List of the oldest mosques

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The designation of the oldest mosques in the world requires careful use of definitions, and must be divided into two parts, the oldest in the sense of oldest surviving building, and the oldest in the sense of oldest mosque congregation. Even here, there is the distinction between old mosque buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques, and those that have been converted to other purposes; and between buildings that have been in continuous use as mosques and those that were shuttered for many decades. In terms of congregations, they are distinguished between early established congregations that have been in continuous existence, and early congregations that ceased to exist. Note that the major regions, such as Africa and Eurasia, are sorted alphabetically, whereas the minor regions, such as Northeast and Northwest Africa in Africa, and Arabia and South Asia in Eurasia, are sorted by the dates in which their first mosques were reportedly established, more or less, barring those that are mentioned by name in the Quran.

To be listed here a site must:

  • be the oldest mosque in a country, large city (top 50), or oldest of its type (denomination, architectural, etc.);
  • be the oldest congregation of its type (denomination).

Mentioned in the Quran[edit]

The following are treated as the oldest mosques or sanctuaries[1] mentioned in the Quran:[2]

Building Image Location Country First built Notes
Al-Haram Mosque
As pilgrims prepare to return to their homes, Saudi authorities begin to prep for next year's Hajj - Flickr - Al Jazeera English.jpg
Mecca  Saudi Arabia Unknown, associated with Abraham[1] Al-Masjid al-Ḥarām, Quran 2:144–217;[3] Quran 5:2;[4] Quran 8:34;[5] Quran 9:7–28;[6] Quran 17:1;[2] Quran 22:25;[7] Quran 48:25–27.[8] the holiest sanctuary, containing the Ka'bah, a site of the Ḥajj ('Pilgrimage'), the Qiblah[9] (Direction of formal prayers of Muslims), and the first mosque[10][11] in Islamic thought.[12][13] Rebuilt many times, notably 1571 by the Ottomans, and the late 20th century by the Saudis, further enlargement under way since 2010.
Al-Aqsa Mosque
Temple Mount (Aerial view, 2007) 04.jpg
Jerusalem (old city)  Palestine First time in 705 by Omar last time in 1033,[14] associated with Abraham[1] Al-Masjid al-Aqṣá,[2] the former Qiblah,[15] site of the significant event of Al-Isra' wal-Mi'raj, third holiest site in Islam. Although properly referring to the whole Temple Mount compound (seen as a single mosque),[note 1] today however specifically the silver-domed congregational mosque or prayer hall facing Mecca [otherwise known as Al-Qibli Mosque (see below)] located on the southern side of the compound.
The Sacred Monument
Masy'aril Haram Mosque in Muzdalifah, January 2015.jpg
Muzdalifah  Saudi Arabia Unknown Al-Mashʿar Al-Ḥarām[17] a site of the Hajj.[18][19][20][21]
Quba Mosque Medina  Saudi Arabia 622 The first mosque built by Muhammad in the 7th century CE, possibly mentioned as the "Mosque founded on piety since the first day"[22] in the Quran.[citation needed] Largely rebuilt in the late 20th century.

Africa[edit]

