Christine Baranski

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Christine Baranski
Christine Baranski at 2015 PaleyFest.jpg
Baranski in 2015
Born
Christine Jane Baranski

(1952-05-02) May 2, 1952 (age 69)
EducationJuilliard School (BFA)
Occupation
  • Actress
  • singer
  • producer
Years active1977–present
Spouse(s)
(m. 1983; died 2014)
Children2, including Lily Cowles

Christine Jane Baranski (born May 2, 1952) is an American actress and singer. She is a 15-time Emmy Award nominee, winning once in 1995 for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series for her role as Maryann Thorpe in the sitcom Cybill (1995–98). Baranski has received further critical acclaim for her performance as Diane Lockhart in the legal drama series The Good Wife (2009–16) and its spinoff series The Good Fight (2017–present).

Baranski has appeared in several television films, such as her portrayal of Kate in To Dance with the White Dog (1993), Prunella Stickler in Eloise at the Plaza and Eloise at Christmastime (both 2003), and Amanda in Who Is Simon Miller? (2011). Her major Broadway credits include Hide and Seek (1980), Hurlyburly (1984), The House of Blue Leaves (1986), Nick & Nora (1991) and Boeing Boeing (2008). Baranski has also starred in numerous films, including 9½ Weeks (1986), Reversal of Fortune (1990), How the Grinch Stole Christmas (2000), Mamma Mia (2008), Into the Woods (2014) and Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again (2018).

Baranski won two Tony Awards for Best Featured Actress in a Play for the original Broadway productions of The Real Thing in 1984 and Rumors in 1989. For her recurring role as Dr. Beverly Hofstadter in the sitcom The Big Bang Theory (2009–19), she received four Emmy Award nominations.

Early life and education[edit]

Baranski was born in Buffalo, New York, the daughter of Virginia (née Mazurowska) and Lucien Baranski, who edited a Polish-language newspaper.[1] She is of Polish descent, and her grandparents were actors in the Polish theater.[2][3] Baranski was raised in a Polish-Catholic neighborhood in Cheektowaga, where she attended high school at the Villa Maria Academy.[4][5] She later studied at New York City's Juilliard School[6] (Drama Division Group 3: 1970–1974),[7] where she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1974.[8]

Career[edit]

Stage[edit]

A blonde woman in a black dress smiles away from the camera
Baranski at the 2008 Metropolitan Opera opening night

Baranski made her Off-Broadway debut in Coming Attractions at Playwrights Horizons in 1980, and has appeared in several Off-Broadway productions at the Manhattan Theatre Club, starting with Sally and Marsha in 1982.

Baranski made her Broadway debut in Hide & Seek in 1980. For her next Broadway performance, in Tom Stoppard's The Real Thing, she won the 1984 Tony Award Best Featured Actress in a Play. Other Broadway credits include Hurlyburly, The House of Blue Leaves, Rumors (for which she won her second Tony), Regrets Only, Nick & Nora, and the Encores! concert staging of Follies.

At the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C., Baranski starred as Mrs. Lovett in Sweeney Todd in 2002 (for which she won the 2003 Helen Hayes Award for Outstanding Actress in a Musical) and as the title character in Mame in 2006.[9][5]

In her first Broadway production since 1991, Baranski was featured as the maid Berthe in the 2008 revival of Boeing Boeing.[10] The show garnered two Tony Awards, one for Best Revival of a Play and the other for Best Actor (Mark Rylance). The original cast was Bradley Whitford (Bernard), Kathryn Hahn (Gloria), Christine Baranski (Berthe), Gina Gershon (Gabriella), and Mary McCormack (Gretchen). The show closed on January 4, 2009.

Baranski also appeared in a one-night-only concert benefit performance of Stephen Sondheim's A Little Night Music for Roundabout Theatre Company as Countess Charlotte Malcolm on January 12, 2009.[11] The cast included Vanessa Redgrave, Natasha Richardson, Victor Garber and Marc Kudisch, among others.

