Accessory design studymaterial
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Accessory design studymaterial

Accessory design study material for designing student

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Accessory design studymaterial

  1. 1. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  1                                              COURSE-­‐B.DES  (FASHION  DESIGN)      COURSE  CODE-­‐  B.DES  (FD)   SUBJECT  HEAD   ACCESSORY  DESIGN   MODE  OF  STUDY   SUBJECT  CODE   BFD(504)   PRACTICAL           ACCESSORY  DESIGN   B.Design  in  Fashion-­‐  3rd  year   Students  Course  compiled  by  Mr.  Tamoghna  Mandal   Senior,  Faculty  Fashion  Design  Department   STUDENT’S  LEARNING  BOOKLET         FDDI   MINISTRY  OF  COMMERCE  &  INDUSTRY   GOVERNMENT  OF  INDIA      A-­‐10/A,  SECTOR-­‐24,  NOIDA-­‐201301   Copy  Right  Reserved      (For  private  circulation  only)        Free  Student’s  Course  Material  (Not  for  Sale)    
  2. 2. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  2       CONTENTS-­‐   _________________________________________   UNIT1.    JEWELLERY………………………………………………………………….1-­‐20   UNIT2.    BAGS…………………………………………………………………………21-­‐39   UNIT3.  SHOES………………………………………………………………………..40-­‐52   UNIT4.    BELTS…………………………………………………………………………53-­‐  74   UNIT5.  SCARVES…………………………………………………………………….  75-­‐82   UNIT6.  DESIGN  RESEARCH  AND  MARKET  SURVEY……………………83-­‐84   UNIT7.  EXPERIMENT  WITH  MATERIAL  AND  FINAL  CONCEPT……85-­‐87   UNIT8.  SAMPLE  RESEARCH  AND  SURFACE  ORNAMENTATION….88   UNIT9.  MERCHANDISE  INFORMATION  TERMINOLOGY…………..89   ______________________________________
  3. 3. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  3     UNIT  1   JEWELERY   Jewelery Amber pendants wheat grain shaped jewelry burnt clay Indian jewelry( terracotta) FIG1.1 – Pictures showing different forms of 19th century jewelry. Jewelery consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Jewelery may be attached to the body or the clothes, and the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewelry, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest types of archaeological artifact – with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known jewelry The basic forms of jewelry vary between cultures but are often extremely long-lived; in European cultures the most common forms of jewelry listed above have persisted since ancient times, while other forms such as adornments for the nose or ankle, important in other cultures, are much less common. Historically, the most widespread influence on jewelry in terms of design and style has come from Asia. Jewellery may be made from a wide range of materials. Gemstones and similar materials such as amber and coral, precious metals, beads, and shells have been widely used, and enamel has often been important. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a status symbol, for its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings, and even genital jewellery. The patterns of wearing jewellery between the sexes, and by children and older people can vary greatly between cultures, but adult women have been the most consistent wearers of jewellery; in modern European
  4. 4. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  4     culture the amount worn by adult males is relatively low compared with other cultures and other periods in European culture. The word jewellery itself is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicized from the Old French "jouel" and beyond that, to the Latin word "jocale", meaning plaything. However, in North America, the more common spelling is "jewelry," and although both spellings appear in Canadian English, jewelry prevails by a two to one margin. In addition, "jewel," not "Jewell," is the standard spelling in all forms of English.   Materials  and  methods   In creating jewellery, gemstones, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in jewellery. Bronze, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern fine jewellery usually includes gold, white gold, platinum, palladium, titanium, or silver. Most contemporary gold jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity (41.7% pure gold), (though in the UK the number is 9K (37.5% pure gold) and is typically found up to 18K (75% pure gold). Higher purity levels are less common with alloys at 22 K (91.6% pure gold), and 24 K (99.9% pure gold) being considered too soft for jewellery use in America and Europe. These high purity alloys, however, are widely used across Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Platinum alloys range from 900 (90% pure) to 950 (95.0% pure). The silver used in jewellery is usually sterling silver, or 92.5% fine silver. In costume jewellery, stainless steel findings are sometimes used.   FIG  1.2  Showing  Bead  embroidery  design.   Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused-glass or enamel; wood, often carved or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory; natural clay; polymer clay; Hemp and other twines have been used as well to create jewellery that has more of a natural feel. However, any inclusion of lead or lead solder will give an English Assay office (the building which gives English jewellery its stamp of approval, the Hallmark) the right to destroy the piece; however it is very rare for the assay office to do so.
  5. 5. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  5     Beads are frequently used in jewellery. These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood, shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewellery commonly encompasses necklaces, bracelets, earrings, belts and rings. Beads may be large or small; the smallest type of beads used is known as seed beads, these are the beads used for the "woven" style of beaded jewellery. Another use of seed beads is an embroidery technique where seed beads are sewn onto fabric backings to create broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets. Bead embroidery, a popular type of handwork during the Victorian era, is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewellery making. Beading, or beadwork, is also very popular in many African and indigenous North American cultures. Silversmiths, goldsmiths, and lapidaries methods include forging, casting, soldering or welding, cutting, carving and "cold-joining" (using adhesives, staples and rivets to assemble parts). Diamonds     Fig  1.3:  Picture  showing  uncut  single  piece  diamonds.  The  shine  and  clarity  is  to  be  noted.    Diamond   Diamonds were first mined in India. Pliny may have mentioned them, although there is some debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas; In 2005, Australia, Botswana, Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond production. The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond, part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found (1905), at 3,106.75 carats (621.35 g). Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477.            
  6. 6. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  6       Other  gemstones   Many precious and semiprecious stones are used for jewellery. Among them are: Amber   Amber, an ancient organic gemstone, is composed of tree resin that has hardened over time. The stone must be at least one million years old to be classified as amber, and some amber can be up to 120 million years old. Amethyst Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. It is treasured for its purple hue, which can range in tone from light to dark. Fig 1.3 showing Spanish emerald and gold pendant at Victoria and Albert Museum. Emerald Emeralds are one of the three main precious gemstones (along with rubies and sapphires) and are known for their fine green to bluish green colour. They have been treasured throughout history, and some historians report that the Egyptians mined emerald as early as 3500 BC. Jade Jade is most commonly associated with the colour green but can come in a number of other colors as well. Jade is closely linked to Asian culture, history, and tradition, and is sometimes referred to as the stone of heaven. Jasper Jasper is a gemstone of the chalcedony family that comes in a variety of colors. Often, jasper will feature unique and interesting patterns within the colored stone. Picture jasper is a type of jasper known for the colours (often beiges and browns) and swirls in the stone’s pattern.