Northeast Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Mosque of the Companions
MassawaMosque.jpg
Massawa  Eritrea 610[23] Believed to be the first mosque on the African continent and the first mosque in the world built by the companions of prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.[23]
Masjid al-Qiblatayn
Zeila, Somalia.jpg
Zeila  Somalia 620[24] Built in the 7th century in Zeila, shortly after the hijrah; known to be the one of the oldest mosques in the world.
Negash Āmedīn Mesgīd
Negash 8.jpg
Negash  Ethiopia 610–615 Built in the 7th century in Negash, the mosque in Negash, by tradition burial site of several followers of Mohammad who, during his lifetime, fled to the Aksumite Kingdom to escape persecution in Mecca. It was recently renovated by TIKA, a Turkish cooperation organization.[25]
Korijib Masjid Tadjoura  Somalia 630–640 Possible the oldest mosque in the country.
Mosque of Amr ibn al-As
Mosque Amr ibn Al-As Entrance.jpg
Cairo  Egypt 641 Named after 'Amr ibn al-'As, commander of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, by order of Caliph Umar. Built as the centre of Fustat (the newly founded capital of Egypt) in 673–642 CE, and rebuilt in 1179 and in 1875.
Mosque of Ibn Tulun
Kairo Ibn Tulun Moschee BW 4.jpg
Cairo  Egypt 879
Al-Hakim Mosque
Mosquee al-akim le caire 1.jpg
Cairo  Egypt 928
Al-Azhar Mosque
Cairo - Islamic district - Al Azhar Mosque and University.JPG
Cairo  Egypt 972 Sunni
Arba'a Rukun Mosque
Mogadishu city centre - 1960s.jpg
Mogadishu  Somalia 1268/9 Sunni
Fakr ad-Din Mosque
Fakr-ad-din-mosque.jpg
Mogadishu  Somalia 1269 Sunni Mosque built by Sultan Fakr ad-Din of the Sultanate of Mogadishu (10th Century – 16th Century).
Northwest Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Great Mosque of Kairouan
Kairouan's Great Mosque courtyard.jpg
Kairouan  Tunisia 670 Sunni Believed to be the first mosque in the Maghreb, it was rebuilt in the 9th century.
Sidi Ghanim Mosque
Mosqué de Sidi Ghanem a Mila.jpg
Mila  Algeria 678 Sunni The oldest Mosque in Algeria built by Abu al-Muhajir Dinar
Sidi Okba Mosque
Sidi Uqba.JPG
Sidi Okba  Algeria 686[26]
Al-Zaytuna Mosque
MinaretMosqueeZitounaTunis.JPG
Tunis  Tunisia 709 Sunni
Great Mosque of Sfax
Grande Mosquée de Sfax 01.jpg
Sfax  Tunisia 850[27]
Great Mosque of Sousse
Great Mosque of Sousse.jpg
Sousse  Tunisia 851[28]
Atiq Mosque, Awjila
Awjila (Libia) - The Mosque of Atiq.jpg
Awjila  Libya 1101 Sunni
Southeast Africa (including nearby islands of the Indian Ocean, but barring countries that are also in Southern Africa)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Shanga Mosque Shanga, Pate Island  Kenya Foundation discovered, with coins attesting dates, during the 1980s excavations. The earliest concrete evidence of Muslims in East Africa.[29]:97
Great Mosque of Kilwa
Great Mosque of Kilwa Kisiwani, 11th - 18th cents (2) (28963560112).jpg
Kilwa Kisiwani  Tanzania 1000–1100
Kizimkazi Mosque
KizimkaziMosque1.JPG
Dimbani  Tanzania 1107 (according to an inscription)[30]
Tsingoni Mosque
Tsingoni minaret.jpg
Tsingoni, Mayotte  France 1538[31]
Al-Fatah Mosque (Green Mosque) Kigali  Rwanda (then German East Africa) 1913[32] Founded by coastal Swahili-speaking Tanzanian Muslims who came to Rwanda to work in the German administration.[32]
West Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Larabanga Mosque
Larabanga Mosque Ghana.jpg
Larabanga  Ghana 1421 The oldest existing mud-brick mosque in Ghana.
Great Mosque of Kano Kano  Nigeria 15th century Built in for Emir Muhammad Rumfa
Agadez Mosque
1997 277-9A Agadez mosque cropped.jpg
Agadez  Niger 1515 Niger's oldest mosque.
Grand Mosque, Sokodé
Mosquée au grand marché.JPG
Sokodé  Togo 1820[33]
Southern Africa
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Auwal Mosque
Auwal Mosque in Bo-Kaap.jpg
Cape Colony  South Africa (then Cape Colony) 1798[34]
Masjid al-Qudama Caledon Street, Uitenhage, Eastern Cape  South Africa 1849[35] It is deduced that the mosque in Caledon Street was a completed building by March 1849
Grey Street Mosque (Juma Mosque)
Grey Street Masjid (Grey &Queen Street)-20140223.jpg
Durban[36]  South Africa 1881
Soofie Masjid Butha Buthe  Lesotho 1900 (approximate)[29]:115 Founded by Soofie Saheb at the turn of the century; the community is described as African Muslim yet speaking an Indian language.[29]:115
Habibia Soofie Saheb Jamia Masjid
The Habibia Soofie Saheb Jamia Masjid of Cape Town, South Africa.jpg
Rylands, Cape Town  South Africa 1905
Lobatse Masjid Lobatse  Botswana 1960s[37] Founded by Indian Muslims who were brought over during the British colonial period.
Ezulwini Mosque Ezulwini, near Mbabane  Eswatini 1982[38]

Americas[edit]