Baranski has won both the Tony Award and Drama Desk Awards twice. In 2018, she was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame.[12]

Film[edit]

Baranski has also appeared in various film roles. Some of her better-known roles are as Katherine Archer in The Birdcage (1996), Martha May Whovier in How the Grinch Stole Christmas (2000), Mary Sunshine in Chicago (2002) and Connie Chasseur in The Ref (1994).

Baranski received further recognition for her role as Tanya Chesham-Leigh in the hit musical film Mamma Mia! (2008), and its sequel Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again (2018).

Baranski also played Cinderella's stepmother in the 2014 film adaptation of the musical Into the Woods.[13]

Baranski also appeared in the films 9½ Weeks (1986), Legal Eagles (1986), Reversal of Fortune (1990), Addams Family Values (1993), Jeffrey (1995), Bulworth (1998), Cruel Intentions (1999), Bowfinger (1999), Chicago (2002), Trolls (2016) and A Bad Moms Christmas (2017).

Baranski at the 2012 Romy Awards

Television[edit]

Baranski appeared in short-term roles on various daytime soap operas, including All My Children and Another World.

Baranski was featured as Cybill Shepherd's sarcastic, hard-drinking friend Maryann Thorpe in the CBS sitcom Cybill, which ran from 1995 until 1998, during which time she hosted Saturday Night Live and won an Emmy Award as Best Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series along with three other nominations. During this, Baranski portrayed a librarian named Sonja Umdahl in the "Dick and the Single Girl" episode of 3rd Rock from the Sun.[14] A few years later, Baranski received an Emmy nomination for a guest starring role in the NBC series Frasier as a controversial tough love radio psychiatrist named Dr. Nora. The episode, which was named for the character, parodied Dr. Laura Schlessinger.[15][16][17] The episode was pulled from syndication by Paramount.[16][17] Baranski had an uncredited role in the series Now and Again as the voice of Roger's overbearing wife Ruth, who was never seen by viewers.

Baranski later appeared in the 2000–2001 sitcom Welcome to New York and, with John Laroquette, in the 2003–2004 NBC sitcom Happy Family. She co-starred with Bernadette Peters in a pilot for an ABC sitcom, Adopted, in 2005, which was not picked up. She also played Faith Clancy, the mother of Jim Clancy in Ghost Whisperer.

In 2009, Baranski began guest-starring in The Big Bang Theory as Dr. Beverly Hofstadter, a dispassionate psychiatrist and neuroscientist and mother of one of the protagonists, Leonard Hofstadter. She first appeared in the second-season episode "The Maternal Capacitance", for which she received an Emmy nomination. Due to the popularity of her first appearance, Baranski returned in the third season for the Christmas episode "The Maternal Congruence", receiving another Emmy nomination. She appeared in a total of 16 episodes during the show's run, earning four Emmy nominations for her recurring role.[18][19]

From 2009 to 2016, Baranski played the role of Diane Lockhart, a top litigator and senior partner of a Chicago law firm on the CBS series The Good Wife. She was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series for six seasons of the series, in the years 2010 to 2015. Besides her work on The Good Wife and the aforementioned guest appearances on The Big Bang Theory, her other recent appearances include Ugly Betty in 2009 as Victoria Hartley, the haughty mother of Betty's new boyfriend.[20][21]

As of 2017, Baranski stars in the CBS spinoff of The Good Wife, titled The Good Fight. Her character, Diane Lockhart, joins another law firm after being forced to return to work.[22]

Personal life[edit]

Baranski was married to actor Matthew Cowles from October 1983 until his death on May 22, 2014.[23] They have two daughters, Isabel (born 1984), a lawyer, and Lily (born 1987), an actress.[24][25]

Filmography[edit]

