Mykolaiv, Lviv Oblast
Миколаїв над Дністром
Mykolaiv nad Dnistrom
Church of Saint Nicholas
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
Mykolaiv (Ukrainian: Миколаїв, also referred to as Mykolayiv, Polish: Mikołajów) is a city in Lviv Oblast (region) in western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Mykolaiv Raion (district). Its population is approximately 14,787 (2020 est.).
To distinguish Mykolaiv from the much larger southern city, the former is sometimes called Mykolaiv on Dniester (Ukrainian: Миколаїв над Дністром, Mykolaiv nad Dnistrom) after the major river it situated on (while the latter is located on the Southern Buh, another major river). The closest railway station is officially called Mykolayiv-Dnistrovsky.
The territory of modern Mykolaiv Raion, Lviv Oblast formed part of the Kingdom of Poland since the reign of King Casimir III the Great. For a short period, between 1370 and 1387, it was part of the Kingdom of Hungary, before being reintegrated with Poland. In 1570 near the former Polish royal village Drohowyż, chorąży (ensign) of Przemyśl, Polish nobleman Mikołaj Tarło founded the town which was named Mikołajów after him. The Topór coat of arms of the Tarło family is included within the town's coat of arms. By virtue of a privilege issued in February 1570, Polish King Sigismund II Augustus granted it Magdeburg town rights, established two annual fairs and exempted the town from taxes for 20 years. It was a private town of Poland, its first owner was Mikołaj Tarło. In 1576, King Stephen Báthory confirmed these privileges and allowed the production of vodka. In 1593, after a fire, King Sigismund III Vasa exempted Mikołajów from taxes again. By 1595 it belonged to the Polish diplomat Jerzy Mniszech, who in 1607 founded a Catholic parish here. In 1636 the church of Saint Nicholas was consecrated.
In 1772, following the First Partition of Poland, the town was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, where it remained until late 1918. In the interwar period, it returned to Poland, and belonged to the Stanisławów Voivodeship. After the invasion of Poland it was under Soviet occupation from 1939 to 1941. In June 1941 the NKVD murdered an unknown number of Poles and Ukrainians in a local prison. After that, the town was from 1941 to 1944 under German occupation. At that time, the Polish Home Army underground resistance movement operated here. During the second period of Soviet occupation in 1944–1945, the Soviets deported Polish inhabitants deep into the Soviet Union. After the war, in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement, it was taken from Poland and annexed by the Soviet Union, where it was included in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1837, Polish romantic writer Walery Łoziński (writer) was born here.
- "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
- Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Tom VI, Warsaw, 1885, p. 403-404 (in Polish)
- "Mikołajów". Encyklopedia PWN (in Polish). Retrieved 7 October 2019.