South America
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
 Suriname (then a colony of the Netherlands) 1906[39] Built by immigrant Javanese rice farmers.[39]
Mesquita Brasil (São Paulo), Mesquita.JPG São Paulo  Brazil 1929[40] Previous site built in 1929;[40] current building inaugurated in 1952. First known mosque in Brazil.[41]
 Panama 1930[42] Ahmadiyya[42]
El Paraíso, Caracas  Venezuela 1968[43]
At-Tauhid Mosque Buenos Aires  Argentina 1983[44] Shi'ite Opened in October 1983 by the Shi'ite community of Buenos Aires and with the support of the Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran to Argentina. It is a very simple building with a subtle Islamic style in its facade.[45]
Mezquita as-Salam Mezquita As-Salam.JPG Santiago  Chile 1995[46] Commissioned 1989, inaugurated in 1995.
North America (including Central America and island-states of the Caribbean Sea)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Al-Sadiq Mosque Al-Sadiq mosque.jpg Chicago, Illinois  United States 1922 Ahmadiyya Oldest extant mosque in the Americas.
Mother Mosque of America
(Moslem Temple)
MotherMosque.jpg
Cedar Rapids, Iowa  United States 1934 Oldest extant purpose-built mosque in the United States
Al-Rashid Mosque
Al-Raschid Mosque on 1920 Street, Fort Edmonton Park, Alberta, Canada.jpg
Edmonton, Alberta  Canada 1938 First purpose-built mosque in Canada.
Westmoreland and Spanish Town  Jamaica 1950s[47] Constructed by the Islamic Society of Jamaica, which was founded in 1950.
Bridgetown Mosque Bridgetown  Barbados 1957[48] First purpose-built mosque in Barbados.
Omar Bin Al-Khattab Mosque Moscuraçao.jpg Willemstad  Curaçao 1965[49]
 Haiti 1985[50] Converted private residence.
Suraya Mosque
Mezquita soraya.JPG
Torreón  Mexico 1989 Shi'ite Built by the immigrants from the Middle East living in Torreón.
Omar Mosque Mezquita de Omar, Costa Rica.png San José  Costa Rica 1995[51] Sunni Founded by the Islamic Cultural Association of Costa Rica.
Belize City[52]  Belize 2008 (approximate)[53] Founded by Belizeans who converted to Islam while in the United States.[53]
Boukman Buhara Cap-Haïtien  Haiti 2016[54] First purpose-built mosque in Haiti. Includes a minaret. Constructed by the Diyanet Foundation of Turkey following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[54]

Asia[edit]

