AP US History

AP US History

This course can help prepare students who wish to continue their social studies education after high school, as well as students who wish to perform exceptionally well on the SAT exam. The level of aptitude in this subject will assist students wishing to excel on the SAT and in college courses.

According to the College Board’s website, AP US History is designed to provide students with the analytical skills and factual knowledge necessary to deal critically with the problems and materials in US history. It should prepare students for entry level and intermediate level history courses on the college level. While there is no prerequisite for AP US History, students should make sure that they are prepared for the course load associated with an Advanced Placement History course.  Most social studies classes include extensive readings of both textbooks and case studies.  Students should be prepared to both read and analyze what they read in order to apply it to the class.

AP US History is a serious course and includes many course goals. According to the College Board’s website, by the time students take their AP US History exam (or the SAT exam) they should be prepared to know about the following themes:

  • American Diversity- Students will come to understand the diversity of the American people and the relationships between these groups is very important. The roles of race, class, ethnicity, and gender are crucial to understanding key points of US history.
  • American Identity- Students will become acquainted with individual views of the American character and ideas about American exceptionalism.
  • Culture- Students will gain an appreciation for individual and collective expression through art, philosophy, music, theater, and film throughout history.
  • Demographic Changes- Students will learn about changes in birth, marriage, and death rates, and how they affect the population as a whole. They will also come to understand life expectancy, family patterns, population size and density, as well as the political and social effects of immigration internal migration.
  • Economic Transformations- Students will gain an understanding of how changes in trade, commerce, and technology affect a nation across time. The effects of capitalism, labor disputes, and consumerism will also come into play.
  • Globalizations- Students will begin to understand the United States’ influence around the world, and their effect on ecological, social, and environmental conflicts across the globe.
  • Religion- Students will learn about a variety of religious beliefs and practices in America from prehistory to the 20th century, and how religions influence politics, economics, and society as a whole.

Students will also learn to use study notes and other study techniques in conjunction with such AP US History textbooks as The American Pageant, United States History, and America: Past and Present.

Students considering taking AP US History or any other Advanced Placement course should keep in mind that taking advanced classes requires a higher level of commitment than other high school classes. Students that commit themselves to their coursework and do well in their classes will see a huge payoff in both their SAT scores as well as their college preparedness level

Students that wish to get accepted into more prestigious or highly-selective schools should definitely look into taking AP courses. Advanced Placement courses not only set students apart through their transcripts, but they can also give students an extra boost when thinking about what kind of courses they want to take in college. They can also earn college credit while still in high school, saving valuable time, money, and headaches. Most importantly, they can also aid students in developing the study habits they need to succeed over the course of their college career and give students valuable skills that they can use both in and out of the classroom. 

Here you find AP US History outlines, notes, vocabulary terms, topic notes, practice quizzes, court cases, political parties, political timelines and biographies. Many of these resources correspond to the American Pageant textbook. We are always adding more AP US History notes so if you have any requests, please use the Contact Us form to let us know what we can do to help.

Subject X2: 

Premium Content

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/chesp_slavery.txt---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/jonathan_edwards.txt---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/pan_indian_id.txt---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/republic_liberalism.txt---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/gullah.txt---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/middle_passage.txt---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/2_treatisees.txt---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/salutary_neglect.txt---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/american_enlight.txt---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/atlantic.txt---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/ap-us-history-concept-outline-effective-fall-2019.pdf---

  • DBQ

    Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/final_paper_example_4.docx---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/jackson_dbq_-_student_1.pdf---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/a_cultivated_world_1.pdf---

  • Text automatically extracted from attachment below. Please download attachment to view properly formatted document.---Extracted text from uploads/us_history/pueblo_revolt.pdf---

Subject X2: 


Here you will find outlines for AP US History for the American Pageant textbook. We have chapter outlines for the American Pageant 11th Edition, the American Pageant 12th edition, and the American Pageant 13th edition. We are working on adding US History chapter notes for other AP US History textbooks like the Enduring Vision, A People and a Nation, Out of Many, and The American People. These outlines, along with the US History unit notes, practice quizzes, vocabulary terms, topic outlines, court cases, political parties, political timelines, and case briefs will help you prepare for the AP US History exam.

Subject X2: 

The American Pageant, 16th Edition


Below are chapter notes and outlines for the American Pageant, 16th edition textbook.

Additional Information:

  • Hardcover: 1152 pages
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning; 16 edition (January 1, 2015)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 9781305075900
  • ISBN-13: 978-1305075900
  • ASIN: 1305075900


Subject X2: 

Chapter 01 - New World Beginnings

  1. The Shaping of North America
    1. Recorded history began 6,000 years ago. It was 500 years ago that Europeans set foot on the Americas to begin the era of accurately recorded history on the continent.
    2. The theory of “Pangaea” exists suggesting that the continents were once nestled together into one mega-continent. The continents then spread out as drifting islands.
    3. Geologic forces of continental plates created the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains.
    4. The Great Ice Age thrust down over North America and scoured the present day American Midwest.
  2. Peopling the Americas
    1. The “Land Bridge” theory…
      1. As the Great Ice Age diminished, so did the glaciers over North America.
      2. The theory holds that a “Land Bridge” emerged linking Asia & North America across what’s today the Bering Sea. People were said to have walked across the “bridge” before the sea level rose and sealed it off and thus populated the Americas.
    2. The Land Bridge is suggested as occurring an estimated 35,000 years ago.
    3. Many peoples emerged…
      1. Those groups that traversed the land bridge spread across North, Central, and South America.
      2. Countless tribes emerged with an estimated 2,000 languages. Notably…
        1. Incas – Peru, with elaborate network of roads and bridges linking their empire.
        2. Mayas – Yucatan Peninsula, with their step pyramids.
        3. Aztecs – Mexico, with step pyramids and huge sacrifices of conquered peoples.
  3. The Earliest Americans
    1. Development of corn or “maize” around 5,000 B.C. in Mexico was revolutionary in that…
      1. Then, people didn’t have to be hunter-gatherers, they could settle down and be farmers.
      2. This fact gave rise to towns and then cities.
      3. Corn arrived in the present day U.S. around 1,200 B.C.
    2. Pueblo Indians
      1. The Pueblos were the 1st American corn growers.
      2. They lived in adobe houses (dried mud) and pueblos (“villages” in Spanish). Pueblos are villages of cubicle shaped adobe houses, stacked one on top the other and often beneath cliffs.
      3. They had elaborate irrigation systems to draw water away from rivers to grown corn.
    3. Mound Builders
      1. These people built huge ceremonial and burial mounds and were located in the Ohio Valley.
      2. Cahokia, near East St. Louis today, held 40,000 people.
    4. Eastern Indians
      1. Eastern Indians grew corn, beans, and squash in “three sister” farming…
        1. Corn grew in a stalk providing a trellis for beans, beans grew up the stalk, squash’s broad leaves kept the sun off the ground and thus kept the moisture in the soil.
        2. This group likely had the best (most diverse) diet of all North American Indians and is typified by the CherokeeCreekChoctaw (South) and Iroquois (North).
    5. Iroquois Confederation
      1. Hiawatha was the legendary leader of the group.
      2. The Iroquois Confederation was a group of 5 tribes in New York state.
      3. They were matrilineal as authority and possessions passed down through the female line.
      4. Each tribe kept their independence, but met occasionally to discuss matters of common interest, like war/defense.
      5. This was not the norm. Usually, Indians were scattered and separated (and thus weak).
    6. Native Americans had a very different view of things as compared to Europeans.
      1. Native Americans felt no man owned the land, the tribe did. (Europeans liked private property)
      2. Indians felt nature was mixed with many spirits. (Europeans were Christian and monotheistic)
      3. Indians felt nature was sacred. (Europeans believed nature and land was given to man by God in Genesis to be subdued and put to use).
      4. Indians had little or no concept or interest in money. (Europeans loved money or gold)
  4. Indirect Discoverers of the New World
    1. The 1st Europeans to come to America were the Norse (Vikings from Norway).
      1. Around 1,000 A.D., the Vikings landed, led by Erik the Red and Leif Erikson.
      2. They landed in “Newfoundland” or “Vinland” (due to all of the vines).
      3. However, these men left America and left no written record and therefore didn’t get the credit.
      4. The only record is found in Viking sagas or songs.
    2. The Christian Crusaders of Middle Ages fought in Palestine to regain the Holy Land from Muslims. This mixing of East and West created a sweet-tooth where Europeans wanted the spices of the exotic East.
  5. Europeans Enter Africa This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Marco Polo traveled to China and stirred up a storm of European interest.
    2. Mixed with desire for spices, an East to West (Asia to Europe) trade flourished but had to be overland, at least in part. This initiated new exploration down around Africa in hopes of an easier (all water) route.
    3. Portugal literally started a sailing school to find better ways to get to the “Spice Islands,” eventually rounding Africa’s southern Cape of Good Hope.
    4. New developments emerged…
      1. caravel – a ship with triangular sail that could better tack (zig-zag) ahead into the wind and thus return to Europe from the Africa coast.
      2. compass – to determine direction.
      3. astrolabe – a sextant gizmo that could tell a ship’s latitude.
    5. Slave trade begins
      1. Slavery was initially race-independent. A slave was whoever lost in battle. Usually, slaves came from the Slavic regions of Europe, hence the name.
      2. The first African slave trade was across the Sahara Desert.
      3. Later, it was along the West African coast. Slave traders purposely busted up tribes and families in order to squelch any possible uprising.
      4. Slaves wound up on sugar plantations the Portuguese had set up on the tropical islands off of Africa’s coast.
      5. Spain watched Portugal’s success with exploration and slaving with envy and wanted a piece of the pie.
  6. Columbus Comes upon a New World
    1. Columbus convinced Isabella and Ferdinand to fund his expedition.
    2. His goal was to reach the East (East Indies) by sailing west, thus bypassing the around-Africa route that Portugal monopolized.
    3. He misjudged the size of the Earth though, thinking it 1/3 the size of what it was.
    4. So, after 30 days or so at sea, when he struck land, he assumed he’d made it to the East Indies and therefore mistook the people as “Indians.”
    5. This spawned the following system…
        1. Europe would provide the market, capital, technology.
        2. Africa would provide the labor.
        3. The New World would provide the raw materials of gold, soil, and lumber.
  7. When Worlds Collide
    1. Of huge importance was the biological flip-flop of Old and New Worlds. Simply put, it was a trade of life such as plants, foods, animals, germs.
    2. From the New World (America) to the Old
      1. corn, potatoes, tobacco, beans, peppers, manioc, pumpkin, squash, tomato, wild rice, etc.
      2. also, syphilis
    3. From Old World to the New
      1. cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples, cabbage, citrus, carrots, Kentucky bluegrass, etc.
      2. devastating diseases – smallpox, yellow fever, malaria as Indians had no immunities.
        1. The Indians had no immunities in their systems built up over generations.
        2. An estimated 90% of all pre-Columbus Indians died, mostly due to disease.
  8. The Spanish Conquistadores
    1. Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 – Portugal and Spain feuded over who got what land. The Pope drew this line as he was respected by both.
      1. The line ran North-South, and chopped off the Brazilian coast of South America
      2. Portugal got everything east of the line (Brazil and land around/under Africa)
      3. Spain got everything west of the line (which turned out to be much more, though they didn’t know it at the time)
    2. Conquistadores is Spanish “conquerors”.
      1. Vasco Balboa – “discovered” the Pacific Ocean across the isthmus of Panama.
      2. Ferdinand Magellan – circumnavigated the globe (he was the first to do so).
      3. Ponce de Leon – touches and names Florida looking for legendary “Fountain of Youth”.
      4. Hernando DeSoto – enters Florida, travels up into present day Southeastern U.S., dies and is “buried” in Mississippi River,
      5. Francisco Pizarro – conquers Incan Empire of Peru and begins shipping tons of gold/silver back to Spain. This huge influx of precious metals made European prices skyrocket (inflation).
      6. Francisco Coronado – ventured into current Southwest U.S. looking for legendary Cibola, city of gold. He found the Pueblo Indians.
    3. Encomienda system established
      1. Indians were “commended” or given to Spanish landlords
      2. The idealistic theory of the encomienda was that Indians would work on the farm and be converted to Christianity. But it was basically just slavery on a sugar plantation guised as missionary work.
  9. The Conquest of Mexico
    1. Hernando Cortez conquered the Aztecs at Tenochtitlan.
    2. Cortez went from Cuba to present day Vera Cruz, then marched over mountains to the Aztec capital.
    3. Montezuma, the Aztec king, thought Cortez might be the god Quetzalcoatl who was due to re-appear that very year. Montezuma welcomed Cortez into Tenochtitlan.
    4. The Spanish lust for gold led Montezuma to attack on the noche triste, sad night. Cortez and men fought their way out, but it was smallpox that eventually beat the Indians.
    5. The Spanish then destroyed Tenochtitlan, building the Spanish capital (Mexico City) exactly on top of the Aztec city.
    6. A new race of people emerged, mestizos, a mix of Spanish and Indian blood.
  10. The Spread of Spanish America
    1. Spanish society quickly spread through Peru and Mexico
    2. A threat came from neighbors…
      1. English – John Cabot (an Italian who sailed for England) touched the coast of the current U.S.
      2. Italy – Giovanni de Verrazano also touched on the North American seaboard.
      3. France – Jacques Cartier went into mouth of St. Lawrence River (Canada).
    3. To oppose this, Spain set up forts (presidios) all over the California coast. Also cities, like St. Augustine in Florida
    4. Don Juan de Onate followed Coronado’s old path into present day New Mexico. He conquered the Indians ruthlessly, maiming them by cutting off one foot of survivors just so they’d remember.
    5. Despite mission efforts, the Pueblo Indians revolted in Pope’s Rebellion.
    6. Robert de LaSalle sailed down the Mississippi River for France claiming the whole region for their King Louis and naming the area “Louisiana” after his king. This started a slew of place-names for that area, from LaSalle, Illinois to “Louisville” and then on down to New Orleans (the American counter of Joan of Arc’s famous victory at Orleans).
    7. Black Legend” – The Black Legend was the notion that Spaniards only brought bad things (murder, disease, slavery); though true, they also brought good things such as law systems, architecture, Christianity, language, and civilization, so that the Black Legend is partly, but not entirely, accurate.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 02 - The Planting of English America

  1. England’s Imperial Stirrings
    1. By the year 1607, Central and South America was largely controlled by Spain or Portugal, but North America was mostly unclaimed.
      1. In North America, there were few Europeans.
        1. Spain had established Santa Fe.
        2. France had established Quebec.
        3. Britain had just established Jamestown, and it was struggling.
    2. In the 1500s, Britain had made only feeble efforts to colonize America. There was a rash of problems hinging on a mix of religion and politics…
      1. King Henry VIII had broken with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, brining the Protestant Reformation to England and thus creating religious division.
      2. When Elizabeth I became queen, England moved decidedly in the Protestant direction. This also meant Catholic Spain was an immediate rival.
      3. And there was the “Irish problem.” Catholic Ireland sought Spain’s help in ousting Protestant England’s control over the “Emerald” island of Ireland.
      4. The end result of these events was a great deal of hatred between England and the Catholic nations.
  2. Elizabeth Energizes England
    1. Elizabeth I was a fiery red-headed queen with loads of ambition, gall, and the political shrewdness to get what she wanted.
    2. Francis Drake was a “sea dog” who pirated Spanish ships for gold. On one occasion, he stole the gold, circumnavigated the earth, and then was rewarded by Elizabeth I knighting him on his ship. This brazen reward by the English queen infuriated the Spanish.
    3. First attempts by the British to colonize the American coast failed miserably.
      1. Sir Humphrey Gilbert died at sea.
      2. Sir Walter Raleigh established the Roanoke Island Colony, later to become known as The Lost Colony. Raleigh returned to England and the colony vanished mysteriously.
    4. Spain plotted revenge on England and in 1588 their Spanish Armada attacked England only to get themselves defeated. The turning point in history was a large one…
      1. This stunning victory opened the door for Britain to cross the Atlantic and finally establish colonies.
      2. England’s victory also emboldened Britain and launched her golden age including…
        1. For the next 300 years, the British navy would dominate the seas. (Around 1900, the U.S. would surpass British naval power.)
        2. England enjoyed a strong government and a popular monarch
        3. There was a greater deal of unity, both religiously and through a sense of national pride and purpose.
        4. The golden age of literature ushered in thanks to William Shakespeare.
      3. Britain and Spain signed a peace treaty in 1604.
  3. England on the Eve of the Empire
    1. By the mid 1500s, Britain’s population was mushrooming.
    2. Europe was going through the process know as enclosure (fencing in the land) for farming.
      1. Enclosure meant there was less land or no land for the poor.
      2. No land or no hopes for land, in turn, meant the poor wanted to leave and go to America.
    3. The woolen districts of southern England fell upon hard times economically. This meant the workers lost jobs, and in turn, wanted to leave and go to America.
    4. A tradition of “primogeniture” existed where the firstborn son inherits ALL of the father’s land. Therefore, younger sons who were landless, wanted to leave and go to America.
    5. By the 1600s, the joint-stock company was perfected. In this type of company, people invest money with hopes and expectations the company will do well. Thus the investor will make money as a share-owner.
      1. The benefit of the joint-stock company is that they can generate large amounts of start-up money to get a company going.
      2. The joint-stock company is the forerunner of today’s corporation.
  4. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. In 1606, King James I gave the Virginia Company a charter to establish a colony in America.
      1. It was a joint-stock company, intended to make a quick profit during a short life span.
      2. Joint-stock companies were built for the short term. The goal was to turn a quick profit to investors who’d sell out after a year or two.
      3. The charter also guaranteed colonists the same rights as Englishmen. Ironically, it would later be this guarantee that would help fuel America’s independence movement.
    2. In May of 1607, about 100 English men established Jamestown, Virginia.
      1. Troubles for the colony came early and often…
        1. Forty would-be settlers died on the boat ride over.
        2. Problems then emerged including (a) the swampy site of Jamestown meant poor drinking water and mosquitoes causing malaria and yellow fever, (b) “gentlemen” wasted time looking for gold rather than doing useful tasks (digging wells, building shelter, planting crops), and (c) there were zero women on the initial ship.
      2. A supply ship bound for Jamestown in 1609 wrecked in the Bahamas.
    3. Their fortune began to change in 1608 when Captain John Smith took control and instituted a strong measure of much-needed discipline.
      1. According to legend, Smith was once kidnapped by local Chief Powhatan and then his life spared at the last moment thanks to his daughter Pocahontas.
      2. This act may well have been staged, but was intended by Powhatan to show good intentions between Indian and the whites.
      3. John Smith’s main contribution was that he gave order and discipline, highlighted by his “no work, no food” policy.
      4. Still, the Jamestown settlers died in droves, and resorted to eating “dogges, Catts, rats, and Myce.” One fellow wrote of eating “powdered wife.”
      5. Understandably, this was known as the “starving time” in Virginia.
      6. The colonists’ next stroke of good fortune came when Lord De La Warr intercepted a ship of settlers who were abandoning the colony. He forced them to return, brought more discipline, and brought much-needed supplies.
    4. By 1625, only 1,200 out of nearly 8,000 settlers had survived.
  5. Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake
    1. The whites and Powhatan held a Jekyll and Hyde relationship—they waffled between good relations and bad relations. They raided one another, traded with one another, and fought one another.
    2. The First Anglo-Powhatan War ended in 1614. It was sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to colonist John Rolfe.
      1. Together, Pocahontas and Rolfe would develop a sweet tobacco. This would become the cash crop that would save Jamestown.
      2. In 1622, the Indians struck again, killing 347 whites, included Rolfe ironically.
    3. The Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1644-1646) saw the Indians defeated soundly. The results were…
      1. The Indians were effectively banished from the Chesapeake.
      2. The notion was born that Indians and whites cannot live together peaceably—the beginnings of the reservations system were brewing.
    4. The Indians fell due to the “three D’s”: disease (smallpox was the worst), disorganization (since they were not united, the whites could fight one tribe at a time), and disposability (since the whites had no use for Indians, they were simply pushed out).
  6. The Indians’ New World
    1. The Europeans’ arrival in the New World shocked Native American and induced unprecedented changes.
      1. Horses altered Indian lifestyles, especially the Sioux who used the horse expertly on buffalo hunts.
      2. Disease was by far the greatest change.
        1. Indian blood, since they’d never been exposed to such bacteria, lacked any natural resistence to the white’s diseases.
        2. Tribes were devastated. The Catawba of piedmont Carolina, for example, was formed out of remnants of several other tribes.
      3. Native Americans wanted firearms, eventually got them, and thus heightened tensions with other tribes and with whites.
    2. Indians tried to engage in the trans-Atlantic economy, but had little to no success.
    3. Indians along the Atlantic coast were effectively pushed out by war and disease. Those further inland, traded space for time.
  7. Virginia: Child of Tobacco
    1. Jamestown’s salvation was found in the form of tobacco.
      1. John Rolfe’s sweet tobacco was sought as a cash crop by Europe. Jamestown had finally found its gold.
      2. Tobacco also had negative effects…
        1. Its success caused settlers to scramble for more land to cultivate. It also encouraged “land butchery”—farmers would cultivate the land ‘til it gave out, then just move on.
        2. It boosted the plantation economy and created a demand for cheap labor. At first this labor was filled mostly by white indentured servants, and then as the 1600s turned into the 1700s, by black slaves.
        3. It built Virginia’s economy on a single item, tobacco. Their economy was thus susceptible to the whims of having “all their eggs in one basket.”
    2. Three major things happened in 1619…
      1. Representative self-government came to America when Virginians created the House of Burgesses, a basic legislature to work out local issues. This set America on a pathway self-rule.
      2. The first blacks were brought to America. It’s unclear if they were slaves or indentured servants at this time.
      3. A shipload of women arrived. They were young and came with the sole purpose of marrying. This brought Virginia stability and a sense of permanence.
  8. Maryland: Catholic Haven
    1. Religious freedom was the initial motivation for Maryland.
      1. Lord Baltimore founded Maryland in 1634.
      2. Maryland was founded as a haven (safe place) for Catholics to avoid persecution from Protestants in Europe or in America.
      3. Growth…
        1. Lord Baltimore awarded huge estates to his wealthy, Catholic personal friends.
        2. Others that settled were poor and usually Protestant. Tension ensued.
    2. However, the sale of tobacco still caused Maryland to flourish.
    3. Indentured servants bore most of the work load.
      1. Black slaves began to replace white indentures as the 1600s turned into the 1700s. Notably, this trend was common in the South and especially in the Chesapeake.
      2. The reasons for the switch from white-to-black…
        1. The main reason boils down to the desire for a stable work force by plantation whites.
        2. White indentures lusted for, and eventually got, land of their own to the west.
        3. Black slaves were permanent workers, not seven year workers.
        4. Due to Protestant—Catholic friction, Maryland passed the Act of Toleration, guaranteed religious toleration to all Christians, Protestant or Catholic.
      3. Still, the death penalty was deemed for anyone denying the divinity of Jesus, namely Jews and atheists.
      4. In sum, despite the fact above and Protestant—Catholic issues, Maryland was more religiously tolerant than intolerant.
  9. The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America
    1. The West Indies (Caribbean Islands) had early-on been colonized by Spain, Portugal. France and England followed
      1. Now with the decline of Spain and Portugal, the British sought to beef up their foothold in the islands.
      2. England had several islands their, especially Jamaica by 1655.
    2. Sugar was grown on the Caribbean plantations.
      1. This was exactly what the Spanish and Portuguese had done.
      2. These sugar plantations were brutal…
        1. Sugar is a labor-intensive crop.
        2. It was very hot and humid and unhealthy work.
        3. The usual thing was to work a slave until death, then get another one.
    3. The initial plan was to use Indian labor. That plan failed when disease killed an estimated 90% of Indians. Slavery then turned to Africans.
    4. Since so many slaves were needed and brought in, the white—black ratio tilted more toward blacks than anywhere in the New World. This frightened the whites!
      1. Due to fear, whites instituted strict “slave codes” or rules designed to keep slaves in control. Notable was the Barbados slave code of 1661 which saw its ideas channel up to South Carolina.
      2. Also, punishment could be as cruel as anywhere on these plantations to keep order.
        1. Typically, Africans were first brought to the West Indies to “be seasoned.” This meant that any ideas of revolt from possible “trouble-makers” were beaten out of them.
        2. From there, slaves either stayed in the West Indies or were distributed to South or North America.
  10. Colonizing the Carolinas
    1. England in the 1600s was a political rollercoaster ride.
      1. King Charles I was beheaded. Oliver Cromwell ruled as a religious dictator for 10 years, then Charles II was placed on the throne in “The Restoration”—the kingdom was restored to England.
      2. Simply put, after all the turmoil of a Civil War to oust a king, the Brits ironically just went back to a king.
        1. Much of the chaos interrupted colonization, but with the restoration and stability again, Charles II was determined to return to the colonies with vigor.
        2. Carolina was formally begun in 1670 and named after Charles II.
    2. Carolina began to prosper due to ties to the West Indies, mainly due to the great natural harbor at Charleston.
      1. The Barbados slave codes (strict rules to regulate slaves) were imported to Carolina.
      2. The slave trade prospered as well.
        1. Africans were shipped in from the West Indies.
        2. Despite protests, Indians were shipped out to the West Indies and also to Rhode Island. For example, a Rhode Island town had 200 Indian slaves in 1730.
    3. Tobacco could not be grown in Carolina, but rice could. Rice became the main crop there.
      1. African slaves were sought to work the rice plantations, due to (a) their resistance to malaria and just as importantly, (b) their knowledge of and experience with rice.
    4. Charleston flourished and quickly took on an aristocratic air. Prosperity brought something of a pompous flavor. This is one reason that the northern section of Carolina eventually split—they were much more down-to-the-earth folks.
    5. Carolina had occasional trouble with nearby Florida. Florida was foreign land and held Indians and Spaniards—both enemies to the English. Still, Carolina held on.
  11. The Emergence of North Carolina
    1. As tobacco land in the Chesapeake (Virginia) began to run out, people just walked down into Carolina.
      1. These farmers were “squatters”—they just took up the land and started farming it.
    2. These North Carolinians began to develop their own sense of who they were…
      1. They were independent-minded. This was typical of a small farmer who scratched his own living out of the soil. This was due to…
        1. They were geographically isolated and on their own.
        2. It’s as though they asked, “Why would I want someone telling me how to run my life, I’m making my own life right out of the ground?!”
        3. They resented the more established political figures along the East coast making rules and regulations for them. This is an important trend in the vein of Bacon’s Rebellion and Shays’ Rebellion.
    3. Thus, two “flavors” of Carolinians developed: (a) the aristocratic and wealthier down south around Charleston and rice & indigo plantations, and (b) the strong-willed and independent-minded up north on small tobacco farms.
    4. So in 1712, North and South Carolina were separated officially.
    5. Indian—white troubles…
      1. The Tuscarora Indians attacked in 1711.
        1. The Carolinians successfully defended themselves.
        2. The Indians were sold into slavery.
        3. Others traveled north and eventually became the 6th nation of the Iroquois Confederacy.
      2. By 1720, the Indians had been “cleared out” along the Atlantic seaboard.
        1. A sad trend was clear by this time—as the frontier moved westward, the American Indians would continually be defeated, killed by disease, and/or dislodged from their homes.
        2. The foothills and Appalachian Mountains would be the next Indian vs. white battlefield.
  12. Late-Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony
    1. Georgia was established with the purpose that it would be a buffer zone or cushion between Spanish Florida and the British colonies along the Atlantic coast.
      1. Florida was considered a wild, unpredictable, and dangerous land with Spaniards, runaway slaves, and Indians, all hostile to the American colonies.
    2. James Oglethorpe founded Georgia in 1733 and named after King George II.
      1. As well as being a buffer zone, Georgia held the goal of being a place where debtors could get a second chance.
      2. It was also a dumping ground for English criminals.
      3. Oglethorpe fended off Spanish attacks and saved the “Charity Colony.”
    3. Any Christian, except for Catholics, were permitted in Georgia.
      1. Missionaries tried to convert the Indians to Christianity.
      2. John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, was the best known of these missionaries.
    4. Georgia began humbly, and grew slowly, but it did survive.
  13. The Plantation Colonies
    1. Slavery took place in all of the plantation colonies down South.
    2. Forests frequently stunted the growth of cities.
    3. Schools and churches, and even towns, were often stunted since Southerners were so spread out.
    4. Crops were grown as such:
      1. Tobacco – in the Chesapeake region (Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina)
      2. Rice and indigo – in the tidewater region of South Carolina and Georgia
    5. As a general rule, the plantation South permitted a good deal of religious freedom. Southerners were more interested in making money and growing crops than worrying over church doctrine.
    6. White vs. Indian conflicts were frequent.
  14. Makers of America: The Iroquois
    1. The Iroquois consisted of five tribes: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onandaga, Cayuga, and the Seneca. The tribes united into the "Iroquois Confederation" under the legendary leader Hiawatha.
      1. The confederation was very strong and was a force when threatened by the whites.
      2. Eventually, the whites' disease, whiskey, and weapons threatened the Iroquois' survival.
    2. The Iroquois lived in "longhouses." The women held an unusually high rank—a man's prominence was linked to his mother's family.
    3. The war's of colonial America ripped the Iroquois lifestyle apart. Many fled to Canada and others went to lives on reservations.
      1. Like many Indians, reservation life was a pitiful mix of depression, alcoholism, poverty, and feuding.
      2. A prophet named Handsome Lake had a vision. He then convinced his people to change their ways. His influence still lives in the "Longhouse" religion.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 03 - Settling the Northern Colonies

  1. The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism
    1. 1517, Martin Luther started the Protestant Reformation when he nailed his “95 Theses” on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral. Luther had several challenges to the Roman church. The most basic of Luther’s ideas were …
      1. The Bible or scripture alone was the source of God’s word (not the Bible and the church or pope).
      2. People are saved by grace alone from God (salvation comes as an undeserved gift from God, not by earning it or deciding to be saved).
      3. People are saved simply by faith in Christ alone (not by any “good works” the person might’ve done).
    2. John Calvin preached Calvinism that stressed “predestination” (those going to Heaven or hell has already been determined by God).
      1. Basic Christian doctrine was outlined in a 1536 document “Institutes of the Christian Religion.”
        1. It said people were sinful.
        2. It said only the predestined would go to Heaven.
      2. A Calvinist expected to see signs of predestination in a person’s life. The person was to have an outward conversion, recognized by others who’d been saved.
      3. An odd irony was created: predestination was very clear about Heaven and hell. But, it created a question as to who’s on what side?
        1. The reasoning went: if a person lives a sinful life, then obviously he’s predestined to hell. If he lives a pious life, then he’s predestined to Heaven.
        2. Calvinists are famous for working hard, dusk to dawn, to “prove” their worthiness.
        3. The impact of Calvinism has been vividly stamped on the psyche of Americans, and been called the “Protestant Work Ethic.”
    3. For personal reasons, King Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church in the 1530s. He started the Protestant Church of England.
    4. The Puritans vs. the Pilgrims
      1. A group of English called Puritans were moved to reform (“purify”) the Church of England. This is the point that separates Puritans from Pilgrims.
      2. Believed that only “visible saints” should be admitted to church membership.
      3. By contrast, the Pilgrims were Separatists. They vowed to break away from the Church of England (AKA the Anglican Church) because the “saints” would have to sit with the “damned.”
        1. King James I harassed the Separatists out of England. His reasoning was that if this group of people were willing to defy him as their spiritual leader, they might also defy him as their political leader.
        2. King James I is the king for whom the King James Bible is named.
        3. There’s irony here in that the Separatists claimed King James’ Church of England had strayed from the Bible, and they likely had. Yet the “King James Bible” quickly became accepted as being a very accurate translation, and still is considered so.
  2. The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth
    1. The Pilgrims, as Separatists, wanted to completely break away from the Church of England.
      1. They first moved to Holland with intentions of simply living there.
      2. Then they decided they’d have to move since their children were growing up Dutch. This was understandable, of course, but they wanted their kids to grow up English.
      3. They sought a location with English traditions where they’d be free to worship in their own way—America was the logical place.
    2. They struck a deal with the Virginia Company and set sail from Holland aboard the Mayflower.
      1. One person was born on the trip and one died.
      2. They were supposed to head to Virginia, but arrived off of the coast of New England in 1620.
      3. Wisely, the Pilgrims carefully surveyed for possible sites. Plymouth was chosen.
      4. Leadership and security against Indians would come to be provided by Captain Myles Standish, known as “Captain Shrimp.”
    3. Since they were in a land where they had no legal right to settle, steps had to be taken.
      1. Before leaving the ship, the Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact, where they agreed to make and live by new rules.
      2. This was the first form of self-government in New England and laid the foundation that America would be run by Americans.
    4. The winter of 1620-21 was brutal to the Pilgrims. By spring, only 44 out of the 102 were still alive.
    5. Unlike the Jamestown settlers, who had a similar first winter and wanted to return to England in the spring, the Pilgrims were determined to stay.
      1. They worked and prayed diligently the following year, gained some help and seeds from friendly Massasoit Indians, and grew a bountiful harvest—the first Thanksgiving.
      2. William Bradford, was selected as governor of the Plymouth colony 30 times in annual elections.
    6. Plymouth began humbly, but survived.
      1. Its economy was based on fur trapping, fishing, and lumber.
      2. Plymouth never grew large, and in 1691, it merged with the much larger Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  3. The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth
    1. A group of Puritans were given a royal charter in 1629. This would become the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
      1. The charter was brought to America and used it like a constitution.
      2. This was another first step toward self-government made in Massachusetts.
    2. The Puritans came in much larger numbers than the Pilgrims—about 11,000 Puritans.
      1. The Puritans were well-equipped and industrious people.
    3. Similar to Plymouth, the Bay Colony enjoyed good leadership, stability, and growth.
      1. There governor, John Winthrop, was elected for 19 years.
      2. The colony thrived and grew with an economy based on fur trading, fishing, and shipbuilding.
  4. Building the Bay Colony
    1. The Bay Colony was a “Bible Commonwealth”—a democracy run on Biblical principles.
      1. The franchise (right to vote) was quickly given to all “freemen.” Freemen were adult men who were members of the congregation (later called the Congregational Church).
      2. Non-church member men, and all women, were excluding from voting.
        1. There was the belief that the common man was incapable of voting wisely. Governor Winthrop called democracy the “meanest and worst” form of government.
        2. Puritans also wanted to retain government control in the hands of the church—hence the rule of church membership. Gaining church membership, by the way, only occurred when the church members voted you in.
      3. All told, this meant that roughly 40% of adult men could vote. This number may seem low by today’s standards (only 40% of men and 0% of women), but it still was larger than percentages back in Europe.
    2. The most noteworthy Puritan preacher was John Cotton. He’d been educated at Cambridge, criticized the Church of England, and then emigrated to Massachusetts.
    3. The Bible Commonwealth had its ways…
      1. Sermons, like those by John Cotton, were stern but moving, and clearly drew the line of right and wrong, Heaven and hell, saints and sinners.
      2. Local congregations could hire or fire their local pastor as they chose, (this is why they’re called “Congregational).”
      3. There was a strict moral code to uphold right and wrong. For example, one couple was fined 20 shillings for kissing in public.
      4. The devil, sin, and hell were very real, very serious, easily fallen into, and had to be constantly guarded against.
        1. Michael Wigglessorth wrote “Day of Doom” and sold one copy for every 20 people.
  5. Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. In such a tightly strung society, tension quickly came to Massachusetts.
    2. Quakers challenged Puritan authority and were given fines, floggings, or banishment.
    3. Anne Hutchinson was an outspoken woman who challenged predestination.
      1. Her theory, called antinomianism, argued that if there was predestination, then a person’s actions were immaterial (because the saints and sinners were already determined). This was heresy.
      2. This struck hard at the Puritans because…
        1. This challenged political control—Why follow government rules/laws if it doesn’t matter?
        2. This challenged religious control—Why follow church rules/laws if it doesn’t matter?
        3. Women were not supposed to question authority and certainly not to speak out.
      3. She was put on trial in 1638, and claimed to have received these revelations from God—even higher heresy.
      4. Hutchinson was banished and moved to startup Rhode Island where religious freedom was new and favorable.
      5. Hutchinson was eventually killed by Indians in New York. John Winthrop said that “God’s hand” was involved in her death.
    4. Roger Williams was a young, outspoken preacher who sought a clean break with the Church of England. His ideas quickly got him into trouble, including…
      1. Questioning the Bay Colony charter’s legality.
      2. Questioning dealings with the Indians.
      3. Questioning whether the church could run people’s lives and the government. He had to go.
      4. In 1635, he was banished for “newe & dangerous opinions.”
  6. The Rhode Island “Sewer”
    1. Roger Williams’ differing religious views got him into trouble in Massachusetts. So, he started Rhode Island.
    2. “Little Rhody” grew attractive to the “otherwise minded.” That is, anyone that didn’t fit into Massachusetts’ tight-laced religious society.
    3. Rhode Island thus attracted a variety of people with nothing in common except a desire for independence. This strain of independence became their point of unity.
    4. The colony was officially chartered in 1644.
  7. New England Spreads Out
    1. A new colony was founded in Hartford, Connecticut in 1635.
      1. Reverend Thomas Hooker quickly led a group into Connecticut. This group was attracted as much by the Connecticut River’s good farmland than by religious reasons.
      2. In 1639, Connecticut settlers drew up the “Fundamental Orders,” America’s first written constitution.
        1. This document later became a model for the U.S. Constitution.
      3. In 1638, the colony of New Haven was established. It later joined Connecticut.
    2. In 1623, Maine was annexed by Massachusetts.
      1. Maine remained part of Massachusetts for nearly 150 years.
    3. In 1641, New Hampshire was annexed by Massachusetts.
      1. New Hampshire remained part of Massachusetts until 1679 when the king separated it.
  8. Puritans Versus Indians
    1. White diseases had made their mark even before the Pilgrims’ arrival in 1620. Disease had then struck the Indians, killing an estimated ¾ of the population.
    2. Initial relations with the natives were friendly.
      1. A Wampanoag named Squanto befriended and helped the struggling settlers.
      2. A white—Wampanoag peace agreement was signed.
      3. This treaty, along with the first Thanksgiving, became the standard symbolic of good white—Indian relations and gave hope for good relations in the future.
    3. In 1637, relations deteriorated when the Pequot War erupted.
      1. Incidents began to ripple through New England as more and more English settlers moved in.
      2. The war raged when whites wiped out a Pequot village on the Mystic River in Connecticut.
      3. All told, the Pequots were nearly wiped out as a tribe. White—Indians relations had turned for the worse and would largely stay that way.
        1. After criticism of the attack, Puritans attempted to convert Indians to Christianity.
    4. Aside from disease, disunity was the Indians top weakness.
      1. In 1675, Massasoit’s son Metacom (known as King Philip by the English) attempted to unite local Indian tribes.
      2. Metacom and his warriors attacked English villages, usually on the frontier.
        1. The so-called King Philip’s War lasted two years and was very bloody and destructive.
        2. His wife and son were sold into slavery.
        3. He finally suffered a complete defeat when his village was surrounded and destroyed. He was beheaded and drawn-and-quartered. His head rested on a pike in Plymouth, on display for years.
  9. Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence
    1. In 1643, the New England Confederation was set up.
      1. It consisted of 4 colonies and held the main goal of defense.
      2. The colonies were Puritan only (Bay Colony, Plymouth, New Haven, and scattered Connecticut settlements).
      3. The confederation was weak but noteworthy in that it was a large step toward American unity.
    2. The colonies were basically allowed to be semi-autonomous commonwealths.
    3. Charles II, after being restored to the British throne, intended to tighten his control over the colonies.
      1. He was surprised to find how deeply independence had begun to run in the American colonies, especially in Massachusetts.
      2. As a slap-in-the-face to Massachusetts, the king gave Connecticut a sea-to-sea charter in 1662; then also charted lowly Rhode Island in 1663.
      3. Even more embarrassingly, Massachusetts’ charter was revoked in 1684.
  10. Andros Promotes the First American Revolution
    1. In 1686, the Dominion of New England was created as an arm of the king. It’s goals were to (a) to strengthen colonial defense against the Indians and, more importantly, (b) to regain control by England over America by enforcing the Navigation Acts.
      1. The Navigation Acts limited American trade to within the British Empire exclusively.
      2. Resultant, smuggling flourished.
      3. Sir Edmund Andros headed the Dominion.
        1. He established headquarters in the “trouble-area” of Boston.
        2. He was openly associated with the Church of England—much despised by the Puritans.
        3. His soldiers spoke profanities and drank heavily. Puritanical Boston was nonplussed.
      4. Andros was quick to lay the law: he curbed town meetings, placed restrictions on courts the press, and schools. He revoked land titles. He rid the local assemblies and taxed the people without any representation.
      5. At this time, William and Mary were handed the British throne in the Glorious Revolution.
        1. This effectively pulled the rug out from underneath Andros and the Dominion.
        2. The Dominion of New England fell apart.
        3. Andros dressed like a woman and tried to sneak away, but his boots betrayed him beneath his dress.
    2. Changed did come, though not as the Puritans had hoped.
      1. Massachusetts gained a new charter, but their pride had been stung.
      2. With the new charter, all male property owners could vote, not church members exclusively, as it had been. This was a step for democracy, but a step backward for the “Bible Commonwealth.”
  11. Old Netherlanders at New Netherland
    1. In the late 1500s, the Netherlands rebelled and, with British help, won her independence from Spain.
    2. The 1600s were the Golden Age for the Dutch. They set out to make themselves a world power, not military so much as economically.
    3. They set up the Dutch East India Company to trade with the world and rival the British.
      1. For protection, the company built army of 10,000 men and a fleet of 190 ships. 40 of these ships were men-of-war.
      2. The East India Company did most of its business in the Spice Islands of Indonesia (the East Indies).
    4. The Dutch West India Company operated in the Caribbean (the West Indies).
      1. The West India Company was much smaller and weaker.
      2. They found it easier and profitable to do as much raiding as trading.
    5. Explorer Henry Hudson sought new areas. He sailed into Delaware Bay and then New York Bay, then up the Hudson River. He claimed the area for the Dutch. New Netherland was born.
      1. The Dutch West India Company bought the island of Manhattan from local Indians in exchange for a few trinkets.
      2. New Amsterdam was set up as a company town—a trading post at the mouth of the Hudson River. It’s goal was to trade, turn a profit, and benefit stockholders.
    6. To encourage settlement, patroonships (large tracts of land) were awarded to promoters who’d settle 50 people in the colony.
      1. As a result of these large patroonships, New Amsterdam developed an aristocratic flavor.
    7. New Amsterdam attracted a mix of people (unlike Massachusetts).
      1. A French Jesuit missionary recorded 18 different languages being spoken in the city.
  12. Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors
    1. The Dutch were cruel to the Indians and the Indians fought back.
      1. A wall was built across the northern edge of the post to fend off Indians. The street along the wall became Wall Street.
    2. New England also didn’t like the Dutch settlers, considering them trespassers.
    3. The Dutch, in turn, considered the Swedes trespassers when New Sweden was established on the Delaware River. It never amounted to much.
      1. The Dutch sent Peter Stuyvesant down to get rid of the Swedes. The one-legged Stuyvesant’s took the main Swedish fort without bloodshed. New Sweden had ended barely after it’d begun.
      2. New Sweden left its mark in the form of place names, the log cabin, and a mix of some Swedish blood.
  13. Dutch Residues in New York
    1. In 1664, the Duke of York, Charles II’s brother, was granted the area New Netherland area.
      1. To solidify the claim, a British fleet appeared off of New Amsterdam and Peter Stuyvesant was forced to surrender without a shot.
      2. New Netherland was over.
    2. New York was the new name for New Amsterdam.
    3. The Dutch left their mark in the forms of…
      1. The aristocratic flavor of New Netherland/New York.
      2. Place names such as Harlem (Haarlem), Brooklyn (Breuckelen), and Hell Gate (Hellegat).
      3. 'Gambrel' architecture (a barn shaped roof, modeled after the gambrel or back leg of a horse).
      4. And also, the Dutch left the traditions of Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, sauerkraut, bowling, sleighing, skating, and golf (kolf).
  14. Penn’s Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania
    1. The Quakers
      1. They’re called “Quakers” because they shook or quaked when moved by religious emotion.
      2. They clashed with religious and civil rule because they refused to pay taxes that would go to the Church of England.
      3. They met in simple meeting houses without a formal preacher, and simply spoke up when so moved.
      4. They called one another as “thee” or “thou,” like the King James Bible.
        1. They’d take no oaths since Jesus instructed, “Swear not at all.” This posed problems since people were supposed to swear to “test oaths” that they weren’t Roman Catholic.
      5. They were peaceful people who despised war and would “turn the other cheek” to violence.
      6. To some they appeared stubborn; perhaps they were, but they were devoted to their faith.
    2. William Penn was a well-born Englishman attracted to the Quaker faith..
      1. In 1681, he was awarded a large tract of land by the king.
      2. The tract would come to be “Pennsylvania” meaning “Penn’s woodland.” Being modest, he disliked this name, but it stuck.
      3. Pennsylvania was the best-advertised colony. It attracted many people and prospered.
  15. Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors
    1. The colony officially began in 1681, but there were already thousands of squatters on the land.
    2. Philadelphia, the “city of brotherly love,” was carefully planned out, which was unusual. It enjoyed wide boulevards and planned streets.
    3. Penn tried to deal justly with the Indians. He bought large tracts from Chief Tammany, patron saint of the later Tammany Hall.
      1. Penn’s Indian relations were so good that Quakers could walk unarmed through Indian territory.
      2. But, Quaker good-will would be taken advantage of. Less-idealistic folks treated the Indians as savages, most notably, the rough Scots-Irish.
    4. There were good reasons for the appeal of Pennsylvania…
      1. Freedom of religion was allowed to all except Jews and Catholics.
      2. The death penalty was allowed only for murder or treason.
      3. The Quakers didn’t like slavery. They were the first group to formally take a stand against slavery.
      4. Immigration was unrestricted and naturalization was easy.
        1. Combined with good land, a friendly attitude, free religion, etc., Pennsylvania was very attractive to a wide variety of people.
        2. Virginia was the only colony with more people and more money by 1700.
    5. Penn himself was not much appreciated in Pennsylvania.
      1. His friendliness toward the deposed Catholic king James II made him unpopular with Americans.
      2. He was at times jailed for treason or debt.
      3. He suffered a stroke and died a paralytic, full of sorrow.
    6. Next-door neighbors New Jersey and Delaware also prospered.
  16. The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies
    1. The Middle Colonies consisted of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.
    2. They all held fertile soil and large tracts of land.
    3. They all, excepting Delaware, exported grain and thus were known as the “bread colonies.”
    4. Useful rivers tapped into the heart of the colonies…the Susquehanna, Delaware, and Hudson reached into fur lands.
    5. The Middle Colonies held a mix of New England and Southern colonies.
      1. They were, of course, geographically in the middle.
      2. Landholdings were of the midsize range—smaller than the South but bigger than New England.
      3. They were more ethnically mixed than other colonies—more mixed than the South and much more than New England.
      4. They had a mixed economy—agriculture like the South, and the beginnings of industry and trade as in the North.
    6. Benjamin Franklin, became the premier child of Philadelphia, and America. He’d come to Philly at 17, immediately felt at home, and through hard work and diligence, began to work his way up.
      1. Franklin’s story of rags-to-riches became symbolic of America.
      2. Americans began to realize they weren’t just surviving, but thriving.
  17. Makers of America: The English
    1. The population of England was mushrooming in the 1600s. People had to move somewhere.
    2. ¾ of the English came as indentured servants. Mostly young men from the “middling classes.” They largely came to the Chesapeake to work on the plantations.
      1. Some came due to the decline in the wool trade.
      2. Some came after being forced out by “enclosure” of the land.
    3. An estimated 40% died before the end of their servitude—unhealthy conditions being the culprit
    4. By the late 1600s, a switch began from white indentured servant labor to black slave labor. The idea was that slave labor, being permanent, was more economically sound.
    5. Late in the 17th century, as the supply of indentured servants slowly ran out, the southerners resolved to employ black slaves.
    6. In New England, mostly during the 1630s, Puritans swarmed to the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
      1. The Puritans came as family units, not so much as single men.
      2. They brought with them the traditions or varied the flavor of their local communities, which could vary substantially.
        1. For instance, Marblehead, MA became an exclusive fishing village.
        2. Rowley, MA became a textile town (as had been their village back in England).
        3. Ipswich, MA saw leaders rule with an iron hand whereas Newbury, MA saw leaders rarely win a reelection.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 04 - American Life in the Seventeenth Century

  1. The Unhealthy Chesapeake
    1. Life in America was brutal, especially in the Chesapeake (Virginia/Maryland).
      1. The work there was hard and the climate was muggy.
      2. Diseases such as malaria, dysentery, and typhoid took their deadly toll.
      3. Thus, life spans in the Chesapeake were only to 40 or 50.
    2. Family-life suffered.
      1. Men outnumbered women and had to compete to win a woman’s heart. The ratio was 6:1(men-to-women) in 1650.
      2. Grandparents were unknown since lives were often cut short.
      3. 1/3 of new brides in one Maryland county were pregnant on their wedding day.
    3. Still, Virginia persisted and grew to be the most populous colony with 59,000 people.
  2. The Tobacco Economy
    1. Though hard on people, the Chesapeake was ideal for cultivation of tobacco.
      1. Exports rose from 1.5 million pounds of tobacco annually in the 1630s to 40 million pounds in 1700.
      2. Increased production/supply meant prices fell. The solution was to simply plant and grow, even more tobacco.
    2. The “headright system” encouraged growth of the Chesapeake. Under this system, if an aristocrat sponsored an indentured servant’s passage to America, the aristocrat earned the right to purchase 50 acres land, undoubtedly at a cheap price. This meant land was being gobbled by the rich, and running out for the poor.
    3. Initially, indentured servitude provided the labor for the tobacco.
      1. Life for an indentured servant was tough, but they had had of freedom and their own land when their seven years of service were done.
      2. As time wore on and labor became a premium, masters became intent on extending contracts or less willing to award a servant a plot of land. This would be the beginnings of race-based slavery—as indentured servants decreased, slavery went on the rise.
  3. Frustrated Freemen and Bacon’s Rebellion
    1. By the late 17th century (1600s), the Chesapeake had grown a generation of angry young men.
      1. These men were young, white, landless, jobless, womanless and frustrated.
      2. Essentially, their goal was to get land and get married.
    2. Nathaniel Bacon typified these men in what came to be called Bacon’s Rebellion.
      1. In 1676, Bacon led about 1,000 men in a revolt.
      2. Many of these men had settled on the frontier where Indian attacks were frequent.
      3. Their ambition was to get Gov. William Berkeley to crack down on the Indians rather than continue his Indian-friendly fur trading. The poor men wanted land from the Indians.
      4. After some riotous success, Bacon suddenly died of disease. With the leader gone, Berkeley struck back and crushed the rebellion.
      5. Bacon’s legacy was to leave a lingering fear of revolt and lawlessness in the minds of the upper class.
  4. Colonial Slavery
    1. In 3 centuries following Columbus’ landing, 10,000 million African slaves were brought to America. Only 400,000 were brought to North America.
    2. Things were changing in the late 1600s however, as indentured servitude was being replaced by black slaves.
      1. In 1670, black slaves made up on 7% of the Southern population.
      2. By 1680, the circumstances reached the tipping point.
        1. Wages in England went up, so fewer young men came to America.
        2. Americans were fearful of another Bacon-like revolt.
        3. In the mid-1680s, black slaves coming to America outnumbered white immigrants for the first time.
        4. Simply put, in the 1680s, the African slave trade quickened considerably.
      3. By 1750, black slaves made up almost ½ the population of Virginia.
      4. Most slaves came from the coast of West Africa.
        1. They were usually captured by African tribes, shipped over on crammed boats on the grisly “Middle Passage” from Africa to the West Indies. Death rates have been estimated at 20%. They were “seasoned” there in the islands.
        2. Lastly, they were distributed to North, Central, and South America or the islands. In the modern day U.S., Charleston, SC and Newport, RI were large slave import cities.
        3. A few of the earliest slaves gained freedom, some even owned slaves themselves. Eventually, the chances of freedom dwindled.
        4. As time wore, questions of slave ownership arose. So, it was decided that slaves and their children would be made property (or “chattels”) to their owners for life.
        5. Some colonies made it a crime to teach slaves to read (for fear of an organized revolt or of reading liberating ideas).
        6. Conversion to Christianity didn’t qualify a slave for freedom either.
  5. Africans in America
    1. Life for a slave in the Deep South was harsh. Health conditions and labor drained life.
      1. Rice and indigo plantations, such as in South Carolina, were even more brutal than tobacco.
    2. Despite hardship, a unique African-American culture emerged as a mix of African-and-white cultures.
      1. Blacks evolved their languages, for example Gullah (a variation of Angola). Certain words joined English: goober (peanut), gumbo (okra), and voodoo (witchcraft).
      2. Music was unique too with rhythmic beats, the banjo, and bongo drums. These were the ancestors of jazz.
    3. Some slaves became exceptionally skilled in their trade such as carpentry, bricklaying, or tanning leather. Most slaves were simply hard laborers in the fields though.
    4. Desiring freedom, blacks rose in revolt on occasion.
      1. In New York City, 1712, a slave revolt killed a dozen whites. 21 blacks were executed.
      2. In 1739, along the Stono River in South Carolina, 50 blacks rose up and tried to escape slavery by walking to Spanish Florida. But, they were intercepted by the militia.
      3. Overall, these revolts were rather small, scattered, and controlled. They were certainly smaller than Bacon’s Rebellion with 1,000 men.
  6. Southern Society
    1. As time wore on, a rich—poor gap emerged and was widening in the South.
    2. A social hierarchy had developed in the South.
      1. Virginia was being run by a “planter aristocracy” or families of the privileged, like the Fitzhughs, Lees, and Washingtons.
        1. Such families owned huge tracts of land and dominated politics in the House of Burgesses.
        2. They were known as the “FFVs” or “First Families of Virginia.”
        3. They were aristocratic, but they were also hard-working businessmen. Running a plantation had endless problems and issues to deal with on a daily basis.
      2. Beneath the FFVs were the small farmers (AKA "yeomen" farmers).
        1. They were the largest social group in number.
        2. They held small plots of land and, maybe if they had a bit of money, 1 or 2 slaves.
      3. Next on the social scale were the landless whites.
        1. These hapless folks were often freed indentured servants. Their numbers were dwindling.
      4. At the bottom of the social scale were the slaves. They had no rights and no hope of gaining any.
    3. Cities were few and far between in the South. Schools and churches were also rare. This was mainly due to the plantations and farms being so spread out.
  7. The New England Family This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. The climate and conditions in New England were much healthier than in the South. Water was clean and temperatures cooler.
    2. Life expectancies there reached to over 70 years old. It’s said New Englanders “invented” grandparents.
    3. Families immigrated to New England (unlike single people in the Chesapeake). This made for stability.
    4. Women married in their early twenties, then gave birth about every 2 years until menopause.
      1. An average woman would give birth to 10 children and expect to raise 8 of them; the other 2 would die at birth or infancy.
    5. Women wielded little power outside of the home.
      1. In the South, women often had it a bit better because (a) the male—female ratio favored the ladies, and (b) men often died young and the woman could inherit the money.
      2. New England women were dominated by the men.
        1. A widow did not inherit her husband’s land or money (this might undercut the stability of family, so she was expected to remarry).
        2. Women could not participate in the church as leaders or voters in the congregation (the Bible instructs that men run the church, not both genders).
      3. Life in New England’s “Bible Commonwealth” was stern.
        1. The top priority was to protect the institutions of marriage and the family.
        2. This was illustrated in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter where the heroine is forced to wear a bright red “A” on her bosom to announce her sin of adultery.
  8. Life in the New England Towns
    1. In keeping with the Puritan ways toward order, town life was very structured.
      1. A new town was first formally chartered by authorities (rather than just plopping into existence).
      2. Towns were laid out in and orderly manner—a town square (or common or “village green”) in the middle surrounded by homes, shops, and the church.
    2. Education was valued by New Englanders.
      1. Towns of at least 50 families built primary schools. Towns of 100 families built secondary schools.
      2. Harvard College was established in 1636, the nation’s first. Its motivation was to train men for the ministry.
        1. Notably, Virginia’s first college was William and Mary, est. 1693.
      3. Puritan churches were run by the local congregation (hence the later name of “Congregational Church”).
      4. The self-ruling church found it easy to become a self-ruling democratic government.
  9. The Half-Way Covenant and the Salem Witch Trials
    1. Puritan leaders grew worried that their religious passion was dying down. So, they stepped up the preaching and “jeremiads” boomed from the pulpit.
      1. A jeremiad was a stern, old-fashioned scolding, like the sermons that the prophet Jeremiah preached to the Israelites.
      2. The ambition was to corral straying souls and return them to the “straight-and-narrow.”
    2. Paradoxically, church leaders also eased the qualifications for joining the church with what was called the “Half-Way Covenant.”
      1. In this covenant, some people could receive a sort of "half-status" in the church.
      2. This meant that the “elect” or the “visible saints” had to mix with the “half-wayers,” which was not always smooth.
    3. In 17th century New England, all aspects of life were seen through religious eyes. The Salem Witch Trials is an example.
      1. In 1692, a few girls claimed to have been bewitched by a Caribbean woman practicing voodoo.
      2. Names were named, rumors spread, and innocent people were accused of being witches. Hysteria took hold and twenty people were executed.
      3. By 1693, the Salem residents saw the recklessness for what it was and called it off.
      4. Notably, this type of witch-hunting had been done on a much larger scale back in Europe.
  10. The New England Way of Life
    1. The New England soil was thin and rocky, so they turned less to agriculture and more toward trade.
      1. The agriculture that was present was small-scale and diverse (it was not plantation agriculture like the South).
      2. Slavery was tried, but since it wasn't really needed, it fizzled out.
      3. As a result, New England was less ethnically diverse than the Southern or Middle Colonies.
    2. Rivers ran short and fast in New England. This would later prove useful to industry to power water mills.
    3. White New Englanders felt they were destined to use the land to their benefit. Whereas the Indians lived off the land, New Englanders wished to clear and farm the land.
    4. Fishing became a major industry. New England is said to have been founded on "God and cod."
  11. The Early Settlers’ Days and Ways
    1. Colonial farmers worked from sunup to sundown, from “dawn ‘til dusk.”
      1. Having only fire as light, little was down beyond sundown unless it was “worth the candle.”
    2. Most people who’d emigrated Europe for America were from the middle or lower-middle class and came looking for a better life.
      1. They found life in America to be simple and practical.
      2. Despite having to work hard for a simple life, their lives were still likely better than in Europe.
  12. Makers of America: From African to African-American
    1. Africans brought much of their culture across the ocean—language, music, food.
    2. Africans worked in the rice fields of South Carolina due to (a) their knowledge of the crop and (b) their resistance to disease (as compared to Indians).
    3. Early African slaves to America were men and sometimes gained their freedom (similar to indentured servants).
    4. By the 1740s, slavery had been institutionalized and freedom was uncommon.
      1. Men worked in the fields.
      2. Women also worked in the fields, as well as domestic jobs like weaving, spinning, sewing, and cooking.
    5. Slaves usually became Christian, but mixed parts of their native African religion in.
    6. African-American culture influenced the arts.
      1. The 1920s popular dance has African-American roots.
      2. Christian songs with themes of liberation were especially popular. They could sometimes be a code to mark the arrival of a guide to freedom.
      3. The best example of African-American influence of music is seen in jazz.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 05 - Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution

  1. Conquest by the Cradle
    1. In 1775, there were 32 British colonies in North America.
      1. Only 13 of these colonies revolted in the “American Revolution.”
      2. Canada and Jamaica were wealthier than the “original 13.”
      3. All of the colonies were growing like weeds.
    2. In 1775, there were 2.5 million people in the 13 colonies.
    3. Their average age was about 16 (due mainly to having several children).
    4. The vast majority (95%) of the Americans were crammed east of the Allegheny Mountains. By 1775, a few had settled in Tennessee and Kentucky.
    5. 90% of the Americans lived in rural areas and were therefore mostly farmers.
  2. A Mingling of the Races
    1. Colonial America was mostly English by origin, but other ethnicities were also present.
    2. Germans made up 6% of the population (150,000 in number by 1775).
      1. The Germans were mostly Protestant (usually Lutheran).
      2. They were called “Pennsylvania Dutch”…a perversion of “Deutsch” or “German.”
    3. Scots-Irish made up 7% of the population (175,000 in number).
      1. Back across the ocean, these strong-willed folks had been transplanted into Northern Ireland. But, they banged heads with the Catholic Irish there and never felt at home. So, they emigrated to America.
      2. They typically moved inland in America up to the Appalachian foothills. They squatted on the land and bickered with Indians and whites over ownership.
      3. The “Paxton Boys” led a march/revolt in 1764. Like Nathaniel Bacon of 100 years prior, they were frustrated over not being able to get land.
      4. The Scots-Irish were a hot-headed, but hardy people.
      5. When the War for Independence began, many became revolutionaries.
    4. 5% were from various European ethnicities: French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, the Swiss, or Scots-Highlanders.
      1. Even early on, the Americans were taking on a mosaic of races and ethnicities. Therefore, other nations had a hard time pinning down exactly what it meant to be “an American.”
  3. The Structure of the Colonial Society
    1. Unlike Europe, where the classes were locked, America was a land of opportunity.
      1. Hard work might see anyone rise from “rags to riches.”
      2. Despite opportunity in America, class differences did emerge with wealthy planter-farmers, clergymen, government officials, and merchants wielding most of the authority.
    2. Wars brought more riches to merchants.
      1. As well as creating riches, these wars created widows and orphans who eventually turned to charity for support.
    3. In the South, a firm social pyramid emerged containing…
      1. The immensely rich plantation owners (“planters”) had many slaves (though these were few).
      2. “Yeoman” farmers, or small farmers, owned their land and, maybe, a few slaves.
      3. Landless whites who owned no land and either worked for a landowner or rented land to farm.
      4. Indentured servants of America were the paupers and the criminals sent to the New World. Some of them were actually unfortunate victims of Britain’s unfair laws and did become respectable citizens. This group was dwindling though by the 1700s, thanks to Bacon’s Rebellion and the move away from indentured servant labor and toward slavery.
      5. Black slaves were at the bottom of the social ladder with no rights or hopes up moving up or even gaining freedom. Slavery became a divisive issue because some colonies didn’t want slaves while others needed them, and therefore vetoed any bill banning the importation of slaves.
  4. Clerics, Physicians, and Jurists
    1. The clergy (or priests) were the most respected group in colonial days. They had less power in 1775 than in earlier days, but still held high esteem.
    2. Physicians (or doctors) were usually not looked upon with much respect. Many were little more than “witch-doctors” as the science of the day was little or nothing.
      1. A favorite treatment was bleeding—thought to let out the “bad blood.”
      2. Plagues were common and deadly.
        1. Smallpox struck 1 in 5 people (including George Washington) even though a basic inoculation had been formed in 1721.
        2. The clergy and doctors sometimes chose to not intervene with smallpox treatment—to do so would be to intervene in God’s will.
    3. Lawyers were looked upon with scorn—as being hucksters or scoundrels.
      1. Criminals often would represent themselves in court rather than get a lawyer.
      2. As the revolution neared, the usefulness of lawyers to get things done started to become apparent.
  5. Workaday America This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Agriculture was the dominant industry, by far, in colonial America.
      1. In the Chesapeake of Maryland and Virginia, tobacco was the staple.
      2. In the Middle Colonies (“bread colonies”), wheat was the staple. New York exported 80,000 barrels of flour annually.
    2. Fishing (and whaling) was prosperous, especially in New England. The Grand Banks off Newfoundland had immense numbers of cod.
    3. Trade began to flourish.
      1. Yankee merchants were active and known as hard dealers.
      2. The “Triangular Trade” was in operation. In it, a ship would depart (1) New England with rum and go to the (2) west coast of Africa and trade the rum for African slaves. Then, it would go to (3) the West Indies and exchange the slaves for molasses (for rum), which it’d sell to New England once it returned there.
    4. Manufacturing was not as important. There were a wide variety of small enterprises though.
      1. Good laborers were hard to find and prized once they were found.
      2. Lumbering was probably the top manufacturing industry.
      3. Naval stores, (or turpentine, pine tar, and pitch) were used to build and repair the British navy. The British crown sometimes reserved the best American trees to be used as British masts—even though there were countless other trees, this bothered the Americans.
    5. The Molasses Act, 1733, a tax on West Indies molasses was a shock to Americans. This would’ve undercut the prosperity of the Triangular Trade (rum being made from molasses).
      1. Americans turned to bribes smuggling to work around the act. So, the Molasses Act wasn’t a big problem after all.
    6. However, it did foreshadow more taxes and more troubles to come, later in the 1760s.
  6. Horsepower and Sailpower
    1. Roads were scarce and pitifully poor. Until the 1700s, they didn’t even connect major cities. Thus, travel was sluggish.
      1. Roads were dust bowls in the summer and mud bogs in the winter.
      2. For example, it took Ben Franklin 9 days to go from Boston to Philadelphia while traveling by sailboat, rowboat, and foot.
    2. Travel by water, either along the coast or via rivers, was common and useful.
    3. Taverns sprang up along roadways and any intersections. They served multiple uses: inns for a night’s sleep, places to hear news/gossip from out-of-town, and a place to get a refreshing beverage, of course.
    4. A crude mail system emerged. The mail traveled slowly, and sometimes was read by bored or curious letter carriers.
  7. Dominant Denominations
    1. In 1775, there were 2established churches” or churches that received tax money: the Anglican and the Congregational. Surprisingly, a large portion of Americans didn’t worship in a church, however.
    2. The Anglican Church (the Church of England) became the official faith in Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and part of New York.
      1. The Anglican brand of religion was more worldly than Puritanical New England.
      2. Sermons were shorter and hellfire was less hot.
      3. The College of William and Mary was founded to train clergy in 1693.
      4. Anglicans did not have an American bishop to ordain the American clergymen. The idea of starting an American bishopric was violently opposed by non-Anglicans as the Revolution drew close.
    3. The Congregational Church grew out of the Puritan church. It was established in each New England colony except Rhode Island.
      1. Presbyterianism, a kin of Congregationalism, was common but never an official religion.
      2. Religion, which used to be the burning issue in New England, was beginning to take a backseat to politics.
  8. The Great Awakening
    1. As religious passion began to decline and new, liberal ideas began to water down “old time religion,” many felt it was time for a revival—the Great Awakening. This was America’s 1st big religious movement. It tried to bring the people back to fundamental Christianity and save souls.
    2. Jonathan Edwards was a leading preacher.
      1. He said salvation comes not through good works, but through God’s grace (what you don’t earn).
      2. He painted vivid pictures of hell. His most famous sermon was “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” and preached that hell was “paved with the skulls of unbaptized children.”
    3. George Whitefield was another great preacher during the Awakening.
      1. Whitefield was an amazing speaker—he brought people to tears, cheers, convulsions, and to the offering plates.
      2. His style of preaching was to strike the emotions, to “hit ‘em in the heart, rather than in the head” so to speak.
      3. His goal was to strike at sinners, have them repent (ask forgiveness), and turn their faith to Christ.
    4. These preachers were called the “New Lights.” The “Old Lights” (Anglicans, and traditional Congregationalists and Presbyterians) didn’t like the drama in this style.
      1. The Baptist faith grew in numbers, however, as they embraced the New Light style of preaching.
      2. New Light universities sprang up: Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, and Dartmouth.
      3. New Lights encouraged a new wave of missionary work amongst the Indians.
    5. The Great Awakening was America’s first mass movement. It brought Americans together largely without regard to class and united them with a common history and experience.
  9. Schools and Colleges
    1. New England placed the most value on education. This was the case since colleges trained the clergymen.
      1. In the other colonies, time was spent farming and working, not wasted on schooling.
      2. Still, there were fairly good elementary and secondary schools in all of the colonies. These schools were for the rich, and mostly for boys.
    2. The topics of study: the classics (Greek and Latin) and religion. Reason was out, dogma was in.
    3. The mood at school was serious and somber. Discipline was fast and harsh.
    4. The influences of the church was considerable, but waning…
      1. In New England, the top priority of colleges was still to train men for the ministry.
      2. By 1750, there was a movement from “dead” to “live” languages.
      3. Ben Franklin helped start the University of Pennsylvania, the first non-denominational university.
  10. Provincial Culture
    1. Work and worry (farming and fear of Indians) left little time for recreation. What little time was leftover, was spent on religion, not wasted on arts and literature.
    2. Painting was looked upon as a waste of time.
      1. John Trumbull was discouraged in painting by his father. He still went to Europe to be trained in art.
      2. Charles Willson Peale became best-known for portraits of George Washington. He also was curator of a museum, a taxidermist of birds, and a dentist.
      3. Benjamin West and John Singleton Copley traveled to Europe where artists were respected and could make a living (unlike in America).
    3. Architecture in America was (a) transplanted from Europe and (b) focused on the practical rather than stylish.
      1. The log cabin (from Sweden) was simple, frontier-friendly, cheap, and cozy.
      2. The Georgian style began around 1720 and became popular in towns with its red bricks—solid and well insulated.
    4. Colonial literature was sparse. Americans wasted little time writing and focused on working.
      1. Phillis Wheatley’s poetry was notable. She was a slave girl with no formal education. But, she did travel to England and get a book of poetry published. These accomplishments were amazing considering her many obstacles.
      2. Ben Franklin's Poor Richard’s Almanack was immensely popular—read more than anything except the Bible. It tells something about Americans—they frowned on literature but loved the practical sayings and advice of an almanac.
        1. Franklin’s exploits with experiments (like the kite flying incident) and his acute observations helped further the budding sciences.
  11. Pioneer Presses
    1. Reading wasn’t common in colonial America—books were too expensive, thus, libraries were scarce.
    2. Pamphlets were more common. As the revolution drew near, printers hand-cranked pamphlets. These were popular ways to keep on top of current events.
    3. John Peter Zenger was a printer in New York.
      1. He printed unflattering things about the governor of New York. Zenger was arrested for seditious libel.
      2. But, his lawyer Andrew Hamilton argued, what he’d printed was true, and therefore, not libel.
      3. Zenger won, but more importantly, it was a landmark case for the freedom of the press.
  12. The Great Game of Politics
    1. By 1775, eight colonies had royal governors who’d been appointed by the king. Three colonies had governors selected by proprietors.
    2. Nearly each colony had a two-house legislature.
      1. The upper house was chosen by either royal officials or by the colony’s proprietor.
      2. The lower house was filled by election by the people.
    3. Most governors were effective.
      1. A few were corrupt. One Lord Cornbury, Queen Anne’s cousin, was named the New York and New Jersey governor. He was a drunkard, spendthrift, grafter, embezzler, religious bigot, and cross-dressing fool.
    4. The right to vote was expanding.
      1. It was still limited to white males only, but to more white males.
      2. But, the land requirement was gone. Land was so plentiful that it didn’t really limit voters anyway.
  13. Colonial Folkways
    1. Life for most Americans was tough, with few comforts.
      1. Churches had no heat (no fireplace).
      2. Homes didn’t have running water or indoor plumbing (wells and outhouses were used).
      3. There was no garbage disposal system.
    2. Still, Americans weren’t without amusements.
      1. Work and play mixed during house or barn-raisings, quilting bees, husking bees, flaxing bees, apple parings, and the like.
      2. Southerners enjoyed stage plays, card playing, horse racing, cockfighting, and fox hunting.
      3. Lotteries were accepted, even by the clergy, because they were used to raise money for the church or colleges.
      4. Holidays were celebrated across the colonies. New Englanders frowned on Christmas, however, as being too aligned with the Pope.
  14. Makers of America: The Scots-Irish
    1. The Scots had a hard time back in Britain. They were poor but heavily taxed by the English. This added to a long list of reasons the Scots disliked the English.
    2. Fed up, the Scots moved to Ulster, in Ireland. But, the Irish didn’t want the Scots there either. So, the Scots packed up and moved to America.
    3. As if they wanted to distance themselves from Britain as far as possible, the Scots moved into and spread along the Appalachian piedmont region.
      1. Pennsylvania was a hot spot since tolerance was high there.
    4. The Scots-Irish were tough, independent, ruddy people—perfect for frontier life, blazing new lands, and building America out of the forests.
    5. Though independent-minded, religion tied the Scots-Irish together. They were Protestant, usually of the Presbyterian denomination.
    6. Their disdain for England also bonded them. This fact became of great use when the Revolution broke out. The Scots-Irish were passionately against England and for independence.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 06 - The Duel for North America

  1. France Finds a Foothold in Canada
    1. France got a late start in colonizing America (like England and Holland).
      1. French were tardy due because during the 16th century they suffered foreign wars and issues at home.
        1. To help ease Catholic-Protestant feuding, the Edict of Nantes (1598) was issued. It granted religious toleration to the Huguenots (French Protestants).
      2. King Louis XIV took an active interest in France’s lands overseas—he wanted more.
      3. So, the French landed in the St. Lawrence River in what is today’s Quebec.
        1. Samuel de Champlain was the leader of the expedition and “Father of New France.”
        2. Champlain was on good terms with the local Huron Indians. He helped the Huron defeat their enemy, the Iroquois.
        3. His alliance with the Huron would become a problem later with the British in the French and Indian War.
      4. New France didn’t have loads of immigrants (as did New England).
        1. The French peasants were too poor to get themselves across the ocean.
        2. The Huguenots were not permitted to emigrate.
  2. New France Fans Out
    1. New France was built on the beaver skin trade.
      1. Young beaver trappers (coureurs de bois or “runners of the woods”) paddled canoes into trapping lands, worked with the Indians, and hauled out their beaver skins for sale.
        1. They were also known as voyageurs.
        2. Place-names were left behind like Baton Rouge (red stick), Terre Haute (high land), Des Moines (the monks), and Grand Teton (big breast).
        3. Their Indian friends were decimated by the whites’ diseases.
        4. The beaver population eventually began to run thin.
    2. Catholic missionaries tried to convert Indians to Christianity.
    3. New France grew.
      1. Detroit (the “City of Straits”) was founded in 1701 by Antoine Cadillac to help fend off the English from moving into the Ohio Valley.
      2. Louisiana was founded by Robert de La Salle in 1682. It reached from the headwaters of the Mississippi River down to the Gulf of Mexico.
      3. The fertile lands of Illinois were New France’s breadbasket. There they had forts and trading posts at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes.
  3. The Clash of Empires
    1. England got into some mini-wars in the 1700s with various other nations. Bottom line: it was England vs. France/Spain; England won.
      1. King William’s War and Queen Anne’s War
        1. The French coureurs de bois and the British colonists. Both sides recruited Indian allies.
        2. Both sides agreed that America wasn't worth risking regular troops.
        3. Pro-France Indians ransacked Schenectady, New York, and Deerfield, Mass.
        4. The British failed to take Quebec and Montreal, but did temporarily seize Port Royal.
        5. The English won the war and a peace treaty was signed at Utrecht (1713)
          1. It gave the British Acadia (renamed as Nova Scotia), Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay.
          2. It pinned the French down to the settlements along the St. Lawrence River.
          3. It gave the British trading rights with Spanish Florida.
      2. The War of Jenkins’s Ear
        1. A Spanish commander cut off an English Captain Jenkins' ear.
        2. The war was small and played out in the Caribbean and the buffer colony of Georgia.
        3. It merged with the larger War of Austrian Succession and became known as King George's War.
        4. The British invaded Ft. Louisbourg (guarding the entrance to New France) and took it.
        5. The peace treaty gave Louisbourg back to the French. The English were outraged.
  4. George Washington Inaugurates War with France
    1. The British, French, and Spanish were in mini-wars, on and off. The Ohio Valley would be the battleground (and prize) for the decisive war (the French and Indian War).
      1. The land was sandwiched between British and French colonies. Where's the border? was the question.
      2. The land was very fertile and therefore very valuable.
    2. The French set out to lay claim to the Ohio Valley by building Ft. Duqeusne (at today's Pittsburgh).
      1. In response to the fort, the British sent 21 year old Major George Washington and troops.
      2. Washington got into a skirmish, built Ft. Necessity, fought guerilla-style, and was forced to surrender after 10 hours.
      3. Back in Nova Scotia, the British evicted the French Acadians. They migrated as far south as New Orleans and became known as the "Cajuns."
      4. After a wrist-slapping, he was allowed to march away. But, the French and Indian War had begun.
  5. Global War and Colonial Disunity
    1. Though the players were the same, the French and Indian War was different from the others—it'd begun in America.
    2. The French and Indian War was called the Seven Years' War back in Europe.
      1. In America, it was England/American colonists/some Indian tribes vs. France/French colonists/more Indian tribes.
      2. The belligerents were England/America/Prussia vs. France/Spain/Austria/Russia.
      3. Frederick the Great of Prussia (Germany), though outnumbered, held off the French, Austrian, and Russian armies.
    3. Many Americans sought strength in unity. To unite or not was a hot topic however.
      1. 7 of the 13 colonies met (1754) at the Albany Congress in Albany, NY.
      2. There, Ben Franklin led the delegates toward unity.
        1. His famous "Join or Die" cartoon of a disjointed snake (symbolizing the colonies) illustrated his point.
        2. His plan eventually failed though, because the colonies were reluctant to give up their sovereignty or power. Still, it was a big step toward unity—one that'd be repeated later on.
  6. Braddock's Blundering and Its Aftermath
    1. After Washington's failure, the British sent Gen. Edward Braddock to roust out the French at Ft. Duquesne.
      1. Braddock's men were ambushed en route to the battle and nearly wiped out. Braddock himself was killed. Only Washington's men using "Indian tactics" (guerilla fighting) prevented a total catastrophe.
      2. Clearly, a new style of fighting was needed in America (not the European style of fighting in an open field with lines of troops).
    2. A rash of Indian uprisings spread across America from frontier Pennsylvania to North Carolina. Rewards were offered to whites for Indian scalps.
    3. British defeats mounted as they tried unsuccessfully to take wilderness posts.
  7. Pitt’s Palms of Victory This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Just as things were going terribly for the British, a strong leader stepped up in William Pitt, the "Great Commoner" who became the "Organizer of Victory."
    2. Pitt made some changes in the war…
      1. He took the focus off of the French West Indies (this sapped British resources).
      2. He put the focus on Quebec and Montreal (since they controlled the supply routes into New France).
      3. He replaced old, cautious officers with young, daring officers.
    3. Pitt's plan worked.
      1. Ft. Louisbourg fell in 1758. This was like cutting the root and letting the vine wither because all French supplies funneled past Louisbourg.
      2. James Wolfe, handsome at 32 years old, scored a major victory at the Battle of Quebec.
        1. Quebec was considered impenetrable with its bluffs. But, Wolfe's men snuck up the cliffs, then surprised and defeated the French on the Plains of Abraham. Both Wolfe and his French counterpart Marquis de Montcalmwere killed in the battle.
        2. The Battle of Quebec was a red letter event in British and American history.
        3. After Montreal fell to the British in 1760, it was all but over.
    4. The Treaty of Paris, 1763 was a crushing defeat for France and victory for Britain.
      1. France was kicked out of North America completely. This meant Britain got Canada and the land all the way to the Mississippi River.
      2. France was allowed to keep sugar plantations in the West Indies and 2 islands in the St. Lawrence for fishing purposes.
      3. France was forced to give the Louisiana (including New Orleans) territory to Spain.
  8. Restless Colonists
    1. These wars and victories had effects…
      1. The British & colonists were confident after their victories.
      2. The notion that British regulars were invincible was shattered (Ie. Braddock's loss).
      3. Friction emerged between the uppity British and colonial "boors." This foreshadowed trouble.
        1. The British wouldn't recognize any American above the rank of captain.
        2. Americans thought of themselves as equals to British.
      4. The Brits distrusted the Americans. Some Americans had traded with enemy ports in the West Indies; this had prompted Britain to forbid New England exports.
      5. Other Americans didn't want to fight, but wanted full British privileges. They only fought when Pitt offered reimbursement.
      6. One major benefit of the war was the realization of much in common. The colonies had been reluctant to unite, but now were surprise to realize that they shared things: language, traditions, and ideals. The colonies were bonding.
  9. War’s Fateful Aftermath
    1. With the war over, American colonists roamed free—without worry of France, and to a large degree, of England.
      1. The French took solace in their loss by figuring, "If we lost a great empire, maybe England will one day lose theirs."
      2. Spain was also crippled. Florida had been a headache because of Indian troubles and runaway slaves, but Spain had been defeated. England was now in control.
    2. The Indians recognized their weakened position.
      1. Ottawa chief Pontiac led a violent uprising in the Ohio valley.
      2. He had some success initially, but the British were ruthless and destroyed his people. One infamous tactic was to give the Indians blankets laced with smallpox.
      3. This opened the trans-Appalachians to the English. Daniel Boone trekked across the mountains and led settlers into Tennessee and Kentucky.
      4. London suddenly issued the Proclamation Line of 1763.
        1. This line was the Appalachian Mountains.
        2. It said whites were not permitted to cross and settle west of the Appalachian Mountains; that was Indian land.
        3. The purpose of the proclamation was to resolve the Indian issue with the "out-of-bounds" line. But, the colonists cried foul asking, "Didn't we just fight a war to win this land?!"
        4. In 1765, 1,000 wagons left Salisbury, NC to head "up west" despite the proclamation.
      5. The British, puffed up with victory, were becoming annoyed at the unruly and unappreciative Americans. Trouble was brewing.
  10. Makers of America: The French
    1. King Louis XIV dreamed of a French Empire in North America. Losses in 1713 and especially in 1763 ended that dream.
    2. The Acadians were some of the first French to be rooted out of their homes.
      1. These folks were from Acadia, the place that was changed to Nova Scotia.
      2. The British had demanded allegiance to Britain, or leave. The Acadians left.
      3. The scattered but largely went down to the bayous around New Orleans. They brought/developed a unique culture that came to be called the "Cajuns"…
        1. They brought Roman Catholicism with them.
        2. They raised sugar cane and sweet potatoes.
        3. They spoke a French dialect.
        4. They began to intermarry with the Spanish, French, and Germans.
        5. The Cajun culture is a mix of a lot of cultures thrown together in a mixing pot and stirred together.
        6. The Cajuns were very isolated until the 1930s. Gov. Huey Long started building bridges that linked up the bayous and the people.
    3. After the French and Indian War (1763) Quebec citizens began emigrating to New England. Their motivation was lack of food in Quebec.
      1. These folks hoped to return to Canada.
      2. They kept their religion (Catholicism) and their language (French).
      3. Even still, English is spoken today by the Cajuns and French-Canadians in America.
    4. Quebec remains today as the strongest testament of France in North America.
      1. The French language is on road signs, in classrooms, courts, and markets.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 07 - The Road to Revolution

  1. The Deep Roots of Revolution
    1. It could be said that the American Revolution started long before 1775—back to when colonists first came to America. They essentially revolted from England and moved to America.
    2. And, those American colonists were growing independent.
      1. Crossing the ocean took 6 to 8 weeks, one way.
      2. The Americans felt separated from England; they felt as though they were the cutting edge of the British Empire.
      3. The Americans were developing their own brand of politics.
        1. The Americans were embracing republicanism, which is a society where citizens elect representatives to govern for them.
        2. The "radical Whigs" of England influenced American thinking. They criticized how the king would appoint relatives to positions, accept bribes, or such corruption. These were a threat to liberty.
  2. Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances
    1. The British colonies began haphazardly by various groups. Only Georgia was started by the British government.
    2. Still, Britain had an overall economic ideology in the form of mercantilism.
      1. In mercantilism, a nation's wealth and power is measured by its treasury of gold or silver.
      2. Thus, gold was sought after either by (a) finding or digging it, (b) stealing or winning it, or (c) earning it by exporting more than importing (by obtaining a "favorable balance of trade").
        1. A favorable balance of trade was easier if a country had colonies. The colonies supplied raw materials to the mother country and also buy the finished products.
        2. This setup meant America was being used for England's benefit in the form of ships, naval stores, lumber, tobacco, sugar, etc.
      3. Mercantilism placed restrictions on economic activity.
        1. The Navigation Laws, first passed in 1650, set rules to carry out mercantilist ideas.
          1. These laws said American goods could only be shipped on British ships (the Americans would rather go with the cheapest shipper, like the Dutch).
          2. These laws said goods heading from Europe to America had to stop in England first to pay duties. This jacked up the price for the Americans.
          3. Enumerated goods could only be shipped to England (Americans wanted to ship to the highest bidder).
        2. To ensure British monopoly in certain areas, Americans were restricted in what they could produce (wool and beaver hats were off limits).
        3. The Americans' hard money was constantly being funneled to England. Many turned to barter instead. Eventually the colonies printed paper money which quickly became worthless.
        4. The Privy Council in Britain could void American laws. Although it was ruled rather sparingly (only 469 times out of 8,563 laws), the principle bothered the Americans.
  3. The Merits and Menace of Mercantilism
    1. The merits of mercantilism…
      1. The Navigation Laws were despised by Americans but weren't enforced (until 1763). This non-enforcement was called "salutary neglect" and effectively let the Americans do their own thing for a century.
        1. Salutary neglect was the result of wide geography, British apathy, and American smuggling. John Hancock made a fortune and was called the "King of Smugglers."
      2. Tobacco merchants were restricted to selling within the British Empire, but they did have a monopoly there.
      3. The Americans enjoyed the free protection of the powerful British Army and Navy.
    2. The menace of mercantilism…
      1. Mercantilism hindered America's economic growth. Worse, it was to keep America in a state perpetually subordinate to England.
      2. The Americans felt exploited and humiliated by the system, unable to come of age as a people.
      3. Teddy Roosevelt later commented that revolution broke out because Britain failed to recognize an emerging nation when it saw one.
  4. The Stamp Tax Uproar
    1. In 1763, with the Seven Years' War over (French and Indian War), Britain had the largest debt in the world. 1/2 of the debt came via the wars in America.
    2. By 1763, the stage was set for a change in British—American relations. For America, the good ol' days were over and a laundry-list of acts and events were to follow…
      1. Prime Minister George Grenville suggested enforcement of the much-ignored Navigation Acts.
      2. Parliament passed the Sugar Act (1764), a tax on sugar. This was the first tax on Americans for raising revenue. Americans protested, the tax was lowered, and things calmed.
      3. The Quartering Act (1765) required colonists to provide food and quarter for British troops. This law was detested.
      4. Also in 1765, the Stamp Act was passed. This caused something of a firestorm of protest.
        1. The act's stated purpose was to raise money to support a new military force to protect the colonies. Grenville considered the tax fair—Americans would be paying for their own protection. Brits were paying twice as much for a similar tax, the Americans could also ante up.
        2. This act required using either stamped paper or affixing a stamp that showed payment of the tax.
          1. The stamp was required on nearly everything on paper, from legal documents down to newspapers and playing cards.
          2. Many questioned why a large military was even needed since the enemy (French) had just been ousted. Unless, of course, the purpose of the military was to lord over the colonists.
          3. To a large degree, it was the principle of these acts that irked the colonists, more so than the acts themselves.
            1. Local government/rule seemed under attack.
            2. The Sugar and Stamp Acts would be tried in admiralty courts (courts set up and run by England). In these courts, defendants were guilty until proven innocent and there were no trials by a jury of peers.
            3. The notion of "taxation without representation" arose.
              1. Grenville dismissed "taxation without representation" and said the colonists actually were represented via "virtual representation," figuring Parliament represents the British Empire, to which America is a member, and therefore America is represented in Parliament.
              2. The Americans weren't convinced by this "U-turn logic."
  5. Forced Repeal the Stamp Act This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Protest against the Stamp Act got organized. A Stamp Act Congress was called and convened in New York City to plan objection to the act.
      1. 9 of the 13 colonies met. Americans were slowly uniting (only 7 of 13 colonies had met at the Albany Congress during the French and Indian War).
      2. Protest could be divided into 2 types, informal and formal…
        1. Informal protest took place in the streets.
          1. Colonists boycotted British goods, either going without or making their own.
          2. The Sons and Daughters of Liberty showed their disapproval of tax collectors by tarring-and-feathering them, riding them out of town on a rail, stoning and burning effigies (dummies) of the tax collectors, and sometimes ransacked officials' homes.
        2. Formal protest was less dramatic and used pen-and-paper.
          1. Non-importation agreements were signed by many Americans as pledges to boycott British goods.
          2. The Stamp Act Congress also wrote Parliament, listed a "Declaration of Rights and Grievances" (foreshadowing the Declaration of Independence), and called for repeal of the Stamp Act.
      3. When the act was set to go into effect, there were no tax collectors to carry it out. Americans never paid one cent under the Stamp Act.
    2. The opposition led Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act (1766).
      1. American colonists cheered; they even erected a leaden statue of George III in New York City.
      2. But, Parliament also issued the Declatory Act (1766) declaring that London still ruled over the American colonies and could "bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." This was foreshadowing more acts, and conflict, to come.
  6. The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston “Massacre”
    1. "Champagne Charley" Townshend initiated and got the passage of the Townshend Acts (1767) which taxed paper, lead, paint, and tea.
    2. These were "indirect taxes", unlike the "direct" Stamp Act (meaning the tax was hidden in the price of the good, not paid directly to the government).
    3. Despite being a hidden tax, it was the principle that bothered the colonists. They protested again, but with less passion since (a) the tax was small, (b) it was indeed hidden, and (c) smugglers found ways around it.
    4. A bit jumpy, the British took action against protest.
      1. In 1767, the New York legislature was suspended for failing to comply with the Quartering Act.
      2. British troops were sent to Boston to keep order and enforce British laws.
        1. On March 5, 1770, the Boston Massacre occurred. A colonial crowd of about 60 were milling about and taunting/threatening about 10 British redcoats. Things escalated until the British soldiers opened fire, killing or wounding 11 Americans.
          1. Crispus Attucks was one of the first to die. He was a black man and former slave. He became a symbol and rallying cry for freedom (he'd risen from slave, to free man, to martyr who stood up to Britain in the name of liberty).
          2. In the later trial, John Adams (future president) was the defense attorney and 2 redcoats were found guilty (manslaughter, released after a brand on the hand).
  7. The Seditious Committees of Correspondence
    1. The status in the early 1770s was that the Townshend Acts had not produced revenue; they had produced a near-rebellion.
    2. King George III was nonplussed over events. He was 32 years old, of good morals, but power hungry and a poor ruler.
      1. Worse, he surrounded himself with "yes-men" and the manipulative prime minister Lord North.
      2. Lord North eventually gave in to repeal of the Townshend duties, except for tea, just to retain the point that Parliament had the right to tax.
    3. To Samuel Adams, this was not enough. The tea tax was the most disliked one, and again, the principle (taxation without representation) was the problem.
      1. Sam Adams was a red-blooded patriot…passionate and hot-blooded.
      2. He used his "trained mob" as his muscle.
      3. His main contribution was the establishment of the "committees of correspondence". These committees were really nothing but a letter-writing network with the goal of exchanging news/info and organizing and keeping resistance.
        1. These committees started in Boston, but soon grew to all the colonies.
        2. They eventually would grow into the first American congresses (the leaders were the men in the network).
  8. Tea Brewing in Boston
    1. The British East India Company was in financial trouble by 1773. It had 17 million pounds of unsold tea.
    2. London decided to help the company by giving it monopoly rights to sell tea in America. This would have actually lowered the price of tea.
    3. Still, the American colonists were not happy about the tea situation. They thought the British were trying to sneak a tax in under a low price. It was the principle of taxation without representation that was bothersome.
      1. The Boston Tea Party took place on December 16, 1773.
        1. Samuel Adams was the ringleader. After a "meeting" at the Green Dragon Tavern, protesters dressed up like Indians, then went to the harbor and threw 342 chests of tea overboard.
        2. Reactions to the tea party were mixed. Patriotic types cheered it as standing up to the British in the name of freedom. Conservatives criticized the actions as one step above lawlessness and anarchy.
  9. Parliament Passes the “Intolerable Acts”
    1. The British reaction was clear. In 1774, Parliament passed the Repressive Acts which came to be called the Intolerable Acts in America. They were to punish America, Boston especially.
      1. The Boston Port Act shut down Boston harbor. This was a huge financial blow to the colonies.
      2. The Massachusetts charter was revoked.
      3. Other acts limited Americans right to assemble and rule themselves.
      4. Certain crimes by Brits in America were to be tried in England by English jurors, not in America by American jurors.
    2. The Quebec Act was also passed in 1774. It was forward-thinking, but ill-timed.
      1. The act's goal was to benefit French-Canadians who now lived in British America. Each part of the act had a reason the Americans disliked it.
      2. The French were guaranteed Catholicism as okay. (Americans saw this as a threat to Protestantism and an extension of the pope's power).
      3. The French could have trials without juries as they were accustomed. (Americans saw this as foreshadowing the removal of trials-by-jury altogether).
      4. The French were allowed to stay in the Ohio Valley. (Americans, despite beating the French in the war, were not allowed to move there per the Proclamation Line of 1763).
  10. Bloodshed
    1. The First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia from September to October of 1774.
      1. 12 of the 13 colonies were present (Georgia absent).
      2. The congress did not desire independence, but did (a) draw up a list of grievances (which were ignored by London) and (b) wrote a Declaration of Rights.
      3. Plans were made to convene again in 1775 if the situation didn't change.
    2. The "Shot Heard 'Round the World" in Lexington (April 1775) started the American Revolution.
      1. British soldiers left Boston headed to Concord to capture weapons and troublemakers John Hancock and Sam Adams.
      2. Massachusetts "Minutemen" met the troops on the Lexington green where the first shots were fired.
      3. After stopping the British at the North Bridge in Concord, the British turned back. The minutemen struck at the British from behind rocks and trees (Indian-style) the whole way back, killing 1/2 of the redcoats.
      4. With Lexington, the American Revolution had begun.
  11. Imperial Strength and Weaknesses
    1. Britain had great advantages.
      1. They had (a) 7.5 million people to America's 2 million, (b) a powerful navy, and (c) wealth in hard money.
      2. With their money, they also hired Hessians (German mercenary soldiers). These troops were added to about 50,000 British regulars who were well-trained, well-equipped. Also, there were an estimated 50,000 LoyalistAmericans.
    2. Britain had a few disadvantages.
      1. There were international troubles: (a) problems in Ireland required the attention of British troops and (b) France was just waiting for a chance to get back at England.
      2. Many British didn't wish to fight and kill the Americans. William Pitt even removed his son from the army on this point.
      3. British officers were not the best, the men were mistreated, the war was to be fought an ocean away, and supplies would often run low.
  12. American Pluses and Minuses
    1. The Americans had only a few advantages, but they proved to be worthy ones.
      1. Leadership for America was terrific with George Washington as general and Ben Franklin as diplomat.
      2. France lent aid, secretly at first and then openly. Support came in the form of money, guns, supplies, and then troops and a navy.
        1. Marquis de Lafayette, 19 years old, was the most famous of the French officers.
      3. The Americans fought only on the defensive meaning they just had to hold the land. The British had to actually conquer land.
      4. The typical American soldier was more accustomed to the country and straight-shooting.
      5. They felt they were fighting for a cause—freedom. The British fought because they were ordered to do so.
      6. Geography proved to be perhaps the largest advantage for the Americans. The British were 3,000 miles away, had to conquer a vast country, and there was no central capital in American on which to focus their attacks. The Americans employed a "drawn game"—fight, backup, live to fight another day, and therefore not lose!
    2. America had real disadvantages.
      1. The people were split into three groups: Patriots, moderates, and Loyalists (AKA Tories).
      2. There were sectional rivalries evidenced by the appointment of military officers.
      3. The lack of money was a real problem. America printed "Continental" paper money, which quickly became worthless.
      4. America's financial help would come from France, but they'd have to deal with the powerful British naval blockade.
      5. America had essentially no navy at all.
      6. On paper, America should not win the war.
  13. A Thin Line of Heroes
    1. The American army struggled throughout the war in many respects…
      1. Supplies were scarce: clothing, wool, wagons, etc. And worse, money was scarce meaning these things couldn't just be purchased.
      2. Training was quick, spotty, and often poor. Desertion was common.
        1. Training was greatly improved by Baron von Steuben a Prussian drillmaster who whipped the American soldiers into shape.
    2. African-Americans also served and fought in the war.
      1. At the war's outset, blacks were sometimes barred from service. By the end of the war, over 5,000 African-Americans served.
      2. Blacks also fought for the British. This was especially appealing because Lord Dunmore (royal governor of Virginia) announced freedom for any slave that agreed to fight for the British.
        1. 1,400 blacks were relocated to either Jamaica, Nova Scotia, or England after the war.
    3. Apathy and division within America hurt the fight for the cause.
      1. Many people lived so remotely that they had no interest in a war with a nation an ocean away. This seemed to have no bearing on a frontier farmer grubbing stumps out of the forest and raising crops to feed himself.
      2. Merchants liked to sell to the British because the Brits paid in gold, not worthless paper money.
      3. The American Revolution was a "minority war" in the sense that it was only because a select few threw themselves into the cause with passion that the Americans won.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 08 - America Secedes from the Empire

