, while pulmonary anthrax can quickly cause coma and death, with a mortality rate of more than 90%. People who are infected with anthrax are mostly those engaged in breeding and slaughtering cattle, sheep, and livestock, and selling related products. People engaged in fur processing can also be infected with anthrax. Researchers say that the chaotic private livestock trade brings the risk of anthrax outbreaks.

This year, anthrax or suspected anthrax epidemics have been detected in many provinces and cities in China, and deaths have occurred. According to reports published by China CDC, Shandong Province CDC, Binzhou CDC, and other units, there have been 2 confirmed patients of anthrax in Binzhou City, Shandong Province in August 2021 as reported by Shandong CDC. There were 2 anthrax cases, a 14-year-old student and a 35-year-old male. The student visited a medical institution several times and died a few days later.

Congo: Monkeypox

The World Health Organization (WHO) reported an additional 629 monkeypox cases in the past 6 weeks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

Also reported are 6 additional monkeypox fatalities.

Through Aug. 8, 2,523 cases have been reported in 2021 with 66 deaths.

In 2020, a total of 6,257 suspected cases including 229 deaths (CFR 3.7%) were reported in 133 health zones from 17 out of 26 provinces in the country.

Monkeypox, a rare zoonosis that occurs sporadically in forested areas of Central and West Africa, is an orthopoxvirus that can cause fatal illness.

Brazil: Haff Disease

The northern Brazilian state of Amazonas recorded a further 11 cases of rhabdomyolysis, known locally as black urine disease; not to be confused with alkaptonuria, which is given the same nickname. So far, 44 cases were confirmed over a 10-day period in 5 Amazonas cities, with the municipality of Itacoatiara seeing 34 cases and the 1st death caused by the disease.

Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening syndrome characterized by the destruction of muscle fibers. It usually occurs in healthy people, following trauma, excessive physical activity, seizures, consumption of alcohol and other drugs, infections, and the ingestion of contaminated food.

When the syndrome appears after the consumption of fish and shellfish, it is associated with Haff disease, which is still poorly understood. In the cases registered in Amazonas state, the affected patients had reportedly consumed popular local fish such as pirarucu, tambaqui, and pirapitinga.

Madagascar: Plague

A total of 7 people, including a child, died from this pneumonic plague between Aug. 25-30, according to a Russian media report citing the local Ministry of Health. Three patients died in a medical facility, the rest of the disease was diagnosed during a postmortem examination. Currently, 22 patients are being treated.

Cases of pneumonic plague are concentrated near the capital, in the center of the island. According to the source, the last time pneumonic plague was recorded in 2017.

The disease is fatal, but curable if treated in time.

If the infection reaches the lungs, this poses a great threat to others, since there is an active release of the pathogen into the external environment of microbes for the spread of others. 

Plague is an endemic disease in Madagascar that appears every year. According to the Pasteur Institute, the country accounts for 75% of all cases of diseases worldwide.

India: Nipah Virus

A day after a 12-year-old boy in Kozhikode succumbed to the Nipah virus, Kerala health minister Veena George confirmed that 11 more people, including the child's mother, are showing symptoms of the viral infection.

Samples have been taken from all 11 persons suspected of contracting Nipah virus.

An animal husbandry team has inspected the house and premises where the 12-year-old lived with his family. Samples have been collected from 2 goats owned by the family. Samples have also been taken from 2 rambutan trees in their plot, as bats may have bitten the fruits on the tree. The team also found a habitat of bats across the lake from the house.

The state health department is closely monitoring the cases and meticulously conducting contact tracing, said the health minister. As many as 251 contacts have been identified, of which 54 people are in the high-risk category.

The health department will begin conducting house-to-house surveillance to see whether anyone has symptoms or has been left out from contacts.

China: Avian Influenza

Chinese health officials reported one new case of human infection with avian influenza A(H9N2) to the World Health Organization (WHO) this week. The case is a 20-month-old female from Changsha, Hunan Province, China.

The child had a history of exposure to domestic poultry prior to illness onset, and no further cases were suspected among family members or any other close contacts at the time of reporting.