Arabian Peninsula (including the island-state of Bahrain)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
Al-Masjid An-Nabawi (Bird's Eye View).jpg
Medina  Saudi Arabia 622 Second holiest site in Islam (after Al-Haram Mosque) and Muhammad's mosque, which houses his tomb in what was initially his and his wife Aisha's house. Largely rebuilt and greatly enlarged in the late 20th century, whilst retaining at its heart the earlier construction of the Ottomans, and landmark green dome atop the prophet's mausoleum.
Masjid al-Qiblatain
Masjid al-Qiblatain.jpg
Medina  Saudi Arabia 623 Mosque originally with two Qiblah walls: One facing Jerusalem, the first Qiblah and another facing Mecca
Jawatha Mosque
Jawatha1.jpg
Al-Kilabiyah  Saudi Arabia 629/639[55][56] Has recently been renovated[citation needed] and prayers are still held in this mosque.[57]
Great Mosque of Sana'a
Sanaa PICT0013 (14569535198).jpg
Sana'a  Yemen 7th century Possibly the oldest mosque in the country.
Al-Asha'ir Mosque
30 Zabid (8).jpg
Zabid  Yemen 629 A part of UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Town of Zabid.[58] Established by Abu Musa al-Ash'ari, a sahabi.
Masjid Mazin
Masjid Mazin Bin Ghadouba Mosque.jpg
Samail  Oman 600s[59] Founded by Mazin Ben Ghadooba, who is considered to be the first Omani to adopt Islam during Muhammad's lifetime.[59]
Al-Hadi Mosque
Mosque in Sa'dah.jpg
Sa'dah  Yemen 897
Khamis Mosque
Khamis Mosque Minaret.jpg
Khamis, Manama  Bahrain 1000–1200 (approximate)[60] Though most of the structure is dated to the 11th or 12th century, it is popularly believed to have been founded by the Caliph Omar in the 600s.[61]
Mosque in Al-Ain Al Ain  United Arab Emirates 1000s (Islamic Golden Age) Possible the oldest mosque in the country.[62][63]
Al Badiyah Mosque
2011-0209-Al Badiyah Mosque.jpg
Fujairah  United Arab Emirates 1400s[64] Some much earlier estimates have been proposed.
Greater China
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Huaisheng Mosque
Huaisheng Mosque Dec 2007.jpg
Guangzhou  China 627 The Huaisheng Mosque is the main mosque of Guangzhou. It has been rebuilt many times over its history. According to tradition it was originally built over 1,300 years ago in 627 CE by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, who was an uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and was named in memory of Muhammad.
Xianxian Mosque
The Mosque in Guangzhou 19.JPG
Guangzhou City  China 629 The mosque was originally built in 629 during the Tang Dynasty.
Great Mosque of Xi'an
Chinese-style minaret of the Great Mosque.jpg
Xi'an, Shaanxi  China 742[65] Although the oldest stones date from the 18th century,[66] the Mosque was founded in 742[67] Built in 742, but oldest mosque in China is the Beacon Tower mosque of Guangzhou being built in 627.[68]
Jamia Mosque HK Central 些利街 Shelley Street 回教清真禮拜總堂 Jamia Mosque green facade Mar-2016 DSC 001.JPG  Hong Kong (then British Hong Kong)  China 1890
Taipei Grand Mosque Taipei Grand Mosque 20060112.jpg Taipei  Taiwan 1947 Oldest and most famous mosque in Taiwan. Original building was firstly used in 1947, then relocated to a new site where it was reconstructed in 1960.
Kaohsiung Mosque Kaohsiung Mosque.JPG Taipei  Taiwan 1949 The second oldest mosque in Taiwan. The original building was built in 1949, then moved to a new location where the second building was built in 1951, and the third and final building built in 1992.
Macau Mosque Macau Mosque.JPG  Macau (then Portuguese Macau)  China 1980 The first and only mosque in Macau.
South Asia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Barwada mosque
Ghogha, Gujarat India Before 623 Built by Arab traders at ancient port of Ghogha, Bhavnagar district in the state of Gujarat. The qibla (direction to be faced while offering namaaz) of the mosque is faced to Bait al Mukaddas (Jerusalem). The mosque is abandoned by devotees after the qibla was changed to Makkah in AD 623 and another mosque constructed at the same time.[69][70][71][72][73]
Cheraman Juma Masjid
Cheraman Juma Masjid.jpg
Kodungallur  India 629 Built by Malik bin Dinar, companion of Prophet Muhammad, on orders of Cheraman Perumal,[74] then King of modern-day Kerala, it is the oldest mosque in the Indian subcontinent.[75]
unnamed Ramjapur Masjid Lalmonirhat, Rangpur  Bangladesh Prophet's lifetime Sunni Possibly the earliest mosque in South Asia is under excavation in northern Bangladesh, indicating the presence of Muslims in the area around the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad.[76]
Palaiya Jumma Palli
Palaiya Jumma Palli.jpg
Kilakarai  India 630 Sunni Considered to be the first mosque to be built in Tamil Nadu, and the second mosque in India. Constructed by Yemeni merchants and trade settlers in the Pandiya Kingdom and ordered by Bazan ibn Sasan, Governor of Yemen at the time of Muhammad.[77]