  1. Congress Drafts George Washington
    1. 20,000 fired-up militiamen swarmed the Boston area following the first shots at Lexington and Concord. The British redcoats were outnumbered.
    2. Meanwhile, the Second Continental Congress met in May 1775 in Philadelphia to address the worsening situation. As with the first Congress, calmer minds prevailed and there was no vote (yet) for independence. The plan was to stay with the king (with some changes). Leaving no stone unturned, their actions took the direction of both pursuing peace and preparing for war. Their actions were to…
      1. Re-send a second list of grievances to the king. Hopes were that he'd have a change of heart and change his ways.
      2. Took measures to raise money for an army and navy.
      3. Appointed George Washington as general of the continental army.
        1. Washington had never been promoted higher than a colonel, but he looked the part and would instill confidence and boost morale.
        2. Washington was of the highest character: patient, courageous, self-disciplined, fair, and religious.
        3. He accepted no pay but kept an expense account instead of over $100,000.
  2. Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings
    1. The war's early-going was contradictory. On one hand, the colonists were still pledging loyalty to the king. On the other hand, they were taking up arms against the crown.
    2. The war's pace quickly stepped up.
      1. In May 1775 Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold led the Green Mountain Boys of Vermont in surprise victories over the redcoats at Ft. Ticonderoga and Crown Point.
        1. The importance of this raid lay in the fact that the colonists captured much-needed cannons and gunpowder.
      2. In June 1775 the Americans too Bunker Hill in Boston. The British launched a foolish frontal assault and eventually won a Pyrrhic victory, but the American troops fought well and proved to themselves that they could go toe-to-toe with British regulars.
    3. Still, the Continental Congress sought peace and reconciliation with the king. They sent the "Olive Branch Petition" to London. It pledged loyalty and asked for peace. After Bunker Hill, King George III had decided peace was out.
    4. George III took action by (a) formerly declaring the colonies in rebellion and (b) hiring thousands of German soldiers (called "Hessians" by the Americans) to fight the war.
  3. The Abortive Conquest of Canada
    1. The redcoats burnt Falmouth (Portland), Maine (Oct. 1775).
    2. Meanwhile, the Americans decided to attack Canada. This proved to be a mistake because…
      1. The Americans misjudged the French Canadians, thinking the French hated the British and would revolt too.
      2. The Americans had argued they were only defending their land. In Canada, they were trying to win colony #14.
      3. The Americans lost.
        1. Gen. Richard Montgomery marched north along the Lake Champlain route toward Quebec, and was met by Benedict Arnold and men, weary from the grueling trip. In the battle (Dec. 1775), Montgomery would be killed, Arnold wounded, and their men scattered.
        2. Arnold and his men had to retreat up the St. Lawrence River. The French-Canadians were in no mood to welcome the Americans.
    3. By 1776, Americans still held onto the desire to stay with England, but events began to occur quickly…
      1. The English burnt Norfolk, VA (Jan. 1776).
      2. The British were forced out of Boston in March (it's still celebrated as "Evacuation Day").
      3. The colonists won two southern battles: (a) Feb. at Moore's Creek Bridge in North Carolina versus 1,500 loyalists and (b) June versus an attacking English fleet at Charleston harbor.
  4. Thomas Paine Preaches Common Sense
    1. The events of early 1776 were making Americans reconsider their loyalty to the king.
    2. Then came Thomas Paine's pamphlet Common Sense that urged American independence.
      1. He argued that in the physical world, the smaller body never ruled the larger one.
      2. He had no respect for the king and called him the "Royal Brute of Great Britain."
      3. Paine wrote plainly and convincingly and said the time had come to break away, it was just common sense.
  5. Paine and the Idea of “Republicanism” This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Common Sense was radical in 2 ways: (a) it called for independence and (b) it called for building a republic, something that'd never been done.
      1. A republic is a government where the people elect representatives to rule for them. Power rests with the people (and their votes).
      2. The ancient Greeks and even the British had a form of a republic yet had differences (Greek cities were small and Britain had a half republic with the king). The American republic would be the largest ever, and therefore the first for a nation.
      3. Paine's idea of a republic were well-liked by Americans.
        1. The prior acts by the king were certainly not popular—casting him off their backs sounded great.
        2. The Americans, New Englanders especially, had long been practicing some form of self-government.
    2. Some Americans were skeptical of turning power over to the people. They felt the people were unable to rule and wanted a "natural aristocracy" to run the government. This group was generally from the wealthier, more conservative classes.
  6. Jefferson’s “Explanation” of Independence
    1. The 2nd Continental Congress decided on independence.
      1. Richard Henry Lee made a motion for independence on June 7, 1776. It passed on July 2, 1776.
    2. A formal statement of America's independence was needed though.
      1. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.
        1. The declaration was written in a grand style.
        2. It could be broken down into four parts: (1) a preamble or introduction, (2) a statement of rights, (3) a list of grievances, and (4) a statement of separation.
        3. The "statement of rights" (based on John Locke's "natural rights") might be the most important. It included "unalienable rights" (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness) and that "all men are created equal."
    3. The Declaration made things clear: (a) the Americans were no longer loyal to the king but were rebels, (b) it opened the door for foreign help, and (c) the Americans had to win the war else face punishment for treason (death).
  7. Patriots and Loyalists
    1. Americans were not united in the revolution. Generally, there were 4 groups…
      1. Patriots (also called "Whigs") supported the war for independence.
      2. About 16% were Loyalists (also called "Tories") and supported the British.
      3. Moderates were in the middle and on the fence. These people might have sympathies with the rebels but still hold hope that America could stay with Britain without war. This group had been the largest, but dwindled as events unfolded and Common Sense came out.
      4. The apathetic (or people that just didn't care) because they felt politics either way had no bearing on their lives. Notably, there were also "profiteers" who sold whatever they could to whomever they could just to make money.
    2. The British could only hold areas where they could maintain a massive military presence (the coastline). The rebels did well on the interior or backwoods of the country. Rebels also harassed the British with guerrilla tactics when the redcoats tried to march into the frontier.
    3. A typical Loyalist (Tory)
      1. Loyalists were usually from conservative families. Families were split by the war however, such as Ben Franklin opposing his illegitimate son William, New Jersey's last royal governor.
      2. Loyalists were usually from richer, aristocratic families, such as in Charleston, SC.
      3. Loyalists were strong in the areas that the Anglican Church was strong (the South). They were weaker in areas that Congregationalism and Presbyterianism was strong (New England).
    4. A typical Patriot
      1. Patriots were generally from the younger generation, such as ringleaders Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry.
      2. Patriots largely lived in areas where the Anglican Church (Church of England) was weak. The Patriots were Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist, or Methodist.
      3. Patriots, generally, were inland and away from the coast (since the coast and harbors were the links back to England).
  8. The Loyalist Exodus
    1. Before the Declaration of Independence, harassment of the Loyalists was rather mild—tarring-and-feathering and the like.
    2. After the Declaration, the Americans stepped up their efforts aimed at Loyalists who were considered traitors.
      1. Loyalists were "roughed up," imprisoned, and a few were hanged.
      2. Most Loyalists (about 80,000) got out of town. This meant leaving behind everything they owned. Their lands were quickly confiscated by the Americans and sold to raise money for the war.
    3. An estimated 50,000 Loyalists served the British in the war as soldiers. They also spied and incited the Indians. Despite their contributions to the king's side, the British under-used these Loyalists.
  9. General Washington at Bay
    1. After evacuating Boston, the British tuned to New York as their base of operations.
      1. A huge British fleet arrived at New York.
      2. Gen. Washington's 18,000 men were outnumbered and in trouble. Losses followed in the summer of 1776…
        1. Washington and men were pushed off of Long Island (avoiding near-capture when a fog bank rolled in).
        2. He lost in Brooklyn, Harlem Heights, and White Plains before turning southward.
        3. He "set up camp" in Pennsylvania, along the Delaware River, for the winter. Things looked grim.
      3. But, Washington had a couple of more tricks up his sleeve.
        1. On December 26, 1776, he crossed the icy Delaware River and surprised the Hessian soldiers at Trenton.
          1. This was a key battle in that (a) it was America's first victory and (b) it boosted morale.
        2. A second victory was scored one week later. Troops left their campfires burning as a ruse and won at Princeton.
          1. Now, the Americans could settle in for the winter on a positive note. Though the colonists were not doing great, the British had not won.
  10. Burgoyne’s Blundering Invasion
    1. During the winter, London came up with a second plan to defeat the colonists. It was a more detailed plan. Its focus would be in New England and its goal would be to divide the colonies. The plan had 3 parts…
      1. Col. Barry St. Leger would move from Lake Erie eastward along the Mohawk River.
      2. Gen. Burgoyne would descend from Montreal southward on Lake Champlain.
      3. Gen. Howe would drive men northward from New York up the Albany River. They'd all 3 meet at Albany, NY.
    2. On paper, it was a good plan. In reality, it had problems.
      1. Benedict Arnold was the first problem. He and his men had lingered around after their defeat in Quebec. The British tried to take Lake Champlain but Arnold threw together a rag-tag flotilla. His flotilla was wiped out, but he bought critical time by delaying the British attack to the following spring.
      2. The second problem was the terrain. Burgoyne could draw lines on a map easily, but marching thousands of troops through upstate New York was not so easy. His men bogged down and supplies ran low.
      3. The third problem was that St. Leger's detachment lost at Oriskany and was turned back. One third of the plan was out right there.
      4. The final problem was that Gen. Howe had other plans. He decided to scratch the master-plan and do his own thing. He headed south (not north) to engage Gen. Washington in Philadelphia.
    3. Meanwhile, back in Pennsylvania…
      1. Howe beat Washington in battles at Brandywine Creek and at Germantown.
      2. Washington's troops camped for the winter at Valley Forge. Morale was very low with bitter cold, low rations, and high desertion. On the plus side, Prussian drillmaster Baron von Steuben whipped the troops into shape during that winter. They were changing from rag-tag militia to professional soldiers.
      3. Gen. Howe settled into Philadelphia for the winter with his mistress to enjoy the city-life. Ben Franklin quipped that Howe hadn't captured Philadelphia, but that Philadelphia had captured Howe.
    4. The Battle of Saratoga was perhaps the most critical battle of the war.
      1. Burgoyne's 7,000 troops arrived at the site of the planned battle tired and weary. He was alone, the other 2/3 of the plan didn't arrive.
      2. He had no choice but to surrender on Oct. 17, 1777.
      3. Saratoga was the turning point in the war because (a) it was truly a major victory in military terms, (b) it gave a huge boost to colonial morale, and (c) most importantly, it convinced France that America might actually have a chance to win and to openly aid America.
  11. Revolution in Diplomacy?
    1. A political marriage was ripe—American needed help and France was eager to exact revenge on Britain.
    2. The Continental Congress sent delegates to France. They were guided by a "Model Treaty" that sought "1. No political connection…. 2. No military connection…. 3. Only a commercial connection."
      1. Ben Franklin played the diplomacy game by wearing simple gray clothes and a coonskin cap to supposedly exemplify a raw new America.
    3. After the surprising loss at Saratoga, the ballgame was different.
      1. London was in the giving mood. They offered to give the colonists everything they desired, except independence.
      2. Paris was in a friendly mood. Ben Franklin played France's fears of the English, hinting that America and England might actually get back together.
        1. Franklin got a deal done. In a Franco-American Treaty (1778) (a) France formally joined America in the war and (b) recognized American independence, but (c) also pledged to a military alliance (going against the Model Treaty and something America would come to regret).
        2. This was America's first example of idealistic principles being overruled by practicalities of a situation.
  12. The Colonial War Becomes a Wider War
    1. Like a spider web, the war networked and grew, mostly aligned against England.
      1. In 1778, England and France went to war.
      2. In 1779, Holland and Spain joined the war against England. The French/Spanish navy outnumbered the British.
      3. In 1780, Russia (led by Catherine the Great) formed the "Armed Neutrality" which linked up the neutral nations in a grudge against England. Countries were present from Russia, to South America, the Caribbean, and Asia.
    2. The Americans had managed to keep the war going up to 1778 and now England was against the ropes. The struggle in America was becoming secondary.
    3. Strategy was also changed by France's joining the war.
      1. Perhaps the greatest military asset the French gave America was its navy.
      2. The British naval blockade was now not to be taken for granted. To shorten supply lines, the British evacuated Philadelphia to focus on New York.
        1. The Battle of Monmouth in New Jersey took place as the redcoats left Philly. It was scorching-hot (sunstroke was common), an indecisive battle, and moved Gen. Washington's to New York as well.
  13. Blow and Counterblow
    1. 6,000 French soldiers arrived in Newport, RI under command of Comte de Rochambeau. Though here on friendly terms, there were sometimes scuffles between American and French soldiers. They eventually starting getting along.
    2. Morale took a big hit when Benedict Arnold traded sides to the British.
      1. Arnold felt underappreciated in America and sought a higher rank and money from England.
      2. He planned to sell out the stronghold at West Point but the plan was foiled at the last minute. Washington asked, "Whom can we trust now?"
    3. Meanwhile, the British planned to attack the South.
      1. The Brits settled into Savannah, GA and Charleston, SC to prepare for the battles.
      2. The war turned ugly here. The Americans fought guerilla style, thrashing at British supply lines. The most famous was Francis Marion (the "Swamp Fox") who'd attack then disappear with his men into the swamps.
        1. Neighbors on opposing sides fought each other as well in ruthless engagements.
      3. Battles ran through the Carolinas. The redcoats won at Camden over Horatio Gates (the American hero at Saratoga). Then the Americans won at King's Mountain and at Cowpens.
        1. American Gen. Nathaneal Greene (the "Fighting Quaker") employed a strategy of delay where he stood, fought, retreated, and kept sucking Gen. Charles Cornwallis deeper into enemy territory. Greene eventually exhausted Cornwallis' troops.
  14. The Land Frontier and the Sea Frontier
    1. 1777 was called "the bloody year" on the frontier when the British paid Indians for scalps.
      1. Indian tribes chose sides, the Oneida and Tuscarora with the Americans, but most sided with the English.
      2. Chief Joseph Brant savagely attacked American settlements. He was a convert to Anglicanism and struck at Pennsylvania and New York for two years until stopped in 1779.
      3. In 1779, the 4 pro-British tribes of the Iroquois were forced to sign the Treaty of Ft. Stanwix. This was the first American—Indian treaty, and in it, the Indians forfeited most of their land.
    2. The American west was busy during the war.
      1. People still moved there. Kentucky towns were named after the revolution: Lexington (after the battle) and Louisville (after the French king).
      2. Frontiersman George Rogers Clark decided to surprise attack the British forts scattered throughout the west.
        1. He floated down the Ohio River and quickly took forts at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes.
        2. Many believe that Clark's actions helped win land all the way west to the Mississippi River (instead of just to the Appalachian Mtns.).
    3. The fight on water took two forms…
      1. The upstart American navy was laying its own foundation. It never really competed with the British navy, but harassed their shipping lines. John Paul Jones was the most well-known naval leader.
      2. Privateers were essentially legal pirates and made an even larger dent in the British navy. These were privately owned boats/ships that fought for hire. Their motives were patriotism and profit. They would capture British ships and pirate whatever they could take.
  15. Yorktown and the Final Curtain
    1. Just before the decisive victory of the war, America was struggling.
      1. Inflation ran rampant and it was announced that debts would only be partially repaid at the rate of 2.5 cents on the dollar.
      2. Morale sunk and any notion of unity sunk.
    2. Meanwhile, things were pointing to the Chesapeake Bay.
      1. Cornwallis moved his men there to get more supplies via the British navy.
      2. The French navy however, moved in and sealed off the Bay.
      3. Gen. Washington and Rochambeau saw the chance and moved their troops in to seal off the peninsula.
        1. At Yorktown, Cornwallis was trapped and surrendered. This was the final major battle.
    3. Lord North exclaimed "Oh God! It's all over! It's all over!" when he heard the news.
    4. But, fighting still trickled on for over a year.
  16. Peace at Paris
    1. The English had been fighting and taking losses in India, the West Indies, the island of Minorca in the Mediterranean Sea, and the Rock of Gibraltar, and America, of course. They were tired of war.
    2. The Americans sent a peace-seeking delegation to Paris in Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay.
      1. The three were told to not make a separate peace with England but to always consult first with France. John Jay was suspicious of France however.
        1. France wanted America independent, but also weak, ideally cooped up east of the Allegheny Mountains.
        2. Jay secretly contacted London to seek peace. The British quickly worked out a deal behind France's back.
    3. The Treaty of Paris, 1783 ended the American Revolution. Its terms were…
      1. England recognized American independence all the way to the Mississippi River.
      2. America retained some fishing rights in Newfoundland.
      3. The American Loyalists were to be treated fairly and Congress was to recommend to the states that the land that had been taken from the Loyalists was to be returned. (The lands never did return to the Loyalists though).
  17. A New Nation Legitimized
    1. America did better than might be expected in the outcome of the war.
      1. Even though George Rogers Clark had won victories west of the Appalachians, they were somewhat small victories. Still, Britain was trying to woo America away from France. For this reason, Britain ceded a considerable quantity of land.
      2. Also, it happened that the pro-American Whigs were in control of Parliament at the time of the treaty.
    2. France cautiously gave their approval to the treaty.
    3. Without question, the stars were shining on America.
  18. Makers of America: The Loyalists
    1. The American Loyalists normally came from well-educated, conservative stock. They worried that a clean break from England would cause America to spiral into anarchy or mob-rule.
      1. Many Loyalists were Brits who'd settled in America just after the Seven Years' War. They weren't ready to completely toss their home country away.
    2. There were thousands of black Loyalists.
      1. Many signed on with the British army in hopes of gaining freedom.
      2. Some were betrayed by this promise. In one instance, Cornwallis left 4,000 slaves in Virginia. In a worse instance, a shipload of blacks expecting to sail to freedom instead sailed back into slavery.
      3. Other blacks moved to England but they often struggled to fit in and gain acceptance.
    3. The American view of the Loyalists was not flattering.
      1. Loyalists were viewed as traitors to America (just as the Americans were viewed as traitors to the crown).
        1. They were arrested, exiled, their property confiscated, and rights taken away. Some 80,000 Loyalists simply left America.
      2. There were "success stories."
        1. Hugh Gaine, a New York printer, re-established his business and eventually won government printing contracts.
        2. Most Loyalists simply readjusted themselves and survived. They usually became supporters of the Federalist party that wished for a stronger central government. This was their transition from English to American.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 09 - The Confederation and the Constitution

  1. The Pursuit of Equality
    1. American Revolution was not a sudden radical change. Rather it was an accelerated evolution.
    2. Separation of church and state began. The "high-church" Anglican Church was disestablished (it stopped receiving tax money) although the Congregational Church continued is established status. The Anglican Church also became known as the Episcopal Church in order to distance itself from its English roots.
      1. To a large degree, life went on as usual—work, church, play.
      2. A change occurred in that with 80,000 Loyalists gone, a large chunk of the conservative wing was absent.
    3. "Equality" was the buzzword of the day.
      1. With many conservatives gone, the door was opened for more equality-minded folks to rule.
      2. Commoners wanted to be called "Mr." and "Mrs.", titles once reserved for the elite.
      3. Slavery and equality were obviously at odds with one another. The beginnings of the anti-slavery movement were gaining steam.
        1. The Continental Congress of 1774 had called for the abolition of slavery.
        2. The Quakers founded the first abolition society in 1775, the world's first.
        3. Caught up in the equality movement, some slave owners were moved to free their slaves.
      4. Women gained little by the equality movement. There were small steps however…
        1. A few women served in the war disguised as men.
        2. The New Jersey constitution permitted women to vote for a while.
        3. The notion of "republican motherhood" developed and gave the ladies a great deal of importance. The idea went that the women raised the children and therefore held great power and responsibility with the future of the republic in their hands.
  2. Constitution Making in the States
    1. The 1776 Continental Congress called for each colony to write their own constitution and thus move from colony to state.
    2. Massachusetts gave America a "Constitutional Convention." It was a special meeting where the constitution was written, sent to the people for ratification (vote of approval), and could then only be changed by another Constitutional Convention.
    3. Many of the new constitutions shared similarities…
      1. They were written documents and thus unchanging without a formal process. Being written, they were not based on a king's whims or on court decisions and common law which may change with the current winds.
      2. They reflected fundamental law. That is to say, they often dealt more in generalities and less in specifics which could be handled by specific laws passed by a state legislature.
      3. Many had a bill of rights.
      4. Many specified annual elections of legislators (this was out of the desire to keep power with the people and from the fear that rulers in power too long grow comfortable and corrupted).
      5. They established weak executive and judicial branches. Again, this was out of the desire to keep power with the people, not with a governor or judges. Thomas Jefferson had warned that "173 despots [in a legislature] would surely be as oppressive as one (a despot is a dictator)."
        1. The legislative branch was often given nearly all of the power.
    4. New state capitals emerged. Many of these new capitals moved westward, or inland, following the westward migration of people. Examples are Manchester, NH; Albany, NY; Charlottesville, VA; Raleigh, NC; Columbia, SC; and Atlanta, GA.
  3. Economic Crosscurrents
    1. Economic changes occurred after the war, but not to a revolutionary degree.
    2. Much of the Loyalist land had been seized and wound up in the hands of the poor. The Loyalists didn't see themselves beheaded however, as happened a few years later in the French Revolution.
    3. The myriad of goods and trade that used to come from England stopped. This both hurt and helped America. It hurt in the short run since England was America's top trade partner. It helped in the long run by forcing American industry to get started.
      1. This beginning of industry is not to be over-stated however. Americans were still by a large margin of around 90%, mostly farmers.
      2. Another benefit of losing trade with England was that America was now open to trade with any other country she wished.
        1. Trade began with the Baltic region of Northern Europe and with China, led by the Empress of China hauling the herb ginseng.
    4. Despite the good, the infant America had serious economic troubles.
      1. A haughty crowd of war profiteers had been established which wasn't good for "economic morale."
      2. The war had run up a large debt and inflation.
      3. There was a large class of poor, the stability of the Loyalist class had been shaken, and the new rich were flashy and not trusted.
  4. A Shaky Start Toward Union This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. There were obstacles to building the nation.
      1. Tearing down a nation was easy; but to build a new one and run it was much more difficult.
      2. Unity existed largely only on paper. There was a deep desire by many states to keep to themselves rather than join a union that would rule over them.
      3. The spirits of patriotism, freedom, and independence all worked against unity rather than for it.
    2. England waged something of an economic war.
      1. The Brits began to flood the American market with goods at slashed prices.
      2. This struck hard at the infantile American industries that couldn't compete price-wise.
    3. America did have a few things going for it in terms of unity.
      1. The 13 colonies did share roughly the same type of state governments and a rich and similar political tradition.
      2. America was blessed with leaders of the highest quality like Washington, Adams, Madison, Jefferson, and Hamilton.
  5. Creating a Confederation
    1. The new states chose a confederation as their first government—a loose union of states where a federal and state level exist, yet the state level retains the most sovereignty to rule as they saw fit.
      1. As an example, many states minted their own money and set up their own taxes on imports. (These differences later proved to be problematic).
    2. The Articles of Confederation (1777) became the United States' first government. All 13 states needed to approve the articles for them to begin.
    3. A snag in the approval process came up with the western lands and the question of who owned them.
      1. Virginia and New York (and others) had large claims from earlier years over the lands west of the Appalachians.
      2. To make matters worse, many of these claims overlapped one another. Which state would own the land?
      3. Maryland had no land west of the mountains and thought it unfair that some states would get the new lands and be able to profit from them. Hadn't Maryland fought the war just as Virginia had? they reasoned. Maryland withheld their vote.
    4. The compromise that came about said no state would own the land but the new U.S. would.
      1. Eventually, New York backed off on its claim and Virginia did too.
        1. Congress promised to use the western lands for the good of the "common benefit." Eventually, this would become the Northwest Ordinance where these lands were divided and sold cheaply.
      2. All 13 states had ratified it by 1781 when Maryland did so and it went into effect.
      3. This situation also became an important bond of unity for the infant nation.
  6. The Articles of the Confederation: America’s First Constitution
    1. The main thing to know regarding the Articles is that it set up a very weak government. This was not by accident, but by plan. The reason a weak government was desired was simply to avoid a strong national government that would take away unalienable rights or abuse its power (i.e. England). The weaknesses included…
      1. There was no executive branch (this would be too much like a king).
      2. Congress was weak. Its members were elected annually, a 2/3 vote was needed on important issues, a unanimous vote was needed for amendments (these meant Congress members couldn't get comfortable in office and would have a hard time passing laws).
      3. Congress had restrictions. It couldn't raise a military. It couldn't levy taxes. It couldn't regulate commerce.
        1. The inability to regulate taxes and commerce led states to form their own tax laws and print their own money. This situation became crippling to the nation as a whole.
    2. The Articles of Confederation did provide some benefits…
      1. It did take the next step toward national unity and a step toward forming the U.S. Constitution. Oddly, it did this by being so weak and showing what was needed in the new constitution.
      2. They were a necessary intermediary between complete state independence and the U.S. Constitution. With the Articles in the middle, many states would never have made that jump.
  7. Landmarks in Land Laws
    1. The Land Ordinance of 1785 answered the question, "How will the new lands in the Ohio Valley be divided up?"
      1. This law surveyed the lands and divided it into squares to be sold.
        1. section was 1 mile by 1 mile (1 sq. mile, or 640 acres). A township was 6 miles by 6 miles (36 sq. miles, or 36 sections). Each section was numbered and could be sub-divided for sale.
        2. Section #16 was reserved for a school. Either the school was built there or its proceeds went to pay for the school. This measure was a landmark for public education in the U.S.
      2. The standard going-price for land was $1 per acre.
    2. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 answered the question, “How will new states be made once people move out there?”
      1. This law said the territory-to-statehood process would go through stages…
        1. Stage 1 — the land was a territory meaning it was simply land owned by the U.S.
        2. Stage 2 — call it "application status". Once a territory got 60,000 inhabitants they could write a state constitution then send it to Congress for approval.
        3. Stage 3 — statehood (if Congress approved the constitution).
      2. This process laid out by the Northwest Ordinance worked very well for many years and for many states to join the nation.
  8. The World’s Ugly Duckling
    1. As a new nation, America struggled in its relations with other countries.
    2. Relations with England had several issues…
      1. There was no trade with England. The British would not repeal the Navigation Laws with their restrictions believing America would crawl back to trade on British terms anyway.
        1. The only British "trade" came via American smugglers who were up to their old ways.
      2. The British were up to trickery along the American frontier.
        1. The British connived with disgruntled Ethan Allen and brothers to possibly get Vermont back to England.
        2. Though they were supposed to leave, the British retained several trade posts along the American frontier. They said this was to reclaim losses to Loyalists, but…
        3. More likely, the posts were to be bases to stir up Indian discontent against the Americans.
    3. There were issues with Spain…
      1. The Spanish closed off the mouth of the Mississippi River. This was a serious threat to the trans-Appalachian states which needed the river to export goods.
      2. The Spanish laid claim to parts of Florida (today's Mississippi and Alabama).
      3. The Spanish also stirred up the Indians against the Americans.
    4. There were issues with France…
      1. The French were not as friendly now that England had been humbled. The French wanted their debts paid by America.
    5. There were issues in North Africa…
      1. North African pirates, notably the Dey of Algiers, robbed American ships. The British had paid tribute (or "bully money") and America had enjoyed that coverage. On her own, America was too weak to fight and too poor to pay. This was an embarrassment.
  9. The Horrid Specter of Anarchy
    1. In a confederation (like the Articles) states are free to do as they please. Things quickly got out of hand.
      1. States feuded over boundaries.
      2. States taxed other states.
      3. States printed their own paper money.
    2. Shays' Rebellion (1786) rocked the nation with a wake-up call.
      1. Daniel Shays’ was disgruntled over difficulties involving farmland mortgages. (Notably, the inability to get land is the same motivation for rebellion as Bacon’s Rebellion back in 1676 in Virginia. And, the desire for land was also the motivator of the Paxton Boys in Pennsylvania in 1764.)
      2. He and friends staged a take-over in parts of Massachusetts. He was stopped, arrested, convicted, sentenced to death, but pardoned.
      3. The importance of Shays’ Rebellion can't be understated. It was that the fear of such violence lived on and paranoia motivated folks to desire a stronger federal government.
    3. The Articles themselves began to be questioned.
      1. The problems listed above were real and seemed in no hurry to leave.
      2. The idea of republican democracy where the people select rulers came into question. Could the common person really be responsible enough to rule? Or, would things simply deteriorate into a "mobocracy" like Shays' Rebellion?
      3. Some people thought the Articles simply needed some strengthening to make them work.
    4. The situation actually did begin to improve by 1787, especially in terms of increased trade and states cutting back on printing paper money.
  10. A Convention of “Demigods”
    1. A meeting was called in Annapolis, Maryland to strengthen the Articles.
      1. They wished to mainly address the issues of money, especially commerce.
      2. 9 states were invited but only 5 states arrived which was not a quorum (enough to hold a meeting). They did agree to meet again.
    2. The next meeting became known as the "Constitutional Convention" when the U.S. Constitution was written.
      1. 55 delegates met in Philadelphia in May of 1787. 12 of the 13 states were represented (Rhode Island wanted no part of it).
      2. Their goal as laid out by Congress was "the sole and express purpose of revising" the Articles, not to pitch it out and start over (which is what they wound up doing).
      3. Attendance (and non-attendance) at the meeting was of such high quality Jefferson called the delegates "demigods." They could be divided into three categories…
        1. Demigods—George Washington (chairman), Ben Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison.
        2. Revolutionaries overseas were absent from the meeting—Thomas Jefferson (in France on business), John Adams (in England on business), Thomas Paine (in Europe as well).
        3. Patriots who were absent—John Hancock, Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry. These men, especially Adams and Henry, were independent-minded and didn't like the idea of strengthening the government. Their specialty was tearing down governments, not building them up.
  11. Patriots in Philadelphia
    1. The men attending the Constitutional Convention were generally young, aristocratic, and well-educated.
    2. These delegates recognized issues were at hand: the inability to maintain order, "runaway democracy" in various states, and pressure/threats from foreign nations.
    3. Essentially, the problem was that the states had too much freedom or independence; the solution was to strengthen the federal government.
  12. Hammering Out a Bundle of Compromises
    1. Despite their plans for revision only, the Convention delegates tossed out the Articles and began writing an entirely new Constitution.
    2. The most heated conflict was over the question, "How will representation in Congress be decided?"
      1. The "Virginia Plan" (AKA "Large States Plan") proposed that representation would be based on a state's population. They reasoned that the more people a state has, the more representatives they should have in Congress.
      2. The "New Jersey Plan" (AKA "Small States Plan") objected to Virginia saying that if Congress went solely by population, then the small states' votes wouldn't matter since they'd simply be always out-voted. They reasoned that states are equal to one another, regardless of the quantity of people living in them, and therefore states should have an equal vote in Congress.
      3. After much debate and a standstill, the "Great Compromise" was offered. It said that…
        1. Congress would be bicameral (have 2 houses).
        2. The House of Representatives would be based on state population, following the Virginia Plan.
          1. Bills pertaining to taxation would begin in the House.
        3. The Senate would have 2 senators from each state making them equal, following the New Jersey Plan.
          1. The Senate would approve/reject presidential treaties and appointments.
      4. They agreed to have an executive branch (a president). The president would be commander-in-chief of the military, could veto legislation. But, the president (and the other branches) would be held in check through a system of checks-and-balances on power.
      5. The president would be elected by an Electoral College (a group of official presidential voters) rather than by the people. The people were viewed as being too ignorant to elect a president. To be fair, at that time people were less educated and news traveled slowly and without reliability so a voter likely might be ill-informed.
      6. The Three-Fifths Compromise answered the question, "How will slaves be counted when determining a state's population?"
        1. Southern states wanted slaves counted (to gain more votes in Congress) and Northern states did not want to count slaves (to retain more votes in Congress). The compromise agreed to count 3/5 of the slaves as part of the state's population.
      7. The delegates agreed to allow states to halt slave importation after 1807. This measure showed signs of the early anti-slavery movement. But, it was something of a hollow measure—by this time, slavery had become self-sufficient and slave importation wasn't really needed anyway.
  13. Safeguards for Conservatism
    1. The delegates all agreed that a system of checks-and-balances was needed to prevent any one branch from hording too much power. Conservatives also wanted safeguards from the "mobocracy" or mob rule. They put into place such things as…
      1. Federal chief justices were appointed for life, thus creating stability that conservatives liked.
      2. The electoral college created a buffer between the people and the presidency.
      3. Senators were elected by state legislators who were supposedly educated, not by the common people.
      4. Thus, after the American Revolution, the voters actually only voted for 1/2 of 1/3 of the government (only for representatives in the House).
    2. Still, at the base level, power wrested with the people.
    3. By the end of the Constitutional Convention in September of 1887, 42 of the 55 delegates signed it. The others had left in protest or would not sign it.
  14. The Clash of Federalists and Anti-federalists
    1. Once written, the Founding Fathers faced an even tougher task—to get the Constitution ratified by the states. They knew that some states would reject it. They knew that most state legislatures would reject it. So…
      1. The Constitution was sent out to the state conventions where it would be evaluated and voted upon.
      2. At first, there was surprise because a brand new constitution had been written. The people expected a fixed up Articles of Confederation; that was the purpose of the meeting (the convention had been held in strict secrecy).
    2. Two camps emerged in the ratification debate, Federalists and Anti-Federalists.
      1. The Federalists wanted the Constitution ratified.
        1. They wanted a stronger central government to establish and maintain order.
        2. They generally came from the more well-to-do classes, were often former Loyalists, were often property owners, typically lived in the older or coastal areas, and were often Episcopalians.
      2. The Anti-Federalists did not want the Constitution ratified.
        1. They believed it gave too much power to the national government. After all, wasn't that what the American Revolution had been fought over?
        2. They were generally from the less-educated classes, were usually farmers, were believers in states' rights, and normally lived in the frontier areas. They were often Baptists or Methodists.
        3. At their root, the Anti-Federalists felt that the Constitution had been written by and for the aristocratic folks and that it threatened people's independence and freedoms.
          1. Their complaints along these lines were (a) a lack of a bill of rights, (b) the riddance of annual elections, and (c) the formation of a standing army. All of these things could be used against the people.
  15. The Great Debate in the States
    1. The conventions in each state needed delegates. Elections were held.
    2. Four states ratified the Constitution quickly.
    3. Massachusetts voted for the Constitution, but it was a tough race and a close vote. Folks like Sam Adams campaigned against the Constitution thinking it gave too much power to the federal government.
      1. Massachusetts ratified it with the promise that a Bill of Rights would immediately be written and adopted.
      2. Massachusetts was a critical state, kind of a "tipping point." Had the Constitution failed here, it likely would not have been ratified by the other states.
    4. After three more states ratified it, it became active in June of 1788.
    5. The final hold-outs were Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island.
  16. The Four Laggard States
    1. Four states had reservations about adopting the Constitution and held out. But they eventually did ratify it mainly because after 9 states adopted it the Constitution took affect. What would the 4 laggards do, become their own countries? It wasn't practical.
    2. Virginia ratified it in a close vote because New Hampshire was about to adopt the Constitution as state number 9—the number needed to activate it.
    3. New York decided to go with the Constitution due to (a) The Federalist Papers of John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton and (b) the realization that a future on their own was pointless.
    4. Finally, North Carolina and somewhat disgruntled Rhode Island ratified the Constitution and made it unanimous. They were given considerable pressure to do so and also realized to go-it-alone was not productive.
  17. A Conservative Triumph
    1. Like winning the American Revolution where a few patriots had pulled off independence, ratifying the Constitution was a minority victory. This time, the minority was the conservatives.
      1. The patriots were a much more liberal, perhaps radical group. It was now time for the conservatives to pull the pendulum back toward the center.
    2. To ratify the Constitution, an estimated 1/4 of the adult white male population had voted for convention delegates. Most of those voters were landowners.
    3. The conservatives obtained certain measures that eased their minds…
      1. First, a stronger government that could deal with the "mobocracy" such as Shays' Rebellion.
      2. Secondly, the elite or aristocracy had built in certain safeguards to their rule such as the electoral college, permanence of judges, and indirect elections of senators. All of these things meant stability—the number 1 thing on their mind.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 10 - Launching the New Ship of State

  1. Growing Pains
    1. After 12 years of government-disabling, now America had to begin nation-building. During the Revolutionary time period though, a strong distrust of government had been instilled in people.
    2. The U.S. financial situation was grim.
      1. Revenue was very small yet the debt was mounting due to interest.
      2. Hard (metal) money was scarce and the paper money was worthless.
      3. The financial situation was the number 1 problem the new nation faced.
      4. Still, America was trying to create a democracy on a scale never been done before and make it fly.
    3. The U.S. Constitution went into effect in 1789.
      1. The population was doubling every 20 years. The largest cities in the 1790 census (in order) were Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Charleston, and Baltimore.
      2. 90% of the people were rural. 5% lived west of the Appalachian Mountains. These folks lived mostly in Kentucky, Tennessee and Ohio which soon became new states. Vermont became state number 14 in 1791.
    4. Foreigners thought the Americans were rough and crude people due to the primitive pioneer lifestyle.
  2. Washington for President
    1. George Washington was the choice for president.
      1. He was the war hero and the looked the part—6 foot 2 inches, 175 pounds, broad shoulders.
      2. His top attribute was impeccable and highly respected character.
      3. He reluctantly accepted the call to the presidency and was unanimously elected by the electoral college.
    2. Washington made something of a parade route from his Mt. Vernon Virginia home to New York City (the temporary capital) to be sworn in.
      1. He was sworn in on April 30, 1789 on Wall Street.
    3. He quickly established a cabinet. It consisted of…
      1. Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson
      2. Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
      3. Secretary of War: Henry Knox
  3. The Bill of Rights
    1. The Constitution lacked a Bill of Rights—this deeply bothered several states. They ratified it on the promise that as soon as the new government began, they'd add a Bill of Rights. The government kept its word.
    2. James Madison wrote the Bill of Rights then channeled them through 2/3 of Congress. The next step was to get 3/4 of the states to adopt them. The required number of states ratified the Bill of Rights in 1791.
    3. The Bill of Rights (for history purposes, Amendments 9 and especially 10 are the most important)…
      1. Amendment 1 - Freedom of religion, speech, press, right to peaceful assemble and petition.
      2. Amendment 2 - Right to bear arms.
      3. Amendment 3 - Protection from quartering soldiers in homes.
      4. Amendment 4 - Protection from searches or seizures without a warrant.
      5. Amendment 5 - Right to not testify against one's self and protection from double jeopardy.
      6. Amendment 6 - Guarantee of a proper trial.
      7. Amendment 7 - Guarantee of a jury trial.
      8. Amendment 8 - Protection from excessive bail or fines.
      9. Amendment 9 - Statement that people have rights that are not even listed here. (The "People's Rights Amendment).
      10. Amendment 10 - Statement that any power not granted in the Constitution is left to the states. (The "State's Rights Amendment).
    4. To complete the 3 branches of the government, Congress passed and Pres. Washington signed the Judiciary Act of 1789 that set up the Supreme Court and the Federal Court System.
      1. John Jay then became the first Supreme Court Chief Justice.
      2. With this law, the U.S. government was then fully complete and fully functional.
  4. Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit
    1. Hamilton was a brilliant but arrogant fellow that many Americans didn't warm up to. He was born in the British West Indies and loved British institutions, but said he loved America more. Still, he was often accused of being more British than American.
    2. As Secretary of Treasury, Alexander Hamilton had to overcome America's top problem…the money-problem (or lack-of-money problem). He'd eventually come up with a 4-part plan to get America on its financial feet. The plan included…
      1. Paying off all debts in full.
      2. A tariff (tax on imports).
      3. A tax on whiskey.
      4. A National Bank.
    3. Paying off the debts…
      1. Hamilton insisted on paying debts in full or at 100% face value in what was called Funding at Par.
        1. Hamilton insisted that Funding at Par was crucial, basically because it would get respect. How could Americans respect their government if they only paid half their debts? Or worse, how would other nations, like France, view America if they paid only a bit?
      2. Hamilton also urged what he called Assumption. In Assumption, the federal government would assume the states' debts, or in other words, the states would simply give their debts over to the federal government. The reason for assuming state debts was to tie the states together in a common endeavor—to jointly pay off the debt.
        1. Massachusetts had a huge debt and liked the idea. Virginia didn't have much of a debt and disliked the idea. A compromise had to be made.
        2. The bargain said that Massachusetts would get the Assumption clause passed. Virginia would see the new national capital on the Potomac River—the site of Washington D.C.
  5. Customs Duties and Excise Taxes
    1. Hamilton was determined to pay the full $75 million debt, plus interest. He felt the debt was actually a good thing since it tied the states together.
    2. The question then became, "How would a poor country pay off the debt?" Hamilton proposed that revenue be made through a tariff (tax on imports).
      1. Hamilton had the long-range vision to see that industry in America would eventually boom. Along with it, trade would grow, and the tariff would earn money.
    3. An excise tax on whiskey was imposed to raise a bit more money. This whiskey tax on 7 cents/gallon hit the whiskey-makers in the backwoods who often used whiskey as money.
  6. Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. The last part of Hamilton's plan was to create a National Bank to stabilize the economy.
      1. It was modeled after the Bank of England and was to be a private institution but with the government as the major stockholder.
      2. Its purposes would be to (a) store government money, (b) lend to businesses, and (c) print money and thus stabilize currency.
      3. The snag that was hit was the question, "Is this bank Constitutional?" since it was not written into the Constitution. Thomas Jefferson argued against the bank saying it was not.
    2. The National Bank debate…
      1. Thomas Jefferson's point-of-view…
        1. He felt that whatever is not permitted in the Constitution is prohibited. A bank was not in the Constitution.
        2. The bank should be left to the states because that's what Amendment 10 said (any power not listed in the Constitution is reserved to the states).
        3. This point-of-view is called a strict interpretation of the Constitution that said something must specifically be written into the Constitution in black-and-white for it to be legal.
      2. Alexander Hamilton's point-of-view…
        1. he felt that whatever is not prohibited in the Constitution is permitted. The bank wasn't specifically prohibited so it was okay.
        2. He brought up the "Elastic Clause" of Congress (AKA the "Necessary and Proper" Clause) that said Congress has the power to do whatever is necessary and proper to carry out its appointed duties. He reasoned that Congress was given the duty of regulating commerce and collect taxes; to properly do this, a national bank was necessary and proper.
        3. This reliance on the Elastic Clause was also called a "Loose Interpretation" of the Constitution.
      3. In the end, Hamilton won the argument.
        1. The Bank of the United States was started in 1791 with a charter good for 20 years.
        2. It was built in Philadelphia, was to have $10 million worth of capital, and sold out its public stock in only two hours.
  7. Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania
    1. The whiskey-makers of the frontier region were upset over Hamilton's tax on whiskey.
      1. They said they’d been unfairly singled out to be taxed.
      2. They cried “taxation without representation” since many were from Tennessee and Kentucky which were not yet states and had no one in Congress.
    2. Things came to head in 1794 when violence broke into the Whiskey Rebellion frontier Pennsylvania.
      1. The question now was, "Is the government strong enough to force someone to obey laws, or can some people just pick and choose the laws they like?"
      2. Pres. Washington responded quickly. He sent 13,000 soldiers to quell the revolt of a couple of hundred. A couple of people were killed but most just fled the scene. The revolt was crushed.
        1. Washington actually got criticism from Anti-Federalists about reacting too strongly. They said he'd used a sledgehammer to crush a gnat.
    3. The lesson of the Whiskey Rebellion was that this new government was strong, unlike the Articles that worried people over Shays' Rebellion.
  8. The Emergence of Political Parties
    1. Hamilton's policies had an unexpected side-effect—they created the two-political party system.
    2. The two initial parties were sometimes called by their leaders' names…the Hamiltonians and the Jeffersonians.
      1. From there, a long series of names and name-changing could roughly be followed down to modern-day Republicans and Democrats.
    3. The Founding Fathers hadn't anticipated multiple political parties. They'd had factions, but those came over an issue, ran their course, then faded. Permanent political parties were something new.
      1. Also, the consensus then was that political parties hurt the situation rather than help because they create dissent, argument, and bog down the government.
      2. It seems however, that having two parties has helped our country simply by always given voters a different choice. If a voter doesn't like the situation in Washington currently, the other party will take opposing views and the voter can vote the new party in. With only one party, there is no 2nd choice.
  9. The Impact of the French Revolution
    1. The American Revolution partially inspired the French Revolution as they figured, "If the Americans can pull it off, why can't we?"
    2. The French Revolution of the 1780s and 90s started innocently enough then grew complicated.
      1. Initially, Americans were very happy to hear of democracy over-throwing a monarchy.
      2. A minority of conservatives were upset over the "mobocracy" and disorder.
      3. In 1792, the French Revolution became more of a world war. In a nutshell, the French Revolution had two arenas: (a) it was a civil war of the French people vs. the French upper classes, but also (b) the French nation vs. nearly every other European nation (the other nations feared similar revolutions in their own countries if the French people pulled it off).
      4. The Revolution went sour when the "Reign of Terror" got out the guillotine and thousands of nobles had their heads chopped off.
    3. The question of how America would respond became a bit trickier. The two brand new political parties had something else to disagree over…
      1. Conservatives (the Federalists) were thoroughly appalled at the treachery.
      2. Liberals like Thomas Jefferson (the Democratic-Republicans) felt that a few nobles' heads were a small price to pay for freedom and democracy.
    4. When England joined the war vs. France, things got even trickier for Americans over two questions…
      1. Whom would the U.S. support, France or England?
      2. How would this affect land holdings over on the North American side of the Atlantic?
  10. Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation
    1. The most pressing question was, "Which side would the U.S. support?"
    2. Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans said the U.S. should side with France.
      1. Looking at it from the State Dept. perspective, he said the U.S. should side with France because of the Franco-American alliance of 1778. Jefferson said that since France had helped in the American Revolution, it was time to repay the favor.
    3. Hamilton's Federalists said the U.S. should side with England.
      1. Looking at it from the Treasury Dept. perspective, he said siding with the British would be economically advantageous to the young American nation.
    4. Pres. Washington got to make the call. He sided with neither and said that America would stay neutral. This decision well illustrates the emerging American policy of acting in self-interest.
      1. He simply took a practical perspective—the U.S. was too young to get into a huge war. It would be too destructive to a nation just getting its feet settled underneath it.
      2. Washington gave his "Neutrality Proclamation" in 1793. It stated America's neutral position and urged Americans to think and act that way.
        1. Though neutral, it was really a victory for Hamilton/Federalists/England who all liked the decision.
        2. France and the Democratic-Republicans were thoroughly upset and felt the U.S. had betrayed the Franco-American treaty.
          1. An offshoot of the decision was the action of French Citizen Edmond Genêt. He came to Charleston, SC and thought Washington's decision didn't reflect the American people's views. He foolishly thought the Americans would rise up and somehow overturn the neutrality or government. Washington had him replaced.
          2. France actually might've been helped by the neutrality since that prevented a British naval blockade and enabled American foodstuffs to go to France.
          3. And, technically speaking, America didn't have to honor the Franco-American alliance because France didn't call upon it to honor it.
  11. Embroilments with Britain
    1. A couple of issues with England weren't going away, but were actually growing…
    2. England still had several frontier posts in America to trade furs and create an Indian buffer to the Americans. This bothered the Americans but they put up with it.
      1. A turning point came with Gen. "Mad" Anthony Wayne who led the Army in defeat of the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in August of 1794.
        1. When the smoke cleared from the battlefield it became clear that the Indians had been using English guns. This was too much.
        2. In 1795 the Indians signed (half signed, half forced-to-sign) the Treaty of Grenville where the Indians surrendered much of the Ohio Valley.
    3. A second problem was occurring in the Caribbean with the British Navy.
      1. The British Navy was at war there with France, but also harassed American ships. The Royal Navy seized about 300 U.S. ships and impressed (or kidnapped) many U.S. sailors.
      2. Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans were furious. They wanted to either go to war with England or at least halt trade with them. Calmer Hamiltonians (Federalists) stayed the course of neutrality. War would do the infant U.S. no good.
  12. Jay’s Treaty and Washington’s Farewell
    1. Pres. Washington didn't want war and in 1794 he sent John Jay to England to smooth things over.
      1. Strangely though, Alexander Hamilton had undermined Jay's mission. Hamilton had given the British Jay's bargaining strategy so Jay was one step behind already.
      2. The results of the "Jay's Treaty" were not the best for America…
        1. The U.S. would have to pay off its debts to England from pre-Revolution days.
        2. The British would leave the American frontier posts. (This was a hollow promise since they'd already given that promise 20 years prior, to John Jay none-the-less!).
        3. England said they'd pay for damages during impressment. (But they said nothing about stopping future impressment. This was the number 1 complaint!).
        4. War was avoided. (This was the only good thing the U.S. got, was the top goal at the meeting, and Jay returned to America feeling successful).
    2. The reaction of Americans to Jay's Treaty was harsh.
      1. Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans especially hated the treaty. They felt that the U.S. just laid down and surrendered to England.
      2. They felt that southern farmers would have to pay the debt, but northern merchants would collect the impressment payments. Jay’s effigy (a dummy representing him) was burnt in the streets.
    3. The next year, a second treaty emerged that was good for the U.S.—the Pinckney Treaty with Spain.
      1. Spain looked at the Jay's Treaty and thought the U.S. was "buddying up" to England. So, Spain wished to give a little good will to America to keep relations friendly.
      2. The Pinckney Treaty (1795) gave Americans (a) the right to travel down and out the Mississippi River and (b) the disputed area of Florida.
    4. Pres. Washington could've run for a third term, but instead he stepped down saying two terms was enough. He gave a Farewell Address and warned…
      1. America should avoid political parties (as he thought them to be divisive).
      2. America should avoid "permanent alliances" with other nations and simply make decisions independently and in America's own best interest.
  13. John Adams Becomes President
    1. Even though George Washington warned of political parties, his policies and decisions would've made him a Federalist. Alexander Hamilton, being the leader of the Federalists, would seem to be the next-in-line. But, his policies and arrogance had made him too many rivals. He was passed up for someone with fewer enemies.
    2. John Adams was nominated by the Federalists for president in 1796.
    3. The Democratic-Republicans (who were now going by just "Republicans") nominated their leader, Thomas Jefferson.
    4. Adams won the electoral vote 71 to 68. Jefferson came in as runner-up and thus became Vice-President (that was the system then).
    5. So, Adams became president in an uncomfortable situation…
      1. He was something of a "cold fish" New Englander—stuffy, stern, crusty, bookish, stubborn.
      2. He had a vice-president from a totally different political party.
      3. Hamilton hated him. Hamilton headed up the "High Federalists" and sometimes plotted to undermine Adams.
      4. And, the situation with France was only one step shy of busting into war.
  14. Unofficial Fighting with France
    1. France was still fuming mad over the Neutrality Proclamation and Jay's Treaty.
    2. French warships began seizing some 300 American ships in the Caribbean Sea. In practical terms, an unofficial war existed there.
    3. Many Americans became hyper for war. Adams stayed cool. Like Washington, Adams felt that a war would just stunt the new nation.
    4. Adams sent delegates to France to smooth things over. This became known as the XYZ Affair.
      1. Their main goal: avoid war. The U.S. delegates were officially rejected by France.
      2. Then undercover, Mr. "X", "Y", and "Z" made a secret offer. If the U.S. delegates issued an apology from Pres. Adams, gave France a loan, and gave the men a bribe, then the Americans would be allowed to speak with the French official Talleyrand.
      3. The American delegates refused this lop-sided deal and just came home.
      4. The American people cheered the delegates for not giving in (like John Jay) and called for war with more passion.
    5. The unofficial war in the Caribbean kept on and stepped up. American ships captured over 80 French ships. American ships were also lost. It was really a free-for-all on the high seas where a ship did whatever it wished.
  15. Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party
    1. France also let calmer minds prevail. Talleyrand knew France didn't need yet another enemy. So, he said that American delegates would be received with respect.
    2. If he went to war, Adams had a chance to gain huge popularity, maybe win Florida and Louisiana, and likely win re-election.
      1. He chose to not go to war. Like Washington, he knew a war would stunt the infant nation.
      2. Adams sent new delegates to France to speak with Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon had other plans (take over Europe) and was eager to close the American mess. They made the Convention of 1800 that said…
        1. The Franco-American Alliance was over.
        2. Americans had to pay damages to French shippers.
    3. Adams decision to go the peace-route was unpopular. It cost him re-election (Jefferson was elected in 1800). But, it was the best thing for America at the time and the right thing to do.
  16. The Federalist Witch Hunt
    1. Federalists used the anti-French passion to pass a couple of tricky laws. The laws had two levels: (a) a surface level that was stated openly, and (b) an ulterior, sneaky motive by the Federalists.
      1. The Alien acts made it tougher for immigrants to come to the U.S. and become citizens. They had the stated purpose of protecting Americans from foreigners who might come into the country and undermine the U.S. The theory was that the immigrant was more loyal to his home country than the U.S.
        1. The law raised the residency requirement from 5 to 14 years, supposedly so the immigrant would be fully assimilated before voting. This was a large change from America's welcoming tradition.
        2. Also, the president was authorized to deport foreigners deemed troublemakers.
        3. The ulterior and sneaky motive by the Federalists was to delay immigrant voting. Federalists knew the immigrants would most likely join the Republican party and vote that way. So, Federalists bought themselves some time. As far as deporting troublemakers, that would be handy for anyone who criticized the government (Federalists).
      2. The Sedition Act limited the speech and writings of critics of the government. "Sedition" is a strong word that implies stirring up discontent against the government with the intent of overthrowing it.
        1. The Sedition Act said anyone criticizing the government in a manner that was deemed counter-productive could be fined or jailed. The stated purpose was to prevent foreigners from stirring up trouble in the U.S.
        2. The ulterior motive was to silence critics of the Federalists.
        3. The Sedition Act was a direct shot at the 1st Amendment rights to freedom of speech and press.
        4. Many newspaper editors criticized the law and were thrown in jail (under the Sedition Act's authority) for doing so.
          1. The most noteworthy was Matthew "Spitting Lion" Lyon who'd criticized Pres. Adams in his writings. The criticisms were very mild and kind of humorous in a cute way by modern standards.
      3. These pro-Federalist laws were (a) contrary to the welcoming spirit of America and (b) unconstitutional, but were passed by a Federalist Congress, signed by a Federalist president, and upheld by a Federalist-dominated court system.
        1. Self-serving to the end, the Sedition Act was even designed to expire in 1801 so that it couldn't then be used against the Federalists if the Republicans took over.
      4. Although the Republicans fussed, the average person responded well to the Federalists and their laws in the election booth. The Federalists did very well in the Congressional elections of 1798-99. This would be the Federalists' high-water mark, however.
  17. The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions
    1. Stirred by the Alien and Sedition Acts, Jefferson and the Republicans entered into a war of words and laws.
    2. In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison wrote Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. In simple terms, the resolutions said the federal government had overstepped the authority that the states had awarded when it passed the Alien and Sedition Acts.
      1. The resolutions were built on the “compact theory” saying the 13 states had entered a compact (or contract) when they formed the federal government to abide by federal laws that the states approved. In other words, the states had made the federal government, the federal government then makes laws, but since the states made the federal government, the states reserved the right to nullify those federal laws. Notably, this theory goes by several names, all synonymous: the “compact theory,” “states’ rights theory,” or “nullification.”
      2. The idea was that other states would follow suit and adopt similar resolutions and the Alien and Sedition Acts would be shot down. The other states did not follow, however.
      3. Federalists countered the compact theory by arguing that the people actually, and not the states, had created the federal government, and therefore the states did not have the right to nullify federal laws.
    3. At this point, these arguments are just a lesson in words, rhetoric, and logic. But, these exact arguments will be heard again in the 1830s regarding the tariff and then in the 1850s and 60s slavery when the Civil War breaks.
  18. Federalists Versus Democratic-Republicans
    1. Federalists were supported by the upper classes. Generally speaking…
      1. They were led by Hamilton who envisioned an industrial America of big cities.
      2. They were from the wealthy classes, such as merchants, bankers, manufacturers. They often lived along the eastern seaboard—the older regions that were close to the coast and trade.
      3. They were pro-British (since that was good for trade).
      4. They liked a strong federal government, run by the educated elite. They distrusted the common person as uneducated and unable to run a nation. They felt democracy was one step shy of "mobocracy."
    2. The Democratic-Republicans (or just Republicans at this time) were supported by the poor and common classes. Generally speaking…
      1. They were led by Jefferson who envisioned an agricultural America of small towns.
      2. They felt that even an uneducated man can make common-sense decisions and thus run himself and his nation through voting. Republicans favored expanding the vote to more people (though it was still a very narrow group).
      3. They were mostly farmers and lived in the interior areas and along the frontier. They felt farming was good for the soul—it kept the farmer humble and close to God.
      4. They were pro-French (since France had helped the U.S. against England).
    3. By the election of 1800, there were clearly two separate political camps in the U.S.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 11 - The Triumphs and Travails of Jeffersonian Republic

  1. Federalist and Republican Mudslingers
    1. By 1800, the Federalists had earned themselves many enemies. First there were the Alien and Sedition Acts. Worse, Pres. Adams had opted against war, an unpopular move.
      1. One benefit was that the American navy had gotten a solid start. Adams ("Father of the American navy") had the navy built up, then wouldn't use it in war. The drawback was the appearance of wasting money.
    2. Alexander Hamilton even attacked Pres. Adams in a pamphlet. The pamphlet became public and Republicans used it against Adams.
    3. Federalists fought back with a smear-campaign of Jefferson. Federalists charged Jefferson robbed a widow of her trust fund, fathered mulatto children (which turned out to be true), and of being an atheist (he was actually a Deist).
  2. The Jeffersonian “Revolution of 1800”
    1. Jefferson won the election of 1800 by an electoral vote of 73 to Adams' 65.
      1. Oddly, Adams got more popular votes, but Jefferson won the swing state of New York thanks to the dealings of Aaron Burr.
      2. Also, due to a technicality, Jefferson and Burr actually tied. Burr was supposed to be Vice-President, but the way the electoral balloting system was set up officially got him 73 electoral votes for president also. How was the tie to be broken?
        1. The Constitution puts such a situation into the hands of the House of Representatives where each state gets one vote.
        2. The House voted, and got another tie, some 30+ times! The deadlock occurred because many Federalists disliked Jefferson terribly, so they voted for Burr as the lesser-of-two evils.
        3. After months, since a new president was needed quickly, a few votes were changed and Jefferson was elected. The change was at the urging of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams who knew that a Burr victory would be blamed on Federalists and thus doom their party.
    2. Jefferson's election is called the "Revolution of 1800" for two main reasons…
      1. There was a peaceful exchange of power between two parties in a major nation. This was a historic first for the U.S. and the world.
      2. The Republicans were something of the "people's party" and, through Jefferson, the people sort of entered the White House.
  3. Responsibility Breeds Moderation
    1. Jefferson was inaugurated in March of 1801. Washington D.C. was a brand new, woodsy, country capital.
    2. Jefferson's inaugural address stressed moderation between Republicans and Federalists.
      1. His goal was to soothe Federalists fears by saying, "We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists."
      2. He also outlined his foreign policy by saying, "…honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none." After the mistake of the Franco-American alliance, the U.S. was learning lessons.
    3. Jefferson proved to be very unconventional.
      1. He was a sloppy dresser and frugal.
      2. He made a point of not being or appearing aristocratic, the way the Federalists might have done things.
        1. He wore simple worker's clothes.
        2. He rode around Washington horseback (as opposed to a carriage that he felt too royal).
        3. He seated guests at the White House in random order (as opposed to seating by "rank").
        4. He started the tradition of reporting to Congress through a clerk (rather than himself which he felt too pompous).
    4. There were two Jeffersons…
      1. First, the scholarly philosopher.
      2. Second, the politician who learned that theories don't always work out cleanly in real life.
    5. Jefferson stayed true to his theme of moderation while in office. Many Republicans wanted him to "clean house" after the Federalists; he didn't. He felt it would be counter-productive for one president to try and undo everything the prior one had done, even if he disagrees.
  4. Jeffersonian Restraint
    1. Jefferson did make a few "un-Federalist" actions. He hated the Alien and Sedition Acts and wanted to undo them.
      1. He pardoned those who'd been convicted under the Sedition Act.
      2. He got the residency requirement to become a citizen moved back to 5 years from the 14 that the Alien Act had set.
      3. He also removed the excise tax on whiskey thinking it unfair. The drawback here was not getting the $1 million per year in revenue.
    2. The Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin was very capable at budgeting the nation. Despite little income, he managed to balance the budget and reduce the debt.
    3. Aside from the excise tax, the rest of Alexander Hamilton's programs were left untouched by Jefferson (even though he disliked them).
    4. Jefferson's moderation showed that one party's loss would not be the end of the nation. This helped solidify the two-party system.
  5. The “Dead Clutch” of the Judiciary
    1. Although voted out of the White House, the Federalists had one last trick up their sleeves…
      1. They passed the Judiciary Act of 1801 which created 16 new federal court districts.
      2. Then, in his last hours as president, John Adams packed the federal courts with "midnight judges". The goal was to pack the federal government with Federalist judges, who serve for life, and thereby sustain the Federalist influence.
    2. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall proved to be a strong and lasting supporter of Federalist causes—mainly to strengthen the federal government.
    3. The first major Supreme Court case was Marbury v. Madison in 1803. The technicalities of the case involved a judge (Marbury) not being appointed to a bench by Sec. of State Madison, then Marbury appealing to get that appointment. The technicalities are really unimportant. The importance of Marbury was…
      1. For the first time, the Supreme Court struck down a law as unconstitutional.
      2. This act is called "judicial review"—the power of the Court to review the constitutionality of laws and keep or strike them. This is the Courts supreme power.
    4. After Marbury, the Republicans were out for blood. They set their sights on Supreme Court justice Samuel Chase. Chase was a strong Federalist and a bit of a loud-mouth—a perfect target for Republicans.
      1. The Republicans in the House voted to impeach Chase for "high crimes and misdemeanors" (as the Constitution prescribes).
      2. But, in the Senate trial, it became clear there were no crimes or misdemeanors, just loud-mouthing. Chase was not kicked off the Court.
      3. This failure to oust a justice showed that the judicial branch truly was independent of the other two branches.
  6. Jefferson, a Reluctant Warrior<font color=white>This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com</font>
    1. Jefferson's nature was toward being a "peace-president" rather than a "war-president."
      1. Hailing from the revolutionary days, he distrusted large, standing armies—they could be used against the people themselves. He preferred armies that were called to duty when needed, like the militia.
      2. He downsized the military to only 2,500 soldiers. The navy, though less worrisome, was almost nothing. Jefferson thought it was pointless since the U.S. was not at war.
    2. Issues in the Mediterranean Sea changed Jefferson's mind.
      1. In the Med. Sea, North African "Barbary Pirates" were pirating American (and European) ships.
      2. Back in the Federalist days, the U.S. felt it simpler to pay off the Barbary Pirates "tribute" or "bully money" to not harass U.S. ships. This was both more convenient than fighting but also somewhat embarrassing.
      3. Then, the pasha of Tripoli cut down the American consulate's flagstaff in a sign of warfare. Peaceful Jefferson had had enough.
        1. Jefferson sent the navy to the "shores of Tripoli." Their sea-to-land amphibious expedition spawned the Marines Corps.
        2. The most famous incident involved Stephen Decatur and his men when they daringly re-captured the ship Intrepid.
        3. The U.S. military took care of business and got a treaty formed. It paid $60,000 as ransom to free prisoners. But, the Barbary Pirate days were over.
    3. After the Tripolitan War, as it was known, Jefferson decided to strengthen the navy after all. But, he wanted small, fast, and cheap gunboats, not ships. He had about 200 gunboats built. Later, this would prove to be a waste—for a navy, warships were better than toy boats.
  7. The Louisiana Godsend
    1. In 1800, Napoleon got the king of Spain to hand over Louisiana to France. The "right of deposit" (the right to go down the Mississippi River) that the Pinckney Treaty gained was then revoked.
    2. Now, powerful France was next-door again and the Ohio Valley was essentially isolated west of the mountains. Jefferson had a problem on his hands.
      1. Jefferson sent Robert R. Livingston to France in attempt to make a deal. Livingston could offer up to $10 million to buy a small piece of Louisiana—enough to get down the river to the Gulf of Mexico.
      2. France's counter-offer asked if the U.S. would like to buy all of Louisiana for $15 million. This stunned the American delegates and they couldn't refuse the deal.
        1. As to why did France sell it? There were two reasons…
          1. An uprising in Haiti led by Toussaint L'Overture made Napoleon decide the troubles in America weren't worth it.
          2. Napoleon was planning war on Europe, knew he'd not be able to hold it anyway, and needed quick cash.
    3. With news of the purchase, Jefferson was put in a dilemma…
      1. On the one hand, his delegates had (a) only been authorized to spend $10 million and (b) a strict interpretation of the Constitution (which Jefferson liked to do) meant the president really didn't have the power to buy lands from foreign nations.
      2. On the other hand, this was just too good of a deal to pass up! It'd double the size of the country for little more than they were willing to pay for a city.
    4. Jefferson wrestled with the issue, especially the Constitutional part of it, but practicality took over—he made the purchase anyway by sending it to the Senate which quickly passed it.
    5. It's worth noting that the political parties each flip-flopped on this issue…
      1. Jefferson (and the Republicans) had normally been a strict interpreter of the Constitution, but he was now using a loose interpretation.
      2. Federalists, normally loose interpreters, took a strict interpretation and opposed the purchase. Federalist didn’t want the new lands because they correctly foresaw that new lands meant new settlers, and that meant new states, which meant more farmers, and ultimately more Republicans.
  8. Louisiana in the Long View
    1. In one quick and bloodless move, the size of the U.S. had been doubled. The price amounted to about 3 cents per acre.
    2. Jefferson's dream of nearly endless amounts of land for anyone who wanted to farm it seemed to be reality.
    3. One problem was that the land was nearly entirely unknown. So, Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark on the famous "Lewis and Clark" expedition.
      1. They traveled from St. Louis up the Missouri River to its headwaters, hiked over the Rocky Mountains, then traveled down the Snake and Columbia Rivers to the Pacific Ocean.
      2. Along the way, their goals as set by President Jefferson were to (a) meet and befriend the Indians and (b) take notes of what they saw (animals, plants, land, etc).
      3. Their 2 and a half year trek was recorded in Clark's journal and became one of history's greatest adventures.
    4. Less well-known was Zebulon Pike who explored the Spanish-owned areas of the American Southwest.
      1. He went into Colorado (hence Pike's Peak), then south into current New Mexico, Mexico, and Texas.
      2. Although this was Spanish land at the time, it seems Pike was "scouting it out" for the future.
  9. The Aaron Burr Conspiracies
    1. Aaron Burr had been Vice-President in Jefferson's first term. For Jefferson's second term, Burr was out. Burr then got into a couple of questionable schemes…
      1. Scheme #1 was for New York and New England (the Federalist stronghold) to break away from the rest of the country.
        1. Ironically, Alexander Hamilton ended this scheme when he revealed the plan to Jefferson. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, Hamilton reluctantly showed up to the fight, and Hamilton was killed.
      2. Scheme #2 had Burr heading west to the frontier.
        1. His goal, apparently, was to travel down the Mississippi River to the Missouri area, separate the western U.S. from the east, then create a new nation by invading Spanish lands.
        2. Jefferson heard of the plan, arrested Burr and charged him with treason.
        3. At Burr's trial the required two witnesses needed couldn't be drummed up so he was found not guilty. Still, his name was shamed and he slunk away in disgrace.
    2. The lesson was that governing such a large tract of new land was tricky business. This would prove painfully true as the Civil War neared.
  10. A Precarious Neutrality
    1. In 1803, Napoleon plunged Europe into war.
    2. For America, this was good news economically speaking. This meant that the U.S. could trade with either side in the war, sell them any of the things they needed, and make money all the while.
      1. America's free-reign of the sea was short-lived though. In 1805 British Adm. Horatio Lord Nelson's fleet won at the Battle of Trafalgar. This ensured that Britain ruled the seas.
      2. At the Battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon and the French won. This ensured that France ruled the land.
    3. These events had nothing to do with America until…
      1. In 1806, London issued what was called Orders in Council. These rules stated that any foreign (U.S.) ship headed to France must first check-in at a British port for inspection.
      2. Likewise, France announced they'd seize any foreign ships entering British ports.
      3. America was stuck in the middle. And just to address the question, "How can they tell us what to do?" The answer is that their navy is stronger than the American navy.
    4. The issue of impressment (kidnapping at sea) was even more troublesome.
      1. About 6,000 American sailors were impressed. Often they'd be knocked out with a club and when they awoke, they were scrubs on a British ship.
    5. In 1807, the British ship Leopard attacked the American Chesapeake off of Virginia.
      1. The Leopard demanded men, then shot, and the wounded Chesapeake limped back to port.
      2. The British government apologized, but the effect was to energize the American people to call for war. Jefferson, the peace-maker, was slow to take up arms.
  11. The Hated Embargo
    1. Jefferson felt that a shipping clash and war with England or France was coming. The only way to avoid this would be to impose an embargo (halt on exports). He mistakenly didn't see the impact such a shut-down would have on American merchants.
    2. In 1807, the Embargo Act was passed. It forbade all exports to any nation, whether they were at war or not.
      1. New England was hit hardest by this act. Ships simply sat dormant in the harbors as the merchants went broke.
      2. The South and West were also hurt, though to a lesser degree, as their crops began to pile up.
      3. Not surprisingly, smuggling returned. This time things were smuggled out of the country rather than in.
    3. In 1809, after much protest and seeing the results of having no trade, Congress repealed the Embargo Act. The logic was, "Why limit all trade when it's just England and France that we're worried about?" Congress then passed the Non-Intercourse Act which outlawed shipping to England and France only.
      1. This new act made sense, on paper. In reality however, this act had the same effect as the Embargo Act because America’s #1 and #2 trade partners were Britain and France.
    4. The embargo (and Non-Intercourse Act) were not successful.
      1. They failed due to excessive smuggling and to the fact that the British relied on America much less than Jefferson suspected.
      2. Essentially, the embargo hurt America without doing much good. With the money that was lost, the U.S. could have built a strong navy that might have dealt with the British navy on equal terms.
    5. The embargo did have some unexpected benefits.
      1. It forced American industry to get going on its own. Ironically, this helped Jefferson's arch-enemy Alexander Hamilton who'd envisioned an industrial America.
  12. Madison’s Gamble
    1. James Madison followed Jefferson to the presidency. Madison was small, bookish, and like Jefferson, a poor speaker.
    2. The embargo was clearly not successful so Madison came up with Macon's Bill No. 2.
      1. This bill proposed to allow trade with other nations but also to exclusively reinstate trade with either England or France, whichever one pledged to drop its trade restrictions.
      2. Napoleon pounced on this opportunity and promised to drop restrictions and open trade with the U.S.
      3. He was being very self-serving however. His ambition was only to effectively turn America against England and to backstab America in the future if it then became convenient.
      4. Madison smelled some dishonesty but was trapped in his own proposal. Reluctantly, Madison went along with France.
  13. Tecumseh and the Prophet
    1. In 1811, Congress was different.
      1. Younger men had ousted older "submission men." The young Congressmen were from the West and South, and were fiery-tempered. The were called "War Hawks" since they pushed for war.
      2. Most noteworthy of these War Hawks was Henry Clay, a young Kentuckian, named Speaker of the House at age 34.
    2. The War Hawks wanted the Indians cleared out of the west (the Ohio Valley) so whites could settle there without fear.
      1. Indian opposition was led by Shawnee brothers Tecumseh and the Prophet.
      2. They encouraged traditional Indian clothes and culture, urged Indians to not give up or sell their lands, and organized a coalition of Indians (which was very unusual).
      3. The brothers were considered a threat and in November of 1811 Indian governor William Henry Harrison attacked and defeated the Shawnee at the Battle of Tippecanoe. The Prophet was killedd.
        1. This battle made William Henry Harrison a national hero and earned him the nickname of "Tippecanoe."
        2. The battle also turned Tecumseh to join the British.
        3. Notably, two years later William Henry Harrison would also kill Tecumseh during the War of 1812.
  14. Mr. Madison’s War
    1. By 1812, war was seen as inevitable. Madison asked Congress to declare war on England and they did in June of 1812. To answer the question, "Why did America go to War in 1812?"…
    2. …in brief, America’s reasons for entering the War of 1812__ were…
      1. “Freedom of the seas”—The U.S. wanted the right to sail and trade without fear.
      2. The possibility of land—The U.S. might gain Canada or Florida.
      3. To resolve Indian issues—Americans were still upset about British guns being giving to Indians (Battle of Fallen Timbers) and Indian attacks on the frontier.
      4. On a theoretical level, fighting and defeating England would be make a major statement. America would have to be considered as an equal amongst other nations, rather than a scrawny upstart. This is why the War of 1812 is often called the "Second War for American Independence."
Subject X2: 

Chapter 12 - The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism

  1. On to Canada Over Land and Lakes
    1. The War of 1812 was very divisive to America. Sections were staunchly for it or against it. Generally, the West and South were for the war, the Northeast was hotly against it.
    2. In many ways, the war was very disorganized.
      1. Loaded with naive ambition of easily gaining lands, the Americans attacked "On to Canada!" The attack was poorly planned and poorly executed by poor generals. The Americans lost.
          1. In hindsight, taking Montreal would have made the rest of the cities wither away.
          2. Instead, the Americans attacked Detroit, Niagara, and Lake Champlain, losing each battle.
          3. The Canadians did quite well. They defended their lands and even took the American fort at Michilimackinac on the northern area of the Great Lakes.
    3. After these eye-opening defeats, the Americans had some successes…
      1. Oliver Hazard Perry built a fleet of ships on the shores of Lake Erie. He then won a battle there and reported, "We have met they enemy and they are ours." This forced the Brits out of Detroit.
      2. As they evacuated Detroit, William Henry Harrison's forces engaged and defeated the British at the Battle of the Thames. This is where Tecumseh was killed.
      3. The British still planned to attack New York City via the Lake Champlain/Hudson River route. They assembled a sizeable force and headed down the lake. Young American Cpt. Thomas MacDonough engaged the British and, just before being defeated, turned his ship with cables to broadside and defeat the British. MacDonough's victory forced the British to halt their plan and thus saved New York and prevented New England from being severed from the nation.
  2. Washington Burned and New Orleans Defended
    1. The war then turned to the Chesapeake Bay area.
      1. The British landed and ran off 6,000 Americans at Bladensburg and then marched to Washington D.C. The British burnt the new capital to the ground (including the White House and Congress).
      2. The British then sailed to Baltimore but were stopped at Ft. McHenry. During the battle, Francis Scott Key wrote the Star Spangled Banner describing the battle and how the American flag stood throughout the night.
    2. The war also moved into the South.
      1. The British targeted New Orleans—this put the entire Mississippi Valley in jeopardy.
      2. Andrew Jackson had just won against Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in Alabama. He assembled a 7,000 man mosaic of an army—sailors, soldiers, pirates, Frenchmen, militiamen, and black troops (this was unheard of at the time).
      3. The British had 8,000 regular troops and were over-confident. At the Battle of New Orleans, Jackson scored the victory in January of 1815—the largest battle of the war.
      4. News hit Washington D.C. the same time as news of the Treaty of Ghent ending the war. Oddly, the treaty had ended the war two weeks before the Battle of New Orleans. Still, Jackson was given credit for winning the war and instantly became a national hero.
    3. The British navy was roused. It blockaded the American coast, landed and raided at will, and fouled up American fishing.
  3. The Treaty of Ghent
    1. Delegates from both side met in Ghent, Belgium to work out a peace deal.
    2. Bucked-up from victories, the British made bold demands. The British wanted an Indian buffer zone created, control of the Great Lakes, and part of Maine.
      1. The Americans rejected this proposal.
    3. Military failures made the British more acceptable to bargain.
    4. The Treaty of Ghent (Dec. 1814) was an armistice (a cease-fire) that ended the War of 1812.
      1. Both sides simply agreed to lay down their arms. No land or booty was given or taken. The main issue of the war, impressment, was even left unmentioned.
  4. Federalist Grievances and the Hartford Convention
    1. Just prior to the end of the war, New England took action against the war itself. New Englanders had long been hurt by the trade restrictions and feuding with England. Some, the "Blue Lights", had even helped the British ships by warning them with lanterns.
    2. The Hartford Convention (Dec. 1814 to Jan. 1815) was organized. Delegates from Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Rhode Island met in Hartford, CT. New England's goal at the meeting was to decide what to do about the war.
      1. Their was some talk of secession.
      2. Officially, they (a) called for monetary help from Washington, and (b) wanted to require a 2/3 vote for an embargo, new state, or war.
      3. They marched to Washington to make their proposal but the timing was terrible. News of Jackson's victory at New Orleans, then the end of the war, made them look like unpatriotic crybabies.
      4. Also, this was one of the last spikes in the Federalist coffin.
  5. The Second War for American Independence
    1. The War of 1812 in reality was just small piece of a larger European war. Whereas Napoleon had invaded with 500,000, Madison had invaded with 5,000.
      1. The importance of the war came in what the Americans won…respect. America showed it'd fight at the drop of a hat, even against the strongest nation in the world, and go toe-to-toe. Although the U.S. didn't win land or money, it won credibility in other nation's eyes.
    2. There were other side-effects of the war…
      1. The Federalist Party was all but done.
      2. New war heroes had emerged—Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison would both become president.
      3. There was an upsurge of patriotism and sense of national pride. The feeling of national unity was at its highest point yet.
    3. Canada (a British colony) felt that England had let them down. They feared another American attack and wanted the Indian buffer zone that didn't occur.
      1. The Rush-Bagot agreement (1817 between the U.S. and England limited both sides' naval power on the Great Lakes. Canada was nonplussed again.
          1. This treaty showed that England and the U.S. were getting along fine. Eventually, the world's longest unfortified border (5,527 miles) would exist between the U.S. and Canada.
    4. When Napoleon lost at Waterloo, Europe went back to its old days. For America, Europe was off of her back and Americans began to focus on America and to look westward.
  6. Nascent Nationalism This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Nationalism was born after the war in many forms…
      1. American writers emerged in Washington Irving (Rumpelstiltskin and The Knickerbocker Tales such as The Legend of Sleepy Hollow) and James Fenimore Cooper (The Leatherstocking Tales which included The Last of the Mohicans). These men wrote stories or fiction set in America. Previously, American writings had been political pieces (like Common Sense) or practical writings (like Poor Richard's Almanack), not fiction.
      2. Also, the North American Review was first published in 1815. Histories were being written by American, not European, authors. And painters began painting American landscape scenes (not mimicking European art).
    2. Washington D.C. was reborn after being burnt, the military was strengthened.
    3. Stephen Decatur, the hero at Tripoli in the Barbary Coast skirmishes, made a famous toast saying, "Our country! In her intercourse with foreign nations may she always be in the right; but our country, right or wrong!"
  7. “The American System”
    1. After the war, England began to swamp America with cheap goods. This struck hard at America's infantile industry.
      1. Congress responded by passing the protective Tariff of 16. It assessed a rate of 20-25% on imports and was America's first tariff.
    2. Henry Clay, Speaker of the House, initiated the American System—an economic plan for the country. It had three proposals…
      1. A strong banking system.
      2. Set up a protective tariff to boost American industry.
      3. Build a strong transportation network of roads and canals.
          1. The nation's poor transportation network had been painfully visible during the War of 1812.
          2. Essentially, the West would be connected to the East. The South didn't care for or need roads as they used their river systems to ship goods to market.
    3. When Clay asked for federal money for "internal improvements" (building roads, canals, etc.) many people balked. Pres. Madison vetoed the bill.
      1. The opponents' complaint was that since these things were not in the Constitution, they should be left up to the states (10th Amendment). They took a "strict constructionist" approach.
      2. This foreshadowed future similar disputes and even the debate over slavery.
      3. Some states went ahead and make their own improvements. Notably, New York dug the Erie Canal, completed in 1825.
  8. The So-Called Era of Good Feelings
    1. James Monroe was elected president in 1816. The Federalist party vanished. This was called the Era of Good Feelings because…
      1. There was only one political party (Republicans)—supposedly, the nation was united rather than split.
      2. There was an upsweep of nationalism after the war.
    2. However, seeds of sectional troubles were planted, such as…
      1. The South did not like the tariff saying it only benefited the North and made the South pay higher prices.
      2. The South disliked the internal improvements linking the North and West. The South didn’t see any benefits in paying taxes for roads and canals in other states.
  9. The Panic of 1819 and the Curse of Hard Times
    1. An economic panic struck in 1819. This quieted the "Good Feelings" as hard times set in.
      1. The cause of the panic was over-speculation in land. Notably, over-speculation, or buying too much on credit, caused nearly every panic in the 1800s and the Great Depression.
      2. The results of the panic were bankruptcies, companies going out of business, unemployment, people losing their farms, and deflation (drop in prices).
    2. The 1819 panic started an almost predictable chain of panics or recessions. An economic panic occurred nearly every 20 years during the 1800s (1819, 1837, 1857, 1873, 1893).
    3. The West was hit the hardest by the panic.
      1. When the Bank of the U.S. felt the strain of the panic, they called in loans to western "wildcat" banks. They went bankrupt, farmers lost their farms, and the B.U.S. was blamed.
          1. This distrust of eastern banks was the birth of the Jacksonian democracy.
      2. The number of debtors in debtor prisons rose as well.
  10. Growing Pains of the West
    1. By 1819, nine frontier states had joined the original 13. They'd mostly been admitted alternately, slave state then free state, etc.
    2. The American urge to move westward and cheap land fueled "Ohio Fever." The reasons for the expansion were…
      1. The need for new and better soil. Farmers back east had mostly engaged in "land butchery" where they farmed the land until it was sterile, then moved on.
      2. Transportation also made travel easier.
          1. Better roads existed, namely the Cumberland Road to Illinois.
          2. The steamboat was soon coming, making two-way river travel possible.
      3. The Land Act of 1820 allowed buyers to purchase 80 acres at $1.25 per acre (as a minimum).
      4. "Wildcat banks" gave easy credit. The banks printed their own paper money then lent it out liberally to anyone wanting to buy land.
  11. Slavery and the Sectional Balance
    1. Also in 1819, Missouri wanted to become a slave state. This created a problem—the equal balance of slave-free states would be tipped to the pro-slavery side. The northern states would not have this.
      1. In the House, the Tallmadge Amendment was put forth to limit slavery in Missouri. It proposed that (a) no more slaves be allowed into Missouri and (b) that slaves born to Missouri slave parents would gradually emancipated.
      2. This amendment was voted down in the Senate where southern states had an equal vote (thanks to the slave-free balance).
    2. From the southern perspective, the Tallmadge Amendment was seen as a possible tip of the iceberg. Southerners thought, "Next, perhaps northerners will try to liberate all of the South."
    3. The other southern worry centered on population—the North was growing much larger than the South. This meant northerners outnumbered southerners in the House. Even still, southerners had equal representation in the Senate and therefore could halt any unwanted bills.
  12. The Uneasy Missouri Compromise
    1. Missouri's road to statehood was blocked. The Missouri Compromise broke the deadlock by agreeing…
      1. Missouri would be admitted as a slave state; Maine would be admitted as a free state. (The balance moved from 11 free states and 11 slave states to 12 and 12).
      2. Regarding future slave land, an east-west line was drawn at 36°30’. All new states north of the 36°30’ line would be free, new states southward would be slave.
    2. As a true compromise, both sides gained something, both sides gave up something.
    3. The compromise worked for about 26 years. Then, new lands acquired from Mexico opened the question of what to do about the "peculiar institution" (slavery).
    4. 1820 was an election year. The Panic of 1819 and dispute over Missouri should've doomed Pres. James Monroe. But, the Federalists were so that he won a resounding re-election.
  13. John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism
    1. During the "Era of Good Feelings," a political tug-o-war was being waged in the Supreme Court between the federal and state governments. Who would win was unclear and depended on the Supreme Court's pattern of decisions.
      1. The court's leader, Chief Justice John Marshall, was a federalist in his philosophy and therefore leaned to the strong federal government side.
    2. McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)—The "Elastic Clause Case."
      1. Details: Maryland tried to tax the Bank of the U.S. Chief Justice Marshall invoked Hamilton's "implied powers" and declared the B.U.S. constitutional.
      2. Importance: The Elastic Clause was officially recognized and used. The Constitution had been written in more general terms rather than specific, and therefore could be interpreted rather than read strictly verbatim. Score one point for the federal government, zero for the states.
    3. Cohens vs. Virginia (1821)—The "Lottery Case."
      1. Details: The Cohens family sold lottery tickets in Virginia, which was illegal by state law. They argued that there was a federal law saying it was legal. Which law applied?
      2. Importance: The Supreme Court showed it had the power to review state court decisions (in cases involving the powers of the federal government). Two points for the federal government, zero for the states.
    4. Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)—The "Steamboat Case."
      1. Details: Robert Fulton had invented the steamboat and hired Gibbons to pilot the boat along the Hudson River. New York had awarded them monopoly rights to do so. Ogden infringed on the monopoly and ran his own boat, was prosecuted and convicted.
      2. Importance: The Supreme Court said New York was wrong to award a monopoly because the Constitution says that only Congress can regulate interstate trade, not the states. Federal government 3, states 0.
  14. Judicial Dikes Against Democratic Excesses
    1. Fletcher vs. Peck (1810)—The "Land Scam Contract Case."
      1. Details: After being bribed, Georgia gave away millions of acres along the Yazoo River. A contract was made. Later, when the people found out about the corruption, a state law was passed revoking the contract. Would it stand?
      2. Importance: The Supreme Court said a contract is a contract and the Constitution says it can't be broken by state laws. Federal government 4, states 0.
    2. Dartmouth College vs. Woodward (1819)—The "College Charter Case."
      1. Details: This is very similar to the Fletcher case. Dartmouth College had been awarded a charter by King George III but New Hampshire revoked it. Alum Sen. Daniel Webster argued the case saying, "It is, sir, as I have said, a small college. And yet there are those who love it." Would the charter stand?
      2. Importance: The Supreme Court said the charter was a contract and, like Fletcher, states could not encroach on contracts. Federal government 5, states 0.
    3. Tag-team of John Marshall presiding over the Supreme Court and Sen. Daniel Webster arguing won cases for the federal government over and over again.
      1. A clear pattern was emerging—the federal government and power was winning out over state government.
      2. Also, a clear pattern of worry was rising in the South. The South's worry was that the federal government would encroach on states' rights and ultimately on slavery.
  15. Sharing Oregon and Acquiring Florida
    1. After the War of 1812 America was more of an international peer. Sec. of State John Quincy Adams vigorously ran and applied U.S. foreign policy.
    2. The Treaty of 1818 was made with England over the Canada border.
      1. The treaty drew a border line at 49° from Lake of the Woods (MN) westward to the Rocky Mountains.
      2. The prosperous fishing waters of Newfoundland would be shared.
      3. For the time, Oregon would be jointly occupied.
    3. Florida was becoming something of a headache to the American states.
      1. The flag over Florida had changed frequently. Spain had regained control by the 18-teens. Also, Florida was home to run-away slaves and unpredictable Indians.
      2. A rash of Latin revolutions swept through South America at this time as the spirit of liberty spread. Andrew Jackson decided to seize the moment.
          1. Jackson got the okay from Congress to enter Florida, capture run-away slaves, and punish the Indians.
          2. Jackson took matters into his own hands and took over. A few leaders were hanged (Indian and English) and two Spanish posts were taken in the panhandle. The Spanish governor escaped.
      3. Although Jackson had over-stepped his orders, John Quincy Adams wasn't going to give up what was in his hand.
          1. The "Florida Purchase Treaty" was made with Spain. In it, (a) America paid $5 million and got Florida, (b) Spain gave up a claim to Oregon and America gave up a claim to Texas, and (c) the southern limit of Oregon was set at 42° latitude.
  16. The Menace of Monarchy in America
    1. After the chaos of the French Revolution Napoleon's empire, Europe wanted to get back to the old days of monarchy. They reasoned: democracy brought chaos, monarchy brought order.
      1. Steps were taken in Europe for the monarch and aristocrats to re-assert their control.
      2. This worried Americans—their reach just might come across the Atlantic to the Americas.
    2. On this matter, Russia would be the European nation that first got America's attention.
      1. The Russians had a claim on the Pacific Northwest coast down to 51°. They were pressuring to assert their claim and had trading posts all the way down to San Francisco. This was a threat to America.
    3. England was also scheming.
      1. London was clearly taking a maverick route and not cooperating with the continental European nations after the Napoleonic wars.
      2. Instead, British foreign secretary George Canning offered a deal the American minister in London. He proposed the U.S. and England make a statement they'd not grab any Latin American land. This statement would also warn any other European nations to also stay out of Latin America.
      3. The American representative deferred to President Monroe.
  17. Monroe and His Doctrine
    1. Looking at England's proposal, John Quincy Adams saw what might be a wolf in sheep's clothing. He wondered… "Why would the U.S. tie her hands for the future?" and "Why does the U.S. need to join England in this?"
      1. "Why would the U.S. tie her hands for the future?" One day, American interests just might be in Latin America.
      2. "Why does the U.S. need to join England in this?" The British navy would keep order in Latin America for British shipping whether the U.S. was with her or not.
    2. It seemed clear for the U.S. to assert her newfound power and stand on her own.
    3. The Monroe Doctrine (1823) asserted (a) European non-colonization of the Americas and (b) non-intervention.
      1. In other words, it told Europe that the days of colonization in the Americas are over. And, Europe should stay out of American affairs (North, Central, Latin, or South America). It was a "KEEP OUT" sign.
      2. The Doctrine was issued most directly in response to Russia. It was applied to all Europeans nations however.
      3. In return, Monroe said the U.S. would stay out of Greece's fight for democratic independence against the Turks.
  18. Monroe’s Doctrine Appraised
    1. Europe was not happy about the Monroe Doctrine. The upstart U.S. was speaking very boldly. Plus, although they'd been snubbed in their offer of going together with the U.S., the British navy would actually uphold the doctrine.
    2. Latin Americans weren't enthusiastic about the doctrine. They understood the British navy supplied the muscle and that the U.S. wasn't being the good big sister, but looking out for her own interests.
    3. The Monroe Doctrine had little effect at the time. But, in time, it grew in stature.
      1. The Russians had started drawing back even before the doctrine. The Russo-American Treaty of 1824 set the southern boundary of Russian land at 54° 40'.
      2. The doctrine was not law. One president could simply undo it, if desired, by taking a different course. But, it grew to become a basic American guideline for foreign policy.
      3. It had the good effect of showing American nationalism and exerting a new vigor. It had the bad effect of making Americans think they were isolated from European matters just because they said so.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 13 - The Rise of Mass Democracy