  7. 7. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  7     Quartz Quartz refers to a family of crystalline gemstones of various colours and sizes. Among the well- known types of quartz are rose quartz (which has a delicate pink colour), and smoky quartz (which comes in a variety of shades of translucent brown). A number of other gemstones, such as Amethyst and Citrine, are also part of the quartz family. Rutilated quartz is a popular type of quartz containing needle-like inclusions. Ruby Rubies are known for their intense red colour and are among the most highly valued precious gemstones. Rubies have been treasured for millennia. In Sanskrit, the word for ruby is ratnaraj, meaning king of precious stones. Sapphire The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire, which is known for its medium to deep blue colour and strong saturation. Fancy sapphires of various colours are also available. In the United States, blue sapphire tends to be the most popular and most affordable of the three major precious gemstones (emerald, ruby, and sapphire). Turquoise Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth, and the world’s largest turquoise producing region is the southwest United States. Turquoise is prized for its attractive colour, most often an intense medium blue or a greenish blue, and its ancient heritage. Turquoise is used in a great variety of jewellery styles. It is perhaps most closely associated with southwest and Native American jewellery, but it is also used in many sleek, modern styles. Some turquoise contains a matrix of dark brown markings, which provides an interesting contrast to the gemstone’s bright blue colour. Some gemstones (like pearls, coral, and amber) are classified as organic, meaning that they are produced by living organisms. Others are inorganic, meaning that they are generally composed of and arise from minerals. Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, such as cubic zirconium, which can be used in place of diamond.[13]
  8. 8. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  8         Metal  finishes     Fig  1.4  showing  an  example  of  gold  plated  jewellery   For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery, there are many techniques to create finishes. The most common are high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered. High-polished jewellery is the most common and gives the metal a highly reflective, shiny look. Satin or matte finish reduces the shine and reflection of the jewellery, and this is commonly used to accentuate gemstones such as diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look and are created by brushing a material (similar to sandpaper) against the metal, leaving "brush strokes." Hammered finishes are typically created by using a rounded steel hammer and hammering the jewellery to give it a wavy texture. Some jewellery is plated to give it a shiny, reflective look or to achieve a desired colour. Sterling silver jewellery may be plated with a thin layer of 0.999 fine silver (a process known as flashing) or may be plated with rhodium or Jewelry  Manufacturing   Today jewelry is crafted using the traditional method of simple tools and skilled fingers to modern tools and hi tech means. The flow of ideas and the wide range of designs offer this choice. Mass production or made to order is the other factor in choosing a particular method of production. Here is an attempt to bring to the reader a comprehensive idea about jewelry manufacturing. I am sure many of you wonder at the marvels, beauty and workmanship of their favorite piece of jewellery. Many questions might spring to mind, wondering how the delicate design was created or the gem set? What makes the jewellery strong? Who are these artisans who wield their art with such aplomb creating intricate piece de resistance' with impudence? Making jewellery is definitely not a cake walk. Time, technology and experience have contributed to strengthening the art of jewellery manufacturing. When early man began wearing jewellery fashioned out of stones, bones or any attractive material that caught the eye he hammered, pounded, chiseled and rubbed to get the required shape and size. As man matured and ideas grew, new techniques
  9. 9. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  9     developed to capture his imagination in a world of gold, gems and glitter. From simple discs to 3D designs were woven with the help of tools and technology. Today jewellery is crafted using the traditional method of simple tools and skilled fingers to modern tools and hi tech means. The flow of ideas and the wide range of designs offer this choice. Mass production or made to order is the other factor in choosing a particular method of production. Here is an attempt to bring to the reader a comprehensive idea about jewellery manufacturing. REASONS FOR WEARING JEWELLRY • It is functional, generally to fix clothing or hair in place, or to tell the time (in the case of watches) • It works as a mark of social status and personal status, as with a wedding ring • It also signifies some form of affiliation, whether ethnic, religious or social • It sometimes helps us to provide talismanic protection (in the form of amulets) • It portrays a form of artistic display • It acts as a carrier or symbol of personal meaning - such as love, mourning or luck. TYPES OF JEWELLRY Jewelry  can  be  classified  in  a  number  of  ways.   On  the  basis  of  the  material  used   Diamond Jewelry  -­‐  Diamonds  may  be  worn  in  all  sorts  of  jewelry,  including  rings,  bracelets,  necklaces   and  earrings.    Pearl Jewellry  -­‐  Pearls  from  freshwater,  the  sea  or  cultured  can  be  made  into  earrings,  necklaces,   bracelets  and  more.               Fig  1.5  to  1.1.10  showing  all  types  of  jewelry  as  a  fashion  accessories.    
  10. 10. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  10     Gold Jewelry  -­‐  In  natural  State  its  bright  yellow  metal  and  is  extremely  soft.  So  it  is  always  mixed  with   other  metals  for  commercial  purposes.  Four  types  of  Gold  Jewelry-­‐:   Karat  Gold-­‐  To  consider  a  karat  gold  at  least  10  k  of  gold  in  an  alloy.  The  most  costly.24  karat  is  pure   gold.14  karat  means  14  parts  of  gold  and  10  parts  of  other  metal.   Gold  filled-­‐  A  thin  sheet  of  gold  is  rolled  and  then  adhered  to  the  base  metal.  The  amount  of  gold  has  to   be  1/20  of  the  total  weight  of  the  item.   Rolled  gold  plate-­‐  Similar  to  gold  filled  but  the  amount  of  gold  in  an  alloy  is  much  less;  almost  /40  of  the   total  metal’s  weight.   Electroplated  gold-­‐  Any  inexpensive  jewelry  if  requires  a  shiny  look  then  a  fine  gold  surface  very  thin  in   context  is  electroplated  and  passed  over  in  the  surface  of  the  metal  to  give  a  gold  like  golden  yellowish   look  which  might  wear  away  within  few  months.    Silver Jewelry  –  It  is  white  and  relatively  low  cost  than  gold  but  very  valuable  and  precious.  It’s   alloyed  with  copper  and  gets  the  name  sterling  silver.  For  less  costly  designs,  silver  also  gets   electroplated.  For  sterling  silver  the  alloy  must  contain  925  parts  of  silver  and  75  parts  of  copper.    Gemstone Jewelry -­‐  Jewelry  with  colored  stones  that  are  not  diamonds.  This  may  include  precious   and  semi-­‐precious   Bead  Jewelry-­‐Bead  art  in  India  is  five  thousand  year  old  and  dates  back  to  the  time  of  Indus  Valley   Civilization.  People  of  that  civilization  used  to  make  beads  out  of  gold,  silver,  copper,  clay,  ivory  and   even  wood.  The  excavated  carried  out  there  came  out  with  finished  and  unfinished  beads  from  the  site.   Filigree  Jewelry:  Filigree  work  is  done  on  silver  and  involves  lots  of  precision  and  technicality,  added   with  great  amount  of  patience  and  an  eye  for  minute  details.  Historically,  filigree  work  was  quite   popular  in  countries  like  Egypt,  Italy,  and  Spain.  India's  history  of  filigree  work  goes  back  to  early   centuries.   Ivory  Jewelry:  Jewelry  that  is  made  from  the  tusk  of  an  elephant  is  called  ivory  jewelry.  Importance  of   ivory  jewelry  can  be  guessed  from  the  fact  that  in  Gujarat,  the  bride  receives  an  ivory  bangle  from  her   family  just  before  marriage  as  jewelry.  During  marriage  ceremony  wearing  of  ivory  bangles  is  must  for   bride.   Jadau  Jewelry:  Jadau  Jewelry  forms  one  of  the  major  examples  of  high  skilled  craftsmanship  that  was   brought  into  India  by  Mughals.  Historically  speaking,  the  tradition  of  Jadau  work  has  been  in  practice  in   the  states  of  Rajasthan  and  Gujarat  since  the  Mughal  era.  Jadau  jewellery  is  also  called  engraved   jewelry.  