Film[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1980 Playing for Time Olga
1982 Soup for One Blonde in Bar
1983 Lovesick Nymphomaniac
1984 Crackers Maxine
1986 9½ Weeks Thea
1986 Legal Eagles Carol Freeman
1987 The Pick-up Artist]] Harriet
1990 Reversal of Fortune Andrea Reynolds
1993 The Night We Never Met Lucy
1993 Life with Mikey Carol
1993 Addams Family Values Becky Martin-Granger
1994 The Ref Connie Chasseur
1994 Getting In Mrs. Margaret "Maggie" Higgs
1994 The War Miss Strapford
1995 New Jersey Drive Prosecutor
1995 Jeffrey Ann Marwood Bartle
1996 The Birdcage Katherine Archer Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
1998 The Odd Couple II Thelma
1998 Bulworth Constance Bulworth
1999 Cruel Intentions Bunny Caldwell
1999 Bowfinger Carol
2000 How the Grinch Stole Christmas Martha May Whovier
2002 The Guru Shantal
2002 Chicago Mary Sunshine Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
2003 Marci X Mary Ellen Spinkle
2003 Eloise at the Plaza Prunella Stickler
2004 Welcome to Mooseport Charlotte Cole
2005 Scooby-Doo! in Where's My Mummy? Amelia Von Butch (voice)
2006 Falling for Grace Bree
2006 Relative Strangers Arleen Clayton
2006 Bonneville Francine
2008 Mamma Mia! Tanya Chesham-Leigh
2010 The Bounty Hunter Kitty Hurley
2012 Foodfight! Hedda Shopper (voice)
2014 Into the Woods[13] Cinderella's Stepmother Satellite Award for Best Cast – Motion Picture
Nominated — Detroit Film Critics Society Award for Best Ensemble
Nominated — Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Award for Best Ensemble
2016 Trolls Chef (voice)
2016 Miss Sloane[26] Evelyn Sumner
2017 A Bad Moms Christmas Ruth
2018 Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again Tanya Chesham-Leigh
2020 Christmas on the Square Regina Fuller