  1. The “Corrupt Bargain” election of 1824
    1. The election of 1824 was the last of the old-style politics. The big winner of this transformation was the common man. The political game would soon be changed. Specifically, the common white man as universal white manhood suffrage (all white men could vote) became the norm.
    2. The 1824 election was unique in many ways…
      1. There were four candidates, not two: Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, Henry Clay of Kentucky, William H. Crawford of Georgia, and John Q. Adams of Massachusetts.
        1. They all called themselves "Republicans."
        2. Three candidates were "favorite sons" for their section of the country. Henry Clay, as Speaker of the House and architect of the American System, considered himself not a sectional candidate but a national figure.
      2. Since the votes were spread out, no candidate got a majority of the electoral vote and won. Jackson got the most votes, but not a majority. Adams came in second, then Crawford, then Clay.
      3. The election went to the House who'd pick the president from the top three finishers, Clay was out. Crawford had health issues and was effectively out–it was Jackson or J. Q. Adams.
    3. Henry Clay, as House Speaker, was in a unique position to influence the vote. Jackson was Clay's main rival (they both were westerners) so Clay threw his support to Adams. Adams won.
      1. Adams later named Henry Clay to be Secretary of State. The ordeal looked sneaky and was thus called the "Corrupt Bargain."
      2. Jackson and his supporters claimed the politicians had made a deal to grab the White House from the people. This may be a stretch, and even if it did happen, it wasn't illegal but just the machine of politics at work.
    4. Corrupt or not, the 1824 election was a turning point. It energized the common man to get out and vote like he'd never done before.
  2. A Yankee Misfit in the White House
    1. John Quincy Adams, like his father John Adams, was an puritanical Yankee. He was intelligent, respected, honorable, stern, tactless. As president, he was very able but somewhat wooden and lacked the “people’s touch” (which Jackson notably had).
    2. Adams stubbornly refused to remove public officials to make room for new ones. He removed only 12 people during his presidency.
      1. This frustrated party workers who'd expected a job. Why work to keep him in office? they wondered.
    3. John Q. Adams pushed nationalist programs to build (a) roads and canals, (b) a national university, and (c) a national observatory.
      1. The public was not excited. The South was already turning against internal improvements (roads, canals) and a national university or observatory would mean keeping the tariff going. These things were seen as an elitist waste of money. Most Americans were simple farmers, not scholars.
    4. Pres. Adams tried to slow down the western land speculation. Although this was likely a wise move financially speaking, the West hated this. They'd grown accustomed to getting easy credit to easily buy land.
      1. Down South, land was also an issue. Georgia wanted to kick out the Cherokee Indians. Pres. Adams wanted to deal justly with the Indians but the Georgia governor succeeded in keeping the federal government out.
      2. Adams now had two sections lined against him: the South and the West.
  3. Going “Whole Hog” for Jackson in 1828”
    1. Almost immediately after the corrupt bargain election of 1824, Andrew Jackson started campaigning for 1828. His theme was simple: the people had been swindled by the politicians, and he was the people's choice for 1828.
    2. The 1828 election was colorful, to say the least, and the mudslinging began.
      1. Jacksonians swayed people against John Q. Adams by painting him as dishonest huckster (in reality, he was an honest and honorable man). They also claimed Adams had procured the services of a servant girl for a Russian tsar's lust.
      2. Adams' supporters got ugly too. They said Jackson was crude, rude, prone to whiskey. They charged that Rachel Jackson was an adultress. She'd been married prior to Jackson, then it was discovered that her divorce hadn't been finalized. The Jackson's quickly fixed the situation, but the words stung. Rachel Jackson died only one month after the election. Jackson blamed the death on the harsh words spoken and never forgave the speakers.
    3. The election itself was anti-climatic. Jackson won easily, 178 to 83 in the electoral vote. The votes split along sectional lines: the West and South for Jackson, the North for Adams.
  4. “Old Hickory” as President
    1. Old Hickory personified the rising "New Democracy."
      1. He was a westerner, tough, battle-scarred, rough-around-the-edges, half-educated and half-self taught, tall and lean.
      2. He was America's first rags-to-riches story. He'd been born in a cabin in the Carolinas (we’re not even sure if it was North or South Carolina, and both states still claim to be his home). His family moved to Tennessee and through hard work and strength of character, Jackson rose to own a plantation, and became a judge, congressman, general and a war hero.
      3. Jackson was adored by his soldiers who gave him the nickname "Old Hickory" because of his toughness and loyalty.
      4. He was the first president who'd been nominated by a convention.
    2. Jackson was passionate in everything. He was prone to choke up while speaking in Congress, he had a temper and was in several duels (he had a bullet lodged in his chest for life from dueling), and always "went all out" in whatever he did.
    3. At his inauguration gala he flung open the White House doors (the People's House) for all to come in and party. The party quickly got rowdy until the punch was moved outside and the crowd followed. To the wealthy, this was the mobocracy for real.
  5. The Spoils System
    1. President Jackson quickly started what was called the "Spoils System." The spoils system rewarded political party workers with government jobs. This meant government workers already in office had to be fired to make room for the new.
      1. Many said this wasn't right and criticized the spoils system. They also claimed that the people he put into office had no qualifications.
      2. Jackson shot back saying, "To the victor belong the spoils." This meant that whoever wins the presidency can do as he pleases.
      3. Jackson also argued that federal jobs weren't offered on a for-life basis and that a little change is a good thing in a government.
    2. Being the old military man, loyalty was everything. Jackson was loyal to the people who helped get him elected, and he wanted people underneath him that were loyal to him.
    3. Despite the criticism, only one fifth of the federal employees were replaced. Later on, presidents would make clean sweeps of the executive branch.
    4. Corruption also slid into the government.
      1. Some of the men were less-than-honorable yet were given jobs due to their help in the election.
      2. One Samuel Swartwout was put in charge of the customs duties at the port of New York. Nine years later he "Swartwouted out" and ran off to England; his accounts were $1 million short.
  6. The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations” This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. The tariff (tax on imports) became the hot issue in the 1820s and 30s. It nearly brought America to civil war before being worked out by compromise.
    2. Congress had raised the tariff significantly in 1824, but wool manufacturers called for an even higher tariff.
    3. Jackson and his followers hated the tariff. They felt it was a tool of the rich to get richer by jacking up prices that the poor would have to pay. Jacksonians planned to hike the tariff to the sky-high rate of 45%, thinking it would never pass. The plan backfired and sectional warfare began…
      1. New England liked the high tariff since it protected manufacturers. Daniel Webster (Mass.) became the North's main spokesperson.
      2. Southerners, and Westerners, hated it because it drove up the cost of things that they purchased. John C. Calhoun (SC) became the South's main spokesperson.
    4. At about the same time, the South also struggled with slave rebellions.
      1. Denmark Vesey was a free black who led a slave rebellion in Charleston, SC in 1822.
      2. It was unsuccessful, but scared the southern whites to what might happen, especially in areas with an almost 1:1 white-to-black ratio like South Carolina.
      3. Also, Britain was moving toward abolition of slaves. The South felt the pressure and began considering secession and using the tariff as the issue.
    5. John C. Calhoun secretly wrote the "South Carolina Exposition" that took the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions to the next level. The Exposition said that the states, such as South Carolina, could nullify (or declare null and void) the tariff. This was a direct challenge to the federal government. Would the federal government allow states to pick-and-choose the laws they followed? Or would all federal laws be binding?
  7. “Nullies” in South Carolina
    1. A showdown had developed between the federal government and the states.
    2. Congress eased tensions with the Tariff of 1832 that removed the worst parts of the Tariff of 1828 (AKA Tariff of Abominations). Still, the principle of nullification was under question. South Carolina again led the nullification charge…
      1. "Nullies" sought the 2/3 majority needed in the SC legislature to nullify the tariff. They got the votes and SC officially voted to nullify the federal tariff.
      2. SC even threatened secession if Washington tried to impose the tariff over the nullification vote.
    3. Andrew Jackson was not a president with whom to bluff or pick a fight. Jackson was the old fighter, dueler, and warrior.
      1. Privately, Jackson threatened to go to SC and start hanging the leaders. With any other president this would just be tough-talk; Jackson, however, just might actually do it.
      2. Publicly, he got the military ready. Civil war hung as a real possibility.
    4. Henry Clay proposed a compromise which settled the situation.
      1. Clay's personal motives were to prevent his foe Andrew Jackson from scoring a victory.
      2. Clay's compromise said that the tariff rate would be reduced by about 10% over 8 years. Despite debate, the compromise passed and violence was thwarted.
      3. Congress also passed the Force Bill (AKA "Bloody Bill" in the Carolinas) authorizing the president to use force if necessary to collect the tariff.
    5. Like a true compromise, the "winner" of the nullification crisis was unclear.
      1. South Carolina and the states did not join behind the nullification cause like SC expected. But, South Carolina won in that, all by itself, it succeeded in driving the tariff down.
      2. The federal government won in the sense that it got SC to abide by the tariff (Ie. SC repealed its nullification law).
  8. The Trail of Tears
    1. Westward expansion meant whites and Indians continued to bump into one another. Problems followed.
    2. Since the 1790s, the U.S. policy was to gain Indian land only through treaty. These treaties were (a) sometimes questionably made and (b) often overlooked or broken.
    3. Indian–White relationships varied…
      1. There were attempts to assimilate Indians into white society, notably the Society for Progating the Gospel Among the Indians (est. 1787).
      2. Some tribes readily adopted white ways they felt beneficial. The Cherokee of Georgia settled down to become farmers; largely accepted Christianity; Sequoyah devised a Cherokee alphabet so they could write; and the tribe soon set up a government with a legislative, executive, and judicial branch.
        1. Georgia challenged and revoked the Cherokee's right to rule themselves. The Cherokee appealed to the Supreme Court which supported the Indians, 3 times.
      3. The Cherokee, along with the Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole were called the "Five Civilized Tribes."
    4. Pres. Jackson's policy on Indians was clear and simple–Indians and whites couldn't live together peacefully so the Indians were to be removed to the West. Notably, this was the general consensus of white America at the time. Ironically, Jackson also had a sort of "soft-spot" for the Indians. He felt they needed to be rescued (he'd even adopted an Indian) and reassured himself that their way-of-life might be preserved out West.
      1. Oklahoma was the appointed "Indian Territory."
      2. Indian Removal Act was passed by Congress making the relocation law and the Bureau of Indian Affairs was started to oversee matters.
        1. The military rounded up eastern tribes and drove them westward. Most infamous was the Trail of Tears where the Cherokee were forced to walk from their Georgia home to Oklahoma. The walk was miserable and fatal (4,000 out of the 15,000 died).
        2. Many Indians pushed back, such as (a) the Black Hawk War which saw the Sauk and Fox tribes of IL and WI crushed, and (b) Osceola leading the Seminoles until he was tricked and captured, although many Seminoles (and runaway slaves) fled to the Everglades of FL.
  9. The Bank War
    1. Andrew Jackson held the common western view of a distrust in banks. Mainly, he distrusted the B.U.S., the Bank of the United States.
      1. Jackson's view was that the B.U.S. was a tool of the rich to get richer at the poor's expense. Jacksonians felt that the rich used "hard money" to keep the common man down.
      2. The B.U.S. minted "hard money" (actual metal money) which the wealthy preferred since it gave the economy stability. The farmers preferred "soft money" (paper money) that would lead to inflation, devalue the dollar, and make loans easier to pay off.
    2. B.U.S. president Nicholas Biddle carried out bank policies of (a) coining hard money and (b) cracking down on western "wildcat banks" by calling in loans. He, and the B.U.S., was compared to a serpent that could grow multiple heads when one was cut off.
    3. The B.U.S. was used as a political football…
      1. Although the B.U.S. charter didn't expire until 1836, Henry Clay and Daniel Webster started a re-charter bill in 1832. The goal was to have Andrew Jackson veto it (as expected) and therefore give himself a political black eye.
      2. The thought was that Jackson would be in a lose-lose situation…
        1. If he vetoed it…the North would be angry and would not vote for his re-election.
        2. If he signed it…the South and West would be angry because he'd gone to Washington and "sold them out" to big business. Either way, he'd be in trouble come election time in 1836.
      3. Congress passed it and Jackson vetoed the B.U.S. re-charter bill saying, "The Bank…is trying to kill me, but I will kill it."
  10. “Old Hickory” Wallops Clay in 1832
    1. In the 1832 election, it was Andrew Jackson for reelection being challenged by Henry Clay.
      1. Jackson again appealed to the common man and urged them to "Go the whole hog."
      2. Clay's slogan was "Freedom and Clay" but was criticized for his gambling, dueling, cockfighting, etc.
    2. The 1832 election also brought some political firsts. All helped move America in a more democratic direction. The new things were…
      1. The emergence of a third party, the Anti-Masonic Party.
        1. The Masons or Freemasons were (and still are) a secret society. Due to its secret nature, questions, mystery, and a skeptical air swirled around them.
        2. The Anti-Masonic Party was made up of a mix of various groups that were joined by (a) dislike of the Masons and/or (b) dislike of Jackson (who was a Mason).
      2. The use of national nominating conventions. This meant that the people of each party nominated their candidate, not the "big whigs" in a backroom choosing a candidate for the people.
      3. The use of a printed party platform. This was done by the Anti-Masonic Party when they printed their positions on the issues. This would become the norm for all parties.
    3. The voting was anti-climatic. Jackson was loved by the people and easily won, 219 to 49 in the electoral vote.
  11. Burying Biddle's Bank
    1. Jackson could've waited until 1836 and the B.U.S. charter would've expired, but he was in a fighting mood and wanted to kill it right then. So…
      1. Jackson started withdrawing money from the B.U.S. and depositing it into local, "pet banks" or "wildcat banks."
      2. Nicholas Biddle fought back by calling in loans from the wildcat banks to the B.U.S.
    2. The overall result was bank chaos, and often, bank foreclosure. Ironically, the common man, whom Jackson set out to defend, often lost his farm in the bank confusion.
    3. Even though Jackson was largely at fault for the turmoil, from the common man's perspective, the B.U.S. and eastern big-whigs were to blame.
  12. The Birth of the Whigs
    1. Jacksonians, officially the "Democratic-Republicans," began calling themselves simply the "Democrats." (This is the Democratic party we think of today.)
    2. A second party also formed, the Whig Party. The Whigs were a very diverse group, but they generally…
      1. Disliked Jackson (this was the main tie that bound them).
      2. Liked Henry Clay's American System, especially its internal improvements (building roads, canals, etc.).
    3. By this time, the "Era of Good Feelings" was over (with its one political party) and America had a two-party system of politics.
  13. The Election of 1836
    1. "King Andrew" was still very popular and he, in effect, chose his successor and the next president–Martin Van Buren as the Democratic candidate.
    2. The Whig Party was disorganized (due to its infancy and hodge-podge make-up).
    3. They nominated a favorite son candidate from each section in hopes of splitting the electoral vote, preventing anyone from getting a majority and winning, and thus throwing the election into the House of Representatives (like in 1824).
    4. Their plan failed as Van Buren, the "Little Magician" won 170 to 124 (all Whig votes combined).
  14. Big Woes for the “Little Magician”
    1. Van Buren followed Jackson's coattails right into the White House, but Van Buren was no Jackson.
    2. Jackson was the people's president, a common guy himself. Van Buren was very smart, crafty, experienced, and effective, but he lacked the "people's touch" and personality of a Jackson.
    3. Problems were brewing for Van Buren…
      1. In 1837, in Canada, a rebellion caused turmoil along the border. Van Buren played the neutral game between Canada and Britain which gained no friends.
      2. Anti-slavery folks in the North were upset because the idea of annexing Texas, a slave land, was being tossed around.
      3. And worse yet for Van Buren, the economic situation was beginning to crumble.
  15. Depression Doldrums and the Independent Treasury
    1. There's an irony with Martin Van Buren: he benefited from his close tie with Jackson by being elected president, but he was hurt by Jackson as well as he (a) inherited Jackson's enemies and (b) was brought down by the economic chaos Jackson had begun.
    2. In 1837, an economic downturn struck called the Panic of 1837. This was the second such downtown of the 1800s. Its causes were:
      1. Over-speculation, especially in land, but also in other get-rich-quick schemes like canals, roads, railroads, and slaves. Over-speculation, as always, was the main cause of the recession.
      2. Andrew Jackson's bank policies and resultant chaos also aided the Panic of 1837.
      3. Jackson's "specie circular" hurt as well. This was a decree by Jackson that all debts were to be paid only in specie (gold or silver) but not worthless bank notes (paper money). The debtors didn't have specie and therefore went bankrupt; banks then went bankrupt as well.
      4. The failure of crops helped the Panic. All of these things "set up the dominoes" so to speak, and then…
      5. …the first domino was the failure of two major banks in England and the reverberations across the ocean.
    3. Many banks went under. Many farmers lost their farms.
    4. The Whigs formed a plan…
      1. They proposed expanding bank credit, higher tariffs, and money for internal improvements.
      2. President Van Buren disliked wasteful government spending and halted such plans.
    5. Van Buren's response was through the "Divorce Bill" which said the government should "divorce" itself from banking altogether.
      1. This bill set up an "independent treasury" where extra government money would be kept in vaults (not in the banks. This would give the government stability independent of the whims of the banking world.
      2. The Divorce Bill went on a roller-coaster ride: it was controversial, passed, was repealed by the Whigs, then reenacted 6 years later. It did serve as a first step toward the modern Federal Reserve System.
  16. Gone to Texas
    1. Americans, especially southerners hungry for more cotton land, were eyeing Texas. But, Texas was foreign land and therefore had to be approached with caution.
    2. Americans asked Spain if they could enter Texas and were told they could not. Then, Mexico had a revolution, broke from Spain, and said that the Americans could enter Texas.
    3. In 1823, Stephen Austin led the "Old 300" families into Texas with the conditions that (1) they must become Mexican citizens, (2) they must become Catholic, and (3) no slavery was allowed.
      1. The first two conditions were ignored without concern, the third condition was outright broken since their main reason for going to Texas was to grow cotton.
      2. In 1830, Mexico freed its slaves. To the Texans, those were fighting words.
      3. Conflict emerged and Texans were jailed while protesting (including Stephen Austin in Mexico City). Mexican president Santa Anna had had enough by 1835 and got together an army to teach the Texans a lesson.
  17. The Lone Star Rebellion
    1. Texas declared independence early in 1836 and called itself the "Lone Star Republic". Santa Anna wouldn't take the declaration without a fight, however.
    2. Santa Anna led 6,000 soldiers to the Battle of the Alamo. There he destroyed about 200 stubborn Texans, including William Travis, Davy Crockett, and Jim Bowie. The battle cry "Remember the Alamo!" was heard across Texas.
    3. Santa Anna scored a similar win at Goliad. This also fueled Texans' passions.
    4. Texas president Sam Houston led his troops to the Battle of San Jacinto. This was the turning point…
      1. Santa Anna was caught (a) in a bend in the river, (b) without lookouts, and (c) taking a siesta. He was beaten in 20 minutes.
      2. Santa Anna was forced to sign a document saying Texas was independent, then he was released. He promptly said the document was null and void. Still, Texas was independent.
    5. Then president Andrew Jackson formally recognized Texas as a nation.
    6. Texas wanted to join America so the question then was: would Texas become the next U.S. state?
      1. Slavery would delay Texas' statehood. The northern states would not allow another slave state. They accused the south of trying to establish a "slavocracy" where the whole Texas situation was a supposed conspiracy to gain a slave state.
      2. Texas would have to wait.
  18. Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840
    1. In the 1840 election, the Democrats nominated Martin Van Buren for reelection. The Whigs nominated Indian-fighting hero William Henry Harrison.
    2. From the beginning, Van Buren was in trouble due to the economic fallout of the Panic of 1837.
    3. The election dealt more with personalities and hoopla than with issues.
      1. Van Buren, who came from humble beginnings, was painted as a rich snob out-of-touch with the people.
      2. Harrison, who came from wealthy beginnings, was painted as the born-in-a-log-cabin type. He adopted a log cabin as the symbol of the campaign.
      3. The 1840 campaign is noteworthy in that it might be considered the first "modern" election…
        1. Voter turnout was a whopping 75% (as opposed to roughly only 25% for the 1824 "corrupt bargain" election or 50% in 1828).
        2. Hard cider was given out, campaign slogans were created ("Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"), songs were sung, issues or problems were hidden behind slogans and cheers–essentially, everything superficial about modern campaigns was born.
    4. Harrison won easily, 234 to 60 in the electoral vote. The vote was a protest against the poor economy.
  19. Politics for the People
    1. During the Federalist era, an elite record with impeccable experience was respected. By the 1830's, being born in a log cabin and rising up from poverty was more respected. A politician born rich was a politician doomed.
    2. Any politician from the west was especially liked: such as Andrew Jackson, Davy Crockett, and William Henry Harrison. These men made their names by their shooting skills and/or Indian fighting out west.
    3. This change became known as the "New Democracy" where the "common man" voted for a common sense politician who was more like the "average Joe" than the college grad.
      1. The top characteristic of the New Democracy was "universal white manhood suffrage" (all white men could vote).
      2. These new politicians were known as "coonskin congressman".
  20. The Two-Party System
    1. By 1840, the two political party system had reached its maturity. It would dominate American politics until today.
    2. Two parties in 1840 were…
      1. The Democrats were the common man's party.
        1. True to founder Thomas Jefferson's beliefs, they championed liberty of the individual.
        2. Loved states' rights (and therefore disliked the federal government doing too much).
        3. It was made up of the lower classes, mostly of farmers.
        4. It was made up mostly of people in the South, West, and in the rural or small-town areas.
      2. The Whigs were the upper class's party.
        1. The were like the Federalists of older days.
        2. Favored a stronger federal government that could take action for the nation's benefit.
        3. Favored issues such as internal improvements, tariffs, a strong national bank, public schools.
        4. It was made up mostly of the educated and wealthier classes.
        5. It was made up largely from the cities and the East.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 14 - Forging the National Economy

  1. The Westward Movement
    1. Americans continued to move westward in large numbers. The trip though, proved to have lots of difficulties, hardships, and diseases.
    2. Generally speaking, the westerners were (independent, stubborn, uneducated, and individualistic and ambitious in their own way).
    3. Emerging literature reflected these unique types of people such as James Fenimore Cooper's woodsy hero "Natty Bumpo" or Herman Melville's whale-hunting "Captain Ahab."
  2. Shaping the Western Landscape
    1. The land was shaped by those who moved onto it.
      1. Tobacco farmers were accustomed to "land butchery" where they'd wear out a piece of land, then just move on to find more.
      2. "Kentucky bluegrass" began to thrive after settlers burnt off the tall cane grass.
    2. Trapping was big business.
      1. Fur trappers were taking a toll on the beaver population but reaping the profits of their sales. Beaver hats had become a fashion must-have back in Europe—good for the trappers, bad for the beaver.
      2. Buffalo hides also were big business and the buffalo population began to dwindle. It'd drop considerably as the 1800's wore on.
    3. Although the land was to be used, Americans respected it and noticed its beauty.
      1. George Catlin was an artist who painted western scenes and Native Americans. He was a first advocate of national parks and his suggestion eventually became the first national park, Yellowstone in 1872.
  3. The March of the Millions
    1. America continued to grow rapidly in numbers. By the mid 1800's the population continued to double every 25 years.
    2. There were 33 states and America was the 4th largest nation in the world.
    3. Cities were growing very fast.
      1. In 1790, only to cities had more than 20,000 people. By 1860, there were 43 cities that size.
      2. The west was growing quickly, witnessed by New Orleans and Chicago ("hog butcher for the world").
      3. The drawback of such fast growth was poor sanitation. Later on, pipes would bring in clean water and sewers would take out the bad.
    4. The increase came from a high birthrate but also from immigration.
      1. Two groups came en masse: the Irish and Germans.
      2. The appeal of America was for land, religious freedom, safety from wars, but mostly, just the opportunity for a better life than in Europe.
  4. The Emerald Isle Moves West
    1. In the 1840's, the potato crop failed and the "potato famine" resulted. 2 million Irish died.
    2. During the "Black Forties" thousands of Irish emigrated to America searching for a better life.
      1. From the American perspective, the Irish brought little to the table because they mostly were uneducated and poor.
      2. They were also Catholic which was frowned upon.
    3. From the beginning Americans looked down upon the Irish and gave them the worst and lowest-paying of jobs.
    4. Politicians quickly learned that there was power in the Irish vote and got their votes by "twisting the lion's tail" (antagonizing England whom the Irish hated).
    5. Despite discrimination, the Irish were hard workers and stubbornly determined to make a better life for themselves. They worked hard, drank hard, and were passionate people who lived robust lives.
  5. The German Forty-Eighters
    1. At the same time, 1 million Germans came to America. Their reasons for coming were (a) crop failure (as in Ireland) but also, (b) to flee the chaos of war in 1848.
    2. Whereas the Irish largely stayed in the cities on the east coast, the Germans leap-frogged over to the frontier, notably to Wisconsin.
    3. The Germans gave America the Conestoga wagon, the Kentucky rifle, the Christmas tree, and kindergarten.
    4. The Germans were unique in that…
      1. They were Lutheran and clung to their native language.
      2. They were outspokenly against slavery.
      3. They drank large quantities of beer (this helped fuel the "temperance movement" against alcohol).
      4. And they kept to themselves in order to preserve their culture. All told, the Americans looked upon these Germans with suspicion.
  6. Flare-ups of Antiforeignism
    1. The large influx of immigrants caused "nativists" to strike back. "Nativists" were those born in America and were opposed to immigrants.
    2. Nativists complaints were that the newcomers were uneducated, poor, from non-democratic backgrounds, Catholic (in the Irish case), and willing to work for next to nothing (which drove down American wages).
    3. The "Order of the Star Spangled Banner" emerged but was better known as the "Know-Nothings." They were called this since, being a secret society, they'd answer an inquiry with, "I know nothing."
      1. The Know-Nothings fed off of fear and sensational stories, usually untrue, such as Maria Monk's book Awful Disclosures which was very popular reading.
      2. Violence also flared up, usually directed at the Irish Catholics.
      3. The idea of a "melting pot" where all races and peoples melted into one American people was under fire.
    4. As time wore on, the presence of these immigrants grew to be less threatening. Their hard work and the economic growth of the nation went hand-in-hand.
  7. Creeping Mechanization
    1. The Industrial Revolution began in England when machines and factories began to replace handmade products. It then spread to Europe and America.
    2. America had characteristics that enabled it to become an industrial powerhouse…
      1. Cheap land. This meant there was always a shortage of labor. Why work for someone else when you could get your own land and work for yourself?
      2. Workers. Immigration, which started to rise sharply in the 1840's, began to solve the problem of shortage of labor.
      3. Raw materials. America was large and blessed with many resources.
      4. Consumers. America had many people and they were just "starting out" and therefore ready to buy whatever was produced.
    3. Still, America struggled to compete with the British in manufacturing. The U.S. simply couldn't produce goods as fast and cheap as the Brits.
  8. Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine
    1. Samuel Slater was a textile worker in England. He memorized the plans of the factory, came to America, got financial backing from Moses Brown, and built a factory for spinning thread at Pawtucket, Rhode Island (1791). He's known as the "Father of the Factory System."
    2. Slater's thread-spinning system created a shortage of cotton fiber. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin which separated the fiber from the seed (1793).
      1. The machine was 50 times more efficient than a person using only his hands.
      2. The cotton gin caused the South to expand its cotton producing land and increase its desire for slaves.
      3. The cotton gin caused the North to expand its factories for spinning and weaving cloth. New England was a good choice for factories because its soil wasn't very good for farming, but its quick-moving rivers drove the mills and it had quick access to the seaports.
  9. Marvels in Manufacturing
    1. The War of 1812 had an unexpectedly positive impact on the economy. The dated Embargo Act, which hurt the economy, forced young manufacturing to grow.
      1. But, after the war ended, the British began to flood America's markets with their inexpensive products. This hurt American manufacturers who couldn't compete with the older Brits.
      2. Therefore, Congress pass the Tariff of 1816 as a "protective tariff" (one to boost foreign goods and therefore make American goods look cheaper).
    2. Eli Whitney also created "interchangeable part" where machine-made components of anything could simply be swapped out if one broke. Though more well-known for the cotton gin, interchangeable parts turned into "mass production" and was really his greatest legacy. Whitney made guns in this manner.
    3. Now with cloth easily made, clothes couldn't keep up. Elias Howe and Isaac Singer invented the sewing machine.
    4. An invention boom took place. The 1850's ended with 28,000 patents compared to only 306 in the 1790's.
    5. Companies also changed. The "limited liability corporation" came into existence. These companies ensured that if the company went bad, an investor could lose only what he'd invested (not everything he owned). This assurance caused more people to invest in business and thus for businesses to grow.
    6. Samuel Morse invented the telegraph thus providing nearly instant communication. The first words on his "talking wire" were "What hath God wrought?"
  10. Workers and “Wage Slaves” This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. A side-effect of the factory system was the exploitation of workers. They came to be called "wage slaves."
    2. Conditions in a typical factory were not good…
      1. They were unsafe.
      2. They were unhealthy.
      3. Hours were long and wages were low.
      4. Child labor was common. Childhood was short and harsh.
    3. Conditions for adult workers improved during the 1820's and 30's as universal white manhood suffrage gave workers the power of the vote.
      1. Goals were the 10-hour workday, higher wages, better conditions, public education, and humane imprisonment for debt.
      2. The results were only fair, at best. Any group that went on strike to achieve these goals were likely fired. There were always more immigrants happy to work for whatever they could get. These substitute workers were called "scabs."
    4. In 1840, President Van Buren did set a 10-hour work day for federal employees.
    5. Early labor unions had little impact at best (due the constant availability of scab workers).
      1. They did score victory with the Massachusetts supreme court case of Commonwealth v. Hunt which legalized labor unions in 1842.
  11. Women and the Economy
    1. With the factories came female labor.
      1. Lowell, Mass. was well-known as employing young women to work in its textile factories. The women worked, bunked in dorms, were able to take classes, and were carefully guarded over.
      2. Other opportunities for women were in nursing, domestic service, and teaching. Catharine Beecher was the leading proponent who pushed for women to enter teaching.
      3. Almost always, these working women were young and single. Once they married, the expectation was that they'd stay at home and raise their family.
    2. The home and families also changed with the onset of the Industrial Revolution.
      1. Families also began to shrink in size. As cities grew and factory jobs increased, an extra mouth to feed was considered to be a detriment rather than an assistant. On a farm, another child was simply another worker—not so in the city.
      2. The home changed from a place of work (like on the farm) to a place of rest (away from the factory). This is when the phrase "Home Sweet Home" emerged.
    3. Although women began to work more at this time, it shouldn't be over-stated. Women were still expected to mostly be at home. Their number one job was still to efficiently and lovingly manage a home and family.
  12. Western Farmers Reap a Revolution in the Fields
    1. The lands Allegheny mountains (the modern Midwestern states) were growing rapidly.
      1. Corn was the main crop. Hogs (corn on the hoof) and whiskey (corn in a bottle) were also large products.
      2. Cincinnati, on the Ohio River, was booming and called the "Porkopolis" of the West.
    2. Like the cotton gin for the South, inventions helped the western states grow.
      1. John Deere invented the steel plow. It enabled farmers to cut into the fertile but hard Midwestern soil.
      2. Cyrus McCormick invented the mechanical mower-reaper to harvest grains such as wheat.
      3. These inventions changed agriculture from a mindset of growing-to-eat to growing-to-sell-and-make-money.
    3. The Midwestern farmers now had a problem—how to get their crops to the markets (cities) back in the East. Traveling from West-to-East over the Appalachian Mountains was impractical. So, crops flowed from North-to-South down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
  13. Highways and Steamboats
    1. The future growth and the economic backbone of the western states was dependent on transportation. A transportation boom took place in the first half of the 1800's.
    2. Roads were built.
      1. The Lancaster Turnpike (a hard-surfaced highway) went from Philadelphia to Lancaster, PA.
      2. The Cumberland Road (better known as the National Road) went from Maryland all the way to Illinois. It was the main East-West thoroughfare.
    3. Steamboats was built.
      1. Robert Fulton is credited with building the first steamboat, the Clermont (1807). This invention radically changed the transportation structure…
        1. Rivers were now two-way streets, not one-way.
        2. The South and especially the West would draw the benefits of the steamboat.
  14. “Clinton’s Big Ditch” in New York
    1. The granddaddy of canals was the Erie Canal. It was headed up by NY governor Dewitt Clinton and built using only state money.
    2. The "Big Ditch" was started in 1817 and completed in 1825. It linked the western rivers with the Atlantic Ocean.
    3. The effects of the Erie Canal were drastic…
      1. Shipping costs from the West to the East dropped 20 times ($100 became only $5).
      2. The canal effectively stole most of the trade from the Mississippi River. After its completion, more goods would flow over the Erie Canal/Hudson River route to New York City than down the Ohio and Mississippi River route to New Orleans.
      3. "Western" cities boomed, like Cleveland, Detroit, and Chicago.
  15. The Iron Horse
    1. The only thing that trumped the Erie Canal was the "iron horse" (railroads).
    2. The first tracks were laid in 1828. However, tracks didn't really make a large impact until the 1850's and 60's. By the 1860's there were 30,000 miles of track.
    3. By far (3 quarters), most of the tracks were in the North.
    4. Railroads were dangerous however…
      1. Their embers started fires, collisions weren't uncommon, their boilers sometimes blew up, brakes were ridiculously poor, tracks wore out and rusted out quickly, and the gauge (width) of track wasn't standardized.
  16. Cables, Clippers, and Pony Riders
    1. Cyrus Fields laid a telegraph wire across the Atlantic Ocean floor to Ireland in 1858. It lasted only 3 weeks, but was a start to instant communication with Europe.
    2. Americans began to build "clipper ships" to haul cargo to foreign nations, notably China. These sailing ships were long, sleek, and very fast. They ruled the seas for a while.
      1. Their speed gave them much of the tea trade between the Far East and Britain.
      2. Yankee clipper ships were soon outdated though. British "teakettles" (steamships) replaced the clippers. Though slow, they carried a lot of cargo and weren't susceptible to the wind.
    3. The Pony Express carried mail from Missouri to California, 2,000 miles in 10 days. It lasted only 2 years before being replaced by the trans-continental telegraph wire which gave instant communication.
  17. The Transport Web Binds the Union
    1. The "transportation revolution" wanted to link the West with the rest of the nation, and it did. Roads, canals, and steamboats linked the nation. The South was largely left to use its rivers.
    2. The Erie Canal was the greatest triumph. It "stole" much of the Mississippi River's commerce.
    3. The notion of "division of labor" emerged—each section of the U.S. specialized in its own thing. The North: manufacturing, the South: cotton for export, and the West: grain and livestock.
    4. A split was also forming between the South and the North/West. The South had long considered the West as its ally, but the transportation and economic network now linked the West to the North. The South was growing isolated.
  18. The Market Revolution
    1. Industry and business were coming into maturity.
    2. Legal issues sided with businesses.
      1. Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger Taney said that "the rights of a community" were greater than a corporate contract. This was good news for entrepreneurs trying to get a start-up business going.
      2. Also, the trend in the courts was toward "limited liability" of companies. This also encouraged start-ups.
    3. The fabric of society was changing from "life on the farm" to "life working at a job."
    4. On the bad side, the rich-poor gap was widening. The factory owner was growing richer while the worker was struggling along.
    5. The starkest contrasts were seen in the cities…
      1. "Drifter" workers wandered from town to town looking for work.
      2. Rags-to-riches stories were rare, but they did occur. Certainly the chances of a pauper becoming a "prince" were much greater than back in Europe.
      3. Despite problems, the overall standard of living did rise.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 15 - The Ferment of Reform and Culture

  1. Reviving Religion
    1. By 1850, America was still a mostly church-going country. 75% of Americans attended church regularly.
      1. The church-going nature of America was noted by French observer Alexis de Tocqueville during a visit.
    2. New religions challenged Christianity, however.
      1. Deism sprang out of the Enlightenment (AKA "Age of Reason") and was based on scientific or logical reasoning rather than faith. It had fundamental differences with Christianity…
        1. Faith (belief in what can't be proven) was rejected as silly superstition.
        2. Deism rejected the "divinity of Christ."
      2. The "Scientific Revolution" also sparked deism. Just as the solar system, mathematics, and physical laws and properties of the universe were being figured out, the principles of scientific inquiry were applied to religion.
        1. Deism believed in a supreme being who'd made the universe, like a great clockmaker. It contained all of its order, put it into motion, then stood back and let the mechanisms run. Man's "job" was to figure it all out.
        2. Well-known deists were Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine (who literally wrote The Age of Reason which outlined deism and attacked the Bible).
      3. The Unitarian religion drew followers even farther away from Christianity. Unitarians…
        1. Believed God existed in 1 person ("uni"), but not in the Holy Trinity.
        2. Rejected the divinity of Christ.
        3. Believed people were essentially good at heart, not born under "original sin."
        4. Believed people were saved through "good works", not through faith in Christ.
        5. Attracted intellectual types, notably Ralph Waldo Emerson.
    3. These perversions of Christianity ignited Christians to “take back their faith” and oppose these new beliefs.
      1. A Christian revival movement began around 1800. It reached full speed as the 2nd Great Awakening in the 1830's.
      2. The 2nd Great Awakening was like the first (which occurred 100 years prior) in that it was a rural movement (taking place in "camp meetings"), it was emotional, appealing to the common classes, and was a national movement.
      3. It was unique in that it spawned a series of other movements: prison reform, temperance (movement to ban alcohol), and abolition of slavery.
      4. Missionaries went westward in attempt to Christianize Native Americans.
      5. Methodists and Baptists were the big winners in the movement. They each stressed a personal relationship with Christ and the emotional nature of the Awakening thus helped those denominations.
      6. Leading preachers of the 2nd Great Awakening were Peter Cartwright, a Methodist circuit rider traveling from town to town preaching, and Charles Grandison Finney who was the most gifted speaker/preacher and could move the masses.
      7. The 2nd Great Awakening started many reform movements including public education, temperance (not drinking alcohol), women's suffrage (right to vote), prison reform, and better treatment for the mentally handicapped.
  2. Denominational Diversity
    1. Western New York became known as the "Burned-Over District" due to the hellfire of its revival preaching.
    2. Other religious sects were spawned.
      1. The "Millerites" (AKA Adventists) predicted Christ's return on October 22, 1844. When this prophesy failed to materialize, the movement lost credibility.
      2. The Mormon faith would also begin at this time.
    3. The gap between the classes and regions were widened by the 2nd Great Awakening.
      1. Generally, the poor, rural, less-educated, Southerner or Westerner became a Methodist or Baptist.
      2. Generally, the wealthier, urban, more-educated, Easterner or person on the coastline stayed Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Congregationalist, or became Unitarian.
      3. Slavery was a divisive issue to the churches (the Methodist and Presbyterian churches split over this).
  3. A Desert Zion in Utah
    1. In 1830, Joseph Smith claimed to have found golden tablets in NY with the Book of Mormon inscribed on them. He thus came up with "Mormon" or "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints."
    2. Mormons ran into troubles with their neighbors due to polygamy (having multiple wives), drilling a militia, and voting as a block.
      1. Joseph Smith was killed in a skirmish. Brigham Young took over and led the Mormons along the "Mormon Trail" to Utah.
    3. The Mormons quickly grew in number due to high birth rates.
    4. The issue of polygamy delayed Utah's statehood until 1896.
  4. Free School for a Free People
    1. Free public education was not popular in the early 1800's.
      1. Opponents of compulsory (mandatory) education questioned why their tax money should go to teach another person's child.
    2. Jacksonian democracy forced the public opinion to begin to change.
      1. More and more people could now vote. Youngsters would soon be voters and thus "run the country." The idea of a nation of uneducated illiterates was not appealing. They needed to be educated.
      2. Also, it was viewed as cheaper to educated now, rather than pay for prisoners in jail later.
    3. Teachers were not the best, however. They were often ill-educated and ill-trained themselves.
    4. Horace Mann became known as the "Father of Public Education." He pushed for free compulsory education and education that strayed from just "dead languages" to more "hands-on" education and the "3 R's."
    5. Unfortunately in the education movement, African-Americans were largely ignored.
    6. Two mountains in the education world were…
      1. Noah Webster who wrote his Blueback Speller and dictionary. His lessons were mixed with grammar and moral lessons.
      2. William H. McGuffey who wrote the McGuffey's Reader that nearly every schoolchild read from. The Reader also contained both English lessons as well as patriotic and moral lessons.
  5. Higher Goals for Higher Learning
    1. The 2nd Great Awakening spawned educational reform.
      1. New colleges sprung up in the West (Ohio Valley) and the South.
      2. The curriculum was often traditional: classical languages of Latin and Greek, Math, and moral philosophy.
    2. The first state-supported university was founded in the Tar Heel state, the University of North Carolina, in 1795; Jefferson started the University of Virginia shortly afterwards (UVA was to be independent of religion or politics).
    3. Higher education for women had long been taboo. The feeling was that such education corrupted women which, in turn, corrupted the children and families. New colleges for women began to emerge…
      1. Troy Female Seminary was established by Emma Willard in 1821.
      2. Mount Holyoke Seminary was established by Mary Lyon in 1837.
    4. Also, working adults craved less formalized education. There was a boom in libraries, lyceums (public lectures as given by Ralph Waldo Emerson), and magazines.
  6. An Age of Reform This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. The reform movement was widespread and sought to halt cruelty, war, alcohol ("temperance"), discrimination, and slavery.
    2. Women were often the motivators behind these reform movements. They were inspired by the 2nd Great Awakening and felt it their duty as rulers of the home/family to rid society of these vices.
      1. These ladies were sometimes criticized as being naïve, but they were certainly motivated and believed in what they were doing.
    3. The views on prisons were softened. The movement was away from punishment and toward reform.
      1. Debtor prisons were abolished. This was due to the fact that, by this time, most workers (debtors) could vote.
      2. Criminal codes and penalties were softened in hopes of reforming the wrong-doer.
    4. Dorothea Dix sought and got improved treatment for the mentally insane. Prior to her work, mental insanity was viewed as a choice and was dealt with harshly. She brought the terrible treatment to light and got changes made.
    5. Pacifists (those seeking peace) spoke up. The American Peace Society was led by William Ladd. His message was lost when the Civil War erupted, but the fruits of his seed would show up in the 1900's (with the League of Nations and then U.N.).
  7. Demon Rum—The "Old Deluder"
    1. Reformers wanted to ban alcohol and end drunkenness. The thought was that the men would waste their week's wages in the bars, missed work, beat the women, destroy the families, and ruin the Christian family. Therefore, the women led this movement.
    2. The American Temperance Society was founded in Boston, 1826. Local chapters began to emerge. They used a variety of methods to encourage temperance (discourage drinking).
    3. Novelist T.S. Arthur wrote Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There which described how a bar ruined a small town. It became a play and was second only to Uncle Tom's Cabin (another "reformer" novel).
    4. The war on alcohol had a two-pronged attack…
      1. Remove the desire to drink—thus they stressed "temperance" (drinking only a bit and occasionally) rather than "teetotalism" (not drinking at all).
      2. Punish those who did drink—thus they strengthened laws. Neal S. Dow sponsored the Maine Law of 1851 which prohibited alcohol's sale or manufacture. Other states followed (though legal battles also followed the laws).
  8. Women in Revolt
    1. Although women generally had a better life than in Europe, they were expected to quietly stay at home.
      1. French observer Alexis de Tocqueville noted that rape in America was punishable by death, whereas in his home of France it was usually overlooked.
    2. Some women didn't marry at all and become "spinsters."
    3. The idea was that women were emotionally and spiritually weaker than men. Men were seen as barbaric and uncivilized. It was also viewed as the duty of the women to civilize the men.
      1. The irony was that women were spiritually weak as well (why Satan came to Eve first) but supposedly somehow both pure and pious.
    4. Women had almost no role outside of the home, but they owned and ran the homes. This was called the "cult of domesticity."
    5. The women had leaders…
      1. Catherine Beecher urged women to take teaching jobs (until they married).
      2. Lucretia MottSusan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton all pushed for women's suffrage (right to vote).
      3. Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell became the first female doctor, Amelia Bloomer wore short skirts (bloomers), Margaret Fuller edited a transcendentalist journal, the Grimke sisters pushed for the abolition of slavery.
    6. The greatest first-step in women's rights was taken with the Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention (1848) in New York.
      1. It wrote a "Declaration of Sentiments" arguing that "all men and women were created equal."
      2. It demanded female suffrage.
      3. Neither of these things happened anytime soon, but the women's rights movement was born.
  9. Wilderness Utopias
    1. During this boom of reform there were several utopia (perfect society) experiments. They all failed.
    2. Robert Owen started New Harmony, Indiana (1825). It attracted intellectual types but failed due to infighting and confusion.
    3. The Brook Farm was started in Massachusetts (1841). It attracted Transcendentalist intellectuals. It kept its head above water for 5 years, then a major building burnt down and the whole thing was lost to debt.
    4. The Oneida Community started in New York (1848). A couple of "kooky" things went along with it…
      1. It was communal and embraced free love, birth control, and selecting parents to have planned children.
      2. Though started as a communistic-style project, it was capitalism that saved it. They started selling baskets for a profit. Then, they sold flatware and cutlery (today, the Oneida company is still a huge seller of forks, spoons, and knives).
    5. The Shakers were begun by Mother Ann Lee as a religious sect. They stressed simplicity in their lives and separated the sexes. This led to them dying off by 1940.
  10. The Dawn of Scientific Achievement
    1. During the formative years of the nations, Americans were concerned with practical matters and science, not pure or theoretical sciences.
      1. Thomas Jefferson invented a new and better plow.
      2. Nathaniel Bowditch wrote on navigation.
      3. Matthew Maury studied the ocean winds and currents.
      4. Benjamin Silliman was a Yale chemist and geologist for 50+ years.
      5. Louis Agassiz was a Harvard biologist who stressed original research over rote memorization.
      6. Asa Gray was a Harvard botanist and was a pioneer of botany.
      7. John Audubon was an early naturalist who painted birds with precise details. He is the namesake of today's "Audubon Society" that studies birds.
    2. Medicine was primitive at the time.
      1. Common "cures" were bleeding (often with leeches) and purging (using laxatives).
      2. The village blacksmith or butcher was often the doctor or surgeon.
      3. Knowledge of sanitation was very lacking, if at all. Disease obviously resulted.
      4. Medicines were ridiculous "cure-alls" which usually consisted mostly of alcohol.
        1. Dr. Oliver Wendall Holmes said that if all the medicines were thrown into the sea, the people would be better off and the fish worse.
  11. Artistic Achievements
    1. U.S. had traditionally imitated European styles of art (aristocratic subjects, dark portraits of important people or gods, stormy landscapes).
    2. There was a Greek revival in architecture in the early 1800's after Greece won its independence from the Turks.
      1. By 1850 a Gothic revival began with its pointed arches.
      2. Thomas Jefferson was the premier architect of the day. His best works being his home (Monticello) and the University of Virginia.
    3. Artists were looked upon as time-wasters. They were either wasting time which they could use to actually do something or they had too much pride and were eager to show off their work. Some painters did come on the scene…
      1. Gilbert Stuart painted many portraits of George Washington.
      2. Charles Willson Peale also painted George Washington.
      3. John Trumbull painted scenes of the Revolutionary War.
      4. These paintings were still done in a "European style." A distinct American flavor would come later.
    4. In music, "darky tunes" were popular. They were nostalgic, rhythmic, and yet stereotypical of African-Americans.
      1. Stephen Foster's songs were the most famous, especially Old Folks at Home, better known as Suwanee River.
  12. The Blossoming of a National Literature
    1. Up until this point, American "literature" was either…
      1. Political or practical in nature like Common SenseThe Declaration of IndependenceThe Federalist Papers, or Poor Richard's Almanack. Or…
      2. Imitative of European writings either in style, subject matter, or both.
    2. By the 1830's or so, American writing truly became American, both in style and in subject matter. Just as politics had revolted against the Old World, culture was now doing so. The old saying is that "art imitates life," and America was thinking of themselves truly as Americans.
      1. The "Knickerbocker group" exemplified this new American writing.
        1. Washington Irving wrote Knickerbocker's History of New York and The Sketch Book including "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." The setting was in the U.S.
        2. James Fenimore Cooper wrote what might be considered the first of blockbuster American fiction in Leatherstocking Tales. These stories told of Natty Bumppo, a frontiersman and his adventures, notably in The Last of the Mohicans. The setting was the wilderness of New York.
        3. William Cullen Bryant wrote poetry including "Thanatopsis." Europeans didn't think such quality poetry could be written on "this side of the water."
  13. Trumpeters of Transcendentalism
    1. Transcendentalism was a New England intellectual movement that began to challenge ways of thinking. During the "Age of Reason," knowledge came from experimentation. John Locke had argued that knowledge came solely from the senses. The Transcendentalists said knowledge rises above (transcends) just the senses. People were thought to reach an inner light and touch the "Oversoul" (something akin to God).
    2. Ralph Waldo Emerson was the most famous Transcendentalist.
      1. Emerson was a former Unitarian pastor turned writer and lyceum speaker.
      2. His most famous writing/speech was Self Reliance which stressed individualism. He also urged Americans to declare independence from Europe in terms of art, literature, thinking, etc.
      3. Emerson was the Transcendentalist with the credentials, success, and the "big name."
    3. Henry David Thoreau was Emerson's friend and neighbor. Whereas Emerson talked about self reliance, Thoreau lived it.
      1. Tired of "modern" society, Thoreau spent two years living in the woods off of nothing but what he could make, grow, or trade for. Then he wrote the classic Walden: Or Life in the Woods describing his simple life there.
      2. He also wrote On the Duty of Civil Disobedience which emphasized peacefully not following unjust laws. This became a strong influence later on Mahatma Gandhi and then Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
    4. Walt Whitman was a saucy poet who wrote Leaves of Grass. He encouraged people to live their lives to the fullest and holler out a "barbaric yawp."
  14. Glowing Literary Lights
    1. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was an immensely popular poet with "Evangeline," "The Tales of Hiawatha," and "The Courtship of Miles Standish."
    2. John Greenleaf Whittier wrote poems that barked against social injustice like slavery.
    3. James Russell Lowell similarly wrote satirical poetry that criticized social wrongs, such as Biglow Papers.
    4. Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes was a poet who wrote "The Last Leaf" to honor the last "white Indian" of the Boston Tea Party.
    5. Women writers also made their mark.
      1. Louisa May Alcott grew up in Transcendentalist Concord, Mass. and wrote Little Women.
      2. Emily Dickinson wrote love poems, also in Massachusetts.
    6. William Gillmore Simms was known as "the Cooper of the South." He wrote of southern life during the American Revolution.
  15. Literary Individualists and Dissenters
    1. Edgar Allan Poe is often credited with inventing the "psychological thriller." His poems and stories often dealt with the ghostly and the macabre. Well-known works are "The Raven," "The Fall of the House of Usher," and many others.
    2. The imprint of Calvinist/Puritanical belief in original sin is undeniable in literature at this time.
      1. Nathaniel Hawthorne explored the idea of original sin wit works such as The House of Seven Gables and The Scarlet Letter where the heroine is condemned to wear a red "A" on her blouse to show her sin of adultery.
      2. Herman Melville wrote Moby Dick, the allegorical tale of good vs. evil. It follows the mad Captain Ahab's hell-bent quest to kill the white whale, Moby Dick.
  16. Portrayers of the Past
    1. George Bancroft helped found the Naval Academy in Annapolis, MD and his history of the U.S. earned him the title of "Father of American History."
    2. William H. Prescott wrote histories detailing the conquests of Mexico and Peru.
    3. Francis Parkman wrote the history of England and France's struggle for control of North America.
    4. Nearly always, the history books at this time were written by New Englanders. There was therefore a decidedly pro-North bias built in (much to the South's dismay).
Subject X2: 

Chapter 16 - The South and the Slavery Controversy

  1. "Cotton Is King!"
    1. Eli Whitney's 1793 cotton gin invention revolutionized the Southern economy. Added to mechanical jennies to spin yarn, power looms to weave, and sewing machines to sew, the demand (and profits) for cotton fiber skyrocketed.
    2. Southerners scrambled to plant more cotton.
      1. The land was usually worn out then discarded ("land butchery"). The result was a Southern thirst for still more land.
      2. The demand for slaves to work the land also increased.
    3. The "Cotton Kingdom" benefited the North as well since most of the South's cotton was woven on Northern looms.
    4. In 1845, cotton made up 1/2 of all American exports. Also, 1/2 of the world's cotton was grown in the American South. (These numbers would each swell to 2/3 in 1861, the year the Civil War began).
      1. Notably, Britain relied heavily on Southern cotton. About 1/5 of the British population made their living in the cotton textile industry. 3/4 of the British cotton came from the American South.
    5. Southerners believed their importance in the world's economy was set in stone. If war were to break out over slavery, the logic went, Southerners were sure that Britain would have no choice but to come to their aid. This logic, though sensible based on the numbers, never panned out.
  2. The Planter “Aristocracy”
    1. The antebellum (pre-Civil War) South was an oligarchy (government by a few elite).
    2. Only 1,733 families owned 100+ slaves in 1850. They ruled the South in a "cottonocracy."
      1. Southern society is shrouded in myths. The scene, often shown in movies, of huge plantations with the Greek-columned "big house" overseeing hundreds of slaves was true, but only for those 1,733 families.
    3. These elite families sent their sons off to Ivy League schools or to military schools like West Point, the Citadel, or VMI. The Southern belles were expected to marry and eventually run the plantation household.
      1. Education in the South was lacking. This was because the rich elite simply hired private tutors and were thus unmotivated to establish free public schools.
    4. Sir Walter Scott was the author of Ivanhoe and was very popular to Southerners. They liked the medieval world described in the novel and especially its code of chivalry with knights and damsels. In the Southern-elite mind, Southern society was rekindling medieval society with military-trained, bright, and dashing young Southern gentlemen and the gentile Southern belles. Though real in the elite Southern mind, this society was also myth. And even if it came close to being real, it was still built on the backs of slaves.
    5. Southern women had unique roles.
      1. The mistress of the plantation managed the household. It was a large job where she gave daily orders to cooks, maids, seamstresses, laundresses, etc. as well as handling any personal issues that inevitably arise with a large "staff."
        1. Though clearly to "take a backseat to the men" in terms of politics or officially running a business, these Southern women had real authority in running these areas as they saw fit. Few Northern women had such positions or authority.
      2. The mistresses were sometimes very kind to their subjects and at other times very cruel.
  3. Slaves of the Slave System
    1. High cotton profits encouraged "land-butchery." New cotton land was always needed.
    2. With the desire for more land, the small farmer began to get squeezed out. The small farm was often sold to the large plantation owner. Thus, the elite-run oligarchy society was perpetuated and reinforced.
    3. The King Cotton economy had faults…
      1. Debts began to run high since many people over-speculated in land or in slaves. Slaves were profitable (due to their value), but were also risky since they might run away or die.
      2. The Southern economy was based on one crop only—cotton. This was profitable, but also risky by "putting all their eggs in one basket."
      3. Similarly, Southerners relied on the North for nearly everything, from manufactured goods to food.
      4. Also, immigrants did not go to the South. The reasons were (a) labor competition from slaves, (b) the high price of land, and (c) ignorance of cotton cultivation. These hard-working immigrants wound up helping the North solely, at the South's expense.
  4. The White Majority
    1. Southern society had a social ranking system. The elite, large slave-owners were at the top.
    2. On the rung just below the "cottonocracy," were small farmers who owned slaves. About 3/4 of Southern whites did not own slaves, and of the quarter that did, most owned only about 2 or 3 slaves, usually a family.
    3. Next came whites who did not own slaves (3/4 of whites). An irony exists in that (a) they had a deep resent of the wealthy slave owners (the "snobocracy") yet (b) still held the "Southern dream" of one day becoming a wealthy slave owner.
      1. Most of these whites were very poor. They were sneered as "poor white trash," "hillbillies," and "crackers."
      2. They were called "clay eaters" because they chewed clay to get minerals they lacked in their diet. They also got hookworm from the clay.
      3. Though slave-less, these whites were very racist. Their thinking was that no matter how poor or how bad off they had it in life, they still viewed themselves as being above the slaves.
      4. Whites that lived in the mountains (hillbillies) likely had the toughest life of all whites. They were incredibly isolated, living in coves and hollows separated from the rest of the nation. They were extremely poor and scratched a living out of the mountains.
        1. Mountains whites were not strong supporters of slavery, if even supporters at all. They (a) had no need for slavery in the mountains and (b) despised the wealthy white plantation owners who usually ran their state.
        2. The fact that mountain whites didn't support slavery can be seen when the Civil War broke out. West Virginia broke away from Virginia over this matter. And, many whites from the hills "volunteered" to fight for the North (as in Tennessee, the "Volunteer State").
  5. Free Blacks: Slaves Without Masters
    1. The next rung on the Southern social ladder belonged to free blacks. In 1860, there were 250,000 free blacks in the South.
    2. Slaves may have been freed by one of many methods…
      1. By a movement of emancipation after the American Revolution (usually the upper South).
      2. By the slave owner. These were usually mulattoes, often the child of a white owner and black mistress.
      3. By purchasing one's freedom. If a slave could save enough money, he could just buy himself, so to speak and thereby free himself.
    3. Many freed blacks owned property, as in New Orleans. A few blacks even owned slaves.
    4. Free blacks were 2nd, or 3rd, class citizens. The pro-slavery crowd didn't like them since they represented the possible end of slavery. Also, free blacks rights were certainly limited compared to whites.
    5. Northerners disliked free blacks as well. The Irish especially disliked blacks since both were in competition for the lower paying jobs.
      1. When the North stood up to stop the expansion of slavery into western lands, it was perhaps motivated more by economics of labor competition than by the desire to stop slavery.
      2. The idea that the South hated blacks and the North loved them is a myth. Anti-black sentiment in the North was often fiercer than the South. It was said that the South liked the black individual (with whom they lived daily), but hated the race; but the North claimed to like the race (with whom they'd never lived), but hated the individual.
      3. Frederick Douglass, the leading spokesperson for blacks and against slavery, was beaten several times in the North.
  6. Plantation Slavery This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. At the bottom of the Southern social ladder were slaves. Though slaves were at the bottom in status, slavery (AKA the "peculiar institution") made up the foundation of Southern economics and society.
    2. By 1860, there were 4 million slaves in America.
    3. Slave importation had been banned in 1808, but it was a moot point. Slaves were still smuggled into America and penalties for doing so were infrequent. Also, by this time, slavery was self-supporting through natural childbirth.
    4. Slaves were viewed as an investment—one to be guarded. The most dangerous jobs were saved for a hired Irishman so as to not injure a valuable slave.
      1. Strong, hard-working men, slaves with special skills, or women who gave birth to many children were especially prized.
    5. Slavery followed the "Cotton Belt"—an arc swooping from Virginia down through to Texas. The heart of the Cotton Belt was from South Carolina to Louisiana, the "Deep South."
      1. Slaves from the upper South were sometimes "sold down the river" to the Deep South.
      2. This theme (being sold down the river) became the storyline for Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin.
        1. The book was fiction that played on readers' emotions to swell up the abolition movement.
        2. Its impact cannot be understated and was a considerable cause of the war.
  7. Life Under the Lash
    1. Life as a slave is hard to pin down. Sometimes a slave had a kind master, sometimes the master was extremely cruel.
      1. In all situations, a slave was expected to work hard and abide by the rules.
    2. Whippings were not uncommon.
      1. On the one hand, whippings were a disincentive to getting "out of line."
      2. On the other hand, excessive whippings left scars which would hurt a slave's resale value.
    3. Generally, life in the Deep South was tougher than the upper South.
      1. The Deep South (the Cotton of Slave Belt) accounted for about 75% of the black population.
      2. On the good side, slave life and families tended to be more stable there.
    4. Despite huge obstacles, blacks showed great resilience.
      1. A distinctive African-American culture emerged. This was played out through a mixture of language, religion (mix of tribalism and Christianity, focus on Moses' story), and music (bongos, banjos, then jazz).
  8. The Burdens of Bondage
    1. Slaves had no part in the "American dream" that nearly all other Americans enjoyed.
    2. To "fight back," slaves employed techniques such as simply working very slowly.
    3. The ultimate goal of slaves, unsurprisingly, was freedom.
      1. This is seen in slaves' preference in religion for Moses' story of delivering the Israelites from bondage and in hymns that emphasized "flying away" or the freedoms provided by Jesus and of Heaven.
      2. Also, slave revolts occurred.
        1. Gabriel led a revolt in Virginia.
        2. Denmark Vesey led a revolt in South Carolina.
        3. Nat Turner was considered something of a prophet and led a revolt in Virginia.
        4. All of these were unsuccessful and wound up terribly for the leaders. The overall result was to (a) scare the dickens out of the whites and (b) see the whites tighten security and black codes.
    4. Booker T. Washington later noted that whites, in keeping blacks down in the ditch, had to get down into the ditch with them.
  9. Early Abolitionism
    1. The abolition of slavery began in America with the Quakers.
    2. The American Colonization Society started with the goal of moving blacks back to Africa.
      1. It succeeded in starting Liberia on the West Africa coast.
      2. It failed because (a) most blacks considered themselves African-Americans, not Africans and (b) finances for the entire venture were very short for the huge task.
    3. The 2nd Great Awakening of the 1830's fueled a surge in the abolition movement.
      1. Theodore Dwight Weld was inspired by Charles Grandison Finney's preaching and became a leading anti-slavery spokesman.
      2. Weld attended the Lane Theological Seminary which was headed by Lyman Beecher, the father of novelist Harriet Beecher Stowe, reformer Catharine Beecher and preacher-abolitionist Henry Ward Beecher.
      3. The "Lane Rebels" fought slavery with words. Weld wrote a propaganda pamphlet titled American Slavery as It Is.
  10. Radical Abolitionism
    1. William Lloyd Garrison published a radical abolitionist newspaper titled The Liberator.
      1. It made its debut on New Year's Day, 1831, and forcefully shouted against slavery for the next 30 years. Garrison's famous battle cry was I WILL BE HEARD!
      2. Critics charged that Garrison fanned the flames of anti-slavery, but offered no real solution.
    2. Wendell Phillips helped start the American Abolitionist Society to further the cause.
    3. A black abolitionist, David Walker, wrote Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World urged military action to end slavery.
    4. Another black abolitionist, Sojourner Truth, was a tireless spokeswoman for abolition and women's rights.
    5. Martin Delaney seriously considered black colonization of Africa.
    6. The greatest abolitionist was Frederick Douglass.
      1. Douglass was a former slave who escaped to Massachusetts and became the cause's leading spokesman.
      2. His autobiography Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass became a classic and remains so to this day.
      3. Unlike Garrison, Douglass was more practical. He supported the Liberty Party, the Free-Soil Party, and then the Republican Party.
    7. Finally, nearly all of the abolitionists supported the Civil War as the final solution to end slavery.
  11. The South Lashes Back
    1. 1831 was a turning point for slavery in the South because (a) emancipation proposals were defeated in Virginia and (b) Nat Turner's bloody rebellion scared whites into tightening black codes.
      1. Garrison's The Liberator popped on the scene at about the same time and was blamed for fanning the flames of rebellion. Rewards were offered for Garrison's arrest.
    2. Whereas Northerners decried the horrors of the "peculiar institution", white Southerners cultivated a happier scene of slavery. Southerners defended slavery by arguing…
      1. The Bible supported slavery. They referred to the several references of slaves in the Bible and more specifically the "curse of Ham", Noah's son and supposed patriarch of Africa, who was cursed to serve his brothers.
      2. Slave owners encouraged religion amongst their slaves.
      3. The idea of whites and happy "darkies" growing up and living together. This concept was best seen in the Stephen Foster folk songs such as "Old Folks at Home" and "My Old Kentucky Home" which sings that "the darkies are so gay."
      4. The slave-owner relationship was akin to family ties, like a father-son relationship.
      5. Perhaps the most forceful argument was economic in nature. It held that slaves had it better in comparison to Northern "wage slaves." Whereas the slaves were provided with food, clothing, shelter, and the owner had a vested interest in the slave, even when the slaves were old, Northern factory owners simply worked their employees for a tiny wage, then sent them on their way home to fend for themselves, or just fired them.
    3. Southern politicians took steps to silence anti-slavery statements or literature. Gag orders were given and abolitionist propaganda, including drawings that illiterate slaves could understand, was burnt.
  12. The Abolitionist Impact in the North
    1. The extreme-abolitionists up North, like William Lloyd Garrison, were not popular amongst most Northerners.
      1. Garrison's views were seen as annoying, disruptive, and divisive to Daniel Webster's calls for union.
    2. Northerners also knew they had a very real stake in the South—Southern cotton helped fuel the Northern textile industry. For this reason, many Northerners sought to quiet the loud abolitionists.
      1. Garrison was roughed up several times up North.
      2. Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy offended Catholic women and saw his printing press destroyed four times then was murdered by a mob.
    3. Still, abolitionists had imprinted into Northerners' minds that the South was the land of the "unfree". And, there was a growing movement among politicians not to abolish slavery, but to prevent its spread. This "free-soil" position would soon be taken up by Abraham Lincoln.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 17 - Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy

  1. The Accession of “Tyler Too”
    1. William Henry Harrison, the Whig president elected in 1840, suddenly died after only one month in office.
    2. Harrison's campaign slogan had been "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too." Now, with Tippecanoe dead, it was Tyler's turn to be president.
      1. John Tyler was not part of the Whig plan. Whig leaders Henry Clay and Daniel Webster had intended to control President Harrison. But, Tyler had a strong independent streak.
      2. Tyler did not share Whig beliefs. He'd been chosen as V.P. to "balance the ticket" by attracting elite Southerners.
    3. John Tyler was a bit of an enigma, very difficult to figure out.
      1. He was a Southern gentlemen of the old school, with high principles.
      2. He leaned toward Jefferson/Jackson ideals, but disliked Jackson's my-way-or-highway style. So he went to the Whigs.
      3. The Whigs considered him a Democrat in Whig clothing. And in truth, his ideas did align much more with the Democrats than with the Whigs.
  2. John Tyler: A President Without a Party
    1. The Whigs went ahead with their strong nationalistic plans. Up first was the banking issue.
      1. Whigs, led by Henry Clay, wanted to end the independent treasury (where government money was kept in independent banks). A law was passed to end it, and Tyler went along and signed it.
      2. Clay then sought to make a new Bank of the United States. This time, Tyler vetoed it. He then vetoed another similar bill.
      3. Democrats were very happy, the Whigs were furious. The Whigs kicked Tyler out of the Whig party. Thus he became a president without a party.
    2. The tariff was the next issue to be bounced around.
      1. The Whigs passed a tariff bill, but Tyler also vetoed it. He disliked the fact that the sale of western lands would be spread around among the states.
      2. The Whigs took out the offensive part, lowered the tariff a bit, and Tyler signed the newer tariff bill.
  3. A War of Words with England
    1. American-English hatred still ran deep and a few events deepened the wounds.
      1. A war of words began between writers across the ocean.
      2. British lenders were angry when American debtors couldn't or wouldn't pay up after the Panic of 1837.
    2. Other incidents were more violent.
      1. The U.S. ship Caroline was attacked above Niagara Falls by Canadians. America was not pleased.
      2. Later, a Canadian named McLeod boasted of helping in the attack, was arrested by Americans, and condemned to execution. Canada said to carry out the sentence would be to declare war. He came up with an alibi and was released.
      3. Another situation arose in the Bahamas when the American ship Creole was overtaken by 130 slaves. The British gave the slaves asylum (safe haven). Southern Americans were not happy.
  4. Manipulating the Maine Maps
    1. A dispute arose over between the U.S. and Britain over the Maine-Canada border.
      1. Britain wanted a road built from the Atlantic port of Halifax through to Quebec.
      2. The U.S. wanted the land.
    2. The dispute became violent in the Aroostook War, largely by lumberjacks fighting on each side over who'd get to chop down the lumber.
    3. The dispute was settled peacefully with the Webster-Ashburton Treaty between Daniel Webster and Lord Ashburton.
      1. The treaty drew a line generally at the Aroostook River and roughly split the difference of land.
      2. The U.S. also got the Mesabi range in Minnesota. Unbeknownst then, the Mesabi iron ore range became an extremely valuable piece of land and helped supply the American industrial revolution's need for iron ore to make steel.
  5. The Lone Star of Texas Shines Alone
    1. Since 1836, Texas was standing alone as its own country. It was eager to join the U.S., but the North was reluctant to accept another slave state.
    2. Meanwhile, Texas was making international friends in Britain, France, Belgium, and Holland. This concerned the U.S.
    3. The American thinking then wondered that, if Texas "buddied-up" with England, the results would be…
      1. American cotton would decline in value since Texas would supply England.
      2. The Monroe Doctrine would be undercut because England would have a toehold in the Americas.
    4. The urge to annex Texas grew. The issues still were…
      1. The North decried the Southern "slavocracy" (a perceived Southern "slave-conspiracy" to always gain more slave land).
      2. If the U.S. just outright annexed Texas, the result just might be a war with Mexico.
      3. Britain was eager to have an ally in Texas to help undercut the growing American power.
      4. The obvious benefits, however, of annexing Texas would be tons of land and economic possibilities.
  6. The Belated Texas Nuptials
    1. The indecision came to an end with James K. Polk. In 1844, Polk ran for president on a very clear pro-expansion platform.
    2. His victory was seen as a "mandate" for manifest destiny (the people essentially voted for expansion). Early in 1845 Texas was invited to join the U.S. and did so.
    3. Unsurprisingly, Mexico was not happy and charged that the U.S. had underhandedly stolen Texas away.
  7. Oregon Fever Populates Oregon
    1. Oregon was claimed by four nations: Spain, Russia, England, and the U.S. The first two dropped their claims leaving England and America.
      1. England had the earliest claim and a strong one based on occupation north of the Columbia River.
      2. The U.S. also had a strong claim based on the exploration of Capt. Robert Gray along the coast and Columbia River and Lewis and Clark's expedition into the heart of the Oregon territory.
    2. For years English and American settlers simply shared Oregon side-by-side. In the early 1840's, however, "Oregon fever" struck many Americans and they followed the Oregon Trail out west.
    3. With the population growing, it was becoming clear that a settlement must be reached as to who owned Oregon.
  8. A Mandate (?) for Manifest Destiny
    1. In the election of 1844, James K. Polk defeated Henry Clay for president.
    2. Polk was known as "Young Hickory" (after Andrew Jackson) due to his similar beliefs and his birth in Pineville, NC only some 20 miles from Jackson's birthplace.
    3. Polk ran on a very clear "Manifest Destiny" platform. To vote for Polk was to vote for expansion.
      1. Polk's victory was perceived by him as a "mandate" by the American people—an order to go ahead with expansion of the United States.
  9. Polk the Purposeful This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. James K. Polk laid out a 4-point mission for himself and the nation (then achieved all 4 points in 4 years). His goals were to…
      1. Lower the tariff.
      2. Restore the independent treasury (put U.S. money into non-government banks).
      3. Clear up the Oregon border issue.
      4. Get California.
    2. Polk and his Sec. of Treasury Robert J. Walker lowered the tariff from 32% to 25% with the help of Southerners in Congress. Northern industrialists cried foul and warned of economic despair (it never happened).
    3. The independent treasury was restored despite complaints of Whigs.
    4. The Oregon border issue was settled. England and the U.S. asked, "Which latitude is the border of Oregon, as far north as 54°40' or as far south as 42°?"
      1. England first answered "42° latitude," then said the "Columbia River."
      2. The U.S. first answered "54°40' latitude," ("54-40 or fight!" was the battle cry), then said "49° latitude."
      3. Things were tense for a while, but England realized there were more Americans in Oregon than Brits. British leverage was small in Oregon and diminishing every day as more and more Americans were moving out there.
      4. The agreement was to roughly split the land at the 49th parallel (excluding Vancouver). Polk agreed and the Senate agreed and it was final.
      5. Some Americans wondered why the U.S. would agree to half of Oregon but push for all of the Mexican lands. The answer was coldly that England was strong and Mexico was weak.
  10. Misunderstandings with Mexico
    1. The final goal, getting California, posed a problem—it belonged to Mexico.
    2. The American tradition in acquiring land was forming—(a) the U.S. tries to buy the land, if that doesn't work, (b) the U.S. would use force. These are the actions Polk took.
    3. Polk sent John Slidell as an envoy to Mexico City to make an offer to purchase California for $25 million. Mexico was still upset at the U.S. over Texas and Slidell was coldly turned away.
    4. The attempt to purchase had failed; it was time for more aggressive actions.
  11. American Blood on American (?) Soil
    1. President Polk wanted action. He ordered 4,000 troops to the Rio Grande border. Mexico disputed the move saying the Texas-Mexico border was the Nueces River, not the Rio Grande.
    2. With "the ball was in their court," Mexico crossed the Rio Grande and a skirmish followed with the U.S. troops. Polk could now point to Mexico as the aggressor.
      1. Polk quickly asked Congress to declare war and Congress quickly did so.
      2. A newcomer on the scene was Abraham Lincoln. Abe questioned the "spot" on which the skirmish took place in his "spot resolution". He was reluctant to vote for war since he wanted to know which nation owned the disputed land. He was largely booed down.
      3. Arguments flew as to whether Polk had bullied the U.S. into a war, but never-the-less, America was at war.
  12. The Mastering of Mexico
    1. Santa Anna "pulled a fast one" on Polk, however. Santa Anna was exiled in Cuba but hinted that if he was allowed to return to Mexico he'd double-cross his country. Polk let him go but he did just the opposite—he rallied the troops.
    2. The American victory over Mexico was dominating. The war itself could be divided into 3 main phases…
      1. Phase 1 - The initial goal was to get California, so that was the first order of business.
        1. Gen. Stephen W. Kearny and 1,700 troops marched from Ft. Leavenworth southward to the present New Mexico/Mexico border, then he headed west to San Diego. He effectively marked off the present border of the U.S.
        2. Kearny was joined in California by Cpt. John C. Fremont who took California and proclaimed the "Bear Flag Republic". Commodore Sloat came by boat with the U.S. Navy to secure California for good.
      2. Phase 2 - Fighting in Texas saw Gen. Zachary Taylor score victories, notably at Buena Vista where Santa Anna was defeated again.
      3. Phase 3 - Conquest of Mexico City. Gen. Winfield Scott ("Old Rough and Ready") was sent to Mexico City to deliver the coup d'grace. He retraced Hernando Cortez's same path from Vera Cruz to Mexico City and likewise conquered the capital city.
  13. Fighting Mexico for Peace
    1. Polk sent a diplomat, Nicholas Trist, along with Gen. Winfield Scott's army. Trist was to secure a peace deal as soon as Polk's demands were met.
      1. Trist was erratic, recalled by Polk, refused to return to America, and worked a deal anyway.
    2. Trist's deal, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had a huge scope…
      1. It ended the war.
      2. America got land, the Mexican Cession, entailing California, but also the future states of NV, AZ, NM, CO, and UT.
      3. The U.S. would pay $15 million for the land, and assume $3.5 million in debts owed from Mexico to the U.S.
      4. In essence, the U.S. had forced Mexico to "sell" the Mexican Cession lands.
  14. Profit and Loss in Mexico
    1. America had only 13,000 deaths, mostly by disease.
    2. The Mexican War was good practice for future generals Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant who'd one day clash in the Civil War.
    3. The war started a turning point in American-Latin relations, a turning point for the bad.
    4. The most looming issue after the war was the question, "What will be done about slavery in these new lands?"
      1. David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso suggesting the Mexican Cession lands be closed to slavery. The House passed it, twice, but the South would have nothing to do with the Proviso. Since the Senate was balanced, the Wilmot Proviso failed in the Senate.
        1. Although it failed, the importance of the Wilmot Proviso lay in the fact that it opened old wounds—those of slavery.
        2. It's this question of slavery in the new lands that would start the Civil War in 1861, only 13 years later.
    5. Mexico was understandably bitter. Half their lands had been wrested from them in only a couple of decades.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 18 - Renewing the Sectional Struggle

  1. The Popular Sovereignty Panacea
    1. The Mexican Cession lands opened a "can of worms" with the question, "What should be done about slavery in these lands?"
    2. Further, with this question, the political parties (Whig and Democrat) were put into a tricky position. No matter which way they answered, half of the nation would be offended.
      1. Largely, the parties simply chose to side-step the slavery-expansion question (give no clear answer) so as to offend no one, hopefully.
    3. In the election of 1848, Polk was ailing and would not run again.
      1. The Democrats nominated Gen. Lewis Cass who'd spoken previously for popular sovereignty (the people of a territory should decide and issue for themselves).
      2. The popular sovereignty position was well-liked by politicians since it enabled them to take a neutral stance and rather say, "Let the people decide." During the campaign, however, he kept rather silent on slavery.
  2. Political Triumphs for General Taylor
    1. The Whigs nominated Gen. Zachary Taylor in 1848. He had no political experience but was the "hero of Buena Vista" which went a long way—he won the election.
      1. Taylor put the question of slavery expansion on the back burner and essentially had no official position on it.
    2. Notable in 1848 was the Free Soil Party that emerged when many Northerners were upset that neither party took a position on the expansion of slavery. They nominated Martin Van Buren and their position was clearly against the expansion of slavery.
      1. The Free Soilers also favored federal money for internal improvements and free land for settlers out west.
      2. The party attracted a wide mix of people: (a) folks upset over getting only 1/2 of Oregon, (b) people who didn't want blacks in the new lands, and (c) northern abolitionists who didn't like slavery.
  3. “Californy Gold”
    1. At Sutter's Mill in 1848, gold was discovered. The secret was quickly out and California gold rush was on.
    2. The next year, 1849, "Forty-Niners" flooded to California. Dreams of getting rich quick nearly always turned into either going bust or the constant hard work of moving dirt involved in mining.
      1. Perhaps more people made their fortunes out of the myriad of things needed to accompany the miners: general stores, lumberyards, bars, barbershops, bakeries, opera-houses for entertainment, etc.
    3. The overall result of the gold rush was that California had enough people to become a state, almost overnight. It applied to be a free state and thus threatened the 15-to-15 slave-to-free balance.
  4. Sectional Balance and the Underground Railroad
    1. By 1850, the South and slavery was on solid ground because (a) the president (Zachary Taylor) was a Virginia slave owner born/raised in Louisiana, (b) though outnumbered in the House, the South had equality in the Senate and could therefore block any unwanted laws, and (c) the Constitution favored the South (this would later be upheld in the Dred Scott case).
    2. Even though on solid ground, the South felt they were under attack or upset over the following issues…
      1. The proposition of California as a free state threatened the free/slave state balance.
      2. Texas had a disputed region, again, this time into the New Mexico/Colorado/Wyoming area.
      3. Northerners were pushing hard to abolish slavery in Washington D.C.
      4. And most bothersome to the South was the issue of runaway slaves. The Fugitive Slave Law was supposed to "round up" runaways up North and ship them back South. This was largely not being done and the South took it as a personal offense.
          1. The Underground Railroad was a secret route from "station to station" that led many slaves to the North and eventually to Canada. Harriet Tubman was the most well-known "conductor" of the "railroad." She snuck back into the South 19 times and led some 300+ slaves to freedom.
    3. With these hot issues heating up, political compromise was needed to avoid violent conflict.
  5. Twilight of the Senatorial Giants
    1. California's request to be a free state forced all of these issues onto the Congressional floor.
    2. The 3 leading senators of the past decades had one more round of greatness in them…
      1. Henry Clay was known as the "Great Compromiser" and offered a compromise here. He was notably seconded by a young Senator Stephen Douglas who will take a larger role in events later. Clay urged both sides to make concessions and to compromise.
      2. For the South, John C. Calhoun argued for states' rights (the same argument as in the tariff crisis of the 1830's). He wanted slavery to be left alone, the runaway slaves to be returned to the South, and state balance kept intact.
      3. For the North, Daniel Webster had been opposed to slavery's expansion. But, in his famous "Seventh of March" speech he urged the North to compromise on the issue. He felt that the lands of the Mexican Cession were too dry to grow cotton and therefore wouldn't need slavery anyway.
          1. Abolitionists, like poet Whittier, sharply criticized Webster as a traitor to the cause.
  6. Deadlock and Danger on Capitol Hill
    1. A "Young Guard" of politicians were emerging in Congress. They were more interested in purifying the nation than in preserving it.
    2. Chief among the Young Guard was William H. Seward of NY. He was staunchly against slavery and argued that, when it came to slavery, Americans must follow a "higher law" (God's law), above the Constitution.
      1. This moral high road may have cost Seward the presidency in 1860.
    3. Pres. Zachary Taylor came under Seward influence. He appeared ready to veto any concessions on the matter. The chance for compromise seemed bleak.
  7. Breaking the Congressional Logjam
    1. Suddenly, Pres. Taylor died. Vice-President Millard Fillmore took over and was more open to compromise.
    2. The Compromise of 1850 emerged.
      1. Senate leaders Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and Stephen Douglas all urged the North to compromise.
      2. Southern "fire-eaters" were still very much a against concession/compromise. Yet, calmer minds prevailed, the South went along, and the Compromise of 1850 passed.
  8. Balancing the Compromise Scales This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. What the North got…
      1. California admitted as a free state. This tipped the balance to the free side, permanently.
      2. Texas gave up its claims to lands disputed with New Mexico.
      3. The slave trade in District of Columbia was banned, but slavery was still legal. This was symbolic only. It was symbolic in that the nation’s capital “took a stance” against the trade. However, it was impractical because the trade only was illegal, not slavery, and since a person could easily buy a slave in next-door Virginia.
    2. What the South got…
      1. Popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession lands. This was good for the South because prior to this, there was to be no new slave lands (the 36°30’ Missouri Compromise line had drawn that). On paper, this opened a lot of land to slavery, possibly. This was bad for the South because those lands were too dry to raise cotton anyway and therefore would never see slaves.
      2. Texas was paid $10 million for the land lost to New Mexico.
      3. A new, tougher Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 had read teeth in it. Details held that (a) runaway slaves weren't given "due process" rights if caught, (b) the official that handled the case received $5 for a slave's freedom but $10 for a slave's return, and (c) officials were demanded to catch runaway slaves despite their personal convictions on the matter.
          1. This Fugitive Slave Law proved to the be most controversial of the measures.
          2. Northerners hated being forced to catch slaves. In places, they passed "Personal Liberty Laws" which stated local officials didn't have to chase and return fugitive slaves.
          3. Southerners were outraged that the law was not enforced or was ignored. It was supposed to be one of their major concessions in the Compromise, and it appeared to have been thrown out the window.
          4. Anthony Burns personified the law. He was a runaway slave, captured and tried. But, violent protests eventually saw him bought out of slavery. He then went on to college and became a preacher.
    3. All told, the North got the better of the Compromise of 1850. This is true because (a) the balance tipped their way, (b) the Fugitive Slave Law was largely not enforced, and (c) it bought time before war while the North could build up their resources.
  9. Defeat and Doom for the Whigs
    1. In the election of 1852, the Democrats nominated unknown Franklin Pierce. Pierce was not a great leader, but had no enemies.
    2. The Whigs put Gen. Winfield Scott ("Old Fuss and Feathers"), the hero of the Mexican War, on the ballot.
    3. The largest issue of the day, slavery, was soft-pedaled so as to not offend anyone. As a result, the campaign was full of silliness and personal attacks.
      1. Slavery did split the Whigs, however. Northern and Southern Whigs disagreed on the party platform and the party candidate.
      2. Additionally, the new Free Soil Party garnered 5% of the Northern vote (hurting Scott).
    4. As a result, Pierce won in a landslide, 254 to 42 in the electoral vote.
  10. Expansionist Stirrings South of the Border
    1. The California Gold Rush had instilled interest in Central America (since many 49'ers had crossed there). And, the British influence in Central America was strong, and perhaps growing, despite the Monroe Doctrine.
      1. There were some U.S.-British tensions, but the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty eased them. It said neither the U.S. or Britain would take over the area without the other's agreement. This would later prove to be a roadblock to Teddy Roosevelt's construction of the Panama Canal.
    2. Activities in Latin America succeeded in throwing fuel on the “slavocracy” theory (a conspiracy theory where the South was supposedly always seeking to add new slave lands).
      1. In the summer of 1856, Southerner William Walker tried to take over Nicaragua. He did so, sort of, named himself president, legalized slavery, and wished for Pres. Pierce to annexed the region. Meanwhile, Nicaraguans reclaimed their land and executed him.
      2. Southerners also looked to Cuba.
          1. Americans offered to buy Cuba from Spain but were turned down. So, in 1850-51, two groups of filibusteros ("freebooters" or pirates including some leading Southerners) invaded Cuba. Their half-baked plan was to somehow take over and claim Cuba for the U.S. They failed miserably.
          2. In 1854, Cubans seized the American ship Black Warrior on a technical issue. Pierce then had a reason to go to war, if he wished, and win Cuba.
          3. Meanwhile though, Pierce sent delegates to speak with Spain, England, and France in Ostend, Belgium to make a deal. The Ostend Manifesto said the U.S. would offer $120 million for Cuba, and if Spain rejected it, the U.S. would be justified in taking Cuba by force.
          4. When the Ostend Manifesto details leaked out, Northern free-soilers were up-in-warms. The slavocracy theory seemed more real than ever with these secret dealings. As a result, Pierce backed away from the deal embarrassed.
  11. The Allure of Asia
    1. Following the British example, America sought to expand her influence in Asia.
    2. Pres. Tyler sent Caleb Cushing to China to work a deal favorable to the U.S. An agreement was reached to start diplomatic relations and grant "most favored nation" status to the U.S. (opening up trade).
      1. The door also opened for thousands of American missionaries to spread the Gospel in China.
    3. Next, the U.S. wanted to link up with Japan.
      1. Since Japan was a traditional country that considered westerners to be heathens, they were reluctant to deal with the Americans.
      2. The U.S. sent Commodore Matthew Perry to Tokyo in 1852-54. Through a mix of diplomacy and threat, Perry got Japan to open itself to trade in the Treaty of Kanagawa.
      3. This broke Japan’s centuries-old traditional of isolation, and started them down a road of modernization and then imperialism and militarism.
  12. Pacific Railroad Promoters and the Gadsden Purchase
    1. After gaining California and Oregon, Americans wanted a transcontinental railroad to link the east and west coasts.
    2. Both the North and South clamored to have the line built in their region (for prestige and financial success). The Southern route was eventually chosen as best.
      1. There were two reasons the Southern route was considered better: (1) the land was organized meaning any Indian attacks could be repelled by the U.S. Army and (2) geography—the plan was to skirt south of the Rocky Mountains.
      2. There was one problem: a portion of the land ran through Mexico.
    3. James Gadsden was sent to Mexico to work a deal for the land. The Gadsden Purchase bought the southern chunk of present Arizona and New Mexico for $10 million, a hefty price tag in comparison to other "purchases."
    4. Regardless of the price, the transcontinental railroad seemed ready to be built with Southerners happy.
  13. Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Scheme
    1. Stephen Douglas threw a wrench in the railroad plans. Being an Illinois senator, he wanted the railroad up north with Chicago as a major terminus.
    2. He proposed to organize Kansas and Nebraska through the Kansas-Nebraska Act and move the transcontinental railroad up north.
    3. Southerners certainly wouldn't do this, unless they got something substantial in return. The stage was set for a deal to be made…
      1. The North got the transcontinental railroad moved up North. Also, Kansas and Nebraska were officially organized as territories.
      2. The South was awarded popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska. To do this, the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was repealed (because it forbade slavery above the 36°30’ line).
          1. Southerners were very happy with the possibility of slavery open to so many lands (the Mexican Cession excepting California, and now Kansas and Nebraska which had been closed to slavery).
          2. Slavocracy theorists said, "There goes the South again, always trying to get more slave land."
    4. Despite disagreement, the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed in 1856, repealed the Missouri Compromise, and opened Kansas and Nebraska to popular sovereignty.
  14. Congress Legislates a Civil War
    1. The Kansas-Nebraska Act may have had the railroad and compromise as its motivation, but it split the nation.
    2. It erased the Missouri Compromise and undercut the Compromise of 1850 because it re-opened the slavery issue.
    3. The Fugitive Slave Law was simply left to die by Northerners. This infuriated Southerners.
    4. The Democrats were split down the middle over the slavery issue.
    5. Another political party, the Republicans, were born. Republicans drew a wide group of people, but they essentially stole the Free Soil position against the expansion of slavery.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 19 - Drifting Toward Disunion