This is the 15th case of avian influenza A(H9N2) reported from China in 2021. A total of 56 cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H9N2) have been officially reported from China to WHO since December 2015.

United States; Eastern Equine Encephalitis

The Burnett County, Wis., Health Department reports that a horse in Burnett County has tested positive for eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), which is caused by the EEE virus. This is the first confirmed case of EEE in a horse in Burnett County this year, and the second case in horses in the state this year. No EEE cases in humans have been reported in Wisconsin thus far in 2021; however, there were 2 human cases in 2020.

EEE virus is spread to humans, horses, and other animals through the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes acquire EEE virus by feeding on infected birds. The virus is not spread person to person or directly between animals or between animals and humans. Documentation of an EEE positive horse, however, confirms that there are mosquitoes in the area infected with the EEE virus that can spread the virus to people and other animals.

Many people infected with EEE virus do not get sick. Those who do become ill may develop fever, headache, chills, and vomiting. The illness may become severe, resulting in encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), disorientation, seizures, coma, or death. There is no specific vaccine or treatment for EEE illness available for people.

Algeria: Bluetongue

Following the registration of several outbreaks of bluetongue disease in sheep and cattle in the states of Al-Bayd, Saida, Laghouat, and Msila, the regional veterinary services in Setif have warned livestock breeders of the danger of the disease spreading among their livestock, with the need to take precautions against the outbreak.

According to the sources of Sawt Setif, the RVS stated that bluetongue disease is transmitted from one animal to another by mosquitoes, causing severe health risks and huge economic losses.

They called on farmers to monitor their livestock, including sheep and cows, and to inform the veterinarian in the event of clinical signs such as high temperature, nasal discharge, catarrh, swelling of the nose and tongue, lesions on the hooves and udders. In order to prevent infection, the RVS called to avoid introduction of animals from infested areas, clean and disinfect livestock stables, while tightening periodic monitoring of livestock herds.

Hong Kong: African Swine Fever

The Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) announced that samples taken from a wild pig carcass had tested positive for African swine fever (ASF) virus under the surveillance program for ASF. It is the first case of ASF detected in the wild pig population in Hong Kong.

In light of the recent abnormal wild pig deaths in the Siu Sai Wan area on Hong Kong Island, the AFCD arranged the wild pig carcass which was found at Cape Collinson Path to undergo laboratory tests. Samples taken from the carcass have tested positive for ASF virus. No other abnormal deaths have been observed in other areas in Hong Kong so far. The AFCD will continue to monitor for any abnormal deaths, and maintain surveillance in the wild pig population.

Currently, no pig farms are affected in relation to this case. There are no pig farms on Hong Kong Island. The AFCD has notified all local pig farmers about the case immediately and they have been advised to enhance farm bio-security to prevent intrusion of wild pigs and introduction of ASF virus into the farm. Local pig farmers are also reminded to notify the AFCD if their pigs show any abnormal health conditions. The AFCD has been closely monitoring the animal health conditions in all local pig farms and samples will be collected for ASF testing as necessary.

September 3, 2021

India: Rabies

A 7-year-old boy died of rabies on Aug. 21 after he was bitten by a stray dog in Agaram Mel village, near Poonamallee, in Tiruvallur district.

The victim was playing on a street when a stray dog bit him and four friends.

A villager said while 4 of the boys were administered anti-rabies vaccines, the victim’s parents took him to a man who practiced herbal medicine.

The boy started behaving abnormally a few days ago and was taken to the Institute of Child Health and Hospital for Children, Egmore. The victim's health began deteriorating and he died without responding to treatment.

South Africa: Trypanosomiasis

A 43-year-old South African professional hunter was active in the Eastern Province of Zambia during July and August 2021, where he experienced a number of tsetse fly bites.

He developed an acute febrile illness, which did not respond to self-medication with an antimalarial. He was admitted to a hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, and a diagnosis of trypanosomiasis was suspected. The test for SARS-CoV-2 was negative.