  11. 11. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  11     Kundan  Jewelry:  During  Mughal  period,  the  art  of  kundan  work  reached  Rajasthan  from  Delhi.  Later  on,   craftsmen  from  the  different  part  of  the  country  migrated  to  the  place  and  made  Rajasthan  a  hub  of   Kundankari.  Rulers  and  feudal  lords  gave  patronage  to  the  art  and  it  developed  into  perfection.   Lac Jewelry:  Lac  jewelry,  also  known  as  lacquer  jewelry,  originated  in  Rajasthan  and  has  gained   considerable  popularity  in  India  today.  Lac  jewelry  is  available  in  versatile  designs,  which  add  to  its   beauty.  Among  the  various  items  in  lac  jewelry,  the  bangles  need  a  special  mention.   Meenakari Jewelry:  In  Meenakari  jewelry,  precious  stones  are  set  and  then  enameled  with  gold.   Historically  speaking,  the  art  was  introduced  to  Rajasthan  artisans  by  Raja  Mansingh  of  Amer.  He  invited   Lahore-­‐based  skilled  artisans  to  his  kingdom,  and  their  intermingling  with  the  locals  craftsmen  resulted   in  an  amalgam.   Navratna  Jewelry:  In  Navratna  jewelry,  nine  auspicious  stones  are  used  in  a  single  ornament.  The  belief   behind  this  is  that  the  nine  stones  together  ensure  well  being  of  the  person  who  wears  it.  In  India,   Navratna  jewelry  has  been  given  major  importance,  because  of  its  astrological  significance  as  well  as  its   innate  charm.               Fig  1.15  to  Fig  1.20  showing  all  fashion  jewelry  of  kundan,  lac,  glass  and  jadau.     On  the  basis  of  the  usage     Fashion Jewelry  –  It  is  not  always  the  highest  of  quality;  fashion  jewellry  makes  a  statement  and  is   typically  lower  cost.   Costume Jewelry  -­‐  This  type  of  jewelry  is  worn  to  be  fancy  at  grander  events  and  occasions.  Usually   more  gaudy  or  ornate.   Traditional jewelry
  12. 12. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  12     Bridal Jewelry  –  This  jewelry  type  just  for  the  wedding,  specifically.  Usually,  this  is  a  matching   necklace  and  earring  set.   Vintage Jewelry  –  This  vintage  jewelry  could  include  costume  or  any  type  of  heirloom  or  antique   pieces.   Methods  used  in  Jewelry  manufacturing     Methods that are typically used to make jewellery from gold and silver and its alloys are Investment Casting, Die casting, cattle fish casting and hand fabrication. Many jewelers use CAD/CAM to make jewellery. CAD computer aided designs and CAM i.e. computer aided manufacturing to reproduce a model piece of jewellery that can be mass produced. Making jewellery requires knowledge and expertise in gold smiting, stonecutting, engraving, mold making, fabrication, wax carving, lost wax casting, electroplating, forging, and polishing. These are the various steps needed to make jewellery. The first step in making a detailed piece is making of a mold. Mould   Jewellery making begins with a mould. A mould is the exact and perfect replica of the piece to be made, copied either from a design or a piece/object. A mould is shaped around the shape/figure with the help of casting process. The casting process involves a number of steps. There are two methods of casting, investment casting or die casting each with its own advantages. Investment  Casting   Investment Casting is also called 'lost wax casting' since the wax is removed by heating in a kiln or in an autoclave. It is the earliest metal technique evolved by mankind and has a history of 4,000 years. Believed to have been developed by the Mesopotamians, it remains the most popular process of making gold (metal) jewellery and forms the basis of modern investment casting process. This process involves dipping a mold into a ceramic mix. Sometimes new materials like plastic or polystyrene foam is used instead of wax. This process has a number of steps involved. • A primary model is made in hard alloy like nickel silver or just silver. • A rubber model is made by surrounding this primary model, using sheet rubber in a mold frame. It is then vulcanized by placing it in a heated press. On cooling, it is cut with a scalpel into halves or more and removing the primary model. • This rubber mold is used to make many copies of the primary model on wax. • Molten wax is then introduced into the mold cavity by using a wax injector. On cooling the wax is removed to get an exact copy of the primary model in wax. • After the desired number of models has been made the waxes are arranged in a tree all around a central feeder in the casting machine. The central feeder is also called sprue. The tree placed in a metal cylinder called flask.
  13. 13. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  13     • A special mixture called investment plaster is mixed with water to form a thick liquid and poured over the tree covering the wax models. Low vacuum removes air bubbles and then this is allowed to cool and harden to form stiff and sturdy molds. • Then the flask is inverted and placed in a kiln/furnace. The wax is melted by steam or air to remove all the wax. The furnace is set in stages and the maximum temperature reached is 750 degrees centigrade. The melting process takes about 12 to 16 hours. This melting down of the wax is called the 'lost wax process'. • The wax is slowly melted and drained out completely and all that is left behind is the investment plaster mold and this will now be used to pour the required molten metal (to be cased) into.   • The casting process begins by putting the flask in a casting machine. The gold metal or its alloy is melted and then cast into the investment mold. Then it is allowed to cool and solidify. • After it has cooled down completely it is immersed into cold water which breaks off the investment mold, leaving the casts in the tree. The casting are cut off and then made into jewellery pieces which will then be polished into completion. Two types of casting machines are used the centrifugal casting machine which is the older technique or the modern technique of static vacuum assist machines. Advantages  of  investment  casting     It is an age old proven method. It allows the jeweler flexibility to create complex designs. The details can be copied perfectly. The control of color is better. The finished product can be highly polished. It results in very fine surface finish. The metallurgical properties are also excellent. Disadvantages  of  investment  casting     This process can result in porosity. Also the dimensions may not be as accurate as the die struck method. This process can and is used for almost all gold jewellery and remains a favorite with jewelers even after 6,000 years later! Die  struck  method   Die struck method is a casting method where the metal to be cast is forced under pressure into a mold which is usually made out of metal. This is a bona fide method of producing complex shapes. The earliest recorded history of die casting by pressure occurred in 1800's. Using a plunger or compressed air, molten metal is forced into a metallic die and the pressure is maintained until the metal settles and solidifies. The pressure reaches 25 tons per square inch. The intense pressure causes the atoms in the metal to move closer together and solidify to form dies or molds. Using compressed sheet metal and steel dies mountings are formed with metal parts mechanically stamped out. Each part is matched and fitted into the correct portion of halved die and stamped and shaped. A hydraulic press is used.
  14. 14. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  14       Various  methods  of  cuttings  tools  of  stones  and  process  of  carvings  of  floral  design  being  displayed  in   the  pictures  above.         In  the  above  picture,  cutting  into  desired  shape  has  been  shown  .In  the  adjacent  picture  a  lady   inspecting  and  sorting  stones  for  the  correct  choice  of  stone  setting.       In  the  above  picture  the  men  are  preparing  themselves  for  casting,  a  method  where  a  cast  and  mold  is   made  in  which  molten  metals  are  forced  in.  The  adjacent  picture  is  showing  a  lady  giving  shape  to  a   stones  to  enhance  beauty  and  sometimes  hide  imperfections  and  inclusions.  
  15. 15. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  15     Types  of  stone  setting   There are thousands of variations of setting styles, but there are several fundamental types: Bezel  setting     A  bezel  set  sapphire   The earliest known technique of attaching stones to jewelry was bezel setting. A bezel is a strip of metal bent into the shape and size of the stone and then soldered to the piece of jewelry. Then the stone is inserted into the bezel and the metal rubbed over the stone, holding it in place. This method works well for either cabochon or faceted stones. Prong  setting     Prong  set  diamonds   Prong setting is the simplest and most common type of setting, largely because it uses the least amount of metal to hold the stone, thus showing it off to its best advantage. Generally it is simply some number of wires, called prongs, which are of a certain size and shape, arranged in a shape and size to hold the given stone, and fixed at the base. Then a burr of the proper size, is used to cut what is known as a "bearing", which is a notch that corresponds to the angles of the stone. The burr most often used is called a "hart bur" that is angled and sized for the job of setting diamonds. That bearing is cut equally into all of the prongs and at the same height above the base. Then the stone is inserted so that it goes into all of the bearings, pliers or a pusher are used to bend the prongs gently over the crown of the stone, and the tops of the prongs are clipped off with snips, filed to an even height above the stone, and finished. Usually a "cup burr" is used to give the prong a nice round tip. A cup burr is in the shape of a hemisphere with teeth on the inside, for making rounded tips on wires and prongs. There are many variations of prong settings including just two prongs, the common 4 prongs or up to 24 or more with many variations involving decoration, size and shapes of the prongs themselves, and how they are fixed or used in jewelry. But the method of setting is generally the same for all of them no matter how many prongs are present.