  1. Stowe and Helper: Literary Incendiaries
    1. Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852. It stirred the North's sense of morality against slavery and was a substantial catalyst toward war. When Lincoln met Stowe, he said, "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war."
      1. In one line, the novel was about the splitting up of a slave family and the mistreatment of likable Uncle Tom by a cruel slave master.
      2. The book was wildly popular, eventually selling millions of copies and becoming a stage play.
      3. Perceptions on the book differed: the North considered it as shedding light on the slaves' situations; the South said it was unfair and purely fiction since Stowe had never been down South and therefore had no idea of Southern reality.
      4. As important as helping start the war, Uncle Tom's Cabin helped prevent Britain from joining the war on the South's side. This had been the Southern plan all along, but British workers sympathized with Uncle Tom's plight and held back their government from helping keep Uncle Tom and friends down.
    2. The Impending Crisis of the South by Hinton Helper was written at the same time and also criticized slavery.
      1. Its criticism was not on a moral basis, however, but in more of an economic sense.
      2. Helper disliked blacks and aristocratic whites. He argued that slavery hurt non-slave owning whites in the South.
      3. No Southern publisher would print the book. A Northern publisher did and slave-owning white down South were worried. The book was banned down South but became something of a hit among abolitionist up North.
    3. Together, these books drove the North—South wedge deeper into the nation.
  2. The North-South Contest for Kansas
    1. Since it was opened to popular sovereignty and was perched to grow, Kansas became the new slavery battleground.
    2. The unspoken understanding during the Kansas-Nebraska Act was that Kansas would go slave and Nebraska free.
      1. But, Northerners were sending loads of settlers to Kansas. Organizations like the "New England Emigrant Aid Company" helped suit up the settlers, many carrying "Beecher's Bibles" (rifles) named after Rev. Henry Ward Beecher (Harriet's brother) who helped purchase them.
      2. To the South, it appeared the North was trying to "steal" the agreement through the popular sovereignty election.
    3. When the election rolled around, pro-Southern "border ruffians" jumped over from Missouri to Kansas to "vote early and vote often." The South "won" the election for Kansas to become a slave state and set up a government at Shawnee Mission.
      1. Free-soilers cried foul and set up their own government in Topeka.
      2. Thus, after the election, there were two governments: one slave and based on a bogus election, and one free and illegitimate.
    4. Things worsened when a roving gang of pro-slavery hoodlums, led by the outlaw William Clark Quantrill, shot up and burnt down free-soil Lawrence, Kansas. The slavery issue was certainly not solved.
  3. Kansas in Convulsion
    1. The violence continued when John Brown and men set out for revenge for Lawrence. At Pottawatomie Creek he killed and chopped up 5 slavery supporters.
      1. With the chaos and violence, Kansas was being called "Bleeding Kansas."
    2. Kansas had a large enough population by 1856 to apply for statehood. The pro-slavery government wrote up the Lecompton Constitution which could be approved "with" or "without slavery." But, even if "without slavery" were chosen, slave-owners already present would still be protected. Thus, Kansas would have slaves either way.
      1. Abolitionist felt this vote was bogus, boycotted the election, and thus the Lecompton Constitution passed "with" slavery. It was sent to Washington D.C. for approval.
      2. Pres. James Buchanan gave his approval, but the Senate had to approve the Constitution.
      3. Ironically, it was Stephen Douglas, the author of Kansas/Nebraska popular sovereignty, who led the opposition. Douglas felt the election wasn't true popular sovereignty due to the irregularities of the voting. His leadership got the Constitution shot dead in the water.
    3. The end results were (a) the Democratic party was terribly divided, (b) Kansas was now left in limbo—somewhere in between a territory and a state, and (c) the slavery question was still not answered.
  4. “Bully” Brooks and His Bludgeon
    1. Tension and passion from Bleeding Kansas worked into Congress. Sen. Charles Sumner (northern abolitionist) graphically criticized a South Carolina congressman.
    2. Preston Brooks, a fellow Congressman and relative the criticized, took offense to Sumner's comments. Brooks reasoned that he should challenge Sumner to a duel, but duels were only for gentlemen and Sumner's comments revealed that he was no gentleman. A beating was what Sumner deserved, at least as Brooks figured.
    3. So, "Bully" Preston Brooks whacked Charles Sumner over the head on the floor of Congress with a walking cane. Sumner was severely injured, and Brooks was expelled from Congress only to get re-elected in the next election.
    4. The results of this poor behavior were (a) Sumner's "Crime Against Kansas" speech became a rallying point for the North, (b) Brooks became something of a Southern cult hero, and (c) it became clear that compromise was now over (and replaced by Bleeding Kansas, name-calling, and cane-thwacking).
  5. “Old Buck” versus “The Pathfinder”
    1. The election of 1856 had three main candidates…
      1. The Democrats chose James Buchanan. He had considerable experience but was not affiliated with the growingly unpopular Kansas-Nebraska Act.
      2. The Republicans chose John C. Fremont, the "Pathfinder" and hero of the Mexican War.
      3. The American Party was a newcomer. They were better known by their nickname, the Know-Nothing Party. It was an anti-immigrant party that got its nickname by their supposed response of, "I know nothing," when asked if they were in the party.
    2. The election was ugly, complete with mudslinging and charges of conspiracy and scandal. Fremont was accused of being Catholic which hurt his votes.
  6. The Electoral Fruits of 1856
    1. James Buchanan won the election.
    2. Perhaps it was all for the better since Fremont's judgment and ability had come into question and since his loss opened the door for a much more capable Abe Lincoln four years later.
  7. The Dred Scott Bombshell This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. In March of 1857, the Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice Roger Taney, handed down the Dred Scott decision.
    2. Dred Scott was a Missouri slave whose owner moved (with Scott) to Illinois and Wisconsin, then back to Missouri. Dred Scott sued for his freedom arguing that since he'd lived in free states, he was free.
    3. The Dred Scott decision said…
      1. Dred Scott (and all slaves) was not a citizen and therefore not entitled to sue. In other words, he lost.
      2. The Court went further and said that a legislature/Congress cannot outlaw slavery. This was the bombshell statement.
      3. The Court then concluded the Missouri Compromise had been unconstitutional all along (because it’d banned slavery north of the 36° 30’ line and doing so was against the point #2 listed above).
    4. This was a huge victory for the South and it infuriated the North. The North-South wedge was driven deeper.
    5. The North—South scoreboard now favored the South, undeniably. The South had (1) the Supreme Court, (2) the president, and (3) the Constitution on its side. The North only had Congress (which was now banned from outlawing slavery).
    6. Evidence the Constitution favored the South…
      1. It's the Supreme Court that officially interprets the Constitution and they'd just said it favored the South in the Dred Scott decision.
      2. The 5th Amendment said Congress could not take away property, in this case, slaves.
      3. The South and slavery had the North in a "Catch-22" situation…
        1. It could be argued that slavery was in the Constitution by way of the Three-Fifths Compromise.
        2. It could be argued slavery was not in the Constitution since the word “slavery” indeed never was present, but using this argument, the 10th Amendment said anything not in the Constitution is left up to the states, and the Southern states would vote for slavery. Either way, if slavery was in or out, the North lost.
  8. The Financial Crash of 1857
    1. Adding to the chaos of the times was the Panic of 1857—yet another in the string of financial crunches that took place every 20 years in the 1800's.
    2. The economics of the situation weren't particularly bad, but the psychological fallout for a troubled time was very strong.
      1. Causes for this panic were: (a) inflation caused by California gold, (b) over-production of grain, and (c) over-speculation (the perennial cause), this time in land and railroads.
      2. The North was hit hardest. The South was largely unaffected, supposedly proving that cotton was indeed king.
    3. At the same time, a Homestead Act was passed by Congress but vetoed by Pres. Buchanan. It's goal was to provide 160 western acres for a nominal price.
      1. The fear was that it would drain Northern workers to the cheap land and Southerners feared the west would fill up with free-soilers.
    4. The tariff rate also went up due to the panic. The prior rates had recently been reduced to only 20%, due to Southern complaints, but the new law sent them right back up.
  9. An Illinois Rail-Splitter Emerges
    1. The Illinois Senate race of 1858 took the national spotlight. The Democrats put up Sen. Stephen Douglas and the Republicans put up Abraham Lincoln.
    2. Douglas was likely the "biggest name" Senator of the day and expected to easily be re-elected over backwoodsy Lincoln.
    3. Douglas was also considered the best debater of the time. Lincoln, however, had a homespun, down-home wit and logic about himself and was also a fine debater.
  10. The Great Debate: Lincoln Versus Douglas
    1. Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates and Douglas accepted. The "Lincoln-Douglas debates" were a series of seven debates spread across Illinois.
      1. Lincoln was the underdog in but proved that he could stand and argue toe-to-toe with Douglas.
    2. The most noteworthy debate took place at Freeport, IL.
      1. In Freeport, Lincoln essentially asked, “Mr. Douglas, if the people of a territory voted slavery down, despite the Supreme Court saying that they could not do so (point #2 of the Dred Scott decision), which side would you support, the people or the Supreme Court?” This put Douglas in a lose-lose situation—either way he decided, someone would be upset.
      2. Douglas (“Mr. Popular Sovereignty”) replied with his “Freeport Doctrine.” It said that, since ultimate power was held by the people, slavery should be banned if the people indeed voted it down, regardless of how the Supreme Court ruled.
    3. The Freeport Doctrine answer was solid, in Illinois (to answer otherwise would have cost Douglas votes). Douglas won the Illinois Senate race over Lincoln.
      1. But, the South turned against Douglas.
        1. Initially, the South had loved Douglas because he'd opened up so much land to popular sovereignty.
        2. Then, Douglas shot down Kansas' bid for statehood as a slave state—upsetting the South.
        3. Finally, the Freeport Doctrine infuriated the South when he turned his back on the Supreme Court’s pro-South, Dred Scott decision.
      2. The Freeport Doctrine ruined Douglas hopes to win the 1860 election for presidency, which had been his goal all along. Douglas had "won the battle but lost the war"—in winning the 1858 Illinois Senate election, it cost him the 1860 presidential election.
  11. John Brown: Murderer or Martyr?
    1. John Brown re-emerged in Harper's Ferry, Virginia with a wild plan to abolish slavery.
      1. His plan: to take over the federal arsenal in Harper's Ferry, pass out weapons to local slaves, initiate a huge revolt, and thus free the slaves.
      2. What happened: he and his men took over a building but were quickly holed up by Marines led by Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee. He was quickly captured, tried, convicted, sentenced to death, and hanged.
    2. Brown's death had a strong impact on the North and South.
      1. To the South, justice had been served to a man guilty of murder and treason. Southerners also felt his actions were typical of the radical North.
      2. Northern reactions varied from viewing Brown as having good intentions but terribly wrong actions, to seeing Brown as a martyr. Brown himself realized he could do more for abolition as a martyr than alive.
      3. Brown's martyr image was perpetuated by journalists, artists, and song-writers. They portrayed Brown as a man who died fighting against the injustice of slavery. True or not, the martyr image gave strength to the moral cause of abolition.
  12. The Disruption of the Democrats
    1. In the 1860 election, Democrats tried, and failed, to nominate a candidate at their convention in Charleston, SC. The party was squarely split over the slavery issue.
      1. Northern Democrats had a convention in Baltimore and nominated Stephen Douglas with a popular sovereignty position.
      2. Southern Democrats had their own Baltimore convention and nominated John C. Breckinridge with a pro-slavery position.
    2. The Know-Nothings nominated John Bell of Tennessee. They called themselves the Constitutional Union Party, and tried to mend fences by offering as their platform, simply, the Constitution.
  13. A Rail-Splitter Splits the Union
    1. The Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln, passing up on William "Higher Law" Seward who had too many enemies.
      1. The Republican strategy was to win the election without getting a single Southern vote—a bold plan.
      2. They were successful in bringing together a broad group including free-soilers (stopping slavery's expansion), manufacturers (a higher tariff), immigrants (rights), westerners (a Northwestern railroad), and farmers (cheap homesteading land).
    2. It's noteworthy that at this time, Lincoln was not an abolitionist, just a free-soiler. That is to say he wanted to stop the spread of slavery, but allow it where it currently existed.
  14. The Electoral Upheaval of 1860
    1. Lincoln got only 40% of the popular vote, yet he won the presidency.
    2. It was a very sectional race: the North went to Lincoln, the South to Breckinridge, the “middle-ground” to the middle-of-the-road candidate in Bell, and Missouri, neighbor of popular sovereignty Kansas, went to Douglas.
    3. Despite the presidency, the South was still standing strong.
      1. The South had a 5-to-4 majority in the Supreme Court.
      2. The Republicans didn't control either the House or Senate.
  15. The Secessionist Exodus
    1. During the campaign, South Carolina had pledged to secede from the union if Lincoln won. After Lincoln's victory, the question was whether S.C. would follow through or it they'd been just bluffing. They followed through and seceded in December of 1860.
      1. The "Deep South" (Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas) followed over the next six weeks prior to Lincoln's inauguration. Four other Southern states would leave the U.S. later.
      2. These states met in Montgomery, AL in February, 1861, and formed the "Confederate States of America".
      3. Jefferson Davis was elected as the president of the C.S.A.
    2. President Buchanan's actions (or inactions) during the secession were weak. He did little or nothing to stop the states from leaving the U.S.
      1. His rationale for inaction included (a) the need for troops out west to fight the Indians, (b) Northerners lack of will in using force, (c) holding onto the hope of a peaceful settlement, and (d) the idea that Lincoln would soon be the new president and this problem was essentially his to fix as he saw fit.
  16. The Collapse of Compromise
    1. A final attempt at compromise was made by James Henry Crittendon of Kentucky. His Crittendon Compromise proposed to extend the old Missouri Compromise line of 36°30’; north of the line would be free, south of it would be slave.
    2. "Honest" Abe Lincoln, however, had run on a free-soil pledge and was not going to back down on his pledge. The compromise fizzled without Lincoln's support.
    3. It certainly appeared by this time that compromise was dead and bloodshed was imminent.
  17. Farewell to Union
    1. The Southern states seceded because they felt their slave-based way-of-life was being threatened by the North's dominant numbers.
    2. Southerners also wrongly thought that the North would not take any action to stop the South from leaving.
    3. Southerners felt starting a new nation would enable them to mature economically—to grow their own industry, banking, shipping, etc.
    4. The South likened their situation to the American colonies of 1776 who'd broken away from England.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 20 - Girding for War: The North and the South

  1. The Menace of Secession
    1. Abraham Lincoln was sworn into office March 4, 1861. The backdrop of the occasion was the half-finished dome of the Capitol building—symbolic of the nation's fracture.
    2. At his inauguration, Lincoln made clear the primary goal of his presidency—bring the nation back together.
      1. He argued that dividing the country is impossible simply due to geographic reasons.
      2. If the South left, how much of the national debt should they take, Lincoln wondered? Or, what would be done about runaway slaves?
      3. And, Europe would love to see the U.S. split and therefore weaken itself. Was that something Americans were willing to allow?
    3. Again, Lincoln's goal throughout his presidency was to bring the nation back together.
  2. South Carolina Assails Fort Sumter
    1. The Civil War began at Ft. Sumter, S.C. (an island-fort at the mouth of Charleston Harbor).
      1. It remained a Northern fort, but its supplies were running out. Being surrounded by unfriendly Southerners, it'd have to either replenish its supplies or give itself over to the Confederacy.
      2. Lincoln sent a ship to supply the fort, but before it arrived, Southerners opened fire on Ft. Sumter on April 12, 1861. The war was on.
      3. The fort was shelled for over a day, then had to surrender.
    2. Lincoln's response to Ft. Sumter was sharp and clear…
      1. He issued a "call to arms" and called for 75,000 volunteers to join the military.
      2. He ordered a naval blockade of Southern ports. The blockade would be intact for the next 5 years until the war's end.
    3. Lincoln's actions prompted 4 more states (Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina) to secede and join the Deep South.
    4. The Confederate capital was then switched from Montgomery, AL to Richmond, Va.
  3. Brother’s Blood and Border Blood
    1. In between the North and South were the Border States of Missouri, Kentucky, and Maryland. The were critical for either side, since they would've greatly increased the South's population and industrial capabilities.
    2. They were called “border states” because…
      1. They were physically on the North-South border and…
      2. They were slave-states that hadn't seceded, but at any moment, they just might.
    3. To keep the Border States with the North, Lincoln took cautious steps. Many of theses were of questionable legality or were flat-out against the Constitution.
      1. In Maryland, Lincoln declared martial law (rule by the military) in order to seize the railroad into the state. He simply would not allow Maryland to secede and thus leave Washington D.C. as an island in the South.
      2. Lincoln made it extremely clear that his goal was to re-unite the nation, not to end slavery. He knew that to fight to end slavery would likely scare the Border States away.
    4. The Indian nations also took sides. The "Five Civilized Tribes" of the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole largely fought with the South. Some Plains Indians sided with the North.
    5. The most visible splits that illustrate "brother vs. brother" were in…
      1. Tennessee where the state officially joined the South but thousands of "volunteers" sided with the North. Hence, Tennessee is the "Volunteer State."
      2. West Virginia where the mountain Virginians had no need for slavery and sided against it. At the war's start, there was only "Virginia" on the South's side. Midway through the war, "West Virginia" broke away on the North's side.
  4. The Balance of Forces
    1. At the start of the war, the South's advantages were…
      1. They only had to defend their land, rather than conquer land. Like the Americans during the American Revolution, fighting to a draw would mean Southern victory.
      2. Geography was on the South's side—the land where the fighting would take place was familiar and friendly to the Southerners.
      3. The South's greatest advantage was in their leadership. At the top was Gen. Robert E. Lee and Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. They proved to be head-and-shoulders above Northern generals. The South also had a military tradition that produced many fine officers of lower rank.
    2. The North had many advantages…
      1. The population favored the North over the South by about a 3:1 ratio.
      2. Industry was almost entirely located up North. Resources, particularly iron, were likewise almost entirely up North.
      3. The North had most of the nation's railroads, the U.S. navy, and much more money than the South.
      4. The South planned to rely on cotton to sell and then buy whatever it needed. The North's naval blockade largely stopped this plan.
    3. In the end, it was the South's shortages that caused its loss in the war.
  5. Dethroning King Cotton
    1. The Southern "game plan" was to get aid from Europe, particularly England, due to their supposed need for Southern cotton. The help never came.
    2. Many in Europe actually wanted the U.S. to split. A split U.S. would strengthen Europe, relatively speaking.
    3. On the other side, many in Europe were pulling for the North. They had largely already moved against slavery and realized that the war might end slavery in the U.S.
      1. The reason for the pro-North, anti-slavery stance by the people, was the effect of Uncle Tom’s Cabin—being lowly wage earners, the common people felt Uncle Tom’s pain.
    4. The question remained about England's reliance of Southern cotton. Much of that idea was true. However, in the years just prior to the war, England had a bumper crop of cotton down in India and Egypt. They'd saved the surplus and therefore weren't as "cotton-needy" as believed.
    5. The North also won points by sending food over to Europe during the war. Thus, the Southern King Cotton was defeated by the North's King Wheat and King Corn.
  6. The Decisiveness of Diplomacy This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Throughout much of the war, the South pushed for foreign help. Several instances at sea showed the unofficial, half-way support of England.
    2. The "Trent affair" illustrated the diplomatic trickiness of the day.
      1. A U.S. (Northern) ship stopped the British ship Trent in Cuba and forcibly took 2 Southerners.
      2. England (and the South) was furious and demanded their release.
      3. Lincoln had time to cool off and released the Confederates saying, "One war at a time."
    3. The Confederate ship Alabama caused a ruckus as well.
      1. The "Southern" ship was manned by Brits and never docked in the South.
      2. It traveled the world and captured 60+ vessels. Needless to say, the North was not happy about the situation.
    4. The British also planned to build raider ships for the South.
      1. The raiders were halted (with the opposition led by Charles Francis Adams) as they were being built. The fear was that it might come back to haunt them. Still, it shows the desire to help the South even if it wasn't followed all the way through.
  7. Foreign Flare-Ups
    1. The British built 2 Laird rams, ships designed to ram and destroy the Northern wooden ships. Minister Adams saw that delivering these ships would likely mean war with the U.S. and possible loss of Canada.
    2. Trouble started along the U.S.-Canada border. Canadians struck American cities and sometimes burnt them down.
      1. Several miniature armies were formed to strike back, usually consisting of Irishmen who hated the English/Canadians.
    3. Meanwhile, down in Mexico, Emperor Napoleon III had set up a puppet government in Mexico City.
      1. Austrian Archduke Maximilian was named as Mexico's emperor. This was flatly against the Monroe Doctrine's "stay away" policy.
      2. After the war the U.S. was prepared to march to Mexico and boot him out. The French pulled out, left Maximilian behind, and he was executed by a firing squad.
  8. President Davis Versus President Lincoln
    1. The South had a built-in problem with its government—it was a confederacy. That meant it was only loosely united. Any state, at any time, could break away, agree with the rest or not, unite or do its own thing.
      1. During a war, a state might not follow the strategy, or might not send troops or money or anything else. Essentially, a confederacy is very weak by its design.
    2. President Jefferson Davis was never popular. He was all business, stubborn, and physically over-worked himself.
    3. Lincoln certainly had his troubles too. But, he was the head of an established and stable government and seemed to relax more as time wore on.
  9. Limitations on Wartime Liberties
    1. "Honest" Abe Lincoln took several steps that were clearly against Constitution. He felt his steps were simply needed due to the split nation and emergency-like situation.
    2. Things he did against the Constitution: (a) increased the size of the Army, (b) sent $2 million to 3 private citizens for military purposes, (c) suspended habeas corpus so arrests could be made easily, (d) "monitored" Border State elections so the vote would turn out his way and (e) declared martial law in Maryland.
    3. Jefferson Davis was unable to exert similar power because of the loose nation of a confederacy.
  10. Volunteers and Draftees: North and South
    1. As in most wars, volunteers came plentifully in the early days. Initially, the plan was to only use volunteers. As the war drug on and men died, enthusiasm died too. A military draft was started in both the North and South to conscript soldiers.
      1. Congress allowed the rich to buy an exemption for $300. That meant a poor person would have to fill those shoes.
    2. The draft was protested strongly, especially in the Northern cities. New York City saw a riot break out in 1863 over the draft.
    3. 90% of the Union soldiers were volunteers. This was due to patriotism, pressure, and bonuses for signing up. Many men rigged scams to get multiple bonuses by signing up several times.
    4. The South had fewer men and therefore went to draft earliest. The rich were also exempted down South (those with 20+ slaves).
      1. The saying was born: "a rich man's war but a poor man's fight."
  11. The Economic Stresses of War
    1. The U.S. wanted more money and passed the Morrill Tariff Act which raised the tariff 5 to 10%. The rates then went even higher.
    2. The Treasury Department printed about $450 in "greenback" paper money. The money was not adequately backed by gold, thus creating inflation, at one point worth only 39 cents on the dollar.
    3. The largest fundraiser was through the sales of bonds. The government brought in $2.6 billion through bond sales.
    4. An important change was the creation of the National Banking System. It was the 1st national banking system since Andrew Jackson had killed the Bank of the U.S. in the 1830's Reasons for its importance were…
      1. It established a standardized money system.
      2. It could buy government bonds and issue paper money. In other words, it regulated the quantity of money in the economy/circulation. This is called "monetary policy" today.
      3. It foreshadowed the modern Federal Reserve System of today.
    5. The Southern economy was even worse than the North.
      1. The Union naval blockade locked down the South. It stopped exports of cotton (and thus the income of money), and it cut off customs duties (no imports means no customs duties).
      2. Inflation was out of control. It went up an estimated 9,000% down South (compared to an 80% increase up North).
  12. The North’s Economic Boom
    1. Like many wars, the Civil War was a boom for business. Manufacturers and businessmen made fortunes and a millionaire class was born for the first time.
    2. Some "profiteers" scammed the government by supplying shoddy goods.
    3. New machinery benefited production greatly.
      1. Standardized sizes of clothes were born.
      2. Mechanical reapers harvested bountiful crops.
      3. Oil was discovered in Pennsylvania.
    4. Women took on new roles too, often filling in for absent men in jobs.
      1. Some women posed as men and enlisted to fight in the military.
    5. Women helped considerably in health-related positions.
      1. Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell was the first female doctor.
      2. Clara Barton (founder of the Red Cross) and Dorothea Dix elevated nursing to a professional level. Down South, Sally Tompkins did the same.
  13. A Crushed Cotton Kingdom
    1. The South was beaten down by the war.
      1. The Southern economy was zapped. Before the war, Southerners held 30% of the nation's wealth, afterward, it was down to 12%. Before the war, Southerners made 67% of Northern wages, afterward, it was down to 40%.
    2. Despite the bad news, Southerners showed quite a bit of character and self-respect in pulling together and putting together a strong fight.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 21 - The Furnace of Civil War

  1. Bull Run Ends the “Ninety-Day War”
    1. The North (as well as the South) expected a short war, about 90 days.
    2. The Battle of Bull Run (AKA Battle of Manassas) squashed the short-war theories.
      1. Neither side was properly prepared. Many citizens picnicked along the edge of the battle as though tailgaiting at a sporting event.
      2. The battle went back and forth at first but Gen. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson's men held their line and earned him his nickname.
      3. The North fell into a hectic retreat. The South was just as disorganized and thus could not pursue.
    3. On paper the South won, but the importance of Bull Run is that it showed each side the necessity of planning and preparation. The war then took a 9 month "time-out" for prep.
  2. “Tardy George” McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign
    1. 34 year old Gen. George McClellan was a master organizer and planner. He was put in charge of getting the U.S. Army ready.
      1. McClellan's weakness was that he never felt as though he'd prepared enough. He was always preparing, never fighting.
      2. Lincoln got tired of waiting around, said McClellan had "the slows", and ordered him to take action.
    2. McClellan's plan was to take Richmond, VA, the capital of the South. He still felt the North could win in one large battle and by taking the capital would likely accomplish that goal. He nearly pulled it off.
    3. The Peninsula Campaign ensued. The North moved by sea to and then up the historic Yorktown peninsula.
      1. Lincoln sent McClellan's reinforcements to guard Washington D.C. from Stonewall Jackson's bluff attacks.
      2. Confederate Jeb Stuart's calvary rode completely around McClellan (it was a major no-no to allow such a thing).
    4. Robert E. Lee struck back in the Seven Days' Battles and pushed McClellan back to the sea—a major win for the South. Casualties were in the ten-thousands and McClellan was demoted.
    5. Lincoln began to move toward a draft to free the slaves. With the quick-strike plan a failure, the North now turned to total war. Summed up, the plan was to blockade, divide, and conquer. The specifics were to…
      1. Put a naval blockade the South.
      2. Free the slaves.
      3. Divide the South along the Mississippi River.
      4. Divide and crush the South by marching through Georgia and the Carolinas.
      5. Capture the Southern capital of Richmond.
      6. Engage the enemy anywhere possible and grind them into submission.
    6. This plan was essentially Gen. Winfield Scott’s “Anaconda Plan” (a derogatory term that implied it was too slow). It was exactly what happened over the next four years.
  3. The War at Sea
    1. The North's blockade had many leaks. As the war went on, the blockade tightened up.
      1. Britain could've run through it but chose to honor it. They didn't want to possibly get into a war.
    2. "Running the blockade", or sneaking goods through, was risky but profitable business.
      1. Smugglers often used the Bahamas as jumping-off points before entering the Confederacy. The ship papers would often have Canada as the destination but just sneak into the South.
    3. Northern blockade-busters would often board British ships for an inspection. If the goods were thought destined for the South, they were seized. Britain complained, but never went beyond words.
    4. Southerners created a legitimate threat to the blockade with the C.S.S. Merrimack.
      1. The Merrimack was an ironclad—a ship heavily armored with iron and thus greatly protected from cannon fire.
      2. The North responded with the Monitor, also an ironclad.
      3. The Monitor and the Merrimack battled in Chesapeake Bay March 9, 1862. The Merrimack was chased away. The battle was a turning point in naval history in that…
        1. …it showed that (a) the days of wooden ships were ending and (b) the days of sailing vessels were changing to steam.
  4. The Pivotal Point: Antietam
    1. Shortly after the Peninsula Campaign, General Lee struck at Second Battle of Bull Run. Lincoln had placed Gen. John Pope in command.
      1. Gen. Pope "talked a good game", but was beaten badly by Lee and the South at Bull Run II.
    2. At this point, the South was clearly winning the war. But, Lee made his first mistake…he decided to invade the North at Antietam (AKA Sharpsburg, MD). The reason's for his decision were…
      1. (a) to perhaps lure the Border States to the South, (b) to draw the war out of Virginia during the harvest season,
      2. a victory on Northern soil would, (c) boost Southern morale and hurt Northern morale, and (d) perhaps stir up foreign/British support for the South.
    3. Lincoln put Gen. McClellan back in charge.
    4. Just prior to the fighting, Lee's battle plans were accidentally lost then luckily found by the North. Lee and the South lost the Battle of Antietam Creek, one of the largest battles of the war, on September 17, 1862.
      1. This battle was critical. If the South had won, they just might have won the entire war. And, the North's victory likely convinced Europe to stay out of the war.
      2. Also, it gave Lincoln a much awaited victory and a platform to announce the Emancipation Proclamation to free the slaves.
        1. The Emancipation Proclamation gave the North's fight a moral foundation. The previous cause for the war was to force the South to remain with the North, against the South's will. After the Proclamation, the cause for war was to restore the nation and to end slavery.
  5. A Proclamation Without Emancipation
    1. The Emancipation Proclamation had a few "hiccups" tied to it.
      1. It freed the slaves only in the seceded Southern states. But, it did not free the slaves in the Border States. Lincoln specifically made this point because he did not want to anger the Border States and make them join the South.
      2. The South considered itself a separate nation from the North. Why would anything a "foreign" president says be binding over them? In order for the Proclamation to go into effect, the North would have to win the war.
      3. Also, there were legal issues tied to the Proclamation. Did Lincoln actually have the authority to free the slaves? The short answer is, "No." The Constitution at the time did support slavery. A president cannot simply make a proclamation and undue the Constitution. This fact would be evidenced by the 13th Amendment right after the war, which freed the slaves. If the Proclamation had legally freed the slaves, there would've been no need for Amendment 13.
      4. Still, the Emancipation Proclamation was huge, if only symbolically, and gave the war its moral cause.
    2. Practically, there were effects of the Proclamation.
      1. If, and when, word of the Proclamation got to the slaves' ears, many slaves itched to up and leave. The Southerners complained that Lincoln was inciting slave rebellion.
  6. Blacks Battle Bondage This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. In the early years of the war, African-Americans were not allowed to enlist in the army. But, as numbers declined, the North opened up the army to black soldiers. They'd eventually comprise 10% of the Northern army.
    2. Southern forces largely just executed black soldiers as opposed to the usual custom of treating captured enemies as prisoners-of-war. Black soldiers were even massacred after surrendering at Ft. Pillow, TN.
      1. This event sparked the outcry by African-Americans, "Remeber Ft. Pillow!"
    3. Emancipation came to Southern blacks when the Northern army came. The Emancipation Proclamation didn't simply release and allow slaves to walk off the plantation. The force of the U.S. army freed the slaves as it marched forward.
  7. Lee’s Last Lunge at Gettysburg
    1. Gen. A.E. Burnside (the originator of "sideburns") was put in charge of the Northern army following Antietam.
      1. He was defeated soundly at Fredericksburg, VA when Union troops tried to swarm up a hill held by Confederates.
    2. Gen. Joseph Hooker was then placed in charge but was also defeated at Chancellorsville, VA.
      1. Gen. Lee was outnumbered but he out-maneuvered Hooker by splitting his forces and then sending Stonewall Jackson around to attack the flanks.
      2. Jackson was wounded by his own men there and later died.
      3. This battle is largely regarded as Gen. Lee's most impressive win.
    3. Gen. George Meade was then placed in charge of the Northern army. Lee invaded the North again, met Meade at Gettysburg, PA.
      1. The Battle of Gettysburg lasted 3 days (July 1-3, 1863). The South won the first 2 days by pushing the North out of town and into the hills.
      2. The North won the 3rd day and the overall battle. The 3rd day was highlighted by Pickett's Charge where Gen. Lee futilely sent 15,000 Southern troops across an open field.
    4. Gettysburg was "the big one". Although the war would drag on two more years, it essentially broke the back of the South and started the "countdown clock".
    5. In the autumn, Lincoln returned to Gettysburg to give the Gettysburg Address. The purpose of the 2 minute speech was to rally the troops, boost morale, and assert that the men who'd died hadn't die in vain.
  8. The War in the West
    1. Lincoln was having terrible luck finding a general to get the job done. His answer was finally found in Gen. Ulysses S. Grant.
      1. Grant had been mediocre to slightly above average most of his career.
      2. He came on the scene by achieving "Unconditional Surrender" early in the western theater of the Civil War (the term stuck as his nickname due to his initials: U.S. Grant).
    2. Grant was demoted after nearly getting wiped out at the Battle of Shiloh.
    3. His big break and redemption came at Vicksburg, MS where he circled around the city, took the capital of Jackson, MS, and then seized Vicksburg.
    4. Vicksburg came one day after Gettysburg and certainly pointed toward a Northern win. Also as certain, Southern hopes for foreign intervention were gone—no country helps the losing side in a war.
  9. Sherman Scorches Georgia
    1. The plan of "blockade, divide, and conquer" was coming to fruition.
      1. The blockade was in place, the South was being divided down the Mississippi River, and now was to be divided through Georgia.
    2. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman was put in charge of dividing the South by land.
      1. He pushed down from Chattanooga, TN and captured Atlanta, GA. Atlanta was burnt to the ground.
      2. Sherman then led his "March to the Sea". He spread out his men and scorched Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah on the coast. Everything was destroyed—farms, houses, crops, railroads, warehouses, fields, etc.
    3. Sherman declared "total war" meaning that even civilian property was to be destroyed. Thus the "conquer" part of the "blockade, divide, and conquer" plan was also being played out.
  10. The Politics of War
    1. Lincoln had his opponents up North, even among his fellow Republicans.
      1. "Radical Republicans" felt Lincoln wasn't doing enough to win the war, help blacks, or punish the South.
    2. Northern Democrats split over the war.
      1. "War Democrats" supported Lincoln and the war.
      2. "Peace Democrats" opposed Lincoln (calling him the "Illinois Ape") and the "Nigger War" that he led.
        1. Clement L. Valandigham was Lincoln's loudest opponent. He leaned toward the South, was tried for treason, shipped down South, fled to Canada, there ran and lost a bid for governor of Ohio, then returned to Ohio.
        2. This odd scenario inspired the fictitious story "The Man Without a Country."
  11. The Election of 1864
    1. War or not, elections go on. The 1864 presidential election saw Lincoln take on Gen. George McClellan (whom Lincoln had fired).
    2. McClellan was the Democratic candidate. His position was that Lincoln was mismanaging the war.
      1. Lincoln's most vicious opponents were called "Copperheads" since they "struck at Lincoln's heels." These critics usually came from the "Butternut Region"—southern Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio.
    3. Lincoln would come out victorious in his 1864 re-election because…
      1. He cleverly invented the "Union Party" which joined Republicans with War Democrats.
      2. He came up with the simple but clear slogan: "You don't change horses midstream."
      3. Union forces scored victories in New Orleans and Atlanta just prior to the election.
    4. The popular vote was 212-21, the electoral vote was 2.2 million to 1.8 million.
  12. Grant Outlasts Lee
    1. Ulysses S. Grant was known as the "meat-grinder" because he was willing to keep sending his men into battle even though they'd be killed. His motto was, "When in doubt, fight."
      1. He was willing to sacrifice twice as many casualties as his enemy because he knew the South could not sustain the fight as long as he could.
    2. Grant outlasted Lee over a string of battles including: The Wilderness, Spotsylvania Courthouse, Cold Harbor,and Petersburg.
      1. These battles were known for being very bloody. They earned nicknames like the "Bloody Angle" and "Hell's Half Acre".
      2. At Cold Harbor, soldiers pinned their names and addresses onto their backs. 7,000 men died in a few minutes.
    3. Richmond, VA, the capital of the South, finally fell and was destroyed.
    4. In April of 1865, surrounded, Gen. Lee surrendered to Gen. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.
  13. The Martyrdom of Lincoln
    1. Only a few days after the South's surrender, Lincoln was assassinated. He was shot by John Wilkes Booth in the head while attending a play at Ford's Theatre in Washington.
    2. Lincoln became an instant martyr—a hero who died fighting for the nation and freedom of blacks.
    3. Southerners were glad to be rid of Lincoln. But, as irony would have it, things would turn much tougher for the South without Lincoln. The Radical Republicans who replaced Lincoln's authority were much less forgiving than Honest Abe would've been.
  14. The Aftermath of the Nightmare.
    1. The Civil War was immensely costly in many ways…
      1. It cost 600,000 lives, $15 billion, ripped away the best of a generation, instilled long-lasting animosity, and physically destroyed the South
    2. There were some benefits to the Civil War…
      1. It showed the resilience of the U.S. The nation had put itself through the ultimate test, and had survived.
      2. Slavery was erased from the United States.
      3. It put the U.S. onto the world stage as a major player and set up the U.S. to soon be the world leader.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 22 - The Ordeal of Reconstruction

  1. The Problems of Peace
    1. Following the war, many questions lingered, such as…
      1. What about the freed blacks?
      2. How will be South be re-united with the North?
      3. Who will make these decisions?
    2. The South had been largely destroyed. It'd have to be rebuilt or reconstructed. How to do this was uncertain and many Southerners still stood staunchly against the North.
  2. Freedmen Define Freedom
    1. Freed blacks, or "freedmen" were in a perplexing situation.
      1. They'd heard that they were free, but most still stayed on the plantation where they'd always lived.
      2. Some blacks fled northward, others sought freedom through the law.
      3. There was violence as well. Some blacks let their frustrations erupt by destroying white homes, land, etc. Sometimes, the white master even had the table turned on him and was whipped by his former slaves.
    2. All slaves were freed eventually, thanks to the U.S. Army's force.
      1. When emancipation had become a reality, most freedmen still stayed "at home".
      2. Many took flight however, seeking a better life somewhere, or seeking lost love ones who'd been separated at some point.
    3. With the blacks' social structure torn down, churches became a strong pillar of the black community. For example, the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) quadrupled in size in 10 years after the Civil War.
    4. The prospect of black education was a hope, but not necessarily a reality. Discrimination and economic resources still held most black children out of school. That hope would not become a reality until much later.
  3. The Freedman’s Bureau
    1. The freed slaves were largely unskilled, uneducated, and untrained. Congress created the Freedmen's Bureau sought to remedy those shortfalls.
      1. The bureau was essentially an early form of welfare. It was to provide food, clothing, health care, and education.
      2. Gen. O. O. Howard headed the bureau (and later founded Howard University in D.C.).
    2. The Freedmen's Bureau's success was minimal at best. Its largest accomplishment came in the form of literacy—teaching many blacks to read.
    3. Unsurprisingly, Southerners disliked the bureau. Pres. Andrew Johnson unsuccessfully tried to kill it, but it expired in 1872 anyway.
  4. Johnson: The Tailor President
    1. When Lincoln was assassinated, he was succeeded by Andrew Johnson.
    2. Johnson was a Tennessean from very humble origins.
      1. Although Tennessee seceded during the war, he was the only Southern Congressman to not join the South. This fact got him named to be Lincoln's Vice President in 1864.
      2. He was known as a fighter, dogmatic, and short a quick temper.
    3. Johnson was something of a man-without-a-home. The North never accepted him because he was a Southerner and the South distrusted him because he sided with the North.
  5. Presidential Reconstruction
    1. Before his assassination, Lincoln had devised the presidential plan for reconstruction.
      1. It could be called the "10 Percent Plan" since a southern state would be readmitted to the U.S. after 10% of the voters took an oath of loyalty and respect emancipation.
      2. Like the Biblical parable of the father welcoming home his "prodigal son," the 10% plan was very forgiving. Lincoln was welcoming the return of the wayward Southern states.
    2. Other Republicans disagreed. The "Radical Republicans" thought this approach was too soft; they wanted to punish the South for the war.
      1. Radical Republicans feared the 10% plan would allow Southern whites to again rule over freed blacks.
      2. They proposed the Wade-Davis Bill. It required 50% of voters to take the allegiance oath and safeguards to protect the freed blacks.
      3. Lincoln pocket-vetoed the Wade-Davis Bill and killed it. The dispute revealed differences of opinion on the matter…
        1. Lincoln felt the Southern states had never truly seceded. He wanted them back as quickly as possible (re-unification had been his priority #1 from day one in office).
        2. Radical Republicans felt the Southern states had seceded. Therefore, Congress could set the rules of re-admittance.
    3. A wrench was thrown into the system when Lincoln was shot and Andrew Johnson took over. What would Johnson think about Reconstruction?
      1. President Andrew Johnson essentially just followed Lincoln's 10% Plan.
      2. He did add the following stipulations: (a) leading Confederates were to be disenfranchised, (b) secession ordinances were to be repealed, (c) Confederate debts would be repudiated, and (d) the states must ratify the 13th Amendment.
  6. The Baleful Black Codes
    1. White Southerners now had a problem: without slavery, how could they ensure a stable labor force?
      1. The Southern solution was to pass "Black Codes" which were rules designed to tie the freed blacks to their white employers.
      2. They were contracts that said the blacks were bound to work for whites for a certain time period. "Jumping" the contract (leaving before the time was up) was punishable with fines.
    2. The codes were discriminatory in that blacks were banned from serving on juries, renting land, and could be punished for "idleness."
    3. Many Northerners wondered, "Isn't this essentially the same as slavery?" The life of an African-America after the Civil War was hardly any different than before the war.
  7. Congressional Reconstruction This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. In December of 1865 many Southern Congressmen returned to Washington to reclaim their seats. Northern Republicans were not amused. Were things to return to normal as if nothing had happened?
    2. While the Southern Congressmen had been gone, Northerners had passed several major bills including: the Morrill Tariff, the Pacific Railroad Act, and the Homestead Act. Now the Southerners were back.
      1. The South stood to actually gain power in Congress. With the slaves freed, the 3/5 Compromise was over. Slaves were now a complete five-fifths. This meant the Southern population went up thereby forcing Southern representation in Congress to go up (and thus the North's down).
    3. In early December 1865, Pres. Johnson stated that the South had fulfilled all the requirements to return to the U.S. and that the nation was re-united. Radical Republicans in Congress were not happy.
  8. Johnson Clashes with Congress
    1. President Johnson was never accepted by the North or by Congress. Time-and-again he banged heads with Congress, vetoing Republican bills.
      1. Notably, he vetoed the Civil Rights Bill that would grant citizenship to blacks and undercut the Black Codes.
    2. Congress then planned to pass the Civil Rights Bill by making the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The Amendment was passed by Congress and sent to the states for their approval. Its proposals…
      1. Civil Rights and citizenship for the freedmen (but not the right to vote).
      2. To cut state Congressional representation if blacks were denied voting.
      3. Disqualified Confederate leaders from federal offices.
      4. Guaranteeing the federal debt and repudiating the state debt.
    3. The Fourteenth Amendment would be ratified in 1868.
    4. Radical Republicans weren't happy that the right to vote was not included. But, all Republicans were in agreement that Southern states shouldn't be allowed back into the U.S. without accepting the Amendment.
  9. Swinging ‘Round the Circle with Johnson
    1. By 1866, President Johnson and Congress were butting heads. At odds were Johnson's 10% Plan state which had passed strict Black Codes as well as the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bill (he vetoed both).
      1. Congress was determined to go ahead with Reconstruction only with the ratification of the 14th Amendment.
    2. In the elections of that year, Johnson went on "'round the circle" speeches. He was heckled by observers and the president yelled back.
      1. Johnson's speech tour backfired and Congressional Reconstruction gained support at the president's expense.
  10. Republican Principles and Programs
    1. The Republicans in Congress were now veto-proof to orchestrate Reconstruction how they wanted, without regard to the president. Still, moderate and radical Republicans disagreed.
    2. Radical Republicans were led by Sen. Charles Sumner (of the caning incident) and Thaddeus Stevens in the House. Stevens was a stern, crusty man with a passion for helping blacks.
      1. The Radicals wanted a slower Reconstruction where they could bring about major social and economic change to the South.
      2. Moderate Republicans just didn't want to go quite that far with Reconstruction. They were reluctant to get the federal government directly involved in people's lives.
    3. The plan they came up with involved both groups, perhaps leaning toward the Moderates.
      1. They did agree that the enfranchisement of blacks was necessary, even if force needed to be used.
  11. Reconstruction by Sword
    1. The Reconstruction Act was passed in March, 1867.
      1. It divided the South into 5 military districts. U.S. soldiers would be stationed in each to make sure things stayed under control.
      2. Congress laid out rules for states to be re-admitted. They said (a) the 14th Amendment must be accepted and (b) black suffrage must be guaranteed.
    2. Radical Republicans still worried that even if black suffrage was granted, it could later be removed.
      1. To resolve this once and for all, the 15th Amendment guaranteeing black suffrage was written and would be ratified in 1870.
    3. The Supreme Court case of Ex parte Milligan (1866) had already stated that military courts could not try civilians when civil courts were present.
      1. Nevertheless, military rule of the South was stark and hated by the South. When the soldiers finally did leave in 1877, power slid back to the white Southerners who found new tricks to achieve their old ways.
  12. No Women Voters
    1. Women suffragists had put their campaigns on hold during the struggle for black rights (seeing women and blacks as equally disenfranchised). But when the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments were adopted, women leaders were displeased.
    2. The 14th even made reference to "males" as citizens—a step back in many women's rights' eyes.
      1. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony fought hard to stop the 14th Amendment on the basis of the word "males" entering the Constitution.
      2. Frederick Douglass agreed with the women, but felt it was "the Negro's hour."
      3. Additionally, in the 15th Amendment read that voting shouldn't be denied based on "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." The ladies wanted the word "sex" added in too.
    3. When finished, women gained nothing with the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments.
  13. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South
    1. Realizing there's strength in numbers, freed blacks began to organize mainly through the Union League.
      1. The League was essentially a web of clubs. In it, blacks were informed of their civic duties, built churches, pushed for Republican candidates in elections, sought to solve problems, and even recruited a black militia for defense.
    2. Despite the changing times, black women made no tangible gains. Their participation came by offering support at parades, rallies, church events, and conventions.
    3. With many white Southerners unable to vote (until taking the oath of allegiance to the U.S.) black Congressmen were elected.
      1. Hiram Revels became the first black U.S. senator and Blanche K. Bruce served in the Senate for Mississippi.
    4. White Southerners were fully disgruntled.
      1. Blacks were now not only free, but they were serving over the whites in Congress and in state legislatures.
      2. Also, scalawags lurked among the whites. They were whites who were sympathetic to the North. Southern whites accused the scalawags of betraying the South.
      3. Carpetbaggers also maddened Southerners. They were Northerners who came down South after the war with a "carpet bag" (suitcase) in their hand. Some came to honestly help the South, some came to go business, others came to swindle. All-in-all, Southerners frowned upon carpetbaggers as meddlesome Yankees.
    5. Despite achievements, graft and corruption ran rampant through the Southern governments.
  14. The Ku Klux Klan
    1. Upset whites were driven underground. They started the "Invisible Empire of the South", better known as the "Ku Klux Klan" in Tennessee (1866).
      1. The KKK thrived on fear—horses were masked, men were masked, no one knew exactly who was in it.
      2. They burnt crosses, threatened blacks who didn't "know their place", and lynched then murdered blacks.
    2. Any fool or simpleton who could pull a sheet over his head could run around as a Klan spook.
    3. Despite its wrong-headedness and silliness, the Klan was rather effective. Blacks typically did "back-off" from their advances.
    4. Whites used other tricks as well. To disenfranchise blacks, whites started literacy tests to weed out illiterate blacks from voting.
      1. Later, when many illiterate whites were also weeded out, "understanding clauses" and "grandfather clauses" were put into place. In these, whites would conveniently understand something read to them while blacks would not. And anyone whose grandfather had been able to vote could also vote. This meant whites were grandfathered in, blacks not.
  15. Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank
    1. The Radical Republicans in Congress were tired of Pres. Johnson and his veto stamp. They plotted to remove him.
    2. The plan was to put the president in a lose-lose situation. Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act which said the president needed the Senate's okay to fire anyone who'd been previously appointed by him and approved by the Senate.
      1. The argument was that the Senate approved appointees into office, thus the Senate must approve them out.
      2. Congress' ulterior motive was to protect Edwin M. Stanton's job. He was a Radical Republican spy and in hot water with the president.
      3. If Johnson allowed Stanton to stay, Congress would be happy.
      4. If Johnson fired Stanton despite the new rule, they would put him up for impeachment for not following the letter-of-the-law.
    3. Sure enough, early in 1868, Pres. Johnson fired Stanton and Congress impeached him—a formal accusation of wrong doing.
  16. A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson
    1. At his Senate impeachment trial, Johnson stayed silent. His lawyers argued that Johnson was operating under the Constitution, not the Tenure of Office Act.
    2. To kick out a president, a 2/3 vote was needed. The Senate vote came short by 1 meaning Johnson stayed in office.
      1. Seven Republicans voted with their conscience and voted to not remove Johnson.
    3. The fear of creating instability and setting a dangerous example were factors in the not-guilty verdict.
  17. The Purchase of Alaska
    1. Russia was willing to sell Alaska in 1867. William H. Seward, the Secretary of State, was an expansionist. He bought Alaska for $7.2 million.
    2. Seward's decision was not popular at the time. People called it "Seward's Folly," "Seward's Icebox," "Frigidia," and "Walrussia."
    3. Seward would later be redeemed when large deposits of gold and oil were discovered in Alaska.
  18. The Heritage of Reconstruction
    1. To many in the South, Reconstruction was worse than the war. They felt beaten-down, shamed, and their entire world had been turned upside-down.
      1. The war and Reconstruction also bred generations of animosity. Southerners would long refer to the Civil War as the "War of Northern Aggression."
    2. The lot of Southern blacks, despite good intentions, was likely as bad, or even worse, than before the war. White Southerners had fought back through sneaky means and were largely successful at "keeping down" the freed slaves.
      1. True change would not come until the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950's and 60's, nearly 100 years later.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 23 - Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age

  1. The “Bloody Shirt” Elects Grant
    1. In the 1868 presidential election, the Republicans offered Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. Although he had no political experience, the idea was that his war-hero status would carry him to victory.
    2. The Democratic party was hopelessly disorganized. They agreed on their criticism of military Reconstruction, but little else. The Democrats nominated Horatio Seymour.
      1. Seymour's popularity took a hit when he said he did not support redeeming greenback money at full value.
    3. Consequently, Grant won, narrowly. His main technique was to "wave the bloody shirt," meaning to constantly remind voters of his military record and that he'd led the North to victory.
    4. The close victory signaled a couple of things for the future: (a) tightly run and hard-fighting political parties and (b) narrow election margins of victory.
  2. The Era of Good Stealings
    1. Corruption became all too common in the post-Civil War years.
      1. The corruption often came via the railroads, meddling with stock prices, and through corrupt judges.
    2. Of special note were the exploits of "Jubilee" Jim Fisk and his partner Jay Gould. These two came up with, and nearly pulled off, a scheme in 1869 to corner the gold market to themselves. They tried, unsuccessfully, to get President Grant involved as well as his brother-in-law.
    3. In New York City, Boss Tweed ran Tammany Hall, a local political district. Boss Tweed used bribes, graft, and rigged elections to mooch money and ensure continual power for himself and his buddies.
      1. Thomas Nast was a cartoonist who relentlessly attacked Tweed's corruption. Tweed despised Nast because, although many people in Tweed's district couldn't read about the corruption, they could understand those "them damn pictures."
      2. Nast's cartoon's brought down Tweed. Samuel J. Tilden gained fame in prosecuting Tweed. Tweed eventually died in jail.
      3. Tilden would ride the fame to become the nominee for president in 1876 vs. Rutherford B. Hayes.
  3. A Carnival of Corruption
    1. President Grant was an honest man but there was much corruption underneath his administration. He either wasn't aware of it or failed to properly deal with it.
      1. Many in the Dent family, his in-laws, obtained government "jobs" for themselves.
    2. One of the worst situations was the Crédit Mobilier scandal
      1. The company was constructing the trans-continental railroad and effectively sub-hired itself to get paid double.
      2. They also gave stock to Congressmen in order to avoid getting busted.
      3. A newspaper finally exposed the scandal, two Congressmen went down, and the Vice President of the U.S. had even taken payments. Though uninvolved, Grant's name was scarred.
    3. The so-called "Whiskey Ring" also looked bad for Grant. Folks stole whiskey tax money from the government. Grant's own secretary was involved and, despite him saying "Let no guilty man escape," Grant helped let the thief off the hook.
    4. Lastly, the Secretary of War William Belknap was caught swindling $24,000 by selling trinkets to the Indians.
  4. The Liberal Republican Revolt of 1872
    1. By the 1872 election, many people had had enough. Reformers started the Liberal Rebpublican Party to clean things up.
      1. The Liberal Republicans nominated Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, as their candidate.
      2. Strangely, the Democrats also endorsed Greeley since they were so eager to gain office.
        1. Greeley had lambasted the Democrats through his paper, but he was soft on allowing the South to return to the nation, which the Democrats liked.
    2. The campaigning was nasty, but colorful. Greeley was called an atheist, communist, free-lover, vegetarian, brown-bread eater, and co-signor of Jefferson Davis' bail bond. Grant was called a drunk ignoramus and swindler.
    3. Grant won the election handily, 286 to 66.
    4. The Liberal Republicans did spook the Republican Congress into passing some reforms. (1) An amnesty act was passed which removed restrictions that'd been placed on many Southerners. Also, (2) there was effort to reduce the tariff rates and (3) to clean up/out the Grant administration.
  5. Depression, Deflation, and Inflation
    1. The Panic of 1873 brought economic troubles.
      1. It was started by over-spending with borrowed money, this time in railroads and factories. Growth was too fast and over-extended what the market could sustain.
      2. The causes of the panic were the same old ones that’d caused recessions every 20 years that century: (1) over-speculation (or over-spending) and (2) too-easy credit given by the banks.
      3. Initially, the panic was sparked when banks and businesses began to go bankrupt. The situation quickly snowballed from there.
      4. Blacks were hit especially hard. Always last-to-be-hired, and now the Freedman's Savings and Trust Co. went bankrupt, black Americans lost some $7 million in savings.
    2. The tough times hit debtors hard. They wanted inflationary policies to be pursued. Specifically, debtors wanted paper money ("greenbacks") printed to create inflation and thus make it easier to pay off debts. This strategy was called soft money or cheap money policies.
    3. Opponents, usually bankers and the wealthy, favored hard money policies. That is, they favored keeping the amount of money stable (and backed by gold). To hike up inflation just to pay a debt would be unfair, they said, since the money paid back wouldn't be as valuable as when it was lent.
      1. Grant vetoed a bill to print more money. Also, the Resumption Act was passed to actually start to (1) lower the number of greenbacks in circulation and (2) to redeem paper money at face value starting in 1879.
    4. Cheap money advocates also wanted more silver to be coined—the more money in circulation, the more inflation. Games were played over the value of silver, but the bottom line is that more silver coins would mean more inflation and thus make it easier to pay off debt.
    5. Under Grant's lead, the nation entered into a period of "contraction." This meant that the amount of money in circulation, per person, actually decreased during the 1870's
      1. Contraction likely didn't help the recession, but it did raise the value of the dollar bill. Come 1879, few people turned in their greenbacks for gold.
    6. The effect of Republican hard money policies was that the Democrats took over the House of Representatives in 1874.
    7. And, the Greenback Labor Party was started in 1878 with the main mission of bringing cheap money policies to life.
  6. Pallid Politics in the Gilded Age This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. The term "the Gilded Age" was a phrase coined by Mark Twain to describe the late 1800's. It hinted that the times looked good (as if they were gilded or gold-covered), yet if one scratched a bit below the surface, there were problems.
      1. The Gilded Age largely contained tight and hotly contested political races, much corruption, and shady business deals.
      2. The Republicans of the day hinted back to Puritan ancestry and were supported in the North and West. The G.A.R., the Grand Army of the Republic, was a military veteran group that supported Republicans.
      3. Democrats got most of their support from the South. They were supported by Lutherans and Catholics.
    2. A split developed in the 1870's and 80's within the Republican party.
      1. The Stalwarts were led by Roscoe Conkling.
      2. The Half-Breeds were led by James G. Blaine.
  7. The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876
    1. Pres. Grant considered running for a third term in 1876. The House soundly voted down that option and Grant backed off.
    2. The Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes. He was called the "Great Unknown", for obvious reasons.
      1. He was neutral in the Conkling and Blained wars within the Republican party.
      2. And, his greatest attribute, he came from Ohio, an important state in winning the race.
    3. The Democrats nominated Samuel Tilden.
      1. Tilden's claim-to-fame was that he'd nailed Boss Tweed.
      2. Tilden got 184 electoral votes; he needed 185 to win.
      3. 20 votes were hanging in the balance due to questionable returns. Picking up only 1 vote would seee Tilden elected.
    4. Both sides sent people to the questionable states (LA, SC, FL, and OR) and both men claimed victories there.
      1. The question then became, "Which branch of Congress would count the states' votes?" Depending on who counted, the Democratic House or the Republican Senate, the vote would likely go that way.
      2. Weeks passed and the election was at a stalemate.
  8. The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction
    1. With a president needed, Congress passed the Electoral Count Act that set up a commission to resolve the crisis.
      1. There were 15 men (from the House, Senate, and Supreme Court) on the commission.
      2. 8 men were Republicans, 7 were Democrats
    2. The Republicans had the upper hand and were heading toward victory among the disputed states. Democrats were outraged and began to filibuster to tie up the process.
    3. Finally, a deal was made in the Compromise of 1877. True to a compromise, both sides did some give-and-take.
      1. The North…
        1. Got Rutherford B. Hayes elected as a Republican president.
      2. The South…
        1. Got a pledge that Hayes would removal of military occupation in the South.
        2. This did happen, thus ending Reconstruction. The bad news for the freedmen was that Southern blacks were now effectively left alone to fend for themselves. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 supposedly gave equal rights to blacks, but the Supreme Court had struck much of it down. Also, white Southerners began to reclaim a strong hold on power.
        3. Additionally, money would be spent on the Texas and Pacific railroad.
  9. The Birth of Jim Crow in the Post-Reconstruction South
    1. With the military gone, white Southerners reasserted their power over blacks. Fraud and intimidation were the tools.
    2. Most blacks had no option but to become sharecroppers. They farmed land they didn't own, then paid hefty fees to the landlord come harvest time. The system was stacked against them so that they'd never get out of debt.
      1. Now "free", blacks likely farmed the same land for the same man as before the Civil War.
    3. Segregation (the separation of the races) also became institutionalized.
      1. First, the states enacted codes called Jim Crow laws that legalized the segregation.
      2. Then, the U.S. Supreme Court gave the federal okay. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) stated that "separate but equal" facilities for the races were legal.
        1. In reality, however, the races were indeed separate, but the facilities were hardly equal.
        2. Segregation was carried out in nearly all public facilities such as schools, theaters, transportation, and restrooms.
      3. Violation of these codes could have legal penalties. Or, worse, lynchings of blacks reached a record level as whites "enforced" the codes themselves.
  10. Class Conflicts and Ethnic Clashes
    1. As well as ending Reconstruction, 1877 was a year of other conflicts…
    2. The 4 largest railroads got together and decided to cut employee wages by 10%. The workers fought back by going on strike.
      1. This railroad shut-down crippled the nation and President Hayes called in federal troops to stop the unrest amongst the striking workers.
      2. The trouble went on several weeks but eventually ended with the workers losing on the losing side. This failed strike showed the weaknesses of the labor movement at the time.
    3. Ethnic clashes were common.
      1. The clashes came when the Chinese competed for low-paying jobs, usually with the Irish.
      2. Most Chinese were young, poor men who'd emigrated to California. They frequently got jobs building the railroads. After the railroad boom, many returned to China, many stayed and looked for odd jobs.
      3. Irishman Denis Kearney fired up the Irish against the Chinese in San Francisco. The argument was that the "rice eater" (Chinese) could afford to work for a cheaper wage than the "beef eater" (Irish).
        1. The solution was for Irish gangs to take to the streets and deal their vengeance on the Chinese.
      4. Finally, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882. It forbade the immigration of Chinese to America.
        1. This was the first immigration restriction America passed; until this point in history, immigrants simply came to America without hindrance.
  11. Garfield and Arthur
    1. The 1880 election pitted Garfield against Scott.
      1. The Republicans nominated James A. Garfield and, as his running mate, Stalwart Chester Arthur.
        1. Garfield was a "dark horse" candidate (a previously unknown person) but he came from the critical state of Ohio.
      2. The Democrats nominated Gen. Winfield Scott, the Civil War hero.
      3. Garfield won the election, but found himself trapped in the middle of the Republican feud between the Stalwarts and Half-Breeds.
      4. Garfield's Secretary of State James Blaine (Half-Breed leader) battled his arch-enemy, Stalwart Roscoe Conkling (Stalwart leader) at every chance.
    2. Garfield was assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau in September of 1881.
      1. Guiteau said he was a Stalwart, like V.P. Chester Arthur, and his lawyers essentially used the insanity defense saying he didn't know right from wrong.
      2. Regardless, he was found guilty and hanged.
    3. As vice president, Chester Arthur became president.
      1. Despite being considered a partisan politician, Arthur was actually reform-minded. He largely stood firm against his Stalwart buddies in their quest for the riches that come with power
      2. The Pendleton Act was the height of political reform. It was called the "Magna Carta of civil service reform" meaning it required merit to get jobs, not simply knowing someone in a high position.
      3. The Civil Service Commission awarded jobs based on performance rather than on how much "pull" a person had (how many buddies they had in high places).
      4. The Pendleton Act first affected only 10% of federal jobs, but it (a) stopped the worst offenses of giving jobs to buddies and (b) it set the tone for civil service reform in the future.
  12. The Blaine-Cleveland Mudslingers of 1884
    1. The Republicans nominated James G. Blaine for president in the 1884 election.
      1. Reform-minded Republicans didn't like this choice and went over to the Democrats. They were called "Mugwumps", supposedly with "their mug on one side and their wump on the other".
    2. The Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland as their candidate.
      1. The mudslinging reached the worst level up until that point during the campaign. A popular topic was Cleveland's affair and the child it had produced some 8 years earlier.
    3. Despite the drama that Cleveland had fathered a bastard love-child, he won the election.
  13. “Old Grover” Takes Over
    1. Grover Cleveland was a Democratic president during a string of Republicans in the White House. He had a laissez-faire capitalism mindset, which made business folks very happy.
    2. He helped bridge the North-South gap by naming two former Confederates to his cabinet.
    3. Cleveland was a man of principle who tried to do the right thing. His initial thought was to award jobs based on merit (civil service reform).
    4. Two former Confederates were named by Cleveland to his cabinet. He tried to follow the merit system (jobs went to the qualified), but was largely unsuccessful with this approach.
      1. When pressure mounted, Cleveland fired about 80,000 of 120,000 federal employees. 40,000 were Republicans dismissed to open up jobs for Democrats.
    5. Military pensions were a pain to Cleveland. The G.A.R. (Grand Army of the Republic) had considerable political clout and was mostly Republican. They pushed several bills through Congress that gave pensions to loads of veterans; many of the bills were simply money-grabbers.
      1. Cleveland was a Democrat and not a veteran himself, thus he was in an awkward position to halt military pensions. Still, Cleveland did veto many of these military pension bills.
  14. Cleveland Battles for a Lower Tariff
    1. Cleveland had an unusual problem—a budget surplus. He couldn't justify the government profiting off of the people by taking in more than the government needed.
    2. There were two ways to get rid of the surplus: (1) increase the spending by inventing things to spend it on, or (2) taking in less by cutting taxes. Cleveland chose the second option.
    3. The extra surplus money largely came in from the tariff. Many people wanted it lowered. Businesses, which benefit from inflated foreign prices that a tariff provides, wanted to keep it high.
      1. Pres. Cleveland asked Congress to reduce the tariff. The issue became a divisive one with Democrats favoring the lower tariff and Republicans favoring a higher one. Republicans began building their "war chest" of money for the next presidential campaign.
    4. The tariff issue came to a full head of steam in the election of 1888.
      1. Cleveland was up for re-election by the Democrats, Benjamin Harrison was up as the Republican.
      2. Harrison won in a very close race in 1888. Cleveland became the first president voted out of office since Martin Van Buren.
  15. The Billion Dollar Congress
    1. After being out of the White House for 4 years, the Republicans were eager to assert their power in Congress.
    2. The Republicans found their leader in Speaker of the House Thomas "Czar" Reed. Reed was a tall man, super debater, and had an acid-sarcastic tongue that cut at opponents. He ran the House of Representatives like a dictator.
      1. Democrats planned to fight back by not answering to roll call and thus not achieving a quorum (minimum number necessary for a meeting).
      2. Czar Reed solved the quorum battle by counting Democrats as present if they were there but hadn't answered the roll call.
    3. With his quorum met, Czar Reed got down to business and had many bills passed…
      1. The first "Billion Dollar Congress" where the U.S. government doled out that much money for the first time.
      2. Pensions were liberally given to veterans.
      3. More silver was purchased.
      4. The McKinley Tariff (1890) hiked rates to roughly 48%, the highest peacetime rate ever.
        1. The tariff was a double-edged sword: business folks loved the protection it gave, but farmers disliked the fact that manufactured goods were now more expensive.
  16. The Drumbeat of Discontent
    1. In 1892, a new political party emerged—the Populist Party (AKA the People's Party). It was made up of unhappy farmers and sprung out of the Farmers' Alliance.
    2. The Populists demanded…
      1. Inflation through "cheap money" policies of printing paper money and coining silver. They felt inflation would make it easier to pay off their debts. This was their top priority.
      2. Other desires were: a graduated income tax (a person pays more with a higher salary); government regulation of railroads, the telegraph, and telephone; direct elections of U.S. senators by the people; initiative and referendum (so people can propose and pass laws themselves); a shorter working day; and immigration restrictions.
    3. The Populist Party did surprisingly well in the election. They got 22 electoral votes by winning four western states.
    4. The South was reluctant to vote for the Populists due to race reasons. The Populists had reached out to Southern blacks so Southern whites turned away. After the election, Southern whites tightened the screws on blacks.
      1. Literacy tests and poll taxes were used more than ever to prevent blacks from voting.
      2. "Grandfather clauses" were employed to allow anyone to vote whose grandfather could (thus only whites were grandfathered in).
  17. Cleveland and Depression
    1. "Old Grover" Cleveland won the election and became president again (after 4 years off).
    2. However, the Depression of 1893 soon began. It was the first recession or depression during the industrial age. This completed the almost predictable, every-20-year cycle of panics during the 1800s (panics occurred during 1819, 1837, 1857, 1873, and 1893).
      1. Nearly 8,000 U.S. businesses went out of business in 6 months. Railroads went under too and soup kitchens popped up to feed wandering hoboes.
    3. There were other money problems to deal with…
      1. Cleveland now had a budget deficit, whereas he'd enjoyed a surplus before.
      2. The nation's gold supply was getting dangerously low.
        1. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) had created a cycle: the government had to buy silver and print paper money to pay for it, the people could then turn in the paper money for gold, which they did.
        2. The nation's gold supply once dipped below $100 million, the safe minimum.
          1. Meanwhile, Cleveland had a malignant tumor removed from his mouth. If he'd died, Vice President Adlai Stevenson would've taken over. Stevenson was a "soft money" advocate and the gold problem would've likely worsened.
        3. Congress debated repealing the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.
          1. A young 30-year old named William Jennings Bryan became the foremost spokesman for silver and "cheap money."
          2. Despite the arguing, the Sherman Act was repealed.
        4. The exchange of paper money-for-gold continued still. This time the gold reserves fell to only #41 million.
          1. Finally, Cleveland turned to J.P. Morgan. Morgan and his banker-friends agreed to lend the U.S. government $65 million in gold (of course the bankers made $7 million in profit).
          2. This deal restored confidence and largely stemmed the problem.
  18. Cleveland Breeds a Backlash
    1. Grover Cleveland, who'd been seen as a "common-man's president", looked sneaky in his dealings in gold and with J.P. Morgan.
    2. Cleveland was embarrassed again by the Wilson-Gorman Tariff.
      1. Democrats had promised lower tariffs. The Wilson-Gorman barely changed the McKinley Tariff at all. Worse, the Wilson-Gorman law allowed for a 2% income tax on income over $4,000. The Supreme Court struck this down, but it looked like Cleveland and the government was giving in to the rich "fat-cats."
    3. The Republicans began to benefit from Cleveland's recent actions.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 24 - Industry Comes of Age

  1. The Iron Colt Becomes an Iron Horse
    1. Railroads skyrocketed after the Civil War. Track mileage increased from 35,000 miles in 1865 to over 192,000 miles by 1900.
    2. Congress encouraged this boom by giving millions of acres of land to the railroad companies. The total acreage was greater than the size of Texas.
      1. The land given to the railroad companies was in a checkerboard fashion along the track. Since it adjoined the track, it's value likely increased and the railroad company would then sell it for a huge profit.
    3. There were arguments on both sides…
      1. People said giving land for railroad companies to profit just wasn't right. Pres. Grover Cleveland fell in this category. He felt this system was wrong and ended it.
      2. Others said the railroads were what gave the land most of its value. And, the value of the railroads themselves to the nation was undeniable.
  2. Spanning the Continent with Rails
    1. The ultimate goal for the rails was a transcontinental railroad (from coast to coast). The only question had been whether to build the transcontinental railroad in the North or South. With the South seceding from the nation, the North would get the railroad.
    2. Congress commissioned the Union Pacific Railroad to push westward from Omaha, Nebraska to California.
      1. For their efforts, the Union Pacific got (a) pay, (b) free land, (c) loans for more land or building.
      2. The Crédit Mobilier company made fantastic profits.
        1. Insiders in the company managed ridiculous profits for themselves through sneaky deals.
      3. They also bribed Congressmen to look the other way.
      4. Irish workers ("Paddies") did most of the labor on the Great Plains. Clashes with Indians were frequent.
    3. The Central Pacific Railroad started in California and pushed eastward.
      1. Leland Stanford headed up the railroad efforts from California.
      2. He and his partners made fabulous profits but kept themselves clean and bribe-free.
      3. Chinese laborers did most of the work.
    4. The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869 near Ogden, Utah. As a symbolic measure, a golden spike was driven into the track. The nation was connected by two ribbons of steel from coast to coast.
  3. Binding the Country with Railroad Ties
    1. By 1900, four more transcontinental lines had been constructed.
      1. The Northern Pacific Railroad from Lake Superior to Puget Sound.
      2. The Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe from Kansas to California.
      3. The Southern Pacific line went from New Orleans to San Francisco.
      4. The Great Northern linked Duluth, MN to Seattle.
        1. This line was constructed by James H. Hill, perhaps the greatest railroad constructor. He built railroads with a sense of public duty and shipped in cattle for the locals.
    2. There were drawbacks to railroad construction as well. Some communities waged all they had on a railroad line increasing the value of the town. Oftentimes, tracks were laid that turned out to go "from nowhere to nothing." Bankruptcy usually followed.
  4. Railroad Consolidation and Mechanization
    1. Back east where railroads were already built, changes were occurring. Cornelius Vanderbilt began consolidating the New York Central line. This meant he bought up the little railroad lines into his one company.
      1. The results of railroad consolidation were cheaper fares/rates and faster travel times.
    2. There were technological advances too.
      1. Vanderbilt began to use steel rails, instead of iron. Steel was stronger, lasted longer, and didn't rust as fast as iron.
      2. A standardized gauge (distance between tracks) made things uniform.
      3. The Westinghouse air brake was invented which was much more efficient and safe.
      4. Pullman Palace Cars (luxury passenger cars) were built and were very popular for travelers.
      5. Other developments like the telegraph to communicate when tracks were open, double-tracking, and then the block signal made railroad travel safer.
    3. Despite advances, accidents and tragedies on the track were not uncommon.
  5. Revolution by Railways
    1. The railroad network had the effect of physically linking the nation and psychologically impacted the way people looked at the country.
    2. The greatest impact that railroads had was on business and industrialization.
      1. Eastern and western markets were now linked.
      2. Investors could pour money into new markets.
      3. Travel was eased and the wide open west beckoned settlers as much as ever.
      4. Farmers were taken out west and ore mined from the soil was shipped back east.
      5. Cities boomed out west, notably Chicago, and the cities back east were brought whatever the West had to offer.
      6. Fortunes and millionaires were also made by the railroads.
    3. The land itself was also impacted by railroads.
      1. The Midwestern plains became Midwestern cornfields and the great herds of buffalo began to die off ("go the way of the buffalo").
    4. Before trains, cities and towns simply operated on their own local time. Since accurate timing was critical in safely running trains, time zones were created so that everyone would be coordinated.
  6. Wrongdoing in Railroading
    1. Railroading also had a large share of corruption.
      1. The worst case was the Crédit Mobilier scandal where railroad men subhired themselves to get paid twice and bought Congressmen to go along.
      2. Jay Gould boomed and busted railroad stock, making profit for himself all the way along.
        1. A common technique was "stock watering" where railroads would artificially talk up the company so the stock would zoom upward.
    2. Other railroad tricks included…
      1. Frequent bribes (AKA "kickbacks") were given to governmental officials and major customers.
      2. The formation of "pools" (formally called "cartels") where competitors agreed to cooperate as if they were one mega company.
      3. Rebates were given to large companies that shipped large quantities of goods. The complaint was that this created two rates: a cheap rate for the big companies and an expensive rate for the little guy. Railroads said they were simply rewarding their valued customers.
      4. Free passes were often given to members of the press to ensure good publicity.
  7. Government Bridles the Iron Horse This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. America has always believed in free enterprise—the notion that the government should stay out of private business. There was always the belief that in a free enterprise system anyone can rise from rags-to-riches or even millionaire.
    2. Slowly the people/government did respond to the railroads and their shenanigans.
      1. Farmers led the protest in the economic recession of the 1870's. Groups like The Grange pushed for regulation.
      2. In the Wabash case, the supreme court said that states cannot regulate interstate trade 9only congress can0. This meant that if any regulation were to be done, it would have to be by the U.S. Congress, not the local states.
      3. Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act (1887) that outlawed rebates and pools. It also required rates to be openly published and banned charging low rates for the long haul (to big businesses that shipped large quantities) and higher rates for the short haul (to small farmers who shipped small quantities).
        1. Although the law intended to help the commoner, the powerful found ways around it. For instance, lawyer Richard Olney coldly concluded that the law can actually help railroads—it gave the public the image of government regulation when in reality the law did very little.
    3. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone as a part-time hobby while teaching the deaf to speak.
    4. Thomas Edison, the "Wizard of Menlo Park," came up with the light bulb along with many, many other inventions.
  8. Miracles of Mechanization
    1. Between 1860 and 1984 the U.S. rose from the 4th largest manufacturing nation to the 1st. The reasons were…
    2. Liquid capital (money or a millionaire class) emerged to build new businesses.
    3. Natural resources had always been a great asset in America. Those resources were now being put to full use.
      1. For example, the Mesabi iron ore range of Minnesota was powering the national need for iron and steel.
    4. Immigration on a huge scale kept labor cheap.
    5. New technological advances were developed…
      1. Eli Whitney started mass production and interchangeable parts.
      2. Other inventions aided business and included: the cash register, the stock ticker, the typewriter (which brought women to work), the refrigerator car, the electric dynamo, and the electric railway.
  9. The Trust Titan Emerges
    1. Titans or giants of industry eventually began to emerge in each major business.
    2. Andrew Carnegie switched from railroading to become the master of the steel industry with the U.S. Steel Corporation.
      1. Carnegie used vertical integration to grow his business. This meant he bought out businesses that he used in the production process. For example, he'd buy the land that held the ore, then he'd buy the machines to dig it, then the ships and railroads to ship it, then the factories to forge it. Rather than pay a company along the way, he owned each step of the process.
    3. John D. Rockefeller nearly monopolized the oil industry.
      1. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company used horizontal integration to take over the industry. In vertical integration, Standard would either force a competitor out of business or buy them out to grow even larger.
      2. Rockefeller was very successful. The Standard Oil Company controlled 90-95% of the oil in the U.S. To get that large, he was ruthless in his tactics. It was said that his unofficial motto was "let us prey" (on the little companies).
      3. He used a technique called interlocking directorates where his own men would be placed on the board-of-directors for "competitors." Their decisions would be to cooperate with their "competitors", not compete.
    4. J.P. Morgan was a financier, not an industrialist, who gained great power and wealth. He used interlocking directorates by putting his own people on the boards of struggling companies then controlling them as one unit.
  10. The Supremacy of Steel
    1. Steel became king after the Civil War. Steel built the industrial revolution.
      1. Right after the Civil War steel was expensive and used sparingly, as for cutlery.
      2. Within 20 years, the U.S. had become the world's top steel producer and by 1900 the U.S. made more steel than Britain and Germany combined.
    2. The main advance was the Bessemer Process where cool air is blown over red hot iron to burn off the impurities and produce stronger and cheaper steel.
    3. A second reason for the growth of American steel was that the U.S. was blessed with loads of iron and coal, the two main ingredients for steel.
    4. When the Bessemer Process and the materials were added to a seemingly endless labor supply, steel boomed.
  11. Carnegie and Other Sultans of Steel
    1. Andrew Carnegie, the son of Scottish immigrants, was the classic rags-to-riches story.
      1. He worked his way up through good old-fashioned hard work.
      2. He started as a bobbin-boy in a cotton mill making $1.20 per week.
      3. His next stop was as a telegraph errand boy, then telegraph operator, then as a railroad executive's secretary.
      4. After gaining some capital in railroading, Carnegie entered the steel industry.
      5. Carnegie's U.S. Steel Corp. became dominant in steel largely because of his administrative abilities and knack for hiring excellent people.
        1. By 1900, U.S. Steel produced 1/4 of the nation's Bessemer steel. Carnegie made $25 million, tax free.
    2. J.P. Morgan was the premier financier of the day. Morgan made his money not by making anything, but by making deals—deals in railroads, insurance, banks, etc.
      1. Carnegie was ready to retire in 1900 and wanted to sell U.S. Steel. A deal was made where J.P. Morgan bought Carnegie's steel empire for $400 million.
      2. Carnegie devoted the rest of his life to philanthropy—giving the money away. He gave $350 million to build libraries, support the arts, and to other charities.
      3. J.P. Morgan wasted no time and quickly built U.S. Steel into the world's first billion dollar company (it was valued at $1.4 billion).
  12. Rockefeller Grows an American Beauty Rose
    1. "Drake's Folly" started the oil boom with a gusher in Pennsylvania. Kerosene (for lamps) enjoyed a mini-boom but its days were numbered.
      1. Just as whaling (as chronicled in Herman Melville's Moby Dick) was replaced by kerosene, kerosene would be replaced by electricity and the electric light bulb.
      2. Kerosene did foreshadow the age of oil, however. The internal combustion engine was being perfected at roughly the same time.
    2. At first the oil industry was wide open to all. But, John D. Rockefeller got a leg up on the competition with his Standard Oil Company. Standard Oil eventually sold 95% of all oil sold in the U.S.
      1. Rockefeller was criticized for his business practices as being ruthless.
      2. He used horizontal integration to buy up competitors.
      3. Or, he simply drove competitors out of business. "Undercutting", where he charged less for oil than the market price just to drive competitors under, was a common practice. This helped earn him the nickname "Reckafellow."
      4. His tactics were aided by "economies of scale" where large companies produce a cheaper product and thus put even more pressure on the "little guy."
    3. Other trusts emerged as well including Gustavus F. Swift and Philip Armour, the meat packers and hot dog makers.
  13. The Gospel of Wealth
    1. As a filthy-rich class emerged, so too did various views on wealth…
      1. Some, like Rockefeller, felt their wealth came from God. This was similar to the old divine-right monarchies of Europe.
      2. Carnegie spoke of a Gospel of Wealth saying the rich had a moral duty to spread the wealth (like spreading the Gospel).
      3. Perhaps the most common idea was Social Darwinism.
        1. Social Darwinism transposed Charles Darwin's new evolution and survival-of-the-fittest theories from biology to society.
        2. The Social Darwinism idea said that the reason certain people were at the top of their business was because they were the best adapted at running that industry. The opposite, of course, would apply to anyone at the bottom of the social or economic ladder.
        3. Strangely, it was a minister that did the most to promote Social Darwinism. Rev. Russell Conwell became rich himself while delivering his sermon/lecture Acres of Diamonds thousands of times. His theme was that people earn their lots in life, either good or bad.
    2. By the later 1800's, a plutocracy or rule by rich plutocrats, had replaced the old slavocracy of antebellum days.
      1. The rulings that only the U.S. Congress could regulate interstate trade left big business largely unregulated. The businesses could easily bribe state legislators to vote pro-business.
      2. Also, corporate lawyers used the 14th Amendment to the benefit of the corporation. The amendment was written to give former slaves citizenship rights, but corporate lawyers got corporations classified as legal people with full citizenship rights as well.
  14. Government Tackles the Trust Evil
    1. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) was enacted in attempt to outlaw trusts or monopolies.
    2. The law forbade "combinations" such as…
      1. "pools" or cartels—where "competitors" got together and behaved as one mega-company.
      2. interlocking directorates—where the same people sat on the board-of-directors of "competitors", then made the same decisions for each company, and thus the "competitors" behaved as one mega-company.
      3. holding companies—where the holding company bought up controlling shares of stock in a group of competitors, then managed each "competitor" as one mega-company.
    3. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was not effective because (a) proving combinations exist, especially with pools, can be difficult, and (b) it lacked real teeth in enforcement.
    4. In 1914 the anti-trust movement finally gained real muscle to enforce its provisions.
  15. The South in the Age of Industry
    1. Whereas the Industrial Revolution mostly benefited the North, the South by 1900 was still struggling.
      1. The South still produced less than before the Civil War and the farming was split up into small chunks, often done by sharecroppers who "rented" the land.
    2. James Buchanan Duke gave the South a boost when the cigarette industry took off. His American Tobacco Company made him a fortune, enough to earn his namesake Duke University in Durham, NC.
    3. Henry W. Grady, editor of the Atlanta Constitution, urged Southerners to beat the Yankees at their own game of industry. Still, old ways die hard and industry was slow to grow in the South.
      1. The railroads were stacked against Southern industry as well. Rates for manufactured goods going southward were cheaper than northward. Rates for raw materials favored the South.
    4. Cotton mills did begin to emerge down South.
      1. The benefits of the mill jobs were mixed. It meant jobs, but it also meant cheap labor and the desire to keep labor rates low—often half of what Northern mill hands earned. Still, the mills were a thankful blessing to many Southerners.
  16. The Impact of the New Industrial Revolution on America
    1. Despite its drawbacks, the Industrial Revolution caused the overall standard of living for Americans to improve.
    2. The old Jefferson vs. Hamilton dispute had also been solved: Jefferson's ideals of small-town agriculture was being trumped by Hamilton's big-city business.
      1. Lifestyles changed as well. The "can see, 'til can't see" farmer became a factory worker that labored from whistle to whistle.
      2. Women gained increasing roles in business as well as secretaries and in clerical jobs.
        1. This "new woman" was idealized by the "Gibson Girl," illustrations by Charles Dana Gibson of attractive, stylish, and athletic women active outside of the home.
        2. Still, this increased role in the workplace shouldn't be over-stated. The traditional role of women as manager of the household was still the top "job" for women.
    3. Society had been transformed from self-employed farmers to employed wage-earners.
    4. The Industrial Revolution flooded the American market so businesses began to look overseas; American imperialism would soon follow.
  17. In Unions There Is Strength
    1. The rise of industry meant the rise of the factory worker. This yielded both good and bad results.
    2. The positive was that (a) there actually were jobs and (b) that the overall standard-of-living did in fact rise.
    3. There were also many negative effects…
      1. Immigration was increasing which meant wages were cheap. For employers, replacement of "uppity" or troublesome workers was easy enough with eager immigrants.
      2. Workers united in unions in hopes of finding strength in numbers. The union's main weapon of striking was still not very effective because…
        1. Employers could hire lawyers to wrangle around the issues.
        2. "Scabs," or part-time replacement workers could be brought in and union leaders could be intimidated or beaten down.
        3. Big-business could call on the courts to order strikers back to work.
        4. Big-business could mandate "ironclad oaths" or "yellow dog contracts" where workers pledged to not join a union.
        5. Big-business could "black list" troublesome workers meaning no other employer would hire that person.
        6. Some businesses ran "company towns" where workers were paid "scrip" (not real money but company money good at the company store). Workers were also given easy credit meaning they usually got themselves intodebt and never got out.
    4. In a broader sense, the idea of Social Darwinism pervaded society and lended workers little pity. It said a person's lot in life was the result of his or her own doing (or lack of doing)—the rich had earned their position and the poor had the same opportunity to do so.
  18. Labor Limps Along
    1. Labor unions began to grow in number after the Civil War.
    2. The National Labor Union (1866) lasted 6 years and had 600,000 members—skilled, unskilled, and farmers.
      1. Par-for-the-times, blacks and women were only slightly sought after and Chinese immigrants were excluded.
      2. Their goals were (a) arbitration (settlement by a mediator) of worker complaints and (b) an 8 hour workday (which was granted to government workers).
      3. The 1873 depression ruined the National Labor Union.
    3. The Knights of Labor began in secrecy and then came out in 1881.
      1. It welcomed skilled and unskilled, women and blacks. The only people banned were "non producers": liquor dealers, professional gamblers, lawyers, bankers, and stockbrokers,
      2. The Knights sought workers' cooperatives (to pool their money and resources), better working conditions, and the 8 hour workday.
      3. They had some success, led by Terence V. Powderly. They got the 8 hour day in several places and pulled off a successful strike against Jay Gould's Wabash Railroad (1885). After this their numbers bloomed to 750,000 members.
  19. Unhorsing the Knights of Labor
    1. The Knights became active in a series of May Day strikes. The strikes had mixed results. but more importantly, the strikes hurt the Knights public image.
    2. The "Haymarket Square Incident" occurred in Chicago in 1886. There strikers were intermingled with a handful of anarchists calling for overthrow of the government.
      1. A bombing took place and a handful of bystanders, including police, were killed or injured. The anarchists were the likely culprit, but the public placed blame on the Knights and unions.
      2. Eight anarchists were arrested; five were given the death sentence and the other three were given hefty sentences. They were eventually pardoned by Governor John P. Atlgeld in 1892. These actions were unpopular and cost him reelection.
    3. The end result of the Haymarket Square incident was a distrust in unions and a decline in their membership.
  20. The AF of L to the Fore
    1. The American Federation of Labor (called the "AF of L")was started by Samuel Gompers in 1886.
      1. The AF of L was made up of small, independent unions. They were tied together by their association with the AF of L.
      2. Gompers desire for workers was summed up simply as "more." He sought what unions always seek: better wages, shorter hours, better working conditions.
      3. Gompers wanted "trade agreements" to allow the "closed shop" (businesses closed to non-union members, or in other words, you must join the union in order to work there).
      4. His main weapons were the boycott and the strike. To boycott, "We don't patronize" sign would be placed on unpopular businesses. To strike, union dues would build up funds to hopefully see them through the strike.
    2. The AF of L was made up of skilled craftsmen. Unskilled workers were not included because they were too easily replaced and thus weakened the union. (This exclusion of unskilled workers is a notable difference from the CIO which came later and included the unskilled).
    3. They eventually garnered 500,000 members and were criticized as the "labor trust." Still, this amounted to only about 3% of the labor force in the U.S.
    4. Around 1900, views on labor unions began to turn for the better. Workers were allowed to organize (unionize), collectively bargain, and strike. The most symbolic achievement for workers was the passage of Labor Day (1894) where workers, ironically, take the day off from work.
    5. The rise of unions could be summed up as a long battle that was just beginning.
      1. Strikes, negotiations, firings, hirings, etc. were to still very much to come.
      2. In the grand scheme of things, despite unions' constant efforts, labor unions in the 1800's were largely ineffective mostly due to the never-ending stream of immigrants which always assured an eager labor force.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 25 - America Moves to the City