He was transferred for further management to a hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. On admission, jaundice, scattered petechiae, and a typical trypanosomal chancre on one ankle, were noted. Marked thrombocytopenia, moderate leucopenia, and mildly deranged liver functions were found. A very scanty trypomastigote parasitaemia was noted on a Giemsa-stained blood smear, which was confirmed by rtPCR.

The patient has responded well to suramin (course presently being completed), and examination of the CSF was negative for parasites on microscopy and PCR, with normal biochemistry and no leukocytes. In contrast to the 2017-2019 period, when several patients with East African trypanosomiasis were medivaced to South Africa for treatment, COVID-19-related travel and tourism restrictions and economic constraints have probably reduced human exposure to the disease in endemic areas of Central and East Africa during 2020-2021.

United States: Chronic Wasting Disease

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) has been discovered in a deer breeding facility in Duval County, Tex., marking the first positive detection of the disease in the county.

The tissue samples were submitted by the deer breeding facility as part of required CWD surveillance programs. The samples indicated the presence of CWD during testing at the Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) in College Station. The National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa confirmed CWD in those tissue samples.

Officials have taken immediate action to secure all deer at the facility and plan to conduct additional investigations for CWD. In addition, other breeding facilities having received deer from this facility or shipped deer to this facility during the last 5 years are under movement restrictions and cannot move or release deer at this time.

The Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection announced  that white-tailed deer at captive cervid facilities in Sauk and Taylor counties tested positive for chronic wasting disease.

It's the first finding of the fatal deer disease in Taylor County. By state law, deer baiting and feeding in the county will be prohibited beginning Sept. 1, according to the Department of Natural Resources.

The CWD-positive animals were a 6-year-old doe in Taylor County and a 9-year-old buck in Sauk County. The names and locations of the deer farms were not released by DATCP, per agency policy.

Nepal: Scrub Typhus

More than 20 cases of scrub typhus have been reported in the Baitadi district since mid-July, health officials say. Doctors at the District Hospital in Baitadi have warned local residents to stay alert and aware of the increase in scrub typhus cases.

Cases of scrub typhus, a mite-borne bacterial infectious disease, have been increasing in the district this season, doctors say. Last year, the hospital had received only 2 to 3 scrub typhus cases during the monsoon season. This year, since mid-July, 22 scrub typhus cases have been reported in Baitadi, according to the data of the District Hospital in Baitadi. In the past one week, the District Hospital has been receiving around 4 scrub typhus cases on a daily basis.

Scrub typhus, also sometimes called bush typhus, is an infectious disease that is caused by the parasite Orientia tsutsugamushi, a mite-borne bacterium, and spreads in the human body after they are bitten by infected chiggers (larval mites) found in mice.

"Our hospital is receiving scrub typhus patients every day. We have requested health posts in the district to stay on high alert and immediately refer patients showing symptoms of scrub typhus to the hospital," said Harish Pant, information officer of the hospital.

Brazil: Haff Disease

Authorities are on alert after the increase in the number of people suspected of having Haff syndrome in the states of Amazonas and Bahia.

Haff Syndrome, known as "black urine" disease, is caused by a toxin found in certain fish and shellfish. The substance causes damage to the muscular system and organs such as kidneys.

At least 25 cases are under analysis, 19 of them in the city of Itacoatiara (Amazonas) and another 6 in 5 municipalities in Bahia: Alagoinhas, Simoes Filho, Marau, Mata de Sao Jorge, and Salvador.

According to the health surveillance, in Amazonas the suspicion is those infected have consumed freshwater fish. Of the 19 cases in Itacoatiara, 8 are hospitalized.

United States: Legionellosis

Maine health officials confirmed 4 recent cases of legionellosis in the Bangor area. All 4 individuals were hospitalized. The Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Maine CDC) is investigating the cases to determine if there is a common exposure among them.

Legionella bacteria are found naturally in freshwater environments, such as lakes and streams. Legionella can become a health concern when it grows and spreads in human-made building water systems such as cooling towers used in air conditioning systems, hot tubs, fountains, and large plumbing systems. Legionnaires' disease, which is a type of pneumonia, may result when individuals breathe in droplets of water that contain the bacteria. Symptoms include cough, shortness of breath, fever, muscle aches, and headaches.