  16. 16. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  16     Channel  setting     Channel  set  diamonds   Channel setting is a method whereby stones are suspended between two bars or strips of metal, called channels. Often when setting small stones and the bars go in a linear line with the design it is called channel setting, and when the bars cross the lines of the design, it is called bar set. The idea is the same, though. The channel is some variation of a "U" shape, with two sides and a bottom. The sides are made just a bit narrower than the width of the stone or stones to be set, and then, using the same burs as in prong setting, a small notch, which is again called a bearing, is cut into each wall. The stone is put in place in those notches, and the metal on top is pushed down, tightening the stone in place. The proper way to set a channel is to cut a notch for each stone, but for cheaper production work sometimes a groove is cut along each channel. Also, since the metal can be very stiff and strong, this is a situation where a reciprocating hammer, which is like a jackhammer but jewelry sized, might be used to hammer down the metal, as it can be difficult to do by hand. Then, as always, the metal is filed down and finished, and the inner edge near the stones cleaned up and straightened as necessary. As with all jewelry, there can be many variations of channel work. At times the walls will be raised—sometimes a center stone will be set between two bars that rise high from the base ring—or the channel might just be cut directly into some surface, making the stones flush with the metal. It is still channel setting, though. Bead  setting     Example  of  bead  set  diamonds     Example  of  pave  set  diamonds  
  17. 17. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  17     Bead setting is a generic term for setting a stone directly into metal using gravers, also called burins, which are essentially tiny chisels. A hole is drilled directly into the metal surface, and then a ball burr is used to make a concave depression just the size of the stone. Some setters will set the stone into that concave depression, and some will use a hart burr to cut a bearing around the edge. Then the stone is inserted into that space, and the gravers or burins are used to lift and push a tiny bit of the metal into and over the edge of the stone. Then a beading tool, which is simply a steel shaft with a concave dimple cut into the tip, is pushed onto the bit of metal, rounding and smoothing it, pushing it firmly onto the stone, and creating a "bead". That is the essential method, but there are many types of setting that use the technique. When many stones are set in this fashion very closely together, about 1 millimeter apart covering a surface that is called “pave”— from the French for paved or cobblestoned. When a long line is engraved into the metal going up to each of the beads that is "star set", because of the look. The other common usage is called "bead and bright", "grain setting" or "threading" in Europe, and other names at times. This is when; after the stone is set as described above, the background metal around the stone is cut away, usually in geometric shapes. In the end what is left is the stone with four beads in a lowered box shape with an edge around it. Often it is a row of stones, so it will be in a long shape with a raised edge and a row of stones and beads down the center. This type of setting is still used often, but it was very common in the early to middle 20th century. Burnish  setting     Fig  showing  Burnish  set  diamonds   Burnish setting, also sometimes referred to as flush setting, shot setting, or gypsy setting (The term gypsy setting is used less often today because the word gypsy is seen as derogatory) is similar to bead setting, but after the stone is inserted into the space, instead of using a graver to lift beads, a burnishing tool is used to push the metal all around the stone. The stone will be roughly flush with the surface, with a burnished or rubbed edge around it. This type of setting has a long history but is gaining resurgence in contemporary jewelry. Sometimes the metal is finished using sandblasting, as it shows off the work very well.
  18. 18. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  18           This  hand  sketch  illustration  is  showing  the  details  effect  of  polished  diamond  inculcated  in  a  ring.       This  above  illustration  is  showing  6  different  types  of  Prong  settings.  
  19. 19. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  19         This  illustration  is  showing  diamond  setting  with  ring  attachment  and  different  stone  viability.       The  diagram  features  different  names  suggestion  for  different  settings  of  diamond  in  a  ring  of  gold  or   silver.                  
  20. 20. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  20                     EXERCISES   1. Design  5  jewellery  of  different  materials  and  color  it  appropriately.   2. List  10  best  national  and  International  jewellery  brands  and  write  a  brief  of  each  about   the  brand,  foundation,  turnover  and  sales  profit  with  its  tie  ups  and  branding   promotional  activities.     Review  questions   Q1.  What  are  Jewelries?  What  are  the  materials  and  methods  used  in  jewelry  making?   Q2.  Describe  5  gemstones  and  their  usage  for  jewelry  designing?   Q3.  Explain  5  different  types  of  Jewelry?   Q4.  What  is  Investment  jewelry?  What  are  the  advantage  and  disadvantage  of  investment  jewelry?   Q5.  What  are  the  different  types  of  Stone  cutting?   Q6  Explain  the  following  in  short  answers-­‐:   1. Jadau  Jewelry   2. Prong  Setting   3. Burnish  setting   4. Die  –struck  method   5. Traditional  jewelry   6. Navaratna  jewelry   7. Diamonds    
  21. 21. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  21         UNIT  2   BAGS     A   handbag,   or   purse   in   American   English,   is   a   handled   medium-­‐to-­‐large   bag   that   is   often   fashionably  designed,  typically  used  by  women,  to  hold  personal  items  such  as  wallet/coins,   keys,  cosmetics,  a  hairbrush,  mobile  phone  etc.   Handbags  have  been  known  for  their  special  relation  to  women.  They  have  been  one  of  the  most   popular  and  are  often  used  accessories  of  women  even  before  old  times.  Handbags  are  not  only   considered  as  a  functional  item  that  help  them  carry  their  important  belongings,  but  women  consider   them  as  one  of  the  most  significant  preferences  in  succeeding  the  best  fashion  style  they  dreaming  of,   as  well.  The  purpose  of  Bags  has  exceeded  its  prime  purpose  of  convenience  and  fashion.  Bags  come  in   different  sizes,  giving  us  the  opportunity  to  bring  things  all  the  time.     As  an  accessory,  bags  can  totally  change  the  way  we  look  or  dress  for  a  certain  occasion.  Nowadays,   handbags  are  coming  out  with  plenty  varieties  of  styles  and  designs  to  choose  from.  Designers  are   making  various  creations  with  different  styles  and  designs  that  can  match  with  the  lifestyle  of  today's   savvy  women.  We  have  travel  bags,  baby  bags,  pet  bags,  school  bags,  formal  bags,  designer  bags,  school   bags,  and  many  more.  Not  all  handbags  are  created  equal  –  some  are  classics,  some  are  trendy,  some   are  practical,  some  are  simply  arm  candy.    You  can  flaunt  a  bag  to  manifest  your  cool  personality,  to   show  your  strong  attitude  or  even  to  complement  your  jovial  nature.  There  is  something  for  every   personality,  and  also  for  every  occasion.   Bags  are  one  of  the  most  essential  fashion  accessories  carried  by  a  woman,  every  woman  has  a  dream  to   carry  a  matching  hand  bag  with  her  dress  and  so,  hand  bags  are  found  in  various  styles  and  patterns  that   can  go  matching  with  any  kind  of  dress.  Bags  for  women  are  basically  to  carry  their  stuffs  in  a  more   convenient  way  while  some  of  them  carry  for  show.  Aside,  from  its  main  purpose  of  storage  and   portability,  bags  also  add  to  aesthetics.   A  number  of  European  manufacturers  have  long  histories  of  producing  leather  goods.  Some  were  made   by  famous  jewelry  companies  such  as  Tiffany  &  Co.  For  some  companies,  Gucci  and  Louis  Vuitton,   handbags  were  introduced  to  their  product  range  relatively  recently  in  their  history  but  for  others  like   H.J.  Cave  &  Sons,  they  have  been  around  almost  as  long  as  the  company.  Nonetheless,  handbags  are   among  their  best-­‐known  products,  and  their  logos  are  recognized  in  many  countries  today.     The  most  expensive  of  the  luxury  handbags  are  made  by  Hermès.  Prices  start  at  $6000;  handbags  are   made  to  order,  and  the  waiting  lists  are  years  long.  Hermès  handbag  designs  carry  the  names  of   actresses,  socialites,  and  other  celebrities  who  were  frequently  photographed  with  a  particular  handbag,  