Masjid Al-Abrar Beruwala, Kalutara District, Western Province  Sri Lanka First century in the Hijri calendar The date has been carved in its stone pillars. It is situated in western province of Sri Lanka.
Haji Piyada Balkh  Afghanistan Second half of the 9th century[78] Considered to be the oldest Islamic building in Afghanistan.[78]
Jamia Masjid, Banbhore
Grand Mosque (Jamma Masjid Banbhore) - panoramio.jpg
Banbhore, Sindh  Pakistan 727 This is the oldest mosque of Pakistan which is located in Bhambore.[79] Also believed to be the first mosque in South Asia.[80] Built after the conquest of Sindh.
Kazimar Big Mosque
Kazimarbigmosque.JPG
Madurai  India 1284 Sunni, Hanafi, Shadhili First mosque in Madurai.
Chaqchan Mosque
Side view of Chaqchan Mosque.jpg
Khaplu, Gilgit Baltistan  Pakistan 1370 This is the oldest mosque of Gilgit Baltistan located in Khaplu.[81][82]
Sixty Dome Mosque
Sixty domed mosque.jpg
Bagerhat  Bangladesh 1450 Built by Khan Jahan Ali, it is considered to be the second-oldest mosque in Bangladesh. The fortified structure contains eighty-one domes, sixty stone pillars and eleven mihrabs.
Neevin Mosque
Neevin Masjid 4 (WCLA).jpg
Lahore  Pakistan 1460
Levant (for Cyprus and Greater Syria)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Al-Qibli Mosque (al-Jami' al-Aqsa)
Israel-2007-Jerusalem-Temple Mount-Al-Aqsa Mosque 01.jpg
Jerusalem (old city)  Palestine (disputed by  Israel) 637 A Muslim prayer hall with a silver-colored lead dome located in the southern part of Al-Aqsa Mosque (Temple Mount), built by the Rashidun caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab.
Al-Shuaibiyah Mosque Aleppo  Syria 637
Ibrahimi Mosque
Hebron Cave of the Patriarchs.jpg
Hebron  Palestine 637[83]
Great Mosque of Aleppo
Great Aleppo mosque 176.jpg
Aleppo  Syria 715
Umayyad Mosque
Umayyad Mosque.jpg
Damascus  Syria 715 Sunni Fourth holiest site and the national mosque of Syria. It was originally built after the Muslim conquest of the city in 634. The current structure dates to 715.
White Mosque
רמלה המסגד הלבן.JPG
Ramla  Israel 720
Al-Omari Mosque
Mosque of umar, bosra, syria, easter 2004.jpg
Bosra  Syria 721
Great Mosque of Raqqa Raqqa  Syria 772
Arab Ahmet Mosque
Nikozja polnoc5.jpg
Arab Ahmet quarter of Nicosia  Cyprus Late 16th century[84] The mosque is named after a commander of the 1571 Ottoman army who made an expedition in 1571.[84][85]
Southwest Asia (excluding the Arabian peninsula, Caucasus, and Syrian region)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Ayasofya Mosque (Hagia Sophia)
The Turk and his lost provinces - Greece, Bulgaria, Servia, Bosnia (1903) (14593094020).jpg
Istanbul  Turkey 1453 (537) Built in 537 as a Greek Orthodox cathedral, converted to a mosque in 1453, and then a museum in 1931.[86] In 2020, it was again converted into a mosque by order of a Turkish court.
Great Mosque of Kufa
Kufa Mosque.jpg
Kufa  Iraq 639 Shia The mosque, built in the 7th century, contains the remains of Muslim ibn Aqeel – first cousin of Husayn ibn Ali, his companion Hani ibn Urwa, and the revolutionary Mukhtar al-Thaqafi.
Maqam al-Imam al-Husayn Mosque
Kerbela Hussein Moschee.jpg
Karbala  Iraq 680 Shia Reconstructed several times, including in 1016.
Jameh Mosque of Ferdows Ferdows  Iran 7th century (possibly)
Masjid al-Hisn Mopsuestia, Adana Province  Turkey 717-720 Built by the Umayyad caliph Umar II, as part of his conversion of the city into a military base to shield Antioch from a potential Greek attack. The building fell into ruin during the reign of Al-Mu'tasim, approximately 120 years later.
Jameh Mosque of Isfahan
Jamé Mosque Esfahan courtyard.jpg
Isfahan  Iran 771
Jameh Mosque of Fahraj
مسجد جامع فهرج یزد2.JPG
Fahraj  Iran 700s[87]
Tarikhaneh Mosque
Damghan7.jpg
Damghan  Iran 8th century
Great Mosque of Samarra
The spiral minaret in Samarra.jpg
Samarra  Iraq 848
Al-Askari Mosque
Al Askari Mosque.jpg
Samarra  Iraq 944 Shia (Twelver) Shrine of the 10th and 11th Twelver Shi'ite Imams: Ali al-Hadi and Hasan al-Askari.
Imam Ali Mosque
Meshed ali usnavy (PD).jpg
Najaf  Iraq 977 Shia, Sunni Houses the tomb of Ali ibn Abi Talib, Muhammad's cousin and fourth Caliph, and the first person of the Shia Imamate.
Great Mosque of Diyarbakır
Great Mosque, Diyarbakir.jpg
Diyarbakır  Turkey 1092 Sunni One of the oldest known mosques in modern Turkey.
Yivliminare Mosque (Alaeddin Mosque)
Antalya - Alaeddin-Moschee 2.jpg
Antalya  Turkey 1230
Aslanhane Mosque
Arslanhane Mosque 01.jpg
Ankara  Turkey 1290
Central Asia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Po-i-Kalyan
Bukhara01.jpg
Bukhara  Uzbekistan 713 Since 713 here, several edifices of main cathedral mosque were built then razed, restored after fires and wars, and moved from place to place.
Transcaucasia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Juma Mosque
Qoşa minarəli məscid. Şamaxı şəhəri.JPG
Shamakhi  Azerbaijan 743-744 Built in 743–744, set on fire by Armenian units of "Dashnaktsutiun" in 1918, reconstructed in 2009.
Blue Mosque
051 Gok Jami mosque Yerevan.jpg
Yerevan  Armenia Mid-18th century