  1. The Urban Frontier
    1. The population of the U.S. doubled between 1870 and 1900. The population of cities tripled. Cities grew outward, but also upward.
      1. Cities grew outward thanks to the electric trolley. The old "walking city" of Europe had expanded to become larger than was practical to walk across. People now rode trolleys.
      2. Cities grew upward thanks to skyscrapers. Working in Chicago in the 1880's, architect Louis Sullivan was the father of the skyscraper. He used steel, concrete, newly invented elevators, and the motto "form follows function." A bit ahead of his time, his techniques would later influence Frank Lloyd Wright and become accepted.
    2. Cities attracted people from the farms partly due to jobs, partly to the excitement of the city, partly due to advances.
      1. Cities had city lights, indoor plumbing, telephones, and skyscrapers. There were department stores like Marshall Field's in Chicago and Macy's in New York.
      2. New York's Brooklyn Bridge was completed in 1883. The suspension bridge came to symbolize American ingenuity, technology, commerce, and can-do attitude.
    3. Author Theodore Dreiser captured big-city life (for both good and bad) in his novel Sister Carrie. In a nutshell, it's about the struggles of a young woman who wants to leave boring country life for the hustle-bustle of Chicago. She finds upward mobility by sleeping with men she thinks are her ticket up the social ladder. Notably, Dreiser was a "realist" writer—Carrie's life and Chicago are written about plainly, without "sugar coating", and rather depressingly.
      1. There was another way for country folks to gain a bit of the big city—via mail order catalogs. Companies like Sears and Montgomery Ward sent catalogs yearly and people could buy anything in the catalog and have it sent to their rural homes.
    4. The rapid growth of cities had negative effects as well, mainly in sanitation.
      1. Trash piled up in the streets, drinking water was poor, sewage systems were ineffective, air quality was terrible, animal droppings were everywhere. The result was unhealthy and unclean conditions in the streets.
      2. Slums popped up as well. They were far too over-populated and far to unsanitary. Those two conditions simply added to one another literally making the slums death-traps.
        1. An early godsend was the "dumbbell" apartment. Getting clean air into the tenement apartments was a problem. The dumbbell apartment had an air shaft vertically down the through the building to let in air. It wasn't perfect, but was much healthier than a cubicle box shaped apartment with no air shaft.
        2. People usually moved up and out of the slums. The slums would then be re-inhabited by the next wave of immigrants.
    5. A notable statistic occurred in 1920: for the first time, America was more urban than rural. That is to say, more people lived in cities (of 2,500 people or more) than in the country.
  2. The New Immigration
    1. Immigration was speeding up and it was changing.
    2. Before 1880, most immigrants to America were from "Old Immigration."
      1. They came from northern and western Europe—Britain, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia. They largely came from nations with some democratic backgrounds and were of the fair-skinned Anglo-Saxon type.
      2. They were Protestant (except for the Irish and a few Germans).
      3. They were generally better educated and with a bit of money behind them.
    3. Around 1880, things changed over to "New Immigration."
      1. They came from southern and eastern Europe—Poland, Italy, Slovakia, Croatia. They largely came from nations with little democratic traditions.
      2. They were usually Catholic, uneducated, and were generally penniless.
    4. In 1880 they made up 19% of immigrants; 1910 they were up to 66% of immigrants.
    5. They generally came to areas consisting of their home-country neighbors. Places popped up like "Little Italy" and "Little Poland." Americans felt these newcomers could not or would not melt into the American way of life.
  3. Southern Europe Uprooted
    1. The New Immigrants came to America for many reasons: the population in Europe had grown very fast, there had been wars, there was discrimination, but the main reason for emigrating to America, as usual, was economic opportunities. Trans-Atlantic steamships also made passage easier.
      1. American businesses loved the immigration boom. It meant a steady and cheap labor force.
    2. Jews emigrated largely to New York City. They were unusual in that they'd come from cities of Europe and brought their city-life skills.
    3. Many young men (about 25% of the immigrants) came to America not to live, but to work and then return to Europe.
    4. Immigrants struggled between keeping Old World customs and adopting the New World. To keep the old, Catholics set up school systems, their were foreign language newspapers, ethnic restaurants, theaters and social clubs. The children of the immigrants normally grew up "American" and become wholly "American."
  4. Reactions to the New Immigration
    1. Immigrants were left on their own once entering America. City bosses, such as the infamous Boss Tweed of the Tammany Hall district in New York City, pretty much ran the immigrants' lives.
    2. Eventually, people's social conscience kicked into gear.
      1. Protestant clergy called for Christian charity. They called for the "social gospel" where churches should address social issues and problems.
      2. Leading preachers of the social gospel were Walter Rauschenbusch (German Baptist) and Washington Gladden (Congregational).
    3. Most notable of social reformers of the late 1800's was Jane Addams.
      1. Addams founded Hull House in Chicago (1889). It was a "settlement house"—immigrants came there for counseling, literacy training, child care, cultural activities, and the like.
      2. A well-known spin-off of Hull House was the Henry Street Settlement in New York run by Lillian Wald.
    4. Settlement houses became hot-beds for activism.
      1. Women in particular began to be active in issues, particularly in addressing discrimination against women for jobs.
      2. Jobs for women, were few to begin with, and depended on a woman's race, ethnicity, and class. Each "brand" of woman was pigeon-holed into a certain group of jobs.
      3. Still, the big cities generally offered more opportunities in jobs and entertainment than the small towns back home.
  5. Narrowing the Welcome Mat This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. With the boom of immigration, "nativism" (bias against foreigners) reappeared from its 1840's roots. By the 1880's it was the "New Immigrants" being looked down upon.
      1. The Old Immigrants from northern Europe disliked the New because they were poorly educated, poor, Catholic, were from the "inferior" regions of Europe, and had high immigration and birth rates.
      2. In simple dollars-and-sense, these New Immigrants would work for pennies. This kept everyone's wages low. Also, immigrants were used as scabs (strike-breakers) and were hard to unionize due to language issues. This fostered even more resent.
      3. Politically, they had no democratic background. They came from areas of dictatorships, socialism, and some were anarchists. These ideas mingled in natives minds and spawned fear.
    2. Nativist organizations emerged (reminiscent of the old Know Nothing Party of the 1840's and 50's).
      1. The American Protective Association (APA) gained millions of members and urged voting against Catholics.
    3. Eventually laws followed people's feelings.
      1. The first law restricting immigration to America was passed in 1882. It banned paupers (a very poor person), criminals, and convicts.
      2. Another law in 1885 forbade importing workers under contract at substandard wages.
      3. Other laws banned more "undesirables" and literacy tests kept many immigrants out until 1917.
      4. A red-letter law was passed in 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act. It banned the immigration of Chinese. This was the first immigration law to specifically target and ban a specific ethnicity.
    4. Ironically, the Statue of Liberty (1886) was given to the U.S. by France during the days of such anti-foreigner feelings. Poet Emma Lazarus words were inscribed on the bottom: Give me your tired, your poor Your huddled masses yearning to be free,…"
  6. Churches Confront the Urban Challenge
    1. Changes in city were also affecting the churches.
      1. In the shift to the cities, churches seemed to be losing their place in society.
      2. Many people began to question the motives of the churches. The established churches largely had established church-goers. They seemed to be materialistic and happily stagnant. It was as if the wealthy parishioner didn't want to get his hands dirty dealing with the issues of the poor.
    2. Within this set of circumstances, religious changes would occur…
      1. Some preachers had been influenced by Unitarianism of the the 2nd Great Awakening days. These liberal groups spun their own twist on religion: they rejected a literal interpretation of the bible, rejected original sin of mankind, and pushed for the social gospel.
      2. Dwight Lyman Moody started the Moody Bible Institute and pushed for Christian charity and kindness. His goal and achievement was connect biblical teachings and Christianity to modern city life.
      3. The Roman Catholic and Jewish faiths were growing largely in numbers due to the New Immigration.
      4. America had 150+ varieties of faiths by 1890. A good social gospel example was the Salvation Army which helped anyone struggling to make a go of things by doling out soup.
      5. A new religion emerged: Mary Baker Eddy started the Church of Christ, Scientist (AKA "Christian Science"). The main belief of Christian Science was healing through prayer, not through medical treatment.
      6. Membership in the YMCA or YWCA (the Young Men's/Women's Christian Association) grew quickly. They mixed religion with exercise and activity.
  7. Darwin Disrupts the Churches
    1. Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1859. His theory of evolution argued that higher forms of life had evolved from lower forms of life via random mutation and survival-of-the-fittest.
      1. At first, scientists rejected Darwin's views. Many people followed Frenchmen Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's version of evolution saying things that happened during an organism's life could be the surviving factor (not necessarily genetic mutation). By the 1920's, Darwin's view was largely accepted by scientists.
    2. Darwin's review thus rejected divine creation. Three groups were now in a culture war…
      1. "Fundamentalists" believed the bible as it is written, without any errors. They accepted Genesis 1:1 that states, "In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth."
      2. Liberal Christians blended evolution with divine creation. They justified evolution as acts of God.
      3. "Modernists" rejected religion and accepted Darwin's theory of evolution and his rationale for the beginnings of life and of life's variety.
  8. The Lust for Learning
    1. Education continued to march forward. The idea of "free compulsory eduction," paid for by taxpayers, was a reality, but generally only up to the 8th grade.
      1. High schools were now growing and were to 6,000 in number by 1900.
      2. Other areas of education grew: (a) kindergartens, (b) "normal" (teacher training) schools, and (c) the fast growth of parochial schools (especially Catholic).
    2. Adults were left out of this system. But, many adults participated in the Chataqua movement. It was a series of lectures, a descendant of the earlier "lyceum" circuit. Many well-known speakers, like Mark Twain, spoke.
    3. Stats reflect the benefits of education: the illiteracy rate fell from 20% (1870) to 10.7% (1900).
  9. Booker T. Washington and Education for Black People
    1. In the post-war South, many still struggled, especially blacks. They were largely poor and poorly educated.
    2. Booker T. Washington developed a plan for bettering the lots of blacks.
      1. He developed the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. It was a normal school for black teachers and taught hands-on industrial trades.
      2. George Washington Carver studied the peanut, sweet potato, and soybean there and came up with many uses for them: shampoo, axle grease, vinegar, and paint.
      3. He felt the way for blacks to advance in the South was through bettering themselves economically. Social justice would come later.
    3. Washington's largest critic was W.E.B. DuBois.
      1. DuBois was a Harvard intellectual. He criticism was that Washington's method put blacks in a little box of manual labor only.
      2. DuBois help start the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) and called for the "talented tenth" of the black community to be given full access and equality.
    4. On a day-to-day level, many blacks related much better to Washington and his practical approach.
  10. The Hallowed Halls of Ivy
    1. Upper education expanded after the Civil War.
      1. Women gained more colleges, often in the Midwest, like Vassar.
      2. Black colleges emerged, like Howard University in Washington D.C. and Atlanta University.
    2. Two laws helped the growth of colleges: the Morrill Act (1862) and then the **Hatch Act (1887). They provided money to states for "land-grant colleges." A focus was on agricultural research at the universities.
      1. They gave birth to 100+ colleges and universities, such as University of California, Texas A&M, and Ohio State.
    3. Philanthropy or private donations went a long way for colleges. Examples included Cornell, Stanford University from railroad tycoon Leland Stanford, and the University of Chicago from John D. Rockefeller.
    4. Johns Hopkins University became the first top-rate graduate school.
  11. The March of the Mind
    1. With new topics like evolution, universities began to struggle to reconcile science with religion. The "solution" was to drop moral instruction.
    2. The curriculum changed as well.
      1. Traditionally, the curriculum consisted of languages, notably Latin and Greek for bible study, and grammar or rhetoric. Universities in America had been started to train preachers.
      2. Now, the movement was toward a more practical curriculum. Also, the elective system became very popular as it gave students choices of classes.
      3. The reform of education jumped forward when chemist Dr. Charles W. Eliot was named president of Harvard. Symbolically, he changed Harvard's motto from Christo et Ecclesiae (for Christ and Church) to Veritas (Truth).
    3. Medicine and med-schools improved.
      1. Louis Pasteur (pasteurization) and Joseph Lister's (antiseptics) work helped move medicine from superstition to science. People now understood germs and life expectancy rose.
    4. Henry James wrote influentially on psychology with books like Principles of Psychology and Pragmatism (saying America's contribution to any idea was its usefulness, or not).
  12. The Appeal of the Press
    1. Books had always been popular, but by 1900 people were starving to read. Libraries and newspapers satisfied that urge.
    2. The Library of Congress opened in 1897 and Andrew Carnegie had given $60 million to build local libraries across the U.S.
    3. Newspapers were on the rise as well with the invention of Linotype. People were hungry to read the latest goings-on.
      1. Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) mastered sensational reporting, called yellow journalism after his comic "The Yellow Kid."
      2. William Randolph Hearst (San Francisco Examiner) was also a yellow journalism editor and put together a newspaper empire made of a chain of newspapers.
      3. Daily newspapers immensely helped unify the U.S. People were now much more on the "same page," literally, as someone in another section of the nation. Notably, this is when the popularity of national sports, especially baseball, took off since one could follow his team each day.
      4. Drawbacks rose however: one as the influence of advertisers in the expanding newspaper business; another was that reporting was focussed more on selling papers than on accuracy (a "juicy" story was better than an accurate story).
      5. The establishment of the Associated Press (AP) and their accuracy helped balance the yellow journalism.
  13. Apostles of Reform
    1. Magazines were popular, such as Harper'sAtlantic Monthly, and Scribners.
    2. Editor Edwin L. Godkin's liberal magazine Nation was very influential.
      1. It was read by intellectuals and thinker-types and was reform minded.
      2. It pushed for civil service reform (government jobs based on talent, not connections), honest government, and a mild tariff.
    3. Henry George wrote Progess and Poverty which examined the relationship between those two concepts. His theory was that "progress" pushed land values up and thus increased poverty amongst many.
      1. His solution to the distribution of wealth was to propose a 100% tax on profits—a very controversial proposal.
    4. Edward Bellamy published the novel Looking Backward. It's character fell asleep and awoke in the year 2000 to an ideal society. His solution was that the government had taken over all business, communist/socialist-style, and everything was rosy. Intellectual-types enjoyed discussing the book and its ideas.
  14. The New Morality
    1. "Modern" times and morality were changing, or perhaps more accurately, morality didn't change but was challenged.
    2. Two sisters, Victoria Woodhull and Tennessee Claflin published a periodical that shocked proper, Elizabethan society. Woodhull announced her belief in free love, they both pushed for women's propaganda, and charged that respectable Henry Ward Beecher had been having a long affair.
      1. Anthony Comstock made it his mission to stop all moral threat. Armed with the "Comstock Law," he collected dirty pictures and pills/powders he said abortionists used.
    3. The "new morality" began to take place in the form of higher divorce rates, increased birth control, and more open sex talk. These changes had largely been prompted by the increased independence of women that there own jobs provided.
  15. Families and Women in the City
    1. Families were stressed in the new urban society.
      1. On the farm, another child was another helping hand; in the city, another child was a liability—another mouth to feed. Thus, birth rates declined. Under the stress of the city, divorce rates shot up.
    2. Paradoxically, people seemed more lonely in crowded cities than on farms. Families became critical companionship.
    3. Feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman published Women and Economics, a classic of feminism. She (1) shunned traditional femininity, (2) said there were no real differences between men and women, and (3) called for group nurseries and kitchens to free up women.
    4. Ladies still pushed for female suffrage. The push for the right to vote had taken a time-out to push for blacks' rights; now the push was on again.
      1. The National American Suffrage Association was started in 1890 with Elizabeth Cady Stanton (from the old Seneca Falls Convention of 1848) and Susan B. Anthony.
      2. A new leader was Carrie Chapman Pratt. She changed the argument from "women deserve to right to vote since they're equal" to "women deserve the right to vote in order to carry out their traditional roles and homemakers and mothers."
        1. This new argument linking voting to traditional women's roles seemed to pay dividends. Western states, which had always been more accepting of an independent woman, began to give women the right to vote (Wyoming being the first).
    5. Women's Clubs popped up in cities and garnered some 200,000 members in 1900.
    6. Female suffrage was reserved to white women only. Black women found other causes: Ida Wells led a nationwide push against lynching and helped start the National Association of Colored Women (1896).
  16. Prohibiting Alcohol and Promoting Reform
    1. The movement to prohibit alcohol gained steam as well as corner bars were everywhere in the city. The argument, mostly by women, was that alcohol and the bars kept the men drunk, took the family's wages, and increased violence at home.
    2. The National Prohibition Party (1869) got a handful of votes, though not many, for president.
    3. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union (1874) was more aggressive. It was led by Francis E. Willard and Carrie A. Nation whose trademark was to literally walk into a bar and chop it up with a hatchet.
    4. The Anti-Saloon League (1893) increased the push against alcohol by singing anti-liquor songs.
    5. Gains were made…
      1. On a local level, some states/counties banned alcohol, led by Maine.
      2. On the national level, the 18th Amendment (1819) was the culmination of the prohibition movement. Amendment 18 (AKA "Prohibition") simply banned alcohol in the U.S. It was short-lived. The 21st Amendment repealed the ban on alcohol.
    6. Notably other crusades popped up at the same time: the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and the American Red Cross (1881) led by Clara Barton, the famous Civil War nurse.
  17. Postwar Popular Fiction
    1. People read like wildfire after the Civil War. "Dime novels" were very popular, especially about the Wild West with characters like "Deadwood Dick."
      1. Harlan F. Halsey wrote about 650 dime novels and became rich.
    2. Gen. Lewis Wallace wrote Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ. It countered Darwinsm with faith in Christ and sold 2 million copies.
    3. A very influential writer was Horatio Alger. He wrote rags-to-riches stories, usually about a good boy that made good. They all championed the virtues of honesty and hard work that lead to prosperity and honor. His best known book was titled Ragged Dick.
    4. Walt Whitman revised his classic "Leaves of Grass." He also wrote "O Captain! My Captain!", inspired by Lincoln's assassination.
    5. Emily Dickinson became famous as a poet after she died and her writings were found and published.
  18. Literary Landmarks
    1. Writing was going through a change of flavor: in the early 1800's "romanticism" ruled (for example, The Last of the Mohicans), by the late 1800's "realism" took over (for example, Sister Carrie). The switch to realism was spawned by the industrial revolution and growth of cities.
    2. Kate Chopin wrote openly about adultery, suicide, and the ambitions of women in The Awakening (1889).
    3. Born Samuel Langhorne Clemens, Mark Twain took that pseudonym since he'd worked on a Mississippi riverboat as a boy and that was the captain's yell to mark the depth. He was already famous with the story "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County".
      1. He traveled through the West and wrote Roughing It (1872) recounting the trip. It was a mix of truths, half-truths, and tall tales, and readers loved it.
      2. He co-wrote with Charles Dudley Warner The Gilded Age (1873) that laid bare the questionable politics and business of the day.
      3. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) told of the likable huckster and school-skipper and his gal Polly.
      4. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) told of buddies runaway Huck and runaway slave Jim as they rafted down the Mississippi. The book was immensely popular and influential. Ernest Hemingway later said, "All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn."
    4. Bret Harte wrote of the West in his gold rush stories, especially "The Luck of Roaring Camp" and "The Outcasts of Poker Flat."
    5. William Dean Howells, editor of Atlantic Monthly, wrote about common people and controversial social topics.
    6. Stephen Crane wrote brilliantly and realistically about industrial, urban America in Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893). It old of a girl-turned-prostitute and then suicide.
      1. His most famous work was The Red Badge of Courage (1895) about a Civil War soldier and his sacrifice.
    7. Henry Adams, grandson of John Adams, wrote a history of the early U.S. and The Education of Henry Adams, his best known.
    8. Henry James, brother of philosopher William James, usually wrote about innocent Americans, normally women, thrown amid Europeans. His best works were Daisy Miller (1879), The Portrait of a Lady (1881), and The Bostonians(1886).
    9. Jack London wrote about the wilderness in The Call of the Wild (1903), White Fang, and The Iron Heel.
    10. Frank Norris's novels criticized corrupt business. The Octopus (1901) was about railroad and political corruption and The Pit was about speculators trading in wheat.
    11. Two black writers gained prominence using black dialect and folklore.
      1. Paul Dunbar wrote poetry, notably with "Lyrics of Lowly Life" (1896).
      2. Charles W. Chesnutt wrote fiction, notably The Conjure Women (1899).
    12. As mentioned prior, Theodore Dreiser was the champion of realism with his novel Sister Carrie (1900). Carrie moved in with one man then eloped with another (who was already married), then left them both for a career on stage. It morality of the novel was shocking to proper society.
  19. Artistic Triumphs
    1. In the early days of America, art had been on hold while the nation was built. By the end of the 18th century, American art was coming into its own.
    2. Many new artists emerged…
      1. James Whistler lived an eccentric life. His best-known painting was of his mother.
      2. John Singer Sargent painted portraits of European nobility.
      3. Mary Cassat painted women and children, as with her "The Bath" showing a mother bathing a small girl.
      4. George Inness painted landscapes.
      5. Thomas Eakins painted realistically, as seen in his graphic surgical painting "The Gross Clinic."
      6. Winslow Homer was perhaps the most "American" painter. He typically painted scenes of daily New England life and the sea. Homer's topics included schoolhouses, farmers, young women, sailors, and coastlines.
      7. Sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens made the Robert Gould Shaw (leader of 54th black regiment in the Civil War) memorial in Boston Common.
    3. Music made steps with symphonies in Boston and Chicago and New York's Metropolitan Opera House.
      1. Black folk tunes were giving birth to jazz, ragtime, and blues. These genres would later spawn country and rock 'n roll, as by Elvis Presley.
      2. Thomas Edison invented the phonograph which recorded sound and music for playback.
    4. Architecture mimicked older, classical styles.
      1. Architect Henry H. Richardson designed buildings with his trademark high-vaulted arches in his "Richardsonian" style. His style was very ornate and reminiscent of Gothic cathedrals. The Marshall Fields building in Chicago was his masterpiece.
      2. The Columbian Exposition (1893 in Chicago) revived classical architectural forms and setback realism or Louis Sullivan's new "form follows function" style.
  20. The Business of Amusement
    1. American entertainment went to the national level. This was due to increased free time due to hourly jobs in cities and increased national unity due to newspapers.
    2. Phineas T. "P.T.Barnum (who quipped, “There’s a sucker born every minute,” and “the public likes to be humbugged.”) and James A. Bailey started the circus and adopted the slogan, "The Greatest Show on Earth".
    3. Wild west shows were popular. "Buffalo BillCody's was well-known. It featured Annie Oakley who shot holes through tossed silver dollars.
    4. Baseball, became very popular. Baseball was emerging as the clear "American pastime" and a professional league started in the 1870's.
    5. Horse racing was also being organized and would soon become the nation's second national pastime. The first Kentucky Derby was run in the early 1870's, even before the first World Series.
    6. Other sports emerged: (1) basketball was invented by William Naismith in 1891, (2) people liked the rugged nature of football, and (3) boxing took on gloves and became more of a spectator sport.
    7. Two crazes hit at the end of the 1800's—croquet and bicycling. Croquet was considered risqué because it exposed women's ankles and encouraged flirting.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 26 - The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution

  1. The Clash of Cultures on the Plains
    1. The West, after the Civil War, was still largely untamed. It was inhabited by Indians, buffalo, coyotes, Mexicans, and Mormons.
    2. The American Indians found themselves caught in between their own traditions and the westward-pushing white man.
      1. Indians fought one another as with the Comanche over the Apache, the Chippewa over the Cheyenne, and the Sioux over the Crow, Kiowa, and Pawnee. By this time, the Sioux had become expert horsemen and effectively hunted buffalo on the Spanish beasts.
      2. Whites' diseases were still striking at Native Americans. And, whites struck at the massive buffalo herds.
    3. Relations between Indians and the federal government were strained at best.
      1. Treaties were made at Fort Laramie (1851) and Fort Atkinson (1853). The agreements started the system of reservations where Indians were to live on certain lands unmolested by whites.
      2. Whites didn't understand Indian society and that a "chief" didn't always exactly sign an agreement for an entire group or area. There were many chiefs representing many areas or even no area.
      3. Indians expected help from the federal government in return for their lands. The help (food, blankets, supplies) often never got there or were swindled by corrupt officials.
    4. After the Civil War, the U.S. Army’s new mission was to clear out the West of Indians for white settlers to move in.
      1. The so-called "Indian Wars" took place roughly from 1864-1890 (from the Sand Creek Massacre to the Battle of Wounded Knee). It was really less of a war than a long series of skirmishes, battles, and massacres.
      2. At first, the Indians actually had the advantage because their arrows could be fired more rapidly than a muzzle-loading rifle. The invention of the Colt .45 revolver (the six-shooter by Samuel Colt) and Winchester repeating rifle changed this.
      3. Notably, one-fifth of the U.S. Army out West was black, the "Buffalo Soldiers" as the Indians called them.
  2. Receding Native Population
    1. Violence out West began just before the Civil War ended.
      1. Col. J.M. Chivington's troops circled then killed 400 Indians who thought they'd been given immunity. This was the infamous Sand Creek Massacre (1864).
      2. Two years later, the Indians struck revenge in the Fetterman Massacre. The Sioux sought to stop the Bozeman Trail to Montana's gold and killed Capt. William J. Fetterman and his 81 soldiers.
      3. These two tic-for-tac massacres set the stage for terrible Indian-white relations and started the Indian wars.
    2. Just after Fetterman, the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) was made between the federal government and the Sioux. The government gave up on the Bozeman Trail and the huge Sioux reservation was established. The treaty looked promising but was short-lived.
      1. Six years later, in 1874, gold was discovered in the Black Hills of South Dakota (on the Sioux reservation) when Col. William Armstrong Custer led a "geological" expedition into the Black Hills.
    3. The Battle of Little Bighorn (1876) (AKA "Custer's Last Stand") followed.
      1. Led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, some Sioux stubbornly refused to go to the reservation.
      2. Custer led about 400 cavalry against Crazy Horse who was labeled as a "hostile" Indian. Custer faced some 10,000 Indians, about 2,500 warriors. All 200+ or so of Custer's detachment were killed, including Custer himself, "Chief Yellow Hair."
      3. The Little Bighorn battle brought the U.S. military out for revenge and sealed the Indian-white relationship as little better than warfare.
    4. The Nez Perce tribe, led by Chief Joseph, revolted when the government tried to force them onto a reservation. They bugged out over some 1,700 miles, across the Rocky Mountains, and fled for Canada.
      1. They were caught and defeated at the Battle of Bear Paw Mountain only 40 miles from the Canada border. Chief Joseph "buried his hatchet" and gave his famous speech saying, “From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.”
      2. The Nez Perce were sent to a Kansas reservation where 40% died from disease.
    5. The Apache of the Southwest were troublesome to the Army. Led by Geronimo, the military chased him and the Apache into Mexico where he proved to be a very wily adversary.
      1. The apache, and Geronimo, were eventually caught, imprisoned in Florida and then Oklahoma.
    6. The Indians were subdued due to (1) railroads, (2) diseases, (3) lack of buffalo, (4) war, and (5) the loss of their land to white settlement.
  3. Bellowing Herds of Bison
    1. There was an estimated 15 million buffalo around by the end of the Civil War. The buffalo herds diminished largely due to the railroads.
      1. The railroads literally split the Great Plains into sections. This decreased the buffalo's ability to roam around. Even more detrimental, railroads brought more and more whites who put more and more pressure on them.
    2. Buffalo were killed (a) for hides, (b) for sport, and (c) to kill off the Indian way of life.
    3. By 1885, an estimated only 1,000 survived, mostly located in Yellowstone National Park. The vast majority died off or "went the way of the buffalo."
  4. The End of the Trail
    1. By the 1880's, the people were beginning to recognize the plight of the American Indian. Helen Hunt Jackson's book A Century of Dishonor helped outline the injustice done to Indians by the U.S. government. Her novel Ramona had the same effect in fiction form.
      1. Native Americans faced a stark decision: to join modern times, stick with traditional ways, or somehow try to mix both.
      2. Many whites wanted to try to help the Indians "walk the white man's road."
      3. Others felt the tough policies of containing Indians on reservations and punishing "hostiles" was the way to go.
    2. Missionaries were eager for Indians to convert to the Christian religion. They helped convince the government to outlaw the "Sun Dance."
      1. Later, the "Ghost Dance" fad swept through the Sioux nation and prompted the Battle of Wounded Knee (1890).
      2. Wounded Knee was not a battle but a massacre. 200+ Indians were killed, essentially killed for dancing. This battle marked the end of the Indian Wars. By this time, all Indians were either on reservations or dead.
      3. 1890 was also the year that the federal government said there was "no discernible frontier"; that is to say that by 1890, the West was won, or lost, depending on the viewpoint.
    3. In 1887 the Dawes Severalty Act was passed. Its overall goal was to erase tribes and set the Indians on the road to "becoming white." It was a very insulting law…
      1. Although the Indians were truly "Native Americans" and the whites were the immigrants, the law said that Indians could become U.S. citizens after 25 years if they behaved as the U.S. government preferred (like "good white settlers").
      2. Looking back, this policy seems absurd since a European stepping off the boat in 1887 would receive citizenship in just a few short years, not 25.
      3. The Carlisle Indian School which opened in 1879 exemplifies the ambitions of the Dawes Act. Carlisle's goal was was train Indian children in whites' ways. The children were completely immersed in white culture and grew up that way. Carlisle's results were successful in their goal by following "kill the Indian, save the child" policies.
        1. A notable graduate of the Carlisle School was Jim Thorpe, likely one of the best all-around athletes in American history. He played professional football, professional baseball, professional basketball, and won Olympic gold medals in the decathlon and pentathlon.
      4. The Dawes Act held the goal of killing the Indian way of life, and largely succeeded. In 1900, Indians held only 50% of the land they'd held just 20 years prior.
        1. The forced-assimilation policies of the Dawes Act would rule until the Indian Reorganization Act (1934) was passed. By then, things had changed too much.
  5. Mining: From Dishpan to Ore Breaker This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. At Pike's Peak Colorado, gold was discovered in 1858 and "fifty-niners" flooded to the hills to dig. Most prospectors didn't find much or any gold, but many stayed to mine silver or farm.
    2. The Comstock Lode of silver was discovered in Nevada shortly after Pike's Peak. The lode was extremely productive: $340 million dollars worth was unearthed. In 1864, Nevada became a state almost overnight.
    3. There was a routine to the growth of mining towns…
      1. First, gold/silver was found as in Virginia City, Nevada. When word got out, they grew like wild—too fast for their own good. These boomtowns were nicknamed "Helldorados" because of their lawlessness.
      2. Saloons and bordellos quickly came to town, and a general store for supplies.
      3. Later, if the town remained, a post office, school, sheriff, and an opera house for entertainment might arrive.
      4. For many towns, when the minerals ran out, the townsfolk simply left and the town became a ghost town.
    4. Notably women in these western towns gained a certain independence they lacked back East. Women found jobs in traditional female roles (like cooks or store clerks) as well as prostitutes. Still, they were making money for themselves.
        1. The independence and equality of western women is best seen in many states granting women the right to vote—Wyoming (1866), Utah (1870), Colorado (1893) and Idaho (1896).
    5. Mining life was captured and mixed into American folklore by stories by Bret Harte and Mark Twain.
  6. Beef Bonanzas and the Long Drive
    1. As cities back East boomed in the latter half of the nineteenth century, the demand for food and meat increased sharply. The problem then became—how to get the western cattle to the easter cities? The solution was the railroads.
      1. Beef became big business. Stockyard towns like Kansas City and Chicago gave birth to "beef barons" such as the Swift and the Armour families.
    2. Much of the cattle was in south Texas, where the railroads hadn't reached yet. The problem then became—how to get the Texas longhorns to the railroad. The solution was the "long drive", a cattle drive from Texas to the Kansas railroads.
      1. Cowboys wound round up a herd then drive them northward across plains and rivers.
      2. Their destination was the stockyards in towns like Dodge City or Abilene in Kansas, Ogallala, NE, and Cheyenne, WY.
      3. These towns became famous for the Wild West activities—hard liquor, wild women, gambling, shootouts, and their famous lawmen like Wyatt Earp and Wild Bill Hickock.
    3. The days of the cowboy driving cattle across the prairie on the long drive were short-lived. Several factors ended the days of the open range…
      1. Sheep herders came in and nibbled the grass off too short for cattle to feed.
      2. Several years of drought dried up the grass and hard freezes took their toll.
      3. Mostly, when railroads came to Texas, there was no need to drive cattle. The invention of barbed wire (and wire promoter Samuel Glidden) fenced in the land and the cattle business changed from roaming the open range to staying on a ranch.
        1. Ranching had become big business and big power, evidenced by the Wyoming Stock'-Growers Association who controlled the state.
    4. Despite being around only 20 years or so, the image of the American cowboy riding free across open land was deeply emblazoned on the American psyche.
  7. The Farmers’ Frontier
    1. The Homestead Act (1862) offered 160 acres of free land. Settlers only had to pay a small fee and improve the land, meaning build a small cabin on it. Alternately, the land could be purchased flat-out for $1.25 per acre.
      1. Either way, the Homestead Act was a great deal. Some 500,000 settlers took up the offer and headed west.
      2. Settlers often had a rude awakening—due to its sparse nature, 160 acres of western land seemed much less than 160 acres back east.
        1. Settlers often were forced to give up due to drought, extreme cold or heat, or simply because 160 acres wasn't enough to sustain a family.
      3. Fraudsters accompanied the Homestead Act. Speculators grabbed up 10 times as much land as real farmers in hopes of turning a profit one day. Some hucksters built a twelve by fourteen cabin on the land, twelve by fourteen inches.
    2. Ever since the railroads came through, people realized that the American west, though dry, was actually fertile. The trick was to get water to the soil.
      1. Wheat prices soared due to worldwide crop failure and American settlers pushed farther and farther westward, even west of the 100th meridian. This line also the 20-inch rainfall line, the amount generally necessary to grow crops.
      2. Geologist John Wesley Powell, who'd shot the rapids of the Colorado River, had warned that the land was too dry.
        1. Farmers developed "dry farming" to deal with the sparse rain. With this technique, farmers would plow the dew into the top few inches of soil. The system worked but it created a dusty layer of powder atop the soil. In the 1930's the Great Dust Bowl would result.
        2. A more drought resistant strain of wheat was imported from Russia and corn was replaced by easier-to-grow crops.
      3. The federal government irrigation projects would eventually dam up the Missouri and Columbia Rivers. Irrigation would suck the Colorado River so that it would peter out and never make it to the sea.
  8. The Far West Comes of Age
    1. The West boomed in population during the 1870's to 1890's and new states were ready to join the U.S. Several were admitted in one block vote: North and South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming.
    2. The Mormons finally banned polygamy (marrying multiple wives) in 1890 and Utah was then admitted as a state in 1896.
    3. The Oklahoma territory was opened to settlers in a "land rush" in 1889. Many jumped the starting gun and snuck out to the land "sooner" than the others—earning the nickname of the "Sooner state." Most land rusher participants went home empty-handed but Oklahoma became a state by the end of 1889.
  9. The Fading Frontier
    1. The census bureau announced in 1890 there was no longer a discernible frontier in America.
    2. The loss of frontier and land made people worry that it'd be gobbled up for good. Yellowstone was obtained by the federal government as the first national park in 1872. Yosemite and Sequoia parks followed in 1890.
    3. Frederick Jackson Turner wrote of the "Turner Thesis" saying that the frontier had played an important role in American history and in people's psychology.
      1. Turner wrote, "American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West."
    4. Americans could always just up-and-leave, go westward, and start over (called the "safety-valve theory").
      1. City-dwellers typically did not move out West since they had no farming skills or money for equipment. The western cities (Chicago, Denver, San Francisco) did grow as workers sought jobs there. But, even the possibility of frontier land may have kept wages up since employers wouldn't want to lose valuable employees.
      2. Immigrant farmers were the ones to typically take up the western land to farm.
    5. The west saw several cultures bang heads: Native Americans, whites, Hispanics, Asian, and the immense role of government holding much of the land.
    6. The Great West was captured in word and on canvas by writers like Bret Harte, Mark Twain, Helen Hunt Jackson, Francis Parkman and painters George Catlin, Fredric Remington, and Albert Bierstadt.
  10. The Farm Becomes a Factory
    1. Farming changed too. Farmers used to grow and make whatever they needed. They now switched to growing "cash crops"—crops to be sold, not eaten or used. Other items would be purchased.
      1. If a desired item wasn't at the local general store, farmers could buy anything via mail order catalog. Montgomery Ward sent its first catalog out in 1872.
    2. Inventions turned farms into food-factories.
      1. Steam driven tractors could plow much more land than by mule or oxen.
      2. The "combine", a mix of reaper and thresher, harvested much more wheat.
      3. The drawback of these machines was that farmers got themselves into loads of debt. Many went bankrupt. The end result was that the small farmers faded and huge mega-farms emerged.
    3. California agriculture was amazing. They were extremely large and extremely productive.
      1. Migrant Mexican and Chinese workers were paid very little; profits were hefty.
      2. The refrigerator car was invented in the 1880's and California fruits and vegetables began moving eastward.
  11. Deflation Dooms the Debtor
    1. The economy bounced back, worldwide, in the 1880's. Markets went up, farmers produced more crops, and food prices dropped. In this situation, the farmer was the one to suffer.
      1. Grain farmers were at the whim of world crop prices. A bumper crop, in say Argentina, meant American wheat farmers faced ruin.
    2. The two major concerns of the farmer were (1) low crop prices and (2) deflated currency.
      1. Crop prices generally dropped due to the increased production that machinery could generate.
      2. Deflated currency meant that it was more difficult to pay off debts.
        1. Farmers faced two problems here: (1) low crop prices meant they'd need to grow more crops to pay the debt (which meant lower crop prices again), and (2) there was literally less money in circulation making it tougher to get their hands on money. Less money in circulation was called “contraction.”
    3. The farmers operated at a loss each year, which mounted their debt, and sent them into a spiral toward foreclosure. Interest rates ran between 8 and 40%.
    4. After "losing the farm," farmers typically became "tenant farmers" where they lived on and worked, but did not own, the land. This situation was similar to the sharecroppers in the South after the Civil War.
  12. Unhappy Farmers
    1. If debt wasn't enough, farmers also faced drought, heat, prairie fires, floods, locust swarms that would eat everything but the mortgage, and the boll weevil decimated Southern cotton.
    2. The government added insult-to-injury by taxing farmers to death. Their lands were assessed too high meaning their taxes were too high.
      1. The farmers' assets (land) were in the open, by comparison, Easterners could hide their assets (stocks and bonds) in safe-deposit boxes.
    3. Perhaps the farmers' biggest enemy was the railroads.
      1. Farmers relied on the railroads to get the crops to the market. Farmers were at the railroads' mercy.
      2. Middlemen got a hefty cut by buying from the farmer, storing the grain, then selling to the railroad shipper.
      3. Railroad rates were high. Any disgruntled and complaining farmer just saw his crops left at the railroad station to rot.
    4. In 1890, 1/2 of Americans were still farmers (although the number had been dropping since colonial days).
      1. Though big in numbers, they had a major weakness in that they were not organized. Whereas factory workers were organizing in labor unions, farmers did not.
      2. Two reasons cut at any farm organization: (1) farmers were/are by nature individualists and independent-minded; they rely on themselves, not on the "hide-behind-safety-in-numbers" theory of labor unions, and (2) from a practical sense, farmers were simply too spread out geographically to organize.
  13. The Farmers Take Their Stand
    1. The Greenback movement (push for paper money) had shown how farmers were disgruntled back in 1868.
    2. In 1869, the Grange (officially the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry) was started by Oliver H. Kelley. The Grange was a national farmers' organization aimed at advancing farmers' agenda.
      1. The initial goal was social in nature—to have "get-togethers" for isolated farmers. By 1875 it had 800,000 members.
      2. The Grange then added helping the farmers' lot in life to their goals. Especially, the Grange wanted to get the trusts off of farmers' backs.
        1. They set up "co-ops" (cooperatively owned stores) so farmers wouldn't have to sell to one grain elevator.
        2. They tried, and failed, to produce their own farm machinery.
        3. They got into politics, had some success in the Midwest, and sought to regulate railroads. These were called "Granger Laws."
        4. They faced a major setback in the Supreme Court's Wasbash case which said the states could not regulate interstate trade (meaning the railroads).
    3. Overall, the Grange had mixed results…
      1. On the good side, in 1878, they elected 14 members of Congress. They also stirred a sleeping lion in the American farmer.
      2. On the bad side, in 1880, the Greenback Party nominated Granger James B. Weaver for president but he got a measly 3% of the vote.
  14. Prelude to Populism
    1. In the 1870's an organization very similar to the Grangers emerged—the Farmers' Alliance. Their goals were the same also: to socialize and to push the farmers' agenda.
      1. The Alliance swelled to over 1,000,000 by 1890, but could've been even bigger. It excluded tenant farmers, share-croppers, farm workers, and blacks.
      2. A separate Colored Farmers' National Alliance was started for black farmers. It gained 250,000 members.
    2. Out of the Farmers' Alliance a new party was spawned—the People's Party, also known as the Populist Party. They agreed on the following:
      1. To fight the "money trust" on Wall Street.
      2. To nationalize railroads, telephone, and the telegraph.
      3. To start a graduated income tax (graduated meaning steps or levels, where the tax rate is higher the more a person earns).
      4. To start a "sub-treasury" to provide loans to farmers.
      5. To call for the unlimited coinage of silver.
    3. Of these goals, the coinage of silver rose to the top of the list. It sparked the most fire amongst the farmers and their leaders.
      1. William Hope Harvey wrote a pamphlet called Coin's Financial School. It laid out the arguments for silver and was illustrated with such scenes as a gold beast beheading a silver maiden.
      2. Ignatius Donnelly was elected to Congress from Minnesota three times on the silver stance.
      3. Mary Elizabeth Lease said farmers should raise "less corn and more hell." And she did just that, earning her the nicknames of "Mary Yellin'" or the "Kansas Pythoness."
    4. In 1892, the Populists won several seats in Congress. Their candidate, again James B. Weaver, earned over 1,000,000 votes.
      1. They were hindered by racial tensions in the South. Their challenge was to join the North and join up with city workers to make a political party with a rural/urban one-two punch.
  15. Coxey’s Army and the Pullman Strike
    1. The Panic of 1893 fueled the passion of the Populists. Many disgruntled unemployed fled to D.C. calling for change.
      1. Most famous of these people was “General” Jacob Coxey. “Coxey’s Army” (AKA the "Commonweal Army") marched on Washington with scores of followers and many newspaper reporters. They called for:
        1. Relieving unemployment by a government public works program.
        2. An issuance of $500 million in paper money. Both of these would create inflation and therefore make debts easier to pay off.
      2. The march fizzled out when they were arrested for walking on the grass.
    2. The Pullman Strike in Chicago, led by Eugene Debs, was more dramatic.
      1. Debs helped organize the workers of the Pullman Palace Car Company.
      2. The company was hit hard by the depression and cut wages by about 1/3.
      3. Workers went on strike, sometimes violently.
      4. U.S. Attorney General Richard Olney called in federal troops to break up the strike. His rationale: the strike was interfering with the transit of U.S. mail.
      5. Debs went to prison for 6 months and turned into the leading Socialist in America.
  16. Golden McKinley and Silver Bryan
    1. The presidential election of 1896 was an important one. It essentially asked, then answered, the question, "Will the U.S. base its money on gold, silver, or both?" It also saw disgruntled and restless workers going up against the conservative and worried business class.
    2. The Republicans nominated William McKinley.
      1. McKinley was "safe" in that he was pro-tariff, had a respectable Civil War record, a respectable Congressional record, and had a friendly mannerism.
      2. McKinley's right-hand-man was Mark Hanna, a businessman through-and-through. Hanna held very pro-business ideas and wanted to get McKinley elected so government could help business.
      3. Hanna organized the entire campaign. They were a bit indirect about the gold/silver issue, but they leaned gold.
    3. The Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan.
      1. The Democrats were a bit lost without a leader until the young (36) Bryan came forward. He was a super speaker, called the "boy orator of the Platte" (a river in his home state of Nebraska).
      2. Bryan "wowed" the convention crowd with his Cross of Gold Speech saying, "You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold." Bryan was formerly nominated by the Democrats.
      3. This speech made the gold/silver issue the top issue in the election.
        1. The Democrats then stole the Populist Party's main push—they called for the value and coinage of silver at a ratio of 16:1, gold-to-silver.
        2. Fearing a McKinley win, Populists largely favored joining the Democrats in what could be called a "Demo-Pop" Party.
  17. Class Conflict: Plowholders Versus Bondholders
    1. In 1896 election was heated. William Jennings Bryan went on a blitz of campaign speeches. He once gave 36 in one day.
    2. The idea of silver money rose to near religion status. Silver was going to save the poor.
      1. Both sides threw around wild economic accusations and played on people's economic fears.
    3. McKinley's campaign amassed $16 million (the most up to that time), whereas Bryan's only drummed up $1 million.
    4. McKinley, and Mark Hanna, played on people's fears in the week before the election.
      1. They hinted that, if Bryan were elected, people need not report to work the next morning because their job would be gone.
      2. They initiated rumors that workers were considering paying in 50 cent pieces rather than dollars.
    5. McKinley won the election 1896 easily, 271 to 176 electoral votes. Bryan carried the South and West, McKinley carried the Northeast, Midwest, and far West.
    6. The election was important in that (a) gold was decided upon as America's economic basis, (b) it was a victory for business, conservatives, and middle class values (as opposed to the working class), and (c) it started 16 years of Republican presidents (and 8 of the next 36 years).
  18. Republican Standpattism Enthroned
    1. William McKinley, as president, was safe in his decisions. He didn't ruffle feathers and tried to stay close to public opinion.
    2. With the gold/silver issue decided, the tariff became the lead issue.
      1. It was decided that the Wilson-Gorman Tariff wasn't bringing in enough money.
      2. So, Congress worked through the Dingley Tariff Bill. It eventually raised tariff rates to 46.5%, higher, but not as high as some had wanted.
    3. The gold issue was settled.
      1. Congress passed the Gold Standard Act (1900) saying people could trade in paper money for gold. Just knowing and trusting that meant there was no need to do that. This brought economic calm and stability.
      2. Also, there was a gold rush in Alaska, the "Klondike gold rush." Lots of new gold, also from worldwide sources, brought the inflation that the silverites had long wanted.
    4. The economy rebounded as well in 1897, McKinley's first year in office. This was due to…
      1. The 1893 recession had run its course and it was time for growth.
      2. McKinley likely brought a sense of calm both in his pro-business policies and by simply having the gold/silver question answered. The economy, and especially Wall Street, never likes uncertainty.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 27 - Empire and Expansion

  1. America Turns Outward
    1. By the 1890's, America turned away from its isolationist policies and was beginning to look overseas, toward imperialism. The European nations had been gobbling up colonies all during the 1800's, now America wanted a slice of the world pie.
    2. There were several influences pointing toward imperialism…
      1. Yellow journalism, or sensationalism in reporting, stirred up the desire to take over lands. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer's newspapers painted the far off lands as exotic, adventurous, and captured young people's imaginations.
      2. Missionaries wanted to save souls in un-Christian lands. Namely, Rev. Josiah Strong pushed for imperialism in his book Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis.
      3. Some people (like Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge) applied Darwin's survival-of-the-fittest theory to nations. It was the order of things for the strong to conquer the weak.
      4. Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan wrote a book titled The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783. It said that the key to a nation's power is through naval power. Thus, to become a world power, the U.S. needed to build up her navy.
    3. The U.S. had several international, political balancing-acts and/or crises at the time…
      1. James G. Blaine advocated the "Big Sister" policy toward Latin America. The idea was to get Latin American countries behind the leadership of the U.S. To that end, he led the Pan-American Conference in Washington D.C.
      2. A U.S.—Germany standoff occurred down in Samoa. Samoa was split in half.
      3. A U.S—Italy standoff occurred in New Orleans over captured Italians. The U.S. made payments.
      4. A U.S.—Chile standoff occurred over murdered Americans. Chile made payments.
      5. A U.S.—Canada standoff occurred over seal hunting rights. It was settled in arbitration (mediation).
      6. A U.S.—Britain standoff occurred over gold discoveries down in Guiana. The actual dispute was between Britain and Venezuela; the U.S. just got in to stick up for her "little sister" by saying the Brits were breaking the Monroe Doctrine's "stay out!" policy.
        1. Things got very tense, nearly to war. Finally, Britain (a) had other distractions by the Germans down in South Africa and (b) decided a war with the U.S. simply wasn't worth it. The gold lands were basically split and the crisis was over.
  2. Spurning the Hawaiian Pear
    1. Hawaii had been alluring to Americans since the early 1800's when shippers, sailors, whalers, and missionaries went there.
    2. By the later 1800's, a few things were pertinent to the Hawaii situation…
      1. America largely regarded Hawaii as an unofficial part of the U.S. America had warned other nations to leave Hawaii alone (or, leave Hawaii to the U.S.).
      2. American fruit and sugar companies were deeply entrenched in Hawaii. They largely ran the islands due to their economic power.
      3. There was growing resistance by the native Hawaiians __toward the U.S. due to the increased influence by Americans.
    3. The sugar companies grew restless. Concerns were that (a) Japan might try to take over and (b) the McKinley tariff had raised prices of Hawaiian sugar/fruit imported to the U.S.
      1. The solution, they figured, was to get Hawaii officially__ and for good.
      2. Queen Liliuokalani resisted. She said the native Hawaiians should run Hawaii.
      3. In 1893, the whites staged a revolt and the U.S. military helped to dethrone the queen. Notably, this was all done locally in Hawaii, completely unofficially from Washington D.C. Papers were drawn up to annex Hawaii and sent to Washington.
      4. Grove Cleveland had just become president and he didn't like the way Hawaii was taken and stopped the annexation. (The U.S. would get Hawaii 5 years later, in 1898).
  3. Cubans Rise in Revolt
    1. Cuba revolted against Spain in 1895. The Cuban "insurrectos" on the Sugar plantations revolted against their Spanish overlords by burning everything.
    2. America watched with interest and the U.S. rooted for the Cubans since (a) America loves liberty and independence, (b) it would be good for the Monroe Doctrine to get a European country out of the neighborhood, (c) Cuba was at the gateway to the Caribbean where the U.S. was dreaming of a Panama Canal.
    3. Spain sent Gen. Valeriano "Butcher" Weyler to stop the revolt. He cracked down harshly and started prison camps where scores of insurrectos died from disease.
      1. The "yellow press" in America loved the Cuban revolution and Butcher Weyler's activities only made the storylines even juicier. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer's newspapers tried to "outscoop" each other.
        1. Hearst sent artist Frederic Remington down to Cuba and said, "You furnish the pictures, I'll furnish the war." Remington drew Spanish men stripping and searching American women (in actuality, women searched). Still, the result of the stories and pictures was to fire up Americans. The U.S. was decidedly leaning toward Cuba and away from Spain.
    4. More strain emerged with the de Lôme letter. Spanish official Dupuy de Lôme wrote a letter which criticized Pres. McKinley and pointedly called him a wimp. William Randolph Hearst published the letter for all to read; Americans were upset.
    5. The greatest event occurred on February 15, 1898, when the U.S.S. Maine exploded at night in Havana harbor killing 260 American sailors.
      1. The cause of the explosion was a mystery, but in the public's mind, the cause was simple—Spain had done it. (Though still a bit of a mystery today, it was much later concluded that the explosion was an accident.)
      2. The yellow press went berserk with the Maine story. The American public clamored for war with the battle cry, "Remember the Maine!". Pres. McKinley was still sluggish to enter the war though.
        1. War-hawk Teddy Roosevelt said that McKinley had "the backbone of a chocolate éclair."
      3. McKinley gave in to the public demand and on April 11, 1898 he sent a message to Congress asking for war. Congress happily voted for war.
        1. Congress also passed the Teller Amendment that said the U.S. would give Cuba its freedom after kicking out Spain.
  4. Dewey’s May Day Victory at Manila This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. America entered the war in a giddy, confident mood.
    2. Even before war was declared, under-secretary of the Navy Teddy Roosevelt ordered Commodore George Dewey to move to the Philippines (controlled by Spain) if war broke out.
      1. On May 1, 1898, Dewey carried out Roosevelt's orders.
      2. America had 6 ships, Spain had 10. But, America's were modern whereas Spain's were antiques. Plus, America's guns could literally out-shoot Spain's. The naval battle was very one-sided for the Americans.
      3. Dewey had won the naval battle, but could not storm the fort ashore in Manila with sailors. Tensions grew when German ships arrived. He had to wait until foot soldiers arrived—they did and they captured Manila on August 13th.
        1. The U.S. was aided by Emilio Aguinaldo who led a group of Filipino insurgents against Spain. He'd been exiled in Asia, but was brought along for this mission—a decision the U.S. would later regret when he turned against the U.S.
    3. The U.S. grabbed the Philippines quickly. Now, the U.S. wanted to grab Hawaii to use as a half-way coaling station between California and the Philippines. Congress and McKinley agreed to annex Hawaii on July 7, 1898.
  5. The Confused Invasion of Cuba
    1. When war broke, Spain sent their fleet to Santiago, Cuba where they entered a narrow harbor there.
    2. The U.S. hastily mounted up in Tampa, FL.
      1. The Spanish-American War is known for being very ill-prepared. For example, the men had wool uniforms for use against Indians out west, not for the Caribbean tropics. Also, more U.S. soldiers would die from disease than from fighting due to poor medication and planning.
      2. The U.S. was led by Gen. William Shafter, a large, gouty man.
      3. The "Rough Riders" cavalry were organized by Teddy Roosevelt. Eager for action, he'd resigned his navy administration post. The Rough Riders were headed by Col. Leonard Wood, Roosevelt served as Lt. Col.
        1. As another example of poor planning, the Rough Riders would eventually fight on foot, horseless. No one had planned how to get the horses to the beach, so they forced the horses to swim ashore—most of them drowned.
    3. The U.S. sent ships and troops down to Santiago. The navy trapped the Spanish fleet by blockading the mouth of the harbor and the Army went ashore further up the beach.
      1. The Army swept around behind Santiago and began a strangle-hold on the city. The Spanish fleet was surrounded and decided to run the gauntlet out of the harbor. They did so, and the U.S. navy mowed down the Spanish ships.
    4. U.S. forces quickly went into Puerto Rico, met little resistance, and took the island.
    5. Seeing the loss, Spain signed an armistice on August 12 and the so-called "splendid little war" was over.
    6. The U.S. forces that lingered in Cuba began dying by scores due to disease. There were 4,000 deaths in battle, 5,000 deaths from disease.
  6. America’s Course (Curse?) of Empire
    1. Peace negotiations were held in Paris to "settle" the war. The stipulations were…
      1. Cuba was free and independent, as the Teller Amendment had said it would be. But there were strings attached (see below).
      2. The U.S. gained (1) Puerto Rico, (2) Guam, and (3) assumed control of the Philippines.
    2. The Philippines posed the largest problem. Following are America's options and their consequences:
      1. Give the Philippines back to Spain. This option was out due to decades of Spanish misrule and abuse.
      2. Let the Filipino people run the country themselves. This was luring but the fear was that competitive warlords would throw the country into total chaos.
      3. Take over the islands. This would make the U.S. look like an imperial bully. Plus, after finally getting Spain off of their backs, the Filipino people didn't really want the U.S. controlling them.
      4. McKinley fretted over the decision, then finally decided the U.S. should take over the Philippines. This decision conveniently meshed with the interests of the public and businesses.
        1. $20 million was paid to Spain for the Philippine islands.
    3. The Senate still had to okay the treaty so the question then became, "Should the U.S. Senate accept the Paris treaty and thus acquire the Philippines?"
      1. Those against acquiring the island got organized. The Anti-Imperialist League emerged to halt annexation.
        1. The difference was that the other lands were generally in North America. Plus, Alaska and Hawaii were sparsely populated.
        2. The League held some prominent members including Mark Twain, William James, Samuel Gompers, and Andrew Carnegie.
      2. Imperialists countered the argument. They said that the Philippines could eventually flourish, like Hong Kong.
        1. Brit Rudyard Kipling (author of The Jungle Book) wrote of "The White Man's Burden." He encouraged the U.S. to hold onto and civilize the Philippines.
        2. Passage of the Paris treaty was in the balance until William Jennings Bryan threw his weight in favor of it. Once he did, the treaty passed by a single vote.
  7. Perplexities in Puerto Rico and Cuba
    1. Puerto Ricans was owned by the U.S. but was neither a territory nor state. It was given a limited elected government under the Foraker Act. Full U.S. citizenship was granted to Puerto Ricans in 1917.
      1. Much improvement was done to the island in terms of sanitation, transportation, etc. Many islanders moved to New York to become "New York Ricans."
    2. A question arose over taking Puerto Rico and the Philippines…"Do American laws and rights apply to these lands and peoples?"
      1. The Supreme Court declared in the so-called Insular Cases that America's laws and customs do not necessarily extend to these new lands.
    3. In Cuba, a military government was set up by Col. Leonard Wood. Much improvement was done there in government, education, agriculture, etc.
      1. Col. William C. Gorgas and Dr. Walter Reed combined efforts to nearly wipe out the mosquitoes and yellow fever.
      2. The Teller Amendment had said that the U.S. would leave Cuba to be independent; the U.S. kept this promise and left in 1902. But, the U.S. wrote the Platt Amendment which said…
        1. Cuba couldn't make treaties that the U.S. didn't like.
        2. Cuba couldn't take on too much debt. The U.S. could intervene in these situations if necessary.
        3. Cuba must lease coaling stations for the U.S. military to use. This became the "Guantanamo Bay" military base.
  8. New Horizons in Two Hemispheres
    1. Sec. of State John Hay called the 113 day Spanish-American War a "splendid little war."
      1. It showed the world that the U.S. was a world power, likely the world's strongest. Other nations, like Russia, Britain, and France, took note and stepped up their diplomatic headquarters in Washington D.C.
    2. America was marching to a joyous patriotism.
      1. Literally, they marched to the 2/4 marching beat of band-master John Philip Sousa, such as his with "Stars and Stripes Forever."
      2. A strong military was accepted as a need. Folks were convinced of Cpt. Alfred Thayer Mahan's concept of a powerful navy. And, Sec. of War Elihu Root started a War College.
      3. The old North-South divide seemed to narrow a bit. At least in part, the enemy ceased to be one another and became Spain. Old Confederate Gen. Joseph "Fighting Joe" Wheeler had even been given command in Cuba. He'd apparently yelled in battle, "To hell with the Yankees! Dammit, I mean the Spaniards."
    3. Despite the spoils of war, however, the Philippines pan out to be a thorn in America's side.
  9. “Little Brown Brothers” in the Philippines
    1. The Filipino people felt tricked when they weren't given their independence after the Spanish-American War.
    2. An insurrection began against the American troops by the Filipinos on February 4, 1899.
      1. Their leader was Emilio Aguinaldo, who'd fought with the U.S. and against Spain. Like most Filipino's, he'd believed the Philippines would gain independence from Spain. When it didn't happen, he simply turned his aggression toward the U.S.
      2. America stooped below her ideals by (1) using the "water cure" of forcing water down throats to force cooperation, (b) setting up prison camps similar to the ones Butcher Weyler had made in Cuba, and (c) attacking people who simply wanted freedom.
      3. Fighting was sporadic and guerrilla-style, frustrating the Americans. It lasted well over a year and killed 4,234 Americans.
    3. The Americans gained the upper hand in 1901. Pres. McKinley sent William H. Taft to serve as the Philippines' civil governor.
      1. A large (350 pounds) and jovial man, Taft got along well with the Filipinos. They generally like him and he called them his "little brown brothers."
      2. Under Taft, America pursued a policy called "benevolent assimilation"—to kindly bring the Philippines up to civilization. The process was slow but it bore fruits…
        1. With millions in American money, the infrastructure (roads, sanitation, etc.) was greatly improved. Public health improved as well.
        2. Trade between the U.S. and the Philippines began, largely in sugar.
        3. Schools were built and American teachers were sent over.
        4. Still, the Filipino's wanted freedom. Independence was finally granted just after WWII, on July 4, 1946.
  10. Hinging the Open Door in China
    1. After Japan had defeated China in 1894-1895, China had been sliced up by Europe into "spheres of influence."
      1. This usually meant that a European nation controlled a coastal city and its surrounding area. The European nation held exclusive trade rights for that city and area (for example, Britain's control of Hong Kong).
      2. Needless to say, the Chinese people despised this situation.
    2. America was mostly uninvolved in this situation. Except, missionaries were concerned about access, and American businesses worried they'd be shut out.
      1. Sec. of State John Hay drafted the Open Door Policy saying spheres of influence should be dropped and Chinese cities should be open to all nations for business. Europe was not interested in giving up their sweet situations.
    3. China took matters into their own hands with the Boxer Rebellion. In this, the Chinese rose up to oust/kill foreigners who controlled their cities. 200 foreigners and thousands of Chinese Christians were killed.
      1. Europe and the U.S. responded together and smashed China, then charged China for damages.
      2. China's fine was $333 million; America's cut would be $24.5 million. Feeling guilty about such a high amount, the U.S. used $18 million to educate Chinese students in American universities.
      3. Sec. of State Hay sent the Open Door Policy along again and this time it was accepted. China's borders were to be respected and its cities open to trade to all.
  11. Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900?
    1. The 1900 election was a repeat of 4 years earlier: William McKinley versus William Jennings Bryan again.
      1. McKinley just held fast while Bryan did the personal campaigning. McKinley's running-mate was Teddy Roosevelt. "TR" did considerable campaigning for McKinley.
    2. Bryan attacked imperialism. This was unproductive since people had grown weary of the subject by then.
    3. McKinley attacked what he called "Bryanism" as being the problem. McKinley struck fear again by implying that a President Bryan would undercut America's prosperity.
      1. McKinley won his reelection easily.
  12. TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick
    1. Only six months after being reelected, McKinley was shot and killed in Buffalo, NY by a mentally unstable man. V.P. Teddy Roosevelt became the youngest president ever at only 42 years old.
    2. Roosevelt was a very interesting character. Small of frame as a youth, and picked on, he put himself on a rigorous workout routine and built himself into a short, barrel-chested powerhouse.
      1. He'd been born into an elite family and was a Harvard grad. His motto was, "Speak softly and carry a big stick," which was odd in that Roosevelt was not one to speak softly.
      2. He had a temper, was boisterous, stubborn, decisive, passionate, always thought he was right, and was always the center of attention.
    3. Roosevelt was a fantastic politician. The people adored the likeable "Teddy." Cartoonists loved his wire-framed glasses, huge teeth, rowdy nature—he was almost a walking, living caricature of himself.
      1. As president, TR's opinion was that the president should lead, and he did. He's often considered the "first modern president."
  13. Building the Panama Canal
    1. America, and Teddy Roosevelt, lusted after a canal across isthmus of Central America.
      1. The Spanish-American War showed that lacking a canal meant naval weakness. The U.S.S. Oregon had been "trapped" in the Pacific Ocean and took weeks to travel around South America to the Caribbean.
      2. A canal would also be a huge boost for business.
    2. There were obstacles to building a canal.
      1. The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with Britain (1850) said the U.S. couldn't control the isthmus route alone. By the early 1900's, Britain was willing to let this slide however. Britain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901) that gave the U.S. the okay to go solo.
      2. The next question was the location of the canal.
        1. Nicaragua was the initial choice, but the volcano Mt. Pelée erupted, killed 30,000 people, and changed minds about the location.
        2. A French company was eager to move the U.S.'s attention to Panama where it'd tried and failed at constructing a canal. Engineer Philippe Bunau-Varilla got the price of the canal holdings dropped from $109 to $40 million. Congress decided to give it a go.
        3. Panama was a part of Colombia, posing the next problem.
          1. TR worked a deal with the Colombian president to lease the canal zone, but the Colombian senate reneged on the deal. TR was furious.
          2. Bunau-Varilla worried the whole deal would fall through. He incited Panama to revolt against Colombia. The revolution began on November 3, 1901 with the killing of a Chinese citizen and a donkey. The U.S. navy was conveniently offshore to give aid and the revolution was pulled off.
          3. TR recognized Panama as independent and the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed. It leased the canal to the U.S. for $10 million and $250,000/year for a 10 mile wide canal strip.
    3. Roosevelt didn't try to sever Panama from Colombia, but it looked that way and was perceived that way. U.S.—Latin American relations took a major hit by Teddy Roosevelt's use of his Big Stick policy (bullying).
    4. Construction began in 1904. There were huge obstacles yet again.
      1. Obstacle #1 was sanitation. Tropical diseases forbade workers from even getting to the job site. Col. William C. Gorgas drained the swamps and eradicated the mosquitoes and diseases.
      2. Obstacle #2 was the scope of the task. It was likely the largest modern engineering undertaking to date. West Point engineer Col. George Washington Goethals headed up construction to its fruition—a modern marvel when completed in 1914. It'd cost $400 million to construct.
  14. TR’s Perversion of the Monroe Doctrine
    1. Relations with Latin America would take another turn-for-the-worse. Nations like Venezuela and the Dominican Republic were constantly behind in loan payments to European lenders. R
      1. Roosevelt worried that Europe would take action to collect their money, and thus violate the Monroe Doctrine. This put TR in a bit of a pickle: would he allow delinquency of payments or allow Europe to breech the Monroe Doctrine? He chose neither.
    2. His decision was the Roosevelt Corollary (an addition to the Monroe Doctrine). It said that the U.S. would intervene in Latin America and collect the debts for Europe.
      1. Whereas the Monroe Doctrine had said, "Europe, don't intervene!" the Roosevelt Corollary added, "We'll intervene for you!"
      2. In practical terms, the U.S. would take over customs houses and collect taxes and/or use the U.S. navy to seal off Latin American ports for tax collection purposes.
    3. Latin America did not appreciate TR's Big Stick being thrown at them again. The Good Neighbor policy seemed to be more like the "Bad Neighbor" policy.
      1. The Big Stick fell on Cuba in 1906. Revolutionaries created great instability and the Cuban president asked for U.S. assistance. U.S. Marines moved in for 3 years to offer their help. Still, it was seen as another Bad Neighbor policy move by the bully U.S.
  15. Roosevelt on the World Stage
    1. Teddy Roosevelt jumped onto the international scene in 1904 when Russia and Japan went to war.
      1. The two nations were fighting over land, namely the Manchuria area and Port Arthur in particular.
      2. When peace negotiations broke down, Japan asked TR to mediate. This was a bit ironic for the War Hawk Teddy Roosevelt to have turned peace-maker.
    2. TR negotiated a treaty at Portsmouth, NH (1905).
      1. Both nations wanted the Sakhalin island. Japan wanted payments since they felt they'd won the war.
      2. Russia got half of Sakhalin island. Japan was awarded no money but gained control over Korea. Neither side was overjoyed, Japan was especially unhappy, but the war was over.
      3. With both countries going home disgruntled over the outcome of the war, America's friendship with Japan and Russia went sour.
    3. Roosevelt also mediated a North African dispute in 1906 at a conference in Spain. For his peace-making, Roosevelt was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
  16. Japanese Laborers in California
    1. Another issue with Japan emerged when Japanese laborers began to migrate into California. Their population was only 3% of state's total, but a "yellow peril" swept over California.
    2. In 1906, San Francisco was recovering from a devastating earthquake and fires. The school board ordered segregation of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students.
      1. The issue quickly erupted and the yellow press on both sides went wild. There was even talk of possible war.
      2. Roosevelt invited the school board to the White House where he mediated a deal known as the "Gentlemen's Agreement." It said that the school board would repeal the segregation policy and Japan would halt the emigration of laborers to California.
    3. Roosevelt worried that Japan might interpret his actions as being motivated through fear—he wanted to show America's strength.
      1. TR ordered the sparkling new U.S. naval fleet on a world-wide tour. The "Great White Fleet" went to Latin America, Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia, and Japan. It was a diplomatic good-will mission on the outside, and a not-so-subtle show of military muscle underneath.
      2. The U.S. had been cheered all along, but Japan was especially welcoming. The U.S. and Japan signed the Root-Takahira agreement where both nations promised to respect one another's territorial boundaries to honor China's Open Door policy.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 28 - Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt

  1. Progressive Roots
    1. When the 1900's dawned, there were 76 million Americans. 1 out of 7 were foreign-born.
    2. A new reform movement immediately began, led by "Progressives". Their goals were to stop monopolies, corruption, inefficiency, and social injustice.
      1. The method of the progressives was to strengthen the state—to give more powers to the government. Their over-arching goal was to use the government "as an agency of human welfare."
    3. The roots of Progressivism began with the Greenback Party (1870's) and the Populist Party (1890's). A modern industrial society seemed to call for more government action and to take a step back from pure, laissez-faire capitalism.
    4. Writers used the power of the pen to make their progressive points.
      1. Henry Demarest Lloyd wrote Wealth Against Commonwealth (1894) which struck at the Standard Oil Company.
      2. Thorstein Veblen wrote The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) criticizing people who made money seemingly for money's sake. He spoke of "predatory wealth" and "conspicuous consumption."
      3. Jacob Riis wrote How the Other Half Lives (1890) about the lives of the poor. He wanted to divert attention from America's infatuation with how the rich live and show the life of squalor in the New York slums. This book would influence Teddy Roosevelt, a future New York police commissioner.
      4. Theodore Dreiser made his points through his realist fiction. In The Financier (1912) and The Titan (1914) he criticized promoters and profiteers.
    5. Other causes gained steam during the Progressive era.
      1. Socialists, influenced by strong European governments, called for more government action in the U.S. and started gaining votes in the ballot box.
      2. Advocates of the "social gospel" (Christian charity) called for helping the poor.
      3. Female suffragists also called for social justice, as well as the right to vote. They were led by Jane Addams and Lillian Wald.
  2. Raking Muck with the Muckrakers
    1. Around 1902, a new group of social critics emerged—the muckrakers. They typically exposed what they saw as corruption or injustice in writings. Favorite outlets for the muckrakers were liberal, reform-minded magazines like McClure'sCollier'sCosmopolitan, and Everybody's.
      1. They were called "muckrakers" first by Teddy Roosevelt. It was a derogatory term, him being unimpressed with their tendency to focus on the negatives and "rake through the muck" of society.
    2. The muckrakers were very active and prolific…
      1. Lincoln Steffens wrote "The Shame of the Cities" (1902) which exposed city corruption in cahoots with big business.
      2. Ida Tarbell wrote an exposé in McClure's that laid bare the ruthless business tactics of John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company. Some thought she was just out for revenge because her father's business had been ruined by Rockefeller. But, all of her facts checked out.
      3. Thomas Lawson exposed the practices of stock market speculators in "Frenzied Finance" (1905-06), published in Everybody's. (He'd made $50 million himself playing the market.)
      4. David Phillips wrote "The Treason of the Senate" (1906) in Cosmopolitan. He said that 75 of the 90 U.S. senators represented big businesses rather than the people. He backed up his charges with enough evidence to also impress Teddy Roosevelt.
      5. John Spargo wrote The Bitter Cry of the Children (1906) exposing, and critical of, child labor.
      6. Ray Stannard Baker wrote Following the Color Line (1908) about the still-sorry state of life for Southern blacks.
      7. Dr. Harvey Wiley criticized patent medicines which were largely unregulated, habit-forming, and normally did more bad than good. He and his "Poison Squad" used themselves as guinea pigs for experiments.
    3. Muckrakers were loud about the ills, but didn't offer cures. To the muckrakers, the cure for societal ills was democracy. They had no faith in politicians leading the charge, but wanted to get the story out to the public. Muckrakers believed that the public conscience would eventually remedy the problems.
  3. Political Progressivism
    1. The progressives generally came from the middle class. They felt somehow sandwiched between the big business trusts and tycoons on the top and the immigrant, working class on the bottom.
    2. Progressives pushed for a variety of political reforms to help their cause. They favored and generally got the following accomplished:
      1. The initiative where voters could initiate laws, rather than waiting and hoping a legislator might do it.
      2. The referendum where voters could vote proposed bills into law, circumventing unresponsive legislators altogether.
      3. The recall where voters could remove elected officials rather than waiting for his term to expire. The thought was, "We voted them in, we can vote them out."
      4. The secret ballot, called the Australian ballot, to help get a true vote and avoid intimidation at the polls.
      5. The direct election of senators by the people. At the time, U.S. senators were chosen by state legislators, not the people. This became reality in 1913, with the 17th Amendment.
      6. And female suffrage. This would have to wait a bit longer (until 1920).
  4. Progressivism in the Cities and States
    1. Progressivism really got its start and took off on a more local level rather than national.
    2. Galveston, TX successfully used the city-manager system. The idea was to use professional people trained in their field of city management, rather than using "friends" of a corrupt mayor or city boss. The result was much greater efficiency and other cities took note of Galveston.
    3. Local Progressives cracked down on "slumlords," rampant prostitution, and juvenile delinquency.
    4. Wisconsin was the Progressive leader for states. Led by Gov. Robert "Fighting Bob" LaFollette, Wisconsin was able to grab power back from the big businesses and return it to the people.
      1. Other states took note and attacked trusts, railroads. Examples included Oregon and California (led by Gov. Hiram Johnson). Gov. Charles Evan Hughes, of New York, took on the wrongs of gas and insurance companies.
  5. Progressive Women This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Women were an indispensable catalyst in the Progressive army. They couldn’t vote or hold political office, but were active none-the-less. Women focused their changes on family-oriented ills such as child labor.
    2. Court decisions impacted women.
      1. The Supreme Court case of Muller v. Oregon (1908) said that laws protecting female workers were indeed constitutional. The case was successfully argued by attorney Louis Brandeis saying women's weaker bodies suffered harmful effects in factory work.
        1. This victory, however, came with a cost to women. Brandeis' own argument of weaker female bodies would later be used to keep women out of certain "male" jobs.
      2. A loss occurred in the case of Lochner v. New York (1905). In the case, the Supreme Court struck down a 10-hour workday for bakers.
    3. Women reformers gained speed after the Triangle Shirtwaist Company burnt down in 1911, trapping and killing 146 mostly young, women workers. The tragedy gained much attention and gave the women momentum.
      1. The public outcry prompted many states to pass laws regulating hours and conditions in such "sweatshops" and to pass workers' compensation laws.
    4. Alcohol had long been under fire by women. During the Progressive era, temperance would reach its peak.
      1. Francis Willard, founder of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) got 1 million women to join the cause against alcohol. The WCTU was joined by the Anti-Saloon League. They were well-organized and well-financed.
      2. Many states and counties went "dry." In 1914, 1/2 of Americans lived in dry areas.
      3. The movement culminated in 1919 with the 18th Amendment (AKA Prohibition) that banned alcohol's sale, consumption, and possession.
  6. TR’s Square Deal for Labor
    1. President Roosevelt had been moved the by muckrakers and the Progressives' ideals. He pursued the "three C's": (1) control of the corporations, (2) consumer protection, and (3) conservation of natural resources.
    2. A strike took place in 1902 at the anthracite coal mines of Pennsylvania. The workers called for a 20% pay increase and a reduction of work hours from 10 to 9 hours.
      1. Coal supplies dwindled and the nation felt the effects of the coal shortage so TR called in strike workers to the White House. Roosevelt was not impressed with the strike leaders.
      2. Roosevelt finally threatened to use federal troops to operate the mines. At this threat, the owners agreed to go to arbitration. The workers were given a 10% increase and the 9 hour day. The workers' union, however, was not officially recognized for bargaining.
    3. Roosevelt called on Congress to form the Dept. of Commerce and Labor, which it did. The department split in half ten years later.
      1. The Bureau of Corporations would investigate interstate trade and become important for breaking up monopolies during the "trust-busting" days.
  7. TR Corrals the Corporations
    1. The Interstate Commerce Commission (1887) had been designed to regulate railroads but it was proving to be ineffective. Therefore, it was decided more needed to be done.
      1. Congress passed the Elkins Act in 1903. It banned and prosecuted rebates awarded by railroaders.
      2. The Hepburn Act placed restrictions on free passes handed out by railroads (usually to the press to ensure good reports).
    2. Teddy Roosevelt nurtured the reputation of a trust buster. TR concluded, however that there were "good trusts" and there were "bad trusts." The bad trusts had to go.
      1. TR's most noteworthy target was the Northern Securities Company run by J.P. Morgan and James Hill.
        1. TR busted up Northern Securities (his decision was upheld by the Supreme Court). Busting J.P. Morgan's outfit angered Wall Street but this high-profile bust furthered TR's trust buster image.
      2. In all, Roosevelt attacked some 40 trusts, including busting the beef, sugar, fertilizer, and harvester trusts
      3. Despite his reputation as a trust buster, TR allowed the "good trusts" to survive. He believed his actions against the bad trusts would prevent the good ones from going astray.
      4. William Howard Taft, who succeeded Roosevelt, would actually be more of a trust buster than TR. Taft actually busted more trusts than TR.
        1. Another example occurred over the U.S. Steel Company. U.S. Steel wanted to acquire the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company. TR had said that the move of this good trust would be okay, but Taft felt otherwise. Roosevelt was very angry over Taft's reversal of his position.
  8. Caring for the Consumer
    1. Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle about the meat packing industry's horrible conditions. Sinclair's goal was to reveal the plight of the workers. But, the real effect was to gross out America and initiate action in Congress.
      1. His book motivated Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act (1906). Henceforth meat would be inspected by the U.S.D.A.
      2. The Pure Food and Drug Act was also passed. Its goal was to ensure proper labeling of food and drugs.and to prevent tampering.
    2. These acts would help Europe to trust American meat and thus help exports.
  9. Earth Control
    1. Americans had long considered their natural resources inexhaustible. By about 1900, they were realizing this was not true and that conservation was needed. Acts of Congress began preserving the land…
      1. The first conservation act was the Desert Land Act (1877). It sold desert land at a cheap rate on the promise the land would be irrigated.
      2. The Forest Reserve Act (1891) gave the president permission to set aside land as parks and reserves. Millions of acres of old-growth forests were preserved under this authority.
      3. The Carey Act (1894) gave federal land to the states, again on the promise of irrigation.
    2. Teddy Roosevelt's presidency truly started a new era in conservation. Roosevelt was a consummate outdoorsman, was very concerned about the nation's timber and mineral depletion, and started the conservation movement with action.
      1. Others helped Roosevelt in the push to conserve, notably conservationist and Division of Forest head Gifford Pinchot and naturalist John Muir, the most well-known spokesman for Mother Nature.
      2. TR got the Newlands Act (1902) passed to begin massive irrigation projects out West. The Roosevelt Dam (on Arizona's Salt River) and dozens of other western dams created reservoirs to water, and bring life to, the arid land.
      3. TR wanted to save to the trees. By 1900, only 1/4 of the nation's once-vast virgin trees still stood.
        1. Roosevelt set aside 125 million acres of forest land (3 times the acreage of his 3 predecessors). Large quantities of land were also set aside for coal and water reserves. Purely as an example, he had no White House Christmas tree in 1902.
    3. The public shared TR's concern and passion for nature.
      1. Jack London's outdoorsy novels became popular, such as The Call of the Wild about Alaska's Klondike gold rush.
      2. Outdoorsy organizations emerged, such as the Boy Scouts of America and the Sierra Club (whose goal was/is conservation).
    4. The Hetchy Hetch Valley of Yosemite National Park exposed a philosophical rupture amongst the conservationists.
      1. Hetchy Hetch was a beautiful Gorge that John Muir and the Sierra Club wanted to save. San Francisco wanted to dam it up for the city's water supply. In this case, TR sided with the city.
        1. Notably, TR and Muir were good friends, but TR was a pragmatist—always seeking a practical solution over an idealized solution.
        2. The division was clearly shown. The question asked, "Should land be simply set aside and untouched forever?" as John Muir advocated. Or, "Should the land be wisely managed for man's benefit?", as Teddy Roosevelt advocated.
      2. The federal government gave San Francisco the okay to dam up the valley. Roosevelt's policy of "multiple-use resource management" was set. The policy tried to use the land for recreation, reservoirs (for drinking, irrigating, water recreation), saw-then-replant logging, and summer stock grazing.
  10. The “Roosevelt Panic” of 1907
    1. Theodore Roosevelt was loved by the people, witnessed by the "Teddy" bear. Conservatives thought of him as unpredictable due to his Progressive ways they meddled the government into businesses.
      1. After winning his election in 1904, he announced he would not seek a third term. This cut his power a bit since everyone then knew he'd be out in four years.
    2. The economy took a sudden and sharp downtown in 1907. Wall Street was pounded, banks were run, suicides went up, and there were many Wall Street "speculators" were indicted on sneaky dealings.
      1. As with any economic downtown, the president was blamed, justly or not. Conservatives, especially, charged that Roosevelt's meddling in business had fouled up the cogs of the economy. They called it the "Roosevelt Panic."
      2. The Panic did reveal the need for a more elastic currency supply. In other words, the banks needed reserves to release into circulation if times got tough.
        1. Congress passed the Aldrich-Vreeland Act (1908) authorizing national banks to release money into circulation.
        2. This law/action paved the way for the monumental Federal Reserve Act (1913).
  11. The Rough Rider Thunders Out
    1. In 1908, TR was still very popular. He used his popularity to endorse a candidate that had similar policies as himself—William Howard Taft.
      1. Taft was a big fellow and very likable. The old saying was that "everybody loves a fat man" and in Taft's case the saying seemed to fit.
      2. The Democrats put forth William Jennings Bryan yet again. Bryan also painted himself as a Progressive.
      3. Riding on TR's popularity, Taft won the election easily, 321 to 162 in the electoral.
        1. As a sign-of-the-times Socialist Party candidate Eugene Debs (of Pullman Strike fame) garnered a surprising 420,000 votes.
    2. After the election, TR went to Africa on a hunting safari. His exploits were much followed and he returned as energetic as ever, still only 51 years old.
      1. TR's legacy was to begin to tame unbridled capitalism. He wasn't an enemy of business, but brought it under control. He sought the middle-ground in between the "me alone" idea of pure capitalism and the "father knows best" ideas of a government that controls people's lives.
      2. Other parts of his legacy include: (1) increasing the power of the presidency, (2) he initiated reforms, and (3) he showed that the U.S. was a world power and thus held great responsibilities.
  12. Taft: A Round Peg in a Square Hole
    1. At first, Taft seemed just fine. He was likable, seemed capable, had a solid background in experience.
    2. Tricky problems soon bogged him down. TR had been able to work through problems due to his force-of-personality and political instincts.
      1. Taft took a hands-off approach toward Congress which did not serve him well.
      2. He was a mild progressive only, more inclined toward the status quo than reform.
  13. The Dollar Goes Abroad as Diplomat
    1. President Taft encouraged a policy called "Dollar Diplomacy" where Americans invested in foreign countries to gain power.
      1. Wall Street was urged to invest in strategic areas, especially the Far East and Latin America.
      2. The Dollar Diplomacy policy would thus strengthen the U.S. and make money at the same time. Whereas TR had used the in-your-face Big Stick policy, Taft used the sneakier Dollar Diplomacy policy.
    2. A Dollar Diplomacy mishap occurred in China's Manchuria region.
      1. Taft wanted to buy Manchuria's railroads from Russia and Japan, then turn them over to the Chinese. This would keep the Open Door policy open, and strengthen the U.S.'s position in China.
      2. Russian and Japan blocked Sec. of State Philander Knox's deal and Taft suffered a Dollar Diplomacy black eye.
    3. Latin America was a busy spot for the Dollar Diplomacy policy. The Monroe Doctrine forbade Europe from intervening, so the U.S. did.
      1. The U.S. invested heavily in Honduras and Haiti, thinking they may become trouble spots.
      2. Ordering Europe to stay away from Latin America, and investing heavily there, meant the U.S. now had a vested interest and shouldered responsibility there.
        1. Several flare-ups required the U.S. to intervene militarily including Cuba, Honduras, the Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua (for 13 years).
  14. Taft the Trustbuster
    1. Taft was more of a trust buster than Roosevelt; Taft brought 90 lawsuits against trusts during his 4 years in office
    2. Perhaps his most noteworthy bust was the Standard Oil Company. The Supreme Court ordered in broken into smaller companies in 1911.
    3. The U.S. Steel Company was under fire from Taft, even though Roosevelt had agreed to let the company survive as one of his "good trusts." When Taft sought to break it up, Roosevelt was furious at his successor's actions.
  15. Taft Splits the Republican Party
    1. Two main issues split the Republican party: (1) the tariff and (2) conservation of lands.
    2. On the tariff, old-school Republicans were high-tariff; New/Progressive Republicans were low tariff.
      1. Taft, as the mild Progressive, had promised to lower the tariff. As president, he sought to do just that, if only a small reduction.
      2. Sen. Nelson Aldrich added many increases to the bill while it was in the Senate. When passed and signed by Taft, the Payne-Aldrich Bill actually broke his campaign promise and angered many.
        1. Pres. Taft even unwisely named it "the best bill that the Republican party ever passed."
      3. In actuality, the Payne-Aldrich Bill split the Republican party.
    3. On conservation, old-school Republicans favored using or developing the lands for business; new/Progressive Republicans favored conservation of lands.
      1. Taft did set up the Bureau of Mines to manage mineral resources. This was a "Progessive-ish" move and likely a popular one.
      2. However, Taft's involvement in the Ballinger-Pinchot quarrel (1910) was unpopular.
        1. Sec. of Interior Richard Ballinger said that public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska would be open for development.
        2. Chief of Forestry Gifford Pinchot was critical of the decision. Apparently siding with Ballinger, Taft fired Pinchot—an unpopular move.
    4. The Republican party split became apparent in the 1910 Congress election.
      1. In the election, the old-school Republicans and new/Progressive Republicans split the vote, thus the Democrats won heavily in the House of Rep's.
      2. Also, Socialist Eugene Berger of Milwaukee won a seat in Congress—again, showing the movement toward Socialism.
  16. The Taft-Roosevelt Rupture
    1. The Republican split turned from differing opinions to different parties. The National Progressive Republican League began in 1911. Sen. Robert La Follette ("Fighting Bob" of Wisconsin) seemed destined to become their candidate.
    2. Teddy Roosevelt was so upset about Taft's policies that TR dropped hints that he'd be interested in running again for president.
      1. He finally said, "My hat is in the ring!" arguing that he hadn't wanted three consecutive terms as president.
      2. La Follette was brushed aside and Roosevelt was named as the Progressive Republican.
    3. The Taft-Roosevelt showdown came in June of 1912 at the Republican convention. Both men vied for the Republican nomination.
      1. As the sitting president, Taft was nominated as the Republican candidate for 1912.
      2. Roosevelt wasn't done, however. TR would simply run on his own as a third party candidate.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 29 - Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad

  1. The “Bull Moose” Campaign of 1912
    1. Democrats in 1912 felt they could take the White House (since being out for 16 years) because the Republicans had split their party.
    2. Democrats looked to Dr. Woodrow Wilson, the governor of New Jersey.
      1. Wilson had been a mild conservative but had turned become an strong progressive.
      2. His background was in education as a history professor, then as president of Princeton Univ. As governor of NJ, he made a name for himself by standing up to the bosses, trusts, and as a liberal.
      3. At their convention, it took 46 votes to choose Wilson. The final vote was cast after William Jennings Bryan threw his support behind Wilson.
    3. The Democrats now had a candidate in Woodrow Wilson and they added a platform they named the "New Freedom."
      1. The New Freedom platform was made up of liberal and progressive policies.
    4. At the Progressive party convention Teddy Roosevelt was nominated by reformer Jane Addams (of Hull House in Chicago). Roosevelt's speech enthralled its listeners.
      1. TR won the nomination (which was a foregone conclusion) and commented that he felt "as strong as a bull moose." The Progressive party then had a symbol and a nickname: the Bull Moose Party.
    5. The 1912 presidential campaign was thus set and the campaigning began.
      1. The 1912 candidates were…
        1. Republican: Pres. William Howard Taft
        2. Democrat: Woodrow Wilson
        3. Progressive: Theodore Roosevelt
      2. Talk between Taft and TR got nasty as the two old friends laid into one another. Wilson could enjoy just letting his other two opponents rip themselves.
      3. Personality wars aside, Wilson's New Freedom plan and Roosevelt's "New Nationalism" plan came front-and-center.
        1. The New Nationalism plan had been inspired by The Promise of American Life by Herbert Croly (1910). The book agreed with TR's old policy of leaving good trusts alone but controlling bad trusts.
        2. The New Nationalism also pushed for female suffrage and social programs such as minimum wage laws social insurance programs. These such programs would later be manifested during the Great Depression in Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal.
          1. These "socialistic" social welfare programs would be a hard pill to swallow for business folks and conservatives.
        3. The New Freedom plan supported small business and wanted to bust all trusts, not distinguishing good or bad. The plan did not include social welfare programs.
      4. TR was shot in the chest in Milwaukee while on the campaign trail. Though shot, TR delivered his speech, went to the hospital, and recovered in 2 weeks time.
  2. Woodrow Wilson: A Minority President
    1. With the Republicans split, it was time for the Democrats. Woodrow Wilson won the 1912 electoral vote handily: Wilson had 435 electoral votes, Roosevelt had 88, and Taft had 8.
      1. The popular vote was much different however. Wilson garnered only 41% of the people's votes, TR and Taft totaled 50%. Thus, most people in America did not want Wilson as their president.
      2. The conclusion seemed clear—Roosevelt's Bull Moose party had cost Republicans, and given the Democrats, the White House.
    2. The Socialist party continued to be on the rise. Eugene V. Debs got 6% of the popular vote—a strong showing by a third party and, again, a sign-of-the-times for people liking what the Socialists were saying.
    3. Taft didn't just go away after his one term. He would later become the chief justice of the Supreme Court.
  3. Wilson: The Idealist in Politics
    1. He was born and raised in the South who sympathized with the Confederacy's struggle to rule itself during the Civil War. This may have influenced his "self-determination" policy of post-WWI where the people chose their government.
    2. His father was a Presbyterian minister and Wilson was deeply religious himself as well as a superb speaker. It was noted that he was born halfway between the bible and the dictionary and never strayed far from either.
    3. Like Teddy Roosevelt, he believed the president should strike out and lead the country.
    4. Wilson's personality was very much unlike Roosevelt, however.
      1. Wilson was an idealist, not a pragmatist like TR. He was completely stubborn at times, not budging an inch on his ideals or beliefs. Consequently, his stubbornness meant at times not getting anything done.
      2. Wilson also was an intellectual who lacked the people's touch. Whereas TR had been loved by the people, Wilson was scholarly and arrogant. Or in other words, whereas TR might have had a beer with the people, Wilson might scoff at their ignorance and move on.
  4. Wilson Tackles the Tariff
    1. As a Progressive, Woodrow Wilson entered the White House saying he wished to attack what he termed the "triple wall of privilege": the tariff, the banks, and trusts.
    2. Wilson sought to bring the tariff down. He helped Congress pass the Underwood Tariff (1913) which did two main things…
      1. It considerably reduced tariff rates on imports.
      2. It started a graduated income tax (the tax rate went up as a person's salary went up). The 16th Amendment had recently been passed legalizing an income tax, the Underwood Tariff law simply laid out the rules.
  5. Wilson Battles the Bankers
    1. America's financial system had been set up by the National Banking Act back during the Civil War. The Panic of 1907 had shown the system to have faults and to be incapable of addressing emergency needs. Wilson set up a committee to look into the banking system.
      1. The committee was headed by Republican Senator Aldrich (of the Aldrich-Vreeland Act which addressed banking back in 1908). The committee recommended what amounted to a third Bank of the United States.
      2. The Democrats, following a House committee chaired by Arsene Pujo, concluded that the "money monster" was rooted in the banking system.
      3. And, Louis D. Brandeis wrote Other People's Money and How the Bankers Use It (1914) which fired people up even more to reform a supposedly corrupt banking system.
    2. Wilson's mind was made up. In June of 1913 he asked a joint session of Congress to make broad reforms to the nation's banking system.
      1. Congress reacted and passed the monumental Federal Reserve Act (1913).
        1. The law created the Federal Reserve Board (appointed by the president) which oversaw 12 regional, federal banks.
        2. The Federal Reserve Board was given the power to issue paper money (AKA "Federal Reserve Notes"). Thus, it could regulate the amount of money in circulation by issuing, or holding back, paper money.
  6. The President Tames the Trusts This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Last on Wilson's "triple wall of privilege" were the trusts. Congress passed the Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) which set up a position, appointed by the president, to investigate activities of trusts.
      1. The goal would be to stop trade practices deemed unfair such as unlawful competition, false advertising, mislabeling, adulteration, and bribery.
    2. Congress wanted to strengthen the largely ineffective Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890), so it passed the Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914).
      1. The Clayton Act put real teeth into anti-trust law. It added to the Sherman law's list of objectionable trust practices by forbidding price discrimination (a different price for different people) and interlocking directorates (the same people serving on "competitors" boards of trustees).
      2. It also (a) exempted labor unions from being considered trusts and (b) legalized strikes as a form of peaceful assembly.
  7. Wilsonian Progressivism at High Tide
    1. Several other reforms followed Wilson's attack on the "triple wall of privilege."
    2. Farmers got a bit of government help from the Progressive-minded Wilson.
      1. The Federal Farm Loan Act (1916) offered low interest loans to farmers.
      2. The Warehouse Act (1916) offered loans on on security of staple crops.
    3. Workers made gains under the Progressive-minded Wilson.
      1. Sailors were guaranteed good treatment and a decent wage under the La Follette Seamen's Act (1915). A negative result was that shipping rates shot upward with the new governmental regulations.
      2. The Workingmen's Compensation Act (1916) offered help to federal civil-service employees during a time of disability.
      3. The Adamson Act (1916) set an 8-hour workday (plus overtime) for any worker on a train engaged in interstate trade.
    4. Wilson named Louis Brandeis to the Supreme Court—the 1st Jew to sit on the bench. But, Wilson's Progressivism did not reach out to blacks in America. His policies actually moved toward greater segregation.
    5. Wilson played politics too.
      1. The business community largely despised all of Wilson's and the government's meddling into business. To keep business folks somewhat happy, and hopefully get reelected, Wilson made conservative appointments to the Federal Reserve Board and to the Federal Trade Commission.
      2. To get reelected in 1916, Wilson new he'd have to lure most of TR's Bull Moose backers to the Democrat party. So, despite "throwing a bone" to business, most of his energies were put into the Progressive arena.
  8. New Directions in Foreign Policy
    1. Woodrow Wilson took a very different path in foreign policy when compared to his two predecessors. Wilson was a pacifist at heart, a peacemaker. He hated TR's Big Stick Policy and Taft's Dollar Diplomacy.
      1. He got American bankers to pull out of a 6 nation loan to China.
      2. Wilson got Congress to repeal the Panama Canal Tolls Act (1912) which allowed American ships to pass through the canal toll free.
    2. Wilson signed the Jones Act (1916) granting territorial status to the Philippines. It also promised independence when a "stable government" was established.
      1. The Philippines were finally granted their independence on July 4, 1946.
    3. Other foreign situations forced the peaceful president to take action.
      1. Wilson defused a situation with Japan. California forbade Japanese-Americans from owning land in the U.S. Tensions ran high and violence seemed a real threat. Wilson sent Sec. of State William Jennings Bryan to speak to the California legislature and the situation calmed down.
      2. He was forced to take military action in 1915 in Haiti. Chaos erupted there and Wilson sent U.S. Marines to protect Americans and American interests there. They stayed for over a year and a half.
      3. Marines were also sent to the Dominican Republic in the same year to keep order.
      4. In 1917, Woodrow Wilson purchased the Virgin Island from Denmark. It was clear by this time that the arms of America were reaching into the Caribbean.
  9. Moralistic Diplomacy in Mexico
    1. For years, the resources of Mexico had been used by American oil, railroad, and mining businesses. The Mexican people were extremely poor and they revolted in 1913.
      1. The president was assassinated. Placed as president was an Indian, Gen. Victoriano Huerta. The result of the chaos was a massive immigration from Mexico to Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California.
    2. Huerta's regime put Wilson in a tight spot.
      1. The revolutionaries in Mexico were violent and threatened American lives and property. Americans called for Wilson to offer protection but, he would not.
      2. On the flip side, Wilson also would not recognize Huerta and his regime. Wilson allowed American arms to go to Huerta's rivals Venustiano Carranza and Francisco "Pancho" Villa.
    3. A situation emerged in Tampico, Mexico when some American sailors were seized by Mexico. Wilson sought Congress' okay to use military force and actually had the navy seize Vera Cruz, Mexico. Huerta and Carranza both were not happy about this move.
      1. The ABC Powers (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile) stepped in to mediate the situation.
      2. Huerta was replaced after considerable pressure and Carranza became president.
    4. Carranza's rival Pancho Villa began stirring up trouble. Pancho Villa was something of a Mexican Robin Hood. He was hated by some who considered him a thief and murderer; he was loved by some who saw him as fighting for the "little man."
      1. Pancho Villa raided a train, kidnapped 16 American mining engineers, and killed them.
      2. He and his men raided Columbus, New Mexico and killed 19 more people.
    5. Wilson sent the Army, headed by Gen. John. J. Pershing, after Pancho Villa.
      1. Pershing took a few thousand troops into Mexico, fought both Carranza's and Villa's troops, but couldn't catch Pancho Villa.
      2. While hunting Villa, World War I broke out and Pershing was recalled. (Villa would soon be murdered by a Mexican rival.)
  10. Thunder Across the Sea
    1. In 1914, Austrian heir-to-the-throne Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. This started a domino-effect where Europe quickly fell into war.
    2. The powers of Europe chose sides due to culture and to alliances…
      1. The main Central Powers were Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey (aka the Ottomon Empire).
      2. The main Allied Powers were Russia, France, England, and Australia.
    3. Most Americans favored the Allies but many supported the Central Powers due to ethnic heritage. Nearly all Americans were happy that an ocean separated them from the war and wanted to stay neutral.
  11. A Precarious Neutrality
    1. Adding to the somber tone of the times, President Wilson's wife had recently died. He declared that the U.S. was officially neutral.
    2. Both the Central and Allied Powers sought America's support.
      1. The Central Powers of Germany and Austro-Hungary were reliant on Americans that shared their heritage. There were 11 million Americans with ethnic ties to these nations (roughly 20%).
      2. The Allies had most of the cultural, political, and economic ties with America. Generally speaking, most Americans were sympathetic to the Allies' side.
        1. The leader of Germany, Kaiser Wilhelm II, was a military autocrat and was easy for most freedom-loving Americans to dislike. Anyone "on the fence" would almost certainly side with the Allies and against the Kaiser/Central Powers.
        2. Additionally, any fence-sitters likely had their minds made up against the Central Powers in a New York subway incident. There, a Central Powers operative left his briefcase on the subway. Inside were plans to sabotage American industries.
  12. America Earns Blood Money
    1. Being officially neutral, American businesses sought to trade with either side in the war to make money.
      1. Trade with the Allies was possible and took place.
      2. Trade with the Central Powers was much trickier with the British navy controlling the sea. This trade effectively pulled the U.S. out of a mini-recession that it'd been in prior to the war.
    2. Germany was aware of their inferior naval status and the benefits of Allied-American trade.
      1. Germany knew they could not compete with the British navy one-on-one. The German solution was to rely on U-boats, or submarines.
      2. Germany announced "unrestricted submarine warfare" on the Allies or anyone assisting the Allies. The U.S. would not be targeted, but no guarantees were made.
      3. President Wilson said Germany would be held to "strict accountability" for any American damages.
    3. The greatest U-boat attack was on the Lusitania, a British cruise liner. Nearly 1,200 souls were killed in the attack, including 128 Americans.
      1. The Lusitania and the Americans had been warned of a possible attack. Still, the effect was to motivate many Americans to call for war.
        1. William Jennings Bryan resigned from his post as Secretary of State due to the possibility of going to war.
    4. Other ships were soon sunk by German U-boats.
      1. The Arabic was sunk, a British ship, killing two Americans.
      2. The Sussex was sunk, a French passenger ship, and prompted Pres. Wilson to pressure Germany.
        1. Germany gave the "Sussex Pledge" in response. It promised that no attacks would be made on ships without warning.
        2. Germany quickly realized that such a pledge undermined the purpose of a submarine (surprise attack). They retracted the pledge and reverted back to unrestricted submarine warfare.
    5. Wilson's neutrality was teetering on the brink.
  13. Wilson Wins Reelection in 1916
    1. 1916 was another presidential election year. The candidates were…
      1. Republicans nominated Charles Evans Hughes. He was infamous for changing his position depending on his audience. He as thus nicknamed "Charles Evasive Hughes."
      2. Democrats nominated Pres. Wilson for another 4 years. The campaign slogan was "He kept us out of war."
    2. By this time America's neutrality was slipping away. Still, the slogan was appealing.
    3. Wilson won the election, 277 to 254 in the electoral vote.
      1. The irony of the election was that Wilson would lead America into war only 5 months later, in April of 1917.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 30 - American Life in the Roaring ‘20s

  1. Seeing Red
    1. Following WWI, America's mood changed to isolationism and anti-foreigner. "Radicals" were shunned and foreigners were expected to change their ways to American.
    2. A "Red Scare" (a fear of communism) emerged. This fear was fueled by (1) the recent Russian revolution, (2) Eugene Debs growing numbers, (3) loads of strikes, and (4) a series of mail bombs.
      1. The logic went that communism was from Europe—all the more reason to shun foreigners and their ways.
      2. Right or wrong, people blamed the bombs on the reds. Atty. Gen. Mitchell Palmer vowed to round up the reds. He arrested about 6,000 people; some were deported. He slowed down a bit after a bomb blew up his house.
    3. Again, free speech, such as explaining one's political views, was under fire.
      1. States passed laws outlawing advocacy of violence for social change.
      2. Some elected officials were denied seats on the legislature because they were Socialists.
    4. The faces of the Red Scare were Sacco and Vanzetti.
      1. Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants accused of murder.
      2. The importance is that although there was some evidence against them, many concluded their case was based less on evidence and more on other strikes against them. The other strikes: they were Italian, atheists, anarchists, draft dodgers. They were tried, convicted, and executed.
  2. Hooded Hoodlums of the KKK
    1. The Ku Klux Klan was somewhat re-vamped at this time. The KKK had been started as an anti-black group. In the 20's, it added to its list of "we don't likes": Catholics, Jewish, pacifists, communists, internationalists, revolutionists, bootleggers, gambling, adultery, and birth control.
    2. More simply, the KKK was pro-white Anglo-Saxon protestant ("WASP") and anti-everything else.
    3. By expanding its scope of hatred and by riding the mood of the time, the KKK reached its numerical peak during the 20's—about 5 million members strong.
      1. The KKK employed the same tactics as it always had: fear, lynchings, and intimidation.
    4. Finally, the KKK was given a stiff setback due to an internal money/initiation fee scam.
  3. Stemming the Foreign Flood
    1. Congress took action in the anti-foreign mood to limit immigrants from Europe, specifically “New Immigrants” (mostly from the southeastern Europe regions).
      1. The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 cut the number of immigrants who could enter America to 3% of their nationality's U.S. population in 1910.
        1. This law somewhat favored the New Immigrants (the group they wanted to limit) because their numbers in 1910 were so large. A new bill was desired.
      2. In 1924, the Immigration Act sliced the number down to 2% of a group's U.S. population in 1890. Changing from 1910 to 1890 (before many New Immigrants had arrived). This change clearly had racial undertones beneath it (New Immigrants out, Old Immigrants in).
        1. This law also closed the door to Japanese immigrants.
        2. Canadians and Latin Americans were not included in the law. They were desired to work jobs.
    2. In 1931, for the first time, more foreigners left American than came. Aside from the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, this marked the first restriction on immigration or the end of free and open American immigration.
    3. America was a patchwork quilt of ethnic groups, especially in the big cities. New ideas on the "melting pot" grew. Two theories emerged in the intellectual circles:
      1. Horace Kallen argued that the ethnic groups should keep their old-world traditions. They would harmonize like an orchestra.
      2. Randolph Bourne argued that the groups should interact with one another to create a trans-nationality in America.
  4. The Prohibition “Experiment”
    1. In 1919, the Eighteenth Amendment was passed prohibiting alcohol. Congress passed the Volstead Act later in the year to carry out the amendment.
    2. The amendment was more popular in the South and West.
    3. Many did not like the amendment. America has a long tradition of liking a strong drink and a weak government. Many folks violated or ignored the prohibition.
      1. Since it was costly and risky to deal in alcohol, the stronger the alcohol the better. Straight moonshine might blind or kill.
    4. There were positive results: bank savings increased and absences at work went down.
  5. The Golden Age of Gangsterism
    1. Prohibition created an entire industry for organized crime: liquor distribution.
    2. Gangs emerged and staked out their territories for liquor and their accompanying "speakeasy" bars, gambling, narcotics, whore houses, and extortion money.
    3. Chicago led the gang world. About 500 gangsters were murdered in the 20's in Chicago. Arrests were few and convictions were rare since gang members would not rat out others.
      1. "Scarface' Al Capone was the biggest and the baddest. Bloodshed and murder followed his armor-clad, bulletproof windowed car through Chicago. The feds named him "Public Enemy Number One." The "G-men" never got him for the dirty stuff; they did jail him in Alcatraz for tax evasion.
      2. By 1930, the estimate of gang income was between $12 and $18 billion—several times the income of the Washington D.C. government.
    4. Gang violence/extortion hit the headlines in 1932 when Charles Lindbergh's baby was kidnapped for ransom. The baby was soon found murdered. Congress passed the "Lindbergh Law" making interstate kidnapping punishable by death.
  6. Monkey Business in Tennessee This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Education began to change from rote memorization to more hands-on learning. This was the idea of progressive education John Dewey who advocated "learning by doing" and "education for life."
    2. Science made gains. The Rockefeller Foundation funded a health drive that nearly eliminated hookworm which mostly struck the poor. Nutrition and health care extended the life expectancy from 50 years in 1901 to 59 years in 1929.
    3. Scientists butted heads with traditionalists in the 20's in the "Scopes Monkey Trial" over Darwin's theory of evolution.
      1. Fundamentalists believed in a literal reading of the Bible. They'd grown in numbers, especially in the "Bible Belt" of the South.
      2. Tennessee passed a law banning teaching evolution in public schools. A young biology teacher, John T. Scopes broke this law and taught evolution.
      3. Dayton, TN became a national stage for the first evolution vs. creation showdown. Big-name lawyers led both sides: the evolution side was argued by Clarence Darrow, presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan argued the creation side.
        1. Bryan was passionate, a Bible expert and expert speaker. Darrow was an expert trial lawyer and likely got the better of Bryan. Perhaps the most famous "gotcha" point came when Darrow got Bryan to comment on Jonah being swallowed by a whale. Darrow then said the Bible quotes a "great fish," and not a whale.
        2. The trial itself was almost a non-factor—Scopes had broken the no-evolution law. He was convicted and given a slap-on-the-wrist.
        3. The stress and passion of the case literally led to Bryan's death. He died of a stroke only five days afterward.
      4. Fundamentalism may have gained a victory in that, through mocking, their faith was strengthened even more. And, their numbers continued to grow, especially with Baptists and the new Church of Christ.
  7. The Mass-Consumption Economy
    1. After the immediate post-war recession, the 1920's generally enjoyed a robust economy. Treasury Sec. Andrew Mellons low-tax policies helped encourage growth.
    2. Machinery got better and ran on cheap energy.
      1. The business period was personified by Henry Ford. He perfected the assembly line at his Rouge Rive Plant and could produce a new car every 10 seconds. Ford-style mass production was then applied to other industries, lowering costs, and starting mass consumption.
    3. To sell the tons of new stuff, new advertising techniques were needed. Ads began to employ persuasion and sex appeal.
      1. The ad-master was Bruce Barton. He wrote a best-seller called The Man Nobody Knows. That man was Jesus Christ, whom Barton said was the best advertiser ever and others marketers would do well to follow his steps.
      2. People began to buy things they didn't know they'd needed or wanted, until they saw the ad. Folks followed new (and dangerous) buying techniques…they bought (1) on the installment plan and (2) on credit. Both ways were capable of plunging an unsuspecting consumer into debt.
    4. The growing mass media, like newspapers, magazines, and infant radio, made America more homogeneous, more the same from coast-to-coast. This was great for mass consumption.
    5. Mass media helped sports grow in popularity. Baseball was the king of American sports with heroes like Babe Ruth. It was now practical to follow your team on a daily basis, home or away. Boxing was popular, with champ Jack Dempsey. Horse racing was the second most popular sport by attendance.
  8. Putting America on Rubber Tires
    1. Americans took European know-how and further developed the gasoline engine.
    2. Frederick Taylor promoted efficiency in production. He would put the stopwatch on a worker then orchestrate his movements to eliminated wasted movement and quicken his time. It was effective as workers became very effective (though they were little more than machine parts).
    3. Early moguls in the automobile industry were Henry Ford and Ransom E. Olds (the Oldsmobile).
    4. These cars were unreliable—a driver would have to also be half mechanic. But, they were inexpensive, especially Ford's Model T. When Ford switched to the Model A, the assembly line technique made the Model A affordable for practically any working person.
      1. When the stock market crashed in 1929, there were 26 million registered cars—1 car for every 4.9 people America.
  9. The Advent of the Gasoline Age
    1. Cars created 6 million new jobs and quickly became America's number one mode of transportation.
    2. Cars brought fundamental changes to America:
      1. Roads were now needed—there was a boom in paving and cars' accompanying gasoline industry started and mushroomed.
      2. There were social changes as well. Cars brought independence to young people who "dated" in them and America began to reshape itself by spreading out into suburbs. There were many crashes too. By 1951, a million people had died in car crashes—more than all the wars combined.
  10. Humans Develop Wings
    1. The gas engine also led to airplanes. In Orville and Wilbur Wright man flew for the first time on December 17, 1903 for 12 seconds at Kitty Hawk, N.C.
    2. Airplanes grew as heard spread. Many first saw a plane when a stunt flier would barnstorm their town or county fair.
    3. Planes were used minimally in World War I—mostly for recon (spying), dog fighting each other, and crude bombing.
    4. After WWI planes really got going. They were used for air mail. The first transcontinental airmail route started from New York to San Francisco in 1920.
    5. America got a hero when Charles Lindbergh was the first to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. It took him 33 1/2 hours, he won a $25,000 prize, and instantly became a celebrity.
      1. Lindbergh was sort of represented the anti-Jazz Age. Whereas many young people were living the high life of fast cars, illegal booze, jazz, nightclubs, "petting parties", Lindbergh was traditional, wholesome and shy. It was said that for a brief moment, the Jazz Age crowd paused their party and tipped their glasses to Lindbergh's accomplishment.
  11. The Radio Revolution
    1. Guglielmo Marconi invented wireless telegraphy in the 1890's. His invention was used in WWI. The beep-beep radio would soon give birth to voice radio.
    2. The first major radio broadcast was made by KDKA it Pittsburgh. They broadcast the results of Warren Hardings presidential victory.
      1. Radio spread out from being local, to powerful national shows that often drowned out the local stations. Entrepreneur Powel Crosley's station sent out 500,000 watts (10 times the limit today) and could be reached nearly anywhere in the U.S.
    3. Like the car, the radio also changed society.
      1. Radio standardized or homogenized Americans in a way never before possible—everyone could hear the same news at exactly the same time.
      2. Whereas the car scattered people, the radio drew them back to their homes. Sitting as a family listening to the radio was the norm. Popular shows were "Amos 'n' Andy.
      3. Radio was a new and powerful medium for advertisers as well. They sponsored shows like the "A&P Gypsies" and the "Eveready Hour."
      4. It was even easier for sports fans to follow their teams—sports grew even more in popularity.
      5. Politicians had to adjust to the new media as well.
  12. Hollywood’s Filmland Fantasies
    1. Thomas Edison helped invent/develop the "picture show" (movies).
    2. Largely considered the first movie was The Great Train Robbery in 1903. The first full-length movie was made in 1915 by D.W. Griffith called The Birth of a Nation. It dealt with the Civil War and Reconstruction and was controversial because it seemed to glorify the KKK. Technically, though, it stunned viewers with its battle scenes and ability to draw out emotions on a personal level.
      1. After viewing the movie, Pres. Woodrow Wilson said it was like writing "history with lightning."
    3. Hollywood became the movie headquarters with its sunny climate. Early films often featured nude women and "vamps" (female vampires) until criticism clothed things.
    4. Movies really took off during WWI as many propaganda shorts were created.
    5. The Jazz Singer starring Al Jolson in 1927, a "minstrel" movie with white men dressed as black men, was the first "talkie" (movie with sound).
    6. Movies quickly became America's foremost form entertainment. Early movie stars like Charlie Chaplain, Douglas Fairbanks, and Mary Pickford quickly emerged.
    7. There were critics of radio and the movies. They said it turned America away from grandma's story-telling to mere clown-shows. Still, the times had changed for good.
  13. The Dynamic Decade
    1. By the census of 1920, for the first time, more Americans lived in urban areas than in rural areas. This red-letter year marked a teetering point in American history socially—the change from an agrarian to an urban society.
    2. There were many social changes during the 20's. The decade marked the break from old-to-new, from traditional-to-modern. This break often came with culture clash (the Scopes Monkey Trial is a great example).
      1. Margaret Sanger promoted birth-control for women. The National Women's Party emerged in 1923 with the ambition of getting an Equal Rights Amendment passed to the U.S. Constitution.
      2. Religion was watered-down too. "Modernists" pushed back at Fundamentalists. Modernists viewed God as an old chum, as opposed to the traditional view that man was a born sinner and in need of forgiveness through Christ.
      3. The young "Jazz Age" set of "flaming youth" shocked the older crowd. The young modern women in the 20's, the "flappers" were the worst:
        1. They dressed scantily and danced "dirty" to the Charleston.
        2. They drank booze, bobbed their hair short, courted boys in motorcars, and openly spoke of sex.
        3. It was popular to read of Sigmund Freud's psychological theories (always involving sex and violence). Freud said sexual repression led to many ills, mental and physical. Thus, sexual gratification was needed for both types of health.
    3. Jazz came on in a big way during the 20's (so that F. Scott Fitzgerald coined the term the "Jazz Age").
      1. Jazz pioneers were W.C. Handy with his Memphis blues style, "Jelly Roll" Morton, and "Joe" King Oliver. Jazz was mostly started by black artists, but white performers got most of the profits.
    4. Black pride emerged, largely in the cities.
      1. Poet Langston Hughes penned the voice of black America.
      2. Marcus Garvey founded the United Negro Improvement Association to re-locate blacks to their native homeland. They also sponsored black enterprises to try and keep blacks' money in blacks' hands.
        1. Garvey's enterprises usually failed and he was jailed for mail fraud. The sense of pride he helped create remained and helped later start the Nation of Islam (Black Muslim) movement.
  14. Cultural Liberation
    1. The 1920's was also a turning point in literature. The Victorian era writers had died: Henry James, Henry Adams, and William Dean Howells. There were a few popular writers, especially Edith Wharton and Willa Cather (who wrote plainly about life on the Plains).
    2. The new writers were from broad backgrounds (not just New England protestants) and they were very good.
      1. H.L. Mencken used wit and biting criticism to jab at almost every aspect of society in his American Monthly.
      2. F. Scott Fitzgerald was the de facto spokesman for the Jazz Age (his term). He gained fame with This Side of Paradise (partying college-kids) and then his best work The Great Gatsby (a ruined WWI vet). His stories, along with his life and wife Zelda, described the period's glamor and senselessness.
      3. Theodore Dreiser wrote in the ugly form of a realist (not a romantic) in An American Tragedy. It told of a pregnant woman murdered by her socially ambitious lover.
      4. Ernest Hemingway wrote The Sun Also Rises (young adults partying in Paris, Spain) and A Farewell to Arms (young officer fleeing war, seeking love).
        1. Roughly based on his own life, both stories showed the empty, hollow lives of young adults. Hemingway became the voice of the "Lost Generation"—those who'd gone to WWI with Wilsonian ideals, only to become disillusioned and ruined by the realities of war.
      5. Sherwood Anderson wrote Winesburg, Ohio which dredged the insides small-town America.
      6. Sinclair Lewis also depicted small-town America in Main Street and 20's materialism/consumerism in Babbitt.
      7. William Faulkner wrote hauntingly about the Southern experience in novels such as The Sound and the FuryAs I Lay Dying, and Absolom, Absolom! His books sometimes stunned or confused readers with the new, choppy "stream of consciousness" writing technique.
      8. Poetry cut new paths too, led by Ezra Pound and T.S. Eliot with his poem "The Waste Land." Robert Frost wrote of New England ("The Road Not Taken"). And e.e. cummings experimented with the typeset, diction, and punctuation—his poems sounded different but also looked different, adding to their effect.
      9. Eugene O'Neill was one of America's greatest playwrights. Plays like "Strange Interlude" which meddled with Freudian ideas of sex.
    3. In New York there was a "Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of African-American art and culture. It was led by writers Claude McKayLangston Hughes, and Zora Neale Hurston. And also by jazz musicians Louis Armstrongand Eubie Blake.
    4. Architecture was perhaps the most symbolic of the changing society because it mixed art and science in a very tangible way.
      1. Frank Lloyd Wright was an understudy of Louis Sullivan (of earlier Chicago skyscraper fame). Wright stunned people with his use of concrete, glass, and steel and his unconventional theory that “form follows function.”
      2. The crowned king of skyscrapers was the Empire State Building, with its ultra modern "Art Deco" style, completed in 1931.
  15. Wall Street’s Big Bull Market
    1. Always the prelude to recession or depression, there was too much speculation in too-risky areas during the 20's.
      1. A Florida land boom shot prices on sunny property through the roof. Then a hurricane dealt reality and the land boom went bust in 1926.
      2. The stock market was the speculator's paradise in the 20's. The desire to get rich quick on rising stock prices created a "buy-now" feeling. This is turn, drove the market higher, and built on that buy-now feeling, artificially.
        1. Worse, many people bought "on margin", meaning they bought with borrowed money. Usually 10% was paid up-front, 90% borrowed. That meant wild profits if the stock went up, wild debt if it dropped.
        2. This type of structure was like building a house of cards, it could not stand forever.
    2. The federal government tried to get their financial house in order when Congress passed the Bureau of the Budget.
      1. Sec. of Treasury Andrew Mellon disliked the high taxes leftover from WWI.
        1. He felt they forced the rich to put their money in tax-exempt securities, not in factories. His idea, still around today, said that in desiring more tax revenue through high taxes, the higher rate cripples the economy and actually leads to less revenue for the government.
        2. Congress did ease the tax burden on the rich and the economy did boom during the 20's. He also succeeded in lowering the national debt.
        3. If there is such a thing as a bad side to prosperity, it was simply that the profits enabled people to give in to their greed and over-speculate in risky businesses—this was the main cause of the Great Depression.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 31 - The Politics of Boom and Bust

  1. The Republican “Old Guard” Returns
    1. Pres. Harding looked the part as president—tall, handsome, silver-haired and was friendly and popular. But, he was of average intelligence and he was gullible.
    2. The saying was that George Washington couldn't tell a lie and Harding couldn't tell a liar.
    3. Harding sought to collect the "best minds" to be in his administration.
      1. Charles Evans Hughes became secretary of state. He was very able in that role.
      2. Andrew Mellon became secretary of the treasury and managed the budget extremely well.
      3. Due to his food-saving successes in WWI, Herbert Hoover became secretary of commerce.
    4. Despite the highlights above, there were also huge duds in the Harding administration.
      1. Albert B.Fall was a schemer and anti-conservationist, yet was appointed secretary of the interior to manage natural resources.
      2. Harry M. Daugherty was a small-town lawyer, was crooked, yet was appointed attorney general.
  2. GOP Reaction at the Throttle
    1. Harding was a good man at heart, but he lacked the vigor of a strong leader. In Harding, the less-than-honest had the perfect front for their schemes.
      1. The "Old Guard", McKinley-style industrialists sought to further laissez-faire; in other words, to let business run wild and free.
      2. Harding appointed 4 Supreme Court justices. Three were standard traditionalists. The other was former president William Taft as chief justice. He judged a bit more liberal.
    2. The conservative court halted progressive laws.
      1. A federal child-labor law was stopped.
      2. In the case of Adkins v. Children's Hospital the court reversed its own reasoning that had been set in Muller v. Oregon. The Muller case had said women need special protection in the work place. The Adkins decision erased the idea of women's protection at work and wiped out a minimum wage law for women.
    3. The Anti-trust laws which had been applied during the Progressive years were set aside. The Harding-era trend was clear for businesses: it's a go for expansion and free from fear that the government might interfere.
      1. An example would be the I.C.C. (the Interstate Commerce Commission, set up to regulate the railroads). It was made up of men sympathetic to the railroad managers.
  3. Aftermath of the War
    1. With the war over, the government stepped back and away from business intervention. Two examples were that the War Industries Board was gone and control of the railroads went back to private enterprise in the Esch-Cummins Transportation Act.
    2. The federal government got out of shipping by passing the Merchant Marine Act (1920). It authorized the Shipping Board to sell some 1,500 WWI-era ships to private shippers. This meant a smaller navy and less hassles.
    3. In the era of laissez-faire and pro-business policies, the labor movement struggled badly.
      1. A bloody strike was broken in 1919, crippling the labor movement.
      2. In 1922, the Railway Labor Board cut wages by 12%. This started a two month strike. Atty. Gen. Daugherty laid down a stinging injunction and crushed the strike. This was a near-death blow to labor unions and union enrollment dropped by 30%.
    4. Veterans began organizing. Teddy Roosevelt started the American Legion in Paris in 1919.
      1. Vets got together socially, but also for other reasons, mainly seeking money. The vets sought wages lost while away and/or veterans benefits.
      2. Their pressure got Congress to pass a "bonus" bill, Harding vetoed it. Congress passed another, the Adjusted Compensation Act, Pres. Calvin Coolidge vetoed it, but Congress overrode the veto.
  4. America Seeks Benefits Without Burdens
    1. Because the Senate had not approved of the Treaty of Versailles, America was still, technically, at war. Thus, Congress passed a joint resolution officially ending the war in July of 1921.
    2. Officially, the U.S. did not participate with the League of Nations. "Unofficial observers" were at the meetings to keep a suspicious eye on things. The lack of real participation though from the U.S. helped to doom the League.
    3. In the Middle East, Harding recognized the need for oil. He secured the rights, along with England, for drilling there.
    4. Disarmament was the trend of the time. A cautious eye was on Britain and Japan who were starting a ship-building race.
    5. A "Disarmament" Conference was held in 1921-22. All major powers were invited, except Bolshevik Russia. Sec. of State Charles Evans Hughes suggested a ratio of ships at 5:5:3 (U.S. to Britain to Japan). Several treaties were made:
      1. The Five-Power Treaty set up the 5:5:3 ratio and gave Japan a bonus to save face.
      2. The Four-Power Treaty required Britain, Japan, France, and the U.S. to keep the status quo in the Pacific.
      3. The Nine-Power Treaty kept open the Open Door policy with China (free trade for all).
      4. At the meetings end, the Harding crowd boasted of disarmament. But, there were technicalities: (1) there was no limit on small ships and (2) the U.S. agreed to the Four-Power Treaty, but was not bound by it (it had no muscle).
    6. In keeping with Woodrow Wilson's "war to end all war" ambition, there was an international trend to end warfare as a means of solving disputes. Later, in 1928 under Pres. Coolidge, Sec. of State Frank B. Kellogg won the Nobel Peace Prize. He signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact which outlawed war. 62 nations signed this treaty—a beautiful idea, yet incredibly naive.
  5. Hiking the Tariff Higher
    1. In the pro-business mood of the time period, businesses sought to up the tariff to protect themselves from cheaper European goods. They got their wish in the Fordney-McCumber Tariff which increased tariff rates from 27 to 38.5%.
    2. Presidents Harding and Coolidge were given the authority to fluctuate the tariff all the way up to 50%. And, being pro-business men at heart, they leaned toward the higher rather than lower tariffs.
    3. There was a snag in this high-tariff system: Europe owed money to the U.S. for WWI, in order to pay it back, they needed to export, but the U.S. tariff crippled those exports. Thus, the WWI money was not getting paid back.
  6. The Stench of Scandal This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Pres. Harding was an honest man, but many in his administration were not. Harding either didn't, couldn't, or didn't want to see this fact.
    2. Col. Charles R. Forbes skimmed money as chief of the Veterans Bureau. He and his crowd pilfered about $200 million while building veterans hospitals. He spent a whopping two years in jail.
    3. The worst was the Teapot Dome scandal involving oil.
      1. Sec. of Interior Albert B. Fall was to manage natural resources. When oil was discovered near the "Teapot Dome" in Wyoming, Fall sneakily had the land placed under his power.
      2. Fall then accepted bribes for oil drilling rights from Edward Doheny and Harry Sinclair for about $100,000 and $300,000 respectively.
      3. Word leaked out in 1923 and it drug through the courts for six years. Doheny and Sinclair got off the hook, Fall served one year in jail.
    4. These high-priced scandals and skimpy sentences jolted people's trust in the court system.
    5. There were more scandals. Atty. Gen. "Harry Daugherty's name kept coming up for possibly selling pardons and liquor permits (this during Prohibition).
    6. Pres. Harding died at this time, August 2, 1923, of pneumonia and thrombosis. The scandals and their stress may well have added to the illness.
  7. “Silent Cal” Coolidge
    1. At Harding's death, V.P. Calvin Coolidge became president. He was serious, calm, shy, moral, boring, and unlike most politicians, didn't speak much.
      1. It was ironic that in the Twenties, the “Age of Ballyhoo,” the U.S. had a very traditional, old-timey president.
    2. Coolidge was even more pro-business than Harding had been. He once said, "the man who builds a factory builds a temple" and "the man who works there, worships there."
  8. Frustrated Farmers
    1. During WWI, farmers had enjoyed a boom. There much much food needed, they provided it, and earned good money in doing so.
    2. After the war, new technologies like the tractor made farm work much easier and increased production. But, increased supply with the same demand yields decreased prices. Whereas many enjoyed an economic boom during the decade, farmers fell onto tough times during the 20's.
    3. Farmers turned to Congress.
      1. The Capper-Volstead Act was passed exempting farmer cooperatives from antitrust laws.
      2. The McNary-Haugen Bill tried to keep the price of agricultural goods high. This was to be done by the government buying up excess surpluses then selling them to other nations. Coolidge, the thrifty conservative, vetoed this bill twice.
  9. A Three-Way Race for the White House in 1924
    1. 1924 was a presidential election year. Calvin Coolidge was to be reelected for the Republicans as a conservative.
    2. John W. Davis was nominated by the Democrats after much debate. In the changing times, Democrats had a hard time defining themselves and their positions at their convention in New York City.
      1. They did define their position on race when a Democrat party vote failed to condemn the K.K.K.
    3. The Progressive party refused to die and nominated Sen. Robert La Follette. He was endorsed by the American Federation of Labor (A.F. of L.) labor union and by the Socialists and would receive a sizable 5 million votes.
    4. Still, times were good, thus Coolidge was reelected easily.
  10. Foreign-Policy Flounderings
    1. With regards to foreign policy, isolationism was the rule. The U.S. would have nothing to do with the League of Nations new "World Court."
    2. The U.S. pulled troops out of the Dominican Republic (1925), keep them in Haiti ('til 1934), and settled a situation with Mexico over disputed oil rights (1926).
      1. The trend in Latin America was clear by this time: Latinos didn't like big Yankee America pushing them around.
    3. The issue of Europe's debt to America was intricate; and besides, Europe was unable to pay up anyway.
  11. Unraveling the Debt Knot
    1. America demanded that Britain and France pay their debts to the U.S. They couldn't. So, they placed a huge price-tag onto Germany who certainly could not pay. Germany printed paper money en masse, thus creating inflation and making the money completely worthless.
      1. Inflation was crippling in Germany: a loaf of bread was 480 million marks, it got so bad that it was immeasurable.
    2. Coolidge, conservative and thrifty, would not just erase the debt. The situation for paying off debt was hopeless.
    3. Charles Dawes came up with the Dawes Plan for payments. America would loan money to Germany. Germany would make payments to Britain and France. Then, they would repay their loans to America.
      1. The plan was simply a circle of money from-and-back-to America. Nothing would really be gained in the U.S., but at least on paper, the debts would be repaid.
    4. The U.S. never did get repaid for the loans. The only thing America got was resent from Britain and France who thought the U.S. was a greedy bully.
  12. The Triumph of Herbert Hoover, 1928
    1. Calvin Coolidge decided to not run for reelection in 1928. Sec. of Commerce Herbert Hoover became the nominee for Republicans and ran on the prosperity the 20's enjoyed.
      1. Hoover spoke of “Rugged Individualism” which was his view that America was made great by strong, self-sufficient individuals, like the pioneers of old days trekking across the prairies, relying on no one else for help. This was the kind of folk America still needed, he said.
    2. The Democrats nominated NY Gov. Alfred E. Smith. Smith had the people's touch, but he was Catholic (which turned off many) and he was a drinker (still the days of prohibition).
    3. Radio was a factor in the election. Hoover sounded better on the new media than Smith's New York accent.
      1. On the air Hoover spoke of rugged individualism. But, he also lived it. He'd paid his dues, done jobs well, and earned his way up the ladder. He was dignified, restrained, but somewhat aloof and very mediocre with personal skills.
    4. The campaign was full of mudslinging on both sides. The "Solid South" normally would go Democratic, but couldn't swallow Smith—an Irish Catholic, drinker, and city-slicker. It split its vote.
    5. Hoover won big, 444 to 87 electoral votes.
  13. President Hoover’s First Moves
    1. At first, Hoover enjoyed the economic prosperity of the day.
    2. Hoover's philosophy of helping one's self prompted his to get the Agricultural Marketing Act passed. It set up a Federal Farm Board which was to lend money to farmers.
      1. The board started the Grain Stabilization Corp. and Cotton Stabilization Corp. in 1930. They were to buy up surpluses of those crops to keep prices high.
    3. Isolationism was carried in the economics as well as politics. The Hawley-Smoot Tariff was hiked up to almost 60%. To other nations, this was like an economic act of war.
      1. This increase had negative effects: (1) it went against a trend toward lower tariffs, (2) it would slow trade and thus deepen the depression when it hit, and (3) it helped move the U.S. to full-fledged isolationism and thus help allow Hitler to rise to power.
  14. The Great Crash Ends the Golden Twenties
    1. In 1929, Hoover was growing drunk on the prosperity and thought it would be never-ending. The end came soon.
    2. The stock market had been shooting higher and higher all decade. Some saw that a house-of-cards built that high could not stand. All it took was a little something to trigger the fall.
      1. On "Black Tuesday," October 29, 1929, the bottom dropped out of the stock market on some bad economic news from Britain. The sell-off had begun and prices plummeted: stockholders had lost $40 billion in value by the end of 1929.
    3. The stock crash was the trigger and the circle-of-bad-news had begun.
      1. Businesses began to go out of business (since people couldn't or wouldn't buy now).
      2. Unemployment shot up.
      3. Over 5,000, banks went bankrupt as folks withdrew their money in fear of their bank going bankrupt (a self-fulfilling prophecy).
      4. The only things growing were soup kitchens and homeless shelters.
  15. Hooked on the Horn of Plenty
    1. Though the stock crash was the trigger, the causes of the Great Depression were deeper. At their roots, it was same as nearly all recessions and depressions: over-speculation (in stock) and over-production (in farms and factories). American production and consumerism had over-reached the consumers ability to buy things using real money.
      1. Purchasing is always good for business, purchasing on credit is too, until the debt gets called in and the consumer can't pay up.
    2. The Great Depression was an international one. Europe, who was still struggling from WWI, suffered again. The effect was for each nation to draw inward to protect themselves, further into isolationism.
    3. There were natural disasters to add to the man-made ones. A drought sizzled the Mississippi Valley in 1930 and ruined many farmers. The Dust Bowl was coming soon.
    4. Out of work and perhaps deeply in debt, Americans were hurting. Despite "rugged individualism," Americans looked to the president.
      1. "Rugged individualism" took and cynically ironic turn when folks took care of themselves in homemade slums and were called "ragged individualists." These shanty-towns would soon be named "Hoovervilles."
  16. Rugged Times for Rugged Individualists
    1. Like all presidents in economic bad times, Hoover took the blame. This was probably unfair.
      1. He didn't help himself though—his "rugged individualist" nature made him slow to take any government action.
      2. Hoover-critics pointed out that he'd fed millions in Belgium during WWI, but no one in the U.S.
      3. A true conservative would even question whether the government's "help" was beneficial or actually hindered any growth. Changing away from laissez-faire might slow the economy even more.
    2. Hoover's analysis was simple: this was a natural part of the "business cycle." The business cycle being the cyclical ups and downs of an economy, like a roller coaster.
      1. His solution was also simple: just wait it out. This is not what the people wanted to hear.
    3. Eventually, Hoover did go against his nature and get the government to take some action.
  17. Hoover Battles the Great Depression
    1. Pres. Hoover got the government involved in the Great Depression by recommending Congress dole out $2.25 billion. The theory was to jump start the economy through government spending.
      1. The massive Boulder Dam was begun in 1930, completed in 1936, and renamed to Hoover Dam. The resulting Lake Mead served to generate electricity, irrigation, flood control, and recreation. It still does.
      2. Hoover, however, didn't like all dams. He vetoed the Muscle Shoals Bill to dam the Tennessee River. This would be done later by Franklin Roosevelt under the Tennessee Valley Authority (the TVA).
    2. Hoover's most far-reaching effort wasn't construction in nature, but financial. He got the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (the RFC) passed. It would lend money to finance the massive government projects of FDR's "New Deal."
      1. The real beneficiaries of the RFC were the government agencies lending the money. They were essentially banks profiting on the interest of loans. This also was a point of criticism toward Hoover.
    3. When the economy is good, labor unions struggle (like the 1920's), when the economy is bad, labor unions tend to gain steam (like the Depression).
      1. Congress passed the Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act which outlawed antiunion contracts (AKA "yellow dog" contracts) which forced workers to sign promises to not join a union. It also said the federal courts could not hinder strikes, boycotts, or peaceful protesting by unions.
    4. Despite his slogan of "rugged individualism," belief in the business cycle and laissez-faire economics, and something of a reputation for not caring about people, Hoover did get the government involved in fighting the Great Depression. It just happened later rather than sooner.
  18. Routing the Bonus Army in Washington
    1. Many WWI veterans were still clamoring for "bonuses" for saving the world for democracy. The "Bonus Expeditionary Force" (the BEF) was drummed up. It consisted of 20,000 people who marched to Washington, set up camp (literally), and demanded their bonuses.
      1. The situation got out of hand. Riots emerged in the unsanitary encampment.
      2. Pres. Hoover criticized the BEF as being made up of riffraff and reds (communists). Hoover ordered the BEF evicted.
    2. The eviction was carried out by Gen. Douglas MacArthur and the Army., and it was ugly.
      1. MacArthur used bayonets, tear gas, and fire to roust the BEF out. The "Battle of Anacostia Flats" was not a pretty picture in American History.
      2. The whole sad affair also hurt Hoover's image even more.
  19. Japanese Militarists Attack China
    1. Meanwhile, across the Pacific, problems were budding. In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria (northern China).
      1. This involved the U.S. a bit since Open Door policy was shut in Manchuria.
    2. Those who believed in the idealistic League of Nations and the Kellogg-Briand Pact which outlawed war on paper, were shocked. This was simply a stronger nation in Japan taking over a weaker one in China.
      1. Steps were suggested the League use boycotts and blockades to put the economic stranglehold on Japan.
      2. But, the U.S. was not a member of the League of Nations.
      3. Sec. of State Henry Stimson issued words as actions. The "Stimson doctrine" said the U.S. would not recognize any territories acquired by force. These were the right words, but in the end, only words.
    3. The words may have even backfired. Japan was insulted and bombed Shanghai on the coast of China in 1932.
      1. Some Americans engaged in informal boycotts. But, this was just piecemeal and unorganized. Since the Depression was foremost on their minds, most Americans didn't care to do much else toward Japan.
    4. The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 taught a lesson: aggressive nations could take over weaker nations, the free nations would complain, but they would take no action. The first step to WWII had been taken.
  20. Hoover Pioneers the Good Neighbor Policy
    1. U.S. relations with Latin America had been hurting since around 1900. Hoover wanted to change that.
      1. Hoover went on a good-will tour of Latin America in attempt to extend the hand of friendship.
    2. In the Depression, Americans had less money to engage in Taft-like "dollar diplomacy" (AKA "economic imperialism") with Latin America.
    3. New policies saw American troops were pulled out of Haiti and Nicaragua.
    4. These policies laid the groundwork for FDR's "Good Neighbor" policy.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 32 - The Great Depression and the New Deal

  1. FDR: A Politician in a Wheelchair
    1. 1932 was likely the worst year of the Great Depression and it was an election year. Hoover was a goner.
    2. Hoover ran for reelection saying what he was doing was helping the situation.
    3. The Democrats nominated Franklin Delano Roosevelt, better known as FDR.
      1. FDR had been as a young man tall, handsome, and athletic. He got polio in 1921, however, and was since confined to a wheelchair. This may have helped temper and humble his personality—FDR had the people's touch.
      2. He was articulate with his words and conveyed a sense of caring.
    4. His wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, was also active in politics. Essentially, they came as a buy-one-get-two team.
      1. She would by far become the most involved First Lady up to that time, maybe of all time.
  2. Presidential Hopefuls of 1932
    1. During the campaign, the Democrats appealed to the common man and exuded confidence. They took the theme song of "Happy Days are Here Again" and one of his buzzwords was "confidence." FDR had a mile-wide smile.
    2. Hoover was sour-faced and used slogans like "The Worst is Past" and "It Might Have Been Worse." Folks just looked around and saw through those words. Hoover was a goner.
  3. Hoover's Humiliation in 1932
    1. FDR won the election in a landslide, 472 to 59 in the electoral vote.
    2. A unique voting trend ended and started in this election: black voters switched from the Republican party to the Democratic party.
      1. This was a big change. The Republicans had been the Party of Abe Lincoln, anti-slavery, and Reconstruction whereas the Democrats had been the pro-slavery, anti-black party. In 1932, blacks were tired of being the "last hired, first fired" and saw the Democrats as the party to help in that department.
    3. Hoover was something of sore loser. During the four month lame duck period (when the president-elect waits for the leaving president to depart), Hoover tried to wrangle FDR into some unflattering politics. FDR stayed away.
    4. The switch of 1932-1933 was the rock bottom. Unemployment was at 25%, the highest in America's history and bankruptcies were an epidemic.
      1. Cynical opponents of FDR said he purposely allowed things to get worse just so he could emerge that much more as the savior.
  4. FDR and the Three R’s: Relief, Recovery, and Reform
    1. In his inaugural address, FDR famously said, "…the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." He was referring to people's fears of spending until things got better and that their money was not safe in banks.
      1. In essence, FDR was saying, "If we don't panic, we'll be okay. Confidence!"
      2. To help cut the panic in banks, FDR quickly issued a "bank holiday" which closed banks for one week. It was simply a "time out," to stop the bleeding, sit and relax before moving forward.
    2. FDR started the "Three R's": relief, recovery, and reform. Relief was for the right-now (food, shelter), recovery was for a year or so to get out of the Depression, reform was to ensure it wouldn't happen again.
      1. Congress was controlled by far by the Democrats. Anything FDR wanted passed, was passed.
      2. FDR's first "Hundred Days" saw a shipload of bills passed into law. The laws are often called the "Alphabet Soup" because they're a dizziness collection of acronyms, like the TVA, CCC, WPA, PWA, and on and on. The New Deal, FDR's plan for fighting the Great Depression, was under way.
  5. Roosevelt Manages the Money
    1. In only eight hours, Congress passed the Emergency Banking Relief Act which set up the bank holiday.
    2. Roosevelt saw the power of radio. Most families had one by then and FDR used a series of "Fireside Chats" to talk to America on the radio. He went over what the problems were and what was being done about them. These talks were very popular.
    3. The Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act set up the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). It insured people's money in the bank up to $5,000. There was no need to fear losing one's money in the banks anymore.
    4. In fear of paper assets, people were hoarding gold. FDR took the dollar off the gold standard, ordered people to relinquish gold in exchange for paper money.
      1. FDR wanted to create inflation (a rise in prices). This would make it easier for debtors to pay off their debts (since the money had less value and was thus easier to get). Those who'd given the loans were not happy to get back not-so-valuable money.
      2. To create inflation, FDR ordered the Treasury to buy up gold at increasingly higher prices. $35 per once became the norm for 40 years. This meant more paper money in circulation, which is less valuable than gold, and did cause inflation.
      3. Critics said FDR was creating "baloney" money. FDR did backtrack and, in 1934, put the U.S. back on the gold standard partially (when trading with other nations).
  6. Creating Jobs for the Jobless
    1. FDR was willing to use government money to help those in need. One of his main weapons was to "prime the pump", or use federal money on programs in hopes that it would jump start the economy to run on its own.
    2. Likely the most popular New Deal program was the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC).
      1. In the CCC, young men were hired to work in the national forests. They lived in camps like boy scouts and did things like clearing land, blazing trails, planting trees, draining swamps, etc.
      2. The CCC provided some experience, some adventure, and a wage to send home to the folks—things healthy young men couldn't turn down.
    3. The Federal Relief Administration (FERA) sought relief in the form of the dole (government hand-outs). Harry L. Hopkins was placed in charge of the administration and $3 billion was given to the states for doling out.
      1. He proudly said they'd spend, tax, and get themselves reelected. Others saw this scheme as simply taking one person's money in taxes and giving it to another person to buy his vote.
    4. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) offered low interest loans to farmers.
    5. The Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC) refinanced people's home loans at lower interest rates.
    6. Unemployment was a lingering problem. In hopes of fighting it, FDR started the Civil Works Administration (CWA). It was to provide temporary jobs to see folks through a short period (winter).
      1. Finding jobs was hard to do and many were just made-up jobs, called "boondoggling." Critics saw the frequent result of a boondoggle job - just leaning-on-a-shovel and while collecting taxpayer money.
      2. Notably, the Great Migration was wrapping up at about this time. It's the massive movement by blacks from the rural South to the cities up North. It roughly went on between 1910 and 1930.
  7. A Day for Every Demagogue This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. There were many voices on the subject of the Great Depression. Catholic priest Father Charles Coughlin was one of the most persistent. He gave a regular radio address discussing "Social Justice."
      1. He was first pro-FDR, then very much anti-New Deal. He eventually went overboard and was silenced by higher-up clergy.
    2. One of the more flamboyant critics was Sen. Huey Long of Louisiana. He ranted about a "Share the Wealth" plan and promised "every man a king."
      1. He spoke of giving $5,000 per family to the poor, likely taking it from those who had it. The mathematics of the scheme were silly.
      2. Long got passionate responses. Many down-and-out folks loved him. Many despised him and feared he might become some type of dictator. One person assassinated him, in 1935.
    3. Dr. Francis Townsend also came up with a wild idea. He proposed to dole out $200/month to 5 million senior citizens. They would have to spend it, thus helping pump-prime the economy. Like Huey Long's idea, this was a mathematically ludicrous plan.
    4. Congress started the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in part to quiet these troublemakers. $11 billion was spent building public facilities like bridges, public buildings, and roads.
      1. The WPA's goals were to help curb unemployment (9 million people were put to work) and help improve the nation's infrastructure (roads, bridges, etc.).
      2. Many students were set up with part-time jobs. Work was also drummed up for artists and writers, although it was often boondoggling: John Steinbeck, future Nobel literature prize winner, counted dogs in Salinas county California.
      3. There was some other waste, like controlling crickets and building a monkey pen.
  8. New Visibility for Women
    1. After having the right to vote for over 10 years now, women began taking a more active role in things. Leading the way was Eleanor Roosevelt but there were other ladies too.
    2. Frances Perkins was the first female cabinet member as Sec. of Labor.
    3. Mary McLeod Bethune was in charge of the Office of Minority Affairs. She was the highest ranking black in FDR's administration. She later held found a college in Daytona, FL.
    4. Ruth Benedict, an anthropologist, studied cultures as personalities in Patterns of Cultures.
      1. One of her understudies was Margaret Mead. She wrote the landmark anthropology book Coming of Age in Samoa about adolescence in that culture.
    5. Novelist Pearl S. Buck wrote the timeless The Good Earth about a peasant farm family in China. She won the Nobel prize for literature in 1938.
  9. Helping Industry and Labor
    1. The National Recovery Administration (NRA) was the most complex of the New Deal programs. It's goal was to help industry, labor, and the unemployed.
      1. To try and achieve those goals, it set codes of "fair competition." This meant working hours would be spread out to more people. Maximum work hours were set up; minimum wages were set up.
      2. Labor unions were given the right to organize and collectively bargain. Antiunion yellow-dog contracts were forbidden; child-labor was curbed.
    2. Businesses could agree to go along with the NRA's principles. If they did, they displayed the blue NRA eagle and slogan, "We do our part."
      1. There was enthusiasm for the NRA. Philadelphia named their new pro football team the "Eagles." Still, FDR knew the NRA was a gimmick in essence, and temporary, saying, "We can't ballyhoo our way to prosperity."
    3. The NRA soon fell to unpopularity. Businesses, at heart, hate running themselves in any way other than what's best for them (not with artificial restrictions). Henry Ford called the eagle "that damn Roosevelt buzzard."
      1. The final blow came in the 1935 Schechtner case when the Supreme Court declared the NRA unconstitutional.
    4. In the same law as the NRA, Congress had set up the Public Works Administration (PWA). Like the PWA, it sought to build public works and infrastructure.
      1. Headed by Sec. of the Interior Harold Ickes, it started 34,000 projects. Noteworthy was the Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River. It was the biggest human-built structure since the Great Wall of China.
    5. Early on, FDR and the Democrats passed legislation legalizing beer and wine with alcohol not over 3.2%.
      1. The Twenty-first Amendment (1933) repealed the Eighteenth, thus ending the prohibition of alcohol.
  10. Paying Farmers Not to Farm
    1. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) tried to help farmers by creating "artificial scarcity." It paid farmers to not farm, thus reducing the supply.
      1. The AAA's start was shaky. Cotton farmers plowed under already planted crops. Pigs were slaughtered and some of the meat turned to fertilizer. The law seemed cruel and wasteful.
      2. Farm incomes did rise, but farmer unemployment rose too.
      3. The Supreme Court ended the AAA when it declared the AAA unconstitutional in 1936.
    2. Congress passed the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act. It paid farmers to plant crops that preserved and reinvigorated the soil, like soybeans. The Supreme Court went along with this plan.
    3. Second Agricultural Adjustment Act was passed in 1938. Farmers were encouraged to plant less acreage in exchange for payments. Again, it was simply payment to not farm.
  11. Dust Bowls and Black Blizzards
    1. A long drought hit the lower Plains in 1933. The winds kicked up and started the Dust Bowl. The fertile topsoil of many farms simply blew away, mostly in parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Texas.
      1. The causes were drought and wind, but also the "dry-farming" technique where farmers repeatedly plowed the top few inches of soil. It created a powdery layer that simply blew away.
      2. With the farms not unable to grow crops, many people headed west to California in search of farm-jobs. This inspired John Steinbeck's classic novel The Grapes of Wrath about the "Okies" long,tough trip looking for work.
    2. Congress tried to aid debtors with the Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act (1934). It held off mortgage foreclosures for 5 years. However, the Supreme Court struck it down the next year.
    3. The Resettlement Administration (1935) tried to resettle farmers onto better soil.
    4. The CCC boys planted 200 million trees trying to grow windbreaks.
    5. The government's relationship with the Indians was changing again.
      1. John Collier headed the Bureau of Indian Affairs and wanted to change the policies of the old Dawes Act (1887). It had tried to end tribes and the old ways of the Indians—to force Indians to become "white."
      2. Collier's new plan was the Indian Reorganization Act (1934), called the "Indian New Deal", did the opposite of Dawes—it encouraged Indians to keep their traditional ways.
      3. To many Indians, this was a slap in the face too. This "back-to-the-blanket movement" implied Indians were to be like museum artifacts, frozen in the stone age, hunting buffalo and weaving baskets. Almost 200 tribes accepted the Reorganization Act, 77 did not.
  12. Battling Bankers and Big Business
    1. Prior to the stock crash, some businesses had fudged on their financial reports. Investors invested, and lost, partly due to the phony numbers. Congress tried to fix this with the Federal Securities Act (AKA the "Truth in Securities Act"). It required companies to report honest financial numbers.
      1. The Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) was set up as the stock watchdog.
    2. The multi-billion dollar financial empire headed by Chicagoan Samuel Insull crashed in 1932. He held the tip of the pyramid, but headed up the entire rest of the pyramid—when he came down, everything did. Congress passed the Public Utility Holding Company (1935) in hopes of avoiding to such schemes.
  13. The TVA Harnesses the Tennessee River
    1. The electricity industry attracted New Dealers. They felt electricity companies of gouging consumers with high rates. They also wanted to expand electricity to rural areas.
    2. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was set up in 1933 to build a series of dams along the Tennessee River.
      1. This would be a "double-barreled" plan: provide jobs, help with housing via the jobs, provide electricity.
      2. The TVA's area would help improve the lives of some 2.5 million people.
  14. Housing and Social Security
    1. The Federal Housing Authority (FHA) was set up to offer low interest home loans. It was a "double-barreled" program: it got people in homes and put people to work building them.
      1. It was a popular program and outlasted FDR and the New Deal.
    2. The program got a shot-in-the-arm in 1937 with the U.S. Housing Authority (USHA). It lent money to states or localities for construction projects
      1. These laws helped stop the growth of slums.
    3. The Social Security Act (1935) was perhaps the most far-ranging law.
      1. It set up a payment plan for old age, the handicapped, delinquent children, and other dependents.
      2. The payments were funded by taxes placed on workers and employers, then given to the groups above.
      3. Republicans opposed the act saying it was little more than a government-knows-best program with socialist-leaning policies. Worse, taxing one person's work and giving the money to another person seemed to discourage effort and encourage a feeling of entitlement to having someone else pay.
  15. A New Deal for Labor
    1. An epidemic of strikes occurred in 1934. Some were violent. Congress sought to replace the killed NRA and passed the Wagner Act (AKA the National Labor Relations Act) (1935). It guaranteed the right of unions to organize and to collectively bargain with management.
    2. Unskilled workers began to organize. They were usually left out because, being unskilled, they were easily replaced in a strike.
      1. John L. Lewis, head of the United Mine Workers, organized the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) which admitted the unskilled.
      2. The CIO started within the AF of L, but later split out on its own (the AF of L didn't want to weaken itself with the unskilled). The CIO scored a victory in a dispute with General Motors in a "sit-down" strike.
      3. The CIO won again vs. the U.S. Steel Company. Smaller steel companies fought back and bloody strikes ensued, like the Memorial Day massacre in Chicago killing or wounding over 60.
    3. The Fair Labor Standards Act (AKA Wages and Hours Bill) set a minimum wage, maximum working hours, and forbade children under 16 from working.
    4. Unsurprisingly, unions loved FDR. Membership in labor unions began to shoot upward.
  16. Landon Challenges “the Champ”
    1. In 1936, the Republicans nominated Alfred M. Landon, governor of Kansas, as candidate for president.
      1. Landon criticized FDR's massive spending. But, he was hurt with a weak radio voice, a poor campaigner, and the fact that he supported many of the programs that he criticized FDR for spending on.
      2. Some Democrats joined Republicans to form the American Liberty League. It didn't like the "socialist" direction the New Deal was taking America.
    2. But, with FDR's wide popularity, the election was almost a moot point. FDR won 523 to 8 in the electoral vote.
      1. FDR won because he never forgot the "forgotten man."
  17. Nine Old Men on the Bench
    1. FDR was sworn in for his second term on January 29, 1937 (instead of March 4). The Twentieth Amendment had cut the "lame duck" period by six weeks.
    2. The Democrats still controlled Congress and were essentially "yes-men" to FDR, but the Supreme Court was a thorn in FDR's side.
      1. In 1937, FDR proposed increasing the Supreme Court to perhaps 15 justices. This would greatly increase FDR's power (because he'd make the appointments).
    3. Congress was shocked at this little disguised attempt at power-grabbing. Congress didn't want the power see-saw to tip too far toward FDR, and for once, FDR did not get his way. Congress voted no. This was perhaps FDR's first mistake and his first loss.
  18. The Court Changes Course
    1. FDR was widely accused of trying to turn dictator.
    2. Although the "court-packing scheme" was voted down, the Court did begin to sway FDR's way. Formerly conservative Justice Owen j. Roberts started to vote liberal.
      1. For examples, by a 5-to-4 vote, the court upheld minimum wages for women. The court upheld the Wagner Act and the Social Security Act.
    3. So, though not expanding the court's numbers, FDR did get the Supreme Court to go his way. The only bad news for FDR was the suspicion that the court-packing scheme started. Very few New Deal-like bills were passed afterward.
  19. Twilight of the New Deal
    1. Despite the New Deals plethora of spending and programs, the depression did not go away during Roosevelt's first term.
      1. Unemployment went from 25% in 1932 to 15% in 1937, lower, but still very high.
    2. The economy took a second downturn in 1937. The "Roosevelt Recession" was caused the government's policies.
      1. Social Security was cutting into people's take-home pay, and thus, their spending power.
      2. FDR seemed to admit too much spending was risky and cut back on the spending.
    3. Then, FDR changed his mind and went back to heavy spending.
      1. British economist John Maynard Keynes ideas were coming en vogue. Keynesian economics says that it's okay, even good, for governments to engage in "deficit spending" (spending more money than they take in).
    4. Congress went along with more spending and FDR went back to work.
      1. The Reorganization Act gave FDR some authority for administrative reforms, including the new Executive Office in the White House.
    5. The Hatch Act (1939) banned federal officials from political campaigning and soliciting, except for the highest officers. The goal was to clean up campaigning and make sure federal employees weren't turned into just political campaigners.
  20. New Deal or Raw Deal?
    1. New Deal critics saw a ton of spending, a lot of waste, and little accomplished.
    2. FDR was criticized for moving away from American laissez-faire capitalism and moving toward Russian communism/socialism/Marxism.
      1. The debt had been $19 billion in 1932; in 1939, the debt was $40 billion.
      2. The U.S. seemed to be attempting to achieve prosperity without working for it. Fears were that Americans were getting a bad case of the "gimmies" and the U.S. was becoming a "handout state." When times go tough in the 1800's Americans went west, in the 1900's Americans sought handouts.
    3. The New Deal may have helped, but it did not get the U.S. out of the depression. It would take WWII to end the Great Depression.
      1. The war solved unemployment. Massive spending during the war jacked the debt up even higher, to $258 billion.
  21. FDR’s Balance Sheet
    1. FDR's supporters said the New Deal had avoided the Depression from being even worse than it was.
    2. FDR was hated by capitalists due to his taxation policies, but was also dislike by socialists. The New Deal may have actually cut down on socialism by avoiding a more radical turn to the left or right.
      1. In a very tough time, FDR provided considerable change with no revolution. Other nations (Italy, Germany) were taking very radical changes.
    3. Like Thomas Jefferson, though wealthy and of the elite class, FDR always spoke on behalf of the "forgotten man."
    4. Maybe his greatest achievement was yet to come—his leadership during WWII.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 33 - Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War

  1. The London Conference
    1. With the goal of coming up with an international fix to the Great Depression, the London Conference was set up in 1933.
    2. FDR initially planned to send Sec. of State Cordell Hull. Later he changed his mind and reprimanded Europe for trying to stabilize currencies.
    3. Without America's participation, the London Conference got nothing accomplished (like the League of Nations).
      1. More importantly, America's non-participation in the conference solidified U.S. isolationist policies. In war and in the economy, the U.S. would go at it alone.
  2. Freedom for (from?) the Filipinos and Recognition for the Russians
    1. The Philippines had been a headache ever since the U.S. took over the islands. With times hard, Americans were eager to let the Filipinos go.
      1. American sugar growers also wanted to cut free from Filipino sugar.
      2. Congress passed the Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934) that said the Philippines would become independent after 12 years (in 1946).
    2. FDR formally recognized the Soviet Union in 1933.
      1. His move was not popular with many Americans who didn't like acknowledging the communist nation. His motive was hopes of trade with the huge nation and perhaps check the growing power of Germany and Japan.
  3. Becoming a Good Neighbor
    1. In his inaugural address, FDR affirmed America's ambition to be a "Good Neighbor" with Latin America.
    2. At the Pan-American Conference, FDR announced that the U.S. would no longer use military strength in Latin America. He singled out Teddy Roosevelt's "Big Stick Policy" as particularly bad.
      1. The next year, 1934, the last of the U.S. Marines left Haiti. America lessened her influence in Cuba and Panama as well.
    3. Mexico, however, seized American oil properties. This was a test to see if the Good Neighbor policy was the "Push-over Policy."
      1. Oil companies wanted armed intervention. FDR held back and came to a settlement in 1941 (though U.S. oil companies did suffer losses).
    4. All told, the Good Neighbor policy was very successful in improving America's image to Latin America.
  4. Secretary Hull’s Reciprocal Trade Agreement
    1. Sec. of State Cordell Hull believed in low tariffs. He felt low tariffs mean higher trade. He and FDR felt trade was a two-way street. Congress passed the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act which set up low tariff policies.
      1. The act cut down the most offensive parts of the Hawley-Smoot tariff law merely amending them. In some instances, tariff rates were cut in half (provided the other nation did the same).
    2. The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act started to reverse the high-tariff trend and started a low-tariff trend that would dominate the post-WWII period.
  5. Storm-Cellar Isolationism
    1. Post WWI chaos and the Great Depression helped spawn totalitarian regimes (dictatorships with total power), notably Joseph Stalin in the USSR, Benito Mussolini in Italy, and Adolf Hitler in Germany.
      1. In a totalitarian nation, the individual and his or her rights are nothing; the only thing that matters is the state.
      2. Hitler was the most dangerous. He was a fantastic speaker who told the "big lie" often enough that people started believing it. The big lie was that German problems were caused by the Jews and that he could lead Germany back to greatness which ran in their blood.
    2. Germany and Italy linked up when Hitler and Mussolini agreed on the Rome-Berlin Axis (1936).
    3. Japan was becoming a military dictatorship, turning super isolationist, and seeking to create a mighty Japanese empire for their god/emperor. This was a deadly mix.
      1. Like a rebel teen determined to go bad, they ignored the Washington Naval Treaty and rearmed their nation. They walked out of the London Conference and quit the League of Nations.
      2. In 1940, Japan joined Germany and Italy with the Tripartite Pact.
    4. Under Mussolini, more show than substance, Italy attacked and beat Ethiopia in 1935. Fascist nations love prepping for war, fighting, then championing their victories, even if it means beating up on a very poor nation like Ethiopia (they'd fought with spears).
      1. The League of Nations did nothing, not even cutting oil to Italy, and the League died as a nice idea that was powerless.
    5. America simply stayed isolationist. The events were an ocean away, or more, the U.S. had her own problems, and America didn't want to get drawn into Europe's problems like with WWI.
      1. Trying to avoid getting sucked further into foreign problems, Congress passed the Johnson Debt Default Act which forbade countries that owed money to the U.S. from getting any more loans.
  6. Congress Legislates Neutrality
    1. The Nye Committee was set up (1934) to study the idea that munitions producers only helped start wars and thus earn profits. This was one of the ideas as to the causes of WWI.
    2. Determined to not get into a war, Congress passed the Neutrality Acts in 1935, 36, and 37. They said that when the president declared a foreign war existed, certain restrictions would start.
      1. The restrictions were: (1) Americans could not sail on a belligerent (nation-at-war) ship, sell/haul munitions, or make loans to belligerents.
    3. These were clearly to avoid the same mistakes that had occurred at the outset of WWI. WWII, however, would have different circumstances. The U.S. declared absolute neutrality, no matter how hideous one side would be.
  7. America Dooms Loyalist Spain
    1. The Spanish Civil War (1936-39) was a mini-WWII. It saw a fascist government led by Gen. Francisco Franco fight a republican democratic government.
      1. Naturally, the U.S. wanted the republican government to win. But, isolationism ruling, the U.S. offered no help. It was their war. America did start an oil embargo.
      2. Italy and Germany did help Franco. Knowing he'd soon put them to use, Hitler used the Spanish Civil War as a testing ground for his tanks and planes. Franco and the fascists won and this helped embolden the dictators, especially Hitler.
    2. Though neutral, America didn't build up her military for defense. America actually let the navy get weaker.
      1. Congress passed a law to build up the navy in 1938, very late in the game and only one year before WWII broke open.
  8. Appeasing Japan and Germany This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Japan invaded China in 1937. FDR did not name the action a war, however, so the Neutrality Acts were not invoked and both China and Japan could still buy American war-stuffs.
    2. In 1937, FDR gave his “Quarantine Speech." In it he asked for America to quarantine the aggressors (Italy and Japan) and to morally side against them.
      1. This was a step away from isolationism. When isolationists complained, FDR backed off a bit in his words.
    3. Japan went at it again when they bombed and sank the American gunboat the Panay. Two were killed, 30 wounded—possible grounds for war.
      1. Japan apologized, paid an indemnity, and the situation cooled.
      2. Americans in China, however, were jailed and beaten as the Japanese took out anti-American frustrations.
      3. The "Panay Incident" further supported American isolationism.
    4. Back in Europe, Hitler was taking increasingly bold steps.
      1. He broke the Treaty of Versailles by (1) making military service mandatory and (2) marching troops into the Rhineland region by France. Britain and France watched, but did nothing.
      2. Drunk on Hitler's book Mein Kampf about a German "master race", Nazi Germany began persecuting the Jews.
        1. Persecution started out with restrictions on Jews, then corralling into "ghettos", then relocation into labor camps, then to death camps to carry out the "final solution."
        2. All told, about 6 million Jews were killed in the Holocaust, about 11 million people total.
      3. Hitler kept up his march by taking his birth nation of Austria in 1938.
      4. Next he declared he wanted the Sudetenland, a section of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans.
        1. At each step, Hitler said this would be his last. Naively, Britain and France were eager to appease (give in) to Hitler.
        2. At the Munich Conference (Sept. 1938) British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain fell victim to Hitler's lies. Chamberlain agreed to let Hitler have the Sudetenland.
        3. Chamberlain returned and gave his infamous claim that he’d achieved “peace in our time.” True, but it proved to be a very short time.
        4. Hitler broke his promise and took over all of Czechoslovakia in March of 1939.
  9. Hitler’s Belligerency and U.S. Neutrality
    1. The world was stunned on Aug. 23, 1939 when Russia and Germany signed the Russo-German Nonaggression Pact. In it, Stalin and Hitler promised to not fight one another. (Believing Hitler was becoming foolish and Russia got suckered here—Hitler would later break this pact.)
      1. Without having to fear a two-front war like in WWI, the nonaggression pact opened the door for Germany attack Poland.
      2. Still, little was done to halt Hitler. Britain and France did finally draw one last line-in-the-sand, saying that if Poland was taken, war would start.
    2. Hitler attacked Poland anyway on September 1, 1939, and overran the nation in only two weeks. Britain and France did declare war and WWII had begun.
    3. America rooted for Britain and France, but was committed to neutrality.
      1. The Neutrality Acts were invoked which cut supplies to belligerents. Wanting to help Britain and France, FDR and Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1939 which said the U.S. would sell war materials on a "cash-and-carry" basis.
        1. Cash-and-carry meant no credit and no U.S. ships hauled the stuff.
        2. Though technically open to Germany too, the British and French navies could keep the Germans away.
        3. The U.S. improved her moral standing with the law, but also made some bucks.
  10. The Fall of France
    1. When Poland was fully under German power, there was a pause in the war as Hitler moved troops and supplies to the west for an attack on France.
      1. The only action was when the USSR attacked Finland. The U.S. gave Finland $30 million for nonmilitary supplies; Finland lost to Russia.
    2. The so-called "phony war" ended when Hitler suddenly (April 1940) attacked and conquered Denmark and Norway, then the Netherlands and Belgium.
      1. The Germans used blitzkrieg ("lightning warfare") and hit with planes, tanks and ground troops very fast.
    3. The attack on France came very quickly and surrender came quickly, by late June of 1940.
      1. Mussolini attacked France while she was down to get some of the booty.
      2. The only good news was a miraculous evacuation at Dunkirk. Pinned against the English Channel, a waters suddenly settled to an unusual calm and small boats were able to cross the channel and evacuate the troops.
    4. Americans how realized Britain was now the only major European country left standing between the U.S. and Nazi Germany.
      1. FDR called for America to build up the military. Congress appropriated $37 billion, a huge number.
      2. A conscription law was passed—America's first peacetime draft. It would train 1.2 million troops yearly and 800,000 reserves.
    5. There was concern that Germany may take the orphaned Dutch, Danish, and French colonies in Latin America. At the Havana Conference, it was agreed that the Europe-stay-away policy of the Monroe Doctrine would be shared by 21 American countries.
  11. Refugees from the Holocaust
    1. Adolf Hitler stirred up the old feelings of anti-Semitism (hatred of Jews).
      1. Old violence against Jews began to reemerge in the early 1900's Germany.
      2. The most infamous was Kristallnacht or "night of broken glass."
        1. Joseph Goebbels, master of Nazi propaganda, stirred up the German people into action.
        2. Mobs raided and destroyed Jewish homes and businesses. At least 91 Jews were killed.
    2. Many Jews tried to escape.
      1. Due to immigration restrictions, only a few Jews were allowed into the U.S. Perhaps most notable was Albert Einstein, the brilliant physicist and mathematician.
      2. The vast majority of Jews were not admitted into the U.S.
        1. In one sad case, 937 Jewish passengers boarded the St. Louis and sailed to Havana, Cuba. They were not welcome.
        2. They went to Miami and FDR seemed to open his arms, but Sec. of State Cordell Hull convinced him to not allow the immigrants.
        3. In the end, they returned to various European nations and ultimately felt the wrath of Nazi Germany during WWII.
    3. As reports of a Jewish holocaust began to trickle in, FDR started the War Refugee Board. It saved thousands of Hungarians from the Auschwitz death camp.
    4. By the end of WWII, 6 million Jews had been killed in the Holocaust.
  12. Bolstering Britain
    1. Britain was next on Hitler's list. To attack Britain, Hitler first needed air superiority. He began bombing, but the British Royal Air Force fought back and halted Germany in the world's first all-air war, the Battle of Britain.
    2. In America, two voices spoke to FDR on whether the U.S. should get involved:
      1. Isolationists set up the America First Committee. Charles Lindbergh was a member.
      2. Interventionists set up the Committee to Defend the Allies.
    3. Both sides campaigned their positions; FDR chose a middle route at this time.
      1. In the Destroyer Deal (1940), America transferred 50 old destroyers from WWI days to Britain. In return, the U.S. got eight defensive bases in the Americas, from Newfoundland down to South America.
      2. The pattern (Quarantine speech, Neutrality Acts, cash-and-carry, Destroyer Deal) showed the U.S. was clearly taking steps from isolation toward intervention.
  13. Shattering the Two-Term Tradition (1940)
    1. 1940 was also an election year. Wendell L. Willkie came out of nowhere to capture the Republican nomination. Franklin Roosevelt set aside the two-term tradition, and was nominated for a third term.
      1. Willkie criticized some of the New Deal mishandlings, but the New Deal was not the big issue anymore, the war was. On foreign affairs, there wasn't much difference between the candidates. Willkie's main point of attack was the two-term tradition which was around since George Washington.
      2. FDR's camp came back with, "Better a third term a third-rater" and Lincoln's old adage to not change horses midstream was still strong. FDR also promised to not send "boys" to "any foreign war" (which haunted him).
    2. FDR won big again, 449 to 82.
  14. A Landmark Lend-Lease Law
    1. Britain needed money. FDR wanted to help, but also didn't want another WWI-like debt mess. FDR's solution would be to simply loan weapons and ships to the British. They can use them, them return them.
      1. Senator Taft countered lending tanks would be like lending chewing gum—you don't want it back afterward.
    2. The Lend-Lease Bill passed and the U.S. would become the "arsenal of democracy." By 1945, America had sent about $50 billion worth of arms and material to the Allies.
    3. Lend-Lease marked an almost official abandonment of isolation. Everyone realized this, from Mainstreet America to Adolf Hitler. Germany had avoided American ships 'til this point. On May 21, 1941, a German sub destroyed an American ship, the Robin Moor.
  15. Charting a New World
    1. In June of 1941, Hitler broke his pact with Russia and invaded the USSR. Neither trusted the other, so Hitler moved to double-cross Stalin first. This was great news for the democracies. Now those two could beat up on one another.
    2. The thinking was that the Germans would quickly defeat the Russians.
      1. FDR sent $1 billion to Russia to help defend Moscow. Germany made quick and early gains, but the red army slowed the Nazis until the winter set in. The Germans literally froze at the gates of Moscow.
    3. The Atlantic Conference (Aug 1941) saw Winston Churchill of England meet with FDR in Newfoundland.
    4. The Atlantic Charter was formed at the meeting and was later okayed by the Soviet Union. Oddly with the U.S. not even in the war, the Charter set up goals for after the war was won. The main points of the Charter were reflective of Wilson's Fourteen Points of WWI…
      1. There would be no territorial or government changes without the people's vote (self-determination).
      2. Disarmament would be sought.
      3. A new peace-keeping organization, like the League of Nations, would be set up.
    5. Isolationists criticized the Atlantic Conference and Charter. They simply failed to see that the U.S. was no neutral anymore.
  16. U.S. Destroyers and Hitler’s U-Boats Clash
    1. Sending war materials to Britain would be risky with German sub "wolfpacks" prowling around. FDR concluded that a convoy system would be used—merchant ships would be escorted by U.S. warships to Iceland. Then the British would take over the escorting.
    2. Incidents happened, including German attacks on the American destroyer Greer. FDR declared a shoot-on-sight policy.
      1. The American Kearny saw 11 men killed and was damaged.
      2. The destroyer Reuben James was torpedoed and sunk off of Iceland, killing over 100 Americans.
      3. In November of 1941, Congress stopped pretending and pulled the plug on the outdated Neutrality Act of 1939. Merchant ships could arm and enter combat zones.
  17. Surprise Assault at Pearl Harbor
    1. Meanwhile, Japan was marching toward their vision of an empire of the rising sun. They were still beating the Chinese.
    2. In protest of Japan's actions in China, the U.S. put an embargo on Japan. The main blow was cutting off oil, which Japan needed for its sprawling empire. Japan's solution was to attack.
    3. American code-breakers knew the Japanese were up to some no-good. The best thinking was that Japan would attack British Malaya or the Philippines.
      1. Japan certainly wouldn't try to hit Hawaii, maybe a sneak sabotage attack, but nothing foolish like an all-out attack.
    4. An all-out attack on Hawaii is what came. The attack on Pearl Harbor was one of the most surprising in history.
      1. The attack came in the morning of December 7, 1941 (FDR's "date which will live in infamy"). Japanese bombers caught the Americans sleepy.
      2. Several ships were sunk or damaged including the U.S.S. Arizona. 3,000 Americans were killed or wounded.
      3. The only good news was that the American aircraft carriers were out at sea. If they'd been destroyed, the American naval situation would've been hopeless.
    5. On December 8, the United States declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S. and the U.S. declared war right back. War was now official.
  18. America’s Transformation from Bystander to Belligerent
    1. Pearl Harbor galvanized the will of America. On December 8, 1941, there was no disagreement on isolationism.
    2. America had been riding a teeter-totter for several years: wanting to stop Germany and Japan, but wanting to do it from a convenient distance. Those days were over.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 34 - America in World War II

  1. The Allies Trade Space for Time
    1. Pearl Harbor jarred many Americans' minds out of isolationism and into revenge-on-Japan mode. This was especially true on the west coast where there was only water between the U.S. and the Japanese fleet.
    2. FDR held back the reins against Japan, however, and vowed to "get Germany first." Many folks were upset at putting Japan second on the list, but Germany was the more pressing problem.
    3. The plan was to absolutely not let Britain fall to Germany and meanwhile send just enough effort to hold Japan at bay for the time being.
      1. The problem was preparedness. To execute this plan, the U.S. needed time to gear up for war.
      2. The task was monumental: to change industry for a total war, organize a massive military, ship everything in two directions across the world, and feed the Allies.
  2. The Shock of War
    1. National unity was strong after the Pearl Harbor attack.
    2. There were no ethnic witch-hunts, with the glaring exception of Japanese-Americans.
      1. Mostly living on the west coast, Japanese-Americans were rounded up and sent to internment camps.
      2. The official reasoning was to protect them from rogues on the streets who may want to take out their Pearl Harbor frustrations on them.
      3. The ulterior motive was that there was distrust. Some believed the Japanese-Americans were more loyal to Japan than the U.S. and were really spies. This was untrue.
      4. Though jailed without due process of law, the Supreme Court upheld the internment camps in the Korematsu v. U.S. case.
        1. Notably, in 1988, the government apologized and offered reparations of $20,000 to each camp survivor.
    3. Many New Deal programs were ended as the war began. Now, all jobs would be war jobs.
    4. Unlike WWI, WWII was not made out to be an idealistic crusade. It was just the dirty work of defeating the bad guys.
  3. Building the War Machine
    1. The Great Depression ended when huge orders for the war effort came in. More than $100 billion was ordered in 1942.
    2. Henry J. Kaiser was nicknamed "Sir Launchalot" because his crews could build an entire ship in only 14 days.
    3. The War Production Board took control of industry. It halted production of non-essential items like passenger cars.
      1. Rubber was a much-needed item because Japan had overtaken the rubber tree fields of British Malaya. Gasoline was rationed to help save tires.
    4. Agricultural production was incredible. Though many farm boys went to war, new equipment and fertilizers yielded record harvests.
    5. Prices rose, however. The Office of Price Administration regulated prices.
      1. Critical items were rationed to keep consumption down, like meat and butter.
      2. The War Labor Board set ceilings on wages (lower wages means lower prices).
    6. Though they hated the wage regulations, labor unions promised to not strike during the war. Some did anyway, like the United Mine Workers led by John L. Lewis.
      1. Congress passed the Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act (1943) giving the federal government the authority to seize and run industries crippled by strikes. The government took over the coal mines and railroads, briefly.
      2. All-in-all, strikes were minimal during the war.
  4. Manpower and Womanpower
    1. There were some 15 million men and 216,000 women in the military during WWII.
      1. The most famous women were the WAACS (in the Army), the WAVES (Navy), and the SPARS (Coast Guard).
    2. Since most able-bodied men were off at war, industry needed workers.
      1. The bracero program brought workers from Mexico to harvest crops. The program was successful and stayed on about 20 years after the war.
      2. Women stepped up and took the war jobs. For many women, this was the first "real job" outside of the home. Almost certainly, this was the first job for women in industry—women built planes, artillery shells, tanks, everything.
        1. The symbol for women-workers was "Rosie the Riveter" with her sleeves rolled up and rivet gun in hand.
        2. Without question, the war opened things up for women in the workplace. Women "proved themselves" and gained respect.
        3. But, after the war most women (about 2/3) left the workplace. A post-war baby boom resulted when the boys got home from war. Most women returned to their other "job" of being homemakers and mothers.
  5. Wartime Migrations
    1. As during the Depression, the war forced people to move around the country.
    2. FDR had long been determined to help the economically-hurting South. He funneled money southward in defense contracts. This would plant the seeds of the "Sunbelt's" boom after the war.
    3. African-Americans moved out of the South in large numbers, usually heading Northern cities, but also to the West.
      1. Black leader A. Philip Randolph prepared a "Negro March on Washington" to clamor for more blacks in defense jobs and military. FDR responded by banning discrimination in defense industries.
      2. FDR also set up the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) to serve as a watchdog over the discrimination ban.
      3. Blacks served in segregated units in the military.
        1. Aside from the segregation, there was discrimination such as separate blood banks for each race, and often the roles of blacks were more menial such as cooks, truck drivers, etc.
        2. Generally, however, the war and the efforts of Blacks encouraged African-Americans to strive for equality. The slogan was the "Double V"—victory overseas vs. dictators and victory at home vs. racism.
      4. Black organizations increased in membership. The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) neared the half-million mark and CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) was founded.
      5. The mechanical cotton picker was invented. This freed blacks from the age-old cotton picking job—another reason many moved.
    4. Native Americans also fought in the war in large numbers.
      1. Famously, Navajo and Comanche Indians were "code talkers." They traded messages using their traditional language. Their "codes" were never broken.
    5. All the moving around mixed people who weren't accustomed to it, and there were some clashes. For example, some white sailors attacked some Mexican and Mexican-Americans in L.A. in 1943. Also, 25 blacks and 9 whites were killed in a Detroit race riot.
  6. Holding the Home Front This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. The United States entered WWII still in the Depression. The U.S. came out of WWII very prosperous (the only nation to do so).
      1. GNP (Gross National Product) had doubled. Corporate profits doubled too.
      2. Disposable income (money left to spend) also doubled. Inflation would suit and rise as well.
    2. Despite all of the New Deal programs, it was the production for WWII that ended the Great Depression.
      1. The war's cost was assessed at $330 billion (ten times WWI).
      2. To help pay for the war, four times more people were required to pay income taxes. Most of the payments, however, were on credit. This meant the national debt shot up from $49 to $259 billion.
  7. The Rising Sun in the Pacific
    1. Japan began to take action on its dream of a new empire—the land of the rising sun. The Japanese took island after island, including: Guam, Wake Island, the Philippines, Hong Kong, British Malaya, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, and much of coastal China.
    2. The Philippines had been embarrassing for the U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur had to sneak away. The general made a pledge, however, to return.
      1. After the U.S. lost in the Philippines, the Japanese made the captured soldiers hike the infamous "Bataan Death March"—85 miles where, if you stumbled, you died.
      2. The U.S. finally gave up and surrendered Corregidor, an island/fort in Manila Harbor.
  8. Japan’s High Tide at Midway
    1. The first big U.S.-Japan naval battle was the Battle of Coral Sea. It was the world’s first naval battle where the ships never saw one another (they fought with aircraft via carriers). Both sides had heavy losses.
    2. Intercepted messages hinted at an attack on Midway Island. American Adm. Chester Nimitz correctly sent the U.S. fleet and the Battle of Midway (June 1942) followed. Instead of being surprised, the U.S. gave the surprise.
      1. Adm. Raymond Spruance was the the admiral on the water. Midway was a rout for the U.S. as four Japanese aircraft carriers were sunk.
      2. Midway proved to be the turning point in the Pacific war, the place where Japanese expansion was halted.
    3. Japan did capture the islands of Kiska and Attu in the Aleutian chain of Alaska. The islands are home to a few hundred native Aleuts, snow, and rocks, but the mere idea the Japanese taking American soil hit hard. The northwestern states feared an invasion.
      1. The "Alcan" Highway was built from Alaska, through Canada, to the continental states to help protect Alaska.
  9. American Leapfrogging Toward Tokyo
    1. Japan's expansion halted, America then began "island-hopping" toward Japan. The plan was to not attack the stronghold, take the weaker islands and build airbases on them. The stronger islands would be taken by bombing and strangling of resources.
    2. There would be two main thrusts: in the south led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur and in the central Pacific led by Adm. Chester Nimitz.
      1. Island-hopping began in the south Pacific with victories at Guadalcanal (Aug. 1942). This southern strike reached New Guinea in August of 1944. MacArthur was working his way back to the Philippines.
      2. Northward, Tarawa and Makin in the Gilbert Islands were captured. Next, the Marshall Island chain was won.
        1. The "Marianas Turkey Shoot" was an American highlight where American "Hellcat" fighters had their way in the air shooting down 250 enemy planes. The Marianas Islands also were close enough so that B-29 bombers could strike Japan and return (if the winds were favorable).
        2. This would later be the take-off point for the atomic bomb planes.
    3. Though island-hopping made steady progress, it was slow, hard-fought, and bloody.
      1. American sailors shelled the beachheads with artillery, U.S. Marines stormed ashore (while the navy shelled over their heads), and American bombers attacked the Japanese. Heroism and self-sacrifice were common.
      2. One example was when Lt. Robert J. Albert piloted a B-24 “Liberator” on 36 missions. His final run was a record 18 hour and 25 minute strike. His tour of duty was complete, but his crew's was not. He volunteered to pilot the flight so that his men would not fly behind a rookie pilot.
  10. The Allied Halting of Hitler
    1. As with the Pacific, progress in Europe has slow at first. History has shown the American war machine slow to get going, but awesome when it is going.
    2. German u-boats were proving to be very effective. The German "enigma code" was broken thanks to spies' actions and lives sacrificed to get an enigma machine to decode messages. These messages helped locate German u-boat wolfpacks.
    3. The Battle of the Atlantic, the war for control of the ocean, went on until 1943 when the Allies gained control.
      1. The win over the seas was a close one. It was learned after the war that the amazing German engineers were nearing completion of a sub that could stay submerged indefinitely and cruise at 17 knots.
    4. 1942 was the turning point year in Europe (like Midway in '42 in the Pacific).
      1. The British bombed the Germans in Cologne, France. American B-17's bombed Germany itself.
      2. German Gen. Erwin Rommel (nicknamed the "Desert Fox" because he was clever with maneuvers) was having great success in North Africa. He was almost to the Suez Canal in Egypt—taking the canal would link the Mediterranean Sea (Italy and Germany) with the Indian and Pacific Oceans (Japan).
        1. However, Brit. Gen. Bernard Montgomery, at the Battle of El Alamein (Oct. 1942) stopped the Germans. From there, Germany would be pushed back.
      3. The Russians also stopped the Germans at Stalingrad (Sep. 1942). A month later, Russia began pushing back and recaptured 2/3 of their lost land in one year.
  11. A Second Front from North Africa to Rome
    1. Some 20 million Russians would die by the end of the war so the Soviet Union wanted the allies to start a second front against Germany and ease Russia's burden.
      1. Britain and the U.S. wanted this, but had different views. America wanted to ram straight at the Nazis through France.
      2. Britain wanted to lure the war away from England. Winston Churchill suggested they hit Germany's "soft underbelly", meaning up from North Africa and through Italy.
    2. The soft underbelly approach was decided upon.
      1. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower led an attack on North Africa (Nov. 1942). The Allies pushed the Germans out of Africa by May 1943.
    3. The Roosevelt and Churchill met at the Casablanca Conference to flesh out plans (Jan. 1943). They agreed to seek the "unconditional surrender" of Germany.
    4. The soft underbelly attack continued.
      1. The Allies leapfrogged to Sicily. Mussolini was overthrown (and later murdered) at about the same time and Italy surrendered (Sept. 1943). German soldiers were still in Italy, however, and they were determined to keep fighting.
      2. The Allies then moved to the lower portion of the Italian boot, then started edging northward. By this time, it was clear that the soft underbelly really wasn't very soft.
        1. The German were dug in at Monte Cassino. After taking a beachhead at Anzio, the Allies finally took Rome on June 4, 1944.
        2. The Allied thrust essentially bogged down and stalled at this point, roughly half way up the Italian peninsula. The D-Day invasion would make the Italian assault a mere diversion.
    5. The soft underbelly attack had mixed results. The good: it drew some of Hitler's men and supplies and it did defeat Italy. The bad: it delayed the D-Day invasion and gave Russia extra time to draw farther into Eastern Europe.
  12. D-Day: June 6, 1944
    1. Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin met at the Tehran Conference (Nov.-Dec. 1943) to formulate goals and coordinate attacks.
    2. The groundwork was laid for a massive assault across the English channel (eventual D-Day invasion).
      1. Gen. Eisenhower was placed in charge of the assault.
      2. The attack would take place on the beaches of Normandy on the French coast. The Germans had guessed the sure-to-come attack would be at Calais because that's the narrowest point of the channel. The Allies offered fakes and bluffs there to confuse the enemy.
    3. The D-Day Invasion began on June 6, 1944. It was the largest amphibious assault in history.
      1. The Allies had to cross the channel, wade ashore, cross the wide beach, scale 100 foot bluffs, and overtake German bunkers—while being shot at by machine guns and artillery. The Allies did it.
      2. After gaining a toehold at Normandy, the Allies began spreading out. Gen. George S. Patton led U.S. troops across the French countryside.
      3. Paris was liberated in August of 1944—a major morale boost for the Allies.
  13. FDR: The Fourth-Termite of 1944
    1. Despite the ongoing war in 1944, an election year came again. The Republican party nominated Thomas E. Dewey. He was known as a liberal and attacker of corruption.
    2. The Democrats nominated FDR for a fourth term. There was no other viable choice for the party.
      1. The real question was who'd be the vice-presidential candidate. The nomination was made for Harry S Truman who was largely without enemies.
  14. Roosevelt Defeats Dewey
    1. Dewey campaigned hard against Roosevelt. He attacked "twelve long years" and emphasized it was "time for a change."
    2. FDR didn't campaign much until election day neared.
      1. Roosevelt got a lot of financial help from the CIO's new political action committee (PAC). The PAC was set up to avoid a ban on using union money for politics.
    3. FDR won the election in a big way, again. The electoral vote was 432 to 99. The main reason that he won was that the war was moving along well at this point.
  15. The Last Days of Hitler
    1. The Nazi army was on the retreat at this point. Hitler made one last big push at the Ardenne Forest. The Americans were surprised and pushed back; the result was a bulge in the battle line.
      1. The Americans held on at Bastogne. Germany asked for a surrender but Gen. A.C. McCauliffe answered, "Nuts."
      2. Reinforcements came and the U.S. won the Battle of the Bulge. From there, steady progress was made toward Berlin. Russia was simultaneously converging on Berlin.
    2. Along the way, the Allies discovered the horrors of the Holocaust.
      1. There had been rumors of such goings-on, but it was believed they were either untrue or exaggerated. They were not—the Holocaust was worse than imagined.
      2. The death camps, still stinking, made the horrors clear. Eisenhower forced German civilians to march through the camps after the war to see what they're government had done.
    3. The Russians reached Germany first. Hitler killed himself in a bunker (Apr. 1945), along with his mistress-turned-wife Eva Braun.
    4. Only two weeks prior, while vacationing at Warm Springs, GA, Franklin Roosevelt suddenly died. Truman became president.
    5. The German officials surrendered on May 7; May 8, 1945 was named V-E Day (Victory in Europe). The celebration began.
  16. Japan Dies Hard
    1. The war with Japan was still on.
      1. American subs were devastating Japanese merchant ships—1,042 were destroyed.
      2. American bombers were devastating Japanese cities. In a two-day fire-bomb raid on Tokyo in March of 1945, the destruction was: 250,000 buildings, 1/4 of the city, and 83,000 lives. This was about the equivalent of the atomic bombs that were to come.
    2. Gen. MacArthur was determined to return to the Philippines where he'd been booted.
      1. After retaking New Guinea, MacArthur made his Filipino return in October, 1944.
      2. Hard naval fighting followed at Leyte Gulf. The U.S. won, although Adm. William Halsey was suckered into a feint. Leyte Gulf was the last huge battle in the Pacific—Japan's navy was all but destroyed at this point.
      3. MacArthur then took Luzon and finally captured the capital city of Manila (Mar. 1945).
    3. The same month, the small island of Iwo Jima was captured by America in some of the toughest fighting yet. It was strategically located halfway between the Marianas Islands and Japan. Thus, it provided an important airstrip.
      1. The famous flag-raising photo was snapped atop Mt. Suribachi while the fighting still raged.
    4. Okinawa was the next target. It was the last island before the Japanese mainlands. Okinawa was taken (June 1945) after 50,000 American casualties.
      1. In a last-ditch effort, Japan unleashed the full fury of their "kamikaze" suicide pilots. Likening themselves to the samurai warriors of old the kamikazes felt they were dying for their god-emperor.
  17. The Atomic Bombs
    1. Rookie Pres. Harry Truman met with Stalin and British officials at the Potsdam Conference (July 1945). The final statement to Japan was: surrender or be destroyed.
    2. Meanwhile, the U.S. had been working on a super-secret project all along: to build the atomic bomb.
      1. Early on, many German scientists had fled Nazi Germany, notably Albert Einstein. In 1940, with FDR's blessing, these scientists started working on the bomb.
      2. FDR had gotten Congress to approve the money in fear that Germany may well develop the bomb first. The Manhattan Project secretly developed and built the world's first atomic bomb. It was tested in Alamogordo, NM (July 1945) and was ready for use.
    3. Still belligerent, the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan (Aug. 6, 1945). 70,000 died instantly, 180,000 total casualties.
    4. On Aug. 8, Russia entered the war against Japan and attacked Manchuria.
    5. On Aug. 9, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. 80,000 were killed or missing. That's was it.
    6. Japan surrendered on Aug. 19, 1945. The Japanese emperor was aloud to stay on the throne as a symbolic gesture.
      1. The official and ceremonial surrender came a few weeks later aboard the U.S.S. Missouri. Gen. MacArthur accepted the surrender from Emperor Hirohito.
  18. The Allies Triumphant
    1. One million casualties was the American cost of WWII. But, despite the sacrifices, America came out of the war tougher and stronger-than-ever, whereas other nations came out of the war beaten down.
      1. The casualty number was incredibly large, but actually small as compared to other nations. The numbers were kept down in part due to new drugs, particularly penicillin.
      2. The American homeland was almost entirely untouched (again, unlike other nations were in rubble).
    2. Though slow-starting, America had run the war well. It was a huge undertaking, but had been undertaken in a systematic and effective manner.
      1. The U.S. had been blessed with great leaders during the war, civilian and military.
      2. Another major factor contributing to victory was America's incredible resources and industry.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 35 - The Cold War Begins