Television[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1977 Busting Loose Debbie Episode: "The Decision: Part 1"
1980 Playing for Time Olga TV movie
1982 A Midsummer Night's Dream Helena TV movie
1982 Another World Beverly Tucker Unknown episodes
1984 All My Children Jewel Maniscalo Unknown episodes
1985 Big Shots in America Cara TV movie
1985 The Equalizer Victoria Baines Episode: "Mama's Boy"
1987 The House of Blue Leaves Bunny Flingus TV movie
1988 The Thorns Polly Episode: "The Maid"
1991 Law & Order Katherine Masucci Beigel Episodes: "The Torrents of Greed Parts 1 & 2"
1992 Screenplay Blair Bennett Episode: "Buying a Landslide"
1993 To Dance with the White Dog Kate TV movie
1994 Law & Order Rose Siegal Episode: "Nurture"
1995–98 Cybill Maryann Thorpe 87 episodes
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series (1995)
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Comedy Series (1995)
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film (1995, 1996)
Nominated — Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series (1996–98)
Nominated — Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series (1995)
Nominated — Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Comedy Series (1996)
1996 Saturday Night Live Herself (host) Episode: "Christine Baranski/The Cure"
1997 3rd Rock from the Sun Sonja Umdahl Episode: "Dick and the Single Girl"
1999 Now and Again Ruth Bender (voice) Episode: "Origins"; uncredited
1999 Frasier Dr. Nora Fairchild Episode: "Dr. Nora"
Nominated — Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series
1999 Get Bruce! Herself Documentary movie
2000–01 Welcome to New York Marsha Bickner 13 episodes
2001 Citizen Baines Glenn Ferguson Baines Welch Episode: "Three Days in November"
2002 Presidio Med Dr. Terry Howland Episodes: "Pick Your Battles", "Best of Enemies"
2003 Eloise at the Plaza Prunella Stickler TV movie
2003 Eloise at Christmastime Prunella Stickler TV movie
2003–04 Happy Family Annie Brennan 22 episodes
2004 Spellbound TV movie
2005 Recipe for a Perfect Christmas Lee Bellmont TV movie
2005 Adopted Judy Rabinowitz TV movie
2005 In the Game TV pilot
2005 Ghost Whisperer Faith Clancy Episodes: "Voices", "The Crossing"
2006 Inseparable Barbara TV movie
2006 American Dad! Homeless Woman (voice) Episode: "Failure Is Not a Factory-installed Option"
2009 Ugly Betty Victoria Hartley 3 episodes
2009 Psych Alice Clayton Episode: "He Dead"
2009, 2011
2013–19
The Big Bang Theory Dr. Beverly Hofstadter 16 episodes
Nominated — Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series (2009, 2010, 2015, 2016)
2009–16 The Good Wife Diane Lockhart 156 episodes[27]
Nominated — Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series (2010–15)
Nominated — Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Drama Series (2009, 2010, 2011)
2011 Who Is Simon Miller? Amanda TV movie
2011 Ugly Americans Grimes' mummy (voice) Episode: "Mummy Dearest"
2013, 2018 Family Guy Various voices 2 episodes
2015, 2019 BoJack Horseman Amanda Hannity (voice) Episodes: "Hank After Dark", "The New Client"
2017 Regular Show Guardian (voice) Episode: "A Regular Epic Final Battle"
2017–present The Good Fight Diane Lockhart 40 episodes
Nominated — TCA Award for Individual Achievement in Drama (2019)
2017 Michael Jackson's Halloween Mrs. Grau (voice) TV special
2017 Spirit Riding Free Miz McDonnell (voice) Episode: "Lucky and the Long Way Home"
2018 Fancy Nancy Mrs. Devine (voice) 2 episodes
2019 Young Sheldon Beverly Hofstadter (voice) Episode: "A Swedish Science Thing and the Equation for Toast"
2019 Archibald's Next Big Thing Madame Baroness (voice) Episode: "Best in Showbot/The Secret of Madame Baroness"
2019 The Bravest Knight The Dragon (voice) Multiple episodes [28]
TBA The Gilded Age Agnes van Rhijn Upcoming series

Stage[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1972 Hamlet Lady Delacorte Theater
1974 'Tis Pity She's A Whore Annabella McCarter Theatre
1974 Romeo and Juliet Lady Capulet American Shakespeare Festival
1974 Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Margaret American Shakespeare Festival, double-cast
1974 Twelfth Night Lady-in-Waiting American Shakespeare Festival
1975 The Cherry Orchard Danyasha Center Stage Theatre
1975 Tartuffe Dorina Center Stage Theatre
1976 Misalliance Lina Szczepanowska Center Stage Theatre
1976 She Stoops To Conquer Constance Center Stage Theatre
1977 Private Lives Amanda or Sibyl (?) Cohoes Music Hall
1977 Angel City Miss Scoons McCarter Theatre
1977 Otherwise Engaged Davina Saunders U.S. cities tour
1978 Born Yesterday Billie Dawn Center Stage Theatre
1978 One Crack Out Wanda Marymount Manhattan Theatre
1978 Much Ado About Nothing Beatrice Annenberg Center, American Shakespeare Festival
1979 Says I, Says He Maeve Macpherson Marymount Manhattan Theatre
1979 The Shadow of a Gunman Minnie Powell Symphony Space
1980 Company April Playwrights Horizons[29]
1980 Lady of The Diamond Connie Weaver Studio Arena
1980 The Trouble with Europe Amanda Gracie, Madame Igrec,

and second underworld figure

Marymount Manhattan Theatre
1980 Hide & Seek Elly Bart Broadway
1980 Coming Attractions Miss America Playwrights Horizons
1981 Talley's Folly Sally Talley Studio Arena
1981 Operation Midnight Climax Angela Off-Center Theatre
1982 A Midsummer Night's Dream Helena American Shakespeare Festival, Delacorte Theatre
1982 Sally and Marsha Marsha Manhattan Theatre Club
1982 Blithe Spirit Elvira McCarter Theatre
1982 The Undefeated Rumba Champ Miss Harris Ensemble Studio Theater
1983 Sunday in the Park with George Clarisse (later named Yvonne),