Europe[edit]

Iberian Peninsula
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Great Mosque of Cordoba (Mezquita)
Entrada a la Catedral, antes Mezquita, de Córdoba (CE1170G).jpg
Córdoba, Andalusia  Spain (then the Emirate of Córdoba) 785[88] It was built on the main (Visigothic) church of the city after the site was being divided and shared between Muslims and Christians for around seven decades. The great mosque was built by Abd al-Rahman I, the first Muslim ruler of Spain in 785,[89] it underwent successive extensions in the 9th and 10th centuries and was concluded in 10th century under the command of Almanzor. After the Christian reconquest of Cordoba in 1236, Ferdinand III of Castile converted the mosque into a cathedral, the current Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba. With 23,400 square metres (2.34 ha), it was the second largest mosque in the world on the surface, after Al-Haram Mosque in Mecca, only later replaced in this respect by the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul in 1588.
Small Royal Mosque inside Aljafería Palace
La Aljafería 14092014 114703 05575.jpg
Zaragoza, Aragon  Spain (then the Caliphate of Córdoba) 1046[90] Small mosque for the monarch and his courtiers inside the Aljafería. It is accessed through a portal that ends in a horseshoe arch inspired by the Mosque of Córdoba but with S-shaped springers, a novelty that will imitate the Almoravid art and Nasrid art. The front of the mihrab is conformed by a very traditional horseshoe arch. The arch of the portal, an alfiz framed its back, in whose curved triangles two mirrored rosettes are recessed, as is the dome of the interior of the mihrab. In 2001, the original restored structures of the Aljafería were included in the Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon, a World Heritage Site.[91]
Mosque of Medina Azahara
Mezquita de Medina Azahara.jpg
Córdoba, Andalusia  Spain (then the Caliphate of Córdoba) 940[92] Aljama Mosque in Madinat al-Zahara, a vast, fortified Moorish palace-city built by Abd-ar-Rahman III (912–961). The marbled, jeweled complex was plundered & destroyed first by Muslims, then by Christians when civil war ended Caliphate of Córdoba. A UNESCO World Heritage site since 2018.
Mosque of Cristo de la Luz
Mezquita Cristo de la Luz de Toledo.jpg
Toledo, Castile-La Mancha  Spain (then the Caliphate of Córdoba) 999 (completed)[93] Built in 999 in Toledo, this building is a rarity in that it is in much the same state as it was when it was originally built.[94] The building is a small square structure. It measures roughly 8 m × 8 m. Four columns capped with Visigothic capitals divide the interior into nine compartments. Covering each of these bays is a vault that has a distinctive design that is unique unto itself. Some of the designs are more rectilinear while others embrace the curved forms of the vault more prominently. Within each one is a piece of their culture and tradition of building in the Islamic art manner.[94] The influence of the caliphate of Córdoba can be seen in the brickwork on the facade of the building which resembles those seen at the Cathedral–Mosque of Córdoba. Both Mosque of Cristo de la Luz with Cathedral–Mosque of Córdoba are the oldest examples of the islamic culture at Spain.[95]
Mosque of las Tornerías
Mezquita de las Tornerías. Toledo.jpg
Toledo, Castile-La Mancha  Spain (then the Taifa of Toledo) mid-11th-century (completed)[96] Arabic: الـمـسـتـمـيـم‎, romanizedal-Mustimim was built in the middle of the 11th century[97] on the foundations of Roman architecture, located in the old Muslim neighborhood Arrabal de Francos. The building continued maintaining the Islamic faith in Spain well beyond the reconquista of the city by the Christian troops of Alfonso VI of León and Castile in 1085, until the period of 1498–1505, when it was desacralizated by the Catholic Monarchs.
Ribat of Arrifana Archaeological site
RibatArrifana1.jpg
Aljezur, Algarve  Portugal (then the Almoravid dynasty) 1130[98] Probably constructed by Abu-l-Qasim Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn Qasi, governor of Silves and a rebel leader against the Almoravid dynasty. These are the only ruins of such Muslim fortress to have been identified in Portugal, excavated by Portuguese archaeologists since 2001.
Church of Nossa Senhora da Anunciação
Igreja Matriz de Mértola.jpg
Mértola, Alentejo  Portugal (then the Almohad Caliphate) Second-half of the 12th Century[99] Unique and most identifiable former mosque in Portugal, although a mixture of Almohad and Manueline post-Gothic architecture. Rebuilt in the second half of 12th century with some elements from the 9th century.
Giralda
Sevilla Cathedral - Giralda.jpg
Seville, Andalusia  Spain (then the Almohad Caliphate) 1248 [100] Only the minaret remains. Mosque comparable in size to Great mosque of Cordoba, mostly destroyed by earthquake in 1365. Minaret used as a church bell tower was built higher in 16th century.
Church of São Clemente
Loule Church - The Algarve, Portugal (1399505908).jpg
Tavira, Algarve  Portugal (then the Kingdom of Portugal) Second-half of the 13th Century[101] Only parts of the original minaret remain, incorporated in the church bell tower. It's 22.7 metres tall and 4.2 metres across. Across it lies an old Muslim cemetery of Jardim dos Amuados.
Mosque of Tórtoles
Mezquita de Tórtoles, Tarazona, Zaragoza, España, 2017-05-23, DD 66.jpg
Tarazona, Aragon  Spain (then the Crown of Aragon) 15th-century (completed)[102] Almost unaltered in the later centuries.
San Sebastian Minaret (Alminar De San Sebastian) Ronda Minaret-Kirchturm2004.jpg Ronda, Andalusia  Spain (then the Almohad Caliphate)

Only minaret of the medium-size mosque in Plaza Abul Beka neighborhood remains. Minaret was expanded and used as a bell tower. The mosque was converted to a church but destroyed in 1600s during Morisco Revolts. Ronda was a Muslim city for 700 years. The city had 7 or 8 mosques, none survive today.[103]