  1. Postwar Economic Anxieties
    1. Many feared a return to the Great Depression or at least a post-war recession.
      1. When the war time price controls ended, inflation did increase significantly.
    2. Labor unions had made steady gains during the Depression and the war. With the economy now strong, the pendulum now swung back against unions.
      1. Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act. It banned "closed shops" (closed to anyone not joining the union). It also made unions liable for certain damages and that union leaders take a non-communist oath. Opposite of the Wagner Act of the New Deal, Taft-Hartley weakened labor unions.
      2. Unions tried to move into the South and the West, in the CIO's "Operation Dixie." This was unsuccessful.
        1. Two factors caused the failure: (1) Workers in the South and West were generally not factory workers but were scattered around and thus not easily unionized, and (2) these areas had a longtime value on individual freedom and hard work, and thus a disdain for labor unions which focused on group action to yield more pay with lower hours.
    3. The government took steps to ward off any slow-down in the economy.
      1. War factories and government facilities were sold to businesses at rock bottom prices.
      2. The Employment Act (1946) got the government to "promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power."
      3. The Council of Economic Advisors were to give the president solid data to make solid decisions.
    4. The Servicemen's Readjustment Act (1944) was better known at the GI Bill of Rights. It sent 8 million former soldiers to vocational schools and colleges.
  2. The Long Economic Boom, 1950-1970
    1. The economy held its ground through the late 40's. By 1950, the economy began to skyrocket. America pushed toward, and reached, a new age of prosperity.
      1. By 1960, America's national income nearly doubled, then nearly doubled again by 1970. By 1973, Americans made up 6% of the world's population and held 40% of the money.
    2. The middle class was the big winner during these years. The class doubled in size and they expanded their ambitions: two cars in the garage, and a pool out back, and whatever else can be thrown in.
    3. Women benefited from the good times as well. Many women found jobs in new offices and shops. Women were 25% of the workforce at war's end, about 50% five years later.
      1. The traditional roles of women at home was still glorified in popular media. A clash was being set up between women at work and women at home.
  3. The Roots of Postwar Prosperity
    1. The postwar economic boom had several causes and propellants…
      1. The war's massive production jump-started the entire economy.
      2. Post-war military projects kept the "military-industrial complex" in business.
        1. There were tons of jobs in military-related areas, such as aerospace, plastics, electronics, and "R and D" (research and development).
      3. Energy was cheap and plentiful. High car sales reflected the cheap gas. A strong infrastructure of power lines, gas lines helped feed homes and businesses.
      4. Worker production increased. More Americans went to and stayed in school. Increased education meant increased standard of living.
    2. Farms changed and turned toward big-businesses and away from family farms. Machinery costs fueled this change. Former farmers left for other jobs. Still, with new equipment and better hybrids and fertilizers, food production increased.
  4. The Smiling Sunbelt
    1. Many babies arrived in the baby boom and many families had moved around the country. Unable to just ask her mother what-to-do question, many new moms turned to Dr. Benjamin Spock's how-to The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care. It was a huge seller.
    2. The Sunbelt, from California to Florida, began a boom of its own.
      1. There was a shift-of-power from the old Northeast and Midwest to the new South and West—from the Frostbelt and Rustbelt to the Sunbelt.
        1. Symbolizing this shift, California became the most populous state in the 50's, passing New York.
      2. Immigration helped increase the Sunbelt's population.
      3. Many of the government's new military facilities were built in the Sunbelt. Good-paying jobs came with them.
      4. A political battle was shaping up. By 1990, the Sunbelt received $125 billion more federal money than the northern areas. And, with their populations increased, more Congressional and presidential votes had moved down to the Sunbelt states.
  5. The Rush to the Suburbs
    1. After the war, whites abandoned the inner-cities and moved out to the grass and trees of the suburbs.
      1. Cheap home loans offered by the FHA and the Veteran's Administration made buying a home more sensible than renting an apartment in town.
      2. 25% of Americans lived in the suburbs by 1960.
    2. The best example of a post-war suburb was Levittown on Long Island.
      1. The Levitt brothers perfected the "cookie cutter" house. They were identical but also very affordable.
      2. Despite their monotony, many in the 50's actually preferred the standardization, conformity, and comfort-factor the houses gave. It was like the McDonald's theory (which also started and boomed at the time)—no matter which McDonald's you go in, you always get the same burger.
    3. This so-called "white flight" left blacks in the inner-cities, and left the cities poor.
      1. Symbolic of this movement would be the growth of shopping centers and Wal-Marts and the the "closed" signs on downtown shops.
      2. Blacks often had a hard time getting loans, even from government agencies, due to the "risk" involved. Thus, whites were able to move to the suburbs, blacks were not.
  6. The Postwar Baby Boom This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. When the soldiers returned from war, the baby boom began. The birthrate peaked in 1957. It then slowed and started a "birth dearth."
    2. The baby boom generation has had a huge impact on America.
      1. While they grew up, entire industries rode their wave. For example in clothing, Levi's jeans went from work pants to standard teenage wear; burger joints boomed; music changed (rock 'n' roll).
      2. Prior, children and adolescents were expected to dress and act like small adults. By the 50's, youth dressed and acted their own way and did their own thing.
    3. The baby boom, and later birth dearth, created a swell and then a narrowing, in the population of generations. Simply put, the baby boomers far outnumber other generations.
      1. By 2020, when most baby boomers are retired, it is projected that the Social Security system will go broke.
  7. Truman: the “Gutty” Man from Missouri
    1. Harry S Truman was at the helm just after WWII. He had a big smile, was a sharp dresser, and a small but very spunky fellow. He was the first president in many years without a college education.
      1. Truman was called "The Man from Independence" (Missouri). His cabinet was made of the "Missouri gang", and like Harding of the 20's, Truman was prone to stick by his boys when they got caught in some wrong-doings.
      2. Truman gained confidence as he went along. He also earned the nickname of "Give 'em Hell Harry." He also a bit prone to making hot-headed or rash decisions, or sticking with a bad decision out of stubbornness.
    2. Despite little drawbacks, Truman was decisive, "real", responsible, had moxie. He loved the sayings "The buck stops here," and "If you can't stand the heat, get out of the kitchen."
  8. Yalta: Bargain or Betrayal?
    1. The Big Three (Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin) had met at the Yalta Conference in Feb. 1945 (there last meeting). That meeting shaped the Cold War to come. It was highlighted by distrust between the U.S./Britain and the Soviet Union.
      1. FDR and Churchill did not trust Russia's ambitions for the post-war, ditto Russia the other way.
    2. Promises were made…
      1. Russia promised to enter the war against Japan. In return, Russia would get land—1/2 of Sakhalin Island, Japan's Kurile Islands, railroads in Manchuria, and Port Arthur on the Pacific.
        1. This promise was kept. However, by the time Russia entered, the U.S. had all but won. It appeared Russia entered to just look good and accept the spoils of victory.
      2. Russia pledged free elections for Poland and a representative government; also elections in Bulgaria and Romania. These promises were flatly broken. The Soviets set up puppet communist governments.
    3. FDR was roundly criticized for doing poorly at the Yalta Conference.
      1. Promises had been accepted from Stalin only to be broken.
      2. China fell to the communists a few years later (1948) and FDR got some of the blame for selling out Chiang Kai-Shek and China to communist Russia.
    4. Defenders of FDR say he did what he could in the circumstances. If he'd not bargained with Stalin over Japan, the Soviets may have even taken more of China.
  9. The United States and the Soviet Union
    1. The post-war world had two superpowers: the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). Distrust was high.
    2. The Soviet Union felt put-out by the Americans because: (1) the U.S. had waited until 1933 to officially recognize the U.S.S.R., (2) the Allies had been slow to start a second front, (3) America withdrew the lend-lease program to Russia in 1945, and (4) America rejected Russia's request for a $6 billion reconstruction loan, but gave one for Germany for $3.75 billion.
      1. Russia perceived all of these things as insults.
    3. Russia had been attacked from the west twice within about 25 years, so, Stalin wanted a protective buffer from Western Europe. To create that protection, Russia set up puppet communist governments in Eastern Europe. These "satellite nations" would serve as a buffer zone to the Soviet Union.
    4. Both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. had now been thrown into the international spotlight. They'd both been isolationist, but now had to drive international policies. Both had a history of "missionary" diplomacy—of trying to press their ways onto others.
    5. The U.S. and U.S.S.R. had opposing economic-political systems (capitalism and democracy vs. communism) and they didn't trust the other side. The "Cold War" had begun. Their actions and policies would dominate international affairs for the next 40 years.
  10. Shaping the Postwar World
    1. The Atlantic Charter had called for a new League of Nations. That was realized.
    2. A meeting was held at Bretton Woods, NH (1944). There, the Allies set up the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to propell world trade and regulate currency exchange rates. It also started the World Bank to give loans to needy nations (ravaged by war or just poor).
    3. Days after FDR died, a charter was drawn up for the United Nations in April 1945 in San Francisco. 50 nations participated. It's headquarters would be in New York City.
    4. The U.N. was like the League in concept, the U.N.'s structure was different. It had three main categories…
      1. The General Assembly—the main meeting place where each nation got 2 votes.
      2. The Security Council dealing with conflict and war. It had 11 member nations, 5 were permanent with total veto power (U.S., Britain, France, U.S.S.R. and China). The Security Council would prove to be the most influential and active in world affairs.
      3. Other relief-based agencies, such as UNESCO (U.N. Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Org.), the FAO (Food and Agricultural Org.) and WHO (World Health Org.).
    5. Unlike the old League of Nations, the senate was favorable to the U.N. It was accepted by a vote of 89 to 2.
    6. The U.N. helped keep the peace in Iran, Kashmir, and other hotspots. It also helped set up Israel as a homeland for the Jews.
    7. The pressing issue was atomic weaponry. America was the only nation with an atomic bomb at the time—though Russia was getting very close.
      1. U.S. delegate to the United Nations Bernard Baruch called for a U.N. agency to totally regulate atomic weapons. Russia was distrustful of American ambitions.
      2. The Soviets proposed a total ban on atomic weapons. Neither proposal was accepted and thus regulation of atomic weapons did not happen. The nations were to go at it on their own.
  11. The Problem of Germany
    1. Nazi leaders were tried at the Nuremberg Trials just after the war for crimes against humanity. Everyone's rationale was that they'd just been following their orders. Twelve hanged, seven were given long sentences. Hermann Goering killed himself with cyanide.
    2. There was disagreement with what to do about Germany. The U.S. wanted Germany to rebuild as that's good for Europe's economy. Russia wanted reparations.
      1. To avoid Germany rearming, the country was divided into four zones. The U.S., France, Britain, and Russia would oversee one zone. The idea was to reunite Germany, but Russia balked at the idea. Germany was going to remain split.
      2. West Germany would be a democracy, East Germany was a puppet communist nation.
    3. Berlin was located in East Germany (Russia's section) and it was also split into four zones. The end result was a free West Berlin located inside Russian-controlled East Germany, like an island.
      1. Russia suddenly cut off the railway to West Berlin (1948) in attempt to strangle West Berlin into giving itself over to the East.
      2. America's response was the Berlin Airlift where the U.S. simply flew in needed supplies to West Berlin. The operation was on a massive scale, and it worked. The Soviet Union ended their blockade the next year.
  12. The Cold War Congeals
    1. Wanting oil fields, Stalin failed to fulfill a treaty to remove troops in Iran, but rather he helped some rebels. Pres. Truman was not happy. By this time, deep distrust was the rule, and both sides hardened toward the other.
    2. The American position toward Russia became formal with the George F. Kennan's "containment doctrine." It simply said the U.S.S.R. was expansionist by nature and but it could be held in check by firm American containment.
      1. Pres. Truman made the containment policy official by announcing the Truman Doctrine (1947). In the doctrine he asked Congress for $400 million to aid Greece and Turkey who were feeling communist pressures.
      2. Though focused on Greece and Turkey at the time, the Truman Doctrine was greatly broadened—the U.S. was to stop communism anywhere it seemed to be trying to expand. This policy would dominate U.S. foreign policy for the next four decades.
    3. Western Europe's economy was struggling badly. To help, Truman and Sec. of State George C. Marshall started the Marshall Plan, a massive project to lend financial help to rebuild Europe.
      1. The plan helped in the formation of the European Community (EC).
      2. Some $12.5 billion was spent over four years, a huge sum. Congress thought the number too high (they'd already given $2 billion to U.N. agencies), but a Russia-sponsored revolution in Czechoslovakia changed their minds.
      3. The Marshall Plan worked. Western Europe's economies rebounded, and communist groups in those nations lost influence.
    4. Pres. Truman formally recognized Israel on May 14, 1948, the day it was started. He wanted to help the Jews after the Holocaust, but also hurt the Soviet influence there.
      1. Arab nations were not pleased. America's decision to support Israel, along with oil in the region, would long affect U.S.-Arab relations.
  13. America Begins to Rearm
    1. The military reorganized in 1947 with the National Security Act.
      1. The old War Department was replaced with the Department of Defense; the Sec. of War replaced with the Sec. of Defense. Civilian secretaries would also head the army, navy, and air force. The military heads of each branch were to meet in the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
    2. The National Security Council (NSC) was formed by the National Security Act. The council was to advise the president on security matters. The act also formed the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to gather foreign intelligence.
    3. America fired up the propaganda machine. Congress okayed the Voice of America (1948) radio broadcast to be transmitted into Eastern Europe.
    4. The military draft was brought back. Young men 19 to 25 might be drafted by the Selective Service System.
    5. The old allies organized in 1948. The U.S. joined up with Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg united to start the North Atlantic Treaty Org. (NATO). It was an alliance where attacking one meant attacking them all. The U.S. joined despite an unwritten national policy and tradition of avoiding "entangling alliances."
      1. NATO would later grow. Greece and Turkey joined up in 1952, West Germany in 1955. NATO had 15 nations by then.
      2. Not to be outdone by the West, the Soviets set up the Warsaw Pact made up of the U.S.S.R. and the Eastern European nations.
  14. Reconstruction and Revolution in Asia
    1. Japan also had to be managed after the war. Gen. Douglas MacArthur essentially ran as a dictator to draw up a new Japanese constitution based on the U.S. Constitution (1946).
      1. Japan was a success story. It quickly and successfully embraced democracy and also recovered economically to become one of the world's richest and most productive nations.
    2. China, however, was having problems.
      1. Mao Zedong led communist forces in a civil war against Chiang Kai-Shek's (AKA Jiang Jieshi) Nationalist government.
      2. Mao and the communists won in 1949. Chiang Kai-Shek and the Nationalists had to retreat offshore to the island of Formosa (Taiwan).
    3. With a huge nation like China going communist, this was a bad loss for the U.S. in the Cold War.
      1. Truman was criticized for not doing enough to stop the loss. Likely, he couldn't have stopped it anyway.
    4. The nuclear arms race began in Sept. 1949 when the U.S.S.R. announced it'd successfully detonated an atomic bomb, ending America's "nuclear monopoly."
      1. In 1952, the U.S. detonated a hydrogen bomb. The "H-bomb" (which relies on nuclear fusion of hydrogen) was a 1,000 times more powerful than an "A-bomb" (which relies on fission of a heavy element like uranium).
      2. It was so powerful that both Albert Einstein and J. Robert Oppenheimer spoke out. Einstein had written a letter to FDR to initiate the A-bomb's construction and Oppenheimer had been in charge of the Manhattan Project which built the bomb. They both advised to not build the H-bomb.
      3. Not only was the arms race on, but the H-bomb had greatly raised the stakes.
  15. Ferreting Out Alleged Communists
    1. The question then became, "Are any communists here in America?"
      1. The attorney general named 90 possibly-communist organizations. They were not allowed to defend themselves.
      2. The Loyalty Review Board was started to investigate the loyalties of some 3 million federal employees. About 3,000 either resigned or were fired. Many states made "loyalty" a priority. Teachers, especially, were often made to take "loyalty oaths."
      3. The obvious problems were the rights to free speech, press, and thought being hampered. Still, at this time, those rights were muffled.
    2. 11 communists were tried in New York in 1949 under the Smith Act. It was a peacetime anti-sedition act (the first since 1798). They were convicted, imprisoned, and their case upheld by the Supreme Court in Dennis v. U.S. (1951).
    3. The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) set out to investigate "subversion".
      1. Richard Nixon made a name for himself as a red hunter by pursuing Alger Hiss. He was convicted of perjury and served five years.
    4. Sen. Joseph McCarthy wanted to show himself a red hunter too. He threw around wild accusations with little or no basis to them.
    5. Some people started to think the red hunting business was going too far—turning from concern to hysteria.
      1. Pres. Truman vetoed the McCarran Internal Security Bill. It was to allow the president to arrest and hold suspicious persons during an "internal security emergency." Congress passed the bill over Truman's veto.
      2. Since the U.S.S.R. had built the atomic bomb quicker than was expected, many Americans suspected spies within the U.S. had sold nuclear secrets.
        1. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were suspected of leaking U.S. secrets to Russia. They were convicted for espionage and executed. The whole nasty business of trial and execution, and their two newly orphaned children, began to sober up Americans against red hunting.
  16. Democratic Divisions in 1948
    1. The Republican had won control of the House in 1946 and were feeling confident in '48. They nominated Thomas Dewey as candidate for president.
    2. The Democrats wanted Gen. Eisenhower, but he refused the nomination. So, Pres. Truman was up for reelection. This split the party.
      1. Southern Democrats (called "Dixiecrats") nominated Gov. Strom Thurmond of SC for the States' Rights Party.
    3. A new Progressive Party offered former V.P. Henry Wallace.
    4. It was really a Dewey vs. Truman race. Dewey seemed to have the momentum, but the Democratic vote had been split three ways.
      1. The Chicago Daily Tribune jumped the gun and infamously printed the headline "DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN."
      2. Truman actually won 303 to 189 in the electoral (Thurmond also got 39). The Democrats also retook Congress.
      3. Pres. Truman had gotten support from regular folks, especially farmers, workers, and blacks.
    5. Reinvigorated, he started a program named "Point Four." It was to give money and technical help to underdeveloped nations. It was a humanitarian effort, but it was also to prevent them from going communist.
    6. He outlined a new domestic program called the "Fair Deal." It was a mini-New Deal. The Fair Deal was to improve housing; increase employment, minimum wage, farm price supports; start a new TVA, and extend Social Security.
      1. Many of these programs were shot down in Congress.
      2. Its major successes were in upping the minimum wage, passing the Housing Act (1949) to provide public housing, and extending old-age benefits in a new Social Securities Act (1950).
  17. The Korean Volcano Erupts
    1. As Germany had been split, so too had Korea. North Korea had a communist government thanks to Russia, South Korea was democratic thanks to the U.S. North and South Korea were split at the 38th parallel.
    2. Things were okay until June 25, 1950 when the North suddenly invaded the South. The South was overrun except for the southernmost city of Pusan.
      1. America's Truman Doctrine policy of containment was being challenged. It was time to put-up or shut-up.
    3. Pres. Truman took action and used Korea as an opportunity to build up the U.S. military.
      1. The National Security Council had recommended in 1950 document called NSC-68 that America's defense spending be quadrupled. Truman put NSC-68 into action.
        1. NSC-68 was symbolic in that (1) it showed the fear of communism and (2) it showed the seemingly limitless production possibilities of the U.S. to even order such a massive build-up.
    4. Truman also used the U.N. With Russia and their veto temporarily out, the U.N. named North Korea the aggressor. The U.N. called for action to restore peace—this was the go-ahead to military action.
      1. Within the week, Truman sent Gen. MacArthur's troops to South Korea in a "police action." The U.N. named MacArthur commander of the entire operation, but he took orders from Washington.
  18. The Military Seesaw in Korea
    1. There were three phases of the war…
      1. First, was the North's invasion of the South in 1950.
      2. Secondly, MacArthur's troops set up at Pusan then did a bold "end-around" and hit behind enemy lines at Inchon. Surprised, the North Koreans were quickly driven northward. They went nearly all the way to the Yalu River, the China border. MacArthur thought the war nearly over. Crossing the 38th parallel into the North raised the stakes.
      3. Third, some 200,000 Chinese "volunteers" helped push back southward to the original line at the 38th parallel.
        1. MacArthur called for a blockade and bombing of China. Washington didn't want to take the war that big. MacArthur pressed the issue and went public with it.
        2. Pres. Truman fired MacArthur. Truman was criticized for removing the popular general, but he felt he had no choice. The American military is ultimately run by civilians, not the military.
        3. The war bogged down there for two more years, and that's where it ended in 1953.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 36 - American Zenith

  1. Affluence and Its Anxieties
    1. The post-WWII economy was a booming economy. 25% of all homes in 1960 were less than a decade old. 83% of the new homes were in the suburbs.
    2. The field of electronics hit a milestone with the invention of the transistor. Computers and electronics could now become small (the first computers, "UNIVAC" and "ENIAC", were room-size).
      1. This gave rise to high-tech companies like IBM. The "information age" was beginning.
    3. In the Cold War atmosphere led Pres. Eisenhower to build up the Strategic Air Command. Aerospace industries thrived, like the Boeing Company which built the first passenger jet airliner, the 707.
    4. A social milestone was hit in 1956 when "white-collar" workers outnumbered "blue-collar" workers. That is to say there were more tie-wearing professionals than workers who get their hands dirty.
      1. This was bad news for labor unions. Unions membership numbers peaked in 1954.
      2. This was good news for women who found jobs as clerks and in offices.
        1. In the media, the traditional roles of women at home were championed. For example, TV shows like "Leave it to Beaver" and "Ozzie and Harriet" featured stay-at-home moms. This so-called "cult of domesticity" would soon be challenged.
        2. Betty Friedan started the modern feminist movement with her book The Feminine Mystique (1963). A former homemaker herself, Friedan wasn't satisfied with just being a suburban mother and felt women were selling themselves short—they could get jobs of their own and do so much more. Many women liked what they read.
        3. Friedan's book showed a split in the views of the roles of women: should women focus exclusively on their families or should they pursue careers as men did? The idea was that staying at home may sell the woman short, a career woman may sell the family short.
  2. Consumer Culture in the Fifties
    1. Similar to the 1920's, the 50's were an era of consumerism.
    2. Diner's Club cards made their appearance, McDonald's started, Disneyland was built, TV's came to nearly all homes.
      1. Reflecting TV sales, $10 billion was spent on TV ads and movie attendance went down.
      2. "Televangelists" went to airwaves to save souls, like Billy Graham (Baptist), Oral Roberts (Pentecostal Holiness), and Fulton J. Sheen (Catholic).
    3. Following Americans to the west, sports shifted westward. The Dodgers moved from Brooklyn to L.A., the New York Giants to San Francisco.
    4. Sex appeal was used to sell.
      1. Elvis "the Pelvis" Presley's dance moves were dubbed inappropriate by the older generation. On his second appearance on the "Ed Sullivan Show" he was only filmed from the waist up.
      2. Marilyn Monroe was featured on the cover of the new magazine Playboy and was called the "Sex Goddess for the Nuclear Age."
    5. Though mostly good news in good times, there was criticism.
      1. Writers criticized the new era's conformity, such as in The Lonely Crowd by David Riesman, The Organization Man by William H. Whyte, Jr., and in The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit by Sloan Wilson.
      2. John Kenneth Galbraith, a Harvard economist, wrote The Affluent Society. The book saw a problem between a generally rich and affluent society despite public problems such as polluted air and garbage.
  3. The Advent of Eisenhower
    1. For the 1952 presidential election, the Democrats nominated Adlai Stevenson the down-home Illinois governor. The Republicans opted against Robert A. Taft, an isolationist, and went with war here Dwight D. Eisenhower. Richard Nixon was Eisenhower's running mate for V.P.
    2. Eisenhower was the clear favorite. He was a war hero, grandfatherly, had a big smile, and the "I like Ike" slogan and song was catchy. He attacked Stevenson as soft on communism.
      1. Ike's campaign hit a snap when Nixon was accused of having used a secret "slush fund" as a senator. Nixon went on TV and gave the "Checkers speech". He spoke of his dog Checkers and how his little girl loved the dog and said he wasn't a crook. People forgave him and he stayed on the ticket.
        1. Aside from pushing emotional buttons, the importance of the Checkers speech showed the new power and influence of TV.
        2. Seeing the power of TV, Ike did some question-and-answer spots for the campaign.
    3. Ike won big, 442 to 89 in the electoral.
      1. He'd promised to personally go to Korea and settle the issue.
        1. Ike did fly to Korea, but failed at ending the conflict.
        2. Seven months later, after Ike threatened nuclear bombs, an armistice was signed. The Korean War's was evaluated…
          1. 54,000 Americans had died (and maybe a million Chinese and Koreans). Tens of billions of dollars had been spent. Korea was still split at the 38th parallel, the same as the beginning of the war.
          2. On the plus side, America's mission had been to uphold the Truman Doctrine and contain communism, and that mission was accomplished.
      2. As president, Ike handled the military well. He seemed above petty political splits. On the down side, looking back, he could've used his popularity to propel the infant civil rights movement (he largely ignored it).
  4. The Rise and Fall of Joseph McCarthy This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Sen. Joseph McCarthy claimed that Sec. of State Dean Acheson had knowingly hired 205 communists. Despite lacking evidence, the red-hunt was on.
      1. McCarthy's claims got wilder and out of hand. He accused Gen. George Marshall as being in some kind of communist conspiracy.
    2. Ike didn't like McCarthy and didn't want to get into the dirty business. Ike did allow purges to go on at the State Dept. Many Asian specialists were removed—when the Vietnam War started, their absence hurt.
    3. McCarthy met his downfall when he threw charges at the U.S. Army. Hearings were held on TV where the nation saw him as reckless, a bully, and making the whole thing up on the fly. He was later condemned by the Senate and died three years later of alcoholism.
  5. Desegregating American Society
    1. Down South, Jim Crow laws still segregated the races. Though able to vote on paper, only about 20% of southern blacks were actually registered to vote (only 5% in the Deep South states).
    2. On top of the Jim Crow laws, Southern whites used an array of social norms to keep blacks second class.
      1. There was intimidation, threats of job loss, beatings and lynchings. These crimes often were unpunished.
    3. The rest of the world saw this American embarrassment. Swede Gunnar Myrdal wrote An American Dilemma. In his book, he pointed out the hypocrisy of "The American Creed" (liberty, equality, etc.) when placed against the reality of racism in America.
      1. This was a continuation of WWII's "Double-V" argument—how could the U.S. fight Hitler's racism yet let it carry on at home?
    4. The Civil Rights movement did get its beginnings after the war.
      1. There's a saying that "Baseball is life." Baseball certainly mirrors much of America's life and history and the race issue is prime example. In 1947, Jackie Robinson, became the first black to play in the Major Leagues. This symbolic move was the one of the first steps in the Civil Rights movement.
      2. Pres. Harry S Truman integrated the military in 1948, a major step.
      3. The NAACP instigated and won race-based cases.
        1. In Sweatt v. Painter (1950), the Supreme Court ruled that black professional schools were not equal to white. This was referring to the Plessy v. Ferguson case (1896) saying "separate but equal" facilities were okay.
      4. In 1955, Rosa Parks refused the custom of giving up her bus seat to white riders. Her arrest sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The boycott was led by Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., succeeded in changing the custom, and was thrust onto the national stage.
        1. By boycotting, King showed his tactic of "peaceful resistance" (AKA "nonviolent protest" or "civil disobedience"). This tactic was used by Henry David Thoreau protesting the Mexican War and by Mohandas Gandhi in India.
  6. Seeds of the Civil Rights Revolution
    1. When black soldiers were lynched in 1946, Pres. Truman made the move to integrate the military (1948). But, that's as far as it went. Eisenhower and Congress did little to propel the civil rights.
    2. The only branch of government civil rights activists had to work with was the judicial branch.
    3. The "Warren court", headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren engaged in judicial activism to make changes.
      1. The case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS (1954) was the bombshell. Building on the Sweatt v. Painter case, Brown v. Board said segregated public schools were unconstitutional and should be integrated with "all deliberate speed."
      2. The Brown case essentially overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson "separate but equal" case.
      3. "Deliberate speed" was slow in the South as local school districts simply didn't want to integrate.
        1. After ten years, only 2% of schools in the Deep South were integrated.
        2. Real integration of schools in the Deep South occurred roughly around 1970.
    4. Other civil rights events occurred.
      1. Though reluctant to act on civil rights, Eisenhower was forced to at Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The AR governor had activated the National Guard to not admit black students into the school. Challenged, Ike called in federal troops to admit the students.
      2. Also in 1957, a Civil Rights Act was passed, the first since Reconstruction. Ike said it was the "mildest" one possible.
      3. Martin Luther King, Jr. formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) ) to organize black churches.
      4. In Greensboro, NC, the "sit-inmovement began. Black students protested segregated lunch counters by sitting at white-only counters. They wouldn't get served, but their sitting down shut down the counters until the policy was changed.
        1. With success in Greensboro, the movement spread and became wade-ins, lie-ins, and pray-ins.
        2. Black students formed the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to organize efforts.
  7. Eisenhower Republicanism at Home
    1. Ike had promised "dynamic conservatism"—be liberal with people, be conservative with money. Ike was a middle-of-the-road politician who didn't strike too far one way or the other.
    2. Eisenhower wanted to balance the federal budget and safeguard from "creeping socialism."
      1. He cut military spending, supported transferring control of offshore oil drilling to the states, and tried to cut back on the TVA by encouraging private power companies instead of government ones.
      2. When the Salk polio vaccine was given freely, Ike's secretary of health, education, and welfare said it was socialism coming in through the back door.
      3. Under Sec. of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson, the government bought up grain at the clip of $2 million per day in hopes of keeping prices up. Farmers struggled none-the-less.
      4. The Mexican government was concerned that illegal Mexican immigration into the U.S. would undermine the bracero program of legal immigrants. Ike started "Operation Wetback" to round up and return illegal Mexican immigrants.
      5. Ike again reversed the governments policy toward American Indians. FDR's "Indian New Deal" would go back to policies similar to the old Dawes Severalty Act—end tribes and assimilate into mainstream American culture. This move was unpopular and ended in 1961.
      6. Ike did keep much of the New Deal.
        1. Social Security, unemployment benefits stayed on.
        2. Ike even one-upped FDR with his Interstate Highway Act. It built 42,000 interstate miles. These highways did much to change the economic and social structure of America. They helped businesses and families move from downtowns to suburbs, from Main Street to Wal-Mart.
  8. A New Look in Foreign Policy
    1. Sec. of State John Foster Dulles wanted to go beyond the policy of containment. He wanted to "rollback" communism, to liberate countries that had been taken over.
      1. He proposed cutting back on military spending, but focusing on building nuclear weapon-carrying bombers in a "Strategic Air Command."
      2. The new policy also spoke of "massive retaliation", the threat that any nuclear action would result in a massive response.
      3. This stepping up of policy centered on "deterrence" (convincing an enemy to not act) and it greatly increased the stakes of the Cold War.
    2. Ike wanted to ease the tension a bit with Stalin's successor Nikita Khrushchev, but Ike was blocked.
      1. Also, the Russians ruthlessly put down a revolution in Hungary.
  9. The Vietnam Nightmare
    1. Southeast Asia, for years, had been under French colonial rule. The Asians wanted France out.
      1. Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh had tried to appeal to Woodrow Wilson for self-determination, way back in 1919. He felt FDR may be sympathetic to Vietnam's cause. However, Ho Chi Minh started going more and more communist, and the U.S. started backing away.
    2. America simply wanted to let France handle the growing communism (though the U.S. paid for 80% of France's fighting).
      1. At Dienbienphu (1954), France was surrounded, lost, and France simply decided to leave Southeast Asia. This created a void where communism could grow. This battle marks the real beginning of America's interest in Vietnam.
    3. A multinational conference at Geneva split Vietnam in half at the 17th parallel. North Vietnam wound up communist, a non-communist government in South Vietnam was led by Ngo Dinh Diem.
    4. Like NATO, Sec. Dulles created SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization). It was more symbolic than anything, though.
  10. Cold War Crises in Europe and the Middle East
    1. Russia formed the Warsaw Pact (1956) to balance NATO.
    2. But, the "spirit of Geneva" (the peace conference) encouraged an ease in tensions. When Ike asked for arms reductions, Khrushchev was receptive. Also, Khrushchev publicly denounced the atrocities of Stalin (Stalin had killed some 20 million of his own people).
    3. A wake-up call happened in 1956 when Hungary was protesting against the communists. The Soviets rolled in the tanks and crushed the rebellion. The U.S. gave no aid and it was clear the Cold War would continue.
    4. Communism, colonialism, and oil combined in events in the Middle East as well.
      1. The U.S. worried Russia would invade the Middle East for its oil. The CIA pulled off a coup in Iran and placed a young shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi in charge as essentially a dictator.
        1. This operation was successful for the time, but would come back to haunt the U.S. in the 1970's.
      2. In Egypt, nationalist Gamal Abdel Nassar wanted to build a dam on the Nile. America and Britain offered some help, then Nassar flirted with communism. Sec. Dulles removed the U.S. offer and Nassar took over the Suez Canal. This threatened the oil supply to the West.
        1. Britain and France attacked Egypt (Oct. 1956) without America's knowledge. Ike would not supply oil to Britain and France and they had to withdraw. The U.N. sent in peacekeeping forces.
        2. This was to end to America's "oil weapon." In 1940, the U.S. produced 2/3 of the world's oil. By 1948, the U.S. was a net importer of oil.
      3. Ike and Congress declared the Eisenhower Doctrine in 1957. It promised U.S. help to the Middle East if threatened by communism.
        1. In the Middle East, communism wasn't the real threat to the U.S., nationalism and the power of oil was. In 1960, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, and Iran linked with Venezuela to form OPEC (Org. of Petroleum Exporting Countries). OPEC would become a major headache for America.
  11. Round Two for “Ike”
    1. The election of 1956 was a repeat of '52: Eisenhower vs. Adlai Stevenson. The Democrats attacked Ike's health and said he was a part-time president—doing more golfing than governing.
    2. Times were good and Ike was popular, he won big again, 457 to 73.
      1. However, both houses of Congress did go to the Democrats.
    3. Ike lost two of his top men. Sec. of State Dulles died of cancer in '59. Ike's assistant Sherman Adams had to step down due to bribery charges. There would be less golfing for the president.
    4. The labor unions had been getting ugly with things like gangsterism, fraud, bullying.
      1. The AFL-CIO (combined at this point) had to boot out the Teamsters because of their leader James Hoffa's rough tactics. He was convicted of jury-tampering, served a while, then disappeared (likely mobsters he'd angered finally got him).
      2. Ike got the Landrum-Griffin Act passed (1959) to watch labor unions' bookkeeping and other sleazy monkey-business.
    5. On Oct. 4, 1957, Americans were stunned to read that the Russians had placed the first satellite in orbit, the 184 pound Sputnik I. The space race was on. A month later, Sputnik II put a 1100 pound satellite in space, and a dog.
      1. Four months later, the U.S. sent up Explorer I with America's first satellite (a tiny 2.5 pounds).
      2. Americans had comfortably assumed the U.S. led in all matters scientific; apparently, not true. Worse, the logic went: if the Soviets can put a dog in space, then they can deliver a nuclear weapon to the U.S. using ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles).
      3. Rocket fever started.
        1. Ike set up the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and channeled money.
        2. By 1960, several U.S. satellites were up and ICBMs were tested.
        3. Schools also changed. After Sputnik, emphasis was taken from the humanities (art, drama, dance, etc.) and placed on the sciences and math. The National Defense and Education Act (NDEA) provided millions of dollars in college loans to teach science and languages.
  12. The Continuing Cold War
    1. Testing nuclear weapons was dirty business—radioactive fallout is not healthy. Both the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. said they'd stop "dirty tests." In a world of distrust, policing this wasn't possible, however.
    2. Tension was high in 1958. Lebanon was threatened by Egypt and communism. They asked for U.S. help under the Eisenhower Doctrine. Ike sent several thousand U.S. troops and the situation was resolved without any loss of life.
    3. In 1959, Nikita Khrushchev wanted to look good for propaganda purposes. He invited Ike to Russia. Khrushchev spoke to the U.N. General Assembly and offered complete Soviet disarmament (this was hollow talk).
      1. Khrushchev met Eisenhower at Camp David. Things sounded good at the Russian leader spoke of evacuating Berlin.
      2. This "spirit of Camp David" didn't last long. The next year, there was to be a summit in Paris. Berlin was to be the main topic.
        1. The night before the summit, an American U-2 spy plane was shot down. The plane had indeed been spying on Russia in their airspace (a no-no). The "U-2 Incident" was an embarrassment to the U.S and to Ike. The summit fell apart.
  13. Cuba’s Castroism Spells Communism
    1. The Latin American nations were upset that the U.S. gave billions to Europe (the Marshall Plan) and millions to them.
      1. Latin America also disliked continued American interventionism, such as a CIA coup in Guatemala (1954) and support to nearly any dictators who claimed to be fighting communism.
    2. In Cuba 1959, Fidel Castro overthrew Fulgencio Batista whom America supported. Castro began to nationalize Cuban lands, many were owned by Americans. Castro's plan was to take from large landowners then distribute the land to the people. His tactics, however, were bloody and merciless.
      1. Castro's communistic actions pleased and endeared him to the Soviet Union.
      2. Almost 1 million Cubans fled to America, mostly to Miami and Tampa (still headquarters for American cigars).
      3. In protest, the U.S. broke diplomatic relations with Cuba in 1961 and started a strict economic embargo.
      4. There was talk of invoking the Monroe Doctrine to keep Russia out. Khrushchev said the doctrine was dead and threatened nuclear missiles if Cuba was attacked.
  14. Kennedy Challenges Nixon for the Presidency
    1. The 1960 election was a memorable one. The Republicans nominated Richard Nixon (V.P. candidate Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.) and the Democrats nominated John F. Kennedy (V.P. candidate Lyndon B. Johnson).
    2. Kennedy was Catholic, supposedly a drawback in an election. But, his faith might've gained as many votes as it lost.
    3. The 1960 TV debates were important. Kennedy was young, handsome, articulate, and spoke into the camera (to the viewers). Nixon came off as sweaty, shifty, and unshaven. As V.P. for 8 years, Nixon was likely the front-runner. But, the TV debates helped draw the race to dead even and again showed the power of TV.
    4. Kennedy won the very close election, 303 to 219 in the electoral. The popular vote differed by only 118,000 votes out of 68 million cast.
  15. An Old General Fades Away
    1. All-in-all, Eisenhower's eight years were respectable for their dignity, decency, sincerity, good-will, and moderation.
    2. The Twenty-second Amendment (1951) limited a president to two terms. The thinking, then, was that Ike's power would diminish his last couple of years since everyone knew he was on his way out. Instead, Ike was very active in his last couple of years as president.
      1. The St. Lawrence seaway was finished in 1959. The cities of the Great Lakes were now seaports to the ocean.
      2. Two states were added: Alaska and Hawaii in 1959.
    3. The biggest failure of Eisenhower was that he didn't embrace the infant civil rights movement. Being a moderate, Ike would not shake things up with civil rights changes.
    4. Still, Ike did more good than bad: he incorporated Democratic New Deal ideas, was restrained at using the military, he ended one war and avoided others, and presided over one of America's most prosperous decades.
  16. A Cultural Renaissance
    1. Artists experimented with abstract expressionism. Jackson Pollock literally flung paint onto canvas to create modern art and Claes Oldenburg turned everyday objects, like a telephone, into giant-sized sculptures/art. Later, Andy Warhol created colorful “pop art” with paintings such as a tomato soup can.
    2. Architecture continued to break new ground.
      1. Glass-and-steel skyscrapers were thrown skyward. Example: U.N. Building in NYC.
      2. Frank Lloyd Wright was an understudy of Louis Sullivan (of earlier Chicago skyscraper fame). Wright stunned people with his use of concrete, glass, and steel and his unconventional theory that “form follows function.”
    3. Marvelous literature came at this time. Ernest Hemingway wrote The Old Man and the Sea (1952) and won the Nobel Prize for literature. He killed himself in 1961. John Steinbeck won the Prize too. He wrote East of Eden (1952) and Travels with Charley.
    4. Whereas WWI had spawned tremendous literature, WWII didn't so much. There were some WWII novels…
      1. The earlier WWII novels used cutting realism, as WWI had done. Norman Mailer wrote The Naked and the DeadJames Jones wrote From Here to Eternity about Pearl Harbor.
      2. Later WWII novels turned away from realism and used fantasy. Joseph Heller wrote a quirky Catch-22. Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. wrote Slaughterhouse Five in a crazy style that jumped all over the place.
    5. Literature looked at social issues.
      1. John Updike criticized conformist affluence in Rabbit, Run. The similar theme was pursued in John Cheever's The Wapshot Chronicle.
    6. Poets boomed too. They were usually very critical of American life as being showy and hollow. Older poets were still active, such as Ezra Pound, Wallace Stevens, and William Carlos Williams.
      1. New poets emerged to overshadow the old. Theodore Roethke wrote about the beauty of the land, Robert Lowells tried to apply Puritan sense to modern problems in poems like For the Union DeadSylvia Plath wrote the poem Ariel and the novel The Bell Jar about her mental ills. She died by suicide. Poets Anne Sexton and John Berryman committed suicide as well.
    7. Playwrights wrote masterpieces. Tennessee Williams wrote about screwed-up southerners A Streetcar Named Desire and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof.
      1. Arthur Miller wrote Death of a Salesman. It criticized the conformity culture of the 50's. The Crucible dealt with the Salem witch trials, but clearly was criticism of modern McCarthyism.
      2. More criticism of middle-class life came with Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? African-American life was shown in Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun.
    8. There was much literature written by African-Americans.
      1. Richard Wright wrote Native Son about a black Chicago killer. Ralph Ellison wrote Invisible Man arguing that a black man can't be seen as a real man.
      2. James Baldwin wrote The Fire Next Time and LeRoi Jones wrote plays like Dutchman.
    9. Southern literature had its greats. William Faulkner often wrote in the newly popular stream-of-consciousness style. His novels were hard to understand and psychologically charged. An example would be The Sound and the Fury.
      1. Flannery O'Connor wrote about her native Georgia. William Styron wrote about his native Virginia's ugly past in a novel The Confessions of Nat Turner about the slave 1831 rebellion.
    10. Jewish authors produced great books too. J.D. Salinger wrote The Catcher in the Rye about a sassy prep school boy.
      1. Bernard Malamud wrote about Jewish families (his most famous book was The Natural, a baseball book). Saul Bellow wrote of Jewish life in Chicago in books like The Adventures of Augie March. He won the Nobel prize in 1977.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 37 - The Stormy Sixties

  1. Kennedy’s “New Frontier” Spirit
    1. Kennedy was the youngest president ever elected (though Teddy Roosevelt had taken over at a younger age). JFK personified the glamor and optimism of a younger, robust, vibrant America. Inaugural addresses seldom are memorable, Kennedy's was memorable with the line, "…ask not, what your country can do for you: ask what you can do for your country."
      1. JFK also put together a young cabinet, "the best and the brightest", including his brother Robert Kennedy, 35 years old, as Attorney General.
        1. "Bobby" Kennedy focused the FBI's efforts on "internal security", not-so-much on organized crime, and none on civil rights.
        2. Longtime FBI head J. Edgar Hoover did not like the reforms.
      2. Robert McNamara left a business background to become head of the Defense Department.
    2. JFK had high expectations. He'd spoken of a "New Frontier", hinting that America was on the brink of something newly great. He was optimistic and idealistic.
      1. Kennedy started the Peace Corps where mostly young, idealistic Americans would go to third world nations to help out and teach. Usually the fields were health, agriculture, languages and math.
    3. Kennedy was wealthy, Harvard-educated, witty. He and his cabinet went to the White House very confident.
  2. The New Frontier at Home
    1. The New Frontier, his domestic social program, was threatened by both Democrat and Republican conservatives. Some of Kennedy's steps were put made…
      1. The House Rules Committee was expanded—this might help avoid conservative hang-ups.
      2. A noninflationary wage agreement was settled, contingent on companies keeping prices down. When steel companies did not, Kennedy called in their leaders into the White House, reprimanded them, and they backed down.
      3. Supporters of free enterprise and laissez-faire capitalism were not happy about these actions. They did support JFK when he said he would not increase spending but would cut taxes to stimulate the economy.
    2. Kennedy initiated the quest to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade. The goal was almost unthinkable when he said it, but in July, 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin set foot on the moon.
  3. Rumblings in Europe
    1. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev met in 1961. Khrushchev bullied and young president. JFK was shaken, but stood his ground.
    2. East Berliners were flooding into West Berlin—this was an unacceptable embarrassment to the U.S.S.R. So, the Soviet Union began to build the Berlin Wall that same year to keep folks in.
      1. The Berlin Wall would become the most obvious symbol of the Cold War split and what Winston Churchill had called the "Iron Curtain" between the east and west.
    3. Western Europe had made a great turn-around, thanks in large part to the Marshall Plan's help.
      1. To further help Western Europe, Kennedy got the Trade Expansion Act passed. It was to lower tariffs by up to 50% and thus help the new Common Market in trade. Lowering the tariffs did increase trade substantially.
    4. France, however, was not as receptive to the U.S. Pres. Charles de Gaulle was making a name for himself by sticking up to and sticking out his chest at the Americans. For example, he'd vetoed Britain's request to join the Common Market in fear of a "special relationship" with America. He also pursued nuclear weapons for France, fearing America would not come through in a crisis.
      1. Amazingly, de Gaulle seemed to have forgotten that less than 20 years earlier, Hitler and the Nazis had controlled the streets of Paris until America pushed them out.
  4. Foreign Flare-Ups and “Flexible Response”
    1. When the French left Southeast Asia in 1954, Laos was left without a government and a civil war started.
      1. The Americans feared a communist government would emerge—Ike had put money into the country and Kennedy looked for a diplomatic way out. The Geneva Conference (1962) set up a peace, though it stood on shaky legs.
    2. Sec. of Defense Robert McNamara moved America's policy away from "massive retaliation" to "flexible response." He didn't want a small nation with relatively small problems to give America two options: backing down or nuclear holocaust. Rather, he wanted to deal with situations with a variety of options.
      1. The logic was good, the reality came to haunt the U.S.—America could now get in just a little bit, maybe a bit more, but then once in, how to get out without looking bad? This would be the story of Vietnam.
      2. To match the situation with the force necessary, Kennedy upped spending on the Special Forces (Green Berets).
  5. Stepping into the Vietnam Quagmire
    1. Vietnam was split at the 17th parallel. The South was led by Ngo Din Diem and back by the U.S. The shaky government wasn't a democracy in the American sense, but it wasn't communist. The North was led by Ho Chi Minh and was communist. They threatened to overrun the South.
    2. To defend from the North, Kennedy sent "military advisers" (U.S. troops) to South Vietnam. They were supposedly there to instruct on how to fight, but not fight themselves. Kennedy, "in the final analysis", said it was "their war."
      1. By the time of his death, JFK had sent about 15,000 "advisers." It was now becoming difficult to just leave without looking bad.
  6. Cuban Confrontations
    1. Kennedy improved relations with Latin America with the Alliance for Progress (called the "Marshall Plan for Latin America"). His goal was to curb the threat of rising communism by narrowing the rich-poor gap.
      1. Progress, however, was minimal. Some American "gimmies" weren't going to suddenly solve huge problems.
    2. JFK got a major embarrassment with the Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961).
      1. The CIA secretly trained Cuban exiles with the goal of invading Cuba, rallying all the people, and overthrowing Castro. Castro's troops met and halted the attack at the Bay of Pigs. Kennedy would not help the attackers, there was no ground-swelling of support from within Cuba, and the attack was crushed.
      2. Added to secret American attempts to get Castro assassinated, the Bay of Pigs pushed Castro even more toward communism.
      3. JFK took full responsibility for the attack, and in doing so, his popularity actually went up.
    3. Cuba was again on the world stage with the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place in October of 1961.
      1. Aerial photos showed that the U.S.S.R. was putting nuclear missiles in Cuba. For America, Russian nukes 90 miles from Florida could not stand.
      2. Kennedy listened to options. At his brother Bobby's suggestion, JFK chose to impose a naval blockade since it was middle-ground between an invasion and an embargo. It put the ball back into Khrushchev's court.
        1. Khrushchev promised to run the blockade and continue assembling the missile sites.
      3. For 13 days, the world was as close to nuclear war as it'd ever been. Thankfully, Khrushchev backed down and the Soviet ships turned back.
      4. In return for removing the missile sites, Kennedy agreed to remove missiles from Turkey (these were outdated anyway). A "hot line" was installed between Washington and Moscow to avoid lacking communication in a crisis.
    4. Kennedy also encouraged Americans to stop thinking of the Russians as monsters, but rather as people just like them. This was the beginnings of "détente" or relaxed tensions.
  7. The Struggle for Civil Rights This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Kennedy had campaigned toward and received black support. He was slow to grab onto the civil rights movement, however. Still, things were happening fast in the movement…
    2. Freedom Riders, generally young white northerners, rode buses through the South to draw attention to segregation. Some Southerners turned violent against the buses—this drew more attention to the Freedom Riders.
    3. Kennedy slowly stepped into the civil rights movement.
      1. He was concerned that if he linked with Martin Luther King, Jr., it might be revealed that King had friends who had communist connections. Robert Kennedy had J. Edgar Hoover investigate and keep a file on MLK to that end, even tap MLK's phone line.
      2. John Kennedy did help SNCC get started with funds. They started the Voter Education Project to register southern black voters.
    4. Despite Brown v. Board 6+ years prior, integration was slow.
      1. At the Univ. of Mississippi, James Meredith was blocked from enrolling by white students. Kennedy sent in federal marshals and troops so Meredith could go to class.
      2. Martin Luther King, Jr. organized a peaceful protest of segregation in Birmingham, AL in early 1963.
        1. The protesters were attacked by police dogs, electric cattle prods, and high pressure water hoses.
        2. America watched these vicious scenes on TV. These types of instances helped to slowly start changing public opinion in favor of the protesters.
      3. Kennedy went on TV in June of 1963 and called the race situation a "moral issue" for America. He publicly aligned himself with the civil rights movement and called for new civil rights legislation.
    5. In August, 1963, MLK led 200,000 demonstrators in the famous "March on Washington." There he gave his "I Have a Dream" speech, then met with Kennedy for talks.
    6. Violence kept on, however. Medgar Evers, a black civil rights worker, was shot and killed the very night Kennedy came on TV. In September, a bomb exploded in a black church killing four black girls.
  8. The Killing of Kennedy
    1. In November of 1963 JFK made a campaign trip down South (his weakest area). Kennedy was shot and killed in Dallas on Nov. 22, 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald.
      1. Oswald was shot and killed on TV a couple of days later by Jack Ruby.
    2. Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as president on Air Force One heading back to Washington.
    3. America was stunned. Her young, charismatic and idealistic president was gone.
      1. Sadly, his reputation would later be hurt when his womanizing and connections to organized crime came to light.
  9. The LBJ Brand on the Presidency
    1. Lyndon Baines Johnson was a former senator and held FDR as his hero. LBJ was a master at getting Congress to go his way by giving the "Johnson treatment"—getting up-in-the-face and jabbing a finger-in-the-chest.
      1. LBJ was a true cuss from Texas. He was vain, super egotistical, and crude.
    2. LBJ went liberal as president. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act that JFK had called for and LBJ signed it.
      1. The law banned discrimination in public facilities and sought to end segregation.
      2. It also set up the Equal Employment Opportunity Comm. (EEOC) to serve as watchdog for fair hiring practices.
    3. Johnson spoke of his vision which he called the "Great Society". It was a continuation of New Deal types of programs. The idealistic thinking was that America was so prosperous, there was no reason to accept anything less than prosperity for all. He launched a "War on Poverty."
      1. He got support when Michael Harrington wrote The Other America (1962) which said that despite the affluence, 20% of Americans lived in poverty (40% of African Americans).
  10. Johnson Battles Goldwater in 1964
    1. In the 1964 presidential election, Johnson sought to win on his own for the Democrats as a New Dealish liberal. The Republicans chose Sen. Barry Goldwater, a conservative.
    2. Goldwater criticized income taxes, Social Security, the TVA, civil rights laws, nuclear test bans, and the Great Society.
    3. LBJ countered as being a more poised statesman.
      1. In August 1964, there was the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. There, two U.S. warships had been attacked by the North Vietnamese. In response, the Tonkin Gulf Resolution was passed by Congress essentially giving the president a blank check for return action.
      2. Barry Goldwater talked a tough game versus the communists. He hinted that he might even use nuclear weapons if needed. LBJ seized this in an attack ad on TV. It showed a little girl picking daisies, then exploding in a nuclear mushroom cloud. The message: elect Goldwater and Ka-Boom!
    4. LBJ won the election 486 to 52.
  11. The Great Society Congress
    1. Democrats also won large victories in the Congress. This opened the door for the Great Society programs.
    2. The War on Poverty was stepped up. The Office of Economic Opportunity had its budget doubled to $2 billion. Another billion was to be spent on Appalachia, a region of America that had been little touched by modern prosperity.
    3. At LBJ's pushing two new cabinet offices were created: the Dept. of Transportation (DOT) and the Dept. of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). America's first black cabinet member, Robert C. Weaver, was named to head HUD.
    4. Johnson's Great Society sought to improve the Big Four areas:
      1. Education - Money was given to students and not schools to thus get around the separation of church and state issue. Project Head Start was preschool for kids who otherwise couldn't afford it.
      2. Medical care - Medicare for the elderly and Medicaid for the poor were passed in 1965. These programs would become staple rights in America's minds; they'd also become a major cause of national debt.
      3. Immigration reform - The Immigration and Nationality Act got rid of the old quota system around since 1921. The law doubled the number of immigrants allowed in (to 290,000), allowed family members in, and for the first time limited the number of Western Hemisphere immigrants (to 120,000). Immigration was changing from Europe to Latin American and Asia.
      4. Voting rights - LBJ wanted to get more African Americans voting (see the section below).
  12. Battling for Black Rights
    1. Voting among African Americans in the south was rare (only 5% in Mississippi) as whites used tricks to prevent black votes.
      1. The Voting Rights Act (1965) sought to end the racial discrimination that accompanied voting. It banned literacy tests and it sent registrars to the polls to watch out for dirty dealings.
      2. The Twenty-fourth Amendment forbade poll taxes where you had to pay to vote.
    2. The Civil Rights Movement marched on.
      1. In the "Freedom Summer" (1964), African Americans and whites joined hands and sang "We Shall Overcome" to protest racism.
      2. In June of that year, three civil rights workers were found beaten to death in Mississippi (one black, two white). 21 whites were arrested, including the sheriff. The white jury did not convict anyone.
      3. Martin Luther King, Jr. set up a voter registration drive in Selma, Alabama. The plan was to march from Selma to the capital of Montgomery.
        1. State police used tear gas, whips. Two people died in the chaos.
        2. Lyndon Johnson joined the Civil Rights Movement by calling for an end to "bigotry and injustice." This is when the Voting Rights Act gained steam and passed.
  13. Black Power
    1. Martin Luther King's approach was nonviolent. By 1965, he was making progress, though it was slow. To many young African Americans, it was too slow—they wanted to take matters into their own hands.
    2. A riot broke out in the Watts area of Los Angeles. The ghetto burned for a week, 34 people died.
    3. New black leaders dismissed nonviolent protest. Some made fun of MLK calling him "de Lawd."
      1. Malcolm Little changed his named to Malcolm X. He'd been influenced by black militants in the Nation of Islam. The Nation of Islam had been founded by Elijah Poole (who changed his name to Elijah Muhammad).
        1. Malcolm X was a fantastic speaker. 
        2. Malcolm X later turned away from Elijah Muhammad, toward mainstream Islam. He was shot and killed in 1965 by Nation of Islam gunmen.
      2. The Black Panthers roamed the streets of Oakland armed with powerful weapons "for protection."
      3. Stokely Carmichael (from Trinidad) led the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). SNCC had begun with the peaceful sit-ins of the 50's. Now, it'd taken a rather "non-Nonviolent" stance.
        1. Carmichael spoke of Black Power, a catch-all phrase calling for African Americans to carry out their political and economic power.
        2. Many African Americans interpreted "Black Power" as a separatist movement. There was a movement to emphasize uniqueness such as "Afro" hair, clothes, names for children, and African studies in colleges.
    4. More riots broke out in black ghettos, such as in Detroit (which left 43 dead) and Newark, NJ (25 dead).
    5. To whites, these actions were troubling—it seemed chaos was becoming the rule. Northern whites were shocked when riots came to their hometown. They'd figured the "negro problem" was a southern problem.
    6. Unfortunately, the voice of nonviolence ended when Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in April of 1968.
      1. Riots followed and over 40 died. But, things changed as voter registration skyrocketed and within four years, about half of black children were in integrated schools.
  14. Combating Communism in Two Hemispheres
    1. When a revolt broke out in the Dominican Republic, Johnson saw it as communism trying to crop up. He sent 25,000 troops to quell the revolt. He was criticized for making a knee-jerk reaction.
    2. In Vietnam, things were stepping up in a big way.
      1. Johnson ordered "Operation Rolling Thunder"—full-out bombing on North Vietnam.
      2. LBJ used the Tonkin Gulf Resolution to follow a policy of "escalation." In 1965, he sent some 400,000 soldiers to Vietnam. This is usually marked as the starting-point for the Vietnam War.
      3. America's was "all in" in Vietnam at this point, win or lose. It was costing up to $30 billion per year too.
  15. Vietnam Vexations
    1. The war in Vietnam was dragging on in an ugly manner, and the U.S. was criticized internationally. Charles de Gaulle of France (who always looked for an instance to poke at America) ordered NATO out of France.
    2. In the Six-Day War (June 1967), Israel shocked and beat U.S.S.R.-supported Egypt. Israel gained land in the Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip, and the West Bank of the Jordan River (including Jerusalem).
      1. These lands brought 100,000 Palestinians under Israeli control. This situation still breeds problems.
    3. Back in the U.S., protests against the Vietnam War increased. Students held "teach-ins", burnt draft cards and fled to Canada to avoid being drafted.
      1. America was being split into "doves" against the war and "hawks" who supported the war.
    4. There was opposition in the government too, led by Sen. William Fulbright, head of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, held televised hearings where people spoke against the war.
    5. The CIA investigated people at home, a no-no. In Cointelpro, the FBI investigated "dove" leaders at home. This seemed more like a totalitarian state, but LBJ had it done anyway.
    6. By 1968, the war had become the longest and most unpopular in U.S. history. LBJ said the war's end was near, but it was not.
  16. Vietnam Topples Johnson
    1. January 1968 was the break point of the war. At that time, North Vietnam launched a massive "Tet Offensive" against southern cities. The U.S. stopped the attack, but it showed the enemy was not all-but-done and that there were years of fighting left.
      1. The war was taking a toll on Johnson too, emotionally and physically.
    2. American brass asked for more troops, but Johnson would not send them.
    3. The war also split the Democratic party (1968 was another election year).
      1. Eugene McCarthy was the voice of the doves. He was supported by peace-loving college students. He scored a high 42% of the New Hampshire primary vote.
      2. Days later, Robert Kennedy entered the race, also as a dove. He brought the Kennedy name and charisma.
      3. A bigger shock came when LBJ announced that (a) he was freezing troop levels in Vietnam and (b) he would not run for reelection. The Democratic party was wide open.
  17. The Presidential Sweepstakes of 1968
    1. LBJ out of the race, V.P. Hubert H. Humphrey seemed the next logical choice. It was now McCarthy, Kennedy, and Humphrey for the Democrats.
      1. Just as it seemed Robert Kennedy would become the Democratic nominee, he was shot and killed. Humphrey would be nominated.
    2. Richard Nixon would run as the Republican. He was a "hawk" and spoke of getting law-and-order in the cities at home.
    3. Another candidate, George C. Wallace, ran for the American Independent party. He ran almost exclusively on a pro-segregation ticket saying "Segregation now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation forever!"
    4. Nixon would win the election, 301 to Humphrey's 191. Wallace got 46 southern electoral votes.
  18. The Obituary of Lyndon Johnson
    1. Lyndon Johnson and his Great Society was drug down by Vietnam.
    2. He was in a position where no matter what he did in Vietnam, either the hawks or doves would not be happy.
    3. He went home to his Texas ranch and died in 1973.
  19. The Cultural Upheaval of the 1960s
    1. The 1960's were a boom of cultural changes and challenges. Young people propelled the cultural changes—the slogan was, "Trust no one over 30."
    2. The roots of the counterculture went back to the "beatniks" of the 1950's. Poet Allen Ginsburg and writer Jack Kerouac's book On the Road were the prelude for the hippie generation.
      1. Movies hinted at a frustrated youth too, like The Wild One with Marlon Brando and Rebel Without a Cause with James Dean.
    3. One of the first big protests took place at Univ. of California at Berkeley in 1964 called the "Free Speech Movement." This protest was rather clean-cut, later ones would be "far out" with psychedelic drugs, "acid rock", and the call to "tune in and drop out" of school.
    4. A "sexual revolution" took place in the 1960's.
      1. The birth-control pill reduced pregnancies and made sex seem more casual. Feminists like the pill for freeing women from being pregnant all the time.
      2. Homosexuals called for acceptance. When some gay men in New York were attacked, the movement had some fuel. Later, in the 1980's AIDS popped up, mostly within the male homosexual community. This set back the gay movement.
    5. The group Students for a Democratic Society had stood against poverty and war. By this time, they'd started a secret group called the "Weathermen" which was essentially an underground terrorist group. They started riots in the name of fighting poverty and war.
    6. A drug culture emerged. Smoking "grass" turned into dropping LSD. The dirty underworld of drug dealers and drug addicts emerged.
    7. The older and more traditional generations were appalled at these goings-on. They'd grown up through the Great Depression and WWII, were thankful for what they had, and understood sacrifice.
      1. To traditionalists, the counterculture generation was little more than spoiled baby boomers. They had too much time in college to study mush-mush ideas and too much money in their pockets to fool around with.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 38 - Challenges to the Postwar Order

  1. Sources of Stagnation
    1. America had enjoyed a long economic boom in the 1950s and 60s. The 1970s would see that boom end.
    2. No year's productivity during the 70s would equal any year in the 50s or 60s. There were several reasons for the slow-down.
      1. Women and teens increasingly entered the workforce. Generally speaking, they were less skilled, often had temporary jobs.
      2. Machinery was getting old and run down by this time.
      3. The major cause was the upward spiral of inflation. Vietnam War spending helped cause inflation, but it was caused mostly from increased oil prices.
      4. What's more, the boom-years had put more money in people's hands. Anytime this is the case, prices go up.
    3. America's economic lead had dwindled as Germany and Japan had by then rebuilt and caught back up.
  2. Nixon “Vietnamizes” the War
    1. Nixon entered the White House promising an honorable end to the war. He pursued "Vietnamization", or returning U.S. troops and turning the war over to the Vietnamese.
      1. This became the "Nixon Doctrine" saying the U.S. would honor its commitments, but the Vietnamese would have to go it without massive American troop numbers.
    2. The policy was middle-of-the-road, enough to get him elected. Still, with America so divided, their were still opponents—hawks wanted more action, doves wanted to leave immediately. The doves protested loudly.
      1. Nixon appealed to the “silent majority”, those who supported the war, but without the sound and fury of the protesters.
    3. In the earlier part of the war especially, the fighting was done disproportionately by the poorer classes.
      1. Being in college got young men a deferment from the draft (a free pass).
      2. African-Americans suffered casualties at higher rates than whites.
      3. The result was that most Vietnam "grunts" (ground soldiers) were fresh out of high school (the average age was 19).
    4. Morale was low too. A bogged down war, with high casualties and no clear mission led to drugs, mutiny, sabotage, and "fragging" troop's own officers. Frustration was best seen in the infamous My Lai Massacre (1968).
      1. At that village, U.S. troops snapped and killed the entire village, including women and children.
      2. My Lai increased protest at home and helped lead to charges of "baby killers"—an unfair charge for nearly all of the troops.
  3. Cambodianizing the Vietnam War
    1. The North Vietnamese had been using their neighbor as a staging-ground for attacks. The land was out-of-bounds for U.S. troops, but the North channeled supplies through Cambodia down the "Ho Chi Minh Trail."
      1. In 1970, Nixon ordered the U.S. to invade Cambodia to put a stop to the uneven playing field.
    2. On U.S. universities, there was much protest to moving into Cambodia. The logic went, "The U.S. is not at war with Cambodia, why are we invading there?"
      1. A protest at Kent State University got out of hand and the National Guard was called in to disperse the protestors. For some reason, the Guard opened fire and killed four protesters.
      2. A similar situation occurred at Jackson State College killing two.
      3. The rift between hawks and doves had widened. Nixon pulled out of Cambodia after only two months. U.S. troops resented Nixon's reversal and having to fight with "one hand tied behind their back."
    3. Congress was regretting the blank check (Tonkin Gulf Resolution). The Senate repealed the Resolution (this was symbolic only).
    4. The Twenty-sixth Amendment (1971) was passed. It lowered the voting age to 18. The reasoning was that 18 and 19 year olds should be allowed to vote for the politicians sending them off to war.
    5. The New York Times dropped a bombshell in June 1971. They broke the "Pentagon Papers"—a top secret study that showed goof-ups by JFK and LBJ.
      1. The Pentagon Papers helped to create the "credibility gap" which was the gap between what the government said (the war is going great) and the reality (it wasn't).
  4. Nixon’s Détente with Beijing (Peking) and Moscow
    1. China and the Soviet Union were fighting (literally at times) over what it means to be a communist. Nixon saw this as a chance to step in and play one against the other.
    2. National security adviser Henry A. Kissinger had been secretly meeting in Paris with North Vietnamese officials in hopes of working to an end of the war. He was also preparing the way for Nixon to visit China and Russia.
    3. Nixon did visit China, in 1972. It was a symbolic visit where each side promised to get along better. Three months later, Nixon went to Russia. With better U.S.-China relations, he felt Russia would be inclined to give in a bit. He was right.
      1. The U.S.S.R. was low on food. A deal was struck where the U.S. would sell $750+ million grain to the Soviets.
      2. There was some disarmament as well. America and the Soviets agreed to an anti-ballistic missile (ABM) reduction and to a string of "Strategic Arms Limitations Talks" (SALT).
        1. This was a hollow victory though. The quantity may have been limited, but agreements could be easily ignored and were by both sides.
        2. Plus, the move was now toward "MIRVs" (multiple independently targeted reentry vehicles) where several nuclear weapons were mounted on a single missile.
    4. Still, getting along better with China and Russia brought on another round of détente (eased tensions).
    5. Nixon was still against communism. This is seen in the government's involvement in Latin American governments that were possibly going red.
  5. A New Team on the Supreme Bench
    1. Under Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Supreme Court had made a noticeable shift to the left (liberal side) and was activist. Nixon fussed about this move. Several cases showed the trend…
    2. Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) - Struck down a state law banning contraceptive use as a "right of privacy."
    3. A series of cases gave rights to defendants in criminal cases.
      1. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) - Said all defendants were entitled to a lawyer.
      2. The Escobedo and Miranda cases (1966) - Said arrested individuals must be told their rights.
    4. New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) - A public figure could only sue for libel if "malice" on the writer's part could be proven. This opened wide the door for jabs at politicians and movies stars.
    5. Engel v. Vitale (1962) and School District of Abington Township v. Schempp (1963) - Removed prayer and the Bible from schools, arguing the First Amendment separates church and state.
    6. Reynolds v. Sims (1964) - Forbade creative district lines that made some people's votes weigh more than others. This type of gerrymandering had been used by southern whites to keep power.
    7. Nixon sought to change the Court's liberal trend by appointing otherwise-minded justices. Warren E. Burger was quickly nominated, accepted, and became chief justice. Nixon appointed a total of four supposedly conservative justices.
      1. However, justices are free to rule as they wish, not how the president wants. The Burger Court was reluctant to undo what the Warren Court had done.
      2. Evidence of how the court was not conservative came with the Roe v. Wade decision (1973) which legalized abortion.
  6. Nixon on the Home Front This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Contrary to what one might guess from a conservative, Nixon made the Great Society programs grow. For example:
      1. Money for Medicare, Medicaid, and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) increased. The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) was created to help the old, blind, and disabled. Social Security would be automatically increased with inflation.
    2. In his controversial "Philadelphia Plan", trade-unions were required to set "goals and timetables" for hiring blacks.
      1. The policy was extended to all federal contracts. It forced businesses to hire a quota of minorities.
      2. The Supreme Court backed Nixon in Griggs v. Duke Power Co. (1971).
        1. The court prohibited things like intelligence tests, saying they limited women and minorities in some fields. The court suggested hiring proportions should be the same ratio as the population.
      3. To many, especially white males, the idea of "affirmative action" had turned into "preferential treatment" or "reverse discrimination."
    3. Environmental laws were passed.
      1. The godmother of the modern environmental movement was Rachel Carson. She wrote Silent Spring (1962) about the ill-effects of the pesticide DDT.
      2. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was formed in 1970 along with the Occupational Health and Safety Admin. (OSHA) to set safety standards in workplaces.
      3. The Clean Air Act (1970) and the Endangered Species Act (1973) were passed. Symbolically, "Earth Day" began.
    4. Back to the economy, Nixon tried to halt inflation by imposing a 90-day wage and price freeze in 1971.
      1. He surprisingly took the U.S. off the gold standard and devalued the dollar. This ended the "Bretton Woods" system of currency stabilization set after WWII.
    5. As a minority president (he'd gotten only 43% of the votes), Nixon gathered southern support by appointing conservative justices, paying little attention to civil rights, and opposing school busing.
  7. The Nixon Landslide of 1972
    1. North Vietnam attacked across the dividing line (the "DMZ") in 1972. Nixon responded by ramping up bombings and mining the harbors of the North.
      1. The fear was that Russia and China might respond—they didn't, thanks to Nixon's smoothing of relations.
    2. The presidential election of 1972 saw Nixon seek reelection. The Democrats nominated George McGovern who promised to end the war in 90 days.
      1. McGovern was supported by young adults and women. His campaign was hurt when it became known that his V.P. candidate, Thomas Eagleton, had received psychiatric treatment.
      2. 12 days before the election, Henry Kissinger announced that "peace is at hand" and an agreement would be announced in a few days. Nixon won in a huge way, 520 to 17.
    3. The agreement Kissinger had spoken of didn't come just yet. Nixon ramped up the bombings in attempt to drive the North back to the bargaining table, it work, and on January 23, 1973 a cease-fire was reached.
      1. Nixon declared "peace with honor", but it was hollow. The U.S. would withdraw, but the North kept 145,000 soldiers and 30% of the South occupied.
  8. The Secret Bombing of Cambodia and the War Powers Act
    1. In mid-1973, people were surprised to learn that the U.S. had made some 3,500 secret bombings of Cambodia. This despite assurances from the government that Cambodia's neutrality was intact. The "credibility gap" widened.
      1. Nixon's goal had been to hurt the communists there and help the non-communists.
      2. The end result was that, in the chaos, a tyrant named Pol Pot killed some 2 million of his own people.
    2. Congress set out to ensure that no "blank check" like the Tonkin Gulf Resolution would be passed again.
      1. Congress passed the War Powers Act (1973). It said (1) the president must report to Congress within 48 hours of putting troops in harm's way in a foreign country and (2) there would be a 60 to 90 day limit.
      2. This law helped start what was called the "New Isolationism."
  9. The Arab Oil Embargo and the Energy Crisis
    1. The Arab nations were unhappy about their loss to Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967. In 1973, Egypt and Syria attacked Israel trying to win back lands lost.
      1. America aided Israel, while Kissinger helped keep the Soviets out of the fray. After tense times, an uneasy peace was reached.
      2. But, Arab nations were not pleased at America's support of Israel.
    2. In October of 1973, Arab nations placed an embargo on oil.
      1. Long lines formed at gas stations and prices of gas skyrocketed in the U.S.
    3. The "energy crisis" changed things in America.
      1. The Alaska pipeline was approved to flow oil southward.
      2. A 55 MPH speed limit was set to conserve fuel. Americans also moved to smaller cars, like the VW Bug.
      3. There were calls for more use of coal and nuclear power.
    4. The embargo was lifted after 5 months. But, the message was clear: America was addicted to oil and the Middle East had nearly all of the cards in their hands.
      1. Using OPEC to exert their will, the Arab nations nearly quadrupled the price of oil by the end of the 70s.
  10. Watergate and the Unmaking of a President
    1. During the campaign, five men had been caught breaking into the Democratic party's headquarters in the Watergate building. They were snooping files and planting microphones. It was discovered they were part of CREEP (the Committee to Reelect the President).
      1. The question became, "Who ordered this and who knew of this?" Nixon said he knew nothing of the business.
      2. At about the same time, Nixon's V.P., Spiro Agnew, had his own mini-scandal involving past bribes. Agnew resigned and Gerald Ford was chosen as the new Vice President.
    2. The Senate investigated Watergate. A former White House lawyer, John Dean, accused Nixon of a cover-up (to quiet anyone with any knowledge). It was then learned Nixon had tape recordings of all Oval Office conversations, so the tapes were sought. Nixon refused which looked bad.
      1. Also, in the "Saturday Night Massacre", Nixon fired Watergate investigators and the attorney general, which also looked bad.
      2. Some tapes were handed over in 1974 at the Supreme Court's ruling. They revealed Nixon's foul mouth—embarrassing but not impeachable.
      3. A month later, impeachment for "obstruction of justice" was going forward so Nixon handed over all of the tapes. Those revealed Nixon had indeed ordered a cover-up—this was an impeachable offense.
    3. Rather than get booted out of office, Nixon resigned on August 8, 1974. Gerald Ford was sworn in as the new president.
  11. The First Unelected President
    1. Gerald Ford became president without anyone ever voting for him, either for president or vice president.
    2. He was seen as a nice guy, more of an everyman, but a bit of an average-minded and clumsy fellow. None of the negatives were really fair, but that was much of the public view.
    3. Surprisingly, Ford pardoned Nixon for any illegal actions he might have done.
      1. This smelled stinky. The deal appeared to have been…Ford was chosen V.P. so that if Nixon ever got into trouble, Ford would cover his back. There is no way to know this, but that was the perception. This would hurt Ford in the 1976 election.
      2. Later, Ford's popularity went downhill when he gave amnesty to draft dodgers. He felt they'd not served out of heartfelt reasons, so they were welcome to return to the U.S.
    4. Ford's foreign relation activities centered on the Helsinki accords with the U.S.S.R. In these agreements, (1) the boundaries of eastern Europe were agreed upon, (2) agreements were made on traveling from the U.S. and U.S.S.R., and (3) guarantees were made of human rights.
      1. To many Americans, détente was benefiting Russia, but America was getting little in return.
  12. Defeat in Vietnam
    1. America's goal in Vietnam was to contain communism. America left in 1973, generally having done that. In 1975, however, North Vietnam overran and took over South Vietnam.
      1. It was embarrassing that the last Americans were evacuated from the rooftop of the American embassy by helicopter.
    2. Technically, America didn't lose the war. America left when it was a tie, then the U.S.-supported South Vietnam lost. But, in reality and in perception, America lost.
  13. Feminist Victories and Defeats
    1. The feminist movement of the 60s gained some steam entering the 70s.
    2. Congress passed "Title IX" (1972) which prohibited sex discrimination in any federally-funded educational program. This was best seen in the rise of girls' sports to equal boys'.
    3. The Supreme Court heard cases regarding women.
      1. Reed v. Reed and Frontiero v. Richardson, dealt with sex discrimination in laws and jobs.
      2. The Roe v. Wade (1973) case legalized abortion.
    4. The proposed "Equal Rights Amendment" (ERA) passed Congress in 1972. ERA sought to legislate equality by stating equal rights can't be denied due to gender.
      1. Next, 38 states needed to ratify ERA for passage as a Constitutional Amendment. 28 states ratified it quickly. Feminists were energized.
      2. At this point, opposition stalled ERA. Essentially, the opposition felt ERA would undercut and deteriorate the family.
        1. National child care was proposed. The thinking was that this would weaken family life.
        2. The feminist movement was seen as the cause of divorce. The divorce rate had tripled between 1960 and '76.
        3. Many despised abortion. Catholics and other Christians viewed pregnancy as a blessing and charged the feminists viewed it as an inconvenience.
        4. The leader against ERA was Phyliss Schlafly. She traveled the country advocating "STOP ERA" and advocating traditional roles for women.
        5. ERA was failed in 1982, 3 states short of the needed 38.
  14. The Seventies in Black and White
    1. The race issue wouldn't go away. In Milliken v. Bradley, the Supreme Court ruled that, while integrating schools, officials could not force students across district lines.
      1. The practicality of this was that integration took a hit. If students went to their nearest school, the schools would stay largely segregated.
      2. The "white flight" to the suburbs sped up. What was left behind to deal with the tensions of integration were the less-advantaged classes of society.
    2. "Affirmative action" (giving preference to minorities in selection) led to charges of "reverse discrimination."
      1. The idea was that affirmative action meant selection for colleges or jobs based on race, not on achievement.
      2. In the Bakke case (1978), the Supreme Court dealt with reverse discrimination.
        1. Bakke had sued saying he'd been turned down grad school due to policies that favored minorities. He won. The Court said admission preference could not be based on race.
        2. Paradoxically, the court also said race can be used in the overall admission policies to help balance out the student body's demographics.
        3. Thurgood Marshall was the only black justice. He voted against Bakke and said the decision might undo years of civil rights progress.
  15. The Bicentennial Campaign
    1. 1976 was the nation's bicentennial celebration. After years of race problems, Vietnam, and Watergate. Despite all of the turmoil and ousting a president, America and the Constitution had survived. America needed a celebration.
    2. It was also an election year. President Ford tried to get elected on his own, the Democrats chose Jimmy Carter.
      1. Carter capitalized on being a “Washington outsider,” and therefore untainted by the supposed corruption of D.C. (he’d previously been governor of Georgia).
      2. The election was very close, but the Republican "brand" had been too tarnished by Watergate nonsense. Carter won 297 to 240.
    3. Congress also went heavily Democrat. During his "honeymoon period", Carter got a new Dept. of Energy established. He also got a tax cut through.
      1. Carter's honeymoon was short though. Being a political outsider was good during the election, but not good inside Washington D.C. where "back-slapping" and "back-scratching" is how things get done.
  16. Carter’s Humanitarian Diplomacy
    1. Jimmy Carter was a devout Christian and had a high concern for human rights. That would be his guiding principle when it came to foreign policy.
      1. For example, he expressed his concern and support for the oppressed people of Zimbabwe (called Rhodesia then).
    2. Carter's crowning foreign policy achievement was a Middle East peace settlement.
      1. Egyptian president Anwar Sadat and Israeli president Menachem Begin met Carter at Camp David in 1978.
      2. They shook hands and agreed that Israel would withdraw from lands gained in the Six-Day War (1967) and Israel's borders would be respected.
    3. Full diplomatic relations with China were reestablished.
    4. Another agreement planned to turn over the Panama Canal to Panama by the year 2000 (and did).
    5. To many, Carter's policies seemed nice, but soft and too willing to give.
      1. Plus, the Cold War kept on going. Thousands of Soviet backed Cuban troops showed up in various African countries to support communist forces there. Carter made no response.
  17. Economic and Energy Woes
    1. Carter had worse problems than foreign affairs—the economy was tanking.
      1. Inflation was rising by 13% in 1979 (4% is normal). The cost of importing oil was skyrocketing.
      2. Carter proposed energy conservation laws, but they weren't well received.
      3. Interest rates were very high as well. This meant borrowing money (to buy a home for example) was too expensive.
    2. Along with oil, the Middle East gave Carter more headaches in 1979 when the shah of Iran was ousted by Islamic fundamentalists. The shah had been put into power with help from the CIA and was seen as a symbol of the West and the U.S.
      1. The new Muslim government took over the oil fields. Oil production went down and OPEC raised oil prices farther.
      2. Carter went to Camp David, talked with energy experts, then scolded America for its dependence on oil and materialism. This was probably true, but it was a scolding, not an energy solution.
        1. Within a few days he fired four cabinet members and reverted to his close-knit Georgia crew. Some wondered if Carter was losing touch with the people.
  18. Foreign Affairs and the Iranian Imbroglio
    1. Another high-note for Carter came with the SALT II agreements. He met with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev and agreed to limit nuclear weapons.
      1. The high-note was short lived—the Senate was very reluctant to ratify the agreement.
    2. At the same time, militant Muslim radicals in Iran stormed the U.S. embassy in Teheran and took everyone hostage.
      1. The militants demanded that the U.S. hand over the shah who'd fled earlier. Worse, what would the U.S. do about the 52 Americans being held hostage?
      2. Another bad event at the same time mixed the Cold War, oil, and the Muslim World.
        1. The Soviet Union suddenly attacked and took over Afghanistan (Dec. 1979). This move threatened (1) to expand communism, (2) oil fields and production, and (3) next-door neighbor Iran.
    3. Carter reacted by placing an embargo on the U.S.S.R. and by boycotting the 1980 summer Olympics in Moscow.
      1. He proposed setting up a "Rapid Deployment Force" for trouble-spots and asked that young people, including women, be required to register for a possible military draft.
      2. Carter admitted he'd misjudged the Soviets at the SALT II talks. This is when SALT II died.
    4. The Iran hostage situation was still going—it would be the undoing of Carter.
      1. The U.S. tried economic sanctions, they failed.
      2. A secret rescue mission was planned and tried. It literally went down in flames in a sandstorm.
      3. Carter was unable to resolve the Iran hostage situation. Fair or not, the American hostages in Iran became a symbol of problems which Carter could not solve.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 39 - The Resurgence of Conservatism