  22. 22. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  22     most  notably  the  "Birkin"  bag  named  after  Jane  Birkin,  and  the  "Kelly"  bag  named  after  Grace  Kelly.   Other  designers  have  adopted  the  practice  of  naming  their  handbag  designs  after  celebrities,  for   example  Marc  Jacobs,  who  created  the  "Stam"  purse,  named  after  model  Jessica  Stam.     HISTORY  OF  HANDBAGS   Handbags have been essential to fashion history ever since people have had something precious to carry around with them and only the items have changed over time. Early handbags ware more functional rather than being a fashion statement. They were typically small circular cut pieces of material that normally had a leather strap. The leather strap was sewn around the circumference of the handbag to maintain its' strength and security. The very first mention in written literature comes from the 14th century, even though Egyptian hieroglyphs show pouches carried around the waist. Bags were attached to what were called "girdles" which were fastened to the waist. Embroidery and jewels adorned these articles and were used to show status - the richer the person, the more elaborate the bag. In the 16th century, handbags took on more of an air of practicality with the use of everyday materials such as leather with a drawstring fastener on top. During this period, cloth bags were used that were made larger and used by travelers and carried diagonally across the body. The 17th century saw more variety and both fashionable men and women carried small purses with more complex shapes. Young girls were taught embroidery as a very necessary skill to make them marriageable and we see the rise of beautiful and unique stitched artwork in handbags. Neo-classical clothing became popular in the 18th century with a reduction in the amount of underclothing worn by women. Wearing a purse would ruin the look of this clothing so fashionable ladies started carrying their handbags which were called reticules. Reticules became a fashion statement. The functional element of handbags although remaining important started to give way to the design of the handbag in reasons why people chose a particular handbag for their wardrobe. Fashion magazines were primarily responsible for making handbags a fashion statement as they began to comment on the best handbags to use for specific events, occasions and locations. This led to the need to have different handbags for different conditions. Handbags remained functional but not just as travelers carry bag but to carry other personal items including a fan, perfume, smelling salts and make-up. The term "handbag" first came into use in the early 1900's and generally referred to hand-held luggage bags usually carried by men. These were an inspiration for new bags that became popularized for women, including handbags with complicated fasteners, internal compartments, and locks. With this new fashion, jewelers got into the act with special compartments for opera glasses, cosmetics, and fans. The 1920's saw a revolution in fashion with varying hemlines and lighter clothing. Bags no longer needed to match the outfit perfectly and the rage was for the stylish lady to carry a doll dressed exactly like herself, complete with matching bag for her miniature companion! The 1940's saw new austerity in clothing, including handbags with the war effort in mind. Metal frames, zips, leather, and mirrors were in short supply so manufactures used plastic and wood. The 50's saw the
  23. 23. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  23     rise of important designer houses including Chanel, Louis Vuitton, and Hermes and the 60's saw the breakdown of old notions of the classical and the rise of youth culture. Copy is the most sincere form of flattery and, if so, Kate Spade, Gucci, Hermes, Coach and Dior must be very flattered! There are many replica handbags flooding the market. Some of these "designer fakes" even carry the label of the Company they are imitating while others just have the signature "C" or "G" without the label. TYPES OF BAGS Athletic bag: a soft, roomy bag used to carry sporting equipment and apparel to the gym Backpack: a bag that is supported by the shoulders with double handles and lies across the back. Lightweight types of backpacks are sometimes worn on only one shoulder strap. Backpacks are often preferred to handbags for carrying heavy loads or carrying any sort of equipment, because of the limited capacity to carry heavy weights for long periods of time in the hands. Backpacks are supported on either one or both shoulders. Perfect for students who need to carry laptops, books, water bottle and snacks among other things, they are the traditional school bags with a twist. A backpack ought to have two padded straps – wider the straps, better the support. Baguette Bag: A purse that is relatively long from side to side and small from top to bottom basically a little like a baguette with a handle. It is long and narrow in shape similar to a French bread loaf.
  24. 24. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  24     Bowling Bag: A bag originally made to hold a bowling ball, this has become a fashion item. Bucket bag: roomy bag shaped like a bucket, usually has an open top and shoulder strap. Clutch Bag: Small but long bag (rectangular), evening bag without a handle. You have to clutch it hence the name. Cosmetic case: bags of varying sizes and shapes with a zip closure lined to hold cosmetics Coin Purse: Sometimes called change purses. A coin purse is a small bag designed to hold coins and other small items. Cross-Body Bag: Typically smaller in size, these bags are meant to be worn across the body to allow you be hands-free while on the go
  25. 25. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  25     Drawstring Handbag: A bag with a string or cord cinch closure Envelope bag: a flat, square or rectangular bag with a triangle- shaped top flaps that fold over like an envelope. Fold over clutch: a clutch with or without a handle that can be tucked or folded. Hobo Bag: a large crescent-shaped shoulder bag or any large bag that hangs from your shoulder and has a main compartment closure. Jhola :A cousin of satchel bag is our good old mirror worked “jhola” bags that we get off the streets. While the satchel can be teamed with western wear, the mirror worked versions can be carried with Indian casual wear. These Jholas come in varied designs and colors, thus suited for every personality. It’s now safe to say that that perception has changed. They are now considered to be a major fashion draw for students throughout the country.
  26. 26. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  26     Messenger Bag: A bag with a long strap to be worn across the body that winds around the chest resting the bag on the lower back.. Messenger bags are often used by bicycle messengers, though they are increasingly becoming an urban fashion icon. Messenger bags ensure comfort to people carrying heavy and/or bulky items, while allowing easy access to the contents. While they can be found in the possession of either gender, they are often commonly employed by men in a function analogous to a woman's purse. These have also become fashionable in urban environments, among cyclists and commuters. Materials used in messenger bags are often more durable and water-resistant than traditional bags. Typically, a messenger bag has a rectangular shape with a fold over flap that is held closed by a buckle, clasp, zipper or magnetic catch. Muff: a winter bag made of real or faux fur, wool or velvet that has zippered compartments and a slip opening for your hands. Saddle Bag: a large bag (or pair of bags) hung over a saddle. Many designers use saddle bag as an inspiration for their designs. Therefore, their bags are called saddle bags, even though they are not actually saddle bag
  27. 27. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  27     Satchel: A structured handbag with double handles, locking hardware and a wide, flat bottom. May be large or small. A satchel is a bag, often one or sometimes two large straps. The strap is often worn so that it diagonally crosses the body, with the bag hanging on the opposite hip, rather than hanging directly down from the shoulder. Handle is generally rigid and curved. The main difference between a satchel and a briefcase is that a satchel is soft-sided usually of leather. Also, satchels often have straps while briefcases usually don't. Most students are also using these bags to help them carry their books, notebooks and other school supplies. Sling Bag: A bag with a long strap (similar to a messenger bag), yet smaller. This stylish design is quite similar to the messenger counterparts, but slings are definitely way ahead considering style and looks. When used by men, the bags are often called man purses or man bags. This bag goes well with western casuals. These bags are more famous amongst the men folk. Tote Bag: A medium to large bag with two straps. Sometimes sold as a reusable shopping bag, this bag can carry anything that is too large for a common handbag – also called a ‘Shopper’ Weekend Bag: A bag of a size to carry clothing and personal articles for a weekend trip
  28. 28. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  28     Wristlet - a clutch shaped bag that comes with an attached leather or bracelet-looking strap allowing you to hold your bag and dance freely. Duffel Bag: A large bag usually used for travel or sports. The name comes from Duffel, a town in Belgium where the thick cloth used to make the bag originated. Duffel bags are often used by sailors, and are sometimes called sea bags in this capacity. More recently, a duffel bag typically refers to the specific style of bag, though the phrase may also be used to refer to any large bag made of thick fabric. It is often used to carry luggage or sports equipment by people who travel in the outdoors. Duffel bags have large compartments to place numerous valuables such as clothes, shoes, and other things when away from home. Laptop Bags: A bag used to carry laptops, ipads or other portable electronic devices. Typically has a single handle and is carried like a briefcase. Most come with a removable shoulder strap. Organizer Bags: Handbags with compartments and pockets for organized storage of makeup, wallets, coin purses, appointment books, and other personal items.