Blair Daniels

Playwrights Horizons
1984 The Real Thing Charlotte Plymouth Theatre
1985 Hurlyburly Bonnie Ethel Barrymore Theatre
1986 The House of Blue Leaves Bunny Flingus Vivian Beaumont Theatre, Plymouth Theatre
1986 It's Only a Play Julia Budder Manhattan Theatre Club
1988 Hedda Gabler Hedda Gabler Studio Arena
1988 Rumors Chris Gorman Broadhurst Theatre
1989 Assassins Performer (reading) Playwrights Horizons
1990 Elliot Loves Joanna Goodman Theatre
1991 Lips Together, Teeth Apart Chloe Haddock New York City Center Stage I, Lucille Lortel Theatre
1991 Nick & Nora Tracy Gardner Marriott Marquis Theatre
1993 The Loman Family Picnic Doris Manhattan Theatre Club Stage I
1997 Promises, Promises Marge MacDougall Encores!, City Center Theatre
1998 Mizlansky/Zilinsky or "Schmucks" Sylvia Zilinsky (voice) Manhattan Theatre Club Stage I
1999 Sweeney Todd Mrs. Lovett Ahmanson Theatre
2002 Sweeney Todd Mrs. Lovett Kennedy Center
2002 Sondheim Concert Spectacular Herself David Geffen Hall
2002 The Threepenny Opera Mrs. Peachum (reading) Roundabout Theatre Company
2004 Dinner Paige (reading) Royal National Theatre/Loft
2006 Mame Mame Dennis Kennedy Center
2007 Follies Carlotta Campion Encores!,[30] New York City Center
2007 Regrets Only Tibby McCullough New York City Center Stage I
2008 Boeing-Boeing Berthe Longacre Theatre
2009 A Little Night Music Countess Charlotte Malcolm Roundabout Theatre Company
2013 On Your Toes Peggy Porterfield Encores!,[31] New York City Center
2015 Follies Phyllis Rogers Stone Royal Albert Hall
2016 White Rabbit Red Rabbit Performer, replacement Westside Theatre

Video games[edit]

Year Project Role
2013 Skylanders: Swap Force Kaos' Mother
2017 Steven Universe: Save the Light Hessonite[32][33]
2019 Steven Universe: Unleash the Light

Audio[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1992 A Christmas Memory Female cousin (Sook in

later adaptations)

Short autobiographical story
1994 Unsung Musicals Performer Song: Sherry! from: Sherry!
2002 Short Talks on the Universe Maria Story: "3 A.M."
2019 The Two Princes Queen Livinia Audio drama