Most healthy people exposed to Legionella do not get sick. Those at increased risk of getting sick are people aged 50 years and older; current or former smokers; people with a chronic lung disease, weak immune systems, or cancer; and people with underlying illnesses such as diabetes, kidney failure, or liver failure.

Italy: Bluetongue

The Veterinary Epidemiological Observatory update of Aug. 27, reports 177 active bluetongue [BT] outbreaks in Sardinia, with 48 542 animals involved, 202 already dead, and another 21 suspected outbreaks.

Following the reappearance of the infectious disease affecting ruminants and given its rapid spread in the areas still affected, the CIA (Italian Farmers Confederation) requests the urgent convocation of a meeting between the regional departments of Health and Agriculture and professional trade organizations to obtain a precise picture of the situation and of the actions undertaken to block the spread of the epidemic.

"We would not wish to go back to the years 2012 and 2013," warns the regional president of the CIA, Ignazio Cirronis, "when over 100,000 dead animals and a sharp reduction in milk production were reported."

Nigeria: Cholera

A total of 2,035 deaths due to cholera was recorded in the country as of Aug. 27, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has disclosed. According to the latest cholera epidemic report by the NCDC, the total number of suspected cases of cholera infection in the 23 states of the federation was 58,698.

The NCDC report stated that 12 states reported 3,098 suspected cases.

Spain: Bluetongue

The Official Veterinary Services of Andalusia, for the first time in 4 years, have detected the circulation of serotype 4 of the virus of the disease known as bluetongue in 2 livestock farms in the province of Huelva: the 1firt in a sentinel goat in El Granado, within the National Bluetongue Surveillance Program implemented in Spain, and the second in a sheep farm in the municipality of Rosal de la Frontera, where the sheep that were positive had previously presented symptoms compatible with the disease.

In both cases, the farms are located a few kilometers from the border with Portugal, whose authorities have reported the suspicion of 3 outbreaks in the municipality of Serpa, which they will foreseeably confirm in the coming days.

The animals in both cases have tested positive for serotype 4 of the bluetongue virus by PCR, the results having been confirmed by the Central Veterinary Laboratory of Algete, the national reference laboratory for the disease in Spain.

The municipality of Rosal de la Frontera is located within the region of Cortegana, which was currently a disease-free zone, although the veterinary authorities have extended the restriction zone to the region of Cortegana and the following municipalities in the region of Jerez of the Knights in the province of Badajoz: Valencia de Mombuey, Oliva de la Frontera, and Villanueva del Fresno.

China: Anthrax

One of the 2 patients infected with anthrax in East China's Shandong Province has died, according to a weekly report issued by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The victim, a 14-year-old student, died on Aug. 6. The other patient is a 35-year-old man who is a butcher, according to the report.

The 2 confirmed cases were reported to the Shandong CDC, and the authority formed a joint investigation team to determine the sources of the infection to prevent any further spread. Anthrax is a rare but serious infection caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis, and it is often fatal.

On July 28, the student suddenly experienced fever, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea and convulsions, and was taken to the health clinic of Liumiao village for treatment. The patient was transferred to Binzhou Medical University Hospital due to sudden unconsciousness, lockjaw and nuchal rigidity during infusion in the village clinic. On Aug. 6, the patient was voluntarily discharged from the hospital and died on the same day.

Botswana: Avian Influenza

Animal health authorities in Botswana have announced a suspected case of highly pathogenic bird flu at a backyard poultry farm in Bokaa village.

The potential case of bird flu was identified in the Kgatleng district of Botswana. The country's ministry of agriculture has banned the movement of live birds, eggs, meat, and feathers within and out of the Bokaa area to contain the outbreak.

Poultry producers are also being told to improve biosecurity protocols in their facilities and prevent contact between poultry and wild birds.

Kazakhstan: Anthrax

In the North Kazakhstan region, the Akzhar [Akzharskiy] district, where anthrax was found in cows, the region was divided into 4 zones, Kazinform correspondent reports. The document says that for the effective implementation of special veterinary measures to eliminate and prevent the further spread of anthrax, the territory of the region was divided into 4 zones.