  29. 29. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  29     COMPONENT PARTS OF HANDBAGS: Term Definition Examples Closure Mechanism used to close the purse Drawstring, snap, zipper, toggle button, magnet, Velcro, kiss-lock, clasp Handle Refers to relatively short, usually rigid hand grips Leather, synthetic leather, chain, metal, bamboo, wood, bone, plastic Strap Commonly long, flexible loops Leather, synthetic leather, fabric Lining Fabric used to line the interior of the purse Natural fabric, synthetic fabric, vinyl Frame A rigid top structure from which a soft bag is suspended; the closure is often a kiss-lock type which snaps shut Usually metal but may be plastic or another hard material Hardware (Usually) metal pieces Zippers, snaps, buckles, clasp closures, spring clasps and loops used to attach removable straps, strap adjustments, rings connecting straps to bags, feet Feet Small nubs, typically four, found on the bottom of a flat-bottomed bag to keep it off of dirty surfaces Metal, rubber, plastic
  30. 30. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  30     LUGGAGE BAGS-: Luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a traveler’s articles during transit. The modern traveler can be expected to have packages containing clothing, toiletries, small possessions, trip necessities, and on the return-trip, souvenirs. For some people, luggage and the style thereof is representative of the owner's wealth. Luggage has changed over time. Historically the most common types of luggage were chests or trunks made of wood or other heavy materials. These would be shipped by professional movers. Since the Second World War smaller and more lightweight suitcases and bags that can be carried by an individual have become the main form of luggage. TYPES OF LUGGAGE No single piece of luggage is perfect for all kinds of travel. That's why there are so many types of luggage, bags and packs to choose from. Trunk - A wooden box, generally much larger than other kinds of luggage. Trunks come in smaller sizes as in the case of footlockers and larger ones called steamers. These days trunks are more commonly used for storage than transportation. Items large enough to require a trunk are now usually shipped in transport cases. Suitcase - A general term that may refer to wheeled or non-wheeled luggage, as well as soft or hard side luggage. There are three types of suitcase. Each can be anywhere from 24 inches to 36 inches in size.
  31. 31. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  31     Hard-sided suitcases: Hard-sided suitcases feature wheels, locks, and pull straps and are especially durable against wear and tear. Many are constructed of plastic, metal, or other molded materials; others feature wood or metal interior frames and a soft covering like fabric or leather. Semi-soft suitcases: Lightweight semi-soft suitcases offer more room for expansion than other types of suitcases and most have wheels and straps for easy transport. Soft-sided suitcases: Light and expandable soft-sided suitcases have zipper closures and stiffeners instead of an interior framework. Garment bag - A style of luggage that folds over on itself to allow long garments such as suits or dresses to be packed flat to avoid creasing. Garment bags come in both wheeled and non-wheeled models, and are usually one of the largest pieces in any set of luggage. 4. Tote - A small bag, usually worn on the shoulder 5. Duffel bag - A barrel-shaped bag, almost exclusively soft side, is well suited to casual travel, with very little organization inside. The spelling "duffle" is also valid.
  32. 32. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  32     Wheeled Duffels Nothing swallows up gear like a duffel bag, and one with wheels is a good choice for multisport gear junkies. If your adventures frequently require gear of widely varying sizes and shapes, rolling duffel is a smart way to corral it all. For light packers, a carry-on wheeled duffel (22") offers less space but allows you to forego the time and expense of checking a bag. Wheeled Backpacks Popular with adventure travelers, these combine the convenience of wheeled luggage with the mobility of a backpack. You can transport lots of gear with a simple pull of the extendable handle. Laptop Bags, Sleeves and Day Packs These urban bags have a padded compartment to protect your 10"–17" laptop, plus a bevy of organizing pockets to hold cables, peripherals and paperwork. Laptop sleeves can also be used with e-readers and tablets.
  33. 33. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  33     FEATURES OF LUGGAGE Locks - locks serve multiple purposes; a deterrent to dishonest airport workers and locks also help keep baggage closed during handling. Expandable Luggage - suitcases that can be unzipped to expand for more packing space. Wheels: The "Dawn-Mobile", the first suitcase on wheels, was invented in 1908 by James Cole, a preacher for the Bible Students, to carry copies of the Bible commentary. Rolling suitcases were reinvented in 1970, when Bernard D. Sadow applied for a patent that was granted in 1972 as United States patent 3,653,474 for "Rolling Luggage". Sadow's four-wheeled suitcases, pulled using a loose strap, were later surpassed in popularity by roll boards, suitcases that feature two wheels and are pulled in an upright position using a long handle, and were invented in 1987 by US pilot Robert Plath. Large suitcases and Pullmans
  34. 34. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  34     PROMINENT BRANDS (INTERNATIONAL)-: There is now an array of luxury luggage brands to pick from and all offer style and practicality in their collections. Companies range from fashion heavyweights Louis Vuitton and Ralph Lauren to travel specialists Tumi and Samsonite. Even sports car maker Porsche is getting involved with its Driver’s Selection suitcases. And many of today’s luggage lines have to satisfy the jetsetter’s requirements. Most offer two-wheel mobility while some go further with four-wheel 360° freedom of movement. Victorinox, which made the original Swiss army knife before turning to luggage, has in-built hangar clamps in its Deluxe Garment Mobilizer to keep clothes wrinkle-free. Luggage doesn’t always mean suitcases – Alfred Dunhill’s and Ralph Lauren’s weekender bags provide an alternative for shorter stays. They are stylish without sacrificing function and are spacious enough to allow you to bring what you need. Italian luxury goods brand Bottega Veneta started in 1966. It is a lot younger than the other featured labels but it offers something different to hard-shell suitcases. The fashion house uses its signature intrecciato VN leather for its luggage line. The material is durable and stands up to the wear and tear of frequent travel. All of our luxury luggage lines feature because they strike the balance between style, function and endurance. Traveling can be that much sweeter with a reliable companion in your hand. Louis Vuitton With roots in trunk making dating back as far as 1871, Louis Vuitton combines luxury with expert craftsmanship to provide the ultimate in sophisticated luggage. The label's LV monogram appears on most of its products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, shoes, watches, jewellery, accessories, sunglasses, and books. Whether you’re seeking the signature Monogram canvas, personalized details or colorful designs, globetrotters can’t go wrong with one of Louis Vuitton’s travel creations.
  35. 35. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  35     Samsonite International luggage specialist Samsonite has been leading the field for more than 100 years. Samsonite International S.A. is an American multinational luggage manufacturer and retailer, with products ranging from large suitcases to small toiletries bags and briefcases. It was founded in Denver, Colorado in 1910 by Jesse Shwayder. Shwayder named one of his initial cases Samson, after the Biblical strongman, and began using the trademark Samsonite in 1941. The company changed its name to Samsonite in 1966. VIP Industries Ltd(NATIONAL BRAND)-: It is world second largest and Asia’s largest Luggage maker based in Mumbai Maharashtra, India. The company manufactures plastic moulded suitcases, handbags, briefcases, vanity cases and luggage. It has acquired UK luggage brand Carlton in 2004.It provides travel products, hard and soft-sided luggage, bags, backpacks, duffels, shoulder bags, waist pouches, sling bags, duffel trolleys, vanity cases, office bags and satchels, suitcases, and briefcases. The company offers its products primarily under the VIP, Carlton, Footloose, Alfa, Aristocrat, Sky bags, and Buddy brands.