[103]
Alminar de San Juan (Minaret of San Juan)
 Russia
Building Image Location First built Denomination Notes
Dzhuma Mosque Derbent, Dagestan (then part of the Abbasid Caliphate) 700-900 (approximate)[60]
Eastern Europe (excluding the Caucasus, European Russia and Nordic countries)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Al-Agha Mosque Dragaš  Kosovo 1268[104] Built by Muslims who migrated from Aleppo, in Syria, to Kosovo. However, the mosque is today a ruin.[104]
Dzhumaya Mosque
Dzhumayata.jpg
Plovdiv  Bulgaria 1363–1364 Built during the reign of Sultan Murad II the old building was demolished and replaced by the modern-day mosque.
Sailors' Mosque
Sailors’ Mosque (2012).jpg
Ulcinj  Montenegro 14th century
Halit Efendi Mosque Slupčane, Lipkovo Municipality  North Macedonia 1415[105] It is considered to be the oldest mosque in North Macedonia. However, as a result of the various renovation works, the building has been altered to such an extent that it is no longer in its original state. [105]
Turhan Emin-Beg Mosque Ustikolina  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1448–1449[106] Built by Turhan Emin-beg. Known to have been destroyed two times (1941 and 1992) and rebuilt two times (1956 and 2007).[106]
Fatih Mosque, Elbasan Elbasan Castle  Albania 1466[107] Built by the orders of Sultan Mehmed II.[107]
Old Mosque, Plav (Imperial Mosque)
Plav - drevena mesita z 18. stol.jpg
Plav  Montenegro 1471[108] Built during the Ottoman rule in the city.[108]
King Mosque or Sultan Bayazit Mosque
Königsmoschee Elbasan.jpg
Elbasan  Albania 1482
Iljaz Mirahori Mosque
Xhamia e Iljaz Bej Mirahorit, Korce.jpg
Korçë  Albania 1494[109] It was built by Iljaz Hoxha, also known as Iljaz Bey Mirahor,[109] and is a Cultural Monument of Albania.[110]
Mosque of Kuklibeu
PrizrenCollection2 2010 IMG 0695.JPG
Prizren  Kosovo 1534
Mosque of Muderis Ali Efendi
PrizrenCollection2 2010 100 2517.JPG
Prizren  Kosovo 1543–1581
Esmahan Sultan Mosque
Moscheia-Esmahan-Sultan.jpg
Mangalia  Romania 1575 Oldest mosque in Romania
 Poland 1558 (earliest attestation in writing)[111] Tatar mosques in Poland were noted in a 1558 treatise Risale-i Tatar-i Lech.[111]
 Lithuania (then the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) 1500–1600[112] Various records indicate Lithuanian Tatars built mosques in the Duchy during the 16th century[112]
Mosque of Sinan Pasha
SinanPasha.JPG
Prizren  Kosovo 1615
Log pod Mangartom Mosque
Mošeja-Log pod Mangartom4.jpg
Log pod Mangartom, Municipality of Bovec  Slovenia (then Austria-Hungary) 1916[113] Built by Bosniak members of the Austro-Hungarian army.[113]
Gunja Mosque
Gunja Mosque Interior-Džamija u gunji unutrašnjost-Џамија у Гуњи унутрашњост 01.jpg
Gunja  Croatia 1969 The first and one of the few mosques in Croatia, located near the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Vienna Islamic Centre-Mosque
Bruckhaufen (Wien) - Moschee (4).JPG
Vienna  Austria 1979[114]
Brno Mosque
Brno, Štýřice, mešita - DOD (01).jpg
Brno  Czech Republic 1998[115] Construction began 1996, inaugurated 1998.[115]
Southeast Asia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Sheik Karimal Makdum Mosque Tubig Indangan, Simunul island, Bangsamoro  Philippines 1380[116] Founded by Makhdum Karim, who introduced Islam to the Philippines. This is the oldest mosque in Southesast Asia.
Wapauwe Old Mosque
Masjid Tua Wapauwe.jpg
Kaitetu, Central Maluku Regency, Maluku  Indonesia 1414 The oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia.
Ampel Mosque
Ampel Mosque in 2008.jpg
Ampel, Surabaya, East Java  Indonesia 1421[117] The oldest surviving mosque in Java, and second oldest in Indonesia.
Masjid Sultan Sharif Ali Brunei  Brunei 1430 (approximate)[118] Built under the direction of Sharif Ali ("Sultan Berkat"), who reigned 1425-1432.
Great Mosque of Demak
Masjid demak.jpg
Demak, Central Java  Indonesia 15th century[119] Oldest mosque in Central Java and second oldest in Java.[119]
300 Years Mosque Narathiwat  Thailand 17th century It is at least one of the oldest known mosques in Thailand.[120]
Masjid Omar Kampong Melaka
Masjid Omar Kampong Melaka, Mar 06.JPG
Central Area  Singapore 1820[121] Originally a wooden structure built by Arab merchant Syed Omar Ali Aljunied.
British Isles
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Liverpool Mosque and Muslim Institute
Brougham Terrace, July 07, 2012.jpg
Liverpool,  England  United Kingdom 1891[122] Liverpool Muslim Institute Several sources state that a mosque was founded in 1860 at 2 Glynrhondda Street, Cardiff, Wales. This has been rejected by an academic paper as a transcription error.[123]
Dublin Mosque and Islamic Centre Dublin  Ireland 1976[115] The first purpose-built mosque was built in Ballyhaunis in 1987.[citation needed]
Western-Central Europe (excluding the British Isles, Nordic countries, and countries that are also in Eastern Europe)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Grand Mosque of Paris
Grande Mosquée de Paris.JPG
Paris (first in Metropolitan France)  France 1926 This mosque was the first mosque built in France since the 8th century; it was built in the Moroccan style, and honored Muslim French veterans of World War I.[124]
Wünsdorf Mosque
Wünsdorf Mosque.jpg
Wünsdorf, Berlin  Germany 1915 Erected in 1915 by the Imperial German Army administration for Muslim Allied prisoners of war in the POW camp in Wünsdorf, later used as refugee camp. In 1930 torn down due to lack of a congregation.
Mobarak Mosque
Moskee Oostduinlaan.JPG
The Hague  Netherlands 1955 The first known purpose-built mosque in the Netherlands.
Centre Islamique de Genève ("Little Mosque" of Geneva) Geneva   Switzerland 1961 Founded by Said Ramadan
East Asia (excluding Greater China)
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Kobe Mosque
Kobe-mosque3.jpg
Kobe  Japan 1935[125] Designed in the Turkish style by a Czech architect, confiscated by the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1943, and later returned.
Seoul Central Mosque
Korea-Seoul-Itaewon-Seoul Central Mosque-01.jpg
Seoul  South Korea 1976[126]
Nordic countries
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Järvenpää mosque  Finland 1942 A mosque of the community of Finnish Tatars. It is considered to be the oldest mosque in Nordic countries. Finland's first Muslim cemetery was established in the 1830s for Russian troops.[127]
Hvidovre, outside Copenhagen  Denmark 1967[127] Founded by the Ahmadiyya; first purpose-built mosque in a Nordic country.
Islamic Cultural Centre Norway Oslo  Norway 1974 Founded by Pakistani-Norwegians aided by Danish Muslims; of the Sunni Deobandi school. The first Shi'i mosque, Anjuman-e Hussain, opened in 1975; the first Sunni Barelvi mosque opened in 1976.
Nasir Mosque, Gothenburg  Sweden 1976
Stockholm  Sweden 2000[128] Converted from Katarinastation, a former power station.
Reykjavík Mosque Reykjavik  Iceland 2002[129] Not a purpose-built mosque, but serves as an interim gathering site.