  1. The Election of Ronald Reagan, 1980
    1. In the 1980 presidential campaign, the Democrats were in trouble from the beginning.
      1. President Carter sought reelection, but his image was deeply hurt by double-digit inflation and bungling foreign affairs.
      2. The next Kennedy, Edward (Ted) Kennedy entered the race for the Democratic nomination. His campaign was damaged with the "Chappaquiddick incident" of 1969. After a night of partying, he'd driven his car off a bridge killing his female passenger, then delayed reporting it.
    2. The Republicans had their opening and nominated Ronald Reagan—former movie star and former California governor.
      1. Reagan would be the oldest elected president. His traditional values were from the pre-60s generation.
      2. He favored small government, laissez-faire capitalism, a tough stance with Russia, personal responsibility, and "family values."
        1. These characteristics made up what came to be known as "neoconservatives."
      3. He was handsome, photogenic, and grand-fatherly. Having grown up in small-town Midwest America, Reagan had a real down-home nature that was appealing and friendly.
    3. Reagan had an appeal, but the "ABC" approach (Anyone But Carter) was likely the biggest factor in the voting. Reagan won in a landslide, 489 to 49 in the electoral.
    4. In Carter's farewell address, he encouraged disarmament, human rights, and environmental protect.
      1. One of his last acts was to sign a bill preserving 100 million acres in Alaska.
  2. The Reagan Revolution
    1. Ironically, the hostages in Iran were released the exact day Reagan was sworn into office, January 20, 1981.
    2. Reagan put together a cabinet of the "best and the rightest." He wanted to make government smaller and get federal spending under control. In his view, the government did not fix problems, the government was the problem. This message was well-received by the 1980s.
      1. There was a movement away from the ideas of a "welfare state" and governmental "entitlement" programs. Californians had a "tax revolt" with Proposition 13 cutting property taxes and governmental services. This wave spread to D.C.
    3. Reagan proposed $35 billion in budget cuts.
      1. Most of the cuts were in social programs like food stamps and federally paid-for job training programs.
      2. The Republican Senate went along, the Democratic House needed politics. Southern conservative Democrats in the House called "boll weevils" went along with Reagan. The lowered budget passed.
    4. Reagan was suddenly shot on March 6, 1981. Hit in the arm and lung, he recuperated and walked out of the hospital 12 days later.
  3. The Battle of the Budget
    1. Reagan's next step was to make substantial tax cuts, about 25% across the board.
      1. Reagan's appeal on TV and help from the boll weevils passed this bill as well.
    2. The plan called for "supply-side economics" (AKA "Reaganomics") or policies that supported businesses, such as lower taxes and less government interference.
      1. Supply-side economics would boost investment, production, hiring, and eventually through growth, would reduce the federal deficit.
    3. The plan took a hit when the economy slid into a recession in 1982. Unemployment rose to nearly 11% and several banks went bankrupt.
    4. The blame-game was on.
      1. Democrats charged that Reagan's cuts were to blame. They said the cuts were aimed at the poor and helped the rich.
      2. In fact, the "tight-money" anti-inflationary policies of President Carter were to blame for the economic downturn.
    5. The economy did turn around in 1983 and began to thrive. Supply-siders grinned.
      1. "Yuppies" (short for "young urban professionals" and a play on "hippies") went center-stage with their high success and indulgent materialism.
      2. On the bad side, the rich-poor gap did widen during the 80s.
    6. Reagan's massive military spending was also at play.
      1. Though he had a spend-less mentality, that did not apply to the military. Reagan wanted to beef up the military to stand strong against the U.S.S.R.
      2. The annual deficit (and thus the total debt) increased substantially under Reagan, almost exclusively due to military spending.
      3. The deficit in trade was also skyrocketing. America became the world's biggest borrower of money.
  4. Reagan Renews the Cold War
    1. President Reagan called the Soviet Union the "Evil Empire" and took a firm stance against them. His way of dealing with the Soviets was through strength—meaning the military was to be built up.
      1. He gambled that by ramping up the arms race, the capitalistic U.S. economy could better afford this than the communist Soviet economy.
    2. Reagan proposed the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). More commonly called the "Star Wars" plan, SDI was to put satellites in orbit armed with lasers that could shoot down Soviet missiles.
      1. The theory sounded good. But there were questions: (1) how much would it cost? (a lot!), (2) would this actually work? (scientists were skeptical), or (3) what if the Soviets just destroy our expensive satellite?
      2. These question were too much and SDI was never built.
    3. In Poland, workers organized into a huge union in the Solidarity movement.
      1. The Soviets imposed martial law on Poland; the U.S. backed Poland by slapping economic sanctions on Russia.
    4. Things move quickly between 1982 and '85 when three old Soviet leaders died in succession.
      1. In 1982, a Korean passenger airliner went into Soviet airspace and was shot down. Several of the dead were Americans.
      2. Clearly, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. were in old-fashioned Cold War standoff mode.
  5. Troubles Abroad
    1. The Middle East kept up its turmoil when Israel invaded Lebanon to its north. Reagan sent U.S. troops to Lebanon in a peace-keeping attempt.
      1. A suicide bomber drove a truck into a Marine barracks, blew it up, and killed 200+ Marines. Afterward, Reagan pulled the U.S. troops out.
      2. Reagan's popularity kept on, earning him the nickname of the "Teflon president" because nothing stuck to him.
    2. In Nicaragua, leftist (communistic) "Sandinistas" had taken over the government.
      1. Whereas Carter had tried to extend a handshake to the Sandinistas, Reagan flatly opposed them. He said Nicaragua would be a base for Russia and accused the Sandinistas of stirring up communism in El Salvador.
      2. "Advisors" were sent to Nicaragua to support the "contras." The contras opposed the Sandinistas and were dubbed "freedom fighters."
      3. The CIA also secretly meddled in Nicaragua trying to overthrow the government.
    3. Reagan's military got involved in other places, notably the island of Grenada. There, communists had taken over so the U.S. military took over the island to supposedly protect the Americans who were on it.
  6. Round Two for Reagan This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. In 1984, Reagan ran for reelection. The Democrats nominated Walter Mondale. His V.P. candidate was Geraldine Ferraro—the first woman ever nominated by a major party.
      1. The economy was strong, Reagan was popular, and he won easily, 525 to only 13.
    2. Reagan's first term had featured budget and economic measures, his second term was marked by foreign issues.
      1. In the Soviet Union, a new leader took over in Mikhail Gorbachev.
        1. "Gorbie" was a different kind of Soviet leader—charismatic, personable, and outgoing.
        2. He spoke of "glasnost" or 'openness" by the Soviet government and of "perestroika" or "restructuring" the Soviet economy to be more free-market oriented.
        3. Gorbachev proposed to cut intermediate range nuclear forces (INF) at a meeting with Reagan in Geneva.
        4. Talks at a second meeting in Iceland broke down. At their third meeting, the INF agreement was made. Reagan gave warm remarks about Gorbachev.
      2. Reagan supported Corazon Aquino in the Philippines when he booted out dictator Ferinand Marcos.
      3. Reagan also ordered an air strike on Libya in return for its support of terrorism.
  7. The Iran-Contra Imbroglio
    1. Reagan did have foreign-policy headaches.
      1. Some Americans had been captured by Muslim militant radicals in Lebanon.
      2. The communistic Sandinista government in Nicaragua was holding onto power. Reagan wanted to send military aid, but Congress wouldn't go along.
    2. More bad news came in a U.S.-Iran-Nicaragua scheme called the Iran-Contra Affair.
      1. Lt. Col. Oliver North had secretly arranged a deal where U.S. weapons would be sold to Iran, then the money would go to the Contra "freedom fighters" in Nicaragua.
      2. This was a tricky deal and bold in that neither Congress nor the president approved it (or even knew about it).
      3. Hearings were held and Oliver North went to prison. Reagan was in lose-lose situation…
        1. If he did know of this scheme, it would appear he was circumventing Congress to aid the Contras.
        2. If he didn't know of it (which he didn't), it appeared he didn't know what was going on under his nose.
        3. True to the "Teflon president" nickname, Reagan came through the ordeal still very popular.
  8. Reagan’s Economic Legacy
    1. The traditional viewpoint of increasing government revenue was to increase taxes. Supply-side economists felt that thinking was backwards. They said cutting taxes would actually increase revenue (through growing the economy).
      1. The reality of the Reagan years was a "revenue hole" of $200 billion per year, caused by the tax cuts and increased military spending.
      2. In his eight years, Reagan added almost $2 trillion to the national debt—more than all of the previous presidents combined. (Bad as they were, even Reagan's high-debt numbers would seem small in later years).
      3. Also, much of the debt was to foreign nations, especially Japan. Paying it off in the future seemed, and still seems, bleak.
    2. Reagan was successful in halting the "welfare-state" programs that had dominated the New Deal, the Fair Deal, and the Great Society. His goal of smaller government was achieved.
    3. A sorry trend between 1970 and the year 2000 emerged. The old cliché of "the rich got richer and the poor got poorer" was true.
      1. The Reaganomics idea of “trickle-down economics”, helping the rich (who own business and grow the economy) would cause money trickle down to the working classes, seemed proven false by the statistics.
      2. Between 1970 and 2000, the poorest fifth of Americans got slightly poorer (from 5.4 to 4.3% of total income). The wealthiest fifth got fairly richer (40.9 to 47.7%). The 3/5 in the middle class got fairly poorer (53.6 to 47.9%).
  9. The Religious Right
    1. In the early 1980s, the political power of religious conservatives became apparent. They rose up in the "cultural wars" to attack the excesses of the 1960s and 70s.
    2. Rev. Jerry Falwell started the Moral Majority and registered between 2 and 3 million voters.
      1. Falwell spoke against sexual permissiveness, abortion, feminism, and homosexuality.
    3. "Televangelists" used the media to convey their messages.
      1. They also used some of the old 60s techniques, such as "identify politics" and civil disobedience by blocking entrances to abortion clinics.
    4. Some of the leaders were plagued with scandal, but still, the "New Right" remained a powerful force in American politics.
  10. Conservatism in the Courts
    1. As previous presidents had used to Supreme Court to swing to the liberal side, Reagan used it to swing back to the right, the conservative side.
      1. He named a near-majority of the Court during his eight years.
      2. Three justices were conservative-leaning. Notable was Sandra Day O'Connor, the first woman on the Supreme Court.
    2. The court dealt with affirmative action.
      1. In 1984, it ruled that a union's rules on job seniority outweighed affirmative action quotas.
      2. In Ward's Cove Packing v. Arizona and in Martin v. Wilks, the Court made it harder to prove a company practiced racial discrimination in hiring and easier for whites to prove reverse discrimination in hiring.
    3. The court ruled on abortion.
      1. Roe v. Wade had legalized abortion in 1973. Hot questions in the culture war rose up such as, "Is it legal to abort a baby the minute before a natural birth?", "The day or week or month before?", and "If it's not okay near the end of a pregnancy, why is it okay a bit earlier?" And others like, "Is it okay for a 14 year old to get pregnant, then walk into a clinic and get an abortion without the parents ever knowing? A 13 or 12 year old?" and "Should taxpayer money go toward those aborting those babies?"
      2. In Webster v. Reproductive Health Services the Court supported a Missouri law a place some restrictions on abortion.
      3. In Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the Court ruled that states could restrict access to an abortion if it did not place "undue burden" on the mother. In this case, a wife could not be forced to tell her husband of an abortion, a minor could be forced to tell her parents.
    4. These decisions threw gas on the fire for feminists and pro-abortion advocates. Bitter culture war battles would follow.
  11. Referendum on Reaganism in 1988
    1. In 1986, the Democrats won back the Senate and pushed back against Reagan.
      1. The Iran-Contra affair didn't help Reagan's image and the Democrats tried to seize on this.
      2. Robert Bork was rejected for nomination to the Supreme Court as being too conservative.
    2. The two deficits hurt: the annual budget deficit and the trade deficit.
    3. Dropping oil prices hurt the Southwest's economy, lowered real estate values, and badly hurt savings and loans (S&Ls).
      1. The S&L situation was so bad that the federal government had to enact a $500 billion bail out.
    4. The stock market got wild with many mergers and buyouts.
      1. The jitters kicked in on October 19, 1987 and the market dropped 508 points—the largest one day drop in history up 'til then.
    5. The Democrats hoped to rally these events right into the White House in 1988.
      1. Gary Hart was the early front-runner but had to drop out after being caught with a mistress on his yacht named "Monkey Business."
      2. Black candidate Jesse Jackson put together what he called a "rainbow coalition."
      3. The Democratic nomination went to Michael Dukakis, the calm governor of Massachusetts.
      4. The Republicans nominated V.P. George H. W. Bush, essentially to keep the Reagan years going.
      5. Despite the not-so-good news of late, America was still doing well. Plus, Dukakis installed little if any excitement. Bush won handily, 426 to 112.
  12. George H. W. Bush and the End of the Cold War
    1. Bush came from a well-to-do family, the son of a senator. He grew up in Connecticut, attended Yale, served in WWII, and entered the oil business in Texas. He then entered public service: congressman, emissary to China, ambassador to the U.N., director of the C.I.A., and vice president. As president, he sought "a kinder, gentler America."
    2. Communism seemed at the breaking point early in Bush's administration.
      1. In China, hundreds of thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators met in Tiananmen Square in Beijing. They raised a 30 foot statue modeled after the Statue of Liberty.
        1. The Chinese leaders were not pleased and ordered the military into the Square to break up the protest. Hundreds were killed and the protest ended.
      2. In Europe, communism did fall.
        1. The Solidarity movement in led by ousting the communist government.
        2. Other communist nations quickly followed by booting the government out, including: Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Romania.
        3. The symbol of the Cold War was the Berlin Wall. In December of 1989, the wall came down after 45 years.
        4. Even larger, the U.S.S.R. broke apart.
          1. Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika were opening things up within the Soviet Union.
          2. Soviet hardliners tried a military ouster of Gorbachev. Russian president Boris Yeltsin helped stop the coup attempt.
          3. Gorbachev later resigned in 1991 and the U.S.S.R. busted up into 15 independent republics. These were loosely united in what was called the "Commonwealth of Independent States." Gorbachev's legacy would be that he tore down the old communistic Soviet structure.
        5. The message seemed clear: the Cold War was over, the democracies had won and communism had lost. Bush spoke of a "new world order" where democratic republics would negotiate rather than fight.
    3. With 15 new nations, the new worry was what would happen to all of the old Soviet nuclear weapons.
      1. Bush met with Yeltsin and worked out the START II treaty. It promised to reduce long-range nuclear weapons by 2/3 within 10 years.
      2. With all the huge changes happening so fast, Europe would go through quite a bit of unrest—mostly ethnic and economic.
    4. The changes also meant changes for the U.S. For the last 40 years, U.S. foreign policy had been rather simple—oppose the U.S.S.R. Now what?
      1. With the Cold War over, military cuts were made. 34 military bases were closed, a $52 billion order for navy attack planes was canceled, defense plants closed.
    5. Democracy spread to other parts of the world too.
      1. The racist South African system of "apartheid" ended. Nelson Mandela was released from prison after 27 years and was later elected South Africa's president.
      2. In Nicaragua, elections removed the communist Sandinistas. Peace also came to El Salvador after much fighting.
  13. The Persian Gulf Crisis
    1. The Middle East and oil were still troublesome. In August of 1990, Saddam Hussein invaded and took over Kuwait. He wanted Kuwait's oil fields and port to the Persian Gulf.
      1. Saddam was widely known as a ruthless thug and dictator who killed his own people if they opposed him.
    2. President Bush responded by going to the United Nations.
      1. The Security Council gave the okay to use force to remove Saddam if he didn't leave. January 15, 1991 was set as the deadline. Congress later gave their official approval.
    3. Meanwhile, Bush amassed a huge military force. There were over 500,000 Americans joined by 270,000 from 28 other nations.
    4. The Persian Gulf War was short and effective.
      1. The attack started January 16 and moved fast. First, warplanes pounded the Iraqis. Saddam shot "Scud" missiles at the U.S. troops and at Israel. Many were shot down in flight by American "Patriot" missiles.
      2. The U.S. was led by Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf ("Stormin' Norman") feared the worst when Saddam spoke of waging the "mother of all battles."
        1. Saddam had stockpiled chemical and biological weapons, poison gas, and might spread anthrax.
      3. Next, ground troops moved in with tanks in what was called "Operation Desert Storm." Desert Storm moved fast and lasted only four days. Saddam had oil dumped into the Persian Gulf and set the oil fields on fire as he pulled back. Scores of Iraqi soldiers were more-than-willing to surrender.
    5. The generals wanted to go into Baghdad and take out Saddam then and there. But, Bush said the deal was to kick Saddam out of Kuwait, not to overrun Iraq.
    6. Saddam accepted a cease-fire on February 27. But, he was still in power—a fact that would come back to haunt the U.S.
  14. Bush on the Home Front
    1. The Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) banned discrimination of the disabled.
    2. A major water projects bill was signed to subsidize western waters.
    3. The culture wars continued.
      1. The Dept. of Education questioned whether college scholarships for minorities were legal.
      2. The threatened to veto a bill that would've made it easier for an employee to prove discrimination in hiring and promotion practices.
      3. Bush nominated African-American Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court. Thomas appointed was opposed by the NAACP because Thomas was conservative and by NOW (National Org. for Women) because he was pro-life.
        1. Adding fuel to the fire, a woman claimed she'd been sexually harassed by Thomas. It turned into a classic he-said she-said situation. Despite the sound and fury, Clarence Thomas' appointment was approved, 52-48.
        2. The nomination process did bring sexual harassment to the fore and raised tension over the topic.
    4. Worse for George H. W. Bush was the economy.
      1. During the 1988 campaign, Bush had made the promise, "Read my lips, no new taxes." When the economy slowed and revenue dropped, and with the annual deficit at $250 billion, he had to eat those words.
      2. In 1990, Bush went along with a budget increase and a tax increase.
      3. Fair or not, like many other presidents the bad economy was blamed on Bush, and would cost him an election.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 40 - America Confronts the Post-Cold War Era

  1. Bill Clinton: the First Baby-Boomer President
    1. In the 1992 presidential election, the Democrats chose Bill Clinton for president along with Al Gore for V.P. They were the first baby boomer presidential candidates.
      1. Clinton carried some baggage—accusations of womanizing, sampling marijuana as a youth, avoiding the draft for Vietnam).
      2. The Democrats moved away from their extreme-liberal positions more "toward the center." They advocated economic growth, a strong defense, and anti-crime measures.
    2. George H. W. Bush sought reelection. J. Danforth Quayle was nominated as V.P. candidate.
      1. The Republicans championed ending the Cold War, success in the Persian Gulf, and focused on "family values" and claimed that "character matters", thus Clinton and his baggage should not be elected.
    3. Ross Perot rose as a significant third party candidate. A tech-company billionaire who spent his own money campaigning, he ran on one main issue: the U.S. must get the debt under control.
    4. Bill Clinton won the election, 374 to 168, because of two reasons…
      1. The poor economy was the #1 issue—bad news for Bush, good for Clinton. Clinton had a slogan to remind his staff, "It's the economy, stupid."
      2. Ross Perot took votes away from George H.W. Bush. Perot received 19% of the popular vote. Most Perot supporters would've voted Republican if he'd not been in the election.
    5. Both houses of Congress also went to the Democrats.
    6. Minorities also did well in 1992. Carol Moseley-Braun was the first woman ever elected to the Senate. There were minorities and women in the president's cabinet, including the first female attorney general, Janet Reno.
      1. Clinton would also appoint Ruth Bader Ginsburg to the Supreme Court giving it a second female justice.
  2. A False Start for Reform
    1. Clinton quickly pressed to allow homosexuals in the military. He had to draw back a bit and settle with the compromise of a "don't ask, don't tell" policy. Homosexuals were still banned if they said they were gay, but no one would ask. Thus, a homosexual could enter the military without having to lie.
    2. One of Clinton's main ambitions was to reform America's health-care system. The task was huge.
      1. He appointed his wife, Hillary Clinton, to head the committee of health-care reform. This was obviously a very different role for a First Lady.
      2. Meeting after meeting after meeting was held. To match a complicated problem, the plan that was developed was incredibly confusing and complicated itself. It was not going to make it through Congress and didn't.
    3. Good news came with the budget. Clinton got a deficit-reduction bill passed in 1993. By 1996, the economy was doing very well. The annual budget deficit would actually become a budget surplus and the national debt would actually go down.
    4. Guns came under fire.
      1. The "Brady Bill" was passed to place restrictions on buying a gun. It was named after James Brady who'd been shot during the Reagan assassination attempt.
      2. An $30 billion anti-crime bill was also passed to ban certain assault weapons.
    5. There were terrorist activities.
      1. A religious cult called the "Branch Davidians" gathered weapons and holed themselves up in a Waco, TX compound. After a standoff with the ATF (Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms), the feds moved in, set the compound on fire. Everyone inside, including women and children, either were killed by their leaders, committed suicide, or died from the fire.
      2. A "homegrown" anti-government terrorist blew up a federal building in Oklahoma City in 1995. 168 people died.
      3. Later, in 1998, the anti-gun movement gained steam when two students killed twelve others in Littleton, CO.
        1. Those against restricting guns used two arguments: (1) the Second Amendment simply states the "right to bear arms" and, (2) that simply banning guns doesn't mean they disappear—criminals would still get them if they wanted. The slogan was, "If guns were outlawed, only outlaws would get guns."
      4. Foreign terrorists struck too. These were the work of the radical Islamic terrorist sect Al-Qaeda.
        1. In 1993, terrorists drove a truck bomb underneath the World Trade Center and detonated it. The parking garage was gutted, but the buildings stood (until 9/11/2001 when Al Qaeda struck again).
        2. In 1998, Al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden sent truck bombs to the U.S. embassies in in Tanzania and Kenya. Hundreds were killed.
        3. Al-Qaeda struck again in 2000 when a suicide boat exploded against the U.S.S. Cole killed 17 American sailors.
        4. Unfortunately, little action was taken to halt this trend of terrorism.
  3. The Politics of Distrust
    1. In the 1994 mid-term elections, the Republicans pushed back, led by Newt Gingrinch.
      1. Gingrinch developed the "Contract with America"—a deal with America to reduce the deficit and cut welfare-state programs.
      2. The programs was very successful. The Republicans took over both houses of Congress. Gingrinch became the Speaker of the House.
    2. Now, with a Republican Congress, Clinton would have to play politics for sure. Things see-sawed back-and-forth.
      1. The Republicans scored victories.
        1. They passed a law restricting "unfunded mandates" where the federal government mandates the states to do something, but provides no money to do it.
        2. They also passed the Welfare Reform Bill which rolled back welfare handouts and forced able-bodied people to get off taxpayer money and go to work.
      2. The Democrats and Clinton scored victories.
        1. The very fact Clinton signed those bills hurt Republicans. He (1) stole their thunder, and (2) he moved even more "to the center" and perhaps made himself even more electable. Liberals on the left were mad, but "the center" has more voters.
        2. Gingrich began to rub many Americans the wrong way as if he were going too far. Things like his suggestion of sending children of families on welfare to orphanages didn't sit well. Also, when a budget was not agreed upon, the federal government shut down for several days. Again, it looked bad and the Republican Congress got the blame.
    3. The 1996 presidential election was almost a moot point. Clinton ran for reelection. Bob Dole ran for the Republicans.
      1. Dole was from the WWII generation and his campaign was uninspiring. To the younger baby boom generation, electing Dole would seem to be moving backward. More importantly, the economy was doing great.
      2. Clinton was reelected easily, 379 to 159. He was the first Democrat reelected since FDR.
  4. Clinton Again This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Again, Clinton governed "to the middle."
      1. He embraced the Welfare Reform Bill, which he'd initially signed with reluctance.
      2. He addressed affirmative action with a "mend it, don't end it" approach.
        1. By this time, the courts and America's mood was beginning to turn away from affirmative action. Clinton spoke out against this movement, but didn't pursue action (again, a middle ground move).
    2. Clinton was largely a popular president—always the result of a strong economy. There were some money disputes…
      1. Clinton supported the hot-topic of NAFTA (North American Free-Trade Agreement). It cut tariffs and trade barriers to set up a free trade zone between Canada, the U.S., and Mexico.
      2. Clinton supported the beginning of the WTO (World Trade Organization) to lower tariffs and trade barriers internationally.
      3. Campaign finance reform came to the fore. Many people disliked how political donors could give tons of money to a candidate. The thinking was, "I'll give you money for the campaign, and when you're in office, remember me." Both parties talked about campaign finance reform, but with big money so critical in elections, neither did anything.
  5. Problems Abroad
    1. With the Cold War over, there was a question of where and how to apply U.S. foreign policy. Clinton dotted around the globe.
    2. President Clinton deployed troops to Somalia to help restore order from chaos. Dozens of U.S. troops died. Clinton pulled the troops out without having set or accomplished a clear goal.
      1. Notably, the U.S. did not intervene in Rwanda. There, some 500,000 people were killed in ethnic fighting.
    3. In Haiti president Jean-Bertrand Aristide was ousted in a military coup in 1994. Clinton sent 20,000 U.S. troops to put Aristide back into power. (He was booted again in 2004).
    4. As a campaigner, Clinton talked tough on China's poor human rights record. As president, he realized the importance of China as a trade partner. He softened his talk and with Congress, made China a full trade partner of the U.S.
    5. Yugoslavia's many ethnic groups began fighting themselves. Clinton and NATO sent a peace-keeping force in attempt to restore order.
      1. Things there were ugly, with Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic started "ethnic cleansing." It was a miniature Holocaust.
      2. Clinton ordered an air raid in response. People scattered, but Milosevic did accept a cease-fire. (He was later arrested and tried at the International Criminal Court).
    6. Clinton also negotiated another Middle East peace treaty. This time, the leaders were Israel's Yitzhak Rabin and the controversial Palestinian Liberation Org. (PLO) head Yasir Arafat.
      1. This treaty would prove brief—two years later Rabin would be assassinated.
    7. Nearing the end of his second term, Clinton seemed eager to leave a lasting legacy to his presidency.
      1. He and his Sec. of State Madeleine Albright, worked unsuccessfully to broker another Middle East peace agreement.
      2. Clinton also tried to work peace in Ireland, the Koreas, India, and Pakistan. He wasn't successful.
  6. Scandal and Impeachment
    1. Rumors and scandal seemed to follow Clinton, earning him the nickname "Slick Willy."
      1. Womanizing rumors had followed Clinton since the campaign days.
      2. He and wife Hillary were accused of shady business in their home state of Arkansas with investments in the Whitewater Land Corporation. A special federal prosecutor investigated the Whitewater deal, but nothing ever came out of it.
      3. Eyebrows rose and conspiracy theories went wild when Vincent Foster, Jr. committed suicide. He was in charge of managing Clinton's legal and financial affairs. It seems apparent that his suicide was due to personal reasons.
    2. All scandals became secondary to the Monica Lewinsky sex scandal in the White House.
      1. Lewinsky was an intern. She and Clinton had a sexual affair.
      2. Then, while under oath for a different woman's sexual harassment lawsuit, Clinton lied about the Lewinski affair.
        1. Clinton was asked if he'd had "sexual relations", and whatever went on between he and "that woman" did not meet his definition of sex. Clinton felt he didn't lie.
        2. The DNA in the stain on Lewinsky's infamous blue dress said otherwise.
      3. For "obstruction of justice" and perjury, the House voted to impeach Clinton—the second president to be impeached after Andrew Johnson in the 1960s.
      4. However, the Senate did not get the 2/3 vote necessary to kick Clinton from office.
  7. Clinton’s Legacy and the 2000 Election
    1. Clinton wanted a lasting legacy to his presidency, one that did not involve the words "scandal" or "impeach."
      1. Clinton preserved lands, set up a "patients' bill of rights", and hired more teachers and police officers.
    2. Clinton did make some good marks.
      1. He truly did "govern to the middle"—this angered the far Left and Right, but appealed to most Americans.
      2. The economy was strong and the budget was at surplus levels. Unemployment was a bare minimum, poverty rates went down, median income reached new highs.
        1. History may in fact make the budget surplus Clinton's non-scandal legacy.
      3. Clinton left on something of a sour note.
        1. With a few days left, he negotiated a deal on the Lewinsky scandal. He got immunity from any future legal action in the case in return for paying a fine and suspension of his law license for 5 years.
        2. Also, at the last moment, he gave pardons to political donors and backers which got them out of jail.
    3. The Bush-Gore Presidential Battle
      1. The 2000 presidential election was predicted to be a close one.
      2. Vice President Albert Gore was nominated by the Democrats. Gore had a Clinton paradox—the good was that he could lay claim to the prosperity of the Clinton years, the bad was that aligning too close with Clinton also aligned with his scandals.
      3. The Republicans chose Texas governor George W. Bush, (nicknamed "W" or Texas-style, "Dubya"). Bush spoke of being a "compassionate conservative." He chose Dick Cheney as his running-mate. Cheney had been a major player in Bush's father's presidency during the Persian Gulf War.
        1. A third party, the "Green Party" nominated Ralph Nader. The party consisted mostly of environmentalists and extreme liberals.
      4. With the government collecting a more money than it spent (a budget surplus), the question became, "What should be done with the extra money?"
        1. Bush believed the money belonged to the taxpayers. Thus, he wanted to make a large tax cut to return the money "to the people."
        2. Gore wanted to make a smaller tax cut then use the rest to pay down the debt, invest in Social Security, and perhaps expand Medicare.
        3. Notably, this was age-old class warfare. Bush's plan would've helped the people who paid the taxes—generally the higher wage earners. However, some 45% of American do not pay income taxes. That group votes dominantly Democratic. Therefore, Gore's plan focused more on spending the tax money on social services.
      5. Nader, was little more than a side-show.
    4. The presidential election of 2000 was essentially a tie, and turned very controversial. Only the Hayes-Tilden standoff of 1876 was comparable.
      1. The election boiled down a few states. Florida was the critical swing state because it had the nation's fourth most electoral votes. Florida was essentially a tie, but very slightly favored Bush. There were even more twists to the election…
        1. Jeb Bush was governor of Florida, and the president's brother—perfect fuel for conspiracy theories.
        2. A recount was made. Bush was still ahead, by a margin of around 500 votes out of 6 million.
        3. The questions narrowed to Broward and Palm Beach counties. There was a large Jewish population there so it was figured it would go heavily Democratic (Gore's running-mate was Joseph Lieberman, himself Jewish).
          1. In Palm Beach County, the infamous "butterfly ballot" had supposedly tricked seniors who wanted to vote for Gore into voting for Bush. Another excruciating recount was undertaken there.
      2. The process dragged on for about a month and America still didn't know who the next president would be.
        1. The recounted votes were finally made official and Bush won the election 271 to 266 in the electoral.
      3. There were ironies in the election…
        1. The American electoral system showed its quirkiness. Gore actually got more popular votes (50,999,897 to Bush’s 50,456,002), but he lost the critical electoral vote (266 to Bush’s 271).
        2. Similar to how a third party candidate (Ross Perot) had helped the Democrats by hurting the first Bush an election in 1992, a third party candidate came back to bite the Democrats in 2000. Nader's Green Party got only 2.7% of the vote, however without him in the race, they would've almost certainly voted Democratic and Gore would've won.
      4. Election maps from the 2000 election showed how Americans broke down in terms of voters.
        1. Democrats drew from the cities, the west and east coasts, heavily Latino areas, and from African-Americans (viewing a blue-red Democrat-Republican map, the old "Cotton Belt" from the Mississippi River to Virginia is clearly seen as a blue arc).
        2. Republicans drew from rural areas, mostly the South and the West.
  8. Bush Begins
    1. Like his father, Bush was an odd mix of good ol' boy from Texas and Ivy League. Bush took office talking up his Texas upbringing (true) and talking down his family’s privileged life "Back East" (also true).
    2. Bush stepped into the culture wars, almost always siding conservative. Conservatives and Christians cheered, liberals were irate.
      1. Bush removed support from international groups that were pro-abortion.
      2. He supported federally funded faith-based welfare programs.
      3. He opposed stem-cell research, which had great medical possibilities, on the grounds that the embryo in reality was a small person and doing tests on it was nothing other than abortion.
      4. He frustrated environmentalists by questioning the legitimacy of global warming, shunning the Kyoto agreement that was to limit greenhouse emissions, and speaking of new oil exploration in Alaska. Businesses were happy by these positions.
      5. Bush went ahead with his promised tax cut amounting to $1.3 trillion. By 2004, the cut combined with the economy yielding a $400 billion deficit.
  9. Terrorism Comes to America
    1. On September 11, 2001, America’s centuries-old enjoyment of being on “our side of the pond” ended when militant Islamic radicals attacked America. The radicals hijacked passenger planes and used the planes, and hostages, as guided missiles.
      1. Two planes slammed into the World Trade Center towers in New York City. The towers caught fire, then came down.
      2. A third plane slammed into the Pentagon.
      3. A fourth plane was thought to be aiming for the White House or Capitol building, but heroic passengers took back the plane before it crashed in a Pennsylvania field.
    2. President Bush's legacy would essentially be made for him—how he responded to the 9/11 attacks. Bush proved a strong leader in the period after the attacks.
      1. The whole plan was the work of Al-Qaeda, headed by Osama bin Laden.
      2. In true Texas-style, Bush called for Bin Laden’s head. Afghanistan refused to hand him over so Bush ordered the military to go on the offensive and hunt him down. The hunt proved to be difficult in rugged Afghanistan and Bin Laden proved elusive.
      3. With the jitters high, the American economy took a turn for the worse, and a few Americans died after receiving anthrax-laden letters. Coupled with fear of another attack, anxiety loomed.
    3. Terrorism launched a “new kind of war” or a “war on terror” that required tactics beyond the conventional battlefield. Congress responded in turn.
      1. The Patriot Act gave the government extended surveillance rights. Critics charged this was a Big Brother-like infringement of rights, a reversal of the freedoms that Americans were fighting for.
      2. The Department of Homeland Security was established as the newest cabinet department with the goal of securing America.
  10. Bush Takes the Offensive Against Iraq
    1. Saddam Hussein had been a long time menace to long list of people. With Bush, Saddam's time had run out. Bush stated he’d not tolerate Hussein’s defiance of the U.N.’s weapons inspectors.
      1. Also, Bush lumped Iraq and Saddam into an "axis of evil" that he believed helped and harbored terrorists. To Bush, attacking Saddam was just one part of the "war on terror."
    2. The center of the problem was information and lack of action.
      1. Intelligence at the time suggested that Hussein had and was actively making weapons of mass destruction (“WMDs”).
      2. When the U.N. tried to validate or disprove the WMD threat, Hussein continually thumbed his nose at the weapon’s inspectors.
    3. WMD intelligence in hand, Bush decided it was time for action.
      1. Bush sought the U.N.'s approval for taking military action, but some nations, notably France, Russia, and Germany with their Security Council veto, had cold feet.
      2. So, Bush decided to go it alone. Heavy majorities of Congress in October of 2002 approved armed force against Iraq.
      3. The U.N. tried one last time to inspect, Hussein blocked the inspectors again. The U.N. and inspectors asked for more time still. The U.N. appeared to lack any muscle—they'd made a rule, but could not enforce it.
    4. For Bush, time was up and it was time for action. In March of 2003, the U.S. launched an attack and Baghdad fell within a month. Saddam went on the run, then was found nine months later, literally hiding in a hole in the ground.
      1. He would later be turned over to Iraq. The Iraqi court tried Saddam, convicted him of murder, and hanged him.
    5. Taking Iraq, though not easy, was swift and successful, but securing and rebuilding Iraq would prove tougher.
  11. Owning Iraq
    1. Most Iraqi people welcomed the Americans, but certainly not all.
      1. Factions broke out. Iraqi insurgents attacked American G.I.’s and casualties mounted to nearly 1,200 by 2004.
      2. Although removing Saddam had been successful, it was feared that if the U.S. just came home and left a political void, whatever emerged to fill the void may be worse than Saddam. Americans soon began to wonder, “How long will we be there?”
    2. The new goals were to (1) establish security in Iraq, eventually by Iraqi troops, and (2) create and turn over control to a new democratically elected Iraqi government.
      1. Training Iraqi security troops proved pitifully slow.
      2. A new government was created and limited power handed over on June 28, 2004.
      3. Meanwhile, American casualties and deaths added up due to localized fighting and roadside bombs.
    3. Iraq became a divisive issue in America. Conservatives generally supported the war and post-war efforts. Liberals charged that Bush was on some ego-tripping battle charge to hunt down phantom weapons of mass destruction.
    4. A Country in Conflict
      1. Other issues divided America:
        1. Democrats continually grumbled about the “stolen” 2000 election.
        2. Civil libertarians fumed over the Patriot Act.
        3. Pacifists said the WMD reasoning was made up from the get-go to start a war in Iraq they felt unjust.
        4. Big businesses, like Enron and WorldCom, monkeyed around with their accounting and supposedly fattened the rich and gleaned the poor. They went bankrupt and wiped out many people's retirement funds.
        5. Social warfare continued over abortion and homosexuality.
        6. Affirmative action still boiled, and the Supreme Court came up with mathematical formulae for minority admittance to undergrads. The Court also stated that in 25 years racial preferences would likely be unnecessary.
  12. Reelecting George W. Bush
    1. Republicans put Bush up for reelection in 2004.
    2. The Democrats selected Sen. John Kerry of Massachusetts.
    3. Despite the usual litany of issues (education, health care, etc.) the key issue of the 2004 election was national security.
      1. At the heart of the security issue, was the question of the war in Iraq.
      2. Bush said the U.S. was making progress and should thus “stay the course” in Iraq.
      3. Kerry took an anti-war position. However, Kerry’s position on war and his image was somewhat confounding:
        1. Kerry had been a Vietnam war hero, but then became a Vietnam war protester. This trend continued in 2004…
        2. Kerry voted for military action in Iraq, but then voted against a bill for military spending for the war and said he was against the war.
        3. Kerry gained much support by criticizing Bush’s management (or mismanagement) of the Iraq situation.
          1. Kerry charged that Bush had no plan for Iraq after the initial take-over.
          2. However, Kerry focused only on Bush’s failure and failed to effectively present voters with his own alternative course of action.
    4. Most pollsters predicted Kerry to win. But, Bush won with a surprisingly strong showing of 286 electoral votes to Kerry’s 252.
  13. Bush’s Second Term
    1. Bush said winning a second time gave him “political capital”.
    2. He scored wins by appointing conservative Supreme Justices John Roberts and Samuel Alito.
    3. But he over-estimated his capital with losses…
      1. Proposals to reform Social Security were rejected by the AARP (retired folks).
      2. His proposal for a Constitutional ban of same-sex “marriage” was not passed.
      3. His proposal for immigration reform failed as well.
  14. Midterm Elections of 2006
    1. Bush and Republicans fell into disfavor by 2006. Democrats bounced back with election wins.
      1. Nancy Pelosi was named Speaker of the House (1st female ever).
      2. The war in Iraq was likely the biggest factor in the election. At the war’s start, intelligence revealed that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). By 2006, WMDs had not yet been found. Many concluded that the cause of the Iraq war was a farce.
      3. Bush put a “surge” into action into 2007 and stabilized the situation in Iraq.
    2. Barack Obama emerged on the national political scene largely with a criticism of the Iraq war.
  15. The Presidential Election of 2008
    1. Hillary Clinton seemed poised to be the Democratic nominee for president but the upstart Barack Obama won instead.
    2. Republicans nominated John McCain, an independent-minded “Republican”, who picked conservative Sarah Palin as running-mate.
    3. Likely more than anything else, the economy was the number one factor in 2008. The economy tanked—bad news for Republicans, good news for Democrats.
      1. Bush began a huge government takeover of the housing mortgage companies, the nation’s largest insurance company, and bailed out the big banks and corporations.
      2. Democrats/Obama successfully convinced voters that McCain meant another economic meltdown. Thus, the deal was sealed and Obama won.
  16. Obama in the White House
    1. Upon election, Obama toned down his campaign rhetoric of “Hope” and “Change” and tried to scale back expectations.
    2. Obama had a Democratic Congress (both House of Reps and Senate) that were willing and onboard with him. Laws were passed.
      1. The American Relief and Recovery Act, usually known as the “Stimulus Package”, was passed. In keeping with the Democrats’ playbook, this was in the same vein as FDR’s deficit spending New Deal programs.
      2. General Motors and Chrysler were bailed out by the government.
    3. The promised quick recovery did not happen and the “Great Recession” lingered for years. Unemployment was stuck at over 9%.
    4. Health-care reform had been a long-time goal of Democrats (Bill and Hillary Clinton had tried and failed in the 1990s). The so-called Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act passed in 2010, better known as “Obamacare”.
    5. The Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act also passed. Its goal was to regulate the financial world and avoid a similar meltdown as occurred in 2008.
  17. A Sea of Troubles
    1. Obama had problems.
      1. The economy did not improve as promised.
      2. The federal deficit (and thus the debt) increased dramatically with Obama’s rampant government spending.
      3. Many Americans were wary of “big government” trying to control their lives.
    2. Obama named two new Supreme Court justices, both female—Sonia Sotomayor (1st Hispanic justice) and Elena Kagan.
    3. In response to Obama, the “Tea Party” emerged—named after the patriots of the Boston Tea Party days. The Tea Party claimed Obama’s ideas were nothing short of socialist and unconstitutional.
      1. By the 2010 elections for Congress, things looked bad for Obama. The recession kept on going and his ratings slid down with it.
      2. America pushed back against Obama. Democrats lost big and Republicans gained control of the House of Representatives.
    4. Before the Republicans took over though to slow the spending spree, Obama rammed through another “Stimulus Package” of $858 billion.
  18. Wars, Oil Spills, and Political Backlash
    1. The U.S. wound down presence in Iraq.
      1. President Bush had effectively concluded fighting in Iraq and a fledging Iraqi government had been set up, but many U.S. troops were still there.
      2. Obama wanted to get America out of Iraq. He promised that U.S. troops would be out by 2011. That was essentially met (some troops stayed to protect U.S. bases).
    2. Afghanistan proved to be a sticky situation.
      1. Obama never liked the Iraq war, but bought into Afghanistan. There, the Taliban ruled as Muslim radical traditionalists. Al Qaeda (those who pulled off the 9/11 attacks) were also thought to work in Afghanistan.
      2. Obama said the U.S. would begin pulling out in 2011, but before that he’d use a play from George W. Bush’s playbook and do a troop surge in Afghanistan.
      3. U.S. intelligence revealed the location of Osama Bin Laden (mastermind of 9/11). U.S. Navy Seal team 6 went into Bin Laden’s compound in Afghanistan, killed him, and retrieved his body.
    3. An environmental catastrophe occurred under Obama’s watch when an oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico exploded. Oil spewed into the Gulf for four months. It was the largest environmental disaster in U.S. history.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 41 - The American People Face a New Century

  1. Economic Revolutions
    1. In the modern era, heavy industry waned and the information age kicked into high gear.
      1. Companies like Microsoft Corp. and the internet brought about the communications revolution.
      2. Entrepreneurs led the way to making the Internet a 21st century mall, library, and shopping center.
      3. New high-tech jobs were created and other jobs were erased.
    2. White-collar jobs in financial services and high tech engineering were being outsourced to other countries like Ireland and India where wages were lower.
    3. Many discovered that the new high tech economy was also prone to boom or bust, just like the old economy.
      1. In the Spring of 2000, the stock market began its biggest slide since WWII in the "dotcom bust." By 2003, the market had lost $6 trillion in value.
        1. Many Americans' pension plans shrank to 1/3 their previous level.
        2. This showed that Americans were still susceptible to risk, mistakes, scandal, and the ups-and-downs of the business cycle.
    4. Scientific research propelled the economy.
      1. Researchers unlocked the secrets of molecular genetics (1950s).
        1. They developed new strains of high yielding, pest/weather resistant crops.
        2. They sought to cure hereditary diseases.
        3. The movement started to fix genetic mutations.
      2. The "Human Genome Project" established the DNA sequence of the 30 thousand human genes, helping create radical new medical therapies.
        1. Breakthroughs in cloning animals raised questions about the morality of cloning humans.
        2. "Stem cell research", where zygotes or fertilized human eggs, offered possible cures for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
          1. The Bush administration, and many religious groups, believed that this research was killing people in the form of a human fetus.
          2. Bush said a fetus is still a human life, despite its small size, and experimenting and destroying it is therefore wrong. For this reason, he limited government funding for stem cell research.
  2. Affluence and Inequality
    1. U.S. standard of living was still very high compared to most other nations. The median household income in 2002 was $42,400,
    2. The rich still got richer while the poor got poorer.
      1. The richest 20% in 2001 raked in nearly half the nation’s income while the poorest 20% got a mere 4%.
      2. The widening inequality could be measured in different ways as well…
        1. In 2004, over 40 million people had no medical insurance.
        2. 34 million (12% of population) lived at or below the poverty level.
      3. Causes of the widening income gap…
        1. The tax and fiscal policies of the Reagan and both Bush presidencies tended to help the business class.
        2. Intensifying global economic competition lowered wages.
        3. There was a shrinkage of high-paying manufacturing jobs for semiskilled/unskilled workers.
        4. Those who pursued higher education reaped even greater rewards.
        5. Part time and temporary work became more common and there was an increase of low-skilled immigrants.
  3. The Feminist Revolution
    1. Women were greatly affected by the large changes of the late 1900s.
    2. Women steadily increased their presence in the work place.
      1. By 1990s, nearly half of all workers were women. Most surprising was the upsurge of employment in mothers.
        1. By the 1990s, a majority of women with kids as young as one were working.
      2. Many universities opened their doors to women (1960s) such as Yale, Princeton, and even West Point, The Citadel, and Virginia Military Institute (VMI).
      3. Despite gains, many feminists remained frustrated. Women still got lower wages and were concentrated in few low-prestige, low-paying occupations.
        1. For example, in 2002, on 29% of women were lawyers or judges and 25% physicians.
        2. This was likely due to women interrupting their careers to bear and raise kids or taking a less-demanding job to also fulfill the roles of mother.
        3. Discrimination and a focus on kids also helped account for the “gender-gap” in elections.
          1. Women still voted for Democrats more than men.
          2. Women were more willing to favor government support for health and child care, education, and job equality, as well as more vigilant in protecting abortion rights.
    3. Mens’ lives changed in the 2000s as well.
      1. Some employers gave maternity leave as well as paternity leave in recognition of shared obligations of the two-worker household.
      2. More men shared the traditional female responsibilities such as cooking, laundry, and child care.
    4. In 1993, congress passed the Family Leave Bill, mandating job protection for working fathers as well as mothers who needed to take time off from work for family reasons.
  4. New Families and Old
    1. The nuclear family (Mom, Dad, and children) suffered heavy blows in modern America. By the 1990s, half of all marriages ended in divorce.
      1. Seven times more children were affected by divorce as compared to the beginning of the decade.
    2. Traditional families weren’t just falling apart at an alarming rate, but they were also increasingly slow to form in the first place.
      1. The proportion of adults living alone tripled in the 4 decades after 1950s. In the 1990s, 1/3 of women age 25 - 29 had never married.
      2. Every fourth child in the U.S. was growing up in a household that lacked two parents.
      3. Single parenthood was the #1 cause of poverty.
      4. Child-rearing, the age-old goal of a family, was being pawned off to day-care centers, school, or TV (the electronic babysitter).
    3. Families now assumed a variety of different forms.
      1. Kids in households raised by a single parent, stepparent, or grandparent, and even kids with homosexual parents, encountered a degree of acceptance that would have been unimaginable a century earlier.
      2. Homosexual "marriage" and teenage pregnancy was on a decline after the mid-1900s.
    4. Families weren’t evaporating, but were changing into very different forms.
  5. The Aging of America This content copyright © 2010 by WikiNotes.wikidot.com
    1. Old age was expected, since Americans were living longer than ever before. For someone born in 1900, the life expectancy was about 50 years. People born the year 2000 could anticipate living to an average 77 years.
    2. The longer lives were largely due to miraculous medical advances.
      1. One American in eight was over 65 years of age in 2000.
    3. This aging of population raised a slew of economic, social, and political questions.
      1. Seniors formed a potent electoral bloc that aggressively lobbied for government favors and achieved real gains for senior citizens.
      2. The share of GNP spent on health care for people over 65 more than doubled in the 30 years after Medicare started.
      3. However, the more money sent to health care meant less money elsewhere or an increased debt. The old are getting helped, but the young are being paying for it.
      4. These triumphs for senior citizens brought fiscal strains, especially with Social Security.
        1. At the beginning of the creation of Social Security, a small majority depended on it. But modern times, it has increased. And, now current workers’ Social Security contributions actually funds Social Security.
        2. Due to the baby boom generation, the ratio of active workers-to-retirees is at a low-to-high level. And, health care costs have skyrocketed in recent years.
        3. The "unfunded liability" (the shortage between what the government promised to pay to the elderly and the taxes it expected to take in) was about $7 trillion.
        4. Due to possible political repercussions, politicians are very reluctant to talk about changing Social Security. There are possible solutions are:
          1. To delay Social Security payments and persuade older Americans to work longer.
          2. To invest the current Social Security surplus in stocks and bonds to meet future obligations. This could also backfire, however, if the market drops.
          3. A portion of the Social Security money could be privatized if younger people wanted to invest some of their payroll taxes into individual retirement accounts.
  6. The New Immigration
    1. Since 1980, newcomers continued to flow into modern America, at the rate of nearly 1 million per year.
      1. Contradicting history, Europe provided few immigrants. The largest portion came from Asia and Latin America. These immigrants came for many of the same reasons all immigrants:
        1. They left countries where the population was increasing rapidly and…
        2. Where agricultural/industrial revolutions were shaking up old ways of life.
        3. Mostly, like always, they came in search of jobs and economic opportunities—a better life for their families.
      2. Some came with skills and even professional degrees and found their way into middle-class jobs. However, most came with fewer skills/less education. They sought work as janitors, nannies, farm laborers, lawn cutters, etc.
    2. The southwest felt immigration the most, since Mexican migrants naturally arrived in that section of the U.S.
      1. By the turn of the century, Latinos made up nearly 1/3 of the population in California, Arizona, and Texas, and nearly 40% in New Mexico.
      2. Latinos succeeded in making the Southwest a bi-cultural region by holding onto to their culture and language. Most immigrants had assimilated into "American" culture. Plus, it did help to have their "mothering country” right next door, not an ocean away.
    3. Some “old-stock” Americans feared modern America’s capacity to absorb all these immigrants.
      1. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986) attempted to choke off illegal entry by penalizing employers of the illegal immigrants and by granting amnesty to many of those already here.
      2. Anti-immigrant sentiment was strong in California in the wake of economic recession in the early 1990s.
        1. California voters approved a ballot initiative that attempted to deny benefits, including free public education, to illegal immigrants (it was later struck down by courts).
        2. State then passed another law in 1998 which put an end to bilingual teaching in state schools.
    4. By 2002, the U.S. population was made up of 11.5% of foreign-born people. The historical high-point had been 15% in 1910.
    5. There were good sides to the immigration in that (1) immigrants took jobs that Americans didn’t want and (2) the infusion of young immigrants and their offspring helped counter-balance the overwhelming rate of an aging population.
  7. Beyond the Melting Pot
    1. Due to increasing immigration and high birthrate, Latinos were becoming an increasingly important minority
      1. By 2003, the US was home to about 39 million Latinos. (26 million Chicanos, Mexican American, 3 million Puerto Ricans, 1 million Cubans).
      2. Latinos flexed their political powers.
        1. Hispanic mayors were elected in Miami, Denver, and San Antonio.
        2. After many years of struggle, the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC0, headed by Cesar Chavez, succeeded in making working conditions better for Chicano “stoop laborers” who followed the planting cycle of the American West.
      3. Latinos were well organized and became the nation’s largest ethnic minority.
    2. Asian Americans also made great strides.
      1. By the 1980s, they were America’s fastest-growing minority and their numbers reached about 12 million by 2003.
      2. Citizens of Asian ancestry were now counted among the most prosperous Americans. In 2003, the average Asian household was 25% better off than that of the average white household.
    3. American Indians, numbered some 2.4 million in the 2000 census.
      1. Unemployment and alcoholism had blighted reservation life. Half had left their reservations to live in cities.
      2. Many tribes took advantage of their special legal status of independence by opening up casinos on reservations to the public.
      3. However, discrimination and poverty proved hard to break.
  8. Cities and Suburbs
    1. Cities grew less safe, crime was the great scourge of urban life.
      1. The rate of violent crimes raised to its peak in the drug infested 1980s, but then it leveled out in the 90s. Violent crime dropped notably after about 1995.
      2. Still, murder, robbery and rape remained common in cities and rural areas and drove many more people to the suburbs.
    2. In the mid-1990s, a swift and massive transition took place from cities to suburbs, making jobs “suburbanized.”
      1. The nation’s brief “urban age” lasted for only a little less than 7 decades.
      2. Some affluent suburban neighborhoods stayed secluded, by staying locked in “gated communities.”
      3. By the first decade of the 21st century, big suburban rings and beltways emerged around cities like New York, Chicago, Houston, and Washington D.C.
        1. The cities as a whole were becoming more racially and ethnically diverse, however local neighborhoods were often homogeneous.
      4. Suburbs grew fastest in the West and Southwest, in areas such as L.A., San Diego, Las Vegas, and Phoenix.
        1. Builders of roads, water mains, and schools could barely keep up with the new towns sprouting up across the landscapes.
        2. A huge shift of US population was underway from East to West, from North to South.
        3. The Great Plains were hurt from the movement. The entire Plains held fewer people than the Los Angeles basin.
      5. However, some cities started to show signs of renewal in downtown areas such as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Boston, and San Francisco.
  9. Minority America
    1. Racial and ethic tensions also exacerbated the problems of American cities. This was specifically evident in L.A. (a magnet for minorities).
      1. There, in 1992, a mostly white jury exonerated white cops who had been videotaped ferociously beating a black suspect.
        1. The minority neighborhoods of L.A. erupted in a riot of anger. There was looting, arson, killings. Many blacks addressed their anger toward Asian shopkeepers who armed themselves in protection.
        2. The L.A. riots vividly testified to black skepticism about the U.S. system of justice.
      2. Three years later, in L.A., a televised showing of O.J. Simpson’s murder trial fed white disillusionment with the court system and with race relations.
        1. After months of testimony, the evidence (including Simpson's DNA) seemed overwhelmingly that O.J. Simpson was guilty. But, he was acquitted due to the fact some white officers had been shown to harbor racist sentiments.
        2. In a a later civil trial, another jury unanimously found Simpson liable for the “wrongful deaths” of his former wife and another victim.
      3. The Simpson verdicts revealed the huge gap between white and black America.
    2. Blacks still felt that they were mistreated, as in 2000 election when they claimed that they weren’t allowed to vote in Florida.
    3. In 2002, 52% of blacks and only 21% of whites lived in inner cities.
      1. The most desperate black ghettos were especially problematic. Blacks who'd benefited from the 60s Civil Rights Movement left to the suburbs along with whites. This left the poorest of the poor in the old city ghettos.
        1. Without a middle class to help the community, the cities became plagued by unemployment, crime, and drug addiction.
      2. Single women headed about 43% of black families in 2002, 3 times more than whites.
        1. Many single, black mothers depended on Welfare to feed their children.
        2. Social scientists made it clear that education excels if the child has warm, home environment. It seemed clear that many fatherless, impoverished black kids seemed plagued by educational handicaps which were difficult to overcome.
    4. Some segments of black communities did prosper after the Civil Rights Movement, although they still had a long way to go to reach equality.
      1. By 2002, 33% of black families had a $50,000 income, putting them at middle class level.
      2. Blacks also gained power in politics.
        1. The number of black officials elected had risen to the 9,000 mark. This included more than 3 dozen members of Congress and mayors of some big cities.
        2. Voter tallies showed that black more blacks were going to the polls.
        3. By the early 21st century, blacks had dramatically advanced into higher education. In 2002, 17% of blacks over 25 had a bachelor’s degree.
          1. To keep the numbers up and growing, the courts still preserved affirmative action in the university admissions.
  10. E Pluribus Plures
    1. Ideas of race, ethnicity, and culture were changing in the late 1900s.
    2. Sounding like early 20th century “cultural pluralists” such as Horace Kallen and Randolph Bourne, many advanced the idea of “multiculturalism.” This stressed the need to preserve, rather than squash racial minorities, old ways, and ethnic traits.
      1. The old idea of a “melting pot” gave way to a “salad bowl."
    3. The nation’s classrooms became the heated area for debate.
      1. Multiculturalists attacked traditional the curriculum as being too white and advocated a greater focus on achievements of blacks, Latinos, Asians, Indians.
      2. In defense, critics said that studies on ethnic differences would destroy American values.
      3. The Census Bureau furthered the debate when, in 2000, it allowed respondents to identify themselves with more than one of the six categories: black, white, Latino, American Indian, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander.
  11. The Postmodern Mind
    1. Despite the TV, American read more in the early 21st century, listened to more music, and were better educated than ever.
      1. Colleges awarded some 2.5 million degrees in 2004. One quarter of the 25-34 age group was a college grad. This fact helped the economy.
    2. What Americans read said much about Americans themselves.
      1. Some authors wrote of the American western experience.
        1. Larry McMurtry wrote about the end of the cattle drive era in Lonesome Dove (1985).
        2. Raymond Carver wrote powerful stories about the working class in the Pacific Northwest.
        3. Annie Dillard, Ivan Doig, and Jim Harrison recreated the frontier, also in the Pacific Northwest.
        4. David Guterson wrote a moving tale of interracial anxiety and love in the WWII era in Pacific Northwest in Snow Falling on Cedars (1994).
        5. Wallace Stagner produced many remarkable works like Angle of Repose (1971) and Crossing to Safety (1987).
        6. Norman MacLean wrote two unforgettable events about his childhood in Montana, A River Runs Through It (1976) and Young Men and Fire (1992).
      2. There were African-American authors.
        1. August Wilson retold the history of the blacks in 20th century emphasizing on the psychological cost of the northward migration.
        2. George Wolf explored sobering questions of black identity in Jelly’s Last Jam about the life story of jazz musician “Jelly Roll” Morton.
        3. Alice Walker gave fictional voice to the experiences of black women in her hugely popular The Color Purple.
        4. Toni Morrison wrote a haunting story of a mother's love in Beloved.
        5. Edward P. Jones inventively rendered the life of a slave-owning black family in The Known World.
          1. Morrison, Walker, and Jones won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction. Morrison also won the Nobel Prize for literature.
      3. American Indians wrote or were written about.
        1. N. Scott Momaday won a Pulitzer Prize for his portrayal of Indian life in House Made of Dawn.
        2. James Welch wrote movingly about his Blackfoot ancestors in Fools Crow.
      4. Asian-American authors flourished as well.
        1. Among them was playwright David Hwang, novelist Amy Tan, and essayist Maxine Hong Kingston.
        2. Gish Jen in Mona in the Promise Land guided her readers into the poignant comedy of suburban family relationships that was common for 2nd-generation Asian-Americans.
      5. Jhumpa Lahiris’ Interpreter of Maladies, explored the relationship struggles between immigrant Indian parents and their American-born kids.
      6. There were Latino writers.
        1. Sandra Cisneros drew from her own life as a Mexican-American kid to write on Latino life in working-class Chicago in The House on Mango Street.
  12. The New Media
    1. The internet was first created by the government as a tool to fight the Cold War. In the 1990's, the internet came to average households, then spread like crazy…
      1. In 1997, 18% of households had the internet, in 2007, 70% did.
    2. The internet's rapid growth led to a dot-com boom, and subsequent bust. The dot-com boom peaked around the year 2000.
      1. Many dot-coms failed, but those that stayed became the giants of the 'net: Amazon in retail, Google in searching, and E*trade in finance.
    3. There were other internet niches…
      1. Younger Americans flocked to social networking sites like MySpace and Facebook.
      2. YouTube became the standard for posting and watching online videos.
    4. Traditionally, a person learned of the news either through the morning paper (yesterday's news) or the 6:00 o'clock nightly news (the day's news). This changed with the internet.
      1. Now, anyone with a computer and a connection could write about on weblogs or "blogs." Facts and research were optional.
      2. This instantaneous news and information source had been challenged by 24 hour cable news channels, but the internet now involved the average person too. The big losers were the newspapers whose subscriptions dropped sharply and increasingly turned to their own websites.
  13. The American Prospect
    1. American spirit rolled on in the 21st century, as it always had, but problems continued.
    2. There were equality issues.
      1. Women still felt they were short of first class citizenship.
      2. U.S. society also wanted to find ways to adapt back to the traditional family. But this was difficult if not impossible with the new realities of women working outside the home.
      3. Full equality still seemed to be only a dream for some races.
    3. There were economic issues.
      1. Powerful foreign competitors threatened the U.S. economic status.
      2. The alarmingly unequal distribution of wealth and income threatened to turn America into a society of haves and have-nots.
    4. There were environmental issues.
      1. Coal-fired electrical energy plants produced acid rain and helped greenhouse effect.
      2. Unsolved problem of radioactive waste disposal halted the construction of nuclear power plants.
      3. The planet was being drained of oil and oil spills showed the danger behind oil exploration and transportation.
        1. The public began to look toward alternative fuel sources, such as solar power and wind mills, natural gas, electric “hybrid” cars, an affordable hydrogen fuel cell.
      4. Energy conservation and alternatives remained crucial, but elusive.
    5. All-the-while, more doors were opening for the Americans, such as…
      1. Opportunities in outer space and inner-city streets.
        1. The artist’s easel and the musician’s concert hall.
        2. At the inventor’s bench and the scientist’s laboratory.
    6. And finally, America is dynamic, always growing, evolving, and hopefully improving.
      1. American democracy is ever-changing.
        1. As Woodrow Wilson once wrote, "Democratic institutions are never done; they are like living tissue, always a-making. It is a strenuous thing, this of living life of a free people."
      2. Americans are always striving to be better.
        1. As Teddy Roosevelt once put it, "Far better it is to dare mighty things, to win glorious triumphs, even though checkered by failure, than to rank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy much nor suffer much, because they live in the gray twilight that knows not victory nor defeat."
Subject X2: 

The American Pageant, 15th Edition

Below are chapter notes and outlines for the American Pageant, 15th edition.

Additional Information:

  • Hardcover: 1152 pages
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing; 15 edition (January 1, 2012)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1111349533
  • ISBN-13: 978-1111349530


Subject X2: 

Chapter 01 - New World Beginnings

I. The shaping of North America

  1. Earth’s continent took their positions slowly; they used to all be one giant mass-continent.
    • Shifting caused mountain ranges to form
  2. About 2 million years ago a great chill covered the planet beginning the Great Ice Age When the glaciers receded and melted they scraped away topsoil and the great lakes were formed and filled.

II. Peopling the Americas

  1. The Great Ice Age did more than change the environment, it contributed to the origins of the continent’s human history.
    • As the sea level dropped, it exposed a land bridge connecting Eurasia with North America in the area of the present-day Bering Sea.
    • Across that bridge, probably following migratory herds of game, ventured small bands of nomadic Asian hunters. They spread to all parts of America in over 2,000 years.
  2. Incas in Peru, Mayans in Central America, and Aztecs in Mexico shaped stunningly sophisticated civilizations.

III. The Earliest Americans

  1. Corn growing helped the population grow and quickly became a staple crop.
  2. Everywhere it was planted, corn began to transform nomadic hunting bands into settled agricultural villagers.
    • Corn cultivation reached other parts of North America considerably later. The Mound Builders of the Ohio River valley, the Mississippian culture of the lower Midwest, and the desert-dwelling Anasazi peoples of the Southwest did * sustain some large settlements after the incorporation of corn planting.
    • But mysteriously, perhaps due to prolonged drought, all those ancient cultures fell into decline by about 1300 c.e.
  3. Maize, Beans and Squash made possible three-sister farming.
  4. The Iroquois in the northeastern woodlands, inspired by a legendary leader named Hiawatha, created in the sixteenth century perhaps the closest North American approximation to the great empires of Mexico and Peru.
    • But for the most part, the native peoples of North America were living in small, scattered, and impermanent settlements.
  5. In more settled agricultural groups, women tended the crops while men hunted, fished, gathered fuel, and cleared fields for planting.
    • The Native Americans had neither the desire nor the means to manipulate nature aggressively. They revered the physical world and endowed nature with spiritual properties.

IV. Indirect Discoverers of the New World

  1. The Scandinavians were actually the first to encounter the continent of North America.
    • They landed near Newfoundland but since their governments weren’t looking to expand or settle they lost the new settlements and America was forgotten about except in song and stories.
  2. Christian crusaders must rank high among America’s indirect discoverers.
    • Looking to expand their beliefs to Asia they eventually acquired a taste for the foreign goods. The expense of transporting items from Asia to Europe was so much that they started to look for alternate ways.

V. Europeans Enter Africa

  1. Marco Polo’s travels inspired Europeans to look for cheaper ways to get to desirable goods.
  2. Europeans had invented new ships-caravels- that could help them travel more and had discovered new trade winds that would take them home easier.
  3. The Portuguese were the first to travel to southern Africa.
    • They quickly set up trading posts for gold and slaves.
    • Slave trading became a big business
    • The seafaring Portuguese pushed still farther southward in search of the water route to Asia. Bartholomeu Dias rounded the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488. ten years later Vasco da Gama finally reached India.
  4. Meanwhile, Spain was growing stringer and also wanted to reach new wealth and discovery.

VI. Columbus Comes upon a New World

  1. Spain was ready for new power and riches. The dawn of the Renaissance in the fourteenth century nurtured an ambitious spirit of optimism and adventure.
  2. Christopher Columbus persuaded the Spanish monarchs to outfit him with three tiny but seaworthy ships.
    • Seeking a new water route to the fabled Indies, he in fact had bumped into an enormous land barrier blocking the ocean pathway. He was so sure that he had reached the Indies that he called the natives there Indians which stuck.
    • His discovery would join the four continents- Europe, Africa and the two Americas.
  3. For Europeans as well as for Africans and Native Americans, the world after 1492 would never be the same, for better or worse.

VII. When Worlds Collide

  1. New world plants such as tobacco, maize, beans, tomatoes, and especially the lowly potato eventually revolutionized the international economy as well as the European diet. In exchange the Europeans introduced Old World crops and animals to the Americas.
  2. Unwittingly, the Europeans also brought other organisms in the dirt on their boots and the dust on their clothes
    • Such as the seeds of Kentucky bluegrass, dandelions, and daisies.
  3. Most ominous of all, in their bodies they carried the germs that caused smallpox, yellow fever, and malaria.
    • The Natives didn have any antibodies against the diseases.
  4. Enslavement and armed aggression took their toll, but the deadliest killers were microbes.

VIII. The Spanish Conquistadores

  1. The Europeans realized that there were riches in the Americas.
  2. The Treaty of Tordesillas was established dividing the new world between Portugal and Spain.
    • Lots of explorers then thirsted for riches and went forth to discover new things and conquer people both in North and South America.
    • The New World gold helped transform the world economy.
  3. The Europeans used techniques to subdue the natives; the most popular one was the Encomienda system which was still slavery.

IX. The Conquest of Mexico

  1. In about 1519, Hernan Cortes set sail from Cuba with men and horses.  Along the way, he picked up two translators - A Spanish prisoner of Mayan-speaking Indians, and an Indian slave named Malinche.
  2. The Spaniards arrived at Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital with the intention of stealing all of the gold and other riches; superstitious Moctezuma- the Aztec ruler also believed that Cortés was the god Quetzalcoatl.
    • He allowed Cortez to come near the city unopposed.
  3. Because of the Spanish treatment, the Indian population in Mexico went from 20 million to 2 million in less than a century.
  4. The invader brought more than conquest and death. He brought his crops and his animals, laws and language.

X. The Spread of Spanish America

  1. Spain’s colonial empire grew swiftly and impressively.
    • A lot of Spanish cities flourished and by this time other countries wanted in on the wealth. The Spanish began to fortify and settle their North American borderlands and to block the entrance of the French and others.
  2. The natives, tired of being forced into a different religion, launched a rebellion known as Popes Rebellion, where they burned down churches and killed priests.
    • It took nearly half a century for the Spanish fully to reclaim New Mexico from the insurrectionary Indians.
  3. The Spaniards, who had more than a century’s head start over the English, were genuine empire builders and cultural innovators in the New World.
    • They eventually intermarried and mixed their culture with the indigenous people instead of shunning them like the English did.
    • The Spanish invaders did indeed kill, enslave, and infect countless natives, but they also erected a colossal empire and set the foundation for many Spanish-speaking nations.
File Chapter 01 - New World Beginnings 19.94 KB
Subject X2: 

Chapter 02 - The Planting of English America

Most of the new world had been changed profoundly as the seventeenth century dawned. North America was largely unclaimed (the area over Mexico). And the Spanish had set up much of the control in Central and South America.

I. England’s Imperial Stirrings


  1. England didn’t put in much effort to colonize as the Spanish did.
  2. After King Henry VIII broke with Church he launched the English Protestant reformation. At first England and Spain were allies but after the Protestant Elizabeth ascended to the English throne a rivalry with Catholic Spanish intensified. Catholic Ireland, originally under English rule sought help from Spain but they failed and England put protestants there. Many English developed contempt for the “savage” Irish.


II. Elizabeth Energizes England


  1. Elizabeth encouraged English raiding the Spanish. The most famous seadog was Sir Francis Drake. Elizabeth knighted him, and that angered the Spanish.
  2. When English attempted colonization they had many failures. The first one was Roanoke Island which mysteriously vanished swallowed by the wilderness. The Spanish had better luck colonizing.
  3. King Philip II of Spain sent an armada to invade England but the English fought back. The English inflicted heavy damage and a storm arose which scattered the crippled Spanish.
    • The year 1588 marked the beginning of Spain’s downfall. Spanish Caribbean slipped from Spain, and Holland got independence.
    • England’s victory dampened Spain’s fighting spirit and increased England’s naval dominance. England was a strong, united nation under a popular monarch, nationalism.
  4. The Golden age of literature dawned with William Shakespeare. English had a thirst for adventure & curiosity.
  5. England and Spain finally signed a peace treaty in 1604.


III. England on the Eve of an Empire


  1. Population was growing when economic depression hit the woolen trade and thousands of farmers left.
  2. Laws of primogeniture - Only the eldest sons were eligible to inherit estates.
  3. In the early 1600’s Joint Stock Companies let investors pool money and share losses/profits.
  4. New Enclosure policies (which means fencing in land) meant that there was less or no land left over for the poor.


IV. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling


  1. Virginia Company got a charter from King James I; they wanted gold and passages to the Indies. Stock holders wanted to form the company, get profit and then quickly sell it.
  2. The charter of the Virginia Company was a significant document in American history and guaranteed overseas settlers the same rights of Englishmen in Britain.
  3. Settlers arrived on May 24, 1607 to Jamestown. It was an unhealthy and mosquito infested place.
    • There were about 100 men who disembarked and 40 additional colonists perished on the voyage.
    • On the shore they died of disease, malnutrition and starvation. They were “gentlemen” who didn’t want to do any work. Problems a) swampy site – poor drinking water – mosquitoes causing malaria and yellow fever. B) men wasted time looking for gold. C) There were 0 women. D) The supply ship that was supposed to come was wreaked in the Bahamas in 1609.
    • The colonists were saved from collapse by John Smith he said “he who shall not work, shall not eat.”


V. Maryland: Catholic Haven


  1. Maryland was founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore for religious diversity- It was the second plantation colony and fourth overall colony to be formed.
  2. It was to be a place for persecuted Catholics to find refuge of safe haven. Lord Baltimore gave huge estates to his catholic relatives.
    • However, the poor people who were needed to settle there were mostly Protestant, creating friction.
  3. Maryland prospered with tobacco sales like Virginia.
    • It depended on labor = White indentured servants. In later years of the 17th century. Black slaves started to be imported.
  4. Catholics of Maryland passed the Act of Toleration in 1649 which grated toleration to all Christians. Gave the death penalty to those who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ, (The Jews & Atheists) actually made the colonies less tolerant, but the catholic were protected.


VI. The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America


  1. As the British were colonizing Virginia they were also colonizing the West Indies colonies that weakening Spain was letting go- along with Jamaica in 1655.
  2. Sugar formed West Indian economy.
    • Tobacco was poor man’s crop. Sugar was rich man’s crop.
    • The rich grew lots of sugar on brutal plantations. Only the wealthy owners could succeed in sugar.
    • They brought in African slaves. ¼ of a million slaves were brought in 50 years time.
  3. Blacks were more abundant than whites 4 to 1, even today the region’s population is predominantly black.
  4. To control slaves the English made “codes” that defined slave’s legal statues.
    • The Barbados slave code of 1611 denied most fundamental rights to slaves and gave masters control.
    • West Indies depended on America for foodstuffs.
    • At first Indians were intended to be used as slaves but disease killed about 90 % of all natives.
    • A group of English settlers from the West Indies brought enslaved Africans and the model of slave code. Carolina adapted one like it in 1690.


VII. Colonizing the Carolinas


  1. In England, King Charles I, had been beheaded. There was a civil war in the 1640’s.
  2. Oliver Cromwell ruled for 10 very strict years.
  3. Englishmen restored Charles II to the throne in “the restoration” of 1660.
  4. Carolina was named for Charles II.
    • The king granted land to court families who hoped to grow foodstuffs.
  5. Carolina prospered by developing close economic ties with English West Indies. Many settlers came from Barbados and established a slave trade in Carolina. Native Indians were looked for to be slaves.
    • Lord Proprietors in London protested against Indian slave trading. Indian slaves were sent to the West Indies to work. Others were sent to new England.
    • In 1707 Savannah Indians ended allegiance with Carolinas and migrated back to Maryland and

    • Pennsylvania where a Quaker colony promised better relations between Indians and Whites. Carolinians killed a lot of them before they left though.
    • Rice emerged as the principal export crop. Africans knew how to grow it, and had a relative immunity to malaria which made them ideal laborers on hot and swampy rice plantations.
  6. In Charlestown Jews and others were attracted by religious tolerance despite violence with Spanish and Indians. Carolinas were too strong to be wiped out.


VIII. The emergence of North Carolina


  1. Newcomers to North Carolina were called squatters. They were people from Virginia and owned no land.
    • North Carolinians regarded them as riff-raff. They were also hospitable to pirates, and they developed resistance to authority. They existed in graphical isolation.
  2. North Carolina separated from South Carolina in 1712.
  3. Aristocratic and wealthier people were down south around plantations. The strong willed and independent minded lived up north. North Carolina and Rhode Island were the most independent and least aristocratic.
  4. They had bloody relations with Indians. Aided by south Carolinians they crushed the Indians in Tuscarora War, where they sold hundreds into slavery. South Carolina also defeated Yamasee Indians. Virtually all Indian southern tribes had been devastated by 1720.


IX. Late-coming Georgia: The Buffer Colonies


  1. Georgia- The last of 13 colonies was formed 126 years after the first colony and 52 years after the 12th colony.
    • It was intended to be a buffer to protect the Carolinas from the in Spaniards in Florida and buffer against French from Louisiana. They got money from the British.
    • Georgia was named in honor of King George II. It was launched by philanthropists made silk and wine, haven for wretched souls imprisoned for debt, the founders wanted to keep slavery out of Georgia.
  2. James Oglethorpe was the ablest of the founders and a dynamic soldier. He was a statesman, repelled panish attacks and saved the “charity colony” by his energetic leadership and by using his own fortune to help with the colony,.
  3. Georgia was a melting pot community.
    • All Christian worshippers except Catholics enjoyed religious tolerance.
    • Many missionaries arrived in Savannah to work among debtors and Indians, they tried to convert them. John Westley was one of them who later returned to England and founded the Methodist church.
  4. Georgia grew very slowly it was the least populous. It had an unhealthy climate, slavery restrictions and Spanish attacks.


X. The plantation colonies


  1. Slavery was found in all the plantation colonies devoted to exporting commercial agriculture products and profitable staple crops.
    • Growth of cities was often stunted by forests. Wide scattering of plantations and rivers slowed the development of cities as well. Rivers drove settlers west.
  2. All plantation colonies permitted some religious toleration.
    • In the south crops were tobacco and rice. In south Carolina there was “soil butchery” because of tobacco.


Subject X2: 

Chapter 03 - Settling the Northern Colonies

Chapter 3 Settling the Northern colonies 1619-1700

I. The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism

  1. Martin Luther nailed his protests against Catholicism on the Wittenberg Cathedral in 1517.
    • Said that the bible only was God’s word and started Protestant Reformation.
  2. John Calvin of Geneva believed in the Reformation so much he had ideas that affected America’s future generations.
  3. Calvinism was the main religion for New England.
    • Calvin wrote institutes of the Christian Religion (1536). It said God was good, powerful and already predestines who was going to heaven (the elect) and hell before they were born and said that humans were weak and evil.
  4. Those who were sure to go had signs of conversion where god told them they were of the elect and were then expected to live the life of a visible saint.
    • Calvinism swept through England in the 1530’s where King Henry the 8th broke the Roman Catholic Church.
  5. The Puritans wanted to completely de-catholicize the church.
    • Devout Puritans thought that only visible saints belonged in the church but the king let everyone in.
    • This mix angered a group called the separatists who broke away from the church of England.

II. The Pilgrims end their Pilgrimage at Plymouth

  1. They were unhappy and they wanted to move to a place where they could still keep their English values.
    • They negotiated with the Virginia Company to get the Mayflower ship charter.
  2. When reaching America the ship missed its mark and landed at Plymouth.
    • Fewer than half the people on the ship were separatists; before disembarking 41 adult males not including servants or seamen signed the Mayflower compact – a simple agreement to form a crude government and submit to the will of the majority.
    • After the first winter (1620-1621) only 44/102 pilgrims survived. They weren’t ready at all for it. The men who went considered themselves “gentlemen” and didn’t want to farm and make settlements. They were looking for gold.
    • In the autumn of 1621 they started to see improvements in harvest and celebrated the first Thanksgiving.
    • Pilgrims were blessed with William Bradford who was elected governor 30 times he was a great leader.

III. The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth

  1. In 1630 Massachusetts Bay colony was established by non-separating puritans, it soon grew to be the largest and most influential of the colonies.
  2. The great migration started in 1630- 70000 refugees left England-not all of them were puritans.
    • John Winthrop became Massachusetts 1st governor for 19 years. The Puritan Bay colonists believed that they had a covenant with God, an agreement to build a holy society that would be a model for all humankind.

IV. Building the Bay Colony

  1. Nonbelievers as well as believers paid taxes for the government- this supported the church.
    • A congregation had the right to hire and fire its ministers and set his salary. Clergymen were also barred from holding formal political office.
    • They endorsed the idea of separating church and state. The freemen annually elected the governor and his assistants and a representative assembly called the General Court.
  2. Winthrop didn’t like democracy.

V. Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth

  1. The Bay commonwealth enjoyed a high degree of social harmony.
    • The Quakers were persecuted with fines, floggings and banishment.
    • Antinomianism was the belief that the elect need not obey the laws of either God or man; most notably promoted in the colonies by Anne Hutchinson.
    • She was banished and fled to Rhode Island, eventually killed by Indians.
  2. Roger Williams, an extreme Separatist, was a popular Salem minister who also challenged the Church. He was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

VI. The Rhode Island “Sewer”

  1. Aided by friendly Indians, Roger Williams fled to Rhode Island in 1636. He built the first Baptist church, and established complete freedom of religion even for Jews and Catholics.
    • There were no taxes demanded for the church, no oaths had to be made for religious beliefs.
  2. Rhode Island became individualistic and stubbornly independent.

VII. New England Spreads Out

  1. Hartford and Connecticut were founded in 1635.
  2. In 1639 the settlers of the new Connecticut River colony drafted the Fundamental orders.
  3. 1638- New Haven was established in Connecticut, it was a community founded by puritans. In 1662 Charles II granted Connecticut a charter. In 1641, New Hampshire was absorbed by the greedy Massachusetts Bay. The king took it back and made New Hampshire a royal colony in 1679.

VIII. Puritans Versus Indians

  1. Wampanoag Chieftain signed a treaty with the Plymouth Pilgrims and helped them celebrate the first thanksgiving.
  2. Hostility arose between English settlers and Pequot tribe. The English and their Narragansett Indian allies annihilated the Pequot tribe.
  3. In 1675 King Philip, a Massasoit attacked colonist tribes, was defeated in 1676. IX. Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence
  4. In 1643 four colonies banded together to form the New England Confederation.
  5. During the English civil war there was armed conflict between the between royalists and parliamentarians, resulting in the victory of pro-parliament forces and execution of Charles I. X. Andros Promotes the First American Revolution
  6. Massachusetts suffered humiliation when the Dominion of New England was created by royal authority. The leader of the Dominion was Lord Edmund Andros who was disliked because of his harsh regulations. He was shipped back to England.
  7. The glorious (bloodless) revolution occurred in England to dethrone king James II.
    • A period of salutary neglect –where navigation laws were only weakly enforced- started.

XI. Old Netherlands at New Netherlands

  1. Netherlands revolted against Spain and got their independence in the late 16th century.
    • The 17th century was a golden age in Dutch history
  2. The Dutch East India Company employed henry Hudson to search for riches.
  3. The Dutch West India Company mostly raided other ships, most importantly bought Manhattan Island for very little. New Amsterdam- later called New York was run by the company. It attracted all kinds of people. XII. Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors
  4. New England wasn’t happy about their Dutch neighbor growing.
  5. Sweden also came into America to colonize in their golden years but their rule came to an end when the Dutch sent a military dispatch over and New Sweden was absorbed by new Netherlands.

XIII. Dutch Residues In New York

  1. The English regarded the Dutch as invaders
    • Charles II granted the area to his brother the Duke of York, whom it was named after.
    • They sent over troops to fight the Dutch and conquered the area. The aristocratic atmosphere discouraged European immigrants from coming and retarded the growth of the city.
    • The Dutch left many influences in New York such as street names, Santa Claus and golf. XIV. Penn’s Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania
  2. The Quakers (the Religious Society of Friends were a group of dissenters who were unconventional, they refused to sign oaths, or pay taxes to the Church of England. They hated war and violence.
  3. William Penn was attracted to the Quaker faith; he was paid a monetary debt that was owed to his father with a tract of land called Pennsylvania (Penn’s Woods).
    • It welcomed immigrants and it had fertile land.

XV. Quaker Pennsylvania and its Neighbors

  1. He formally launched his colony in 1681; thousands of squatters lived here already.
    • Philadelphia- the city of brotherly love- was one of the best planned cities with wide streets.
  2. He had peaceful relations with Indians.
    • They went among each other without weapons and Quakers even used some as babysitters.
    • Unfortunately non-Quakers who came on the Quaker land to settle provoked bad feelings towards the Indians.
  3. Pennsylvania had many liberal features such as, unrestricted immigration and paying taxes for church was not mandatory.
    • Attracted a big mix of ethnicity.
  4. Penn wasn’t appreciated or liked because he was friends with King James II
  5. Delaware and New Jersey also formed next to Pennsylvania.

XVI. The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies

  1. The middle colonies- New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania- had fertile soil, rivers and forests.
  2. They were intermediate in size, held a higher degree of toleration, and had an ethnically mixed group of people.
  3. Benjamin Franklin, born in Boston, entered Philadelphia as a seventeen-year-old in 1720 and loved it.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 04 - American Life in the Seventeenth Century

Chapter 4 – American Life in the Seventeenth Century

I. The Unhealthy Chesapeake

  1. Malaria, dysentery and Typhoid took a cruel toll on the Chesapeake settlers, cutting ten years off the life expectancy of newcomers from England.
    • The Great Majority of immigrants were single men in their late teens.
    • Most died after arrival.
    • Surviving males competed for the attentions of the extremely scarce women which outnumbered them 6:1.
  2. Yet despite hardships, the Chesapeake colonies struggled on.
    • The native-born in habitants eventually acquired immunity to killer diseases.
    • The presence of more women allowed more families to form.

II. The Tobacco Economy

  1. The Chesapeake was hospitable to tobacco cultivation.
    • Relentless seeking of fresh fields to plant tobacco made settlers plunge even father up river valleys provoking Indian attacks. 1.5 million pounds of tobacco came out of the Chesapeake Bay.
  2. Indentured servants were willing to be slaves for a couple years in order for someone to pay their transatlantic trip.
    • At the end they’d receive their freedom dues which included food, some tools and a small parcel of land.
  3. Some states practiced the headright system which granted 50 acres of land to whoever paid the passage of a labor to America.
    • Ravenous for labor and land the Chesapeake planters brought some 100,000 indentured servants to the region by 1700’s.
    • As land became scarcer, permit less, poor, freed workers had to hire themselves for pitiful wages back to their former masters.

III. Frustrated Freedmen and Bacon’s Rebellion

  1. Virginia’s governor William Berkley had to deal with one thousands Virginians breaking out of control in 1676.
    • The rioters were led by 29- year old Nathaniel Bacon.
    • They fiercely resented Berkley’s friendly politics towards the Indians. Especially when Berkley refused to retaliate against a series of brutal Indian attacks on frontier settlements.
    • Bacon and his followers murdered the Indians, chased Berkley from Jamestown and set fire to the capital.
    • Eventually Berkley hung 20 rebels and Bacon died of disease.

IV. Colonial Slavery

  1. More than 7 million Africans were carried in Chains to the New World in the 3 centuries following Columbus’s landing.
    • In 1700 about 400,000 ended up in North America.
  2. In 1680 the rising wages in England shrank the pool of penniless folk willing to gamble a new life or an early death as an indentured servant in America.
  3. In 1698 they Royal African Company lost its crown granted monopoly on carrying slaves to the colonies.
    • Enterprising Americans, especially Rhode Islanders rushed in to cash in on the lucrative slave trade and the supply of slaves rose steeply.
  4. The captives, usually branded and bound, were herded aboard sweltering ships for the tiresome middle passage.
    • Death rates ran as high as 20 percent.
    • Slaves were then sent to slave auctions in the new world ports, where a giant slave market traded in human life and misery for a century.
  5. “Slave Codes” made blacks and their children the property of their white masters for life.
    • Some colonies made it a crime to teach a slave to read or write. Not even a conversion to Christianity could qualify a slave for freedom. V. Africans in America
  6. In the deepest south the climate was hostile to health and the labor was life-draining,
    • There were rice and indigo plantations in South Carolina with far distances in between known for being lonely hells on earth.
    • Blacks in the tobacco-growing industry were somewhat better off because tobacco was a less physically demanding crop.
  7. Native born African Americans contributed to the growth of a stable and distinctive slave culture- a mixture of African and American religion, speech and folkways.
    • Around South Carolina blacks evolved a unique language called Gullah (a mix of English with African languages).
    • Some African words have even been passed into American speech- Goober (peanut), gumbo (okra) and voodoo (witchcraft).
  8. In 1712 there was a slave revolt where 21 were executed once the revolt was controlled.
    • In 1739 there was another slave revolt where 50 blacks tried marching along to Spanish Florida; they were stopped by the militia.

VI. Southern Society

  1. The rich planters were at the top of society.
    • They had wealth, prestige and political power.
    • Beneath them were the small farmers who made up the largest social group. Then came the ex-indentured slaves, then the people still serving out their indenture. The bottoms of the bottom were the black slaves and they slowly replaced the indentured slaves.
  2. Southern life revolved around the great plantations.
    • Waterways provided the principal means of transportation.
    • Roads were so wretched in bad weather that sometimes funeral parties couldn’t reach church burial grounds- an obstacle that accounted for the development if family burial plots.

VII. The New England Family

  1. Clean water and cool temperatures retarded the spread of killer microbes in the New England area.
    • In contrast to the Chesapeake, New England settlers added ten years to their life spans by migrating from the old world. The average life span was 70 years.
  2. They also tended to migrate as families instead of lone men. So the population grew more swiftly from natural reproduction.
    • Early marriage also encouraged the booming birthrates A married woman could expect up to 10 pregnancies and rear as many as 8 surviving children.
  3. The fragility of Southern families advanced the economic security of the southern women especially of women’s property rights because southern men frequently died young, leaving widows with small children to support.
    • The southern colonies generally allowed married women to retain separate properties and gave widows the right to inherit their husband’s estates.
  4. In the 17th century a rudimentary conception of woman’s rights as individuals was beginning to appear.
    • Women still couldn’t vote and popular attitude insisted that they were morally weaker.
  5. The laws of Puritan New England sought to defend the integrity of marriages. Divorce was exceedingly rare and the authorities would order separated couples to reunite.

VIII. Life in the New England Towns

  1. Proprietors were the sober-minded town fathers.
    • New towns were legally chartered by colonial authorities and the distribution of land was entrusted to the laws of proprietors.
    • The center usually consisted of a meetinghouse as a place of worship and a townhall.
  2. Towns of more than 50 families were required to provide elementary education. Half the adults were literate.
    • In 1636- Harvard College was established in Massachusetts. And in 1693 the William and Mary College in Virginia.
  3. Puritans ran their church democratically and that lead to democratic government.

IX. The Half-way Covenant and the Salem Witch Trials

  1. Jeremiad- Often fiery sermons lamenting the waning piety of parishioners.
  2. There was a decline of conversions and in 1662 the half-way covenant was established.
    • t modified the “covenant” to admit baptism but not full communion of the children of baptized but not yet converted existing members.
  3. The half-way covenant weakened the distinction between the elect and others.
  4. A group of adolescent girls in Salem, Massachusetts claimed to have been bewitched by certain older women starting off The Salem Witch trials.
    • Lead to 19 individuals hanged, one pressed to death and two dogs killed.
    • The Trials ended in 1693 when the governor was alarmed by the accusations against his wife. The term “which hunting” developed into a metaphor for the dangerously irrational urge to find a scapegoat for social resentments

X. The New England way of Life

  1. The Climate was uncomfortably hot is the summers and the winter was cruelly cold.
  2. Rocky soil forced the new Englanders to work hard, be industrious and frugal.
    • They turned to the ports and fishing became the Gold mine of New England.
  3. The Americans thought that the natives “wasted land” by not doing anything on it.

XI. The Early Settlers’ Days and Ways

  1. Each member of the family did their jobs. Life was humble but comfortable and land was cheap.
    • Women, whether they were slaves or free or worked on southern plantations or in the north had similar duties all over.
    • They wove, cooked, cleaned and cared for children.
    • The men cleared land, fenced planted and cropped it, cut firewood and butchered livestock as needed.
    • The children helped with all these tasks while picking up as much schooling as they could.
  2. In New York the animosity between lordly landholders and aspiring merchants fueled Leister’s Rebellion from 1689-1691.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 05 - Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution

Chapter 5 1700-1775 Colonial society on the eve of Revolution

I. Conquest by the Cradle
  1. By 1775 the population numbered 2.5 million people and 90 percent lived as rural farmers.
    • Americans were multiplying well; the average age to have a kid was 16.
II. Mingling of the Races
  1. America was a melting pot including of Germans (6%) who settled in Pennsylvania, and Scots-Irish (7%).
    • Most of the population (95%) was cooped up east of the Alleghenies
  2. The Scots-Irish over many decades had reached America and became squatters.
    • They were good frontiers men but lawless and individualistic.
Subject X2: 

Chapter 06 - The Duel for North America

Chapter 6 the duel for North America 1608-1763

I. France Finds a Foothold in Canada

  1. Like England and Holland, France was a late comer in the colony race. It was convulsed in the 1500s by foreign wars and domestic strife.
  2. In 1518 the Edict of Nantes was issued. It allowed limited toleration to the French Huguenots.
    • When King Louis XIV became king he started having interest in over sea colonies.
  3. 1608- France established Quebec, overlooking St. Lawrence.
    • Samuel de Champlain, soldier and explorer is the “Father of New France”
    • He had friendly relations with neighboring Huron Indians and helped defeat Iroquois.
    • The Iroquois hampered French efforts.
  4. Unlike English colonist, French didn’t come by hordes, peasants were too poor and Huguenots weren’t allowed to leave.

II. New France Fans Out

  1. New France’s (Canada) one valuable resource was the beaver.
    • Beaver hunters: Coureurs de Bois and gave lots of names to land. Ex: Baton Rouge and Des Moines
  2. French voyageurs recruited Indians to hunt beaver. They succumbed to disease and alcohol. The Beaver was heavily extinguished.
  3. French missionaries tried to convert Indians. French tried to thwart English from expanding which lead to the finding of Detroit
  4. Louisiana was founded in 1682 by Robert de la Salle to stop Spanish expansion. They came back three years later, landed in Texas and was killed by his crew.
  5. Illinois was very fertile, lots of ports and trading posts established.

III. The Clash of Empires

  1. King Williams war and Queen Anne’s war
    • English colonists fought the French coureurs de bois and Indians.
    • Neither side considered America important enough to end real troops
  2. French inspired Indians to ravage New England cities