  36. 36. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  36     EXERCISES-: 1. Design 3 bags of different occasion and show the side, front and top view and render it and mention its different parts with appropriate trimmings. 2. Collect 5 national and international brand pictures of bags and luggage’s and study and note the design and interesting features of those bags and discuss it in class. 3. Design your own logo and give an imaginary brand name with one bag design for the following wear-: A.  executive  wear   B.  cruise/resort  wear   C.  Party  wear.     4. Draw the outline of the of a female human form based on 5 different occasional wear and sketch and identify the various bags of that may be worn in this figure. 5. Collect different newspaper and magazines and identify the bags and paste and label it. Next, try to draw and render the exact image by doing a photo analysis. Review Questions Q1. Describe the history of bags? Explain 5 different types of bags along with correct diagram. Q2. Explain 5 components of Handbags. Q3. Describe one international brand for bags in details. Q4. Explain two types of luggage’s with the help of a neat diagram. Q5. Write short notes on the following-:     1.  Straps   2.  Laptop  bag 3.  Bougette  Bags   4.  Athletic  Bags   5.  Lining   6.  Hobo  bags  
  37. 37. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  37     UNIT  3   SHOES     SHOES-: DEFINITE FASHION FOOTWEAR! Footwear refers to garments worn on the feet, for fashion, protection against the environment, and adornment. Some cultures choose not to wear footwear, at least in some situations. Socks and other hosiery are typically worn between the feet and other footwear, less often with sandals or flip flops (thongs). Footwear is sometimes the subject of sexual fetishism, such as shoe fetishism or boot fetishism. Durable shoes are a relatively recent invention, though many ancient civilizations wore ornamental footwear. Many ancient civilizations saw no need for footwear. The Romans saw clothing and footwear as signs of power and status in society, and most Romans wore footwear, while slaves and peasants remained barefoot. The Middle Ages saw the rise of high-heeled shoes, also associated with power, and the desire to look larger than life, and artwork from that period often depicts bare feet as a symbol of poverty. Bare feet are also seen as a sign of humility and respect, and adherents of many religions worship or mourn while barefoot, or remove their shoes as a sign of respect towards someone of higher standing. In some cultures, people remove their shoes before entering a home. Some religious communities require people to remove shoes before they enter holy buildings, such as temples. Practitioners of the craft of shoemaking are called shoemakers, cobblers, or cordwainers. Materials   • Leather • Plastic • Rubber • Textiles • Wood • Jute • Metal Components • Adhesives • Buckle • Counter • Eyelet • Heel • Hook • Insole • Laces  
  38. 38. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  38     • Shank • Sole • Tack • Tread • Welt • Outsole    Fig-­‐1.1   Fig  1.1  shows  Shoes  made  from  crocodile  skin,  in  a  conservation  exhibit  at  Bristol  Zoo,  England   Types   • Shoe Styles-:Boots o Chukka boots o Combat boots o Cowboy boots o Go-go boots o Hiking boots o Kinky boots o Motorcycle boots o Mukluk o Platform boots o Riding boots o Russian boots o Derby boots o Thigh-length boots • Shoes     o Athletic shoes (also known as trainers or sneakers) o Brothel creepers o Court shoes (known in the US as pumps) o Diabetic shoes o Espadrilles o Galoshes o Kitten heels o Lace-up shoes § Derby shoes § Oxford shoes
  39. 39. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  39     § Brogues o High-tops o Loafers o Mary Jane o Moccasins o Monks o Mules o Platform shoes o School shoes o Skate shoes o Tap shoes • Sandals o Flip-flops (thongs) o Slide o Slippers • Foot wraps • Specific footwear o Ballet shoes o High-heeled footwear o Climbing shoes o Clogs o Football boots o Sabaton o Safety footwear o Ski boots o Snowshoes o Surgical shoe o Pointe shoes o Swim fins (flippers) • Traditional footwear Footwear  industry   In Europe, the footwear industry has declined in the last years. Whereas in 2005, there were about 27,000 firms, in 2008 there were only 24,000. As well as the number of firms, the direct employment has decreased. The only factors that remained almost steady were the value added at factor cost and production value. In the U.S., the annual footwear industry revenue was $48 billion in 2012. There are about 29,000 shoe stores in the U.S. and the shoe industry employs about 189,000 people. Due to rising imports, these numbers are also declining. The only way of staying afloat in the shoe market is to establish a presence in niche market
  40. 40. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  40       Fig  1.2                                    Fig  1.3   Fig  1.2  and1.3  showing  the  features  for  the  parts  of  shoe.  Note  the  shoe  type  show  in  both  the   pictures  is  of  Sneaker.     Fig  1.4  showing  the  anatomy  of  part  of  a  Female  shoe.  Note  that  some  parts  of  female  shoe  don’t  exist   in  male  show.  Can  you  jot  down  the  difference  of  those  few  parts?  
  41. 41. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  41       Fig  1.5  Showing  full  features  of  a  athletic  Sneaker  ideal  for  sports  wear.   ___________________________________________________________________________________   Fig 1.6 Showing parts of male shoe. ______________________________________________________________________________
  42. 42. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  42     Terminology The following is a list of terms used to describe parts of the shoe. Some terms refer to parts that all shoes have such as the sole, while other terms may only apply to certain types or style of shoe. Breast: The forward facing part of the heel, under the arch of the sole Counter: A stiff piece of material at the heel of a shoe positioned between the lining and upper that helps maintain the shape of the shoe. The counter helps strengthen the rear of the soe. Feather: The part of the shoe where the upper’s edge meets the sole Heel: The heel is the part of the sole that raises the rear of the shoe in relation to the front. The heal seat is the top of the heel that touches the upper; this is typically shaped to match the form of the upper. The part of the heel that comes in contact with the ground is known as the top piece. Insole: A layer of material that sits inside the shoe that creates a layer between the sole and the wearer’s foot. The insole adds comfort for the wearer, while hiding the join between the upper. Linings: Most shoes include a lining on the inside of the shoe, around the vamp and quarter. These linings improve comfort, and can help increase the lifespan of the shoe. Outsole: The exposed part of the sole that is contact with the ground. As with all parts of the shoe, outsoles are made from a variety of materials. The properties the outsole need are: grip, durability, and water resistance Puff: a reinforcing inside the upper which gives the toe its shape and support. Similar function to a toe cap. Quarter: The rear and sides of the upper that covers the heel that is behind the vamp. The heel section of the quarter is often strengthened with a stiffener, which helps support the rear of the foot. Some shoe designs use a continuous piece of leather for the vamp and quarter. Seat: Where the heel of the fit sits in the shoe. It normally matches the shape of the heel for comfort and support. ‘Shank: A piece of metal inserted between the sole and the insole lying against the arch of the foot. Sole: The entire part of the shoe that sites below the wearers foot. As opposite to the upper. The upper and sole make up the whole of the shoe.