Oceania[edit]

Australasia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Marree Mosque Marree, South Australia  Australia 1861[130] / 1882[46] Small structure in the South Australian desert built by Australia's "Afghan" camel-drivers, has been restored.
Central Adelaide Mosque Adelaide  Australia 1888[130] The oldest major city mosque in the country.[130]
Auckland  New Zealand 1979 (begun)[131] Cornerstone laid in 1979; the first Islamic centre in the country was installed in an Auckland house bought in 1959.[131]
Melanesia
Building Image Location Country First built Denomination Notes
Hidayatullah Sanoek Mosque Sanoek, South Waigeo, Raja Ampat Regency, West Papua  Indonesia 1505 (approximate) The oldest surviving mosque in Oceania[132]
Vitogo, Nausori, and Tavua[133]  Fiji 1922 (approximate)[133] A number of wooden mosques were built by local Islamic assemblies around 1922.[133]
Port Moresby[46]  Papua New Guinea 2000[134] Islam was introduced to the island in the 1970s,[134] and the first Islamic centre established in 1988.[46]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to historian Oleg Grabar, "It is only at a relatively late date that the Muslim holy space in Jerusalem came to be referred to as al-haram al-sharif (literally, the Noble Sacred Precinct or Restricted Enclosure, often translated as the Noble Sanctuary and usually simply referred to as the Haram). While the exact early history of this term is unclear, we know that it only became common in Ottoman times, when administrative order was established over all matters pertaining to the organization of the Muslim faith and the supervision of the holy places, for which the Ottomans took financial and architectural responsibility. Before the Ottomans, the space was usually called al-masjid al-aqsa (the Farthest Mosque), a term now reserved to the covered congregational space on the Haram, or masjid bayt al-maqdis (Mosque of the Holy City) or, even, like Mecca's sanctuary, al-masjid al-ḥarâm,"[16]

References[edit]

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  3. ^ Quran 2:144–217
  4. ^ Quran 5:2 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  5. ^ Quran 8:34 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  6. ^ Quran 9:7–28
  7. ^ Quran 22:25 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
  8. ^ Quran 48:25–27
  9. ^ Quran 2:127 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)
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