Awards and nominations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Christine Baranski – Family and Companions" Yahoo!7 Movies Archived March 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine movies.yahoo.com
  2. ^ "Polonia: Western New York's Polish-American Legacy". WNED Archived August 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine wned.org
  3. ^ Triplett, William (May 12, 2002). "For Baranski, A Most Meaty Opportunity; In 'Sweeney Todd,' Actress Sinks Her Teeth Into a Singing Role". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012.
  4. ^ Rousuck, J. Wynn (May 21, 2006). "The lady has it: Christine Baranski stars in 'Mame' for the 2nd time". The Baltimore Sun.
  5. ^ a b Gans, Andrew (June 16, 2006). "DIVA TALK: Chatting with Mame's Christine Baranski". Playbill. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008.
  6. ^ Shulman, Randy (June 8, 2006). "Christine Baranski: TV and stage actress talks about starring in 'Mame' and 'Cybill'". Metro Weekly. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on June 15, 2006.
  7. ^ "Alumni News". The Juilliard School. September 2009. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
  8. ^ Rebecca Flint Marx (2011). "All Movie Guide: Christine Baranski". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 27, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
  9. ^ Brantley, Ben (May 15, 2002). "Adding Love To the Pies' Time-Tested Recipe", The New York Times.
  10. ^ Simonson, Robert (May 7, 2008). "Playbill.Com's Brief Encounter With Christine Baranski" Archived January 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Playbill.
  11. ^ Gans, Andrew (January 12, 2009). "Starry A Little Night Music Concert Presented in Manhattan Jan. 12" Archived January 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Playbill.
  12. ^ "Cicely Tyson, Christine Baranski, David Henry Hwang, More Inducted Into Theater Hall of Fame November 12". Playbill. November 12, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  13. ^ a b Cerasaro, Pat (July 23, 2013). WORLD EXCLUSIVE! New Confirmed Casting For the INTO THE WOODS Movie, Starring Streep & Depp Broadway World, Retrieved July 27, 2013
  14. ^ "Dick and the Single Girl". IMDb. May 11, 1997. Retrieved July 29, 2018.
  15. ^ Starr, Michael (April 28, 1999). "Resurgent 'Frasier' takes on Dr. Laura". Deseret News. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  16. ^ a b Lowry, Brian (November 7, 2000). "Syndicated 'Frasier' Episode Spoofing Dr. Laura Is Pulled". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  17. ^ a b Starr, Michael (November 7, 2000). "Who Stole 'Dr. Nora?' – 'Frasier's' Spoof of TV Shrink Disappears". New York Post. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  18. ^ "Big Bang Theory actress, CT resident talks about final season ahead of finale". WFSB. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  19. ^ Davies, Alex (November 2, 2019). "Big Bang Theory: What happened to Beverly Hofstadter? Why did she leave?". Express.co.uk. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  20. ^ Obenson, Tambay (April 14, 2020). "'The Good Fight': Christine Baranski Is Eager to Take on Powerful Men in Season 4". IndieWire. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  21. ^ Turchiano, Danielle (April 8, 2020). "Christine Baranski on Taking on the Judicial System in 'The Good Fight' Season 4". Variety. Retrieved March 2, 2021.
  22. ^ Poniewozik, James (February 16, 2017). "Review: On ‘The Good Fight,' a Lawyer Claws Her Way Back to Normal". The New York Times.
  23. ^ Simonson, Robert (May 27, 2014). "Matthew Cowles, Actor and Husband of Christine Baranski, Dies" Archived May 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Playbill.
  24. ^ Klein, Alvin (January 25, 1998). "THEATER; Being Irish And Being Married". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
  25. ^ Stephen Colbert (host) (April 28, 2016). "Christine Baranski". The Late Show with Stephen Colbert. Season 1. Episode 131. CBS. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  26. ^ Macdonald, Moira (December 8, 2016). ‘Miss Sloane' review: An intriguing character who needs a more intriguing film The Seattle Times, Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  27. ^ "Filmography by TV series for Christine Baranski". IMDb. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
  28. ^ Petski, Denise (May 23, 2019). "Hulu Sets Animated Kids Series With Openly Gay Main Character; T.R. Knight, Bobby Moynihan, RuPaul & Others Add Voices 'The Bravest Knight'". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on November 7, 2020. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  29. ^ https://www.npr.org/2020/06/25/883324881/actor-christine-baranski
  30. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/10/theater/reviews/10foll.html
  31. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/10/theater/reviews/on-your-toes-with-christine-baranski-at-city-center.html
  32. ^ "Meet Hessonite, the Villainous New Steven Universe Gem Voiced by Christine Baranski". The Mary Sue. Retrieved July 29, 2018.
  33. ^ "Unleash the Light". App Store. Retrieved November 27, 2019.

External links[edit]