  43. 43. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  43     Throat: The front of the vamp next to the toe cap. For shoes were the vamp and quarter panels are one piece the throat is at the eye-stay. Toe cap: Shoes may have a toe cap in the front upper of the shoe. Toe caps can take various forms, but the distinct types are: complete replacements for the front upper of the shoe; stitched over toecaps that add an extra layer to the upper; solid toe caps for protection, such as steel toe caps. Stitch over toe caps may be decorative in nature. Toe caps help add strength to the upper front of the shoe, an area that receives a lot of stress and wear from use. Top Piece: The part of the heel that comes in contact with the ground. Made of a durable material that helps maintain friction with the ground. Top line: The top edge of the upper Upper: The entire part of the shoe that covers the foot. Vamp: The section of upper that covers the front of the foot as far as the back as the join of the quarter. Waist: The arch and in-step of the foot. Welt: A strip of material that joins the upper to the sole. Understanding  the  Basic  Manufacturing  Process   People have been wearing shoes for over 5,000 years, but shoe sizing systems are a fairly recent development. Many years ago, shoes were made or acquired in one of three ways: 1) Custom-made by a shoemaker; 2) The individual made his own for himself or his family; and 3) Buying second-hand shoes from a more prosperous individual (or receiving hand-me-downs within the family). FIG  1.7   Fig  1.1  showing  an  artist's  impression  of  Ötzi's  right  shoe.  Ötzi  is  a  male  mummy  found  in  the  Austrian   Alps  in  September  1991  in  remarkably  well-­‐preserved  condition.   As seen with the discovery of a 5,000 year old Iceman, in Fig 1.7 his shoes were self-made. Each shoe consisted of an oval piece of leather; the edges turned up and bound with strong leather straps. Microscopic examination illustrated that the material used, was in fact, leather and
  44. 44. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  44     not fur. The soles were presumably made of cowhide. Attached to the straps was a net knotted from grass cords; this covered the instep and the heel. This device was intended to hold in place the grass stuffed into the shoes for warmth. The cord-net also covered the loop hanging down from the leggings. Attached to the sole leather were the uppers, presumably of fur, which then continued up the leg roughly in the form of a boot. This was tied around the ankle with grass cords. The oldest shoe found in Western Europe before the Iceman was unearthed in 1874. It came from the Buiner bog in the Dutch province of Drente. On the basis of pollen analysis, this shoe was dated back to the end of the Neolithic period, or generally about 2500 BC. Unlike the shoes of the iceman, it’s sole and upper were made from a single, oval piece of leather. In later specimens, a seam in the front of an inverted T would be placed at the heel, ensuring a better fit. This would be tied around the foot with a leather strap, which passed through slits about 2 centimeters long (3/4 inch) placed some 3 millimeters (¼ inch) in front the edge. Even though there was nothing else remaining of this shoe, such as an inner lining, it was clearly constructed on a different principle from that of the Iceman’s footwear, which consisted of separate pieces of material sewn together. The homemade process was relatively simple. The foot was placed on a slab of leather or other material and a sole was cut from it. A piece of leather or some type of cloth was laid over the top of the foot, cut to fit, then nailed or tacked to the sole. Nobody thought in terms of size or width; the shoes were basically made to protect the feet. It was simply a method of fitting the foot with a cover. Shoemakers would generally follow the same basic method except for much more skill and sophistication. The shoemaker would start with a foot tracing, sometimes making an impression of the foot in clay or plaster. He would measure the foot "mass" by using the hand- span methods; elsewhere with various spans of his hand he created a "last" (a form shaped like a foot). With this process, there was no sizing of shoes; just the taking of measurements. Each shoemaker measured in his own individual way, which he protected and guarded. These trade secrets, of course, precluded any possibility of a general shoe measuring or sizing system applicable to everyone. Once the last was made, the shoemaker kept it in his possession, assuring repeat business from the same customer. Also, the shoemaker would be able to continue making shoes of a finer quality than the homemade kind because of his shoemaking skills as well as individual artistry in styling. Early shoes, more than likely, fit much better than today’s shoes, as they were custom made to each foot. But nevertheless, many points of modern fitting refinement were absent, such as tread design, collar fit, heel and arch fittings, vamp fit, etc.
  45. 45. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  45     List of shoe styles   Fig  1.8  Sneakers  in  a  footwear  shopping  mall  at  display. This is a list of shoe styles and designs. A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot while doing various activities. Shoes are also used as an item of decoration. The design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with appearance originally being tied to function. Additionally, fashion has often dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have very high heels or flat ones. Contemporary footwear varies widely in style, complexity and cost. Shoemaking is the process of making footwear. Originally, shoes were made one at a time by hand. Traditional handicraft shoemaking has now been largely superseded in volume of shoes produced by industrial mass production of footwear, but not necessarily in quality, attention to detail, or craftsmanship. Fig 1.9 Ballet shoes Fig 1.10 Derby shoes
  46. 46. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  46       Fig  1.11  Traditional  Shoe  (Galesh)      Fig  1.12  High  heel  shoes  with  stilettos      Fig  1.13  Jelly  shoes.   How to Find Your True Shoe Size Is it better to buy shoes that are too big or too small? How many times do you ask yourself that question? Or think to yourself "now that I bought these hot shoes, how can I make them fit and feel better?" These are questions that cross the minds of many women when purchasing the latest and hottest shoe styles. In order to find your true shoe size when you are buying shoes use the Brannock shoe measuring device at the shoe store. That will give you both the width and length of your foot. There are many people who find, after measuring their feet, that they have one foot longer or wider than the other. This is a normal variant and there is nothing to worry about. One of the reasons why it happens can be genetic and you can blame it on mom or dad. The formation of bunions and tailor bunions are boney abnormalities that have a genetic predisposition and will change the anatomical boney alignment of the foot making it wider. Another reason could be because of a splay foot where the ligaments weaken and the foot can elongate and widen. Women during pregnancy may experience this type of phenomena because of the hormone Relaxin that is released to allow the ligaments in the pelvis to stretch during the time of delivery. The ligaments in the foot can also become affected and the foot can get wider and longer. However, once the foot gets longer or wider it does not go back to its original size. The rule of thumb to live by when buying a pair of shoes is that there should be a thumb's width between the tip of the longest toe in your foot and the end of the shoe. The first, second or third toes are often the landmarks because they are usually the longest toes in your foot. Always buy a pair of shoes that fit the bigger foot. The reason for this is that you can place an over the counter insole in the larger one to either take up some of the room or prevent foot slippage. Never force your foot into a shoe that is too small or too tight. Wearing ill-fitting shoes can cause foot, ankle, knee and low back problems. Shoes that do not fit properly can throw your balance off and make you walk funny. If the shoe is too narrow you can develop ingrown toe nails, corns on the top and side of your toes and irritate the skin resulting in blister formation. The solution to these problems is to take your time when selecting a new pair of shoes. Try not to buy shoes on emotion only. Hint: Buy shoes during the time of the day that you would be probably wearing them because feet can often swell during the day. If your feet are swimming around inside the shoe and slipping forward, place an insole or an arch support in the shoe to
  47. 47. This  booklet  is  not  for  any  commercial  purpose  nor  for  sale,  it  is  prepared  solely  for  the  purpose  of   private  and  internal  circulation  for  the  students  of  this  college  as  study  material.       FDDI/ACCESSORY  DESIGN/SEM-­‐V/SLB/  (CONTROLLED)[Type  text]   Page  47     take up some of the extra room as well as prevent the slipping. If the arch in your foot is cramping when wearing shoes that are a little too big and going into spasm because the toes are curling up inside the shoes, my company makes an over the counter shoe product available to prevent that problem. The product is called Instant Arches. This oval shaped arch support product, one size fits all, will stop the foot from moving forward in the shoe and prevent skin irritation. They will also support the arch and eliminate arch cramps How to take care of Footwear? “The rains can play havoc on your footwear. While gum boots and rubber shoes are preferred during the season, an occasion might require you to wear leather shoes, ballet flats or even wedges. “ Moreover, the humidity in the weather could make you sweat more, leaving a foul smell in your shoes and socks. Here are ways to take care of your footwear during this season. - As soon as you return home, wipe the muck off your footwear using a clean and moist cloth. - If you wear sports shoes in the rains, dry them by loosening the laces. - Do not keep footwear in closed cabinets without completely drying them. - Drying shoes under direct sunlight can do more harm to your shoes. Leave them to dry under the fan instead. - Always wear clean socks. - Try sticking to rubber footwear and avoid wearing expensive shoes. - Avoid wearing leather shoes in this weather. However, if an occasion demands you to wear them, apply a wax-based polish. This will create a thin protective layer that provides light resistance to water and salt. 1.  Leather  and  Patent  Leather  Shoes   For leather shoes to maintain their condition, a rigorous cleaning regimen is required. Properly maintained leather shoes will have a long life and be wearable for years. The table below lists some of the essential shoe care tools required to care for a pair of leather shoes. Tool   Proper  Usage   Leather Brush Used to brush dust and debris from leather shoes. This is the first step in routine maintenance for shoes. Leather Cleaner Saddle soap, ivory soap, or specialty leather cleaners can be used to clean a leather shoe. This should be applied with a damp cloth and then wiped off. Allow the shoe to dry on a cedar shoe tree before polishing or conditioning.